Skip to main content

Full text of "Portrait and biographical album of Pike and Calhoun counties, Illinois .."

See other formats








piKe ar^d ?all70UQ (?ou9l:ie5, Illinois. 

:;i^",^.img^ ^;(?'?-^vo^F-^,:^^(?^p^,;^,:ff.:;p;^gj^?:^^ 


o O O O O o 



o o o o o o 












„.ii ^t^ m& 



-J»t^ -H>-(- <5«f-» 

^/(^^r^*^j[IE greatest of English historians, Macaui.ay, and one of the most brilliant writers of 
"- -' the present century, has said : '-The history of a country is best told in a record of the 

lives of its people." In conformity with this idea the Portrait and Biograriiical 
Album of tiiis county has been jjrepared. Instead of going to must3^ records, and 
taking therefrom dry statistical matter that can be appreciated by but few, our 
corps of writers have gone to the people, the men and women who have, by their 
enterprise and industry, brought the county to a rank second to none among those 
comprising this great and noble State, and from their lips have the story of their life 
struggles. No more interesting or instructive matter could be presented to an intelli- 
gent public. In this volume will be found a record of many whose lives are worthy the 
iuntation of coming generations. It tells how some, commencing life in poverty, by 
industrj' and economj- have accumulated wealth. It tells how others, with limited 
advantages for securing an education, have become learned men and women, with an 
1^, influence extending throughout the length and breadth of the hind. It tells of men who 
ave risen from the lower walks of life to eminence as statesmen, and wliose names have 
li;!V7%^Y^ become famous. It tells of those in every walk in life who have striven to succeed, and 
^ P records how that success has usually crowned their efforts. It tells also of many, very 

many, who, not seeking the applause of the world, have pursued "the even tenor of their way," content 
to liave it said of them as Christ said of the woman performing a deed of mercy — "they have done what 
they could." It tells how that many in the pride and strength of young manhood left the plow and the 
anvil, the lawyer's office and the counting-room, left every trade and profession, and at their country's 
call went forth valiantly "to do or die," and how through their efforts the Union was restored and peace 
once more reigned in the land. In tiic life of every man and of every woman is a lesson that should not 
be lost upon those who follow after. 

Coming generations will appreciate this volume and preserve it as a saci-ed treasure, from the fact 
that it contains so much that would never And its way into public records, and which would otherwise be 
inaccessible. Great care has been taken in the compilation of the work and every opportunity possible 
o-iven to those represented to insure correctness in what has been written, and the publisliers flatter them- 
selves that they give to their readers a work with few errors of consequence. In addition to the biograph- 
ical sketches, portraits of a number of representative citizens are given. 

The faces of some, and biograjjliical sketches of man}', will be missed in this volume. For this the 
publishers are not to blame. Not having a proper conception of the work, some refused to give the 
information necessary to compile a sketch, while others were indifferent. Occasionally some member of 
the family would oppose the enterprise, and on .account of such opposition the support of the interested 
one would be withheld. In a few instances men could never be fouml. tliougli repeated calls weie made 
at their residence or place of business. 

l)I0(iK.\l'lIICAL Puiil.ISllIN(; Co. 

' Chicaoo, January-, 1891. 



»?j<i^»i,Ta?»v^ jWf<-T'( 






C:>: It ^ 









■'^n^^'^W^- Q'j'J^ 










HE Father of our Country was 
born in Westmorland Co., Va., 
'Feb. 2 2, 1732. His parents 
were Augustine and Mary 
(Ball) Washington. The family 
to which he belonged has not 
been satisfactorily traced in 
England. His great-grand- 
father, John Washington, em- 
igrated to Virginia about 1657, 
and became a prosperous 
planter. He had two sons, 
Lawrence and John. The 
former married Mildred Warner 
and had three children, John, 
Augustine and Mildred. Augus- 
tine, the father of George, first 
married Jane Butler, who bore 
him four children, two of whom, 
Lawrence and Augustine, reached 
maturity. Of six children by his 
second marriage, George was the 
eldest, the others being Betty, 
Samuel, John Augustine, Charles 
and Mildred. 
Augustine Washington, the father of George, died 
in 1743, leaving a large landed property. To his 
eldest son, Lawrence, he bequeathed an estate on 
tlie Patomac, afterwards known as Mount Vernon, 
and to George he left the parental residence. George 
received only such education as the neighborhood 
schools afforded, save for a short time after he left 
school, when he received private instruction in 
mathemai'cs. Hie spellinii v/as rather defective. 

Remarkable stories are told of his great ))hysica. 
strength and development at an early age. He was 
an acknowledged leader among his companions, and 
was early noted for that nobleness of character, fair- 
ness and veracity which characterized his whole life. 

