(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Portrait and biographical record of Effingham, Jasper and Richland Counties Illinois: containing biographical sketches of prominent and representative citizens, governors of the state, and of the presidents of the United States"



LIBRARY OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 

AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN 



920.07737 
P838 



HUMS HISTOfiHAt SiUKY 










I 





AlA 




n 








RECORD f 





OF 



liffingham, Jasper and 



Richland Counties 

ILLINOIS 



CONTAINING 



Biographical Sketches of Prominent and Representative Citizens, 

Sovernors f th. itaie, and of UIB Iresidents 



OP THE UNITED STATES. 



CHICAGO 

LAKE CITY PUBLISHING CO. 
1893 








HE greatest of English historians, MACAULAT, and one of the most brilliant writers of 
the present century, has said: "The history of a country is best told in a record of the 
lives of its people." In conformity with this idea the PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL 
RECORD o f ^jg county has been prepared. Instead of going to musty records, and 
taking therefrom dry statistical matter that can be appreciated by but few, our 
corps of writers have gone to the people, the men and women who have, by then- 
enterprise and industry, brought the county to rank second to none among those 
comprising this great and noble State, and from their lips have the story of their life 
struggles. No more interesting or instructive matter could be presented to an intelli- 
gent public. In this volume will be found a record of many whose lives are worthy the 
imitation of coming generations. It tells how some, commencing life in poverty, by 
industry and economy have accumulated wealth. It tells how others, with limited 
advantages for securing an education, have become learned men and women, with an 
influence extending throughout the length and breadth of the land. It tells of men who 
have risen from the lower walks of life to eminence as statesmen, and whose names have 
become famous. It tells of those in every walk in life who have striven to succeed, and 
records how that success has usually crowned their efforts. It tells also of many, very 
many, who, not seeking the applause of the world, have pursued "the even tenor of their way," content 
to have it said of them as Christ said of the woman performing a deed of mercy "they have done what 
they could." It tells how that many in the pride and strength of young manhood left the plow and the 
anvil, the lawyer's office and the counting-room, left every trade and profession, and at their country's 
call went forth valiantly "to do or die," and how through their efforts the Union was restored and peace 
once more reigned in ^the land. In the life of every man and of every woman is a lesson that should not 
be lost upon those who follow after. 

Coining generations will appreciate this volume and preserve it as a sacred treasure, from the fact 
that it contains so much that would never find its way into public records, and which would otherwise be 
inaccessible. Great care has been taken in the compilation of the work and every opportunity possiblr 
given to those represented to insure correctness in what has been written, and the publishers flatter them 
selves that they give to their readers a work with few errors of consequence. In addition to the biograpb 
ical sketches, portraits of a number of representative citizens are given. 

The faces of some, and biographical sketches of many, will be missed in this volume. For this the 
publishers are not to blame. Not having a proper conception of the work, some refused to give the 
information necessary to compile a sketch, while others were indifferent. Occasionally sorr.o member of 
the family would oppose the enterprise, and on account of such opposition the support of the interested 
one would be withheld. In a few instances men could never be found, though repeated calls were made 
at their residence or place of business. 

.Inly, 18'Jt!. LAKH. CITY PUHLISHING Co. 



4 




OF THE 



GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS, 



AND OFTHE 




OF THE 



FIJiST PRESIDENT. 



GEORGE WA 





HE Father of our Country was 
born in Westmorland Co., Va., 
Feb. 22, 1732. His parents 
were Augustine and Mary 
(Ball) Washington. The family 
to which he belonged has not 
been satisfactorily traced in 
England. His great-grand- 
father, John Washington, em- 
igrated to Virginia about 1657, 
and became a prosperous 
planter. He had two sons, 
Lawrence and John. The 
former married Mildred Warner 
and had three children, John, 
Augustine and Mildred. Augus- 
tine, the father of George, first 
married Jane Butler, who bore 
him four children, two of whom, 
Lawrence and Augustine, reached 
maturity. Of six children by his 
second marriage, George was the 
eldest, the others being Betty, 
Samuel, John Augustine, Charles 
and Mildred. 
Augustine Washington, the father of George, died 
in 1743, leaving a large landed property. To his 
eldest son, Lawrence, he bequeathed an estate on 
the Patomac, afterwards known as Mount Vernon, 
and to George he left the parental residence. George 
received only such education as the neighborhood 
schools afforded, save for a short time after he left 
school, when he received private instruction in 
mathematics. His spelling was rather defective 



Remarkable stories are told of his great physica-s 
strength and development at an early age. He was 
an acknowledged leader among his companions, and 
was early noted for that nobleness of character, fair- 
ness and veracity which characterized his whole life. 

When George was 1 4 years old he had a desire to go to 
sea, and a midshipman's warrant was secured for him. 
but through the opposition of his mother the idea was 
abandoned. Two years later he was appointed 
surveyor to the immense estate of Lord Fairfax. In 
this business he spent three years in a rough frontier 
life, gaining experience which afterwards proved very 
essential to him. In 1751, though only 19 years of 
age, he was appointed adjutant with" the rank of 
major in the Virginia militia, then being trained for 
active service against the French and Indians. Soon 
after this he sailed to the West Indies with his brother 
Lawrence, who went there to restore his health. They 
soon returned, and in the summer of 1752 Lawrence 
died, leaving a large fortune to an infant daughter 
who did not long survive him. On her demise the 
estate of Mount Vernon was given to George. 

Upon the arrival of Robert Dinwiddie, as Lieuten- 
ant-Governor of Virginia, in 1752, the militia was 
reorganized, and the province divided into four mili- 
tary districts, of which the northern was assigned to 
Washington as adjutant general. Shortly after this 
a very perilous mission was assigned him and ac- 
cepted, which others had refused. This was to pro- 
ceed to the French post near Lake Erie in North- 
western Pennsylvania. The distance to be traversed 
was between 500 and 600 miles. Winter was at hand, 
and the journey was to be made without military 
escort, through a territory occupied by Indians. Tb 



2O 



GEORGE WASHINGTON. 



irip was a perilous one, and several limes he came near 
losing his life, yet he returned in safety and furnished 
a full and useful report of his expedition. A regiment 
of 300 men was raised in Virginia and put in com- 
mand of Col. Joshua Fry, and Major Washington was 
commissioned lieutenant-colonel. Active war was 
then begun against the French and Indians, in which 
Washington took a most important part. In the 
memorable event of July 9, 1755, known as Brad- 
dock's defeat, Washington was almost the only officer 
of distinction who escaped from the calamities of the 
day with life and honor. The other aids of Braddock 
were disabled early in the action, and Washington 
alone was left in that capacity on the field. In a letter 
to his brother he says : " I had four bullets through 
my coat, and two horses shot under me, yet I escaped 
unhurt, though death was leveling my companions 
on every side." An Indian sharpshooter said he was 
not born to be killed by a bullet, for he had taken 
direct aim at him seventeen times, and failed to hit 
him. 

After having been five years in the military service, 
and vainly sought promotion in the royal army, he 
took advantage of the fall of Fort Duquesne and the 
expulsion of the French from the valley of the Ohio, 
to resign his commission. Soon after he entered the 
Legislature, where, although not a leader, he took an 
active and important part. January 17, 1759, he 
married Mrs. Martha (Dandridge) Custis, the wealthy 
widow of John Parke Custis. 

When the British Parliament had closed the port 
if Boston, the cry went up throughout the provinces 
that "The cause of Boston is the cause of us all." 
It was then, at the suggestion of Virginia, that a Con- 
gress of all the colonies was called to meet at Phila- 
delphia,Sept. 5, 1774, to secure their common liberties, 
peaceably if possible. To this Congress Col. Wash- 
ington was sent as a delegate. On May 10, 1775, the 
Congress re-assembled, when the hostile intentions of 
England were plainly apparent. The battles of Con- 
cord and Lexington had been fought. Among the 
first acts of this Congress was the election of a com- 
mander-in-chief of the colonial forces. This high and 
responsible office was conferred upon Washington, 
who was still a member of the Congress. He accepted 
it on June 19, but upon the express condition that he 
receive no salary. He would keep an exact account 
of expenses and expect Congress to pay them and 
nothing more. It is not the object of this sketch to 
trace the military acts of Washington, to whom the 
fortunes and liberties of the people of this country 
were so long confided. The war was conducted by 
him under every possible disadvantage, and while his 
forces often met with reverses, yet he overcame every 
obstacle, and after seven years of heroic devotion 
and matchless skill he gained liberty for the greatest 
nation-of earth. On Dec. 23, 1783, Washington, in 
a parting address of surpassing beauty, resigned his 



commission as commander-in-chief of the army to 
to the Continental Congress sitting at Annapolis. He 
retired immediately to Mount Vernon and resumed 
his occupation as a farmer and planter, shunning all 
connection with public life. 

In February, 1 7 89, Washington was unanimously 
elected President. In his presidential career he was 
subject to the peculiar trials incidental to a new 
government ; trials from lack of confidence on the part 
of other governments; trials from want of harmony 
between the different sections of our own country; 
trials from the impoverished condition of the country, 
owing to the war and want of credit; trials from the 
beginnings of party strife. He was no partisan. His 
clear judgment could discern the golden mean ; and 
while perhaps this alone kept our government from 
sinking at the very outset, it left him exposed to 
attacks from both sides, which were often bitter and 
very annoying. 

At the expiration of his first term he was unani- 
mously re-elected. At the end of this term many 
were anxious that he be re-elected, but he absolutely 
refused a third nomination. On the fourth of March, 
1797, at the expiraton of his second term as Presi- 
dent, he returned to his home, hoping to pass there 
his few remaining yeais free from the annoyances of 
public life. Later in the year, however, his repose 
seemed likely to be interrupted by war with France. 
At the prospect of such a war he was again urged to 
take command of the armies. He chose his sub- 
ordinate officers and left to them the charge of mat- 
ters in the field, which he superintended from his 
home. In accepting the command he made the 
reservation that he was not to be in the field until 
it was necessary. In the midst of these preparations 
his life was suddenly cut off. December i 2, he took 
a severe cold from a ride in the rain, which, settling 
in his throat, produced inflammation, and terminated 
fatally on the night of the fourteenth. On the eigh- 
teenth his body was borne with military honors to its 
final resting place, and interred in the family vault at 
Mount Vernon. 

Of the character of Washington it is impossible to 
speak but in terms of the highest respect and ad- 
miration. The more we see of the operations of 
our government, and the more deeply we feel the 
difficulty of uniting all opinions in a common interest, 
the more highly we must estimate the force of his tal- 
ent and character, which have be p n able to challenge 
the reverence of all parties, and principles, and na- 
tions, and to win a fame as extended as the limits 
of the globe, and which we cannot but believe will 
be as lasting as the existence of man. 

The person of Washington was unusally tan, erect 
and well proportioned. His muscular strength was 
great. His features were of a beautiful symmetry. 
He commanded respect without any appearance of 
haughtiness, and ever serious without heing ; dull. 



SECOND PRESIDENT. 





gforftej?*.. 



^* 



* A 



lW.A^a~t.A*,,t^^^^^^^ 

-,#*; 





OHN ADAMS, the second 
President and the first Vice- 
President of the United States, 
was born in Braintree ( now 
Quincy ),Mass., and about ten 
miles from Boston, Oct. 19, 
1735. His great-grandfather, Henry 
Adams, emigrated from England 
about 1 640, with a family of eight 
sons, and settled at Braintree. The 
parents of John were John and 
Susannah (Boylston) Adams. His 
father was a farmer of limited 
means, to which he added the bus- 
iness of shoemaking. He gave his 
eldest son, John, a classical educa- 
tion at Harvard College. John 
graduated in 1755, and at once took charge of the 
school in Worcester, Mass. This he found but a 
''school of affliction," from which he endeavored to 
gain relief by devoting himself, in addition, to the 
study of law. For this purpose he placed himself 
under the tuition of the only lawyer in the town. He 
had thought seriously of the clerical profession 
but seems to have been turned from this by what he 
termed " the frightful engines of ecclesiastical coun- 
jils, of diabolical malice, and Calvanistic good nature,'' 
of the operations of which he had been a witness in 
his native town. He was well fitted for the legal 
profession, possessing a clear, sonorous voice, being 
ready and fluent of speech, and having quick percep- 
tive powers. He gradually gained practice, and in 
1764 married Abigail Smith, a daughter of a minister, 
and a lady of superior intelligence. Shortly after his 
marriage, (1765), the attempt of Parliamentary taxa- 
tion turned him from law to politics. He took initial 
steps toward holdir. 6 a town meeting, and the resolu- 



tions he offered on the subject became very populai 
throughout the Province, and were adopted word for 
word by over forty different towns. He moved to Bos- 
ton in 1768, and became one of the most courageous 
and prominent advocates of the popular cause, and 
was chosen a member of the General Court (the Leg- 
lislature) in 1770. 

Mr. Adams was chosen one of the first delegates 
from Massachusetts to the first Continental Congress, 
which met in 1774. Here he distinguished himselt 
by his capacity for business and for debate, and ad- 
vocated the movement for independence against th 
majority of the members. In May, 1776, he moved 
and carried a resolution in Congress that the Colonies) 
should assume the duties of self-government. H$ 
was a prominent member of the committee of avei 
appointed June n, to prepare a declaration of inde- 
pendence. This article was drawn by Jefferson, but 
on Adams devolved the task of battling it through 
Congress in a three days debate. 

On the day after the Declaration of Independence 
was passed, while his soul was yet warm with tha 
glow of excited feeling, he wrote a letter to his wife 
which, as we read it now, seems to have been dictated 
by the spirit of prophecy. "Yesterday," he says, "the 
greatest question was decided that ever was debated 
in America; and greater, perhaps, never was or wil 
be decided among men. A resolution was passed 
without one dissenting colony, ' that these United 
States are, and of right ought to be, free and inde- 
pendent states.' The day is passed. The fourth of 
July, 1776, will be a memorable epoch in the history 
of America. I am apt to believe it will be celebrated 
by succeeding generations, as the great anniversary 
festival. It ought to be commemorated as the day of 
deliverance by solemn acts of devotion to Almighty 
God. It ought to be solemnized with pomp, show*. 



JOHN ADAMS. 



games, sports, guns, bells, bonfires, and illuminations 
from one end of the continent to the other, from this 
time forward for ever. You will think me transported 
with enthusiasm, but I am not. I am well aware of 
the toil, and blood and treasure, that it will cost to 
maintain this declaration, and support and defend 
these States; yet, through all the gloom, I can see the 
rays of light and glory. I can see that the end is 
worth more than all the means; and that posterity 
will triumph, although you and I may rue, which I 
hope we shall not." 

In November, 1777, Mr. Adams was appointed a 
delegate to France, and to co-operate with Bemjamin 
Franklin and Arthur Lee, who were then in Paris, in 
the endeavor to obtain assistance in arms and money 
from the French Government. This was a severe trial 
to his patriotism, as it separated him from his home,- 
compelled him to cross the ocean in winter, and ex- 
posed him to great peril of capture by the British cruis- 
ers, who were seeking him. He left France June 17, 
1779. In September of the same year he was again 
chosen to go to Paris, and there hold himself in readi- 
ness to negotiate a treaty of peace and of commerce 
with Great Britian, as soon as the British Cabinet 
might be found willing to listen to such pvoposels. He 
sailed for France in November, from there he went to 
Holland, where he negotiated important loans and 
formed important commercial treaties. 

Finally a treaty of peace with England was signed 
Jan. 21, 1783. The re-action from the excitement, 
toil and anxiety through which Mr. Adams had passed 
threw him into a fever. After suffering from a con- 
tinued fever and becoming feeble and emaciated he 
was advised to goto England to drink the waters of 
Bath. While in England, still drooping and despond- 
ing, he received dispatches from his own government 
urging the necessity of his going to Amsterdam to 
negotiate another loan. It was winter, his health was 
delicate, yet he immediately set out, and through 
storm, on sea, on horseback and foot,he made the trip. 

February 24, 1785, Congress appointed Mr. Adams 
envoy to the Court of St. James. Here he met face 
to face the King of England, who had so long re- 
garded him as a traitor. As England did not 
condescend to appoint a minister to the United 
States, and as Mr. Adams felt that he was accom- 
plishing but little, he sought permission to return to 
.lis own country, where he arrived in June, 1788. 

When Washington was first chosen President, John 
Adams, rendered illustiious by his signal services at 
home and abroad, was chosen Vice President. Again 
at the second election of Washington as President, 
Adams was chosen Vice President. In 1796, Wash- 
ington retired from public life, and Mr. Adams was 
elected President,though not without much opposition. 
Serving in this office four years.he was succeeded by 
Mr. Jefferson, his opponent in politics. 

^Vhile Mr. Adams was Vice President the great 



French Revolution shook the continent of Europe, 
and it was upon this point which he was at issue with 
the majority of his countrymen led by Mr. Jefferson. 
Mr. Adams felt no sympathy with the French people 
in their struggle, for he had no confidence in their 
power of self-government, and he utterly abhored the 
classof atheist philosophers who he claimed caused it. 
On the other hand Jefferson's sympathies were strongly 
enlisted in behalf of the French people. Hence or- 
iginated the alienation between these distinguished 
men, and two powerful parties were thus soon organ- 
ized, Adams at the head of the one whose sympathies 
were with England and Jefferson led the other in 
sympathy with France. 

The world has seldom seen a spectacle of more 
moral beauty and grandeur, than was presented by the 
old age of Mr. Adams. The violence of party feeling 
had died away, and he had begun to receive that just 
appreciation which, to most men, is not accorded till 
after death. No one could look upon his venerable 
form, and think of what he had done and suffered, 
and how he had given up all the prime and strength 
of his life to the public good, without the deepest 
emotion of gratitude and respect. It was his peculiar 
good fortune to witness the complete success of the 
institution which he had been so active in creating and 
supporting. In 1824, his cup of happiness was filled 
to the brim, by seeing his son elevated to the highest 
station in the gift of the people. 

The fourth of July, 1826, which completed the half 
century since the signing of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, arrived, and there were but three of the 
signers of that immortal instrument left upon the 
earth to hail its morning light. And, as it is 
well known, on that day two of these finished their 
earthly pilgrimage, a coincidence so remarkable as 
to seem miraculous. For a few days before Mr. 
Adams had been rapidly failing, and on the morning 
of the fourth he found himself too weak to rise from 
his bed. On being requested to name a toast for the 
customary celebration of the day, he exclaimed " IN- 
DEPENDENCE FOREVER." When the day was ushered 
in, by the ringing of bells and the firing of cannons, 
he was asked by one of his attendants if he knew 
what day it was? He replied, "O yes; it is the glor- 
ious fourth of July God bless it God bless you all." 
In the course of the day he said, " It is a great and 
glorious day." The last words he uttered were, 
"Jefferson survives." But he had, at one o'clock, re- 
signed his spirit into the hands of his God. 

The personal appearance and manners of Mr. 
Adams were not particularly prepossessing. His face, 
as his portrait manifests,was intellectual ard expres- 
sive, but his figure was low and ungraceful, and hii 
manners were frequently abrupt and uncourteous. 
He had neither the lofty dignity of Washington, nor 
the engaging elegance and gracefulness which marked 
the manners and address of Jefferson. 



THIRD PRESIDENT. 



THOMA 





- 



HOMAS JEFFERSON was 

born April 2, 1743, at Shad- 
well, Albermarle county, Va. 

His parents were Peter and 
Jane ( Randolph) Jefferson, 
the former a native of Wales, 
and the latter born in Lon- 
don. To them were born six 
daughters and two sons, of 
whom Thomas was the elder. 
When 14 years of age his 
father died. He received a 
most liberal education, hav- 
ing been kept diligently at school 
from the time he was five years of 
age. In 1760 he entered William 
end Mary College. Williamsburg was then the seat 
of the Colonial Court, and it was the obodeof fashion 
a. id splendor. Young Jefferson, who was then 17 
years old, lived somewhat expensively, keeping fine 
horses, and much caressed by gay society, yet lie- 
was earnestly devoted to his studies, and irreproacha- 
able in his morals. It is strange, However, under 
such influences, that he was not ruined. In the sec- 
ond year of his college course, moved by some un- 
explained inward impulse, he discarded his horses, 
society, and even his favorite violin, to which he had 
previously given much time. He often devoted fifteen 
hours a day to hard study, allowing himself for ex- 
ercise only a run in the evening twilight of a mile out 
of the city and back again. He thus attained very 
high intellectual culture, alike excellence in philoso- 
phy and the languages. The most difficult Latin and 
(ireck authors he read with facility. A more finished 
scholar has seldom gone forth from college halls; and 



there was not to be found, perhaps, in all Virginia, a 
more pureminded, upright, gentlemanly young man. 

Immediately upon leaving college he began the 
study of law. For the short time he continued in the 
practice of his profession he rose rapidly and distin- 
guished himself by his energy and accuteness as a 
lawyer. But the times called for greater action. 
The policy of England had awakened the spirit of 
resistance of the American Colonies, and the enlarged 
views which Jefferson had ever entertained, soon led 
him into active political life. In 1769 he was chosen 
a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses In 
1772 he married Mrs. Martha Skelton, a very beauti- 
ful, wealthy. and highly accomplished young widow 

Upon Mr. Jefferson's large estate at Shadwell, there 
was a majestic swell of land, called Monticello, which 
commanded a prospect of wonderful extent and 
beauty. This spot Mr. Jefferson selected for his new 
home; and here he reared a mansion of modest yet 
elegant architecture, which, next to Mount Vernon 
became the most distinguished resort in our land. 

In 1775 he was sent to the Colonial Congress, 
where, though a silent member, his abilities as a 
writer and a reasoner soon become known, and he 
was placed upon a number of important committees, 
and was chairman of the one appointed for the draw- 
ing up of a declaration of independence. This com- 
mittee consisted of Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, 
Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman and Robert R. 
Livingston. Jefferson, as chairman, was appointed 
to draw up the paper. Franklin and Adams suggested 
a few verbal changes before it was submitted to Con- 
gress. On June 28, a few slight changes were made 
in it by Congress, and it was passed and signed July 
4, 1776 What must have been the feelings of that 



THOMAS JEFFERSON. 



man what the emotions that swelled his breast 
who was charged with the preparation of that Dec- 
laration, which, while it made known the wrongs of 
America, was also to publish her to the world, free, 
eoverign and independent. It is one of the most re- 
markable papers ever written ; and did no other effort 
of the mind of its author exist, that alone would be 
sufficient to stamp his name with immortality. 

In 1779 Mr. Jefferson was elected successor to 
Patrick Henry, as Governor of Virginia. At one time 
the British officer, Tarleton, sent a secret expedition to 
Monticello, to capture the Governor. Scarcely five 
minutes elapsed after the hurried escape of Mr. Jef- 
ferson and his family, ere his mansion was in posses- 
sion of the British troops. His wife's health, never 
very good, was much injured by this excitement, and 
in the summer of 1782 she died. 

Mr. Jefferson was elected to Congress in 1783. 
Two years later he was appointed Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary to France. Returning to the United States 
in September, 1789, he became Secretary of State 
in Washington's cabinet. This position he resigned 
Jan. i, 1794. In 17 97, he was chosen Vice Presi- 
dent, and four years later was elected President over 
Mr. Adams, with Aaron Burr as Vice President. In 
1804 he was re-elected with wonderful unanimity, 
and George Clinton, Vice President. 

The early part of Mr. Jefferson's second adminstra- 
tion was disturbed by an event which threatened the 
tranquility and peace of the Union; this was the con- 
spiracy of Aaron Burr. Defeated in the late election 
to the Vice Presidency, and led on by an unprincipled 
ambition, this extraordinary man formed the plan of a 
military expedition into the Spanish territories on our 
southwestern frontier, for the purpose of forming there 
* new republic. This has been generally supposed 
was a mere pretext ; and although it has not been 
generally known what his real plans were, there is no 
doubt that they were of a far more dangerous 
character. 

In 1809, at the expiration of the second term for 
which Mr. Jefferson had been elected, he determined 
to retire from political life. For a period of nearly 
forty years, he had been continually before the pub- 
lic, and all that time had been employed in offices of 
the greatest trust and responsibility. Having thus de- 
voted the best part of his life to the service of his 
country, he now felt desirous of that rest which his 
declining years required, and upon the organization of 
the new administration, in March, 1809, he bid fare- 
well forever to public life, and retired to Monticello. 

Mr. Jefferson was profuse in his hospitality. Whole 
families came in their coaches with their horses, 
fathers and mothers, boys and girls, babies and 
nurses, and remained three and even six months. 
Life at Monticello, for years, resembled that at a 
fashionable watering-place. 

The fourth of July, 1826, being the fiftieth anniver- 



sary of the Declaration of American Independence, 
great preparations were made in every pait of tht 
Union for its celebration, as the nation's jubilee, and 
the citizens of Washington, to add to the solemnity 
of the occasion, invited Mr. Jefferson, as the framer. 
and one of the few surviving signers of the Declara- 
tion, to participate in their festivities. But an ill- 
ness, which had been of several weeks duration, and 
had been continually increasing, compelled him to 
decline the invitation. 

On the second of July, the disease under which 
he was laboring left him, but in such a reduced 
state that his medical attendants, entertained nc 
hope of his recovery. From this time he was perfectly 
sensible that his last hour was at hand. On the next 
day, which was Monday, he asked of those around 
him, the day of the month, and on being told it was 
the third of July, he expressed the earnest wish tha'; 
he might be permitted to breathe the air of the fiftieth 
anniversary. His prayer was heard that day, whose 
dawn was hailed with such rapture through our land, 
burst upon his eyes, and then they were closed for- 
ever. And what a noble consummation of a noble 
life! To die on that day, the birthday of a nation,- - 
the day which his own name and his own act had 
rendered glorious; to die amidst the rejoicings and 
festivities of a whole nation, who looked up to him, 
as the author, under God, of their greatest blessings, 
was all that was wanting to fill up the record his life. 

Almost at the same hour of his death, the kin- 
dred spirit of the venerable Adams, as if to bear 
him company, left the scene of his earthly honors. 
Hand in hand they had stood forth, the champions of 
freedom ; hand in hand, during the dark and desper- 
ate struggle of the Revolution, they had cheered and 
animated their desponding countrymen; for half a 
century they had labored together for the good of 
the country; and now hand in hand they depart. 
In their lives they had been united in the same great 
cause of liberty, and in their deaths they were not 
divided. 

In person Mr. Jefferson was tall and thin, rather 
above six feet in height, but well formed; his eyes 
were light, his hair originally red, in after life became 
white and silvery; his complexion was fair, his fore- 
head broad, and his whole courtenance intelligent and 
thoughtful. He possessed great fortitude of mind as 
well as personal courage ; and his command of tem- 
per was such that his oldest and most intimate friends 
never recollected to have seen him in a passion. 
His manners, though dignified, were simple and un- 
affected, and his hospitality was so unbounded that 
all found at his house a ready welcome. In conver- 
sation he was fluent, eloquent and enthusiastic ; and 
his language was remarkably pure and correct. He 
was a. finished classical scholar, and in his writings is 
discernable the care with which he formed his style 
upon the best models of antiquity. 



FOURTH PRESIDENT. 





AMES MADISON, "Father 
of the Constitution," and fourth 
President'of the United States, 
was bom March 16, 1757, and 
died at his home in Virginia, 
June 28, 1836. The name of 
James Madison is inseparably con- 
nected with most of the important 
events in that heroic period of our 
country during which the founda- 
tions of this great republic were 
laid. He was the last of the founders 
of the Constitution of the United 
States to be called to his eternal 
reward. 

The Madison family were among 
the early emigrants to the New World, 
landing upon the shores of the Chesa- 
peake but 15 years after the settle- 
ment of Jamestown. The father of 
James Madison was an opulent 
planter, residing upon a very fine es- 
tate called "Montpelier," Orange Co., 
Va. The mansion was situated in 
the midst of scenery highly pictur- 
esque and romantic, on the west side 
of South-west Mountain, at the foot of 
Blue Ridge. It was but 25 miles from the home of 
Jefferson at Monticello. The closest personal and 
political attachment existed between these illustrious 
men, from their early youth until death. 

The early education of Mr. Madison was conducted 
mostly at home under a private tutor. At the age of 
i ,S he was sent to Princeton College, in New Jersey. 
Here he applied himself to study with the most im- 



prudent zeal; allowing himself, for months, but three 
hours' sleep out of the 24. His health thus became so 
seriously impaired that he never recovered any vigor 
of constitution. He graduated in 1771, with a feeble 
body, with a character of utmost purity, and with a 
mind highly disciplined and richly stored with learning 
which embellished and gave proficiency to his subsf - 
quent career. 

Returning to Virginia, he commenced the study of 
law and a course of extensive and systematic reading. 
This educational course, the spirit of the times in 
which he lived, and the society with which he asso- 
ciated, all combined to inspire him with a strong 
love of liberty, and to train him for his life-work of 
a statesman. Being naturally of a religious turn of 
mind, and his frail health leading him to think that 
his life was not to be long, he directed especial atten- 
tion to theological studies. Endowed with a mind 
singularly free from passion and prejudice, and with 
almost unequalled powers of reasoning, he weighed 
all the arguments for and against revealed religion, 
until his faith became so established as never to 
be shaken. 

In the spring of 1776, when 26 years of age, he 
was elected a member of the Virginia Convention, to 
frame the constitution of the State. The next year 
(1777), he was a candidate for the General Assembly. 
He refused to treat the whisky-lovir.g voters, and 
consequently lost his election ; but those who had 
witnessed the talent, energy and public spirit of the 
modest young man, enlisted themselves in his behalf, 
and he was appointed to the Executive Council. 

Both Patrick Henry and Thomas Jefferson were 
Governors of Virginia while Mr. Madison remained 
member of the Council ; and their anmeciation of his 



JAMES MADISON. 



intellectual, social and moral worth, contributed not 
i little to his subsequent eminence. In the year 
1780, he was elected a member of the Continental 
Congress. Here he met the most illustrious men in 
our land, and he was immediately assigned to one of 
the most conspicuous positions among them. 

For three years Mr. Madison continued in Con- 
gress, one of its most active and influential members. 
In the year 1784, his term having expired, he was 
elected a member of the Virginia Legislature. 

No man felt more deeply than Mr. Madison the 
utter inefficiency of the old confederacy, with no na- 
tional government, with no power to form treaties 
which would be binding, or to enforce law. There 
was not any State more prominent than Virginia in 
the declaration, that an efficient national government 
must be formed. In January, 1786, Mr. Madison 
carried a resolution through the General Assembly of 
Virginia, inviting the other States to appoint commis- 
sioners to meet in convention at Annapolis to discuss 
this subject. Five States only were represented. The 
convention, however, issued another call, drawn .up 
by Mr. Madison, urging all the States to send their 
delegates to Philadelphia, in May, 1787, to draft 
a Constitution for the United States, to take the place 
of that Confederate League. The delegates met at 
the time appointed. Every State but Rhode Island 
was represented. George Washington was chosen 
president of the convention ; and the present Consti- 
tution of the United States was then and there formed. 
There was, perhaps, no mind and no pen more ac- 
tive in framing this immortal document than the mind 
and the pen of James Madison. 

The Constitution, adopted by a vote Si to 79, was 
to be presented to the several States for acceptance. 
But grave solicitude was felt. Should it be rejected 
we should be left but a conglomeration of independent 
States, with but little power at home and little vespect 
abroad. Mr. Madison was selected by tne conven- 
tion to draw up an address to the people of the United 
States, expounding the principles of the Constitution, 
and urging its adoption. There was great opposition 
to it at first, but it at length triumphed over all, and 
went into effect in 1789. 

Mr. Madison was elected to the House of Repre- 
sentatives in the first Congress, and soon became the 
avowed leader of the Republican party. While in 
New York attending Congress, he met Mrs. Todd, a 
young widow of remarkable power of fascination, 
whom he married. She was in person and character 
queenly, and probably no lady has thus far occupied 
so prominent a position in the very peculiar society 
which has constituted our republican court as Mrs. 
Madison. 

Mr. Madison served as Secretary of State under 
Jefferson, and at the close of his administration 
was chosen President. At this time the encroach- 
ments of England had brought us to the verge of war. 



British orders in council destioyed our commerce, and 
our flag was exposed to constant insult. Mr. Madison 
was a man of peace. Scholarly in his taste, retiring 
in his disposition, war had no charms for him. But the 
meekest spirit can be roused. It makes one's blood 
boil, even now, to think of an American ship brought 
to, upon the ocean, by the guns of an English cruiser. 
A young lieutenant steps on board and orders the 
crew to be paraded before him. With great nonchal- 
ance he selects any number whom he may please to 
designate as British subjects ; orders them down the 
ship's side into his boat ; and places them on the gun- 
deck of his man-of-war, to fight, by compulsion, the 
battles of England. This right of search and im- 
pressment, no efforts of our Government could induce 
the British cabinet to relinquish. 

On the 1 8th of June, 1812, President Madison gave 
his approval to an act of Congress declaring war 
against Great Britain. Notwithstanding the bitter 
hostility of the Federal party to the war, the country 
in general approved; and Mr. Madison, on the 4th 
of March, i8t3, was re-elected by a large majority, 
and entered upon his second term of office. This is 
not the place to describe the various adventures of 
this war on the land and on the water. Our infan 
navy then laid the foundations of its renown in grap- 
pling with the most formidable power which ever 
swept the seas. The contest commenced in earnest 
by the appearance of a British fleet, early in February, 
1813, in Chesapeake Bay, declaring nearly the whole 
coast of the United States under blockade. 

The Emperor of Russia offered his services as me 
dilator. America accepted ; England refused. A Brit- 
ish force of five thousand men landed on the banks 
of the Patuxet River, near its entrance into Chesa- 
peake Bay, and marched rapidly, by way of Bladens- 
burg, upon Washington. 

The straggling little city of Washington was thrown 
into consternation. The cannon of the brief conflict 
at Bladensburg echoed through the streets of the 
metropolis. The whole population fled from the city. 
The President, leaving Mrs. Madison in the White 
House, with her carriage drawn up at the doer to 
await his speedy return, hurried to meet the officers 
in a council of war. He met our troops utterly routed, 
and he could not go back without danger of being 
captured. But few hours elapsed ere the Presidential 
Mansion, the Capitol, and all the public buildings in 
Washington were in flames. 

The war closed after two years of fighting, and on 
Feb. 13, 1815, the treaty of peace was signed atGhent. 

On the 4th of March, 1817, his second term of 
office expired, and he resigned the Presidential chair 
to his friend, James Monroe. He retired to his beau- 
tiful home at Montpelier, and there passed the re- 
mainder of his days. On June 28, 1836, then at the 
age of 85 years, he fell asleep in death. Mrs. Madi- 
son died July 12, 1849. 




ft*-- 



'FIFTH PRESIDENT. 



35 





AMES MONROE, the fifth 
Presidentof The United States, 
was bom in Westmoreland Co., 
Va., April 28, 1758. His early 
life was passed at the place of 
nativity. His ancestors had for 
many years resided in the prov- 
ince in which he was born. When, 
at 17 years of age, in the process 
of completing his education at 
William and Mary College, the Co- 
lonial Congress assembled at Phila- 
delphia to deliberate upon the un- 
just and manifold oppressions of 
Great Britian, declared the separa- 
tion of the Colonies, and promul- 
gated the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence. Had he been born ten years before it is highly 
probable that he would have been one of the signers 
of that celebrated instrument. At this time he left 
school and enlisted among the patriots. 

He joined the army when everything looked hope- 
less and gloomy. The number of deserters increased 
from day to day. The invading armies came pouring 
in ; and the lories not only favored the cause of the 
mother country, but disheartened the new recruits, 
who were sufficiently terrified at the prospect of con- 
tending with an enemy whom they had been taught 
to deem invincible. To such brave spirits as James 
Monroe, who went right onward, undismayed through 
difficulty and danger, the United States owe their 
]x>litical emancipation. The young cadet joined the 
ranks, and espoused the cause of his injured country, 
with a firm determination to live o. lie with her strife 



for liberty. Firmly yet sadly he shared in the mel- 
ancholy retreat from Harleam Heights and White 
Plains, and accompanied the dispirited army as it fled 
before its foes through New Jersey. In four months 
after the Declaration of Independence, the patriots 
had been beaten in seven battles. At the battle of 
Trenton he led the vanguard, and, in the act of charg- 
ing upon the enemy he received a wound in the left 
shoulder. 

As a reward for his bravery, Mr. Monroe was pro- 
moted a captain of infantry; and, having recovered 
from his wound, he rejoined the army. He, however, 
receded from the line of promotion, by becoming an 
officer in the staff of Lord Sterling. During the cam- 
paigns of 1777 and 1778, in the actions of Brandy 
wine, Germantown and Monmouth, he continued 
aid-de-camp ; but becoming desirous to regain his 
position in the army, he exerted himself to collect a 
regiment for the Virginia line. This scheme failed 
owing to the exhausted condition of the State. Upon 
this failure he entered the office of Mr. Jefferson, at 
that period Governor, and pursued, with considerable 
ardor, the study of common law. He did not, however, 
entirely lay aside the knapsack for the green bag; 
but on the invasions of the enemy, served as avolun 
teer, during the two years of his legal pursuits. 

In 1782, he was elected from King George county, 
a member of the Leglislature of Virginia, and by that 
body he was elevated to a seat in the Executive 
Council. He was thus honored with the confidence 
of his fellow citizens at 23 years of age ; and having 
at this early period displayed some of that ability 
and aptitude for legislation, which were afterwards 
employed with unremitting energy for the public good, 



JAMES MONROE. 



he was in the succeeding year chosen a member of 
the Congress of the United States. 

Deeply as Mr. Monroe felt the imperfections of the old 
Confederacy, he was opposed to the new Constitution, 
thinking, with many others of the Republican party, 
that it gave too much power to the Central Government, 
and not enough to the individual States. Still he re- 
tained the esteem of his friends who were its warm 
supporters, and who, notwithstanding his opposition 
secured its adoption. In 1789, he became a member 
of the United States Senate ; which office he held for 
four years. Every month the line of distinction be- 
tween the two great parties which divided the nation, 
the Federal and the Republican, was growing more 
distinct. The two prominent ideas which now sep- 
arated them were, that the Republican party was in 
sympathy with France, and also in favor of such a 
strict construction of the Constitution as to give the 
Central Government as little power, and the State 
Governments as much power, as the Constitution would 
warrant. The Federalists sympathized with England, 
and were in favor of a liberal construction of the Con- 
stitution, which would give as much power to the 
Central Government as that document could possibly 
authorize. 

The leading Federalists and Republicans were 
alike noble men, consecrating all their energies to the 
good of the nation. Two more honest men or more 
pure patriots than John Adams the Federalist, and 
James Monroe the Republican, never breathed. In 
building up this majestic'nation, which is destined 
to eclipse all Grecian and Assyrian greatness, the com- 
ibination of their antagonism was needed to create the 
tight equilibrium. And yet each in his day was de- 
nounced as almost a demon. 

Washington was then President. England had es- 
poused the cause of the Bourbons against the princi- 
ples of the French Revolution. All Europe was drawn 
into the conflict. We were feeble and far away. 
Washington issued a proclamation of neutrality be- 
tween these contending powers. France had helped 
us in the struggle for our liberties. All the despotisms 
of Europe were now combined to prevent the French 
from escaping from a tyranny a thousand-fold worse 
than that which we had endured Col. Monroe, more 
magnanimous than prudent, was anxious that, at 
whatever hazard, we should help our old allies in 
their extremity. It was the impulse of a generous 
and noble nature. He violently opposed the Pres- 
ident's proclamation as ungrateful and wanting in 
magnanimity. 

Washington, who could appreciate such a character, 
developed his calm, serene, almost divine greatness, 
by appointing that very James Monroe, who was de- 
nouncing the policy of the Government, as the minister 
of that Government to the Republic of France. Mr. 
Monroe was welcomed by the National Convention 
in France with the most enthusiastic demonstrations. 



Shortly after his return to this country, Mr. Mon- 
roe was elected Governor of Virginia, and held the 
office for three yeats. He was again sent to France to 
co-operate with Chancellor Livingston in obtaining 
the vast territory then known as the Province of 
Louisiana, which France had but shortly before ob- 
tained from Spain.* Their united efforts were suc- 
cessful. For the comparatively small sum of fifteen 
millions of dollars, the entire territory of Orleans and 
district of Louisiana were added to the United States. 
This was probably the largest transfer of real estate 
which was ever made in all the history of the world. 

From France Mr. Monroe went to England to ob- 
tain from that country some recognition of our 
rights as neutrals, and to remonstrate against those 
odious impressments of our seamen. But Eng- 
land was unrelenting. He again returned to Eng- 
land on the same mission, but could receive no 
redress. He returned to his home and was again 
chosen Governor of Virginia. This he soon resigned 
to accept the position of Secretary of State under 
Madison. While in this office war with England -was 
declared, the Secretary of War resigned, and during 
these trying times, the duties of the War Department 
were also put upon him. He was truly the armor- 
bearer of President Madison, and the most efficient 
business man in his cabinet. Upon the return ol 
peace he resigned the Department of War, but con- 
tinued in the office of Secretary of State until the ex- 
piration of Mr. Madison's adminstration. At the elec- 
tion held the previous autumn Mr. Monroe himself had 
been chosen President with but little opposition, and 
upon March 4, 1817, was inaugurated. Four years 
later he was elected for a second term. 

Among the important measures of his Presidency 
were the cession of Florida to the United States ; the 
Missouri Compromise, and the " Monroe doctrine.' 

This famous doctrine, since known as the " Monroe 
doctrine," was enunciated by him in 1823. At that 
time the United States had recognized the independ- 
ence of the South American states, and did not wish 
to have European powers longer attempting to sub- 
due portions of the American Continent. The doctrine 
is as follows : " That we should consider any attempt 
on the part of European powers to extend their sys- 
tem to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous 
to our peace and safety," and "that we could not 
view any interposition for the purpose of oppressing 
or controlling American governments or provinces in 
any other light than as a manifestation by European 
]x>wers of an unfriendly disposition toward the United 
States." This doctrine immediately affected the course 
of foreign governments, and has become the approved 
sentiment of the United States. 

At the end of his second term Mr. Monroe retired 
to his home in Virginia, where he lived until 1830, 
when he went to New York to live with his son-in- 
law. In that city he died. on the 4th of July. 1831 




X 



, ~ f- 6yv5 



SIXTH PRESIDENT. 





OHN QUINCY ADAMS, the 
sixth President of the United 
States, was born in the rural 
home of his honored father, 
John Adams, in Quincy, Mass., 
on the i ith cf July, 1767. His 
mother, a woman of exalted 
worth, watched over his childhood 
during the almost constant ab- 
sence of his father. When but 
eight years of age, he stood with 
his mother on an eminence, listen- 
ing to the booming of the great bat- 
tle on Bunker's Hill, and gazing on 
upon the smoke and flames billow- 
ing up from the conflagration of 
Charlestown. 

When but eleven years old he 
took a tearful adieu of his mother, 
to sail with his father for Europe, 
through a fleet of hostile British cruisers. The bright, 
animated boy spent a year and a half in Paris, where 
his father was associated with Franklin and Lee as 
minister plenipotentiary. His intelligence attracted 
the notice of these distinguished men, and he received 
from them flattering marks of attention. 

Mr. John Adams had scarcely returned to this 
country, in 1779, ere he was again sent abroad. Again 
John Quincy accompanied his father. At Paris he 
applied himself with great diligence, for six months, 
to :,tudy; then accompained his father to Holland, 
where he entered, first a school in Amsterdam, then 
the University at Leyden. About a year from this 
time, in 1781, when the manly boy was but fourteen 
yea's of age, he was selected by Mr. Dana, our min- 
ister to the Russian court, as his private secretary. 

In this school of incessant lalxjr and of enobling 
culture he spent fourteen months, and then returned 
to Holland through Sweden, Denmark, Hamburg and 
Bremen. This long journey he took alone, in the 
winter, when in his sixteenth year. Again he resumed 
rus studies, under ;i pri-'nte tutor, at Hague. Thence, 



in the spring of 1782, he accompanied his father tt 
Paris, traveling leisurely, and forming acquaintance 
with the most distinguished men on the Continent 
examining architectural remains, galleries of paintings 
and all renowned works of art. At Paris he again 
became associated with the most illustrious men of 
all lands in the contemplations of the loftiest temporal 
themes which can engross the human mind. Afte" 
a short visit to England he returned to Paris, and 
consecrated all his energies to study until May, 1785, 
when he returned to America. To a brilliant young 
man of eighteen, who had seen much of the world, 
and who was familiar with the etiquette of courts, a 
residence with his father in London, under such cir- 
cumstances, must have been extremely attractive 
but with judgment very rare in one of his age, he pre- 
ferred to return to America to complete his education, 
in an American college. He wished then to study 
law, that with an honorable profession, he might be 
able to obtain an independent support. 

Upon leaving Harvard College, at the age of twenty 
he studied law for three years. In June, 1794, be- 
ing then but twenty-seven years of age, he was ap- 
pointed by Washington, resident minister at the 
Netherlands. Sailing from Boston in July, he reached 
London in October, where he was immediately admit- 
ted to the deliberations of Messrs. Jay and Pinckney, 
assisting them in negotiating a commercial treaty with 
Great Britian. After thus spending a fortnight ii 
London, he proceeded to the Hague. 

In July, 1 7 97, -he left the Hague to go to Portugal as 
minister plenipotentiary. On his way to Portugal, 
upon arriving in London, he met with despatches 
directing him to the court of Benin, but requesting 
him to remain in London until he should receive his 
instructions. While waiting he was married to ar. 
American lady to whom he had been previously en- 
gaged, Miss Louisa Catherine Johnson, daughte! 
of Mr. Joshua Johnson, American consul in I ondon 
a lady endownd with that beauty and those accom- 
plishment which eminently fitted her to move in tU| 
elevated sphere for which she w^s 



JOHN QUINCY ADAMS. 



He reached Berlin with his wife in November, 1797 ; 
where he remained until July, 1799, when, having ful- 
filled alt the purposes of his mission, he solicited his 
recall. 

Soon after his return, in 1802, he was chosen to 
the Senate of Massachusetts, from Boston, and then 
was elected Senator of the United States for six years, 
from the 4th of March, 1804. His reputation, his 
ability and his experience, placed him immediately 
among the most prominent and influential members 
of that body. Especially did he sustain the Govern- 
ment in its measures of resistance to the encroach- 
ments of England, destroying our commerce and in- 
sulting our flag. There was no man in America more 
familiar with the arrogance of the British court upon 
these points, and no one more resolved to present 
a firm resistance. 

In 1809, Madison succeeded Jefferson in the Pres- 
idential chair, and he immediately nominated John 
Quincy Adams minister to St. Petersburg. Resign- 
ing his professorship in Harvard College, he embarked 
at Boston, in August, 1809. 

While in Russia, Mr. Adams was an intense stu- 
dent. He devoted his attention to the language and 
history of Russia; to the Chinese trade; to the 
European system of weights, measures, and coins ; to 
the climate and astronomical observations ; while he 
kept up a familiar acquaintance with the Greek and 
Latin classics. In all the universities of Europe, a 
more accomplished scholar could scarcely be found. 
All through life the Bible constituted an important 
part of his studies. It was his rule to read five 
chapters every day. 

On the 4th of March, 1817, Mr. Monroe took the 
Presidential chair, and immediately appointed Mr. 
Adams Secretary of State. Taking leave of his num- 
erous friends in public and private life in Europe, he 
sailed in June, 1819, for the United States. On the 
1 8th of August, he again crossed the threshold of his 
home in Quincy. During the eight years of Mr. Mon- 
roe's administration, Mr. Adams continued Secretary 
of State. 

Some time before ;he close of Mr. Monroe's second 
term of office, new Candidates began to be presented 
for the Presidency. The friends of Mr. Adams brought 
forward his name. It was an exciting campaign. 
Party spirit was never more bitter. Two hundred and 
sixty electoral votes were cast. Andrew Jackson re- 
ceived ninety-nine; John Quincy Adams, eighty-four; 
William H. Crawford, forty -one; Henry Clay, thirty- 
seven. As there was no choice by the people, the 
question went to the House of Representatives. Mr. 
Clay gave the vote of Kentucky to Mr. Adams, and 
be was elected. 

The friends of all the disappointed candidates now 
:ombined in a. venomous and persistent assault upon 
Mr. Adams. There is nothing more disgraceful in 
*!> last history of our country than the abuse which 



was poured in one uninterrupted stream, upon this 
high-minded, upright, patriotic man. There never was 
an administration more pure in principles, more con- 
scientiously devoted to the best interests of the coun- 
try, than that of John Quincy Adams; and never, per- 
haps, was there an administration more unscrupu- 
lously and outrageously assailed. 

Mr. Adams was, to a very remarkable degree, ab- 
stemious and temperate in his habits; always rising 
early, and taking much exercise. When at his home in 
Quincy, he has been known to walk, before breakfast, 
seven miles to Boston. In Washington, it was said 
that he was the first man up in the city, lighting his 
own fire and applying himself to work in his library 
often long before dawn. 

On the 4th of March, 1829, Mr. Adams retired 
from the Presidency, and was succeeded by Andrew 
Jackson. John C. Calhoun was elected Vice Presi- 
dent. The slavery question now began to assume 
portentous magnitude. Mr. Adams returned to 
Quincy and to his studies, which he pursued with un- 
abated zeal. But he was not long permitted to re- 
main in retirement. In November, 1830, he was 
elected representative to Congress. For seventeen 
years, until his death, he occupied the post as repre- 
sentative, towering above all his peers, ever ready to 
do brave battle' for freedom, and winning the title of 
"the old man eloquent." Upon taking his seat in 
the House, he announced that he should hold him- 
self bound to no party. Probably there never was a 
member more devoted to his duties. He was usually 
the first in his place in the morning, and the last to 
leave his seat in the evening. Not a measure could 
be brought forward and escape his scrutiny. The 
battle which Mr. Adams fought, almost singly, against 
the proslavery party in the Government, was sublime 
in its moral daring and heroism. For persisting in 
presenting petitions for the abolition of slavery, he 
was threatened with indictment by the grand jury, 
with expulsion from the House, with assassination , 
but no threats could intimidate him, and his final 
triumph was complete. 

It has been said of President Adams, that when his 
body was bent and his hair silvered by the lapse of 
fourscore years, yielding to the simple faith of a little 
child, he was accustomed to repeat every night, before 
he slept, the prayer which his mother taught him in 
his infant years. 

On the 2istof February, 1848, he rose on the floor 
of Congress, with a paper in his hand, to address the 
speaker. Suddenly he fell, again stricken by paraly- 
sis, and was caught in the arms of those around him. 
For a time he was senseless, as he was conveyed to 
the sofa in the rotunda. With reviving conscious- 
ness, he opened his eyes, looked calmly around and 
said " This is the end of earth .-"then after a moment's 
pause he added, " / am con/frit" These were the 
last words of the grand "Old Man Eloquent." 



SEVENTH PRESIDENT. 





NDREW JACKSON, the 
seventh President of the 
United States, was born in 
Waxhaw settlement, N. 0., 
March 15, 1767, a few days 
after his father's death. His 
parents were poor emigrants 
from Ireland, and took up 
their abode in Waxhaw set- 
tlement, where they lived in 
deepest poverty. 
Andrew, or Andy, as he was 
universally called, grew up a very 
rough, rude, turbulent boy. His 
features were coarse, his form un- 
gainly; and there was but very 
little in his character, made visible, which was at- 
tractive. 

When only thirteen years old he joined the volun- 
teers of Carolina against the British invasion. In 
1781, he and his brother Robert were captured and 
imprisoned for a time at Camden. A British officer 
ordered him to brush his mud-spattered boots. " I am 
a prisoner of war, not your servant," was the reply of 
the dauntless boy. 

The brute drew his sword, and aimed a desperate 
Dlow at the head of the helpless young prisoner. 
Andrew raised his hand, and thus received two fear- 
ful gashes, one on the hand and the other upon the 
head. The officer then turned to his brother Robert 
with the same demand. He also refused, and re- 
ceived a blow from the keen-edged sabre, which quite 
disabled him, and which probably soon after caused 
his death. They suffered much other ill-treatment, and 
were finally stricken with the small-pox. Their 
mother was successful irv obtaining their exchange, 



and took her sick boys home. After a long illnes:. 
Andrew recovered, and the death of his mother soon 
left him entirely friendless. 

Andrew supported himself in various ways, such a 
working at the saddler's trade, teaching school and 
clerking in a general store, until 1784, when he 
entered a law office at Salisbury, N. C. He, however, 
gave more attention to the wild amusements of the 
times than to his studies. In 1788, he was appointed 
solicitor for the western district of North Carolina, oi 
which Tennessee was then a part. This involved 
many long and tedious journeys amid dangers of 
every kind, but Andrew Jackson never knew fear 
and the Indians had no desire to repeat a skirmisb 
with the Sharp Knife. 

In 1791, Mr. Jackson was married to a woman wht> 
supposed herself divorced from her former husband. 
Great was the surprise of both parties, two years later, 
to find that the conditions of the divorce had just been 
definitely settled by the first husband. The marriage 
ceremony was performed a second time, but the occur- 
rence was often used by his enemies to bring Mr. 
Jackson into disfavor. 

During these years he worked hard at his profes 
sion, and frequently had one or more duels on hand, 
one of which, when he killed Dickenson, was espec- 
ially disgraceful. 

In January, 1796, the Territory of Tennessee then 
containing nearly eighty thousand inhabitants, the 
people met in convention at Knoxville to frame a con- 
stitution. Five were sent from each of the elevi < 
counties. Andrew Jackson was one of the delegates/ 
The new State was entitled to but one member i 
the National House of Representatives. Andrew Jack- 
son was chosen that member. Mounting his horse he 
rode to Philedelphia, where Congress then held its 



44 



ANDREW JACKSON. 



sessions, a distance of about eight hundred miles. 

Jackson was an earnest advocate of the Demo- 
cratic party. Jefferson was his idol. He admired 
Bonaparte, loved France and hated England. As Mr. 
Jackson took his seat, Gen. Washington, whose 
second term of office was then expiring, delivered his 
last speech to Congress. A committee drew up a 
complimentary address in reply. Andrew Jackson 
did not approve of the address, and was one of the 
twelve who voted against it. He was not willing to 
say that Gen. Washington's adminstration had been 
" wise, firm and patriotic." 

Mr. Jackson was elected to the United States 
Senate in 1797, but soon resigned and returned home. 
Soon after he was chosen Judge of the Supreme Court 
of his State, which position he held for six years. 

When the war of 1812 with Great Britian com- 
menced, Madison occupied the Presidential chair. 
Aaron Burr sent word to the President that there was 
an unknown man in the West, Andrew Jackson, who 
would do credit to a commission if one were con- 
ferred upon him. Just at that time Gen. Jackson 
offered his services and those of twenty-five hundred 
volunteers. His offer was accepted, and the troops 
were assembled at Nashville. 

As the British were hourly expected to make an at- 
tack upon New Orleans, where Gen. Wilkinson was 
in command, he was ordered to descend the river 
with fifteen hundred troops to aid Wilkinson. The 
expedition reached Natchez; and after a delay of sev- 
eral weeks there, without accomplishing anything, 
the men were ordered back to their homes. But the 
energy Gen. Jackson had displayed,- and his entire 
devotion to the comrfort of his soldiers, won him 
golden opinions ; and he became the most popular 
man in the State. It was in this expedition that his 
toughness gave him the nickname of "Old Hickory." 

Soon after this, while attempting to horsewhip Col. 
Thomas H. Benton, for a remark that gentleman 
made about his taking a part as second in n duel, in 
which a younger brother of Benton's was engaged, 
he received two severe pistol wounds. While he was 
lingering upon a bed of suffering news came that the 
Indians, who had combined under Tecumseh from 
Florida to the Lakes, to exterminate the white set- 
tlers, were committing the most awful ravages. De- 
cisive action became necessary. Gen. Jackson, with 
his fractured bone just beginning to heal, his arm in 
a sling, and unable to mount his horse without assis- 
tance, gave his amazing energies to the raising of an 
army to rendezvous at Fayettesville, Alabama. 

The Creek Indians had established a strong fort on 
one of the bends of the Tallapoosa River, near the cen- 
ter of Alabama, about fifty miles below Fort Strother. 
With an army of two thousand men, Gen. Jackson 
traversed the pathless wilderness in a march of eleven 
days. He reached their fort, called Tohopeka or 
Horse-shoe, on the 271)1 of March. 1814. The bend 



of the river enclosed nearly one hundred acres of 
tangled forest and wild ravine. Across the narrow 
neck the Indians had constructed a formidable breast- 
work of logs and brush. Here nine hundred warriors, 
with an ample suply of arms were assembled. 

The fort was stormed. The fight was utterly des- 
perate. Not an Indian would accept of quarter. When 
bleeding and dying, they would fight those who en- 
deavored to spare their lives. From ten in the morn- 
ing until dark, the battle raged. The carnage was 
awful and revolting. Some threw themselves into the 
river; but the unerring bullet struck their heads as 
they swam. Nearly everyone of the nine hundred war- 
rios were killed A few probably, in the night, swam 
the river and escaped. This ended the war. The 
power of the Creeks was broken forever. This bold 
plunge into the wilderness, with its terriffic slaughter, 
so appalled the savages, that the haggard remnants 
of the bands came to the camp, begging for peace. 

This closing of the Creek war enabled us to con- 
centrate all our militia upon the British, who were the 
allies of the Indians No man of less resolute will 
than Gen. Jackson could have conducted this Indian 
campaign to so successful an issue Immediately he 
was appointed major-general. 

Late in August, with an army of two thousand 
men, on a rushing march, Gen. Jackson came to 
Mobile. A British fleet came from Pensacola, landed 
a force upon the beach, anchored near the little fort, 
and from both ship and shore commenced a furious 
assault. The battle was long and doubtful. At length 
one of the ships was blown up and the rest retired. 

Garrisoning Mobile, where he had taken his little 
army, he moved his troops to New Orleans, 
And the battle of New Orleans which soon ensued, 
was in reality a very arduous campaign. This won 
for Gen. Jackson an imperishable name. Here his 
troops, which numbered about four thousand men. 
won a signal victory over the British army of about 
nine thousand. His loss was but thirteen, while the 
loss of the British was two thousand six hundred. 

The name of Gen. Jackson soon began to be men- 
tioned in connection with the Presidency, but, in 1824, 
he was defeated by Mr. Adams. He was, however, 
successful in the election of 1828, and was re-elected 
for a second term in 1832. In 1829, just before he 
assumed the reins of the government, he met with 
the most terrible affliction of his life in the death of 
his wife, whom he had loved with a devotion which has 
perhaps never been surpassed. From the shock of 
her death he never recovered. 

His administration was one of the most mc-morabie 
in the annals of our country; applauded oyone party, 
condemned by the other. No man had more bitter 
enemies or warmer friends. At the expiration of hi* 
two terms of office he retired to the Hermitage, where 
he died June 8, 1845. The last years of Mr. Jack- 
son's life were that of a devoted Christian man. 




/ 7 



EIGHTH PRESIDENT. 





ARTIN VAN BUREN, the 
eighth President of the 
United States, was born at 
Kinderhook, N. Y., Dec. 5, 
1782. He died at the same 
place, July 24, 1862. His 
body rests in the cemetery 
at Kinderhook. Above it is 
a. plain granite shaft fifteen feet 
high, bearing a simple inscription 
about half way up on one face. 
The lot is unfenced, unbordered 
or unbounded by shrub or flower. 

There U out little in the life of Martin Van Buren 
of romant'c interest. He fought no battles, engaged 
in no wild adventures. Though his life was stormy in 
political and intellectual conflicts, and he gained many 
signal victories, his days passed uneventful in those 
incidents which give zest to biography. His an- 
cestors, as his name indicates, were of Dutch origin, 
and were among the earliest emigrants from Holland 
to the banks of the Hudson. His father was a farmer, 
residing in the old town of Kinderhook. His mother, 
also of Dutch lineage, was a woman of superior intel- 
ligence and exemplary piety. 

Ae was decidedly a precocious boy, developing un- 
usual activity, vigor and strength of mind. At the 
age of fourteen, he had finished his academic studies 
in his native village, and commenced the study of 
law. As he had not a collegiate education, seven 
years of study in a law-office were required of him 
Before he could be admitted to the bar. Inspired with 
d lofty ambition, and conscious of his powers, he pur- 
sued his studies with indefatigable industry. After 
spending six years in an office in bjs native village, 



he went to the city of New York, and prosecuted his 
studies for the seventh year. 

In 1803, Mr. Van Buren, then twenty-one years of 
age, commenced the practice of law in his native vil- 
lage. The great conflict between the Federal and 
Republican party was then at its height. Mr. Van 
Buren was from the beginning a politician. He had, 
perhaps, imbibed that spirit while listening to the 
many discussions which had been carried on in his 
father's hotel. He was in cordial sympathy with 
Jefferson, and earnestly and eloquently espoused the 
cause of State Rights ; though at that time the Fed- 
eral party held the supremacy both in his town 
and State. 

His success and increasing ruputation led him 
after six years of practice, to remove to Hudson, tlv 
county seat of his county. Here he spent seven years, 
constantly gaining strength by contending in th* 
courts with some of the ablest men who have adorned 
the bar of his State. 

Just before leaving Kinderhook for Hudson, Mi. 
Van Buren married a lady alike distinguished for 
beauty and accomplishments. After twelve short 
years she sank into the grave, the victim of consump. 
tion, leaving her husband and four sons to weep ovei 
her loss. For twenty-five years, Mr. Van Buren was; 
an earnest, successful, assiduous lawyer. The record 
of those years is barren in items of public interest. 
In 1812, when thirty years of age, he was chosen to 
the State Senate, and gave his strenuous support to, 
Mr. Madison's adminstration. In 1815, he was ap- 
pointed Attorney-General, and the next year moved 
to Albany, the capital of the State. 

While he was acknowledged as one of the most 
piominent leaders of the Democratic party, he had 



MARTIN VAN BUREN. 



the moral courage to avow that true democracy did 
not require that '' universal suffrage " which admits 
the vile, the degraded, the ignorant, to the right of 
governing the State. In true consistency with his 
democratic principles, he contended that, while the 
path leading to the privilege of voting should be open 
to every man without distinction, no one should be 
invested with that sacred prerogative, unless he were 
>n some degree qualified for it by intelligence, virtue 
and some property interests in the welfare of the 
State. 

In 1821 he was elected ;, member of the United 
States Senate; and in the same year, he took a seat 
in the convention to revise the constitution of his 
native State. His course in this convention secured 
the approval of men of all parties. No one could 
doubt the singleness of his endeavors to promote the 
interests of all classes in the community. In the 
Senate of the United States, he rose at once to a 
Conspicuous position as an active and useful legislator. 

In 1827, John Quincy Adams being then in the 
Vresidential chair, Mr. Van Buren was re-elected to 
.he Senate. He had been from the beginning a de- 
termined opposer of the Administration, adopting the 
''State Rights " view in opposition to what was 
Adeemed the Federal proclivities of Mr. Adams. 

Soon after this, in 1828, he was chosen Governorof 
the State of New York, and accordingly resigned his 
^eat in the Senate. Probably no one in the United 
States contributed so much towards ejecting John Q. 
\dams from the Presidential chair, and placing in it 
Andrew Jackson, as did Martin Van Buren. Whether 
entitled to the reputation or not, he certainly was re- 
garded throughout the United States as one of the 
most skillful, sagacious and cunning of politicians. 
It was supposed that no one knew so well as he how 
to touch the secret springs of action; how to pull all 
the wires to put his machinery in motion ; and how to 
organize a political army which would, secretly and 
stealthily accomplish the most gigantic results. By 
these powers it is said that he outwitted Mr. Adams, 
Mr. Clay, Mr. Webster, and secured results which 
few thought then could be accomplished. 

When Andrew Jackson was elected President he 
appointed Mr. Van Buren Secretary of State. This 
position he resigned in 1831, and was immediately 
appointed Minister to England, where he went the 
same autumn. The Senate, however, when it met, 
refused to ratify the nomination, and he returned 



home, apparently untroubled ; was nominated Vice 
President in the place of Calhoun, at the re-election 
of President Jackson ; and with smiles for all and 
frowns for none, he took his place at the head of that 
Senate which had refused to confirm his nomination 
as ambassador. 

His rejection by the Senate roused all the zeal of 
President Jackson in behalf of his repudiated favor- 
ite ; and this, probably more than any other cause, 
secured his elevation to the chair of the Chief Execu 
live. On the 2oth of May, 1836, Mr. Van Buren re- 
ceived the Democratic nomination to succeed Gen. 
Jackson as President of the United States. He was 
elected by a handsome majority, to the delight of the 
retiring President. " Leaving New York out of the 
canvass," says Mr. Parton, "the election of Mr. Van 
Buren to the Presidency was as much the act of Gen. 
Jackson as though the Constitution had conferred 
upon him the power to appoint a successor." 

His administration was filled with exciting events. 
The insurrection in Canada, which threatened to in- 
volve this country in war with England, the agitation 
of the slavery question, and finally the great commer- 
cial panic which spread over the country, all were 
trials to his wisdom. The financial distress was at- 
tributed to the management of the Democratic party, 
and brought the President into such disfavor that he 
failed of re-election. 

With the exception of being nominated for the 
Presidency by the "Free Soil" Democrats, in 1848, 
Mr. Van Buren lived quietly upon his estate until 
his death. 

He had ever been a prudent man, of frugal habits, 
and living within his income, had now fortunately a 
competence for his declining years. His unblemished 
character, his commanding abilities, his unquestioned 
patriotism, and the distinguished positions which he 
had occupied in the government of our country, se- 
cured to him not only the homage of his party, but 
the respect ot the whole community. It was on the 
4th of March, 1841, that Mr. Van Buren retired fron; 
the presidency. From his fine estate at Lindenwa'id. 
he still exerted a powerful influence upon the politics 
of the country. From this time until his death, on 
the 24th of July, 1862, at the age of eighty years, he 
resided at Lindenwald, a gentleman of leisure, of 
culture and of wealth; enjoying in a healthy old 
age, probably far more happiness than he had before 
experienced amid the stormy scenes of his acti v e life- 



UBMRYO.OFI.JRBAM-CIHIKPAIGN 



NINTH PRESIDENT. 





ILLIAM HENRY HARRI- 
SON, the ninth President of 
the United States, was born 
at Berkeley, Va., Feb. 9, 1773. 
His father, Benjamin Harri- 
son, was in comparatively op- 
ulent circumstances, and was 
one of the most distinguished 
men of his day. He was an 
intimate friend of George 
Washington , v> as early elected 
a member of the Continental 
Congress, and was conspicuous 
among the patriots of Virginia in 
resisting the encroachments of the 
British crown. In the celebrated 
Congress of 1775, Benjamin Har- 
rison and John Hancock were 
both candidates for the office of 
speaker. 

Mr Harrison was subsequently 
chosen Governor of Virginia, and 
was twice re-elected. His son, 
William Henry, of course enjoyed 
in childhood all the advantages which wealth and 
intellectual and cultivated society could give. Hav- 
ing received a thorough common-school education, he 
entered Hampden Sidney College, where he graduated 
with honor soon after the death of his father. He 
then repaired to Philadelphia to study medicine under 
the instructions of Dr. Rush and the guardianship of 
.obert Morris, both of whom were, with his father, 
signers of the Declaration of Independence. 

Upon the outbreak of the Indian troubles, and not- 
withstanding the T emonstrances of his friends, he 
abandoned his medical studies and entered the army, 
/laving obtain^ a commission of Ensign from Presi- 



dent Washington. He was then but 19 years old 
From that time he passed gradually upward in rank 
until he became aid to General Wayne, after whose 
death lie resigned his commission. He was then ap- 
pointed Secretary of the North-western Territory. This 
Territory was then entitled to but one member in 
Congress and Capt. Harrison was chosen to fill that 
position. 

In the spring of 1800 the North-western Territory 
was divided by Congress into two portions. The 
eastern portion, comprising the region now embraced 
in the State of Ohio, was called '' The Territory 
north-west of the Ohio." The western portion, which 
included what is now called Indiana, Illinois and 
Wisconsin, was called the "Indiana Territory." Wil- 
liam Henry Harrison, then 27 years of age, was ap. 
pointed by John Adams, Governor of the Indiana 
Territory, and immediately after, also Governor of 
Upper Louisiana. He was thus ruler over almost as 
extensive a realm as any sovereign upon the globe. He 
was Superintendent of Indian Affairs, and was in- 
vested with powers nearly dictatorial over the now 
rapidly increasing white population. The ability and 
fidelity with which he discharged these responsible 
duties may be inferred from the fact that he was four 
times appointed to this office first by John Adams, 
twice by Thomas Jefferson and afterwards by Presi- 
dent Madison. 

When he began his adminstration there were but 
three white settlements in that almost boundless region, 
now crowded with cities and resounding with all the 
tumult of wealth and traffic. One of these settlements 
was on the Ohio, nearly opposite Louisville; one at 
Vincennes, on the Wabash, and the third a French 
settlement. 

The vast wilderness over which Gov. Harrison 
reigned was filled with many tribes of Indians. Abou' 



WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON. 



the year 1806, two extraordinary men, twin brothers, 
of the Shawnese tribe, rose among them. One of 
these was called Tecumseh, or " The Crouching 
Panther;" the other, Olliwacheca, or " The Prophet." 
Tecumseh was not only an Indian warrior, but a man 
of great sagacity, far-reaching foresight and indomit- 
able perseverance in any enterprise in which he might 
engage. He was inspired with the highest enthusiasm, 
and had long regarded with dread and with hatred 
the encroachment of the whites upon the hunting- 
grounds of his fathers. His brother, the Prophet, was 
anorator, who could sway the feelings of the untutored 
Indian as the gale tossed the tree-tops beneath which 
they dwelt. 

But the Prophet was not merely an orator : he was, 
in the superstitious minds of the Indians, invested 
with the superhuman dignity of a medicine-man or a 
magician. With an enthusiasm unsurpassed by Peter 
the Hermit rousing Europe to the crusades, he went 
from tribe to tribe, assuming that he was specially sent 
by the Great Spirit. 

Gov. Harrison made many attempts to conciliate 
the Indians, but at last the war came, and at Tippe- 
canoe the Indians were routed with great slaughter. 
October 28, 1812, his army began its march. When 
near the Prophet's town three Indians of rank made 
their appearance and inquired why Gov. Harrison was 
approaching them in so hostile an attitude. After a 
short conference, arrangements were made for a meet- 
ing the next day, to agree upon terms of peace. 

But Gov. Harrison was too well acquainted with 
the Indian character to be deceived by such protes- 
tations. Selecting a favorable spot for his night's en- 
campment, he took every precaution against surprise. 
His troops were posted in a hollow square, and slept 
upon their arms. 

The troops threw themselves upon the ground for 
rest; but every man had his accourtrements on, his 
loaded musket by his side, and his bayonet fixed. The 
wakeful Governor, between three and four o'clock in 
the morning, had risen, and was sitting in conversa- 
tion with his aids by the embers of a waning fire. It 
was a chill, cloudy morning with a drizzling rain. In 
the darkness, the Indians had crept as near as possi- 
ble, and just then, with a savage yell, rushed, with all 
the desperation which superstition and passion most 
highly inflamed could give, upon the left flank of the 
little army. The savages had been amply provided 
with guns and ammunition by the English. Their 
war-whoop was accompained by a shower of bullets. 

The camp-fires were instantly extinguished, as the 
light aided the Indians in their aim. With hide- 
jus yells, the Indian bands rushed on, not doubting a 
speedy and an entire victory. But Gen. Harrison's 
troops stood as immovable as the rocks around them 
until day dawned: they then made a simultaneous 
charge with the bayonet, and swept every thing be- 
fore them, and completely routing the foe. 



Gov. Harrison now had all his energies tasked 
to the utmost. The British descending from the Can - 
adas, were of themselves a very formidable force ; but 
with their savage allies, rushing like wolves from the 
forest, searching out every remote farm-house, burn- 
ing, plundering, scalping, torturing, the wide frontier 
was plunged into a. state of consternation which even 
the most vivid imagination can but faintly conceive. 
The war-whoop was resounding everywhere in the 
forest. The horizon was illuminated with the conflagra- 
tion of the cabins of the settlers. Gen Hull had made 
the ignominious surrender of his forces at Detroit. 
Under these despairing circumstances, Gov. Harrison 
was appointed by President Madison commander-in- 
chief of the North-western army, with orders to retake 
Detroit, and to protect the frontiers. 

It would be difficult to place a man in a situation 
demanding more energy, sagacity and courage; but 
General Harrison was found equal to the position, 
and nobly and triumphantly did he meet all the re 
sponsibilities. 

He won the love of his soldiers by always sharing 
with them their fatigue. His whole baggage, while 
pursuing the foe up the Thames, was carried in a 
valise; and his bedding consisted of a single blanket 
lashed over his saddle. Thirty-five British officers, 
his prisoners of war, supped with him after the battle. 
The only fare he could give them was beef roasted 
before the fire, without bread or salt. 

In 1816, Gen. Harrison was chosen a member of 
the -National House of Representatives, to represent 
the District of Ohio. In Congress he proved an 
active member; and whenever he spoke, it was with 
force of reason and power of eloquence, which arrested 
the Attention of all the members. 

In 1819, Harrison was elected to the Senate of 
Ohio; and in 1824, as one of the presidential electors 
of that State, he gave his vote for Henry Clay. The 
same year he was chosen to the United States Senate. 

In 1836, the friends of Gen. Harrison brought him 
forward as a candidate for the Presidency against 
Van Buren, but he was defeated. At the close of 
Mr. Van Buren's term, he was re-nominated by his 
party, and Mr. Harrison was unanimously nominated 
by the Whigs, with John Tyler for the Vice Presidency. 
The contest was very animated. Gen. Jackson gave 
all his influence to prevent Harrison's election ; but 
his triumph was signal. 

The cabinet which he formed, with Daniel Webster 
at its head as Secretary of State, was one of the most 
brilliant with which any President had ever been 
surrounded. Never were the prospects of an admin- 
istration more flattering, or the hopes of the country 
more sanguine. In the midst of these bright and 
joyous prospects, Gen. Harrison was seized by a 
pleurisy-fever and after a few days of violent sick- 
ness, died on the 4th of April; just one month after 
his inauguration as President of the United States. 



TENTH PRESIDENT. 



SS 





OHN TYLER, the tenth 
Presidentof the United States. 
He was born in Charles-city 
Co., Va., March 29, 1790. He 
was the favored child of af- 
fluence and high social po- 
sition. At the early age of 
twelve, John entered William 
and Mary College and grad- 
uated with much honor when 
but seventeen years old. After 
graduating, he devoted him- 
self with great assiduity to the 
study of law, partly with his 
father and partly with Edmund 
Randolph, one of the most distin- 
guished lawyers of Virginia. 

At nineteen years of age, ne 
commenced the practice of law. 
His success was rapid and aston- 
ishing. It is said that three 
months had not elapsed ere there 
was scarcely a case on the dock- 
I et of the court in which he was 
not retained. When but twenty-one years of age, he 
was almost unanimously e'ected to a seat in the State 
Legislature. He connected himself with the Demo- 
cratic party, and warmly advocated the measures of 
Jefferson and Madison. For five successive years he 
was elected to the Legislature, receiving nearly the 
unanimous vote or his county. 

When but twenty-six years of age, he was elected 
a member of Congress. Here he acted earnestly and 
ably with the Democratic party, opposing a national 
bank, internal improvements by the General 



ment, a protective tariff, and advocating a strict con- 
struction of the Constitution, and the most careful 
vigilance over State rights. His labors in Congress 
were so arduous that before the close of his second 
term he found it necessary to resign and retire to his 
estate in Charles-city Co., to recruit his health. He, 
however, soon after consented to take his seat in the 
State Legislature, where his influence was powerful 
in promoting public works of great utility. With a 
reputation thus canstantly increasing, he was chosen 
by a very large majority of votes, Governor of his 
native State. His administration was signally a suc- 
cessful one. His popularity secured his re-election. 

John Randolph, a brilliant, erratic, half-crazed 
man, then represented Virginia in the Senate of the 
United States. A portion of the Democratic party 
was displeased with Mr. Randolph's wayward course, 
and brought forward John Tyler as his opponent, 
considering him the only man in Virginia of sufficient 
popularity to succeed against the renowned orator of 
Roanoke. Mr. Tyler was the victor. 

In accordance with his professions, upon taking his 
seat in the Senate, he joined the ranks of the opposi- 
tion. He opposed the tariff; he spoke against and 
voted against the bank as unconstitutional ; he stren- 
uously opposed all restrictions upon slavery, resist- 
ing all projects of internal improvements by the Gen- 
eral Government, and avowed his sympathy with Mr. 
Calhoun's view of nullification ; he declared that Gen. 
Jackson, by his opposition to the nullifiers, had 
abandoned the principles of the Democratic party. 
Such was Mr. Tyler's record in Congress, a record 
in perfect accordance with the principles which he 
had always avowed. 

Returning to Virginia, he resumed the practice of 
his profession. There was a split in the Democratic 



JOHN TYLER. 



jarty. His friends still regarded him as a true Jef- 
fersonian, gave him a dinner, and showered compli- 
ments upon him. He had now attained the age of 
forty-six. His career had been very brilliant. In con- 
sequence of his devotion to public business, his pri- 
vate affairs had fallen into some disorder; and it was 
not without satisfaction that he resumed the practice 
of law, and devoted himself to the culture of his plan- 
tation. Soon after this he removed to Williamsburg, 
for the better education of his children ; and he again 
took his seat in the Legislature of Virginia. 

By the Southern Whigs, he was sent to the national 
convention at Harrisburg to nominate a President in 
1839. The majority of votes were given to Gen. Har- 
rison, a genuine Whig, much to the disappointment of 
the South, who wished for Henry Clay. To concili- 
ate the Southern Whigs and to secure their vote, the 
convention then nominated John Tyler for Vice Pres- 
ident. It was well known that he was not in sympa- 
thy with the Whig party in the North : but the Vice 
President has but very little power in the Govern- 
ment, his main and almost only duty being to pre- 
side over the meetings of the Senate. Thus it hap- 
pened that a Whig President, and, in reality, a 
Democratic Vice President were chosen. 

In 1841, Mr. Tyler was inaugurated Vice Presi- 
dent of the United States. In one short month from 
that time, President Harrison died, and Mr. Tyler 
thus .cund himself, to his own surprise and that of 
the whole Nation, an occupant of the Presidential 
chair. This was a new test of the stability of our 
institutions, as it was the first time in the history of our 
country that such an event had occured. Mr. Tyler 
was at home in Williamsburg when he received the 
unexpected tidings of the death of President Harri- 
son. He hastened to Washington, and on the 6th of 
April was inaugurated to the high and responsible 
office. He was placed in a position of exceeding 
delicacy and difficulty. All his long life he had been 
opposed to the main principles of the party which had 
brought him into power. He had ever been a con- 
sistent, honest man, with an unblemished record. 
Gen. Harrison had selected a Whig cabinet. Should 
he retain them, and thus surround himself with coun- 
sellors whose views were antagonistic to his own? or, 
on the other hand, should he turn against the party 
which had elected him and select a cabinet in har- 
mony with himself, and which would oppose all those 
views which the Whigs deemed essential to the pub- 
lic welfare? This was his fearful dilemma. He in- 
vited the cabinet which President Haarison had 
selected to retain their seats. He reccommended a 
day of fasting and prayer, that God would guide and 
bless us. 

The Whigs carried through Congress a bill for the 
incorporation of a fiscal bank of the United States. 
The President, after ten days" delay, returned it with 
his veto. He suggested, however, that he would 



approve of a bill drawn up upon such a plan as he 
proposed. Such a bill was accordingly prepared, and 
privately submitted to him. He gave it his approval. 
It was passed without alteration, and he sent it back 
with his veto. Here commenced the open rupture. 
It is said that Mr. Tyler was provoked to this meas- 
ure by a published letter from the Hon. John M. 
Botts, a distinguished Virginia Whig, who severely 
touched the pride of the President. 

The opposition now exultingly received the Presi- 
dent into their arms. The party which elected him 
denounced him bitterly. All the members of his 
cabinet, excepting Mr. Webster, resigned. The Whigs 
of Congress, both the Senate and the House, held a 
meeting and issued an address to the people of the 
United States, proclaiming that all political alliance 
between (he Whigs and President Tyler were at 
an end. 

Still the President attempted to conciliate. He 
appointed a new cabinet of distinguished Whigs and 
Conservatives, carefully leaving out all strong party 
men. Mr. Webster soon found it necessary to resign, 
forced out by the pressure of his Whig friends. Thus 
the four years of Mr. Tyler's unfortunate administra- 
tion passed sadly away. No one was satisfied. The 
land was filled with murmurs and vituperation. Whigs 
and Democrats alike assailed him. More and more, 
however, he brought himself into sympathy with his 
old friends, the Democrats, until at the close of his term, 
he gave his whole influence to the support of Mr. 
Polk, the Democratic candidate for his successor. 

On the 4th of March, 1845, he retired from the 
harassments of office, to the regret of neither party, and 
probably to his own unspeakable relief. His first wife, 
Miss Letitia Christian, died in Washington, in 1842; 
and in June, 1844, President Tyler was again married, 
at New York, to Miss Julia Gardiner, a young lady of 
many personal and intellectual accomplishments. 

The remainder of his days Mr. Tyler passed mainly 
in retirement at his beautiful home, Sherwood For- 
est, Charles-city Co., Va. A polished gentleman in 
his manners, richly furnished with information from 
books and experience in the world, and possessing 
brilliant powers of conversation, his family circle was 
the scene of unssual attractions. With sufficient 
means for the exercise of a generous hospitality, he 
might have enjoyed a serene old age with the few 
friends who gathered around him, were it not for the 
storms of civil war which his own principles and 
policy had helped to introduce. 

When the great Rebellion rose, which the State., 
rights and nullifying doctrines of Mr. John C. Ca\- 
houn had inaugurated, President Tyler renounced his 
allegiance to the United States, and joined the Confed- 
erates. He was chosen a member of their Congress; 
and while engaged in active measures to destroy, by 
force of arms, the Government over which he had 
once presided, he was taken sick and soon died. 



5t 





AMES K. POLK, the eleventh 
President of the United States, 
was born in Mecklenburg Co., 
N. C., Nov. 2, 1795. His par- 
ents were Samuel and Jane 
(Knox) Polk, the former a son 
of Col. Thomas Polk, who located 
at the above place, as one of the 
first pioneers, in 1735. 

In the year 1806, with his wife 
and children, and soon after fol- 
lowed by most of the members of 
the Polk fainly, Samuel Polk emi- 
grated some two or three hundred 
miles farther west, to the rich valley 
of the Duck River. Here in the 
midst of the wilderness, in a region 
which was subsequently called Mau- 
ry Co., they reared their log huts, 
and established their homes. In the 
hard toil of a new farm in the wil- 
derness, James K. Polk spent the 
early years of his childhood and 
youth. His father, adding the pur- 
suit of a surveyor to that of a farmer, 
gradually increased in wealth until 
he became one of the leading men of the region. His 
mother was a superior woman, of strong common 
sense and earnest piety. 

Very early in life, James developed a taste for 
reading and expressed the strongest desire to obtain 
a liberal education. His mother's training had made 
him methodical in his habits, had taught him punct- 
uality and industry, and had inspired him with lofty 
principles of morality. His health was frail ; and his 
father, fearing that he might not bf able to endure a 



sedentary life, got a situation for him behind the 
counter, hoping to fit him for commercial pursuits. 

This was to James a bitter disappointment. He 
had no taste for these duties, and his daily tasks 
were irksome in the extreme. He remained in this 
uncongenial occupation but a few weeks, when at his 
earnest solicitation his father removed him, and made 
arrangements for him to prosecute his studies. Soon 
after he sent him to Murfreesboro Academy. With 
ardor which could scarcely be surpassed, he pressed 
forward in his studies, and in less than two and a half 
years, in the autumn of 1815, entered the sophomore 
class in the University of North Carolina, at Chapel 
Hill. Here he was one of the most exemplary of 
scholars, punctual in every exercise, never allowing 
himself to be absent from a recitation or a religious 
service. 

He graduated in 1818, with the highest honors, be- 
ing deemed the best scholar of his class, both in 
mathematics and the classics. He was then twenty- 
three years of age. Mr. Folk's health was at this 
time much impaired by the assiduity with which he 
had prosecuted his studies. After a short season of 
relaxation he went to Nashville, and entered the 
office of Felix Grundy, to study law. Here Mr. Polk 
renewed his acquaintance with Andrew Jackson, who 
resided on his plantation, the Hermitage, but a few 
miles from Nashville. They had probably been 
slightly acquainted before. 

Mr. Polk's father was a Jeflersonian Republican,- 
and James K. Polk ever adhered to the same politi- 
cal faith. He was a popular public ^speaker, and was 
constantly called upon to address the meetings of his 
party friends. His skill as a speaker was such that 
lie was popularly called the Napoleon of the stump. 
He was a man of unblemished morals, genial and 



Go 



JAMES K. POLK. 



courterus in his bearing, and with that sympathetic 
nature in the jo) s and griefs of others which ever gave 
him troops of friends. In 1823, Mr. Polk was elected 
to the Legislature of Tennessee. Here he gave his 
strong influence towards the election of his friend, 
Mr. Jackson, to the Presidency of the United States. 

In January, 1824, Mr. Polk married Miss Sarah 
Childress, of Rutherford Co., Tenn. His bride was 
altogether worthy of him, a lady of beauty and cul- 
ture. In the fall of 1825, Mr. Polk was chosen a 
member of Congress. The satisfaction which he gave 
to his constituents may be inferred from the fact, that 
for fourteen successive years, until 1839, he was con- 
tinued in that office. He then voluntarily withdrew, 
only that he might accept the Gubernatorial chair 
of Tennessee. In Congress he was a laborious 
member, a frequent and a popular speaker. He was 
always in his seat, always courteous ; and whenever 
he spoke it was always to the point, and without any 
ambitious rhetorical display. 

During five sessions of Congress, Mr. Polk was 
Speaker of the House. Strong passions were roused, 
and stormy scenes were witnessed ; but Mr. Polk per- 
formed his arduous duties to a very general satisfac- 
tion, and a unanimous vote of thanks to him was 
passed by the House as he withdrew on the 4th of 
March, 1839. 

In accordance with Southern usage, Mr. Polk, as a 
candidate for Governor, canvassed the State. He was 
elected by a large majority, and on the i/jth of Octo- 
ber, 1839, took the oath of office at Nashville. In 1841, 
his term of office expired, and he was again the can- 
didate of the Democratic party, but was defeated. 

On the 4th of March, 1845, Mr. Polk was inaugur- 
ated President of the United States. The verdict of 
the country in favor of the annexation of Texas, exerted 
its influence upon Congress ; and the last act of the 
administration of President Tyler was to affix his sig- 
nature to a joint resolution of Congress, passed on the 
3d of March, approving of the annexation of Texas to 
the American Union. As Mexico still claimed Texas 
as one of her provinces, the Mexican minister, 
Almonte, immediately demanded his passports and 
left the country, declaring the act of the annexation 
to be an act hostile to Mexico. 

In his first message, President Polk urged that 
Texas should immediately, by act of Congress, be re- 
ceived into the Urrion on the same footing with the 
Other States, In the meantime, Gen. Taylor was sent 



with an army into Texas to hold the country. He was 
sent first to Nueces, which the Mexicans said was the 
western boundary of Texas. Then he was sent nearly 
two hundred miles further west, to the Rio Grande, 
where he erected batteries which commanded the 
Mexican city of Matamoras, which was situated on 
the western banks. 

The anticipated collision soon took place, and wai 
was declared against Mexico by President Polk. The 
war was pushed forward by Mr. Folk's administration 
with great vigor. Gen. Taylor, whose army was first 
called one of "observation," then of "occupation," 
then of " invasion, "was sent forward to Monterey. The 
feeble Mexicans, in every encounter, were hopelessly 
and awfully slaughtered. The day of judgement 
alone can reveal the misery which this war caused. 
It was by the ingenuity of Mr. Folk's administration 
that the war was brought on. 

'To the victors belong the spoils." Mexico was 
prostrate before us. Her capital was in our hands. 
We now consented to peace upon the condition that 
Mexico should surrender to us, in addition to Texas, 
all of New Mexico, and all of Upper and Lower Cal- 
ifornia. This new demand embraced, exclusive of 
Texas, eight hundred thousand square miles. This 
was an extent of territory equal to nine States of the 
size of New York. Thus slavery was securing eighteen 
majestic States to be added to the Union. There were 
some Americans who thought it all right : there were 
others who thought it all wrong. In the prosecution 
of this war, we expended twenty thousand lives and 
more than a hundred million of dollars. Of this 
money fifteen millions were paid to Mexico. 

On the 3d of March, 1849, Mr. Polk retired from 
office, having served one term. The next day was 
Sunday. On the 5th, Gen. Taylor was inaugurated 
as his successor. Mr. Polk rode to the Capitol in the 
same carriage with Gen. Taylor; and the same even- 
ing, with Mrs. Polk, he commenced his return to 
Tennessee. He was then but fifty-four years of age. 
He had ever been strictly temperate in all his habits, 
and his health was good. With an ample fortune, 
a choice library, a cultivated mind, and domestic ties 
of the dearest nature, it seemed as though long years 
of tranquility and happiness were before him. But the 
cholera that fearful scourge was then sweeping up 
the Valley of the Mississippi. This he contracted, 
and died on the 151)1 of June, 1849, in the fiftv-fourth 
year of his age, greatly mourned by his countrymen. 




K&L 



TWELFTH PRESIDENT. 





ACHARY TAYLOR, twelfth 
President of the United States, 
was born on the 24th of Nov., 
1784, in Orange Co., Va. His 
father, Colonel Taylor, was 
a Virginian of note, and a dis- 
tinguished patriot and soldier of 
the Revolution. When Zachary 
was an infant, his father with his 
wife and two children, emigrated 
to Kentucky, where he settled in 
the pathless wilderness, a few 
miles from Louisville. In this front- 
ier home, away from civilization and 
all its refinements, young Zachary 
could enjoy but few social and educational advan- 
tages. When six years of age he attended a common 
school, and was then regarded as a bright, active boy, 
father remarkable for bluntness and decision of char- 
acter He was strong, feailess and self-reliant, and 
manifested a strong desire to enter the army to fight 
the Indians who were ravaging the frontiers. There 
is little to be recorded of the uneventful years of his 
childhood on his father's large but lonely plantation. 
In 1808, his father succeeded in obtaining for him 
the commission of lieutenant in the United States 
army ; and he joined the troops which were stationed 
at New Orleans under Gen. Wilkinson. Soon after 
this he married Miss Margaret Smith, a young lady 
from one of the first families of Maryland. 

Immediately after the declaration of war with Eng- 
land, in 1812, Capt. Taylor (for he had then been 
promoted to that rank) was put in command of Fort 
Harrison, on the Wabash, about fifty miles above 
Vincennes. This fort had been built in the wilder- 
ness by Gen. Harrison,on his march to Tippecanoe. 
It was one of the first points of attack by the Indians, 
ied by Tecumseh. Its garrison consisted of a broken 



company of infantry numbering fifty men, many of 
whom were sick. 

Early in the autumn of 1812, the Indians, stealthily, 
and in large numbers, moved upon the fort. Their 
approach was first indicated by the murder of two 
soldiers just outside of the stockade. Capt. Taylor 
made every possible preparation to meet the antici- 
pated assault. On the 4th of September, a band of 
forty painted and plumed savages came to the fort, 
waving a white flag, and informed Capt. Taylor that 
in the morning their chief would come to have a talk 
with him. It was evident that their object was merely 
to ascertain the state of things at the fort, and Capt. 
Taylor, well versed in the wiles of the savages, kept 
them at a distance. 

The sun went down; the savages disappeared, the 
garrison slept upon their arms. One hour before 
midnight the war whoop burst from a thousand lips 
in the forest around, followed by the discharge of 
musketry, and the rush of the foe. Every man, sick 
and well, sprang to his post. Every man knew that 
defeat was not merely death, but in the case of cap- 
ture, death by the most agonizing and prolonged tor- 
ture. No pen can describe, no immagination can 
conceive the scenes which ensued. The savages suc- 
ceeded in setting fire to one of the block-houses- 
Until six o'clock in the morning, this awful conflict 
continued. The savages then, baffled at every point, 
and gnashing their teeth with rage, retired. Capt. 
Taylor, for this gallant defence, was promoted to the 
rank of major by brevet. 

Until the close of the war, Major Taylor was placed 
in such situations that he saw but little more of active 
service. He was sent far away into the depths of the 
wilderness, to Fort Crawford, on Fox River, which 
empties into Green Bay. Here there was but little 
to be done but to wear away the tedious hours as one 

best could. There were no books, no society, no in- 



ZACHARY TAYLOR 



tellectuai stimulus. Thus with him the uneventful 
years rolled on Gradually he rose to the rank of 
colonel. In the Black-Hawk war, which resulted in 
the capture of that renowned chieftain, ^Col Taylor 
took a subordinate but a brave and efficient part. 

For twenty -four years Col. Taylor was engaged in 
the defence of the frontiers, in scenes so remote, and in 
femployments so obscure, that his name was unknown 
'beyond the limits of his own immediate acquaintance. 
,In the year 1836, he was sent to Florida to compel 
the Seminole Indians to vacate that region and re- 
tire beyond the Mississippi, as their chiefs by treaty, 
iia<? promised they should do. The services rendered 
here secured for Col. Taylor the high appreciation of 
the Government; and as a reward, he was elevated 
(o the rank of brigadier-general by brevet ; and soon 
lifter, in May, 1838, was appointed to the chief com- 
mand of the United States troops in Florida. 

After two years of such wearisome employment 
imidst the everglades of the peninsula, Gen. Taylor 
obtained, at his own request, a change of command, 
.and was stationed over the Department of the South- 
west. This field embraced Louisiana, Mississippi, 
Alabama and Georgia. Establishing his headquarters 
jit Fort Jessup, in Louisiana, he removed his family 
to a plantation which he purchased, near Baton Rogue. 
Hre he remained for five years, buried, as it were, 
from the world, but faithfully discharging every duty 
Imposed upon him. 

In 1846, Gen. Tayfor was sent to guard the land 
between the Nueces and Rio Grande, the latter river 
Ibeing the boundary of Texas, which was then claimed 
by the United States. Soon the war with Mexico 
was brought on, and at Palo Alto and Resaca de la 
Pa.ima, Gen. Taylor won brilliant victories over the 
Mexicans. The rank of major-general by brevet 
was then conferred upon Gen. Taylor, and his name 
was received with enthusiasm almost everywhere in 
the Nation. Then came the battles of Monterey and 
Euena Vista in which he won signal victories over 
fences much larger than he commanded, 

His careless habits of dress and his unaffected 
simplicity, secured for Gen. Taylor among his troops, 
\\ ^ sobriquet of "Old Rough and Ready.' 

The tidings of the brilliant victory of Buena Vista 
?lTead the wildest enthusiasm over the country. The 
name of Gen. Taylor was on every one's lips. The 
V\ hig party decided to take advantage of this wonder- 
fu( popularity in bringing forward the unpolished, un- 
bred, honest soldier as their candidate for the 
i'sesidency. Gen. Taylor was astonished at the an-- 
ncuncement, and for a time would not listen toil; de- 
claring that he was not at all qualified for such an 
oft ice. So little interest had he taken in politics that, 
foi forty years, he hud net cast a vote. It was not 
without chagrin that several distinguished statesmen 
wlio had been long years in the public service found 
0. ;ir claims set aside in behalf of one whose name 



had never been heard of, save in connection with Palo 
Alto, Resaca de la Palma, Monterey and Buena 
Vista. It is said that Daniel Webster, in his haste re- 
marked, " It is a nomination not fit to be made." 

Gen. Taylor was not an eloquent speaker nor a fine 
writer His friends took possession of him, and pre- 
pared such few communications as it was needful 
should be presented to the public. The popularity of 
the successful warrior swept the land. He was tri- 
umphantly elected over two opposing candidates, 
Gen. Cass and Ex-President Martin Van Buren. 
Though he selected an excellent cabinet, the good 
old man found himself in a very uncongenial position, 
and was, at times, sorely perplexed and harassed. 
His mental sufferings were very severe, and probably 
tended to hasten his death. The pro-slavery party 
was pushing its claims with tireless energy , expedi- 
tions were fitting out to capture Cuba ; California was 
pleading for admission to the Union, while slavery 
stood at the door to bar her out. Gen. Taylor found 
the political conflicts in Washington to be far more 
trying to the nerves than battles with Mexicans or 
Indians. 

In the midst of all these troubles, Gen. Taylor, 
after he had occupied the Presidential chair but little 
over a year, took cold, and after a brief sickness of 
but little over five days, died on the pth of July, 1850. 
His last words were, " I am not afraid to die. I am 
ready. -I have endeavored to do my duty." He died 
universally respected and beloved. An honest, un- 
pretending man, he had been steadily growing in the 
affections of the people; and the Nation bitterly la- 
mented his death. 

Gen. Scott, who was thoroughly acquainted with 
Gen. Taylor, gave the following graphic and truthful 
description of his character: " With a good store of 
common sense, Gen. Taylor's mind had not been en- 
larged and refreshed by reading, or much converse 
with the world. Rigidity of ideas was the conse- 
quence. The frontiers and small military posts had 
been his home. Hence he was quite ignorant for his 
rank, and quite bigoted in his ignorance. His sim- 
plicity was child-like, and with innumerable preju- 
dices, amusing and incorrigible, well suited to the 
tender age. Thus, if a man, however respectable, 
chanced to wear a coat of an unusual color, or his hat 
a little on one side of his head; or an officer to leave 
a corner of his handkerchief dangling from an out- 
side pocket, in any such case, this critic held the 
offender to be a coxcomb (perhaps something worse), 
whom he would not, to use his oft repeated phrase, 
'touch with a pair of tongs.' 

"Any allusion to literature beyond good old Dil- 
worth's spelling-book, on the part of one wearing a 
sword, was evidence, with the same judge, of utter 
unfitness for heavy marchings and combats. Inshor* 
few men have ever had a more comfortabic, 1 ->>vw. 
saving contempt for learnii g of every kind.' 



THIRTEENTH PRESIDENT. 





ILLARD FILLMORE, thir- 
teenth Presidentof the United 
States, was born at Summer 
Hill, Cayuga Co., N. Y ., on 
the 7th of January, 1800. His 
father was a farmer, and ow- 
ing to misfortune, in humble cir- 
cumstances. Of his mother, the 
daughter of Dr. AbiatharMillard, 
of Pittsfield, Mass., it has been 
said that she possessed an intellect 
of very high order, united with much 
personal loveliness, sweetness of dis- 
position, graceful manners and ex- 
quisite sensibilities. She died in 
1831 ; having lived to see her son a 
young man of distinguished prom- 
ise, though she was not permitted to witness the high 
dignity which he finally attained. 

In consequence of the secluded home and limited 
means of his father, Millard enjoyed but slender ad- 
vantages for education in his early years. The com- 
mon schools, which he occasionally attended were 
very imperfect institutions; and books were scarce 
and expensive. There was nothing then in his char- 
acter to indicate the brilliant career upon which he 
was about to enter. He was a plain farmer's boy; 
intelligent, good-looking, kind-hearted. The sacred 
influences of home had taught him to revere the Bible, 
and had laid the foundations of an upright character. 
When fourteen years of age, his father sent him 
some hundred miles from home, to the then wilds of 
Livingston County, to learn the trade of a clothier. 
the mi! 1 , there was a small villiage, where some 



enterprising man had commenced the collection of a 
village library. This proved an inestimable blessing 
to young Fillmore. His evenings were spent in read- 
ing. Soon every leisure moment was occupied with 
books. His thirst for knowledge became insatiate 
and the selections which he made were continually 
more elevating and instructive. He read history, 
biography, oratory, and thus gradually there was en- 
kindled in his heart a desire to be something more 
than a mere worker with his hands; and lie was be- 
coming, almost unknown to himself, a well-informed; 
educated man. 

The young clothier had now attained the age of 
nineteen years, and was of fine personal appearance 
and of gentlemanly demeanor. It so happened tha? 
there was a gentleman in the neighborhood of ample 
pecuniary means and of benevolence, Judge Walter 
Wood, who was struck with the prepossessing ap- 
pearance of young Fillmore. He made his acquaint- 
ance, and was so much impressed with his ability and 
attainments that he advised him to abandon his 
trade and devote himself to the study of the law. The 
young man replied, that he had no means of his own, 
r.o friends to help him and that his previous educa- 
tion had been very imperfect. But Judge Wood had 
so much confidence in him that he kindly offered to 
take him into his own office, and to loan him such 
money as he needed. Most gratefully the generous 
offer was accepted. 

There is in many minds a strange delusion about* 
a collegiate education. A young man is supposed to 
lie liberally educated if he has gindnated at some col- 
lege. But many a boy loiters through university halls 
nnd then enters a law office, who is by no meaiis as 



MILLARD FILLMORE. 



well prepared to prosecute his legal studies as was 
Millard Fillmore when he graduated at the clothing- 
mill at the end of four years of manual labor, during 
which every leisure moment had been devoted to in- 
tense mental culture. 

In 1823, when twenty-three years of age, he was 
admitted to the Court of Common Pleas. He then 
went to the village of Aurora, and commenced the 
practice of law. In this secluded, peaceful region, 
his practice of course was limited, and there was no 
opportunity for a sudden rise in fortune or in fame. 
Here, in the year 1826, he married a lady of great 
moral worth, and one capable of adorning any station 
she might be called to fill, Miss Abigail Powers. 

His elevation of character, his untiring industry, 
his legal acquirements, and his skill as an advocate, 
gradually attracted attention ; and he was invited to 
enter into partnership under highly advantageous 
circumstances, with an elder member of the bar in 
Buffalo. Just before removing to Buffalo, in 1829, 
he took his seat in the House of Assembly, of the 
State of New York, as a representative from Erie 
County. Though he had never taken a very active 
part in politics, his vote and his sympathies were with 
the Whig party. The State was then Democratic, 
and he found himself in a helpless minority in the 
Legislature , still the testimony comes from all parties, 
that his courtesy, ability and integrity, won, to a very 
unusual degree the respect of his associates. 

In the autumn of 1832, he was elected to a seat in 
the United States Congress He entered that troubled 
arena in some of the most tumultuous hours of our 
national history. The great conflict respecting the 
national bank and the removal of the deposits, was 
then raging. 

His term of two years closed ; and he returned to 
his profession, which he pursued with increasing rep- 
utation and success. After a lapse of two years 
he again became a candidate for Congress ; was re- 
elected, and took his seat in 1837. His past expe- 
rience as a representative gave him stiength and 
confidence. The first term of service in Congress to 
any man can be but little more than an introduction. 
He was now prepared for active duty. All his ener- 
gies were brought to bear upon the public good. Every 
measure received his impress. 

Mr. Fillmore was now a man of wide repute, and 
his popularity filled the State, and in the year 1847, 
he was elected Comptroller of the State. 



Mr. Fillmore had attained the age of forty-seven 
years. His labors at the bar, in the Legislature, in 
Congress and as Comptroller, had given him very con- 
siderable fame. The Whigs were casting about to 
find suitable candidates for President and Vice-Presi- 
dent at the approaching election. Far away, on the 
waters of the Rio Grande, there was a rough old 
soldier, who had fought one or two successful battles 
with the Mexicans, which had caused his name to be 
proclaimed in trumpet-tones all over the land. But 
it was necessary to associate with him on the same 
ticket some man of reputation as a statesman. 

Under the influence of these considerations, the 
namesof Zachary Taylor and Millard Fillmore became 
the rallying-cry of the Whigs, as their candidates for 
President and Vice-Peesident. The Whig ticket was 
signally triumphant. On the 4th of March, 1849, 
Gen. Taylor was inaugurated President, and Millard 
Fillmore Vice-President, of the United States. 

On the gth of July, 1850, President Taylor, but 
about one year and four months after his inaugura^ 
tion, was suddenly taken sick and died. By the Con- 
stitution, Vice-President Fillmore thus became Presi- 
dent. He appointed a very able cabinet, of which 
the illustrious Daniel Webster was Secretary of State. 

Mr. Fillmore had very serious difficulties to contend 
with, since the opposition had a majority in both 
Houses. He did everything in his power to conciliate 
the South ; but the pro-slavery party in the South felt 
the inadequacy of all measuresof transient conciliation. 
The population of the free States was so rapidly in- 
creasing over that of the slave States that it was in- 
evitable that the power of the Government should 
soon pass into the hands of the free States. The 
famous com promise measures were adopted under Mr. 
Fillmcre's adminstration, and the Japan Expedition 
was sent out. On the 4th of March, 1853, Mr. Fill- 
more, having served one term, retired. 

In 1856, Mr. Fillmore was nominated for the Pres- 
idency by the " Know Nothing " party, but was beaten 
by Mr. Buchanan. After that Mr. Fillmore lived in 
retirement. During the terrible conflict of civil war, 
he was mostly silent. It was generally supposed that 
his sympathies were rather with those who were en- 
deavoring to overthrow our institutions. President 
Fillmore kept aloof from the conflict, without any 
cordial words of cheer to the one party or the other. 
He was thus forgotten by both. He lived to a ripe 
old age, and died in Buffalo. N. Y., March 8, 1874. 



FOURTEENTH PRESIDENT. 







v - 



RANKLIN PIERCE, the 
fourteenth President of the 
United States, was born in 
Hillsborough, N. H., Nov. 
23, 1804. His father was a 
Revolutionary soldier, who, 
with his own strong arm, 
hewed out a home in the 
wilderness. He was a man 
of inflexible integrity; of 
strong, though uncultivated 
mind, and an uncompromis- 
ing Democrat. The mother of 
Franklin Pierce was all that a son 
could desire, an intelligent, pru- 
dent, affectionate, Christian wom- 
an. Franklin was the sixth of eight children. 

Franklin was a very bright and handsome boy, gen- 
erous, warm-hearted and brave. He won alike the 
love of old and young. The boys on the play -ground 
loved him. His teachers loved him. The neighbors 
looked upon him with pride and affection. He was 
by instinct a gentleman; always speaking kind words, 
doing kind deeds, with a peculiar unstudied tact 
which taught him what was agreeable. Without de- 
veloping any precocity of genius, or any unnatural 
devotion to books, he was a good scholar ; in body, 
in mind, in affections, a finely-developed boy. 

When sixteen years of age, in the year 1820, he 
entered Bowdoin College, at Brunswick, Me. He was 
one of the most popular young men in the college. 
The purity of his moral character, the unvarying 
courtesy of his demeanor, his rank as a scholar, and 



genial nature, rendered him a universal favorite. 
There was something very peculiarly winning in his 
address, and it was evidently not in the slightest de- 
gree studied : it was the simple outgushing of his 
own magnanimous and loving nature. 

Upon graduating, in the year 1824, Franklin Pierce 
commenced the study of law in the office of Judge 
Woodbury, one of the most distinguished lawyers of 
the State, and a man of great private worth. The 
eminent social qualities of the young lawyer, his 
father's prominence as a public man, and the brilliant 
political career into which Judge Woodbury was en' 
tering, all tended to entice Mr. Pierce into the faci- 
nating yet perilous path of political life. With all 
the ardor of his nature he espoused the cause of Gen. 
Jackson for the Presidency. He commenced the 
practice of law in Hillsborough, and was soon elected 
to represent the town in the State Legislature. Here 
he served for four years. The last two years he was 
chosen speaker of the house by a very large vote. 

In 18.33, at tne a g e of twenty-nine, he was elected 
a member of Congress. Without taking an active 
part in debates, he was faithful and laborious in duty 
and ever rising in the estimation of those with whom 
he was associatad. 

In 1837, being then but thirty-three years of age, 
he was elected to the Senate of the United States; 
taking his seat just as Mr. Van Buren commenced 
his administration. He was the youngest member in 
the Senate. In the year 1834, he married Miss Jane 
Means Appleton, a lady of rare beauty and accom- 
plishments, and one admirably fitted to adorn every 
station with which her husband was honoied, Of the 



&RANKLIN PIERCE. 



three sons who were born to them, all now sleep with 
their parents in the grave. 

In the year 1838, Mr. Pierce, with growing fame 
and increasing business as a lawyer, took up his 
residence in Concord, the capital of New Hampshire. 
President Polk, upon his accession to office, appointed 
Mr. Pierce attorney-general of the United States; but 
the offer was declined, in consequence of numerous 
professional engagements at home, and the precariuos 
state of Mrs. Pierce's health. He also, about the 
same time declined the nomination for governor by the 
Democratic party. The war with Mexico called Mr. 
Pierce in the army. Receiving the appointment of 
brigadier-general, he embarked, with a portion of his 
troops, at Newport, R. I., on the 2-jih of May, 1847. 
He took an important part in this war, proving him- 
self a brave and true soldier. 

When Gen. Pierce reached his home in his native 
State, he was received enthusiastically by the advo- 
cates of the Mexican war, and coldly by his oppo- 
nents. He resumed the practice of his profession, 
very frequently taking an active part in political ques- 
tions, giving his cordial support to the pro-slavery 
wing of the Democratic party. The compromise 
measures met cordially with his approval ; and he 
btrenuously advocated the enforcement of the infa- 
inous fugitive-slave law, which so shocked the religious 
sensibilities of the North. He thus became distin- 
guished as a "Northern man with Southern principles.'' 
The strong partisans of slavery in the South conse- 
quently regarded him as a man whom they could 
safely trust in office to carry out their plans. 

On the 1 2th of June, 1852, the Democratic conven- 
tion met in Baltimore to nominate a candidate for the 
Presidency. For four days they continued in session, 
and in thirty-five ballotings no one had obtained a 
two-thirds vote. Not a vote thus far had been thrown 
for Gen. Pierce. Then the Virginia delegation 
brought forward his name. There were fourteen 
more ballotings, during which Gen. Pierce constantly 
gained strength, until, at the forty-ninth ballot, he 
received two hundred and eighty-two votes, and all 
other candidates eleven. Gen. Winfield Scott was 
the Whig candidate. Gen. Pierce was chosen with 
great unanimity. Only four States Vermont, Mas- 
sachusetts, Kentucky and Tennessee cast their 
electoral votes against him Gen. Franklin Pieicc' 
was therefore inaugurated President of the United 
States on the 4th of March, 1853. 



His administration proved one of the most stormy our 
country had ever experienced. The controversy be 
tween slavery and freedom was then approaching its 
culminating point. Ii became evident that there was 
an "irrepressible conflict " between them, and that 
this Nation could not long exist " half slave and half 
free." President Pierce, during the whole of his ad- 
ministration, did every thing he could to conciliate 
the South ; but it was all in vain. The conflict every 
year grew more violent, and threats of the dissolution 
of the Union were borne to the North on every South- 
ern breeze. 

Such was the condition of affairs when President 
Pierce approached the close of his four-years' term 
of office. The North had become thoroughly alien- 
ated from him. The anti-slavery sentiment, goaded 
by great outrages, had been rapidly increasing; all 
the intellectual ability and social worth of President 
Pierce were forgotten in deep reprehension of his ad- 
ministrative acts. The slaveholders of the South, also, 
unmindful of the fidelity with which he had advo- 
cated those measures of Government which they ap- 
proved, and perhaps, also, feeling that he had 
rendered himself so unpopular as no longer to be 
able acceptably to serve them, ungratefully dropped 
him, and nominated James Buchanan to succeed him. 
On the 4th of March, 1857, President Pierce re- 
tired to his home in Concord. Of three children, two 
had died, and his only surviving child had been 
killed before his eyes by a railroad accident ; and his 
wife, one of the most estimable and accomplished of 
ladies, was rapidly sinking in consumption. The 
hour of dreadful gloom soon came, and he was left 
alone in the world, without wife or child. 

. When the terrible Rebellion burst forth, which di- 
vided our country into two parties, and two only, Mr. 
Pierce remained steadfast in the principles which he 
had always cherished, and gave his sympathies to 
that pro-slavery party with which he had ever been 
allied. He declined to do anything, either by voice 
or pen, to strengthen the hand of the National Gov- 
ernment. He continued to reside in Concord until 
the time of his death, which occurred in October, 
1869. He was one of the most genial and social of 
men, an honored communicant of the Episcopal 
Church, and one of the kindest of neighbors. Gen- 
erous to a fault, he contributed liberally for the al- 
leviation of suffering and want, and many of his towns- 
people were often gladened by his material bounty 



FIFTEENTH PRESIDENT. 







AMES BUCHANAN, the fif- 
teenth President of the United 
States, was born in a small 
frontier town, at the foot of the 
eastern ridge of the Allegha- 
nies, in Franklin Co., Penn., on 
the 23d of April, 1791. The place 
where the humble cabin of his 
father stood was called Stony 
Batter. It was a wild and ro- 
mantic spot in a gorge of the moun- 
tains, with towering summits rising 
grandly all around. His father 
was a native of the north of Ireland ; 
a poor man, who had emigrated in 
1783, with little property save his 
Five years afterwards he married 
Elizabeth Spear, the daughter of a respectable farmer, 
and, with his young-bride, plunged into the wilder- 
ness, staked his claim, reared his log-hut, opened a 
clearing with his axe, and settled down there to per- 
form his obscure part in the drama of life. In this se- 
cluded home, where James was born, he remained 
for eight years, enjoying but few social or intellectual 
advantages. When James was eight years of age, his 
father removed to the village of Mercersburg, where 
his son was placed at school, and commenced a 
course of study in English, Latin and Greek. His 
progress was rapid, and at the age of fourteen, he 
entered Dickinson College, at Carlisle. Here he de- 
veloped remarkable talent, and took his stand among 
the first scholars in the institution. His application 
to study was intense, and yet his native powers en- 



own strong arms. 



abled him to master the most abstruse subjects wi "- 
facility. 

In the year 1809, he graduated with the highest 
honors of his clas-j. He was then eighteen years of 
age; tall and graceful, vigorous in health, fond of 
athletic sport, an unerring shot, and enlivened with 
an exuberant flow of animal spirits. He immediately 
'commenced the study of law in the city of Lancaster, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1812, when he was 
but twenty-one years of age. Very rapidly he rose 
in his profession, and at once took undisputed stand 
with the ablest lawyers of the State. When but 
twenty-six years of age, unaided by counsel, he suc- 
cessfully defended before the State Senate one of the 
judges of the State, who was tried upon articles 01 
impeachment. At the age of thirty it was generally 
admitted that he stood at the head of the bar; and 
there was no lawyer in the State who had a more lu- 
crative practice. 

In 1820, he reluctantly consented to run as a 
candidate for Congress. He was elected, and foi 
ten years he remained a member of the Lower House 
During the vacations of Congress, he occasionally 
tried some important case. In 1831, he retired 
altogether from the toils of his profession, having ac- 
quired an ample fortune. 