When George was 1 4 years old he had a desire to go to 
sea, and a midshipman's warrant was secured for him, 
but through the opposition of his mother the idea was 
abandontd. Two years later he was appointed 
surveyor to the immense estate of Lord Fairfax. Li 
this business he spent three years in a rough frontier 
life, gaining experience which afterwards proved very 
essential to him. \\\ 1751, though only 19 years of 
age, he was appointed adjutant with the rank of 
major in the Virginia militia, then being trained for 
active service against the French and Indians. Soon 
after this he sailed to the West Lndies with his brother 
Lawrence, who went there to restore his health. They 
soon returned, and in the summer of 1752 Lawrence 
died, leaving a large fortune to an infant daughter 
who did not long survive him. On her demise the 
estate of Mount Vernon was given to George, 

Upon the arrival of Robert Dinwiddle, as Lieuten- 
ant-Governor of Virginia, in 1752, the militia was 
reorganized, and the province divided into four mili- 
tary districts, of which the northern was assigned to 
Washington as adjutant general. Shortly after this 
a very perilous mission was assigned him and ac- 
cepted, which others had refused. This was to pro- 
ceed to the French post near Lake Erie in North- 
western Pennsylvania. The distance to be traversed 
was between 500 and 600 miles, \\inter was at hand, 
and the journey was to be made without militar)' 
escort, through a territory occupied by Indians. The 


trip was a perilous one, and several limes he came near 
losing his life, yet he returned in safety and furnished 
a full and useful report of his expedition. A regiment 
of 300 men was raised in Virginia and put in com- 
mand of Col. Joshua Fry, and Major Washington was 
commissioned lieutenant-colonel. Active war was 
then begun against the French and Indians, in which 
Washington took a most important part. In the 
memorable event of July 9, 1755, known as Brad- 
dock's defeat, Washington was almost the only officer 
of distinction who escaped from the calamities of the 
day with life and honor. The other aids of Braddock 
were disabled early in the action, and Wasiiington 
alone was left in that capacity on the field. In a letter 
to his brother he says : " I had four bullets through 
my coat, and two horses shot under me, yet I escaped 
unhurt, though death was leveling my companions 
on every side." An Indian sharpshooter said he was 
not born to be killed by a bullet, for he had taken 
direct aim at him seventeen times, and failed to hit 

After having been five years in the military service, 
and vainly sought jiromotion in the royal army, he 
took advantage of the fall of Fort Duquesne and the 
expulsion of the French from the valley of the Ohio, 
CO resign his conmiission. Soon after he entered the 
Legislature, where, although not a leader, he took an 
active and important part. January 17, 1759, he 
married Mrs. Martha (Dandridge) Custis, the wealthy 
widow of John Parke Custis. 

\Vhen the British Parliament had closed the port 
-jf Boston, the cry went up throughout the provinces 
that "The cause of Boston is the cause of us all." 
It was then, at the suggestion of Virginia, that a Con- 
gress of all the colonies was called to meet at Phila- 
delphia,Sept. 5, 1774, to secure their common liberties, 
peaceably if possible. To this Congress Col. Wash- 
ington was sent as a delegate. On May 10, 1775, the 
Congress re-assembled, when the hostile intentions of 
England were plainly apparent. The battles of Con- 
cord and Lexington had been fought. Among the 
first acts of this Congress was the election of a com- 
mander-in-chief of the colonial forces. This high and 
responsible office was conferred upon Washington, 
who was still a member of the Congress. He accepted 
it on June 19, but upon the express condition that he 
receive no salary. He would keep an exact account 
of expenses and expect Congress to pay them and 
nothing more. It is not the object of this sketch to 
trace the military acts of Washington, to whom the 
fortunes and liberties of the people of this country 
were so long confided. The war was conducted by 
him under every possible disadvantage, and while his 
forces often met with reverses, yet he overcame every 
obstacle, and after seven years of heroic devotion 
and matchless skill he gained liberty for the greatest 
nation of earth. On Dec. 23, 1783, Washington, in 
a parting address of surpassing beauty, lesigned his 

commission as commander-in-chief of the army to 

to the Continental Congress sitting at Annapolis. He 
retired immediately to Mount Vernon and resumed 
his occupation as a farmer and planter, shunning all 
connection with public life. 

In February, 1789, Washington was unanimously 
elected President. In his presidential career he was 
subject to the peculiar trials incidental to a rvew 
government ; trials from lack of confidence on the part 
of other governments ; trials from want of harmony 
between the different sections of our own country; 
trials from the impoverished condition of the country, 
owmg to the war and want of credit; trials from the 
beginnings of party strife. He was no partisan. His 
clear judgment could discern the golden mean; and 
wiiile perhaps this alone kept our government from 
sinking at the very outset, it left him exposed to 
attacks from both sides, which were often bitter and 
very annoying. 

At the expiration of his first term he was unani- 
mously re-elected. At the end of this term many 
were anxious that he be re-elected, but he absolutely 
refused a third nomination. On the fourth of March, 
1797, at the expiraton of his second term as Presi- 
dent, he returned to his home, hojnng to pass there 
his few remaining years free from the annoyances of 
public life. Later in the year, however, his repose 
seemed likely to be interrupted by war with France. 
At the prospect of such a war he was again urged to 
take command of the armies. He chose his sub- 
ordinate officers and left to them the charge of mat- 
ters in tlie field, which he superintended from his 
home. In accepting the command he made the 
reservation that he was not to be in the field until 
it was necessary. In the midst of these preparations 
his life was suddenly cut off. December 12, he took 
a severe cold from a ride in the rain, which, settling 
in his throat, produced inflammation, and terminated 
fatally on the night of the fourteenth. On the eigh- 
teenth his body was borne wi(h military honors to its 
final resting place, and interred in the family vault at 
Mount Vernon. 

Of the character of Washington it is impossible to 
speak but in terms of the highest respect and ad- 
miration. The more we see of the operations of 
our government, and the more deeply we feel the 
difficulty of uniting all opinions in a common interest, 
the more highly we must estimate the force of his tal- 
ent and character, which have been able to challenge 
the reverence of all parties, and principles, and na- 
tions, and to win a fame as extended as the limits 
of the globe, and which we cannot but believe will 
be as lasting as the existence of man. 

The person of Washington was unusally tan, erect 
and well proportioned. His muscular strength was 
great. His features were of a beautiful symmetry. 
He <omm:^nded respect without any a].pearance of 
Imughtiness, and ever serious without V^ine dull. 






pji^tr^-s'*" ^««« »~(Si: ^ ' ■ " 

OHN ADAMS, the second 
J, President and the first Vice- 
"President of the United States, 
was born in Braintree ( now 
Quincy ),Mass., and about ten 
■■^' miles from Boston, Oct. 19, 
1735. His great-grandfather, Henry 
Adams, emigrated from England 
about 1640, with a family of eight 
sons, and settled at Braintree. The 
parents of John were John and 
Susannah (Boylston) Adams. His 
father was a farmer of limited 
means, to which he added the bus- 
iness of slioemaking. He gave his 
eldest son, John, a classical educa- 
tion at Harvard College. John 
graduated in 1755, and at once took charge of the 
sciiool in Worcester, Mass. This he found but a 
'sci-.ool of affliction," from which h- endeavored to 
"ain lelief by devoting himself, in addition, to the 
study of law. For this purpose he placed himself 
under the tuition of the only lawyer in the town. He 
had thought seriously of the clerical profession 
but seems to have been turned from this by what he 
termed " the frightful engines of ecclesiastical coun- 
cils, cf diabolical malice, and Calvanistic good nature," 
of the operations of which he had been a witness in 
his native town. He was well fitted for the legal 
profession, possessing a clear, sonorous voice, being 
ready and fluent of speech, and having quick percep- 
tive powers. He gradually gained practice, and in 
1764 married Abigail Smith, a daughter of a minister, 
and a lady of superior intelligence. Shortly after his 
marriage, (1765), the attempt of Parliamentary taxa- 
tion turned him from law to politics. He took initial 
steps toward holdin^ a town meeting, and the resolu- 

. .t...t..t., ■t.. fc.t,.t. ji,A ».- fc-t. AAfe.*. .■fafe K..t..t^~t. ^ ' ■;-r-' 

tions he offered on the subject became very populat 
throughout the Provmce, and were adopted word for 
word by over forty different towns. He moved to Bos- 
ton in 1768, and became one of the most courageous 
and prominent advocatesof the popular cause, and 
was chosen a member of the General Court (the Leg- 
lislature) in 1770. 

Mr. Adams was chosen one of the first delegates 
from Massachusetts to the first Continental Congress, 
which met in 1774. Here he distinguished himselt 
by his capacity for business and for debate, and ad- 
vocated the movement for independence against the 
majority of the members. ■ In May, 1776, he moved 
and carried a resolution in Congress that the Colonies 
should assume the duties of self-government. He 
was a prominent member of the committee of iive 
appointed June 11, to prepare a declaration of inde- 
pendence. This article was drawn by Jefferson, but 
on Adams devolved the task of battling it through 
Congress in a three days debate. 