Gen. Jackson, upon his elevation to the Presidency, 
appointed Mr. Buchanan minister to Russia. The 
duties of his mission he performed with ability, whicl, 
gave satisfaction to all parties. Upon his return, ir ( 
1833, he was elected to a seat in the United States 
Senate. He there met, as his associates, Webster. 
Clay, Wright and Calhoun. He advocated the meas- 
ures proposed by President Jackson, of making repri- 



76 



JAMES BUCHANAN. 



sals against France, to enforce the payment of our 
claims against that country; and defended the 
course of the President in his unprecedented and 
wholesale removal from office of those who were 
not the supporters of his administration. Upon 
this question he was brought into direct collision 
with Henry Clay. He also, with voice and vote, ad- 
vocated expunging from the journal of the Senate 
the vote of censure against Gen. Jackson for remov- 
ing the deposits. Earnestly he opposed the aboli- 
tion of slavery in the District of Columbia, and 
urged the prohibition of the circulation of anti- 
slavery documents by the United States mails. 

As to petitions on the subject of slavery, he ad- 
vocated that they should be respectfully received ; 
and that the reply should be returned, that Con- 
gress had no power to legislate upon the subject. 
"Congress," said he, "might as well undertake to 
interfere with slavery under a foreign government 
as in any of the States where it now exists." 

Upon Mr. Folk's accession to the Presidency, Mr. 
Buchanan became Secretary of State, and as such, 
took his share of the responsibility in the conduct 
of the Mexican War. Mr. Polk assumed that cross- 
ing the Nueces by the American troops into the 
disputed territory was not wrong, but for the Mex- 
icans to cross the Rio Grande into that territory 
was a declaration of war. No candid man can read 
with pleasure the account of the course our Gov- 
ernment pursued in that movement. 

Mr. Buchanan identified himself thoroughly with 
the party devoted to the perpetuation and extension 
of slavery, and brought all the energies of his mind 
to bear against the Wilmot Proviso. He gave his 
cordial approval to the compromise measures of 
1850, which included the fugitive slave law. Mr. 
Pierce, upon his election to the Presidency, hon- 
ored Mr. Buchanan with the mission to England. 

In the year 1856, a national Democratic conven- 
tion nominated Mr. Buchanan for the Presidency. 
The political conflict was one of the most severe 
in which our country has ever engaged. All the 
friends of slavery were on one side; all the advo- 
cates of its restriction and final abolition on the 
other. Mr. Fremont, the candidate of the enemies 
of slavery, received 114 electoral votes. Mr. Bu- 
chanan received 174, and was elected. The popular 
vote stood 1,340,618 for Fremont, 1,224,750 for 
Buchanan. On March 4, 1857, Mr. Buchanan was 
inaugurated. 

Mr. Buchanan was far advanced in life. Only 
four years were wanting to fill up his three-score 
years and ten. His own friends, those with whom 
he had been allied in political principles and action 
for years, were seeking the destruction of the Gov- 
ernment, that they might rear upon the ruins of our 
free institutions a nation whose corner-stone should 



be human slavery. In this emergency, Mr. Bu- 
chanan was hopelessly bewildered. He could not, 
with his long-avowed principles, consistently op- 
pose the State-rights party in their assumptions. As 
President of the United States, bound by his oath 
faithfully to administer the laws, he could not, 
without perjury of the grossest kind, unite with 
those endeavoring to overthrow the Republic. He 
therefore did nothing. 

The opponents of Mr. Buchanan's administration 
nominated Abraham Lincoln as their standard- 
bearer in the next Presidential canvass. The pro- 
slavery party declared that if he were elected and 
the control of the Government were thus taken from 
their hands they would secede from the Union, tak- 
ing with them as they retired the National Capi- 
tol at Washington and the lion 's share of the ter- 
ritory of the United States. 

As the storm increased in violence, the slave- 
holders, claiming the right to secede, and Mr. Bu- 
chanan avowing that Congress had no power to 
prevent it, one of the most pitiable exhibitions of 
governmental imbecility was exhibited the world 
has ever seen. He declared that Congress had no 
power to enforce its laws in any State which had 
withdrawn, or which was attempting to withdraw, 
from the Union. This was not the doctrine of An- 
drew Jackson, when, with his hand upon his sword- 
hilt, he exclaimed. "The Union must and shall be 
preserved!" 

South Carolina seceded in December, 1860, nearly 
three months before the inauguration of President 
Lincoln. Mr. Buchanan looked on in listless de- 
spair. The rebel flag was raised in Charleston; Ft. 
Sumter was besieged; our forts, navy -yards and 
arsenals were seized; our depots of military stores 
were plundered; and our custom-houses and post- 
offices were appropriated by the rebels. 

The energy of the rebels and the imbecility of 
our Executive were alike marvelous. The nation 
looked on in agony, waiting for the slow weeks to 
glide away and close the administration, so ter- 
rible in its weakness. At length the long-looked- 
for hour of deliverance came, when Abraham Lin- 
coln was to receive the scepter. 

The administration of President Buchanan was 
certainly the most calamitous our country has ex- 
perienced. His best friends cannot recall it with 
pleasure. And still more deplorable it is for his 
fame, that in that dreadful conflict which rolled its 
billows of flame and blood over our whole land, no 
word came from his lips to indicate his wish that 
our country's banner should triumph over the flag 
of the Rebellion. He died at his Wheatland re- 
treat, June 1, 1868. 






SIXTEENTH PRE^/DENT. 





ABRAHAM > 



LINCOLN. > 




BRAHAM LINCOLN, the 
sixteenth President of the 
United States, was horn in 
Hardin Co., Ky., Feb. 12, 
1809. About the year 1780, a 
man by the name of Abraham 
Lincoln left Virginia with his 
family and moved into the then 
wilds of Kentucky. Only two years 
after this emigration, still a young 
man, while working one day in a 
field, was stealthily approached by 
an Indian and shot dead. His widow 
was left in extreme poverty with five 
little children, three boys and two 
girls. Thomas, the youngest of the 
boys, was four years of age at his 
father's death. This Thomas was 
the father of Abraham Lincoln, the 
President of the United States 
whose name must henceforth fo r ever be enrolled 
with the most prominent in the annals of our world. 
Of course no record has been kept of the life 
of one so lowly as Thomas Lincoln. He was among 
the poorest of the poor. His home was a wretched 
log-cabin ; his food the coarsest and the meanest. 
Education he had none; he could never either read 
or write. As soon as he was able to do anything for 
himself, he was compelled to leave the cabin of his 
starving mother, and push out into the world, a friend- 
less, wandering boy, seeking work. He hired him- 
self out, and thus spent the whole of his youth as a 
J.iborer in the fields of others. 

When twenty-eight years of age he built a log- 
rabin of his own, and married Nancy Hanks, the 
daughter of another family of poor Kentucky emi- 
grants, who had also come from Virginia. Their 
second child was Abraham Lincoln, the subject of 
this sketch. The mother of Abraham was a noble 
woman, gentle, loving, pensive, created to adorn 
a palace, doomed to toil and pine, and die in a hovel. 
" All that I am, or hope to be," exclaims the grate- 
ful son " I owe to my angel-mother. " 

When he was eight years of age, his father sold his 



cabin and small farm, and moved to Indiana, Whev 
two years later his mother died. 

Abraham soon became the scribe of the uneducated 
community around him. He could not have had a 
better school than this to teach him to put thoughts 
into words. He also became an eager reader. The 
books he could obtain were few ; but these he "ead 
and re-read until they were almost committed to 
memory. 

As the years rolled on, the lot of this lowly family 
was the usual lot of humanity. There were joys and 
griefs, weddings and funerals. Abraham's siste 
Sarah, to whom he was tenderly attached, was mai > 
ried when a child of but fourteen years of age, and 
soon died. The family was gradually scattered. Mr 
Thomas Lincoln sold out his squatter's claim ; n 1830 
and emigrated to Macon Co., 111. 

Abraham Lincoln was then twenty-one years of age. 
With vigorous hands he aided his father in rearing 
another log-cabin. Abraham worked diligently at this 
until he saw the family comfortably settled, and then 
small lot of enclosed prairie planted with corn, when 
he announced to his father his intention to leave 
home, and to go out into the world and seek his for- 
tune. Little did he or his friends imagine how bril- 
liant that fortune was to be. He saw the value oi 
education, and was intensely earnest to improve his 
mind to the utmost of his power. He saw the ruin 
which ardent spirits were causing, and became 
strictly temperate; refusing to allow a drop of intoxi- 
cating liquor to pass his lips. And he had read in 
God's word, "Thou shall not take the name of the 
Lord thy God in v-.i;, ;" and a profane expression ha 
was never heard to utter. Religion he revered. His 
morals were pure, and he was uncontaminated by a 
single vice. 

Young Abraham worked for a time as a hired laborei 
among the farmers. Then he went to Springfield 
where he was employed in building a large flat-boat 
In this he took a herd of swine, floated them dowt 
the Sangamon to the Illinois, and thence by the Mia 
sissippi to New Orleans. Whatever Abraham Lin 
coin undertook, he performed so faithfully as to giv*. 
great satisfaction to his employers. In this adven 



ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 



ture his employers were so well pleased, that upon 
his return they placed a store and mill under his care. 

In 1832, at the outbreak of the Black Hawk war, he 
enlisted and was chosen captain of a company. He 
returned to Sangamon County, and although only 23 
yeais of age, was a candidate for the Legislature, but 
was defeated. He soon after received from Andrew 
Jackson the appointment of Postmaster of New Salem, 
His only post-office was his hat. All the letters he 
received he carried there ready to deliver to those 
he chanced to meet. He studied surveying, and soon 
made this his business. In 1834 he again became a 
candidate for the Legislature, and was elected Mr. 
Stuart, of Springfield, advised him to study law. He 
walked from New Salem to Springfield, torrowed of 
Mr. Stuart a load of books, carried them back and 
began his legal studies. When the Legislature as- 
sembled he trudged on foot with his pack on his back 
one hundred miles to Vandalia, then the capital. In 
1836 he was re-elected to the Legislature. Here it 
was he first met Stephen A. Douglas. In 1 839 he re- 
moved to Springfield and began the practice of law. 
His success with the jury was so great that he was 
soon engaged in almost every noted case in the circuit. 

In 1854 the great discussion began between Mr. 
Lincoln and Mr. Douglas, on the slavery question. 
In the organization of the Republican party in Illinois, 
in 1856, he took an active part, and at once became 
one of the leaders in that party. Mr. Lincoln's 
speeches in opposition to Senator Douglas in the con- 
test in 1858 for a seat in the Senate, form a most 
notable part of his history. The issue was on the 
slavery question, and he took the broad ground of 
;he Declaration of Independence, that all men are 
created equal. Mr. Lincoln was defeated in this con- 
test, but won a far higher prize. 

The great Republican Convention met at Chicago 
on the i6th of June, 1860. The delegates and 
strangers who crowded the city amounted to twenty- 
five thousand. An immense building called " The 
Wigwam," was reared to accommodate the Conven- 
tion. There were eleven candidates for whom votes 
were thrown. William H. Seward, a man whose fame 
as a statesman had long filled the land, was the most 
prominent. It was generally supposed he would be 
the nominee. Abraham Lincoln, however, received 
the nomination on the third ballot. Little did he then 
dream of the weary years of toil and care, and the 
bloody death, to which that nomination doomed him : 
And as little did he dream that he was to render services 
to his country, which would fix upon him the eyes of 
the whole civilized world, and which would give him 
a place in the affections of his countrymen, second 
only, if second, to that of Washington. 

Election day came and Mr. Lincoln received 180 
electoral votes out of 203 cast, and was, therefore, 
constitutionally elected President of the United States. 
The tirade of abuse that vas poured upon this good 



and merciful man, especially by the slaveholders, was 
greater than upon any other man ever elected to this 
high position. In February, 1861, Mr. Lincoln started 
for Washington, stopping in all the large cities on his 
way making speeches. The whole journey was fraught 
with much danger. Many of the Southern States had 
already seceded, and several attempts at assassination 
were afterwards brought to light. A gang in Balti- 
more had arranged, upon his arrival to "get up a row," 
and in the confusion to make sure of his death with 
revolvers and hand-grenades. A detective unravelled 
the plot. A secret and special train was provided to 
take him from Harrisburg, through Baltimore, at an 
unexpected hour of the night. The train started at 
half-past ten ; and to prevent any possible communi- 
cation on the part ot the Secessionists with their Con- 
federate gang in Baltimore, as soon as the train hac 
started the telegraph-wires were cut. Mr. Lincoln 
reached Washington in safety and was inaugurated, 
although great anxiety was felt by all loyal people 

In the selection of his cabinet Mr. Lincoln gave 
to Mr. Seward the Department of State, and to other 
prominent opponents before the convention he gave 
important positions. 

During no other administration have the duties 
devolving upon the President been so manifold, and 
the responsibilities so great, as those which fell to 
the lot of President Lincoln. Knowing this, and 
feeling his own weakness and inability to meet, and in 
his own strength to cope with, the difficulties, he 
learned early to seek Divine wisdom and guidance in 
determining his plans, and Divine comfort in all his 
trials, both personal and national. Contrary to his 
own estimate of himself, Mr. Lincoln was one of the 
most courageous of men. He went directly into the 
rebel capital just as the retreating foe was leaving, 
with no guard but a few sailors. From the time he 
had left Springfield, in 1861, however, plans had been 
made for his assassination.and he at last fell a victim 
to one of them. April 14, r 865, he, with Gen. Grant, 
was urgently invited to attend Fords' Theater. It 
was announced that they would Le present. Gen. 
Grant, however, left the city. President Lincoln, feel- 
ing, with his characteristic kindliness of heart, that 
it would be a disappointment if he should fail them, 
very reluctantly consented to go. While listening to 
the play an actor by the name of John Wilkes Booth 
entered the box where the President and family were 
seated, and fired a bullet into his brains. He died the 
next morning at seven o'clock. 

Never before, in the history of the world was a nation 
plunged into such deep grief by the death of its ruler. 
Strong men met in the streets and wept in speechless 
anguish. It is not too much to say that a nation was 
in tears. His was a life which will fitly become a 
model. His name as the savior of his country will 
live with that of Washington's, its father; his co^ntry- 
mer. being unable to decide which U the greater. 



SEVENTEENTH PRESIDENT. 





NDREW JOHNSON, seven- 
teenth President of the United 
States. The early life of 
Andrew Johnson contains but 
the record of poverty, destitu- 
tion and friendlessness. He 
was born December 29, 1808, 
in Raleigh, N. C. His parents, 
belonging to the class of the 
"poor whites "of the South, -were 
in such circumstances, that they 
could not confer -;ei\ the slight- 
est advantages of education upon 
their child. When Andrew was five 
years of age, his father accidentally 
iost his life while herorically endeavoring to save a 
friend from drowning. J Jruil teri years of age, Andrew 
was a ragged boy about the streets, supported by the 
labor of his mother, who obtained her living with 
her own hands. 

He then, having never attended a school one day, 
and being unable either to read or write, was ap- 
prenticed to a tailor in his native town. A gentleman 
was in the habit of going to the tailor's shop occasion- 
ally, and reading to the boys at work there. He often 
read from the speeches of distinguished British states- 
men. Andrew, who was endowed with a mind of more 
than ordinary native ability, became much interested 
in these speeches ; his ambition was roused, and he 
was inspired with a strong desire to learn to read. 

He accordingly applied himself to the alphabet, and 
with the assistance of some of his fellow- workmen, 
learned his letters. He then called upon the gentle- 
man to borrow the book of speeches. The owner, 



pleased with his zeal, not only gave him the boot, 
but assisted him in learning to combine the letters 
into words. Under such difficulties he pressed on 
ward laboriously, spending usually ten or twelve hours 
at work in the shop, and then robbing himself of rest 
and recreation to devote such time as he could to 
reading. 

He went to Tennessee in 1826, and located at 
Greenville, where he married a young lady who pus 
sessed some education. Under her instructions he 
learned to write and cipher. He became prominent 
in the village debating society, and a favorite with 
the students of Greenville College. In 1828, he or- 
ganized a working man's party, which elected him 
alderman, and in 1830 elected him mayor, which 
position he held three years. 

He now began to take a lively interest in political 
affairs ; identifying himself with the working-classes, 
to which he belonged. In 1835, he was elected a 
member of the House of Representatives of Tennes- 
see. He was then just twenty-seven years of age. 
He became a very active member of the legislature 
gave his adhesion to the Democratic party, and in 
1840 "stumped the State," advocating Martin Van 
Buren's claims to the Presidency, in opposition to thos v 
of Gen. Harrison. In this campaign he acquired much 
readiness as a speaker, and extended and increased 
his reputation. 

In 1841, he was elected State Senator; in 1843, he 
was elected a member of Congress, and by successire 
elections, held that important post for ten years. In 



1853, he was elected Governor of Tennessee, and 
was re-elected in 1855. In all these resjwnsible posi- 
tions, he discharged his duties with distinguished abf. 



ANDRE W JOHNSON. 



ity, and proved himself the warm friend of the work- 
ing classes. In 1857, Mr. Johnson was elected 
United States Senator. 

Years before, in 1845, he had warmly advocated 
the annexation of Texas, stating however, as his 
'reason, that he thought this annexation would prob- 
ably prove " to be the gateway out of which the sable 
sons of Africa are to pass from bondage to freedom, 
und become merged in a population congenial to 
themselves." In 1850, he also supported the com- 
promise measures, the two essential features of which 
ivere, that the white people of the Territories should 
oe permitted to decide for themselves whether they 
would enslave the colored people or not, and that 
the *ree States of the North should return to the 
South persons who attempted to escape from slavery. 

Mr. Johnson was never ashamed of his lowly origin: 
on the contrary, he often took pride in avowing that 
he owed his distinction to his own exertions. "Sir,"' 
said he on the floor of the Senate, "I do not forget 
that I am a mechanic ; neither do I forget that Adam 
was a tailor and sewed fig-leaves, and that our Sav- 
ior was the son of a carpenter." 

In the Charleston- Baltimore convention of i8uo, ne 
was the choice of the Tennessee Democrats for the 
^Presidency. In 1861, when the purpose of the South- 
ern Democracy became apparent, he took a decided 
stand in favor of the Union, and held that " slavery 
must be held subordinate to trie Union at whatever 
cost." He returned to Tennessee, and repeatedly 
imperiled his own life to protect the Unionists of 
Tennesee. Tennessee having seceded from the 
Union, President Lincoln, on March 4th, 1862, ap- 
pointed him Military Governor of the State, and he 
established the most stringent military rule. His 
numerous proclamations attracted wide attention. In 

1864, he was elected Vice-President of the United 
States, and upon the death of Mr. Lincoln, April 15, 

1865, became President. In a speech two days later 
he said, " The American people must be taught, if 
Zhey do not already feel, that treason is a crime and 
must be punished ; that the Government will not 
always beai with its enemies ; that it is strong not 
only to protect, but to punish. * * The people 
must understand that it (treason) is the blackest of 
crimes, and will surely be punished." Yet his whole 
administration, the history of which is so well known, 
was in utter inconsistency with, and the most violent 



op]>osition to. the principles laid down in that speech. 

In his loose policy of reconstruction and genera) 
amnesty, he was opposed by Congress; and he char- 
acterized Congress as a new rebellion, and Jawlessly 
defied it, in everything possible, to the utmost. In 
the beginning of 1868, on account of "high crimes 
and misdemeanors," the principal of which was the 
removal of Secretary Stanton, in violation of the Ten- 
ure of Office Act, articles of impeachment were pre- 
ferred against him, and the trial began March 23. 

It was very tedious, continuing for nearly three 
months. A test article of the impeachment was at 
length submitted to the court for its action. It was 
certain that as the court voted upon that article so 
would it vote upon all. Thirty -four voices pronounced 
the President guilty. As a two-thirds vote was neces- 
sary to his condemnation, he was pronounced ac- 
quitted, notwithstanding the great majority against 
him. The change of one vote from the not guilty 
side would have sustained the impeachment. 

The President, for the remainder of his term, was 
but little regarded. He continued, though impotent).--, 
his conflict with Congress. His own party did not 
think it expedient to renominate him for the Presi- 
dency. The Nation rallied, with enthusiasm unpar- 
alleled since the days of Washington, around the name 
of Gen. Grant. Andrew Johnson was forgotten. 
The bullet of the assassin introduced him to the 
President's chair. Notwithstanding this, never was 
there presented to a man a better opportunity to im- 
mortalize his name, and to win the gratitude of a 
nation. He failed utterly. He retired to his home 
in Greenville, Tenn., taking no very active part in 
politics until 1875. On Jan. 26, after an exciting 
struggle, he was chosen by the Legislature of Ten- 
nessee, United States Senator in the forty-fourth Con- 
gress, and took his seat in that body, at the special 
session convened by President Grant, on the sth of 
March. On the 27th of July, 1875, the ex-President 
made a visit to his daughter's home, near Carter 
Station, Tenn. When he started on his journey, he was 
apparently in his usual vigorous health, but on reach- 
ing the residence of his child the following day, was 
stricken with paralysis, rendering him unconscious. 
He rallied occasionally, but finally passed away at 
2 A.M., July 31, aged sixty-seven years. His fun- 
eral was attended at Geenville, on the 3d of August, 
with every demonstration of respect- 



EIGHTEENTH PRESIDENT. 





LYSSES S. GRANT, the 
eighteenth President of the 
'United States, was born on 
the 29th of April, 1822, of 
Christian parents, in a humble 
[T home, at Point Pleasant, on the 
banks of the Ohio. Shortly after 
his father moved to George- 
town, Brown Co., O. In this re- 
mote frontier hamlet, Ulysses 
received a common-school edu- 
cation. At the age of seven- 
teen, in the year 1839, he entered 
the Military Academy at West 
I Point. Here he was regarded as a 
solid, sensible young man of fair abilities, and of 
sturdy, honest character. He took respectable rank 
as a scholar. In June, 1843, he graduated, about the 
middle in his class, and was sent as lieutenant of in- 
fantry to one of the distant military posts in the Mis- 
souri Territory. Two years he past in these dreary 
solitudes, watching the vagabond and exasperating 
Indians. 

The war with Mexico came. Lieut. Grant was 
sent with his regiment to Corpus Christi. His first 
battle was at Palo Alto. There was no chance here 
for the exhibition of either skill or heroism, nor at 
Resacade la Palma, his second battle. At the battle 
of Monterey, his third engagement, it is said that 
ne performed a signal service of daring and skillful 
horsemanship. His brigade had exhausted its am- 
munition. A messenger must be sent for more, along 
a route exposed to the bullets of the foe. Lieut. 
Grant, adopting an expedient learned of the Indians, 
grasped the mane of his horse, and hanging upon one 
side of the anitAal, ran the gauntlet in entire safety. 



From Monterey he was sent, with the fourth infantry, 
to aid Gen. Scott, at the siege of Vera Cruz. In 
preparation for the march to the city of Mexico, he 
was appointed quartermaster of his regiment. At the 
battle of Molino del Rev, he was promoted to a 
first lieutenancy, and was brevetted captain at Cha- 
pultepec. 

At the close of the Mexican War, Capt. Grant re- 
turned with his regiment to New York, and was again 
sent to one of the military posts on the frontier. The 
discovery of gold in California causing an immense 
tide of emigration to flow to the Pacific shores, Capt. 
Grant was sent with a battalion to Fort Dallas, in 
Oregon, for the protection of the interests of the im- 
migrants. Life was wearisome in those wilds. Capt. 
Grant resigned his commission and returned to the 
States; and having married, entered upon the cultiva- 
tion of a small farm near St. Louis, Mo. He had but 
little skill as a farmer. Finding his toil not re- 
munerative, he turned to mercantile life, entering into 
the leather business, with a younger brother, at Ga- 
lena, IF!. This was in the year 1860. As the tidings 
of the rebels firing on Fort Sumpter reached the ears 
of Capt. Grant in his counting-room, he said, 
"Uncle Sam has educated me for the army: though 
I have served him through one war, I do not feet that 
I have yet repaid the debt. I am still ready to discharge 
my obligations. I shall therefore buckle on my tword 
and see Uncle Sam through this war too." 

He went into the streets, raised a cempany of vol- 
unteers, and led them as their captain to Springfield, 
the capital of the State, where their services were 
offered to Gov. Yates. The Governor, impressed by 
the zeal and straightforward executive ability of Capt. 
Grant, gave him a desk in his office, to assist in the . 
volunteer organization that was being formed in the 
State in behalf of the Government. On the i% >v> of 



88 



"V2 YSSES'S. "GRANT. 



June, 1861, Capt. Grant received a commission as 
Colonel of the Twenty-first Regiment of Illinois Vol- 
unteers. His merits as a West Point graduate, who 
had served for 15 years in the regular army, were such 
that he was soon promoted to the rank of Brigadier- 
fGeneral and was placed in command at Cairo. The 
(rebels raised their banner at Paducah, near the mouth 
of the Tennessee River.- Scarcely had its folds ap- 
peared in the breeze ere Gen. Grant was there. The 
rebels fled. Their banner fell, and the star and 
stripes were unfurled in its stead. 

He entered the service with great determination 
and immediately began active duty. This was the be- 
ginning, and until the surrender of Lee at Richmond 
he was ever pushing the enemy with great vigor and 
effectiveness. At Belmont, a few days later, he sur- 
prised and routed the rebels, then at port Henry 
won another victory. Then came the brilliant fight 
at Fort Donelson. The nation was electrified by the 
victory, and the brave leader of the boys in blue was 
immediately made a Major-General, and the military 
Jistrict of Tennessee was assigned to him. 

Like all great captains, Gen. Grant knew well how 
to secure the results of victory. He immediately 
pushed on to the enemies' lines. Then came the 
terrible battles of Pittsburg Landing, Corinth, and the 
siege of Vicksburg, where Gen. Pemberton made an 
unconditional surrender of the city with over thirty 
thousand men and one-hundred and seventy-two can- 
non. The fall of Vicksburg was by far the most 
severe blow which the rebels had thus far encountered, 
and opened up the Mississippi from Cairo to the Gulf. 

Gen. Grant was next ordered to co-operate with 
Gen. Banks in a movement upon Texas, and pro- 
ceeded to New Orleans, where he was thrown from 
his horse, and received severe injuries, from which he 
was laid up for months. He then rushed to the aid 
of Gens. Rosecrans and Thomas at Chattanooga, and 
by a wonderful series of strategic and technical meas- 
ures put the Union Army in fighting condition. Then 
followed the bloody battles at Chattanooga, Lookout 
Mountain and Missionary Ridge, in which the rebels 
were routed with great loss. This won for him un- 
bounded praise in the North. On the 4th of Febru- 
ary, 1864, Congress revived the grade of lieutenant- 
general, and the rank was conferred on Gen. Grant. 
He repaired to Washington to receive his credentials 
and enter upon tb. duties of his new office 



Gen. Grant decided as soon as he took charge of 
the army to concentrate the widely-dispersed National 
troops for an attack upon Richmond, the nominal 
capital of the Rebellion, and endeavor there to de- 
stroy the rebel armies which would be promptly as- 
sembled from all quarters for its defence. The whole 
continent seemed to tremble under the tramp of these 
majestic armies, rushing to the decisive battle field. 
Steamers were crowded with troops. ' Railway trains 
were burdened with closely packed thousands. His 
plans were comprehensive and involved a series of 
campaigns, which were executed with remarkable en- 
ergy and ability, and were consummated at the sur- 
render of Lee, April 9, 1865. 

The war was ended. The Union was saved. The 
almost unanimous voice of the Nation declared Gen. 
Grant to be the most prominent instrument in its sal. 
vation. The eminent services he had thus rendered 
the country brought him conspicuously forward as the 
Republican candidate for the Presidential chair. 

At the Republican Convention held at Chicago. 
May 21, 1868, he was unanimously nominated for the 
Presidency, and at the autumn election received a 
majority of the popular vote, and 214 out of 294 
electoral votes. 

The National Convention of the Republican party 
which met at Philadelphia on the 5th of June, 1872, 
placed Gen. Grant in nomination for a second term 
by a unanimous vote. The selection was emphati- 
cally indorsed by the people five months later, 292 
electoral votes being cast for him. 

Soon after the close of his second term, Gen. Grant 
started upon his famous trip around the world. He 
visited almost every country of the civilized world, 
and was everywhere received with such ovations 
and demonstrations of respect and honor, private 
as well as public and official, as were never before 
bestowed upon any citizen of the United States. 

He was the most prominent candidate before the 
Republican National Convention in 1880 for a re- 
nomination for President. He went to New York and 
embarked in the brokerage business under the firm 
nameof Grant & Ward. The latter proved a villain, 
wrecked Grant's fortune, and for larceny was sent to 
the penitentiary. The General was attacked with 
cancer in the throat, but suffered in his stoic-like 
manner, never complaining. He was re-instated as 
General of the Army and retired by Congress. The 
cancer soon finished its deadly work, and July 23, 
1885, the nation went in mourning over the death of 
the illustrious General. 




& 



-~\ C- 




NINETEENTH PRESIDENT. 



9 





UTHERFORD B. HAYES, 
the nineteenth President of 
the United States, was born in 
Delaware, O., Oct. 4, 1822, al- 
most three months after the 
death of his father, Rutherford 
Hayes. His ancestry on both 
the paternal and maternal sides, 
was of the most honorable char- 
acter. It can be traced, it is said, 
as far back as 1280, when Hayes and 
Rutherford were two Scottish chief- 
tains, fighting side by side with 
Baliol, William Wallace and Robert 
Bruce. Both families belonged to the 
nobility, owned extensive estates, 
and had a large following. Misfor- 
tune ovtrraking the family, George Hayes left Scot- 
land in 1 680, and settled in Windsor, Conn. His son 
George was; born in Windsor, and remained there 
during his life. Daniel Hayes, son of the latter, mar- 
ried Sarah Lee, and lived from the time of his mar- 
riage until his death in Simsbury, Conn. Ezekiel, 
son of Daniel, was born in 1724, and was a manufac- 
turer of scythes at Bradford, Conn. Rutherford Hayes, 
son of Ezekiel ai/d grandfather of President Hayes, was 
born in New Haven, in August, 1756. He was a farmer, 
blacksmith and tavern-keeper. He emigrated to 
Vermont at an unknown date, settling in Brattleboro, 
where he established a hotel. Here his son Ruth- 
erford Hayes the father of President Hayes, was 



born. He was married, in September, 1813, to Sophia 
Birchard, of Wilmington, Vt., whose ancestors emi- 
grated thither from Connecticut, they having been 
among the wealthiest and best famlies of Norwich. 
Her ancestry on the male side are traced back to 
1635, to John Birchard, one of the principal founders 
of Norwich. Both of her grandfathers were soldiers 
in the Revolutionary War. 

The father of President Hayes was an industrious 
frugal and opened-hearted man. He was of a me- 
chanical turn, and could mend a plow, knit a stock- 
ing, or do almost anything else that he choose to 
undertake. He was a member of the Church, active 
in all the benevolent enterprises of the town, and con- 
ducted his business on Christian principles. After 
the close of the war of 1812, for reasons inexplicable 
to his neighbors, he resolved to emigrate to Ohio. 

The journey from Vermont to Ohio in that day 
when there were no canals, steamers, nor railways, 
was a very serious affair. A tour of inspection was 
first made, occupying four months. Mr. Hayes deter 
mined to move' to Delaware, where the family arrived 
in 1817. He died July 22, 1822, a victim of malarial 
fever, less than three months before the birth of the 
son, of whom we now write. Mrs. Hayes, in her sore be- 
reavement, found the support she so much needed in 
her brother Sardis, who had been a member of the 
household from the day of its departure from Ver- 
mont, and in an orphan girl whom she had adopted 
some time before as an act of charity. 

Mrs. Hayes at this period was very weak, and the 



RUTHERFORD B. HAYES. 



subject of this sketch was so feeble at birth that he 
ivas not expected to live beyond a month or two at 
most. As the months went by he grew weaker and 
weaker, so that the neighbors were in the habit of in- 
quiring from time to time " if Mrs. Hayes' baby died 
iast night. ' On one occasion a neighbor, who was on 
familiar terras with the family, after alluding to the 
boy's big head, and the mother's assiduous care of 
*iim, said in a bantering way, " That's right! Stick to 
him. You have got him along so far, and I shouldn't 
\vonder if he would really come to something yet." 

" You need not laugh," said Mrs. Hayes. " You 
'vait and see. You can't tell but I shall make him 
President of the United States yet." The boy lived, 
in spite of the universal predictions of his speedy 
death; and when, in 1825, his older brother was 
drowned, he became, if possible, still dearer to his 
mother. 

The boy was seven years old before he went to 
school. His education, however, was not neglected. 
He probably learned as much from his mother and 
sister as he would have done at school. His sports 
were almost wholly within doors, his playmates being 
his sister and her associates. These circumstances 
tended, no doubt, to foster that gentleness of dispo- 
sition, and that delicate consideration for the feelings 
of others, which are marked traits of his character. 

His uncle Sardis Birchard took the deepest interest 
,in his education ; and as the boy's health had im- 
proved, and he was making good progress in his 
studies, he proposed to send him to college. His pre- 
paration commenced with a tutor at home; but he 
was afterwards sent for one year to a professor in the 
Wesleyan University, in Middletown, Conn. He en- 
tered Kenyon College in 1838, at the age of sixteen, 
and was graduated at the head of his class in 1842. 

Immediately after his graduation he began the 
study of law in the office of Thomas Sparrow, Esq., 
in Columbus. Finding his opportunities for study in 
Columbus somewhat limited, he determined to enter 
the Law School at Cambridge, Mass., where he re- 
mained two years. 

In 1845, after graduating at the Law School, he was 
admitted to the bar at Marietta, Ohio, n.nd shortly 
afterward went into practice as an attorn ey-at-law 
with Ralph P. Buckland, of Fremont. Here he re- 
mained three years, acquiring but a limited practice, 
and apparently unambitious of distinction in his pro- 
Cession. 

^n 1849 he moved to Cincinnati, where his ambi- 
tion found a new stimulus. For several years, how- 
ever, his progress was slow. Two events, occurring at 
this period, had a powerful influence upon his subse- 
quent '. - ,fe. One of these was his marrage with Miss 
Lucy Ware Webb, daughter of Dr. James Webb, of 
Chilicothe; the other was his introduction to the Cin- 
cinnati Literary Club, a body embracing among its 
luunbers such men as '"'hief Justice Salmon_P Ji Chase l 



Gen. John Pope, Gov. Edward F. Noyes, and many 
others hardly less distinguished in after life. The 
marriage was a fortunate one in every respect, as 
everybody knows. Not one of all the wives of our 
Presidents was more universally admired, reverenced 
and beloved than was Mrs. Hayes, and no one did 
more than she to reflect honor upon American woman 
hood. The Literary QUD brought Mr. Hayes into 
constant association with young men of high char- 
acter and noble aims, and lured him to display the 
qualities so long hidden by his bashfulne;s and 
modesty. 

In 1856 he was nominated to the office of Judgj of 
the Court of Common Pleas ; but he declined to ac. 
cept the nomination. Two years later, the office ot 
city solicitor becoming vacant, the City Co-: net 
elected him for the unexpired term. 

In 1861, when the Rebellion broke out, he was a!' 
the zenith of his professional lif.. His lank at the 
bar was among the the first. But the news of the 
attack on Fort Sumpter found him eager to take uo 
arms for the defense of his country. 

His military record was bright and illustrious. In 
October, 1861, he was made Lieutenant-Colonel, and 
in August, 1862, promoted Colonel of the 791)1 Ohio 
regiment, but he refused to leave his old comrades 
and go among strangers. Subsequently, however, he 
was made Colonel of his old regiment. At the battle 
of South Mountain he received a wound, and while 
faint and bleeding displayed courage and fortitude 
that won admiration from all. 

Col. Hayes was detached from his regiment, after 
his recovery, to act as Brigadier-General, and placed 
in command of the celebrated Kanawha division, 
and for gallant and meritorious services in the battles 
of Winchester, Fisher's Hill and Cedar Creek, he was 
promoted Brigadier-General. He was also brevet'ed 
Major-General, "forgallant and distinguished ttrvices 
during the campaigns of 1864, in West Virginia." In 
the course of his arduous services, four horses were 
shot from under him, and he was wounded four times 

In 1864, Gen. Hayes was elected to Congress, frcjn 
the Second Ohio District, which had long been Dem- 
ocratic. He was not present during the campaign, 
and after his election was importuned to resign his 
commission in the army ; but he finally declared, ' : I 
shall never come to Washington until I can come 1 y 
the way of Richmond." He was re-elected in 1866. 

In 1867, Gen Hayes was elected Governorof Ohio, 
over Hon. Allen G. Thurman, a popular Democrat. 
In 1869 was re-eieoted over George H. Pendleton. 
He was elected Governor for the third term in 1875. 

in 1876 he was the standard beuier of the Repub- 
lican Party in the Presidential contest, and after n 
hard long contest was chosen President, and was i;: 
augurated Monday, March 5, 1875. He served his 
full term, not, hcwever, with satisfaction tn h!s party, 
but his administration was an average or- : 



TWENTIETH PRESIDENT. 



IB 





AMES A. GARFIELD, twen- 
tieth President of the United 
States, was born Nov. 19, 
1831, in the woods of Orange, 
Cuyahoga Co., O His par- 
ents were Abram and Eliza 
(Ballou) Garfield, both of New 
England ancestry and from fami- 
lies well known in the early his- 
tory of that section of our coun- 
try, but had moved to the Western 
Reserve, in Ohio, early in its settle- 
ment. 

The house in which James A. was 
born was not unlike the houses of 
| poor Ohio farmers of that day. It 
, .:c about 20 x 30 feet, built of logs, with the spaces be- 
.'./sen the logs filled with clay. His father was a 
.iard working farmer, and he soon had his fields 
cleared, an orchard planted, and a log barn built. 
The household comprised the father and mother and 
:heir four children Mehetabel, Thomas, Mary and 
"ames. In May, 1823, the father, from a cold con- 
. /acted in helping to put out a forest fire, died. At 
iliis time James was about eighteen months old, and 
riiomas about ten years old. No one, perhaps, can 
i'fll how much James was indebted to his biother's 
toil and self-sacrifice during the twenty years suc- 
ceeding his father's death, but undoubtedly very 
much. He now lives in Michigan, and the two sis- 
itis live in Solon, O.,near their birthplace. 

The early educational advantages young Garfield 
enjoyed were very limited, yet he made the most of 
mem. Ho labored at farm work for others, did car- 
penter work, chopped wood, or uid anything that 
would bring in a few dollars to aid his widowed 
in lie"- ^t^nles to keep the little fanily to- 



gether. Nor was Gen. Garfield ever ashamed of his 
origin, and he never forgot the friends of his Strug- 
gling childhood, youth and manhood, neither did they 
ever forget him. When in the highest seats of honor 
the humblest friend of his boyhood was as kindly 
greeted as ever. The poorest laborer was sure of the 
sympathy of one who had known all the bitterness 
of want and the sweetness of bread earned by the 
sweat of the brow. He was ever the simple, plain, 
modest gentleman. 

The highest ambition of young Garfield until hi 
was about sixteen years old was to be a captain of 
a vessel on Lake Erie. He was anxious to go aboard 
a vessel, which his mother strongly opposed. She 
finally consented to his going to Cleveland, with the 
understanding, however, that he should try to obtair 
some other kind of employment. He walked all the 
way to Cleveland. This was his first visit to the city 
Afier making many applications for work, and trying 
to get aboard a lake vessel, and not meeting with 
success, he engaged as a driver for his cousin, Amos 
Letcher, on the Ohio & Pennsylvania Canal. He re- 
mained at this work but a short time when he wen'; 
home, and attended the seminary at Chester for 
about three years, when he entered Hiram and the 
Eclectic Institute, teaching a few terms of school in 
the meantime, and doing other work. This school 
was started by the Disciples of Christ in 1850, of 
which church he was then a member. He became 
janitor and bell-ringer in order to help pay his way 
He then became both teacher and pupil. He soon 
" exhausted Hiram " and needed more ; hence, in the 
fall of 1854, he entered Williams College, from which 
he graduated in 1856, taking one of the highest rum- 
ors of his class. He afterwards returned to Hiram 
College as its President. As above stated, he early 
united wilh the Christian or Diciples Church at 
Hiram, and was ever after a devoted, zealous mem- 
ber, often preaching in its pulpit and places where 
he happened to be. Dr. Noah Porter, President of 
Yale College, says cf him in reference to his religion: 



JAMES A. GARFIELD. 



" President Garfield was more than a man of 
strong moral and religious convictions. His whole 
history, from boyhood to the last, shows that duty to 
man and to God, and devotion to Christ and life and 
faith and spiritual commission were controlling springs 
of his being, and to a more than usual degree. In 
my judgment there is no more interesting feature of 
his character than his loyal allegiance to the body of 
Christians in which he was trained, and the fervent 
sympathy which he ever showed in their Christian 
communion. Not many of the few 'wise and mighty 
and noble who are called ' show a similar loyalty to 
the less stately and cultured Christian communions 
in which they have been reared. Too often it is true 
that as they step upward in social and political sig- 
nificance they step upward from one degree to 
another in some of the many types of fashionable 
Christianity. President Garfield adhered to the 
church of his mother, the church in which he was 
trained, and in which he served as a pillar and an 
evangelist, and yet with the largest and most unsec- 
Urian charity for all 'who loveour Lord in sincerity.'" 

Mr. Garfield was united in marriage with Miss 
Lucretia Rudolph, Nov. n, 1858, who proved herself 
worthy as the wife of one whom all the world loved and 
mourned. To them were born seven children, five of 
whom are still living, four boys and one girl. 

Mr. Garfield made his first political speeches in 1 85 6, 
in Hiram and the neighboring villages, and three 
years later he began to speak at county mass-meet- 
ings, and became the favorite speaker wherever he 
was. During this year he was elected to the Ohio 
Senate. He also began to study law at Cleveland, 
and in 1861 was admitted to the bar. The great 
Rebellion broke out in the early part of this year, 
and Mr. Garfield at once resolved to fight as he had 
talked, and enlisted to defend the old flag. He re- 
ceived his commission as Lieut.-Colonel of the Forty- 
second Regiment of Ohio Volunteer Infantry, Aug. 
14, 1861. He was immediately put into active ser- 
vice, and before he had ever seen a gun fired in action, 
was placed in command of four regiments of infantry 
and eight companies of cavalry, charged with the 
work of driving out of his native State the officer 
'Humphrey Marshall) reputed to be the ablest of 
those, not educated to war whom Kentucky had given 
to the Rebellion. This work was bravely and speed- 
ily accomplished, although against great odds. Pres- 
ident Lincoln, on his success commissioned him 
Brigadier-General, Jan. 10, 1862; and as "he had 
been the youngest man in the Ohio Senate two years 
before, so now he was the youngest General in the 
army." He was with Gen. Buell's army at Shiloh, 
in its operations around Corinth and its march through 
Alabama. He was then detailed as a member of the 
General Court-Martial for the trial of Gen. Fitz-John 
Porter. He was then ordered to report to Gen. Rose-' 
crans, and was assigned to the "Chief of Staff." 

The military Ustory of Gen. Garfield closed with 



his brilliant services at Chickamauga, where he won 
the stars of the Major-General. 

Without an effort on his part Ge? Garfield was 
elected to Congress in the fall of 1862 from the 
Nineteenth District of Ohio. This section of Ohio 
had been represented in Congress for sixty year* 
mainly by two men Elisha Whittlesey and Joshui, 
R. Giddings. It was not without a struggle that he 
resigned his place in the army. At the time he en- 
tered Congress he was the youngest member in that 
body. There he remained by successive re- 
elections until he was elected President in 1880. 
Of his labors in Congress Senator Hoar says : " Since 
the year 1864 you cannot think of a question which 
has been debated in Congress, or discussed before a 
tribunel of the American people, in regard to which 
you will not find, if you wish instruction, the argu. 
ment on one side stated, in almost every instance 
better than by anybody else, in some speech made in 
the House of Representatives or on the hustings by 
Mr. Garfield." 

Upon Jan. 14, 1880, Gen. Garfield was elected to 
the U. S. Senate, and on the eighth of June, of the 
same year, was nominated as the candidate of his 
party for President at the great Chicago Convention. 
He was elected in the following November, and on 
March 4, 1881, was inaugurated. Probably no ad- 
ministration ever opened its existence under brighter 
auspices than that of President Garfield, and every 
day it grew in favor with the people, and by the first 
of July he had completed all the initiatory and pre- 
liminary work of his administration and was prepar- 
ing to leave the city to meet his friends at Williams 
College. While on his way and at the depot, in com- 
pany with Secretary Elaine, a man stepped behind 
him, drew a revolver, and fired directly at his back. 
The President tottered and fell, and as he did so the 
assassin fired a second shot, the bullet cutting the 
left coat sleeve of his victim, but inflicting no farther 
injury. It has been very truthfully said that this was 
" the shot that was heard round the world " Never 
before in the history of the Nation had anything oc- 
curred which so nearly froze the blood of the people 
for the moment, as this awful deed. He was smit- 
ten on the brightest, gladdest day of all his life, and 
was at the summit of his power and hope. For eighty 
days, all during the hot months of July and August, 
he lingered and suffered. He, however, remained 
master of himself till the last, and by his magnificent 
bearing was teaching the country and the world the 
noblest of human lessons how to live grandly in the 
very clutch of death. Great in life, he was surpass- 
ingly great in death. He passed serenely away Sept. 
19, 1883, at Elheron, N. J., on the very bank of the 
ocean, where he had been taken shortly previous. The 
woiid wept at his death, as it never had done on the 
death of any other man who had ever lived upon it. 
The murderer was duly tried, found guilty and exe- 
cuted, in one year after he committed the fou: deed. 



TWENTY-FIRST PRESIDENT. 





HESTER A. ARTHUR, 
twenty-first Presi^m of the 
United States was born in 
Franklin Courty, Vermont, on 
thefifthofOc'ober, 1830, and is 
the oldest of a family of two 
sons and five daughters. His 
father was the Rev. Dr. William 
Arthur, a Baptist cJ'^rgyman, who 
emigrated to tb'.s country from 
the county Antnm, Ireland, in 
his i8th year, and died in 1875, in 
Newtonville, neai Albany, after a 
long and successful ministry. 

Young Arthur was educated at 
Union College, S< henectady, where 
he excelled in all his studies. Af- 
ter his graduation he taught school 
F| in Vermont for two years, and at 
the expiration of that time came to 
New York, with $500 in his pocket, 
and catered the office of ex-Judge 
E. D. Culver as student. After 
I being admitted to the bar he formed 
a partnership with his intimate friend and room-mate, 
Henry D. Gardiner, with the intention of practicing 
in the West, and for three months they roamed about 
in the Western States in search of an eligible site, 
but in the end returned to New York, where they 
hung out their shingle, and entered upon a success^ 
ful career almost from the start. General Arthur 
soon afterward ruwrrVd the daughter of Lieutenant 



Herndon, of the United States Navy, who was lost at 
sea. Congress voted a gold medal to his widow in 
recognition of the bravery he displayed on that occa- 
sion. Mrs. Arthur died shortly 'before Mr. Arthur's 
nomination to the Vice Presidency, leaving two 
children. 

Gen. Arthur obtained considerable legal celebrity 
in his first great case, the famous Lemmon suit, 
brought to recover possession of eight slaves who had 
been declared free by Judge Paine, of the Superior 
Court of New York City. It was in 1852 that Jon. 
athan Lemmon, of Virginia, went to New York with 
his slaves, intending to ship them to Texas, when 
they were discovered and freed. The Judge decided 
that they could not be held by the owner under the 
Fugitive Slave Law. A howl of rage went up from 
the South, and the Virginia Legislature authorized the 
Attorney General of that State to assist in an appeal. 
Wm. M. Evarts and Chester A. Arthur were employed 
to represent the People, and they won their case, 
which then went to the Supreme Court of the United 
States. Charles O'Conor here espoused the cause 
of the slave-holders, but he too was beaten by Messrs 
Evarts and Arthur, and a long step was taken toward 
the emancipation of the black race. 

Another great service was rendered by General 
Arthur in the same cause hi 1856. Lizzie Jennings, 
a respectable colored woman, was put off a Fourth 
Avenue car with violence after she had paid her fare. 
General Arthur sued on her behalf, and secured a 
verdict of $500 damages. The next day the compa- 
ny issued an order to admit colored persons to ride 
on their cars, and the other car companies quickly 



too 



CHESTER A. ARTHUR. 



followed their example. Before that the Sixth Ave- 
nue Company ran a few special cars for colored per- 
sons and the other lines refused to let them ride at all. 

General Arthur was a delegate to the Convention 
at Saratoga that founded the Republican party. 
Previous to the war he was Judge- Advocate of the 
Second Brigade of the State of New York, and Gov- 
ernor Morgan, of that State, appointed him Engineer- 
in-Chief of his staff. In 1861, he was made Inspec- 
tor General, and soon afterward became Quartermas- 
ter-General. In each of these offices he rendered 
great service to the Government during the war. At 
the end of Governor Morgan's term he resumed the 
practice of the law, forming a partnership with Mr. 
Ransom, and then Mr. Phelps, the District Attorney 
of New York, was added to the firm. The legal prac- 
tice of this well-known firm was very large and lucra- 
tive, each of the gentlemen composing it were able 
lawyers, and possessed a splendid local reputation, if 
not indeed one of national extent. 

He always took a leading part in State and city 
politics. He was appointed Collector of the Port of 
New York by President Grant, Nov. 21 1872, to suc- 
ceed Thomas Murphy, and held the office until July, 
20, 1878, when he was succeeded by Collector Merritt. 

Mr. Arthur was nominated on the Presidential 
ticket, with Gen. James A. Garfield, at the famous 
National Republican Convention held at Chicago in 
June, 1880. This was perhaps the greatest political 
convention that ever assembled on the continent. It 
was composed of the fading politicians of the Re- 
publican party, all able men, and each stood firm and 
fought vigorously and with signal tenacity for their 
respective candidates that were before the conven- 
tion for the nomination. Finallv Gen. Garfield re- 
ceived the nomination for President and Gen. Arthur 
for Vice-President. The campaign which followed 
was one of the most animated known in the history of 
our country. Gen. Hancock, the standard-bearer of 
the Democratic party, was a popular man, and his 
party made a valiant fight for his election. 

Finally the election came and the country's choice 
>vas Garfield and Arthur. They were inaugurated 
tvfarch 4, 1881, as President and Vice-President. 
A. few mouths only had passed ere the newly chosen 
President was the victim of the assassin's bullet. Then 
came terrible weeks of suffering, thost. moments of 
anxious suspense, when the hearts of all civilized na- 



tions were throbbing in unison, longing for the re 
covery of the noble, the good President. The remark- 
able patience that he manifested during those hours 
and weeks, and even months, of the most terrible suf- 
fering man has often been called upon to endure, was 
seemingly more than human. It was certainly God- 
like. During all this period of deepest anxiety Mr, 
Arthur's every move was watched, and be it said to hi 
credit that his every action displayed only an earnest 
desire that the suffering Garfield might recover, to 
serve the remainder of the term he had so auspi- 
ciously begun. Not a selfish feeling was manifested 
in deed or look of this man, even though the most 
honored position in the world was at any moment 
likely to fall to him. 

At last God in his mercy relieved President Gar- 
field from further suffering, and the world, as nevei 
before in its history over the death of any othei 
man, wept at his bier. Then it became the duty o/ 
the Vice President to assume the responsibilities ol 
the high office, and he took the oath in New York. 
Sept. 20, 1881. The position was an embarrassing 
one to him, made doubly so from the facts that all 
eyes were, on him, anxious to know what he would do, 
what policy he would pursue, and who he would se- 
lect as advisers. The duties of the office had been 
greatly neglected during the President's long illness, 
and many important measures were to be immediately 
decided by him ; and still farther to embarrass him he 
did not fail to realize under what circumstances he j 
became President, and knew the feelings of many on j 
this point. Under these trying circumstances President 
Arthur took the reins of the Government in his ow,. 
hands; and, as embarrassing as were the condition o-f I 
affair.-- he happily surprised the nation, acting s., 
wisely hat but few cridcisea Vis administration. ; 
He served the nation well and faithfully, until the 
close of his administration, March 4, 1885. and was 3 
a popular candidate before his party for a second ; 
term. His name was ably presented before the con- ( 
vent ion at Chicago, and was received with great 
favor, and doubtless but for the personal popularity 
of one of the opposing candidates, he would have 
been selected as the standard-bearer of his party 
for another campaign. He retired to private life car- 
rying with him the best wishes of the American peo- 
ple, whom he had served in a manner satisfactory 
to them and with credit to himself. 




. 
' 



TWENTY-SECOND PRESIDENT. 





TEPHEN GROVER CLEVE- 
LAND, the twenty- second Pres- 
ident of the United States, was 
born in 1837, in the obscure 
town of Caldwell, Essex Co., 
N. ]., and in a little two-and-a- 
half-story white house which is still 
standing, characteristically to mark 
the humble birth-place of one of 
America's great men in striking con 
trast with the Old World, where all 
men high in office must be high in 
origin and born in the cradle of 
wealth. When the subject of this 
sketch was three years of age, his 
father, who was a Presbyterian min- 
ister, with a large family and a small salary, moved, 
by way of the Hudson River and Erie Canal, to 
Fayetteville, in search of an increased income and a 
larger field of work. Fayetteville was then the most 
straggling of country villages, about five miles from 
Pompey Hill, where Governor Seymour was born. 

At the last mentioned place young Graver com- 
menced going to school in the "good, old-fashioned 
way." and presumably distinguished himself after the 
manner of all village boys, in doing the things he 
ought not to do. Such is the distinguishing trait of 
all geniuses and independent thinkers. When he 
arrived at the age of 14 years, he had outgrown, the 
capacity of the village school and expressed a most 



emphatic desire to be sent to an academy. To thia 
his father decidedly objected. Academies in those 
days cost money; besides, his father wanted him to 
become self-supporting by the quickest possible 
means, and this at that time in Fayetteyille seemed 
to be a position in a country store, where his father 
and the large family on his hands had considerable 
infLience. Grover was to be paid $50 for his services 
the first year, and if he proved trustworthy he was to 
receive $too the second year. Here the lad com- 
menced his career as salesman, and in two years he 
had earned so good a reputation for trustworthiness 
that his employers desired to retain him for an in. 
definite length of time. Otherwise he did not ex- 
hibit as yet any particular " flashes of genius " or 
eccentricities of talent. He was simply a good boy. 
But instead of remaining with this firm in Fayette- 
ville, he went with the family in their removal to 
Clinton, where he had an opportunity of attending a 
high school. Here he industriously pursued his 
studies until the family removed with him to a point 
on Black River known as the " Holland Patent," a 
village of 500 or 600 people, 15 miles north of Utica, 
N. Y. At this place his father died, after preaching 
but three Sundays. This event broke up the family, 
and Grover set out for New York City to accept, at a 
small salary, the position of " under-teacher " in an 
asylum for the blind. He taught faithfully for two 
years, and although he obtained a good reputation in 
this capacity, he concluded that teaching was not his 



104 



S. GROfER CLXVRLAND. 



calling for life, and, reversing the tradition*! order, 
he left the city to seek his fortune, instead of going 
to a city. He first thought of Cleveland, Ohio, as 
th^re was some charm in that name for him ; but 
before proceeding to that place he went to Buffalo to 
tsk the advice of his uncle, Lewis F. Allan, a noted 
stock-breeder of that place. The latter did not 
speak enthusiastically. " What is it you want to do, 
my boy?" he asked. "Well, sir, I want to study 
law," was the reply. " Good gracious ! " remarked 
ih old gentleman ; " do you, indeed ? What ever put 
that into your head? How much money have you 
got?" "Well, sir, to tell the truth, I haven't got 
any." 

After a long consultation, his uncle offered him a 
place temporarily as assistant herd-keeper, at $50 a 
year, while he could "look around." One day soon 
afterward he boldly walked into the office of Rogers, 
Bowen & Rogers, of Buffalo, and told Ihem what he 
wanted. A number of young men were already en- 
gaged in the office, but Gro'ver's persistency won, and 
he was finally permitted to come as an office boy and 
nave the use of the law library, for the nominal sum 
of $3 or $4 a week. Out of this he had to pay for 
his board and washing. The walk to and from his 
(uncle's was a long and rugged one; and, although 
the first winter was a memorably severe one, his 
shoes were out of repair and his overcoat he had 
none yet he was nevertheless prompt and regular. 
On the first day of his service here, his senior em- 
ployer threw down a copy of Blackstone before him 
with a bang that made the dust fly, saying "That's 
where they all begin." A titter ran around the little 
circle of clerks and students, as they thought that 
was enough to scare young Grover out of his plans ; 
but in due time he mastered that cumbersome volume. 
Then, as ever afterward, however, Mr. Cleveland 
exhibited a talent for executiveness rather than for 
chasing principles through all their metaphysical 
possibilities. " Let us quit talking and go and do 
it," was practically his motto. 

The first public office to which Mr. Cleveland was 
eiected was that of Sheriff of Erie Co., N. Y., in 
which Buffalo is situated; and in such capacity it fell 
to his duty to inflict capital piT.ishment upon two 
criminals. In 1881 he was elected Mayor of the 
City of Buffalo, on the Democratic ticket, with es- 
pecial reference to the bringing about certain reforms 



in the administration of the municipal affairs of that 
city. In this office, as well as that of Sheriff, his 
performance of duty has generally been considered 
fair, with possibly a few exceptions which were fer- 
reted out and magnified during the last Presidential 
campaign. As a specimen of his plain language in 
a veto message, we quote fiom one vetoing an iniqui. 
tous street-cleaning contract: "This is a time fox i 
plain speech, and my objection to your action shall 
be plainly stated. I regard it as the culmination of 
a mos bare-faced, impudent and shameless scheme 
to betray the interests of the people and to worse 
than squander the people's money." The New York 
Sun afterward very highly commended Mr. Cleve- * 
land's administration as Mayor of Buffalo, and there- j 
upon recommended him for Governor of the Empire i 
State. To the latter office he was elected in 1882, i 
and his administration of the affairs of State was j 
generally satisfactory. The mistakes he made, if I 
any, were made very public throughout the nation 
after he was nominated for President of the United . 
States. For this high office he was nominated July j 
n, 1884, by the National Democratic Convention at 
Chicago, when other competitors were Thomas F. I 
Bayard, Roswell P. Flower, Thomas A. Hendricks, 
Benjamin F. Butler, Allen G. Thurman, etc.; and he 
was elected by the people, by a majority of about a I 
thousand, over the brilliant and long-tried Repub- 
lican statesman, James G. Blaine. President Cleve- 
land resigned his office as Governor of New York in 
January, 1885, in order to prepare for his duties as I 
the Chief Executive of ihe United States, in which 
capacity his term commenced at noon on the 4th of , 
March, 1885. 

The silver question precipitated a controversy 
between those who were in favor of the continu- j 
ance of silver coinage and those who were opposed, 
Mr. Cleveland answering for the latter, even before 
his inauguration. 

On June 2, 1886, President Cleveland married 
Frances, daughter of his deceased friend and 
partner, Oscar Folsom, of the Buffalo Bar. Their 
union has been blessed by the birth of one daugh- 
ter, Ruth. In the campaign of 1888, President 
Cleveland was renominated by his party, but the 
Republican candidate, Gen. Benjamin Harrison, 
was victorious. In the nominations of 1892 these 
two candidates for the highest position in the gift 
of the people were again pitted against each other 
and President Cleveland was victorious by an 
overwhelming majority. 




4fe^/ 

/? 



TWENTY-THIRD PRESIDENT. 





ENJAMIN HARRISON, the 

twenty-third President, is 
the descendant of one of the 
historical families of this 
country. The head of the 
family was a Major General 
Harrison, one of Oliver 
Cromwell's trusted follow- 
ers and fighters. In the zenith of Crom- 
well's power it became the duty of this 
Harrison to participate in the trial of 
Charles I, and afterward tc sign the 
death warrant of the king. He subse- 
quently paid for this with his life, being 
hung Oct. 13, 1660. His descendants 
came to America, and the next of the 
family that appears in history is Benja- 
rcin Harrison, of Virginia, great-grand- 
father of the subject of this sketch, and 
after whom he was named. Benjamin Harrison 
y&s a member of the Continental Congress during 
the years 1774-5-6, and was one of the original 
signers of the Declaration of Independence. He 
w* three times elected Governor of Virginia, 
Gen William Henry Harrison, the son of the 



distinguished patriot of the Revolution, after a suo. 
cessful career as a soldier during the War of 1812, 
and with-a clean record as Governor of the North- 
western Territory, was elected President of the 
United States in 1840. His Darcer was cut short 
by death within one month :;f!er las inruguration. 
President Harrison VK born PJ ^oci Bend, 
Hamilton Co., Ohio, Aug. TO, 1883, His life up to 
the time of his graduation by the Miami University, 
at Oxford, Ohio, was the uneventful one of a coun- 
try lad of a family of small means. His father was 
able to give him a good education, and nothing 
more. He became engaged while at college to tha 
daughter of Dr. Scott, Principal of a female schoa 
at Oxford. After graduating he determined to en> 
ter upon the study of the law. He went to Cin 
cinnati and then read law for two years. At the 
expiration of that time young Harrison received the 
only inheritance of his life ; his aunt dying left him 
a lot valued at $800. He regarded this legacy as n 
fortune, and decided to get married at once, 'afce 
this money and go to some Eastern town an * be- 
gin the practice of law. He sold his lot, and with 
the money in his pocket, he started out witn hi 
young wife to fight for a place in the world- Ha 



108 



BENJAMIN HARRISON^ 



decided to go to Indianapolis, which was even at 
that time a town of promise. He met with slight 
encouragement at first, making scarcely anything 
the first year. He worked diligently, applying him- 
self closely to his calling, built up an extensive 
practice and took a leading rank in the legal pro- 
fession. He is the father of two children. 

In 1860 Mr. Harrison was nominated for the 
position of Supreme Court Reporter, and then be- 
' gan his experience as a stump speake; He can- 
vassed the State thoroughly, and was elected by a 
handsome majority. In 1862 he raised the 17th 
Indiana Infantry, and was chosen its Colonel. His 
regiment was composed of the rawest of material, 
out Col. Harrison employed all his time at first 
mastering military tactics and drilling his men, 
when he therefore came to move toward the East 
with Sherman his regiment was one of the best 
drilled and organized in the army. At Resaca he 
especially distinguished himself, and for his bravery 
at Peachtree Creek he was made a Brigadier Gen- 
eral, Gen. Hooker speaking of him in the most 
:omplitnentary terms. 

During the absence of Gen. Harrison in the field 
lie Supreme Court declared the office of the Su- 
preme Court Reporter vacant, and another person 
was elected to the position. From the time of leav- 
ing Indiana with his regiment until the fall 01 1864 
he had taken no leave of absence, but having been 
nominated that year for the same office, he got a 
thirty-day leave of absence, and during that time 
made a brilliant canvass of the State, and was elected 
for another term. He then started to rejoin Sher- 
man, but on the way was stricken down with scarlet 
iever, and after a most trying siege made his way 
to the front in time to participate in the closing 
incidents of the war, 

In 1868 Gen. Harrison declined re-election as 
reporter, and resumed the practice of law. In 1876 
be was a candidate for Governor, Although de- 
feated, the brilliant campaign he ii,ade won Tor him 
a National reputation, and he was much sought, es- 
peciaLy in the East, to make speeches. In 1880, 
as usual, he took an active part In the campaign, 
nd wa, f , elected to the United States Senate. Here 
uc sevved six years, and ras known as one o>. the 
tblest men, best lawyer' .nd strongest debaters in 



that body. With the expiration of his Senatorial 
term he returned to the practice of his profession, 
becoming the head of one of the strongest firms in 
the State. 

The political campaign of 1888 was one of the 
most memorable in the history of our country. The 
convention which assembled in Chicago in June an;; 
named Mr. Harrison as the chief standard bearer 
of the Republican party, was great in every partic- 
ular, and on this account, and the attitude it as- 
sumed upon the vital questions of the day, chief 
among which was the tariff, awoke a deep interest 
in the campaign throughout the Nation. Shortly 
after the nomination delegations began to visit Mr. 
Harrison at Indianapolis, his home. This move- 
ment became popular, and from all sections of the 
country societies, clubs and delegations journeyed 
thither to pay their respects to the distinguished 
statesman. The popularity of these was greatly 
increased on account of the remarkable speeches 
made by Mr. Harrison. He spoke daily all through 
the summer and autumn to these visiting delega- 
tions, and so varied, masterly and eloquent were 
his speeches that they at once placed him in the 
foremost rank of American orators and statesmen. 

On account of his eloquence as a speaker and h:c 
power as a debater, he was called upon at an un- 
coii'inonly early age to take part in the discussion 
of the great questions that then began to agitate 
the country. He was an uncompromising ant: 
slavery man, and was matched against some of tlie 
most eminent Democratic speakers of his StaU; 
No man who felt the touch of his blade de, : red i, 
be pitted with him again. With all his eloquence 
as nu orator he never spoke for oratorical effect, 
but his words always went like bullets to the mark 
lie is purely American in his ideas and is a spier 
did type of the American statesman. Gifted wit',, 
quick perception, a logical mind and a ready tongue, 
he is one of the most distinguished impromptu 
speakers in the Nation. Many of these speeches 
sparkled with the rarest of eloquence and contained 
arguments of greatest weight. Many of his terse 
statements have already become aphorisms. Origt 
nal in thought, precise ia logic, terse in statement, 
yet withal faultless in eloquence, he is recognized as 
the sound statesman and bnJlan orator c t.K isy 





45)- 




-n 





GO VERNORS OF ILLINOIS. 



in 





HADRACH BOND, the first 
Governor of Illinois after its 
organization as a State, serving 
from 1818 to 1822, was born in 
Frederick County, Maryland, 
in the year 1773, and was 
raised a farmer on his father's 
plantation, receiving only a plain 
English education. He emigrated 
to this State in 1794, when it was a 
part of the " Northwest Territory," 
continuing in the vocation in which 
he had been brought up in his native 
State, in the " New Design," near 
Eagle Creek, in what is now Monroe 
County. He served several terms as 
a member of the General Assembly 
of Indiana Territory, after it was organized as such, 
and in 1812-14 he was a Delegate to the Twelfth 
and Thirteenth Congresses, taking his seat Dec. 3, 
1812, and serving until Oct. 3, 1814. These were 
the times, the reader will recollect, when this Gov- 
ernment had its last struggle with Great Britain. 
The year 1812 is also noted in the history of this 
State as that in which the first Territorial Legislature 
was held. It convened at Kaskaskia, Nov. 25, and 
adjourned Dec. 26, following. 

While serving as Delegate to Congress, Mr. Bond 
was'instrumental in procuring the right of pre-emp- 
tion on the public domain. On the expiration of his 
term at Washington he was appointed Receiver of 
Public Moneys at Kaskaskia, then the capital of the 
Territory. In company with John G. Comyges, 



Thomas H. Harris, Charles Slade, Michael Jones, 
Warren Brown. Edward Humphries and Charles W 
Hunter, he became a proprietor of the site of the 
initial city of Cairo, which they hoped, from its favor- 
able location at the junction of the two great 
rivers near the center of the Great West, would 
rapidly develop into a metropolis. To aid the enter- 
prise, they obtained a special charter from the Legis- 
lature, incorporating both the City and the Bank of 
Cairo. 

In 1818 Mr. Bond was elected the first Governor 
of the State of Illinois, being inaugurated Oct. 6 
that year, which was several weeks before Illinois 
was actually admitted. The facts are these: In 
January, 1818, the Territorial Legislature sent a peti- 
tion to Congress for the admission of Illinois as a 
State, Nathaniel Pope being then Delegate. The 
petition was granted, fixing the northern line of the 
State on the latitude of the southern extremity of 
Lake Michigan; but the bill was afterward so amend- 
ed as to extend this line to its present latitude. In 
July a convention was called at Kaskaskia to draft a 
constitution, which, however, was not submitted to 
the people. By its provisions, supreme judges, pros 
ecuting attorneys, county and circuit judges, record- 
ers and justices of the peace were all to be appointed 
by the Governor or elected by the Legislature. This 
constitution was accepted by Congress Dec. 30. At 
that time Illinois comprised but eleven counties, 
namely, Randolph, Madison, Gallatin, Johnson, 
Pope, Jackson, Crawford, Bond, Union, Washington 
and Franklin, the northern portion of the State be- 
ing mainly in Madison County. Thus it appears 
that Mr. Bond was honored by the naming of a 



II* 



SHADRACH BOND. 



county before he was elected Governor. The present 
county of Bond is of small limitations, about 60 to 80 
miles south of Springfield. For Lieutenant Governor 
the people chose Pierre Menard, a prominent and 
worthy Frenchman, after whom a county in this State 
is named. In this election there were no opposition 
candidates, as the popularity of these men had made 
their promotion to the chief offices of the Slate, even 
before the constitution was drafted, a foregone con- 
clusion. 

The principal points that excited the people in 
reference to political issues at this period were local 
or "internal improvements," as they were called, 
State banks, location of the capital, slavery and the 
personal characteristics of the proposed candidates. 
Mr. Bond represented the " Convention party," for 
introducing slavery into the State, supported by Elias 
Kent Kane, his Secretary of State, and John Mc- 
Lean, while Nathaniel Pope and John P. Cook led 
the anti-slavery element. The people, however, did 
not become very much excited over this issue until 
1820, when the fatmus Missouri Compromise was 
adopted by Congress, limiting slavery to the south 
of the parallel of 36 30' except in Missouri. While 
this measure settled the great slavery controversy, 
so far as the average public sentiment was tempor- 
arily concerned, until 1854, when it was repealed 
under the leadership of Stephen A. Douglas, the issue 
as considered locally in this State was not decided 
until '.824, after a most furious campaign. (See 
sketch of Gov. Coles.) The ticket of 1818 was a 
compromise one, Bond representing (moderately) the 
pro-slavery sentiment and Menard the anti-slavery. 

An awkward element in the State government 
under Gov. Bond's administration, was the imperfec- 
tion of the State constitution. The Convention 
wished to have Elijah C. Berry for the first Auditor 
of Public Accounts, but, as it was believed that the 
new Governor would not appoint him to the office, 
the Convention declared in a schedule that " an 
auditor of public accounts, an attorney general and 
such other officers of the State as may be necessary, 
may be appointed by the General Assembly." The 
Constitution, as it stood, vested a very large appoint- 
ing power in the Governor ; but for the purpose of 
getting one man into office, a total change was made, 
and the power vested in the Legislature. Of this 
provision the Legislature took advantage, and de- 



clared that State's attorneys, canal commissioners, 
bank directors, etc., were all " officers of the State * 
and must therefore be appointed by itself independ- 
ently of the Governor. 

During Gov. Bond's administration a general law 
was passed for the incorporation of academies and 
towns, and one authorizing lotteries. The session of 
1822 authorized the Governor to appoint commis- 
sioners, to act in conjunction with like commissioners 
appointed by the State of Indiana, to report on the 
practicability and expediency of improving the navi- 
gation of the Wabash River; also inland navigation 
generally. Many improvements were recommended, 
some of which have been feebly worked at even till 
the present day, those along the Wabash being of no 
value. Also, during Gov. Bond's term of office, the ' 
capital of the State was removed from Kaskaskia to 
Vandalia. In 1820 a law was passed by Congress 
authorizing this State to open a canal through the 
public lands. The State appointed commissioners 
lo explore the route and prepare the necessary sur- 
veys and estimates, preparatory to its execution ; 
but, being unable out of its own resources to defray 
the expenses of the undertaking, it was abandoned 
until some time after Congress made the grant of 
land for the purpose of its construction. 

On the whole, Gov. Bond's administration was 
fairly good, not being open to severe criticism from 
any party. In 1824, two years after the expiration 
of his term of office, he was brought out as a candi- 
date for Congress against the formidable John P. 
Cook, but received only 4,374 votes to 7,460 for the 
latter. Gov. Bond was no orator, but had made > 
many fast friends by a judicious l-ectowment of his ; 
gubernatorial patronage, and these worked zealously 
for him in the campaign. 

In 1827 ex-Gov. Bond was appointed by the Leg- 
islature, with \Vm. P. McKee and Dr. Gershom 
Jayne. as Commissioners to locate a site for a peni- 
tentiary on the Mississippi at or near Alton. 

Mr. Bond was of a benevolent and convivial dis- 
position, a man of shrewd observation and clear ap- 
preciation of events. His person was erect, stand- 
ing six feet in height, and after middle life became 
portly, weighing 200 pounds. HI'S features were 
strongly masculine, complexion dark, hair jet and 
eyes hazel ; was a favorite with the ladies. He died 
April ri, 1830, in peace and contentment. 



GO VERNORS OF ILLINOIS. 



]t>war& Coles. 





DWARD COLES, second 
Governor of Illinois, 1823- 
6, was bom Dec. 15, 1786, 
in Albemarle Co., Va., on 
the old family estate called 
"Enniscorthy," on the 
Green Mountain. His fath- 
er, John Coles, was a Colonel in the 
Revolutionary War. Having been fit- 
ted for college by private tutors, he 
was sent to Hampden Sidney, where 
he remained until the autumn of 1805, 
when he was removed to William and 
Mary College, at Williamsburg, Va. 
This college he left in the summer of 
1807, a short time before the final and graduating 
examination. Among his classmates were Lieut. 
Gen. Scott, President John Tyler, Wm. S. Archer, 
United States Senator from Virginia, and Justice 
Baldwin, of the United States Supreme Court. The 
President of the latter college, Bishop Madison, was 
a cousin of President James Madison, and that cir- 
cumstance was the occasion of Mr. Coles becoming 
personally acquainted with the President and re- 
ceiving a position as his private secretary, 1809-15. 
The family of Coles was a prominent one in Vir- 
ginia, and their mansion was the seat of the old- 
fashioned Virginian hospitality. It was visited by 
such notables as Patrick Henry, Jefferson, Madison, 
Monroe, the Randolphs, 'fazewell, Wirt, etc. At the 
age of 23, young Coles found himself heir to a plant- 
ation and a considerable number of slaves. Ever 
since his earlier college days his attention had been 
drawn to the question of slavery. He read every- 



thing on the subject that came in his way, and 
listened to lectures on the rights of man. The more 
he reflected upon the subject, the more impossible 
was it for him to reconcile the immortal declaration 
"that all men are born free and equal " with the 
practice of slave-holding. He resolved, therefore, to 
free his slaves the first opportunity, and even remove 
his residence to a free State. One reason which de- 
termined him to accept the appointment as private 
secretary to Mr. Madison was because he believed 
that through the acquaintances he could make at 
Washington he could better determine in what part 
of the non-slaveho!ding portion of the Union he woulc 
prefer to settle. 

The relations between Mr. Coles and President 
Madison, as well as Jefferson and other distinguished 
men, were of a very friendly character, arising from 
the similarity of their views on the question of slavery 
and their sympathy for each other in holding doc- 
trines so much at variance with the prevailing senti- 
ment in their own State. 

In 1857, he resigned his secretaryship and spent a 
portion of the following autumn in exploring the 
Northwest Territory, for the purpose of finding a lo- 
cation and purchasing lands on which to settle his 
negroes. He traveled with a horse and buggy, with 
an extra man and horse for emergencies, through 
many parts of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Missouri, 
determining finally to settle in Illinois. At this time, 
however, a misunderstanding arose between our 
Government and Russia, and Mr. Coles was selected 
to repair to St. Petersburg on a special mission, bear- 
ing important papers concerning the matter at issue 
The result was a conviction of the Emperor (Alex- 



n6 



EDWARD COLES. 



ander) of the error committed by his minister at 
Washington, and the consequent withdrawal of the 
the latter from the post. On his return, Mr. Coles 
visited other parts of Europe, especially Paris, where 
he was introduced to Gen. Lafayette. 

In the spring of 1819, he removed with all his 
negroes from Virginia to Edwardsville, 111., with the 
intention of giving them their liberty. He did not 
make known to them his intention until one beautiful 
morning in April, as they were descending the Ohio 
River. He lashed all the boats together and called 
all the negroes on deck and made them a short ad- 
dress, concluding his remarks by so expressing him- 
self that by a turn of a sentence he proclaimed in 
the shortest and fullest manner that they were no 
longer slaves, but free as he was and were at liberty 
to proceed with him or go ashore at their pleas- 
ure. A description of the effect upon the negroes is 
best described in his own language : 

" The effect upon them was electrical. They stared 
at me and then at each other, as if doubting the ac- 
curacy or reality of what they heard. In breathless 
silence they stood before me, unable to utter a word, 
but with countenances beaming with expression whicli 
no words could convey, and which no language 
can describe.. As they began to see the truth of 
what they had heard, and realize their situation, there 
came on a kind of hysterical, giggling laugh. After 
a pause of intense and unutterable emotion, bathed 
in tears, and with tremulous voices, they gave vent to 
their gratitude and implored the blessing of God 
on me." 

Before landing he gave them a general certificate 
of freedom, and afterward conformed more particu- 
larly with the law of this State requiring that each 
individual should have a certificate. This act of 
Mr. Gales, all the more noble and heroic considering 
the overwhelming pro-slavery influences surrounding 
him, has challenged the admiration of every philan- 
thropist of modern times. 

March 5, 1819, President Monroe appointed Mr. 
Coles Registrar of the Land Office at Edwardsvihe, 
at that time one of the principal land offices in the 
State. While acting in this capacity and gaining 
many friends by his politeness and general intelli- 
gence, the greatest struggle that ever occurred in 
Illinois on the slavery ques ion culminated in the 
furious contest characterizing the campaigns and 
elections of 1822-4. In the summer of 1823, when a 
new Governor was to be elected to succeed Mr. 
Bond, the pro-slavery element divided into factions, 
putting forward for the executive office Joseph 
Phillips, Chief Justice of the State, Thomas C. 
Browne and Gen. James B. Moore, of the State Mil- 
itia. The anti-slavery element united upon Mr. 
Coles, and, after one of the most bitter campaigns, 
succeeded in electing him as Governor. His plural- 
ity over Judge Phillips was only 59 in a total vote of 



over 8,000. The Lieutenant Governor was elected 
by the slavery men. Mr. Coles' inauguration speech 
was marked by calmness, deliberation and such a 
wise expression of appropriate suggestions as to 
elicit the sanction of all judicious politicians. But 
he compromised not with evil. In his message to 
the Legislature, the seat of Government being then 
at Vandalia, he strongly urged the abrogation of the 
modified form of slavery whi<:h then existed in this 
State, contrary to the Ordinance of 1787. His posi- 
tion on this subject seems the more remarkable, when 
it is considered that he was a minority Governor, the 
population of Illinois being at that time almost ex- 
clusively from slave-holding States and by a large 
majority in favor of the perpetuation of that old relic 
of barbarism. The Legislature itself was, of course, 
a reflex of the popular sentiment, and a majority of 
them were led on by fiery men in denunciations of 
the conscientious Governor, and in curses loud and 
deep upon him and all his friends. Some of the 
public men, indeed, went so far as to head a sort of 
mob, or "shiveree" party, who visited the residence 
of the Governor and others at Vandalia and yelled 
and groaned and spat fire. 

The Constitution, not establishing or permitting 
slavery in this State, was thought therefore to be 
defective by the slavery politicians, and they desired 
a State Convention to be elected, to devise and sub- 
mit a new Constitution ; and the dominant politics 
of the day was "Convention" and "anti-Conven- 
tion." Both parties issued addresses to the people, 
Gov. Coles himself being the author of the address 
published by the latter party. This address rev2aled 
the schemes of the conspirators in a masterly aian- 
ner. It is difficult for us at this distant day to esti- 
mate the critical and extremely delicate situation in 
which the Governor was placed at that time. 

Our hero maintained himself honorably and with 
supreme dignity throughout his administration, and 
in his honor a county in this State is named. He 
was truly a great man, and those who lived in 
this State during his sojourn here, like those who 
live at the base of the mountain, were too near to see 
and recognize the greatness that overshadowed them. 

Mr. Coles was married Nov. 28, 1833, by Bishop 
De Lancey, to Miss Sally Logan Roberts, a daughter 
of Hugh Roberts, a descendant of Welsh ancestry, 
who cami to this country with Wm. Penn in 1682. 

After the expiration of his term of service, Gov. 
Coles continued his residence in Edwardsville, sup- 
erintending his farm in the vicinity. He was fond 
of agriculture, and was the founder of the first agri- 
cultural society in the State. On account of ill 
health, however, and having no family to tie hin 
down, he spent much of his time in Eastern cities. 
About 1832 he changed his residence to Philadel- 
phia, where he died July 7, 1868, and is buried at 
Woodland, near that city. 






GO VERNOMS OF ILLINOIS. 



"9 





INI AN EDWARDS, Governor 
from 1827 to 1830, was a sou 
of Benjamin Edwards, and 
was born in Montgomery 
County, Maryland, in March, 
'^ 1775. His domestic train- 
ing was well fitted to give 
his mind strength, firmness and 
honorable principles, and a good 
foundation was laid for the elevated 
character to which he afterwards 
attained. His parents were Bap- 
tists, and very strict in their moral 
principles. His education in early 
youth was in company with and 
partly under the tuition of Hon. Wm. 
Wirt, whom his father patronized ( 
and who was more than two years 
older. An intimacy was thus 
formed between them which was lasting for life. He 
was further educated at Dickinson College, at Car- 
lisle, Pa. He next commenced the study of law, but 
before completing his course he moved to Nelson 
bounty, Ky., to open a farm for his father and to 
purchase homes and locate lands for his brothers and 
sisters. Here he fell in the company of dissolute 
companions, and for several years led the life of a 
Ipendthrift. He was, however, elected to the Legis- 
lature of Kentucky as the Representative of Nelson 
'.ounty before he was 21 years of age, and was re- 
l;cte'l l>y an ;ilmost unanimous vole. 



In 1798 he was licensed to practice law, and the 
following year was admitted to the Courts of Tennes- 
see. About this time he left Nelson County for 
Russellville, in Logan County, broke away from his 
dissolute companions, commenced a reformation and 
devoted himself to severe and laborious study. He 
then began to rise rapidly in his profession, and soon 
became an eminent lawyer, and inside of four years 
he filled in succession the offices of Presiding Judge 
of the General Court, Circuit Judge, fourth Judge of 
the Court of Appeals and Chief Justice of the State, 
all before he was 32 years of age! In addition, in 
1802, he received a commission as Major of a battal- 
ion of Kentucky militia, and in 1804 was chosen a 
Presidential Elector, on the Jefferson and Clinton 
ticket. In 1806 he was a candidate for Congress, 
but withdrew on being promoted to the Court of 
Appeals. 

Illinois was organized as a separate Territory in 
the spring of 1809, when Mr. Edwards, then Chief 
Justice of the Court of Appeals in Kentucky, received 
from President Madison the appointment as Gover- 
nor of the new Territory, his commission bearing date 
April 24, 1809. Edwards arrived at Kaskaskia in 
June, and on the i ith of that month took the oath of 
office. At the same time he was appointed Superin- 
tendent of the United States Saline, this Government 
interest then developing into considerable proportions 
in Southern Illinois. Although during the first three 
years of his administration he had the power to make 
new counties and appoint all the officers, yet he always 
allowed the people of each county, by an informal 



NINIAM EDWARDS. 



vote, to select their own officers, both civil and mili- 
tary. The noted John J. Crittenden, afterward 
United States Senator from Kentucky, was appointed 
by Gev. Edwards to the office of Attorney General of 
the Territory, which office was accepted for a short 
time only. 

The Indians in 1810 committing sundry depreda- 
tions in the Territory, crossing the Mississippi from 
the Territory of Louisiana, a long correspondence fol- 
lowed between the respective Governors concerning 
the remedies, which ended in a council with the sav- 
ages at Peoria in 1812, and a fresh interpretation of 
the treaties. Peoria was depopulated by these de- 
predations, and was not re-settled for many .years 
afterward. 

As Gov. Edwards' term of office expired by law in 
1812, he was re-appointed for another term of three 
years, and again in 1815 for a third term, serving 
until the organization of the State in the fall of 1818 
and the inauguration of Gov. Bond. At this time 
ex-Gov. Edwards was sent to the United States 
Senate, his colleague being Jesse B. Thomas. As 
Senator, Mr. Edwards took a conspicuous part, and 
acquitted himself honorably in all the measures that 
came up in that body, being well posted, an able de- 
bater and a conscientious statesman. He thought 
.eriously of resigning this situation in 1821, but was 
uersuaded by his old friend, Wm. Wirt, and others to 
continue in office, which he did to the end of the 
term. 

He was then appointed Minister to Mexico by 
President Monroe. About this time, it appears that 
Mr. Edwards saw suspicious signs in the conduct of 
Wm. H. Crawford, Secretary of the United States 
Treasury, and an ambitious candidate for the Presi- 
dency, and being implicated by the latter in some of 
his statements, he resigned his Mexican mission in 
order fully to investigate the charges. The result 
was the exculpation of Mr. Edwards. 

Pro-slavery regulations, often termed "Black Laws," 
oisgraced the statute books of both the Territory and 
.he State of Illinois during the whole of his career in 
.his commonwealth, and Mr. Edwards always main- 
tained the doctrines of freedom, and was an important 
;,ctor in the great struggle which ended in a. victory 
for his party in 1824. 

In 1826 7 the Winnebago and other Indians com- 
mitted soire depredations in the northern part of the 



State, and the white settlers, who desired the lands 
and wished to exasperate the savages into an evacu- 
ation of the country, magnified the misdemeanors of 
the aborigines and thereby produced a hostility be- 
tween the races so great as to precipitate a little war, 
known in history as the "Winnebago War." A few 
chases and skirmishes were had, when Gen. Atkinson 
succeeded in capturing Red Bird, the Indian chief, 
and putting him to death, thus ending the contest, at 
least until the troubles commenced which ended in 
the " Black Hawk War " of 1832. In the interpre- 
tation of treaties and execution of their provisions 
Gov. Edwards had much vexatious work to do. The 
Indians kept themselves generally within the juris- 
diction of Michigan Territory, and its Governor, 
Lewis Cass, was at a point so remote that ready cor- 
respondence with him was difficult or impossible. 
Gov. Edwards' administration, however, in regard to 
the protection of the Illinois frontier, seems to havi 
been very efficient and satisfactory. 

For a considerable portion of his time after his re- 
moval to Illinois, Gov. Edwards resided upon his 
farm near Kaskaskia, which he had well stocked with 
horses, cattle and sheep from Kentucky, also with 
fruit-trees, grape-vines and shrubbery. He estab- 
lished saw and grist-mills, and engaged extensively 
in mercantile business, having no less than eight or ten 
stores in this State and Missouri. Notwithstanding 
the arduous duties of his office, he nearly always pur- 
chased the goods himself with which fo supply the 
stores. Although not a regular practitioner of medi- 
cine, he studied the healing art to a considerable ex- 
tent, and took great pleasure in prescribing for, and 
taking care of, the sick, generally without charge. 
He w:\s also liberal to the poor, several widows and 
ministers of the gospel becoming indebted to him 
even for their homes. 

He married Miss Elvira Lane, of Maryland, in 
1803, and they became the affectionate parents of 
several children, one of whom, especially, is welt' 
known to the people of the " Prairie State," namely. 
Ninian Wirt Edwards, once the Superintendent c< 
Public Instruction and still a resident of Springfield 
Gov. Edwards resided at and in the vicinity of Kas- 
kaskia from 180910 1818; in Edwardsville (named 
after him) from that time to 1824; and from the lat- 
ter date at Belleville, St. Clair County, until h 
death, July 20, 1833, of Asiatic cholera. Edwaids 
County is also named in his honor. 



GO VERNGRS OF ILLINOIS. 



12? 





REYNOLDS, Governor 1831- 
4, was born in Montgomery Coun- 
ty, Pennsylvania, Feb. 26, 1788. 
His father, Robert Reynolds and 
his mother, nee Margaret Moore, 
were both natives of Ireland, from 
which country they emigrated to 
the United States in 1785, land- 
ing at Philadelphia. The senior 
Reynolds entertained an undying 
hostility to the British Govern- 
ment. When the subject of this 
sketch was about six months old, 
his parents emigrated with him to 
Tennessee, where many of their 
relatives had already located, at the base of the 
Copper Ridge Mountain, about 14 miles northeast of 
the present city of Knoxville. There they were ex- 
oosed to Indian depredations, and were much molest- 
ed by them. In 1794 they moved into the interior 
of the State. They were poor, and brought up their 
children to habits of manual industry. 

In 1800 the family removed to Kaskaskia, 111., with 
eight horses and two wagons, encountering many 
Hardships on the way. Here young Reynolds passed 
the most of his childhood, while his character began 
to develop, the most prominent traits of which were 
ambition and energy. He also adopted the principle 
and practice of total abstinence from intoxicating 
liquors. In 1807 the family made another removal. 



this time to the " Goshen Settlement," at the foot of 
the Mississippi bluffs three or four miles southwest 
of Edwardsville. 

On arriving at his 2oth year, Mr. Reynolds, seeing 
that he must look about for his own livelihood and 
not yet having determined what calling to pursue, 
concluded first to attend college, and he accordingly 
went to such an institution of learning, near Knox- 
ville, Tenn., where he had relatives. Imagine his 
diffidence, when, after passing the first 20 years of 
his life without ever having seen a carpet, a papered 
wall or a Windsor chair, and never having lived in a 
shingle-roofed house, he suddenly ushered himself 
into the society of the wealthy in the vicinity of 
Knoxville! He attended college nearly two years, 
going through the principal Latin authors; but it 
seems that he, like the rest of the world in modern 
times, had but very little use for his Latin in after 
life. He always failed, indeed, to exhibit any good 
degree of literary discipline. He commenced the 
study of law in Knoxville, but a pulmonary trouble 
came on and compelled him to change his mode 
of life. Accordingly he returned home and re- 
cuperated, and in 1812 resumed his college and 
law studies at Knoxville. In the fall of 1812 he was 
admitted to the Bar at Kaskaskia. About this time 
he also learned the French language, which he 
practiced with pleasure in conversation with his 
family for many years. He regarded this language 
as being superior to all others for social intercourse. 



124 



JOHN REYNOLDS. 



From his services in the West, in the war of 1812, 
he obtained the sobriquet of the " Old Ranger." He 
was Orderly Sergeant, then Judge Advocate. 

Mr. Reynolds opened his first law office in the 
winter and spring of 1814, in the French village of 
Cahokia, then the capital of St. Clair County. 

In the fall of 1818 he was elected an Associate 
Justice upon the Supreme Bench by the General 
Assembly. In 1825 he entered more earnestly than 
ever into the practice of law, and the very next year 
was elected a member of the Legislature, where he 
acted independently of all cliques and private inter- 
ests. In 1828 the Whigs and Democrats were for 
the first time distinctively organized as such in Illi- 
nois, and the usual party bitterness grew up and 
raged on all sides, while Mr. Reynolds preserved a 
mdicial calmness and moderation. The real animus 
if the campaign was " Jackson " and " anti-Jackson," 
'he former party carrying the State. 

In August, 1830, Mr. Reynolds was elected Gov- 
ernor, amid great excitement. Installed in office, he 
did all within his power to advance the cause of edu- 
cation, internal improvements, the Illinois & Mich- 
igan Canal, the harbor at Chicago, settling the coun- 
try, etc.; also recommended the winding up of the 
State Bank, as its affairs had become dangerously 
complicated. In his national politics, he was a 
moderate supporter of General Jackson. But the 
most celebrated event of his gubernatorial admin- 
istration was the Black Hawk War, which occurred 
in 1832. He-called out the militia and prosecuted 
the contest with commendable diligence, appearing 
in person on the battle-grounds during the most 
critical periods. He was recognized by the President 
as Major-General, and authorized by him to make 
treaties with the Indians. By the assistance of the 
general Government the war was terminated without 
much bloodshed, but after many serious fights. This 
war, as well as everything else, was materially re- 
tarded by the occurrence of Asiatic cholera in the 
West. This was its first appearance here, and was 
the next event in prominence during Gov. Reynolds' 
term. 

South Carolina nullification coining up at this time, 
t was heartily condemned by both President Jackson 
nd Gov. Reynolds, who took precisely the same 
grounds as the Unionists in the last war. 

On the termination of his gubernatorial term in 
.834, Gov. Reynolds was elected a Member of Con- 
gress, still considering himself a backwoodsman, as 
' e had scarcely been outside of the Slate since he 
became of age, and had spent nearly all his youthful 
Jays in the wildest region of the frontier. His first 
iiove in Congress was to adopt a resolution that in 
ill elections made by the House for officers the votes 
ihould be given viva voce, each member in his place 
naming aloud the person for whom he votes. This 
created considerable heated discussion, but was es- 



sentially adopted, and remained the controlling prin- 
ciple for many years. The ex-Governor was scarcely 
absent from his seat a single day, during eight ses- 
sions of Congress, covering a period of seven years, 
and he never vacillated in a party vote; but he failed 
to get the Democratic party to foster his " National 
Road" scheme. He says, in " My Own Times " (a 
large autobiography he published), that it was only 
by rigid economy that he avoided insolvency while in 
Washington. During his sojourn in that city he was 
married, to a lady of the place. 

In 1837, while out of Congress, and in company 
with a few others, he built the first railroad in the 
Mississippi Valley, namely, one about six miles long, 
leading from his coal mine in the Mississippi bluff to 
the bank of the river opposite St. Louis. Having not 
the means to purchase a locomotive, they operated it 
by horse-power. The next spring, however, the com- 
pany sold out, at great sacrifice. 

In 1839 the ex-Governor was appointed one of the 
Canal Commissioners, and authorized to borrow 
money to prosecute the enterprise. Accord' ngly, he 
repaired to Philadelphia and succeeding in obtaining 
a million dollars, which, however, was only a fourth 
of what was wanted. The same year he and his 
wife made at our of Europe. This year, also, Mr. 
Reynolds had the rather awkward little responsibility 
of introducing to President Van Buren the noted 
Mormon Prophet, Joseph Smith, as a " Latter-Day 
Saint!" 

In 1846 Gov. Reynolds was elected a member of 
the Legislature from St. Clair County, more particu 
larly for the purpose of obtaining a feasible charter 
for a macadamized road from Belleville to St. Louis, 
a distance of nearly 14 miles. This was immediately 
built, and was the first road of the kind in the State. 
He was again elected to the Legislature in 1852, when 
he was chosen Speaker of the House. In 1860, aged 
and infirm, he attended the National Democratic 
Convention at Charleston, S. C., as an anti-Douglas 
Delegate, where he received more attention from the 
Southern Delegates than any other member. He 
supported Breckenridge for the Presidency. After 
the October elections foreshadowed the success of 
Lincoln, he published an address urging the Demo- 
crats to rally to the support of Douglas. Immedi- 
ately preceding and during the late war, his corre- 
spondence evinced a clear sympathy for the Southern 
secession, and about the first of March, i86r, he 
urged upon the Buchanan officials the seizure of the 
treasure and arms in the custom-house and arsenal 
at St. Louis. Mr. Reynolds was a rather talkative 
man, and apt in all the Western phrases and catch- 
words that ever gained currency, besides many cun- 
ning and odd ones of his own manufacture. 

He was married twice, but had no children. He 
died in Belleville, in May, 1865, just after the close 
of the war. 




' 



Wl 




GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS. 



127 








ILLIAM LEE D. EWING, 
Governor of Illinois Nov. 3 
to 17, 1834, was a native 
of Kentucky, and probably 
of Scotch ancestry. He had 
a fine education, was a gentle- 
man of polished manners and 
refined sentiment. In 1830 John Rey- 
nolds was elected Governor of the State, 
and Zadok Casey Lieutenant Governor, 
and for the principal events that followed, 
and the characteristics of the times, see 
sketch of Gov. Reynolds. The first we 
see in history concerning Mr. Ewing, in- 
forms us that he was a Receiver of Public 
Moneys at Vandalia soon after the organization of 
Uiii, State, and that the public moneys in his hands 
v/ere deposited in various banks, as they are usually 
:!: . tlu present day. In 1823 the State Bank was 
obbed, by which disaster Mr. Ewing lost a thousand- 
dollar deposit. 

The subject of this sketch had a commission as 
( olonel in the Black Hawk War, and in emergencies 
n acted also as Major. In the summer of 1832, 
/hen i yas rumored among the whites that Black 
Hawk ai.d nis men had encamped somewhere on 
Rock River, Gen. Henry was sent on a tour of 
rcconnoisance, and with orders to drive the Indians 
from the State. After some opposition from his 
subordinate officers, Henry resolved to proceed up 
Rock River in search of the enemy. On the igth of 
uly, early in the morning, five baggage wagons. 



camp equipage and all heavy and cumbersome arti- 
cles were piled up and left, so that the army might 
make speedy and forced marches. For some miles 
the travel was exceedingly bad, crossing swamps 
and the worst thickets ; but the large, fresh trail 
gave life and animation to the Americans. Gen. 
Dodge and Col. Ewing were both acting as Majors, 
and composed the " spy corps " or vanguard of the 
army. It is supposed the army marched nearly 50 
miles this day, and the Indian trail they followed 
became fresher, and was strewed with much property 
and trinkets of the red-skins that they had lost or 
thrown away to hasten their march. During the 
following night there was a terrific thunder-storm, and 
the soldiery, with all their appurtenances, were thor- 
oughly drenched. 

On approaching nearer the Indians the next day. 
Gen. Dodge and Major Ewing, each commanding a 
battalion of men, were placed in front to bring on the 
battle, but the savages were not overtaken this day 
Forced marches were continued until they reached. 
Wisconsin River, where a veritable battle ensued, 
resulting in the death of about 68 of Black Hawk's 
men. The next day they continued the chase, and 
as soon as he discovered the trail of the Indians 
leading toward the Mississippi, Maj. Ewing formed 
his battalion in order of battle and awaited the order 
of Gen. Henry. The latter soon appeared on the 
ground and ordered a charge, which directly resulted 
in chasing the red warriors across the great river. 
Maj. Ewing and. his command proved particularly 
efficient in war, as it seems they were the chief actors 
in driving the main body of the Sacs and Foxes, in- 



128 



WILLIAM L. D. E IV ING. 



eluding Black Hawk himself, across the Mississippi, 
while Gen. Atkinson, commander-in-chief of the ex- 
pedition, with a body of the army, was hunting for 
them in another direction. 

In the above affair Maj. Ewmg is often referred to 
as a ''General," which title he had derived from his 
connection with the militia. 

It was in the latter part of the same year (1832) 
that Lieutenant Governor Casey was elected to Con- 
gress and Gen. Ewing, who had been elected to the 
Senate, was chosen to preside over that body. At 
ihe August election of 1834, Gov. Reynolds was also 
elected to Congress, more than a year ahead of the 
time at which he could actually take his seat, as was 
then the law. His predecessor, Charles Slade, had 
just died of Asiatic cholera, soon after the elec- 
tion, and Gov. Reynolds was chosen to serve out his 
unexpired term. Accordingly he set out for Wash- 
ington in November of that year to take his seat in 
Congress, and Gen. Ewing, by virt.ie of his office as 
President of the Senate, became Go.ernor of the 
State of Illinois, his term covering only a period of 
15 days, namely, from the 3d to the ryth days, in- 
clusive, of November. On the 171)1 the Legislature 
met, and Gov. Ewing transmitted to that body his 
message, giving a statement of the condition of the 
affairs of the State at that time, and urging a contin- 
uance of the policy adopted by his predecessor ; and 
on the same day Governor elect Joseph Duncan 
^as sworn into office, thus relieving Mr. Ewing from 



the responsible situation. This is the only time that 
such a juncture has happened in the history of Illi- 
nois. 

On the zgth of December, 1835,601. Ewing was 
elected a UV.ited States Senator to serve out the 
unexpired term of Elias Kent Kane, deceased. The 
latter gentleman was a very prominent figure in the 
early politics of Illinois, and a county in this State is 
named in his honor. The election of Gen. Ewing to 
the Senate was a protracted struggle. His competi- 
tors were James Semple, who afterwards held several 
important offices in this State, and Richard M. 
Young, afterward a United States Senator and a 
Supreme Judge and a man of vast influence. On 
the first ballot Mr. Semple had 25 votes, Young 19 
and Ewing 18. On the eighth ballot Young was 
dropped ; the ninth and tenth stood a tie ; but on 
tlie 1 2th. Ewing received 40, to Semple 37, and was 
accordingly declared elected. In 1837 Mr. Ewing 
received some votes for a continuance of his term in 
Congress, when Mr. Young, just referred to, was 
elected. In 1842 Mr. Ewing was elected State 
Auditor on the ticket with Gov. Ford. 

Gen. Ewing was a gentleman of culture, a lawyer 
by profession, and was much in public life. In person 
he was above medium height and of heavy build, 
with auburn hair, blue eyes, large-sized head and 
short face. He was genial, social, friendly and 
affable, with fair talent, though of no high degree o f 
originality. He died March 25, 1846. 




GO VERNORS OF ILLINOIS. 





iji 



OSEPH DUNCAN, Governor 
1834-8, was born at Paris, 
Ky., Feb. 23, 1794. At the 
tender age of 19 years he en- 
listed in the war against Great 
Britain, and as a soldier he 
a, acquitted himself with credit. He 
was an Ensign under the daunt- 
less Croghan at Lower Sandusky, 
or Fort Stephenson. In Illinois 
lie first appeared in a public capa- 
city as Major-General of the Militia, 
a position which his military fame 
had procured him. Subsequently 
he became a State Senator from 
Jackson County, and is honorably 
mentioned for introducing the first bill providing for 
a free-school system. In 1826, when the redoubt- 
able John P. Cook, who had previously beaten such 
men as John McLean, Elias Kent Kane and ex- 
Gov. Bond, came up for the fourth time for Congress, 
Mr. Duncan was brought forward against him by his 
friends, greatly to the surprise of all the politicians. 
\s yet he was but little known in the State. He was 
an original Jackson man at that time, being attached 
to his political fortune in admiration of the glory of 
his militaiy achievements. His chances of success 
against Cook were generally regarded as hopeless, 
but he entered upon the campaign undaunted. His 
speeches, though short and devoid of ornament, were 
fill! of good sense. He made a diligent canvass of 
the State, Mr. Cook being hindered by the condition of 
iiis health. The most that was expected of Mr. 
Duncan, under the circumstances, was that he would 



obtain a respectable vote, but without defeating Mr 
Cook. The result of the campaign, however, was a 
source of surprise and amazement to both friends 
and foes, as Mr. Duncan came out 641 votes ahead! 
He received 6,321 votes, and Mr. Cook 5,680. Un- 
til this denouement, the violence of party feeling 
smoldering in the breasts of the people on account 
of the defeat of Jackson, was not duly appreciated. 
Aside from the great convention struggle of 1824, no 
other than mere local and penonal considerations 
had ever before controlled an election in Illinois. 

From the above date Mr. Duncan retained his 
seat in Congress until his election as Governor in 
August, 1834. The first and bloodless year of the 
Black Hawk War he was appointed by Gov. Rey- 
nolds to the position of Brigadier-General of the 
volunteers, and he conducted his brigade to Rock 
Island. But he was absent from the State, in Wash- 
ington, during the gubernatorial campaign, and did 
not personally participate in it, but addressed circu- 
lars to his constituents. His election was, indeed, 
attributed to the circumstance of his absence, be- 
cause his estrangement from Jackson, formerly his 
political idol, and also from the Democracy, largely 
in ascendency in the State, was complete; but while 
his defection was well known to his Whig friends, 
and even to the leading Jackson men of this State, 
the latter were unable to carry conviction of that fact 
to the masses, as mail and newspaper facilities at 
that day were far inferior to those of the present 
time. Of course the Governor was much abused 
afterward by the fossilized Jackson men who re- 
garded party ties and affiliations as above all 
other issues that could arise; but he was doubtless 



I 3 2 



JOSEPH DUNCAN. 



sincere in his opposition to the old hero, as the latter 
j;ad vetoed several important western measures 
which were dear to Mr. Duncan. In his inaugural 
message he threw off the mask and took a bold stand 
r gainst the course cf the President. The measures 
'.e recommended in his message, however, were so 
desirable that the Legislature, although by a large 
majority consisting of Jackson men, could not refrain 
from endorsing them. These measures related 
mainly to Larks and internal improvements. 

It was while Mr. Duncan' was Governor that the 
people of Illinois went whirling on with bank and in- 
ternal impiovement schemes that well nigh bank- 
-upted the State. The hard times of 1837 came on, 
and the disasters that attended the inauguration of 
Jiese plans and the operation of the banks were mu- 
tually charged upon the two political parties. Had 
any cr:^ man autocratic power to introduce and 
carry on any one of these measures, he would proba- 
bly have succeeded to the satisfaction of the public ; 
tut as many jealous men had hold of the same plow 
Handle, no success followed and each blamed the other 
r or the failure. In this great vortex Gov. Duncan 
was carried along, suffering the like derogation of 
character with his fellow citizens. 

At the height of the excitement the Legislature 
" provided for " railroads from Galena to Cairo, Alton 
to Shawneetown, Alton to Mount Carmel, Alton to the 
eastern boundary of the State in the direction of 
Terre Haute, Quincy via Springfield to the Wabasli, 
Bloomington to Pekin, and Peoria to Warsaw, in nil 
about 1,300 miles of road. It also provided for the 
improvement of the navigation of the Kaskaskia. 
Illinois, Great and Little Wabash and Rock Rivers ; 
also as a placebo, $200,000 in money were to be dis- 
.ributed to the various counties wherein no improve 
ments were ordered to be made as above. The 
estimate for the expenses for all these projects was 
:laced at a little over $10,000,000, which was not 
more i .ian half enough ! That would now be equal to 
paddling upon the State a debt of $225,000,000! It 
was sufficient to bankrupt the State several times 
over, even counting all the possible benefits. 

One of the most exciting events that ever occurred 
,n this fair State was the murder of Elijah P. Love- 
ly in the fall of 1837, at Alton, during Mr. Duncan's 
ierni as Governor. Lovejoy was an " Abolitionist," 
editing llic Observer at that place, and the pro- 
slavery sluruj there formed themselves into a mob, 



and after destroying successively three presses be- 
longing to Mr. Lovejoy, surrounded the warehouse 
where the fourth press was stored away, endeavoring 
to destroy it, and where Lovejoy and his friends 
were entrenching themselves, and shot and killed the 
brave reformer! 

About this time, also, the question of removing ths 
State capital again came up, as the 20 years' limit for 
its existence at Vandalia was drawing to a close. 
There was, of course, considerable excitement over 
the matter, the twd main points competing for it be- 
ing Springfield and Peoria. The jealousy of the lat- 
ter place is not even yet, 45 years afterward, fully 
allayed. 

Gov. Duncan's term expired in 1838. In 1842 
he was again proposed as a candidate for the Execu- 
tive chair, this time by the Whig party, against Adam 
W. Snyder, of St. Clair County, the nominee of the 
Democrats. Charles W. Hunter was a third candi- 
date for the same position. Mr. Snyder, however, died 
before the campaign had advanced very far, and his 
party substituted Thomas Ford, who was elected 
receiving 46,901 votes, to 38,584 for Duncan, and 
909 for Hunter. The cause of Democratic success 
at this time is mainly attributed to the temporary 
support of the Mormons which they enjoyed, and the 
want of any knowledge, on the part of the masses, 
that Mr. Ford was opposed to any given policy en- 
tertained in the respective localities. 

Gov. Duncan was a man of rather limited educa- 
tion, but with naturally fine abilities he profited 
greatly by his various public services, and gathered 
a store of knowledge regarding public affairs which 
served him a ready purpose. He possessed a clear 
judgment, decision, confidence in himself and moral 
courage to carry out his convictions of right. In his 
deportment he was well adapted to gain the admira- 
tion of the people. His intercourse with them was 
both affable and dignified. His portrait at the Gov- 
ernor's mansion, from which the accompanying was 
made, represents him as having a swarthy complex- 
ion, high cheek bones, broad forehead, piercing black 
eyes and straight black hair. 

He was a liberal patron of the Illinois College at 
Jacksonville, a member of its Board of Trustees, and 
died, after a short illness, Jan. 15, 1844, a devoted 
memlter of the Presbyterian Church, leaving a wife 
but no children. 'I 1 wo children, born to them, had 
died in infancy. 



GO VERNORS OF ILLINOIS. 



'35 





tHOMAS CARLIN, the sixth 
Governor of the State of 
Illinois, serving from 1838 
to 1842, was also a Ken- 
tuckian, being born near 
Frankfort, that State, July 
18, 1789, of Irish paternity. 
The opportunities for an education 
being very meager in his native 
place, he, on approaching years of 
judgment and maturity, applied 
himself to those branches of learn- 
ing that seemed most important, 
and thus became a self-made man ; 
and his taste for reading and 
study remained with him through 
life. In 1803 his father removed 
10 Missouri, then a part of " New Spain," where he 
died in 1810. 

In 1812 young Carlin came to Illinois and partici- 
pated in all the "ranging" service incident to the 
war of that period, proving himself a soldier of un- 
daunted bravery. In 1814 he married Rebecca 
Huitt, and lived for four years on the bank of the 
Mississippi River, opposite the mouth of the Mis- 
sc-ri, where he followed farming, and then removed 
to Greene County. He located the town site of Car- 
re* 'ion, in that county, and in 1825 made a liberal 
donation of land for county building purposes. He 
was the first Sheriff of that county after its separate 
organization, and afterward was twice elected, as a 
Jackson Democrat, to the Illinois Senate. In the 
Black Hawk War he commanded a spy battalion, a 
post of considerable danger. In 1834 he was ap- 
pointed by President Jackson to the position of 
Receiver of Public Moneys, and to fulfill the office 



more conveniently he removed to the city of Quincy. 

While, in 1838, the unwieldy internal improvement 
system of the State was in full operation, with all its 
expensive machinery, amidst bank suspensions 
throughout the United States, a great stringency in 
the money market everywhere, and Illinois bonds 
forced to sale at a heavy discount, and the " hardest 
times " existing that the people of the Prairie State 
ever saw, the general election of State officers was 
approaching. Discreet men who had cherished the 
hope of a speedy subsidence of the public infatua- 
tion, met with disappointment. A Governor and 
Legislature were to be elected, and these were now 
looked forward to for a repeal of the ruinous State 
policy. But the grand scheme had not yet lost its 
dazzling influence upon the minds of the people. 
Time and experience had not yet fully demonstrated 
its utter absurdity. Hence the question of arresting 
its career of profligate expenditures did not become 
a leading one with the dominant party during the 
campaign, and most of the old members of the Leg 
islature were returned at this election. 

Under these circumstances the Democrats, in State 
Convention assembled, nominated Mr. Carlin for the 
office of Governor, and S. H. Anderson for Lieuten- 
ant Governor, while the Whigs nominated Cyrus Ed- 
wards, brother of Ninian Edwards, formerly Governor, 
and W. H. Davidson. Edwards came out strongly 
for a continuance of the State policy, while CariL- 
remained non-committal. This was the first time 
that the two main political parties in this State were 
unembarrassed by any third party in the field. The 
result of the election was: Carlin, 35,573; Ander- 
son, 30,335 ; Edwards, 29,629 ; and Davidson, 28,- 

7i?v 

Upon the meeting of the subsequent Legislature 
(1839), the retiring Governor CDuncan) in his mes- 



1 36 



THOMAS CARLIN. 



sage spoke in emphatic terms of the impolicy of the 
internal improvement system, presaging the evils 
threatened, and uiged that body to do their utmost 
to correct the great error ; yet, on the contrary, the 
Legislature not only decided to continue the policy 
but also added to its burden by voting more appro- 
priations and ordering more improvements. Although 
the money market was still stringent, a further loan 
of $4,000,000 was ordered for the Illinois & Mich- 
igan Canal alone. Cn'cago at that time began to 
loom up and promise to be an important city, even 
the great emporium of the West, as it has since in- 
deed came to be. Ex-Gov. Reynolds, an incompe- 
tent financier, was commissioned to effect the loan, 
and accordingly hastened to the East on this respons- 
ible errand, and negotiated the loans, at considera- 
ble sacrifice to the State. Besides this embarrassment 
io Carlin's administration, the Legislature also de- 
clared that he had no authority to appoint a Secretary 
of State until a vacancy existed, and A. P. Field, a 
Whig, who had already held the post by appointment 
trough three administrations, was determined to 
keep the place a while longer, in spite of Gov. Car- 
lin's preferences. The course of the Legislature in 
this regard, however, was finally sustained by the 
Supreme Court, in a quo ivarranto case brought up 
before it by John A. McClernand, whom the Gov- 
ernor had nominated for the office. Thereupon that 
dignified body was denounced as a "Whig Court!" 
endeavoring to establish the principle of life-tenure 
of office. 

A new law was adopted re-organizing the Judici- 
ary, and under it five additional Supreme Judges 
were elected by the Legislature, namely, Thomas 
Ford (afterward Governor), Sidney Breese, Walter B. 
Scales, Samuel H. Treat and Stephen A. Douglas 
all Democrats. 

It was during Cov. Carlin's administration that the 
noisy campaign of " Tippecanoe and Tyler too " oc- 
curred, resulting in a Whig victory. This, however, 
did not affect Illinois politics very seriously. 

Another prominent event in the West during Gov. 
Carlin's term of office was the excitement caused by 
the Mormons and their removal from Independence, 
Mo., to Nauvoo, 111., in 1840. At the same time 
they began to figure somewhat in State politics. On 
account of their believing as they thought, accord- 
ing to the New Testament that they should have 



" all things common," and that consequently " all 
the earth " and all that is upon it were the" Lord's " 
and therefore the property of his " saints," they 
were suspected, and correctly, too, of committing 
many of the deeds of larceny, robbery, etc., that 
were so rife throughout this country in those days. 
Hence a feeling of violence grew up between the 
Mormons and "anti-Mormons." In the State of 
Missouri the Mormons always supported the Dem- 
ocracy until they were driven out by the Democratic 
government, when they turned their support to the 
Whigs. They were becoming numerous, and in the 
Legislature of 1840-1, therefore, it became a matter 
of great interest with both parties to conciliate these 
people. Through the agency of one John C. Ben- 
nett, a scamp, the Mormons succeeded in rushing 
through the Legislature (both parties not daring io 
oppose) a charter for the city of Nauvoo which vir- 
tually erected a hierarchy co-ordinate with the Fed- 
eral Government itself. In the fall of 1841 the 
Governor of Missouri made a demand upon Gov. 
Carlin for the body of Joe Smith, the Mormon leader, 
as a fugitive from justice. Gov. Carlin issued tlu 
writ, but for some reason it was returned unserved, 
It was again issued in 1842, and Smith was arrested, 
but was either rescued by his followers or discharged 
by the municipal court on a writ of habeas corpus. 