On the day after the Declaration of Independence 
was passed, while his soul was yet warm with the 
glow of excited feeling, he wrote a letter to his wife 
which, as we read it now, seems to have been dictated 
by the spirit of prophecy. "Yesterday," he says, "the 
greatest question was decided that ever was debated 
in America; and greater, perhaps, never was or wil 
be decided among men. A resolution was passed 
without one dissenring colony, ' that these United 
States are, and of right ought to be, free and inde- 
pendent states.' The day is passed. The fourth of 
July, 1776, will be a memorable epoch in the history 
of America. I am apt to believe it will be celebrated 
by succeeding generations, as the great anniversary 
festival. It ought to be commemorated as the day of 
deliverance by solemn acts of devotion to Almighty 
God. It ought to be solemnized with pomp, shows. 



games, sports, guns, bells, bonfires, and illuminations 
from one end of the continent to the other, from this 
lime forward for ever. You will think me transported 
with enthusiasm, but I am not. I am well aware of 
tiie toil, and blood and treasure, that it will cost to 
maintain this declaration, and support and defend 
these States; yet, through all the gloom, I can see the 
rays of light and glory. I can see that the end is 
worth more than all the means; and that posterity 
will triumph, although you and I may rue, which I 
hope we shall not. ' 

In November, 1777, Mr. Adams was appointed a 
delegate to France and to co-operate with Benijamin 
Franklin and Arthur Lee, who were then in Paris, in 
the endeavor to obtain assistance in arms and money 
from the French Government. This was a severe trial 
to his patriotism, as it separated him frdm his home, 
compelled him to cross the ocean in winter, and ex- 
[XJsed him to great peril of capture by the British cruis- 
ers, who were seeking him. He left France June ry, 
1779. In September of the same year he was again 
cnosen to go to Paris, and there hold himself in readi- 
ness to negotiate a treaty of peace and of commerce 
with Great Britian, as soon as the British Cabinet 
might be found willing to listen to such proposels. He 
sailed for France in November, from there he went to 
Holland, where he negotiated important loans and 
formed important commercial treaties. 

Finally a treaty of peace with England was signed 
Jan. 21, 1783. The re-action from the excitement, 
toil and anxiety through which Mr. Adams had passed 
threw him into a fever. After suffering from a con- 
tinued fever and becoming feeble and emaciated he 
was advised to go to England to drink the waters of 
Bath. While in England, still drooping anddespond- 
ing, he received dispatches from his own government 
urging the necessity of his going to Amsterdam to 
negotiate another loan. It was winter, his health was 
delicate, yet he immediately set out, and through 
storm, on sea, on horseback and foot,he made the trip. 

February 24, 1785; Congress appointed Mr. Adams 
envoy to the Court of St. James. Here he met face 
to face the King of England, who had so long re- 
garded him as a traitor. As England did not 
condescend to appoint a minister to the United 
States, and as Mr. Adams felt that he was accom- 
plishing but little, he sought ])ermission to return to 
tiis own country, where he arrived in June, 1788. 

When Washington was first chosen President, John 
Adams, rendered illustiious by his signal services at 
home and abroad, was chosen Vice President. .'Vgain 
at the second election of Washington as President, 
Adams was chosen Vice President. In 1796, Wash- 
ington retired from public life, and Mr. Adams was 
elected President, though not without much opposition. 
Serving in this office four vears,he was succeeded by 
Mr. Jefferson, his opponent in politics. 

While Mr. Adams was Vice President the great 

French Revolution shook the continent of Europe, 
and it was upon this point which he was at issue with 
the majority of his countrymen led by Mr. Jefferson. 
Mr. Adams felt no sympathy with the French people 
in their struggle, for he had no confidence in their 
power of self-government, and he utterly abhored the 
classof atheist philosophers who he claimed caused it. 
On the other hand Jefferson's sympathies were strongly 
enlisted in behalf of the French people. Hence or- 
iginated the alienation between these distinguished 
men, and two powerful parties were thus soon organ- 
ized, Adams at the head of the one whose sympathies 
were with England and Jefferson led the other in 
sympathy with France. 

The world has seldom seen a spectacle of more 
moral beauty and grandeur, than was presented by the 
old age of Mr. Adams. The violence of party feeling 
had died away, and he had begun to receive that just 
appreciation which, to most men, is not accorded till 
after death. No one could look upon his venerable 
form, and think of what he had done and suffered, 
and how he had given up all the prime and strength 
of his life to the public good, without the deepest 
emotion of gratitude and respect. It was his peculiar 
good fortune to witness the complete success of the 
institution which he had been so active in creating and 
supporting. In 1824, his cup of happiness was filled 
to the brim, by seeing his son elevated to the highest 
station in the gift of the people. 

The fourth of July, 1826, which completed the half 
century since the signing of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, arrived, and there were but three of the 
signers of that immortal instrument left upon the 
earth to hail its morning light. And, as it is 
well known, on that day two of these finished their 
earthly pilgrimage, a coincidence so remarkable as 
to seem miraculous. For a few days before Mr. 
Adams had been rapidly failing, and on the morning 
of the fourth he found himself too weak to rise from 
his bed. On being requested to name a toast for the 
customary celebration of the day, he exclaimed " In- 
dependence FOREVER." When the day was ushered 
in, by the ringing of l)ells and the firing of cannons, 
he was asked by one of his attendants if he knew 
what day it was? He replied, "O yes; it is the glor- 
ious fourth of July — God bless it — God bless you all." 
In the course of the day he said, " It is a great and 
glorious day." The last words he uttered were, 
" Jefferson survives." But he had, at one o'clock, re- 
signed his spirit into the hands of his God. 

The personal appearance and manners of Mr. 
Adams were not particularly prepossessing. His face, 
as his ]5ortrait m«.nifests,was intellectual ard ex])res- 
sive, but his figure was low and ungraceful, and his 
manners were frequently abrupt and uncourteous. 
He had neither the lofty dignity of Washington, nor 
the engaging elegance and gracefulness which marked 
the manners and address of Jefferson, 





born April 2, 1743, at Shad- 
jpweU, Albermarle county, Va. 
His parents were Peter and 
Jane ( Randolph) Jefferson, 
the former a native of Wales, 
and the latter born in Lon- 
don. To them were born six 
daughters and two sons, of 
whom Thomas was the elder. 
When 14 years of age his 
father died. He received a 
most liberal education, hav- 
ing been kept diligently at school 
from the time he was five years of 
age. In 1760 he entered William 
end Mary College. Williamsburg was then the seat 
of the Colonial Court, and it was the obodeof fashion splendor. Young Jefferson, who was then 17 
years old, lived somewhat expensively, keeping fine 
horses, and much caressed by gay society, yet he 
was earnestly devoted to his studies, and irreproacha- 
able in his morals. It is strange, however, under 
such influences,that he was not ruined. In the sec- 
ond year of his college course, moved by some un- 
explained inward impulse, he discarded his horses, 
society, and even his favorite violin, to which he had 
previously given much time. He often devoted fifteen 
hours a day to hard study, allowing himself for ex- 
ercise only a run in the evening twilight of a mile out 
of the city and back again. He thus attained very 
high intellectual culture, alike excellence in philoso- 
phy and the languages. The most difficult Latin and 
Greek authors he read with facility, k more finished 
scholar has seldom gone forth from college halls; and 

there was not to be found, perhaps, in all Virginia, a 
more pureniinded, upright, gentlemanly young man. 

Immediately upon leaving college he began the 
study of law. For the short time he continued in the 
[iractice of his profession he rose rapidly and distin- 
guished himself by his energy and accuteness as a 
lawyer. But the times called for greater action. 
The policy of England had awakened tjie spirit of 
resistance of the American Colonies, and the enlarged 
views which Jefferson had ever entertained, soon led 
him into active political life. In 1769 he was chosen 
a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses. In 
1772 he married iMrs. iVIartha Skelton, a very beauti- 
ful, wealthy and highly accomplished young widow 

Upon Mr. Jefferson's large estate at Shadwell, thsre 
was a majestic swell of land, called Monticello, which 
commanded a prospect of wonderful extent and 
beauty. This spot Mr. Jeff"erson selected for his new 
liome; and here he reared a mansion of modest yet 
elegant architecture, which, next to Mount Vernon 
became the most distinguished resort in our land. 

In 1775 he was sent to the Colonial Congress, 
where, though a silent member, his abilities as a 
writer and a reasoner soon become known, and ho 
was placed upon a number of important committees, 
and was chairman of the one appointed for the draw- 
ing up of a declaration of independence. This com- 
mittee consisted of Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, 
Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman and Robert R. 
Livingston. Jefferson, as chairman, was appointed 
to draw up the paper. Franklin and Adams suggested 
a few verbal changes before it was submitted to Con- 
gress. On June 28, a few slight changes were made 
in it by Congress, and it was passed and signed July 
4, 1776, What must have been the feelings of that 



man — what the emotions that swelled his breast — 
who was charged with the preparation of that Dec- 
laration, which, while it made known the wrongs of 
America, was also to publish her to the world, free, 
Koverign and independent. It is one of the most re- 
markable papers ever written ; and did no other effort 
ijf the mind of its author exist, that alone would be 
sufficient to stamp his name with immortality. 

In 1779 Mr. Jefferson was elected successor to 
Patrick Henry, as Governor of Virginia. At one time 
the British officer, Tarleton, sent a secret expedition to 
Moniicello, to capture the Governor. Scarcely five 
minutes elapsed after the hurried escape of Mr. Jef- 
ferson and his family, ere his mansion was in posses- 
sion of the British troops. His wife's health, never 
very good, was much injured by this excitement, and 
in the summer of 1782 she died. 