In December, 1841, the Democratic Convention 
nominated Adam W. Snyder, of Belleville, for Gov- 
ernor. As he had been, as a member of the Legisla- 
ture, rather friendly to the Mormons, the latter 
naturally turned their support to the Democratic 
party. The next spring the Whigs nominated Ex- 
Gov. Duncan for the same office. In the meantime 
the Mormons began to grow more odious to the 
masses of the people, and the comparative prospects 
of the respective parties for success became very 
problematical. Mr. Snyder died in May, and 
Thomas Ford, a Supreme Judge, was substituted as 
a candidate, and was elected. 

At the close of his gubernatorial term, Mr. Carlin 
removed back to his old home at Carrollton, where 
he spent the remainder of his life, as before his No- 
vation to office, in agricultural pursuits. In iS.'.g 
he served out the unexpired term of J. D. Fry in the 
Illinois House of Representatives, and died Feb. 4, 
1852, at his residence at Carrollton, leaving a wife 
and seven children. 



GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS. 



" 





IHOMAS FORD, Governor 
from 1842 to 1846, and au- 
thor of a very interesting 
history of Illinois, was born 
at Uniontown, Pa., in the 
year 1 800. His mother, after 
the death of her first hus- 
band (Mr. Forquer), married Rob- 
ert Ford, who was killed in 1802, 
by the Indians in the mountains 
of Pennsylvania. She was conse- 
quently left in indigent circum- 
stances, with a large family, mostly 
girls. With a view to better her 
condition, she, in 1804, removed to 
Missouri, where it had been cus- 
tomary by the Spanish Govern- 
ment to give land to actual settlers ; but upon her 
arrival at St. Louis she found the country ceded to 
the United States, and the liberal policy toward set- 
tlers changed by the new ownership. After some 
sickness to herself and family, she finally removed to 
Illinois, and settled some three miles south of Water- 
loo, but the following year moved nearer the Missis- 
sippi bluffs. Here young Ford received his first I 



schooling, under the instructions of a Mr. Humphrey, 
for which he had to walk three miles. His mother, 
though lacking a thorough education, was a woman 
of superior mental endowments, joined to energy 
and determination of character. She inculcated in 
her children those high-toned principles which dis- 
tinguished her sons in public life. She exercised a 
rigid economy to provide her children an education; 
but George Forquer, her oldest son (six years older 
than Thomas Ford), at an early age had to quit 
school to aid by his labor in the support of the family. 
He afterward became an eminent man in Illinois 
affairs, and but for his early death would probably 
have been elected to the United States Senate. 

Young Ford, with somewhat better opportunities, 
received a better education, though limited to the 
curriculum of the common school of those pioneer 
times. His mind gave early promise of superior en- 
dowments, with an inclination for mathematics. His 
proficiency attracted the attention of Hon. Daniel P. 
Cook, who became his efficient patron and friend. 
The latter gentleman was an eminent Illinois states- 
man who, as a Member of Congress, obtained a grant 
of 300,000 acres of land to aid in completing the 
Illinois & Michigan Canal, and after whom the 
county of Cook was named. Through the advice of 



THOMAS FORD. 



this gentleman, Mr. Ford turned his attention to the 
study of law; but Forquer, then merchandising, re- 
garding his education defective, sent him to Transyl- 
vania University, where, however, he remained but 
one term, owing to Forquer's failure in business. On 
his return he alternated his law reading with teach- 
ing school for support. 

In 1829 Gov. Edwards appointed him Prosecuting 
Attorney, and in 1831 he was re-appointed by Gov. 
Reynolds, and after that he was four times elected a 
Judge by the Legislature, without opposition, twice a 
Circuit Judge, once a Judge of Chicago, and as As- 
sociate Judge of the Supreme Court, when, in 1841, 
the latter tribunal was re-organized by the addition 
of five Judges, all Democrats. Ford was assigned to 
the Ninth Judicial Circuit, and while in this capacity 
he was holding Court in Ogle County he received a 
notice of his nomination by the Democratic Conven- 
tion for the office of Governor. He immediately re- 
signed his place and entered upon the canvass. In 
August, 1842, he was elected, and on the 8th of De- 
cember following he was inaugurated. 

All the offices which he had held were unsolicited 
by him. He received them upon the true Jefferson- 
;an principle, Never to ask and never to refuse 
office. Both as a lawyer and as a Judge he stood 
deservedly high, but his cast of intellect fitted him 
rather for a writer upon law than a practicing advo- 
cate in the courts. In the latter capacity he was void 
of the moving oower of eloquence, so necessary to 
success with juries. As a Judge his opinions were 
*ound, lucid and able expositions of the law. In 
practice, he was a stranger to the tact, skill and in- 
sinuating address of the politician, but he saw through 
he arts of demagogues as well as any man. He was 
plain in his demeanor, so much so, indeed, that at 
one time after the expiration of his term of office, 
during a session of the Legislature, he was taken by 
a stranger to be a seeker for the position of door- 
keeper, and was waited upon at his hotel near mid- 
night by a knot of small office-seekers with the view 
of effecting a " combination ! " 

Mr. Ford had not the " brass " of the ordinary 
politician, nor that impetuosity which characterizes a 
political leader. He cared little for money, and 
hardly enough for a decent support. In person he 
was of small stature, slender, of dark complexion, 
with black hair, sharp features, deep-set eyes, a 
pointed, aquiline nose having a decided twist to one 
side, and a small mouth. 

The three most important events in Gov. Ford's 
r.dir.inistration were the establishment of the high 
iinancial credit of the State, the " Mormon War "and 
ihe Mexican War. 

In the first of these the Governor proved himself 
to be eminently wise. On coming into office he found 
ihe State badly paralyzed by the ruinous effects of 
the notorious " internal improvement " schemes of 



the preceding decade, with scarcely anything to 
show by way of "improvement." The enterprise 
that seemed to be getting ahead more than all the 
rest was the Illinois & Michigan Canal. As this 
promised to be the most important thoroughfare, 
feasible to the people, it was well under headway in 
its construction. Therefore the State policy was 
almost concentrated upon it, in order to rush it on tc 
completion. The bonded indebtedness of the State 
was growing so large as to frighten the people, and 
they were about ready to entertain a proposition for 
repudiation. But the Governor had the foresight to 
recommend such measures as would maintain the 
public credit, for which every citizen to-day feels 
thankful. 

But perhaps the Governor is remembered more for 
his connection with the Mormon troubles than for 
anything else; for it was during his term of office 
that the " Latter-Day Saints " became so strong at 
Nauvoo, built their temple there, increased their num- 
bers throughout the country, committed misdemean- 
ors, taught dangerous doctrines, suffered the loss of 
theirleader, Jo Smith, by a violent death, were driven 
out of Nauvoo to the far West, etc. Having been a 
Judge for so many years previously, Mr. Ford of 
course was non-committal concerning Mormon affairs, 
and was therefore claimed by both parties and also 
accused by each of sympathizing too greatly with the 
other side. Mormonism claiming to be a system of 
religion, the Governor no doubt was " between two 
fires," and felt compelled to touch the matter rather 
" gingerly," and doubtless felt greatly relieved when 
that pestilential people left the State. Such compli- 
cated matters, especially when religion is mixed up 
with them, expose every person participating in 
them to criticism from all parties. 

The Mexican War was begun in the spring of 
1845, and was continued into the gubernatorial term 
of Mr. Ford's successor. The Governor's connection 
with this war, however, was not conspicuous, as it 
was only administrative, commissioning officers, etc.] 

Ford's " History of Illinois " is a very readable and 
entertaining work, of 450 small octavo pages, and is 
destined to increase in value with the lapse of time. 
It exhibits a natural flow of compact and forcible 
thought, never failing to convey the nicest sense. In 
tracing with his trenchant pen the devious operations 
of the professional politician, in which he is inimit- 
able, his account is open, perhaps, to the objection 
that all his contemporaries are treated as mere place- 
seekers, while many of them have since been judged 
by the people to be worthy statesmen. His writings 
seem slightly open to the criticism that they exhibit 
a little splenetic partiality against those of his con. 
temporaries who were prominent during his term of 
office as Governor. 

The death of Gov. Ford took place at Peoria, 111., 
Nov. 2, 1850. 



GO VERNORS OF ILLINOIS. 



143 





Ht+&+&&*ll^^ 



Augustus C* French. 

" 

m&H^^ 




AUGUSTUS C. FRENCH, 
Governor of Illinois from 
1846 to 1852, was born in 
the town of Hill, in the 
State of New Hampshire, 
Aug. 2, 1808. He was a 
descendant in the fourth 
generation ot Nathaniel 
French, who emigrated from England 
in 1687 and settled in Saybury, Mass. 
In early life young French lost his 
father, but continued to receive in- 
struction from an exemplary and 
Christian mother until he was 19 years 
old, when she also died, confiding to 
his care and trust four younger broth- 
ers and one sister. He discharged his trust with 
parental devotion. His education in early life was 
sruch mainly as a common school afforded. For a 
Srief period he attended Dartmouth College, but 
from pecuniary causes and the care of his brothers 
and sister, he did not graduate. He subsequently 
read law, and was admitted to the Bar in 1831, and 
shortly afterward removed to Illinois, settling first at 
Albion, Edwards County, where he established him- 
self in the practice of law. The following year he 
removed to Paris, Edgar County. Here he attained 
eminence in his profession, and entered public lift- 
by representing that county in the Legislature. A 
strong attachment sprang up between him and Ste- 
phen A. Douglas. 

In 1839, Mr. French was appointed Receiver of 
the United States Land Office at Palestine, Craw- 
ford County, at which place he was a resident when 



elevated to the gubernatorial chair. In 1844 he was 
a Presidential Elector, and as such he voted for 
James K. Polk. 

The Democratic State Convention of 1846, meet- 
ing at Springfield Feb. 10, nominated Mr. French 
for Governor. Other Democratic candidates were 
Lyman Trumbull, Tohn Calhoun (subsequently of 
Lecompton Constitution notoriety), Walter B. Scales. 
Richard M. Young and A. W. Cavarly, an array of 
very able and prominent names. Trumbull was per- 
haps defeated in the Convention by the tumor that 
he was opposed to the Illinois and Michigan Canal. 
as he had been a year previously. For Lieutenant 
Governor J. B. Wells was chosen, while other candi- 
dates were Lewis Ross, Win. McMurtry, Newton 
Cloud, J. B. Hamilton and W. W. Thompson. The 
resolutions declared strongly against the resuscita- 
tion of the old State Banks. 

The Whigs, who were in a hopeless minority, held 
their convention June 8, at Peoria, and selected 
Thomas M. Kilpatrick, of Scott County, for Governor, 
and Gen. Nathaniel G. Wilcox, of Schuyler, for 
Lieutenant Governor. 

In the campaign the latter exposed Mr. French's 
record and connection with the passage of the in- 
ternal improvement system, urging it against his 
election ; but in the meantime the war with Mexico 
broke out, regarding which the Whig record was un- 
popular in this State. The war was the absorbing 
and dominating question of the period, sweeping 
every other political issue in its course. The elec- 
tion in August gave Mr. French 58,700 votes, and 
Kilpatrick only 36,775. Richard Eells, Abolitionist 
candidate for the same office, received 5,152 votws. 



144 



AUGUSTUS C. FRENCH. 



By the new Constitution of 1848, a new election for 
State officers was ordered in November of that year, 
before Gov. French's terra was half out, and he was 
re-elected for the term of four years. He was there- 
fore the incumbent for six consecutive years, the 
only Governor of this State who has ever served in 
that capacity so long at one time. As there was no 
organized opposition to his election, he received 67,- 
453 votes, to 5,639 for Pierre Menard (son of the 
first Lieutenant Governor), 4,748 for Charles V. 
Dyer, 3,834 for W. L. D. Morrison, and 1,361 for 
James L. D. Morrison. But Wm. McMurtry, of 
Knox County, was elected Lieutenant Governor, in 
place of Joseph B. Wells, who was before elected 
and did not run again. 

Governor French was inaugurated into office dur- 
ing the progress of the Mexican War, which closed 
during the summer of 1847, although the treaty of 
Guadalupe Hidalgo was not made until Feb. 2, 
1848. The policy of Gov. French's party was com- 
mitted to that war, but in connection with that affair 
he was, of course, only an administrative officer. 
During his term of office, Feb. 19, 1847, the Legisla- 
ture, by special permission of Congress, declared that 
all Government lands sold to settlers should be im- 
mediately subject to State taxation ; before this they 
were exempt for five years after sale. By this ar- 
rangement the revenue was materially increased. 
About the same time, the distribution of Government 
-and warrants among the Mexican soldiers as bounty 
threw upon the market a great quantity of good 
lands, and this enhanced the settlement of the State. 
The same Legislature authorized, with the recom- 
mendation of the Governor, the sale of the Northern 
Cross Railroad (from Springfield to Meredosia, the 
first in the State and now a section of the Wabash, 
St. Louis & Pacific) It sold for $100,000 in bonds, 
although it had cost the State not less than a million. 
The salt wells and canal lands in the Saline reserve 
in Gallatin County, granted by the general Govern- 
ment to the State, were also authorized by the 
Governor to be sold, to apply on the State debt. In 
1850, for the first time since 1839, the accruing State 
revenue, exclusive of specific appropriations, was 
sufficient to meet the current demands upon the 
treasury. The aggregate taxable property of the 
State at this time was over $100,000,000, and the 
population 851,470. 



In 1849 the Legislature adopted the township or- 
ganization law, which, however, proved defective, 
and was properly amended in 1851. At its session 
in the latter year, the General Assembly also pasbed 
a law to exempt homesteads from sale on executions 
This beneficent measure had been repeatedly urged 
upon that body by Gov. French. 

In 1850 some business men in St. Louis com- 
menced to build a dike opposite the lower part of 
their city on the Illinois side, to keep the Mississippi 
in its channel near St. Louis, instead of breaking 
away from them as it sometimes threatened to do. 
This they undertook without permission from the 
Legislature or Executive authority of this State ; and 
as many of the inhabitants there complained that 
the scheme would inundate and ruin much valuable 
land, there was a slight conflict of jurisdictions, re- 
sulting in favor of the St. Louis project ; and since 
then a good site has existed there for a city (East St. 
Louis), and now a score of railroads center there. 

It was in September, 1850, that Congress granted 
to this State nearly 3,000,000 acres of land in aid of 
the completion of the Illinois Central Railroad, 
which constituted the most important epoch in the 
railroad^ we might say internal improvement his- 
tory of the State. The road was rushed on to com- 
pletion, which accelerated the settlement of the in- 
terior of the State by a good class of industrious citi- 
zens, and by the charter a good income to the State 
Treasury is paid in from the earnings of the road. 

In 1851 the Legislature passed a law authorizing 
free stock banks, which was the source of much leg- 
islative discussion for a number of years. 

But we have not space further to particularize 
concerning legislation. Gov. French's administra- 
tion was not marked by any feature to be criticised, 
while the country was settling up as never before. 

In stature, Gov. French was of medium height, 
squarely built, light complexioned, with ruddy face 
and pleasant countenance. In manners he was 
plain and agreeable. By nature he was somewhat 
diffident, but he was often very outspoken in his con- 
victions of duty. In public speech he was not an 
orator, but was chaste, earnest and persuasive. In 
business he was accurate and methodical, and in his 
administration he kept up the credit of the State. 

He died in 1865, at his home in Lebanon, St 
Glair Co., 111. 



GO VERNORS OF ILLINOIS. 



>47 



Matteson. 





DEL A. MATTESON, Governor 
1 85 3-6, was born Aug. 8, 1808, 
in Jefferson County, New York, 
to which place his father had re- 
moved from Vermont three years 
before. His father was a farmer 
in fair circumstances, but a com- 
mon English education was all 
that his only son received. Young 
Joel first tempted fortune as a 
small tradesman in Prescott, 
Canada, before he was of age. 
He returned from that place to 
his home, entered an academy, 
taught school, visited the prin- 
cipal Eastern cities, improved a farm his father had 
given him, made a tour in the South, worked there 
in building railroads, experienced a slornv on the 
Gulf of Mexico, visited the gold diggings of Northern 
Georgia, and returned via Nashville to St. Louis and 
through Illinois to his father's home, when he mar- 
ried. In 1833, having sold his farm, he removed, 
with his wife and one child, to Illinois, and entered 
a claim on Government land near the head of An 
Sable River, in what is now Kendall County. At 
that time there were not more than two neighbors 
within a range of ten miles of his place, and only 
ihree or four houses between him and Chicago. He 
opened a large farm. His family was boarded 12 



miles away while he erected a house on his claim, 
sleeping, during this time, under a rude pole shed. 
Here his life was once placed in imminent peril by 
a huge prairie rattlesnake sharing his bed. 

In 1835 he bought largely at the Government land 
sales. During the speculative real-estate mania which 
broke out in Chicago in 1836 and spread over the State, 
he sold his lands under the inflation of that period 
and removed to Joliet. In 1838 he became a heavy 
contractor on the Illinois & Michigan Canal. Upon 
the completion of his job in 1841, when hard times 
prevailed, business at a stand, contracts paid in State 
scrip; when all the public works except the canal 
were abandoned, the State offered for sale 700 tons 
of railroad iron, which was purchased by Mr. Mat- 
teson at a bargain. This he accepted, shipped and 
sold at Detroit, realizing a very handsome profit, 
enough to pay off all his canal debts and leave him a 
surplus of several thousand dollars. His enterprise 
next prompted him to start a woolen mill at Joliet, 
in which he prospered, and which, after successive 
enlargements, became an enormous establishment. 

In r842 he was first elected a State Senator, but, 
by a bungling apportionment, j'c^n Pearson, a Senator 
holding over, was found to be in the same district, 
and decided to be entitled to represent it. Mat- 
teson's seat was declared vacant. Pearson, however 
with a nobleness difficult to appreciate in this day of 



148 



JOEL A. MATTE SON. 



greed for office, unwilling to represent his district 
under the circumstances, immediately resigned his 
unexpired term of two years. A bill was passed in a 
few hours ordering a new election, and in ten days' 
time Mr. Matteson was returned re-elected and took 
his seat as Senator. From his well-known capacity 
as a business man, he was made Chairman of the 
Committee on Fincrce, a position he held during 
this half and two full succeeding Senatorial terms, 
discharging its important duties with ability and faith- 
fulness. Besides his extensive woolen-mill interest, 
when work was resumed on the canal under the new 
loan of $1,600,000 he again became a heavy con- 
tractor, and also subsequently operated largely in 
building railroads. Thus he showed himself a most 
energetic and thorough business man. 

He was nominated for Governor by the Demo- 
cratic State Convention which met at Springfield 
April 20, 1852. Other candidates before the Con- 
vention were D. L. Gregg and F. C. Sherman, of 
Cook ; John Dement, of Lee ; Thomas L. Harris, of 
Menard; Lewis W. Ross, of Fulton ; and D. P. Bush, 
of Pike. Gustavus Koerner, of St. Clair, was nom- 
inated for Lieutenant Governor. For the same offices 
the Whigs nominated Edwin B. Webb and Dexter A. 
Knowlton. Mr. Matteson received 80,645 votes at 
the election, while Mr. Webb received 64,408. Mat- 
teson's forte was not on the stump; he had not cul- 
tivated the art of oily flattery, or the faculty of being 
all things to all men. His intellectual qualities took 
rather the direction of efficient executive ability. His 
turn consisted not so much in the adroit manage- 
ment of party, or the powerful advocacy of great gov- 
ernmental principles, as in those more solid and 
enduring operations which cause the physical devel- 
opment and advancement of a State, of commerce 
and business enterprise, into which he labored with 
success to lead the people. As a politician he was 
just and liberal in his views, and both in official and 
private life he then stood untainted and free from 
blemish. As a man, in active benevolence, social 
rirtues and all the amiable qualities of neighbor or 
citizen, he had few superiors. His messages present 
a perspicuous array of facts as to the condition of the 
State, and are often couched in forcible and elegant 
diction. 

The greatest excitement during his term of office 
was the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, by Con- 



gress, under the leadership of Stephen A. Douglas in 
1854, when the bill was passed organizing the Terri- 
tory of Kansas and Nebraska. A large portion of 
the Whig party of the North, through their bitter op- 
position to the Democratic party, naturally drifted 
into the doctrine of anti-slavery, and thus led to what 
was temporarily called the " Anti- Nebraska " party, 
while the followers of Douglas were known as " Ne- 
braska or Douglas Democrats." It was during this 
embryo stage of the Republican party that Abraham 
Lincoln was brought forward as the " Anti-Nebraska " 
candidate for the United States Senatorship, while 
Gen. James Shields, the incumbent, was re-nom- 
inated by the Democrats, But after a fewballotings 
in the Legislature (1855), these men were dropped, 
and Lyman Trumbull, an Anti-Nebraska Democrat, 
was brought up by the former, and Mr. Matteson, 
then Governor, by the latter. On the nth ballot 
Mr. Trumbull obtained one majority, and was ac- 
cordingly declared elected. Before Gov. Matteson 's 
term expired, the Republicans were fully organized 
as a national party, and in 1856 put into the field a 
full national and State ticket, carrying the State, but 
not the nation. 

The Legislature of 1855 passed two very import- 
ant measures, the present free-school system and a 
submission of the Maine liquor law to a vote of the 
people. The latter was defeated by a small majority 
of the popular vote. 

During the four years of Gov. Matteson's admin- 
istration the taxable wealth of the State was about 
trebled, from $137,818,079 to $349,951,272; the pub- 
lic debt was reduced from $17,398,985 to $12,843,- 
144; taxation was at the same time reduced, and the 
State resumed paying interest on its debt in New 
York as fast as it fell due ; railroads were increased 
in their mileage from something less than 400 to 
about 3.000 ; and the population of Chicago was 
nearly doubled, and its commerce more than quad- 
rupled. 

Before closing this account, we regret that we have 
to say that Mr. Matteson, in all other respects an 
upright man and a good Governor, was implicated 
in a false re-issue of redeemed canal scrip, amount- 
ing to $224,182.66. By a suit in the Sangamon Cir- 
cuit Court the State recovered the principal and all 
the interest excepting $27,500. 

He died in the winter of 1872-3, at Chicago. 



GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS. 



: 





ILLIAM H. BISSELL, Gov- 
ernor 1857-60, was born 
April 25, 1811, in the 
State of New York, near 
Painted Post, Yates County. 
His parents were obscure, 
honest, God-fearing people, 
ho reared their children under the daily 
example of industry and frugality, accord- 
ing to the custom of that class of Eastern 
society. Mr. Bissell received a respecta- 
ble but not thorough academical education. 
By assiduous application he acquired a 
knowledge of medicine, and in his early 
manhood came West and located in Mon- 
roe County, this State, where he engaged in the 
practice of that profession. But he was not enam- 
ored of his calling: he was swayed by a broader 
ambition, to such an extent that the mysteries of the 
healing art and its arduous duties failed to yield him 
further any charms. In a few years he discovered 
his choice of a profession to be a mistake, and when 
he approached the age of 30 he sought to begin 
:mew. Dr. Bissell, no doubt unexpectedly to him- 
self, discovered a singular facility and charm of 
speech, the exercise of which acquired for him a 
ready local notoriety. It soon came lo be under- 



f 



stood that he desired to abandon his profession and 
take up that of the law. During terms of Court he 
would spend his time at the county seat among the 
members of the Bar, who extended to him a ready 
welcome. 

It was not strange, therefore, that he should drift 
into public life. In 1840 he was elected as a Dem- 
ocrat to the Legislature from Monroe County, and 
was an efficient member of that body. On his re- 
turn home he qualified himself for admission to the 
Bar and speedily rose to the front rank as an advo- 
cate. His powers of oratory were captivating. With a 
pure diction, charming and inimitable gestures, 
clearness of statement, and a remarkable vein of sly 
humor, his efforts before a jury told with irresistible 
effect. He was chosen by the Legislature Prosecut- 
ing Attorney for the Circuit in which he lived, and 
in that position he fully discharged his duty to the 
State, gained the esteem of the Bar, and seldom 
failed to convict the offender of the law. 

In stature he was somewhat tall and slender, and 
with a straight, military bearing, he presented a dis- 
tinguished appearance. His complexion was dark, 
his head well poised, though not large, his address 
pleasant and manner winning. He was exemplary 
in his habits, a devoted husband and kind parent. 
He was twice married, the first time to Miss James, 



WILLIAM If. BISSELL, 



of Monroe County, by whom he had two children, 
both daughters. She died soon after the year 1840, 
and Mr. B. married for his second wife a daughter 
of Elias K. Kane, previously a United States Senator 
from this State. She survived hiro but a short time, 
and died without issue. 

When the war with Mexico was declared in 1846, 
Mr. Bissell enlisted and was elected Colonel of his 
regiment, over Hon. Don Morrison, by an almost 
unanimous vote, 807 to 6. Considering the limited 
opportunities he had had, he evinced a high order of 
military talent. On the bloody field of Buena Vista 
he acquitted himself with intrepid and distinguished 
ability, contributing with his regiment, the Second 
Illinois, in no small degree toward saving the waver- 
ing fortunes of our arms during that long and fiercely 
contested battle. 

After his return home, at the close of the war, he 
was elected to Congress, his opponents being the 
Hons. P. B. Fouke and Joseph Gillespie. He served 
two terms in Congress. He was an ardent politician. 
During the great contest of 1850 he voted in favor 
of the adjustment measures; but in 1854 he opposed 
the repeal of the Missouri Compromise act and 
therefore the Kansas-Nebraska bill of Douglas, and 
thus became identified with the nascent Republican 
party. 

During his first Congressional term, while the 
Southern members were following their old practice 
of intimidating the North by bullying language, 
and claiming most of the credit for victories in the 
Mexican War, and Jefferson Davis claiming for the 
Mississippi troops all the credit for success at Buena 
Vista, Mr. Bissell bravely defended the Northern 
troops ; whereupon Davis challenged Bissell to a duel, 
which was accepted. This matter was brought up 
against Bissell when he was candidate for Governor 
and during his term of office, as the Constitution of 
this State forbade any duelist from holding a State 
office. 

In 1856, when the Republican party first put forth 
a candidate, John C. Fremont, for President of the 
United States, the same party nominated Mr. Bissell 
for Governor of Illinois, and John Wood, of Quincy, 
for Lieutenant Governor, while the Democrats nomi- 
nated Hon. W. A. Richardson, of Adams County, 
for Governor, and Col. R. J. Hamilton, of Cook 
County, for Lieutenant Governor. The result of the 



election was a plurality of 4,729 votes over Richard- 
son. The American, or Know-Nothing, party had a 
ticket in the field. The Legislature was nearly bal- 
anced, but was .politically opposed to the Governor. 
His message to the Legislature was short and rather 
ordinary, and was criticised for expressing the sup- 
posed obligations of the people to the incorporators 
of the Illinois Central Railroad Company and for re- 
opening the slavery question by allusions to the 
Kansas troubles. Late in the session an apportion- 
ment bill, based upon the State census of 1855, was 
passed, amid much partisan strife. The Governor 
at first signed the bill and then vetoed it. A furious 
debate followed, and the question whether the Gov- 
ernor had the authority to recall a signature was 
referred to the Courts, that of last resort deciding in 
favor of the Governor. Two years afterward another 
outrageous attempt was made for a re-apportionment 
and to gerrymander the State, but the Legislature 
failed to pass the bill over the veto of the Governor. 

It was during Gov. Bissell's administration that 
the notorious canal scrip fraud was brought to light, 
implicating ex-Gov. Matteson and other prominent 
State officials. The principal and interest, aggregat- 
ing $255,500, was all recovered by the State except- 
ing $27,500. (See sketch of Gov. Matteson.) 

In 1859 an attempt was discovered to fraudu- 
lently refund the Macalister and Stebbins bonds and 
thus rob the State Treasury of nearly a quarter of a 
million dollars. The State Government was impli- 
cated in this affair, and to this day remains unex- 
plained or unatoned for. For the above, and other 
matters previously mentioned, Gov. Bissell has been 
severely criticised, and he has also been most shame- 
fully libelled and slandered. 

On account of exposure in the army, the remote 
cause of a nervous form of disease gained entrance 
into his system and eventually developed paraplegia, 
affecting his lower extremities, which, while it left 
his body in comparative health, deprived him of loco- 
motion except by the aid of crutches. While he was 
generally hopeful of ultimate recovery, this myste- 
rious disease pursued him, without once relaxing its 
stealthy hold, to the close of his life, March 18, 
1 860, over nine months before the expiration of hi; 
gubernatorial term, at the early age of 48 years. He 
died in the faith of the Roman Catholic Church, of 
which he h:u been a member since 1854. 



GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS. 



'55 





-S- 



- : OHN WOOD, Governor i86o-i,and 
the first settler of Quincy, 111., 
was born in the town of Sempro- 
nius (now Moravia), Cayuga Co., 
N. Y., Dec. 20, 1798. He was 
the second child and only son of 
Dr. Daniel Wood. His mother, 
nee Catherine Crause, was of 
German parentage, and died 
while he was an infant. Dr. 
Wood was a learned and skillful 
physician, of classical attain- 
ments and proficient in several 
modern lai.guages, who, after 
serving throughout the Revolu- 
tionary War as a Surgeon, settled on the land granted 
him by the Government, and resided there a re- 
spected and leading influence in his section until his 
death, at the ripe age of 92 years. 

The subject of this sketch, impelled by the spirit 
of Western adventure then pervading everywhere, 
left his home, Nov. 2, 1818, and passed the succeed- 
ing winter in Cincinnati, Ohio. The following sum- 
mer he pushed on to Illinois, landing at Shawneetown, 
and spent the fall and following winter in Calhoun 
County. In 1820, in company with Willard Keyes, 
he settled in Pike County, about 30 miles southeast 
of Quincy, where for the next two years he pursued 
fanning. In 1821 he visited "the Bluffs" (as the 
present site of Quincy was called, then uninhabited) 
and, .pleased with its prospects, soon after purchased 
a quarter-section of land near by, and in the follow- 
ing fall (1822) erected near the liver a small cabin, 



1 8 x 20 feet, the first building in Quincy, of which 
he then became the first and for some months the 
only occupant. 

About this time he visited his old friends in Pike 
County, chief of whom was William Ross, the lead- 
ing man in building up the village of Atlas, of that 
county, which was thought then to be the possible 
commencement of a city. One day they and others 
were traveling together over the country between the 
two points named, making observations on the com- 
parative merits of the respective localities. On ap- 
proaching the Mississippi near Mr. Wood's place, 
the latter told his companions to follow him and he 
would show them where he was going to build a city. 
They went about a mile off the main trail, to a high 
point, from which the view in every direction was 
most magnificent, as it had been for ages and as yet 
untouched by the hand of man. Before them swept 
by the majestic Father of Waters, yet unburdened by 
navigation. After Mr. Wood had expatiated at 
length on the advantages of the situation, Mr. Ross 
replied, " But it's too near Atlas ever to amount to 
anything!" 

Atlas is still a cultivated farm, and Quincy is 
city of over 30,000 population. 

In 1824 Mr. Wood gave a newspaper notice, 
as the law then prescribed, of his intention to apply 
to the General Assembly for the formation of a new 
county. This was done the following winter, result- 
ing in the establishment of the present Adams 
County. During the next summer Quincy was se- 
lected as the county seat, it and the vicinity then 
containing but four adult male residents and half 



JOHN WOOD. 



that number of females. Sinoe that period Mr. 
Wood resided at the place of his early adoption un- 
til his death, and far more than any other man was 
he identified with every measure of its progress and 
history, and almost continuously kept in public posi- 
tions. 

He was one of the early town Trustees, and after 
the place became a city he was often a member of 
the City Council, many times elected Mayor, in the 
face of a constant large opposition political majority. 
In 1850 he was elected to the State Senate. In 1856, 
on the organization of the Republican party, he was 
chosen Lieutenant Governor of the State, on the 
ticket with Wm. H. Bissell for Governor, and on the 
death of the latter, March 18, 1860, he succeeded to 
the Chief Executive chair, which he occupied until 
Gov. Yates was inaugurated nearly ten months after- 
ward. 

Nothing very marked characterized the adminis- 
tration of Gov. Wood. The great anti-slavery cam- 
paign of 1860, resulting in the election of the honest 
Illinoisan, Abraham Lincoln, to the Presidency of the 
United States, occurred during the short period 
while Mr. Wood was Governor, and the excitement 
and issues of that struggle dominated over every 
other consideration, indeed, supplanted them in a 
great measure. The people of Illinois, during all 
that time, were passing the comparatively petty strifes 
under Bissell's administration to the overwhelming 
issue of preserving the whole nacion from destruction. 

In 1861 ex-Gov. Wood was one of the five Dele- 
gates from Illinois to the " Peace Convention " at 
Washington, and in April of the same year, on the 
breaking out of the Rebellion, he was appointed 



Quartermaster-General of the State, which position 
he held throughout the war. In 1864 he took com- 
mand as Colonel of the i37th 111. Vol. Inf., with 
whom he served until the period of enlistment ex- 
pired. 

Politically, Gov. Wood was always actively identi- 
fied with the Whig and Republican parties. Few 
men have in personal experience comprehended so 
many surprising and advancing local changes as 
vested in the more than half century recollections of 
Gov. Wood. Sixty-font years ago a solitary settler 
on the "Bluffs," with no family, and no neighbor 
within a score of miles, the world of civilization away 
behind him, and the strolling red-man almost his 
only visitant, he lived to see growing around him, 
and under his auspices and aid, overspreading the 
wild hills and scraggy forest a teaming city, second 
only in size in the State, and surpassed nowhere in 
beauty, prosperity and promise; whose people recog- 
nize as with a single voice the proverbial honor and 
liberality that attach to the name and lengthened 
life of their pioneef settler, "the old Governor." 

Gov. Wood was twice married, first in January, 
1826, to Ann M. Streeter, daughterof Joshua Streeter, 
formerly of Salem, Washington Co., N. Y. They had 
eight children. Mrs. W. died Oct. 8, 1863, and in 
June, 1865, Gov. Wood married Mrs. Mary A., widow 
of Rev. Joseph T. Holmes. Gov. Wood died June 4, 
.1880, at his residence in Quincy. Four of his eight 
children are now living, namely: Ann E., wife of 
Gen. John Tillson; Daniel C., who married Mary J. 
Abernethy; John, Jr., who married Josephine Skinner, 
and Joshua S., who married Annie Bradley. The 
last mentioned now resides at Atchison, Kansas, and 
all the rest are still at Quincy. 





; 



- 






ilCHARD YATES, the "War 
Governor," 1861-4, was born 
Jan. 18, 1818, on the banks of 
the Ohio River, at Warsaw, 
Gallatin Co., Ky. His lather 
moved in 1831 to Illinois, and t 
after stopping for a time in 
Springfield, settled at Island 
Grove, Sangamon County. Here, 
after attending school, Richard joined 
the family. Subsequently he entered 
Illinois College at Jacksonville, 
where, in 1837, he graduated with 
first honors. He chose for his pro- 
fession the law, the Hon. J. J. Har- 
din being his instructor. After ad- 
mission to the Bar he soon rose to distinction as an 
advocate. 

Gifted with a fluent and ready oratory, he soon 
appeared in the political hustings, and, being a 
passionate admirer of the great Whig leader of the 
West. Henry Clay, he joined his political fortunes to 
he party of his idol. In 1840 he engaged with great 
vrdor in the exciting " hard cider " campaign for 
Garrison. Two years later he was elected to the 
Legislature from Morgan County, a Democratic 
stronghold. He served three or four terms in the 
Legislature, and such was the fascination of his ora- 
;^ry that by 1850 his large Congressional District, 
extending from Morgan and Sangamon Counties 
. orth to include LaSalle, unanimously tendered him 
tne Whig nomination for Congress. His Democratic 
opponent was Maj. Thomas L. Harris, a very pop- 
\--\ar man who had won distinction at the battle of 
Cerro Gordo, in the Mexican War, and who had 
ueaten Hon. Stephen T. Logan for the same position, 



two years before, by a large majority. Yates wa? 
clected. Two years later he was re-elected, over 
John Calhoun. 

It was during Yates second term in Congress that 
the great question of the repeal of the Missouri Com- 
promise was agitated, and the bars laid down for re- 
opening the dreaded anti-slavery question. He took 
strong grounds against the repeal, and thus became 
identified with the rising Republican party. Conse- 
quently he fell into the minority in his district, which 
was pro-slavery. Even then, in a third contest, he 
fell behind Major Harris only 200 votes, after the 
district had two years before given Pierce 2,000 
majority for President. 

The Republican State Convention of 1860 met at 
Decatur May 9, and nominated for the office of Gov- 
ernor Mr. Yates, in preference to Hon. Norman B. 
Judd, of Chicago, and Leonard Swett, of Blooming- 
ton, two of the ablest men of the State, who were 
also candidates before the Convention. Francis A. 
Hoffman, of DuPage County, was nominated for 
Lieutenant Governor. This was the year when Mr. 
Lincoln was a candidate for President, a period re- 
membered as characterized by the great whirlpool 
which precipitated the bloody War of the Rebellion. 
The Douglas Democrats nominated J. C. Allen cf 
Crawford County, for Governor, and Lewis W. Ross, 
of Fulton County, for Lieutenant Governor. The 
Breckenridge Democrats and the Bell-Everett party 
had also full tickets in the field. After a most fear- 
ful campaign, the result of the election gave Mr. 
Yates 172^96 votes, and Mr, Allen 159,253. Mr. 
Yates received over a thousand more votes than did 
Mr. Lincoln himself. 

Gov. Yates occupied the chair of State during the 



RICHARD YATES. 



most critical period of our country's history. In the 
fate of the nation was involved that of each State. 
The life struggle of the former derived its sustenance 
from the loyalty of the latter; and Gov. Yates 
seemed to realize the situation, and proved himself 
both loyal and wise in upholding the Government. 
He had a deep hold upon the affections of the 
people, won by his moving eloquence and genial 
manners. Erect and symmetrical in person, of pre- 
possessing appearance, with a winning address and a 
magnetic power, few men possessed more of the ele- 
ments of popularity. His oratory was scholarly and 
captivating, his hearers hardly knowing why they 
were transported. He was social and convivial. In 
the latter respect he was ultimately carried too far. 

The very creditable military efforts of this State 
during the War of the Rebellion, in putting into the 
field the enormous number of about 200,000 soldiers, 
were ever promptly and ably seconded by his excel- 
lency ; and the was ambitious to deserve the title of 
"the soldier's friend." Immediately after the battle of 
Shiloh he repaired to the field of carnage to look 
after the wounded, and his appeals for aid were 
promptly responded to by the people. His procla- 
mations calling for volunteers were impassionate 
appeals, urging upon the people the duties and re- 
quirements of patriotism ; and his special message 
in 1863 to the Democratic Legislature of this State 
pleading for material aid for the sick and wounded 
soldiers of Illinois regiments, breathes a deep fervor 
of noble sentiment and feeling rarely equaled in 
beauty or felicity of expression. Generally his mes- 
sages on political and civil affairs were able and com- 
prehensive. During his administration, however, 
there were no civil events of an engrossing character, 
although two years of his time were replete with 
partisan quarrels of great bitterness. Military ar- 
rests, Knights of the Golden Circle, riot in Fulton 
County, attempted suppression of the Chicago Times 
and the usurping State Constitutional Convention of 
1862, were the chief local topics that were exciting 
during the Governor's term. This Convention assem- 
bled Jan. 7, and at once took the high position that 
he law calling it was no longer binding, and that it 
ad supreme power; that it represented a virtual 
assemblage of the whole people of the State, and was 
:;->vereign in the exercise of all power necessary to 
effect a peaceable revolution of the State Government 



and to the re-establishment of one for the " happiness, 
prosperity and freedom of the citizens," limited only 
by the Federal Constitution. Notwithstanding the 
law calling the Convention required its members to 
take an oath to support the Constitution of the State 
as well as that of the general Government, they 
utterly refused to take such oath. They also as- 
sumed legislative powers and passed several import- 
ant "laws!" Interfering with the (then) present 
executive duties, Gov. Yates was provoked to tell 
them plainly that " he did not acknowledge the right 
of the Convention to instruct him in the performance 
of his duty." 

In 1863 the Governor astonished the Democrats 
by " proroguing " their Legislature. This body, after 
a recess, met June 2, that year, and soon began to 
waste time upon various partisan resolutions ; and, 
while the two houses were disagreeing upon the 
question of adjourning sine die, the Governor, having 
the authority in such cases, surprised them all by 
adjourning them " to the Saturday next preceding the 
first Monday in January, 1865 !" This led to great 
excitement and confusion, and to a reference of the 
Governor's act to the Supreme Court, who decided in 
his favor. Then it was the Court's turn to receive 
abuse for weeks and months afterward. 

During the autumn of 1864 a conspiracy was de- 
tected at Chicago which had for its object the liber- 
ation of the prisoners of war at Camp Douglas, the 
burning of the city and the inauguration of rebellion 
in the North. Gen. Sweet, who had charge of the 
camp at the time, first had his suspicions of danger 
aroused by a number of enigmatically worded letters 
which passed through the Camp postoffice. A de- 
tective afterward discovered that the rebel Gen. 
Marmaduke was in the city, under an assumed 
name, and he, with other rebel officers Grenfell, 
Morgan, Cantrell, Buckner Morris, and Charles 
Walsh was arrested, most of whom were convicted 
by a court-martial at Cincinnati and sentenced to 
imprisonment, Grenfell to be hung. The sentence 
of the latter was afterward commuted to imprison- 
ment for life, and all the others, after nine months' 
imprisonment, were pardoned. 

In March, 1873, Gov. Yates was appointed a Gov- 
ernment Director of t lie Union Pacific Railroad, in 
which office he continued until his decease, at St. 
Louis, Mo., on the 271)1 of Noveml LT following. 



GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS. 



'63 





Michard J. Ogles 
I 









-s 



UCHARD J. OGLESBY, Gov- 
ernor 1865-8, and re-elected 
in 1872 and 1884, was born 
July 25, 1824, in Oldham Co., 
Ky., the State which might 
be considered the " mother of 
Illinois Governors." Bereft of 
his parents at the tender age 
of eight years, his early education 
was neglected. When 12 years of 
age, and after he had worked a year 
and a half at the carpenter's trade, 
he removed with an uncle, Willis 
Oglesby, into whose care he had 
been committed, to Decatur, this 
State, where he continued his ap- 
prenticeship as a mechanic, working six months for 
Hon. E. O. Smith. 

In 1844 he commenced studying law at Spring- 
field, with Judge Silas Robbins, and read with him 
one year. He was admitted to the Bar in 1845, and 
commenced the practice of his chosen profession at 
Sullivan, the county seat of Moultrie County. 

The next year the war with Mexico was com- 
menced, and in June, 1846, Mr. Oglesby volunteered, 
was elected First Lieutenant of Co. C, Fourth Illinois 
Regiment of Volunteers, and participated in the bat- 
tles of Vera Crui and Cerro Gordo. 

On his return he sought to perfect his law studies 
by attending a course of lectures at Louisville, but 
(in the breaking out of the California "gold fever " in 
1849, he crossed the plains and mountains to the 
new KMorailo. <lriving a six-mule team, with a com- 



pany of eight men, Henry Prather being the leader. 

In 1852 he returned home to Macon County, and 
was placed that year by the Whig party on the ticket 
of Presidential Electors. In 1856 he visited Europe, 
Asia and Africa, being absent 20 months. On his 
return home he resumed the practice of law, as a 
member of the firm of Gallagher, Wait & Oglesby. 
In 1858 he was the Republican nominee for the 
Lower House of Congress, but was defeated by the 
Hon. James C. Robinson, Democrat. In 1860 he 
was elected to the Illinois State Senate ; and on the 
evening the returns of this election were coming in, 
Mr. Oglesby had a fisticuff encounter with " Cerro 
Gordo Williams," in which he came out victorious, 
and which was regarded as " the first fight of the 
Rebellion." The following spring, when the war 
had commenced in earnest, his ardent nature 
quickly responded to the demands of patriotism and 
he enlisted. The extra session of the Legislature 
elected him Colonel of the Eighth Illinois Infantry, 
the second one in the State raised to suppress the 
great Rebellion. 

He was shortly entrusted with important com- 
mands. For a time he was stationed at Bird's Point 
and Cairo ; in April he was promoted Brigadier Gen- 
eral ; at Fort Donelson his brigade was in the van, 
being stationed on the right of General Grant's army 
and the first brigade to be attacked. He lost 500 
men before re-inforcements arrived. Many of these 
men were from Macon County. He was engaged in 
the battle of Corinth, and, in a brave charge at this 
place, was shot in the left lung with an ounce ball, 
and was carried from the field in expectation of im- 



164 



RICHARD J. OGLESBY. 



mediate death. That rebel ball he carries to this 
day. On his partial recovery he was promoted as 
Major General, for gallantry, his commission to rank 
from November, 1862. In the spring of 1863 he 
was assigned to the command of the i6th Army 
Corps, but, owing to inability from the effects of his 
wound, he relinquished this command in July, that 
year. Gen. Grant, however, refused to accept his 
resignation, and he was detailed, in December follow- 
ing, to court-martial and try the Surgeon General of 
the Army at Washington, where he remained until 
May, 1864, when he returned home. 

The Republican, or Union, State Convention of 

1864 was held at Springfield, May 25, when Mr. 
Oglesby was nominated for the office of Governor, 
while other candidates before the Convention were 
Allen C. Fuller, of Boone, Jesse K. Dubois.of Sanga- 
mon, and John M. Palmer, of Macoupin. Wm. 
Bross, of Chicago, was nominated for Lieutenant 
Governor. On the Democratic State ticket were 
James C. Robinson, of ('lark, for Governor, and S. 
Corning Judd, of Fulton, for Lieutenant Governor. 
The general election gave Gen. Oglesby a majority 
of about 31,000 votes. The Republicans had also a 
majority in both the Legislature and in the repre- 
sentation in Congress. 

Gov. Oglesby was duly inaugurated Jan. 17, 1865. 
The day before the first time set for his installation 
death visited his home at Decatur, and took from it 
his only son, an intelligent and sprightly lad of six 
years, a great favorite of the bereaved parents. _This 
caused the inauguration to be postponed a week'. 

The political events of the Legislative session of 

1865 were the election of ex-Gov. Yates to the 
United States Senate, and the ratification of the 131)1 
amendment to the Constitution of the United States, 
abolishing slavery. This session also signalized 
itself by repealing the notorious " black laws," parl 
of which, although a dead letter, had held their place 
upon the statute books since 1819. Also, laws re- 
quiring the registration of voters, and establishing a 
State Board of Equalization, were passed by this Leg- 
islature. But the same body evinced that it was cor- 
ruptly influenced by a mercenary lobby, as it adopted 
some bad legislation, over the Governor's veto, nota- 
bly an amendment to a charter for a Chicago horse 
railway, granted in 1859 for 25 years, and now 
sought to be extended 99 years. As this measure 
was promptly passed over his veto by both branches 
of the Legislature, he deemed it useless further to 
attempt to check their headlong career. At this 
session no law of a general useful character or public 
interest was perfected, unless we count such the 
turning over of the canal to Chicago to be deepened. 
The session of 1867 was still more productive of 
private and special acts. Many omnibus bills were 
proposed, and some passed. The contests over the 
.Creation of the Industrial College, the Capital, the 



Southern Penitentiary, and the canal enlargement 
and Illinois River improvement, dominated every 
thing else. 

During the year 1872, it became evident that i( 
the Republicans could re-elect Mr. Oglesby to the 
office of Governor, they could also elect him to the 
United States Senate, which they desired to do. 
Accordingly they re-nominated him for the Execu- 
tive chair, and placed upon the ticket with him for 
Lieutenant Governor, John L. Beveridge, of Cook 
County. On the other side the Democrats put into 
the field Gustavus Koerner for Governor and John 
C. Black for Lieutenant Governor. The election 
gave the Republican ticket majorities ranging from 
35,334 to 56,174, the Democratic defection being 
caused mainly by their having an old-time Whig and 
Abolitionist, Horace Greeley, on the national ticket 
for President. According to the general understand- 
ing had beforehand, as soon as the Legislature met 
it elected Gov. Oglesby to the United States Senate, 
whereupon Mr. Beveridge became Governor. Sena- 
tor Oglesby 's term expired March 4, 1879, having 
served his party faithfully and exhibited an order of 
statesmanship beyond criticism. 

During the campaign of 1884 Mr. Oglesby was 
nominated for a "third term" as Executive of the 
State of Illinois, against Carter H. Harrison, Mayor 
of Chicago, nominated by the Democrats. Both 
gentlemen "stumped " the State, and while the peo- 
ple elected a Legislature which was a tie on a join'; 
ballot, as between the two parties, they gave the 
jovial " Dick" Oglesby a majority of 15,018 for Gov- 
ernor, and he was inaugurated Jan. 30, 1885. The 
Legislature did not fully organize until this date, on 
account of its equal division between the two main 
parties and the consequent desperate tactics of each 
party to checkmate the latter in the organization of 
the House. 

Gov. Oglesby is a fine-appearing, affable man, with 
regular, well defined features and rotund face. In 
stature he is a little above medium height, of a large 
frame and somewhat fleshy. His physical appear- 
ance is strikir.g and prepossessing, while his straight- 
out, not to say bluff, manner and speech are well 
calculated favorably to impress the average masses. 
Ardent in feeling and strongly committed to the pol- 
icies of his party, he intensifies Republicanism 
among Republicans, while at the same time his iovia. 
and liberal manner prevents those of the opposite 
party from hating him. 

He is quite an effective stump orator. With vehe- 
ment, passionate and scornful tone and gestures, 
tremendous physical power, which in speaking he 
exercises to the utmost; with frequent descents to 
the grotesque; and witli abundant homely compari- 
sons or frontier figures, expressed in the broadest 
vernacular and enforced with stentorian emphasis, 
he delights a promiscuous audience beyond measure 






GO VERNORS OF ILLINOIS. 



iC> 7 









JOHN 






:OHN Me AULEY PALMER, Gov- 
ernor 1869-72, was born on 
Eagle Creek, Scott Co., Ky., 
Sept. 13, 1817. During his in- 
fancy, his father, who had been 
a soldier in the war of 1812, re- 
moved to Christian Co., Ky., 
where lands were cheap. Here 
the future Governor of the great 
Prairie State spent his childhood 
and received such meager school- 
ing as the new and sparsely set- 
tled country afforded. To this 
he added materially by diligent 
reading, for which he evinced an 
eaily aptitude. His father, an ardent Jackson man, 
was also noted for his anti-slavery sentiments, which 
he thoroughly impressed upon his children. In 1831 
he emigrated to Illinois, settling in Madison County. 
Here the labor of improving a farm was pursued for 
about two years, when the death of Mr. Palmer's 
mother broke up the family. About this time Alton 
College was opened, on the "manual labor " system, 
and in the spring of 1834 young Palmer, with his 
elder brother, Elihu, entered this school and remained 
1 8 months. Next, for over three years, he tried 
variously coopering, peddling and school-teaching. 

During the summer of 1838 he formed the ac- 
quaintance of Stephen A. Douglass, then making his 



first canvass for Congress. Young, eloquent and in 
political accord with Mr. Palmer, he won his confi- 
dence, Sred his ambition and fixed his purpose. The 
following winter, while teaching near Canton, he be- 
gan to devote his spare time to a desultory reading 
of law, and in the spring entered a law office at Car- 
linville, making his home with his elder brother, 
Elihu. (The latter was a learned clergyman, of con- 
siderable orginality of thought and doctrine.) On 
the next meeting of the Supreme Court he was ad- 
mitted to the Bar, Douglas being one of his examiners. 
He was not immediately successful in his profession, 
and would have located elsewhere than Carlinville 
had he the requisite means. Thus his early poverty 
was a blessing in disguise, for to it he now attributes 
the success of his life. 

From 1839 on, while he diligently pursued his 
profession, he participated more or less in local 
politics. In 1843 he became Probate Judge. IP 
1847 he was elected to the State Constitutional Con 
vention, where he took a leading part. In 1852 lu 
was elected to the State Senate, and at the special 
session of February, 1854, true to the anti-slaverj 
sentiments bred in him, he took a firm stand in op- 
position to the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, 
and when the Nebraska question became a party 
issue he refused to receive a re-nomination for thi 
Senatorship at the hands of the Democracy, issuing 
a circular to that effect. A few weeks afterward. 



1 68 



JOHN MC AULEY PALMER. 



however, hesitating to break with his party, he par- 
ticipated in a Congressional Convention which nomi- 
T. L. Harris against Richard Yates, and which 
unqualifiedly approved the principles of the Kansas- 
Nebraska act. But later in the campaign he made 
the plunge, ran for the Senate as an Anti-Nebraska 
Democrat, and was elected. The following winter 
ne put in nomination for 4Jie jUntted States Senate 
Mr. Trumbull, and was one of the five steadfast men 
who voted for him until all the Whigs came to their 
support and elected their man. 

In 1856 he was Chairman of the Republican State 
Convention at Bloomington. He ran for Congress in 
1859, but was defeated. In 1860 he was Republican 
Presidential Elector for the State at large. In 1861 
ne was appointed one of the five Delegates (all Re- 
publicans) sent by Illinois to the peace congress at 
Washington. 

When the civil conflict broke out, he offered his 
services to his country, and was elected Colonel of the 
^4th 111. Vol. Inf., and participated in the engagements 
at Island No. 10; at Farmington, where he skillfully 
extricated his command from a dangerous ;>osition ', 
at Stone River, where his division for several hours, 
Dec. 31, 1862, held the advance and stood like a. 
rock, and for his gallantry there he was made Major 
General; at Chickamauga, where his and Van Cleve's 
divisions for two hours maintained their position 
when they were cut off by overpowering numbers. 
Under Gen. Sherman, he was assigned to the i4lh 
Army Corps and participated in the Atlanta campaign. 
At Peach-Tree Creek his prudence did much to avert 
disaster. In February, 1865, Gen. Palmer was as- 
signed to the military administration of Kentucky, 
which was a delicate post. That State was about 
half rebel and half Union, and those of the latter 
element were daily fretted by the loss of their slaves. 
He, who had been bred to the rules of common law, 
trembled at the contemplation of his extraordinary 
power over the persons and property of his fellow 
men, with which he was vested in his capacity as 
military Governor ; and he exhibited great caution in 
the execution of the duties of -his post. 

Gen. Palmer was nominated for Governor of Illi- 
nois by the Republican State Convention which met 
at Peoria May 6, 1868, and his nomination would 
probably have been made by acclamation had he not 
persistently declared that he could not accept a can- 



didature for the office. The result of the ensuing 
election gave Mr. Palmer a majority of 44,707 over 
John R. Eden, the Democratic nominee. 

On the meeting of the Legislature in January, 
1 869, the first thing to arrest public attention was 
that portion of the Governor's message which took 
broad State's rights ground. This and some minor 
points, which were more in keeping with the Demo- 
cratic sentiment, constituted the entering wedge fjr 
the criticisms and reproofs he afterward received 
from the Republican party, and ultimately resulted 
in his entire aleniation from the latter element. The 
Legislature just referred to was noted for the intro- 
duction of numerous bills in the interest of private 
parties, which were embarrassing to the Governor. 
Among the public acts passed was that which limited 
railroad charges for passenger travel to a maximum 
of three cents per mile ; and it was passed over the 
Governor's veto. Also, they passed, over his veto, 
the "tax-grabbing law" to pay r^ilroed subscriptions, 
the Chicago Lake Front bill, etc. The new State 
Constitution of 1870, far superior to the old, was a 
peaceful " revolution " which took place during Gov. 
Palmer's term of office. The suffering caused by the 
great Chicago Fire of October, 187 r, was greatly 
alleviated by the prompt responses of his excellency. 

Since the expiration of Gov. Palmers 's term, he has 
been somewhat prominent in Illinois politics, and 
has been talked of by many, especially in the Dem- 
ocratic party, as the best man in the State for a 
United States Senator. His business during life has 
been that of the law. Few excel him in an accurate 
appreciation of the depth and scope of its principles- 
The great number of his able veto messages abun- 
dantly testify not only this but also a rare capacity to 
point them out. He is a logical and cogent reasoner 
and an interesting, forcible and convincing speaker, 
though not fluent or ornate. Without brilliancy, his 
dealings are rather with facts and ideas than with 
appeals to passions and prejudices. He is a patriot 
and a statesman of very high order. Physically lit; is 
above the medium height, of robust frame, ruddy 
complexion and sanguine-nervous temperament He 
has a large cranial development, is vivacious, social 
in disposition, easy of approach, unostentatious in hi- 
habits of life, democratic in his habits and manner- 
and is a true American in his fundamental principle- 
of statesmanship. 



GO VERNORS OF ILLINOIS. 



171 





OHN LOWRiE BEVER- 
IDGE, Governor 1873-6, was 
born in the town of Green- 
wich, Washington Co., N. Y., 
July 6, 1824. His parents 
were George and Ann Bever- 
idge. His father's parents, An- 
drew and Isabel Beveridge, be- 
fore their marriage emigrated 
from Scotland just before the 
Revolutionary War, settling in 
Washington County. His father 
was the eldest of eight brothers, the 
youngest of whom was 60 years of 
age when the first one of the num- 
ber died. His mother's parents, 
James and Agnes Hoy, emigrated 
from Scotland at the close of the 
Revolutionary War, settling also in 
Washington Co., N. Y., with their 
first-born, whose " native land "was 
the wild ocean. His parents and 
grandparents lived beyond the time 
allotted to man, their average age 
being over 80 years. They belonged to the "Asso- 
ciate Church," a seceding Presbyterian body of 



America from the old Scotch school ; and so rigid 
was the training of young Beveridge that he never 
heard a sermon from any other minister except that 
of his own denomination until he was in his rgth 
year. Later in life he became a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, which relation he still 
holds. 

Mr. Beveridge received a good common-school ed- 
ucation, but his parents, who could obtain a livelihood 
only by rigid economy and industry, could not send 
him away to college. He was raised upon a farm; 
and was in his i8th year when the family removed 
to De Kalb County, this State, when that section was 
very sparsely settled. Chicago had less than 7,000 
inhabitants. In this wild West he continued as a 
farm laborer, teaching school during the winter 
months to supply the means of an education. In the 
fall of 1842 he attended one term at the academy at 
Granville, Putnam Co., 111., and subsequently several 
terms at the Rock River Seminary at Mount Morris, 
Ogle Co., 111., completing the academic course. At 
this time, the fall of 1845, his parents and brothers 
were anxious to have him go to college, even though 
he had not money sufficient; but, n_>t willing to bur- 
den the family, he packed his trunk and with only 
$40 in money started South to seek his fortune 



172 



JOHN L. Bh VKRTDGE. 



Poor, alone, without friends and influence, he thus 
entered upon the battle of life. 

First, he taught school in Wilson, Overton and 
jackson Cos., Tenn., in which experience he under- 
went considerable mental drill, both in book studies 
and in the ways of the world. He read law and was 
admitted to the Bar, in the South, but did not learn 
to love the institution of slavery, although he ad- 
mired many features of Southern character. In De- 
cember, 1847, he returned North, and Jan. 20, 1848, 
he married Miss Helen M. Judson, in the old Clark- 
Street M. E. church in Chicago, her father at that 
time being Pastor of the society there. In the spring 
of 1848 he returned with his wife to Tennessee, 
where his two children, Alia' May and Philo Judson, 
were born. 

In the fall of 1849, through the mismanagement 
of an associate, he lost what little he had accumu- 
lated and was left in debt. He scon managed to 
earn means to pay his debts, returned to De Kalb 
Co., 111., and entered upon the practice of his pro- 
fession at Sycamore, the county seat. On arrival 
from the South he had but one-quarter of a dollar in 
money, and scanty clothing and bedding for himself 
and family. He borrowed a little money, practiced 
iaw, worked in public offices, kept books for some of 
the business men of the town, and some railroad en- 
gineering, till the spring of 1854, when he removed 
to Evanston, 12 miles north of Chicago, a place then 
but recently laid out, under the supervision of the 
Northwestern University, a Methodist institution. 
Of the latter his father-in-law was then financial 
agent and business manager. Here Mr. Beveridge 
prospered, and the next year (1855) opened a law 
office in Chicago, where he found the battle some- 
what hard; but he persevered with encouragement 
and increasing success. 

Aug. 12, 1861, his law partner, Gen. John F. 
Farnsworth, secured authority to raise a regiment of 
cavalry, and authorized Mr. Beveridge to raise a 
company for it. He succeeded in a few days in rais- 
ing the company, of course enlisting himself along 
with it. The regiment rendezvoused at St. Charles, 
111., was mustered in Sept. 18, and on its organiza- 
tion Mr. B. was elected Second Major. It was at- 
tached, Oct. n, to the Eighth Cavalry and to the 
Army of the Potomac. He served with the regiment 
until November, 1863, participating in some 40 bat- 



tles and skirmishes : was at Fair Oaks, the seven days 
fight around Richmond, Fredericksburg, Chancellors- 
ville and Gettysburg. He commanded the regiment 
the greater part of the summer of 1 863, and it was while 
lying in camp this year that he originated the policy 
of encouraging recruits as well as the fighting capac- 
ity of the soldiery, by the wholesale furlough system. 
It worked so well that many other officers adopted 
it. In the fall of this year he recruited another com- 
pany, against heavy odds, in January, 1864, was 
commissioned Colonel of the I7th 111. Cav., and 
skirmished around in Missouri, concluding with the 
reception of the surrender of Gen. Kirby Smith's 
army in Arkansas. In 1865 he commanded various 
sub-districts in the Southwest. He was mustered 
out Feb. 6, 1866, safe from the casualties of war and 
a stouter man than when he first enlisted. His men 
idolized him. 

He then returned to Chicago, to practice law, with 
no library and no clientage, and no political experi- 
ence except to help others into office. In the fall of 
1866 he was elected Sheriff of Cook County, serving 
one term; next, until November, 1870, he practiced 
law and closed up the unfinished business of his 
office. He was then elected State Senator; in No- 
vember, 1871, he was elected Congressman at large; 
in November, 1872, he was elected Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor on the ticket with Gov. Oglesby; the latter be- 
ing elected to the U. S. Senate, Mr. Beveridge became 
Governor, Jan. 21, 1873. Thus, inside of a few 
weeks, he was Congressman at large, Lieutenant 
Governor and Governor. The principal events oc- 
curring during Gov. Beveridge's administration were: 
The completion, of the revision of the statutes, begun 
in 1869; the partial success of the "farmers' move- 
ment;" " Haines' Legislature " and Illinois' exhibit at 
the Centennial. 

Since the close of his gubernatorial term ex-Gov 
Beveridge has been a member of the firm of Bever- ' 
idge & Dewey, bankers and dealers in commercial 
paper at 7 1 Dearborn Street (McCormick Block), 
Chicago, and since November, 1881, he has also been ' 
Assistant United States Treasurer- office in the 
Government Building. His residence is still at Ev- ) 
anston. 

He has a brother and two sisters yet residing in 
De Kalb County James H. Beveridge, Mrs. Jennet 
Henry and Mrs. Isabel French. 



GOVERNORS OF TLLINOIS. 



'75 





HELBY M. CULLOM, Gover- 
nor 1877-83,!!. the sixth child 
of the late Richard N. Cullom, 
and was born Nov. 22, 1829,111 
Wayne Co., Ky., where his fa- 
ther then resided, and whence 
both the Illinois and Tennessee 
branches of the family originated. In 
the following year the family emi- 
grated to the vicinity of Washington, 
Tazewell Co., 111., when that section 
was very sparsely settled. They lo- 
cated on Deer Creek, in a grove at 
the time occupied by a party of In- 
dians, attracted there by the superior 
hunting and fishing afforded in that 
vicinity. The following winter was 
known as the " hard winter," the snow being very 
deep and lasting and the weather severely cold; and 
the family had to subsist mainly on boiled corn or 
hominy, and some wild game, for several weeks. In 
the course of time Mr. R. N. Cullom became a prom- 
inent citizen and was several times elected to the 
Legislature, both before and after the removal of the 
capital from Vandalia to Springfield. He died about 
'873- 

Until about 19 years of age young Cullom grew up 

to agricultural pursuits, attending school as he had 

'pportunity during the winter. Within this time, 

owever, he spent several months teachin" sr.hool. 



and in the following summer he "broke prairie "with 
an ox team for the neighbors. With the money ob- 
tained by these various ventures, he undertook a 
course of study at the Rock River Seminary, a 
Methodist institution at Mt. Morris, Ogle County: 
but the sudden change to the in-door life of a stu- 
dent told severely upon his health, and he was taken 
home, being considered in a hopelesa condition. While 
at Mt. Morris he heard Hon. E. B. Washburne make 
his first speech. 

On recovering health, Mr. Cullom concluded to 
study law, under the instruction of Abraham Lincoln, 
at Springfield, who had by this time attained some 
notoriety as an able lawyer; but the latter, being ab- 
sent from his office most of the time, advised Mr. 
Cullom to enter the office of Stuart & Edwards. 
After about a year of study there, however, his health 
failed again, and he was obliged to return once more 
to out-door life. Accordingly he bought hogs for 
packing, for A. G. Tyng, in Peoria, and while he re- 
gained his health he gained in purse, netting $400 in 
a few weeks. Having been admitted to the Bar, he 
went to Springfield, where he was soon elected City 
Attorney, on the Anti-Nebraska ticket. 

In 1856 he ran on the Fillmore ticket as a Presi- 
dential Elector, and, although failing to be elected as 
such, he was at the same time elected a Representa- 
tive in the Legislature from Sangamon County, by a 
local coalition of the American and Republican par- 
ties. On 'the organization of the House, he received 
the vote of the Fillmore men for Speaker. Practicing 



, 7 6 



SHELB Y M. CULLOM. 



law until 1860, he was again elected to the Legisla- 
ture, as a Republican, while the county went Demo- 
cratic on the Presidential ticket. In January follow- 
ing he was elected Speaker, probably the youngest 
man who had ever presided over an Illinois Legis- 
lature. After the session of 1 86 1, he was a candidate 
for the State Constitutional Convention called for 
that year, but was defeated, and thus escaped the 
disgrace of being connected with that abortive parly 
scheme to revolutionize the State Government. In 
1862 he was a candidate for the State Senate, but 
was defeated. The same year, however, he was ap- 
pointed by President Lincoln on a Government 
Commission, in company with Gov. Boutwell of 
Massachusetts and Cnarles A. Dana, since of the 
New York Sun, to investigate the affairs of the 
Quartermaster's and Commissary Departments at 
Cairo. He devoted several months to this duty. 

In 1864 he enteied upon a larger political field, 
being nominated as the Republican candidate for 
Congress from Jhe Eighth (Springfield) District, in 
opposition to the incumbent, John T. Stuart, who had 
been elected in 1862 by about 1,500 majority over 
Leonard Swett, then of Bloomington, now of Chicago. 
The result was the election of Mr. Cullom in Novem- 
ber following by a majority of 1,785. In 1866 he 
was re-elected to Congress, over Dr. E. S. Fowler, by 
the magnificent majority of 4, ro3! In 1868 he was 
again a candidate, defeating the Hon. B. S. Edwards, 
another of his old preceptors, by 2,884 votes. 

During his first term in Congress he served on the 
Committee on Foreign Affairs and Expenditures in 
the Treasury Department; in his second term, on 
the Committees on Foreign Affairs and on Territories ; 
and in his third term he succeeded Mr. Ashley, of 
Ohio, to the Chairmanship of the latter. He intro- 
duced a bill in the House, to aid in the execution of 
law in Utah, which caused more consternation among 
the Mormons than any measure had previously, but 
which, though it passed the House, failed to pass the 
Senate. 

The Republican Convention which met May 25, 
1876, nominated Mr. Cullom for Governor, while the 
other contestant was Gov. Beveridge. For Lieuten- 
ant-Governor they nominated Andrew Shuman, editor 
of the Chicago Journal. For the same offices the 
Democrats, combining with the Anti-Monopolists, 
olaced in nomination Lewis Steward, a wealthy 



farmer and manufacturer, and A. A. Glenn. The 
result of the election was rather close, Mr. Cullom 
obtaining only 6,800 majority. He was inaugurated 
Jan. 8, 1877. 

Great depression prevailed in financial circles at 
this time, as a consequence of the heavy failures of 
1873 and afterward, the effect of which had seemed 
to gather force from that time to the end of Gov. 
Cullom's first administration. This unspeculative 
period was not calculated to call forth any new 
issues, but the Governor's energies were at one time 
put to task to quell a spirit of insubordination that 
had been begun in Pittsburg, Pa., among the laboring 
classes, and transferred to Illinois at Chicago, East 
St. Louis and Braidwood, at which places laboring 
men for a short time refused to work or allow others 
to work. These disturbances were soon quelled and 
the wheels of industry again set in motion. 

In May, 1880, Gov. Cullom was re-nominated by 
the Republicans, against Lyman Trumbull, by the 
Democrats; and although the former party was some- 
what handicapped in the campaign by a zealous 
faction opposed to Grant for President and to Grant 
men for office generally, Mr. Cullom was re-elected 
by about 314,565, to 277,532 forthe Democratic State 
ticket. The Greenback vote at the same time was 
about 27,000. Both Houses of the Legislature again- 
became Republican, and no representative of the 
Greenback or Socialist parties were elected. Gov. 
Cullom was inaugurated Jan. 10, 1881. In his mes- 
sage he announced that the last dollar of the State 
debt had been provided for. 

March 4, 1883, the term of David Davis as United 
States Senator from Illinois expired, and Gov. Cul- 
lo n was chosen to succeed him. This promoted 
Lisutenant-Governor John M. Hamilton to the Gov- 
ernorship. Senator Cullom's term in the United 
Slides Senate will expire March 4, 1889. 

A.S a practitioner oflaw Mr. C. has been a member 
of the firm of Cullom, Scholes & Mather, at Spring- 
field; and he has also been President of the State 
National Bank. 

He has been married twice, the first time Dec. 
ii!, 1855, to Miss Hannah Fisher, by whom he had 
trto daughters; and the second time May 5, 1863, 
to Julia Fisher. Mrs. C is a member of the Method - 
isl Episcopal Church, with which religious body Mr. 
C. is also in sympathy. 



GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS. 



'7V 





OHN MARSHALL HAMIL- 
TON, Governor 1883-5, was 
born May 28, 1847, in a log 
house upon a farm about two 
miles from Richwood, Union 
County, Ohio. His father was 
Samuel Hamilton, the eldest son 
of Rev. Wm. Hamilton, who, to- 
gether with his brother, the Rev. 
Samuel Hamilton, was among the 
early pioneer Methodist preachers in 
Ohio. The mother of the subject of 
this sketch was, before her marriage, 
Mrs. Nancy McMorris, who was 
born and raised in Fauquier or Lou- 
doun County, Va., and related to the 
two large families of Youngs and Marshalls, well 
known in that commonwealth ; and from the latter 
family name was derived the middle name of Gov. 
Hamilton. 

In March, 1854, Mr. Hamilton's father sold out 
his little pioneer forest home in Union County, O., 
and, loading his few household effects and family 
(of six children) into two emigrant covered wagons, 
moved to Roberts Township, Marshall Co., 111., being 
2 1 days on the route. Swamps, unbridged streams 
and innumerable hardships and privations met them 
on their way. Their new home had been previously 
selected by the father. Here, after many long years 
of toil, they succeeded in payii.g for the land and 
a conifori^ 1 ' 1 ^ home. John was, of course, 



brought up to hard manual labor, with no schooling 
except three of four months in the year at a common 
country school. However, he evinced a capacity 
and taste for a high order of self-education, by 
studying or reading what books he could borrow, as 
the family had but very few in the house. Much of 
his study he prosecuted by the light of a log fire in 
the old-fashioned chimney place. The financial 
panic of 1857 caused the family to come near losing 
their home, to pay debts ; but the father and two 
sons, William and John, "buckled to'' and perse- 
vered in hard labor and economy until they redeemed 
their place from the mortgage. 

When the tremendous excitement of the political 
campaign of 1860 reached the neighborhood of Rob- 
erts Township, young Hamilton, who had been 
brought up in the doctrine of anti-slavery, took a zeal- 
ous part in favor of Lincoln's election. Making special 
efforts to procure a little money to buy a uniform, he 
joined a company of Lincoln Wide-Awakes at Mag- 
nolia, a village not far away. Directly after the 
ensuing election it became evident that trouble 
would ensue with the South, and this Wide-Awake 
company, like many others throughout the country, 
kept up its organization and transformed itself into a 
military company. During the ensuing summer they 
met often for drill and became proficient ; but when 
they offered themselves for ths war, young Hamilton 
was rejected OH account of his youth, he being then 
but 14 years of age. During the winter of 1863-4 ne 
attended an academy at Henry, Marshall County 



i8o 



JOHN MARSHALL HAMILTON. 



and in the following May he again enlisted, for the 
fourth time, when he was placed in the i4ist III. 
Vol Inf., a regiment then being raised at Elgin, 111., 
for the loo-day service. He took with him 13 other 
lads from his neighborhood, for enlistment in the 
service. This regiment operated in Southwestern 
Kentucky, for about five months, under Gen. Paine. 

The following winter, 1864-5, Mr. Hamilton taught 
school, and during the two college years 1865-7, he 
went through three years of the curriculum of the 
Ohio Wesleyan University at Delaware, Ohio. The 
third year he graduated, the fourth in a class of 46, 
in the classical department. In due time he received 
the degree of M. A. For a few months he was the 
Principal of Marshall " College " at Henry, an acad- 
emy under the auspices of the M. E. Church. By 
this time he had commenced the study of law, and 
after earning some money as a temporary Professor 
of Latin at the Illinois Wesleyan University at 
Bloomington, he entered the law office of Weldon, 
Tipton & Benjamin, of that city. Each member of 
this firm has since been distinguished as a Judge. 
Admitted to the Bar in May, 1870, Mr. Hamilton 
was given an interest in the same firm, Tipton hav- 
ing been elected Judge. In October following lie 
formed a partnership with J. H. Rowell, at that time 
Prosecuting Attorney. Their business was then 
small, but they increased it to very large proportions, 
practicing in all grades of courts, including even the 
U. S. Supreme Court, and this partnership continued 
unbroken until Feb. 6, 1883, when Mr. Hamilton 
was sworn in as Executive of Illinois. On the 4th 
of March following Mr. Rowell took his seat in Con- 
gress. 

In July, 1871. Mr. Hamilton married Miss Helen 
M. Williams, the daughter of Prof. Win. G, Williams, 
Professor of Greek in the Ohio Wesley an University. 
Mr. and Mrs. H. have two daughters and one son. 

In 1876 Mr. Hamilton was nominated by the Re- 
publicans for the State Senate, over other and older 
competitors. He took an active part i: on the stump " 
in the campaign, for the success of his party, and was 
elected by a majority of 1,640 over his Democratic- 
Greenback opponent. In the Senate he served on 
the Committees on Judiciary, Revenue, State Insti- 
tutions, Appropriations, Education, nnd on Miscel- 
lany ; and during the contest for the election of a 
U. S. Senator, the Republicans endeavoring to re- 



elect John A. Logan, he voted for the war chief on 
every ballot, even alone when all the other Republi- 
cans had gone over to the Hon. E. B. Lawrence and 
the Democrats and Independents elected Judge 
David Davis. At this session, also, was passed the 
first Board of Health and Medical Practice act, of 
which Mr. Hamilton was a champion, against C3 
much opposition that the bill was several times 
" laid on the table." Also, this session authorized 
the location and establishment of a southern peni- 
tentiary, which was fixed at Chester. In the session 
of 1879 Mr. Hamilton was elected President pro tern. 
of the Senate, and was a zealous supporter of John 
A. Logan for the U. S. Senate, who was this time 
elected without any trouble. 

In May, 1880, Mr. Hamilton was nominated on 
the Republican ticket for Lieutenant Governor, his 
principal competitors before the Convention being 
Hon. Wm. A. James, ex-Speaker of the House of 
Representatives, Judge Robert Bell, of w abash 
County, Hon. T. T. Fountain, of Perry County, and 
Hon. M. M. Saddler, of Marion County. He engaged 
actively in the campaign, and his ticket was elected 
by ,1 majority of 41,200. As Lieutenant Governor, 
he presided almost continuously over the Senate in 
the 32d General Assembly and during the early days 
of the 33d, until he succeeded to the Governorship. 
When the Legislature of 1883 elected Gov. Cullom 
to the United States Senate, Lieut. Gov. Hamilton 
succeeded him, under the Constitution, taking the 
oath of office Feb. 6, 1883. He bravely met all the 
annoyances and embarrassments incidental upon 
taking up another's administration. The principal 
events with which Gov. Hamilton was connected as 
the Chief Executive of the State were, the mine dis- 
aster at Braidwood, the riots in St. Clairand Madison 
Counties in May, 1883, the appropriations for the 
State militia, the adoption of the Harper high-license 
liquor law, the veto of a dangerous railroad bill, etc. 

The Governor was a Delegate at large to the 
National Republican Convention at Chicago in June, 

1884, where his first choice for President was John 
A. Logan, and second choice Chester A. Arthur; but 
he afterward zealously worked for the election of Mr. 
Blaine, true to his party. 

Mr. Hamilton's term as Governor expired Jan. 30, 

1885, when the great favorite "Dick" Oglesby was 
inaugurated. 



GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS. 



18.1 





OSEPH WILSON FIFER. This 
distinguished gentleman was 
elected Governor of Illinois 
November 6, 1888. He was 
popularly known during the 
campaign as "Private Joe." He 
had served with great devotion 
to his country during the Re- 
bellion, in the Thirty-third 
Illinois Infantry. A native of 
Virginia, he was born in 1840. 
His parents, John and Mary 
(Daniels) Fifer, were American 
born, though of German de- 
scent. His father was a brick 
and stone mason, and an old 
Henry Clay Whig in politics. John and Mary 
Fifer had nine children, of whom Joseph was the 
sixth, and naturally, with so large a family, it was 
all the father could do to keep the wolf from the 
door, to say nothing of giving his children any- 
thing like good educational advantages. 

Joseph attended school for a while in Virgiua, 
but it was not a good school, and when his father 
removed to the West, in IK/iT, Joseph had not ad- 
vanced Hindi further than the "First Reader." 
Our snlijcct was sixteen then and suffered a great 
misfortune in the loss of his mother. After the 



death of Mrs. Fifer, which occurred in Missouri, 
the family returned to Virgina, but remained only 
a short time, as during the same year Mr. Fifer 
came to Illinois. He settled in McLean County 
and started a brickyard. Here Joseph and his 
brothers were put to work. The elder Mr. Fifer soon 
bought a farm near Bloomington and began life 
as an agriculturist. Here Joe worked and attended 
the neighboring school. He alternated farm-work, 
and brick-laying, going to the district school for 
the succeeding few years. It was all work and no 
play for Joe, yet it by no means made a dull boy 
of him. All the time he was thinking of the great 
world outside, of which he had caught a glimpse 
when coming from Virginia, yet he did not know 
just how he was going to get out into it. He 
could not feel that the woods around the new farm 
and the log cabin, in which the family lived, were 
to hold him. 

The opportunity to get out into the world was 
soon offered to young Joe. He traveled a dozen 
miles barefoot, in company with his brother George, 
and enlisted in Company C, Thirty-third Illinois 
Infantry, he being then twenty years old. In a 
few days, the regiment was sent to Camp Butler, 
and then over into Missouri, and saw some vigor- 
ous service there. After a second time helping to 
chase Price out of Missouri, the Thirty-third Regi- 



184 



JOSEPH W. FIFER. 



ment went down to Milliken's Bend, and for several 
weeks "Private Joe" worked on Grant's famous 
ditch. The regiment then joined the forces oper- 
ating against Port Gibson and Vickshurg. Joe 
was on guard duty in the front ditches when the 
flag of surrender was run up on the 4th of July, 
and stuck the bayonet of his gun into the embank- 
ment and went into the city with the vanguard of 
Union soldiers. 

The next day, July 5, the Thirty-third joined 
the force after Johnston, who had been threatening 
Grant's rear; and finally an assault was made on him 
at Jackson, Miss. In this charge "Private Joe" fell, 
terribly wounded. He was loading his gun, when 
a minie-ball struck him and passed entirely 
through his body. He was regarded as mortally 
wounded. His brother, George, who had been 
made a Lieutenant, proved to be the means of sav- 
ing his life. The Surgeon told him that unless he 
had ice his brother could not live. It was fifty miles 
to the nearest point where ice could be obtained, 
and the roads were rough. A comrade, a McLean 
County man, who had been wounded, offered to 
make the trip. An ambulance was secured and 
the brother soldier started on the journey. He re- 
turned with the ice, but the trip, owing to the 
roughness of the road, was very hard on him. Af- 
ter a few months' careful nursing, Mr. Fifer was able 
to come home. The Thirty-third came home on a 
furlough, and when the boys were ready to return 
to the tented field, young Fifer was ready to go 
with them, for he was determined to finish his 
term of three years. lie was mustered out in Oct- 
ober, 1864, having been in the service three years 
and two months. 

"Private Joe" came out of the army a tall, tan- 
ned, and awkward young man of twenty-four. 
About all he possessed was ambition to be some- 
body and pluck. Though at an age when most 
men have finished their college course, the young 
soldier saw that if he was to be anybody he must 
have an education. Yet he had no means to ena- 
ble him to enter school as most young men do. 
He was determined to have an education, however, 
and that to him meant success. For the following 
four years he struggled with his books. lie en- 



tered Wesleyan University January 1, 1865. He 
was not a brilliant student, being neither at the 
head nor at Hie foot of his class. lie was in great 
earnest, however, studied hard and came forth with 
a well-stored and disciplined mind. 

Immediately after being graduated, he entered 
an office at Bloomington as a law student. He 
had previously read law a little, and as he continued 
to work hard, with the spur of i>overty and prompt- 
ings of ambition ever with him, he was ready to 
hang out his professional shingle in 1869. Being 
trustworthy, he soon gathered about him some in- 
fluential friends. In 1871 he was elected Corpora- 
tion Counsel of Bloom iugton. In 1872 he was 
elected State's Attorney of McLean County. This 
office he held eight years, when he took his seat in 
the State Senate. He served for four years. His 
ability to perform abundance of hard work made 
him a most valued member of the Legislature. 

Mr. Fifer was married in 1870 to Gertie, daugh- 
ter of William J. Lewis, of Bloomington. Mr. Fifer 
is six feet in height and is spare, weighing only one 
hundred and fifty pounds. 1 le has a swarthy com- 
plexion, keen black eyes, quick movement, and pos- 
sesses a frank and sympathetic nature, and natur- 
lly makes friends wherever he goes. During the 
late gubernatorial campaign his visits throughout 
the State proved a great power in his behalf. His 
faculty of winning the confidence and good wishes 
of those with whom he comes in personal contact 
is a source of great popularity, especially during a 
political battle. As a speaker he is fluent, his lan- 
guage is good, voice clear and agreeable, and man- 
ner forcible. His manifest earnestness in what he 
says, as well as his tact as a public speaker, and his 
eloquent and forceful language, make him a most 
valuable campaign orator and a powerful pleader 
at the bar. At the Republican State Convention, 
held in May, 1888, Mr. Fifer was chosen as its 
candidate for Governor, lie proved a popular 
nominee, and the name of "Private Joe" became 
familiar to everyone throughout the State. He 
waged a vigorous campaign, was elected by a good 
majority, and in due time assumed the duties of 
the Chief Executive of Illinois. 



GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS. 



!87 




Mlfeeld, 





TOHN P. ALTGELD, the present 
Governor of Illinois, is a native 
of Prussia,born in 1848. Shortly 
after his birth his parents emi- 
grated to America, locating on 
a farm near Mansfield, Ohio. 
When but a mere lad, young 
Altgeld had to walk from the 
farm to Mansfield with butter, 
eggs and garden produce, which 
he peddled from house to house. 
About 1856, his parents moved 
to the city of Mansfield, and for 
a time our subject was engaged 
morning and evening in driv- 
ing cattle to and from the pas- 
ture, a distance of eight miles. When fourteen 
years of age he hired out as a farm hand, and con- 
tinued in that avocation the greater part of his 
time until he was sixteen years of age, when he 
enlisted in Company C, One Hundred and Sixty- 
tourth Ohio Infantry, and served until the close of 
the war. On being mustered in, the regiment was 
sent to Washington and was actively engaged in 
the various campaigns in and around that city 
until the surrender of Lee. In the fall of 1864, 
young Altgeld was taken sick, while with his regi- 
ment in the front, and the surgeon desired to send 
him to a hospital in Washington; but he asked to 



be allowed to remain with the regiment, and soon 
recovering from his sickness was actively engaged 
until the close of the war. He was mustered out 
at Columbus, Ohio, in the spring of 1865. The 
succeeding summer he worked with his father on 
a farm, during which time he became connected 
with the Sunday-school and was given charge of 
the Bible class. Before entering the army he had 
but very limited educational advantages, having 
attended school but a part of two summers and 
one winter. He had at home, however, studied 
the German language and had become familiar 
with some German authors. Determining to fit 
himself for a useful life, he resolved to attend a 
select school at Lexington, Ohio, and in a little 
eight-by-ten room, meagrely furnished, he kept 
"bachelor's hall," and in time was so far advanced 
that he secured a certificate as teacher, and for 
two years was engaged in that profession. At the 
end of that time he left home and traveled exten- 
sively over the country, working at odd jobs, un- 
til he finally reached Savannah, Mo., where he en- 
tered a law office, and in 1870 was admitted to the 
Bar. In the fall of 1872, he ran as Prosecuting 
Attorney for Andrews County, Mo., and was de- 
feated by four votes. He ran again in 1874 and 
was elected. But life in the small town of Savan- 
nah was a little too monotonous for him, and he 
determined to locate in Chicago. In October, 



188 



JOHN P. ALTGELD. 



1875, he resigned the office of Prosecuting Attor- 
ney, moved to Chicago, and at once commenced 
the practice of law. For some years after he had 
but little to do with politics, confining himself to 
his practice and dealing in real estate. One year 
after his arrival in Chicago he found himself with- 
out a dollar, and in debt some $400. By a streak of 
good luck, as it might be termed, he won a case in 
court, from which he received a fee of f 900, and 
after paying his debt he had $500 left, which he 
invested in real estate. This venture proved a 
successful one, and from that time on the profits 
of one transaction were invested in others, and 
to-day he is numbered among the millionaire resi- 
dents of the great metropolis of the West. 

In 1884, Mr. Altgeld was nominated for Con- 
gress, but was defeated by three thousand votes. 
In 1886, he was nominated and elected Judge of 
the Superior Court of Cook County. His services 
as Judge were such as to commend him to the peo- 
ple. Early in the year 1892, by the solicitation of 



many friends, he announced himself as a candi- 
date for Governor. At the convention held 
April 27, he received the nomination and at once 
entered upon an active canvass. Alone, he traveled 
all over the en tire State, and visited and consulted 
with the leading politicians of every section. He 
made few public speeches, however, until near the 
close of the campaign, but it was very evident that 
he was master of the situation at all times. When 
the votes were counted at the close of election 
day, it was found that he had a majority of the 
votes, and so became the first Democratic Governor 
of Illinois since 1856. 

Born in poverty, alone, single-handed and un- 
aided, he faced the world, and with a determina- 
tion to succeed, he pressed forward, until to-day he 
has a National reputation, and is the envied of 
many. The lesson of his life is worthy of careful 
study by the young, and shows what can be done 
by one who has the desire in his heart to attain a 
front rank among the noted men of the country. 





EFFINGHAM, JASPER AND 

' RICHLAND COUNTIES, 





INTRODUCTORY 






JHE time has arrived when it 
becomes the duty of the 
people of this county to per- 
petuate the names of their 
pioneers, to furnish a record 
of their early settlement, 
and relate the story of their 
progress. The civilization of our 
day, the enlightenment of the age 
and the duty that men of the pres- 
ent time owe to their ancestors, to 
themselves and to their posterity, 
demand that a record of their lives 
and deeds should be made. In bio- 
graphical history is found a power 
to instruct man by precedent, to 
enliven the mental faculties, and 
to waft down the river of time a 
safe vessel in which the names and actions of the 
people who contributed to raise this country from its 
primitive state may be preserved. Surely and rapidly 
the great and aged men, who in their prime entered 
the wilderness and claimed the virgin soil as their 
heritage, are passing to their graves. The number re- 
maining who can relate the incidents of the first days 
jf settlement is becoming small indeed, so that an 
actual necessity exists for the collection and preser- 
vation of events without delay, before all the early 
settlers are cut down by the scythe of Time 

To be forgotten has been the great dread of mankind 
from remotest ages. All will be forgotten soon enough, 
in spite of their best works and the most earnest 
efforts of their friends to perserve the memory of 
their lives. The means employed to prevent oblivion 
and to perpetuate their memory has been in propor- 
tion o the amount of intelligence they possessed. 
Trn pyramids of Egypt were built to perpetuate the 
names and deeds of their great rulers. The exhu- 
mations made by the archeologists of Egypt from 
buried Memphis indicate a desire of those people 



to perpetuate the memory of their achievements 
The erection of the great obelisks were for the same 
purpose. Coming down 'to a later period, we find tht 
Greeks and Romans erecting mausoleums and monu- 
ments, and carving out statues to chronicle theii 
great achievements and carry them down the ages. 
It is also evident that the Mound-builders, in piling 
up their great mounds of earth, had but this idea 
to leave something to show that they had lived. All 
these works, though many of them costly in the ex- 
treme, give but a faint idea of the lives and charac- 
ters of those whose memory they were intended to 
perpetuate, and scarcely anything of the masses of 
the people that then lived. The great pyramids and 
some of the obelisks remain objects only of curiosity; 
the mausoleums, monuments and statues are crum- 
bling into dust. 

It was left to modern ages to establish an intelli- 
gent, undecaying, immutable method of perpetuating 
a full history immutable in that it is almost un- 
limited in extent and perpetual in its action; and 
this is through the art of printing. 

To the present generation, however, we are in- 
debted for the introduction of the admirable system 
of local biography. By this system every man, thougr 
he has not achieved what the world calls greatness, 
has the means to perpetuate his life, his history, 
through the coming ages. 

The scythe of Time cuts down all ; nothing of the 
physical man is left. The monument which his chil- 
dren or friends may erect to his memory in the cemt. 
tery will crumble into dust and pass away; but his 
life, his achievements, the work he has accomplished, 
which otherwise would be forgotten, is perpetuated 
by a record of this kind. 

To preserve the lineaments of our companions we 
engrave their portraits, for the same reason we col- 
lect the attainable facts of their history. Nor do we 
thir.k it necessary, as we speak only truth of them, to 
wait until they are dead, or until those who know 
them are gone: to do this we are ashamed only to 
publish to the world the history of those whose live? 
are unwo r thy of public record. 




BIOGRAPHICAL. 





EDWARD AUSTIN, farmer, banker and 
manufacturer, is one of the foremost busi- 
ness men of Effingham County, and has 
been a resident of southeastern Illinois for nearly 
thirty years. He was born in Hancock County, 
111., August 29, 1842, and is a son of Seneca and 
Julia A. (Burnett) Austin. His father was born 
in Orwell, Vt., December 21, 1798, and was of 
English descent. The Austin family of which our 
subject is a member was founded in America some 
time prior to the War of the Revolution, in which 
some of its members participated. The family at 
first was located in Connecticut, but subsequently 
removed to Vermont, when that State was called 
a new country, just opening for settlement. Seneca 
Austin was a lawyer, editor, minister and farmer. 
He was twice married, his first wife, whom he mar- 
ried in Vermont, dying when young. He after- 
ward removed to Cincinnati, where he married 
Miss Julia A'. Burnett, a daughter of Isaac G. Bur- 
nett, a prominent and influential citizen, who was 
for fourteen years Mayor of Cincinnati. Mrs. 
Austin was born in Dayton, Ohio, August 29, 1812. 
Four children were bcrn of their union, of whom 
Edward, the subject of this sketch, is the eldest. 
The second is William, who married Miss Mary 
Barbee and now resides in Emporia, Kan. The 
next in order of birth is Mrs. Mary A. Stevens, a 
widow, now residing in Effingham. Calvin, the 
youngest, married Miss Sarah Brooks and is a well- 
known business man in Effingham. 

Soon after going to Cincinnati, Mr. Austin at- 



tended the Lane Theological Seminary of that city, 
and was ordained a minister of the Presbyterian 
Church. Soon after his marriage with Miss Bur- 
nett, he removed to Illinois, probably about 1841, 
and located in Hancock County, where he served 
as pastor of a church. Not being satisfied with 
his new home, in 1845 he returned to Cincinnati, 
which was his place of abode for eight years. In 
1853 he purchased a farm in Kentucky, directly 
opposite Cincinnati, for which he paid $35 per 
acre. There he carried on farming successfully 
until his land, by its proximitj' to the metropolis, 
increased in value until it was worth $1,000 per 
acre, and, it being too valuable for agricultural 
purposes, he sold the same and returned to Cincin- 
nati. He made his home in Walnut Hill, in the 
immediate neighborhood of the Lane Theological 
Seminary, which he had formerly attended. In 
1863, with his family he returned to Illinois and 
located on a farm in what is known as North 
Muddy Township, Jasper County. In the spring 
of 1866, he removed to Effingham County, living 
with his son Edward on a farm adjacent to Effing- 
ham, which is his son's present homestead. There 
he resided until his death, which occurred in 1881, 
at the age of eighty-three years. His wife had 
died in Delhi, Ohio, May 8, 1873, while there on a 
visit. 

Ed-ward Austin accompanied his parents to Cin- 
cinnati from Illinois when a child of three yeai's. 
He attended school in that city and spent several 
years on the farm in Kentucky, later returning 



196 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



with them to Cincinnati. On the 17th of October, 
1861, his marriage with Miss Susan L. Winter was 
celebrated in Campbell County, Ky. Mrs. Austin 
was born in Cincinnati, November 23, 1841, and 
is a daughter of William and Nancy A. (Digman) 
Winter. Six sons and three daughters have graced 
the union of Mr. and Mrs. Austin. Harry B. mar- 
ried Miss Nannie Houston and is carrying oil a 
planing-mill at Effingham, which is his home; 
Charles E., who is unmarried, assists in the care of 
his father's extensive business interests; Cornelia 
resides at home; Frank G., who married Miss 
Emma Smith, resides in Effingham, being a Director 
and Manager of the Effingham Canning and Wood 
Package Company, of which see the sketch else- 
where in this volume. The younger members of 
the family are Julia, William W., Walter G., Calvin 
P. and Gertrude. 

Mrs. Austin, with several of her children, holds 
membership with the Presbyterian Church. Our 
subject is a Republican in politics but has never 
been willing to accept any public office, except 
that of a member of the School Board, in which 
position lie has done much to advance the educa- 
tional interests of the community where he has 
made his home. lie has also been a liberal contri- 
butor to churches and religious institutions. 

Mr. Austin is an enterprising business man and 
is identified with nearly all the important enter- 
prises of the city. In addition to his interests in 
the canning factory, he is an equal partner with 
Calvin Austin in the planing-mill, and is a half- 
owner in the Eftingham Electric Light Plant, which 
company will soon be incorporated. He owns 
one-third of the stock of the First National Bank 
of Efringhaiu, of which he has been Vice-President 
since its organization. He is a large shareholder, 
and President of the Effingham Milling Compaq*, 
of which W. II. Dietz is manager. These mills 
have a daily capacity of one hundred and tweut}"- 
five barrels. Our subject is a stockholder and 
Director in an extensive furniture factory, known 
as the Effingham Manufacturing Company, which 
was started in 1889, largely through his influence. 

On the northeast corner of Jefferson and Banker 
Streets, Mr. Austin is just completing a fine busi- 
ngs block and opera hall, which has a ground 



floor of one hundred and twelve feet front on 
Jefferson, and is one hundred and eight feet deep 
on Banker Street. The opera hall is 48x95 feet. 
There are three storerooms on the first' floor and 
the First National Bank is to occupy the corner. 
The upper floor is conveniently arranged for offices, 
and the whole building is fitted up with all modern 
city conveniences and the apartments are all rented 
in advance of completion. The structure is sub- 
stantially and elegantly buift, with fronts of pressed 
brick, the rear and partition walls being of hard 
brick, and the whole may well be considered an 
ornament to the city. 

While residing in Jasper County, Mr. Austin 
owned and operated a stock-ranch of eighteen 
hundred acres, which he has since sold, reserving 
only one hundred and sixty acres. Ho has a line 
farm of six hundred acres adjacent to Effingham, 
where for ten or twelve years he carried on dairy- 
ing extensively, and where he is still engaged in 
general farming and in breeding and raising pure- 
blood Jersey cattle, of which he keeps a line herd. 
In 1889 he started a livery stable in Effingham, 
which is well stocked and the leading one in the 
city and which he still owns. 

In 1890 Mr. Austin was one of several public- 
spirited citizens who set on foot a movement look- 
ing to the establishment of a college at Effingham, 
and was one of the most liberal contributors 
that end. The result is the model Austin College 
and Normal Institute, now in successful operation, 
of which see a sketch elsewhere in this work. In 
recognition of the liberal contributions of the 
Austin brothers, Edward and Calvin, the institu- 
tion bears their family name. Edward Austin h 
been President of the College Board of Truste 
since the inception of the project, and has been 
potent factor in producing the flattering resul 
which is now the pride of the citizens of this 
county. In fact, to the enterprise and liberality 
of the Austin brothers the recent rapid growth 
and improvement of the city must be largely a 
tributed, which fact is conceded by all well-in 
formed and fair-minded people. They are p< 
sed of large means and are able and willing to 
make judicious investments that will benefit the 
community at large as well as themselves. They 




PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



197 



are the acknowledged mainstay of the college, 
which they carried through the critical period of 
its existence until it is now on a paying basis. 

Mr. Austin has a large, substantial and tasty 
residence, which lie erected in 1890, and which is 
not surpassed for elegance of proportion or rich- 
ness of finish by any residence in the county, un- 
less it may be by his brother Calvin's newly-built 
mansion in Effingham. Having a decided taste 
for flowers from childhood, Mr. Austin has erected 
a commodious greenhouse adjacent to his residence, 
heated by steam, and there has many thousands of 
plants and flowers, from which he supplies the citi- 
zens of this and adjoining counties with liberal 
and beautiful gifts of rare flowers and foliage. 




ENRY BERNHARD WERNSING, County 
Treasurer of Effingham County, has been 
connected with that office for nearly twelve 
years either as Deputy or Principal, and in 
his official capacity or otherwise is widely and 
favorably known throughout this community. 
He has the honor of being a native of Effingham 
County, his birth having occurred in St. Francis 
Township, September 6, 1864. His parents, Bern- 
hard H. and Mary A. (Vogt) Wernsing, were na- 
tive-born Americans, though both were of Ger- 
man parentage. The paternal grandfather of our 
subject, John II. Wernsing, was born in Hanover, 
Germany, about 1 803. He married Elizabeth Huck- 
niann, of the same country, and with his family, 
consisting of three sons and two daughters, emi- 
grated to America. His children were: John Henry, 
Jr., Frederick, Herman, Kate (now the wife of 
Henry Eggerman, of Teutopolis) and Theresa, now- 
deceased, who was the wife of Henry Hartup, of 
Teutopolis. After crossing the broad Atlantic, the 
grandfather settled in Cincinnati, Ohio, and there 
the family circle was increased by the birth of a 
son, Burnhard II. In order to support his family, 
Mr. Wernsing secured employment in a foundry 
as engineer, where he worked until 1850. He 



then removed to Effingham County, 111., where he 
resided until his death, which occurred on the 
25th of February, 1876. 

His son, Bern hard H. Wernsing, the father of 
our subject, was a graduate of St. Francis College, 
of Effingham County, and became one of the early 
teachers of this county. He has been twice mar- 
ried, his first wife being Miss Anna Vogt, who 
died in June, 1876. They had a family of seven 
children, as follows: Kate, now the wife of Bernard 
Remme, a farmer of St. Francis Township, Effing- 
ham County; Elizabeth, wife of William Ordner, 
of Teutopolis; Henry B., whose name heads this 
sketch; John, now a resident of Louisiana; Sophia, 
wife of J. H. Castleman, a merchant of Effingharn; 
Frank, at home; and one child who died in in- 
fancy. For his second wife, Mr. Wernsing mar- 
ried Miss Elizabeth Miller, their union being cele- 
brated in May, 1881. Unto them have been born 
four children. Mr. AVernsing, Sr., has been the 
County Treasurer of Effingham County for seven 
years. He is a farmer by occupation, and now 
owns a valuable farm of one hundred and sixty 
acres in St. Francis Township, where he now re- 
sides. 

Henry B. Wernsing, whose name heads this 
sketch, grew to mature years upon his father's 
farm. His primary education, acquired in the 
common schools of the neighborhood, was supple- 
mented by study in St. Joseph's College, of Teutop- 
olis. In the year 1881, he became Deputy County 
Treasurer under his father and served in that ca- 
pacity until Mr. Wernsing, Sr., retired from the 
office, after which he became Deputy to the in- 
coming Treasurer, Mr. Thoele, and served as such 
until his election to the office of County Treas- 
urer in the fall of 1890. He entered upon his 
duties on the first Monday of December of that 
year, and is the present incumbent. lie was elected 
and served as City Treasurer of Ettingham for the 
year 1889. 

In his political affiliations, Mr. Wernsing is a 
supporter of the Democracy, and social^', he be- 
longs to Venice Lodge No. 168, K. P. His long 
experience in the County Treasurer's Office has 
made him familiar with its duties, and he has 
proved a most competent and faithful official. He 



198 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



well deserves representation in this volume, for lie 
has spent his entire life in Efflngham County, and 
is widely and favorably known as a man of sterling 
worth. 




T :> E= 



ON. ALBERT CAMPBELL, of Effingham, 
is the Representative to the Illinois Legis- 
lature from the Thirty-third District. He 
is also a member of the dry-goods firm of 
Campbell & Caine, of Effingham, and a well-known 
and prominent resident of this city. He claims 
Ohio as the State of his nativity, his birth having 
occurred in Somerset, Perry County, on the 1st of 
November, 1855. His parents, Samuel and Sarah 
(Kuhns) Campbell, are now residents of Effing- 
h:im. His father was born in the same town in 
which our subject's birtli occurred, and is descended 
on both sides from old Colonial families of Mary- 
land. On the paternal side the ancestors were 
evidently of Scotch origin and on the maternal 
side of German lineage, but it is so far remote that 
our subject has no positive knowledge of the date 
of the establishment of their families in America. 
Both his father's and his mother's mothers were 
native-born Americans and died several years ago, 
when more than ninety years of age. The mother 
of Albert Campbell was born in Pennsylvania, and 
dates the origin of her family in the New World 
back prior to the War of the Revolution. 

In 1871, when sixteen years of age, Mr. Camp- 
bell came to Efflngham with his parents. The early 
years of his life were spent in Ohio. He had at- 
tended school in his native State, and on coming 
to Efflngham pursued his studies in its public 
schools until 1874. In that year he went to St. 
Louis, where he was employed in various lines of 
business for a period of thirteen years. In 1887 
he returned to Efflngham and soon afterward 
formed a partnership with Mr. Fortne3 T in the drug 
business under the firm name of Campbell & Fort- 
ney, which connection was continued for two 
years. On the expiration of that period, Mr. 
Campbell sold out, and forming a partnership with 



Mr. Caine, embarked in his present line of busi- 
ness in August, 1891. 

On the 30th of April, 1890, in Efflngham, Mr. 
Campbell was united in marriage with Miss Julia B. 
Stevens, a daughter of James B. Stevens, now de- 
ceased. The lady was born in Jasper County, 111., 
and is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
Mr. Campbell is connected with several civic socie- 
ties, holding membership with Efflngham Lodge 
No. 149, A. F. & A. M., and with Efflngham Lodge 
No. 168, K. of P. He is also a member of the 
Knights of Honor. Asa business man he is enter- 
prising and progressive, and in his undertakings 
has been quite successful. Since forming a part- 
nership with Mr. Caine, they have built up an ex- 
cellent trade and are now doing a large and lucra- 
tive business. In 1892 Mr. Campbell was elected 
to represent the Thirty-third Senatorial District in 
the State Legislature. His political career has won 
him high commendation from his constituents and 
he is faithfully discharging the duties of the office 
which he now fills. 




ICHAEL SPRINKLE, who is engaged in 
agricultural pursuits on section 19, Wat- 
son Township, was born in this township, 
Efflngham County, November 26, 1848, 
and both his paternal and maternal ancestors were 
of German descent. His parents, Michael and 
Mary (Auld) Sprinkle, were natives of Pennsyl- 
vania. The father was a farmer by occupation 
and followed that pursuit throughout his entire 
life. About 1830 he left the Keystone State and 
emigrated Westward to Ohio. He there made his 
home until the autumn of 1841, which year wit- 
nessed his arrival in Illinois. The trip Westward 
was made by team. He located in what is now 
Watson Township, Efflngham County, trading his 
farm in Ohio for two hundred acres of unimproved 
land, mostly covered by timber, on section 30. 
Erectiaga log cabin, he there made his home for a 
few years, but subsequently removed to Ewington, 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



199 



where he purchased a gristmill and engaged in 
milling for a time. Later lie traded his mill in 
Ewington for a tract of partially improved land on 
section 19, Watson Township, which he further de- 
veloped and cultivated until 1856. In that year 
he went to Mason and engaged in carrying on a 
hotel for about three years. On the expiration of 
that period he removed to Watson, where he spent 
a year, and then returned to his farm on section 19, 
where lie carried on agricultural pursuits until 
1885. In that year he again took up his residence 
in Watson, where he lived a retired life until called 
to the home beyond. He died December 18, 1891, 
and his remains were interred in the Watson Cem- 
etery. He was a member of the Baptist Church for 
many years and led an upright, honorable life. In 
politics he was a stalwart Republican, but never an 
office-seeker. From a business point of view his 
life was also successful, and he gained a comforta- 
ble competence. Mrs. Sprinkle died October 25, 
1882. She also held membership with the Baptist 
Church. , 

This worthy couple had a family of eleven chil- 
dren, namely: Mary J., wife of Edward Loy, a re- 
tired farmer residing in the village of Watson; 
James II., a farmer residing near Grand Island, 
Neb.; Elizabeth, who died in childhood; Jarret, who 
died in 1861; John, who follows farming in Wat- 
son Township; William, whose death occurred in 
1839; Catherine, who died in 1872; Martha, wife 
of American Cronk, a farmer of Watson Township; 
Caroline, wife of W. L. Funkhouser; Vincent, who 
is living on the old homestead; and Michael of this 
sketch. 

We now take up the personal history of Michael 
Sprinkle, who is well known in this community as 
one of its leading citizens. He did not receive 
very excellent educational privileges, but managed 
to acquire a good knowledge of the practical 
branches, and by reading, experience and observa- 
tion in later years has made himself a well-in- 
formed man. The first school that he attended was 
held in a log house. He was earl}- inured to the 
labors of farm life and gave his father the benefit 
of his services until he had attained his majority, 
when he began working on the old homestead for 
wages. lie was thus employed for nine years, at 



the expiration of which time he removed to the 
farm on which he is now living, and which he has 
made his home continuously since. 

On the 1st of September, 1872, Mr. Sprinkle was 
married to Miss Laura Ward, daughter of Robert 
and Lucinda Wardr Six children graced this 
union, four of whom are living, while two died in 
infancy. Those who yet survive are Arthur L., 
born June 15, 1874, and now engaged in teach- 
ing school; Mary L., born June 11, 1876; Willie 
J., born July 23, 1880; and Charles L., born August 
11, 1882. The family have a pleasant home and 
are well-known people of this community., 

Socially, Mr. Sprinkle is a member of the Ma- 
sonic fraternity, and in politics is a supporter of 
the Republican party, but has never been an aspi- 
rant for public office, preferring to devote his time 
and attention to his business interests. lie carries 
on general farming on section 19. Watson Town- 
ship, where he owns two hundred and seven acres 
of valuable land. His fields are well tilled and 
yield to him a golden tribute in return for his care 
and labor. He is recognized as one of the leading 
agriculturists of the communit}'. 



\ OHN A. BROWN, of Newton, is one of the 
well-known and representative citizens of 
Jasper County, and one of its early settlers. 
His residence dates from 1855, therefore 
covers a period of a third of a century. During 
all these years he has borne his part in the up- 
building and advancement of its best interests, 
and won for himself the warm regard of his 
fellow-townsmen. 

Mr. Brown is a native of the Buckeye State. 
He was born in Pike County in 1832, and is a 
son of Thomas and Maria (Badget) Brown. His 
father was born in Virginia, and in the Old Domin- 
ion grew to manhood. On attaining to years of 
maturity he was joined in marriage with Miss 
Badget, and they began their domestic life in the 
South. Some time after their marriage they de- 



200 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



cided to leave their old home and seek a fortune 
in the West, so removed to Ohio, locating in Pike 
County, where the mother died about a year later, 
at the birth of her son John A. The father was 
afterwards remarried and with his family went to 
Jackson County, in the same State, where his sec- 
ond wife died. The year 1855 witnessed his 
arrival in Illinois. He came to Jasper County, 
accompanied by the subject of this sketch, and 
here remained until after the breaking out of the 
late war. He served for a time in the Union army 
in the War of the Rebellion, but his service broke 
down his health and he died in Newton in 1868. 

Mr. Brown, whose name heads this sketch, and 
an elder brother, George Brown, were the only 
children born of the first marriage of the father. 
George died in Pike County, Ohio, in early child- 
hood. There were two sons and two daughters 
born of the second marriage, but only one is now 
living, a daughter, Mrs. Jennie Thompson, who 
resides in Columbus, Ohio. 

It will thus be seen that Mr. Brown is the only 
male representative of his father's family now liv- 
ing. No event of importance occurred during 
the days of his childhood and youth. He came 
with his father to Illinois in 1855, and has since 
been a resident of Jasper County. He has watched 
its growth and progress and has seen the many 
changes which have occurred. He is now en- 
gaged in blacksmith ing and wagonmaking, and 
began business on his arrival here on the very 
spot where his shop still stands. He is a good 
workman and has succeeded in building up a trade 
which yields to him a good income. 

Mr. Brown was married in Jackson County, 
Ohio, to Miss Nancy M. Strain, and by the union 
of this worthy couple has been born a family of 
three children, numbering a son and two daugh- 
ters, namely: Emma, wife of C. K. Teets, of 
Junction City, Ky.; Mrs. Jennie Lathrop, who 
lives in Robinson, 111.; and Charles, who is still 
under the parental roof. Mr. and Mrs. Brown 
have been bereft by death of six children, all of 
whom died in early childhood with one exception. 
The oldest daughter, Florence, was called to the 
home beyond at the age of twenty-one years. The 
Brown family is one well known in this commu- 



nity and as its members are people of sterling 
worth they are held in high regard. 

Mr. Brown has been identified with Jasper 
County and the village of Newton for nearly 
forty years, and has been a witness of the upbuild- 
ing and progress which that long period of time 
has brought about. By industry and good man- 
agement in his business career, he has acquired a 
fine property and is now numbered among the 
substantial citizens of Newton. 



M. LE CRONE, a member of the 
II , firm of Le Crone <fe Mechler, editors and 
Ss4 publishers of the Effingham Democrat, was 
born in Ewington, the old county seat of Effingham 
County, December 23, 1853. He is a son ol Dr. 
John Le Crone, one of the early physicians and 
pioneer settlers of this county. With his parents he 
removed to Effingham when seven 3'ears of age, 
and there attended the public schools until 1870, 
spending his summer vacations in different kinds 
of labor in the city and on a farm. When his 
school life was ended at that place he entered the 
State Normal University at Normal, 111., in the fall 
of 1870, and after pursuing a three-years course of 
study was graduated from that institution, in June, 
1873. Soon afterward he entered upon the pro- 
fession of teaching, being employed in that capac- 
ity in the district school in Effingham County for 
a year. In 1875 he became Principal of the Effing- 
ham East Side School, serving as such for one year. 
He then accepted the position of Deputy Circuit 
Clerk and served in that capacity for two years. 
Mr. Le Crone then entered the field of journal- 
ism. In January, 1878, he purchased a half-interest 
in the Effingham Democrat, and for three years was 
a joint editor with John Honey, Sr., of that paper 
and continued with his successor, Owen Scott, until 
October 1, 1881, when he sold out, and for a time 
kept books for the firm of Asgood & Kingman. 
In December, 1881. in company witli C. F. Cole- 
man, he established the Altamont Neirs and con- 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



201 



tinned its publication until 1885. In October, 
1882, lie formed a partnership with N. D. Clutter, 
under the firm name of Clutter & Le Crone, they 
doing a real-estate, loan and insurance business. 
This connection was continued until 1885, when 
they discontinued the business and dissolved part- 
nership. 

Mr. Le Crone was married in 1879 to Miss Fran- 
ces N. Nitcher, of Effingham. He and his wife 
have a wide circle of acquaintance in this commu- 
nity, where they have long made their home and 
are numbered among its highly respected and es- 
teemed citizens. 

On the 1st of June, 1884, Mr. Le Crone pur- 
chased the Effingham Democrat, which he con- 
ducted alone for six years. On the expiration of 
that period he admitted to partnership George V. 
Mechler, and the firm of Le Crone & Mechler was 
formed. The Democrat is a six-column quarto, all 
home print. The firm built and completed their 
present office in August, 1892. It is a brick and 
stone structure, 60x20 feet, two stories in height, 
and is all occupied by their business. The office 
is complete in all its appointments, in fact it is one 
of the best in southern Illinois. It is lighted by 
electricity, heated by steam, and the printing is 
done with a fine Cranston press. During the past 
two years the circulation of the paper has increased 
twenty-five per cent. Mr. Le Crone is a versatile 
and ready writer and the Democrat is a bright, 
newsy sheet, well deserving of a liberal patronage. 



bOUIS ENGEL, a retired farmer, now resid- 
ing in Shumway, claims Germany as the 
, land of his birth. He was born in Rhein- 
beir August,23, 1830, and was the third in a fam- 
ily of three sons and four daughters. The par- 
ents, Philip and Mary (Ilengstenberg) Engel, were 
also born in the same country, where they spent 
their entire lives. The father was a farmer. The 
mother of our subject died when he was only 
about six years old, and he went to live with his 



maternal aunt, with whom he remained until he 
was sixteen years of age. They lived upon a 
farm. 

At that time Mr. Engel emigrated to America, 
landing at New Orleans a stranger in u strange 
land, without money or friends. After working 
for three months in the Crescent City, he went to 
Louisville, Ky., where he worked by the month 
for a gardener for three years. On the expira- 
tion of that time he made his way to Illinois, 
and in St. Clair County worked by the month 
on a farm for about five years. It was at this 
time that Mr. Engel was married, in July, 1854, 
he wedded Catherina Metzler. With the money 
he had acquired through his own industry and 
economy he then purchased forty acres of land, 
and there engaged in agricultural pursuits until 
1863, when he sold his property in St. Clair County 
and came to Effingham County. Here he pur- 
chased one hundred acres of partly improved land 
and began its further development. As his farm 
was located only half a mile from Shumway, lie 
also bought grain in this place, doing considerable 
business in that line. In 1886 he left the farm 
and, removing to the village, engaged in the poul- 
try business for three years. He next purchased 
a lumber yard and, admitting his son to partner- 
ship, devoted his energies to that enterprise for 
three years. He then sold out to his son and re- 
tired from business. 

Unto Mr. and Mrs. Engel were born eight 
sons and six daughters, of whom four died in 
childhood. The living are: Christina, wife of 
Herman Lane, a leading farmer of Summit Town- 
ship; Mary, wife of Deidrich Brumerstadt, a fur- 
niture dealer in Shumway; John Louis, who owns 
a lumber yard in Shumway; Adam, a well-known 
farmer of Summit Township; Theodore, a farmer 
of Banner Township; Catherina, wife of Theo- 
dore Kunze, manager of the creamery at Shum- 
way; Minnie, at home; Mary Matilda, wife of Fred 
John Struse,an agriculturist of Effingham County; 
Henry and Walter W. 

Mr. Engel is a stanch Democrat in politics and 

has served as Assessor of his township for three 

years. He is now Supervisor. His prompt and 

j faithful discharge of public duty has won him 



202 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



high commendation and gained him the esteem of 
all. Himself and wife are members of the Luth- 
eran Church. Our subject's life has been a suc- 
cessful one, and by his own unaided efforts he has 
worked his way steadily upward from an humble 
position to one of prominence and affluence. By 
his well-directed efforts he has gained a comfort- 
able competence and is now enabled to live a re- 
tired life, resting in the enjoyment of the fruits 
of his former toil. 




J. L. HAUMESSER, M. D., one of 
the leading physicians and surgeons of 
Shumway, Effingham County, was born 
June 5, 1858, in Peru, 111., and was the fourth child 
in a family of three sons and three daughters born 
unto George and Hellena (Moegling) Haumesser. 
The father was born in Strasburg, Alsace, April 
13, 1823, and remained in his native country 
with his parents until twenty-three years of age, 
when he crossed the Atlantic to America to seek 
a location for his father. He spent three years in 
the United States, traveling over the county- and 
visiting its principal cities. Sending back a favor- 
able report, his father was preparing to emigrate 
at once, when he was killed by a falling tree. Sub- 
sequently George Haumesser, father of the Doctor, 
went back to his native land and was married, 
after which lie brought his bride to America. 

Mr. Haumesser was a mason by trade and fol- 
lowed that business until the autumn of 1870. He 
first went to St. Louis, but after a short time re- 
moved to La Salle, 111. Subsequently he went to 
Peru, where he resided for eighteen years. In 
1870 he purchased a farm in Fayette County, 111., 
hoping to making farmers of his boys, and there 
remained until his death, which occurred March 4, 
1890. The mother of the Doctor was born May 9, 
1826, near Strasburg, Alsace, and there acquired 
her education. She remained with her parents 
until her marriage and then came to the United 
States with her husband. She died in Fayetle 



County, 111., July 18, 1892. Her father was a sol- 
dier under Napoleon I. for over thirteen years, 
and after being disabled served as a gendarme 
until his death. 

We now take up the personal history of the 
Doctor, who remained in Peru with his parents 
until twelve years of age. attending the public 
schools. He then went with his father to the farm, 
where he spent the succeeding six years of his life, 
during which time he also attended school. At 
the age of eighteen he began the study of medi- 
cine. He went to Keokuk, Iowa, and entered the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons of that city, 
from which he was graduated, receiving his diplo- 
ma on the 1st of March, 1881. He was now fitted 
to enter the medical profession, and on the 29Ui 
of April of the same year opened an office in 
Shumway, where he has since engaged in the prac- 
tice of his profession. He has built up a large 
practice and has gained an enviable reputation. 

The lady who bears the name of Mrs. Haumesser 
was in her maidenhood Miss Mary Reis. She was 
born in Perry County, Mo., July 14, 1864, and 
when quite small came to this county with her 
parents, who are still living on a farm about two 
miles from Shumway. The marriage of the Doc- 
tor and his wife was celebrated November 20, 
1883, and their union has been blessed with five 
children, two sons and two daughters living. The 
first were twins, but one died in infancy. The 
other, Mary, was born August 16, 1885; Louis 
was born August 8, 1887; Carrie was born April 
16, 1889, and Martha April 26, 1891. 

In his political views, Dr. Haumesser is a stanch 
Democrat and takes quite an active part in local 
politics, in fact is one of the leaders of his party 
in this county. He is jiow Coroner of the county. 
He was first elected to fill a vacancy, and after 
two years' service was re-elected by the Demociatic 
parly in the autumn of 1892. He is also serving 
as School Director of Banner Township, District 
5, and the cause of education finds in him a warm 
friend. He is now Secretary of the Building and 
Loan Association, and was president of the same 
for two years. Socially he is a member of Shum- 
way Camp No. 1233, M. W. A., and himself and 
wife are members of the Catholic Church. The 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



203 



Doctor is recognized as one of the leading citizens 
of this community, and has a wide business and 
social acquaintance. His skill and ability have won 
him a large practice, and he is considered one of 
the leading physicians of this part of the county. 
He is also an honorable, upright man, whose word 
is as good as his bond. 



H WORMAN, traveling salesman, has 
been a resident of Effingham County for 
the long period of half a century, or since 
1843. He is a native of Germany, his birth 
having occurred in the Grand Duchy of Olden- 
burg, on the 13th of May, 1827. His parents were 
Harmon II. and Mary Anna (Budde) Worman, both 
of whom were also born in Germany. Our subject 
was reared and educated in the land of his nativ- 
ity, where he remained until 1843, when, at the 
age of sixteen years, lie came to America. Coming 
at once to the West, he made his first settlement in 
Douglas Township, Effingham County, 111. Soon 
after his arrival in this countiy he engaged as 
merchant's clerk in Evansville, Ind., and subse- 
quently was employed in Cincinnati, Ohio. Still 
later he occupied a similar position in Efflngham, 
and afterward in Vincennes, Ind. 

On the 9th of May, 1854, in Evansville, Ind., 
Mr. Worman was united in marriage with Miss 
Mary VerWayne, who was born in Holland, and was 
a daughter of John VerWa3'ne. She died Novem- 
ber 21, 1868, leaving the following children: John 
A., who died at the age of four years; A. J., who 
is married and engaged in the real-estate and ab- 
stract business in P]ffingham, 111., and whose sketch 
appears elsewhere in this work; Joseph B., who 
married Annie Palm and resides in Efflngham; 
Mary Anna, now the wife of Joseph Seitz, who 
also lives in that place; Frank II., who married 
Rose Uptmore, and died March 23, 1892; and 
Mary Clara, who died at the age of three years. 
Mr. Worman began business for himself in Vin- 



cennes, Ind., in 1853 as a dealer in general mer- 
chandise, but after conducting the business for 
four years he was burned out, in 1857, and lost 
heavily, as he carried no insurance. Though he 
lost all he had in the fire, he started again on 
credit, but the hard times of 1859 came on and he 
sold out in that year and came to Efflngham. Here 
he secured a position as merchant's clerk with Mr. 
Waschefort, and later he was for several years in 
the implement business. In 1868 he was elected 
Clerk of the Circuit Court and Recorder of Effing- 
ham County, acting in that official capacity for a 
term of four years. Subsequently he resumed the 
implement business, which he conducted until the 
spring of 1890, when he sold out and began trav- 
eling on commission as a salesman for the Effing- 
ham Manufacturing Company, which manufactures 
furniture. 

On the 25th of January, 1870, Mr. Worman 
married Miss Theresa, daughter of Daniel Nye. 
She was born in this county, where her parents, 
who were of German birth, were among the early 
settlers. Seven children graced their union, five 
sons and two daughters: William B., Charles A., 
Rosa Theresa, Mary Magdelena, Henry F. (who 
died in infancy), Leo B. and Edward B. 

In his political affiliations, Mr. Worman is a sup- 
porter of the Democratic principles. Besides the 
office of Clerk of the Court and Recorder, he has 
served as Master in Chancery for two years. He 
and his family are members of the Catholic Church. 




J. WALLICH, the present editor and pro- 
prietor of the Altamont Neivs, claims Penn- 
sylvania as the State of his nativity. 
He was born in Franklin County on the 20th of 
February, 1828, and when a lad of eight summers 
removed with his parents to Richland County, 
Ohio. This was in 1836. The family located upon 
a farm in the Buckeye State, and in the usual man- 
ner of farmer lads our subject spent his youth. 



204 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



During the winter season he attended the common 
schools, where he acquired his education, and in 
the summer months lie aided in the labors of the 
farm. After eleven years spent in Ohio, the fam- 
ily again made a journey Westward. On the 27th 
of June, 1847, they started for Illinois, and lo- 
cated in Knoxville, where our subject pursued a 
full course of study under the direction of Prof. 

1. S. Lemmon. The city of Galesburg was not 
then incorporated, and in that city was located 
the first school of note in Knox County. 

In February, 1851, Mr. Wallich went to Morgan 
County, 111., and engaged in teaching school until 
the following September. In the meantime, on 
the 4th of May, 1851, he married Miss Christiana 
Long, and in September removed to Knoxville, 
where lie engaged in carpenter work. In a few 
years he had gained an excellent reputation in his 
business and had become a prominent contractor, of- 
ten employing as many as twenty-five workmen, but 
unfortunately he was overcome with the heat in 
the summer of 1867, and this so prostrated him that 
he was unable to work for some time. After two 
years of intense suffering, he and his wife removed 
to Arenzville, Cass County, 111., and he engaged 
in teaching school in June, 1869. After a few 
years he opened a small furniture store, and in 
1874 embarked in newspaper work. Ten years 
later he established the Arenzville Advance, the 
first paper established in that place. It was a suc- 
cessful enterprise, but he later contracted for the 
Altamont News, of which he took charge August 

2, 1885. The patronage was then very small, and 
the advertisers could be counted on the fingers of 
one hand. The town numbered six hundred and 
fifty inhabitants, and did a business of about 
$50,000 per year. Owing to the business ability 
and enterprise of Mr. Wallich, the News has now a 
good circulation and is crowded with advertise- 
ments. The village has a poplation of sixteen 
hundred and fifty, and its business amounts to 
$1,500,000 annually. It is the only place of its 
size in the Slate where the inhabitants have no 
village taxes to pay, and at this date, May 5, 1893, 
it has no outstanding debts and has $3,500 in the 
treasury. 

Mr. Wallich has held a number of public offices 



of honor and trust. He was elected Sunday-school 
Superintendent when he was only seventeen years 
of age, and has filled that position for almost a 
quarter of a century. He formerly belonged to 
several secret societies, but now holds membership 
with only the Ancient Order of United Workmen. 
At this writing, Mr. Wallich is sixty-five years of 
age, and bis health is now better than it was at 
any time between the years 1867 and 1886. He 
is recognized as one of the valuable and prominent 
citizens of Altamont, and is held in the highest 
esteem by his fellow-townsmen. He uses the News 
for the benefit of the community, and under his 
guidance that paper has played an important part 
in bringing to a successful issue many important 
questions and interests which have been up before 
the people. 



r 




I, DELBERT A. GRAVENHORST, editor 
and proprietor of the Etfingharn Volksblalt, 
li) was born in the Kingdom of Hanover, now 
a province of Prussia, on the 8th of 
March, 1839. He is a son of Theodore and Sophia 
(Oehlker) Gravenhorst, both of whom were natives 
of Hanover. His father was a lawyer by profession, 
and died in his native land February 17, 1893, in 
the eighty-seventh year of his age. The mother is 
also deceased. 

The subject of this sketch was educated in the 
gymnasium of Lunenburg, Hanover. Between the 
ages of fourteen and nineteen years he was a 
student of agriculture in his native country. At 
the age of nineteen he left his old home, bade 
good-bye to his friends and family and emigrated 
to America. He located near Chicago, where he 
spent the two succeeding years of his life. In 1860 
he removed to Teutopolis, Effingham County, III., 
but remained in that place only six mojths, after 
which he embarked in farming. For some time he 
followed that pursuit, being thus employed until 
the autumn of 1864, when, in Kendall ville, Ind., he 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



205 



enlisted for the late war as a member of Compan}' 
F, One Hundred and Forty-second Indiana In- 
fantry. He served until July, 1865, when lie 
was honorably discharged, the war having ended. 
He participated in the battle of Nashville, Tenn., 
and a number of minor engagements. 

On his return from the army, Mr. Gravenhorst 
resumed farming operations, which he continued 
until 1867. That year witnessed his removal to 
Effingham, where he has since made his home. In 
that city, on the 3d of January, 1871, he was 
united in marriage with Miss Barbara Blattner, a 
daughter of Samuel Blattner. The lady is a native 
of this State, her birth having occurred in High- 
land June 5, 1855. Her parents were of Swiss 
birth. Her mother is now living, but her father is 
deceased. Unto Mr. and Mrs. Gravenhorst has 
been born a family of five children, four sons and 
a daughter, and they also lost two in infancy. Of 
those living Theodore S. is the eldest. He is now 
engaged as a merchant clerk. The other children 
are John, Charles, Ida and Albert, all of whom are 
attending school. 

In 1878, Mr. Gravenhorst established The Volks- 
blatt, which for the first four years was printed in 
Chicago, but in 1872 he completed his office outfit 
here, since which time his paper has been printed 
in Kftingham. Improvements in the office, both 
for newspaper and job work, have been made, until 
at tins writing the office is complete in its appoint- 
ments and the paper is enjoying a prosperous and 
successful career. The Volksblalt is the only Ger- 
man paper published in this section of the State. 
It is a six-column quarto, Democratic in politics, 
and has a circulation of between eight and nine 
hundred. Mr. Gravenhorst is a supporter of the 
Democracy and has served two terms as a member 
of the City Council of Effingham. At this writing 
he is numbered among its Aldermen. For three 
years he has been Chief of the Fire Department, 
and is President of the Washington Loan and 
Building Association, which position he has held 
since the organization of the company. He was 
one of the founders of this company. He also 
aided in establishing the Effingham Manufacturing 
Company and has since been a member of its Board 
of Directors. He is a heavy stockholder in, and 



President of, the Wildi-Eddy Lumber Company, of 
Eftingham, of which R. Wildi is Superintendent. 
Mr. Gravenhorst and family are members of the 
Lutheran Church. He is an enterprising and suc- 
cessful business man, energetic and progressive, 
and has aided materially in the upbuilding and 
improvement of the city in which he makes his 
home. 




EV. LOUIS J. SCHWARTZ, the pastor 
of the Immanuel Evangelical Lutheran 
Church of Altamont, is a native of Chicago. 
| His early life was passed in that city and 
he attended its public and parochial schools until 
about thirteen years of age, when he entered 
Concordia College, where he pursued a six-years 
course of study. It was in 1879 that he entered 
Concordia Seminary, of St. Louis, Mo. In that insti- 
tution he pursued a three-years course in theol- 
ogy, completing his studies in 1882. On the 3d of 
July of that year, the Rev. Mr. Schwartz, was or- 
dained. His first charge was in Mt. Carroll, 111., 
where he remained until he assumed the duties of 
his present pastorate, which was in 1887. 

While residing in Mt. Carroll, the Rev. Mr. 
Schwartz was united in marriage with Miss Anna 
Umbach, of St. Louis. The union of this worthy 
couple has been blessed with one child, a son, 
Theodore. The parents are numbered among the 
highly respected citizens of Altamont, where their 
upright lives add greatlj' to the efficiency of the 
husband's teachings. 

The church of which Mr. Schwartz is now pas- 
tor was organized on the 7th of February, 1874, 
by the Rev. G. Wangerin, who was at that time 
pastor of the church in Bethlehem, Effingham 
County. The society at Altamont was organized 
with only a few families, and services were held 
in the schoolhouse every alternate Sabbath until 
1879, when the first resident pastor was placed in 
charge. This was the Rev. John George Goess- 
wein, who remained until 1885. In the meantime 



206 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



a church building was erected, and dedicated on 
the 22d of June, 1884. The next pastor was the 
Rev. G. J. Wegener, who remained in charge until 
1887,when he was succeeded by the Rev. Mr. 
Schwartz, who has since been pastor. The church 
building is a commodious and substantial struc- 
ture which was erected at a cost of $2,200. Its 
seating capacity is about six hundred. The pres- 
ent membership consists of fifty-five families, all 
but eleven of whom are residents of the village 
of Altamont. A parochial school is also sustained 
and has an average attendance of about sixty 
pupils. This school is under the immediate charge 
of the Rev. Mr. Schwartz, and in consequence adds 
much to his labors, for he devotes much of his 
time to the instruction of the pupils. His church 
is in a flourishing condition and is doing a good 
work. 



-f 



lARTLETT Y. WATKINS is successfully 
engaged in farming on section 18, Olney 
Township, Richland County. His farm is 
pleasantly located about four and one-half 
miles southwest of the city of Olney and com- 
prises one hundred and four acres of rich land, 
under a high state of cultivation and well im- 
proved. The good buildings, the well-tilled fields 
and neat appearance of the place prove the owner 
to be a man of practical and progressive ideas. 
We feel assured that this record of his life will 
prove of interest to many of our readers. 

A native of North Carolina, Mr. Watkins was 
born on the 20th of July, 1842, and is the third in 
order of birth in a family of ten children, whose 
parents were James G. and Mary (Patterson) Wat- 
kins. Of the six sons and four daughters, three 
are now deceased. Those still living are Bartlett, 
who is the eldest surviving child; Elizabeth, 
wife of Elias Ridgely, a farmer of Indiana; La 
Fayette, who makes his home in Olney; James M., 
who is engaged in farming in this State; Margaret, 
who married G. E. Jones, a resident of Christian 
County, 111.; William A., an agriculturist of this 




State; and Eben, who also makes his home in 
Christian County. 

The father of this family was of Scotch and 
English extraction. He, too, was a native of North 
Carolina, born March 30, 1817. Upon a farm he 
was reared to manhood and after his marriage 
emigrated in 1838 to Tennessee, where he remained 
until the fall of 1852. At that time he came to 
Richland County, 111., and purchased a farm, on 
which he spent the remainder of his life. His 
death occurred November 7, 1872, and he was laid 
to rest in Mt. Pleasant Cemetery. His wife, who 
was born December 27, 1816, in North Carolina 
and was of German and Irish extraction, died in 
Decatur, Macoii County,on the 28th of May, 1884. 

Mr. Watkins whose name heads this record was 
a lad of only ten summers when he came with his 
parents to this count}'. Upon the home farm he 
remained and in the summer months aided in the 
labors of the field, while in the winter season he 
attended the public schools of the neighborhood, 
acquiring a good English education. When about 
nineteen years of age, however, he left the paren- 
tal roof to enter the service of his country. 
Prompted by patriotic impulses, he enlisted No- 
vember 27, 1861, and was assigned to Company 
E, Thirteenth Illinois Cavalry, in which he served 
for about one year. On the expiration of that 
period he received his discharge on account of 
physical disability. 

Returning to the North, Mr. Watkins remained 
at home until he had arrived at mature years,when 
he rented land and began farming in his own in- 
terest. On the 22d of November, 1863, he was 
united in marriage with Miss Elizabeth Lawless, 
a native of the Buckeye State, born February 27, 
1843. He brought his bride to his new home and 
now for thirty years they have traveled life's jour- 
ney together. Twelve children came to bless their 
union, six sons and six daughters, but four have 
been called to the home beyond. Commodore, the 
eldest, is engaged in farming in Richland County; 
William F. follows the same pursuit in Clay 
Count}'. The younger members of the family who 
are still under the parental roof are Edward, Jen- 
nie, Oliver, Otis A., and Laura and Lora (twins). 

In his political belief Mr. Watkins is a Demo- 






^m^i^L/^ 

-//y 

r^JL^d^!^^^ 1 -^ 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



209 



crat, having supported that party for a number of 
years. He is straightforward and honorable in all 
his business dealings, and the sentiment of the 
Golden Rule has ever been a controlling influence 
in his life. lie and his family are widely and fa- 
vorably known in this community. The Watkins' 
household is the abode of hospitality and its mem- 
bers rank high in the circles of society in which 
they move. 




, EV. HERMAN GESENHUES is the present 
pastor of St. Clare's Catholic Church of 
Altamont, 111. For a number of years the 
! religious services of this congregation were 
conducted at this place by the Franciscan Fathers, 
among whom were Rev. Michael Richardt, Rev. 
Herman Wirtz, Rev. Clement Deynaann and Rev. 
Florence Kurzer, from Teutopolis; Rev. Father 
Francis Albers, Rev. Father Jerome Hellhake, Rev. 
Placidus Krekeler and Rev. Maurus Brink, followed 
by Rev. Stephen Scholz. The first secular priest 
was Rev. John Gratza, who was succeeded soon af- 
ter by Rev. William Michael. The next to have 
charge of the church was Rev. P. A. Lyons, who 
in turn was followed by the present pastor, Rev. 
Herman Gesenhues. The time of the latter's com- 
ing was on the 10th of July, 1891. 

The congregation now numbers forty-seven 
families, thirty-three of whom reside within the 
village limits of Altamont. The church building 
is .1 comportable and commodious edifice. The 
congregation is entirely free from debt, and under 
the present pastorate a number of general im- 
provements have been made upon the church 
property. In fact, the Catholic Church interests 
in Altamont may be said to be in a growing and 
prosperous condition. The present trustees, be- 
sides the pastor, are Charles Wittmeyer and Val- 
entine Shab. 

Rev. Herman Gesenhues is a native of St. Louis, 
Mo., having been born on the 13th of December, 
1858, in that city. After he had acquired his pri- 

9 



mary education he became a student in Teutopolis, 
and was there graduated in literature and in the 
classics. He was graduated in philosophy and 
theology in St. Francis' Seminary, near Milwaukee, 
Wis., and was ordained a priest by Bishop Baltes, 
in Alton, 111., on the 23d of October, 1881, Fa- 
ther Gesenhues' first pastoral charge was in Be- 
thalto, Madison County, 111., and at the same time 
he celebrated mass at two missions, Gillespie and 
Raymond. On the 4th of April, 1884, he be- 
came pastor of the parish at Hillsboro, Montgomery 
County, and on October 4, 1888, was placed in 
charge of the church in Bloomfield, near Quincy, 
and of the congregations of Columbus and Men- 
don, Adams County, 111. As already stated, he 
came to Altamont in Juty. 1891. Father Gesen- 
hues has done much to promote the best interests 
of his church, both in Altamont, Shumway and 
St. Elmo, where he has been called upon to labor. 




>ILLIAM L. JOURDAN, who resides on 
section 8, Wade Township, Jasper County, 
owns and operates a farm of three hundred 
and twenty acres of land, and is considered one 
of the substantial and leading agriculturists of 
the community. As he is widely and favorably 
known, we feel assured that this sketch of his life 
will prove of interest to many of our readers. No 
other home has he known than Jasper County, 
for he was born in Wade Township, February 28, 
1839. His paternal grandfather, Col. Jourdan, 
was born of Scotch-Irish parentage. He grew to 
manhood in the Old Country, and later became 
one of the early settlers of Indiana. He received 
his commission as Colonel during his service in the 
War of 1812. 

James Jourdan, his son and the father of our 
subject, was born and reared near Vincennes, Ind., 
and there married Melinda Scott, a native of Ken- 
tucky, and a daughter of William Scott. Determin- 
ing to try his fortune in Illinois, he became the 
first real settler who made a permanent location in 



210 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD 



Jasper County. His first home was made in what 
is now Fox Township, at Bow Station. Later 
he settled near Newton, and resided there for some 
time. He spent the last years of his life on the 
old homestead, which is now occupied by his son, 
Joseph Jourdan, and his death there occurred 
in 1844, when our subject was a mere lad. The 
mother then reared her family. She survived her 
husband until May, 1876, when she was called to 
her final rest, and her remains were interred by 
his side in the Vanderhoof Cemetery, where a 
marble slab marks their last resting-place. In 
the Jourdan family there were four sons and three 
daughters, who grew to manhood and womanhood, 
and four of the number are yet living, namely: 
Mary A., wife of Horace Root; Kate, wife of Sam 
Miller; Joseph and William. 

The subject of this sketch remained with his 
mother until after he had attained his majority, 
and aided her in the labors of the farm. His edu- 
cational privileges were very moderate, being those 
afforded by the common schools. On the breaking 
out of the late war he manifested his loyalty to 
the Union cause by enlisting on the 5th of Oc- 
tober, 1861, as a member of Company K, Thirty- 
eighth Illinois Infantry. When his term had ex- 
pired he veteranized, and continued in the service 
until the spring of 1866. He participated in all the 
engagements of his regiment, including the battles 
of Corinth and Stone River, whence he went to 
Chattanooga, and during all the way the troops 
were under fire. He then took part in the battles 
of Chattanooga, Kenesaw Mountain, Chickamauga, 
Franklin and Nashville. He received a wound at 
Stone River. After the surrender of Lee, the Thir- 
t3 r -eighth Regiment was sent to Texas, where it did 
duty until the spring of 1866. AVith his comrades, 
Mr. Jourdan was then mustered out at Springfield, 
and returned to his home. 

On again reaching Jasper County our subject 
resumed farming in Wade Township, where he 
owned one hundred and sixty acres of land. Af- 
ter operating that place for several years, in 1883 
he purchased the farm on which he now resides 
and which has since been his home. The tract was 
formerly known as the Big Marsh, for much of it 
was under water and thought to be unfit for cul- 



tivation. Mr. Jourdan has drained and developed 
it, until it is now one of the valuable farms of the 
county. He has a comfortable residence, many 
modern improvements, and is numbered among 
the thrifty and well-to-do agriculturists of Wade 
Township. 

While home on a furlough during the late war, 
Mr. Jourdan was married, May 26, 1862, to Miss 
Mary M. Banta, a native of Johnson County, Ind. 
She came to Illinois when a maiden of eleven 
summers, with her father, Henry Banta, who set- 
tled in Wade Township. Eight children bless the 
union of Mr. and Mrs. Jourdan. Alva T. and 
Charles M. are both married, and operate portions 
of the home farm. The younger members of the 
family are Ephraim S., Harvey, Winnie, Elbert, 
William II. and Ulysses G. They also lost three 
children, Axie, George T. and Rennie, who died 
at the ages of thirteen, two and one years respec- 
tively. 

Mr. Jourdan is an ardent advocate of the Repub- 
lican party, and has voted for each of its Presiden- 
tial nominees since casting his first vote for Abra- 
ham Lincoln in 1860. He and his wife hold 
membership with the Presbyterian Church, and 
socially, he is a member of Newton Lodge, A. O. 
U. W. Mr. Jourdan is well known in Newton, 
and in Jasper County. He is a man of strict integ- 
rity, true to every duty of citizenship and to 
every private trust, and among the honored pio- 
neers he well deserves mention. 




EV. ALFRED BLISS, a well-known pioneer 
Methodist minister of southern Illinois, 
now superannuated and a resident of Eff- 
ingham, was born in the town of Fairlee. 
Orange County, Yt., May 29, 1811, and is a son of 
Solomon and Jerusha (Strong) Bliss. His parents 
were natives of Connecticut, and settled in Ver- 
mont in their youth. They were Congregational- 
ists, and the father for upwards of forty years was 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



211 



Deacon of his church. Our subject received an 
academic education and was reared to agricultural 
pursuits. 

On the 4th of March, 1834, Mr. Bliss and Miss 
Direxia II. Knowles were united in marriage. Mrs. 
Bliss was born in Northfield, N. H., and is a daugh- 
ter of Joseph and Hannah (Haynes) Knowles, of 
that place. Both were descended from old New 
England families. 

In 1838, Mr. Bliss left Vermont with his family, 
in company with his wife's parents and their fam- 
ily, for Illinois. They traveled all the way by 
teams, over new and poorly-improved roads, and 
reached their destination after eight weeks on the 
way. They purchased land in what is now Fill- 
more, Montgomery County, 111., and in that neigh- 
borhood Mr. Bliss engaged in farming for fifteen 
years. They were poor and had much to contend 
with in the natural disadvantages of living in a 
new country, but they soon had a comfortable 
home and became well off on account of their in- 
dustry and frugality. 

About the year 1820, in his early childhood, 
Mr. Bliss united with the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, of which his wife became a member at the 
age of eighteen. They were both devout Chris- 
tians from their youth up and were active in 
church and Sunday-school work prior to leaving 
the East. Mr. Bliss was Superintendent of the 
Sunday-school of his church in Bradford, Vt., for 
several years. On coming to Montgomery County, 
111., they found themselves in a wilderness, without 
schools or churches and with few Christian neigh- 
bors. As the country began to settle they succeeded 
in organizing a church and Sunday-school. After 
a residence at Fillmore of fifteen years, Mr. Bliss 
was licensed by the Methodist Episcopal Confer- 
ence as an" itinerant minister and entered upon his 
sacred duties about 1853. 

Mr. and Mrs. Bliss had six children who lived 
to maturity and married. Two died in infancy. 
Eliza Ann, the eldest, is the wife of James S. 
Moody, of Fillmore, and has eight children. Ce- 
lesta J., wife of E. C. Devore, died in February, 
1890, leaving two children. George married Mag- 
gie Russell and resides in Nokomis, Montgomery 
Count}-, 111. Alice, wife of Lyman Allen, died in 



June, 1880, leaving three children. Charles W. 
married Elizabeth Phillips and is a resident of 
Hillsboro, Montgomery County. Nellie J., the 
youngest of the family, is the widow of John C. 
White, whose sketch appears in another portion of 
this volume, and makes her home in Effingbam. 
She has three living children. She is a member of 
the Board of Trustees of Austin College, to which 
institution she has been a liberal contributor. 

Mr. Bliss organized the first Sunday-school in 
Montgomery County and after entering the min- 
istry was engaged in active work in that and ad- 
joining counties, holding meetings wherever he 
could gel a few together, supplying pulpits, mar- 
rying, and burying the dead, rejoicing with the 
happy and comforting those in sorrow and dis- 
tress. During the late Civil War there was much 
sympathy among his neighbors for those in rebell- 
ion; many were Southern-born and had friends 
and relatives in the Southern army. The nearness 
of Fillmore to the Missouri border made it a favor- 
ite resort of the guerrilla raiders. Mr. Bliss had 
always been a strong anti-slaverj' man, and being 
a Methodist preacher was suspected of being con- 
nected with the so-called "underground railroad," 
by which fugitive slaves were being conducted 
Northward to Canada. Consequently he had 
many enemies in the secession element, who were 
only too glad to point him out to the guerrillas as 
one deserving of death. It happened that during 
the war he owned and operated a grist and saw 
mill not far from his home and it was while there 
with his sons attending to the grinding of some 
grain that the first demonstration was made against 
him. Three strange men came in, claiming to have 
grist that had been neglected or not ground in 
their turn and sought a quarrel with Mr. Bliss. 
They were armed, while he was not, but he took 
matters coolly and tried to reason with them. The 
men went so far as to admit that they came to kill 
him, when a neighbor, a friend, put in an appear- 
ance and the gang concluded to postpone their 
work. The neighbor informed Mr. Bliss that he 
had happened to overhear the plot and came down 
to warn him. At another time a man very much 
resembling him was riding on a road which Mr. 
Bliss much frequented, was surrounded by four 



212 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



guerrillas and mafic to dismount. He was marched 
into the woods, away from the highway, where 
they gave him to understand that he was to be 
killed. They called him Bliss and the man seeing 
the mistake naturally took advantage of it and 
succeeded in convincing the would-be murderers 
that they had the wrong man. No doubt had the}' 
really seized the man for whom they were look- 
ing they would have ended his days then and there. 
On another occasion, while driving with a niece in 
a covered carriage, he met four armed men who 
seemed disposed to stop him, but as he drew a re- 
volver and acted on the defensive they hesitated 
and lie drove on. These are but a few instances 
where his life was threatened and his man}' friends 
wondered how he managed to escape. 

For nearly forty years Mr. Bliss was actively 
employed in the ministry, and in the cause of edu- 
cation took a prominent part. lie was especially 
interested in providing collegiate advantages for 
young women. He built a female college at Sa- 
lem, 111., which was in successful operation for 
several years, there being as many as two hundred 
students in attendance. When the management 
of McKendrce College opened the doors to female 
students they absorbed the Salem school, which 
was afterwards abandoned. In 1881, Mr. Bliss, 
having been placed on the superannuated list, 
removed to Effingham, which has since been his 
home. He has continued to work, however, and 
has been instrumental in building up thriving 
church societies in many places where there was 
but little encouragement. He organized a society 
and built a church at old deserted Ewington, the 
former county seat of Effingham County, another 
at Sigel, one at Montrose and another at Union, 
which are now thriving and prosperous churches. 

In starting what is now Austin College, Mr. 
Bliss was one of the original movers and was a 
liberal contributor to the fund, giving $2,500 to- 
ward building the college. He was chosen the 
first President of the institution. He has always 
given liberally to the building of churches, many 
of which were outside of the Methodist Episcopal 
denomination, and other worthy charitable objects 
have met with his sympathy and support. 

In early life our subject was politically a Demo- 



crat but joined the Republican party at its organi- 
zation. He was chosen a member of the County 
Commissioners Court and was re-elected, serving 
for two terms in that office. He continued to vote 
for the Republican nominees until 18'JO, when- 
having been a temperance man all his life, lie 
joined the Prohibition party. He possesses a farm 
of eleven hundred acres in Montgomery County, 
which he leases and which he acquired by years of 
industry and economy. Both he and his good 
wife have passed their eighty-first year and are in 
the full possession of their faculties and likely to 
live for many years in the enjoyment of life. 
They celebrated the fifty-ninth anniversary of 
their wedding day on March 4, 1893. Their lives 
have been useful and contented and in their old 
age they are esteemed and respected by a wide cir- 
cle of friends. 



!->*<! 



OSEPH DONALDSON is a retired farmer 
and Justice of the Peace of Mason. He is 
numbered among Effingham County's lead- 
v ing citizens and well deserves representa- 
tion in this volume. A native of Petersburg, 
Boone County, Ky., he was born July 19, 1831, 
and is a son of Andrew and Catherine (Baxter) 
Donaldson, both of whom were natives of Vir- 
ginia. The father was of Scotch descent, and the 
mother of German lineage. Joseph spent his boy- 
hood days under the parental roof and in his 
youth attended the public schools of Petersburg, 
where he acquired a good English education. 
On the 25th of April, 1854, he left Carrollton, 
Ky., and went to New York, expecting to go to 
California by boat, but found that all the accom- 
modations were taken, and together with about 
eight hundred others, he was disappointed in se- 
curing passage. 

In company with six other young men, Mr. Don- 
aldson determined to go overland, and, after mak- 
ing preparations for the journey, they started 
forthwith. On reaching Salt Lake City one of 






PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



213 



the party secured a clerkship at that place, but 
the others continued on their way and reached 
their destination on the 10th of September. Our 
subject spent five years in California, and thence 
went to British America, where he remained nine 
months. Returning by way of the Isthmus route, 
he arrived home in January, 1861. During his 
absence at Vancouver's Island Mr. Donaldson saw 
Gen. Scott for the first time. A dispute had arisen 
between Great Britain and the United States con- 
cerning the boundary line, and the General, know- 
ing the exact position of the boundary line, was 
there to decide the matter. The next time our 
subject saw Gen. Scott the latter was at Carroll- 
ton, Ky., on a mail boat, and it was while he was 
candidate for the Presidency of the United States. 

As before stated, our subject returned home in 
1861, and on the 30th of August of that year he 
married Miss Elizabeth, daughter of George and 
Catherine (Menish) Bowling, who were natives of 
Virginia. They had three children, but Andrew 
J., their eldest child and only son, died in infanc}'. 
Catherine became the wife of William Weston, a 
blacksmith of Stewardson, 111., and died March 6, 
1881. Jennie became the wife of Bird Sisson, of 
Mason, and they had two children, Karl Eugene 
and Joseph A. The latter died at the age of 
three years. Mrs. Sisson was called to the home 
beyond February 13, 1889. 

Soon after his marriage Mr. Donaldson bade 
good-bye to his bride and entered the service of 
his country as one of the boys in blue of Com- 
pany C, Eleventh Indiana Infantry, in which he 
served three years. On the expiration of that 
time he returned home and aided in organizing a 
company, which enlisted for a year, but was dis- 
charged after six months, for the war ten ended. 
This company became Company C, of the One 
Hundred and Fiftieth Indiana Regiment. During 
botli terms of service Mr. Donaldson was under 
Col. Marsh B. Taylor, and was in the First Brig- 
ade and First Division of Hancock's Corps. He 
participated in the battles of Harper's Ferry, 
Winchester, Halltown, and many other important 
engagements. lie was always found at his post 
of duty, and was a faithful and gallant defender 
of the Union. 



When the war was over, Mr. Donaldson re- 
turned to Carrollton, Ky., where he remained 
until 1868, when he removed toEffingham County, 
111. The next six years of his life were spent on 
a farm in Union Township. He had previously 
come here in 1862, but made no permanent loca- 
tion. His farm, which contained eighty acres, he 
sold in 1874, and removed to the village of 
Mason, where he engaged in coopering, which 
business he followed until the improved machin- 
ery made hand work unnecessary. Abandoning 
that pursuit, he has since lived a retired life. 

Mr. Donaldson held the office of City Marshal 
and Street Commissioner for several years, and is 
HOW Justice of the Peace. His public duties have 
ever been discharged with a promptness and fidel- 
ity that have won him the commendation of all 
concerned. In politics he is a Democrat, and so- 
cially is a member of Mason Lodge No. 217, 
A. F. & A. M., and Mason Chapter No. 76, R. A. M. 
Himself and wife belong to the Eastern Star, and 
they are also members of the Methodist Church. 
Mr. Donaldson likewise holds membership with 
Ransom Post No. 99, G. A. R. The Squire is one 
of the substantial citizens of Mason, and is now 
resting in the enjoyment of a competence which 
has been acquired through his own efforts. He 
has lived a quiet, unassuming life, yet he has won 
the esteem and confidence of all with whom he 
has been brought in contact. He was true to his 
country in her hour of peril, and is alike true to 
every trust reposed in him. 




LOYIES CHARLES KESSLER, who isen- 

gaged in farming on section 9, Wade 
Ij li> Township, Jasper County, has spent his 

entire life in this locality, in fact is a rep- 
resentative of one of the early families of the com- 
munity. He was born on the farm which is still 
his home on the 18th of June, 1851, and it has 
since been his place of residence. His father, 
Nicholas Kessler, was a native of German}', and 



214 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



there spent the days of his boyhood and youth. 
When a young man he determined to try his for- 
tune in America, and crossed the briny deep to the 
New World. He settled in Jasper County, 111., en- 
tered a tract of land from the Government and 
began the development of a farm, upon which our 
subject now resides. He was here married to Miss 
Kate Weiskope, a native of Germany, who came to 
America when a young lady. Mr. Kessler first en- 
tered a tract of eighty acres from the Government 
and soon transformed the wild and unbroken prai- 
rie into a rich and well-cultivated farm. He met 
with excellent success in his business, and as his 
financial resources increased he added to his landed 
possessions from time to time, until at his death 
he was the owner of one of the finest farms in the 
county. He was also one of the largest land-own- 
ers in Wade Township, his possessions aggregating 
some nine hundred acres. He spent the remainder 
of his life in this localitj', and was called to his 
final home in March, 1874. His wife passed away 
several years previous, dying when our subject was 
a lad of about twelve years. 

A. C. Kessler is one of a family of eight chil- 
dren, numbering five sons and three daughters, 
who grew to mature years. He and his brother 
John and one sister, however, are now the only 
surviving members of the family. No event of 
special importance occurred during the boyhood 
of our subject. He was reared in the usual man- 
ner of farmer lads, aiding in the labors of the farm 
during the summer months, and attending the dis- 
trict schools of the neighborhood during the win- 
ter season. On the death of his father he suc- 
ceeded to the old homestead, which he has since 
owned and operated. 

In Clay County, 111., on the 19th of September, 
1876, Mr. Kessler married Mary Hemrich, who was 
born in Richland County, 111., but spent her girl- 
hood days in Clay County. Her parents, Bona- 
parte and Wilhemina Hemrich, were both natives 
of Germany. Five children grace the union of 
Mr. and Mrs. Kessler: Rosa, Henry, Gertie, C'elia 
and Dora. The family circle yet remains unbrok- 
en, and the three eldest children are attending 
school. 

Mr. and Mrs. Kessler are members of St. Marie's 



Catholic Church, and in his political affiliations he 
is a Democrat. His entire life has been spent in 
Jasper County, and he is well and favorably 
known to its citizens. His career has been an 
honorable and upright one, and therefore he has 
the high regard of all with whom business or pleas- 
ure has brought him in contact. His farm com- 
prises one hundred and sixty acres of land, and is 
under a high state of cultivation. 




;ILLIE CHITTENDEN MARTIN, the sen- 
ior member of the well-known mercantile 
firm of T. J. Martin's Sons, of Newton, 
was born in this city November 25, 1856, and is 
the eldest surviving son of T. J. and Mary E. 
(Chittenden) Martin. His education was obtained 
in the public schools of his native town, sup- 
plemented by a course in the Evansville Business 
College, of Evansville, Ind. During vacations he 
made himself useful in his father's store, and so 
laid the foundation for a practical mercantile ed- 
ucation that has served a good purpose since he 
has been in business for himself. On the death of 
his father, in 1886, he and his brother E. T. suc- 
ceeded to the mercantile business established by 
their father long prior to their births. They have 
since carried on the store with marked success. 
They deal in dry goods, groceries and provisions, 
carry an excellent line of goods and have a fine 
trade, which yields to them a good income. 

On the 27th of November, 1889, Mr. Martin was 
united in marriage in Newton with Miss Myrtle 
Spoon, who is a native of Hudsonville, 111., and 
is a daughter of Iredell and Elizabeth Spoon. 
Two children grace this union, both daughters: 
Eudora and Maud. Mr. and Mrs. Martin are 
members of the Christian Church, and are people 
of sterling worth, whose many excellencies of char- 
acter have won them the warm regard of their 
largo circle of friends and acquaintances. 

In politics, Mr. Martin votes with the Democ- 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD 



215 



racy. Socially, he is a member of Newton Lodge 
No. 161, 1. 0. O. F. He is also connected with the 
Knights of Pythias fraternity, holding member- 
ship with Martin Lodge, which was so nameil in 
honor of his father some years after his death, al- 
though he was never a member of that order. Our 
subject is likewise connected with Camp No. 479, 
M. W. A. 

In addition to their mercantile business. Mr. 
Martin and his brother have established a can- 
ning factory at Newton, which is fast growing 
into prominence through the superior quality of 
the goods which they prepare and sell. Under the 
name of the Ambraw Canning Company they 
carry on a successful business, which is elsewhere 
spoken of in this work. 

The sons of eminent and prominent men in the 
community always labor at some disadvantage by 
comparison with the father, but the sons of T. J. 
Martin, having been in business now for several 
years, have demonstrated their ability to success- 
fully conduct important' business enterprises and 
have already won for themselves a good name, in- 
dependent of the prestige of their father's mem- 
ory. 




R. JOHN LE CRONE, the present efficient 
and popular County Clerk of Effingham 
County, 111., is one of the few surviving 
pioneer settlers who can boast nearly a 
half-century's residence within its borders. He has 
also been one of its useful and valued citizens. 
The Doctor was born in the town of McClelland, 
Fayette County, Pa., on the 12th of December, 
1816, and is the eldest son of Daniel and Elizabeth 
(Sprinkle) Le Crone. The father was also a native 
of the Keystone State. He was born in Lancaster 
County, Pa., on the 26th of March, 1791, and was 
descended from an old Pennsylvanian family 
that dated its origin in that State long prior to 
the War of the Revolution, the original emigrant 
settler having come to America from Strasburg, 



on the Franco-German border. The mother of 
our subject was born in Fayette County, Pa., and 
was descended from an old Kentucky family. The 
Doctor's parents were both members of the Pres- 
byterian Church. They had a family of ten chil- 
dren, of whom six are now living, all being resi- 
dents of Effiugham County. Our subject is the 
eldest. He was followed by Henry, who resides in 
Watson, this county; William, who makes his home 
in the same county; Mathia*, who is living in 
Jackson Township, Effingham County; Mrs. Cath- 
erine Ashbaugh and Mrs. Mary Parks. 

While a youth, Dr. Le Crone remembers to have 
seen Gen. La Fayette while on his last visit to 
America, riding in a carriage in Uniontown, Pa., 
in company with Gen. Jackson. This was in 1834. 
The Doctor's parents removed with their children 
to Perry County, Ohio, in 1832, and ten years 
later, in 1842, came to Illinois, locating in Effing- 
ham County. Daniel Le Crone entered a tract of 
land near where now stands the village of Watson, 
and was engaged in farming until his death, which 
occurred July 8, 1845. His wife died January 10, 
1848. For more than half a century the family 
has been connected with the history of this county, 
where the living children still reside. 

The subject of this sketch removed with his 
parents to Ohio when a youth of sixteen summers. 
He had attended the public schools in his native 
State, and on going to the Buckeye State pursued 
his studies in the same class of schools until seven- 
teen years of age. At that time he entered Mari- 
etta College, where he remained two years as a 
student, teaching at intervals to defray his ex- 
penses. At the expiration of that period he gave 
up trying to complete the course and engaged in 
teaching, also devoting some time to the study of 
medicine. Under the preceptorship of Drs. Hyde 
and Evans, of Rushville, Ohio, he pursued his 
medical studies, and at this time, although not yet 
twenty-one years of age. nor far enough advanced 
to regularly engage in medical practice, he had the 
temerity to assume the responsibilities of the head 
of a family, and on the 8th of September, 1836, 
was united in marriage with Miss PUizabeth Allen, 
a daughter of Joseph Allen. Mrs. Le Crone was 
born in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia. Her 



216 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



people were of an old and honored family of the 
Old Dominion, whence they removed to Ohio 
about the year 1829. 

The Doctor pursued the practice of medicine in 
the Buckeye State until 1844, when he determined 
to come to Illinois, whither his parents had already 
removed. He took up his residence in Efflngham 
County, settling at Ewington, then the county 
seat. There he succeeded in building up an exten- 
sive and lucrative practice and in acquiring a val- 
uable property at that place. In 1860 the county 
seat was removed from Ewington to Efflngham, 
and in consequence the property in the former 
place depreciated in value so much that it became 
almost worthless. Dr. Le Crone removed to this 
city and, as the natural result, had to begin in 
Efflngham, financially, at the bottom of the ladder, 
but he had the advantage of extensive acquaint- 
ance and a high reputation in his profession. In 
consequence, he soon retrieved his losses and be- 
came comfortably situated again. His removal to 
Ettingham occurred in April, 1861, and since that 
time he has resided continuously in this place. 

At the time of Dr. Le Crone's advent into Ewing- 
ton there were but two other physicians in the 
county Dr. J. M. Long, now of California, and 
Dr. C. M. Fally, now of Wisconsin. As these 
two gentlemen long since took their departure, 
our subject enjoys the distinction of being the 
oldest resident physician of Efflngham County. 
In the early days of his practice in Illinois, Dr. Le 
Crone's circuit involved many long rides, in which 
he was obliged to ford bridgeless streams and face 
many a wild storm on a trackless prairie. His 
practice extended beyond Efflngham County, into 
Shelby, Fayette, Clay and Jasper Counties. Being 
blessed with a peculiarly hardy constitution and 
with great powers of endurance, he was enabled 
to do an immense amount of work and proved a 
most welcome visitor in the distant homes of the 
afflicted, in the well-remembered so-called sickly 
seasons of pioneer times. 

In June, 1864, Dr. Le Crone entered the volun- 
teer military service of the United States as one 
of the one hundred day men, and acted as Assistant 
Surgeon of the One Hundred and Thirty-fifth Illi- 
nois Infantry. He served the term of his enlist- 



ment and on his return from the army resumed 
practice in Efflngham. He pursued his business 
with marked success until the fall of 1886, when 
he abandoned that work for a time, having been 
elected County Clerk of Efflngham County. He 
was re-elected in the fall of 1890, and is now in 
the middle of his second term. 

In early life Dr. Le Crone was a Whig and voted 
for William Henry Harrison for President in 1840. 
Twenty years later, in 1860, he began voting with 
the Democrats, supporting Stephen A. Douglas 
for the Presidency, and has since been identified 
with that great party. His first official position in 
Illinois was that of Justice of the Peace, which he 
flllled in New England. He has also served three 
terms as Mayor of the City of Efflngham. 

Ten children were born unto Dr. and Mrs. Le 
Crone, of whom nine are yet living. William C., the 
eldest, married Miss Lina Kagay, and is a commer- 
cial traveler residing in Efflngham. Albert W. is a 
lawyer by profession, and also resides in Effingham. 
His present wife was Miss Lizzie Wood. Martha 
became the wife of John Cullom, a resident of 
Crawford County, 111. Mary is the wife of Nelson 
Staats, of St. Louis. Eliza died in 1877. She was 
twice married. Her first husband, William J. Boyce, 
was killed in the attack on Ft. Donelson. In her 
widowhood she became the wife of William M- 
Thompson, of this city. At her death she left two 
children, a daughter born of each marriage. Har- 
riet M. is the wife of C. W. Smith, a resident of 
Indianapolis, Ind., who is employed as a conductor 
on the Vandalia Railroad. George M. married 
Frances Nitcher, and is now the able editor and 
publisher of the Effingham Democrat. Lewis mar- 
ried Sophia Gyon, and is living at Effingham. 
Nellie, the youngest of the family, is the wife of 
S. D. Prouty, a conductor on the Diamond Special 
Train and a resident of Efflngham. 

On the 8th of January, 1892, Dr. Le Crone was 
called upon to mourn the loss of his most estimable 
wife, who had been his companion through fifty- 
four years of wedded life. She was a consistent 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and 
her death was mourned by a large circle of friends 
and acquaintances. The Doctor is a member of 
the oldest medical society in the State, the Wabash 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



217 



Esculapian Society. He was once President of the 
Eflingham County Medical Society, now defunct, 
and also held membership with the State Med- 
ical Society. Socially he is a member of Chapter 
No. 87, R. A. M., and also of Efflngham Lodge No. 
149, A. F. & A. M., of Efflngham. He is also an 
Odd Fellow, but the lodge to which he once 
belonged is now extinct. The Doctor has been 
a resident of this county for nearly half a cen- 
tury and has ever been connected with its prom- 
inent interests, aiding largely in its develop- 
ment and upbuilding. His career as a physician 
has been most successful, and well deserving is he 
of his high reputation. As a citizen, he is valued 
throughout the community, and his untarnished 
official record has won him high commendation. 




*==*==* 



bHOMAS S. LOY, a representative and well- 
known farmer residing on section 20, Wat- 
son Township, is numbered among the hon- 
ored pioneers of Efflngham County. In fact, he 
was born in the township which is still his home, 
January 29, 1837. His father, Joseph C. Loy, 
was a native of Alabama, and was of German de- 
scent. He married Rachel Sharp, and they became 
the parents of five children, as follows: James, 
who is engaged in farming in Watson Township; 
Lizzie J., widow of William Bryant, and a resi- 
dent of the same township; Thomas, whose name 
heads this sketch; John H., who is engaged in ag- 
ricultural pursuits in Watson Township; and 
Elizabeth, who became the wife of Andy Wilson, 
and died in 1891. Throughout his entire life the 
father of this family followed farming. Leaving 
his native State in 1827, lie emigrated to Shelby 
County, 111., and after a 3'ear came to Efflngham 
County. The journey was made by team. Since 
1828, the Loy family has been prominently con- 
nected with the history of the community. They 
settled on what is now section 21, Watson Town- 
ship, made a claim, and when the land came into 



market Joseph Loy purchased one hundred and 
sixty acres on section 18, Watson Township. He 
erected a log cabin and into it the family moved, 
living in true pioneer style. He cleared his land, 
planted crops and devoted his energies to the cul- 
tivation of that farm until 1859, when he sold out 
and purchased eighty acres on section 21, where 
he lived until his death. The Indians were very 
numerous at the time of the arrival of the Loy 
family, and the city of Vandalia was only a mere 
trading-post. They bore all the trials and priva- 
tions of pioneer life, and experienced the difficul- 
ties one has in developing a new farm. Mr. Loy 
was a member of the Methodist Church, and in 
politics was a Republican. He died February 6, 
1892, at the advanced age of eighty-four years, 
and was laid to rest in Loy Cemetery, in Watson 
Township. His wife, who was also a member of 
the same church, was called to her final rest in 
1884. 

The subject of this sketch was born and reared 
in Watson Township. The first school which he 
attended was held in a log house and he conned 
his lessons while seated on slab benches. As soon 
as old enough he began to aid in the labors 
of the farm, and gave his father the benefit of his 
services until twenty-two years of age, when he 
started out in life for himself. For two years he 
operated a rented farm and then purchased forty 
acres on section 18, Watson Township, a part of the 
old homestead, where he lived for two years. It 
was about that time, in 1862, that Mr. Loy re- 
sponded to his country's call for troops and enlisted 
asa privateof Company I, Seventy-first Illinois In- 
fantry. He was mustered into service at Catnp 
Butler, at Springfield, HI., and served for one hun- 
dred days, when he was honorabty discharged. 

On the expiration of that period, Mr. Loy re- 
turned to his home and purchased forty acres of 
land on section 21, Watson Township, where he 
lived for two years. He then sold out and bought 
the farm on which he now resides, comprising 
forty acres of land on section 20. 

In 1858 our subject was united in marriage with 
Miss Harriet E. Smith, daughter of H. L. and Har- 
riet E. (Rouse) Smith. The following children 
have been born of their union: Alice, Mary E., 



218 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



Belle, Charlie, George E.; Hattie, who died in 
1876; Smithe, who died in 1874; Alonzo and Corn. 
The Loy family is one well known in this com- 
munity and its members rank high in social cir- 
cles. 

Mr. and Mrs. Loy are members of the Christian 
Church, and socially he is a member of the Grand 
Army Post. In his political views, he is a stanch 
Democrat and has warmly advocated the principles 
of that party since becoming a voter. He has 
served his township as Constable and as Justice of 
the Peace for twenty-four years, and has filled the 
office of Assessor, School Treasurer and Township 
Collector. His duties have been promptly and 
faithfully performed. In all the public or private 
trusts of life, Mr. Loy has discharged the duties 
devolving upon him with a promptness and fidel- 
ity which have won him the commendation of all 
concerned. He is a good business man and has 
won a position among the substantial citizens of 
the community. 




V. CRONK, who is engaged in 
farming on section 10, Watson Township, 
Effingham County, has the honor of being 
a native of Illinois. He was born in Shelby County, 
January 5, 1832, and is a son of Harmon and Eliz- 
abeth (Loy) Cronk. His father was a native of 
the Empire State and was of German descent. 
The family numbered seven children, as follows: 
Mary, who is now deceased; William, of this sketch; 
American, who follows farming in Watson Town- 
ship; James, a resident of Effingham; Washington, 
now a resident of Clinton County; Rachel, who 
is now deceased; and one child who died in in- 
fancy. 

The father of this family followed farming 
throughout his entire life. He removed from the 
Empire State to Illinois, making the journey by 
team, and located in Shelby County. In 1832 he 
removed to Effingham County, locating near 
Ewington. He purchased timber and bottom land 



from the Government, and clearing those tracts 
developed a farm, on which he resided until about 
1837. He then became a resident of Watson Town- 
ship and purchased one hundred acres of Govern- 
ment land on section 10. There he erected a log 
cabin, which is still standing, one of the few land- 
marks that yet remain to show the progress that 
has since been made. Upon the farm which he there 
improved, Mr. Cronk resided until his death, which 
occurred September 19, 1872. His remains were 
interred in the Loy Cemetery. He was quite a 
prominent and influential citizen and in an early 
day served his township as Assessor for two terms. 
Both he and his wife were members of the Meth- 
odist Church. She, too, has passed away, dying 
October 14, 1877, and lies _buried in Loy Ceme- 
tery. 

The subject of this sketch was only six months 
old when his parents came to Effingham County, 
and was a lad of about five summers when his fa- 
ther removed to Watson Township. At the age 
of nine he drove a yoke of oxen for his father to 
haul rails all around twenty acres of land. His 
educational privileges were quite limited. He, 
however, attended the subscription schools fora 
short time. Under the parental roof he remained 
until he had attained his majority and then started 
out in life for himself. The first work he did was 
to cut ties and he walked to and from his work, 
a distance of two miles. In this way he made $50. 
He then went to Vandalia and purchased a sol- 
dier's warrant for forty acres of land on section 
14, Watson Township, a tract of prairie. After 
spending about a year on that farm, he went to 
Effingham and engaged in clerking in a store for a 
short time. Later he returned to his father's farm, 
where he remained until 1872. In that year he 
purchased forty acres of partially improved land on 
section 10, where he has since resided. The boun- 
daries of his farm, however, he has since extended, 
until it now comprises one hundred and twenty- 
eight acres, under a high state of cultivation and 
well improved. 

Mr. Cronk was married December 29, 1862, to 
Miss Lizzie Wiley, daughter of James and Sarah 
(Foultz) Wile}-. She was born in December, 1849, 
in Alabama. By their union our subject and his 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



219 



wife have a family of seven children, namely: 
Ulysses, born July 31, 1868; Sidney, August 4, 
1871; Viola, August 24, 1875; Sarah E., June 27, 
1879; William R., July 5, 1882; Ida, August 27, 
1886; and Martha, August 26, 1889. 

In his political affiliations, Mr. Cronk is a Re- 
publican and has held the office of Township Col- 
lector for two terms. He has also served as School 
Trustee, and takes an active interest in all that 
pertains to the welfare and upbuilding of the com- 
munity. He and his wife hold membership with 
the Methodist Episcopal Church and do much for 
its advancement and progress. Mr. Cronk is rec- 
ognized as a public-spirited and progressive citi- 
zen and a man of sterling worth. His property 
represents his industry, good management and 
economy and is as a monument to his labors. 




SHEAMBRAW CANNING COMPANY, of 
Newton, one of the successful industries of 
Jasper County, was organized in the spring 
of 1889, and has been successful from the start. 
The second season it doubled its business, the third 
trebled it, and it is still increasing its facilities. Its 
proprietors are the Martin brothers, W. C. and 
E. T., who constitute the well-known mercantile 
house of T. J. Martin's Sons, of Newton. These 
gentlemen expect to have two hundred acres 
planted in tomatoes for the season of 1893, from 
which to draw their supply of raw material of 
that product. Besides they will can a consid- 
erable quantity of beans and a large amount 
of apples, peaches and other fruits. The output 
for the season of 1 893 in the matter of tomatoes 
alone is safely estimated at two hundred thou- 
sand cans, and of fruit in proportion to the abun- 
dance of the crop. About seventy-five hands will 
be employed. 

Although comparatively new in business, the 
goods of this company have by their superior ex- 
cellence already won a wide-spread reputation, 



which is best attested by the rapidly growing de- 
mand for them and the liberal orders sent in, 
which in the past season were far in excess of the 
facilities of the company. 




REDERICK AMETER, deceased, for 
forty-four years made his home in Rich- 
land Count}', devoting his energy to the 
cultivation of his farm of one hundred and sixty 
acres on section 6, Olney Township. This place 
is pleasantly and conveniently located three miles 
west of the city of Olney. In the midst of the 
well-tilled fields are a good frame residence, barns 
and other outbuildings. There is also an orchard, 
together with all the other modern improvements 
and conveniences of a first-class farm. 

Mr. Ameter was born on May 5, 1822, in the 
canton of Berne, Switzerland, and was the young- 
est in a family numbering three sons and three 
daughters, whose parents were William and Susan 
(Shafer) Ameter. The father was a farmer by oc- 
cupation, and followed that business throughout 
his entire life. He died in his native land in 
1826, when our subject was only four years of 
age. Frederick remained at home in the land of 
his nativity until about twenty-seven years of 
age, and worked as a cattle-herder for $5 per 
month. Hoping to better his financial condition, 
he at length bade adieu to friends and native land 
and in 1849 took passage on a Westward-bound 
sailing-vessel, accompanied by his mother and 
brother Christian. The latter, however, died two 
months later. The mother purchased a small 
farm of eighty acres on Grand Prairie, in Preston 
Township, Richland County, 111., and there lived 
with her son until her death, which occurred in 
1853. She was laid to rest in the German Re- 
formed Cemetery. 

On the 1st of January, 1851, Mr. Ameter was 
united in marriage with Miss Lucinda Balmer, who 
was also a native of Switzerland and attended the 
same school as her husband during her girlhood. 






220 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



Seven children were born of this union, and 
in order of birth they were as follows: Frederick, 
who aids in the operation of the home farm; 
Jacob, who is a resident of Colorado; Elizabeth, 
wife of Jacob Betebenner, a prosperous farmer of 
Rich land County; Caroline, deceased; Josephine, 
wife of John F. Glathart, a well-known and suc- 
cessful farmer of this county; John, who went to 
Alaska, where his death occurred when twenty- 
five years of age; and Clara, who is still under 
the parental roof. 

The parents of this family were both members 
of the German Reformed Church and highly re- 
spected people, whose many excellencies of char- 
acter gained them warm regard. In his po- 
litical affiliations Mr. Ameter was a Republican. 
He served as School Director in his district, and 
held the office of Road Commissioner for the 
long period of twenty years, a fact which indi- 
cated his faithfulness and fidelity to duty. His 
fellow-townsmen and those who knew him speak 
of him as an honorable, upright man, straightfor- 
ward in all his dealings. His life was well spent, 
and his example might be followed to advantage 
by many. He came to this country without capi- 
tal, but had no occasion to regret his determina- 
tion to try his fortune in the New World, for he 
here met with prosperity and gained a comfortable 
home and many friends. Mr. Ameter died at his 
home on the 24th of May, 1893, and his remains 
lie in the cemetery at Olney. 



eHRISTIAN P. LEATHERMAN, a highly 
respected citizen of Mason, ElHngham 
County, is a retired blacksmith and gun- 
smith. After a long business career he has at 
length put aside life's labors and is now enjoying 
a well-earned rest. He was born in Ohio, on the 
10th of July, 1814, and is a son of John and 
Wilhelmina Henrietta (Hankins) Leatherman. The 
father was a native of Ohio, and was of Dutch 
descent. The grandfather of our subject, Peter 



Leatherman, was a native of Pennsylvania, and 
also lived in Mississippi and Ohio. He died when 
about seventy-five years of age. The mother of 
our subject was a native of Germany. Her father 
came to this country when quite an old man. By 
the union of John and Wilhelmina Leatherman 
were born four children, three sons and a daugh- 
ter: Henry, David, Dorothy and Christian P. 
With the exception of our subject all are now de- 
ceased. The father of our subject was a black- 
smith and gunsmith, and for a number of years 
followed that business in Orange County, Ind., 
where his death occurred about 184C. His wife 
passed away the year previous. They were both 
members of the Dunkard Church, and lived to 
quite an advanced age. 

Christian P. Leatherman was reared to manhood 
in Indiana, near Little Orleans, where he leained 
his trade and received his education. He attended 
school in the little old-fashioned log schoolhouse, 
with its puncheon floor and slab seats, upon which 
the scholars sat conning their lessons. He remained 
at home until twenty years of age, when he began 
learning the business which he has made his life 
work. 

On 'the 20th of October, 1836, near Little Orle- 
ans, Ind., Mr. Leatherman married Miss Elizabeth 
Krutsinger, daughter of Jacob and .Sarah (Lee) 
Krutsinger. Her mother was a native of Tennes- 
see. Her father was born in Kentucky, and was 
of Dutch descent. By the union of our subject 
and his wife were born twelve children, eight 
of whom are yet living. Sarah, the eldest, is the 
wife of Jacob Cornwell, a blacksmith of Golden 
City, Mo., by whom she has seven children: 
Henrietta, Christian P., Charles, Lewis, Robert, 
Mary and Alice. Samuel is now deceased. Henri- 
etta and Harrison have also passed away. William 
married Miss Keziah J. Davis, and resides in Far- 
ina, 111., where lie is engaged in teaching, being a 
minister of the Methodist Church. They have 
four children: Frank, Delia, Charles and Lewis. 
Jacob, who is also a Methodist preacher, married 
Miss Jane Misenhamer and resides in Anna, 111. 
They have three children: Effle, Clarence and 
Elsie. Nancy is now deceased. Mary is the wife 
of Thomas Hale, a blacksmith of Louisville, 111. 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



221 



Four children have been born unto them: Driley, 
Artie, Levi and Bessie. James H. married Miss 
Lottie Golden, by whom he has five children: 
Myrtle, Eddie, William, Gertrude and a baby. 
They reside in Macon, 111., where he carries on 
business as a brick mason and a plasterer. Harvey 
T. married Miss Mary Andrews and with his wife 
and child, Earl Orville, resides in Mason, 111. 
George W. married Miss Alice Dunlap and is a 
blacksmith and silversmith of Walnut, Kan. Alice 
is the wife of Pierce Goodnight, who is engaged 
in farming in p]dgewood, 111. They have two 
children, William and James. 

The yenr 1844 witnessed the arrival of Mr. 
Leatherman in Illinois, he locating in Clay County, 
near Saylor Springs. The county was then wild 
and but sparsely settled. The prairie grass was 
higher than a man's head when he was seated on 
horseback. Many prairie fires occurred and were 
a source of terror to the inhabitants. All kinds 
of wild game, including turkeys, prairie chickens 
and ducks were plentiful, and wolves and wild hogs 
were very numerous. There were also large herds 
of deer and in one season Mr. Leatherman killed 
seventy-five of those animals. 

During his residence in Indiana, our subject 
enlisted as a soldier in the Mexican War, serv- 
ing under Col. Bowles and Gen. Jo Lane. He 
removed from the vicinity of Saylor Springs 
to Oskaloosa, in the same county, and there re- 
sided for about four years. It was in the year 
1868 that he came to Mason and opened a shop, in 
which he carried on blacksmithing and gunsmith- 
ing until seventy-seven years of age. His life has 
been a busy and useful one and by his industry 
and enterprise he has gained a comfortable com- 
petence, which now enables him to live in retire- 
ment. He owns a good home property in the vil- 
lage, and in the community lie has man3' friends. 

In politics, Mr. Leatherman is a Democrat. Him- 
self and wife are both faithful and devoted mem- 
bers of the Christian Church, of which he lias been 
an Elder since its organization. He labors ear- 
nestly for its upbuilding and growth and is an 
earnest worker in the Master's vineyard. He is a 
man of benevolent and kindly impulses, and the 
poor and needy find in him a valued friend. He 



is a plain, unassuming man, but his very unprc- 
tcntiousness has won him high respect. His word 
is never broken, his promises are always kept, and 
his career has been an honorable and upright one. 
Mr. Leatherman is now about seventy-nine years 
of age, and his wife has reached her seventy-second 
year. This worthy couple have traveled life's 
journey together for the long period of fifty-six 
years. Their mutual love and confidence have in- 
creased as time has passed and hand-in-hand they 
go down the hill of life together. Well may their 
children follow in the footsteps of their honored 
parents. 



JOHN WILLIAM ALOYSIUS WORMAN, 
of the firm of Wright & Worman, law, ab- 
! stract, real-estate and loan firm of Efling- 
' ham, who is known as A. J. Worman, is one 
of the most enterprising young business men of 
the city. He is a native of Indiana, born in Vin- 
cennes, Knox County, May 23, 1857. lie is a son 
of John Joseph and Mary (VerWayne) Worman, 
of whom see sketcli elsewhere in this work. 

Our subject came to Effingham, 111., with his par- 
ents in 1859, where upon attaining a suitable age 
he attended the parochial schools. At the early 
age of thirteen years, he commenced learning the 
printer's trade, which he was forced to leave in a 
year on account of failing health. In June, 1870, 
he was employed in assisting his father, who was 
Clerk of the Circuit Court and Recorder of Effing- 
ham Count3', and continued with him and his suc- 
cessor in office until August, 1874. At that time, 
he went to St. Louis, where he engaged in type- 
setting in a stamp factory, where he was employed 
about ay ear. 

On the 8th of March, 1875, Mr. Worman and 
Miss Frances C. Kempf were married in St. Louis. 
She was born in Greenburg, Ind., December 18, 
1854, and is a daughter of George and Elizabeth 
Kempf. Five children were born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Worman, of whom four are living: Anna Frances, 



222 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



Clara Constance, Loraine Regina, Lillie Gabriel 
and Albert Winfield, who died in infancy. 

Soon after his marriage, Mr. Worman accepted a 
position as collector for Richard Booth, a picture 
dealer of St. Louis, and subsequently engaged in 
the business of picture-framing for himself which 
he continued until October, 1877. He then re- 
moved with his family to Effingham, and upon 
his arrival in this city became assistant to Will- 
iam C. Le Crone, then Clerk of the Circuit Court 
and Recorder for Efflngham County. He remained 
with him and his successor until January 1, 1882. 
lie then formed a partnership with Capt. A. W. 
Le Crone, in the real -estate and abstract business. 
During his term of service in the Recorder's office, 
Mr. Worman had been working up a set of abstract 
books, which he has since kept up to date. His 
office now has the only full set of the kind to be 
found in Effingham County. His connection with 
Capt. Le Crone was maintained until September 1, 
1890, when it was dissolved by mutual consent. He 
continued business alone until January, 1892, 
when the existing partnership with W. B. Wright 
was formed. 

In politics, Mr. Worman is a Democrat, and 
while active and earnest in support of his party, 
has not been an aspirant for public office. He 
and his family are members of the Catholic Church, 
belonging to the Church of the Sacred Heart at 
Effingham, which he aided in building. 

Mr. Worman was instrumental in organizing 
and establishing the Effingham Manufacturing 
Company, of which he was Secretary and Manager, 
having charge of the construction of the plant, 
and he has been a stockholder in it until recently, 
when he sold out his interest. He organized the 
first Building and Loan Association in Eflingham, 
known as the Washington Loan and Building Asso- 
ciation, and for four years, from 1883 until 1887, 
served as its Secretary. He leased the ground for 
the Effingham Base Ball Park, and was one of the 
promoters and organizers of that institution. In 
fact, Mr. Worman has been actively and prorui- 
mently identified with many enterprises and pub- 
lic affairs which have tended to benefit the city, and 
is recognized as an enterprising and public-spirited 
citizen. His record as a business man is above re- 



proach, and he enjoys, as he well deserves, the 
confidence and respect of his fellow-citizens to n 
marked degree. He was early deprived of his 
mother's care, as her death occurred when he was 
eleven years old. His father is still a resident of 
Effingham. 




j. AVIlJ WHEELER, who has been a resident 
of Richland County for thirty-seven years, 
now follows farming on section 6, Olney 
Township. He is one of the worthy citi- 
zens that Maryland has furnished to this commu- 
nity. He was born in Baltimore County on the 
14th of November, 1837, and is the tenth in order 
of birth in a family of fifteen children, ten sons 
and five daughters. With one exception, all grew 
to mature years, and eleven of the number still 
survive. The parents were Wason and Anna 
(Samson) Wheeler. The former was born in Mary- 
land in 1798, and grew to manhood upon a farm 
in that State. Having attained to mature years, 
he wedded Miss Samson, whose birth occurred De- 
cember 1, 1803. Mr. Wheeler served in the Mex- 
ican War, and continued his farming operations 
in his native State for several j'ears after his mar- 
riage, when he went to Richland County, Ohio. 
There he remained until 1853, when he came to 
Richland County, 111., and purchased a tract of 
wild timberland. Upon the farm which he opened 
up he made his home until his death, January 8, 
1877. His wife died on the old homestead in De- 
cember, 1892. 

Our subject was a babe of a year when the par- 
ents emigrated with their family to the Buckeye 
State. He then lived in Ohio until fifteen years 
of age, when he came to Richland County, 111. 
No event of special importance occurred during 
the days of his boyhood and youth, which were 
quietl}' passed at home. On arriving at years of 
maturity, he commenced earning his own liveli- 
hood by working as a farm hand by the month. 
After one year thus passed, he abandoned the 
plow for the rifle, and, donning the blue, enlisted 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



223 



in Company B, Ninety-eighth Illinois Infantry, 
in July, 1H62, for three-years service. He was 
wounded in the right cheek by a ball fiom a 
rebel gun, which broke his jaw and then came out 
of his ear. He did faithful service and partici- 
pated in a number of engagements. 

When the war was over, Mr. Wheeler was hon- 
orably discharged and returned to his home. Soon 
afterward he purchased forty acres of timber land 
on section 6, Olney Township, and, after clearing 
away the trees, plowed and planted it. In course 
of time the once undeveloped tract yielded to him 
abundant harvests. Since that time he has de- 
voted his energies to agricultural pursuits, and 
now owns thirty-eight acres of good land three 
miles west of Olncy, which are under a high state 
of cultivation and well improved. He also owns 
sixty-five acres of land in Noble Township, twenty- 
five of which are under cultivation. 

On the 4th of November, 1866, was celebrated 
the marriage of Mr. Wheeler and Miss Amanda 
Madden. The lady is a native of Ohio, her birth 
having occurred July 10, 1844. Unto them were 
born three children, but only one is now living. 
Willie C., the eldest, died in early childhood, and 
Bennie is also deceased. Olivia Edith, born Feb- 
ruary 16, 1880, is the only one now living. The 
mother died in Olney Township January 23, 1891, 
and was buried in Baline Cemetery. Mr. Wheeler 
is a member of the United Brethren Church, and 
in politics is a supporter of the Republican part}'. 
During the long years of his residence here his 
life has been so honorable and straightforward that 
he has won universal confidence and esteem, and 
has the regard of a large circle of friends and ac- 
quaintances. 



ON. STEPHEN H ARDIN, who is engaged in 
Iff )l'i merchandising in Mason, has for thirty- 
qjr seven years been prominently connected 
with the interests of this community. He 
was born in Washington County, Ind., near H.ird- 
insburgh, September 18, 1818. His father was John 



Hardin, and the paternal grandfather bore the 
same name. The latter moved with his son to In- 
diana, where he and his wife died. The father of 
our subject was a native of Burke County, N. C. 
When he was about twenty years of age he removed 
from that State to Indiana, where he followed 
farming. He lived in Washington County, and 
became a large stock dealer, making a specialty of 
the breeding of horses. Mr. Hardin married Miss 
Ellen Colclasure, who was born in Shelby County, 
Ky., and was a daughter of Abraham Colclasure. 
Her father was a native of Germany. He emi- 
grated to this country, for a time was a resident of 
Kentucky, and afterwards became a farmer of In- 
diana, where his last days were spent. 

Unto Mr. and Mrs. Hardin was born a family of 
eleven children, seven sons and four daughters, 
all of whom grew to mature years, were married 
and had families of their own. In order of birth 
they were as follows: Stephen; Abram, now de- 
ceased; Elisha; John, now deceased; Aaron T.; Ja- 
cob M.; Leander; Susan and Abbie Adeline, also 
deceased; Sarah E. and Mary E. Sarah was twice 
married. She became the wife of Moel Wood, by 
whom she had two children, yet living. After his 
death she married Joseph Gibson, but he is also de- 
ceased. She makes her home in Mason. Mary be- 
came the wife of Jefferson Crane, who died leaving 
five children. She is now Mrs. Rhodes, and re- 
sides with her husband in Knoxville, Iowa. The 
father of this family came to Mason in 1864. and 
made his home with his children and grandchil- 
dren until his death, which occurred in February, 
1884, in the eighty-ninth year of his age, at the 
home of his son, Stephen. His wife was called to 
her final rest about eleven years previous, dying in 
1872. They were both members of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. 

Stephen Ilardin, the subject of this sketch, was 
reared to manhood upon his father's farm. He ac- 
I quired his x education iu the district schools of 
Washington County, Ind., after which he engaged 
in teaching in that community. On the 9th of 
March, 1841, he was joined in marriage with Miss 
Mary, daughter of Peter and Elizabeth (Barnet) 
Stalcup, the former a native of North Carolina, 
and the latter of Kentucky. Six sous and four 



224 



PORTRAIT AXD BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



daughters were born of this union. Elizabeth E., 
the eldest, is the wife of Andrew Nelson, a carpen- 
ter residing in Mason. They have five children 
living: William M., who is a switchman in the 
railroad yards at Cairo, 111., and married Florence 
E. Bowling, by whom he has one child, Blanche 
E.; Jennie, Mrs. Ircy, whose husband is a farmer of 
Mason Township; Mary, wife of William O'Don- 
n ell; and Sophrenus H. and Stephen H. John 8., 
the eldest son of Stephen Hardin, our subject, en- 
listed for the late Civil war in August, 1861, as a 
member of the Thirty-eighth Illinois Infantry, but 
soon contracted disease and died in October of 
the same year. Jane A. is the wife of Morgan 
Cavanaugh, of Kepley Springs, Mason Township. 
Susan A. died in infancy. Peter B. married Sina 
Baker, and resides in Edgewood, 111. Leander M. 
married Miss Sarah E. Debolt, by whom he has four 
children, Ora, Earl, Stephen A. and John, and re- 
sides in Mason. Sarah E. is the wife of John C. 
Martin, of Mason, and they have five children liv- 
ing: Maud, Gertrude, Ethel, Nina E. and Grace F. 
Levi married Miss Nora Leith,and his wife died in 
February, 1890. They had four children, two of 
whom are yet living: Jessie F. and Charles C. 
John S., the second of that name, married Miss 
Minnie Vandeusen, and they have two children, 
Andrew and Mabel. He is station agent and tel- 
egraph operator at Clifford, 111. The other child 
of the llardin family, a son. died in infancy. 

Mr. llardin, our subject, removed from Indiana 
to Clay County, 111., in 1843, and resided near 
Bible Grove until 1856, when he came to Effing- 
ham County, 111. Taking up his residence at Ma- 
son, he has since made it his home. During the 
greater part of his life he has followed the occupa- 
tion of farming and Stock-raising, but has now re- 
tired from that business and is engaged fn mer- 
chandising. In connection with his son he owns 
about one hundred and fifty acres of land in Un- 
ion Township, and also has sixty acres of timber 
land about three miles from Mason, while within 
the corporate limits of the village he owns fifty 
acres of good land, upon which is situated his 
pleasant home, one of the best and most desirable 
residences in the town. 

When Mr. llardin first came to Illinois, the local- 



ity in which he settled was all wild and unim- 
proved, and he bore all the experiences and pri- 
vations of pioneer life. He was obliged to haul 
his flour from St. Louis by wagons, and ten days 
were required to make the round trip. During his 
residence in Clay County he served as Sheriff from 
1850 until 1852. He has held various offices of 
honor and trust in Effingham County, and in 1858 
was elected Representative to the Illinois General 
Assembly, of which he was a member for two years. 
He is serving as Justice of the Peace, which office 
he has held for six years. In all his public duties 
he has been true to the trust reposed in him, and 
has, therefore, won the commendation of all con- 
cerned. He exercises his right of franchise in sup- 
port of the Democratic party. For thirty-seven 
years Mr. Hardin has been a resident of Mason, 
and is one of the substantial and highly respected 
citizens of Effingham County. In his business ca- 
reer he has met with success, gaining a comforta- 
ble competence through his own industrious and 
well-directed efforts. 



ACOB L. BETEBENNER, one of the repre- 
sentative farmers of Richland County, re- 
siding on section 6, Olney Township, is a 
native of Maryland, his birth having oc- 
curred in Frederick County, on the 8th of Janu- 
ary, 1837. His father was also born in the same 
State, in the year 1801. He was a plasterer by 
trade, and followed that occupation during his 
early life. In later years he carried on agricul- 
tural pursuits. George Betebenner married Liddie 
Everhart, who was born in Maryland in 1811, and 
was of Dutch descent. In the spring of 1859 they 
emigrated Westward, locating in Olney, but after 
six months spent in that city removed to Wabash 
County and purchased a farm, upon which they 
passed the remainder of their days. The death of 
the mother occurred December 28, 1877, and the 
father was called to his final rest December 20, 





? 




PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



227 



1886. They were buried side by side in a Luth- 
eran cemetery in Wabash County. 

Mr. and Mrs. Betebenner had a family of nine 
children, five sons and four daughters, of whom 
eight are yet living, as follows: John, a resident 
fanner of Crawford County, Neb.; Ann C., who is 
the widow of Hiram E. Smith, and makes her home 
in Wabash County; Jacob, of this sketch; Mary, 
wife of John Xander, a prosperous farmer of Rich- 
land County; Ben ton E., a painter and paper- 
hanger of Omaha, Neb.; Emma J., wife of David 
Seibert, who is clerking in a dry-goods store in 
West Salem, 111.; Charles F., who is in the West; 
and Laura E., who completes the family. George 
died on the 29th of April, 1887. 

The subject of this sketch was reared to man- 
hood under the parental roof, living first upon his 
father's farm in Maryland, then upon the old 
homestead in Wabash County. In the public 
schools he acquired a good education. In 1868, 
he started out in life for himself, and first earned 
his livelihood by clerking in a store, where he was 
employed for a year. On the expiration of that 
period he purchased a farm in Richland County, 
where he has since made his home. 

On the llth of May, 1889, Mr. Betebenner was 
united in marriage with Miss Elizabeth Ameter, a 
record of whose family is given elsewhere in this 
work, in connection with the sketch of Frederick 
Ameter. One child graces this union, a son, Al- 
bert C., born April 26, 1880. The family resides 
in a beautiful country home in the midst of a fine 
farm, comprising eighty acres of valuable land. In 
addition to the residence there are good barns and 
outbuildings, and all the improvements found 
upon a model farm of the nineteenth century. The 
place is located about three miles west of Olney, 
and thus the conveniences of the city are easily 
attainable. The farm is one of the best in the 
township, and the owner is accounted one of the 
leading agriculturists. Mr. Betebenner also owns 
one hundred and twenty acres near by his home 
farm. He is a member of the Lutheran Church, 
and his wife belongs to the German Reformed 
Church. In his political views he is a Democrat, 
but has never sought or desired the honors or 
emoluments of public ollice, preferring to devote 

10 



his time and attention to his business interests, in 
which he has met with excellent success. He de- 
serves great credit for his prosperity, for it has been 
achieved entirely through his own well-directed 
efforts in the legitimate channels of business. 



EV. FATHER JOHN MOLITOR is the 

present pastor of St. Thomas' Catholic 
Church of Newton. The Catholics were 
among the first to hold religious services at 
this place. According to the most reliable infor- 
mation that can be obtained, the first services were 
conducted at the residence of Mortimer O'Kain, 
by the Rev. Father Fischer, of Ste. Marie. The 
meetings continued to convene at that place until 
the coming.of the first resident pastor, Rev. Cor- 
nelius Hoffmans, who came in October, 1873, and 
remained until November, 1876. Rev. Mr. Moli- 
tor's pastorate dates from January 28, 1877. 

The first church building was a frame structure, 
erected early in the '50s, and which is now used 
as the society hall of the church. The corner-stone 
of the present commodious brick structure was 
laid in the spring of 1880, and the church was ded- 
icated on the 21st of December of the same year. 
The cost of this building was about $7,000. A 
parochial school, numbering about seventy pupils, 
is also sustained. Father Molitor's congregation 
numbers about ninety families. The church has a 
library of several hundred well-selected books, 
which are kept in the society hall. From the above 
account it will be seen that St. Thomas' is one of the 
most important and influential religious bodies in 
this part of the State. There were quite a number 
of well-known and esteemed early settlers who 
were prominently identified with the early history 
of this congregation, among whom should be men- 
tioned S. R. Barker and Charles Hollinger, who 
have but recently gone to their reward. 

Rev. John Molitor has the honor of being a na- 
tive of this State. He was born in Clinton 



228 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



County in 1845. His father, William Molitor, 
emigrated to this country from Germany in 1836. 
Landing in Baltimore, Md., he proceeded to New- 
Orleans, and in 1839, went from there to St. 
Louis, where he spent about a 3'ear. In 1840, he 
settled in Clinton County, 111., where he lived 
until his death, which occurred in 1868. The wife 
and mother survived her husband for twenty-four 
years, dying in Breese, Clinton County, 111., at the 
home of her daughter, in 1892. Father Molitor is 
one of a family of six children, numbering five 
brothers and a sister. The eldest, Frank, is a farmer 
by occupation ; Henry, the second in order of birth, 
is deceased; the only sister, Jane, is now the wife 
of Theodore Kluth; Father Molitor is the next in 
order of birth; Casper, a farmer, occupies the old 
homestead in Clinton County; and Rev. William 
Molitor is a Benedictian in Todd County, Minn., 
where he is pastor of a congregation. 

Father Molitor received his literary education 
in Teutopolis and pursued a theological course in 
St. Francis, near Milwaukee. He was ordained 
March 25, 1874, in Alton, 111., by Bishop Baltes. 
The first congregation over which he presided as 
resident pastor was at Olney, 111., where he re- 
mained from the 8th of October, 1874, until he 
assumed his present duties. The faithful service 
with which Father Molitor discharges the duties 
which devolve upon him as the pastor of the 
church to which he is devoting his life work is 
shown by the substantial and religious growth that 
has attended his labors. 



eHARLES LAUNER, one of the early settlers 
and representative farmers of Richland 
County, residing on section 17, in Olney 
Township, is of Swiss birth. He was born in Berne, 
Switzerland, on the 16th of June, 1837, and is the 
youngest in a family of eleven children, number- 
ing seven sons and four daughters. The parents, 
Stephen and Catherine (Roth) Launer, were also 



natives of that country. The father was a tailor 
by trade, and followed that business in Switzer- 
land until his death, which occurred in 1843, when 
our subject was a lad of six years. 

Two years later, in 1845, Charles accompanied 
his mother and three brothers and two sisters to 
America, and the family made their way to Rich- 
land County, 111., locating upon a farm of eighty 
acres in 1846. The elder brother died about a 
year later, after which the family was scattered, 
and our subject went to live on a farm with a 
man by the name of Weiss. Since that early day 
he has made his own way in the world. He 
worked by the month until 1859, when, with the 
capital which he had secured as the result of his 
industry and economy, he bought forty acres of 
land where he now lives, and began the develop- 
ment of a farm, devoting his energies to its im- 
provement until 1861. 

In June of that year, Mr. Launer offered his 
services to his adopted country, and joined the 
boys in blue of Company A, Benton Cadet In- 
fantry, in which he served three months. He then 
joined the Sixty-third Illinois, and was in the ser- 
vice until January, 1865. He was taken prisoner 
at the battle of Ft. Derucy, but after a couple of 
weeks was released. He was never wounded but 
had several narrow escapes. On one occasion a 
part of his coat was shot off by a cannon ball. 
After receiving an honorable discharge he returned 
to Richland County and resumed farming. 

On the 23d of February, 1865, Mr. Launer was 
united in marriage with Miss Caroline Glathart, 
who was born October 23, 1843, in Carroll County, 
Ohio, and is a daughter of John and Catherine 
(Voncannel) Glathart. Her parents were both na- 
tives of Switzerland. Crossing the broad Atlantic 
they settled in Ohio in 1829, and in 1845 came 
to Illinois, where they spent the remainder of their 
lives. The father died in October, 1866, and 
the mother was called to her final rest in Jan- 
ary, 1872. Eight children were born of the un- 
ion of Mr. and Mrs. Launer, a son and seven 
daughters, but two died in early childhood. Emma 
C. is the wife of David Shaw, a farmer of Ma- 
con Count\-, 111.; Alice M. is the wife of George 
Kinkade, an agriculturist of this county; Carrie 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



229 



V. and Lulu are both popular and successful 
school teachers; Stella M. and June G. are still 
under the parental roof. 

The Republican party finds in Mr. Launer one 
of its loyal and stanch advocates. He cast his 
first Presidential ballot for Abraham Lincoln, and 
has voted for each nominee for the office since 
that time. He has served as School Director for 
several years and is now serving his second term 
as Commissioner of Highways, the duties of which 
position he has discharged with credit to himself 
and to the satisfaction of his constituents. So- 
cially, he is a member of Eli Bowyer Post No. 92, 
G. A. R., and himself and family are members of 
the Christian Church. The Launer home is a 
pleasant one, situated on a farm of one hundred 
acres of valuable land, which is under a high state 
of cultivation and well improved with all the 
accessories of a model farm. In connection 
with general farming, Mr. Launer is also exten- 
sively engaged in sheep-raising. His property 
represents his own efforts, as the advantages of his 
youth were very meagre, but he has made the 
most of his opportunities through life, and a com- 
fortable competence has rewarded his industry. 




f ,J BSALOM BROWN, the oldest resident of 
LUi Decker Township, Richland County, re- 



sides on section 1, where he has followed 
farming for many years. The sketch of 
this pioneer well deserves a place in the history of 
his adopted county, and with pleasure we present 
it to our readers. A native of Tennessee, he was 
born in Franklin County on the 27th of August, 
1822. His father. John Brown, was born in North 
Carolina, and when a young man went to Tennes- 
see, where he met and married Phoebe McCoy, a 
lady of Scotch descent. He participated in the 
War of 1812, and served under Gen. Jackson at 
the battle of New Orleans. His life work was that 
of farming. In March, 1828, he emigrated to Ed- 
wards County, 111., where he spent two years, and 



in 1830 came to Richland County, although it 
was then a part of Clay County. From the 
Government he entered three hundred and twenty 
acres of land on the edge of Fox Prairie, where he 
lived until August, 1843, when, thinking the 
country was too thickly settled, he went to Mis- 
souri to look for another location. He never 
returned, and it is thought that he was killed by 
the Indians. His wife died on Christmas Day of 
1874, at the age of eighty-four years. Both were 
members of the Baptist Church. 

The children of the Brown family were as fol- 
lows: David M., who died in Kentucky in 1845; 
Lucinda, who died in November, 1864; Absalom 
of this sketch; Jo, a farmer of Decker Township, 
whose sketch appears elsewhere in this work; 
James M., who occupies the old homestead; Je- 
mima, who is the widow of Isaac Anderson, and 
lives near the old homestead; and Rachel M., who 
was born in this county in 1830, is the widow of 
Jackson Shelby, and now resides in Edwards 
County. 

Absalom Brown spent the first nine years of his 
life in his native State, and then came to Illinois. 
He was early inured to the hard labor of develop- 
ing a new farm. He made a wooden mould-board 
for the plow, and did other work common to the 
frontier. The nearest mills were at the Big Wa- 
bash, and there were only three settlers living on 
the prairie. Wild deer roamed around at will, 
and he has hunted on the site of Olney. Amid 
such surroundings, engaged in the hard labor of 
clearing and developing land, Mr. Brown spent 
the days of his boyhood and youth. He remained 
at home until he was twenty-seven years of age, 
aiding his mother in the care of the family. 

On the 23d of December, 1849, in Decker Town- 
seip, Mr. Brown was united in marriage with Miss 
Lucinda Smith, a native of Kentucky, and a 
daughter of Joseph and Mary (Fryman) Smith. 
The young couple began their domestic life upon 
the farm which is still their home, although it then 
comprised only forty acres, and to its cultivation 
Mr. Brown has since devoted his energies with the 
exception of a few short periods. In 1859, he 
went to Pike's Peak, making the journey with ox- 
teams. In 1879, and again in 1884, he went to 



230 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



southwest Missouri for his health. He now owns 
ninety-five acres of land under a high state of cul- 
tivation, and the place with all its improvements 
is as a monument to his thrift and enterprise, for 
it has all been acquired through his own efforts. 

Unto Mr. and Mrs. Brown were born eight chil- 
dren: Mary M., wife of Merrill Klingensmith, of 
Decker Township; Isabel, who became the wife of 
John Smith, and died leaving three children, who 
now live with their grandparents; Joseph F., a 
hunter and fisher in Arkansas; Louisa, Mrs. French, 
of Jacksonville, 111.; Sarah, who died in Texas; 
Susan, now in Idaho; John, who died in child- 
hood; and Luella, in Salt Lake City. The chil- 
dren were all born and reared on the home' farm 
and educated in the public schools. 

Mr. Brown is an active member of the Farmers' 
Mutual Benefit Association, and his wife belongs 
to the New Light Baptist Church. He cast his 
first vote for James K. Polk, and has since been a 
supporter of the Democracy. He served one term 
as Constable, and for nine years held the office of 
Justice of the Peace. His duties of citizenship he 
has ever faithfully discharged, and has ever borne 
his part in the work of upbuilding and developing 
the county which has so long been his home. Few 
in the county have longer resided within its 
borders than our subject, who has been identified 
with its history since the days of its early infancy. 




^ILLIAM B. JOHNSON, who is engaged in 
merchandising in Wynoose, is a native of 
the Buckeye State. He was born in Leb- 
anon, Warren County, Ohio, February 26, 1846, 
and is a son of M. H. Johnson, long a resident of 
Noble, Richland County. His father was also born 
in Ohio. He was a cabinet-maker by trade, but 
later in life followed farming. In the State of his 
nativity he married Elizabeth Compton, and after 
her death wedded Mary Leffler, who was born in 
New Jersey. In Warren County, Ohio, he began 
farming, but in 1863 removed to Richland County, 



locating on a farm north of Noble. He engaged 
in hotel-keeping and merchandising in Noble for 
a number of years, but in 1892 went to Wayne 
County, where he is now living at the age of 
sevent3'-two years. In politics, he was first a Whig, 
but since its organization has been a supporter of 
the Republican party. In religious belief he is a 
Dniversalist. 

In the Johnson family were nine children, seven 
of whom are living. Our subject spent his boy- 
hood with his parents, being reared to manhood 
on a farm and acquiring his education in the pub- 
lic schools. He first came to Illinois in the autumn 
of 1862, but returned to Ohio, and on the 27th of 
January, 1863, enlisted in the Fifty-ninth Ohio 
Infantry. He ran away from home to enter the 
service, for he was then a lad of only sixteen years. 
He was assigned to Company A, and went to the 
battle-ground of Stone River. He joined his reg- 
iment at Strawberry Plains and then started on the 
Atlanta campaign, during which he participated in 
the battles of Resaca and Rock}' Face Ridge. At 
New Hope Church, near Dallas, May 27, 1864, he 
was wounded, his left ear being shot off and his 
head injured. He was then sent to the hospital in 
New Albany, Ind., and later went home on a fur- 
lough. Subsequently, lie returned to his regiment 
in Tultahoma, Tenn., where the regiment was 
disbanded except Companies I and K, when Mr. 
Johnson was transferred to Company I. He took 
part in the siege of Nashville and the battle of 
Murfreesboro, and received his discharge at Louis- 
ville, July 19, 1865, being mustered out as Sergeant. 

Returning to Noble, Mr. Johnson was married 
November 15, 1865, to Miss Mary B. Newcomer, a 
native of Ashland County, Ohio. Her parents, 
Henry and Catherine (Hershey) Newcomer, were 
originally from Pennsylvania, and came to Illinois 
in 1865. He then located on a farm near Franconia, 
and has lived in different parts of the county, but 
for fourteen years has been a resident of Decker 
Township. In 1889 he went to Wj'noose and 
bought out a stock of general merchandise, and is 
now doing business along that line and enjoys a 
good trade. He has also served as Postmaster of 
Wynoose, and owns a good farm, which is now oc- 
cupied by bis son. James H., the eldest of the 






PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



231 



family, is foreman in the postal telegraph business; 
William F. operates a farm; Mrs. Hattie Garland 
is living in Greenville, Bond County; and the 
younger members of the family, Kate, Lillie, Pearl 
and Bertha, are still at home. 

Although he had not then attained his majority, 
Mr. Johnson cast his first Presidential vote for 
Lincoln in 1864. and has since been a strong ad- 
vocate of the Republican party. He manifests 
considerable interest in political affairs and does 
all in his power for the growth and upbuilding of 
bis party. He has served as Assessor and Com- 
missioner of Highways, discharging his duties with 
promptness and fidelity. Socially, he is a member 
of Wynoose Post No. 704, G. A. R., in which he is 
serving as Quartermaster, and for several years 
was connected with the Masonic fraternity of 
Noble. Mr. Johnson has a wide acquaintance in 
Richland County and is a highly-respected man. 
In his business dealings he has been quite success- 
ful, and as a result of his well-directed efforts hus 
gained a comfortable competence. 




(). GINTER, an honored veteran 
of the late war and a dealer in flour, feed 
and provisions of Mason, is a well-known 
and influential citizen of Effingham County. A 
native of Kentucky, lie was born in Bath County, 
near Owingsville, May 2, 1835. He comes of a 
family that was founded in America during Col- 
onial days. His grandfather, Daniel Ginter, lived 
for a number of years in the Keystone State, but 
at an early day removed to Kentucky, where he 
followed farming until his death, which occurred 
at an advanced age. His wife survived him for a 
number of years and passed away at the age of 
three-score and ten. Their son, John Ginter, be- 
came the father of our subject. He was born in 
Pennsylvania, but with his family removed to 
Kentucky and there married Polly Oakley, a na- 
tive of that State and a daughter of Christopher 
Oakley, a Kentucky farmer, who there spent his 



entire life. Mr. Oakley in the early days lived in 
a log cabin, in which port-holes were made in order 
to protect himself and family from the Indians. 

John Ginter was forge man in the iron works of 
Bath County, Ky., and to that work devoted his 
energies until his death, which occurred in ]884, 
at the age of forty-eight years. He was murdered 
for telling a friend that a certain man intended to 
kill him. By thus informing his friend he lost his 
own life. His wife died the following year. They 
had the following children: Henry, Samuel, Gid- 
eon, William O., John, Nannie, Amelia and Maria; 
but only Samuel, William and Amelia are now 
living. The last-named is the wife of Mr. Bran- 
denburg, of Kentucky. 

William O. Ginter was left an orphan at the 
early age of ten years. He was then taken to the 
home of Congressman John Mason, with whom he 
lived several years, when he went to live with 
James Ewing, who had been a captain in the 
Mexican War. About a year afterward, however, 
lie returned to Mr. Mason, who sent him to school 
one winter and then apprenticed him to a carpen- 
ter. He served a three-years term at that trade 
and in compensation for his services received $50 
the first year, $72 the next, and $150 for the third. 
When he had mastered the business, Mr. Ginter 
left Kentucky, being then about twenty-one years 
of age, and came to Mason. This was in 1855. 
Since that time he has made his home continu- 
ously in Effingham County with the exception of a 
few months spent at Pike's Peak, where he went 
in the spring of 1859 in a party of thirteen, which 
started from Omaha by what was then known as 
the Smoky Hill route. Only five of the party 
lived to arrive at Pike's Peak. They experienced 
many hardships, suffering more than at any time 
in the army. For three days and nights they had 
neither food nor drink. On arriving he found 
everything in a state of lawlessness and disorder, 
there being no law except lynch law. While there 
he paid as high as $1 per pound for flour. He 
spent two months there and then returned to Ma- 
son. 

Mr. Ginter watched with interest the progress 
of events in the South prior to the breaking out 
of the late war, and when hostilities began he was 



232 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



among the first to respond to the President's call 
for troops. He entered the three-months service 
and afterward re-enlisted, becoming a member of 
Company G, Eleventh Illinois Infantry, in which 
he served until the close of the war. He received 
a slight wound, but otherwise escaped uninjured. 
His brother John, who was also one of the "boys in 
blue," was shot down by his side in the battle of 
Ft. Donelson and was captured by the rebels, but 
was afterward recaptured by his brother William. 
His wound ended his life and he was laid in a sol- 
dier's grave in Paducah, Ky. Mr. Ginter of this 
sketch participated in a number of important en- 
gagements, including the battles of Ft. Donelson, 
Vicksburg, Shiloh, Yazoo City, Jackson and many 
others. He entered the service as a private, but 
his bravery and meritorious conduct won him pro- 
motion and he was mustered out with the rank of 
First Lieutenant. 

During the war, Mr. Ginter was granted a fur- 
lough, in 1864, and returned home. During his 
leave of absence he was married on the 27th of 
February of that year to Mrs. Julia A. Morphew, 
widow of James Morphew and a daughter of James 
and Lavina Robinson. Her parents were both na- 
tives of Virginia, but removed to Putnam County, 
Ind., and spent the remainder of their lives near 
Greencastle. The father died in 1846 and the 
mother was called to her final rest in 1891, at the 
very advanced age of eighty-eight years. Six 
children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Ginter: 
John H., Samuel L., Nannie, Marie, Yuanna and 
Ursula O. Mrs. Ginter also had one son by her 
former husband, Leander H. Morphew, who mar- 
ried Miss Annie L. Underwood, of Stuttgart, Ark. 
John Ginter died in 1877, at the age of eleven 
years, and Samuel died in 1869, at the age of thir- 
teen months. 

After the war, Mr. Ginter returned to Mason 
and resumed work at the carpenter's trade, which 
he followed until 1868, when he bought a farm of 
twenty acres three miles north of the village, 
where the family resided for thirteen years. There 
in connection with the cultivation of his land he 
also followed carpentering. On the expiration of 
that period he returned to Mason and again 
worked at his chosen profession until compelled to 



abandon it on account of rheumatism, in the spring 
of 1892. He then purchased the flour, feed and 
provision store of "Uncle" Daniel Sisson and is 
now engaged in that business. 

Mr. Ginter has long been literally connected 
with the upbuilding of this community. He is a 
carpenter of excellent workmanship and he had a 
liberal share of the public patronage. He is now 
doing a good business in the line of his present 
trade and well deserves the support of the general 
public. In politics Mr. Ginter is a Republican, and 
socially is a member of Ransom Post No. 99, G. 
A. R. He has filled the office of School Director 
for several years, and the cause of education finds 
in him a warm friend. Public-spirited and pro- 
gressive, he always gives his support to any enter- 
prise calculated to prove of benefit to the com- 
munity. He was a faithful soldier to his country in 
her hour of peril, and is alike true in days of peace. 
He is a representative citizen of the community, 
his life has been well spent, and his record is well 
deserving of a place in this volume. 




EORGE HEINDSELMAN, one of tho hon- 
ored pioneers of Richland County, is en- 
gaged in farming on section 6, Olney Town- 
ship. His entire life has been passed in this local- 
ity, for he was born about four miles south of his 
present place of residence, on the 18th of February, 
1841. His parents, Caleb and Catherine (Dray- 
ler) Heindselman, came from Germany, and in the 
Fatherland were married. In 1830 they bade 
adieu to their old home and crossed the briny 
deep, locating first upon a farm in Ohio. After 
coming to this country the family circle was in- 
creased by the birth of seven children, George be- 
ing the seventh in order of birth. 

In 1840, Caleb Heindselman came with his fam- 
ily to Richland County, 111., and entered land near 
the cit3' of Calhoun, where he and his wife spent 
their remaining days. His death occurred in 1875, 
at the age of seventy-five years, and his wife died 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



233 



in 1876, having reached the age of four-score 
years. They were both buried in a German ceme- 
tery, where a beautiful monument marks their last 
resting-place. Only four of their children are now 
living: Catherine, now the wife of Jacob Slyche- 
myer, a farmer of this county; Caleb, who follows 
the same pursuit; Margaret, wife of II. C. Black, 
an agriculturist of Richland County; and George, 
of this sketch. . 

Our subject remained at home with his parents 
until he attaind to man's estate, and at an early 
age began following the plow. From his boyhood 
he has been familiar with farm labor. In August, 
1862, however, occurred a change in his program. 
At that date he offered his services to the Govern- 
ment and enlisted in Company G, Ninety-eighth 
Illinois Infantry, serving until the close of the 
war. He was very fortunate, in that he was never 
wounded or taken prisoner, yet he participated in 
a number of hotly contested battles, including the 
engagements at Chickamauga, Hartsville and 
Selma. 

At the close of the war, having been honorably 
discharged, Mr. Heindselman returned to his home, 
and engaged in farming with his father for about 
a year, lie then purchased forty acres of timber- 
land and hewed down the trees in order to build 
a log cabin. The work of opening up a farm he 
continued until the entire tract was under cultiva- 
tion. He has added to the original purchase until 
he now owns one hundred and eighty-four acres 
of good land, which yields to him a golden tribute. 
In addition to his beautiful country home, there 
are good barns and other necessary outbuildings 
and all of the modern improvements and equip- 
ments found upon a model farm. 

On the 2d of January, 1868, was celebrated the 
marriage of Mr. Ileindselman and Sophia Klopen- 
stein. The lady was born February 2, 1850, in 
Gallia, Ohio, and has become the mother of eight 
children, four sons and four daughters, but two of 
the daughters died in infancy. Those still living 
are: William Tell, who aids in the operation of the 
home farm; John R., who follows agricultural 
pursuits during the summer months, and engages 
in teaching school during the winter season; Lillie 
C., wife of James Kimmell,a merchant of Calhoun, 



111.; Homer C., who is now attending the Olney 
High School; George and Flora, who are still at 
home. The children have all been provided with 
good educational privileges. 

Mr. Heindselman votes with the Republican 
party. He has never sought political preferment, 
in fact has steadily refused public office. He never 
slights his duties of citizenship, however, and is a 
public-spirited and progressive man, who does all 
in his power to promote the best interest of the 
community in which he makes his home. He is 
straightforward and honorable in all his business 
dealings, and his word is as good as his bond. 




?ILLIAM J. DOUGLAS, a retired farmer 
residing in Mason, is one of the prominent 
and influential citizens of EfHngham Coun- 
ty. He was born in Dearborn County, Ind., near 
Rising Sun, on the 12th of May, 1822. His 
grandfather, William Douglas, was a Maine farmer 
and on emigrating Westward became a pioneer 
settler of Dearborn County, Ind., where he died at 
the age of sixty years. Andrew Douglas, father 
of our subject, was born in the Pine Tree State, 
and during his boyhood accompanied his parents 
to Indiana, where he met and married Miss Greenly, 
a native of Ireland, and a daughter of William 
Greenly, who followed farming in Switzerland 
County, Ind. He reached the age of four-score 
years. Five children were born unto An drew and 
Susanna Douglas, of whom our subject is the eldest. 
Eliza J. is the wife of Stephen M. Scianton, of 
Ohio County, Ind.; Jeremiah S. is now deceased; 
George W. and Thomas F. complete the family. 
The parents have both passed away. The father 
long since died, when about seventy-two years of 
age. His wife survived him six years, and de- 
parted this life in Hardin County, 111., at the age 
of seventy-eight. 

William J. Douglas, whose name heads this rec- 
ord, spent his boyhood days quietly upon his 
father's farm and received his education in a log 



234 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



school house, to which he had to walk two and a- 
half miles. No event of special importance oc- 
curred during his youth, but after he had attained 
to man's estate he was married, November 23, 1843, 
to Miss Sarah Ann Read, daughter of Isaac and 
Margaret (Dungan) Read, natives of Baltimore, 
Md. Her paternal grandfather was a Scotchman, 
but in early life emigrated to the United States, 
and for many years lived in Baltimore, where his 
death occurred at the age of eighty. His wife was 
of German descent. Mrs. Read was of Irish line- 
age. Her father followed milling and farming 
near Baltimore. He was a Revolutionary soldier, 
and rodea horse through that war named Loduski, 
which was a great pet. Thomas Dungan, a brother 
of Mrs. Read, was a soldier in the War of 1812. 
He afterward married and removed to Kentucky, 
where he reared a large family and became a very 
prominent, influential and highly respected citi- 
zen. 

Six children have been born unto them, the 
eldest of whom, Isaac R., married Corelda Monroe, 
and, with his wife and four children, William J., 
Myer A., Curtis and Agnes A., resides on the old 
home farm in Indiana. Andrew T. has been 
twice married. He wedded Missouri A. Lowstutter, 
who died leaving a son, Samuel Charles. His 
second wife was Kittle Paugh. They reside on a 
farm just east of Mason and have one son, William 
E. Mary Louisa is the wife of George W. Bu- 
chanan, who is engaged in the commission business 
in Cairo, 111. They have three sons: Arthur D., 
William J. and Pleasant. Charles W., who was 
joined in wedlock with Mary A. Billingsley, resides 
with his wife and baby on a portion of the old 
homestead in Indiana. Adelia J. is the wife of 
David S. Cofield, a farmer residing near Arcola, 
111., by whom she has two children, Jesse D. and 
Ernest. Lucian M., who follows farming north of 
Mason, married Eva Dallas and their union lias been 
blessed by four children: Byron, Claudus, Adelia 
L. and Lola A. 

In March, 1874, Mr. Douglas came to Illinois 
with his wife and youngest son, the other children 
all having married and gone to homes of their 
own. He located in Efflngham County on a farm 
of one hundred and ninety acres, three quarters of 



a mile north of the village of Mason, and there 
resided four years, after which he purchased a farm 
of one hundred and fourteen acres in Union Town- 
ship. That land he now rents. He also purchased 
sixteen and one-half acres within the corporate 
limits of Mason. His landed possessions now ag- 
gregate four hundred acres, three hundred and 
twenty in Mason and Union Townships and the 
remaining eighty acres in Indiana. Mr. Douglas 
also owns a pleasant home property in the village, 
and he and his son have a good hay warehouse 
and press considerable hay. 

In politics, Mr. Douglas is a Democrat, but has 
never been an office-seeker, preferring to devote 
his time and attention to his business interests, in 
which he has met with signal success. His wife is 
a member of the Christian Church. Our subject is 
connected with no religious denomination but is a 
man of strict integrity, whose word is as good as 
his bond. His honorable and well-spent life has 
won him the high respect of all with whom busi- 
ness or social relations have brought him in con- 
tact. 




ON. JAMES C. ALLEN, senior member of 
, the law firm of Allen & Fritchey, of Olney, 
is an early settler and prominent citizen of 

jj)j Illinois. Judge Allen is a native of Shelby 
County, Ky., his birth having occurred on the 29th 
of January, 1822. He is the seventh in a family 
of ten children born unto Benjamin and Margaret 
(Youel) Allen. His parents, who were natives of 
Rockbridge County, Va., were married in the State 
of their nativity, and in 1801 emigrated to Shelby 
County, Ky., then a sparsely settled region. The 
father of our subject was of Irish descent, and the 
mother of Scotch, each a representative of a sturdy 
race, possessing marked and strong characteristics, 
both mentally and physically. The Scotch-Irish 
people of America have by their energy, intelli- 
gence, enterprise and frugality won prominence 
and respect wherever they are found. 

Benjamin Allen was a blacksmith by trade. In 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



235 



early life he engaged in the manufacture of sic- 
kles, and later followed the occupation of farming. 
He remained in Kentucky until 1830, when with 
his family he removed to Parke County, Ind., where 
he and his estimable wife spent the remainder of 
their days. They were industrious, upright peo- 
ple and worthy members of the Presbyterian 
Church, in which Mr. Allen served thirty years as 
Elder. His death occurred in 1847, at the age of 
sixty-eight. His wife died in 1833, at the age of 
sixty-three. 

The childhood and youth of our subject were 
passed on his father's farm in a new country, where 
advantages of education were meagre. His pri- 
mary education was received in the traditional log 
schoolhouse of pioneer times, after which he at- 
tended the High School in Rockville, Ind. At the 
age of nineteen, he entered upon the study of law 
in the office of Messrs. Howard & Wright, of Rock- 
ville, and was admitted to the Bar in August, 1843, 
being then only a few months past his majority. In 
December, following, he entered upon the practice 
of his profession in Sullivan, Ind., which he con- 
tinued until the fall of 1845, when he was elected 
Prosecuting Attorney for the Seventh Judicial 
Circuit of Indiana, which position he filled for two 
years. 

In the spring of 1847, Judge Allen removed to 
Palestine, Crawford County, 111., where he made 
his home for about twenty-nine consecutive years. 
An earnest Democrat in political faith, he was 
chosen to represent Crawford and Jasper Counties 
in the Lower House of the Illinois Legislature for 
the years of 1850 and 1851. In 1852, he was 
elected to Congress from the Seventh Congressional 
District of Illinois, and was re-elected in 1854. In 
1858, he was elected Clerk of the House of Repre- 
sentatives and served through the Thirty-fifth 
Congress. In 1860, he was the Democratic candi- 
date for Governor of Illinois, but was defeated by 
Richard Yates, the candidate of the then rising 
Republican party. The following year he was 
elected Judge of the Seventh Judicial Circuit, 
which position he filled until the fall of 1862, when 
lie was made Congressman-at-Large for the State. 
In 1861, Gov. Yates tendered him the command of 
the Twenty-First Illinois'Infantry, and the follow- 



ing year President Lincoln offered him the com- 
mand of a brigade, but having no military taste or 
training, he declined both offers. In 1870, Judge 
Allen was chosen a delegate to the Constitutional 
Convention of Illinois, of which body he proved a 
valuable and useful member. In 1873, he was 
elected Judge of the Second Judicial Court, and 
in 1874 was appointed by the Supreme Court to 
the Appellate Bench for the Fourth District of Il- 
linois, where he served until the spring of 1879, 
when he resumed the practice of his profession in 
Olney, to which place he had removed in that 
year. Soon after coming to Olney, Judge Allen 
formed a law partnership with Joseph Longenecker, 
then a rising young lawyer, now the famous Pros- 
ecuting Attorney for Chicago, which connection 
was continued until Mr. Longenecker removed to 
Chicago. In 1881, the existing partnership with 
Hon. Theodore A. Fritchey was formed. 

Judge Allen has been twice married; first on the 
22d of January, 1845, to Miss Ellen, the young- 
est daughter of Hon. Joseph Kitchell, by whom he 
had three children, all now deceased. Mrs. Allen 
died in 'May, 1852. On the 12th of June, 1856, 
in Palestine, 111., the Judge married Miss Julia A. 
Kitchell, his present wife. She was born in Pales- 
tine, 111., and is a daughter of James H. and Nancy 
(Gill) Kitchell. Seven children were born of the 
latter marriage, all of whom are living. Harry K., 
the eldest, is now Court Reporter, and resides in 
Olney. Fanny is the wife of John Ratcliff, Assist- 
ant Cashier of the First National Bank of Olney. 
The younger members are Carrie, James II., Fred 
W., William Y. and Maggie. James is employed 
by the St. Louis Transfer Company. Fred holds 
a position under the State Government at Spring- 
field, 111.; and William is engaged in farming near 
Oluey. 

Judge Allen and his family are members of the 
Presbyterian Church. In his political views, he 
has alwa3's been a stanch Democrat, and has done 
substantial service as a public speaker in support 
of his party, and also in conventions. During the 
late war, he was in perfect accord with the patri- 
otic sentiments uttered by Stephen A. Douglas, 
the great leader of his party at the critical time of 
the breaking out of the war. That the Judge has 



236 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



won prominence in professional and political life 
is well indicated by the facts herein given. That 
lie has deserved his constant promotion is shown 
by the fact that no sooner did he vacate one office, 
than he was called upon to fill another. He is 
known to many of the prominent men of the coun- 
try, and is recognized as a gentleman of merit, 
possessing more than ordinary ability. 