Mr. Jefferson was elected to Congress in 1783. 
Two years later he was appointed Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary to France. Returning to the United States 
in September, 1789, he became Secretary of State 
in Washington's cabinet. This position he resigned 
Jan. I, 1794. In 1797, he was chosen Vice Presi- 
dent, and four years later was elected President over 
Mr. Adams, with Aaron Burr as Vice President. In 
1804 he was re-elected with wonderful unanimity, 
and George Clinton, Vice President. 

The early part of Mr. Jefferson's second adminstra- 
tion was disturbed by an event which threatened the 
traniiuility and peace of the Union; this was the con- 
spiracy of Aaron Burr. Defeated in the late election 
to the Vice Presidency, and led on by an unprincipled 
ambition, this extraordinary man formed the plan of a 
military expedition into the Spanish territories on our 
southwestern frontier, for the purpose of forming there 
a new republic. This has been generally supposed 
was a mere pretext ; and although it has not been 
generally known what his real plans were, there is no 
doubt that they were of a far more dangerous 

In 1809, at the expiration of the second term for 
which Mr. Jefferson had been elected, he determined 
to retire from political life. For a period of nearly 
:'orty years, he had been continually before the pub- 
.ic, and all that time had been employed in offices of 
the greatest trust and responsibility. Having thus de- 
voted the best part of his life to the service of his 
country, he now felt desirous of that rest which his 
declining years required, and upon the organization of 
the new administration, in March, 1809, he bid fare- 
well forever to public life, and retired to Monticello. 

Mr. Jefferson was profuse in his hospitality. Whole 
families came in their coaches with their horses, — 
fathers and mothers, boys and girls, babies and 
nurses, — and remained three and even six months. 
I,ife at Monticello, for years, resembled that at a 
fashionable watering-place. 

The fourth of July, 1826, being the fiftieth anniver- 

sary of the Declaration of American Independence, 
great preparations were made in every part of th'; 
Union for its celebration, as the nation's jubilee, and 
the citizens of Washington, to add to the solemnity 
of the occasion, invited Mr. Jefferson, as the framer, 
and one of the few surviving signers of the Declara- 
tion, to participate in their festivities. But an ill- 
ness, which had been of several weeks duration, and 
had been continually increasing, compelled him to 
decline the invitation. 

On the second of July, the disease under which 
he was laboring left him, but in such a reduced 
state that his medical attendants, entertained no 
hope of his recovery. From this time he was perfectly 
sensible that his last hour was at hand. On the nex* 
day, which was Monday, he asked of those around 
him, the day of the month, and on being told it was 
the third of July, he expressed the earnest wish tha'. 
he might be permitted to breathe the air of the fiftieth 
anniversary. His prayer was heard — that day, whose 
dawn was hailed with such rapture through our land, 
burst upon his eyes, and then they were closed for- 
ever. And what a noble consummation of a noble 
life ! To die on that day, — the birthday of a nation,- - 
the day which his own name and his own act had 
rendered glorious; to die amidst the rejoicings and 
festivities of a whole nation, who looked up to him, 
as the author, under God, of their greatest blessings, 
was all that was wanting to fill up the record his life. 

Almost at the same hour of his death, the kin- 
dred siiirit of the venerable Adams, as if to bear 
him company, left the scene of his earthly honors. 
Hand in hand they had stood forth, the champions of 
freedom ; hand in hand, during the dark and desper- 
ate struggle of the Revolution, they had cheered and 
animated their desponding countrymen; for half a 
century they had labored together for the good of 
the country; and now hand in hand they depart. 
In their lives they had been united in the same great 
cause of liberty, and in their deaths they were not 

In person Mr. Jefferson was tall and thin, rather 
above six feet in height, but well formed; his eyes 
were light, his hair originally red, in after life became 
white and silvery; his complexion was fair, his fore- 
head broad, and his whole countenance intelligent and 
thoughtful. He possessed great fortitude of mind as 
well as personal courage ; and his command of tem- 
per was such that his oldest and most intimate friends 
never recollected to have seen him in a passion. 
His manners, though dignified, were simple and un- 
affected, and his hospitality was so unbounded that 
all found at his house a ready welcome. In conver- 
sation he was fluent, eloquent and enthusiastic ; and 
his language was remarkably pure and correct. He 
was a finished classical scholar, and in his writings is 
discernable the care with which he formed his style 
upon the best models of antiquity. 


/ C2y<^^ ^ ' .^^ if-'.^^^'^l C'"^ 



of the Constitution," and fourth 
President of the United States, 
was born March i6, 1757, and 
died at his home in Virginia, 
^ June 28, 1836. The name of 
James Madison is inseparably con- 
nected with most of the important 
events in that heroic period of our 
country during which the founda- 
tions of this great repubUc were 
laid. He was the last of the founders 
of the Constitution of the United 
States to be called to his eternal 

The Madison family were among 
the early emigrants to the New World, 
landing upon the shores of the Chesa- 
peake but 15 years after the settle- 
ment of Jamestown. The father of 
James Madison was an opulent 
planter, residing upon a very fine es- 
tate called "Montpelier," Orange Co., 
Va. The mansion was situated in 
the midst of scenery highly pictur- 
esque and romantic, on the west side 
of South-west Mountain, at the foot of 
Blue Ridge. It was but 25 miles from the home of 
Jefferson at Monticello. The closest personal and 
political attachment existed between these illustrious 
men, from their early youth until deatii. 

The early education of Mr. Madison was conducted 
mostly at home under a private tutor. At the age of 
18 he was sent to Princeton College, in New Jersey. 
Here he applied himself to study with the most im- 

prudent zeal; allowing himself, for months, but three 
hours' sleep out of the 24. His health thus became so 
seriously impaired that he never recovered any vigor 
of constitution. He graduated in 177 i, with a feeble 
body, with a character of utmost purity, and with a 
mind highly disciplined and richly stored with learning 
which embellislied and gave proficiency to his subsf " 
quent career. 

Returning to Virginia, he commenced the study of 
law and a course of extensive and systematic reading. 
This educational course, the spirit of the times in 
which he lived, and the society with which he asso- 
ciated, all combined to inspire him with a strong 
love of liberty, and to train him for his life-work of 
a statesman. Being naturally of a religious turn of 
mind, and his frail health leading him to think that 
his life was not to be long, he directed especial atten- 
tion to theological studies. Endowed with a mind 
singularly free from passion and prejudice, and with 
almost unequalled powers of reasoning, he weighed 
all the arguments for and against revealed religion, 
until his faith became so established as never to 
be shaken. 

In the spring of 1776, when 26 years of age, he 
was elected a member of the Virginia Convention, to 
frame the constitution of the State. The next year 
(1777), he was a candidate for the General Assembly. 
He refused to treat the whisky-lovir.g voters, and 
consequently lost his election ; but those who had 
witnessed the talent, energy and public spirit of the 
modest young man, enlisted themselves in his behalf, 
and he was appointed to the Executive Council. 

Both Patrick Henry and Thomas Jefferson were 
Governors of Virginia while Mr. Madison remained 
member of the Council ; and their appreciation of his 



intellectual, social and moral worth, contributed not 
a little to his subsequent eminence. In the year 
1780, he was elected a member of the Continental 
Congress. Here he met the most illustrious men in 
our land, and he was immediately assigned to one of 
the most conspicuous positions among them. 

For three years Mr. Madison continued in Con- 
gress, one of its most active and influential members. 
In tlie year i?84, his term having expired, he was 
elected a member of the Virginia Legislature. 

No man felt more deeply than Mr. Madison the 
utter inefficiency of the old confederacy, with no na- 
tional government, with no power to form treaties 
which would be binding, or to enforce law.. There 
was not any State more prominent than Virginia in 
the declaration, that an efficient national gov^nment 
must be formed. In January, 1786, Mr. Madison 
carried a resolution through the General Assembly of 
Virginia, inviting the other States to apjioint commis- 
sioners to meet in convention at Annapolis to discuss 
tliis subject. Five States only were represented. The 
convention, however, issued another call, drawn up 
by Mr. Madison, urging all the States to send their 
delegates to Philadelphia, in May, 1787, to draft 
a Constitution for the United States, to take the place 
of that Confederate League. The delegates met at 
the time appointed. Every State but Rhode Island 
was represented. George Washington was chosen 
president of the convention; and the present Consti- 
tution of the United States was then and there formed. 
There was, perhaps, no mind and no pen more ac- 
tive in framing this immortal document than the mind 
and the pen of James Madison. 

The Constitution, adopted by a vote 81 to 79, was 
to be presented to the several States for acceptance. 
But grave solicitude was felt. Should it be rejected 
we should be left but a conglomeration of independent 
States, with but little (xiwer at home and little respect 
abroad. Mr. Madison was selected by the conven- 
tion to draw up an address to the people of the United 
States, expounding the principles of the Constitution, 
and urging its adoption. There was great opposition 
to it at first, but it at length triumphed over all, and 
went into effect in 1789. 

Mr. Madison was elected to the House of Repre- 
sentatives in the first Congress, and soon became the 
avowed leader of the Republican party. While in 
New York attending Congress, he met Mrs, Todd, a 
young widow of remarkable jwwer of fascination, 
whom he married. She was in person and character 
ipieenly, and probably no lady has thus far occupied 
so prominent a position in the very peculiar society 
wliich has constituted our republican court as Mrs. 