V AVID HENRY HOLLO WAY, who is en- 
gaged in the insurance and real-estate busi- 
ness in Mason, is numbered among the 
early settlers of Effingham County, where he has 
made his home for nearly forty years. He has 
therefore been an eye-witness of much of the 
growth and development of the county, and in all 
possible ways he has aided in its advancement. 
He was born near Collinsville, Madison County, 
111., July 21, 1847, and is one of a family of six 
sons and six daughters whose parents were 
Thomas Jefferson and Rebecca (Hoskins) Hollo- 
way, both of whom were natives of Tennessee. 
The paternal grandfather of our subject, James 
Holloway, was a Virginian by birth, as was his 
wife. From that State he removed to Tennessee, 
where he died at an advanced age. Thomas Jeff- 
erson Holloway became a farmer of Tennessee 
and removed thence at an early day to Indiana, 
where he spent about four years. In the year 1840 
he came with his family to Illinois, locating in 
Madison Count}', where his death occurred during 
the infancy of our subject. His wife survived 
him until 1872, and died in Lucas Township, 
Effingham County, at the age of seventy-two 
years. For several years after her husband's 
death she continued to reside in Madison County, 
but in 1855 went with her children to Effingham 
County. The family there made their home upon 
a farm of one hundred and forty acres for many 
years. Only three of the twelve children are now 
living: Thomas Jefferson, Sarah J., wife of David 
S. Bates, of Elliottstown, 111., and David H. 



The subject of our sketch was early inured to 
the hard labors of farm life. The only educational 
privileges which he received were those afforded 
by the common schools. He remained with his 
mother until sixteen years of age, and at the age 
of seventeen he entered the service of his country 
as a member of Company D, Fifty- fourth Illinois 
Infantry. He remained in the service for about a 
year, but was then honorably discharged on 
account of illness. After his return home he be- 
gan teaching, and followed that profession until 
1868. In August of that year he embarked in 
mercantile pursuits in Mason, opening a drug 
store, which he carried on for five years. In 1870, 
he formed a partnership with John Pulliam, and 
they purchased a general store, which they oper- 
ated until 1875, when Mr. Holloway 's partner 
died. He then sold out the business. The fol- 
lowing year he again engaged in general merchan- 
dising at the old stand, and with the exception of 
two years spent in Clifton, 111., he continued in 
that line of trade until April, 1891, when he sold 
out his stock to Leith Brothers, and, forming a 
partnership with J. C. Leith, opened a hardware 
store. This connection was continued until the 
following October, when Mr. Holloway bought 
out his partner's interest. Subsequently he traded 
his hardware stock for a farm three-quarters of a 
mile north of the village of Mason, containing 
one hundred and thirty-eight acres of valuable 
land. This farm he still owns, and under his 
management it is operated. He is also engaged 
in the real-estate and insurance business, and has 
worked up a good trade in this line. 

On the 15th of March, 1874, Mr. Holloway wed- 
ded Miss Emma Leith, daughter of David and 
Amanda (Wilson) Leith, who were natives of 
Ohio, but at the time of their daughter's marriage 
resided in Mason Township. Four children have 
been bom unto Mr. and Mrs. Holloway, Herald 
H., Charles D., Stella B. and Mabel,and the family 
circle yet remains unbroken. Their home is the 
abode of hospitality, and its doors are ever open 
for the reception of the many friends of the fam- 

iiy- 

Mr. Holloway takes a considerable interest in 
civic societies. He is a Royal Arch Mason, and 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



237 



he and his wife are members of the Eastern Star. 
He served as High Priest in the Chapter for one 
year, was one year Worshipful Master in the Blue 
Lodge, and was Patron of the Eastern Star Lodge 
for two years. He also belongs to Cedar Lodge 
No. 211, 1. O. O. F., and to Ransom Post No. 99, 
G. A. R. He was a charter member of the latter 
organization and its first Adjutant. At present 
he is filling the oflice of Junior Vice-Commander 
of the post. In his political affiliations, Mr. Hollo- 
way is a stalwart Republican. He served as Super- 
visor of Mason Township in 1880, has since been 
a member of the Village Board, and was its Presi- 
dent for four years. He always discharges his 
public duties with promptness and fidelity, and 
fills the offices with credit to himself and to the 
satisfaction of his constituents. Although a com- 
paratively young man, Mr. Holloway is really one 
of the old settlers of Effingham County, for he 
has long resided within its borders, and lias been 
prominently connected with its development and 
growth. 



^ETER M. JAMISON, who owns and operates 
a farm of one hundred acres on section 18, 
Wade Township Jasper County, is a native 
of Ohio. He was born June 1, 1842, in 
Butler County, and is of Scotch descent. His 
father, Peter Jamison, was born in Scotland, in 
1809, and when a young man crossed the Atlantic 
to America. He settled in Butler County, Ohio, 
in 1827, and there married Lucinda Wray, also of 
Scotcli birth, who died when our subject was a 
child. Peter Jamison, Sr., was a farmer, and fol- 
lowed that occupation in the Buckeye State for a 
number of years. In 1856 he removed to Indiana, 
locating in Montgomery County, where he carried 
on agricultural pursuits for five years, and then 
bought a farm of two hundred acres in Monroe 
County, Ind. There he spent his remaining days, 
his death occurring in 1883. 



Our subject is the second in order of birth in a 
family of two sons and one daughter. The sister, 
Elizabeth, is now deceased. The brother, Joseph L., 
is in business in Indianapolis, Ind. Peter grew 
to manhood in Montgomery County, Ind. During 
his boyhood he was inured to the labors of farm 
life. His school privileges were quite limited, 
but by experience, reading and observation dur- 
ing his later years he has made himself a well-in- 
formed man. He began life for himself by work- 
ing as a farm hand by the month. In 1862 he was 
employed by the Government in Nashville, Tenn., 
breaking teams. He then returned to his home in 
Montgomery County, Ind., and spent the two suc- 
ceeding years of his life upon a farm. In January, 
1865, he enlisted for the late war, becoming a 
member of Company B, Seventh Indiana Infantry. 
He joined the regiment at Chickasaw Bluffs, Ala., 
and remained in the service until after the close 
of the war, receiving his discharge at Indianapolis 
in September, 1865. He was thrown from his 
horse and in this way sustained permanent injury. 

When the country no longer needed his ser- 
vices, Mr. Jamison returned to his home in Mont- 
gomery County, and the next year turned his at- 
tention to agricultural pursuits, to which he has 
since devoted his energies. On the 20th of June, 
1869, he was united in marriage with Miss Lydia 
F. Phillips, a native of Tippecanoe County, Ind., 
and a daughter of Charles Phillips. Three chil- 
dren have been born of their union, Walter, 
Myrtie and Florence E., all of wjiom are now at- 
tending school. 

In the year 1884, Mr. Jamison and his family 
arrived in Illinois. Having purchased the farm 
on which he now resides, he removed hither in 
1886, and began its further development. As be- 
fore stated, it comprises one hundred acres of val- 
uable land, and is improved with a good residence, 
substantial barns, a smokehouse, and all the acces- 
sories of a model farm. There is a good orchard, 
and the fields are under a high state of cultiva- 
tion. The neat and thrifty appearance of the 
place well indicates the enterprise and energy of 
the owner. 

Since casting his first Presidential vote, Mr. 
Jamison has been a supporter of the Democracy, 



238 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



but has never been an office-seeker. Socially he 
belongs to the Grand Array Post of Newton, and 
himself and wife are members of the Presbyterian 
Church. Mr. Jamison is esteemed as an upright 
citizen, and is a self-made man, who by his own 
industry and good management has accumulated 
a good home and a valuable farm, and is to-day 
numbered among the substantial citizens of Wade 
Township. 




;ILLIAM JOHNSON, who follows farming 
on section 15, Wade Township, well de- 
serves mention among the early settlers 
of Jasper County, where he has resided for more 
than a quarter of a century. During all these 
years he has been identified with its agricultural 
interests and now owns and operates a farm of 
one hundred and twenty acres, pleasantly and con- 
veniently situated three miles from Newton. 

Mr. Johnson claims Indiana as the State of his 
nativity. He was born in Wayne County, April 
5, 1834, and is the second in a family of four sons 
and seven daughters, whose parents were Samuel 
and Catherine (Ladd) Johnson. His father was a 
native of North Carolina, and when a lad of five 
years was brought by his father, William Johnson, 
to Indiana. The Johnson family is of Scotch- 
Irish descent and was founded in North Carolina 
at a very early day. William Johnson, Sr., located 
in Wayne, Ind., and there reared his family. Af- 
ter attaining to mature years, Samuel Johnson 
married Miss Ladd, a native of Wayne County, 
and a daughter of Joseph Ladd, who was born in 
North Carolina, and was one of the heroes of the 
Revolution. The father of our subject was a 
farmer by occupation and followed that business 
in Wayne County throughout his entire life. He 
died in 1869, and his wife, who survived him a 
number of years, passed away in August, 1891, at 
the advanced age of eighty years. Both were 
buried in Mt. Zion Cemetery, in Williamsburg, 



where a monument marks their last resting-place. 
Mr. Johnson was a man of prominence in his com- 
munity. He served as Justice of the Peace and 
was also Postmaster for a number of years. He 
held membership with the United Brethren Church 
and served as one of its officers. Of his family, 
five daughters and our subject are yet living. 

William Johnson grew to manhood in the county 
of his birth, spending his boyhood days under the 
parental roof. His educational privileges were 
quite good for that day. Prompted by patriotic 
impulses he responded to the country's call for 
troops, and in August, 1862, became a member of 
the Sixty-ninth Indiana Infantry. He enlisted as 
a private of Company E, but was promoted to the 
rank of Sergeant. He participated in the battles 
of Richmond (Ky.), Chickasaw Bayou and Arkan- 
sas Post. On the 30th of August, 1862, he was 
taken prisoner at Richmond, Ky., and held in camp 
by rebel guaids for a few days. He was then pa- 
roled, and two and a-half months later was ex- 
changed. In April, 1863, he was discharged on 
account of physical disability. 

On receiving his discharge, Mr. Johnson returned 
to his home in Indiana, and when he had recov- 
ered his health engaged in farming. In the fall 
of 1867, he came to Illinois and purchased and lo- 
cated upon the farm which has since been his 
home. It was then only partially improved, but 
he soon placed the entire amount under a high 
state of cultivation, erected a neat and substan- 
tial residence and built good barns and all other 
necessary outbuildings. He has a good bearing 
orchard, and in fact, the Johnson homestead is 
considered one of the finest and most highly im- 
proved farms of this locality. 

On the 27th of January, 1859, in Wayne County, 
Ind., Mr. Johnson was united in marriage with 
Mary Jane Beverlin, a native of that county, and 
a daughter of Thomas Beverlin. They have four 
children yet living: Edgar, who is married and 
resides upon a farm in Wade Township; Leander, 
who is also married ami follows farming in this 
township; Oscar, who aids his father in the opera- 
tion of the old home; and Lizzie, who completes 
the family. Mr. and Mrs. Johnson also lost their 
first-born, a son, who died in childhood. 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



239 



Our subject is a well-known citizen of Jasper 
County. For a quarter of a century he has been 
identified with its growth and upbuilding, and has 
aided materially in its development and progress. 
He is a public-spirited and progressive citizen and 
manifests a commendable interest in all that per- 
tains to the welfare of the community. The cause 
of education has ever found in him a warm friend, 
and he has faithfully served as a member of the 
School Board for about twenty years. He has been 
officially connected with the County Fair Associa- 
tion since its organization and for four years was 
its president. In politics, he is a Republican, hav- 
ing been a stalwart supporter of that party since 
its formation. lie voted for its first Presidential 
candidate, John C. Fremont, and has supported 
each Presidential nominee since that time. So- 
cially, he is a member of the Ancient Order of 
United Workmen, the Knights of Honor, and the 
Grand Army Post. In all the relations of life, 
Mr. Johnson has been honorable and upright, and 
his many excellencies of character have won him a 
well-merited esteem. 







ilLLIAM L. WAKEFIELD, who is one 
of the representative farmers of Jasper 
County, now resides on section 26, Small- 
wood Township, and the record of his life work is 
as follows: He was born on the 9th of August, 
1846, in Clay County, Ind., and on the paternal 
side is of German and Irish extraction. His father, 
Charles McCoy Wakefield, was born in the Hoosier 
State in '1823, and was reared to manhood upon a 
farm, but after attaining his majority, he engaged 
in merchandising in Bowling Green, Clay County. 
In an early day, however, he came West, locating 
in what is now known as the village of Wakefield, 
Richland County, 111. Purchasing a stock of dry 
goods, he established the first store in that place. 
This was in 1856. There he remained for four 
years, when, in 1860, he came to Jasper County, 
and purchased land in Snaallwood Township, where 



he carried on farming until his death. He served 
as Deputy Provost Marshal for this district for 
about three years. His wife, who bore the maiden 
name of Catherine Hickson, is a native of Ohio, 
and is yet living on the old homestead in this 
county. Her parents were both born in Germany. 
Mr. Wakefield died December 5, 1888. 

In the family of this worthy couple were five 
children, four sons and a daughter, of whom 
William is the second in order of birth. At the 
age of ten years, he came to Illinois with his par- 
ents, and since 1860 has been a permanent resi- 
dent of Jasper County. In the common schools, 
he acquired a good English education and in his 
parents' home he became familiar with farming in 
all its details, for from an early age he aided in 
the cultivation of his father's land. When the 
war broke out he joined the brave boys in blue, 
enlisting November 20, 1861, as a member of Com- 
pany F, Forty-sixth Illinois Infantry. He served 
until December 22, 1863, when he was enrolled as 
a veteran to serve for three years, or until the close 
of the war. On the 20th of January, 1866, after 
a long and faithful service, he was honorably dis- 
charged. During the siege of Vicksburg, he was 
taken prisoner while on picket duty, but after two 
days and three nights of imprisonment he suc- 
ceeded in making his escape. Mr. Wakefield was 
only fifteen years of age when he entered the ser- 
vice a mere boy but he took part in all the en- 
gagements of his company, and his loyalty and 
bravery equaled that of the men of mature years. 

When mustered out, our subject returned to his 
home in Jasper County, and once more devoted 
his time to agricultural pursuits. On the 15th of 
March, 1873, he was united in marriage with Miss 
Clara Manning, who was born September 21, 1856, 
in Wayne County, Ind., and is a daughter of 
James and Mary Jane (Hughes) Manning, the for- 
mer a native of Indiana, and the latter of Penn- 
sylvania. Her parents are now residents of Jasper 
County. Seven children grace the union of our 
subject and his wife, namely: Frank, born June 
24, 1873; Carrie, March 17, 1878; Ticha, Novem- 
ber 7, 1880; Bertha, June 19, 1883; Foster, March 
10, 1885; Ollie, May 7, 1888; and Willie, May 18, 
1890. 



240 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



Throughout his entire life, Mr. Wakefield has 
engaged in farming, and in his business interests 
he has met with fair success. He now owns an ex- 
cellent farm of one hundred and sixty acres of rich 
land, all under a high state of cultivation and well 
improved, and his possessions are as a monument to 
his thrift and enterprise. He exercises his right 
of franchise in support of the Republican party 
and has served as School Director for a number of 
years. Socially, he is a member of Jacob E. Reed 
Post No. 550, G. A. R., of Newton. Himself and 
wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church and are worthy people, who hold an envi- 
able position in social circles and are favorably 
known. 






ENJAMIN F. HEAP is a well-known farmer 
and one of the native sons of Richland 
County. He was born January 26, 1847, 
in Oluey Township, and is now living on 
section 23, where he carries on general farming. 
His parents were Isaiah and Rachel (Powell) Heap. 
His father was a native of Guernsey County, Ohio, 
and was reared upon a farm in the Buckeye State. 
When a young man he came to Richland County, 
entered land from the Government and then mar- 
ried. From that time until his death, he engaged 
in agricultural pursuits, with the exception of 
about a year, which he spent in the service of his 
country, as a member of Company E, Sixth Illinois 
Cavalry. He was one of the honored pioneers of 
the community, and a prominent and influential 
citizen. He died April 27, 1881, respected by all 
who knew him. Mrs. Heap, who is also a native 
of Ohio, and is of German extraction, is still liv- 
ing on the old home farm. In the family were 
eleven children, four sons and seven daughters, of 
whom our subject is the eldest. 

Benjamin F. Heap remained upon the old farm 
until eighteen years of age, and during the winter 
season attended the district schools, acquiring a 
good education. On the 28th of March, 1865, al- 




though only eighteen years of age, he became one 
of the boys in blue, enlisting at the same time 
that his father joined the service, both becoming 
members of Company E, Sixth Illinois Cavalry. 
About a year previous he had left school and of- 
fered his services, but was rejected on account of 
his age. He was mustered out after the close of the 
war, receiving his discharge November 25, 1865. 

After he, returned home, Mr. Heap was ill for 
about a year as the result of his army experience. 
When he had sufficiently recovered his health he 
began working as a farm hand by the month. A 
year later he rented land and embarked in business 
for himself. He now owns an eighty-acre farm 
three and a-half miles south of Olney, and in ad- 
dition to its cultivation devotes much of his time 
to the manufacture of brooms, which industry 
yields him a good income. 

On the 6th of March, 1870, Mr. Heap was united 
in marriage with Miss Mary D. Wilson, who was 
born March 29, 1847, in Guernsey County, Ohio, 
but was then living in Coles County, 111. Three 
children grace their union, as follows: Carrie, who 
was born April 22, 1871; Mark O., March 8, 1874; 
and Carles L., September 27, 1876. They are still 
at home with their parents. The family is one 
that is widely and favorably known in this locality. 
In politics, Mr. Heap is a Republican, and socially 
is a member of Ed Kitchell Post No. 662, G. A. R. 
He is a public-spirited and progressive man, faith- 
ful in the discharge of every public duty, and true 
to every private trust. 



OHN DONOVAN PARKER, deceased, was 
born in Mason County, Ky., December 7, 
1815, and died in Parkersburgh, 111., May 9, 
1883. His parents were James and Susan 
(Donovan) Parker. The famil3' removed from 
Kentucky to Illinois in the fall of 1818, and be- 
came pioneer settlers of Lawrence,, now Richland, 
County. There were then but three families on 
the present site of Parkersburgh, and besides a 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



241 



small settlement at Calhoun, there were probably 
no other residents in the county at that time. 
James Parker bought a squatter's claim, and upon 
that farm made his home until his death in 1868, 
at the age of eighty-nine years. When the family 
came, a tribe of Indians were encamped on Sugar 
Creek, but after a few months they removed to a 
reservation further westward. The nearest grist- 
mill to the Parker home was eighteen .miles dis- 
tant, and the nearest store was at Albion, sixteen 
miles away. The settlers depended largely upon 
game for their food. For a number of years Mr. 
Parker made annual trips to New Orleans, build- 
ing flatboats at Mt. Carmel, which he loaded with 
corn and Qoated to market down the river. On 
the return trip, which was made on foot, he would 
bring dry goods and other supplies. 

John D. Parker, whose name heads this sketch, 
attended a private school in Albion and thus ac- 
quired his education. He succeeded to the owner- 
ship of his father's farm of two hundred acres, 
which he carried on until his death. He also dealt 
in live stock and was a successful business man. For 
many years he kept a tavern, and the business is 
still carried on by his widow. His hospitality was 
extended to all, the penniless as well as the afflu- 
ent, and his house was a popular resort in the 
days when all traveling was done by team or on 
horseback. 

On the 13th of September, 1838, Mr. Parker 
married Miss Eliza J. Woods, a daughter of An- 
drew and Cassandra Woods, of Richland County. 
She was born in Kentucky, near the mouth of 
Licking River. They became the parents of eleven 
children: George W., of Arnold, Neb.; Mrs. Mary 
Cassandra Jenners; Susanna, wife of F. Althouse, 
of Chicago; Jarnes A., deceased; Eliza J., wife of 
A. Althouse; John G., of Harper City, Kan.; Clara 
C., wife of E. S. Whittaker; Charles W., of Mt. 
Erie,- 111.; Edgar R., of Springfield, Mo.; Arthur M. 
and Ulysses G. 

About 1860, Mr. Parker planted the village of 
Parkersburgh. He was always prominently ident- 
ified with the history of this county, and did 
much toward its growth and upbuilding. In pol- 
itics he was formerly a Whig, but later was a Demo- 
crat. He belonged to the Masonic fraternity and 



held membership with the Methodist Church. He 
was a kind and affectionate husband and father, 
was very seldom from home, and always kept his 
children near him until his death. He was very 
charitable and free-hearted, a friend to the poor 
and needy, and an upright and respected citizen, 
and no man in Richland County had fewer enemies. 




;ILLIAM H. EIDSON, M. D., a retired 
physician, who for many years was prom- 
inent in the medical fraternity of Jasper 
County, makes his home in Willow Hill. As he is 
both widely and favorably known, a record of his 
life will prove of interest to many of our readers. 
A native of Ohio, he was born in Preble County, 
September 17, 1816. His parents were Henry and 
Nancy (Bunch) Eidson. The family is of English 
descent, and was founded in America by the 
grand father of our subject, who was born in Eng- 
land. He came of a wealthy family, and being the 
eldest child inherited quite a large estate, but ow- 
ing to political strife, he desired to seek a home 
elsewhere, and when a young man crossed the At- 
lantic. He located in Virginia, where he died at 
an advanced age. The father of our subject was 
born in Bedford County, Va., March 14, 1777, and 
in 1812 emigrated from his native State to Ohio, 
where he spent' the remainder of his life. He was 
called to his final rest March 21, 1847. He had 
served in the War of 1812, and was a highly re- 
spected citizen. His wife, who was born in Augusta 
County, Va., died in October, 1853. She was of 
Scotch extraction, both of her parents being na- 
tives of Scotland, whence they emigrated to the 
United States. 

Our subject is the only surviving child of a 
family numbering four sons and two daughters. 
In order of birth he was the youngest. He spent 
his early life upon the farm in Ohio with his par- 
ents, remaining at home until he attained his ma- 
jority. The educational privileges afforded him 
were those of the common schools. On reaching 



242 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



man's estate, he determined to enter the medical 
profession, and to this end began studying under 
the direction of Dr. William A. Limawver, who 
was one of the first graduates of Jefferson Medical 
College. After four years thus spent in study, Mr. 
Kidson went to Mexico, Ind.,and entered upon the 
practice of his chosen profession. He there re- 
mained for about two years, when he returned 
home on account of the illness of his father, who 
died soon afterward. 

The Doctor then remained in Ohio for a few 
months, engaged in the practice of medicine. Sub- 
sequently we find him in Clark County, 111., where 
he practiced medicine for about a year, after which 
lie came to Jasper County, locating in Willow Hill. 
This was in 1854. Here he opened an office and 
was successfully engaged in practice until 1880, 
when he retired to private life, turning his busi- 
ness over to his son. 

On the 16th of June, 1844, Dr. Eidson married 
Miss Catherine Coffman, who was born near lla- 
gerstown, Md., March 14, 1817. Her parents were 
" both natives of Germany. After having traveled 
life's journey together for almost forty years, this 
worthy couple were separated by the death of the 
wife in 1883. They had a family of three sons 
and four daughters, but four died in childhood. 
Henry A., the eldest, and the only son now living, 
was born November 9, 1846, in Mexico, Ind., and 
was about eight years of age when his parents 
came to Jasper County. He attended the public 
schools until twenty years of age, after which he 
engaged in teaching for two terms in the Willow 
Hill schools. He served as Deputy County Clerk, 
and was Deputy Circuit Cleik for three years. In 
1878, he entered Rush Medical College, of Chicago, 
from which he was graduated on the 24th of Feb- 
ruary, 1880. The following day he was married, 
but his wife died a year later. He then came to 
Willow Hill and entered upon the practice of his 
profession, which he lias since continued. He was 
again married, on the loth of November, 1882, 
the lady of his choice being Mary J. McCartney, 
of Neoga, 111., by whom he has four children: 
Fannie A., William M., Harry A. and Laura A. 
Henry is now one of the leading physicians of the 
county, and holds a high rank among his profes- 



sional brethren. The other members of the Eidson 
family are Catherine E. and Laura J. The latter is 
now Postmistress of Willow Hill. 

Dr. Eidson, whose name heads this sketch, mani- 
fested his loyalty to the Government during the 
late war by enlisting as a member of Company 
K, Thirty-second Illinois Infantry, but he was only 
in the service a few months, when he was obliged 
to return home on account of ill health. In poli- 
tics he is a stanch Republican, warmly advocating 
the principles of that party. He served as County 
Commissioner for four years, was Justice of the 
Peace for a number of years, was Police Magistrate 
for ten years, and has been Postmaster of Willow 
Hill for almost thirty years, being first appointed to 
the position in 1854. He holds membership with the 
Methodist Church, and belongs to Cooper Lodge 
No. 489, A. F. & A. M., of Willow Hill, of which 
he was Master for a number of years, while his son 
Henry has held that position for fifteen years. 
The Doctor has been one of the most prominent 
and influential citizens of this community. Few 
men are more widely known in this region, and 
none are more universally esteemed. A long and 
well-spent life has won him high regard, and it is 
with pleasure that we present to our readers this 
record of his career. 



OHN S. RIDLEN is the owner of a beauti- 
ful country home, situated in the midst of a 
valuable farm of three hundred acres on 
section 6, Willow Hill Township, Jasper 
County, about one mile south of the village of 
Willow Hill. A native of the Buckeye State, he 
was born in Clerinont County on the 8th of March, 
1820, and is of Scotch descent on the paternal 
side, and of French extraction on the maternal 
side. His parents were Stephen and Ann (Belle- 
ville) Ridlen. The father was born in Maine Sep- 
tember 15, 1788, was a farmer by occupation, and 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



247 



had served in the War of 1812. In an early day 
he emigrated to the Buckeye State, where lie made 
his home until 1852. That year witnessed his ar- 
rival in Jasper County, where he purchased land, 
the farm upon which our subject now resides. 
The remainder of his. life he spent in this county. 
His death occurred in January, 1864, and to his 
family he left quite a large estate, which had been 
acquired through his own industrious efforts. His 
wife, who was born in Pennsylvania December 12, 
1791, also spent her last days in Jasper County. 

We now take up the personal history of our 
subject, who in the usual manner of farmer lads 
was reared to manhood. He spent most of the 
time with his parents until twenty-nine years of 
age, when he left the parental roof to make a home 
for himself. He wedded Miss Mary Bennett, who 
was born December 18, 1828, in Ohio. Her death 
occurred on the 6th of December, 1882. She left 
a family of seven children, as follows: Martha 
Ellen (deceased), who was the wife of John Parr, 
a prosperous farmer of Jasper County; Margaret 
Ann, widow of James Hartley ; Eliza Jane, wife of 
James R. Manning, who is engaged in agricultural 
pursuits in Jasper County; Lydia C., who married 
Frank P. Hurt, a farmer of the same county; 
Sarah F., wife of William H. Lovrig, of Jasper 
County; William P., who follows farming in this 
community; and Mary C., wife of Harrison Con- 
rad, also a farmer of Jasper Count}'. On the 7th of 
November, 1887, Mr. Ridlen was again married, his 
second union being with Miss Lucy J. Gardner, a 
native of Illinois. They are well-known people 
of this community and rank high in social circles. 

Mr. Ridlen has spent his entire life in agricul- 
tural pursuits. When a young man, he purchased 
a farm in Hancock County, Ind., and operated it 
until 1865. In that year he sold out, and choos- 
ing Illinois as the scene of his future labors, came 
to Jasper County. Soon after his arrival he 
bought the farm on which he now resides. It is 
complete in all of its appointments, supplied with 
all modern improvements and conveniences, and is 
considered one of the best farms of the locality. 
In his political views, Mr. Ridlen is a Democrat. 
He has served as School Director and has been 
Roadmaster for a number of years. With the 

11 



Baptist Church he holds membership. In the com- 
munity in which he makes his home he is recog- 
nized as an upright and honorable maa and public- 
spirited and progressive citizen. 



JfOHN C. PAUGH, M. D., is a well-known 
I physician and surgeon of Mason, and Presi- 
dent of the Village Board. In the years of 
his residence here he has not only won a 

prominent place among the medical fraternity of 
the county, but is recognized as one of the leading 
and influential citizens. He is a man of genial and 
kindly disposition, has a wide acquaintance, and is 
very popular. 

Dr. Paugh is a native of Indiana, Springville, 
Lawrence County, being the place of his birth, and 
the date August 10, 1841. He is ason of Dr.P. G. 
Paugh, also a native of Indiana, and of German 
descent, who lost his father during his infancy. 
Having attained to mature years, Dr. Paugh wed- 
ded Miss Sarah Scoggins, and unto them were born 
three children. Sarah, the eldest, married Newton 
Young, now a retired merchant of Altamont, 111. 
Mary is the widow of Joseph Cook, who died in 
Paris, 111.; they had three children, two of whom, 
Lincoln and Eva, are living in Terre Haute, Ind. 
William was twice married. He wedded Miss Lou 
Edwards, and they had two daughters and a son: 
Gertrude, wife of William Morton, of St. Louis; 
Grundy; and Lola, deceased, wife of Russell Clark, 
a lawyer of Chicago. For his second wife, Will- 
iam Paugh wedded Miss EmmaMcAckren, of Mat- 
toon, 111. His death occurred in June, 1890. 

Dr. Paugh, Sr., after the death of his first wife 
was married to Miss Eliza A. Cook. She too was 
a native of Indiana, and was of German and 
Scotch descent. They became the parents of seven 
children, two sons and five daughters, of whom 
four are yet living: John C., Amelia, Isabel and 
Laura. Martha, Nancy and Joseph, who were the 
third, fourth and fifth children in order of birth, 



248 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



are now deceased. Amelia is Hie wife of Andrew 
T. Douglas, of Mason, by whom she has a son, Will- 
iam. Isabel is the wife of Oscar Davis, a farmer 
near Mason, and they have three children: Laura, 
Paul and Garrison E. Laura, the youngest daugh- 
ter of Dr. Paugh, Sr., resides witli her parents. 

The Doctor removed with his family to Illinois 
in 1865, locating in the village of Mason, where 
he has since resided. He opened an office and suc- 
cessfully engaged in the practice of his profession 
until about five years ago, since which time he has 
lived a retired life. He is now eighty-seven years 
of age, and his wife is in her seventy-fifth year. 
They have traveled life's journey together as man 
and wife for fifty-three years. 

Dr. John C. Paugh spent his boyhood days in 
^pringville, Ind., and acquired his literary educa- 
tion in the public schools of that locality. After 
arriving at man's estate, he decided to enter the 
profession which his father followed, and became 
a student in Rush Medical College of Chicago, 
from which institution he was graduated in 1869. 
He had come to Mason with the family in 1865, 
and after his medical studies were completed, he 
returned to this place. In the practice of medi- 
cine he has won an enviable reputation for his 
skill and ability, and has secured a large and lucra- 
tive practice. 

The lady who bears the name of Mrs. Paugh 
was in her maidenhood Miss Marian Woods, daugh- 
ter of John and Vienna (Herrick) Woods, the 
former a native of Virginia, and the latter of In- 
diana. The marriage of the Doctor and his wife 
was celebrated January 27, 1870, and their union 
has been blessed with five children: Anna V., 
Alice M., Garrison B., Wilbur J. and Albert. 

In his social relations, the Doctor belongs to 
Mason Lodge No. 217, A. F. & A. M.; Cedar 
Lodge No. 211, I. O. O. F.; and Little Wabash 
Lodge No. 1202, M. W. A. In politics, he is a 
stanch supporter of Republican principles, and is 
now serving as President of the Village Board of 
Mason. He owns a good home property, besides 
ten acres of land on the edge of town, a forty- 
acre tract a mile east of Mason, and sevent}'-six 
acres in Union Township. His possessions have 
all been acquired through his own efforts. The 



Doctor is quiet and unostentatious in manner, yet 
his many excellencies of character and qualities of 
sterling worth have made him one of the most 
highly respected citizens of this community. 




AMUEL T. BOURNE, an old soldier and 
a well-known citizen of Decker Township, 
residing on section 16, has made his home 
for more than a quarter of a century in 
Richland Count}'. He was born in Decatur 
County, Ind., February 20, 1841. He comes of an 
.old English family that lived near the town of 
Bourne, England, and that was established in 
Massachusetts in 1620. The grandfather of our 
subject served in the War of 1812. 

The father, Ransford Bourne, was born in Mas- 
sachusetts November 8, 1818, and with his par- 
ents went to Indiana when a boy. The family lo- 
cated in Franklin County. The journey had been 
made with a horse and wagon, on which the wife 
and children rode alternate!}'. The grandfather 
accumulated a considerable fortune and died at 
the age of eighty-seven years. Ransford was 
reared amid the wild scenes of pioneer life. He 
acquired a good education and became a school 
teacher. In 1840 he married Eliza Smith, who 
was born in Pennsylvania, of German parentage, 
and the same year removed with his bride to De- 
catur County, Ind., where he opened up a new 
farm in the midst of the beech woods, making it 
his home until 1853, when he took up his resi- 
dence near Sumner, 111. In the spring of 1862, he 
enlisted in the late war, in the One Hundred and 
Thirtieth Illinois Infantry, and was killed eight 
months later at Memphis, Tenn. The mother had 
died in the summer of 1857. After the death of 
the parents, the family separated. There were six 
children who grew to mature years: Samuel T., of 
this sketch: Zaccheus, who participated irf twent}'- 
nine hard battles of the late war, and is now a suc- 
cessful and wealthy farmer, living near Ellsworth, 
Iowa; Nancy, a resident of Indiana; Mary, de- 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD 



249 



ceased; Henry, who resided near Shelby ville, 111., 
and was murdered for his money at Westfield, 111., 
February G, 1891; and Lucy, of Franklin Count}-, 
Ind. 

Our subject was thirteen years of age when the 
family came to Illinois. On that trip he drove an 
ox-team. He was educated in the common schools 
of Indiana, to which he made his way by follow- 
ing a course indicated by blazed trees. On the 
9th of July, 1861, he joined the boys in blue of 
Company A, Eleventh Missouri Infantry. After 
the regiment was drilled at St. Louis, the troops 
were sent to help fortify Cape Girardeau, after 
which they participated in the battles of Fredericks- 
town, New Madrid, Island No. 10 and Point Pleas- 
ant. During those campaigns they waded through 
swamps, where the horses could not go, and 
dragged the cannon. After the engagement at 
Ft. Pillow, they went to re-enforce Grant, and 
took part in the Corinth campaign and the cap- 
ture of the city. Then came the battle of luka, 
where Mr. Bourne was hit almost simultaneously 
with three balls. The first passed through the left 
shoulder blade and took away a part of his back- 
bone. The second lodged in his left lung and he 
still carries that piece of rebel lead. The third 
passed through the spleen and lodged in the spinal 
column. This produced an abcess which has never 
yet healed. Mr. Bourne was marked by the sur- 
geon as mortally wounded, but the surgeon died 
nine years ago, and he is still living. He re- 
mained in the hospital until December 11, 1862, 
and then received his discharge. From the effects 
of his injuries, however, he will never recover, and 
as a slight remuneration the Government has 
granted him a pension of $72 per month. 

On his return home Mr. Bourne, not content 
with his education, entered Miami University and 
after a four-years course was graduated from that 
institution in 1866. He then engaged in preach- 
ing for the Methodist Episcopal Church for two 
years, in Ohio and Illinois. Soon after locating 
in Richland County, he changed relationship with 
the church, owing to the absence of any Methodist 
Episcopal congregation in the locality, and united 
with the United Brethren Church. In 1868 he lo- 
cated in Uichland C'ounty, where he has since made 



his home. For fourteen years he engaged in 
teaching in the winter season. He is still in the 
ministry as a local preacher, and as he is a highly- 
cultivated man and able speaker he has done good 
work in the cause of Christianity. 

In Franklin County, Ind., in 1867, Mr. Bourne 
married Sallie Carter. She died in 1878, leaving 
six children: Minnie R., wife of N. R. Frost, a 
farmer of Decker Township; H. D., a minister of 
the United Brethren Church, now a student in 
Westfield College; Nellie, who keeps house for her 
father; Mary, Samuel T. and Ora P. In 1878 Mr. 
Bourne married Melinda Brock, daughter of Rev. 
P. Brock. She died July 2, 1892, leaving five 
children: Cora, Clarissa, Bertha, Walter and Edgar. 

Mr. Bourne has devoted much of his life to reli- 
gious work and was the founder of the United 
Brethren Church in Wynoose, with which he and 
his six eldest children now hold membership. He 
cast his first Presidential vote for Lincoln in 1864, 
and was a Republican until 1884, since which time 
he has supported the Prohibition party. He now 
owns two hundred and sixty-six acres of good 
land in Richland and Wayne Counties and de- 
votes the greater part of his time and attention to 
general farming. The community finds in him 
one of its best citizens. A worthy man, upright and 
honorable in all his dealings, he has the respect and 
confidence of all who know him, and it is with 
pleasure that we present this record of his life to 
our readers. 




ON. SYLVESTER F. GILMORE, a well- 
known lawyer of Effingham, and County 
Judge of Effingham County, has been a 
resident of this city since 1867. Judge 
Gilmore was born in Putnam County, Ind., on the 
17th of August, 1837, and is a son of Thomas and 
Margaret (Leach) Gilmore, both of whom are now 
deceased. His parents were natives of Rockbridge 
County, Va., and were descended from old Vir- 
ginian families who originally settled in the Cum- 



250 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



berland Valley. The father was of Scotch-Irish 
descent, and the mother was of Scotch lineage. 
Their remote ancestors, who established the fami- 
lies in America, were old-school Presbyterians, or 
Scotch Covenanters, and the faith of that sect has 
been the religion of their descendants. Judge 
Gilmore's father died in January, 1889, at the age 
of eighty-seven years, and the mother was called 
to the home beyond in the month of January, 
1866. 

The subject of this sketch was reared to man- 
hood upon a farm and began his education in the 
common schools, but his early privileges were sup- 
plemented by a course of stud}- in Hanover Col- 
lege, of South Hanover, Ind. Desiring to enter 
the legal profession and make it his life work, in 
1858 he began the study of law with Col. John A. 
Matson, of Greencastle, Ind. After two years 
spent in reading with that gentleman he entered 
the law department of the Indiana Asbury Uni- 
versity, now the Depauw University, from which 
he was graduated in the Class of '60. Soon after- 
ward he entered upon the practice of his chosen 
profession in Greencastle, continuing business at 
that place, however, only a short time. He then 
removed to Carmi, White County, 111., where he 
practiced law for a year and a-half. On the ex- 
piration of that period he returned to his old home 
in Indiana, and in July, 1863, entered the one 
hundred day service as a member of the Seventy- 
eighth Indiana Infantry. 

Judge Gilmore's command was attached to the 
Army of the Tennessee, and was stationed at Un- 
iontown, Ky. He took part in the engagements 
which took place there and at Morganfleld. At 
Uniontown the entire command was captured. 
This was late in the year 1863. They were held 
prisoners but a short time, however, when they 
were paroled and then discharged and returned 
to the North. 

Arriving at home, Judge Gilmore there remained 
until September, 1867, when he came toEfflngham, 
opened a law office and embarked in legal prac- 
tice, which he has carried on continuously since 
with excellent success, receiving a liberal patron- 
age. In 1869 he was elected County Superintend- 
ent of Schools of Effingham County, and held that 



office until 1873. On retiring from that position 
he formed a law partnership with J. C. White, 
which connection was continued until Mr. Gil- 
more was elected County Judge in the fall of 1883. 
So well did he discharge the duties of that office 
that he has been twice re-elected to the position 
and is now serving his third term as County Judge. 
He has also been Master of Chancery of Effing- 
ham County for one term, and served one term as 
Alderman of the city. 

On the llth of April, 1860, in Greencastle, 
Ind., Judge Gilmore was united in marriage witli 
Miss Julia A., a daughter of Isaac Matkin. The 
lady is a native of Greencastle, Ind. Four chil- 
dren, three sons and a daughter, were born of 
their union: Clarence II., Mary E., William and 
Thomas E. The youngest son was graduated from 
the Chicago Law School in the Class of June, 1892, 
and is now associated with his father in the prac- 
tice of the legal profession. Clarence married 
Miss Nettie Magood, and resides in LaFayette, 
Ind. Mrs. Gilmore died on the 12th of June, 1881, 
and on the 8th of November, 1883, the Judge was 
again married. His present wife was formerly 
Miss Margaret M. Means. She is a native of Preble 
County, Ohio, and is a daughter of Josiah and 
Rosanna Means. 

Judge Gilmore is a member of the Presbyterian 
Church, and socially is a Royal Arch Mason, also 
a member of the Knights of Pythias. The Judge 
is interested in the manufacturing interests of 
Effingham. He is a^stockholder in the Effingham 
Manufacturing Company, a recently established 
furniture factory of that city, and is also a share- 
holder in the Effingham Canning and Wood Pack- 
age Company. He is a man of excellent busines 
ability, sagacious and far-sighted, and has the fac- 
ulty of canning through to successful completion 
whatever he undertakes. He has also shown him- 
self a friend to the cause of education, and wa 
one of the original movers in securing a college ir 
Effingham, which resulted in the erection of the 
Austin College and Normal Institute, which isnov 
in successful operation in that place. Of that 
school, the Judge is now a Trustee. Further men- 
tion of the institution is made on another page of 
this work. 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



251 



In his political aillliation, Judge Gilmore is a 
Democrat, and the duties of the various offices he 
has held have been discharged with ability and 
great fidelity. His reputation as a lawyer is high, 
his skill is attested by years of successful practice, 
and he is a recognized leader of the Effingham 
County liar. 



1|j AMES A. OSBORN, manager of the Park- 
| ers burgh Mill, in which he also owns an 
interest, is one of the leading citizens of 
this community. His life record is as fol- 
lows: He was born on the 4th of March, 1849, 
near Lancaster, III., and is a son of Daniel Osboru. 
His father was a native of Virginia, and came 
with his parents to Illinois about 1825, the family 
locating in Lawrence County. Daniel was united 
in marriage with Nancy Thompson. In Lawrence 
County, he erected one of the first gristmills 
there built, and carried on business in that line for 
a number of years. He now resides on a farm 
near Lancaster. 

The subject of this sketch spent the greater 
part of his boyhood days upon a farm and in the 
common schools, where the most of his education 
was acquired. For three months, however, he 
was a student in an academy at. Friendsville, 111. 
At the age of twenty-two years, he began working 
at the milling trade, and three months later he 
took charge of one of the largest mills in southern 
Illinois. This was located at Friendsville. Since 
that lime he has operated and managed mills at 
various places. 

On the 27tli of February, 1871, was celebrated 
the marriage of James Osborn and Mary French, 
a daughter of Newton and Sarah French. Her 
parents were pioneer settlers of Lawrence County. 
I'nto our subject and his wife have been born 
three children, a son and two daughters, namely: 
Rosa, now the wife of A. L. Seibert; Nora and 
Charles M. The family circle yet remains un- 
broken by the hand of Death, and the two younger 



children are still under the parental roof. The 
Osborn household is the abode of hospitality and 
its members rank high in social circles. 

In political sentiment, Mr. Osborn is a Demo- 
crat, but has never been an aspirant for public 
office, preferring to devote his entire time and 
attention to his business interests. It was in 
1890 that he purchased an interest in the Park- 
ersburgh Flouring Mill, of which he lias since had 
charge and he has proved himself an able manager. 
He thoroughly understands the business in all its 
details and has therefore controlled affairs success- 
fully. Since becoming connected with the mill, 
he has enlarged it and put in the new roller pro- 
cess. The present capacity is fifty barrels of flour 
per day. This finds a ready sale in the suriound- 
ing markets and the owners of the Parkersburgh 
Mill are enjoying a flourishing trade. Mr. Osborn 
is a man of sterling worth and strict integrity, 
and is widely and favorably known in this com- 
munity. 




EBASTIAN F. SMITH, one of the represen- 
tative business men of Shum way, Effingham 
County, carries on general merchandis- 
ing at this place. He established business 
here in 1881, but did not personally take charge 
of it until two years later. He carries a full and 
complete stock of goods and is doing a good busi- 
ness. His fair dealing, his courteous treatment 
of his patrons and his earnest desire to please them, 
have won the respect of the entire community and 
gained him a liberal patronage, of which he is well 
deserving. 

Mr. Smith was born in Sidnej-, Shelby County, 
Ohio, February 2, 1850, and is a son of Michael 
Philip and Mary M. (Balsor) Smith. The father 
was born in Aushofenburg, Germ'any, and when a 
young man crossed the Atlantic to America. He 
was a stone mason by trade and followed that 
business during the greater part of his life. He died 
in Terre Haute, Ind., when our subject was quite 



252 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



young. His wife was born in Alsace, Germany, 
and when quite young came with her brother to 
the United States. She is now living with her son 
near Terie Haute, Ind. This worthy couple had a 
family of two sons and a daughter, all of whom 
are yet living. Henry P. is a prosperous farmer 
of Indiana; and Susan is the wife of M. C. Wade, 
a trunk manufacturer of Logansport, Ind. 

The other member of the family is our subject, 
who, during his youth, went to Terre Haute, Ind., 
where he remained until seventeen years of age, 
when his mother married again and he left home. 
He had acquired a good education in the Catholic 
schools of Terre Haute, and had taken a two-years 
course in the Benedictine College of St. Meinrad, 
Ind. During the two succeeding years he traveled 
over the Western country, and when about twenty 
years of age he came to Erfingham, 111. Here ho 
secured a position as fireman on the Vandalia Rail- 
road, in which capacity he was employed for about 
four years, when he was made engineer. During 
the first two years of his service in that line he 
ran switch and construction trains and was then 
placed in charge of a freight train. During his 
services as engineer, he met with one serious acci- 
dent, he and his fireman being both badly burned 
on account of the netting being stopped up in the 
engine. 

On the 29th of May, 1872, Mr. Smith married 
Miss Henrietta Elizabeth McCosh, who was born 
April 9, 1851, in Johnson County, Ind., and is a 
daughter of Arthur and Nancy (McLean) McCosh. 
Three sons and two daughters were born of 
their union, but Susan E., who was born March 1, 
1873, died March 2, 1874. William, born January 
28, 1875, is a highly educated young man who now 
aids his father in the store. The younger members 
of the family are Sebastian A., born December 6, 
1876; Edward Quinn, born September 14, 1879; 
and Lucy Nancy, born July 28, 1889. 

Mr. Smith is now a member of the Brotherhood 
of Locomotive Engineers. He also holds member- 
ship with Hero Lodge No. 991, K. of H.,of P^ffing- 
ham, and with Shumway Camp No. 1233, of, 
Shutnway. Himself and wife are members of the 
Catholic Church. In politics he is a warm advocate 
of Democratic principles and has served as School 



Director in his town for four years. Mr. Smith 
continued his connection with the railroad until 
1883. Two years previous he had established a 
store in Shumway, which he placed in charge of his 
brother-in-law, but in 1883 he took charge of it 
personally. Besides his business he owns a beauti- 
ful home in Shumway and is recognized as one of 
its respected and representative citizens. 




)ALENTINE PFLUM, who devotes his ener- 
gies to farming on section 5, Olney Town- 
ship, is one of the representative citizens 
and honored pioneers of Richland County, born 
in Baden, Germany, February 12, 1829. He is a 
son of Peter and Barbara (Sharp) Pflum. The fa- 
ther was a German farmer and remained in his 
native land until 1854, when he crossed the broad 
Atlantic and took up his residence in Meigs Coun- 
ty, Ohio, where his death occurred in 1872, at the 
age of seventy-one years. His wife survived him 
some time, and departed this life in West Virginia, 
in 1886, when eighty-two years of age. 

In the usual manner of farmer lads, our subject 
spent the days of his boyhood and youth. He re- 
mained with his parents until twenty-five years of 
age, when he determined to seek home and for- 
tune in the New World, of whose advantages and 
privileges he had heard such favorable accounts. 
It was on the 12th of March, 1854, that he took 
passage on a Westward-bound vessel, which after a 
voyage of twenty-eight days dropped anchor in 
the harbor of New York. 

Ere leaving his native laud, Mr. Pflum was mar- 
ried, Miss Elizabeth Hartman becoming his wife. 
A family of eight children has been born of this 
union. Peter, who was born in Germany, is the 
eldest, and was only about a year old when his 
parents crossed the Atlantic; John is a farmer of 
Noble Township, Richland County, and operates 
a steam-thresher; George is also engaged in farm- 
ing in this county; Valentine follows agricultural 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



253 



pursuits; Adam is engaged in the same business; 
Henry is at home; Elizabeth is the wife of John 
Snippert, a farmer of this county; and Mary is the 
wife of Case Bassett, also a farmer. The children all 
own their own farms, and, like their parents, are 
well-known and highly respected citizens of the 
community. 

For some years after coming to the United 
States, Mr. Pflum made his home in Ohio, where 
he carried on farming. In 1874 he came to Rich- 
land County with his family and settled in Noble 
Township, where he resided until 1888, when he 
purchased the farm upon which he now lives. It 
is one of the best improved places in the township. 
It lias upon it a comfortable residence, good barns 
and other outbuildings and a five-acre orchard. 

Mr. Pflum exercises his right of franchise in 
support of the Republican party, but has never 
been an aspirant for the honors or emoluments of 
public oftice. He is a member of the German Evan- 
gelical Church of Olney, and is a man whose ster- 
ling worth and strict integrity have gained for him 
many friends. Whatever success he has achieved 
in life is due entirely to his own efforts, and the 
competence which he now possesses is but the just 
reward of his labors. The day on which he sailed 
for America was a fortunate one for him, for he 
has met with prosperity in his new home. 



JOSEPH FRY, who is now engaged in fruit- 
growing on section 18, Olney Township, 
Richland Count}', claims Ohio as the State 
' of his nativity, his birth having occurred 

in Mt. Vernon on the 25th of June, 1820. He is 
the youngest in a family of nine children, num- 
bering seven sons and two daughters, but all are 
now deceased with the exception of our subject 
and his brother Jacob, who is now engaged in 
fanning in Wisconsin. 

The parents of this family were Michael and 
Elizabeth (Reese) Fry. The father was a native 



of Pennsylvania, and was a farmer by occupation. 
In an early day he left the Keystone State and 
went to Ohio, from where he afterwards emi- 
grated to Richland County, 111., in 1838. Here he 
afterwards entered land from the Government, 
being one of the pioneers of this locality, and 
upon the farm which he improved spent his re- 
maining days. His death occurred at the age of 
seventy-seven. His wife, who was also born in 
Pennsylvania, was called to the home beyond at 
the age of seventy-six years, while living in Ed- 
wards County. 

We now take up the personal history of Joseph 
Fry, who is widely and favorably known to the 
citizens of this community. The greater part of 
his youthful days was spent in Ohio, and in its 
public schools he accquired a limited education. 
At the age of seventeen he bade adieu to his na- 
tive State and started on the Westward journey to 
Illinois with his parents. Under the parental roof 
he remained until he had attained his majority, 
and to his father he gave the benefit of his servi- 
ces, for from an early age he worked in the fields, 
thus becoming familiar with all the details of farm 
life. Having arrived at years of maturitj^, he 
started out for himself and began working as a 
farm hand by the month, in which capacity he was 
employed for several years. In this way, as the 
result of his labors, good management and econo- 
my, he obtained some money, which he invested in 
forty acres of land. This was the nucleus of his 
farm. 

In 1844 Mr. Fry led to the marriage altar Miss 
Nancy Kaner, who resided in Edwards County, 
111. Eleven children have been born to the union 
of this worthy couple, six sons and five daughters, 
but death has broken the family circle and only 
six are now living. Edith I., the eldest, is the wife 
of Rev. William Rowley, a Methodist minister of 
Colorado; Sarah E. is the wife of Thomas Shaw, 
who follows farming in Clay County, 111.; R. T. is 
now serving as Postmaster in the city of Olney; 
James A. is a well-known farmer of Clay County; 
Nettie comes next; and Lena is the wife of John 
Glathart, a farmer of Olney Township. 

For many years Mr. Fry successfully engaged 
in farming, but in 1892 he sold his farm and put 



254 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



his money out at interest. At this writing he is 
superintendent of the fruit farm owned by his 
son. He is an honored pioneer of the county and 
worthy of representation in its history. In his 
political views he is a Republican, and though he 
manifests an interest in politics, as all true Ameri- 
can citizens should do, he has never been an as- 
pirant for office, in fact has steadily refused to serve 
in public positions. For fifty-five years he was a 
member of the Christian Church, but is at present 
a member of the New Light Church, and is now 
serving as Deacon. He takes a great interest in 
all religious work, and is assistant superintendent 
of the Sunday-school. He has long been an ear- 
nest laborer in the Master's vineyard and in his 
declining years he can look back over a well-spent 
life of faithful service. 




ALE JOHNSON, of the well-known law 
firm of Gibson & Johnson, of Newton, Jas- 
P er County, is a native of Indiana. He 
was born in Sugar Grove Township, Tip- 
pecanoe County, August 21, 1847. His parents 
were Dr. John B. and Sarah A. (Davison) Johnson, 
both of whom are now deceased. The father was 
born in Highland County, Ohio, February 17,1818. 
He adopted the medical profession as a vocation, 
and after a thorough course of study in each was 
graduated from the allopathic and eclectic medi- 
cal colleges. During the late war he served as 
Surgeon of the Seventy-second Indiana Regiment. 
In early life he removed to Indiana, where he mar- 
ried Miss Sarah A. Davison, who died in that State 
March 26, 1853, leaving three children: Hale, the 
subject of this sketch; Litta H., who became the 
wife of Dr. Didlake, a resident physician of Mon- 
ticello, Ind.; and Preston K., now deceased. Dr. 
Johnson was again married, in 1854, his second 
union being with Miss Rebecca Aydelott, of Lin- 
den, Ind. In 1865 the Doctor removed from the 
Hoosier State to Illinois and located in Marion 



County, where he pursued the practice of his pro- 
fession for a time. He subsequently removed to 
White County, Ark., but after the death of his 
second wife he returned to this State and spent his 
declining years among his children. After a long 
and useful professional life his death occurred on 
the 14th of October, 1892, in the seventy-fifth 
year of his age. 

Hale Johnson, of this sketch, spent his early life 
upon a farm, receiving his education in the coun- 
tiy district schools and in the Academy .it Ladoga, 
Ind. In May, 1864, he relinquished his academic 
course to enter the military service of the United 
States, in the war for the preservation of the Un- 
ion. He enlisted in the one hundred day service 
as a private in Company D, One Hundred and 
Thirty-fifth Indiana Infantry, and with his com- 
mand did duty in Kentucky, Tennessee and Ala- 
bama, defending bridges, posts and supplies for six 
months. He received his discharge in December, 
1864. 

On his return from the army Mr. Johnson con- 
tinued in Indiana until November, 1865, when he 
accompanied his father and the family to Illinois, 
making his home in Marion County of this State. 
He was there engaged in "farming and school- 
teaching until 1872, when he entered upon the 
study of law under the preceptorship of W. R. 
Hubbard, Esq., of Kinmundy, Marion County, 111. 
After a thorough course of study he passed an ex- 
amination before the Supreme Court at Mt. Ver- 
non, at the June term of 1875, and was admitted 
to the Bar. Soon afterward he entered upon the 
practice of his chosen profession in Altamont, Ef- 
fingham County, where he sought to build up a 
practice. lie also engaged in teaching school for 
a part of the time in order to avoid a deficit in the 
exchequer. After spending two years in practice 
in Altamont he was attracted to Newton, Jasper 
County, by the reports of the thrifty growth of 
that county seat, and in June, 1877, changed his 
place of residence to that commonwealth, where he 
has since been successfully engaged in the prose- 
cution of his profession. Soon after coining to 
Newton, Mr. Johnson became associated in prac- 
tice with J. M. Honey, which connection continued 
until near the close of 1881. On the 1st of Janu- 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



255 



ary, 1882, our subject formed the existing law 
partnership with James W. Gibson. He has also 
been associated with G. II. Shup in the real-estate 
business. 

On the 19th of February, 1871, Mr. Johnson 
was married, in Alma, Marion County, 111., to 
Miss Mary E. Loofbourrow. The lady was born 
in Fayette County, Ohio, and is a daughter of Or- 
lando and Frances L. (Delany) Loofbourrow. Her 
^ parents were also natives of the Buckeye State, 
and her paternal grandfather, Judge Loofbourrow, 
is numbered among the pioneer settlers of Ohio. 
Seven children were born of the union of Mr. 
and Mrs. Johnson, of whom five are yet living, 
two having died in infancy. The living are 
Jessie B., who is a graduate of Kirkwood Musical 
College, and for one year was instructor in music 
in Westfield College of Illinois. She is now teach- 
ing privately at her leisure. William F., the only 
son, was for three years a student in Eureka Col- 
lege, and is now studying law in his father's of- 
fice. The younger members of the family are, 
Mabel, Fannie M. and Lotta L., who are still at 
home. The parents and their three elder children 
are members of the Christian Church, and the 
family is one of prominence in this community. 

On attaining his majority, Mr. Johnson joined 
the Republican party, with which he affiliated un- 
til 1882, since which time he has been a supporter 
of the Prohibition principles. In 1876 he was a 
candidate on the Republican ticket in Effingham 
County for States Attorney, and notwithstanding 
the overwhelming Democratic majority in that 
county he came within thirteen votes of being 
elected. lie received the compliment of being 
nominated by the Prohibition party for Attorney- 
General of Illinois, and for Congress, but, under 
existing circumstances, did not win his election. 
Mr. Johnson was once a member of the Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows and the Ancient 
Order of United Workmen, but at present is non- 
affiliated with these fraternities. He is a member 
in good standing of Newton Camp No. 479, 
M. W. A. 

The firm of Gibson <fc Johnson, in addition to 
their extensive law practice, carry on the real-es- 
tate, loan and collection business, in which they 



enjoy a most excellent reputation for fair dealing, 
promptness and reliability. This firm stands at 
the head of the legal fraternity of Jasper County, 
and takes rank among the leading law firms of 
southern Illinois. Mr. Johnson has devoted much 
valuable time and means to aid the cause of tem- 
perance, and is widely known as an earnest and 
influential supporter of temperance principles. He 
is also an active and prominent worker in the cause 
of religion, and has been a liberal contributor to 
the support of churches and religious work. He is 
an influential member of the Christian Church, and 
has devoted much time to the organization and 
management of Sunday-schools and to church 
business. He has been Superintendent of the Sun- 
day-school and an official member of the Newton 
Christian Church for many years. His life is an 
honorable and upright one, and 'he has the high 
regard of all with whom he has been brought in 
contact. 



\f|OSEPH CUMMINS was a well-known and 
honored pioneer of Jasper County, who 
took up his residence here in the year 1840, 
when the county was in its primitive con- 
dition, being but sparsely settled. Our subject 
was a native of Indiana, his birth occurring in the 
Hoosier State in 1825. When only a small boy he 
left the State of his nativity and came with his 
parents to Illinois. The family located in Jasper 
County, where he grew to manhood, his childhood 
being passed in the usual manner of farmer lads. 
On attaining his majority, Mr. Cummins was 
married. He chose as a companion and helpmate 
on life's journey Miss Mary E. Chapman, their 
union being celebrated in January, 1853. The 
lady was born in Virginia on the 8th of May, 
1834, and is a daughter of Samuel and Nancy 
(Dawson) Chapman, who were numbered among 
the early settlers of Jasper County, they having 
located here when Mrs. Cummins was only about 
four years of age. Ten children were born of the 



256 



PO5TRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



union of our subject and his wife, two sons and 
eight daughters, of whom two died in infancy. 
Nancy, the eldest, is a successful teacher in the 
Newton public schools; Emma became the wife of 
George Van Treese, a representative farmer of 
Jasper County; Lydia is the wife of Frank Rich- 
ardson, who is engaged in clerking in a store in 
Newton; Lillie is the wife of George Switzer, a 
contractor and builder, now residing in Michigan 
City, Ind.; Alice is the wife of Wilbur Forbes, a 
practicing physician of New Orleans, La.; Frank is 
the owner of a meat market in Newton; Josephine 
is still at home, and Cameron completes the family. 
The children all received good educational privi- 
leges and were thus fitted for the practical and 
responsible duties of life. 

Mr. Cummins held membership with the Chris- 
tian Church and was a faithful and consistent 
member, whose life was in harmony with his pro- 
fessions. He was called to the home prepared for 
the righteous August 13, 1883, and his death was 
sincerely mourned by a large circle of friends and 
acquaintances, who held him in high esteem. Mr. 
Cummins was elected Sheriff of Jasper County in 
1873 and served four years. He was a Democrat in 
politics and took an active interest in public affairs. 
To his energetic disposition and business ability 
may be attributed his success in life. He was up- 
right and honorable in all his dealings, and by his 
well-direced efforts he accumulated a comfortable 
competency, owning at his death a large tract of 
land in this county. His widow still resides on the 
home farm, which is situated on section 23, Small- 
wood Township. She is a most estimable lady and 
the Cummins famity is one of prominence in the 
community. 



>REDERICK E. SCHONERT, a practical 
and progressive farmer residing on section 
20, Olney Township, has for many years 
made his home in Richland County, and is num- 
bered among its leading and influential citizens. 




Of German birth, he first opened his eyes to the 
light of day in Saxony, Germany, December 24, 
1834. His parents, Godford and Catherine (Shell- 
horn) Schonert, were both natives of the Father- 
land. The former was a German farmer. They 
became the parents of seven children, six sons and 
a daughter, one of whom died in the Old Country 
before the death of the mother, which also oc- 
curred in the land of her birth. In 1851 Mr. 
Schonert bade adieu to his old home, and with his 
children sailed for America. He took up his resi- 
dence in Olney Township, Richland County, where 
he made his home until his death, which occurred 
two years later, at the age of sixty. The children 
still living are Christopher, a retired farmer of this 
county; Frederick E., our subject; and Christian, 
who follows farming in Wabash County, 111. 

Mr. Schonert whose name heads this record 
spent the first sixteen years of his life in German}', 
and then accompanied his father on the voyage 
across the Atlantic, which was made in a sailing- 
vessel that dropped anchor in the harbor of New 
York after ten weeks spent upon the water. Be- 
fore coming to America, he had learned the tail- 
or's trade, at which he worked for six months af- 
ter reaching Richland County. Being obliged to 
abandon it on account of his health, he then went 
to live with a farmer, with whom he remained un- 
til lie had attained to man 's estate. In compensa- 
tion for his services, his employer then gave him 
forty acres of land and a horse. For about a year 
after attaining his majority, he worked as a farm 
hand by the month and was then married. 

It was on the 27th of November, 1856, that Mr. 
Schonert was united in marriage with Miss Frede- 
ricke G. Membell, who was born in Saxony, Ger- 
many, January 19, 1839. Her parents, Andrew and 
Catherine Membell, were also natives of that coun- 
try, and emigrated to America on the same ship 
in which our subject sailed. After reaching Rich- 
land County, Mr. Membell entered the farm upon 
which Mr. Schonert now resides, and with his wife 
there lived until called to the home beyond. His 
death occurred November 25, 1855, and Mrs. Mem- 
bell passed away November 27, 1867. Their re- 
mains were interred side by side in the German 
cemetery. Seven children, four sons and three 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



257 



(laughters, grace the union of our subject and his 
wife. Catherine, born May 20, 1858, is the wife of 
II. II. Jones, a farmer of this county; Mary, born 
July 24, 1860, is the wife of Conrad Kurtz, who 
follows the same pursuit in Richland County; the 
next child died in infancy; Sarah, born April 13, 
1865, married John W. Gallagher, also a farmer; 
Charles, born November 5, 1867; Eli G., born July 
25, 1870, and Harry Ed ward, born October 3, 1873, 
are still at home. The children have been provided 
with good school privileges and are thus fitted for 
the practical duties of life. 

Mr. and Mrs. Schonert began their domestic life 
upon the farm and he now owns two hundred and 
twenty acres of rich and valuable land situated 
four and a-half miles southwest of Olney. There 
is a neat residence and a good barn upon the place 
and other modern improvements. Mr. Schonert 
has led a busy and useful life yet has found time 
to faithfully discharge his duties of citizenship. 
He served for three terms as School Director and 
is a stanch supporter of the Democratic party. 
Socially, he is connected witli Olney Lodge, Inde- 
pendent Order of Mutual Aid. He is a member of 
the Presbyterian Church, and his wife holds mem- 
bership with the German Lutheran Church. An 
honorable, upright man, he has the respect of all 
with whom business and social relations have 
brought him in contact. 




EGRAND M. HOUGH, the oldest conductor 
on tne Vandalia Railroad, now running 
from Effingham to St. Louis, makes his 
home in the former city arid is one of its popular 
men. He was born January 22, 1840, in what is 
now Gowanda, N. Y., and was the third in a fam- 
ily of seven sons and one daughter born unto 
Edwin and Mary (Ellsworth) Hough. Two of the 
children died in infancy. The living are Edwin, 
now the publisher of the Saturday Herald of Hor- 
nellsville, N. Y.; Leroy, who is agent on the Santa 
Fe Railroad at Colton, Cal.; Charles F., editor of 



a newspaper in Andover, N. Y.; Millard F., resid- 
ing in Trenton, Mo., a conductor on the Rock 
Island Railroad; and Ernest, who is connected with 
the Baker Iron Company, of Los Angeles, Cal. 

The father of this family was born in Bridgeport, 
Conn., in 1812, and there remained until fifteen 
years of age. His father was a miller of the place. 
At fifteen, he left home and went to Batavia, N. Y., 
to learn the printer's trade, working for $25 a 
year and board. At the age of twenty, he began 
the publication of a paper of his own and continued 
in that business at different points in the Empire 
State until 1867, when, on account of ill health, he 
retired. He died in 1869, at Hornellsville, N. Y. 
His wife was born in 18 14, at North Kingston, R. I., 
and when a small child went with her parents 
to Wales, N. Y. She is still living and makes her 
home with our subject. 

Mr. Hough of this sketch was educated in the 
common schools, and during his boyhood spent 
two years in his father's printing office. He 
remained under the paternal roof until 1854, when 
he began working on the New York & Eric Hail- 
road and has since followed the business in which 
he is now engaged. In 1858, he came West and 
became a news-agent on the Ohio & Mississippi 
Railroad. Later he became brakeman and subse- 
quently was made conductor. In 1869, he severed 
his connection with that road and became a 
brakeman on the Vandalia Road between St. Louis 
and Chicago, remaining on that run till June, 1870. 
He then came to Efringham, and as conductor was 
placed in charge of a freight train running from 
this place to East St. Louis. In November, 1884, 
he was made passenger conductor on the same run, 
which position he holds at this writing. 

On the 4th of February, 1868, Mr. Hough mar- 
ried Miss Caroline Pulliam, of Vincennes, Ind., who 
was born March 1, 1848. She there resided until 
her marriage. Three children have been born of 
this union: Edwin E., Annie L. and Mamie M. 
The children have all received good educational 
privileges, having graduated from the Efflngham 
schools. The family are members of the Presbyterian 
Church and are highly respected citizens, widely 
known in this community. 

Mr. Hough is a stanch Republican in his polit- 



258 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



ical views, and socially is a member of the Masonic 
fraternity and the Order of Railway Conductors of 
Eflingham. A genial, pleasant gentleman, he has 
a host of friends and acquaintances in this com- 
munity, who esteem him highly for his many 
excellencies of character. He owns a beautiful 
residence in this city, and the Hough household is 
the abode of hospitality. 



JEV. JOHN R. SKINNER, pastor of the 
Presbyterian Church of Newton, was born 
in Perry County, Ohio, in 1845, and is de- 
scended from one of the early families of 
the Buckeye State. The great-grandfather of our 
subject was a native of England, who, leaving that 
country, emigrated to America during Colonial 
days. The old homestead farm in Ohio has been 
in the possession of the family for more than a 
century, and is now owned and occupied (by the 
only paternal uncle of our subject. The latter's 
father was William Skinner, and his grandfather 
bore the name of Robert Skinner. The former died 
when his son was but four years of age, after 
which Mrs. Skinner, the mother of our subject, 
married John McFillen. She is still living and 
makes her home in De Kalb County, Ind. 

The Skinner family numbered nine children, 
seven sons and two daughters, of whom six sons 
and a daughter are yet living. Stephen is a resi- 
dent of Chicago; Robert resides in Kansas; George 
makes his home near the old farm in Ohio; Will- 
iam is now located in Wood County, Ohio; John 
R. is the next younger; Marion resides in Marshall 
County, Iowa; and the only sister, Amaretta, is 
the wife of Salathial Skinner, of Portland, Jay 
County, Ind. 

The Rev. Mr. Skinner whose name heads this 
record spent the days of his boyhood and youth 
upon his father's farm in his native county. Dur- 
ing his minority his opportunities for securing 
even the rudiments of an education were very 
limited. He early conceived the idea of ensjaij- 

* O o 



ing in ministerial work, and at the age of twenty- 
one years he entered Ileidelburg University, at 
Tiffin, Ohio, where he pursued a select course of 
study. When he had fitted himself for his chosen 
profession he entered upon the work of the min- 
istry in 1873, his first charge being in Winamac, 
Ind., where he remained for three years. Thence 
he went to Pulaski, Williamson County, Ohio, 
where he also continued three years. At this 
time the death of his father-in-law called him to 
Pulaski, Ind., and eighteen months later he ac- 
cepted a call to Fairfield County, Ohio, where he 
remained for three years. Thence he went to Kal- 
amazoo, Mich., being pastor of the church at that 
place for about six years. The continued ill-health 
of his wife induced him to try a more radical 
change of climate, and he accordingly removed to 
Kansas, but he spent only seven months in that 
State, after which he went to Iowa. Nine months 
later he became a resident of Vernon, Tex., soon 
after which, his wife's health being restored, he 
accepted a call to his present pastorate. 

Mr. Skinner was married in Pulaski, Ind., to 
Miss Mary A. Good, a daughter of Ephraim Good. 
Her maiden name is an index to her character, 
and to her husband she has proved a true help- 
mate. Two sons have blessed their union, Elgie 
and De. The church of which Mr. Skinner is now 
pastor was one of the earliest religious organiza- 
tions in Jasper County, its history covering a 
period of over forty years. In 1852 the Rev. 
Robert Simpson removed to Jasper County from 
a point near Vincennes, Ind., and settled on a farm 
about three miles southeast of Newton. With the 
few Presbyterians here at that time an organiza- 
tion was effected and services were held in the 
Court House. The original members besides the 
pastor were but three in number, viz.: Addison 
S. Harris and his wife, Henrietta Harris, and 
Miss Elizabeth P. Harris. The following, how- 
ever, were admitted to membership at the time of 
organization: Joseph Wilson and his wife, Anna; 
Robert Dcltell and his wife, Dorcas; Mrs. Martha 
Maxwell and Mrs. Elizabeth Maxwell. 

The Rev. Mr. Simpson continued 10 preach for 
the church until near the time of his death, which 
occurred in 1860. He was succeeded by the Rev. 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



259 



T. Morgan, who also came from Indiana, and who 
resided during his pastorate, which continued only 
about a year, in Newton. Then eame the Rev. 
K. P. Fox, who was also from the Hoosier State, 
whither he returned at the close of his service, to 
be succeeded by the Rev. I. Venable, under whose 
administration the present church building was 
erected, the dedicatory services taking place on 
the 19th of July, 1868. The Rev. Mr. Venable 
was followed by the Rev. Thomas W. Chestnut, 
and the latter by the Rev. James Brownlee. 

In 1877 the Rev. G. W. Nichols assumed the 
pastoral charge of the church, and was followed 
by the Rev. A. H. Parks. His home was at Neoga, 
and he did not become resident pastor, but preached 
to the congregation at Newton each alternate 
Sunday for a considerable time. In 1884 the 
Rev. G. E. Sanderson became resident pastor, and 
remained for two years. The church then had 
only occasional preaching until the coming of its 
present minister. The Rev. Mr. Skinner by his 
faithful work and Christian example is doing 
much toward promoting the religious growth, not 
only of his own church, but of the community 
wherever his influence is felt. The society has 
grown from the three original members mentioned 
above to a membership of about one hundred, 
and is in a healthful and prosperous condition. 




1LTON SIMS, one of the early settlers of 
Jasper County, now resides on section 25, 
Willow Hill Township, where he is en- 
gaged in general farming. His farm is 
pleasantly located about two miles northwest of 
the village of Willow Hill. His home is a pleasant 
country residence, which is supplemented by good 
barns and other outbuildings, and these in turn 
are surrounded by broad fields of waving grain. 
He owns three hundred acres of rich land, the 
greater part of which is under a high state of 
cultivation and yields to him a golden tribute in 
return for the" care and labor he has bestowed 
upon it. 



The life record of Mr. Sims is as follows: He 
was born November 22, 1823, near Frankfort, Ky., 
and is the third in a family of five sons and two 
daughters born unto Thomas and Lucinda (Hud- 
son) Sims. The father was a native of Virginia 
and spent his early life in that State, but when u 
young man he went to Kentucky with his parents, 
where he was married and lived until 1842. He 
served about a year "in the War of 1812. In 1842 
he emigrated to Rush County, Ind., where he re- 
sided until his death in 1880, at the age of eighty- 
seven years. His wife died in Indiana at the ripe 
old age of eighty. 

Milton Sims spent his early life on the farm with 
his parents in Kentucky, and accompanied them 
on their removal to Indiana, remaining at home 
until twenty-four years of age. At that time he 
was united in marriage with Miss Priscilla Harlen, 
of Rush County, Ind., their union being celebrated 
February 22, 1849. The young couple soon after- 
ward emigrated to Jasper County, and Mr. Sims 
entered the tract of land from the Government 
which has now been his home for forty-four years. 
He is numbered among the pioneer settlers, for the 
county was then in its primitive condition, the 
work of civilization and upbuilding having been 
scarcely begun. Wild game of all kinds was plen- 
tiful, including deer. The family had to endure 
many of the hardships and experiences of frontier 
life. 

Unto Mr. and Mrs. Sims were born three chil- 
dren: Martha Ann, wife of James W. Johnson, a 
prosperous farmer residing near Decatur, III.; 
William and Marion T., who are successfully en- 
gaged in farming in this county. The mother of 
this family died April 29, 1859, and on the 26th 
of March, 1860, Mr. Sims married Miss Sarah E. 
Mitchell, of Jasper Count}-. They became the 
parents of six children, five j-et living, viz.: Rich- 
ard, a well-to-do agriculturist of Jasper County; 
Ida M., wife of Wilson Way, a farmer of this 
Bounty; Georgia, wife of William Raef, a tele- 
graph operator of Texas; Nora, wife of David 
Holt, a farmer of this county; and Lulu, at home. 
Mr. Sims was called upon to mourn the loss of his 
second wife, who died August 23, 1883. On the 
10th of September, 1886, he was united in mar- 



260 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



riage with Miss Mary, daughter of James Ireland, 
whose sketch appears elsewhere in this work. Their 
union has been blessed, with two children, Laura 
and Elizabeth. 

In his political views, Mr. Sims is a stanch Dem- 
ocrat. He has served as a member of the County 
Board of Supervisors for three terms, was Town- 
ship Commissioner for twelve years and has long 
been one of the School Directors. He always dis- 
charges his official duties with promptness and 
fidelity, and has thus won the commendation of 
all concerned. He holds membership with the 
Baptist Church and has led an honorable, upright 
life, which has gained him the confidence and 
esteem of a large circle of friends and acquaint- 
ances. His long residence in the county makes 
him well worthy of an honored place among its 
pioneer settlers. 



APT. C. D. KENDALL, of Newton, is one 
of the prominent and influential citizens of 
Jasper County. A native of Erie County, 
Pa., he was born in 1837, and is of New England 
ancestry. His parents were Cyrus and Lucy 
(Aubrey) Kendall. Both were natives of Orange 
County, Vt., but with their respective families 
they went to the Keystone State. The father was 
of English descent, and the mother, as her name 
indicates, was of French lineage. Cyrus Kendall 
died in Pennsylvania in 1844, and his wife, who 
survived him for a number of years, passed away 
in Fayette County in 1861. They had a family 
of six children who grew to mature years, but our 
subject and a younger brother are now the only 
living representatives of the family. The latter, 
Dr. John M. Kendall, is a resident of Shelby Cotin- 

ty, 111. 

In 1853, when about seventeen years of age, 
Capt. Kendall, accompanied by his mother, came to 
Illinois and taught school for a number of terms 
in Fayette and Clay Counties. lie continued to 
make his home in the former county until the 



spring of 1860, when he went to Louisville, Clay 
County, and entered the law office of W. W. Bishop. 
There he pursued the study of law, intending 
to enter the legal profession, and took an examin- 
ation for admittance to the Bar, which he success- 
fully passed, but before his diploma was received 
he had resolved to enter the military service of his 
country, the War of the Rebellion having already 
begun. The date of his enlistment was May 2, 
1861. He was among the first to enlist, yet it was 
found that the quota of Illinois, under the call of 
President Lincoln, was full, and accordingly he 
with others was accredited to Missouri, and became 
a member of Company D, Eleventh Regiment of 
Missouri Volunteers. Mr. Kendall was soon made 
Quartermaster-Sergeant of the regiment on the 
non-commissioned staff, and immediately after the 
siege of Corinth was commissioned Second Lieu- 
tenant of Company K. When the regiment vet- 
eranized he was made Captain, and served as such 
until about three months before the close of the 
War, when he became Quartermaster of the Sec- 
ond Brigade, First Division of the Sixteenth Army 
Corps, under the command of Gen. L. F. Hubhard, 
of Minnesota, who was afterwards Governor of 
that State. Capt. Kendall was actively engaged 
in many of the most important events of the war. 
He participated in the battle of Island No. 10, the 
siege and battle of Corinth, the siege and capture 
of Vicksburg, the battles of luka, Corinth and 
Nashville, and the siege and capture of Spanish 
Fort and Ft. Blakely. He was wounded at the 
battle of Corinth on October 3, 1862, and at Nash- 
ville, December 16, 1864. 

Returning home after receiving his discharge, 
Capt. Kendall was elected Clerk of Clay County in 
the fall of 1865, and served efficiently in that ca- 
pacity for four years. In the autumn of 1869 he 
embarked in merchandising in Louisville, Clay 
County. Again, in January, 1874, he was called 
to official duty, being elected Assistant Secretary 
of the Senate of the Twenty-eighth General As- 
sembly. 

Capt. Kendall was flrst married on the 22d of 
January, 1862, Miss Rovilla C. Miller, a daughter 
of Thomas and Abbie (Sparks) Miller, becoming 
his wife. She was a native of Ohio, and died in 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



261 



1875. leaving one son, who still survives her, Har- 
ry F., a graduate of the State University of Illinois, 
and a lawyer by profession, now residing in Cham- 
paign, 111. In 1878, Capt. Kendall was again 
married. He married Mrs. Susie Barnes, widow of 
Charles W. Barnes, and a daughter of Henry and 
Susan (McCoy) Brooks. They have one child, 
May E. 

In 1881, Capt. Kendall disposed of his business 
interests in Louisville and removed to Newton. 
He lias since engaged in merchandising in this 
place, and is recognized as one of the prominent 
and leading business men of Jasper County. lie 
carries a full and complete line of goods, and as he 
earnestly desires to please his customers, and is 
upright and honorable in all his dealings with the 
public, lie has gained a liberal patronage and won 
the confidence and good-will of all with whom he 
has teen brought in contact. Mr. Kendall was one 
of the organizers of Jacob E. Reed Post, G. A. R., 
and is Post Commander of the same. In his po- 
litical affiliations he is a Republican, and earnestly 
advocates the principles and measures of that party, 
having teen one of its warm supporters since he 
cast his first Presidential vote for Abraham Lin- 
coln. Capt. Kendall has been a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church for twenty-five years, 
and has been an active worker in its interests. In 
his country's hour of need be was a gallant and 
faithful soldier, and honorably wore the blue of 
the Union. In times of peace he is both a success- 
ful business man and an enterprising citizen. 

l^i. N< GIDEON D - BLANKER, a farmer and 
*^ insurance agent of Olney, has been a resi- 
dent of Illinois since 1855, and has made 
his home in this city since 1864. He owns 
a tine farm of one hundred and eighteen acres, of 
which eighteen acres lie within the corporation 
limits of Olney and are the site of his residence. 
Mr. Slanker claims Ohio as the State of his nativ- 
ity. He was born in Easton, Wayne County, Sep- 



tember 26, 1836.and is a son of David and Matilda 
(Eisher) Slanker. His parents were natives of 
Berks County, Pa., and came of old families of 
German origin. They removed to Ohio in 1833, 
and spent the remainder of their lives in the Buck- 
eye State. 

Our subject obtained his education in the com- 
mon schools and was reared to manhood in the 
usual manner of farmer lads, no event of special 
importance occurring during his youth. Leaving 
his native State, he went to Altoona, Knox County, 
HI., where he served as a merchant's clerk until 
July, 1862, when he left that place and went South. 
In the fall of 1863 he became a resident of Lawrence 
County, and the autumn of 1864 witnessed his 
arrival in Olney, where he has since made his home. 
For three years he was here employed as a sales- 
man in a store, but since 1868 he has engaged in 
the insurance business, and in addition he now 
carries on farming. 

Mr. Slanker was married in Bridgeport, III., 
June 2, 1864, to Miss Augusta Klein want, a daugh- 
ter of GustavusKleinwant and a native of Albion, 
Edwards County, 111. Unto them were born two 
children, a son and daughter, but Charles, the elder, 
died October 30, 1887, at the age of twenty-two 
years and two months. The daughter, Florence 
L., resides at home. The parents and Miss Florence 
are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
Their home is the abode of hospitality and in social 
circles they rank high. 

Mr. Slanker is connected with the various Ma- 
sonic bodies of Olney, being a member of Olney 
Lodge No. 140, A. F. & A. M.; Richland Chapter 
No. 38, R. A. M.; Gorin Commandery No. 14, K. T.; 
Olney Council No. 55; the Scottish Rite; and the 
Mystic Shrine, of which he is Past Potentate. It 
will be seen that Mr. Slanker has gained a high 
rank in Masonic fraternities, and he is well and 
widely known among his brethren of the order. 
He takes considerable interest in political affairs 
and votes with the Republican party. He has held 
the office of Mayor, and in 1890 was elected to the 
Legislature as a member of the Thirty-seventh 
General Assembly, representing the Forty-fourth 
District, including Ridiland, Clay, Wayne and 
Edwards Counties. He served on a number of iro- 



262 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



portant committees, including the Committees on 
Insurance, Work-houses, Canals, River Transpor- 
tation, State and Municipal Indebtedness and the 
Executive Department. In all public offices which 
he has been called upon to fill, Mr. Slanker has dis- 
charged his duties with promptness and fidelity, 
which have won him the commendation of all con- 
cerned. He is not only a leader in Republican 
circles in this community, but in other ways is a 
man of prominence and influence. He is a public- 
spirited and progressive citizen, and has the high 
regard of all with whom he has been brought in 
contact. 



V SIAH PALMER, one of the leading business 
men of Granville Township, Jasper County, 
residing on section 28, is the proprietor of 
a large sawmill. This is one of the most impor- 
tant industries of the community. The owner is 
a native of Ohio, having been born near Canton, 
Stark County, June 17, 1837, and is a son of Jona- 
than and Rebecca Palmer. His father was born in 
Maryland and was of English descent. His death 
occurred in 1856, and his wife, who survived him 
a number of years, passed away in 1880. Of their 
six children, the eldest died in infancy; Osiah is 
the second in order of birth; John A. resides in 
Plymouth, Ind.; Catherine is the wife of Peter 
Braucher, of Havana, N. Dak.; Samuel is a planter 
of Madison, Ala.; and Jonathan died in 1891. 

Mr. Palmer, whose name heads this record, re- 
ceived such educational advantages as the district 
schools afforded, and upon his father's farm was 
reared to manhood. He remained with his par- 
ents until 1859, when with an ox-team he went to 
Pike's Peak. On the 12th of March, he left Ft. 
Leavenworth, Kan., and on the 24th of May 
reached the present site of Denver, but the city 
then consisted of only a few tents and probably 
one or two sod houses. Mr. Palmer saw Horace 
Greeley while there. He began prospecting and 



remained in that locality for about a year, when he 
and two companions bought lumber at the cost 
of $15 per hundred feet, built a boat and sailed 
down the Platte River to Plattsmouth,Neb., a dis- 
tance of one thousand miles, reaching the end of 
their journey ten days after leaving Denver. 

Later Mr. Palmer worked his way back to Ohio, 
where he engaged in farming and in cutting cord 
wood for thirty-one cents per cord, but, the war 
having broken out, he enlisted November 17, 
1861, and was mustered into service at Camp 
Dcnnison as a private in the Third Ohio Inde- 
pendent Battery. His first active engagement 
was at Shiloh, and later he participated in the 
battles of Corinth, Raymond, Clinton, Jackson, 
Champion Hills and the siege of Vicksburg, 
where for fortj'-two days he was under fire. He 
then took part in the battles of Kenesaw Moun- 
tain, Atlanta and Nashville, after which he went 
to Ft. Donelson, where he heard the news of 
President Lincoln's assassination. He was mus- 
tered out as Sergeant in Cleveland, Ohio, in Au- 
gust, 1865. 

Returning to his home in the Buckeye State, 
Mr. Palmer purchased an interest in a grocery, 
but it was soon afterwards burned, and in 1866 
he went to Plymouth, where he carried on a 
bakery establishment until 1870. He then sold 
out and went to Madison County, Ala., where he 
engaged in raising cotton for three years, and in 
1873 returned to Princeton, Ind. There he again 
carried on a bakery and restaurant, and subse- 
quently was proprietor of a large hotel in that 
place, where he did business until May, 1886, 
when he traded his hotel for his sawmill and 
about two hundred acres of land. lie now owns 
two hundred and eighty-five acres of land and has 
turned out in one year two million feet of lum- 
ber. He recently purchased a large mill in Scott 
County, Mo., and five hundred acres of good tim- 
berland. He also carries on farming to a limited 
extent. 

In 1865, Mr. Palmer married Miss Levina Kep- 
ler, and unto them were born three children: Ar- 
thur, Jennie, and one who died in infancy. In 
1875 Mr. Palmer was again married, his second 
union being with Miss Ella Hossler, by whom he 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



265 



has nine children, as follows: Mary, Maggie, 
Susan, Laura, , Jessie, Fred, James, Lena F. and 
Ruth. 

Mr. Palmer is a man of excellent business ability, 
and although he started out in life a poor bo}', he 
has steadily worked his way upward, overcoming 
the obstacles and difficulties in his path by a 
determined will and enterprise. He is now at the 
head of a large and paying business, and he may 
feel justly proud of his success, which has been 
achieved by his own well-directed efforts. In 
politics he is a Democrat, and socially a member 
of the Masonic fraternity and the Grand Army of 
the Republic. Such a life as he has led has not 
only won him prosperity, but has gained him the 
confidence and esteem of all with whom he has 
been brought in contact. 







ON. RICHARD SPRIGG CANBY, an emi- 
nent jurist of Illinois, now resides in Olney, 
and was one of the prominent and leading 
members of the Richland County Bar. He 
was born on his grandfather's farm in Greene 
County, Ohio, on the 30th of September, 1808, and 
is descended from one of the oldest Quaker fami- 
lies of Pennsylvania. Thomas Canby, the common 
ancestor of all the Canbys in America, came from 
England to America with William Penn in 1683, 
and settled in Philadelphia. He obtained a tract 
of land from William Penn, and the deed of record 
shows the consideration to have been persecution 
endured for conscience' sake. Thomas Canby had 
been imprisoned in England on account of his religi- 
ous views, he being a Quaker, and had been released 
under the reign of James II., but a short time be- 
fore he came to America. lie built a mill on his 
purchase and erected a dwelling. It is said that 
the old mill-house is still standing. Thomas Canby, 
who was twice married and had seventeen chil- 
dren, was born in the town of Thorn, Yorkshire, 
England, in 1666. The name is now extinct in 

12 



England but is said to exist in France, where tra- 
dition states that the family originated and that 
some members were driven to England in a re- 
mote period by religious persecution. 

Our subject traces his genealogy from Thomas 
Canby as follows: Thomas Canby had a son Ben- 
jamin, who lived and died in the original settle- 
ment in Pennsylvania. He had a son Samuel, 
whose son Joseph was born in Loudoun County, 
Va., in 1781, and married Lydia Pedrick in the 
Quaker meeting-house in January, 1807, after 
the peculiar marriage ceremony of the Society 
of Friends. He died in Logan County, Ohio, 
in February, 1843. His wife was born in New 
Jersey in 1787, and died in Lebanon, Warren 
County, Ohio, in August, 1816. Four children 
were born unto Joseph and Lydia Canby, two 
sons and two daughters. Anna married Mr. 
Kitchen; Hannah became the wife of John Evans, 
Governor of Colorado; Samuel died in infancy; 
and Richard Sprigg completes the family. 

The last-named is the subject of this sketch. He 
passed his childhood and youth on the farm and 
was educated partly in Oxford, Butler Countj', 
Ohio. On the 16th of March, 1835, he was mar- 
ried in Bellefontaine, Logan County, Ohio, to Miss 
Eliza, a daughter of Oliver Simpson. The lady was 
a native of Ross County. Ten children were born 
of the union of our subject and his wife. Elizabeth, 
born in 1836, married Homer G. Platz and died 
leaving one daughter, who married and is the mo- 
ther of two sons. Lydia Ann, born in 1837, is the 
wife of T. W. Hutchinson, a lawyer of Olney, 111. 
Oliver S. and Joseph died after attaining to man- 
hood. Samuel died in infancy. Samuel, the sec- 
ond of that name, married Miss Martha Bates and 
is a practicing phj'sician of Bonpas Township, 
Richland County. They have four children liv- 
ing and four deceased. One of their daughters is 
married and has three children. Cornelia is the 
wife of Dr. E. Boyles, of Clay City, Clay County. 
Richard S., Jr., is deceased. Benjamin is married 
and is City Judge of East St. Louis, serving his 
second term in that position. Eliza died in in- 
fancy. 

In 1829 Mr. Canby embarked in mercantile busi- 
ness in Bellefontaine, Ohio, and while thus en- 



266 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



gaged read law with B. Stanton, of that place. In 
1840 he began the practice of law and in 1845 was 
elected to the State Legislature. The following 
year he was elected to Congress from the Twelfth 
Ohio District, where he served as Representative 
with credit to himself and his constituents. When 
his term was over he removed to a tract of land 
of one thousand acres, and for a number of years 
engaged in farming. Subsequently, he removed to 
Bellefontaine in order to provide his children with 
better educational advantages, and there resided 
until March, 1863, when he removed toOlney, 111., 
where he resumed the practice of his profession. 
In June, 1867, he was elected Judge of the Circuit 
Court and served on the bench for six years with 
distinction. He then resumed the practice of law, 
from which he retired in 1882, at the age of seven- 
ty-four years. Almost from the time he entered 
upon the practice of his chosen profession, Mr. 
Canby was recognized as a lawyer of much merit, 
possessing more than ordinary ability. He won 
an enviable reputation and was elected to a num- 
ber of positions of honor and trust, in which he 
discharged his duties with a promptness and fidel- 
ity that won him high commendation. 

In 1867 Judge Canby was called upon to mourn 
the loss of his wife, who died in Olneyon the 14th 
of January of that year. In political sentiment 
in early life the Judge was a Whig but joined the 
Republican party on its organization in 1854, and 
since that time until recent years he has been an 
active and earnest supporter of that party. 



REUBEN HAMILTON, who for many years 
has been engaged in farming on section 17, 
Denver Township, is one of the worthy 
citizens that Indiana has furnished Richland 
County. He was born in Gibson County, of the 
Hoosier State, February 15, 1830. His father, Asa 
Hamilton, was a native of Virginia, and during his 
boyhood emigrated to Kentucky, where he grew 



to manhood on a farm. His father was a wealthy 
tobacco-raiser and slave-holder. A brother of Asa 
served as Clerk of the Court in Boone County for 
forty years. In that county Mr. Hamilton was 
married, and after a few years his wife died, leav- 
ing three children. He later removed to Gibson 
County, Ind., where he wedded Miss Margaret 
Mills, a native of Gibson County. In 1831 they 
came to Illinois, locating on the Fox River in 
Richland County. Their last days were spent on 
the Wabash River in Clay County. Mr. Hamilton 
was a great hunter and sportsman, and for this 
reason enjoyed his home on the frontier. His 
second wife died in this county and he was after- 
wards again married. His death occurred at the 
age of seventy-two. He was a Whig in politics, a 
member of the Masonic fraternity and a genuine 
pioneer. Nancy, the sister of our subject, died in 
Clay County; and Empson, his brother, died in 
infancy. There was also a child by the third 
marriage, Jesse, who lives in Indiana. 

Reuben Hamilton's earliest remembrance is of 
the log cabin on Fox River. Almost his entire 
life has been spent in this locality. At the age of 
eighteen he began working as a farm hand in this 
neighborhood and since that time has made his 
own way in the world. As a companion and help- 
mate on life's journey, he chose Mrs. Orpha Jane 
(Evans) McDade, who was born and reared in this 
county. Their union was celebrated in 1848, and 
about two years after their marriage they located 
upon the farm which has since been their home. 
The land was covered with brush and timber, and 
so wild was the region that deer were frequently 
seen near the house. Mr. Hamilton built a log 
cabin and began the improvement of his place. He 
entered some land from the Government, for which 
he paid in coon skins. He now owns eighty acres of 
arable land and a good home, and is successful^' 
engaged in general farming. 

Unto Mr. and Mrs. Hamilton were born 
three children. Allen and Isaac were twins. The 
former married Eliza Bacon and died leaving three 
children. The latter wedded Eliza Rexroat and 
is a prosperous farmer of Denver Township. Me- 
linda died at the age of five years. 

For many years Mr. and Mrs. Hamilton have 






PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



267 



been members of the Christian Church, and are 
prominent in their support of all worthy interests. 
Our subject cast his first Presidential vote for 
James Buchanan and supported the Democratic 
party until 1892, when he deposited a ballot for 
Gen. Weaver. The gentleman of whom we write 
is one of Richland County's honored pioneers. 
Almost his entire life has been passed here, covering 
a period of more than sixty years. He has wit- 
nessed the entire growth and development of the 
county, has seen its wild lands transformed into 
beautiful homes and farms, its towns and villages 
spring into existence, and in the work of prog- 
ress and development he has borne his part. Flis 
history is identified with that of the county, and 
in its advancement he feels a just pride. 



OI1N F. GOOD ART, who owns and operates 
one hundred and forty-seven acres of land 
on sections 26 and 35, was born in Wabash 
County, 111., near Friendsville, January 4, 
1842, and is the only child of Gotlieb and Mary 
(Oman) Goodart, the former a native of Ger- 
many and the latter of Pennsylvania. The father 
of our subject was a weaver by trade. In 1832 he 
crossed the Atlantic to America in a sailing-vessel. 
It took three months to make the voyage, and be- 
fore they reached their destination the provisions 
were all consumed. At length they landed in 
Philadelphia. Mr. Goodart first located near 
Zanesville, Ohio. He was a poor boy, without 
money or friends, and was dependent upon his 
own exertions for a livelihood. He first provided 
for his own maintenance by working on a canal. 

In 1839 Mr. Goodart left Ohio, and went to 
Wabash County, Ind., where he worked in a castor- 
oil factory for a number of years. In 1842 he re- 
moved to Marion County, and spent about a .year 
near Salem. Going to Hancock County, 111., he 
located near the present site of Hamilton, where 
he engaged in farming until the autumn of 1848, 
when he came to Richland County, and located in 



Noble Township. Here he entered eighty acres of 
Government land on section 26, paj'ing the regular 
price of $1.25 per acre, and after the erection of a 
log cabin, 16x20 feet, began the development of a 
farm. In that home he lived until his death, 
which occurred September 5, 1866. He was laid 
to rest in Elaine Cemetery in Richland County, 
where a monument has been erected to his memory. 
He had been reared in the faith of the Lutheran 
Church, but after coming to this country joined 
the Christian Church, to which his wife also be- 
longed. In politics, he was a Republican. Mrs. 
Goodart died January 31, 1878. 

Our subject was a lad of six summers when with 
his parents he came to Richland County in 1848. 
He was reared to manhood upon the farm which 
is still his home, and in the summer months he 
aided in the labors of the field, while in the winter 
seasons he acquired an education in the district 
schools. He attended the first school taught in 
this district. The building was a log structure 
and was furnished with split-log seats. At the 
breaking out of the late war, Mr. Goodart left the 
home where his boyhood and youth had been 
passed to enter the service of his country, and be- 
came a member of Company B, Ninety-eighth Illi- 
nois Infantry, under Capt. D. D. Marquis. He was 
mustered in at Centralia, and going to the front, 
participated in the battle of Hoover's Gap, where 
he was wounded in the left thigh by a shell from 
the enemy's guns. He was first taken to the field 
hospital, but on the succeeding day was sent to 
the hospital in Murfreesboro, Tenn., where his 
wound, a very serious one, confined him from 
June 24, 1863, until February 25, 1865. On that 
date he received an honorable discharge from the 
service. 

Mr. Goodart then returned to his home in Noble 
Township. His father died the following year and 
he then toofc charge of the farm, wlfich he has 
since owned and operated. He now has one hun- 
dred and forty-seven acres of land, which is under 
a high state of cultivation, and he also raises a 
good grade of stock. 

On the 20th of April, 1865, Mr. Goodart was 
united in marriage with Miss Jane Wheeler, a 
daughter of Wasson and Annie Wheeler. Nine 



268 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



children were born of their union, but four 
are now deceased, namely: Sarah, the eldest, and 
Oscar, Mary and Sidney, who were the fourth, 
fifth and sixth in order of birth. Those still liv- 
ing are Annie, Ira, Nora, Roy and Bessie. 

As every true American citizen should do, Mr. 
Goodart takes quite an active interest in political 
affairs and keeps well informed on the issues of 
the day. He exercises his right of franchise in 
support of the Republican party, but has never been 
an aspirant for the honors of public office. Soci- 
ally, he is connected with the Grand Army of the 
Republic and is a member of the Christian Church. 
Almost his entire life has been spent in Richland 
County, and as one of its early settlers, he has 
witnessed much of its growth and development. 
During the forty-five years of his residence here he 
gained a large circle of friends and acquaintances 
and for his sterling worth is held in high regard. 



PRANK D. RICHARDSON, one of the sub- 
stantial farmers of Wade Township, Jasper 
County, residing on section 16, has been a 
resident of this community since 1869. He was 
born in Warren County, Ohio, January 10, 1838. 
His father, Nathan Richardson, was a native of 
Massachusetts, as was also his grandfather, Asa 
Richardson. The latter removed with his family 
to Ohio in 1794. He afterward started on a trip 
to New Orleans, but as no trace of him could ever 
be found, lie is supposed to have been murdered. 
Nathan Richardson went with his parents to the 
Buckeye State, but afterward returned to Massa- 
chusetts with his mother and remained with her 
until a lad' of twelve years. He then "went to Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, which at that time was a village. His 
father had purchased land in that vicinity, which 
tract is now in the heart of the city. Nathan Rich- 
ardson there grew to manhood, and in early life 
learned the carpenter's trade, at which he worked 
for some time. Removing to Lebanon he there fol- 
lowed carpentering. He married Rebecca Boothby, 



a daughter of Esquire Boothby, one of the early 
settlers of Ohio, who removed to that State from 
New Jersey. After his marriage, Mr. Richardson 
located upon a farm in Warren County, where he 
reared his family and spent the last years of his 
life. His death occurred about 1863. His wife 
survived him for a number of years and passed 
away in 1879, at the advanced age of seventy-nine 
years. 

Frank D. Richardson is the youngest of a family 
of four sons and two daughters, who grew to ma- 
ture years. Two sons and two daughters are yet 
living: Dr. N. 8., a practicing physician of Ma- 
con City, Mo.; Nancy, wife of Dr. W. G. Brant, 
of Springfield, Ohio; Martha and Frank. 

The subject of this sketch passed the days of his 
boyhood and youth in the usual manner of farmer 
lads. He acquired a good education in the public 
schools and in the National Normal at Lebanon, 
Ohio, completing a course in the latter institution 
in 1858. He then engaged in teaching school in 
Warren County, and after coming to Illinois he 
also taught for several terms. On the 1st of De- 
cember, 1860, he was united in marriage with Miss 
E. A. Weir, a native of Warren County, and a 
daughter of Philip and Sarah Weir, who are num- 
bered among the pioneer settlers of that locality. 
Two children have been born of this union: Ma- 
mie, wife of Frank S. Shup, whose sketch appears 
elsewhere in this volume; and Jessie, wife of J. C. 
Davidson, a substantial farmer of Wade Township. 

During the late war, Mr. Richardson enlisted in 
the service of his country in the spring of 1864 
as a member of the Thirteenth Ohio Cavalry. He 
joined his command at Petersburgh, Va., and re- 
mained at the front until the close of the war. 
He was never wounded, but was injured by the 
fall of his horse and permanently disabled. He 
enlisted as a private, but bravery and meritorious 
conduct won for him promotion to the rank of 
First Lieutenant. He was mustered out at Colum- 
bus, Ohio, and was discharged from the service in 
August, 1865. 

After his discharge Mr. Richardson returned to 
his home in Ohio, and there remained until the 
spring of 1869, when he came to Jasper County, 
111. He located on land which he had previously 



I 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



269 



purchased, and which has since been his home. 
He first bought three hundred acres, two hundred 
and eighty acres in the home farm and twenty 
acres of timber in another tract. He broke and 
fenced the entire amount and opened up a farm, 
which is now under a high state of cultivation and 
well improved. It is pleasantly and conveniently 
located, and is one of the valuable and desirable 
farms of the township. Mr. Richardson has since 
purchased other lands, and has improved another 
farm, and is numbered among the leading and 
progressive agriculturists of Jasper County. 

Our subject takes quite an active interest in 
politics, but has never been an aspirant for office, 
preferring to devote his time and attention to his 
business interests. He cast his first Presidential 
vote for Abraham Lincoln in 1860, and has sup- 
ported each Presidential nominee of the Republi- 
can party since that time. He is a warm advocate 
of Republican principles. Socially, he is a mem- 
ber of the Newton Grand Army Post. He was a 
faithful soldier to his country during the late war, 
and is alike true to every duty of citizenship and to 
every private trust. The home of Mr. and Mrs. 
Richardson is the abode of hospitality. They are 
highly esteemed for their many excellencies of 
character, and in social circles they hold an envi- 
able position. 



.* T :j 




IX GARNIER, of Newton, is a repre- 
sentative of one of the early families of 
/, Jasper County. He is a son of Francis 
Gamier, who was born in the department of Haute- 
Saone, France, 1802. On attaining to man's es- 
tate he was united in marriage with Miss Annettie 
Prudent. For a i. umber of years he was in the 
French army, and on retiring from the service was 
appointed to the position of Forester by virtue of 
his military service. In 1845 he left his native 
land and crossed the broad Atlantic, accompanied 
by his family, consisting of five children. They 
first settled in Holmes County, Ohio,and ten years 



later came to Jasper County, locating upon a farm 
in Wade Township, about three and a-half miles 
west of Newton. A part of the old homestead is 
still in possession of members of the family. The 
mother of our subject died in Ohio, after which 
the father was twice married. He outlived his 
third wife and passed his last years with his chil- 
dren. His death occurred at the home of his son 
Felix in Newton, December 31, 1875, in the sev- 
enty-fourth year of his age. As stated, he was a 
soldier for a number of years in the French army, 
and as such visited a number of European coun- 
tries. He was esteemed as an honest and upright 
citizen. 

The family which, as before stated, numbered 
five children, three ^sons and two daughters, has 
not been broken by death. Amelia, the eldest, is 
now the wife of Thomas Shepherd, and resides upon 
a part of the old homestead farm. Felix is the sec- 
ond in order of birth. Sebastian and John are 
twins. The former resides near Newton and the 
latter in California. Adelia "is the wife of A. J. 
Woods, of Newton, and is the youngest of the 
family. 

Our subject is a native of France but at an early 
age he left that country and came with his parents 
to America. His boyhood days were spent on the 
home farm, but he determined to follow some other 
pursuit than that of agriculture and so learned the 
trade of a blacksmith in Millersburgh, the county 
seat of Holmes County, Ohio. He had just en- 
tered manhood when he came with his father's 
family to Jasper County. For about twenty-one 
years he was engaged in blacksmithing in Newton, 
but many years ago he abandoned that occupation 
and has since been a dealer in agricultural imple- 
ments. He handles all kinds of farm machinery, 
wagons, etc., keeps on hand a large stock, and has 
built up a large trade. Fair and honorable in all 
his dealings, he has secured the confidence of his 
patrons and their high esteem. 

In 1863 Mr. Gamier was joined in wedlock with 
Miss Elizabeth Rae,who was born in Jasper County, 
and is a daughter of Nicholas Rae, one of the pio- 
neer settlers of this county. Her birth occurred 
June 1, 1844. Unto Mr. and Mrs. Gamier have 
been born eight children, three sons and five 



270 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



daughters, as follows: Eulalia, John, F"abian, Mary, 
Clara, Felix, Bessie and Annettie. 

Mr. Gamier has been a resident of Jasper County 
for the long period of thirty-eight years. He re- 
members well its appearance in those early days, 
when much of the land was a wilderness, the 
work of improvement having been scarcely be- 
gun. He has ever borne his part in the upbuilding 
of the county, has been for many years one of the 
representative business men of Newton, and has 
ever possessed the respect and esteem of his fellow- 
citizens. 



-^SI/C-^_ 




H. HAWKINS, a well-known farmer whose 
home is on section 5, Decker Township, 
Richland County, is a native of the Hoosier 
State. The place of his birth is in Gibson 
County, and the date of that event 1825. His 
father, Henry Hawkins, was born in Tennessee and 
after his marriage to Martha Hill removed to Union 
County, Ind., where in the midst of the forest 
he developed a good farm. Both he and his wife 
passed away many years ago. In religious belief 
he was a Cumberland Presbyterian and took great 
interest in church work. He exercised his right of 
franchise in support of the Democratic party. The 
Hawkins family comprised the following children: 
James J., a farmer of Missouri; Thomas, of St. Jo- 
seph, Mo.; Margaret, deceased; S. H., of this 
sketch; David, who died in Missouri; Clara, wife 
of William Montgomery, of Decker Township; 
Eliza E., whose home is in Union County, Ind.; 
and William Berry, deceased. 

Swinging the axe and cradle, attending the sub- 
scription schools, and enjoying the pleasures which 
are found on the frontier, Mr. Hawkins of this 
sketch spent his boyhood. At the age of eighteen 
years he began working as a farm hand in the 
neighborhood, and when twenty-four years of age 
he bought land and began fanning in the county 
of his nativity, where he made his home until his 
removal to Illinois. Ere leaving he was united 



in marriage with Margaret Montgomery, who died 
in Indiana, leaving five children, Jane, John, Sam- 
uel, David and Martha, all of Decker Township. 
For his second wife Mr. Hawkins wedded Mrs. 
Ansor, and after her death he was married in No- 
vember, 1888, to Mrs. Van Matre, daughter of 
John and Gertrude (Lewis) Hazelton. She was 
born in Ohio, and removed to Clay County, 111., 
with her parents, who there spent the remainder 
of their lives. In that county Miss Hazelton be- 
came the wife of Mr. Van Matre, and unto them 
was born a daughter, Jennie May, wife of Jake 
Patterson, of Clay County. Her first husband was 
killed in the army. He served for three years in 
the Ninety-eighth Illinois Infantry and lost his 
life at the battle of Selma, where so many of the 
company were killed. 

Mr. Hawkins and his wife are members of the 
United Brethren Church, contribute liberally to 
its support, and in all possible ways aid in its 
upbuilding. He takes an active interest in the 
cause of education and has done much for the ad- 
vancement of schools. He cast his first Presiden- 
tial vote for Lewis Cass and has since been a warm 
advocate of Democracy. Throughout his entire 
life he has followed the occupation of farming, and 
now owns an excellent farm, although it is a small 
one of only forty acres. It formerly comprised 
two hundred acres, but he has generously given 
the remainder to his children. His life has been a 
busy one and the success which crowns untiring 
and well-directed efforts has come to him in the 
shape of a competence, which now provides him 
with the comforts of life. 



y~>ILLIAM R. WAXLER is the owner of one 
of the finest farms of Richland County. 
It is situated on section 21, Madison Town- 
ship, and comprises three hundred and forty-four 
acres of the best land on Sugar Creek Prairie. 
Almost the entire amount is under cultivation 
and the rich and fertile fields give evidence 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



271 



of the Industry and intelligence of the owner. 
His present fine residence, one of the best coun- 
try homes in the county, was huilt in 1891. 
Upon the farm are also good barns and out- 
buildings, well-kept fences, the latest improved 
machinery and all the accessories of a model farm. 
Mr. Waxier devotes the greater part of his time to 
stock-raising, making a specialty of the breeding 
of Shorthorn cattle and Merino sheep. He is a 
man of excellent business ability, and in the line 
to which he devotes his energies he has won a well- 
merited success. 

Our subject was born near Chandlersville, Ohio, 
February 19, 1844, and is a son of Jacob A. Wax- 
ier. His parents were both natives of Muskingum 
County, Ohio, and of German descent. The father 
was a carpenter by trade. lie died in Zanesville, 
Ohio, August 15, 1861. His wife, who bore the 
maiden name of Tabitha Ayers, died April 7, 1857. 
They had a family of three children, the eldest of 
whom is William. John C. is now a grain-dealer 
of Oriska, S. Dak.; and Anna B. is the wife of L. B. 
Bacon, of Chrisman, 111. 

On the death of his mother, which occurred 
when he was a lad of twelve years, our subject left 
home and began life as a shepherd boy. After his 
father's death he became the guardian and support 
of his brother and sister. When the war broke out 
lie was anxious to aid his country, and on the lltli 
of November, 1861, enlisted in Company A, Sev- 
enty-eighth Ohio Infantry. After his first term 
had expired he re-enlisted under Capt. David C. 
Fowler, of Company F, One Hundred and Sixtieth 
Ohio National Guards, and served one hundred 
days. He afterward became a member of Com- 
pany B, Thirty -second Ohio Infantry, and re- 
mained in the service until his final discharge, 
May 11, 1865. The first battle in which he parti- 
cipated was at Ft. Donelson. This was followed 
by the engagements at Ft. Henry, Pittsburg Land- 
ing, the Shenandoah Valley campaign, and the 
battles of Monroe Junction and Martinsbnrg. Af- 
ter his last enlistment he was stationed at Colum- 
bus. Ohio. 

When the war was over Mr. Waxier resumed 
fanning in Muskingum County, Ohio. He was in 
the employ of one man between the ages of four- 



teen and twenty-two, with the exception of the 
time spent in the army. In the spring of 1868, he 
came to Richland County and settled in Madison 
Township, renting a farm until he was able to 
purchase. 

Mr. Waxier was married June 7, 1866, to Ama- 
rilla, daughter of Jesse Hendershott, of Norwich, 
Ohio. Four children have been born unto them: 
Fred, Nellie, Harry and Frank. In politics, Mr. 
Waxier is a Republican, and in religious belief is 
a Methodist. To his own industry and good man- 
agement is the success of his life due. He started 
out empty-handed but has steadily worked his 
way upward to a position of affluence. 




H. IIARDIEK is one of the most 
prominent business men of Teutopolis, and 
one of its leading citizens. He is proprietor 
of the largest general merchandise estab- 
lishment in the place and also of a large lumber 
yard. As he has a wide acquaintance and is very 
favorably known, we take pleasure in presenting 
this record of his life to our readers. He was born 
in Hanover, Germany, May 8, 1842, and is a son 
of Herman and Gertrude (Wenke) Hardiek, who 
were also natives of the same country. The mother 
died in that land. The father came to America in 
1864, and here spent the remaining years of his 
life, passing away December 6, 1877. His remains 
were interred in the Catholic Cemetery of Teut- 
opolis. 

Our subject spent the days of his boyhood and 
youth under the parental roof, remaining at home 
until eighteen years of age, when he determined 
to seek his fortune in America. He accordingly 
crossed the Atlantic and made his first location in 
Teutopolis, where he has since resided. He only 
had $5 left after paying for his passage and gave 
that to some fellow-passengers whom he thought 
worse off than himself. Thus he arrived here lit- 
erally penniless, and has worked his wa}- upward 
to a position of affluence. His first work was as a 



272 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



farm hand. For a year's service he received $60, 
and of this he sent $50 to bring his sister to 
America. After two years spent in the employ of 
others, he rented land and engaged in farming for 
himself, until he engaged in mercantile business 
at this place. 

In September, 1865, Mr. Hardiek was united in 
marriage with Miss Katie Bunker, and by their 
union were born thirteen children, seven sons and 
six daughters, of whom seven are now deceased. 
The living are, Barney, John, Katie, Joseph, Annie 
and Leo, all of whom are still with their parents. 
The family occupies an enviable position in social 
circles and the household is the abode of hospital- 
ity. 

In his political affiliations, Mr. Hardiek is a 
Democrat. Himself and family are all members of 
the German Catholic Church. As before stated, 
our subject is one of the most prominent merchants 
of Teutopolis. He possesses excellent business 
ability, is enterprising, energetic and progressive, 
and by his fair and upright dealings and his ear- 
nest desire to please his customers, he has won a 
liberal patronage. His trade has constantly in- 
creased from the beginning until it has now assumed 
extensive proportions. Mr. Hardiek may truly be 
called a self-made man, for his success is due en- 
tirely to his own efforts, having been achieved by 
good management and industry. In the affairs of 
the city he bears a prominent part and manifests a 
commendable interest in all that pertains to the 
welfare of the community and its upbuilding. 




AVID P. OCHS, who is engaged in general 
farming on section 22. Fox Township, 
Jasper County, has the honor of being a 
native of Illinois, his birth having oc- 
curred in German Township, Richland County, 
December 30, 1854. His parents, John and Mary 
(Weeler) Ochs, were both natives of Germany. 
When six years of age, the father crossed the At- 
lantic to America, landing in New York City after 



a voyage of several weeks. This was in 1829. 
He went to Ohio, where he married and lived un- 
til 1845, when he emigrated to Illinois, making the 
journey by team. Becoming a resident of Rich- 
land County, he located in German Township, 
upon land which he entered from the Government. 
To the development and improvement of that tract 
he devoted his time and attention until his death, 
which occurred in 1888. His wife had passed away 
seven years previous, dying in 1881. They had a 
family of ten children : Daniel, who died December 
7, 1892; Joseph, Mary, Henry, Frank, Ambrose, 
Theodore, David, Elizabeth and Josephine. 

We now take up the personal history of the 
gentleman whose name heads this record. Upon the 
farm where he was born he spent the days of his boy- 
hood and youth, and was early inured to the hard 
labors of farm life. In the district schools of the 
neighborhood he acquired his education. Re- 
maining with his father until twenty-two years of 
age, the latter then gave him a team of horses 
and he started out in life for himself, for two 
years renting land in Richland County. 

During that period, Mr. Ochs was united in 
marriage with Miss Matilda Shulte. Their union, 
which was celebrated in 1877, has been blessed 
with nine children, and, with the exception of one 
who died in infancy, all are yet under the paren- 
tal roof. Those living are Nancy, Martin, Eph- 
raim, Augustus, Louisa, Edward, Theodore and 
Franz; Andrew is deceased, as before stated. 

Mr. Ochs continued his farming operations in 
Richland Count}' until 1878, when he came to 
Jasper County, and purchased one hundred and 
thirty-two acres of land on section 22, Fox 
Township. This was an unimproved tract, but he 
at once began its development and cultivation, 
and now rich and fertile fields take the place of 
the once wild prairie. The boundaries of his farm he 
has also extended, until to-day it comprises one 
hundred and ninety-two acres of well-improved 
and valuable land. In addition to general farm- 
ing he carries on stock-raising. Although he has 
led a busy life, Mr. Ochs has found time to devote 
to public interests and has served as Township 
Clerk and School Director. In politics, he is a 
supporter of the Democracy. He has also been a 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



273 



Trustee in the Catholic Church, with which he 
holds membership. Whatever success he has met 
with in life is due entirely to his own efforts. He 
began life with no capital, yet steadily worked his 
way upward, and now has a comfortable compe- 
tence. 



OATHAN THOMAS is engaged in farming 
on section 5, town 6, Wade Township, Jas- 
,_, per County. He is recognized as one of 
the enterprising and thrifty farmers of the com- 
munity, and owns eighty acres of arable land, 
pleasantly situated about four miles from Newton. 
When he came into possession of it it was a wild 
and unimproved tract, but he fenced, plowed and 
planted the land, and soon had the entire amount 
under a high state of cultivation. It is furnished 
with all the accessories of a model farm, including 
a neat and substantial residence, good barns and 
other outbuildings, and an orchard, etc. The neat 
and well-kept appearance of the place indicates the 
practical and progressive spirit of the owner, and 
the improvements thereon stand as a monument to 
his enterprise. 

Mr. Thomas was born in Wayne County, Ind., 
May 5, 1826. The family is of English origin, 
and was early established in South Carolina in Col- 
onial days. The grandfather, Edward Thomas, 
was a young man during the Revolutionary War, 
and was pressed into the British service as a team- 
ster, lie afterwards became one of the pioneer 
settlers of Ohio, there reared his family, and died 
at the advanced age of eighty-five years. Elihu 
Thomas, the father of our subject, was born in 
South Carolina, and with his parents went to Ohio, 
where he grew to manhood and married Jane Van 
Neeten, a native of that State and a daughter of 
John Van Neeten, who was of Scotch descent. Elihu 
Thomas was a carpenter by trade, but after his re- 
moval with his family to Indiana about 1836, he 
followed farming for thirty years. In 1865, he 
came to Illinois and located on a farm in Jasper 



County, where he spent his last days. He died in 
March, 1889, at the age of eighty-six years. He 
was twice married, his first wife dying in this coun- 
ty in 1869, and his second wife in 1888. 

Our subject is the eldest of a family of five sons 
and four daughters. The next younger is Phineas, 
a farmer of Wayne County, Ind. Elijah is now de- 
ceased, as is also Naoma. Lewis S. served through 
the late war as a member of the Fift3 r -seventh 
Indiana Infantry; he afterwards resided in Jas- 
per County, 111., for a year, and then was engaged 
in business in Olney for a year, after which he re- 
moved to Kansas, and became a resident of Ft. 
Scott. Wesley E. was a soldier of the Fifty-sev- 
enth Indiana Infantry, and gave his life in defense 
of the Union, being killed at Chattanooga. Ruth 
is the wife of Ben F. Britton, of Jasper County. 
Nannie is the wife of G. V. Vanderhoof, of New- 
ton, whose sketch appears elsewhere in this work. 

Upon the old homestead in the county of his 
nativity, Nathan Thomas was reared to manhood. 
His education was acquired in the common schools, 
and he remained with his father until he attained 
his majority. During that time he learned the car- 
penter's trade, which he afterwards followed in 
Wayne and Grant Counties, Ind., for about seven 
years. He then settled upon a farm in the former 
county, and was engaged in its cultivation for some 
time. In 1865, he came with his family to Illi- 
nois, locating in Jasper County, where he rented 
land for a few years, and then purchased the tract 
on which he now makes his home. 

Mr. Thomas was first married in Wayne County, 
Ind., February 6, 1848, to Miss Margaret Jennings, 
a native of Wayne County, and a daughter of 
Samuel Jennings. Her death occurred in Indiana, 
September 10, 1864. Three children were born of 
that union. W. H. and James M. are both farmers 
of Jasper County, and Mary E. is the wife of Will- 
iam Payne of the same county. Mr. Thomas was 
married May 4, 1869, to Harriet E. Cowman, who 
was born in Putnam County, Ind., and was reared 
in Cumberland County, this State. Her father, 
Samuel Cowman, was one of the early settlers of Il- 
linois. Five children were born of this union: 
Samuel Elmer, who aids in the operation of the 
home farm; Charles W., attending school; Ella D. 



274 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



and Eva, twins; and a daughter, Lillie M., who ! 
died in March, 1891, at the age of seventeen years. 
For more than a quarter of a century, Mr. Thomas 
has been a resident of Jasper County, and dur- 
ing these many years he has become not only 
widely but favorably known. His life has been 
one of uprightness, well worthy of emulation. In 
politics he was in early life a Whig. In 1856 he 
voted for John C. Fremont, and supported the Re- 
publican party for some time, but is now inde- 
pendent, voting for the man whom he thinks best 
qualified to fill the office. 




DECK, who is numbered among 
the early settlers of Jasper County, and is 
one of its representative farmers, resides on 
section 27, Small wood Township. He was 
born in Oberlin, Ohio, March 30, 1840. His parents 
were John E. and Mercy M. (Mattoon) Deck. The 
father was born in the F^mpire State in 1810, and 
was a wagon-maker by trade. He was married in 
New York, and then emigrated to Ohio, where he 
remained for several years, after which he became 
a resident of Olney, 111. This was in 1846. There 
he built a wagon-shop and engaged in business in 
that line until his death, which occurred at about 
the age of fifty years. His wife was born in Wales 
in 1812. Her mother died when she was quite 
young, and Mrs. Deck went to live with an aunt, 
with whom she came to America. She died in 
Maxberg, 111., January 18, 1893. Unto this worthy 
couple were born four children, three sons and a 
daughter. 

Harrison Deck, the eldest, was about six years 
of age when his parents left the Buckeye State 
and took up their residence in Olney, 111. In its 
public schools he acquired a good education. Af- 
ter the breaking out of the late war, he responded 
to the country's call for troops, enlisting Decem- 
ber 1, 1861, as a member of Company A, Sixty- 
third Illinois Infantry, in which he served until 



July 30, 1865, when he was honorably discharged. 
He did duty as wagon-master, and was injured by 
a wagon running over his right foot as they were 
going to the battlefield of Lookout Mountain. 
Mr. Deck also had two brothers in the service, 
Henry and Samuel C. The former is now proof- 
reader in the Times office of Chicago, and the lat- 
ter is a prominent resident and the owner of a 
sawmill in New Burnside, 111. 

When the country no longer needed his service, 
Mr. Deck returned to Lawrence County, 111., where 
he operated a rented farm for a year. He then 
went to Tennessee, and was foreman of a cotton 
plantation for one year. On the expiration of 
that period, he came to Jasper County, where he 
rented land for four years, and then bought eighty 
acres of raw prairie land, which he has since trans- 
formed into a valuable farm. Its well-tilled fields 
and good improvements indicate his thrift and 
enterprise, and the place is one of the best country 
homes in this locality. 

On the 16th of June, 1860, Mr. Deck was united 
in marriage with Parthenia Ann, daughter of 
Michael and FJizabeth (Lutze) Stauffer, early set- 
tlers of Richland County, her father having built 
the second house in Olney. She was born in that 
city, June 4, 184'2. Five children have graced 
the union of our subject and his wife. Harrison 
is now deceased; Luella May resides in Marshall- 
town, Iowa; William Henry is a farmer of this 
county; Irvin F. and Myrtie Mercy are at home. 
The mother of this family died December 9, 1887, 
and on the 8th of September, 1888, Mr. Deck was 
united in marriage with Mrs. RozettaJ. Snider, who 
was born May 16, 1855, in Hendrix County, Ind., 
and is a daughter of Silas S. and Catherine (Spen- 
cer) Van Treece. The father was born in 1812, 
in Kentucky, and the mother is a native of Rush 
County, Ind. They now reside in Oklahoma. 
Mrs. Deck had four children by her former mar- 
riage: Feudal B., Florence P., Birdie and Charles 
W. A daughter has been born of the second union, 
Celia Etna, born August 5, 1890. 

Mr. Deck, in his political views, is a Republican. 
Himself and wife are members of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, and are highly respected citi- 
zens, and are widely and favorably known in this 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



275 



community. Mr. Deck has been the architect of 
hie own fortunes, and his success in life is the re- 
sult of his own well-directed efforts. 



eHRISTOPHER FRANKLIN is the owner of 
a good farm of two hundred and forty acres 
in Preston Township, Richland County. 
The tract of valuable land is now under a high 
state of cultivation and well improved. The 
owner carries on general farming and stock-rais- 
ing, and is recognized as one of the leading and 
influential citizens of this community. Born in 
Lincolnshire. England, November 5, 1824, he is a 
son of William and Betsy Franklin, who had a 
family of six children, namely: Elizabeth, James 
(deceased), William, George, Christopher and Jane. 
Our subject received quite limited educational 
privileges, but his training at farm labor was not so 
meagre. lie remained with his parents until twenty 
years of age, and then began working as a farm hand 
by the month in his native land. It was in 1849 that 
he determined to seek his fortune in America, and, 
taking passage on a sailing-vessel, lie landed in 
New York City after a voyage of six weeks and 
three days. He did not tarry long in the Eastern 
metropolis, but went at once toMiddletown, N. J., 
where for about two years he worked at what- 
ever honorable pursuit would furnish him a liveli- 
hood. At the expiration of that period, lie es- 
tablished a brick and tile factory, which he oper- 
ated until 1854. That year witnessed his removal 
to Clinton County, Ohio, where he engaged in 
farming for a year. lie then again devoted his 
energies to the manufacture of brick and tile, and 
followed that pursuit in the Buckeye State until 
1859, when he came to Jasper County, 111. After 
renting land in Fox Township for a year, he pur- 
chased land in Preston Township, Richland County, 
a part of his farm, and has since resided thereon. 
Mr. Franklin was twice married. In 1845 he was 
married to Miss Mary Peasgood, and unto them 



were born four children, but James, the second 
child, is the only one now living. William, the 
eldest, is deceased, and two died in infancy. The 
mother was called to her final rest in 1850, and in 
1852 Mr. Franklin was again married, his second 
union being with Miss Sarah Westle, by whom he 
has one child, John. 

In his political affiliations, our subject is a Dem- 
ocrat. He takes quite an active interest in politi- 
cal affairs, and keeps well informed on the issues 
of the day. He has been called upon to serve 
both as Road Commissioner and School Director. 
He is a public-spirited and progressive citizen, 
who takes an active interest in all that pertains to 
the welfare of the community. He is a self-made 
man, and for his success in life deserves no little 
credit, as he started out to make his own way in 
the world emptj'-handed. The obstacles and ditli- 
culties in his path have been overcome by a deter- 
mined will and great energy, and his possessions 
stand as a monument to his enterprise. His hopes 
of obtaining a good home in the New World have 
been realized, and he feels no regret on account of 
the step taken for his removal to the New World 
when a young man of twenty-five years. 



EDWIN HEDRICK, who resides on section 
15, Decker Township, is one of the exten- 
sive land-owners and one of the pioneer 
settlers of Richland County, dating his arrival 
from 1843. A half-century has passed since then, in 
which time he has been prominently identified 
with the history of the county, aiding in its up- 
building, and bearing his part in its development. 
His life record is as follows: He was born on the 
banks of Rough Creek, Ohio County, Ky., January 
23, 1830, and is a son of Samuel and Sarah (Lucas) 
Hedrick, the former a native of Ohio, and the lat- 
ter of South Carolina. During childhood, they 
both removed to Kentucky, where they were mar- 
ried. In 1841, they came to Illinois, locating on 



276 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



the farm which is now the home of our subject. 
Mr. Hedrick was one of Nature's noblemen, and 
was a minister of the Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church. He entered a half-section of unimproved 
land in Decker Township, and carried on a coun- 
try store, but he was not long permitted to enjoy 
his new home, his death occurring in 1845, at the 
age of forty-nine. His wife survived him some 
years, and was called to her final rest in 1876. 
Their two eldest children, Harrison L. and Bettie 
Ann, are deceased; Edwin is the next younger; 
Mason, a soldier of the late war, is a minister of 
the Presbyterian Church ill Effingham County; 
Mrs. Susan Ramsy died in this county; Sarah Em- 
ily died in Kentucky; Francis died at the age of 
twelve years; and Amanda is living in Shelby 
County, 111. 

Edwin Hedrick was thirteen years of age when 
he came to Illinois. He was early inured to hard 
labor, for after the death of his father the manage- 
ment of the farm and the cares of the family fell 
largely upon his young shoulders, but the duties at- 
tendant thereon he faithfully discharged. At 
length he attained to man's estate, and on the 
22d of June, 1857, was married to Miss Mary Ann 
Adamson, a native of Kentucky, and an early set- 
tler of this county. They have seven children: 
Elvira, wife of Jo Gallagher, of Decker Town- 
ship; Francis Marion, a wealthy farmer and trader 
of Texas; Samuel A., also a prosperous agricul- 
turist; Eva McClcll'an, wife of Frank Alvord; Mat- 
tie E., wife of Charles Henry; Emma at home; and 
Eddie R., a student in the State University of 
Bloomington, Ind., who will graduate from the 
law department in June, 1893. The children were 
all provided with good educational privileges, and 
are intelligent, respected citizens of the various 
communities in which they reside. 

Mr. Hedrick is a leader of the Democratic party 
in this locality, and of its principles he is a stanch 
advocate. He was one of the founders of the 
Union Presbyterian Church, and gives liberally to 
church and missionary work, and to every enter- 
prise calculated to uplift humanity. The poor and 
needy find in him a friend, and from his hospita- 
ble home none are turned away empty-handed. 
For thirty-five 3 ears he has been a member of the 



Masonic fraternity. The business interests which 
occupy his attention are those of farming and 
stock-raising. He began with one hundred and 
twenty acres of wild and unimproved land, but 
his possessions now aggregate six hundred acres. 
For thirty-six years our subject has engaged in 
dealing in stock. Straightforward and honorable in 
all his business relations, he has won universal confi- 
dence and gained a handsome property, which places 
him among the wealthy citizens of the county. 
His possessions stand as a monument to his well-di- 
rected efforts. 



eHRISTIAN KISTNER, who follows general 
farming on section 35, Preston Township, 
is one of the worthy citizens that Germany 
has furnished to Richland County. He was born 
in that country on the 5th of April, 1829, and is 
one of a family of nine children, whose parents, 
Joseph and Mary (Weidner) Kistner, were also 
born in the Fatherland. In order of birth, his 
brothers and sisters are as follows: Valentin, Philip, 
Adam, Celia, Lizzie, Annie and Henry J. 

No event of special importance occurred during 
the childhood days of our subject, which were 
quietly passed upon his father's farm. He ac- 
quired a good business education in the public 
schools and remained under the parental roof un- 
til he had reached the age of twenty-one years. 
Having arrived at man's estate, he began to plan 
for his future life, and determined to seek a home 
in the New World. Bidding good-bye to friends 
and Fatherland, he took passage on a sailing-ves- 
sel, which after a voyage of seven weeks dropped 
anchor in the harbor of New Orleans, and he 
landed in the Crescent City. This was in 1851. 
Mr. Kistner made his way northward to Winter- 
berg, Ind., and there began working on a farm by 
the month. He was thus employed for five years, 
and in 1856 came to Illinois, first locating in Clay 
County, where he made his home until 1871. 

During that time Mr. Kistner was married. 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



277 



It was on the 7th of April, 1858, that he was 
united in marriage with Miss Mary, daughter of 
Paine and Barbara Gumble. Seven children were 
born unto them, as follows; Philip, now deceased; 
Edward, who follows farming in Jasper County; 
Adam, a farmer of Preston Township; Caroline, 
deceased; Henry, who aids in the operation of the 
home farm; Annie, wife of Wallace Zerkel; and 
Andrew, deceased. The mother of this family 
died in 1875, and her remains were interred in the 
Catholic Cemetery of Singleton. Mr. Kistner mar- 
ried his present wife in 1 875. She was Mrs. Mar- 
garet Wagener, widow of Jacob Wagener, and a 
daughter of John and Catherine Binkoffer. 

On leaving Clay County in 1871, Mr. Kistner 
took up his residence near St. Morris, Jasper Coun- 
ty, where he lived until 1874. On the expiration 
of that period he came to Preston Township, and 
has since resided upon the farm which is now his 
home. It comprises one hundred and fifteen acres 
of land and is a well-improved and valuable tract. 
The owner carries on general farming and stock- 
raising and in his business career he has met with 
good success, gaining a comfortable competence. 
He has led a busy and useful life, yet has found 
time to devote to public interests. He always 
bears his part in the support of those enterprises 
calculated to promote the general welfare. In pol- 
itics, he has always been a supporter of the Demo- 
ratic party, and by that party was elected to the 
office of Road Supervisor. He holds membership 
with the Catholic Church. 




MANN, one of the early settlers 
of Effingham County, is now owner of the 
flour-mills of Shumway and is recognized 
as one of the leading business men of that place. 
He was born July 24, 1838, in Albisheim, Germany, 
his parents, Nicholas and Philibina (Wurster) 
Mann, being also natives of Germany. In 1855 
they left the Fatherland and crossed the Atlantic 
to America. They made a location in St. Clair 



County, 111., and there resided with their eldest 
son, who had come to this country some years pre- 
vious. The death of Mr. Mann occurred in 1862, 
and his wife passed away in 1878. Tliey had a 
family of eleven children, eight sons and three 
daughters. 

The subject of this sketch spent the days of his 
boyhood in the land of his nativity and at the age 
of eighteen accompanied his parents on their emi- 
gration to America. Here he went to work on a 
farm, receiving $ per month for his services, and 
was thus employed for three years. On the ex- 
piration of that period, he rented land and en- 
gaged in farming for himself. He remained in St. 
Clair County until 1867, when he came to Efriug- 
ham County and bought a farm of one hundred 
and sixty acres of partially improved land. The 
purchase price was $2,900, but at that time he 
could only make a small payment upon it. He is 
an energetic and industrious man, however, and as 
the result of his untiring labors his financial re- 
sources were increased and in due time he paid off 
all indebtedness. 

On the 17th of March, 1864, Mr. Mann married 
Miss Mary Lotz, who was born in St. Clair County, 
111., October 30, 1844. Twelve children graced 
their union, six sons and six daughters, but four 
died in infancy. Those yet living are Elizabeth; 
Otto, who married Lena Hohman, of this county, 
and is in partnership with his father in the milling 
business; Charles, a grain and stock-dealer in Bce- 
cher City, Effingham County; Annie, wife of 
Theodore Engle, a prosperous farmer of Effingham 
County; Lena, wife of William Metzer, one of the 
leading young merchants of Shumway; Rudolph, 
who aids his father in carrying on the business; 
Alvena, who is now employed as clerk in a store; 
and Mary, who completes the family. 

Mr. Mann continued to devote his energies to 
agricultural pursuits until 1885, when he left the 
farm and removed to Shumway. He was a suc- 
cessful farmer and added to Ins landed possessions 
a tract of forty acres. On coming to Shumway, 
Mr. Mann embarked in the grain and stock busi- 
ness, in which he is now doing a large and flourish- 
ing trade. lie owns a large flouring-mill worth 
$15,000, which is supplied with all the latest im- 



278 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



provcinents known to the business. His success in 
life has all been due to his own efforts and for it 
he deserves great credit. He may truly be called 
a self-made man, for unaided, he has steadily worked 
his way upward from a humble position until he is 
now classed qmong the substantial citizens of the 
community in which he makes his home. In poli- 
tics, lie is a Republican and has filled nearly all of 
the town offices, including those of Supervisor and 
Road Commissioner. He was also School Director 
and served as School Treasurer for nine years. 
Himself and family are members of the Lutheran 
Church. Mr. Mann is a public-spirited and pro- 
gressive citizen, and manifests a commendable in- 
terest in all that pertains to the welfare of the 
community. 




ARRISON CROUS, who resides on section 
11, South Muddy Township, Jasper Coun- 
ty, devotes his energies to farming and 
stock-raising, and is considered one of the 
leading agriculturists of this community. His life 
record is as follows: A native of Clay County, 
Ind., he was born September 9, 1843. His father, 
Martin Crous, was a native of North Carolina, 
and was of German extraction. After attaining 
to man's estate, he married Susan Whitehead, and 
unto them were born fifteen children. With one 
exception all grew to mature years. They were 
Winston, Lina, William (who was a member of 
Company A, Forty-third Indiana Infantry, and 
died at Helena, Ark., in 1862, from disease con- 
tracted in the service) Frankie, Eli, Calvin, An- 
drew, Wade, Stephen, Henry (who was for several 
months held as a prisoner during the late war and 
died in Libby Prison in 1863), Benjamin, Harrison, 
Frederick and Susa'n. Of the ten sons of this 
family, nine were numbered among the boys in 
blue of the late war, and Winston and William 
were also in the Mexican War. 

Under the parental roof, Harrison Crous grew 
to manhood. In his youth he attended the sub- 



scription schools to a limited extent, but has 
acquired his education more largely through ex- 
perience, reading and observation. When" the late 
war broke out, ficed by patriotic impulses and a 
desire to aid. his country in her hour of peril, he 
enlisted August 20, 1861, although only seventeen 
years of age, and was assigned to Company A, 
Forty-third Indiana Infantry. He saw much hard 
service, and participated in the battles of New 
Madrid, Island No. 10, Riddle's Point, Ft. Pillow, 
Memphis, Ft. Charles, Ft. Pemberton, Helena, Lit 
tie Rock, Elkins' Fort, Marks' Mills and Jenkins' 
Ferry, and also many smaller engagements. He 
was captured by the enemy at Marks' Mills in 1863, 
and was held a prisoner for exactly ten months, 
being incarcerated at Camp Ford, at Tyler, Tex. 
After being exchanged in 1864, he rejoined his 
regiment and served until the close of the war. 
He was promoted to the rank of Corporal, and in 
June, 1865, received an honorable discharge in 
Indianapolis. Mr. Crous was only a boy when he 
entered the army, but he saw much hard service 
and was as faithful and true to the Old Flag as 
those of maturer years. 

Returning to his home in the Hoosier State, our 
subject rented land and there engaged in farming 
until 1868, which year witnessed his arrival in 
Jasper County, 111. The two succeeding j'ears of 
his life were passed in Smallwood Township, after 
which he removed to the farm of forty acres which 
he had first purchased on coming to the county. 

Ere coming to Illinois, Mr. Crous was married. 
On the 20th of September, 1866, he was mar- 
ried to Miss Martha J. Adda, and their union 
was blessed with the following children: Eveline; 
Solomon, who died October 4, 1870; Lydia and 
Ida, twins, who died on the 6th of April, 1871, 
and the 2d of February, 1872, respectively; 
John, who died February 12, 1874; Adam; Susie 
deceased; Margaret; Emma; William; Albert, who 
died October 15, 1890; and Ethel. 

The parents hold membership with the Method- 
ist Church, and in the community where they re- 
side are numbered among the prominent and in- 
fluential citizens. Mr. Crous is a member of the 
Grand Army of the Republic. He has held the 
office of Commissioner of Highways, and exercises 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



279 



his right of franchise in support of the Republi- 
can party, but has never been an aspirant for po- 
litical preferment. He desires rather to devote his 
time and attention to his business interests. He 
lived upon his first farm of forty acres until 1882, 
when he removed to his present home. He now 
owns eighty acres of good land on section 11, 
South Muddy Township, and is successfully en- 
gaged in general farming and stock-raising. 



J" (AMES GALLAGHER, a successful farmer 
residing on section 2, Decker Township,Rich- 
| land County, is numbered among the early 
' settlers of this locality, and with its history 

his life record is inseparably connected. He has 
here shared all the trials and hardships of frontier 
life, and during the forty-one years which have 
passed since he became a resident of this commu- 
nity, he has ever borne his part in its upbuilding 
and advancement. 

Our subject was born in County West Meath, Ire- 
land, July 25, 1827, and is a son of James Galla- 
gher, who spent his entire life in that region. The 
children of the family were Patrick and Joseph, 
both of whom died in this county; Maiy, of 
Philadelphia, Pa.; James, of this sketch; John; 
Michael, a farmer in Richland County; Elizabeth, 
who died in Ohio; and Marcella, wife of John 
Hughes, who owns the farm adjoining that of our 
subject. 

Mr. Gallagher had very limited educational ad- 
vantages in his youth. He remained on the Em- 
erald Isle until he had attained his majority, when, 
wishing to try his fortune in the New World, he 
sailed from Dublin to Liverpool and from there 
to New Orleans, where he arrived after a voyage 
of eight weeks. He was the first of the familj' to 
cross the briny deep. Going up the river to Cincin- 
nati, lie worked as a farm hand for a year and a-half 
near that city. He then drove a team in Hills- 
dale, Ohio, for six months, after which he went to 
Evansville, and spent the succeeding year in driv- 



ing spikes for the Evansville & Terra Haute 
Railroad. It was in 1852 that lie purchased eighty 
acres of land, a part of his present homestead. 
This he divided with his brother, but since locat- 
ing thereon in 1854 he has gradually extended 
his possessions as his financial resources increased 
until he now owns one hundred and seventy-eight 
acres of valuable land. There were many hard- 
ships to be met, many difficulties to be overcome, but 
he steadily toiled on and he now has a handsome 
property. 

In 1856, Mr. Gallagher married Saralda Garret, 
a native of Kentucky. Her parents were pioneers 
of this countj' and still live with their daughter. 
Unto them have been born the following children: 
Masella, wife of John Burton, a merchant of Bon - 
pas Township; John, who is engaged in farming 
on section 12, Decker Township; Levi, a successful 
agriculturist of Indiana; Michael and Henry, who 
follow farming in Decker Township; Jo, James and 
Marion at home. 

The Democratic party finds in Mr. Gallagher a 
stanch supporter, he having supported its nomi- 
nees since casting his first Presidential vote for 
Franklin Pierce in 1852. He has served as Town- 
ship Commissioner for six years, proving a capable 
and efficient officer. The community recognizes in 
him a valued citizen andnn honored pioneer. He 
has seen the wild lands of the county transformed 
into good homes and farms, its hamlets grow into 
thriving towns, and the work of civilization and 
progress carried forward until the country of to- 
day bears little resemblance to that of fort}' years 
ago. 




H. RUNYON, who is engaged in 
farming on section 27, Decker Township, 
, has long been a resident of Richland 
County, and is numbered among its early 
settlers. His birth occurred in Highland County, 
Ohio, February 26, 1840. The family is of Irish 
descent, having been founded in America by the 
great-grandfather of our subject. His father, 



280 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



Samuel Runyon, was born in Rockingham County, 
Va., in 1807, and there remained until twenty - 
lliree years of age. He was an excellent student 
and acquired a good English education. In 1830 
he emigrated to Highland County, Ohio, where he 
purchased a tract of timberland of one hundred 
and twenty acres, and began the development of 
a farm, whereon he made his home until his re- 
moval to this county in 1853. Here he purchased 
six hundred acres of land, comprising the farm 
which is now the home of our subject. It was all 
wild prairie, not a furrow having been turned or 
an improvement made. He had started out in 
the world a poor boy, but ere his death had be- 
come a man of considerable property. He passed 
awav in 1855, at the age of forty-five years. His 
wife, who bore the maiden name of Elizabeth 
Nave, died in 1886, at the age of seventy-two. 

In the Ruuyon family were ten children. Su- 
sanna, born in Virginia, died in Richland County. 
Josiah and Uriah, twins, were born in Ohio. The 
latter is now deceased, and the former is a farmer 
of Mt. Erie, 111. George W. is living in Wa3'ne 
County, 111.; Reuben is the next younger; Lydia 
M. is the wife of John Totten, of Decker Town- 
ship; Phoebe A. is the wife of John Spain; Samuel 
S., who served in the Thirty-sixth Illinois In- 
fantry, is a farmer of this locality; James K. Polk, 
who enlisted at the age of seventeen and served 
for three years in the late war, is now an agri- 
culturist of Wayne County. The parents of this 
family were members of the Lutheran Church and 
were highly-respected citizens. 

In his native State, Mr. Runyon, our subject, 
attended the public schools and the academy of 
Hillsboro. At the age of thirteen he came with 
his parents to Illinois, driving a team. He aided 
in the development of the home farm until his 
father's death, which occurred when he was only 
fifueen years of age. A tract of wild land then 
came to him as his share of the estate. Before he 
was twenty he had planted a good orchard upon 
it, the first on the prairie, and to fruit-growing he 
devoted his energies during the summer months, 
while in the winter season he taught school in this 
neighborhood for fourteen years. In addition 
he also discharged his official duties. When a 



young man of twenty-one he was elected Assessor 
and has held that office for sixteen terms. He also 
served two terms as Supervisor, and in 1880 was 
Census Enumerator. Since attaining to man's es- 
tate he has been prominent in public and official 
life, and the community recognizes in him one of 
its most valued citizens. He still owns ninety-six 
acres of the home farm, upon which is a five-acre 
peach orchard, and he has the place under a high 
state of cultivation and improvement. 

On the 14th of July, 1867, Mr. Runyon married 
Sarah A. Jonachan, a native of Highland County, 
Ohio, and unto them have been born three children. 
Jason S., born June 5, 1869, aids his father in the 
operation of the home farm; Alice is the wife of 
John Collins, a farmer of this township; Albert R., 
born in 1882, completes the family. On matters 
of national importance, Mr. Runyon supports the 
Democratic party, but is independent in local pol- 
itics. His wife is a member of the United Breth- 
ren Church. He manifested his loyalty to his 
country during the late war by offering his ser- 
vices to the Government, but as the quota was 
filled the company which he joined was disbanded. 
He is a man of sterling worth and strict integrity, 
and his honorable, upright life has gained for him 
high regard. 



AMES C. IRELAND, one of the representa- 
tive farmers and early settlers of Willow 
Hill Township, Jasper County, residing on 
section 7, was born in Decatur County, Ind., 
and was the fourth child in a family of nine chil- 
dren, one son and eight daughters. The parents 
were Richard and Louisiana (Callahan) Ireland. 
The father was born in Kentucky, March 25, 1802, 
and remained with his parents on the old home 
farm in that State until his marriage, which was 
celebrated October 28, 1824. Soon afterward he 
emigrated with his young wife to Decatur County, 
Ind., and entered land from the Government. 
The tract was in the midst of heavy timber. Soon, 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



283 



however, the woodman's axe awakened the echoes 
and when the trees were hewed down, he plowed 
and planted his land, making that farm his home 
until 1849, in which year he sold out and came to 
Jasper Count}-, 111. Here he again entered Gov- 
ernment land, securing about one thousand acres, 
and to its improvement he devoted his energies 
until his death. lie passed away April 9, 1873. 
His wife, who was born March 30, 1805, and has 
therefore reached the advanced age of eighty- 
eight years, now makes her home with our sub- 
ject. 

James C. Ireland was about seventeen years of 
age when he came to this county with his parents. 
Up to that date he had spent his entire life upon 
his father's farm in Indiana, and had attended the 
country schools, which afforded him his educa- 
tional privileges. With his father he came to Ill- 
inois and remained under the parental roof until 
he had arrived at man's estate, when he left home 
to make his own way in the world. His father 
gave him one hundred and twenty acres of laud, 
upon which he located and which he has since 
made his home. At that time the country was but 
sparsely settled. The nearest railroad was at 
Terre Haute, Ind. All kinds of wild game were 
plentiful, including deer and such small game as 
turkeys, ducks, etc. Mr. Ireland has borne the 
experiences of frontier life and has witnessed al- 
most the entire development of the county. 

On the 6th of April, 1854, our subject married 
Miss Nancy Neal, who was born in Shelby County, 
Ind., February 5, 1836, and was a daughter of 
Thomas and Eliza (Wilson) Neal. Her father was 
born in Kentucky, November 20, 1803, was of 
English extraction and died in Jasper County, 
January 3, 1882. Her mother, whose birth occur- 
red in Pennsylvania, November 24, 1808, and who 
is of Irish lineage, is still living in Indiana. Mrs. 
Ireland came to this county with her parents when 
a maiden of fifteen years, and has since here re- 
sided. 

Eleven children were born to our subject and 
his wife, two sons and nine daughters, of whom 
nine are yet living: Mary E., wife of Milton 
Sims, whose sketch appears elsewhere in this 
work; Martha J., wife of L. B. Smith, a farmer of 

13 



Crawford County, 111.; Margera, who died in in- 
fanc}'; Eliza; Anna, who is engaged in teaching 
school; Sarah, wife of Charles Dodd, a prosperous 
farmer of Jasper County; George P., who operates 
the home farm; Alice; Cora; and Richard T. The 
children have all received good educational ad- 
vantages and are thus fitted for the practical 
duties of life. 

In his social relations, Mr. Ireland is a Mason 
and Odd Fellow, holding membership with Cooper 
Lodge No. 489, A. F. & A. M., of Willow Hill, and 
Hunt City Lodge No. 610, I. O. O. F., of Hunt 
City. He exercises his right of franchise in sup- 
port of the Democratic party. He is a successful 
farmer and now owns and operates two hundred 
acres of rich land, pleasantly located about two 
miles south of Willow Hill. The Ireland house- 
hold is noted for its hospitality, and the members 
of the family hold an enviable position in social 
circles. 




ENRY LATHROP, who carries on farming 
on section 14, German Township, is one of 
the oldest and most highly respected citi- 
zens of Richland County, dating his resi- 
dence here from 1839. A native of the Green 
Mountain State, he was born in Franklin County, 
May 14, 1817, and at this writing is seventy-six 
years of age. His father, Russell Lathrop, was born 
in Fairfax, Franklin County, Vt., and the grand- 
father, Elkanah Lathrop, was a native of Connect- 
icut, in which State he lived when the British and 
Tories burned New London. This atrocious act 
stirred him deeply and with many others he aided 
in driving the enemy out of the neighborhood. 
The Lathrop family, which is of English origin, 
was established in the Bay State in 1639, and Rev. 
John Lathrop founded the town of Barnstable, 
Mass. 

Russell Lathrop grew to manhood in Franklin 
County, Vt., and in Canada, just across the line 
from his Vermont home. After attaining to man's 



284 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD 



estate, lie returned to Franklin County, and en- 
tered the United States service for the AVar of 
1812. On the 12th of January, 1815, after that 
struggle was at an end, he wedded Cynthia Powell, 
a native of Hartford, Vt., and a daughter of Row- 
land and Mary (Janes) Powell, who were born in 
Massachusetts. The latter was a descendant of 
Gov. Bradford, one of the first Governors of the 
Bay State. After his marriage, Russell Lathrop 
farmed for a number of years in Franklin County, 
Vt., and then bought land just across the line in 
Canada, which he operated for a few years. In 
June, 1837, he removed to Decatur County, Ind., 
joining a brother who had lived there for some 
time. lie passed four years in that locality, and in 
1841 came to Richland County, 111., where he en- 
tered one hundred and sixty acres of land, and 
after the Mexican War he obtained forty acres on 
a land warrant, which he received for his services 
in the War of 1812. He spent the last years of 
his life with our subject, and died September 3, 
1872, at the advanced age of seventy-nine years. 
He was laid to rest by the side of his wife in Prai- 
rieton Cemetery, of Lawrence County, where a 
substantial monument has been erected to their 
memory. 

The subject of this sketch was a young man of 
twenty years when, with his parents, he removed 
to Decatur County, Ind. Soon after he went to work 
for a cousin, Augustus Lathrop, who was carrying 
on an extensive business as a merchant in Cross 
Plains,Ripley County, and who also operated a card- 
ing-mill and an oilmill. Our subject was employed 
in the two mills at first and later worked in a 
store. In 1839, he boughta small mare and saddle 
and started Westward, crossing the Wabash River 
at Vincennes, on the 3d of October. At length he 
reached Richland County, then Lawrence County, 
and during the following winter engaged in 
teaching a subscription school, being one of the 
pioneer teachers of the county. In the spring of 
1840, he returned to Indiana, and joined his fa- 
ther, who had rented the carding-machine, and 
together they operated it through the summer. 

In the following September, they brought the 
machine to Lawrence County, 111., and there did 
business for two years, after which our subject 



traded it for an eighty-acre farm in Richland 
County, which he still owns. In the winter of 1840 
and 1841, he again engaged in teaching, and on 
the 10th of September, 1844, located upon his farm, 
which he began to clear and develop. The lady 
who presided over his home was in her maiden- 
hood Rachel Laws. She was born in Lawrence 
County, in 1824, and is a daughter of William 
Laws, an early settler of that county of 1820. Their 
marriage was celebrated September 1, 1844, and 
they began their domestic life upon the farm. 
During the first years they experienced many of 
the hardships and privations of frontier life. Mr. 
Lathrop had a horse but no wagon. His tools and 
machinery were few. He paid for an ox-team in 
carpenter work, and thus broke his land, which in 
course of time began to yield abundant harvests. 
At length he was enabled to purchase a fort3 r -acre 
tract adjoining that which he first bought. He also 
entered one hundred and sixty acres additional. 
His well-directed efforts soon brought him a hand- 
some competency, and he made judicious invest- 
ments of his capital, until at one time he owned 
eleven hundred acres of valuable land. He has 
since given to each of his live sons a farm of one 
hundred and sixty acres, and yet retains possession 
of twohundred and ninety-three acres. The log cab- 
in has been replaced by a commodious and pleasant 
residence, which is supplemented by good barnsaud 
outbuildings. There is also a fine orchard, and all 
these are surrounded by rich and fertile fields. 

Mi. and Mrs. Lathi-op had a family of nine 
children who grew to mature years. Samantha is 
the wife of David M. Roney, a substantial farmer 
of German Township; Ann is the wife of James K. 
Roney, of German Township; Elvira is the widow 
of John H. Fee, of Lawrence County; Albert is one 
of the prominent and wealthy farmers of Lawrence 
County, where he owns five hundred acres of land; 
Charles is a farmer of German Township; George 
became a substantial farmer and met his death by 
accident July 6, 1887; Henry and Gilbert are both 
agriculturists of Richland County; and Martha is 
the wife of Aden Cotterell. of German Township. 
They also lost a daughter, Mary, who died in 1857, 
aged twenty months. 

On attaining his majority, Mr. Lathrop identi- 






PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



fied himself with the Whig party. On its dissolu- 
tion, he joined the ranks of the new Republican 
party, and lias since fought under its banner. Al- 
though he never solicited office, he has been 
honored with several positions of public trust. 
He served for five years as Supervisor of German 
Township, was a member of the County Board of 
Supervisors, and a member of the School Board. 
For over half a century, Mr. Lathrop has resided 
in Richland County, and has been a witness of its 
progress and upbuilding. In its development and 
advancement he has ever borne his part, and the 
community recognizes in him a valued citizen. His 
business dealings have been characterized by 
strict honor. When he came to the county, Octo- 
ber 3, 1839, he was the owner of a horse only. 
Certainly great credit is due him for the signal 
success that has crowned his efforts, as he has 
worked his way upward, overcoming the difficulties 
in his path and the hardships of pioneer life, to a 
position of wealth and affluence. 




BHOMAS MATTHEWS, one of the repre- 
sentative farmers of Smallwood Townsjiip, 
Jasper County, residing on section 33, 
claims Indiana as the State of his nativity, his 
birth having occurred in Fountain County, Feb- 
ruary 17, 1834. His father was John Matthews, 
and his mother bore the maiden name of Vina 
Clawson. The former was a native of Virginia, 
and in an early day went with his parents to Ohio, 
lie became a carpenter and cabinet-maker and fol- 
lowed those trades throughout the greater part of 
his life, in connection with which he also carried 
on farming. His death occurred in Warren County, 
Ind., April 8, 1850, and his wife, who was a native 
of New York, died in Indiana in 1845. On the 
paternal side our subject is of German descent, 
and on the maternal side is of Irish lineage. The 
Matthews family numbered eight, children, five 
sons and three daughters, of whom our subject is 



the fourth in order of birth. Jacob and Timothy 
are now deceased; Mary Ann, widow of John 
Linebaugh, resides in Golden, Colo.; Tobias L. 
died in the service of his country during the late 
war; Abraham is a law and loan agent of Michi- 
gan ; Rachel Jane is the wife of Sidney Gebhard, 
of Aurora, Neb.; and Sarah Elizabeth is the wife 
of Charles Peterson, of Vermilion County, 111. 

Mr. Matthews whose name heads this record 
began life for himself at the tender age of twelve 
years, when he was bound out to George Poe, a 
farmer of Warren County, Ind., with whom he re- 
mained until eighteen years of age. He then 
worked on the farm by the month for about a 
year, after which he began farming in his own in- 
terest, renting land in the Hoosier State until 1866. 
He then came to Jasper County and purchased the 
farm upon which he has since resided. He now 
owns and operates two hundred acres of valuable 
land, and the well-tilled fields and neat appear- 
ance of his place indicate the practical and pro- 
gressive spirit of the owner, while the many im- 
provements stand as monuments to his thrift and 
enterprise. 

On the 22d of November, 1856, Mr. Matthews 
was united in marriage with Miss Elizabeth J. 
Jones, who was born January 7, 1837, in Indiana. 
Four children graced this union, but Rachel A., 
the first-born, died when only about three years 
of age; Melissa E. is the wife of Jerry Skelton, a 
clerk in a grocery store in Newton, 111.; Artemus 
L. is one of the leading and prosperous farmers of 
Jasper County. He now devotes his attention to 
fruit-growing and has a fine orchard of forty acres. 
He is a highly-educated young man and was ad- 
mitted to the Bar to practice law, but as his father 
wished him to look after the farm he returned 
home and is now managing that property. Ida 
May, the youngest member of the Matthews fam- 
ily, is now the wife of Dr. Walter Me Taggart, of 
Bogota, 111. 

Mr. Matthews, his wife and daughters are all 
members of the Christian Church, and the family 
is one of prominence in the community, its mem- 
bers ranking high in social circles where true 
worth and ability are received as the passports 
into good society. Mr. Matthews is a stanch tern- 



286 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



perance man and votes with the Prohibition party. 
He has served as Road Commissioner in his town- 
ship for two terms. Socially, he is a member of 
the Ancient Order of United Workmen of Newton. 
His honorable career is well worthy of emulation 
and his success in business life should encourage 
young men who, like himself, have to start out 
empty-handed. 



<^ j^ILLIAM W. SPARR, deceased, was born in 
Monroe County, W. Va., January 26, 1825, 
and was of German descent. His father. 
G. W. Sparr, was a native of Virginia and married 
Sarah Wickline, by whom he had live children. 
Our subject was born and reared on his father's 
farm, and in the public schools he acquired a good 
business education. With his parents he remained 
until twenty years of age, when he began to earn 
his own livelihood by working as a farm hand. 
After a short time, however, he secured employ- 
ment in a gristmill and to that work devoted his 
energies for a number of years. He became a car- 
penter and millwright by trade. 

In 1847, Mr. Sparr emigrated to Ohio, where he 
made his home for the fifteen succeeding years. It 
was in 1862 that he came to Illinois and took up 
his residence in Noble Township, Richland County, 
purchasing the farm now occupied by his family. 
It comprised one hundred and ten acres and he at 
once began its development and improvement. 
Within the boundaries of the farm there are now 
three hundred and ten acres of highly cultivated 
and valuable land. 

On the oth of November, 1850, Mr. Sparr was 
united in marriage with Miss Eliza J. Adams, who 
was born near Wheeling, W. Va., February 25, 
1831, and is a daughter of Martin and Phoebe 
(Taylor) Adams. Her father was born in Virginia 
and was of German descent. In the Adams fam- 
ily there were twelve children. There were fifteen 
children born unto our subject and his wife, 



namely: Lizzie M. and Olivia J., both deceased; 
George, Phoebe, Martin A., Arthur W., Seward (de- 
ceased), Robert N.. John C., Sarah, Mary A., Lillie 
J. and Luella M., both deceased, and two who died 
in infancy. The family is a prominent one in this 
locality and its members rank high in social cir- 
cles. Mr. Sparr always took an active interest in 
political affairs and kept himself well informed on 
the issues of the day. However, he never sought 
or desired the honors or emoluments of public 
office. He voted with the Republican party and 
did all in his power to upbuild it and insure its 
success. With the Methodist Episcopal Church he 
held membership. He was an industrious and en- 
terprising man, and the comfortable properly 
which he left to his family had all been acquired 
through his own well-directed efforts. In the 
community where he lived he was held in high re- 
gard, for he was a man of sterling worth and pos- 
sessed many excellencies of character. His death 
occurred May 17, 1884, and his remains were in- 
terred in Wesley Cemetery, in Denver Township. 
In his death the community lost one of its best 
and most highly-respected citizens. 



OHN M. OAKES, one of the enterprising 
and well-to-do farmers of German Town- 
ship, Richland County, residing on section 
14, is a native of Ohio, his birth having 
occurred in Stark County, on the 14th of March, 
1840. His father, Paulus Oakes, was a native of 
German3 T ,and bidding good-bye to the Fatherland 
crossed the broad ocean to the United States with 
his parents when a youth of sixteen years. He 
became one of the early settlers of Stark County, 
and there met and married Elizabeth Renier, a 
native of German}', who came to this country 
when a maiden of fourteen. After his marriage, 
Mr. Oakes located upon a farm which he hewed 
out in the midst of the forest, and upon the old 
homestead he is still living, a hale and hearty old 
gentleman of eighty years. He lost hia wife 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD 



287 



about 1870. The family of that worthy couple 
numbered eight children, five sons and three 
daughters, all of whom grew to manhood and 
womanhood. 

The subject of this sketch is the eldest child. No 
event of special importance occurred during his 
youth, which was quietly passed on the old home- 
stead farm and in attendance at the district 
schools, where lie acquired a good English educa- 
tion. He remained at home until after he had 
arrived at man's estate, and then to earn his live- 
lihood began working as a farm hand in the neigh- 
borhood. He was thus employed for about five 
years. In 1871, he secured as a companion and 
helpmate on life's journey Miss Rosina Weiler, a 
native of Ohio, and a daughter of Ignatius Weiler. 
Their union was celebrated in Stark County, and 
they began their domestic life upon a farm be- 
longing to his father. The year 1872 witnessed 
their arrival in Richland County, where Mr. Oakes 
purchased a farm of one hundred acres in German 
Township. Upon it was a house and barn, and it 
was otherwise improved. After eighteen years he 
added to this another tract of sixty-five acres, and 
now owns one hundred and sixty-five acres of rich 
land, the greater part of which is under a high 
state of cultivation. He has set out a good or- 
chard upon it, rebuilt the barn and built a granary. 

In January, 1884, Mrs. Oakes was called to her 
final home. Six children were born of that union: 
Mary, Amelia, Lawrence (who died October 28, 
1892, at the age of seventeen years), Matilda, 
Alois and Siloina. In this county, on the 9th of 
May, 1885, Mr. Oakes was again married, his sec- 
ond union being with Miss Mary, daughter of 
Andrew Halm, a pioneer settler of Richland 
County. They had one child, who died at the age 
of three months. 

Mr. Oakes and his family are all members of 
St. Joseph's Catholic Church. Since the 3'ears of 
his manhood, he has won by his labor, enterprise 
and well-directed efforts a handsome competence 
that places him among the substantial citizens 
of this locality. In politics, he is a stalwart Dem- 
ocrat, and with one exception has supported each 
Presidential nominee of the party since casting 
his first vote for Gen. George B. McClellan in 



1864. He was elected Commissioner of Highways 
in August, 1881, and served in that ottice for 
twelve consecutive years, being the present incum- 
bent. His long-continued service well indicates 
his faithfulness and fidelity to duty, traits which 
have characterized his entire life in all of its rela- 
tions, whether public or private. 




lERY REV. HUGOLINE STORFF, O. S. F., 
Rector of St. Joseph's Diocesan College of 
Teutopolis, is a native of Elberfeld, Rhen- 
ish Prussia. The father was born on the 18th 
of March, 1859, and was parity educated in his 
native country, where he attended the gymnasium 
and principal college of his native cit}' for nearly 
five years. He began his classical course at eleven 
years of age, and at fifteen entered the Franciscan 
Order. In 1875, he crossed the Atlantic and came 
direct to the Convent of St. Francis in Teutop- 
olis, where he pursued his classical studies for a 
year and a-half, after which he took a two-years 
course in philosophy at Quincy, 111., and for three 
years studied theology in St. Louis. At the latter 
place he was ordained priest in 1882, by the Most 
Rev. Archbishop Ryan. In the fall of that year 
he was appointed to a professorship in the classical 
department in St. Joseph's Diocesan College at 
Teutopolis. After he had filled that position for 
six years, he was appointed Vice-Rector of the col- 
lege, but still continued to teach as before. 

On the 28th of December, 1892, Rev. Mr. Storff 
was promoted and chosen Rector of the institution, 
which position he now holds. He has been con- 
nected with the college as teacher for eleven years, 
and has won distinction for his ability and fidelity 
in the discharge of duty. 

The Rector possesses those peculiar qualifica- 
tions thorough culture, experience, executive 
ability and patience that fit him for the arduous 
and responsible duties of his position. Under his 
able management the college is enjoying a season 
of prosperity and progress that adds to its alrendy 



288 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



well-established reputation. He is assisted by an 
able corps of teachers, and by their mutual efforts 
a high standard of mental, moral and physical 
development is attained by a large number of 
students. 









m 



OHN N. HORNER, senior member of the 
firm of Homer Brothers' Elevator Company, 
of Olney, President of the Olney Bank and 
President of the Olney Paving Brick and 
Tile Company, is one of Olney 's most enterpris- 
ing and successful business men. He was born in 
Gettysburg, Darke County, Ohio, March 4, 1841, 
and is the eldest son of George W. and Sarah 
(Reck) Horner. His parents were also natives of 
the Buckeye State, and his grandparents on both 
sides were from Pennsylvania. 

John N. Horner was reared and educated in his 
native town, and in April, 1864, enlisted in the 
late war for the Union as a member of Company 
C, One Hundred and Fifty-second Ohio Infantry, 
for one hundred days' service. He was with his 
regiment in active service in the Shenandoah Val- 
ley during the hot campaign of 1864. The regi- 
ment was guarding Gen. Hunter's army supply 
trains, and in discharge of that duty was involved 
in several sharp skirmishes. Mr. Horner served 
for nearly five months, and was mustered out in 
August following his enlistment. On his return 
from the army, he was engaged in teaching school 
in Ohio for a time, and later engaged in merchan- 
dising in his native town and in the grain trade 
in company with his brothers David and George W. 

In September, 1868, our subject was united in 
marriage with Miss Mary E. Rush, a daughter of 
Harmon II. Rush, who is now living in Olney at 
the age of eighty-four years. Mrs. Horner is a 
native of Ohio. By .the union of our subject and 
his wife have been born two children, sons: John 
J., born November 5, 1878; and Paul Linn, April 
8, 1885. 

In April, 1872, Mr. Horner came to Olney, Rich- 



land County, 111., and engaged in the grain trade. 
The year following he was joined by his brother 
David, and a year later by another brother, George 
W. These two, with himself, comprised the firm 
of Horner Brothers. In 1876 they erected the 
elevator which bears their name, and which they 
have since operated. This elevator is the most 
complete in its appointments of any in southern 
Illinois. It was built at a cost of $10,000, and has 
a storage capacity of seventy-five thousand bush- 
els, being the largest in Olney. The Horner Broth- 
ers are extensive dealers in grain, and for several 
years, while crops were the best, their annual ship- 
ments reached as high as one thousand carloads, 
or about seven hundred and eighty-three thousand 
bushels, largely wheat. At the present time the 
amount shipped ranges from five hundred to six 
hundred carloads annually. 

In February, 1882, in company with Henry 
Spring and others, Mr. Horner was instrumental 
in founding the Olney National Bank, now the pri- 
vate bank of Olney, of which he is President. It 
is one of the leading financial institutions in Rich- 
land County, and does a good business. In 1891 
Mr. Horner organized the Oluey Paving Brick and 
Tile Company, of which he has since been Presi- 
dent. This is one of the important industries of 
the city. From twenty-five to thirty men are em- 
ployed, and the output of the works amounts to 
three million bricks and tile. His brother David 
is interested with him in this enterprise. Their 
products have won favor among the people, and 
the demand has increased until it has been deter- 
mined to enlarge the capacity of the works the 
coining season. This company not only manu- 
factures, but takes extensive contracts for laying, 
brick, and they ship large quantities of brick and 
tile to neighboring counties. 

Mr. Horner is a member of Eli Bowyer Post No. 
92, G. A. R. He and his family are members of 
the Presbyterian Church. In politics, he is a Re- 
publican, and is serving his third year as Alder- 
man from the First Ward. In municipal affairs 
he is active and influential. 

On the 17th of January, 1887, George W. Hor- 
ner died, since which time his widow represents 
the estate of her husband in the firm of Horner 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



289 



Brothers. The Homer Brothers have been in busi- 
ness together almost continually since reaching 
manhood, and have always worked together in 
harmony and with fair success. They have always 
been known as upright and enterprising business 
men, public-spirited, and as such cheerfully sup- 
porting necessary public improvements, educational 
and religious interests. Their business enterprises 
have been such as to benefit the community wherein 
they reside, as well as themselves, and have been 
of importance, not only to the city of Olney, but 
to Richland County. 




ON. ELBERT ROWLAND, M. D. has won 
a prominent place in political, professional 
and social circles of Richland Country. He 
now resides in Olnej-, and is a representa- 
tive of one of its honored pioneer families. He was 
born in New York City, April 23, 1832, and is a 
son of Townsend and Eliza (Sands) Rowland. 
With liis father he came to Illinois in November, 
1840, being then a lad of only eight summers. 
The family settled in what is now Bon pas Town- 
ship, where the father entered land from the Gov- 
ernment and began the development of a farm. 

Elbert was educated in a log-cabin school, and 
was reared to manhood amid the wild scenes of 
frontier life. He remained at home with his par- 
ents until seventeen years of age, and then began 
clerking in a grocery store. He then traveled for 
a year and a-half, after which he entered upon the 
study of medicine, completing his education in that 
line after a two-years course in New York. He 
was graduated in the Class of '58 from the Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons, after which he 
opened an office and practiced in his native city 
until the breaking out of the war. When the Un- 
ion was in danger and his country needed bis ser- 
vices, he responded to the call for aid, in August, 
1862, and became First Assistant Surgeon of the 
One Hundred and Twenty-seventh New York In- 
fantry. He was Acting-Surgeon of the regiment 



most of the time. In June, 1864, he was attached 
to the Army of the Potomac, with which he served 
until the close of the war. 

When the war was over Dr. Rowland came to 
Illinois, locating in Noble, Richland Count} 7 , where 
he engaged in the practice of his profession for 
fifteen years. He then came to Olney, where lie 
has since resided. He belongs to the Centennial 
Medical Society, and to the County Medical Soci- 
ety, of which he was Chairman twenty-one years. 
The Doctor ranks high in his profession, and his 
skill and ability are acknowledged by a large and 
constantly increasing practice. 

In his political affiliations the Doctor is a Dem- 
ocrat. He served as a member of the Thirty -third 
General Assembly of Illinois, to which he was 
elected by a majority of twelve hundred and 
sixty-two. He received the unanimous vote of 
the convention to which he was nominated, and 
was then elected by a very flattering majority, 
as has been seen. His great personal popularity 
and the confidence and high regard reposed in him 
by his fellow-citizens are shown by the fact that 
this was the first time the District ever went so 
strongly Democratic. 

On the 23d of January, 1862, in Bridgeport, 
Conn., Dr. Rowland married Miss Kate Mallary, 
only daughter of Sherman Mallary, a real-estate 
dealer of New York. The lady is a native of Stan- 
ford County, Conn. Five children have been born 
of their union: Kate, wife of A. B. Roberts, a law- 
yer of St. Paul, Minn.; Theresa, wife of E. E. Ed- 
wards, of Evanston, 111.; Charles T., a druggist; 
Edna and Elbert. The mother of this family was 
called to her final rest June 7, 1891. She was a 
member of the Swedenborgian Church, to which 
the Doctor and his daughter also belong. 

Dr. Rowland is a public-spirited and progressive 
citizen, and takes an active interest in all that per- 
tains to the welfare of the community and its up- 
building. The cause of education finds in him a 
warm friend, and for twenty-one 3'ears he served in 
an efficient manner as School Director. He is now 
serving as Health Officer, a position lie has filled 
for twelve years. The Doctor was the organizer of 
the United States Board of Pension Examiners, 
and was its President for three years. Socially he 



290 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



is a member of Olney Lodge No. 140, A. F. & A. 
M.; Richland Chapter No. 38, R. A. M.; and the 
Council. He also holds membership with the 
Grand Army of the Republic. He has been en- 
gaged iu the active practice of his profession in 
this count3' since September, 1864, and lias worked 
his way steadily upward until he now holds a rank 
among his professional brethren of which he may 
well be proud. 




ROBERT S. TEDFORD is a well-known far- 
mer of Preston Township, Richland 
County, living on section 29. The record 
of his life is as follows: Fie was born on 
the 14th of February, 1847, in Brent Count}-, 
Tenn., and is a son of Robert and Rebecca (Mc- 
Clery) Tedford, who were also natives of the same 
State. The family is of Irish extraction. In 
1853, when our subject was six years of age, the 
parents left their home in the South and took up 
their residence in Crawford County, 111. Of their 
ten children, Elizabeth, Ann, Hannah, Nancy and 
Alexander are now deceased. Those still living 
are Margaret, Sarah, Elizabeth, Robert S. and 
John. 

The days of his boyhood and youth Robert S. 
Tedford spent almost entirely in Crawford 
County, wliere he was early inured to the labors of 
farm life. Although he attended school to a lim- 
ited extent, he is mostly self educated, having ac- 
quired a good practical knowledge through ex- 
perience, reading and observation. Under the pa- 
rental roof he remained until twenty-two years of 
age, when he began life for himself in Crawford 
County as a farmer. In 1869, he chose a compan- 
ion and helpmate on life's journey, Miss Mary 
Duncan becoming his wife, but after a short mar- 
ried life of ten years, she died in 1879. Her re- 
mains were interred in the Duncan ville Cemetery, 
of Crawford County. Three children, a son and 
two daughters, Laura, Anna and Robert, were 
born of their union, and are all yet living. In 



1880, Mr. Tedford was united in marriage with 
Mrs. Orpha Cravins, widow of Harry Cravins and 
a daughter of John "and Catherine (Alvis) Breed- 
love. Their union has been blessed by three chil- 
dren, Effie, Luther and Ernest. Mrs. Tedford was 
born in Gibson County, Ind., and came to Jasper 
County, 111., with her parents when four years of 
age. Her parents were both natives of the Hoosier 
State. 

It was in 1880 that Mr. Tedford became a resi- 
dent of Richland County. He purchased one 
hundred and seventy-two acres of land on section 
29, Preston Township, and locating thereon has 
since made the place his home. He carries on 
general farming and stock-raising. His land is a 
valuable tract and the rich and fertile fields and 
the many improvements upon the place indicate 
that the owner is a man of practical and progress- 
ive ideas. He possesses good business and execu- 
tive ability and therefore has won prosperity. 

Mr. Tedford votes with the Republican party, 
but has never been an office-seeker, preferring to 
devote his time and attention to his business in- 
terests. He is a member of the Odd Fellows' 
Lodge and also belongs to the Presbyterian Church. 
Although his residence in this community has 
been comparatively short, he has nevertheless 
formed a wide acquaintance, and those who know 
him speak of him as a straightforward, honorable 
man and a valued citizen. 



w 



^ILLIAM A. JACKSON, a farmer, brick 
mason and plasterer, residing on section 
31, Wade Township, Jasper County, was 
born on the 30th of August, 1846, in Davies County, 
Ind. He was left an orphan when a lad of seven 
summers and at a very early age was thrown upon 
his own resources. In his youth he came to Illi- 
nois, going first to Robinson, Crawford County. 
His school privileges were quite limited and his 
education has been mostly acquired since he has 
arrived at years of maturity. In his early life he 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



291 



learned the trade of a brick mason and plasterer in 
Terre Haute, Ind., serving a three-years appren- 
ticeship and then working for three years under 
instruction. About 1867 he went to Efflngham 
and embarked in business for himself. Many of 
the business houses and private residences in that 
city stand as monuments to his thrift and enter- 
prise. 

For nine years Mr. Jackson worked in Effing- 
ham, after which he determined to seek a home 
elsewhere. It was in 1877 that he came to Jasper 
County, purchased land and located upon the 
farm which is now his home. He built and fenced 
the entire amount and placed acre after acre under 
the plow until the entire amount was highly cul- 
tivated. He has a pleasant and substantial resi- 
dence upon the place and all other modern im- 
provements that surround the home of a progress- 
ive citizen. In the home farm are sixty acres of 
valuable land, and in addition to this he owns a tract 
of one hundred and fifty acres, which is now rented. 
Leaving his sons to operate the farm, Mr. Jackson 
works at his trade during the summer months. 
Since locating in this county he has followed that 
business in Newton and has aided in erecting some 
of its best public buildings and residences, includ- 
ing the court house, schoolhouse, Church of St. 
Marie, and other public and private edifices. Mr. 
Jackson is considered one of the best workmen in 
his line in this part of the State. 

On the 19th of December, 1871, in Newton, 
our subject was united in marriage with Miss 
Nannie Conway, a native of Crawford County, 
Ind., who came to Illinois when a child of five 
years with her father, Green Conway, who settled 
upon a farm in Wade Township, Jasper County, 
and there reared his f amity. Mrs. Jackson is a 
lady of excellent education, has superior accom- 
plishments and has been a successful music teacher. 
Four children have been born of this union. 
Charles and Orrin R. operate the home farm and 
are learning the brick mason's trade with their 
father. John W. and Lewis M. are the younger 
members of the family. 

The parents are both members of the Sandy 
Creek First Christian Church. Mr. Jackson is an 
Odd Fellow and has twice filled all of the different 



chairs in the order. He is also a member of the 
Red Men's Lodge, of Efflngham, and the Modern 
Woodmen Lodge, of Newton. In politics he is 
identified with the Democratic party. We see in 
Mr. Jackson a self-made man, who at a very early 
age was thrown upon his own resources and 
forced to make his own way in the world. We 
thus see that whatever success that he has achieved 
in life is due to his own efforts and it is not a lit- 
tle. His career has been a prosperous one and has 
been characterized by an honest and upright 
course that has gained him the confidence and 
good-will of all with whom he has been brought 
in contact. 







V. JOHNSON, who follows farming on 
section 14, Decker County, has the honor 
of being one of Richland County's native 
citizens and one of her pioneers. He 
was born December 28, 1832, in Madison Town- 
ship, and few there are whose birth occurred in 
this locality that have so long here resided. His 
father, Moses Johnson, was a native of Virginia, 
and from Kentucky came to Illinois at an early 
day. He married Sarah Mason, who was born in 
the Keystone State and came with her parents to 
Parkersburgh, 111. Mr. Johnson was a fanner and 
stock-raiser. He was a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church and died in 1850. His wife 
survived him many years, passing away in 1885, 
at the age of seventy-nine. There were eight 
children in the family, but only two are now liv- 
ing: A. V. and Moses, who makes his home in 
Olney. 

.The subject of this sketch moved into the 
neighborhood which is still his home when quite 
a young lad. There were very few houses upon 
the prairies and one could ride for miles without 
a settlement to intercept his progress. He has 
borne all the experiences and hardships of pio- 
neer life, and has been an eye-witness of almost 
the entire development of the county. His edu- 



292 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



cational privileges were quite limited. He at- 
tended the subscription schools, which were held 
in a log building with slab seats and other primi- 
tive furniture. His father died when he was fif- 
teen years of age, and our subject remained with 
his mother, aiding her in the development and 
care of the home farm until his marriage. 

In 1856 Mr. Johnson was married to Miss Mary 
Jane Rawlins, one of Richland County's fail- 
daughters, whose parents came from Ohio to Illi- 
nois in an early day. Unto them were born four 
children: Sarah M., now the wife of Jasper Henry, 
an agriculturist of Decker Township; Addie, who 
keeps house for her father; Jennie, wife of John 
Holmes, who is engaged in farming in Decker 
Township; and Andrew L., at home. 

Mr. and Mrs. Johnson began their domestic life 
upon the old home farm, and to its cultivation 
and improvement he has since devoted his ener- 
gies. He has also engaged in stock-dealing to 
some extent and has met with excellent success in 
that branch of his business. He started with only 
eighty acres, but as his financial resources have 
increased, he has made additional purchases from 
time to time until his landed possessions now ag- 
gregate twelve hundred acres. He started out in life 
empty-handed, and to his own efforts is due his 
prosperity. He has labored earnestly for success, 
has overcome the difficulties in his path by a de- 
termined will and enterprise, and the handsome 
competence which he now has is certainly well 
merited, being the reward of honest industry. 

In 1890 Mr. Johnson was called upon to mourn 
the loss of his wife, who passed away on the 9th 
of November in the faith of the Methodist Church, 
of which she was a consistent member. Besides 
her family she left many warm friends to mourn 
her loss, for she was a most estimable lady. Mr. 
Johnson also holds membership with the church 
at Union Chapel. He takes an active part in re- 
ligious work and the moral upbuilding of the 
community, and has given liberally of his means 
in support of every enterprise calculated to prove 
of public benefit. He cast his first Presidential 
vote for James Buchanan, and has since been a 
stanch Democrat. He faithfully filled the office 
of Supervisor for six years, but has never sought 



public preferment. Socially, he is a member of 
the Masonic lodge of Noble, and is accounted 
one of the wealthy and most highly respected 
citizens of Richland County. 




LVIN CLEM, one of the honored pioneers 
and representative citizens of Richland 
County, residing on section 9, Olney 
Township, claims Indiana as the State of 
his birth, which occurred on the 15th of August, 
1839, in Delaware County. His parents are Joel 
and Magdaline (Kesler) Clem. The father was 
born in Virginia, November 7, 1806, and during 
his youth he worked on the farm and at the car- 
penter's trade alternate!}' until he had attained to 
man's estate, when he bade good-bye to his old 
home and went to Ohio. He was there married, 
and remained for about ten years, when he re- 
moved to Delaware Count}', Ind. Purchasing a 
farm, he engaged in its cultivation until 1853, 
which year witnessed his arrival in Richland 
County. Here he bought a farm, upon which he 
resided until his death, which occurred March 20, 
1858. His wife, who was born in Ohio October 
11, 1811, died on the llth of March, 1876, in this 
county. Both parents were of German extraction. 

Our subject is the fourth child in a family num- 
bering four sons and five daughters. No event of 
special importance occurred during his youth, 
which was quietly passed on his father's farm. 
On the 14th of August, 1860, he was married to 
Miss Catherine Feutz, a native of Switzerland, 
born February 9, 1840. Her parents, William and 
Catherine (Lanner) Feutz, emigrated to America, 
and coming direct to this county, located on a 
farm, where the former is still living, at the age 
of seventy-eight years. The wife and mother was 
called from the shores of time October 22, 1855, 
leaving many warm friends to mourn her loss. 

Since coming to this count}', Mr. Clem has de- 
voted his time and attention to agricultural pur- 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



293 



suits, and his well-directed efforts and enterprise 
and good management have brought him a com- 
fortable competence, which is certainly well de- 
served. He now owns and operates forty acres of 
good land, which adjoins the corporation limits of 
the city of Olney, and his farm is one of the best 
improved in the locality. The place is very de- 
sirably located, for lie has all the comforts of farm 
life, and those of city life are easily attainable. His 
home is a beautiful residence, and stands as a 
monument to the thrift and enterprise of the 
owner. 

About 1883 Mr. Clem commenced the manufac- 
ture of tile, which was the first industry of the kind 
established in Richland County, and continued 
this business until the fall of 1889. He was one 
of the original incorporators of the Olney Brick 
and Tile Company, and is still one of its stock- 
holders. He learned the carpenter's trade with his 
father, and worked at it for several years, assist- 
ing in building a number of residences in Olney, 
and he still devotes some of his time to this busi- 
ness. 

Mr. Clem is a member of the Free Methodist 
Church, and his wife holds membership with the 
Evangelical Church. They are highly respected 
citizens, widely and favorably known. Mr. Clem 
has served as School Director in his district for sev- 
eral years. He is a warm advocate of temperance 
principles, and embodies his views on that ques- 
tion in the ballot which he deposits for the Prohi- 
bition party. 






OHN SONNER, one of the early settlers of 
Richland County and a leading and influ- 
ential farmer residing on section 3, Decker 
Township, was born in 1827 in Highland 
County, Ohio. His paternal grandfather, Anthony 
Sonner, emigrated from Germany to America in 
Colonial days, and aided the Colonies in their 
struggle for independence, after which he received 



a pension in recognition of his faithful service. 
He died in Ohio. The father of our subject was 
born in the Buckeye State, and after attaining to 
mature years entered land, from which he devel- 
oped and improved a good farm. He married 
Tena Ambrose, also of German descent and the 
daughter of a Revolutionary hero, who located in 
an early day in Woodstock, Va. Mr. Sonner ran 
a large mill and brought to Ohio the first engine 
used in that State. His family and his wife's 
people were all prominent workers in the United 
Brethren Church, and the parents of our subject 
labored earnestly in the cause of Christianity. 
Mr. Sonner was a man of excellent business ability 
and became quite wealthy. 

Our subject is the third in a family of six sons 
and two daughters, including William of Highland 
County, Ohio; George, of Indiana; Anthony, a 
miller of Pike County, 111.; Betsy, wife of Dr. 
Sanderson, of Noble; Isaac, a soldier of the late 
war, now living in Highland County; Rachel, wife 
of Dr. Palmer, of Wakefield, 111.; and Mathias, who 
lives near Macon, Mo. He was also one of the 
"boys in blue" and served throughout the strug- 
gle. 

The boyhood and youth of our subject were spent 
upon his father's farm and in the mill. He was 
early inured to hard labor, and since quite young 
has made his own way in the world. At the age 
of twelve he drove a four-horse team, used in 
hauling flour. He remained at home until twenty- 
six years of age, when he carne West by way of 
the Ohio River to Evansville, Ind., then by rail 
to Vincennes, and on by team until reaching his 
destination in Richland County. This was in 
1859. Purchasing his present farm, he obtained 
possession of one hundred acres of land, upon 
which was a log cabin, that still stands near his 
present handsome residence as a remnant of the 
frontier life. Success crowned his efforts, and as 
his financial resources increased he added to his 
farm until he now owns two hundred and ninety 
acres. He has also given considerable land to his 
three sons. He was one of the first to embark in 
fruit-growing in this locality. 

When twenty-four years of age, Mr. Sonner. 
married Amelia Kaley, who was born in Highland 



294 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



County, Ohio, and is of German descent. Five 
children grace their union. Frank and Levi are 
both farming in this neighborhood; Rachel is the 
wife of M. L. Taylor; John is an agriculturist of 
the community; and Cora is still under the paren- 
tal roof. The family is one widely and favorably 
known in this community. The parents belong to 
the United Brethren Church and were largely in- 
strumental in building the house of worship in 
Pleasant View. Mr. Sonner is now serving as 
Trustee, and both he and his wife have been act- 
ive in Sunday-school work. In 1848 our subject 
voted for Lewis Cass, and was a Democrat until 
1861, when he supported Lincoln. Since that time 
he has been a loyal Republican and does all in his 
power to insure the success of his party. Charita- 
ble and benevolent, he gives freely of all his means 
to worthy enterprises, and his well-spent and hon- 
orable .life is. worthy of emulation. 



J' I OSEPH JOURDAN, an enterprising farmer 
residing on section 8, Wade Township, is a 
representative of the oldest family in years 
__ ' of residence in Jasper County. The name 
of Jourdan has long been connected with the his- 
tory of this community. The father of our sub- 
ject, James Jourdan, came here in 1826. He was 
born in Knox County, Ind., and there grew to 
manhood. After his marriage he followed farming 
in his native State for a year and then came to 
Illinois. He settled in what is now Jasper County 
and, as before stated, was its first permanent resi- 
dent. He had married Melinda Scott, who was a 
native of Kentucky, and in that State spent the 
first fourteen years of her life, afterward going to 
Indiana. Several years after his arrival here, Mr. 
Jourdan entered land from the Government and 
made a permanent location on the farm which is 
now the home of his son Joseph. The tract was 
raw prairie in its primitive condition, but he at 
once began its development and soon transformed 



a considerable portion of it into rich and fertile 
fields. His last days were spent upon the old 
homestead. Mrs. Jourdan long survived her hus- 
band and cared for her children until they were 
able to care for themselves. She was called to the 
home beyond in 1881, and her remains were in- 
terred by those of her husband in the Yanderhoof 
Cemetery. Thus two worthy pioneers passed 
away, but they performed an important work in 
Jasper County in opening it up to settlement and 
there names should ever have a prominent place 
upon the pages of its history. 

Joseph Jourdan is one of a family of four sons 
and two daughters, who grew to mature years, of 
whom two sons and two daughters are yet living. 
He spent the days of his boyhood under the par- 
ental roof and was reared among the wild scenes 
of the frontier. He remained with his mother un- 
til 1862, when, his elder brother having gone to 
the war, he took charge of the farm and business 
of the family. Since that time he has operated 
the old homestead, which on the death of his mo- 
ther he purchased of the heirs. The many im- 
provements he has placed upon it all stand as 
monuments to his practical and progressive spirit. 
He has built a pleasant residence and a good barn 
and added other accessories found upon a model 
farm of the nineteenth century. The old home- 
stead comprises ninety acres and in addition to 
this he owns two other tracts, one of eighty acres 
and the other of twenty, both highly improved 
places. 

In Crooked Creek Township, November 20, 1861, 
Mr. Jourdan was joined in wedlock with Mary 
Musgrove, who was born in this county and is a 
daughter of Stephen Musgrove. Her father was 
also a native of this State, and one of the honored 
pioneers of Jasper County. Five children have 
been born of the union of our subject and his wife: 
John Franklin, who is married and follows farm- 
ing in Wade Township; Nancy C., wife of William 
Hinman, an agriculturist of the same township; 
Iredell, Minnie and Thomas, who are still at 
home. 

As Mr. Jourdan has spent his entire life in 
Jasper County, he has seen nearly its entire de- 
velopment from a state of wilderness. He has also 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



21)5 



aided in the work of upbuilding and advancement 
and lias borne his part in transforming its wild 
lands into tracts of rich fertility. In his social 
relations our subject is connected with the United 
Workmen and the Knights of Honor of Newton. 
He exercises his right of franchise in support of 
the Republican party and has supported its men 
and measures since casting his first Presidential 
ballot for Abraham Lincoln in 1860. Himself 
and wife hold membership with the Presbyterian 
Church, to the support of which they contribute 
liberally. The Jourdan family is well known in 
Jasper County, the Jourdan household is the abode 
of hospitality and its members rank high in the 
social circles in which they move. 




>OBERT JASPER HENRY, a well-known 
farmer and highly respected citizen of 
Uichland County, who makes his home on 
section 1 1 , Decker Township, has the honor 
of being a native of Illinois. He was born in 
Crawford County in 1852, and is a son of Robert 
llenrv, a native of Tennessee. When his father was 
a young boy he left his native State and came to 
Illinois, where he grew to manhood and was mar- 
ried. In those early days the Indians were still 
numerous in the neighborhood and there were 
many hardships and trials incident to pioneer life 
to be endured. In 1865, when our subject was a 
lad of thirteen years, Mr. Henry came with his 
family to Richland County, and located upon the 
farm which is now the home of his son Robert. 
Ili.s last years were spent in Missouri, whither he 
went in the hopes of benefiting his health. His 
death occurred about fifteen years ago. His wife 
passed away in the winter of 1892. Air. Henry 
followed farming throughout the greater part of 
his life, and also engaged in dealing in horses. 
He was a member of the Christian Church. 

The subject of this sketch was the seventh in 
order of birth in a family of nine children. His 
entire life has been passed in Illinois. His early 



boyhood days were spent on a farm in Crawford 
County, but at length he came with his parents to 
this count}'. He was the eldest son of the family, 
and at the death of his father all the business cares 
and management of affairs fell to him. The occu- 
pation to which he was reared he makes his life 
work, and in connection with general farming he 
also engages in stock-dealing, making a specialty 
of the purchase and sale of horses. His fine farm 
comprises two hundred and eighty acres of rich 
land, upon which is a good orchard of twenty-five 
acres. 

In 1880, in Decker Township, Mr. Henry was 
united in marriage with Miss Sarah A. Johnson, a 
daughter of A. V. Johnson, and a native of this 
county. Her entire life has been spent in the 
neighborhood which is still her home. Two chil- 
dren grace their union, a son and a daughter, Al- 
tie and Claude. Mr. and Mrs. Henry hold mem- 
bership with the Union Methodist Episcopal Church, 
and are people of sterling worth, whose many ex- 
cellencies of character have won for them an en- 
viable position in social circles. Our subject cast 
his first Presidential vote for Horace Greeley, and 
has since been a stalwart Democrat. He has met 
with good success in his business career, and his 
good management and enterprise, supplemented 
by methodical business methods, have gained for 
him a handsome property. He is now numbered 
among the substantial agriculturists and highly 
respected citizens of the community in which he 
makes his home. 



"Sl-C T 



AMES ELOT SHARP, one of the honored 
pioneers and representative farmers of Rich- 
laud County, who owns and operates one 
hundred and sixty acres of fine land on 
sections 2 and 22, Boupas Township, was born 
near Owensville, Gibson County, I nd., January 15, 
1833. His parents, James E. and Sarah (Risk) 
Sharp, were natives of Kentucky. The Sharp 
family is of English origin. The grandparents, 



296 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



Thomas and Elizabeth (Elot) Sharp, were both na- 
tives of Maryland, but the latter was of Irish de- 
scent. In 1803 the Sharps removed to Indiana, 
and about five years later the Elot family also 
emigrated to that State. 

It was in January, 1835, that the father of our 
subject came with his family to Richland County, 
111., locating on section 25, Madison Township, 
where he lived until his death, in January, 1879. 
Upon the farm which he purchased he found a log 
house and about thirty acres of cleared land. He 
first bought one hundred acres, but made additions 
to this from time to time until his landed posses- 
sions aggregated four hundred acres. His house 
was built in the form of a fort for protection from 
the Indians, but the red men never caused him 
and his family any trouble. Thomas Sharp was 
the first permanent settler in Gibson County, Ind. 
The Cherokee tribe then living there was at first 
friendly, but afterward joined Tecumseh in the 
war against the whites, and James Sharp, Sr., served 
for three months under Gen. Harrison in the War 
of 1812 against the Indians, being stationed at 
Ft. Ellison, on the present site of Vincennes, Ind. 
The mother of our subject died in March, 1881, 
in her eighty-seventh year. There were six chil- 
dren in the Sharp family. Perry, who died in in- 
fancy; John Wesley; Mrs. Lucinda By ford; Hi- 
ram; Mrs. Sarah J. Marshall, now deceased; and 
James E. 

The subject of this sketch was only about two 
years old when the famity came to Richland County. 
With them he experienced the hardships and trials 
of pioneer life, being reared amid the wild scenes 
of the frontier. His educational privileges were 
very limited, the nearest schoolhouse being three 
miles away. He was early inured to the arduous 
labor of developing a farm, as he assisted his fa- 
ther in clearing the laud, of which he afterward 
inherited one hundred and twenty acres. He af- 
terward added to this until he was the owner of 
four hundred acres, two hundred acres of which 
he cleared and broke himself. In 1886 he sold 
that land and bought his present farm, which he 
has greatly improved, making it one of the best in 
the locality. He now has one hundred and ten 
acres under cultivation, and the remaining fifty 



acres are pasture and timberland. In 1890 he 
built a commodious and pleasant residence, which 
is the abode of hospitality. 

Mrs. Sharp, the mistress of this home, was in 
her maidenhood Miss Celia J. Pullen, of Parkers- 
burgh. She, too, was a native of Gibson County, 
Ind., and a daughter of William H. Pullen, who 
was born in Georgia. She became the wife of 
our subject November 11, 1856, and by their un- 
ion were born nine children, of whom four died 
in infancy. Those living are: George W.; Charles 
H.; Eva A., wife of C. Walter; James T. and Le- 
ander F. 

Mr. Sharp cast his first Presidential vote for 
Gen. Fremont, and has supported each candidate 
of the Republican party for the Presidency since 
that time. He is independent in local politics, 
and has never been an office-seeker. He prefers 
to devote his energies to his business interests, in 
which he has met with excellent success. 




W. ARMSEY, the efficient County 
Surveyor of Richland County, now a resi- 
dent of Olney, is a native of West Virginia. 
He was born in Marion County, on the 5th of Au- 
gust, 1837, and was the eighth in a family of 
eleven children, five sons and six daughters. His 
father, George Armsey, was born in Maryland, of 
German ancestry, and was a farmer by occupation. 
When a boy, he left his native State and emi- 
grated to Virginia, where he grew to manhood. 
On the 20th of March, 1823, he was mairied to 
Miss Sophia May, a native of Virginia, but of Eng- 
lish descent. The family remained in that State 
until 1852, when they removed to Ohio, and four 
years later to Indiana. 

In April, 1864, Mr. Armsey enlisted in Com- 
pany I, One Hundred and Thirty-fifth Indiana In- 
fantry, and served nine months, when he was dis- 
charged on account of disability, his health hav- 
ing failed him. He was over sixty years of age 
when he entered the service. In 1865 ihey came 



POETRATT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



297 



to Illinois, settling in Richland County, where 
Mrs. Armsey died in May, 1866, and Mr. Armsey 
passed away in September, 1867. Both were in- 
terred in the German cemetery near Olney. Of 
their family only six are now living: Caroline, 
wife of Henry M. Ross, a farmer of West Virginia; 
Oliver, a farmer of Ohio; Sarah, widow of Thomas 
Holt, and a resident of Olney; Lucinda, wife of 
Vincent Slazor, who resides in Nebraska; George 
W.; and Eveline, who wedded John Shively, and 
lives in Chicago, 111. 

Our subject was reared to farm life, and re- 
mained at home assisting his father until his 
twenty-eighth year. In 1861, he entered the ser- 
vice of his country as a teamster of the Fifteen 
Indiana Infantry, and thus served until the spring 
of 1862, when, his time having expired, he re-en- 
listed in Company I, One Hundred and Thirty- 
fifth Indiana Regiment, in which he served nine 
months. On the 18th of March, 1864, he joined 
Company E, One Hundred and Fifth-fourth Illi- 
nois Infantry, and served until the close of the 
war. He entered the service as a private, and rose 
to the rank of Orderly-Sergeant. 

After the close of the war, Mr. Armsey came to 
Olney and engaged in carpenter work, a trade he 
had learned in Indiana, and which he has since 
followed. In December, 1868, he was united in 
marriage with Sarah J. Lanear, of Richland Countj', 
whose death occurred on the 8th of the following 
June. On the 30th of June, 1870, he married Mrs. 
Adams, widow of John Adams, whose maiden 
name was Loretta M. Banks, a native of West Vir- 
ginia. This union has been blessed with a daugh- 
ter, Clara Lottie, who was born October 2, 1871, 
and is now the wife of-J. R. Heinselman, a school 
teacher and farmer of Richland County. Mrs. 
Armsey had one son by her first marriage, Elmer 
E. Adams, who married Miss Jennie Cazel, of Ol- 
ney, October 23, 1887, and is now a resident of 
Chicago. The}' have one child, Alva Lee. 

Mrs. Armsey 's parents were Andrew Edward and 
Barbara (Sager) Banks. The former was born at 
Greencastle, Lancaster County, Pa., June 6,1815, 
and is of Irish descent, and the latter was born 
August 7, 1814, in Washington County, Md., and 
was of German origin, the family having been 



founded in America by her grandfather, Jacob 
Sager, who was born in Hesse, Germany, and 
served as a soldier during the Revolutionary War. 
Mr. and Mrs. Banks were married in Maryland, 
and came to Illinois in 1864, settling in Richland 
County, where Mrs. Banks died March 8, 1881. 
They reared a family of four children, one son and 
three daughters, and all are yet living. Eliza Jane, 
is the widow of F. G. Brownell, and resides at La 
Fayette,Ind.; Loretta Minerva, who was a success- 
ful teacher, married John Adams, a native of Ohio, 
May 14, 1863, and after his death, which occurred 
April 7, 1868, became the wife of G. W. Armsey; 
Jasper Columbus lives in Olney; and Alice Van- 
loon is the wife of J. F. Clem, a farmer of Ol- 
ney Township. 

Mr. Armsey has worked at his trade much of his 
time, and, being a skillful workman, has attained 
success in that business. For some years past he 
has studied surveying, and has thoroughly fitted 
himself for the position to which he was elected 
in 1892. He is proving an efficient officer, dis- 
charging his duties with promptness and fidelity. 
Mr. Armsey is a self-made man, for he began life 
for himself empty-handed, and his success i? due to 
his industry, enterprise and well-directed efforts. 
He owns a beautiful country house and farm, com- 
prising one hundred acres of rich land, pleasantly 
situated about half a mile southwest of the city 
limits, besides a neat and comfortable residence in 
Olney. His moral, upright life and sterling in- 
tegrity have won for him the high esteem of a 
large circle of friends. 




AUL WEIDNER, a prominent farmer of 
Denver Township, Richland County, liv- 
ing on section 18, and one of the sub- 
stantial citizens, was born in Vanderburg 
County, Ind., May 22, 1846, and is one of seven 
children, whose parents were A'dam and Cather- 
ine (Seigler) Weidner. They were both natives 
of Germany, and in that country their marriage 



298 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



was celebrated. The father was a carpenter by 
trade. In 1835 he came with his family to Amer- 
ica, 'and in Indiana purchased wild land, from 
which he developed a farm, making his home 
thereon until 1855. He then came by wagon to 
Illinois, driving with him thirty-five head of 
sheep and twenty head of cattle. He purchased 
land at $4 per acre and built a double-log cabin, 
which is still standing. There were no improve- 
ments upon the place, but his labors soon worked 
a great transformation, and at his death he owned 
an excellent farm. At one time he owned six 
hundred and eighty acres of land. He began life 
empty-handed, but in the legitimate channels of 
business achieved wealth. He was a life-long 
Democrat and a good citizen. His wife died in 
1865, and he was called to his final rest February 
2, 1873. Of their family, Agnes is the wife of 
Jacob Rein hard, who occupies the old homestead 
in Indiana; Sarah is the wife of Mr. Kipling, of 
Noble Township; Philip runs a carriage factory 
in Salem Springs, 111.; Mary is the wife of Jo 
Klinger, of Clay County; Mrs. Margaret Negley 
is living in Denver Township; Adam is a farmer 
of Comanche County, Tex.; and Paul completes 
the family. 

Our subject was only ten years of age when he 
came to Illinois. As soon as he was old enough 
to manage the plow, he began work in the fields, 
and has since been engaged in farm labor. He 
took an active part in clearing and opening up 
his present farm, upon which he has lived since 
his boyhood. On the 5th of April, 1866, in Den- 
ver Township, he was united in marriage with 
Miss Sallie Dash, who was born in Indiana, April 
20, 1849, and is a daughter of Adam Dash, a na- 
tive of Germany. They have four children. John, 
born May 6, 1867, married Annie Ament and is 
a farmer of Denver Township; Adam, born June 
15, 1869, is married; Rachel, born February 5, 
1871, died October 9, 1875; George, horn Octo- 
ber 2, 1872, died October 29, 1872; Joseph, born 
May 1, 1875, is at home; Paul Edward, born Sep- 
tember 9, 1882, died March 27, 1883; and Dora 
M. was born August 18, 1889. 

The Weidner family has a fine home situated 
on an excellent farm of three hundred and eighty- 



seven acres. In addition to the pleasant resi- 
dence, there are good barns and outbuildings, and 
all the modern improvements and equipments 
which go to make up a model farm of the nine- 
teenth century. Mr. Weidner is a man of excel- 
lent business ability and has now become a wealthy 
citizen, owing to his good management, enter- 
prise and industry. In 1868 he cast his first 
Presidential vote and he supported the Demo- 
cratic party until 1892, when he voted for Gen. 
Weaver. He is a man of firm convictions, un- 
wavering in his support of what he believes to be 
right. His business career has been a straight- 
forward and honorable one, and in all the rela- 
tions of life he has gained the confidence and 
good-will of all with whom he has been brought in 
contact. 



\w? EANDER D. WHLTTAKER, who is num- 
I (Si bered among the leading farmers of Rich- 
IILj^. i an d County, residing on section 3, has 
made his home in this county since 1853, and has 
lived on his present farm almost continuously 
since October, 1855. He has been prominently 
identified with the development of the county and 
has been an eye-witness of much of its growth and 
progress. He was born in Robb Township, Posey 
County, Ind., April 8, 1829, and is a son of Jacob 
and Mary A. (Defur) Whittaker. The father went 
to Indiana in 1811, at the age of thirteen years. 
Subsequently, he made several trips to North 
Carolina on horseback and often encamped with 
the Indians while en route. He was married Au- 
gust 20, 1822, to Mary Defur, who was born March 
29, 1805. She died in Steubenville, Ind., August 
15, 1851. Twelve children have been born of that 
union, as follows: Esther C., now the wife of T. 
Thompson; Mrs. Elizabeth J. Shelby; Leander D., 
of this sketch; Robert A., who was a member of 
the First Indiana Cavalry and died at Pilot Knob 
during the service; Isaac N., of Richland County; 
James A.; George W., who was killed in the battle 




^ 




POKTKA1T AXI> BIWKAPHICAL 



of Mark*' Milk, Ark,, during the late war; William 
1;. I ; Mary *., wife of J. W. Beat; Karab F., wife 
of II. C. I lrlow; Eugene #.; cad one who died in 
infancy. After the death of hi* first wife, Mr, 
WhiUaker married Mr*. Eliza ( AxUsn) Howe, and 
unto llK-'fn were born two children, of wbon one 
died in infancy. The other, Mattie, dkd at the 
home of our subject. November 5, 1888, It w# 
in 185,1 that Jacob Wbittakereame with bis family 
u> Ricbland County, locating in Madison Town- 
hip, where he recided until called to the home 
beyond, 1 1 death occurred October 8, 1*6 1. at 
the age of sixty-three yean. 

Under toe parental roof Leander WbiUaker 
grew to manhood. He came with hi* parent* to 
thus county in 1853, and, as before stated, located 
upon bis present farm in October, 1855, On the 
15th of July previous, be was married, bis wife be- 
ing a native of Indiana, and their union was 
Mewed with six children, bat Eva, Lulu and one 
unnamed died in infancy. Ada, the eldest, i* the 
wife of W. P. Jackson; May is the wife of C, E. 
Mattoon; and Page, the only son, married Miss 
Anna E. Webber, and resides on the homestead 
farm. Mr. and Mrs. WbiUaker also have seven 
grandchildren. 

Our subject continued bis farming operations 
nntil 1874, when be removed to Olney in order to 
give his children better educational privileges, and 
there resided for five years. In 1879 be returned 
to the farm and has since devoted bis energies to 
igrieultural pursuit*. He now owns two hundred 
tnd eighty acres of land, and of this two hundred 
ire under a high state of cultivation. With the ex- 
ception of ten acres the entire amount was im- 
proved and developed by the owner. After bis 
marriage, which took place in Mt, Veraon, ImL, 
he brought bis bride and all their possessions to 
Illinois in a wagon, and they began their domestic 
life in a small log cabin, which be bad previously 
built. From morning till night the young husband 
labored in the field, and as the yean went by the 
one* raw tract was transformed into rich and fer- 
tile fields, which yield abundant harvests. The 
labor of Mr. and Mr*. WbiUaker has brought to 
them a comfortable competence. 

This worthy couple are among the most highly 

14 



respected citizen* of the community. He i* a 
member of the Xew Church, and fait wife m a mem- 
ber of the Metbodwt Church, He CM* hfe fist 
Presidential vote for Gen. Fremont and supported 
the KepoMicaa party nntil 1892. when be voted 
for Gen, Weaver, Mr*. Wnrttaker takes quite an 
active interest in Prohibition work, She joined a 
temperance society at tl* age of seven yean, and 
has since been identified with the erase. In every- 
thing tending to benefit the community or ad- 
vance its best interest*, Mr, and Mr*. WbiUaker 
bear their part, and in the community where they 
have so long make their home they have a wide 
circle of friends and acquaintances who 
them highly. 




ALVIK AL'STIX k the junior member of 
the well-known firm of Edward Calvin 
Austin, These gentlemen are proprietors 
of the Effingbam Planing Mill Company, and our 
subject i a shareholder and director in other local 
industrial corporations. In fact, be is recognized 
as one of the leading business men of tbi* place, 
an enterprising and progressive citizen, who well 
deserves representation in the history of bis 
adopted county. 

Mr. Austin is a native of the Buckeye State. 
He was bom on Walnut Hill, in Cincinnati. April 
10, 1853, and is a son of Seneca aud Julia (Burnett) 
Austin. Further mention is made of his parents 
in the sketch of Edward Austin, on another page 
of this work. In early childhood our subject ac- 
companied bis parents to his father's farm, which 
was situated in Kentucky, just across the river 
from Cincinnati, In February, 18*4, the family 
removed to Illinois, locating in Jasper County, 
where they spent two yean. During that 
our subject continued bis studies in the 
schools, after which be came to Etuugham with hut 
parents. This was in the spring of 18**. He' 
then became a student in a private school con- 
ducted by the Rev. &. R. BnseH,of this city, where 
bis literary education was completed. 



302 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



On leaving school, Mr. Austin learned the cabi- 
net-maker's trade, at which he worked for four 
years in Effingham and Mattoon, 111. He then 
turned his attention to learning the watch-maker's 
and jeweler's trade, at which he was employed for 
a term of two years. In the summer of 1875 he 
left Etlingham and went to Salem, N. Y., making 
his home with his uncle, Calvin P. Austin. The 
succeeding two years of his life were thus spent. 
From November, 1877, until the spring of 1880, 
he wns engaged in merchandising in Mattoon, 
111., in company with Frank Kern, and the follow- 
ing year, 1881, he entered the railroad shops of 
the Indianapolis & St. Louis Railroad Company 
at Mattoon. He worked on coach repairing until 
the 1st of April, 1884, when he again changed his 
occupation. Rejoining his old partner, Frank 
Kern, he embarked in the manufacture of stocking 
supporters and continued in that line of business 
until June, 1886, when he removed to Salem, N.Y. 
There he rejoined his uncle, Calvin P. Austin, 
with whom he remained until his uncle's death, 
April 3, 1889. After that, having been appointed 
administrator, he settled up the estate of his rela- 
tive and then returned to Effingham in October, 
1890, since which, time he has resided in this city. 
He has become prominently identified with various 
local enterprises, and the business prosperity of the 
place is largely due to him. With his brother Ed- 
ward be is half owner in the Effingham Planing 
Mill, which does an annual business of $75,000 
and upwards. He is also a stockholder-and direc- 
tor in the Effingham Manufacturing Company, a 
large furniture manufactory, the trade of which 
has constantly increased until they are now doing 
an annual business of 150,000. He is also a stock- 
holder in the Effingham Milling Company, and 
a stockholder and director in the Elfingham Can- 
ning and Wood Package Company. 

On the 15th of September, 1880, Mr. Austin was 
married in Newton, 111., the lady of his choice be- 
ing Miss Sarah E. Brooks. She was born in New- 
ton, and is a daughter of John P. and Mary (Bar- 
rett; Brooks, who were among the earl}' settlers of 
that place. Her father died in the year 1879, but 
the mother still resides in Newton, making her 
home with hor son, Charles E. Brooks. Mr. and 



Mrs. Austin have a family of four children, two 
daughters and two sons, Hattie, Gordon Burnett, 
Seneca Brooks and Mary Louise. 

Mr. Austin was one of the original movers in 
securing a college in Effingham and was one of the 
most liberal contributors to the same, while his 
donations from the beginning have been alike free 
and continued. In fact, he and his brother Ed- 
ward were so active and liberal in regard to the 
college that it was named in their honor and is 
known as the Austin College and Normal Insti- 
tute. The educational facilities of Effingham were 
thus greatly increased, and its citizens should be 
very grateful for this excellent addition to their 
schools. 

Mr. and Mrs. Austin are members of the Pres- 
byterian Church, and in politics he is a supporter 
of the Republican party, but has never been an as- 
pirant for public office. Socially he is a member 
of Eureka Lodge No. 598, K. of H., at Mattoon, 
111. 

Mr. Austin is the owner of forty acres of valu- 
able land adjacent to the city of Effingham. In 
1892 he erected an elegant and palatial residence 
in the eastern part of the town, which is a model 
of beauty, both in exterior and interior design 
and finish. It is estimated to have cost upwards 
of $30,000 and without exception it is the finest 
residence in Effingham County. It has all the 
modern conveniences of the best city homes and 
with its tasteful and elegant furnishings it is won- 
derfully pleasant and attractive. Mr. Austin is a 
plain, unassuming man, possessed of good judg- 
ment, a courteous and genial manner, and is highly 
respected for his integrity and upright course in 
life. 



J| AMES C. VAWTER, assistant Postmaster 
of Bogota, is one of the honored pioneers 
| of Jasper County, and for a long period was 
prominently connected with its agricultural 

interests. Born in Jefferson County, Ind., on the 
22d of January, 1825, he was the seventh in a fam- 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



303 



ily of eleven children, seven sons and four daugh- 
ters, born unto Beverly and Elizabeth (Crawford) 
Vawter. The latter was of Scotch-Irish descent, 
and the former of German and French extraction. 
The father was born in Virginia, September 28, 
1789, and during his boyhood removed to Ken- 
tucky, where he remained for several years, after 
which he emigrated to Jefferson County, Ind. He 
was a millwright and wool-carder by trade, and 
served as a soldier in the War of 1812. His last 
days were spent in the Hoosier State, where he died 
in the eighty-third year of his age. His wife, a 
native of Virginia, died in Indiana, at the age of 
seventy-five. 

Under the parental roof James Vawter spent the 
days of his childhood, and his time was passed in 
working on the farm or in the mill. He was usu- 
ally busy during his boyhood, but he thereby de- 
veloped habits of industry and energy which have 
proved of incalculable benefit to him in his later 
years. After attaining to man 's estate, Mr. Vawter 
chose as a companion and helpmate on life's jour- 
ney Mary C. Elder, who was born in Kentucky, 
December 2, 1826, and during her early girlhood 
went to Decatur County, Ind. Their union, which 
was celebrated October 26, 1848, has been blessed 
with five sons and four daughters, but four are now 
deceased. The eldest, Ann E., is the wife of T. C. 
Rogers, a carpenter and farmer residing in Jasper 
County. Silas B. is a resident farmer of Kansas; 
Xelima is the wife of Abram Goldsmith, an agricul- 
turist of Clay County, 111.; Albert G. follows the 
same pursuit in this county; and Henry O. is also 
a farmer. 

During the late war, Mr. Vawter manifested his 
loyalty to the Government by entering the service 
on the 18th of November, 1861, as a member of 
Company I, Sixty-sixth Illinois Infantry, in which 
he served until February 1, 1863, when he was dis- 
charged on account of ill-health. He is now a 
member of Hankins Post No. 675, G. A. R., of 
Bogota, and in politics is a warm advocate of Re- 
publican principles. With the Christian Church 
hc> holds membership. 

Upon his marriage, Mr. Vawter left home and 
went to Decatur County, Ind., where for two years 
he operated a rented farm. It was in 1852 that 



he came to Jasper County, and entered one hun- 
dred and twenty acres of Government land. It 
was a raw and unimproved tract, but he at once 
began its development and soon the wild prairie 
was transformed into rich and fertile fields. He 
made many improvements upon the same, and it 
became one of the best farms of the locality. De- 
siring to lay aside the arduous duties of agricul- 
ture, however, he sold his farm in 1891, and re- 
moved to Bogota, where he has since served as As- 
sistant Postmaster. In the long years of his resi- 
dence here, Jasper County has found in him a valu- 
able and public-spirited citizen, his business asso- 
ciates have found him an honorable man in all his 
dealings, and his acquaintances in social circles 
know him to be a genial, pleasant gentleman. 



JH OI-IN Z. WINTERROWD, a practical and 
progressive farmer of Wade Township, 
Jasper County, residing on section 10, dates 
^^ his residence 'in this community since 1860. 
He is therefore numbered among its earliest set- 
tlers, and as such well deserves representation in 
this volume. He is one of the worthy citizens 
that Indiana has furnished to Jasper County. He 
was born in Shelby County, of the Hoosier State, 
July 15, 1848, and is a son of John Winterrowd, 
a native of Pennsylvania. The grandfather, Peter 
Winterrowd, was also born in Pennsylvania, 
where the family was founded in an early day. 
The Winterrowds are of German descent. The 
grandfather removed to Darke County, Ohio, 
about 1802, locating there when the county was 
almost an unbroken wilderness. The father of 
our subject there married, but his first wife died, 
and in Shelby Count}', Ind., he wedded Dorothy 
Cookson, a native of Tennessee. He removed to 
Indiana about 1830, and became one of the pio- 
neers of Shelby County, where he cleared and de- 
veloped a farm and reared his family. Selling his 
property there in 1860, he came to Jasper County, 
111., and again found himself a pioneer. He 



304 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



located upon the farm where his son now resides 
and here spent the remainder of his days, being 
called to his final rest, January 3, 1870. His wife 
passed away in 1887, and they were laid side by 
side in Steward Cemetery. 

The Winterrowd family numbered seven chil- 
dren, who grew to mature \'ears,five sons and two 
daughters. Washington, the eldest, died in Texas; 
Nancy is still living; Jacob K. is now deceased; 
Seldon J. is a farmer of Livingston County, Mo.; 
Sebastian F. is deceased; Elizabeth A. is the wife 
of B. F. Moulden, of Shelby County, Ind. 

The subject of this sketch, who is the youngest 
of this family, came to Illinois with his parents 
when a lad of twelve summers, and was reared to 
manhood on the old homestead. He received 
good educational advantages and remained with 
his father until he had attained his majority. Mr. 
Winterrowd was married March 5, 1868, to Miss 
Barbara J. Buckingham, a native of Monroe Coun- 
ty, Ohio, and a daughter of John W. Buckingham. 
After his marriage he remained with his father for 
about two years and then rented a farm in Efflug- 
ham Count}' for two years. During his residence 
there his wife died, her death occurring on the 
llth of December, 1870. 

After her death Mr. Winterrowd went to Kan- 
sas and spent one summer in Montgomery County, 
where he took up a claim. He then returned to 
his home in Jasper County and took charge of the 
farm and business of the homestead, to the posses- 
sion of which he succeeded by purchasing the in- 
terest of the other heirs. He has greatly im- 
proved the place by erecting a pleasant and sub- 
stantial residence, good barns and outbuildings. 
He' has also extended the boundaries of the farm 
until it now comprises one hundred and seventy 
acres of rich land, which yields a golden tribute in 
return for his care and labor. 

In his political affiliations Mr. Winterrowd has 
always been a Republican. His first Presidential 
vote was cast for Gen. U. S. Grant in 1872. He is 
well informed on the issues of the day, and takes 
quite an active part in local politics. He has 
served as Town Clerk for one term, and for many 
years has been a member of the School Board, 
during which time he has done effective service in 



the interests of education. He was one of the or- 
ganizers of the County Fair Association, was 
elected one of the first directors and served as 
such for several years. He was also Vice-Presi- 
dent and Treasurer of the County Agricultural 
Board. 

Mr. Winterrowd was a second time married, 
November 15, 1871, the lady of his choice being 
Miss Virginia R. Bridges, who was born, reared 
and educated in Jasper County, and is a daughter 
of William Bridges, one of the honored early set- 
tlers of this community, formerly of Virginia. By 
his first marriage Mr. Winterrowd had one son, 
Harry S., now a successful teacher and farmer of 
this country. Five children have been born of 
the second marriage: Walter E., Charlie C., Addie 
E., Joe H. and Nellie E. The four younger mem- 
bers of the family are attending school. 

Mr. Winterrowd has spent nearly his entire life 
in this community and is well known in Newton 
and Jasper Counties. He is recognized as one of 
the enterprising agriculturists, and is a progressive 
and representative citizen. His life has been well 
and worthily spent. He has won success in his 
business career and in his intercourse with his fel- 
low-men he has gained the high respect of a large 
circle of friends and acquaintances. 




ILLIAM HENRY HARRISON WIIARTON 

resides on section 24, Smallwood Town- 
ship, Jasper County. Among the leading 
farmers of this community, he well deserves mentic 
and he also should be represented among the 
honored pioneers, for he came here at an early day, 
and has since borne his part in the upbuilding and 
development of the county, aiding in its progress 
and advancement. On the 4th of August, 1822, 
in Clermont County, Ohio, Mr. Wharton was born 
as the seventh child and only son in a family of 
nine children. His parents were Henrj 1 and Eliz- 
abeth (McWilliams) Wharton. His father was born 
in Delaware m 1786, and was of English descent. 



K)RTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



305 



When a boy, he went to Kentucky with his parents,' 
and the family had to live in log forts to protect 
themselves from the Indians. Henry remained 
upon the home farm until after he had attained 
his majority, when he married Miss McWilliams, 
who was born in Maryland in 1782. He then 
worked at the carpenter's trade for a short time, 
when he emigrated to Clermont County, Ohio. He 
became a warm personal friend of William Henry 
Harrison, and at the time of the birth of his son 
the Tippecanoe hero was lecturing in the town, and 
our subject was thus named for him. Mr. Wharton 
had served in the War of 1812 under that illus- 
trious hero. His death occurred in Shelby County, 
Ind., in 1860, and his wife died in Jasper County, 
111., November 19, 1864, at the ripe old age of 
eighty-two years. She was of Irish extraction. 

Mr. Wharlon of this sketch has only two sisters 
now living. Harriet, widow of John Burns, was 
horn March 30, 1815, and makes her home with 
our subject; and -Matilda is the wife of Thomas 
Armstrong, of Indiana. Our subject remained at 
home in the town of Millroy, Clermont County, 
Ohio, until eighteen years of age, and aided his 
father in working at the carpenter's trade. He 
then went to Rush County, Ind., where an import- 
ant event in his life occurred. He was married 
July 27, 1848, to Margaret Miller, a native of 
Harrison County, Ky., born April 17, 1826. 

Mrs. Wharton was the second in a family of five 
sons and four daughters, whose parents were Aaron 
and Mary (Ravenscroft) Miller. Her father was 
born in 1789, in Virginia, and was a soldier in the 
War of 1812. When a young man he went to 
Kentucky and from there to the Hoosier State. 
His deatli occurred in Rush County, Ind., April 19, 
1874. His wife was born in Kentucky in 1801, 
and died in Rush County, June 13, 1877. Her 
father served for seven years in the Revolutionary 
War, and won the rank of Captain. Five children 
graced the union of Mr. and Mrs. Wharton, but 
two daughters are now deceased. Minerva is the 
wife of George Manning, an agriculturist of Jasper 
County; Mandy is the wife of Andy Conway, a 
fanner of Howard County, Ind.; and Allie is still 
with her parents. 

I 'pon Mr. Wharton 's marriage, he rented land in 



Indiana, and engaged in its cultivation until 1853, 
when he came to Jasper County and purchased the 
farm on which he has since made his home. In 
those earlier years, he experienced the difficulties 
and hardships of pioneer life, for this region was 
then on the frontier and he was the first to settle 
on the prairie in this locality. In course of time, 
however, he was surrounded by neighbors. His 
wild land he transformed into good farms, and he 
now owns a valuable tract of fifty acres, located 
about six miles southwest of Newton. Himself and 
family are members of the Methodist Church. He 
cast his first Presidential vote for Clay, and was a 
Whig until the organization of the Republican 
party, with which he has since affiliated. He has 
served as Tax Collector and School Treasurer, and 
has been an efficient School Director for over 
fifteen years. A representative farmer, a faithful 
citizen and a man of sterling worth and strict 
integrity is William Henry Harrison Wharton. 



JfOHH H. DORMAN is a carpenter and farmer, 
residing on section 9, OIney Township, 
Richland County. He is widely and favor- 
ably known and we feel assured that this 
sketch of his life will prove of interest to many of 
our readers. He comes from the Badger State, his 
birth having occurred in Milwaukee County, Wis., 
December 13, 1842. He is one of a family of five 
children, consisting of four sons and one daugh- 
ter, whose parents were Julius and Margaret Dor- 
man. The father was a native of German}'. In 
that land he spent his early life, acquired his edu- 
cation and learned the carpenter's trade, which he 
followed in the land of his birth until thirty-live 
years of age, when he came to the United States. 
It was in 1835 that he crossed the broad Atlantic 
and located in Milwaukee, Wis., where he remained 
working as a carpenter until 1853. It was then 
that he removed to St. Louis, Mo., and in that city 
he spent the rest of his life, being called to his 



306 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



final home in 1862. His wife passed away in Mil- 
waukee in 1845, when our subject was on-ly three 
years of age. 

Mr. Dorman of this sketch remained at home 
until a young man of seventeen years and spent 
his time midst play and work. In the public 
schools he acquired his education, and under his 
father's instruction learned the carpenter's trade. 
In his eighteenth year he became a resident of 
Olney and began working in a brick-yard, where 
'he was employed until April, 1861. At the first 
call for volunteers to serve in the late war, he re- 
sponded to the country's call for troops and joined 
the boys in blue of Company G, Twenty-first Illi- 
nois Infantry, in which he served for three years. 
On the expiration of his term he re-enlisted as a 
veteran, and followed the Stars and Stripes until 
the preservation of the Union was an assured fact. 
He was captured at the battle of Stone River, and 
was confined in Libby Prison for three months, 
a weary period to the soldier boy, who was anx- 
ious to aid his country on the battlefield. He 
participated in the engagements at Nashville, 
Chickamauga and several others of importance. 

When the war was over, Mr. Dorman returned 
to Olney and resumed work at his trade. In Sep- 
tember, 1866, he was united in marriage with Miss 
Caroline Clem, who was born April 7, 1844, in 
Indiana, and is the daughter of Joel and Magda- 
line (Kesler) Clem. Four sons have been born of 
this union. Alonzo and Harry are engaged in the 
hardware business in Gays, 111.; Clarence is a 
farmer in this county; and Glenn is still at home. 
The children have all received good educational 
privileges and are now well fitted for the practical 
duties of life. 

The home of the Dorman family is a pleasant 
and comfortable residence on a good farm of 
twenty acres, which adjoins the corporation limits 
of Olney. It is well improved with all modern 
accessories and is a desirable place. In political 
faith, our subject is a Republican, and warmly ad- 
vocates the principles of the party. Socially, he is 
a member of Eli Bowyer Post No. 92, G. A. R., of 
Olney. He is a member of the Christian Church, 
and his wife belongs to the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. They are highly respected people and 



have a large circle of friends and acquaintances in 
this community. Mr. Dorman was a faithful sol- 
dier during the late war, and with the same fidel- 
ity with which he followed the Old Flag, he per- 
forms his duties of citizenship and discharges 
every trust reposed to him. 




LEXANDER ALTHOUSE, a leading gen- 
eral merchant of Parkerburgh, and a 
prominent and influential citizen of Rich- 
land County, claims Pennsylvania as the 
State of his nativity. He was born in Jenner's Cross 
Roads, Somerset County, January 16, 1837, and 
is a son of Frederick and Catherine (Lichtenber- 
ger) Althouse, both of whom were of German de- 
scent. Until eighteen years of age Alexander 
remained upon the farm, his time being passed in 
the usual manner of farmer lads, but, desiring 
follow some other pursuit than that of agricul- 
ture, he began learning the carpenter's trade. 
Later he engaged in teaching school, and in order 
to further perfect his own education, he attended 
at intervals the Somerset Normal School and the 
Myersdale Normal School. 

Mr. Althouse had nearl}' completed the coin's 
at Somerset when he entered the service of his 
country during the late war. Prompted by patri- 
otic impulses, on the 4th of September, 1861, he 
enlisted in Company C, Fifty-fourth Pennsylva 
nia Infantry, in which he served until honorably 
discharged after a term of three years, Septeml 
4, 1864. He took part in Sheridan's expedition 
in the Shenandoah Valley, participating in tli 
battles of Piedmont, Fredericksburg, Newmarket 
Lynchburg, \Vinchester and many minor engage 
ments. lie received several slight wounds, and at 
Newmarket his clothes were pierced by seven bill 
lets, which luckily did not enter his person. Pro 
moted to the rank of Sergeant, he was also offered 
a Lieutenancy, but declined the honor. 

On leaving the South, Mr. Althouse returned 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



307 



his home in the Keystone State. Wishing to try 
his fortune in the West, he came to Parkersburgh 
in January, 1865, and began working at the car- 
penter's trade. The next year, however, he em- 
barked in the merchandising business, which he has 
since continued. He carries a full stock of general 
merchandise and has the largest store in Parkers- 
burgh. He began in a small way, but from the be- 
ginning his trade has constantly increased, until 
it has now assumed extensive proportions. 

On the 1st of January, 1867, Mr. Althouse was 
united in marriage with Miss Eliza Parker. They 
had one child, who died in infancy. This worthy 
couple are highly respected citizens of Parkers- 
burgh, prominent in social circles, and have the 
warm regard of all. Socially, Mr. Althouse is a 
member of the Grand Army of the Republic. He 
lias been honored with several local offices, the 
duties of which he has promptly and faithfully 
discharged, and with the exception of two and a- 
half years, he lias been Postmaster of Parkersburgh 
since 1868. He exercises his right of franchise in 
support of the Republican party, of which he is a 
warm advocate. His successful business career is 
due to the excellent stock which he carries, his 
earnest desire to please his customers, his courte- 
ous treatment, and his fair and honest dealing, 
and lie iias the confidence and good-will of all. 






?ULLER NIGH, Justice of the Peace, loan 
N^to and collection agent of Newton, III., is a 
/l\ pioneer settler of Jasper County, who dates 
his residence here from February, 1855. He was 
born in London ville, then Richland County, but 
now Ashland County, Ohio, July 6, 1831, and is 
a son of Lawrence and Nancy (McCarl) Nigh. His 
father was a native of Pennsylvania, and his mother 
was born on the Emerald Isle. Both are now de- 
ceased. In 1844, they removed with their family 
to Lawrence County, 1 11., where they effected a set- 
tlement and spent the remainder of their days. 



Our subject was but thirteen years of age when 
he came to this State. He had attended school in 
his old home but was too young to have acquired 
much education prior to his removal Westward. 
In his new home at that early day he found very 
limited advantages for instruction, yet he attended 
the district schools for a short time. His father 
was a saddler and harness-maker and under his 
direction the son learned that trade. He did not 
like it, however, and in consequence never followed 
it as a vocation. His early manhood was largely 
spent on a farm. When the California "gold fever" 
of 1849 broke out, he was desirous of joining the 
first delegation of emigrants for the gold regions 
of the West, but was unable to get away until the 
following year. In the spring of 1850, he set out 
with a small party across the plains. The party 
consisted of five men and one woman, the wife of 
one of the compan}'. They were equipped with 
twenty-five fine horses and a number of wagons, 
fully supplied witli a good lot of provisions, tools 
and arms, and in fact well fitted out for the trip. 
They crossed the Missouri River at St. Joseph, Mo., 
continued their journey by way of Salt Lake, and 
after one hundred and seventeen days of travel 
from St. Joseph, they reached the Sacramento 
River. They traveled mostly by themselves, avoid- 
ing the large caravans for the sake of securing bet- 
ter pasture for their stock. They were never mo- 
lested by the Indians save on one occasion, when 
Mr. Nigh was herding the horses at a point some 
four miles distant from the roads and from where 
his companions were passing the night. He was 
alone and unarmed except with a heavy stock 
whip. While reclining on an elevated spot, 
watching his sleeping horses, his elbow resting 
on the ground, his head supported by one hand, 
he was surprised by the whiz of an Indian 
arrow, which passed his cheek, and by the stam- 
peding of the horses. In the attempt to stop the 
horses, he missed seeing the Indian, who made good 
his escape. By the aid of a companion the horses 
were all recovered the following day, several miles 
distant. The attack was made about midnight and 
probably by a single Indian, asone was shota short 
time later by another party of emigrants, while he 
was trying to stampede their stock. 



308 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



On reaching the gold fields, Mr. Nigh on account 
of impaired health was unable to engage in placer- 
mining for he could not work in the water, so en- 
gaged in trading and contracting to supply wood 
for the steamlx>ats on the Sacramento River. He 
hired the wood cut and hauled to the Yuba River, 
where, after loading it onto small tlatboats, the 
boats were dropped down the Yuba into the 
Sacramento, where they were picked up by pass- 
ing steamers, towed to port and the wood trans- 
ferred to the steamers for which it was intended. 
Mr. Nigh secured a claim to sonic three hun- 
dred and twenty acres of land in the valley of 
the Sacramento, half of which was timber and half 
meadow. It has since become quite valuable and 
a flourishing village is located on one of the tracts 
that is named Nighville. The town was given that 
name from the fact of Mr. Nigh having been the 
earliest settler there. 

After spending four years in California, oursub- 
ject found his health seriously impaired and was ad- 
vised by his physicians to take a sea voyage. It oc- 
curred to him that he could accomplish this by mak- 
ing a trip home, and he decided to visit his friends, 
after which he expected to return to California and 
resume business. He took passage from San Fran- 
cisco to Panama, crossed the Isthmus on muleback 
and sailed for New York, in due time reaching his 
home, where he took his friends by surprise. His 
parents, being advanced in years, were very much 
opposed to his returning to California, fearing that 
they would never see him again if he did. He 
yielded to their persuasions and remained in Illi- 
nois. He had left his business in California in the 
hands of a supposed friend, but through bad man- 
agement or dishonesty ,_ this man caused Mr. Nigh 
the loss of what would, if cared for, have proved 
a very valuable property. However, he was quite 
successful in his business while there and brought 
back with him a fair return for his venture. 

In February, 1855, soon after his return, Mr. 
Nigh came to Newton, where he was employed as a 
merchant's clerk for several years. In 1866, he en- 
gaged in merchandising in Newton and continued 
in that line until 1878, when he sold out and em- 
barked in farming, still maintaining his home in 
tliis place. Mr. Nigh was married in Newton, Oc- 



tober 27, 1857, to Miss Sarah M., daughter of Ben- 
jamin Harris, an early settler of Jasper County. 
She was born in this city and was a consistent mem- 
ber of the Presbyterian Church. Her death occur- 
red on the 19th of May, 1881. Nine children 
were born of that marriage: Elizabeth, now the 
wife of Dr. A. A. Franke; William and Rosa, both 
deceased; Belle, Joseph, Charles, Edward, Frank 
and Fred. 

In politics. Mr. Nigh is a Democrat. His first 
official duties were in the capacity of Constable. 
In 1862 he was elected Sheriff and served a term 
of two years. He was chosen Supervisor, holding 
the office eight or nine terms. He also served as a 
member of the School Board and of the Newton 
City Council, and for eight years has been Justice 
of the Peace. He is a Knight-Templar Mason, a 
member of Newton Lodge No. 216, A.F. & A. M.; 
Newton Chapter No. 109, R. A. M.; and Gorin 
Commandery No. 14, K. T. 

Mr. Nigh is the owner of three farms in Jasper 
County, aggregating four hundred acres, together 
with a good coal mine and rock quarry which are 
successfully operated. His rock quarry is the best 
in Jasper County. Our subject was actively iden- 
tified with the building of the first railroad in this 
county, then the Grayville & Mattoon Railroad, 
now a part of the Peoria, Decatur & Evansville. 
The enterprise had been undertaken by others in 
an early day, but after issuing bonds and con tract- 
ing for building the road a deadlock occurred, and 
the people waited in vain for nearly twenty years 
for the promised road. In 1874, Mr. Nigh was ap- 
pointed one of the two County Commissioners 
appointed to investigate and secure the completion 
of the road if possible. A meeting was called at 
Olney, the old bonds were negotiated for, new con- 
tracts were let and the road was built from Park- 
ersburg to Mattoon and afterward extended to 
Toledo. On its completion to Toledo the company 
failed and Mr. Nigh was appointed receiver. He 
succeeded in settling up the affairs of the company, 
and as contractor built the road from Toledo to 
Mattoon, a distance of nineteen miles, and held his 
position as director until the present company, the 
Peoria, Decatur <fe Evansville, purchased and se- 
cured possession of the road. 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



309 



While serving as Sheriff of Jasper County, Mr. 
Nigh proved a very ellicient and successful officer 
and displayed superior ability as a detective, 
especially in hunting down and capturing horse- 
thieves, until his name became a terror to that class 
of criminals throughout southern Illinois. Mr. 
Nigh has now been a resident of Newton for nearly 
forty years and enjoys an extended acquaintance 
throughout Jasper and adjoining counties, where 
he has been known for all these years as an upright 
and influential business man, whose integrity is 
beyond question and who has always been true to 
his friends, fair to all, and ever to be relied upon. 




WILLIAM B. TOLLIVER, who carries on 
agricultural pursuits on section 32, Den- 
ver Township, has lived in Richland 
County since 1861, and in the third of a century 
which has since passed has been prominently con- 
nected with the upbuilding and development of 
the community in which he makes his home. He 
was born in Lawrence County, Ind., February 12, 
1839. Tradition says that two brothers from Eng- 
land crossed the Atlantic, settled in North Caro- 
lina, and were the founders of the family in Amer- 
ica. Both the grandfathers of our subject were 
natives of that State. Jesse Tol liver was a large 
land and slave-holder there. 

Allen Tolliver, father of our subject, was born 
in North Carolina in 1803, and grew to manhood 
on a plantation. In 1824, he emigrated to Indi- 
ana, where he made a claim and developed a good 
farm in the midst of the forest. He owned large 
tracts of land in Illinois and the Hoosier State, but 
died on the old homestead in Indiana, after hav- 
ing gained a fortune to leave to his family. He 
married Susan Finger, a lady of German descent, 
who died in 1847. His death occurred February 
21, 1891. He was a man who had the respect of 
all who knew him and lived an honorable, upright 
life. AVith one exception the twelve children are 
all living. Frances is the wife of Abraham Davis, of 



southwestern Missouri; John is an extensive land- 
owner of Lawrence County, Ind.; Jesse is living 
in Noble, 111.; Joseph served in the Confederate 
army, and is now a farmer of Arlington, Tex.; 
William is the next younger; Jacob is a successful 
farmer of Richland County; George is living on a 
farm near Noble; Riley, one of the boys in blue, 
makes his home in Washington; Kate, Mrs. Field, 
lives in Oklahoma. After the death of his first 
wife, Mr. Tolliver married Mahala Laswull, who is 
now living in Denver Township at the age of 
eighty-two years. She became the mother of two 
children: Henry, a farmer of this county; and 
Susan, now deceased. 

The subject of this sketch spent his boyhood in 
a log cabin and upon a farm covered with rocks 
and stumps. Many hours of his youth were spent 
in clearing these away. On attaining his major- 
ity he left home to begin life for himself. In No- 
vember, 1859, he came to Illinois, and, purchasing 
a team, operated a rented farm in Jasper County 
for two years. In the fall of 1861 he came to 
Richland County and bought one hundred and 
twenty acres of land, upon which he has since re- 
sided. He now owns one hundred and forty acres 
of well-improved and highly cultivated land, and 
is successfully engaged in agricultural pursuits. 

In March, 1863, Mr. Tolliver married Rebecca 
J., daughter of Moses and Rachel Hawkins, who 
located in Jasper County in 1852. Mrs. Tolliver 
was born in Jefferson County, Ind. To her hus- 
band she has proved a faithful helpmate and nota 
little of his success in life is due to her aid. She 
has become the mother of six children, but only 
two are living; Allen D. died when nine, and 
Avery J. died when six years of age; Cora E., who 
was a successful teacher of the county, is now the 
wife of Albert Slack, a farmer and carpenter of 
Jasper County; Charles G. aids in the operation 
of the home farm. 

For many years Mr. and Mrs. Tolliver have been 
members of the Baptist Church, in the work of 
which they take an active interest. He has served 
as a member of the County Board of Supervisors 
for two years, has been School Trusteo and High- 
way Commissioner. His first Presidential vote 
was cast for Abraham Lincoln, and since that time 



310 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



he has usually supported the Republican party. 
His duties of citizenship are ever faithfully per- 
formed and he is alike true to every public and 
private trust. His true worth and ability have 
made him a valued member of society and have 
won him high respect. 




C. MILLS, one of the extensive 
farmers and stock-raisers of Jasper County, 
living in Grandville Township, is a prom- 
inent and influential citizen, and well deserves rep- 
resentation in this volume. His life record is as 
follows: He was born in Pitt County, N. C., Feb- 
ruary 8, 1836, and is a son of Churchill and Hol- 
land (I)ickson) Mills, who were natives of Ihe 
same State. Their family numbered ten children: 
Patsy, Thomas, Mac S., William C., Wyatt J., John 
II., Henry, Asa, Leonard and Owen. The father 
of this family was a farmer throughout his entire 
life. He remained in North Carolina until 1840, 
when he emigrated to Crawford County, 111., lo- 
cating in Palestine. He made the trip with one 
horse and a cart. His wife had to walk part of 
the way and carry one of the children in her arms. 
Mr. Mills pre-empted some land near Palestine, 
and in the midst of the forest built a log cabin, 
16x18 feet, and began the development of a farm, 
upon which he resided for five years. He then 
entered and pre-empted three hundred and 
twenty acres of land in Crawford County, within 
six miles of Robinson, and there made his home 
until 1870. In that year he took up his residence 
in Diola, 111., upon a farm. Six years later he 
went to Leon, Tex., where he purchased a five hun- 
dred acre tract of land, and thereon lived until 
called to the home beyond. He died December 19, 
1892. The day following would have been his 
eighty-fourth birthday. In politics he was a Re- 
publican, and was a man of sterling worth and 
highly respected. The mother of our subject died 
in September, 1865, after which Mr. Mills was 
again married. His second wife is still living. 



They had five children: Joseph. Sarah, Albert, 
Allen and Rhoda M. 

We now take up the personal history of our sub- 
ject, who was about four years old when he came 
with his parents to Illinois. He was reared in 
Crawford County, and in the subscription schools 
of the neighborhood acquired his education. He 
remained with his father until he had attained his 
majority, and then started out in life for himself. 
His father gave him twenty acres of land, and with 
this as a nucleus he has built up his present for- 
tune. He began working as a farm hand during 
the summer months and in the winter season 
chopped wood and split rails. He was thus em- 
ployed until the breaking out of the war. 

In April, 1861, Mr. Mills gallantly responded to 
the call for troops, and joined the boys in blue of 
Company I, Twenty-first Illinois Infantry. He 
was mustered in as a private at Mattoon, and took 
part in his first active engagem ent at Frederick- 
town, Mo. This was followed by the battles of 
Perryville, Ky., Murfreesboro and Chickamauga, 
where he was taken prisoner September 20, 1863. 
He was first put in a stockade at Atlanta, but af- 
ter a short time was taken to Belle Isle, where he 
lay for nine days, after which he was sent to Rich- 
mond, where he was held as a prisoner for two 
months. He was then taken to Danville, Va., and 
incarcerated in a tobacco house during the winter. 
Later he was sent to Andersonville, where he was 
held as a captive from April until the following 
March. He was released in April. 1865, after a 
prison life of over eighteen months. He then re- 
ceived an honorable discharge from the service. 
His army career was one of hardship, for those who 
languished in Southern prisons often had more 
severe suffering to endure than those who met 
wounds on the field of battle. 

On being mustered out, Mr. Mills returned to 
his home in Crawford County. On the 17th of 
January, 1867, he married Miss Rhoda A., daugh- 
ter of Randall and Caroline (Bargher) Haddock. 
Unto them were born thirteen children, as follows: 
Herma II., Mitchell E., Sarah A. C., Letitia M., 
Victor O., Virgil (deceased), William C., Noali 
<)., Rhoda A., Luke F., Grace E., Mary O. and 
Goldie L. F. 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



311 



Mr. Mills has followed farming throughout his 
entire life. He devoted his energies to the culti- 
vation of his land in Crawford County until 
18G8, when he purchased a farm near Diana, Cum- 
berland County and there made his home until 
April, 1876. That year witnessed his arrival in 
Jasper County. He first purchased three hundred 
acres of partially improved land on section 7, 
Granville Township, and engaged in its cultiva- 
tion until 1881, when he removed to the farm 
which is still his home. He now owns six hun- 
dred acres of good land, and is extensively en- 
gaged in general farming and stock-raising. He 
is a man of excellent business ability, as will be 
seen by the success that has attended his efforts. 
Through his enterprise, industry and good manage- 
ment, he has gained a handsome competence, which 
makes him one of the wealthy citizens of Jasper 
County. 

In his political views, Mr. Mills is a stanch ad- 
vocate of Republican principles, but has never 
been an aspirant for official honors, preferring to 
devote his time and attention to business interests, 
in which he has met with signal success. His wife 
is a member of the Presbyterian Church, and is a 
most estimable lady. The family is widely and 
favorably known in the community. Mr. Mills is 
a public-spirited and progressive citizen, who man- 
ifests a commendable interest in all that pertains 
to the welfare of the community. 



eHARLES EVERSMAN, the senior member 
of the firm of C. Eversman & Son, dealers 
in drugs and general merchandise at Teu- 
topolis, began business in this place in 1876, suc- 
ceeding his father, w*to had previously carried on 
a store. A life record of this well-known mer- 
chant is as follows: He was born in Iburg, Han- 
over, Germany, on the 30lh of August, 1843, and 
was brought by his parents to America in 1845, 
when twenty-one months old. The family flrst 
located in Cincinnati, Ohio, where they spent 



about seven years, and thence came to Teutopolis, 
111., reaching their destination on the 2d of May, 
1852. Charles acquired his education in the Cath- 
olic University of Notre Dame, in South Bend, 
Ind., and when his school life was over he re- 
turned to his home and engaged in farming. He 
was thus employed until 1866, when his father 
opened a drug store in Teutopolis and Charles en- 
tered upon the duties of salesman in that establish- 
ment. Until 1876 he continued to act as clerk, 
and then bought out the business. 

On the 22d of November, 1871, Mr. Eversman 
of this sketch was united in marriage with Miss 
Catherine Busse, a daughter of Gerhard and Mar- 
garet (Uphouse) Busse. Her parents are both now 
deceased. She was born in Teutopolis, December 
16, 1850. By the union of our subject and his 
wife have been born four children, two sons and two 
daughters, namely: Frank F. J., born October 9, 
1872; Leo George C., born April 17, 1874; Doro- 
thea Henrietta, born March 27, 1877; and Catherine 
Elizabeth, born July 7, 1880. The eldest son at- 
tended the parochial schools until sixteen years 
of age and was graduated from St. Joseph's Col- 
lege. He then assisted his father in the store and 
on the 1st of February, 1882, was admitted to 
partnership in the business. Leo was educated in 
the same school as his brother and is now working 
in a flouring-mill. The daughters are yet attend- 
ing school. The children have all received good 
advantages in this direction and are therefore 
well fitted for the practical and responsible duties 
of life. The family are all members of the Catho- 
lic Church. 

Mr. Eversman carried on the drug business until 
September, 1892, when he added to it a stock of 
dry-goods and groceries. He is doing a successful 
business and enjoys a liberal trade. In connection 
with this property he also owns an interest in a 
good farm of two hundred acres, pleasantly situ- 
ated two miles south of Teutopolis. Socially, 
Mr. Eversman is connected with the Catholic 
Knights of America, being one of the Charter 
members of his lodge. In politics he is a stalwart 
advocate of Democratic principles. He takes a 
very prominent part in political affairs and does 
all in his power to advance the interests of his 



312 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



party, speaking in every campaign. His worth 
and ability have been recognized by his fellow- 
citizens, who have called upon him to serve in a 
number of public positions of honor and trust. 
He has been a member of the Village Council for 
four years, was Supervisor for three years, Town 
Clerk for nine years, Justice of the Peace for 
twelve years, Commissioner of Highways for three 
years, Assistant Postmaster for twelve years, and for 
six years Notary Public. Hisprompt and faithful 
discharge of duty led to his frequent elections 
and his long continuance in office when once in- 
stalled therein. 



^ AHTIN F. COWMAN, who carries on gen- 
1\\ eral farming on section 4, AVade Township, 
111 Jasper County, is a native of the Hoosier 
State. He was born in Putnam County, 
Ind., May 25, 1856, and is a son of Samuel and 
Margaret (Westbrook) Cowman. The Cowman 
family is of German descent and was founded in 
America by the grandfather of our subject, John 
Cowman, who became one of the pioneer settlers 
of Highland County, Ohio. He located in the wild- 
erness and cleared and developed a farm, on which 
he reared his family. His son Samuel was born in 
Ohio, and after attaining to mature years married 
Margaret Westbrook, a native of Pennsylvania, 
and a daughter of Martin Westbrook, who was also 
born in the Keystone State and became one of the 
early settlers of Highland Count}', Ohio. Their 
marriage was celebrated in Putnam County, Ind., 
where the}' located when it was almost a wilderness. 
They afterward removed to Stark County, where 
Mr. Cowman engaged in farming for a few years, 
and then came to Illinois. After a residence in 
Cumberland County, he returned to Stark County, 
Ind., and in 1860 he removed to Edgar County, 111., 
and from there came to Jasper County in 1865. 
A few years later he purchased a tract of prairie 
land and began the development of a farm, upon 
which our subject now resides. It was then in its 



primitive condition, but he improved and culti- 
vated it until it became one of the finest farms of 
this locality. Mr. Cowman continued to engage 
in agricultural pursuits until his labors of life were 
ended. He passed away December 31, 1877, re- 
spected by all who knew him. His wife died on 
the 10th of the same month, and they were laid 
side by side in Brick Cemetery, where a marble slab 
marks their last resting-place. 

Of their family, two sons and two daughters 
grew to mature years. The eldest, Harriet E., is 
now the wife of Nathan Thomas, whose sketch ap- 
pears elsewhere in this work. Emily Jane is the 
wife of Ira Scott, of Jewell County, Kan. Martin 
is the next younger. George M. is a farmer re- 
siding in Olney, Richland County. 

Our subject spent the first nine years of his life 
in the State of his nativity, and then came with 
his parents to Illinois, where he grew to manhood. 
He received good school privileges, being educated 
in the common schools and the Newton Select 
School. He remained at home until after the death 
of his parents, when he took charge of the home 
farm and bought out the interest of the other heirs, 
so that he is now the owner of the old homestead, 
a valuable and desirable place, which is considered 
one of the finest farms in the township. 

On the 4th of September, 1878, Mr. Cowman was 
united in marriage with Miss Anna M. Harris, who 
was born in Adams County, Ohio, September 28, 
1849. Her father, G. D. Harris was of English de- 
scent, born at Newport, Campbell County, Ky., 
May 4, 1818. His father, Thomas Harris, served 
as a soldier in the War of 1 8 1 2. He married Nancy 
Ann Wollen, by whom he reared a large family. 
December 6, 1847, G. D. Harris was joined in mar- 
riage with Miss Melinda Baird, a native of Adams 
County, Ohio, born September 23, 1816, a daughter 
of Robert and Margaret W. (Davis) Baird, of 
Scotch-Irish ancestry. Mr. Harris was a carpenter 
and builder by trade. His Carriage took place in 
Ada T.S County, Ohio, after which he returned to 
Kentucky with his young bride, where they resided 
until about 1859, when they lemoved toOhio,set- 
tling in Adams County. They were the parents of 
four children, only two of whom grew to maturity, 
Mrs. Cowman, and Mary R., who is the wife of J. 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



313 



W. Morgan, of Henderson, Ky. Mr. Harris died 
at liis home in Ohio, May 25, 1877, and Mrs. Har- 
ris' death occurred at the home of her daughter in 
Jasper County, 111., July 20, 1887. Mr. and Mrs. 
Cowman have four children: Edith F., Florence E., 
Ada M. and Nellie. Mrs. Cowman was for several 
years a successful teacher, having taught in Ken- 
tucky and Ohio before coming to Illinois, and she 
taugiit two terms in Jasper County after her ar- 
rival here in 1877. The Cowman household is the 
abode of hospitality and the parents are well-known 
people of this community, highly esteemed for 
their sterling worth. 

Mr. Cowman has spent nearly his entire life in 
Jasper County and has witnessed much of its 
growth and development. He is a faithful citizen 
and takes a commendable interest in all that per- 
tains to the welfare of the community and its up- 
building. In politics he is a stanch Republican, 
warmly advocating the principles of that party, and 
has supported each of its Presidential nominees 
since casting his first vote for Gen. James A. Gar- 
field. 




Isle, 



ICIIAEL GALLAGHER, a prominent far- 
mer and representative citzen of Decker 
Township, Richland County, whose home 
is on section 11, is a native of the Emerald 
his birth having occurred in West Meath 
County, Ireland, in 1823. His father, James Gal- 
lagher, spent his entire life in that county, and in 
pursuit of fortune followed the occupation of 
fanning. The mother of our subject bore the 
maiden name of Elizabeth Riley. and was also a 
native of the same locality. They had a family of 
nine children, of whom three sons came to Amer- 
ica. 

At the age of seventeen years, Michael Galla- 
gher crossed the Atlantic. He was accompanied 
by his mother, sister Marcella and brother Patrick. 
They sailed from Liverpool, and after a pleasant 
voyage of eight weeks landed at New Orleans, 



whence they made their way by boat to Evans- 
ville, Ind., joining John Gallagher, brother of 
our subject, who had preceded them to the New 
World. Michael worked on the railroad for a 
year, and then with the money which he had saved 
purchased in 1854 forty acres of land, the nucleus 
of his present farm. The mother lived with her 
children until her death, and was buried on the 
homestead of our subject. 

Mr. Gallagher had very limited educational 
privileges, and his advantages in other directions 
were almost as meagre. He early learned hard 
work, however, and thereby developed a self-re- 
liance and force of character that have proven of 
incalculable benefit to him in his later years. Af- 
ter locating upon his farm lie practiced an eco- 
nomical and thrifty course of living, and the in- 
dustry and enterprise which have characterized 
his entire career marked his efforts. In that way 
his financial resources were increased, and from 
time to time he added to his landed possessions 
until his farm now comprises two hundred and 
forty-three acres of valuable land, which yields to 
him a golden tribute in return for the care and 
labor he bestows upon it. He has also given land 
to his children. 

In 1858 Mr. Gallagher married Libby Hughes, 
who was born in Decker Township, as was her fa- 
ther, John Hughes. Her mother, whose maiden 
name was Mandy Morris, was a native of Ken- 
tucky. Eight children have been born to our sub- 
ject and his wife: Joseph, Jesse and George, who 
are farmers of Richland County; Michael at home; 
Thomas at home; Mandy, wife of John Williams, 
of Wayne County; Lydia, wife of William O. 
Donnell, of this county; and Libby A., who is still 
under the parental roof. The children were all 
born and reared on the home farm and have re- 
ceived good educational advantages, which have 
thus fitted them for the practical duties of life. 

Mr. and Mrs. Gallagher are active and faithful 
members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and 
in politics, he has been a stanch Democrat since 
casting his first vote for James Buchanan. Thirty - 
nine years have passed since Mr. Gallagher came 
to Richland County, and his long residence here 
has made him one of its respected and valued cit- 



314 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



izens. He has aided greatly in the development 
and upbuilding of the county and with its history 
his life is inseparably connected. Mr. Gallagher 
need never regret his emigration to America, for 
he lias here found a good home and many warm 
friends. 




WILLIAM DONALDSON, a retired farmer 
residing in Mason, claims Ohio as the 
State of his nativity. He was born in 
Georgetown, the county seat of Brown County, 
August 9, 1821, and is of Irish, Scotch' and Ger- 
man descent. Andrew Donaldson, the grandfather 
of our subject, was of Irish descent but married a 
Scotch lady, and they had a large family of chil- 
dren. He probably served as a soldier in the Revo- 
lutionary War, and lived to the age of ninety years, 
while his wife's death occurred at the age of eighty- 
seven years. Their son, Andrew Donaldson, was 
the father of our subject. He was born in George- 
town, Ohio, and in early life became a surveyor. 
He afterward followed farming, and later engaged 
in coopering. He spent seven years as a surveyor 
in Indiana and Ohio in early days, when the Ind- 
ians still lived in those localities. In Brown 
County of the latter State he married Catherine 
Baxter, a native of Charleston, W. Va., and a 
daughter of Allen Baxter, a farmer who resided 
about three miles east of Charleston, in that State. 
He was a prominent Methodist and took quite an 
active part in church work. Both he and his wife 
lived to an advanced age. 

After the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Donaldson 
they located in Ohio, but subsequently returned to 
Virginia, where they spent about four years. They 
then became residents of Boone County, Ky., where 
they lived until 1853. In that year they removed 
to Perry County, III., and Mr. Donaldson pur- 
chased a farm near Pigeonville, where he and his 
wife and a little niece died within three days of 
each other of typhus fever. He was sixty-three 
years of age and his wife was sixty at the time 



of their deaths. She was a member of the Meth- 
odist Church. Mr. Donaldson had served as a re- 
cruiting officer in the War of 1812. This worthy 
couple had a family of ten children, five sons and 
five daughters, of whom three sons and three 
daughters are yet living: William; Allen; Jane, 
wife of Emory Hobbs; Joseph; Caroline, wife of 
Andrew Hobbs; and Mrs. Minerva Williams, of 
Gallatin County, Ky. 

William Donaldson, whose name heads this 
record, was reared in Petersburg!!, Boone County, 
Ky., acquired his education in the common schools, 
and at the age of fourteen years began learning 
the cooper's trade. After attaining to man's estate 
he was married, on the 2d of July, 1846, to Miss 
Sarah Ann, daughter of William and Sarah (Chase) 
Wingate, natives of Maryland. Nine children 
were born to our subject and his wife, but three 
are now deceased, namely: Anna Vista, the eld- 
est; William A., the fifth child, and Henry W., 
the seventh child. With one exception the other 
children are all married. Josephine became the 
wife of David Thistle wood, who died in the fall 
of 1886, and she resides in Cairo, 111. She had four 
children, but Cora is the only one now living. Cath- 
erine is the wife of Dr. Condon, of Perry, Iowa,, 
and they have a son, Charles. Luc married John 
C. Lee, of Mason, and they have two children, 
David G. and Hall. Charles married Elizabeth, 
daughter of David Drury, and resides upon a farm 
in Mason Township with his wife and their son 
Percy. Cora is the wife of Roy Wright, who fol- 
lows farming in Mason Township just south of the 
village. Thomas is the youngest member of this 
family. 

On the. 14th of April, 1860, Mr. Donaldson came 
to Illinois from Carrollton, Ky.,and located in the 
village of Mason. In 1858 he purchased what was 
known as the Hamilton Farm, comprising one 
hundred and sixty acres of land a mile from the 
village. After a year's residence in Mason he re- 
moved to the farm, and its boundaries he subse- 
quently extended by the purchase of another one 
hundred and sixty acres of prairie land and one 
hundred and twenty acres of timberland, making 
in all four hundred and forty acres. He has since 
sold eighty acres of the timber tract. The farm 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



315 



at the time of his removal hither had all been 
fenced, but more than half of it was unplowed, and 
deer used to run over the land close to his house. 
He improved the place with numerous buildings, 
including a substantial and pleasant eight-room 
residence. He also built good barns and outbuild- 
ings, and divided his land into fields of conven- 
ient size, which he placed under a high state of 
cultivation. He was recognized as a successful 
and enterprising agriculturist. 

Mr. Donaldson and his wife are members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, in which he holds 
the office of Steward. Socially, he is connected 
with Mason Lodge No. 217, A. F. & A. M. He 
was also for many years a prominent Odd Fellow, 
and helped to organize three different lodges, of 
which he was a charter member. In his political 
affiliations he is a Prohibitionist. The cause of 
temperance finds in him a warm friend, the church 
an earnest advocate, and all worthy interests cal- 
culated to prove of public benefit a stanch and 
hearty supporter. 




BEL RIDGELY, a well-known farmer and 
stock-raiser, residing in Richland Count}', 
claims Illinois as the State of his nativity. 
He was born in Wabash County, February 
16, 1820, and is the eldest of fifteen children whose 
parents were William and Hannah H. (Simmons) 
Ridgely. The father was a native of Maryland, 
and probably was of Scotch descent. At a very 
early age he was left an orphan. He became a 
ship carpenter at Baltimore, but in March, 1817, 
came to Illinois and settled near Mt. Carmel, a 
pioneer of that locality. His wife was born in the 
Empire State, and was a daughter of Stephen 
Simmons, who when a small boy emigrated from 
his native England to America. At the age of 
fifteen, he entered the Colonial army, and for 
meritorious conduct in the struggle for indepen- 
dence was promoted to the rank of Colonel. 
William Ridgely assisted .Stephen Simmons to 



build the first vessel ever constructed in Ports- 
mouth, Ohio. The parents of our subject came to 
Illinois on a keel-boat, landing at old Palmyra, a 
place not now in existence. The members of the 
Ridgely family were William II., Henry D., Lloyd 
G., Orrick, Abel, Absalom, Mrs. Eliza L. Green- 
hood, Mrs. Orenda Harrison, Mrs. Henrietta Parker, 
Charles and Nicholas (twins), Medad, Samuel, 
Maria, and one who died at birth. 

The subject of this sketch received but limited 
educational privileges. At the age of twenty -six 
he left home and began working at the carpenter's 
trade. In January, 1852, he married Lizzie L. Clod- 
felter, of Edwards County, 111., and they became 
parents of four children: George A., William S., 
Alice L. (wife of William Martin), and Edwin A. 
The mother of this family died about 1862, and 
later Mr. Ridgely wedded Phmbe Ades, by whom 
he had a daughter, Lizzie L. The second wife 
died in 1873. On the 18th of October, 1882, he 
married Mrs. Mary C. Bland, of Edwards County. 
By her first husband, L. II. Bland, she had five 
children: Mrs. Eva Wyatt, Lloyd, Bessie, Wade 
and Mary. 

In 1864, Mr. Ridgely arrived in this county. 
Locating in Olney, he built a hardware store, 
which he carried on for a few j'ears. About 1865, 
he bought his present farm, and it has since been 
his home. At one time he owned seven hundred 
acres of land, but much of this lie has given to his 
children. For many years he raised the largest 
and best crops of wheat grown by any farmer in 
this part of the country, but as he has disposed of 
much of his land, his crops are consequently 
smaller, but none the less excellent in quality. 
His farm is well equipped with good buildings 
and other improvements, and comprises some of 
the best land in the county. In December, 1892, 
his fine home was destroyed by fire, but with char- 
acteristic energy he has begun to rebuild. For 
several years after coining to this county, Mr. 
Ridgely also dealt in farming implements, and 
before his arrival he traveled for several years 
selling fanning-mills. 

In politics Mr. Ridgely is a Republican, but 
has never been an oflice-sceker. He and most of 
his family, are members of the Christian Church. 



316 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



The cause of education finds in him a friend, and 
he takes an active interest in all that pertains to 
the welfare of the community and its upbuilding. 
We see in our subject a self-made man, who be- 
gan life empty-handed, yet has worked his wa}' 
upward, until he is now one of the most prosper- 
ous citizens of the county. Before he was ten 
years old, he earned a half-shilling by chopping 
wood for his grandfather, and to this little nucleus 
lie kept adding until he had $200 when he became 
of age. His indefatigable industry and good 
management have been- the factors in his success. 
He has never undertaken any business enterprise 
in which he did not succeed. Although he has 
carried on business amounting to many thou- 
sand dollars annually, he has never owed any man 
a dollar which he was not prepared to pay on de- 
mand, a fact of which he may well be proud. His 
whole career has been marked by the strictest 
integrity and honor, and he has won universal 
confidence and high regard. 



[[ OHN J. FAUSNACHT, a popular and lead- 
ing farmer of Noble Township, Richland 
County, living on section 12, traces his 
ancestry to one of the Revolutionary heroes. 
His great-grandfather, Jacob Fausnacht, emigrated 
to the New World from his native Germany, and 
aided the Colonies in their struggle for indepen- 
dence. At the battle of Brandywine, he was taken 
prisoner and was nearly starved by the British. 
After the war he lived in Pennsylvania, where he 
followed farming. The grandfather, John Faus- 
nacht. was born in Berks County, Pa., and became 
a pioneer settler of Stark County, Ohio, where, in 
the midst of the forest, he hewed out a farm, 
which is still in the family. He married a Miss 
II inkle, and both died in the Buckeye State. 

Israel Fausnacht, father of our subject, was born 
in Berks County, Pa., about 1818, and when eight 
years old went with his parents to Ohio, being 



reared amid the wild scenes of the frontier. He 
spent his life on the old homestead and died in 
1874. lie was a successful business man, prominent 
in local politics, and supporting the Democratic 
party, although he was never an office-seeker. He 
married Elizabeth Ebie, a native of Virginia, and 
unto them were born five children: John; Peter, 
a farmer of Stark County, Ohio, where Christina, 
George and Mrs. Susan Stichler also live. The 
mother died when our subject was twelve years 
old, and Mr. Fausnacht then married Catherine 
Ebie, a sister of his first wife, by whom he had six 
children: lira. Lydia Wastler, Uriah, Washing- 
ton, Daniel, Lizzie and Amanda. 

On the 24th of February, 1828, in Stark County, 
Ohio, our subject's birth occurred. On the home- 
stead farm he was reared to manhood, and when 
quite young he began work in the fields. He 
could attend school but irregularly, yet acquired 
a good education, and is now a well-informed 
man. At the age of sixteen he began to earn his 
own livelihood by working as a fireman on the 
PittsburghjFort Wayne & Chicago Railroad. When 
eighteen years of age he returned to the farm and 
offered his services to the Government for the late 
war, but was rejected on account of his breast- 
bone being broken. 

On attaining his majority, Mr. Fausnacht began 
farming for himself on rented land. As a com- 
panion and helpmate on life's journey, he chose 
Miss Mary Cordier, and their wedding was cele- 
brated March 25, 1858. She is a native of Stark 
County, and a daughter of Charles and Frances 
(France) Cordier, the former born in Germany, 
and the latter in France. Our subject rented his 
grandfather's farm until the spring of 1866, when 
he started for Missouri, but, stopping in Richland 
County to visit relatives, he bought land in Olney 
Township, and has since lived in this locality. In 
1874 he purchased his present farm, on which was 
a log stable and a log cabin, 16x16 feet, while 
about twenty acres had been cleared. He at once 
began to plow and plant the land, and now has 
one of the best farms in the county, comprising 
one hundred and sixty-seven acres of valuable 
land. For twenty-one years he has engaged iii 
threshing. 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



319 



Unto Mr. and Mrs. Fausnacht were born nine 
children. Elijah, born in Stark County, Ohio, 
March 5, 1859, is section foreman on the Ohio & 
Mississippi Railroad at Flora, and married Sarah 
Lewis; Pluvbe, born September 1, 1861, is the wife 
of Lawrence Fishel, a fanner of Olney Township; 
Clara, born January 18, 1864, is the wife of Joseph 
Newman, a fanner and ranchman of Garfield Coun- 
ty, Colo.; Ann Amelia and Ann Augusta are both 
deceased; Maggie, born in 1870, is the wife of 
Frank Newman, of Garfield County, Colo.; Josie, 
born in 1875, Lewis, born March 23, 1877, and 
Israel, born January 3, 1881, are at home. The 
children have been provided with good educational 
advantages and the family is one of which the 
parents may well be proud. 

Mr. Fausnacht is a supporter of the Republican 
party. He cast his first vote for Gen. Garfield, 
the two having both been reared in the same neigh- 
borhood. When young men they were- well ac- 
quainted. Our subject has been a great reader 
along the line of political questions, history and 
church work. Himself and wife are members of 
the Dunkard Church and are zealous workers in 
its interest. For eight consecutive years he has 
served as School Director. He has lived an up- 
right, honorable life, at peace with all men 
and has never had a law suit. He has man}' 
friends and no enemies, and the high regard in 
which he is held is well merited. 



V. P. R. DUCEY, resident priest of the 
Church of the Sacred Heart of Ettingham, 
and the founder of that church, is a well- 
^_ } known citizen of Ettingham County. A 
native of the old Bay State, he was born in Low- 
ell, Mass., on the 5th of May, 1863, and is the 
eldest son of Patrick and Mary (Ronan) Ducey. 

Our subject began his education in the public 
schools and took a preparatory course in the High 
School of his native city. Later, he was graduated 

15 



from St. Bonaventura Seminary, where he was or- 
dained as a Priest of the Catholic Church on the 
18th of June, 1889. His first mission was in 
Springfield, III., where he went at once after his 
ordination, there serving as assistant to Vicar- 
General T. Hickey. He spent three years in that 
city, during which time he served as President of 
the Catholic Union, as the spiritual director of the 
Catholic Order of Foresters, and as Director of the 
Sacred Heart Society. By his genial, kindly man- 
ner, and his ability and earnestness in the dis- 
charge of his duty, Father Ducey endeared himself 
to his associates, to the local clergy and to the 
people of his church. His Springfield friends fur- 
ther showed their appreciation for the rising young 
clergyman by presenting him with a very liberal 
contribution to the erection of the church in 
Ettingham, over which he was to preside. 

It was in 1892 that Rev. Father Ducey here lo- 
cated. By means of the liberal gift made him ere 
he left Springfield, a much more elaborate finish 
and ornamentation were made to the new church in 
this place than otherwise would have been possible. 
Father Ducey, while comparatively a young man, 
has developed superior ability in his holy calling, 
and by his earnest efforts in behalf of his church, 
and his genial cordial manner, has already won a 
strong hold on the hearts of his new congregation. 




i)HE CHURCH OF THE SACRED HEART, 

of Effingham, the so-called English-speaking 
church of that city, was organized as a so- 
ciety on the 1st of January, 1892, under the direc- 
tion of its present rector, the Rev. P. R. Duceyr 
The corner-stone of the elegant church edifice 
just completed by this society was laid June 23. 
1892, and on the 26th of October following the 
church was duly dedicated by the Rt.-Rev. James 
Ryan, Bishop of Alton, assisted by many of 
the clergy of the diocese. The cost of the entire 
church property of this society, including the 



320 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



priest's home and the school, was about $15,000. 
The church structure is a handsome brick building, 
lighted by colored or cathedral windows, and is 
appropriately furnished and decorated, making a 
cheerful and attractive place of worship. It is 
heated by steam, has a seating capacity of five 
hundred, and the congregation comprises fifty-five 
families. The school is taught by Miss Marj' Healy 
and numbers fifty-two scholars. A. J. Wortnan 
and Thomas Leddy constitute the Board of Trus- 
tees, and the consulters are Frank Bannin, Thomas 
Smith, Samuel Campbell, John C. Eversman, Den- 
nis O'Connell, George Hogan and Henry Fisher. 
The Board of Directors is composed of the follow- 
ing-named gentlemen: Emmctt Bannin, Boniface 
Smith, Joseph Worman, Henry Habing, Reuben 
Speck and John Shea. 

The church societies embrace the Altar Society, 
of which Mrs. Joseph Partride is President, and 
Mrs. Reuben Speck Secretary; the Holy Name 
Society, of which Albert Jakle is President, Dan- 
iel O'Connell Vice-President, and Daniel Gyan 
Secretary; and the Sodality Children of Mary, of 
which Miss Mary Liddy is President, and Mabel 
Campbell Vice-President. 

The Rev. P. R. Ducey, whose sketch appears else- 
where in this work, enjoys the honor of being the 
founder of this model church, to the establishing 
and building of which he brought a substantial 
donation from his warm personal friends among 
the influential members of the Springfield Church, 
to which he had previously been attached. 



PRANKLIN PERRY WOODEN, who car- 
ries on general farming on section 23, Bon- 
pas Township, Richland Count}', and who 
is one of the honored veterans of the late war. 
was born on the 16th of January, 1829, near Bloom- 
ington, Ind. His father, Solomon Wooden, was a 
native of Baltimore, Md. After attaining toman's 
estate, he was united in marriage with Miss Ellen 
Hill, who was born in Kentucky. Her parents, 



however, came from Old Salem, N. C. In a very 
early day Solomon Wooden and his wife took up 
their residence in Monroe County, Ind., and upon 
the farm where they first located they made their 
home until their deaths, which occurred at very 
advanced ages. 

Franklin Wooden lived on the old homestead 
farm until about twenty years of age, and at in- 
tervals attended the subscription schools. In 1849 
he left the parental roof to seek a home and for- 
tune in Richland County, 111. lie located first on 
section 4, Bonpas Township, a farm which had 
been partly improved, and continued its cultiva- 
tion until 1860, when he sold out and bought his 
present farm on section 23 of the same township. 
Only about six acres of the land had been cleared 
at that time, and a log cabin was the onlv im- 
provement upon the place, but with characteristic 
energy he began the work of development. He 
labored early and late, and in course of time the 
land which he plowed and planted yielded to 
him a golden tribute in return for the care and 
labor he bestowed upon it. He now owns one 
hundred and sixty acres, one hundred and twenty 
of which are under a high state of cultivation. It 
is one of the test farms in the county, being im- 
proved with excellent buildings, good fences and 
all the accessories of a model farm. 

On the 17th of January, 1850, Mr. Wooden was 
united in marriage with Martha J., daughter of 
David Gaddy, one of the early settlers of Law- 
rence County, 111. Six children graced their un- 
ion, namely: Mrs. Elizabeth Richards; Francis M.; 
Winnie, who died in infancy; Mrs. Susan Joseph; 
David, a physician of Grayville, 111.; and George, 
who completes the family. 

Mr. Wooden manifested his loyalty to the Un- 
ion during the late war by enlisting in October, 
1861, as one of the boys in blue of Company E, 
Sixth Illinois Cavalry. He was mostly engaged 
in scouting duty, and on the 5th of January, 1865, 
he received an honorable discharge. He took part 
in Gen. Grayson's expedition from La Grange, 
Tenn., to Baton Rouge, La., during which they 
were in the saddle most of the time for seventeen 
days and nights. This raid was made by about 
seven hundred men, detachments from the Sixth 



PORTKAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



321 



and Seventh Regiments of Illinois Cavalry. Many 
interesting incidents occurred during that expedi- 
tion. From Baton Rouge the troops went to Port 
Hudson, where Mr. Wooden was taken prisoner, 
June 21, 1863. For eighteen days he was in Libby 
Prison, and then was exchanged and rejoined his 
regiment in Tennessee. For fifty-two days he was 
in front of Hood's army about Nashville. Though 
he saw much arduous service he escaped without 
wounds. He is now a member of New Calhoun 
Post of the Grand Army of the Republic. Mr. 
Wooden was a faithful soldier, ever found at his 
post of duty, and has been alike true as a citizen 
in times of peace. He cast his first Presidential 
vote for Franklin Pierce, and has since been a 
supporter of the Democracy. 



J" / OHN HAWKINS, a prominent young farm- 
I er residing on section 5, Decker Township, 
Richland County, has spent nearly his entire 
^^ life in this locality, and is widely and favor- 
ably known. His birth, however, occurred in Gib- 
son County, Ind., in 1851, and in the home of Sam- 
uel and Margaret (Montgomery) Hawkins, his 
parents, his boyhood days were passed. In the 
summer months he aided in the labors of the farm, 
and for about three months during the winter 
season he attended the subscription and public 
schools, in which way he gained a fair knowledge 
of the English brandies. When a youth of four- 
teen summers the family came to Illinois and lo- 
cated upon a farm, which lias since been the home 
of our subject. The place was then wild and un- 
improved, but it is now one of the richest tracts of 
land in the community. At the age of twenty our 
subject assumed the management of the old home- 
stead. 

In September, 1872, in Bon pas Township, Mr. 
Hawkins married Miss Lillie Dole, who was born in 
New York, but when a child went to Hamilton, 
Ind., with her parents, Edward and Elizabeth 
(Acker) Dole. Her father was a native of Eng- 



land, but her mother was born in Virginia. After 
four years' residence in the Hoosier State, they re- 
moved with their family to Frankfort, Ky. Since 
his marriage Mr. Hawkins has resided upon the 
home farm, where he now owns one hundred acres 
of valuable land. Of this, ten acres is an orchard, 
and it is but one of the many excellent improve- 
ments upon the place. 

The union of Mr. and Mrs. Hawkins has been 
blessed witli three sons, Wilbur, Harry and Fred- 
die, and the family circle yet remains unbroken, 
the children being still under the parental roof. 
The parents hold membership with the United 
Brethren Church. They give of their time and 
means to church work and the cause of Christian- 
ity finds in them able advocates. Mr. Hawkins is 
a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fel- 
lows of Noble, and his wife is connected with the 
Rebecca Lodge. For six years he has served as 
Commissioner of Highways, and his repeated re- 
elections are excellent evidence of the faithfulness 
and fidelity with which he discharged his official 
duties. In politics, he manifests considerable in- 
terest. His first Presidential vote was cast for 
Samuel J. Tilden, and he has since affiliated with 
the Democracy. He has served as Central Com- 
mitteeman of this township. For twenty-eight 
years his home has been in Richland County, and 
he is well and favorably known as one of her early 
settlers. 






ACOB WEAVER is engaged in general farm- 
ing and stock-raising on section 17, Fox 
Township, Jasper County, and has resided 
upon his present farm for the past twenty 
years. He was born on the 9th of February, 1839, 
in Ohio County, Ind., and is a son of Abraham and 
Catherine (Gibson) Weaver. His father was a 
native of Ohio, and comes of an old German fam- 
ily. Throughout his entire life he was engaged in 
agricultural pursuits. With his wife and children 
he came to Illinois in 1852, and took up his resi- 



322 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



dence in Jasper County. He is still living in 
Smallwood Township. Unto Mr. and Mrs. Weaver 
were born nine children, as follows: George, James, 
Jacob, Sarah, John, Margaret, William, Abraham 
and Catherine. 

Jacob Weaver was a lad of about thirteen years 
when the family came to Illinois. He bore all the 
experiences of frontier life, and was early inured 
to the hard labors of the farm. He was a young 
man when the late war broke out. He had watched 
with interest the progress of events prior to the 
struggle, and in June, 1861, he offered his services 
to his country, enlisting in Company K, Twenty- 
first Illinois Infantry. After being mustered in 
at Springfield, he at once went to the South and 
participated in the battles of Fredericktown, Crab 
Orchard, Stone River and Corinth. He was wound- 
ed December 30, 1862, in the battle of Stone Riv- 
er, receiving a buckshot wound in the knee and 
also in the left arm. He did not recover from these 
injuries for some time, and on account of the dis- 
ability thus occasioned he was honorably dis- 
charged in May, 1863. 

On account of his wounds Mr. Weaver was forced 
to remain at home two years after his return from 
the South, but as soon as possible he began business 
for himself, and was employed in a flouring-mill 
in Mason, 111., until 1869, when with the capital 
he had secured by his industry and enterprise he 
purchased a sawmill. This he operated until 1873, 
when he sold out and began farming. 

Mr. Weaver was married April 15, 1869, the lady 
of his choice being Miss Jennie, daughter of Chris- 
topher and Catherine (Wolf) Rexroad. The lady 
was born in this State December 22, 1844. Ten 
children were born of their union, namely: Nova 
D., who died July 28, 1888; Cortland, who 
died September 2, 1873; Curtis S., born December 
6, 1 873; Katie B., born September 22, 1875; Claude, 
born December 12, 1877; Gertrude, who died Au- 
gust 22, 1880; Maude D., born April 3, 1882; Eu- 
gene, born August 25, 1884; and Leo and Leona, 
twins, born July 30, 1888. 

Mr. Weaver has led a quiet and unassuming life, 
devoting himself to his business interests, yet the 
community finds in him a valued citizen and one 
highly respected for his sterling worth and many 



excellencies of character. Socially, he is connected 
with the Grand Army of the Republic, and he be- 
longs to the Society of Friends. In politics he is 
a supporter of Republican principles. 



ON. EDWARD S. WILSON, late Treasurer 
of the State of Illinois, and one of the most 
prominent men of this commonwealth, is a 
lawyer by profession. To many will this 
record of his life prove interesting, and with 
pleasure we record it in the history of his adopted 
county. He was born in Palestine, Crawford 
County, 111., on the 25th of June, 1839. His par- 
ents, Isaac N. and Hannah H. (Decker) Wilson, 
were natives of Virginia. The father was born in 
Hardy County in 1804, and the mother in Rock- 
bridge. Both are now deceased. Emigrating West- 
ward, they became pioneers of Illinois, for they 
settled in Crawford County in 1814. The father 
died in April, 1888, at the age of eighty-three 
years, and the mother passed away in 1876. Of 
their family, there are now living five sons and a 
daughter. James A. resides in Missouri; Isaac D. 
in Kansas City, Kan.; Luke F. makes his home in 
Kansas City, Mo., in the winter and in Archer 
County, Tex., in the summer; Medford B. resides 
in Indianapolis, Ind., being President of the Cap- 
ital National Bank of that city; Sarah M. is the 
wife of Allen Tindolph, of Vincennes, Ind., where 
her husband is Postmaster; and Edward S., out- 
subject, completes the family. He is its only rep- 
resentative in Illinois. 

Mr. Wilson whose name heads this record was 
educated in Palestine, and began the study of law 
under the preceptorship of Judge J. C. Allen, witli 
whom he studied two years, finishing with Me 
Clernard & Broadwell, a well-known law firm of 
Springfield, 111. He was admitted to the Bar in 
1861, and entered upon the practice of the legal 
profession in Robinson, the county seat of Craw- 
ford County, where he continued three years. The 
year 1864 witnessed his arrival in Richland County. 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



In February of that year lie located in Olney, 
where he lias since made his home. In 1865, he 
formed a law partnership with Judge R. S. Canby, 
of Olney, under the firm name of Canby & Wilson, 
which connection was continued until 1867, when 
Judge Canby was elected to the Circuit Bench. 
He then formed a partnership with T. W. Hutch- 
inson, under the firm name of Wilson & Hutcbin- 
son, which connection continued until 1890, when 
Mr. Wilson was elected State Treasurer of Illinois, 
which office lie filled for two years. 

Mr. Wilson is a Democrat in politics and an ar- 
dent supporter of the principles of that party. He 
was the lirst one of his party elected to the office 
of State Treasurer for a period of thirty years. He 
proved a competent and faithful Stale officer, dis- 
charging Ins duties to the entire satisfaction of his 
constituents. For twenty years he has served as 
Master in Chancery for Richland County, and has 
also filled the ottice of Alderman in the Olney City 
Council. 

On the 16th of June, 1867, Mr. Wilson was mar- 
ried in Olnoy to Miss Ann Rowland, a daughter 
of Townsend H. Rowland, and a native of Richland 
County, where her parents settled at a very early 
day. Four children were born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Wilson, three sons and a daughter. Rowland Lee, 
the eldest, has been employed in banking and is 
now engaged in the real-estate business; June, the 
only daughter, is the wife of Rev. Dr. William A. 
Colledge, a Congregational clergyman of Cadillac, 
Mich.; Glenn is employed in the Capital National 
Bank, of Indianapolis, Ind.; and Isaac N. is a stu- 
dent in the Western Military Academy, of Upper 
Alton, 111. 

Mr. and Mrs. Wilson are members of the Pres- 
byterian Church. Agriculture, horticulture and 
stock-raising have occupied Mr. Wilson's attention 
for a number of years. He has about a thousand 
acres of land in Hichland County. Sixty acres of 
this is an orchard. A portion of the land lies 
within the corporate limits of Olney, where he has 
a fine residence and extensive and beautiful 
grounds. For the past ten years, Mr. Wilson has 
devoted considerable attention to the breeding of 
Clydesdale horses and Shetland ponies, and has 
daring that time produced some very fine speci- 



mens of each variety, that have taken prizes at the 
State fairs. His interest in horses led him Lo take 
a warm interest in securing the State Fair for Ol- 
ney, and he was largely instrumental in accomplish- 
ing that end and fitting up suitable grounds. The 
State Fair was held here two years, in 1887-88. 
The fair grounds are owned by the citj' and con- 
stitute a fine wooded park, of which the citizens of 
Olney are justly proud. 

Mr. Wilson has been prominently identified with 
all important public enterprises of Oluey City and 
Richland County for the past thirty years, and has 
always been a liberal contributor to the same. He 
is a man of great energy and enterprise and his 
progressive spirit has won him success in the var- 
ious works he has undertaken. His public and 
private career has gained for him many acquaint- 
ances and friends, who for his worth esteem him 
highly. It is but just to say that he is one of the 
representative, prominent men of this State. 




ETER BILLINGS is a farmer on section 32, 
|i Decker Township, Richland County. He 
claims Tennessee as the State of his nativ- 
ity, his birth having occurred in White 
County, March 18, 1825. His father, William 
Billings, was born in the same county in 1801, and 
in 1823 wedded Mar}' Davis, of the same State. 
Her father was a native of London, England, and 
her mother of Wales. Mr. Billings died in Bates- 
County, Mo., in 1870. He was a prominent farmer 
and owned large tracts of land. In 1828, he had 
removed to Indiana, and in 1852 became a resi- 
dent of Noble Township, Richland County, from 
where he went to Missouri. The mother of our 
subject died in Indiana in 1841. The children of 
that marriage are Rebecca and John, both deceased; 
Peter, of this sketch; Aaron, a farmer of Clny 
County; Jesse, of Davis County, Ind.; James, of 
Arkansas; Benton, who served in the army; Joseph, 
who was also a soldier and is now living in Girard, 
Kan.; and Nancy, deceased. For his second wife, 



324 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



William Billings married Sarah Schaufner, who 
died in Missouri. He then wedded Mary Hall. For 
many years he was a member of the Baptist Church, 
and was a highly respected citizen. In politics he 
was a Whig and afterwards a Republican. 

The subject of this sketch was about four years 
old when he went with his parents to Indiana, 
where he was reared to manhood amid the wild 
scenes of frontier life. He aided in the arduous 
labors of developing a new farm and took his 
place as one of the regular hands in the field from 
the age of twelve. He left home in 1842, and was 
joined in wedlock with Mary Murray, daughter of 
Timothy Murray. He then operated a rented 
farm for two years, after which he bought eighty 
acres of school land in Lawrence County, 111. A 
log cabin was erected and he began the development 
of a farm. He came by team to Richland County 
in 1852, and purchasing land in Noble Township, 
commenced making the farm which has since been 
his home. Very successful has he been in his bus- 
iness affairs and at one time he owned one thou- 
sand acres of land, bnt lie has since deeded it all to 
his sons with the exception of one hundred and 
seventy acres, comprised in the old homestead. 
Upon it is a fine residence and all the improvements 
found upon a model farm. In connection with 
the cultivation of his fields, he raises fruit and stock 
and has a large orchard of one hundred and five 
acres. 

In 1890, Mr. Billings was called upon to mourn 
the loss of his wife, who died in April, and was 
buried at Freedom Church. He has since married 
Rachel Spiegel, of Crittenden, Ky. The children 
born of the first union are Timothy, who was 
born in Indiana, September 6, 1843, married Jane 
Bateman. and is now living a retired life in Saylor 
Springs, Clay County; John, who died in child- 
hood; Catherine, who died at the age of two years; 
Lewis, Postmaster of Noble; James, who married 
Laura Spiegel, and is a merchant of Noble. One 
daughter has been born of the second union, Ethel, 
born December 9, 1892. 

Mr. and Mrs. Billings are members of the Baptist 
Church of Noble. He has served as Justice of the 
Peace for three years and has been School Director 
and Trustee. He cast his first Presidential vote 



for Zachary Taylor, and was a Whig until the 
dissolution of the party, since which time he has 
been a faithful adherent of the Republican party. 
He gives his support to social, educational and 
moral interests, and never withholds his aid from 
any worthy enterprise calculated to prove of pub- 
lic benefit. His wealth has been achieved as the 
result of hard labor, good management and well- 
directed efforts, and is but the just reward of a well- 
spent and honorable life. He is held in the high- 
est esteem throughout the community, and his ex- 
ample is well worthy of emulation. 



^ ON. ISAAC M. SHUP, an honored veteran 
of the late war and an ex-member of the 
& Illinois Legislature, is a native of the Buck- 
eye State. He was born in Highland County, 
September 6, 1837, and is a son of Jacob and Eliza- 
beth (Harvey) Shup. His parents were born in 
Greene County, Pa. The father's birth occurred in 
1787, and he died in Ohio September 11, 1839, at 
the age of fifty-two years. In 1849 Mrs. Shuj 
removed to Hancock County, Ind., will) her chil- 
dren, and resided in that State until 1853, when 
she brought her family to Jasper County, 111., 
and here spent the remainder of her days. She 
died September 12, 1858. 

Isaac M. Shup accompanied his mother on her 
removal to this county, and in the usual manner 
of farmer lads spent his boyhood days, at work 
upon the farm and in attendance at the district 
school, where he acquired his education. On reach- 
ing manhood, he engaged in farming for himself 
until the breaking out of the late war. Prompt 
by patriotic impulses, and anxious to strike a blov 
for the preservation of the Union, he was among 
the first to enlist. On the llth of May, 1861, he 
became a member of Company K, of the famou 
Twenty-first Illinois Infantry, which was com- 
manded by Col. U. S. Grant, when that famous 
warrior first entered the service in which he was 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



32o 



destined to win such great glory and distinction 
and to render his country such valuable service. 

Mr. Shup was promoted to be First Sergeant, and 
subsequently was unanimously elected by his com- 
pany to a First Lieutenantcy, but being disabled 
and forced to lie in the hospital until the close of 
the war, he was never commissioned. Sergt. Shup 
took part in the following battles and in numerous 
minor engagements: Fredericktown (Mo.), the 
siege of Corinth, and the battle of Stone River, 
where he received a gunshot wound in the left 
leg. He was previously in the hard-fought battle 
of Perryville (Ky.), and later at Chickamauga. 
His regiment was in the Fourth Army Corps, in 
the siege and capture of Atlanta, Ga., involving 
numerous battles, and also took part in the battles 
of Lovejoy, Jonesboro, Spring Hill, and the battle 
of Franklin (Tenn.). At the battle of Nashville, 
Tenn., on the 15th of December, 1864, he was seri- 
ously wounded by a gunshot in the left arm above 
the elbow, which tore away the muscles and flesh 
from the arm, permanently disabling it. He was 
carried from the field and was in the hospital under 
treatment until discharged, August 31, 1865, 
nearly four months after the war ended. Although 
discharged from the service, his wound was not 
fully healed for two years after it was received. 
His discharge was received at Camp Butler, in 
Springfield, 111. 

On the 5th of October, 1867, Mr. Shup was 
united in marriage in Newton, 111., with Miss 
Annie, daughter of John and Mary (Barrett) 
Brooks. She was born in Hancock County, Ind., 
and came to Jasper County in childhood. Mr. and 
Mrs. Shup became the parents of six children, but 
only three are now living. John E., the eldest, 
died in infancy; Clarence L., at the age of nine 
years; and Harry E., aged eight years. The younger 
and surviving children are Gertrude L., May and 
Carl B. 

In politics, Mr. Shup is a Democrat and has held 
various public offices. In July, 1867, he was ap- 
pointed by President Johnson as Postmaster of 
Newton, and served until January 1, 1870. The 
following spring lie was elected Justice of the 
Peace and filled that office until December, 1884, 
when he resigned to take his seat as a member of 



the Thirty-fourth General Assembly of Illinois, to 
which he had been elected the preceding fall. He 
served one term and was appointed to membership 
on some important committees. He has served 
five years as Alderman in the Common Council of 
Newton, and in the spring of 1893 was chosen 
Justice of the Peace once more. 

Mr. and Mrs. Shup are members of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, of which Mr. Shup has 
been Steward and Trustee for eight years. He is 
a Royal Arch Mason, holding membership with 
Newton Lodge No. 216, A. F. & A. M., and Newton 
Chapter No. 109, R. A. M. He is also a member 
of the Ancient Order of United Workmen and of 
Newton Camp No. 479, M. W. A. About 1879, 
Mr. Shup, in company with his nephew, Frank L. 
Shup, purchased the Newton Press, with which he 
was connected for about three years, when he with- 
drew. The paper is now owned and conducted 
by Frank L. Shup. The subject of this sketch is 
one of the well-known old settlers of Jasper County. 
He was a brave soldier, whose crippled arm bears 
testimony to his gallant conduct on the field of 
battle. As a public officer he has always been 
found capable and faithful to duty, and as a cit- 
izen upright, patriotic and reliable. 



JE. O. CLARKE, editor and proprietor of 
the Newton Mentor, and Postmaster of New- 
1 ton, was born near New Harmony, Posey 
County, Ind., December 17, 1848, and is a 
son of J. E. and Angelina Harrison (Tillitt) Clarke. 
His father was a native of Maine, and his mother 
of Kentucky. With their family they emigrated 
to Illinois in 1858, locating in Grayville, White 
County, where the mother still resides. The fa- 
ther died at that place in 1867. 

The subject of this sketch began his school life 
in his native county, but his opportunities were 
quite limited. He was a lad of ten years when 
his parents removed to Illinois. His father was a 
newspaper man and published the Grayville hide- 






326 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



pendent, which paper is still in existence, being 
now published by a brother and nephew of our 
subject. At the age of eleven years J. K. O. Clarke 
began learning the printer's trade in his father's 
office, where he was employed until he had at- 
tained his majority. Here he was largely educated, 
gaining a practical and useful knowledge. When 
he had arrived at man's estate he went to Evans- 
ville, Ind., and was employed in the office of the 
Evansville Daily Journal for seven years, or until 
his father's death, when he returned to Grayville. 
During the twelve succeeding years he was in part- 
nership with his brother in the publication of the 
Independent. On the expiration of that period he 
went to Kansas, and for a time was employed in 
the line of his trade in Newton, of that State, on 
the Newton Kansan. In February, 1888, he ar- 
rived in Newton, 111., and purchased the office and 
business of the Newton Mentor, which he has since 
conducted with marked success. 

Mr. Clarke was married in Evansville, Ind., in 
February, 1872, the lady of his choice being Miss 
Mary S. Price, who was born in Estill County, Ky., 
a daughter of Morton M. and Fanny Price. Their 
union was blessed with a family of four children, 
a son and three daughters, namely: Mabel, Helen, 
Ernest M. and Fanny A. Mrs. Clarke was a mem- 
ber of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and 
a most estimable lady. Her death occurred May 2, 
1888, and was mourned by a large circle of 
friends. 

In politics Mr. Clarke is a radical Republican. 
He cast his first vote for Gen. Grant at his second 
election and has since been a stalwart advocate of 
Republican principles, doing all in his power for 
the promotion of his party's interests. On the 
30th of January, 1890, Mr. Clarke was appointed 
Postmaster of Newton, which position he holds at 
this writing. He is a member of Newton Lodge 
No. 161, I. O. O. F., and of Opal Encampment 
No. 109, of that order. He has represented his 
lodge and encampment in the grand bodies of that 
fraternity, and has been an active and influential 
member for many years. 

The Newton Mentor, of which Mr. Clarke is 
editor and proprietor, was founded in the fall of 
1882 by Charles M. Davis, who issued the first 



number of that paper on the 3d of November. 
In 1888 Mr. Clarke became proprietor, and has 
since conducted it with marked success. The pa- 
per is a five-column quarto, one side of which is 
auxilliary print. It is neatly printed, ably edited 
and is reliably Republican on the political ques- 
tions of the day. In fact, it is a wide-awake Re- 
publican journal and the only one published in 
the interests of that party in Jasper County. The 
office of the Mentor is well appointed and our sub- 
ject enjoys a liberal patronage in the line of job 
work. As a Postmaster, Mr. Clarke is very efficient 
and popular, and by his fellow-citizens he is held 
in high esteem. 




SPRING, deceased, was a worthy 
pioneer of Richland County, and for many 
years a prominent and influential business 
man of Olney. He was born in Lincoln- 
shire, England, December 2, 1806, and was a son 
of Thomas and Margaret Spring. In 1819, when 
thirteen years of age, he emigrated with his par- 
ents to the United States. Soon after landing the 
family set out for Illinois, traveling by stage, 
there being no railway connection with the West 
in those days. The father, who was in feeble 
health, died in Pennsylvania while en route. Mrs. 
Spring continued the journey with her family, 
and after many hardships they reached their desti- 
nation, Edwards County, 111., and joined the well- 
known English colony in Albion of that county. 
There the subject of our sketch grew to man- 
hood, and on the 31st of December, 1841, wa 
married by Judge Walter L. Mayo to Miss Caro- 
line R. Mount. Mrs. Spring was born on Nan- 
tucket Island, Mass., and is a daughter of Format 
Marshall and Mary A. Mount. In April, 1842, 
our subject removed to Olney, and was engaged 
in merchandising in a small way in a room about 
12x14 feet in size. Later he removed to more 
commodious quarters. He subsequently erected 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD 



327 






brick business building at the southwest corner of 
Main and Boone Streets, now occupied by his sons, 
which he occupied until 1868, carrying on an ex- 
tensive business as a general merchant. He also 
dealt in farm produce, which was shipped by water. 

In the meantime, and subsequently, Mr. Spring 
continued merchandising. In 1865, in company 
witli other citizens of capital in Olney, he founded 
the First National Bank of this city, which was 
incorporated December 5 of that year. He was 
elected the first President of the bank and was 
re-elected to that office at each succeeding election 
until 1881, when he withdrew from the institu- 
tion, and on the 14th of February, 1882, in com- 
pany with John N. Horner and others he founded 
the Olney National Bank. He was elected its 
President and held that position during the exist- 
ence of the bank. Owing to the Government call- 
ing in the bonds on which the bank was establishedj 
it was forced to close its existence as a national 
bank in February, 1887, but its proprietors at 
once organized in its place the private banking 
house since known as the Olney Bank, of which 
Mr. Spring was President. He retired from mer- 
chandising in 1866, and subsequently devoted his 
attention to banking, continuing to serve as Pres- 
ident of the Olney Bank until the fall of 1888, 
when on account of increasing years he resigned 
and retired from active business. His death 
occurred on the 21st of August, 1890, at the ripe 
old age of eighty-four years. 

Mr. and Mrs. Spring were blessed with a large 
family. Four children died young and eight 
grew to mature years. Those now living are 
Mary R., who was the second white child born in 
Olney, and who is now the wife of T. W. Scott, of 
Fail-field, III.; Florence E., the wife of J. H. 
Senseman, whose sketch appears elsewhere in this 
work, and who is Cashier of the Olney Bank; 
Edward, who married Miss Kate, daughter of Rev. 
W. E. Ravetiscraft, and is now senior member of 
the firm of Spring Brothers, of Oluej', dealers in 
wool and seeds; Carrie M.; Elizabeth A., wife of 
Medford Powell, of Chicago; Laura, who resides 
with her mother; Han^y B., who married Miss Vic- 
toria Eckenrode, and is the junior member of the 
firm of Spring Brothers, of Olney; and Kate L., 



wife of J. II. Daubury, of Memphis, Tenn. Mrs. 
Spring survives her husband and resides at the 
old homestead in Olney with her unmarried chil- 
dren. 

In politics, Mr. Spring was a Republican. He 
helped to organize the village of Olney in Au- 
gust, 1847, and was chosen the first President of 
the Board of Trustees. He was active in public 
affairs and was known as a man of superior busi- 
ness ability and of the strictest integrity. His 
success, which was marked, was the result of his 
own efforts. 




&HOMAS GARDNER, who is engaged in gen- 
eral farming on section 19, Olney Town- 
ship, has the honor of being a native of 
Richland County, his birth having occurred on the 
16th of December, 1849, within a quarter of a mile 
of his present home. He was the youngest in a 
family of four sons born unto Lorenzo and Eliza 
(Gratehouse) Gardner. His parents were both na- 
tives of Illinois. The father was born in Wabash 
County, July 16, 1817, and when a small child 
came to Richland County with his parents. He 
here spent the remainder of his life, following the 
occupation of farming. He died on the old home- 
stead on the 15th of January, 1880. His wife was 
born in Edwards County, 111., and was called from 
this life December 16, 1851. Both were of English 
extraction and were prominent and well-known 
people. The family is numbered among the pio- 
neer settlers of this locality. 

Our subject was only two years old when his 
mother died. As his father was in poor health, he 
remained upon the old homestead and aided in the 
cultivation of the farm until twenty-nine years of 
age. No event of special importance occurred 
during his youth. His father was again married, 
his second union being with Ann E. Combs, who 
was born in Ohio March 19, 1834. They became 
parents of nine children, six of whom are yet liv- 



328 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



ing, as follows: William J., a farmer, who now op- 
erates the old homestead; Fannie, wife of Jacob 
Ernest, who follows farming in Crawford County, 
111.; Lorenzo D., who operates a farm in Olney 
Township; Charles T., who is still living on the 
old homestead; Sarah A., wife of Joseph Harmon, 
an agriculturist of this county; and Henry C., who 
is also on the old homestead. The mother of this 
family died September 9, 1876, and like her hus- 
band was buried in Mt. Pleasant Cemetery. Our 
subject has but one own brother now living, Joel, a 
prosperous farmer of Edwards County, 111. 

On the 14th of June, 1883, Thomas Gardner was 
united in marriage with Miss Joseph Ferris, a na- 
tive of Ohio, born February 11, 1854. Two chil- 
dren grace this union: Isaand David N. O. The 
parents have a wide acquaintance in this commu- 
nity and are estimable people, well deserving of 
representation in this volume. 

In his political affiliations, Mr. Gardner is a 
Democrat, and warmly advocates the principles of 
that party, although he has never been an office- 
seeker. He has served as School Director in his 
district. He is a member of no religious or- 
ganization, but gives of his means to the support 
of the Christian Church, to which his wife belongs. 
His farm comprises sixty acres of good land, all 
under a high state of cultivation. Born in this 
county, Mr. Gardner has here spent his entire life, 
and has been an eye-witness of much of the growth 
and development of the communit3 r . 



OHN NEGELEY resides on section 6, Den- 
ver Township, and is acknowledged to be 
one of the prominent and influential farmers 
of Richland County. He has a wide ac- 
quaintance and is held in high regard by a large 
circle of friends. Born in Vanderburg County, 
Ind., in October, 1840, he is a son of George and 
Kate (Wolf) Negeley. His father was born in 
Bavaria, Germany, in 1812, and was a farmer and 



teamster. In 1836 he crossed the briny deep to 
the New World and located in Evansville, Ind., 
where he bought wild land and cleared and opened 
up a farm. He and his wife both spent the re- 
mainder of their lives in that State. Although 
Mr. Negeley came to this country empty-handed, 
he left at his death a good property. He was a 
man of great resolultion and force of character. 
In the family were four sons and three daughters, 
the eldest of whom is John; George died in Evans- 
ville, Ind.; Jo is a farmer of Clay County, 111.; 
Pete is the next younger; Kate is the wife of Paul 
Hildebrand, of Indiana; Mary is the wife of John 
Bacon, of Gallatin County, 111.; and Lena is the 
wife of Casper Hildebrand, of Indiana. 

Mr. Negeley whose name heads this record re- 
mained upon his father's farm until twenty years 
of age, and in his youth attended the parochial 
and public schools, but though his advantages 
were then limited his extensive reading in later 
years has made him a well-informed man. He is 
now giving much of his time to the study of the 
Bible and the works written by well-known infidels 
and agnostics. 

On the 15th of February, 1861, Mr. Negeley was 
united in marriage in Indiana with Margaret 
Weidner, of that State, daughter of Adam Weid- 
ner, who is numbered among the early settlers of 
Richland County. The young couple began their 
domestic life upon the farm which is still their 
home. It comprised one hundred and sixty acres 
of land and the improvements upon it were a log 
cabin and log stable. Together they labored, and 
as the result of their united efforts have acquired 
a fortune. Mr. Negeley has not only been a suc- 
cessful farmer, but has also carried on stock-raising 
with profit. He now owns six hundred and twenty 
acres of valuable land, which yields to him a golden 
tribute. 

Unto our subject and his wife have been born 
five children: Sarah became the wife of Jo Mor- 
gan and died leaving two children; Josephine is 
the wife of John Hemrich, a farmer of Clay County; 
George, Adam and Daniel are at home. 

Mr. Negeley was formerly a Knight-Templar 
Mason, but is now connected with no fraternal 
societ3 - , church or political organization. He is a 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



329 



deep thinker, a logical reasoner, and holds himself 
free from all alliances which would prevent free- 
dom of thought. For a third of a century he has 
resided in the county, and is recognized as one of 
its valued citizens, as well as one of its substantial 
farmers. 



V SBORN HENRY, who carries on general 
farming on section 9, Decker Township, 
Richland County, was born in Crawford 
County, 111., February 10, 1843. and is of Irish de- 
scent. His grandfather was a native of the Em- 
erald Isle, and for some time followed the sea. He 
became one of the first white settlers of Crawford 
Count}', from where he was three times driven out 
by the Indians. On horseback he came from Ten- 
nessee to Illinois. His son, R. A. Henry, the fath- 
er of our subject, spent most of his life in Craw- 
ford Count}', where his birth occurred. He was a 
merchant, and also an extensive stock dealer, 
but as he traded largely in the South, he was 
financially ruined during the war, losing $60,000 
on account of the worthless currency of the 
Confederacy. He died in Arkansas in 1870. Near 
Vincennes, III., he married Sarah A. Luckey, whose 
father was a Revolutionary soldier. Her death 
occurred in Richland County in the winter of 
1892. On fifteen different occasions during her 
girlhood she was forced to flee to Ft. Knox to 
escape the Indians. In the Henry family were 
seven sons and three daughters. 

Amid the wild scenes of frontier life, Osborn 
Henry grew to manhood. He received no educa- 
tional privileges, and his advantages in other di- 
rections were almost as meagre. At the age of 
twenty-four he came to Richland County, and cut 
the first tree upon his present farm to make rails. 
The place had no improvements and was mostly 
covered with timber, but he built a log cabin and 
at once began the development of his land. He at 
first owned one hundred and twenty acres, but the 
boundaries of his farm he has since extended until 



now three hundred acres of valuable land pay 
tribute to his care and cultivation. Upon the place 
is a good orchard of twenty-five acres, together 
with all the necessary buildings and all modern 
improvements. His fields are well tilled and he 
raises a good grade of cattle and horses. 

In the county of his nativity, Mr. Henry mar- 
ried Miss Elvessa Goss, who was born in the same 
county, whither her parents removed from Ken- 
tucky in the year 1843. After her death lie was 
again married, this time marrying Miss Mamie R. 
Langdon, daughter of Dr. Langdon, of Noble 
Township. She was born and reared near Noble, 
and acquired an excellent education in its public 
schools. For six years she successfully engaged in 
teaching. To her knowledge she has greatly added 
by extensive reading, and Mrs. Henry is now rec- 
ognized as one of the most intelligent and cul- 
tured ladies of this community. Our subject and 
his wife have two children. They are members of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, and are people 
whose worth and ability have won for them an en- 
viable position in the best circles of society. Fra- 
ternally, Mr. Henry is connected with the Masonic 
lodge of Noble. 




ENRY G. ROBINSON, who owns and oper- 
ates one hundred and sixty acres of land 
on section 12, Granville Township, has the 
-honor of being a native of this State. He 
was born near Lawrenceville,in Lawrence County, 
his birth occurring April 30, 1824. His parents, 
John and Sophia (Cable) Robinson, were both na- 
tives of Kentucky. About 1820, they left their 
native State, and making the journey by team re- 
moved to Lawrence County, 111., where Mr. Rob- 
inson entered land from the Government and be- 
gan farming. He there lived until his death, 
which occurred in 1862. His wife passed awa}' 
several years previous, dying in 1844. They had 
a family of fourteen children: Mary A., Samuel J., 
Jeremiah, George K., William, Catherine, Sophia, 



330 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



Henry G., Cauthorn, John T. Richard H., Nancy, 
Marion, and one who died in infancy. 

In the usual manner of farmer lads, Henry Robin- 
son spent the days of his boyhood and youth. 
He acquired his education in a subscription school, 
which was held in a log schoolhouse, and is famil- 
iar with all the experiences and trials of frontier 
life. To his father he gave the benefit of his ser- 
vices until twenty years of age, when, wishing to 
earn his own livelihood, he began working on a 
farm for $8 per month. In that manner he was 
employed until the spring when he attained his 
majority. He then went to Galena, 111., where he 
was employed during the summer months in the 
lead mines and engaged in chopping wood during 
the winter season. 

Mr. Robinson spent his time in that manner 
until 1847, when he enlisted as a private in Com- 
pany I, First Regiment United States Infantry, 
for the Mexican War. He was stationed at the 
fort in Vera Cruz for eight months, and then 
went to the city of Mexico, where he was stationed 
for about three weeks under Gen. Scott. After 
four years spent in Cuanavaca, he returned to the 
city of Mexico, where he wus detailed to act as 
city police, which office he held for four months. 
On the expiration of that period he started on the 
march for Vera Cruz, but while on the way received 
a sunstroke. With his regiment he then went to 
New Orleans and then to Pensacola Bay, Fla., 
where he was discharged July 20, 1848. 

On returning to his old home, Mr. Robinson 
again engaged in farming near Lawrenceville 
until the spring of 1849, when he came to Jasper 
County, and located a land warrant that secured 
him the farm upon which he now resides. It com- 
prises one hundred and sixty acres of land, which 
are under a high state of cultivation and well im- 
proved. It has now been his home continuously 
since 1849, with the exception of the years of 
1859 and 1860, which hespentat Pike's Peak, Colo. 

On the 6th of September, 1850, Mr. Robinson 
was united in marriage with Miss Amelia Leach, 
and four children graced their union: James W., 
John P., Annie M. and Austin. The mother of 
this family died in 1860, and the following year 
Mr. Robinson wedded Miss Cornelia Thorn. They 



have seven children, as follows: Lizzie R., Henry 
C., Mary J., Charles H., Ida, George L. and Ar- 
milda. 

Mr. Robinson has led a busy life, yet has found 
time to devote to public interests and has fre- 
quently been called by his fellow-townsmen to 
public offices of honor and trust. He has filled 
the positions of Justice of the Peace, Constable, 
Township Collector and School Director, and has 
ever discharged his duties with promptness and 
fidelity. In politics, he is a supporter of the Dem- 
ocracy, and religiously is a member of the Chris- 
tian Church. For forty-three years he has made 
his home in Jasper County, and well deserves to 
be ranked among its honored pioneers. 



jUSSELL HARRISON, who owns and oper- 
ates two hundred and four acres of good 
land in Richland County, has spent his en- 
tire life in Illinois. He was born near Lan- 
caster, March 3, 1834, and is a son of John and 
Nancy (Higgins) Harrison, who were natives of 
the Empire State. They were among the earliest 
settlers of Wabash County, 111., locating there in 
1815, at a time when Indians were still very nu- 
merous. The father died March 18, 1838. His 
wife, who survived him many years, was called to 
her final rest March 25, 1875. 

Our subject was only a lad of four years at the 
time of his father's death. At the age of eight he 
left home and came to Richland County to live 
with his sister, Mrs. Ridgely, with whom he re- 
mained until he had attained his majority. After 
arriving at man's estate he attended the seminary 
in Mt. Carmel for a few months, and then em- 
barked in teaching school, whicli profession he 
followed each winter from that time until 1880. 
The long years of his service in that line well in- 
dicate his efficiency as an instructor. 

On the 23d of March, 1856, Mr. Harrison was 
united in marriage with Miss Sarah M., daughter 
of Thomas Price, of Lancaster, 111. Five children 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



331 



graced their union: Lee W.; Eri; Lucy L., wife of 
D. O. Dodds; Mary I., wife of T. Hendrick, and 
Anna I)., who died in infancy. The mother of 
tins family was called to her final rest April 27, 
1867, and on the 25th of November, 1868, Mr. 
Harrison married Sarah E. Rose, of Parkersburg. 
Three children have been born of this marriage, 
namely: Delbert C., Alva E. and Edith R. 

Mr. Harrison has followed farming throughout 
his entire life, to a greater or less extent. In 1865 
he purchased his present farm, now comprising two 
hundred and four acres. It was then but par- 
tially improved, but he has added much to it in 
the way of comfortable buildings, etc. The fields 
are well tilled, and in all its appointments the 
place seems complete. Its neat appearance indi- 
cates the owner to be a man of thrift and enter- 
prise, and such he is known to be by his fellow- 
townsmen. 

In his political views, Mr. Harrison is a Repub- 
lican. He also takes a warm interest in the tem- 
perance cause. The family are members of the 
United Brethren Chruch. The members of the 
Harrison household are highly respected citizens 
and hold an enviable position in social circles 
where true worth and intelligence are received as 
the passports into good society. 



<Qfr = 



TACY B. YOUNGMAN, M. D., who is suc- 
cessfully engaged in the practice of the 
medical profession in West Liberty, claims 
Kentucky as the State of his nativity, his 
birth having occurred in Mason County, August 
24, 1813. The family is of English extraction, 
and the father of our subject, Jesse Youngman, 
was a native of West Virginia. He married Amy 
Dicks, and unto them were born seven children: 
George, who died in 1868; the Doctor; Sallie, who 
died when a small girl; Rebecca, who died in 1874; 
Elizabeth, wife of Allen G. Parris, a boot and shoe 
maker of Indiana; Serelda, wife of Ephraim 
Adams, of Fillmore, Iiid.; and Samantha, twin sis- 




ter of Serelda, who became the wife of Stephen 
Wood, and is now deceased. Throughout nearly 
his entire life, the father of this family engaged 
in school teaching. He died at the age of seventy 
years, and his wife passed away when sixty-eight 
years of age. 

We now take up the personal history of Dr. 
Youngman, who spent the days of his boyhood 
and youth upon a farm. His primary education 
was acquired in the district schools and supple- 
mented by private study and reading. Under the 
parental roof he remained until twenty-one years 
of age, but he did not wish to follow farming. 
His taste led him to enter the medical profession. 
He had studied medicine under the preceptorship 
of Drs. H. E. and T. W. Cowgill, at Greencastle, 
Ind., and in 1852 entered the Louisville (Ky.) 
Medical College. On completing his course he 
returned to his home in Greencastle, Ind., and 
then went to Cloverdale, that State, where he en- 
gaged in practice until 1859. His next field of 
labor was in Greencastle, and later he went to 
New Lebanon, Ind., where he remained until June, 
1861. At that time he came to Jasper County, 
111., and purchased a small farm in what is now 
Fox Township, but immediately entered upon the 
practice of his profession. lie there remained 
until 1880, when he came to West Liberty and 
opened a drug store, which he now carries on. 

The lady who bears the name of Mrs. Youngman 
was in her maidenhood Miss Lurana B. Mark. 
Their union was celebrated November 18, 1834. 
and unto them have been born eleven children: 
Eliza J., George C., James T., Harriet E.. John M., 
Josephine C., Mary A., Lurana F., Emma D., Eddie 
M. and Elmer. The family is widely and favor- 
ably known in this community, and its members 
rank high in social circles. 

Since his boyhood Dr. Youngman has been a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and 
his life has been in harmony with his professions, 
winning him the confidence and regard of all with 
whom business or pleasure has brought him in 
contact. Socially he is connected with the Masonic 
fraternity. He cast his first Presidential vote for 
Gen. W. II. Harrison, and since the organization 
of the Republican party has been one of its stanch 



332 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



supporters. While in Indiana, he held the office 
of Magistrate. He has served as Notary Public 
for four years, and as Deputy Postmaster for a 
year and a-half. He is doing a good business in 
West Liberty, and is one of the respected citizens 
of the community, honored by all who know him. 




YLVANUS S. FARLEY, who is numbered 
among the early settlers of Jasper County, 
and is now engaged in general farming on 
section 6, Granville Township, was born 
on the old Farley homestead in that township, 
January 27, 1853, and has spent his entire life in 
this locality. He is a son of Forrest and Sarah J. 
Farley, pioneers of Jasper County, whose sketch 
appears elsewhere in this work. The days of his 
boyhood and youth were passed in the usual man- 
ner of farmer lads. As soon as he could handle a 
plow he began work in the fields, and in the sum- 
mer months devoted his energies to farm labors. 
In the winter season lie attended the district 
schools and therein acquired a fair business edu- 
cation. He remained at home with his parents 
until after he had attained his majority. 

On the 1st of October, 1873, Mr. Farley was 
united in marriage with Miss Sarah J. Virtue, who 
died on the 20th of August, 1875. On the 8th of 
March, 1877, he was again married, his second 
union being with Miss Isabel, daughter of David 
and Amanda Clark. Five children were born 
of this union, but one died in infancy. The four 
who are still living are: Eva, Jason, Orville and 
Leveta. They are still under the parental roof. 

On starting out in life for himself, Mr. Farley 
embarked in the pursuit to which he had been 
reared. For the first year lie rented a farm, but 
on the expiration of a twelvemonth with the capi- 
tal he had acquired through his own labors, he 
purchased eighty acres of land on section 6, Gran- 
ville Township. This was in the fall of 1874, and 
since that time it has been his home. The bound- 
aries of his farm, however, he has extended until 



it now comprises one hundred and sixty acres of 
good land, which yields to him a golden tribute in 
return for his care and cultivation. His farm is a 
valuable one and well improved. In connection 
with general farming he carries on stock-raising. 

In his political affiliations, Mr. Farley is a Re- 
publican. He takes quite an active interest in po- 
litical affairs and is a stanch advocate of the prin- 
ciples of the party, which he has supported since 
becoming a voter. He has served his township as 
Road Commissioner, but has never been an office- 
seeker. Socially, he is a member of the Sons of 
Veterans, and holds membership with the United 
Brethren Church. He always gives his support to 
all public enterprises calculated to prove of gen- 
eral benefit, and is regarded as one of the leading 
citizens of the community in which he has spent 
his entire life. 



B. WALDEN, one of the honored 
pioneers of Richland County, and a repre- 
sentative agriculturist of Olney Township, 
residing on section 7, is a native of Ken- 
tucky. The place of his birth is in Hardin County, 
and the date is August 26, 1838. His father, Henry 
Waldeh, was born in Kentucky on the 1st of 
October, 1801, and throughout his life followed the 
occupation of farming. The family is of Irish 
extraction. He was married in his native State to 
Sarah Ritchison, who was born in Kentucky No- 
vember 4, 1801, and came of an old family of 
English lineage. They had a family of five chil- 
dren, the youngest of whom is our subject. The 
mother died June 26, 1848, and the death of the 
father occurred on the 6th of May, 1849. 

Joseph B. Walden was a lad of only ten sum- 
mers when his mother died. He then went to live 
with his brother-in-law, with whom he remained 
until he had attained his majority. The public 
schools afforded him his educational privileges. 
When a youth of fourteen he came with his sister 
and her husband to Richland County. and has here 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



333 



since made his home, with the exception of the 
time which he spent in the late war. Responding 
to the country's call for troops, in December, 1861, 
he donned the blue and joined Company I, Sixty- 
third Illinois Infantry, in which he served until 
the cessation of hostilities, after the preservation 
of the Union was an assured fact. He participated 
in a number of important engagements, but es- 
caped without injury, and as a faithful soldier was 
honorably discharged in 1865. 

Returning to his home, Air. Walden purchased 
forty acres of timberland, a part of his present 
farm, and began its development. As a compan- 
ion and helpmate on life's journey, he chose Miss 
Lavina E. Redman, who was born June 27, 1842, 
in Kentucky. Their union was celebrated in 1867, 
and her death occurred January 4, 1877. She left 
two children: Sarah J. and John William H. In 
1879 Mr. Walden was again married, his second 
union being with Miss Mary E. Ferrell, of this 
county, who died in January, 1880. 

The farm which isno.v the property of our sub- 
ject is conveniently located four and a-half miles 
southwest of Olney. It comprises eighty acres of 
rich land, all of which are under a high state of cul- 
tivation. It has not only been improved but was 
cleared by the owner, and everything on the place 
represents his labor and efforts, while its buildings 
stand as monuments to his thrift and enterprise. 
Mr. Walden is a Republican, and is a member of 
the New Light Church. 



'"'OHN II. RIGGS, who follows farming on 
section 30, Preston Township, wore the blue 
x?=>, ii in the late war, and as one of the defenders 
^c5i^ of his country in her hour of peril, he well 
deserves mention in this volume. A native of Or- 
ange County, Ind., he was born on the 6th of Jan- 
uary, 1842, and is one of thirteen children whose 
parents were Aaron and Jerusha (Sutton) Riggs. 
The father was a native of Kentucky, and was of 
English descent. Of the children, six died in in- 



fancy. The others were Polly A., Reddin, Lucy 
A., Samuel G., Uriah R., Mahala, Harvey and John 
II., but only Samuel, Harvey and our subject are 
now living. 

John Riggs spent his boyhood days quietly upon 
his father's farm. His educational privileges were 
quite limited, and were afforded by the district 
schools. He came with his parents to Richland 
County in 1843, when only a year old, and was 
here reared to manhood. He was still under the 
parental roof at the breaking out of the late war, 
and on the 8th of August, 1863, he responded to 
the country's call for troops, enlisting as a private 
of Company G, Ninety-eighth Illinois Infantry, 
which was mounted about nine months later. He 
was mustered into service at Centralia, and the 
first active engagement in which he participated 
was at Hoover's Gap. He was under fire at the 
battles of Ringgold, Buzzard's Roost, Selma, Chick- 
amauga, Atlanta, Resaca, Mission Ridge, Kencsaw 
Mountain, Florence, Cross Keys, and many others. 
He was always faithful to his duty in the defense 
of the Old Flag, and when the war was over, he was 
honorably discharged from the service, on the 6th 
of July, 1865. 

Returning to his home, Mr. Riggs located on a 
tract of land given him by his father, and there 
resided until 1874, when lie went to Madison 
Township and purchased a farm, to the cultivation 
and improvement of which he devoted his ener- 
gies until 1879. In that year lie bought eighty 
acres of land in. Preston Township, which lie oper- 
ated for a year, when he removed to his present 
farm. He now owns ninety-six acres of land on 
section 30, and in addition to general farming he 
carries on stock-raising. His land is under a high 
state of cultivation and well improved. 

In 1866, Mr. Riggs married Miss Martha Allen, 
and unto them was born a daughter, Jane, but she 
is now deceased. The mother died in 1868, and 
the following year our subject was joined in mar- 
riage with Miss Cornelia Williamson. Five chil- 
dren graced this union, but Belle, the eldest, 
and Oscar, the third child, are now deceased. 
Those still living are Ziua. Ida F. and Raymond. 

In hi9 political affiliations Mr. Riggs is a Demo- 
crat, but has never been an office-seeker. Almost 



334 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



his entire life has been passed in this county, and 
those who have known him from boyhood and 
have witnessed his honorable, upright career are 
liis stanchest friends. He was a valiant soldier 
during the late war, and is alike true in times of 
peace. He and his wife have a wide acquaintance 
throughout this community, and hold an enviable 
position in the circles of society in which they 
move. 




AVID S. CURRY, who carries on general 
farming and stock-raising on sections 5 
and 6, Bon pas Township, Richland County, 
is a native of the Hoosier State, his birth 
having occurred near Winchester, Ind., March 23, 
1847. His paternal grandfather was of Irish de- 
scent, and the grandmother was of German line- 
age. Robert H. Curry was born in Allegheny 
County, Pa., in 1811, and his wife was a native 
of Virginia. Her death occurred in Winchester, 
Ind., when our subject was about four years of 
age. The father afterward came to Richland 
County with his son David, and here resided until 
his death, which occurred April 16, 1870. 

Mr. Curry, whose name heads this record, re- 
ceived but limited school privileges, yet by his 
observation and experience he has made himself a 
well-informed man. He was married on the 5th 
of February, 1874, the lady of his choice being 
Miss Mary M., daughter of J. L. Byers, of Bonpas 
Township. Seven children have been born of 
their union, two sons and five daughters, viz.: 
Lora R., Mary H., Alice E., Florence E., Harriet 
H., Clarence B. H. and John L. The family circle 
yet remains unbroken and the children are all 
yet under the parental roof. The parents are 
both members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
In December, 1859, Mr. Curry came to Rich- 
land County. For three years he lived near Cal- 
houn, and then purchased his present farm of one 
hundred and ten acres, which at that time was a 
tract of raw land. His first home was a log cabin, 



which he built, and which still stands on the 
farm, one of the few landmarks of the early days 
yet remaining. The first season he planted an 
orchard, and he now has a fine orchard of ten 
acres of apples, and ten acres of peach trees. 
He raises very fine fruit, and for many years past 
has made exhibits of the same at the State Fairs, 
where he has taken many premiums. In 1892 he 
took the first premium on six exhibits and the 
third premium on four exhibits. One hundred 
and ten acres of his land are under a high state of 
cultivation, and, in connection with general farm- 
ing and fruit-growing, he was for many years en- 
gaged in the breeding of Poland-China hogs. In 
regard to the improvements upon the place, we 
would say that none of the accessories of a model 
farm are lacking. His present residence was erected 
in 1890. It is one of the most comfortable and 
commodious dwellings in the township, being a 
two-story frame building of fine appearance. In 
1892 he built a large barn, 32x48 feet. The neat 
appearance of this place, with its well-tilled fields 
and modern conveniences, all indicate the thrift 
and enterprise of the owner, who ranks among 
the leading farmers of his adopted county. Mr. 
Curry exercises his right of franchise in support 
of the Republican part}'. 




)HE OLNEY BANK, of Olney, 111., was or- 
ganized as a private banking house March 
11, 1887, being the successor of the Olney 
National Bank, which was incorporated February 
14, 1882, by Messrs. John N. Homer, Henry 
Spring and others, with a paid-up capital of 
$60,000. The bank enjoj'ed a prosperous career 
for five years, when by the retirement by the Gov- 
ernment of the national bonds, on which it was 
based, it was forced to surrender its charter and 
discontinue business as a national bank. Henry 
Spring was President of the Olney National Bank; 
John N. Homer Vice-President, and J. H. Sense- 
man Cashier. 



: 







PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



337 



On the opening of the Olney Bank, the officers 
of the National Bank retained their relative posi- 
tions in the new one. In June, 1888, on the death 
of Mr. Spring, J. N. Horner succeeded to the presi- 
dency of the bank and has since held that posi- 
tion. L. McLean then became Vice-President and 
Mr. Senseman is still serving as Cashier. The fol- 
lowing-named gentlemen constitute the Board of 
Directors: J. N. Horner, E. Murray, L. McLean, 
John Kuster and David Horner. 

This banking house occupies its own building, a 
two-story brick structure, 65x22 feet, which the 
company built in 1888. The proprietors of the 
Olney Bank are men of well-known financial re- 
sponsibility and unquestioned integrity. The his- 
tory of the bank is one of conservative and judi- 
cious management, and its success and constantly 
increasing business are a marked assurance of popu- 
lar favor with its patrons and the general public. 




ARTIN TOTTEN, who is engaged in agri- 
cultural pursuits on section 18, Olney 
Township, has for forty-five years been a 
resident of Richland County, and well de- 
serves mention among its early settlers, for it is to 
those who came here in an early day and bore the 
hardships and difficulties of frontier life that the 
county owes its present prosperity and high stand- 
ing. The life record of our subject is as follows: 
He was born July 4, 1826, near Cumberland, Md., 
and is a son of .Samuel and Rachel (Poland) Totten. 
The father was also a native of Maryland, and in 
that State during his youth learned the shoemak- 
er's trade. When about twenty-five years of age, 
he went to Ohio, where he purchased a farm and 
reared a family. Unto the parents of our subject 
were born nine sons and three daughters, but only 
six are now living, namely: Mary, wife of John 
Shriver, a well-known farmer of Indiana; William 
A., a prominent farmer of Wayne Count}', 111.; 
Martin, the subject of this notice; James, now liv- 

16 



ing in Ohio; Catherine, wife of Edward Pettit, 
who carries on agricultural pursuits in the Buck- 
eye State; and Jonathan, a farmer of this county. 
The father of this family died on 'the old home- 
stead in Oneida, Carroll County, Ohio, at the age 
of seventy-seven years and left to his family quite 
an estate. His wife survived him two years and 
passed away at the age of seventy-eight. They 
were laid to rest side by side in Liberty Cemetery, 
near Oneida, where a monument has been erected 
to their memory. 

Our subject was only about six years of age 
when his parents emigrated to the Buckeye State. 
He remained upon the home farm until he had ar- 
rived at years of maturity, and in the common 
schools acquired his education. On the 4th of 
July, 1847, he reached his majority, and in Octo- 
ber following married Miss Catherine Gladhart, of 
Carroll County, Ohio. Her death occurred in this 
county in 1854. She became the mother of four 
children, but only one is now living: Catherine, 
the wife of Martin Poland, a farmer of Columbiana 
County, Ohio. In November, 1856, Mr. Totten 
married Susan Gladhart, a sister of his first wife, 
and she died in January, 1890, leaving six chil- 
dren. On the 14th of January, 1891, Mr. Totten 
was joined in wedlock with Mrs. Elizabeth F. 
Hunt, widow of George Hunt, and a daughter of 
William and Mildred (Ratcliff) Knight. She was 
born in this county September 27, 1858, her parents 
being numbered among the pioneers. 

Soon after his first marriage, Mr. Totten cast his 
lot with the early settlers of Richland County, and 
from the Government entered the land upon which 
he now resides. It was a tract of heavy timber, 
but lie began clearing away the trees, and in the 
midst of the forest he built a log cabin. The work 
of improvement he has since continued, until he 
now owns one of the best farms in the locality, 
comprising two hundred and forty acres of valu- 
able land, which yields to him a golden tribute in 
return for his care and cultivation. He is ably as- 
sisted by his sons in this work. 

Of the four sons and five daughters born unto 
Mr. Totten by his second marriage only six are 
now living. Monroe follows farming in this 
county; Marion resides in Missouri; Madison is a 



338 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



prosperous farmer of Olney Township; Millie, 
twin sister of Madison, is the wife of David Raney, 
an agriculturist of Macon County, 111.; Melissa is 
a successful school teacher of Macon County; and 
Freeman aids in the cultivation of the home farm. 
For eight years Mr. Totten acceptably served as 
Justice of the Peace and then resigned his position. 
He exercises his right of franchise in support of 
the Republican party but has never been an office- 
seeker, preferring to devote his time to his business 
interests. Throughout his life he has followed the 
Golden Rule, doing unto others as he would have 
them do unto him. He is widely known through- 
out Richland and adjoining counties as an honor- 
able, upright man, and his word is as good as his 
bond. He is also numbered among the substantial 
citizens of the community and well deserves rep- 
resentation in the history of his adopted count}'. 



'|| i i 



PORREST FARLEY, who owns a fine farm Of 
two hundred and thirty -three acres on 
sections 29 and 31, Granville Township, 
Jasper County, is one of the self-made men of this 
community, who by his own efforts has gained a 
handsome competency, and deserves to be ranked 
among the substantial citizens of this locality. 
His career of industry and enterprise is one worthy 
of emulation. He was born in Virginia, August 
24, 1827, and is a son of John J. Farley. His 
father was a native of Kentucky, and was of Eng- 
lish extraction. After attaining his majority, he 
married Rebecca McClancy, a lady of Scotch-Irish 
descent. They became the parents of six children: 
Lucinda, who died in 1860; James M., who is liv- 
ing in Cass County, Ind., where he practices medi- 
cine; Mary A., wife of James Fears, a farmer of 
Coles County, 111.; Forrest, of this sketch; Jacob, 
who owns a harness shop in Terre Haute, Ind.; and 
Nancy A., who died in 1832. John J. Farley re- 
moved from his home in Virginia to Kentucky and 
died in that State in 1830. He was a millwright 
and carpenter by trade. About 1831, after the 



death of her husband, Mrs. Farley came with her 
family to Illinois, locating near Grand View, Ed- 
gar County. She was a member of the Methodist 
Church, and was called to the home prepared for 
the righteous in 1877. 

Our subject was about four years of age when 
with his mother he came to Illinois. Upon the 
home farm his boyhood days were passed, and in 
the common schools he acquired his education. 
He remained with his mother until nineteen years 
of age, when he began working as a farm hand, re- 
ceiving the munificent sum of $6 per month in 
compensation for his services. The year 1847 
witnessed his arrival in Jasper County, and saw 
him located in Granville Township, where he en- 
tered eighty acres of Government land on section 
29. The succeeding three years of his life were 
spent in developing and improving that farm, 
when he purchased the farm which has since been 
his home. Only a few acres had been broken and 
a small log cabin constituted the entire improve- 
ments upon the place. He first bought only eighty 
acres, but as his financial resources have increased, 
he has extended the boundaries of his farm from 
time to time, until now two hundred and thirty- 
three acres of highly improved land pay to him a 
golden tribute in return for his care and culti- 
vation. He also successfully carries on stock-rais- 
ing to a considerable extent. 

In 1851, Mr. Farley was united in marriage 
with Miss Sarah J. demons, daughter of Warden 
and Rachel Clemous. Unto them were born four- 
teen children, as follows: Sylvanus S., William 
S. (deceased), Isadora F., Virginia A. (deceased), 
Cynthia J., John C., Jacob (deceased), Marietta, 
Minnie M., Thomas A., James D. (deceased), Noah 
M., Orrillaand Leona, both deceased. 

Mr. Farley manifested his loj'alty to the Gov- 
ernment during the late war by offering his ser- 
vices as a soldier in 1862, and becoming a mem- 
ber of Company E, One Hundred and Twenty- 
third Infantry. He was mustered in at Matoon, 111., 
and took part in many battles, including the en- 
gagementsat Lookout Mountain, Chattanooga and 
Fariniugton. He served until June 18, 1865, 
when he was honorably discharged. He was in 
the hospital at Jeffersonville, Ind., but with the 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



339 



exception of the period spent there, he was never 
off duty, but was always found at his post. He 
enlisted as a private, but soon afterwards was 
made Corporal. 

The fidelity with which Mr. Farley served as a 
soldier has characterized his entire career; he is 
true to every trust reposed in him, and in conse- 
quence has the confidence and esteem of the en- 
tire community. In politics he has been a Repub- 
lican since the organization of the party. He has 
served his township as Road Commissioner and 
School Trustee, and has been School Director for the 
long period of twenty years. For forty-four years 
he has been a member of the Methodist Church, 
and is a faithful worker in the Master's vine- 
yard. A life well and worthily spent is that 
which Forrest Farley has led. 




11 



ILLIAM ELLIOTT, deceased, is numbered 
among the early pioneers of Olney. In fact, 
he was one of the earliest settlers of Rich- 
land County, and as such well deserves representa- 
tion in this volume. A native of North Carolina, 
he was born in Rowan County in 1810. In an 
early day his father, James Elliott, removed with 
his family from North Carolina to Kentucky and 
settled in Barren County. Thence he afterward 
went to Washington County, Ind., with the in- 
tention of continuing his journey from that place 
and becoming a resident of Illinois, but was per- 
suaded from settling in this Territory, as it was 
then, on account of the existing War of 1812. 
However, as soon thereafter as possible, James 
Elliott removed with his family to Lawrence 
County, 111., and located near Sumner. In 1824, 
William Elliott, our subject, came to what is now 
Olney, then a wilderness, where he purchased a 
claim of one hundred and sixty acres from David 
Rollins. Upon this farm the family made their 
home. Quite a portion of the city of Olney has 
since been built upon a part of that tract. In 
1851 James Elliott died. The son improved so 



well the opportunities afforded him in those early 
days, that at his death, which occurred on the 
13th of July, 1874, he was worth upwards of 
$50,000. 

Mr. Elliott was twice married. First in 1828, 
when he was united in marriage with Miss Eliza- 
beth Shidler, who died in 1832, leaving two sons, 
of whom only one survives, John Elliott, who was 
born November 3, 1831, and is a well-known bus- 
iness man of Olney. A sketch of his life appears 
elsewhere in this work. In 1834, Mr. Elliott was 
again married, his second union being with Miss 
Alta Webster, a native of New York. 

Our subject was a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, and in politics was a supporter 
of the Democracy, 3'et never sought or desired the 
honors or emoluments of public office. He was 
an industrious and frugal man, enterprising and 
public-spirited, and by his well-directed efforts in 
his business career won a handsome property. In 
the community in which he made his home he was 
highly respected. He was one of the founders of 
Richland County, for it is the pioneers who lay 
the foundation of a community and deserve men- 
tion in her history. 



eLEMENT UPTMOR, Jr., a well-known bus- 
iness man of Teutopolis and a representa- 
tive of one of the prominent families of 
the county, has the honor of being a native of the 
city which is still his home. He was born July 
20, 1840. His parents were Clement and Mary 
Elizabeth Uptmor. His father has long been a 
leading and influential citizen of this county. For 
many years he engaged in merchandising in Teu- 
topolis and served as its Postmaster. He took 
a prominent part in all public affairs, and ever 
bore his part in upholding the best interests of 
the community. He and his wife traveled life's 
journey together for more than half a century, 
sharing with each other its joys and sorrows, 
its adversity and prosperity. On the 21st of Sep- 



340 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD 



lember, 1889, they celebrated their golden wed- 
ding. On the 10th of July, 1890, Mrs. Uptmor, 
who had been a faithful helpmate and companion 
to her husband, was called to the home beyond. 
Mr. Uptmor is still living in Teutopolis, an hon- 
ored citizen of this community. 

The subject of this sketch spent his boyhood in 
his parents' home and entered upon his business 
career in his father's store and office immediately 
after leaving school. He also served as Deputy 
Postmaster under his father for twenty-one years. 
In 1863 he was admitted to a partnership in the 
business, and the connection has since continued 
with mutual benefit and profit. 

On the 30th of April, 1869, Mr. Uptmor was 
united in marriage with Miss Bernardina Sut- 
kamp, a daughter of John H. and Bernardina 
(Gravenhorst) Sutkamp. The lady was born in 
the Duchy of Oldenburg, Germany, and came to 
America with her parents when a maiden of thir- 
teen years. By the union of our subject and his 
wife has been born a family of five children, a son 
and four daughters, as follows: Mary B., now the 
wife of John H. Engbring, a resident of Teutopo- 
lis; Catherine, Theresa, Rosa Helena and Clement. 
The family circle yet remains unbroken, and the 
four younger children are still under the parental 
roof. 

In 1859 Mr. Uptmor embarked in the pork- 
packing business, which he has since followed. 
He has met with good success in this undertaking 
and packs from seven hundred to fifteen hundred 
head of hogs annually. Another industry with 
which he is connected is that of the Hope Mills, 
of Teutopolis, which are -operated by the firm of 
Uptrnor & Siemer. The mill was built and began 
operations in 1882. The structure, which is of brick 
and stone, is furnished witli a roller process, and 
the machinery is operated by steam. In fact, it is 
complete in all its appointments and turns out a 
fine quality of flour, the capacity being two hun- 
dred and seventy-five barrels daily. Mr. Uptmor 
is a man of excellent business ability. He is en- 
terprising and energetic, sagacious and far-sighted, 
and thoroughly knows his business in all its de- 
tails. His well-directed efforts in the legitimate 
lines of trade have won for him a deserved success 



and made of him one of the valued citizens of his 
native county. He and his wife are members of 
the Catholic Church. In politics, Mr. Uptmor is a 
supporter of Democratic principles but has always 
eschewed public office, having served only in the 
position of School Director. 




5OWNSEND H. ROWLAND, who is now liv- 
ing a retired life in Olney, has for many 
years been a resident of this city, and is 
numbered among the honored pioneers of Rich- 
land County, dating his residence here from 1840. 
He is a native of the Empire State, his birth hav- 
ing occurred on Long Island, September 6, 1805. 
He is of English descent and is a son of John 
Rowland. The days of his boyhood and youth 
were spent in his native State, and in early life he 
learned the tailor's trade, which he followed for a 
number of years. In fact he carried on that line 
of business until his removal Westward in 1840. 

Before leaving the East Mr. Rowland was mar- 
ried to Elizabeth Sands, only daughter of Richard 
Sands, and a native of New York. They became 
the parents of ten children, six sous and four 
daughters, all of whom grew to mature years. The 
eldest is Dr. Elbert; Richard died in July, 1889; 
Margaret is the wife of Julian Taylor, of Prince- 
ton, Ind.; Mary is the wife of Alfred Bell, of 
Hopetown, Ind.; Theresa married Capt. J. I. Judy 
and they make their home in Lawrenceville, 111.; 
Lydia became the wife of G. F. Cinter, of Jackson- 
ville, Fla., and died in the spring of 1892; Eliza 
is the wife of Marion Gaddy, of Bonpas Town- 
ship, Richland County; William H. married Ann 
Gaddy and makes his home in St. Louis; Seth D. 
is a lawyer engaged in practice in Francisville, 
111.; and Ann is the wife of E. S. Wilson, ex-State 
Treasurer of Illinois. 

Mr. Rowland continued to engage in the tailor- 
ing business in New York until 1840, when he de- 
cided to seek a home and fortune in the West, and 
came to Uichlaud County, III., and here settled. 






PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



341 



In the year 1865, he removed to Olney, where 
he has since made his home. For many years he 
engaged in farming and was very successful in 
that line of business, but now at the age of eighty- 
seven j-ears he is living a retired life. In 1875, 
he was called upon to mourn the loss of his wife, 
who died on the 17th of November. 

In politics Mr. Rowland is a Democrat, having 
supported the principles of that party since cast- 
ing his first Presidential ballot for Gen. Jackson. 
He has served as School Director for several years, 
and was President of the Board of Trustees for 
three years. While in New York he served as a 
member of the Board of Examiners to examine 
the cadets at West Point, and was a member of 
the Board of Directors of the College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons, of Evansville, 111. Before the 
war he was Assistant Surgeon of the militia of 
New York. Mr. Rowland is a self-made man. 
Since an early age he has been dependent upon 
his own resources, and the success of his life has 
all been achieved through his own efforts. As be- 
fore stated, he is numbered among the honored 
pioneers of the count3', having been identified 
with its histoiy for more than half a century. He 
came here when it was almost an unbroken wilder- 
ness and has seen its great development and ad- 
vancement. 







TIMOTHY H. HUTCHINSON, senior mem- 
ber of the firm of Hutchinson & Hutchin- 
son, attorneys-at-law of Olney, is one of 
the leading members of the Richland County 
Bar. He possesses fine natural ability and has 
closely applied himself to become perfectly fa- 
miliar with his profession. His studiousness, 
therefore, combined with the gifts of nature, 
has made him one of the ablest legal practitioners 
of this community. His life recovd is as follows: 
He was born in Albany, Oxford County, Me., 
November 21, 1832, and is a son of Galen and 
Olive (Flint) Hutchinson. His father was born in 



the same county in 1800, and was of English de- 
scent, as was the mother, whose birth also occurred 
in Oxford County. Galen Hutchinson was a 
farmer by occupation, and lived and died in the 
Pine Tree State, but his wife spent her last days 
in New Hampshire. 

The subject of this sketch remained at home 
until about nineteen years of age. For a time he 
engaged in teaching school and also worked at the 
carpenter's trade. His primary education was ac- 
quired in the common schools, after which he at- 
tended Urbana University of Ohio, and was grad- 
uated from that institution in the Class of '60. 
Having determined to enter the legal profession, 
he studied law in Cleveland and was admitted to 
the Bar in Ohio in 1861. The following year he 
came to Illinois and entered upon the practice of 
his profession in Louisville, where he remained 
until 1865, when he came to Olney, where he has 
since made his home. 

On the 13th of April, 1861, in Bellefontaine, 
Ohio, Mr. Hutchinson was united in marriage with 
Miss Anna L. Canby, daughter of Hon. Richard S. 
Canby, now of Olney. The lady is a native of 
Bellefontaine, Ohio. Four children have been 
born of their union, three sons and a daughter. 
Richard S. C. is a court reporter and resides in 
Knoxville, Tenn.; Park S. was educated at the 
Olney High School, studied law with his father, 
and was admitted to the Bar August 27, 1891; 
Frank is now in the office of the Ohio & Missis- 
sippi Railroad learning bridge-building; and Ethel 
completes the family. 

On coming to Olney, Mr. Hutchinson formed a 
partnership with E. S. Wilson, succeeding his 
father-in-law, who had just been elected to the 
Circuit Bench as Mr. Wilson's partner. His con- 
nection with Mr. Wilson continued up to 1890, 
when the latter was elected State Treasurer of 
Illinois. In 1892, his son Park S. joined his 
father in business, and under the firm name of 
Hutchinsou & Hutchinson are now engaged in 
practice. This firm has a wide reputation, which 
is well merited, and they enjoy a liberal share of 
the public patronage. 

Mr. and Mrs. Hutchinson are members of the 
Swedenborgian Church. He is a Republican in 



342 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



politics and takes considerable interest in public 
affairs. Our subject owns a fine farm of one hun- 
dred and forty acres, lying adjacent to the city, 
and his wife has two hundred and twenty acres. 
These tracts are largely utilized as orchards, ten 
thousand apple trees having been set out on the 
two farms. There are also about two thousand 
peach trees. Mr. Hutchinson believes this com- 
munit3 r will become one of the finest fruit-bearing 
regions of the country, and has therefore largely 
planted his land in apples. 




ATTHEW LOVEL TIPPIT, deceased, was 
a pioneer of southern Illinoisof 1820,and 
came to what is now Richland County 
about 1830. He was therefore one of its 
earliest settlers. He was born in Murfreesboro, 
Tenn., February 22, 1817, and was a son of Luke 
and Nancy (Adamson) Tippit, both of whom were 
natives of the same State. In 1820, when our sub- 
ject was only three years of age, his parents emi- 
grated to Illinois and took up their residence in 
Edwards County. The father was a farmer by oc- 
cupation and died when Matthew L. was about 
nine years of age. A short time afterward our 
subject, accompanied by his mother, removed to 
what is now the city of Olney, then in Lawrence 
County, and settled upon a farm. This farm af- 
terward became his property and is now the home 
of Mrs. Matthew L. Tippit. 

Our subject enjoyed but limited opportunities 
for education, as the old log schoolhouses of pio- 
neer days were the only institutions of learning 
known to the frontier people. Matthew L. was 
reared to agricultural pursuits and adopted that 
for a vocation. As a companion and helpmate on 
life's journey he chose Mrs. Grimes, widow of 
Stephen Grimes, who was a native of Indiana. 
The marriage of Mr. Tippit to Mrs. Grimes was 
celebrated on the 29th of January, 1839, in what 
is now Richland County, 111. Mrs. Tippit, whose 
maiden name was Sarah Ellingsworth, was born 



in Butler County, Ohio, December 8, 1815, and is 
a daughter of Stephen and Sarah (Verden) El- 
lingsworth. Her parents were from Delaware, 
from which State they removed Westward to In- 
diana, and later became residents of Butler 
County, Ohio, whence they came to what is now 
Richland County, 111., in 1837, settling on the 
present site of Olney. By her former marriage 
Mrs. Tippit had one son, Jasper Grimes, who 
married Jane Cunningham and is living in Mis- 
souri. Of the family born to Mr. and Mrs. Tippit 
three are living at this writing, in the spring of 
1893. William was united in marriage with Nancy 
Youngman and is a farmer of Preston, Richland 
County. Luke was married, and died in 1888. 
Henry Clay was married, and died in 1883. Julia 
is the wife of Christian Giesler and resides on the 
old -homestead. Albert was married, and died 
April 14, 1879. Thomas mariied Miss Eva Leaf 
and is a farmer of Olney. Flora, the youngest of 
the family, died at the age of eighteen years. 

Mr. Tippit was an industrious, upright man, and 
by his energy and well-directed efforts he accum- 
ulated a large landed property. At one time he 
owned about one thousand acres of land, and at 
the time of his death had some seven hundred 
acres in improved farms, the most of which he be- 
queathed to his children. His widow still owns 
about seventy acres and the old homestead, in 
which she is now living. Mr. Tippit passed away 
September 13, 1871, and in his death the county 
lost one of its honored pioneers and a valued cit- 
izen. 



ICHARD H. VANDERHOOF is a well- 
known business man of Newton, who has 
spent his entire life in this county. With 
his brother, G. V., he forms the firm of G. 
V. <fe R. H. Vanderhoof, dealers in agricultural 
implements of Newton, 111. He is also a grower of 
and dealer in Vanderhoof's Ivory Dent Corn for 
seed, and a breeder of pure-blooded Poland-China 
hogs. His business relations have brought him in 






PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



343 



contact with many, and by his wide circle of ac- 
quaintances lie is held in high esteem as a man of 
sterling worth and strict integrity. 

Mr. Vanderhoof was born in St. Marie, Jasper 
County, August 13. 1846, and is a son of Henry 
and Mary Vanderhoof, who were among the ear- 
liest settlers of this county. A sketch of the father 
is given elsewhere in this work. Our subject was 
reared on a farm and was educated in the public 
schools of his native count3'. In the spring of 
1864, he, however, left the farm and went to the 
aid of his country, enlisting for the late war in 
Company I, One Hundred and Fort3'-third Illinois 
Infantry, among the three-months men. He 
served, however, for live months, and on being 
discharged on the expiration of that period he re- 
enlisted in February, 1865, as a member of Com- 
pany B, Fifty-fifth Regiment, Illinois Infantry. 
He was appointed Corporal and served until Sep- 
tember, 1865, when he was mustered out. 

On his return from the army, Mr. Vanderhoof 
engaged in farming and school teaching, being em- 
ployed on a farm in the summer and in the school 
in the winter. On the 24th of December, 1870, 
he was united in marriage in Newton with Miss 
Eliza Adams, a native of Illinois, and a daughter 
of William Adams. Three children, all sons, 
graced their union: Edwin H., Fuller E. and Gus- 
tin, but the last-named died in infancy. The 
mother of this family died in May, 1876, and on 
the 22d of October following, Mr. Vanderhoof 
was again married, near Newton, his second union 
being with Miss Elizabeth Beach. She was born 
in Washington County, Ohio, and is a daughter 
of Asa Beach. 

The subject of this sketch has won an enviable 
reputation as the originator of the famous Vander- 
hoof Ivory Dent Corn, which has gained the first 
premium at county fairs for fifteen years, and the 
first premium and sweepstakes at the Illinois State 
Fair in 1889, in competition with fifteen entries in 
the class and seventeen in sweepstakes. He en- 
tered his corn at the World's Fair in Paris in 1889, 
and won the grand prize for the same in competi- 
tion with sixty-seven exhibitors. He grows seed 
corn of this variety and supplies the market over a 
wide range of country. He is also extensively en- 



gaged in breeding pure-blooded Poland-China pigs 
for stock purposes, having nothing but registered 
stock of the finest kind. Mr. Vanderhoof has 
a fine farm of forty acres, and ninety acres in 
Wade Township, which are operated under his 
personal management. Another business interest 
which occupies his attention is his store in New- 
ton. In the spring of 1892 he formed a partner- 
ship with his brother, G. V., and since that time 
they have dealt in farm implements. 

Mr. Vanderhoof is a member of the Farmers' 
Mutual Benefit Association, and is a stockholder of 
the Jasper County Joint Stock Company, of which 
he is Secretary; he is also a member of the Newton 
County Fire and Lightning Insurance Company, 
which was organized in 1890. He has been Secre- 
tary of that company since its organization. In 
politics, he is a Republican, and in his religious 
views is a member of the Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church. His wife holds membership with the old- 
school Presbyterian Church. 




APT. SAMUEL JARRETT, who carries on 
general farming on section 31, Granville 
Township, is an honored veteran of the late 
war and his army record is one of which he may 
well be proud. He was an able and valiant de- 
fender of the old Stars and Stripes, which now 
float so proudly over the united Nation, and as 
one of the brave boys in blue we gladty give him 
a place in this history. 

Capt. Jarrett was born in Meade County, Ky. 
March 1, 1837. His father, Wilson Jarrett, was a 
native of Virginia, and married Catherine Dowell. 
They became parents of ten children, of whom 
Betsy, Molly, William II., Francis and Emily are 
now deceased. Those living are Samuel; John, a 
veteran of the late war and a United States claim 
agent, living in Kentucky; Junius, who also was a 
soldier; Louisa, wife of Elias Smith, a general 
merchant of Kentucky; and James, who is engaged 



344 



POETRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



in hotel-keeping in that State. There were five 
brothers in the Jarrett family and four of the 
number aided in the struggle to preserve the 
Union. The father engaged in merchandising 
during the greater part of his life. He died 
August 29, 1881, and his wife's death occurred 
in 1862. 

Capt. Jarrett lived upon the farm until his sev- 
enteenth year, and then removed to Stephensport, 
Ky., where he began working at the carpenter's 
trade, which he followed in connection with boat- 
building until the breaking out of the Rebellion 
in 1861. He enlisted as a private in Company K, 
Third Kentucky Cavalry, and was mustered into 
service in Calhoun, Ky. He remained with that 
regiment for about two years, and then raised a 
company for the Forty-eighth Kentucky Mounted 
Infantry, which was mustered in as Company K, 
and of which he was commissioned Captain. The 
next day he took part in his first engagement. 
He led his troops in the battles of Shiloh, Corinth, 
Perryville, Stone River and Hopkinsville, and 
many more engagements of lesser importance. 
He carries three scars as the result of a buckshot 
wound. In 1865, he was detailed with two com- 
panies under his command to fight the bush- 
whackers, and encountered in several engagements 
the troops of Taylor, Wheeler and Forrest. While 
stationed at Bowling Green, Ky., he received his 
discharge, December 17, 1865. 

When the country no longer needed his serv- 
ices, Capt. Jarrett returned home, but as soon as he 
could make arrangements to do so, he brought his 
family to Jasper County, 111., and located on the 
farm in Granville Township which is yet his home. 
It was then an unimproved tract of one hundred 
and sixty acres, only a very small portion having 
been placed under the plow, while the log cabin con- 
stituted the only building. With characteristic 
energy, he began its development and soon the wild 
tract was transformed into rich and fertile fields. In 
connection with general farming, he is now 
engaged in stock-raising and makes a specialty of 
the breeding of Percheron horses. He has been 
quite successful in this line of business and has 
some fine stock upon his farm. 

The Captain lias been twice married. On the 



8th of July, 1862, he wedded Martha, daughter 
of Joseph Grant, and unto them were born three 
children, Georgia L., Edith and Maggie. The 
mother died September 7, 1872, and Mr. Jarrett 
was again married, December 2, 1875, his second 
union being with Miss Caroline Watt, daughter of 
Fideller and Henrietta (Capps) Watt, natives of 
Warren County, Ky. Of the five children born 
of their union, the eldest died in infancy, and 
Finley H. and Maud are also deceased. Clyde 
and Xellie are still at home. 

Capt. Jarrett and his wife are both members of 
the Methodist Church. Socially, he is connected 
with the Odd Fellows' lodge and the Grand Army 
post, and in politics he is a stalwart advocate of 
the Republican party, but has never been an office- 
seeker, preferring to devote his energies to his 
business interests, in which he has met witli good 
success. His possessions have all been acquired 
through his own efforts, and he may truly be 
called a self-made man. With the same fidelity 
with which he served his country in her hour of 
need, he discharges his duties of citizenship, and 
is therefore an important factor in this com- 
munity. 



OHN GLATHART, a well-known farmer of 
Olney Township, residing on section 19, is 
a representative of one of the honored pio- 
neer families of Richland County, where 
for almost fifty years he has made his home. In 
this half-century he has witnessed the greater 
part of the growth and development of the county, 
has seen its wild lands transformed into beautiful 
homes and farms, its log cabins replaced by sub- 
stantial modern residences, and the work of prog- 
ress carried forward to such an extent that the 
county of to-day bears little resemblance to that 
of fifty years ago, few of the old landmarks yet 
remaining. 

Our subject was born near Berne, Switzerland, 




PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



345 



March 30, 1828, and is a son of John and Cather- 
ine Glathart, who were also natives of that coun- 
try, and were there married. The father followed 
farming in the land of bis birth until 1829, when 
he emigrated witli his family to the New World 
and located on a farm in Carroll County, Ohio. 
In 1845 he came to Riehland County, and upon 
land which he entered from the Government made 
his home until called to his final rest at the age 
of sixty-three years. A few years later his wife 
was laid by his side in the German graveyard, 
where a substantial monument has been erected 
to their memory. 

In a family of thirteen children, seven sons and 
six daughters, John Glathart was the third in 
order of birth. He was only about a year old when 
his parents crossed the water. He was reared upon 
the old farm in Ohio until seventeen, when he ac- 
companied the family to Illinois. He gave his 
father the benefit of his services until he had at- 
tained his majority, when he started out to make 
his own way in the world without capital or 
other aid save an industrious disposition and a 
determination to succeed. He worked by the 
month as a farm hand for about four years, at the 
end of which time lie had saved enough to enter 
eighty acres of Government land. This tract was 
covered witli heavy timber, but soon his axe awak- 
ened the echoes of the forest as one after another 
he felled the trees and made the ground ready 
for planting. His labors have wrought a wonder- 
ful change in the appearance of his property. He 
now owns a valuable farm of one hundred and 
twenty acres, improved with all modern acces- 
sories and conveniences, with a good house and 
barn and well-tilled fields. He has also given to 
each of his sons an eighty-acre tract of land. In 
his political views Mr. Glathart is a Republican, 
and warmly advocates the principles of that party. 
He has served as Township Commissioner of 
Highways for three years, and has filled the office 
of School Director for about ten years. The cause 
of education finds in him a warm friend, and lie 
has done effective service in its interest. A pub- 
lic-spirited and progressive citizen, he ever labors 
for the advancement of the public welfare. 

In 1852 was celebrated the marriage of Mr. 



Glathart and Miss Anna Stahley. She was born 
Julj'25, 1828, in the canton of Berne, Switzerland, 
and is a daughter of John and Catherine (Cebaugh) 
Stahley, who were also natives of that country. 
They crossed the briny deep in 1842, and, making 
their way to Riohland County, 111., purchased an 
improTed farm, upon which they spent the re- 
mainder of their lives. The father died August 
3, 1865, aged sixty-two years, and the death of 
his wife occurred September 21, 1872. Six chil- 
dren graced the union of Mr. and Mrs. Glathart, 
three sons and three daughters. John F., the eld- 
est, is a farmer of this county; Catherine V. is the 
wife of R. T. Fry, the present efficient Postmaster 
of Olney, whose sketch appears elsewhere in this 
work; Lucinda is the wife of Wickliff Higgins, a 
prominent citizen of Riehland County; William E. 
is a prosperous farmer of this community; Mary E. 
is the wife of Milton Graves, an agriculturist of 
this county; and Thomas died in early childhood. 
The parents are members of the German Reformed 
Church. Their home is the abode of hospitality, 
and they are numbered among the highly re- 
spected citizens of Olney Township. 






J~l OSEPH LITZELMANN is the proprietor of 
j the American House, of Newton, Jasper 
I County, and is one of the most prominent 
' and influential citizens of this community. 

He has ever borne his part in promoting the best 
interests of this his native county, and wherever 
he is known he is held in high regard as a man of 
sterling worth. He well deserves representation 
in this volume. His birth occurred at St. Marie, 
on the 28th of March, 1849. His parents, Joseph 
and Barbara (Ostheimer) Litzelmann, are num- 
bered among the pioneer settlers of Jasper County 
and are represented elsewhere in this volume. 

Our subject came with his parents to Newton in 
1855, when but five years of age, acquiring his 
education in the schools of this place, and when 



346 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



old enough to be of service he aided his father, 
who was then landlord of the American House. No 
event of special importance occurred during his 
boyhood, but after attaining to years of maturity 
he was married on the 28th of November, 1871, to 
Miss Sarah Frances Thompson. Their union was 
celebrated in this place. The lady was born in 
Macon County, Mo., and is a daughter of John 
Thompson. She came to Newton, however, from 
Brownsville, Tenn. By the union of our subject 
and his wife were born ten children, of whom seven 
are now living, the other three having died in 
infancy. Those who still survive are St. Clair, 
Charleane, Nellie, Helene, Joseph, Harry and 
Maurice. 

Mr. Litzelmann was reared as a Catholic and is 
now a member of St. Thomas Church. By his bal- 
lot he supports the Democratic party and warmly 
advocates its principles. A number of public 
offices have been filled by him with credit to him- 
self and satisfaction to his constituents. He has 
served as School Director for ten years, as Alder- 
man for eight years, and is now serving his second 
term as Mayor of Newton. In April, 1889, he was 
first elected to that office fora term of two years, 
and with such promptness did he discharge his 
duties that ho was re-elected in April, 1891, With 
such a man as Mr. Litzelmann at the bead, the 
interests of Newton will never suffer. He dis- 
played his loyalty to the country during the late 
war by enlisting on the 4th of May, 1864, as a 
member of Company I, One Hundred and Forty- 
third Illinois Infantry, for the one hundred days' 
service. He served in the Western Army for five 
months and was on duty in Tennessee, Mississippi 
and Arkansas, guarding bridges and doing garri- 
son duty. He received his discharge in Mattoon, 
111., in 1864. 

Mr. Litzelmann inherited the American House 
and succeeded his father as its proprietor. Since 
coming into possession of the same he has enlarged 
and improved it and has made it the best hotel in 
Jasper County. It contains sleeping rooms and 
sample rooms, and is a most convenient and com- 
fortable hotel, being conducted successfully and 
to the satisfaction of the traveling public. Our 
subject is a thorough business man and has 



accumulated a valuable property. Besides his 
hotel lie is the owner of six business houses on the 
square, three brick structures on the east side and 
three wooden buildings on the north side. All are 
leased and are producing good interest on the in- 
vestment. He also owns one hundred and eighty-- 
one acres of land in Jasper County, ninety -six acres 
of which are located in Willow Hill Township and 
the remainder in Newton Township. Mr. Litzel- 
mann is recognized as one of the wealthiest and 
most influential citizens of Newton and is highly 
respected. His entire life has been passed in this 
county, and it has been one of such uprightness 
that he has gained universal confidence. 




ON. THEODORE A. FRITCHEY, County 
Judge of Richland County, and the junior 
member of the law firm of Allen & Frit- 
chey was born in Montgomery County, 
Ohio, near Dayton, April 24, 1855, and is the 
fifth in order of birth of a family of eight chil- 
dren. His parents, Benjamin F. and Elizabeth 
(McQueeney) Fritchey, were natives of Pennsyl- 
vania. The Fritchey family is of German de- 
scent and was founded in America by the grand- 
father of our subject, Godfrey Fritchey, who emi- 
grated from Saxony to this country in 1775, and 
settled in Philadelphia, where the record shows 
that he was naturalized in the historical year of 
1776. 

Benjamin Fritchey was reared, educated and 
married in his native State. His wife, who bore 
the maiden name of Elizabeth McQueeney, was 
also born in Pennsylvania, and was of Irish de- 
scent. In early life Mr. Fritchey engaged in mer- 
chandising in Harrisburg, Pa., where he continued 
for several years. Emigrating Westward, he locat- 
ed in Illinois, taking up his residence in Peoria, 
but after two years spent in that place he returned 
to Pennsylvania. He next moved to Baltimore, 
Montgomery County, Ohio, where for several 
years he was engaged in mercantile business. 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



347 



Subsequently he went to Darke County, Ohio, 
where he made his home for ten years, after 
which he returned to Montgomery County, of the 
same State, and later came from there to Olney, 
111., accompanied by his family. This was in the 
year 1871. Here he engaged in merchandising 
until his death, which occurred in April, 1876. He 
was a Republican in politics and a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. His good wife, who 
survives her husband, is a member of the same 
church and is still a resident of Olney. 

The subject of this sketch came to Olney with 
his> parents in 187J. He began his education in 
the schools of the Buckeye State and completed 
it in the public schools of this city. At the age 
of twenty years he formed a partnership with his 
cousin, G. W. Fritchey, in the grocery business, 
which connection continued for a year and a- 
half, when he retired from the firm, having de- 
termined to enter the legal profession. He began 
the study of law with Wilson & Hutchinson, a 
leading law firm of Olney, and after thorough 
preparation was admitted to the Bar in May, 1880. 
He at once began practicing in Olney, and in 
June, 1881, formed the existing partnership with 
Judge J. C. Allen. 

In his political views, Judge Fritchey is a sup- 
porter of Republican principles, and has held vari- 
ous official positions. In April, 1876, he was 
elected City Clerk and served four years in that 
office. In 1881, he was chosen City Attorney and 
served one term. In 1886, he was elected County 
Judge, was re-elected in 1890, and is now serving 
his second term in that position. In the spring 
of 1880, he purchased the Olney Jlepublican, which 
he edited for several years. In company with his 
younger brother, Daniel, he still owns the office, 
while Daniel Fritchey is now editor and manager 
of the paper. 

On the 26th of June, 1889, Judge Fritchey 
was united in marriage in Urbana, Ohio, to Miss 
Mary Elizabeth, daughter of John Bucher. The 
lad}- is a native of the Buckeye State, her birth 
having occurred near Dayton. They have two 
children, sons, Paul Bucher and Theodore Augus- 
tus. The Judge and his wife are members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. Socially, he is a 



Knight-Templar Mason, a member of Olney 
Lodge No. 140, A. F. &A. M.; of Richland Chap- 
ter No. 38, R. A. M.; of Gorin Commandery No. 14 
K. T.; and of Salem Temple, A. A. O. N. M. S. 

Judge Fritchey is one of a number of Richland 
County people who are interested in fruit culture, 
and who have great faith in Richland County be- 
coming in a few years a noted apple-growing re- 
gion. Experience of many years has demonstrated 
the adaptability of soil and climate to fruit-grow- 
ing, and especially to the growth of apples, in which 
there is nearly always a good crop. The Judge 
has forty acres near Olney set out in Ben Davis 
apples and fifteen acres in peaches. The trees are 
thrifty and will soon be in bearing. He is also in- 
terested in the Olney Canning and Evaporating 
Company, which was organized in 1889. A sketch 
of this industry appears elsewhere in this volume. 

The Judge has been an active member of the 
Republican party for years, has been Chairman of 
the Richland County Central Committee, and has 
done much effective work in conventions and on 
the stump. In his official capacity he has proved 
capable, faithful and efficient, and enjoys the con- 
fidence and esteem of his fellow-citizens in a 
marked degree. As a lawyer, he is studious, 
painstaking and thorough in the preparation of 
cases, and is sagacious and strong in their presen- 
tation and management. As an advocate he is 
the peer of any of the Richland County Bar and 
has won marked success in his profession. 



****** 
?**** 




ON. WILLIAM BOWER, the pioneer drug- 
| gist of Olney, is a native-born citizen of 
this place, and a son of Philip Peter and 
Mary (Dundore) Bower, a sketch of whom 
appears elsewhere in this work. Our subject is the 
second male white child born within the limits of 
this city, the date of his birth being May 21, 1842. 
He received his education in the public schools of 
his native village and in Olney Seminary. In 
1857 his mother died and soon thereafter he left 



348 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



home, beginning -life for himself. Having ac- 
quired a fair education, he engaged in teaching 
school. Later he served a regular apprenticeship 
to the tinner's trade with K. D. Horrall, of Olney, 
working for $3, $4 or $5 per month. 

Before the expiration of his term of apprentice- 
ship, Mr. Bower enlisted for the late war on the 
14th of April, 1861, as a member of Company B, 
Eighth Illinois Infantry. He responded to Lin- 
coln's first call for three months' troops to defend 
the Union, and enlisted on the first day that en- 
listments were made for the late war. Col. Ogles- 
by, afterward Governor of Illinois, was the com- 
mander of his regiment. He served the term of 
his enlistment, after which he returned home 
and taught school and worked at his trade until 
the spring of 1863, when he joined Charles Shultz 
as sutler clerk and went to the front. He was 
captured in the battle of Chattanooga, but was held 
prisoner only a few days, when he was paroled 
and sent North. 

In October, 1863, Mr. Bower bought a stock of 
tinware and carried on this business until Decem- 
ber following, when he sold out and engaged in 
the drug business with Dr. E. W. Ridgway. Fifteen 
months later he purchased his partner's interest and 
has since continued the business alone with marked 
success. He is now the oldest druggist in years of 
continuous trade in Richland County, and the sec- 
ond eldest business man in years of uninterrupted 
dealing in Olney. 

On the 30th of November, 1865, in Olney, Mr. 
Bower was married to Miss Sara E. Ridgway, who 
was born in Mansfield, Ohio, and is a daughter of 
Dr. E. W. Ridgway. Four children were born of 
their union, but only two are now living: CatteWa, 
now the wife of M. E. Sebree, a train dispatcher, 
who makes his home in Denver, Colo.; and Ernest 
Zelledon, who is with his father in the store. 
Emma died at the age of four years, and Nina 
when two years old. 

Mr. and Mrs. Bower are members of the New, or 
Swedenborgian, Church. In politics he is a Demo- 
crat, and was elected by a large majority from the 
Forty -fourth District as Representative to the Thir- 
ty-first Illinois General Assembly, where lie served 
on the committee of education, printing and mil- 



itia. He also originated some important measures 
and proved an industrious and useful member. 
Socially, Mr. Bower is a Royal Arch Mason, a mem- 
ber of Olney Lodge No. 140, A. F. & A. M.; and 
Richland Chapter No. 38, R. A. M. He also be- 
longs to Richland Lodge No. 180, 1. O. O. F.; and 
Olney Lodge No. 76, A. O. U. W. 

Mr. Bower has a one hundred acre orchard, sixty 
acres of which are a mile and a-half north of the 
city and forty acres about the same distance south- 
ward, all planted in apples. The trees in the north 
lot are two years old, and those in the south are 
three. All the trees are thrifty and will soon bear. 
Both orchards are set out with Ben Davis apples, 
those promising the most profitable crop. Mr. 
Bower also owns his store building, which is built 
of stone, is two stories high and is 23x140 feet 
on the ground floor. Hecarriesa stock from $15,- 
000 to $18,000, and does considerable jobbing, 
keeping traveling salesmen on the road all the 
time. His stock consists of a full line of drugs 
and medicines, paints and oils, wall paper, books 
and fancy goods. By judicious management and 
fair dealing, Mr. Bower has built up an extensive, 
still increasing business, and has accumulated a 
valuable property. He is recognized as one of 
the most enterprising and successful business men 
of Olney, and is highly esteemed and respected by 
his fellow-citizens and by all with whom he has 
business or social relations. 




ON. JAMES E. WHARF, a prominent citi- 
zen of Olney, is at this writing serving his 
third term as Mayor of the city. He was 
first elected to the office in 1887, to suc- 
ceed David Scott; again in 1891, after an inter- 
vening term, to succeed Frank Powers, and again 
in 1893 to succeed himself. Mr. Wharf belongs to 
one of the earlier families of Richland County and 
has been a resident of Olney since 1857. He was born 
in Coshocton County, Ohio, in 1854, and isasonof 
James W. Wharf. The father was a native of 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



349 



England, but when a small lad of only five years 
his father, William Wharf, emigrated with his fam- 
ily to the United States and settled in Fayette 
County, Pa. During their residence there they 
were neighbors of the family of the late James G. 
Blaine, who was then but a boy. 

There James W. Wharf grew to manhood and 
married Mary Willis; later he settled in Coshoeton 
County, Ohio, removing from there to Olney in 
1857. The family consisted of the parents and four 
children, and another was added to the number 
after the removal to Richland County. A daugh- 
ter, Emma, died in Olney, at the age of three years. 
The other children of the family were James E., 
whose name heads this record; Mrs. Lizzie Allison 
and William and Edward L. Wharf; all are still 
residents of Olney. The father, James W. Wharf, 
engaged in the insurance business in this city as 
early as 1865. When but seventeen years of age, 
James E., our subject, began assisting his father 
in business and later was associated with him as 
a partner. That work he lias followed through- 
out his entire life, being still engaged in general 
insurance, representing most of the leading com- 
panies of the country. The father also still con- 
tinues in the business, being now engaged as trav- 
eling solicitor. 

In 1875, our subject was united in marriage with 
Miss Adelia Allison, daughter of Clinton J. Allison, 
an early and well-known citizen. Their union has 
been blessed with a family of three children, two 
sons and a daughter, namely: Allison J., Eugene 
C. and Edna T. The parents hold an enviable 
position in social circles and their home is the 
abode of hospitality. 

In his political views, Mr. Wharf is a Republi- 
can, having affiliated with that party since he be- 
came a voter. During his Mayoralty many im- 
portant public improvements have been made. 
During his first term preparations were made for 
the holding of the State Fair in Olney, and the suc- 
cess attending the same was due in no small de- 
gree to his labors in the capacity of Mayor. In 
1892, during his second term, the public improve- 
ments of the city cost about $40,000, the chief of 
which is the tvater works, which has proved a most 
important acquisition to the city. 



In his social relations, Mr. Wharf is a member of 
the Masonic fraternity and also of the Knights of 
Pythias. He is recognized as an enterprising citi- 
zen, public-spirited and progressive, and overtakes 
a commendable interest in the growth and progress 
of his town and county. 



W>ILLIAM B. BUNN, a representative farmer 
of Bonpas Township, residing on section 
33, has been prominently identified with 
the history of Richland County for a half-century. 
He has done much for the upbuilding and develop- 
ment of the community and is numbered among 
the honored pioneers. A native of Ohio, his birth 
occurred in Wayne County June 3, 1838. His 
father, Hyatt Bunn, was born in the same neigh- 
borhood. His grandfather, Capt. Benjamin Bunn, 
was a native of Virginia, and, becoming one of the 
early settlers of the Buckeye State, bought out an 
Indian town in 1805 on Jerome Fork. A fort was 
afterward built at that place, in 1812. Mr. Bunn 
served as a soldier in the War of 1812 and held a 
captain's commission. He was a blacksmith by 
trade and was a regularly ordained minister of Hie 
Methodist Church. He came of a family of Eng- 
lish origin, which was founded in Virginia during 
Colonial days. 

Hyatt Bunn was married in Wayne County to 
Betsy Hazzard, a native of Jackson Count}', Ohio, 
and a daughter of Rev. John Hazzard, a prominent 
Methodist minister. For ten years lie followed 
farming in Ohio, and in 1838 became a resident of 
Lawrence County, 111., spending several years on 
a farm near Bridgeport. It was in 1843 that he 
arrive.d in Richland County and entered and bought 
six hundred acres of land, opening up a large and 
valuable farm, upon which he reared his family 
and spent his last years. He held a number of 
public offices and was a valued citizen. With the 
Methodist Church he held membership and lived 
an upright, honorable life. lie died December 5, 
1891, and his wife passed away June 22, 1863. 



350 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



The Bunn family numbered eleven children, of 
whom two died in infancy, while nine grew to ma- 
ture years. The eldest, Margaret Ann, is the wife 
of G. W. Mowry; Elizabeth is the wife of Andrew 
Milligan, of Lawrence County; Benjamin W. died 
in the service of his country during the late war; 
William is the next younger; Roxanna is the wife of 
S. O. Leather; Dencey A. is the wife of Silas Leather; 
Rebecca is the wife of Daniel C. Boram; H. Niles 
is a farmer of Richland County; and Permelia is 
the wife of P. R. Fisher. 

During his infancy the subject of this sketch was 
brought by his parents to Illinois, and under the 
parental roof was reared to manhood. In 1860, he 
married Miss Sarah J. Srnilh,a native of Richland 
County and a daughter of Ella Smith, who came 
from Pennsylvania to Illinois in an earl}- day. 
They began their domestic life upon the farm 
which is still his home and which Mr. Bunn had 
previously located upon. He cleared and fenced 
it, built a log cabin and planted an orchard of one 
hundred and five apple trees. He first owned only 
one hundred acres, but by subsequent purchase he 
has extended the boundaries of his farm until it 
now comprises two hundred and sixty acres of 
valuable land, under a high state of cultivation 
and well improved. 

In 1892, Mr. Bunn lost his wife, who died on 
the 9th of February, and was buried in Mt. Olive 
Cemetery, where a marble monument marks her 
resting-place. They had one child, Betsy E., who 
is now the wife of David Fisher, a substantial 
farmer of Claremont Township, On the 26th of 
June, 1892, Mr. Bunn was married to Mrs. Fannie 
Rifner, widow of Sylvester Rifner, and a daughter 
of Peter and Mary (Brown) Bowers, who are both 
natives of Pennsylvania but are now residents of 
Richland County, 111. 

Mr. Bunn has given a home to several orphan 
children and has aided them in starting in life. 
His generous impulses and kindly spirit, which 
have prompted many good deeds, have won him 
the love and respect of all with whom he has been 
brought in contact. In politics, he has been a 
firm Democrat since casting his first Presidential 
vote for Stephen A. Douglas in 1860. lie has 
taken quite an active part in local politics, and his 



fellow-citizens, appreciating his worth and ability, 
have called upon him to serve in several offices of 
public trust. In municipal affairs he has been es- 
pecially prominent, having filled nearly all of the 
various township offices, including that of Supervi- 
sor for two years, and of Township Trustee for sev- 
eral years. From the organization of the township 
in 1859 until 1878, he occupied some official posi- 
tion most of the time, and for nine years assisted 
in laying out township roads and building bridges. 
In the last-named year the township was put under 
county organization, and the County Board ap- 
pointed Mr. Bunn Chairman of the Township 
Board and Judge of Elections, whicli position he 
held for two years, or until they resumed town- 
ship organization. In an able manner he has dis- 
charged his duties, both public and private, thus 
winning the commendation of all concerned. Al- 
most his entire life has been spent in Richland 
County, and those who have known him from 
boyhood are numbered among his warmest friends, 
a fact which indicates an honorable, upright ca- 
reer and one well worthy of emulation. 




ANIEL GAFFNER, dealer in leather, find- 
ings and hides, is a well-known and suc- 
cessful business man of Gluey, and one of 
the early settlers of that city. He was 
born in the canton of Berne, Switzerland, July 7, 
1831, and is a son of Daniel and Elizabeth (Gar- 
ber) Oaffner. His parents were also natives of 
Switzerland, and both are now deceased. 

Our subject was reared and educated in his na- 
tive country, and there served a regular appren- 
ticeship to the making of fine sewed shoes. Ir 
1854, after urgent solicitation, his father consented 
to his coming to America, and gave him at his re- 
quest only $75. He crossed to Havre, France, and 
shipped from that port in a sailing-vessel for Nev 
York, where he arrived after a vO3 ? age of forty- 
one days. He came to Illinois and settled in High- 
land, reaching his destination January 13, 1855 



PORTKAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



351 



There he worked at his trade until 1858, when he 
came to Olney, Richland County, and the follow- 
ing year opened a shoe- making shop. He carried 
on that business successfully until 1862, when, his 
health becoming impaired, he traded for a farm in 
Edwards County and engaged in agricultural pur- 
suits for three years. Then having regained his 
health he worked in a shoe store in Albion, the 
county seat of Edwards Count}-. After two years 
spent there he returned to Switzerland to pay his 
parents a promised visit. This was in 1868, and he 
spent three months very happily with his father, 
mother and friends, but notwithstanding every 
inducement offered to keep him in the Old Coun- 
try he returned to America, the land of his adop- 
tion, for which he had acquired a warm affection. 

On his return to Illinois, Mr. Gaffner continued 
in Albion but a short time, when he again settled 
in ( Mney, which has since been his home. Once more 
he embarked in the shoe business and was thus 
employed until 1882, when he changed to the hide 
and leather business, which he carried on for two 
years. He then sold out, but in 1890 he resumed 
trade in that line and has since continued it to 
the present time. 

Mr. Gaffner was married in Olney, August 28, 
1859, to Susanna Schniter, who was born in Berne, 
Switzerland, and is a daughter of Abram Schniter. 
She emigrated to America in 1850. Six children 
were born to Mr. and Mrs. Gaffner, but a son and 
daughter are now deceased. Robert married Emma 
Gissler, and is a druggist of Olney ; Eddie died 
at the age of nineteen years; William Tell wedded 
Tillie Eggler, and resides in Silverdale, Wash., 
where he has a general store; Charles Harry is 
with his father; Clara died at the age of two years; 
Walter Benjamin is at school. 

Mr. and Mrs. Gaffner were reared under the 
auspices of the German Reformed Church and be- 
long to that society. In politics he is a Republi- 
can, and socially is a Knight-Templar Mason, a 
member of Olney Lodge No. 140, A. F. & A. M.; 
Richland Chapter No. 38, R. A. M.; and Gorin 
Commander}' No. 14, K. T. 

Mr. Gaffner is a stockholder and Director in the 
First National Bank of Olney. He has acquired a 
valuable property, owning two business houses, 



five good dwellings and some inferior ones. He 
also has fifty-five acres a mile out on the State 
Road, being a part of the southwest quarter of sec- 
tion 36, town 4, range 10; three hundred and forty- 
seven acres in Preston Township; forty acres in 
Denver Township, Richland County; eighty acres 
in Bond County, and twenty acres in Clinton 
County. On the first-mentioned tract of land, 
the first white baby in the locality was born. 
Mr. Gaffner has accumulated a large portion of 
this property by his own efforts, for while his 
father was well off in the Old Country and of- 
fered his son financial assistance whenever he 
might need it, he preferred to depend on himself 
from the start. 

The Gaffner family is of French origin, many 
generations remote. There is a well-grounded 
tradition in the family to the effect that in the 
time of Louis XIV. of France, two brothers by 
the name of Gaffner, who were Huguenots, were 
driven from that country on account of their re- 
ligious opinions and sought refuge in Switzerland, 
where they married and settled. From one of 
these brothers our subject is descended. Mr. Gaff- 
ner- is thoroughly Americanized and is intensely 
patriotic. He is in the fullest accord with the 
theory of this Government, and will yield to no 
one in his admiration of and devotion to this 
country and its institutions. He is a most worthy 
citizen, enterprising and public-spirited, and his 
posterity may well look on the record of their 
common ancestor in the New World with respect 
and pride. 




V. VANDERHOOF, a member of 
the firm of G. V. & R. H. Vanderhoof, 
dealers in agricultural implements of New- 
ton, 111., is a native of this city, his birth hav- 
ing occurred February 14, 1840. With the ex- 
ception of a few years spent in the military ser- 
vice of his country in the late war for the Union, 
he has always made Newton his home. The com- 



352 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



mon schools afforded him his educational privi- 
leges, and he remained upon the home farm until 
he had almost attained his majority, when he began 
learning the blacksmith's trade. In the sum- 
mer of 1861, he quit the forge, and on the 12th of 
August of that year offered his services to the 
Government and joined the boys in blue. He be- 
came a member of the Thirty-eighth Illinois In- 
fantry, was assigned to Company K, and with his 
regiment joined the Army of the Cumberland. 
He was in active service in the hottest of the 
struggle and took part in more than sixty differ- 
ent engagements and battles. Among the most 
important may be named the battles of Frederick- 
town (Mo.), Corinth and I iika (Miss.)) Stone River, 
Tullahoma, Hoover's Gap, Liberty Gap and Chicka- 
mauga (Tenn.), Resaca, Marietta, Peach Tree Creek, 
the siege of Atlanta and Lovejoy, Ga., and the 
capture of Nashville, Tenn., when that city was 
defended by the Confederate general, Hood. He 
sustained a serious injury at Chickamauga on the 
19th of September, 1863, being run over in a 
charge of rebel cavalry. His injury resulted in a 
permanent lameness of the left leg. However, he 
continued in the service and was promoted to'the 
rank of First Sergeant. He veteranized on the 
29th of February, 1864, and was retained in the 
service until March 20, 1866, nearly a year after 
the cessation of hostilities. 

On his return from the army, Mr. Vanderhoof 
resumed the trade of blacksmithing in Newton, 
where he continued to make his home until 1879. 
He then embarked in the farm-implement busi- 
ness, and followed that line of trade until 1886, 
when he received an appointment as keeper of the 
penitentiary located in Chester, 111. This posi- 
tion he filled creditably until the spring of 1892, 
when he returned to Newton and formed the ex- 
isting business with his brother, R. H. 

On the 1st of October, 1869, Mr. Vanderhoof 
was united in marriage in Wade Township, Jasper 
County, with Miss Nannie Thomas, a daughter of 
Elihu Thomas, and a native of Richmond, Ind. 
She came to Jasper County with her parents in 
childhood. Two children were born to Mr. and 
Mrs. Vanderhoof, a son and a daughter, but botli 
died in infancy. 



In politics, our subject is a Republican, having 
supported that party since he attained his ma- 
jority. Socially, he is a member of Jacob E. Reed 
Post No. 550, G. A. R,; and Newton Lodge No. 
123, A. O. U. W. During the late war, he dis- 
played his loyalty to the country by inarching to 
the front. He is alike true to every duty of citi- 
zenship, and the community finds in him one of 
its valued and representative members. 



W WILLIAM H. PARRENT is engaged in 
fanning on section 19, Wade Township, 
Jasper County, where he owns and oper- 
ates a good farm of eighty acres, pleasantly situ- 
ated about four miles northeast of Newton. The 
Parrent family has long been identified with the 
history of this community, for they located here 
more than, half a century ago. Our subject is a 
native of Indiana, born near La Fayjette, Tippeca- 
noe County, May 22, 1836. His father, David 
Parrent, was born in Illinois, but was reared in 
Indiana, and there married Emily, daughter of 
Samuel Parker, and a native of Kentucky. It was 
in 1840 that Mr. Parrent came with his family to 
Jasper County, and made a settlement in Wade 
Township. He entered land from the Govern- 
ment and at once began the work of transforming 
the raw prairie into rich and fertile fields. This 
task was at length accomplished, and upon the 
farm which he there developed he spent the re- 
mainder of his life, dying in September, 1858. His 
wife survived him for a few years, her death oc- 
curring February 18, 1870. 

Of the seven children of the Parrent family, 
Maria, the eldest, is the wife of John Flint, of Law- 
rence Count}', Ohio; James R. resides in Missouri; 
William II. is the next younger; Margaret Ann is 
now deceased; John is a farmer of Jasper County; 
George is deceased; and Mrs. Emily J. Hastings 
completes the family. 

Our subject was a lad of four years when he 
came with the family to Jasper County. No event 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



355 



of special importance occurred during his boyhood 
and youth, which were quietly passed upon the 
home farm. As soon as old enough he began 
working in the fields, and after his father's death 
he took charge of the homestead for his mother. 
After operating it for a few years, he purchased 
eighty acres of raw land, the same upon which he 
now resides, and began the development of a 
farm. It was unfenced and unbroken land, but he 
plowed and planted it, set out a good orchard, 
built fences, erected a substantial residence and 
has made other valuable and desirable improve- 
ments. 

On the 1st of January, 1865, in Jasper County, 
Mr. Parrent married Miss Barbara, daughter of 
Joseph and Nancy Bowers. By their union they 
have had a family of seven children, namely: 
Mahala, Isabel, William H. and Willis E. (twins), 
James H., Barbara J. and Martha E. The family 
is one well known in the community, and its mem- 
bers rank high in social circles. 

Mr. Parrent lias spent almost his entire life in 
Jasper County, and has been an eye-witness of its 
growth and progress. He has also largely aided 
in its development and upbuilding, and has ever 
faithfully performed his duties of citizenship. In 
politics he is a stanch Republican and warmly ad- 
vocates the principles of that party, although he 
has never sought or desired the honors or emolu- 
ments of public office. Mr. Parrent may truly be 
called a self-made man, for his success in life is 
due entirely to his own well-directed efforts. His 
enterprise and industry have stood him instead of 
capital, and he has steadilj' worked his way up- 
ward. 




T.JOSEPH'S ROMAN CATHOLIC 
CHURCH, of Olney, was established in this 
city in 1859. One of the first priests was 
Father Longliran, and the first child bap- 
tized in the church was Patrick Burges, the cere- 
mony being performed July 24, 1859, by Father 
Longliran. 

17 



At that time the congregation was small and 
the work of improvement slow, but at this writing 
the membership has increased so that it ranks as 
one of the first churches in the city. The good 
work has steadily grown until the}' now own and 
occupy one of the finest sites in the city, with 
creditable improvements thereon. The names of 
the priests who have resided here since the estab- 
lishment of the congregation are respectively Rev. 
Fathers Longhran, Sandrock, J. Vahey, H. J. 
Hoven, Thomas Walsh, J. Marty, P. Dee, A. David, 
P. Kearney, J. Meckrel, J. Molitor, J. W. Mersher, 
F. Budde, and the present occupant, Rev. J. B. 
Schnelten. 




EV. JOHN BERNARD SCHNELTEN, pas- 
tor of St. Joseph's Catholic Church of Ol- 
ney, was born in the province of Hanover, 
Germany, and in the common schools of 
that country received his early education. When 
about sixteen years of age he was brought to the 
United States by his parents, who settled in Car- 
rol Iton, Greene County, this State, where the family 
still resides. There the subject of this sketch grew 
to manhood and was successfully engaged in farm- 
ing and mercantile pursuits for some years. 

Deciding to devote his life to the Church, Rev. 
Father Schnelten pursued a classical course of study 
with the Franciscan Fathers in Quincy, 111., and 
finished his philosophical course in St. Louis Uni- 
versity, from which institution he was graduated 
in 1883, with the degree of A. M. He then took a 
three-years course in theology at the seminary in 
Milwaukee, Wis. In 1886, he was ordained a priest 
and had charge of St. Stephen's Church at Flora, 
111., for nearly two years. On the expiration of 
that period he was transferred to his present posi- 
tion, in which he has labored earnestly and faith- 
fully in the interests of his church and people for 
the past five years. Under his management the 
church was located on its present desirable site, 



356 



PORTRAIT AND L'lOGKAI H1CAL RECORD. 



and the comfortable, convenient residence was 
built under his direction in 1892. Father Schnel- 
ten enjoys the respect and confidence of all classes 
of people in the community. 




ARTIN UTTERBACK, who carries on gen- 
eral farming on section 26, Preston Town- 
ship, was born in Kentucky January 31, 
1827. His father, Elijah Utterback, was 
also a native of Kentucky and was of German de- 
scent. His mother, who bore the maiden name of 
Mildred Snyder, was likewise of German lineage. 
The family of this worthy couple numbered four- 
teen children, but the three eldest, Dica, Sylvester 
and Ebsworth, are now deceased. Jane is the 
next younger, and was followed by Martin; David 
is also deceased; Willis and Martha are next in 
order of birth; Louisa died several years ago; 
Gilla, Thomas and Felix have also departed this 
life; and Harvey and Catherine complete the 
family. 

The subject of this sketch was born and reared 
upon a farm, and with his parents he came to Ill- 
inois in 1829, being then only two years of age. 
The family made the trip Westward by team and 
located in what is now Claremont Township, 
Richland County, but was then a part of Law- 
rence County. The father died in this county in 
1876, having survived his wife a number of years. 
Her death occurred in 1864. 

Martin Utterback in his early youth attended 
the subscription schools of the neighborhood, 
which were held in a log house, but his privileges 
in that direction were quite limited, and he is 
largely a self-educated man. To his father he gave 
the benefit of his services until he had attained 
his majority, when he left home and went to 
Claremont, where lie worked for two years, serving 
an apprenticeship to the blacksmith's trade. He 
then established a blacksmith and wagon shop of 
his own in Claremont. and carried on business in 
that place until 1874. On selling out he purchased 



an interest in a drug store in Claremont and de- 
voted his energies to that line of business for four 
years. 

It was in 1857 that Mr. Utterback was united 
in marriage with Miss Eliza Burgess. By their 
union were born seven children, as follows: Al- 
fred, Edwin, Margaret Lena, Walter M., Bertie 
L. (deceased), Paul W. and Rufus A. The mother 
of this family was called to the home beyond No- 
vember 11, 1882, and her remains were interred in 
St. Paul's Cemetery in Preston Township. She was 
a member of the Lutheran Church and was a lady 
whose excellencies of character endeared her to 
her many friends. 

Since its organization Mr. Utterback has been a 
warm supporter of the Republican party and takes 
a warm interest in its growth and success. lie has 
held the office of Township Clerk, but has never 
been an aspirant for official honors. In religious 
belief he is a Lutheran. In 1878 he took up his 
residence on the farm which has since been his 
home and is now engaged in the cultivation of his 
eighty-five acres of arable land. He also rais 
some stock. Almost his entire life has been p: 
in this count}', whither he came at a time whet 
there were only two frame houses in Olnej 
Trading was done at Lawrenceville and the fam- 
ily had to endure many of the hardships and trial 
incident to frontier life. In the work of develop 
ing the county he has ever borne his part anr 
taken a just pride in its progress and well deserve 
representation among its honored pioneers. 




-. ANIEL P. SMITH, of Newton, is a well- 
known early settler of Jasper County. He 
dates his permanent residence in the coun- 
ty from 1850. though he at first arrived 
within its borders in the fall of 1849, and prepared 
the way for the settlement which he made the fol- 
lowing spring. Mr. Smith was born in Muskingum 
County, Ohio, in the year 1822, and is of 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



357 



German descent. His father, David Smith, was 
born in Germany, and emigrating to America be- 
came one of the pioneers of Muskingum County. 
His death occurred during the childhood of Daniel 
P., so that our subject has no remembrance of his 
father. The maiden name of the wife and mother 
was Nancy Lynch. She was a native of Pennsyl- 
vania, and survived her husband many years, 
but is now deceased. This worthy couple had a 
family of eight children who grew to manhood and 
womanhood, and five of that number, three broth- 
ers and two sisters, are still living at this writing, 
in the spring of 1893. Only the subject of this 
sketch and his brother, Dr. Lewis W. Smith, ever 
became permanent residents of Illinois. The third 
surviving brother, George, resides in Brazil, Ind. 

Being deprived of a father's care early in life, 
Daniel Smith was thrown upon his own resources 
at an early age and forced to earn his own liveli- 
hood. When a youth of fifteen summers, he went 
to Terre Haute, Vigo County, Ind., where he served 
an apprenticeship to the trade of a .tailor. He 
worked at the business of tailoring for about five 
years, when, his health having become impaired, he 
relinquished that pursuit and turned his attention 
to farming, which he followed near Terre Haute. 

Mr. Smith was married in that State to Miss 
Mary Isabel Eagleton. Soon afterwards he came 
to Jasper County, 111., and settled upon a farm in 
Grove Township. He obtained his land from the 
Government, and upon the farm made his home 
for thirty-five years. When he came into posses- 
sion of it it was in a wild and unimproved state, 
but he immediately began its development and had 
it under a high state of cultivation, so that the 
rich and fertile fields yielded to him a golden trib- 
ute. On the 28th of August, 1887, Mr. Smith was 
bereft of his wife by death. She was born in 
Terre Haute, Ind., in 1833, and was a daughter of 
Alexander Kagleton, formerly of the State of Ten- 
nessee. Her excellencies of character won her 
manj' friends and her death was widely mourned. 
Mr. and Mrs. Smith were blessed with a family of 
ten children, nine of whom are living, one son hav- 
ing died in infancy. With the exception of the 
eldest- child, all were born on the old home farm 
in Grove Township, and all are yet residents Of 



Jasper County, with the exception of Orpheus W., 
who is now living in Dccatur, III. 

Mr. Smith has been prominently identified with 
the growth and development of Jasper County for 
nearly forty-five years. In 1873 he was elected to 
the office of County Treasurer, and was twice re- 
elected, serving nine years in that capacity. It 
may be inferred that great confidence is imposed 
in his abilit} 7 - and integrity by his fellow-citizens, 
from the fact that though he has ever been a stanch 
Republican, and the county strongly Democratic, 
yet he was three times called to the most import- 
ant county office by popular vote. After the death 
of his wife, with whom he had traveled life's jour- 
ney for nearly forty years, Mr. Smith retired from 
the more active duties of business, and now re- 
sides with his brother, Dr. Lewis W. Smith, in the 
village of Newton. He has ever been a valued 
resident of the community, and his upright and 
honorable career has won him universal confidence 
and esteem. 




>IIE EFFINGHAM MILLING COMPANY, 
one of the leading industries of Effing- 
ham, was incorporated in February, 1892, 
with a paid-up capital of $30,000. The incorpor- 
ators, who are the present trustees and man- 
agers of the business, are Edward Austin, W. W. 
Austin, William Dyke, Calvin Austin, Harry B. 
Austin and Charles Austin. The first-named 
gentleman is President of the company, while 
Calvin Austin holds the office of Vice-President 
and William Dyke is serving as Secretary and 
Treasurer. The mill is fitted out with roller- 
process machinery of the best modern make, and 
has a daily capacity of one hundred and twenty- 
five barrels of flour. The mill was rebuilt in 1889 
and supplied with new machinery, so that it is now 
comparatively new. It is operated by a sixty 
horse power steam engine and is situated in the 
northern part of the city, two blocks west of the 



358 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



Illinois Central Railroad. The members of the 
Elfingham Milling Company are all men of good 
business ability and financial standing, and in this 
industry they are doing a successful business, 
which is constantly increasing. A liberal patron- 
age is certainly well deserved by them. 



JOSEPH SIEMER, a well-known business 
man of Teutopolis and a representative 
citizen of Effingham County, is a member 
__ of the firm of Uptmor & Siemer, proprie- 
tors of the Hope Mills and dealers in grain. His 
life record is as follows: He is a native of Ohio, 
his birth having occurred in Cincinnati, on the 
24th of October, 1857. His parents were Joseph 
and Magdelena Siemer. Our subject lost his 
mother while an infant, but his father survived for 
some years and passed away in 1870. 

Joseph Siemer, whose name heads this record, 
spent the days of his boyhood in his native city 
and was educated in the public schools of Cincin- 
nati. In 1874 he came to Teutopolis and since 
that time has been a resident of this county. He 
was variously employed until 1882, when he 
joined his father-in-law and brother-in-law in the 
erection of the Hope Mills, and has since been 
manager of the same. Under his management 
affairs have prospered and the business is now in 
a flourishing condition, being one of the leading 
industries of this locality. 

An important event in the life of Mr. Siemer 
occurred on the 29th of April, 1879, when he was 
married, the lady of his choice being Miss Angela 
Uptmor, a daughter of Clement and Elizabeth 
Uptmor. She was born in Teutopolis, of which 
place her father is the most prominent and dis- 
tinguished pioneer. Unto Mr. and Mrs. Siemer 
has been born a family of five children yet liv- 
ing and they have also lost one, a son. In order 
pf birth they are as follows: Catherine, Elizabeth, 



Clement, Josephine, Henry (who died at the age of 
ten and a-half years), and Mary, who completes 
the family. 

In his political affiliations, Mr. Siemer is a Dem- 
ocrat, and manifests considerable interest in polit- 
ical affairs. He has been elected and served as a 
member of the Village Board of Teutopolis, filling 
that office for a period of four years, and has also 
served as Town Treasurer for two years. In relig- 
ious belief he and his family are Catholics, belong- 
ing to the church in Teutopolis. They are widely 
known in this community and are also favorably 
known, being held in high esteem by their many 
acquaintances for their excellencies of character 
and sterling worth. 

In addition to his interest in the Hope Mills, 
Mr. Siemer owns some village property, and his 
wife has forty acres of land lying near the town 
of Teutopolis. Mr. Siemer is one of the most enter- 
prising and public-spirited citizens of this place, 
and is known as an industrious, upright man, whose 
success in. life has been achieved through his own 
efforts, and is therefore well deserved. 




R. SLOVER, who follows farming 

on section 1 1, Bonpas Township, was born 
near New Harmony, Ind., on the 13th of 
June, 1815, and is a son of Abram and Mary 
(White) Slover. The former was a native of Penn- 
sylvania, and was a son of Abraham Slover, whc 
was of German descent. The mother of our eul 
ject was a native of Virginia. 

The earl}- boyhood days of our subject wer 
spent in the Hoosier State, and at the age of four- 
teen years he accompanied his parents on their re- 
moval to Illinois. They located first in Coles 
County, from where they afterward removed to 
White County. Their last place of residence was 
in Wabash County, where the father died about 
1833. His wife survived him for nearly a quarter 
of a century and passed away in 1857. 

Gilbert R, Slover came to Richlaud County 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



359 



about 1841, and settled upon his present farm. It 
was then an unbroken forest, but he built a small log 
cabin and made a squatter's claim. It was several 
years before he could secure the means to purchase 
the land, even at the low Government price. He 
began to clear the tract of timber and made other 
preparations toward the development of the farm. 
Much of his time he had to spend in hunting, in 
order to secure a subsistence. He probably has 
killed as many deer as any man in the county 
since 1841. As the years passed, his financial re- 
sources were increased, and he at length became 
owner of a good farm of two hundred acres, but 
with the exception of eighty acres, he has given it 
all to his children. 

On the 2d of January, 1837, Mr. Slover married 
Sophia, daughter of William Brown, of Wabash 
County, 111. Six children were born unto them: 
John, who died in childhood; Mrs. Maria East- 
erday; Mary, deceased; William, who follows 
farming near the old homestead; Mrs. Elizabeth 
Tucker; and Gilbert, who is also an agriculturist of 
this community. 

Mr. and Mrs. Slover have for many years been 
members of the Christian Church. He cast his first 
Presidential vote for Andrew Jackson, and has 
since been a supporter of Democratic principles. 
He is the oldest settler in Bonpas Township, and 
one both widely and favorably known. 



tHE CITY SCHOOLS of Effingham are an 
important factor in this community, and 
should be mentioned in the history of the 
county. They are well managed under the direc- 
tion of Prof. LA. Smothers, who is Principal, and 
is now serving his fourth year in that position. 
The School Board consists of the following-named: 
Charles Butler, President; William B. Wright, 
Secretary; Mrs. Alice Wright Gwin, Edward Aus- 
tin, F. O. Green, Thomas Powell and T. J. Bow- 
ling. 

There are two school buildings, brick in struc- 



ture, which are well adapted for the purpose. They 
are heated by steam, well ventilated, and have 
all the accessories of a first-class school. The 
school is graded and has an enrollment of about 
five hundred scholars under the care of Prof. 
Smothers and eight assistant teachers. The High 
School is situated on the west side of Effingham, 
and the other on the east side. The former is well 
equipped with philosophical apparatus, valued at 
$300. No better equipped school can be found in 
this part of the State. The course covers a period 
of eight years in the graded departments and 
three years in the High School. Each teacher has 
an average of more than sixty pupils, and as the 
attendance is constantly increasing, the facilities 
will soon be enlarged. An efficient School Board 
is at the head, capable teachers have been em- 
ployed, and the superintendent is an able in- 
structor. Owing to these facts the Effingham 
schools occupy an enviable rank. 



JOHN HENRY UPTMOR ranks among the 
leading and successful business men of 
Teutopolis. He is a dealer in general mer- 
' chandise and now enjoys a good trade. As 
his business career has made him widely known, 
we feel assured that this record of his life will 
prove of interest to many of our readers. Mr. 
Uptmor is a native of Teutopolis, and is the only 
surviving child of John H. and Mary Anna 
(Yohring) Uptmor. Our subject was born July 
18, 1867. His education was acquired in the 
Catholic parochial schools and in St. Joseph's Col- 
lege, of this place. When about thirteen years of 
age he met with a serious accident in the harvest 
field upon the home farm. He was run over by 
a reaping-machine and the injury resulted in the 
loss of his left leg, which had to be amputated 
below the left knee. 

Having finished his school life, Mr. Uptmor 
secured a position as merchant's clerk for a time. 
He also engaged in teaching school, following that 



360 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



profession for two and a-half years, after which 
he turned his attention to commercial pursuits. 
It was in December, 1888, that he embarked in 
merchandising in Teutopolis. He now owns and 
operates a general store and carries a good stock. 
Anxious to please his patrons, he is upright and 
honorable in all his dealings and has therefore 
won a liberal patronage from the public. 

Mr. Uptmor was united in marriage in Teutop- 
olis on the 18th of October, 1892, with Miss 
Annie Abbink, who was born near Middleton, 111., 
and is a daughter of John and Mary Abbink. 
The young couple are well known in this commu- 
nity and rank high in social circles. 

In his political affiliations, Mr. Uptmor is a sup- 
porter of the Democracy. Himself and wife are 
members of the Catholic Church. While engaged 
in business for only a few years, Mr. Uptmor has 
succeeded in building up a fair trade, which is 
constantly increasing. He is but a young man, 
with the future before him, and will no doubt in 
coining years win prosperity as the result of his 
energy and activity, which are among his chief 
characteristics. 




/,,,, USTIN COLLEGE is an educational insti- 
!OI tution of which the citizens of Effingham 
County may well be proud. Several pub- 
lic-spirited citizens of Effingham organ- 
ized a movement in 1890 to establish an institu- 
tion of higher education. Meetings were held, and 
general interest was excited. The movement soon 
took a practical shape by the opening of subscrip- 
tion books. The necessary amount was raised in 
a few days, bids for the erection of a model col- 
lege building, possessing all the modern equip- 
ments, were invited, and on the 22d of October the 
corner-stone of the beautiful structure was laid 
with impressive ceremonies, conducted by the 
Masonic fraternity, led by Grand Master Owen 
Scott, of Bloomington, 111. In the spring of 1891, 
Prof. W. E. Lugenbeel, the Principal of the Bor- 



den Institution, of Borden, Ind., and who had 
managed the Southern Indiana Normal School, of 
Mitchell, with signal success for eight years, was 
invited to the presidency of the faculty. He ac- 
cepted, believing that this institution would be- 
come one of the great schools of the State. Prof. 
W. J. Brinckley, a teacher of wide experience and 
extensive attainments in the sciences, was elected 
to the chair of scientific instruction; Prof. Hiram 
H. Bice, of Johns Hopkins University, was elected 
to the department of ancient languages and Eng- 
lish literature; Prof. J. A. Turley, of Borden In- 
stitute, was appointed principal of the business 
department; Miss Mary E. Gilmore, of the Rich- 
mond (Ind.) Business College, was selected as prin- 
cipal of the shorthand and type-writing depart- 
ment, and teacher of elocution; Prof. Max Mar- 
tine, of the Freiburg and Paris Universities, was 
placed in charge of the modern languages; and Prof. 
R. P. Schifferstein, Director of the Effingham Musi- 
cal Conservatory, was placed in charge of the 
musical department. 

Profs. Lugenbeel and Brinckley were appointed 
to select and purchase the library and apparatus, 
which were to be of the best. The various rooms 
were fitted with all necessary appliances, and fur- 
nished with every convenience in furniture and 
fixtures. All things being in readiness, the insti- 
tution was formally opened on the evening of 
July 6, 1891, by a concert given by the leading 
members of the noted Emma Abbott Opera Com- 
pany. Dr. John, President of De Pauw Univer- 
sity, delivered a profound oration. On the fol- 
lowing morning Austin College began its regular 
work with an attendance of more than one hun- 
dred students. From the first day, the success anc 
value of the enterprise were assured, and at the 
close of the first scholastic year, the enrollment had 
reached more than two hundred students. 

Prof. L. P. Doe IT was chosen to succeed Prof. 
Bice; Miss lola Gilbert, of the Chicago Music 
Conservatory, has succeeded Prof. Schifferstein; 
and Mrs. L. P. Doerr, of the Cincinnati Art 
School, has been chosen to conduct the art depart- 
ment. In consideration of the great benefactions 
conferred by Edward and Calvin Austin, the insti- 
tution was named Austin College and Normal In- 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



361 



stitute. Among its other benefactors were Dr. 
J. B. Walker, George M. Le Crone, Judge S. F. 
Gilmore, Hon. E. N. Rhinehart, Mrs. N. B. White, 
Philip E. Crooker, L. H. Bissell, Joseph Part- 
ridge, Sr., and Capt. A. W. Le Crone. 

The officers of the college are Edward Austin 
President; Dr. J. B. Walker, Vice-President; G. M. 
Le Crone, Secretary; Joseph Partridge, Sr., Treas- 
urer; and W. E. Lugenbcel, Assistant Secretary, 
Its Directors are Calvin Austin, Mrs. N. B. White. 
Hon. Albert N. Campbell, L. H. Bissell, Hon. E. N. 
Rliinehart, Hon. S. F. Gilmore and Mrs. Mary A. 
Stevens. The main college building is a beautiful 
structure, three stories high, constructed of brick 
and stone and containing ten rooms. The recita- 
tion rooms are furnished with opera chairs, having 
book tablets, the library room with tables and 
comfortable chairs, and the chemical laboratory with 
all the facilities for original and class work, etc., 
The entire building is heated by steam and lighted 
by gas, and the location is superb. The Trustees 
have erected a beautiful home for the college, and 
have embellished it with all that appeals to the 
noblest feelings. The institution is non-sectarian 
and receives students of any religious belief. 

In regard to apparatus, Austin College stands 
pre-eminent. It has a chemical laboratory, fur- 
nished with gas, regents, and the best apparatus 
for all kinds of work; a physical laboratory 
containing costly and rare implements, spectro- 
scope, double-plate electral machine, etc; and a 
biological laboratory, complete in all its appoint- 
ments; a geological cabinet, with all the important 
minerals, ores and fossils; every appointment which 
will aid the study of physiology and anatomy; a 
fine telescope, a full set of surveying and engi- 
neering instruments, the leading type-writers and 
excellent pianos, including the finest Chiekcring 
Grand. The reference library contains over 
two thousand volumes, and is one of the finest 
college libraries, on account of the adaptability of 
the books to the use of the students. 

The courses of study in Austin College include, 
without entering into details, all that is under- 
stood under the following general headings: A 
preparatory course of one year, a classical colle- 
giate course of three years, modern language and 



scientific course, teachers' advanced course, teach- 
ers' elementary course, surveying course, business 
course, art and music course, shorthand and type- 
writing, department of natural science, physics, 
chemistry, mineralogy, botany, zoology, physi- 
ology, biology, histology, microscopy and astron- 
omy. 

All southern Illinois owes a debt of gratitude to 
the earnest and public-spirited persons who estab- 
lished Austin College. It is rapidly taking rank 
among the leading educational institutions, not 
onlj' of Illinois, but of surrounding States, and the 
citizens of this community have great reason to 
be proud of it. 




J. WAGNER, one of the extensive 
land-owners of Richland County, his poss- 
essions aggregating four hundred and five 
acres is living on section 2, Bon pas Township. He 
also owns property in the city of Olney. He was born 
near Sarbrucken, on the Rhine, in Prussia, July 25, 
1841, and isason of Jacob and Theresa (Wahrech) 
Wagner, who were also natives of the same country. 
In 1847, the family crossed the broad Atlantic 
to America and located in Summit County, Ohio, 
from where they went to Stark County, Ohio, 
where the father engaged in coal mining. In 1857 
he brought his wife and children to Richland 
County, and carried on farming in German Town- 
ship. During his last years he lived a retired life in 
Olncy, where his death occured in February, 1874. 
His wife survived him several years and passed 
away in Jasper County, February 19, 1893. Their re- 
mains were interred in the Catholic Cemetery of 
Olney. Of their fourteen children, eight died in 
childhood. The others are Jacob, now deceased; 
Philip, of Jasper County; John, deceased; George 
J., of this sketch; Andrew, also of Jasper County; 
and Mary, wife of H. Spangler. The parents were 
devout members of the Catholic Church, as are all 
their children with the exception of our subject. 
George Wagner received but limited school 



362 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



privileges in his boyhood, but after his marriage, 
with the assistance of his wife, he acquired a good 
business education, and is now an intelligent and 
well-read man. At the age of sixteen he left home 
and worked in a sawmill in Wabash County. 
Later he went to Pittsburg, Pa., and subsequently, 
after traveling through Ohio, he took up his resi- 
dence in Lawrence County, 111., where he rented 
a farm. 

In November, 1861, Mr. Wagner enlisted in 
Company H, Twenty-sixth Illinois Infantry, for 
three years' service during the late war, and when 
his term expired he re-enlisted as a veteran. He 
received his final discharge July 21, 1865. He 
participated in many engagements, the most im- 
portant of which were the battles of New Madrid, 
Island No. 10, Point Pleasant, Corinth, luka 
the second battle of Corinth, Farmington and 
Mission Ridge. He was ill for a time in the hos- 
pital at La Grange, Tenn., but escaped without 
wounds. During the latter part of his service he 
was employed in guarding prisoners. He proved 
an efficient soldier, and was always found faithful 
to his duty and the Old Flag. 

On his return from the war, Mr. Wagner rented 
his father's farm for a year, and then bought 
land near St. Marie, Jasper County. On the 4th 
of June, 1867, he wedded Margaret Klepper, who 
was born in German Township, Richland County, 
and is a daughter of Kasiner Klepper, an honored 
pioneer of this county. Mr. Wagner then devoted 
his energies untiringly to farm labor, but after ten 
years, owing to failing health, caused by his ser- 
vices in the army, he sold out and removed to Ol- 
ney, where he lived a retired life for some time. 
About 1886, he bought a portion of his present 
farm and the remainder in 1892. This farm has 
a great variety of resources and is being rapidly 
improved by Mr. Wagner. Nearly three hundred 
acres are under cultivation. There are found 
not only good buildings, but the latest improved 
machinery as well, and all other accessories of a 
inodel farm, together with some fine grades of stock. 

Mr. Wagner is a member of the Grand Army of 
the Republic and has voted the Republican ticket 
since attaining his majority. He may truly be 
called a self-made man, for he started out without 



capital, save his own energy and determination. 
By judicious investments and speculations, he has 
accumulated a comfortable fortune, the result of a 
busy life. He is an independent thinker, and uses 
his own judgment in all transactions. He now 
rents his farm and is living retired, resting in the 
enjoyment of the fruits of his former toil. 



J' OHN BROWN, who carries on general farrn- 
I ing on section 9, Smallwood Township, Jas- 
per County, was born in Dundee, Scotland, 
__ ' April 21, 1810. He is the only child of 
John and Margaret Brown, of Dundee. In that 
city his father owned quite a large factory, which 
he operated successfully until 1820, when he dis- 
posed of his business there and emigrated to Amer- 
ica. Going to Jefferson County, Ind., he entered 
a tract of heavily timbered land from the Govern- 
ment. Soon the woodman's axe awakened the 
echoes of the forest, and after the trees had been 
cleared away he plowed and planted his land and 
soon had a good farm. In later years he ran a 
distillery in connection with farming. His death 
occurred May 1, 1837. 

Our subject was deprived of a mother's tender 
care when very young. He was only ten years of 
age when with his father he came to the United 
States. His boyhood days were spent upon the 
old homestead in the labors of the farm. When 
he had reached his majority he was married to 
Miss Elizabeth Jackson, who was born in Tennessee, 
March 10, 1812. Their union was celebrated May 
13, 1830, and was blessed by the birth of thirteen 
children, nine sons and four daughters, of whom 
nine are yet living: Nancy Ann, wife of Peter 
Chandler; Thomas; George; Harrison; Matilda, 
widow of Archie I lamilton ; Nelson ; Joseph ; Stephen 
A.; and Melinda, wife of James Bridges. The 
sons are all farmers of Smallwood Township, and 
the sons-in-law follow the same pursuit. 

Mrs. Brown, whose maiden name was Elizabeth 
Jackson, was a daughter of Thomas and Anna 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



363 



Jackson, who were both natives of Tennessee. 
She was a woman possessing many excellent traits 
of character, a devout Christian and a true help- 
mate to her husband, with whom she traveled life's 
journey for upwards of sixty years. She died 
January 27, 1892. 

After his marriage Mr. Brown rented a farm in 
Indiana, and after four years he entered Govern- 
ment laud. The tract was covered with timber, 
but he cleared and improved it and engaged in its 
cultivation for seventeen years. On the expira- 
tion of that period he sold out and came to Jas- 
per County, 111. This was in 1851. Here he again 
entered land from the Government, and the wild 
and unbroken tract he transformed into the excel- 
lent farm upon which he has since made his home. 
He now owns five hundred acres of valuable land 
in Smallwood Township, and has given to his 
children a considerable amount. He also owns 
some real estate in Newton and' West Liberty. 
He is energetic and industrious, and his progres- 
sive spirit and well-directed efforts have gained 
for him a handsome competence. He began life 
empty-handed, but step by step lie worked his way 
upward to a position of wealth and affluence. His 
success in his business affairs now enables him to 
live a retired life, resting in the enjoyment of the 
fruits of his former toil. 

Mr. Brown and all of his sons are stanch Demo- 
crats. He has represented his township as Super- 
visor for a number of years, has also served as As- 
sessor, and for a great many years has been School 
Director, discharging his official duties with a 
commendable promptness and fidelity. He has al- 
ways taken a deep interest in the advancement of 
those public enterprises calculated to benefit the 
community, and is liberal in his support of any 
enterprise tending to promote the welfare of his 
town or county. 

Mr. Brown has led a busy and useful life, yet he 
had not worked for his own interest alone. For 
forty-five years he has been a local minister of the 
Baptist Church, and has preached throughout Jas- 
per, Richland, Clay and Cumberland Counties, 
lie lias been an earnest worker in the Master's 
vineyard, and both by precept and example has 
led others to walk in the higher life. Probably 



no man in the community is more widely known 
than Mr. Brown throughout southern Illinois, and 
certainly none are held in higher regard, for he 
has the confidence and esteem of all with whom 
his life work has brought him in contact. 



J'"] OHN CONANT WHITE, deceased, was born 
in Forestville, Wake County, N. C., May 
21, 1846, and was a son of John B. and 
Mary (Mernam) White. His parents were 

both natives of New Hampshire. His father was 
a well-educated man and became President of a 
college in Forestville, N. C. During the boyhood 
of our subject the family emigrated Westward and 
in 1855 became residents of Illinois. The father 
had charge of Almira College at Greenville, 111. 

Our subject was a good student, having in- 
herited many of the literary tendencies of his 
father. He attended the model department 
of the State University at tlrbana in 1863 for 
one year, and the following year entered the 
preparatory department of Chicago University, 
and in the fall of 1865 entered Shurtleff College, 
at Upper Alton. At the end of his junior year 
he became a student in Brown University, Provi- 
dence, R. I., from which institution he was gradu- 
ated in 1869. He th en began the study of law in 
St. Louis with Judge Samuel Reber, after which 
he came to Efflngham and read law with J. N. Gwin. 
In 1872 he was admitted to the Bar, after which 
he formed a partnership with E. N. Rinehart and 
began to practice law. This connection continued 
until August, 1873, when he formed a partnership 
with Judge S.F. Gilmore. He continued his residence 
in Effingham and became a successful legal prac- 
tioner. At the time of his death he was in part- 
nership with W. B. Wright. Mr. White was a thor- 
ough student of his profession, was an earnest and 
able advocate, and won his way to a foremost po- 
sition at the Effingham County Bar. 

On the 25th of August, 1875, in Seymour, Ind., 
Mr. White was united in marriage with Miss 






364 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



Nellie J. Bliss, daughter of Alfred and Direxia 
Bliss. The lady is a native of this State and was 
educated in Almira College. By the union of 
Mr. and Mrs. White were born five children, three 
of whom are still living. Bliss C., Annie Lucile 
and John B. Mary J., their eldest child, died at 
the age of five months; and Nellie Knowles, the 
third child, died at the age of nine years. 

In his political affiliations he was a Republican 
until 1888, when he joined the ranks of the Democ- 
racy. He always took an active part in public 
affairs and manifested a commendable interest in. 
all that pertained to the welfare of the community. 
He served as a member of the School Board for a 
number of years and the cause of education found 
in him a warm friend. He was a successful lawyer 
and an accomplished gentleman," and in this com- 
munity was recognized as a prominent and valued 
citizen. 

Mr. White was a prominent member of the 
Masonic order, having attained the degree of 
Royal Arch Mason. He was Master of Effingham 
Lodge No. 149, A. F. <fe A. M., for three years, 
and served as Deputy District Grand Master for 
two years, having been appointed by the Grand 
Master of Illinois. 

He passed away on the 12th of December, 1888, 
and his death was deeply mourned by many friends, 
for he had the respect and confidence of all with 
whom he was brought in contact. His wife is still 
living in Effingham, where she has many warm 
friends and acquaintances. 




HARLES SHULTZ, a dry-goods merchant, 
is the oldest merchant in his line in Olney. 
He established business here in August, 
1860, and with the exception of three years dur- 
ing the war he has carried it on continuously 
since. He was born in Berlin, Prussia, June 28, 
1837, and is a son of Christopher and Dorothy 
(Ilasslet) Shultz. The first thirteen years of his 



life were spent in his native land, and he then 
came to America in 1850. He landed at New Or- 
leans, and with his parents started up the river. 
During the trip the father died of cholera, and 
three years later the mother died of the same dis- 
ease. The passage across the Atlantic had been a 
very stormy one, and all of the rigging of the 
vessel was carried away. After the death of the 
father, the mother continued with her children to 
Evansville, and in the spring of 1851 went to 
West Salem, Edwards County, where she entered 
one hundred and sixty acres of land. Her death 
occurred in Ohio, in 1853. Of her family only 
two are now living: Charles, of this sketch; and 
Andrew, who is a farmer of Olney Township. 

When our subject was fourteen years of age, he 
began life for himself, and has since been depen- 
dent upon his owu resources, so that whatever has 
been his success, it is due entirely to his own ef- 
forts. He worked on the Ohio & Mississippi Rail- 
road until its completion, after which he came to 
Olney with Mr. Darling, and was connected with 
an eating-house in this place for five years. In 
this way he acquired some capital, after which lie 
opened a grocery store. Since that time he has 
been prominently connected with the business in- 
terests of Olney, and is recognized as one of its 
representative citizens. In the fall of 1861, he en- 
listed in the service of his country, and was com- 
missioned sutler of the regiment, which position 
he held for about three years. During that time 
he made $40,000, but lost one-fourth of it. 

On the 30th of March, 1861, Mr. Shultz was 
united in marriage with Miss Sarah E. Gaddy, who 
was born in Lawrence County, 111., and is a 
daughter of David Gaddy. Eight children were 
born of their union, who are yet living, and they 
have lost two. Ida May, the eldest, died at the age 
of nine months; Nettie is the wife of Edward 
Eence, a jeweler of Olney; the others are Charles, 
Bertha, Annie, Winnefred, Edward (who died at 
the age of fifteen months), Arthur, Harry and 
Cleveland. 

Mr. Shultz is a member of the Lutheran Church, 
and his wife holds membership with the Congre- 
gational Church. He is a Democrat in politics and 
has served as Alderman of the city for two years. 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD 



365 



He has also held other offices, the duties of which 
he has discharged with promptness and fidelity. 
Socially, he is a Knight Templar Mason, and be- 
longs to the various Masonic bodies of Olney. He 
now carries on a seed store, which is situated near 
the Ohio & Mississippi depot, and is doing a good 
business. Besides this he owns some good land, 
including one farm of eighty acres and another of 
forty. Mr. Shultz has long been a resident of Ol- 
ney. and has been an eye-witness of much of its 
growth and development. 



JOHN HILL is the owner of one of the 
best farms in Preston Township, Richland 
County. It comprises one hundred and 
^__ eighty acres of arable land on section 35, 
and the neat appearance of the place indicates the 
owner to be a man of thrift and enterprise. He 
claims Ohio as the State of his nativity, his birth 
having occurred near Springfield, Clarke County, 
on the 19th of December, 1857. His father, George 
Hill, was bom in England, but when about twen- 
ty-eight years of age came to America, crossing 
the broad Atlantic, and landing in New York. 
The family located in Ohio, and there Mr. Hill 
worked as a farm hand by the month. His busi- 
ness career was a successful one, and he gained a 
comfortable competency. Before leaving Eng- 
land, he married Sarah Jackland, also a native 
of that country, and unto them were born eight 
children, as follows; Sarah, Mary, Annie, Rebecca, 
John, William, George (who is now deceased), 
and Hannah. 

It was in 1865 that the father of this family 
came with his wife and children to Illinois and 
located upon a farm in Preston Township, where 
our subject now resides. He there made his home 
until his death, which occurred on the 17th of 
March, 1886. His remains were interred in the 
Mexburg Cemetery, in Preston Township. His 
wife, who survived him a few years, passed away 



March 1, 1889, and was laid to rest by the side of 
her husband. A beautiful monument has been 
erected to their memory. Both were members of 
the Free Methodist Church, and were highly re- 
spected people. 

Our subject spent the first eight years of his life 
in the Buckeye State, and then came with his par- 
ents to Illinois, where he grew to manhood. He at- 
tended the common schools at intervals until he 
had attained his majority, and then started out in 
life for himself. He now owns the old homestead 
where his father first located, and it is now a well- 
improved and valuable farm. The fields are well 
tilled. There are good buildings upon the place, 
and all the accessories and conveniences of a 
model farm of the nineteenth century. In con- 
nection with the cultivation of his land, Mr. Hill 
is also engaged in stock-raising. 

In his political views, our subject is a Democrat, 
having supported that party since he has attained 
to man's estate. However, he has never sought or 
desired the honors or emoluments of public orrico, 
nevertheless, he manifests a commendable interest 
in all that pertains to the welfare of the commu- 
nity and its upbuilding, and gives his support to 
all enterprises calculated to prove of public bene- 
fit. His thorough understanding of his business 
in all its details makes it a successful one. 




i'LBERT S. ROBINS, a well-known and 
WliM leading farmer of Fox Township, Jasper 
County, who owns and operates ninety 
acres of land on sections 9 and 15, is a 
native of the Hoosier State. He was born in 
Shelby County, Ind., May 28, 1847, and comes of 
a family of Scotch origin. His grandfather was a 
soldier in the Mexican War. His father, Regin 
Robins, was a native of Ohio, and wedded Mary A. 
Wingate. Previously he had been married, his 
first wife having been Harriet Boyd. By that union 
were born two children: Emily, who died in 1860, 



366 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



and Samuel K., who died in November, 1875. The 
children born unto the parents of our subject were 
Albert S.; James B., a farmer residing on the old 
homestead in Fox Township; Martha K., wife of 
Thomas Cohill, a farmer of Fox Township; and 
Elisha F., who carries on agricultural pursuits in 
the same locality. The father of this family re- 
moved from Ohio to Indiana in 1822, and became 
one of the early settlers of Shelby County, where 
he made his home until 1857. He then came to 
Jasper County, and took up his residence in what 
was then St. Marie Township, but is now Fox 
Township. Here he purchased an unimproved 
tract of land on section 14. There were only five 
families in the neighborhood, and the entire coun- 
ty was yet largely undeveloped and unimproved. 
Mr. Robins was called to his final home February 
13, 1876, and his remains were interred in Bethel 
Cemetery. He was a member of the Protestant 
Methodist Church. His widow still survives him 
and makes her home in Jasper County. 

No event of special importance occurred during 
the boyhood and youth of our subject, which were 
passed under the parental roof in the usual manner 
of farmer lads. He came with the family to Illi- 
nois when ten years of age, and in order to acquire 
an education he had to walk three and a-half miles 
to and from school. This community furnished 
many soldiers for the late war, and among the 
brave boys in blue was our subject, who, at the age 
of eighteen, enlisted February 14, 1865, as a pri- 
vate of Company E, One Hundred and Fifty-fourth 
Illinois Infantry. He was mustered into service 
at Camp Butler, and from there sent to Tennessee. 
On the 18th of September, following, he was mus- 
tered out at Nashville, and, going to Springfield, 
there received an honorable discharge 

When the war was over, Mr. Robins returned to 
his home and remained with his parents until he 
had attained to man's estate. For several years 
after starting out in life for himself, he rented 
land. In 1870, he took charge of the home farm, 
which he operated for a few years, and then again 
rented in 1881. In that year he purchased prop- 
erty in West Liberty, where he made his home 
from 1881 until 1886. Coming into possession, 
by purchase, of fifty acres of laud on section 15, 



Fox Township, he located upon the farm which 
has since been his home, and began its further de- 
velopment. He now has ninety acres of rich land, 
well improved and highly cultivated. 

Mr. Robins has been twice married. On Christ- 
mas Day of 1867, Emily F. Brothers became his 
wife, and unto them was born one child, Etta M., 
now the wife of George Mosgrove, a farmer of 
Fox Township. The mother died August 31, 1870, 
and on the 4th of April, 1874, Mr. Robins wedded 
Miss Sarah A. Brothers, a sister of his first wife. 
Five children grace their union, two sons and three 
daughters: Oscar, Ollie, Orin, Fannie and Martha. 

Since attaining his majority, Mr. Robins has 
been a supporter of the Republican party and its 
principles. He manifests considerable interest in 
political affairs, but has never been an aspirant for 
public offices. He holds membership with the 
Grand Army of the Republic and also belongs to 
the Methodist Church. Public-spirited and pro- 
gressive, he takes an active interest in all public 
affairs, and gives his support to those enterprises 
which are calculated to benefit the community and 
aid in its upbuilding. In this locality he and his 
family arc widely known and highly respected. 



J" / OHN HIGGINS GUNN, Police Justice, real- 
estate, insurance, loan and collection agent 
of Olney, is one of the very oldest of the 
__ ' surviving pioneer business men of this city, 
and one of its most highly respected citizens. A 
native of Ohio, he was born in Portsmouth, Sciota 
County, on the 3d of June, 1826, and was the 
sixth child of Havilla and Delia (Higgins) Gunn. 
His father was born in Waterbury, Conn., in 1786, 
and was a son of Samuel Gunn. The Gunn fam- 
ily of which our subject is a member is one of the 
old and representative families of New England. In 
his youth Havilla Gunu removed to Virginia and 
came thence to Illinois in 1806. He located in 
Wabash Count}', but soon afterward removed to 
Portsmouth, Ohio, where he was married in 1820 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



367 



to Miss Delia Higgins, a native of the Genesee Val- 
ley, N. Y. He was engaged in the tinware busi- 
ness and continued to reside in Portsmouth until 
1835, when he removed to Wabash County, 111., 
and effected a permanent settlement at what is 
now the village of Lancaster, of which he was the 
founder. He opened a general store at that place 
and carried on an extensive business for many 
years. 

Mr. Gunn's family consisted of seven sons and 
four daughters, of whom four sons and two daugh- 
ters are living, namely: John II., of Olney; George, 
a merchant of Flora, Clay County, 111.; Daniel, 
Postmaster of Sulphur Springs, Tex., where he has 
resided and held the position for the past twenty 
years; Mrs. Maria Stanley, of Bone Gap; Amanda, 
wife of John H. Roberts, of Olney; and William,who 
was a soldier in the late war and is now in the 
railroad employ in Emporia, Kan. Those deceased 
were Zinas, Stephen S., Samuel H., Mrs. Hannah 
Smith and Elizabeth. 

In 1841 Havilla Gunn opened the first store in 
Olney and placed it under the care of his sons, 
Samuel H. and John II. In the spring of 1858 he 
removed to Olney. where he passed the declining 
years of his life. He and his sons established and 
carried on several different mercantile houses at 
the same time in various towns in southern Illi- 
nois, and also carried on an extensive business in 
buying and shipping farm produce. They also 
killed and packed pork and bought dressed hogs 
for packing. In early days all their produce 
was shipped south by flatboats, principally to New 
Orleans. On the completion of the railroads in 
this section of the State, shipments were diverted 
to the North and East. 

Mr. Guun,Sr., was a Whig in early life and later 
a Republican. He and his wife, with many of their 
children, were members of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church. His wife died in 1870 and he passed 
away in 1867, when nearly eighty-two years of 
age. He was a man of great enterprise, possessed 
superior business ability and enjoyed the reputa- 
tion of an upright, honorable man, with a wide 
circle of acquaintances. 

John H. Gunn came to Olney in 1841, when 
but fifteen years of age, and was associated with 



his older brother, Samuel H., in the management 
of their father's branch store in this place, which 
was carried on under the name of H.Gunn & Sous. 
In 1853 Samuel H. withdrew and the business was 
carried on by three brothers, Stephen S., Zinas 
and John H., but under the original firm name 
until 1866, when, the father having died, the name 
was changed to Gunn Bros., and so continued 
until 1876, when business reverses overtook the 
house and it went into bankruptcy. After the 
affairs of the firm of Gunn Bros, were settled 
up, John H. Gunn formed a partnership with his 
brother-in-law, John H. Roberts, as general mer- 
chants, under the firm name of Roberts & Gunn, 
which connection continued until 1886, when it 
was dissolved by mutual consent. On retiring 
from merchandising Mr. Gunn engaged in his pres- 
ent business. 

In April, 1888, he was elected to the office of 
Police Magistrate to fill- a vacancy, and having 
served until the close of that term he was re- 
elected in April, 1891, for a term of four years, 
being the present incumbent. 

On the 19th of November, 1847, Mr. Gunn was 
united in marriage in Danville, 111., with Miss 
Leah B., a daughter of Thomas Rowland. She was 
born in Crab Orchard, Ky., and came to Illinois in 
her youth with her parents, making her home at first 
in Champaign County. Mr. and Mrs. Gunn lost 
six children in childhood and have two daughters 
yet living. Sarah Adeline is now the wife of W. 
C. White, who is engaged in merchandising in 
Shawneetown, 111. Fannie is the wife of H. C. 
Victor, of Lincoln, Neb. 

Our subject and his wife and daughters are 
members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
He has been actively identified with that church 
nearly all of his mature life and has been a mem- 
ber of its Board of Trustees for forty years, the 
greater part of which time he has been Chairman 
of the Board. In 1876 he was a delegate to the 
General Conference in Baltimore, Md. He has 
also been prominently identified with the Method- 
ist Sunday-school, of which he has served as Super- 
intendent for upwards of thirty yearsa .d has been 
influential in its successful management. Socially, 
Mr. Gunn is a prominent Mason and has taken the 



368 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



highest degree, the thirty -second. He is a charter 
member of several of the Masonic bodies of Olney, 
in which he has served officially. He belongs to 
Olney Lodge No. 140, A. F. & A. M.; Richland 
Chapter No. 38, R. A. M.; Olney Council No. 55, 
R. & M.S.; Gorin Commandery No. 14, K. T.; also 
to Salem Temple, A. A. O. N. M. S.; and to Olney 
Chapter No. 100, O. E. S. Mrs. Gunn is a member 
of the last-named lodge. Our subject is also con- 
nected with the Ohio Southern Consistory of Cin- 
cinnati, the highest body known in Masonry, and 
is a member of the Illinois Masonic Grand Chapter, 
of which he has been Grand Chaplain three years. 
Mr. Gunn has been long and prominently con- 
nected with the business, social and church inter- 
ests of Olney and is recognized as a man of ster- 
ling worth, to whom the highest respect is due. 






ETER FRANKE is proprietor of the pioneer 
drug store of Newton and is a representa- 
tive of one of the pioneer families of Jas- 
per County. He is widely known, and as a 
progressive and valued citizen of the community 
deserves mention in this volume. He is a native 
of the town which is still his home, having first 
opened his eyes to the light of day February 22, 
1856. His father was Dr. John G. Franke. His 
mother bore the maiden name of Gertrude Fischer. 
The former was the pioneer physician and drug- 
gist of Newton, and our subject has followed in his 
footsteps. 

Peter Franke spent the days of his boyhood UIP- 
der the parental roof and acquired his primary ed- 
ucation in the public schools of Newton, after 
which he attended St. Joseph's Diocesan College 
of Teutopolis. He also began the study of medicine 
and took a course of lectures at the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons, of Keokuk,Iowa. While 
a youth he was employed in his father's drug 
store in Newton during his vacations and leisure 
hours and has there continued. From 1877 he was 
in charge of the store, and after his father's death 



in 1883 he succeeded to the business as proprie- 
tor. His actual experience as a pharmacist, not 
counting his term of apprenticeship, covers a per- 
iod of sixteen years. 

On the 8th of June, 1877, Mr. Franke led to the 
marriage altar Miss Mary Bushong, a daughter of 
Adam and Lizzie Bushong. She is a native of 
Maxburg, Richland County, 111. Their marriage 
was celebrated in Newton, and two children have 
been born of their union, a son and a daughter. 
The latter, Lola May, is now aged seven years, and 
the former, George Edward, is a little lad of three 
summers. Our subject and his wife are well- 
known people of this community, their home is the 
abode of hospitality, and they hold a high posi- 
tion in social circles. Their friends are very num- 
erous. 

In politics Mr. Franke is independent. In ad- 
dition to his other interests, he is the owner of a 
good farm of eighty acres, situated about one and 
a-half miles east of the city of Newton. In his busi- 
ness career lie has been eminently successful. He 
is enterprising and energetic, and by his upright 
dealing and courteous treatment of his customers 
he has secured a liberal patronage, which he well 
merits. 




R. STEPHEN STEVENS, SR., a retired 
physician now residing on section 18, 
Granville Township, Jasper County, was 
born in the County of Leeds, Province of 
Ontario, on the 2d of December, 1807, and is a son 
of Uriah and Myrhana (Gilbert) Stevens. His fa- 
ther was a native of Vermont, and was of Eng- 
lish descent. In the family were five children, 
who grew to manhood and womanhood, the 
eldest being our subject. The others are Har- 
mon, Uriah G., Myrhana and Eunice. The fa- 
ther of this family was a doctor by profession. 
His death occurred in the year 1849, and his wife 
passed away in 1871. Only two of the family are 
now living, Stephen and Eunice. 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



369 



Dr. Stevens, whose name heads this record, spent 
the days of his boyhood and youth upon a farm, 
and attended the district schools. Being imbued 
with a desire to enter the medical profession, he 
studied with his father, and entered upon his prac- 
tice when twenty-three years of age. However, 
he remained at home with his parents until 1835, 
and in connection with his practice also carried on 
farming. He remained in Canada until 1817, 
when he went to Harrison County, Ky., with his 
parents, making that place his home until January, 
1836, when he emigrated to Illinois. He took up 
his residence in Champaign County, near Homer. 
The trip Westward was made by team. On reach- 
ing his destination, he purchased a farm of eighty 
acres of improved land and began its cultivation, 
carrying on agricultural pursuits in connection 
with his medical practice. 

The year previous to his arrival in Illinois, Dr. 
Stevens was married to Miss Elizabeth Ann 
Wheeler, a daughter of Zedock and Saphora (Sco- 
lield) Wheeler. She was a native of Maryland, 
born on the 1st of August, 1810. The Doctor 
and his wife became the parents of nine children, 
five of whom reached years of maturity. Violet is 
now deceased; Elizabeth A. is the next in order 
of birth; Stephen is engaged in merchandising in 
the village of Yale; Myrhana is deceased; and 
Zeporah completes the family. 

In 1838 the Doctor removed with his family to 
Edgar County, 111., where he resided until 1851, 
when he came to Jasper Count)-, and took up his 
residence in the old village of Granville, Gran- 
ville Township. He first purchased some town 
property, but soon after bought a farm of one 
hundred acres of unimproved land on section 18, 
where he still resides. The boundaries of his 
farm he has extended until it now comprises 
one hundred and sixteen acres of valuable land, 
all under a high state of cultivation and well im- 
proved. On locating here he also embarked in the 
practice of his profession, which he followed suc- 
cessfully until 1890, when, at the age of eiglity- 
three years, he abandoned it on account of his 
eye-sight. He possessed skill and ability, and had 
a large and lucrative practice, coining from the 
country all around. In politics, the Doctor has 



been a supporter of the Republican party since its 
organization. He held the office of Township 
Supervisor in an early day, and for four years was 
Postmaster of the village of Granville. He has 
ever been a public-spirited and progressive citizen, 
and has taken an active interest in everything that 
pertains to the welfare of the Community and its 
upbuilding. The Doctor is now living retired, 
enjoying a well-earned rest after a busy life 




HARLES BUTLER, Master Mechanic of the 
Vandalia Division of the Terre Haute & 
Indianapolis Railroad, with headquarters at 
Efflngham, is a native of Kentucky. He was born 
in Fleming County, of that State, on the 1st of 
Januaiy, 1843, and is a son of Caleb and Anna 
(Summers) Butler, who were also natives of Ken- 
tucky. 

Our subject spent the first eight years of his 
life in the State of his birth and then removed 
with his parents to Indiana, the family locating in 
Terre Haute, where he received a common-school 
education. In 1862 he started out in life for him- 
self, and began learning the blacksmith's and ma- 
chinist's trade in the local shops of the company 
by which he is still employed. For the first ten 
months he was employed in the company's black- 
smith shops, and then began in the machine shops. 
After three years he was made foreman of a gang 
of men, and later served as roundhouse foreman, 
being employed in that capacity until August 15, 
1873, when he was promoted to the position of 
Master Mechanic of the Vandalia Division of that 
road, with headquarters at Effingham. He has the 
entire charge of the line from Terre Haute to St. 
Louis, a distance of about one hundred and sixty- 
six miles being under his supervision. He has 
also one hundred men under his charge in the 
Efflngham shops and about sixty at East St. Louis. 
In the former place the work is largely on freight 
locomotive repairs. The roundhouse at Kffingliain 
has accommodation for sixteen locomotives, witli 






370 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



appropriate shops and facilities for all repair work 
on engines and running gear for cars and coaches. 
This is the terminus for all freight locomotives for 
this division. 

On the 5th of November, 1868, Mr. Butler was 
married in Terre Haute, Ind., to Miss Mary Rob- 
erts. The lady claims Indiana as the State of her 
nativity. She was born in Orange County, and is 
a daughter of Joseph and Ruth Roberts. They 
have .had four children, two sons and two daugh- 
ters: Harry C., Mabel C., Elsie R. and Edward A. 
The last-named died on the 28th of March, 1893. 
The three older children are attending school. 

From the time when Mr. Butler went to Terre 
Haute in his childhood he made his home contin- 
uously in that city until his removal to Effingham, 
in August, 1873, since which time he has resided 
in this place. While a resident of Terre Haute he 
enlisted as a soldier in the spring of 1864. Offer- 
ing his services to the Government for one hun- 
dred days' service, he was assigned to Company C, 
One Hundred and Thirty-third Indiana Infantry, 
and with his command was stationed at Bridge- 
port, Ala., where he served the term of his enlist- 
ment. 

In political affiliations, Mr. Butler is a suppor- 
ter of the Republican party and keeps himself well 
informed on the issues and questions of the day. 
He has been honored with some public offices, and 
for eight years has served as Alderman in the 
City Council of Effingham. His frequent re-elec- 
tions attest the promptness and fidelity with 
which he discharged his duties. For twelve years 
he has been one of the efficient members of the 
School Board and is now serving his second term 
as President of that body. In his social relations 
he is a Knight-Templar Mason and holds member- 
ship with Terre Haute Lodge No. 19, A. F. & A. 
M.; Terre Haute Chapter No. 11, R. A. M.; Terre 
Haute Council No. 8; and Terre Haute Comman- 
dery No. 16, K. T. He is also a member of 
Eflingham Lodge, K. H. 

Mr. Butler has shown an active interest in the 
municipal affairs of Effingham and has done much 
good service in all these years of his connection 
with the School Board in advancing the cause of 
education, He has thus won a strong hold upon 



the good-will and respect of his fellow-citizens. 
He is thoroughly skilled in his business and pos- 
sesses good executive ability. By his faithful and 
able discharge of duty he has won the confidence 
of the management of the road, as well as the re- 
spect and good-will of those who are employed 
under him. 




M. SWAIM, Sheriff of Richland 
County, a prominent citizen and one of 
the old settlers, now makes his home in 
Olney. He is a native of the Buckeye State, and 
was born in Highland County, on the 1 1th of April, 
1850, being a son of George and Jane (Mitchell) 
Swaim. His father was born in Vermont, Decem- 
ber 8, 1814, and was descended from an old New 
England family. In 1840, he removed to Highland 
County, Ohio, with his parents. There he was 
married and engaged in blacksmithing in Price- 
town. In 1855, he decided to try his fortune in 
Richland County, 111., and in March of that year 
located in Preston Township. Subsequently he 
removed to Denver Township, where he worked at 
his trade for some time, and at length, in 1887, he 
removed to Olney, where he still makes his home. 
The mother of our subject died on the 31st of 
January, 1885. 

George M. Swaim, whose name heads this record, 
acquired his education in the public schools. He 
accompanied his parents on their various removals, 
and remained with them until after he had attained 
his majority. No event of special importance 
occurred during his boyhood and youth, but after 
reaching man's estate he was married to Miss Ida 
Wolverton. The wedding ceremony of the young 
couple was performed on the 13th of March, 1887. 
The lady is a daughter of Isaac and Elizabeth 
Wolverton, and a native of Ohio, her birth having 
occurred in Butler County, that State. 

At the age of nineteen, our subject embarked in 
the profession of teaching school, and was thus 
employed for fourteen terms in Richland County. 



. 








PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



373 



Immediately after his marriage, lie came to Olney, 
and received the appointment of Deputy Sheriff 
under Sheriff Wycloff Higgins. Mr. Swaim served 
in that capacity until the fall of 1890, when he was 
elected Sheriff, and entered upon the duties of the 
office in December of that year. His previous 
duties as Deputy Sheriff made him well fitted for 
the new position, which lie has filled with credit to 
himself and to the satisfaction of his constituents. 
In politics he is a Democrat, and warmly advocates 
the principles of that party. He also served for 
five terms as Supervisor of Denver Township, a 
fact which indicates his faithfulness and fidelity. 

The union of Mr. and Mrs. Swaim has been 
blessed with one child, a son, Galen, who was born 
in Olney on the 12th of May, 1888. Mr. Swaim 
is a member of Olney Lodge No. 140, 1. 0. O. F., 
and of Newell Camp No. 61, M. W. A. His wife 
holds membership with the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. They are people of sterling worth and 
have a large circle of friends and acquaintances in 
this community. Our subject has long been a res- 
ident of Richland County and his well-spent life 
has won him universal respect. 



\f OHN KUSTER, who for twenty years has 
been so well and favorably known to the 
citizens of Richland County in the dis- 
charge of official duties as a county officer, 
is a native of Switzerland. He was born in the 
town of Interlacken, canton of Berne, November 20, 
1H20, and is the second in a family of eleven chil- 
dren whose parents were John Casper and Bar- 
bara (Sterchi) Kuster. The parents were natives 
of Switzerland and were of French and German 
descent. The father was born in 1800. He be- 
came a cabinet-maker and house-joiner and worked 
at that trade for a few years, after which he be- 
came a soldier in the Swiss regular army. He 
was married in his native country to Miss Sterchi, 
who was born in April, 1797. In 1833, Mr. Kus- 
ter, Si\, emigrated with his family to America, and 

18 



settled in Minerva, Stark County, Ohio, where he 
was employed at his trade for three or four years. 
He then removed to Carroll County, of the same 
State, where he continued working at his trade 
until his death, which occurred in October, 1839. 
Of the children of the Kuster family, two died in 
Switzerland and one in France, while the family 
was en rout? to America. Two died in Illinois, 
soon after their arrival in this State, and one 
daughter was married and died in Illinois, and 
of the eleven children only two are yet living 
our subject and his brother David, who is living 
in southern Illinois. 

Mr. Kuster and his wife were members of the 
German Reformed Church. The family exhausted 
their little means in getting to America, and prior 
to Mr. Kuster's death he had been unable to do 
more than barely support his family. After his 
death the responsibility of the care of the wid- 
owed mother and five younger children devolved 
upon the elder son, John. He had learned the 
trades of stonecutter and carpenter in early life, 
and by his exertions along these lines maintained 
the family. He had a few years' schooling in his 
native land, but on coming to America had been 
obliged to aid his father in the support of the family, 
and received no further educational advantages. 
However, by reading and self-culture he has made 
himself a well-informed man. In 1841, he emi- 
grated with his mother and the younger children 
to Illinois and settled in what is now German 
Township, Richland Count}'; later he purchased 
eighty acres of land in Preston Township, and en- 
gaged in farming. 

On the 16th of September, 1846, Mr. Kuster 
wedded Miss Mary Peebles, who was born in Hart 
County, Ky.,May 19, 1819, and was a daughter of 
Abram Peebles. She lost her father in childhood, 
and came to what is now Richland County, 111., 
with her mother in 1838. Mrs. Kuster died leav- 
ing two daughters, both now deceased. Margaret, 
the elder, became the wife of A. L. Taylor, and 
died in December, 1877, leaving four children, 
three of whom are living. Their father died in 
1881, and the children were adopted and reared 
by their grandparents, John Kuster and his wife, 
with whom they have found a good home and the 



374 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



best of care. Their names are John Henry, Josiah 
and Mary Taylor. The second daughter of Mr. 
and Mrs. Kuster, Hannah E., died in October, 1852. 
On the 14th of Jun<>, 1879, the mother died sud- 
denly of heart disease. 

Mr. Kuster was engaged in farming until the 
fall of 1867, when he was elected Treasurer of 
Richland County, entering upon the duties of his 
office in January, 1868. He then came to Olney, 
and has since made his home in this city. On the 
2d of April, 1882, he was united in marriage 
with Mrs. Sarah A. Whittaker, widow of David 
Whittaker, and a daughter of Gabriel \V. Stewart. 
The lady was born in New York, and resided in 
Connecticut and Kentucky before coming to 
Olney in 1868. She is an educated and cultured 
woman, and for fourteen years was a popular and 
successful teacher in the schools of this city. 

After his election to the office of County Treas- 
urer, Mr. Kuster leased his farm of two hundred 
acres, but retained its ownership until August, 
1891, when he sold it. In politics he is a Demo- 
crat. His first official position was that of Clerk 
of Preston Township, which he held for nine years. 
On the expiration of his first term as County 
Treasurer he was re-elected for four succeeding 
terms of two years each, serving in that office for 
ten consecutive years. He was also Mayor of 
Olney two years, and soon after leaving the Coun- 
ty Treasurer's office was appointed Deputy Clerk 
of the Circuit Court and Recorder under Thomas 
Tippit, which office he filled for a little more than 
ten years, giving him twenty years of service in 
county offices. He retired in December, 1892. 
During those twenty years he was never absent 
from duty, with the exception of three weeks when 
he was detained at home by sickness. Mr. Kuster 
is also School Treasurer for township No. 4 north, 
range 10 east, and has held that position contin- 
uously since October, 1863, covering a period of 
thirty years. Previous to being appointed Treas- 
urer, he had been Director of the School Board 
several years. 

Mr. Kuster is a Knight-Templar Mason, a mem- 
ber of Olney Lodge No. 140, A. F. & A. M.; Rich- 
land Chapter No. 38, R. A. M.; Gorin Command- 
ery No. 14, K. T.; also of the Scottisli Rite and 



Mystic Shrine and of Olney Chapter No. 100, 
O. E. S. He has been Secretary of the blue lodge, 
chapter, council and commandery for many 
3'ears and is a well-known and active member of 
that order. He also belongs to the Peoria Consis- 
tory of Scottish Rite Masons. In all the relations 
of life our subject has been found true to every 
trust, public and private. Upright and honorable, 
and always to be relied on to perform his whole 
duty without fear or favor, he enjoys in an un- 
usual degree the highest esteem and respect of his 
fellow-citizens. 




AVID F. BASDEN,a progressive and pub- 
lic-spirited farmer residing on section 2, 
Claremont Township, Richland County, 
has the honor of being a native of this 
community, his birth having occurred December 1, 
1847, on the old homestead in the first brick hous 
of the county. That home was erected by his 
grandfather, Lott Basden, who was one of the hon- 
ored pioneers of the community. With his family 
he came from North Carolina to Illinois, and dur- 
ing his residence here served as one of the fir 
County Commissioners. 

Albert G. Basden, the father of our subject, wai 
born in what is now Lawrence County, 111., near 
the present town of Sumner, and came with his fa- 
ther to this county during his infancy. He mar 
ried Catherine Adams, daughter of Dr. Davic 
Adams, one of the pioneer physicians of southern 
Illinois. The lady was a native of New Albany, 
Ind. Mr. Basden was the only son in a family of 
three children, and after his marriage located or 
the old homestead, of which he became the owner 
by purchasing his sisters' interests. There he car 
ricd on agricultural pursuits, built a nice residence 
and greatly improved the place. In order to pro- 
vide his children better educational privileges, he 
removed to Merom, Ind., but after three years re- 
turned to the farm. In politics, he was originally 
a Whig, but on the dissolution of that party he 






PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



375 



joined the new Republican party and became a 
warm advocate of its men and measures. He took 
quite an active part in local politics and served 
as a delegate to the county and State conventions. 
Although never an office-seeker, he was frequently 
elected to positions of trust. He gave his sup- 
port to all worthy enterprises, and the cause of 
education found in him a warm friend. He was 
one of the Trustees of Union Christian College of 
Merom, Ind., was a man of strict integrity and 
sterling worth, and died respected by all who 
Knew him, November 9, 1889. His wife is still 
living, and makes her home with her daughter in 
S umner. 

David is the eldest of a family of four sons and 
three daughters, who lived to adult age: Lott, 
who was married and removed to Kansas, living 
in Winfield until his death, in June, 1890; Eliza- 
beth, the wife of Prof. Patterson, of West New- 
ton, Ohio; Andrew, of Ohio; Abigail, wife of W. 
F. Hitter, a farmer and fruit-grower of Richlajid 
County; William A., who follows farming near 
Fail-view, III.; and Mary, who completes the fam- 

iiy- 

Upon the old homestead farm where his birth 
occurred, our subject was reared to manhood. His 
early education, acquired in the common schools, 
was supplemented by a course in the Union Chris- 
tian College, and when his education was com- 
pleted, lie secured a position as clerk in Clare- 
mont, where he remained for a year. On the ex- 
piration of that period he returned to the farm 
and continued with his father until after he had 
attained his majority. After his marriage he lived 
on the old homestead for three years, and then 
took up his residence upon the farm which has 
since been his home. When he located thereon it 
was a tract of raw prairie, but he plowed and 
planted it and transformed it into rich and fertile 
fields. He now has one hundred and ten acres of 
valuable land, which yields to him a golden tri- 
bute. His neat and tasty residence, good barns 
and outbuildings, his orchard and all the improve- 
ments upon the place stand as monuments to his 
thrift and industry, and indicate to the passer-by 
the careful supervision of the owner. 

On the 8th of November, 1870, in Erie County, 



Pa., Mr. Basden was united in marriage with Miss 
Margaret A. /iegler, daughter of the Rev. P. Zieg- 
ler, a minister of the Christian Church. She was 
born in Noble County, Ind., 'and is a lady of su- 
perior education. She was a student in Wabash 
College and in Union Christian College, and prior 
to her marriage successfully engaged in teaching. 
By their union has been a son, Alva R., who aids 
in carrying on the home farm. The parents are 
both members of the Christian Church, and are 
people whose many excellencies of character have 
won them high regard. They hold an enviable 
position in social circles where true worth and in- 
telligence secure the entrance into good society. 
In politics, Mr. Basden has been a stalwart Repub- 
lican since casting his first Presidential vote for 
Gen. U. S. Grant in 1868. 




W. BOWER is a well-known drug- 
gist of Olney, Rich land County, and is 
manager of the firm of N. Kline & Co. He 
is an energetic and enterprising business man, and 
well deserves representation in the histo^' of his 
native county, for he was born in the city on the 
30th of June, 1855. He is a son of Philip P. and 
Mary (Dundore) Bauer, a sketch of whom is given 
elsewhere in this volume. 

Our subject was reared to manhood in his native 
city, no event of special importance occurring dur- 
ing his boyhood. His primary education was ac- 
quired in the public schools of Olney, and subse- 
quently he pursued a course of study in the North- 
western University of Naperville. After leaving 
the university, having completed his education, 
he entered upon his business career, obtaining the 
position of clerk in the drug store of his brother 
William, in Olney, with whom he remained for 
three years, from 1873 until 1876. On the expira- 
tion of that period he went to Mt. Carmel, 111., and 
embarked in business for himself in the same line. 
He continued there until the occurrence of the 






376 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



cyclone in 1877, when be returned to Olney, and 
the same year opened a drug store in this place. 
He continued in business alone for several years, 
but at length, in 1882, he was joined by Nicholas 
Kline, and the existing firm of N. Kline & Co. was 
formed. Their business connection has covered a 
period of eleven years. 

On the 22d of October, 1876, Mr. Bower was 
united in marriage with Miss Mary Elizabeth 
Kline, a daughter of N. and Elizabeth Kline. 
The lady was born in Marietta, Ohio, and in 1865 
left the Buckeye State and came to Olney, where 
the union of our subject and his wife was celebrated. 
Both are members of the German Evangelical Soci- 
ety. They are well known in this community, and 
have many warm friends and acquaintances, who 
esteem them highly for their many excellencies of 
character. 

Mr. Bower is a man of good business ability, and 
by his well-directed efforts and practical business 
methods he has won success. In addition to his 
store he owns one hundred and fifty acres of im- 
proved farming land in two tracts, one of sixty 
and the other of ninety acres. This is a valuable 
property and yields to him a good income. In 
politics, Mr. Bower is a Republican, but has never 
been an office-seeker, preferring to devote his time 
and attention to his business interests. He is a 
practical pharmacist of long experience, and is 
highly respected by his fellow-citizens, who have 
known him from childhood. 



I? A. SMOTHERS, the efficient Principal of the 
Effingham city schools, and one of the highly 

L \\ respected citizens of that place, has been con- j 
nected with the educational interests of this lo- 
cality since September, 1888. He belongs to a 
profession which has furnished to the country- 
many of its most prominent men. A native of 
the Buckeye State, he was born in Franklin 
County on the 4th of March, 1855. His parents 



were Henry and Elizabeth (Birdsill) Smothers, 
both of whom were also natives of Ohio. They 
have both now passed away. The death of the 
father occurred when our subject was about fifteen 
years of age, and his mother departed this life in 
1889. 

Prof. Smothers spent his boyhood days under 
the parental roof. His earlier education was ac- 
quired in the public schools of the neighborhood 
in which he lived and was supplemented by a course 
of study in Central College, of Ohio. When a lad 
he displayed special aptitude, and with commend- 
able quickness mastered the tasks set before him. 
At the age of twenty years he began teaching, be- 
ing first employed in country schools. Soon after- 
wards, however, he accepted a call from a graded 
school in Harrisburgh, Ohio. There he remained 
engaged in teaching for five years. He was very 
successful, but on the expiration of that period 
he resigned his position and accepted the position 
of, Principal of the public schools in Altamont. 
There the succeeding six years of his life were 
passed. He then came to Effingham, where he ha 
since resided. 

Prof. Smothers was married in Effingham on 
the 2d of January, 1883, the lad}' of his choic 
being Miss Mattie L. Peters. The wedding cer 
mony was performed by Rev. Alfred Bliss. The 
lady was born in Delaware County, Ohio, and is 
daughter of Daniel II. and Rowena (lies) Peter 
Their union has been blessed with a family of four 
children: Arthur Elton, now eight years of age 
William Luther, a lad of six years; Edgar Ray 
mond, aged four years; and Isaac Alonzo, tin 
baby of two years. 

Prof, and Mrs. Smothers hold membership wit 
the Methodist Episcopal Church and takeanactn 
interest in its success and growth. They are pec 
pie of sterling worth and rank high in social circle 
where true ability and intelligence are received as 
the passports into good society. In his political 
affiliations Mr. Smothers is independent. Soci- 
ally, he is a member of Altamont Lodge Nc 
533, A. F. & A. M., and Black Diamond Camj 
M. W. A. In the line of his profession our sut 
ject has certainly had a successful career. Begin- 
ning his work in a country school, his ability soon 




PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



377 



brought him a call to a graded school, and he has 
since risen step by step. He is indeed a successful 
educator. Thorough and earnest, his love of the 
work has led him to labor untiringly in its interest 
and he has therefore won for himself an enviable 
reputation and the commendation of all with 
whom he has been brought in contact. 




QUIRE JAMES LEAMON, an extensive 
farmer and stock-raiser of Granville Town- 
ship, Jasper County, residing on section 9, 
is a native of the Buckeye State. He was 
born in Licking County, near Columbus. February 
21, 1824. His father, John Leamou, was a native 
of Virginia, and was of Scotch descent. The grand- 
father of our subject came to America in the Brit- 
ish army during the Revolutionary War. He was 
then only sixteen years old. During the struggle 
he was captured by the American soldiers and for 
some time was held a prisoner. By trade he