Mr. Madison served as Secretary of State under 
Jefferson, and at the close of his administtation 
was chosen President. At this time the encroach- 
ments of England had brought us to the verge of >var. 

British orders in council destioyed our commerce, and 
our flag was exposed to constant insult. Mr. Madison 
was a man of peace. Scholarly in his taste, retinng 
in his disposition, war had no charms for him. But the 
meekest spirit can be roused. It makes one's blood 
boil, even now, to think of an American ship brought 
to, upon the ocean, by the guns of an English cruiser. 
A young lieutenant steps on board and orders the 
crew to be paraded before him. With great nonchal- 
ance he selects any number whom he may please to 
designate as British subjects ; orders them down the 
ship's side into his boat; and places them on the gun- 
deck of his man-of-war, to fight, by conii)ulsion, the 
battles of England. This right of search and im- 
pressment, no efforts of our Government could induce 
the British cabinet to relinquish. 

On the 1 8th of June, 181 2, President Madison gave 
his approval to an act of Congress declaring war 
against Great Britain. Notwithstanding the bitter 
hostility of the Federal party to the war, the country 
in general approved; and Mr. Madison, on the 4th 
of March, i8i3) was re-elected by a large majority, 
and entered upon his second term of office. This is 
not the place to describe the various adventures of 
this war on the land and on the water. Our infan. 
navy then laid the foundations of its renown in grap- 
pling wiih the most formidable power which ever 
swept the seas. The contest commenced in earnest 
by the appearance of a British fleet, early in February, 
1813, in Chesajieake Bay, declaring nearly the whole 
coast of the Lfnited States under blockade. 

The Emperor of Russia offered his services as me 
ditator. America accepted ; England refused. A Brit- 
ish force of five thousand men landed on the banks 
of the Patuxet River, near its entrance into Chesa- 
peake Bay, and inarched rapidly, by way of Bladens- 
burg, upon Washington. 

The straggling little city of Washington was thrown 
into consternation. The cannon of the brief conflict 
at Bladensburg echoed through the streets of the 
metropolis. The whole populaticn fled from the city. 
The President, leaving Mrs. Madison in the White 
House, with her carriage drawn up at the doer to 
await his speedy return, hurried to meet the officers 
in a council of war He met our troops utterly routed, 
and he could not go back without danger of being 
captured. But few hours elapsed ere the Presidential 
Mansion, the Capitol, and all the public buildings in 
Washington were in flames. 

The war closed after two years of fighting, and on 
Feb. 13, 1815, the treaty of peace was signed at Ghent. 

On the 4th of March, 1817, his second term of 
office expired, and he resigned the Presidential chair 
to his friend, James Monroe. He retired to his beau- 
tiful home at Montpelier, and there passed the re- 
mainder of his days. On June 28, 1836, then at the 
age of 85 years, he fell asleep in death. Mrs. Madi- 
son died July 12, 1849. 






priQES n]oi]ROE. 



AMES MONROE, the fifth 
.President of The United States, 
was born in Westmoreland Co., 
Va., April 28, 1758. His early 
life was passed at the place of 
nativity. His ancestors had for 
many years resided in the prov- 
ince in which he was born. When, 
at 17 years of age, in the process 
of completing his education at 
William and Mary College, the Co- 
lonial Congress assembled at Phila- 
delphia to deliberate upon the un- 
just and manifold oppressions of 
Great Britian, declared the separa- 
tion of the Colonies, and promul- 
gated the Declaration of Indejjen- 
dence. Had he been born ten years before it is highly 
probable that he would have been one of the signers 
of that celebrated instrument. At this time he left 
school and enlisted among the patriots. 

He joined the army when everything looked hope- 
less and gloomy. The number of deserters increased 
from day to day. The invading armies came pouring 
in ; and the tories not only favored the cause of the 
mother country, but disheartened the new recruits, 
who were sufficiently terrified at the prospect of con- 
tending with an enemy whom they had been taught 
to deem invincible. To such brave spirits as James 
Monroe, who went right onward, undismayed through 
difficulty and danger, the United States owe their 
political emancipation. The young cadet joined the 
ranks, and espoused the cause of his injured country, 
with a firm determination to live or die with her strife 

for liberty. Firmly yet sadly he shared in the ni.-l. 
ancholy retreat from Harleam Heights and Wlnf 
Plains, and accompanied the dispirited army as it flee 
before its foes through New Jersey. In four niui.tli: 
after the Declaration of Independence, the patriots 
had been beaten in seven battles. At the battle c( 
Trenton he led the vanguard, and, in the actof charg- 
ing upon the enemy he received a wound in the lef' 

As a reward for his bravery, Mr. Monroe was pro- 
moted a captain of infantry ; and, having recovered 
from his wound, he rejoined the army. He, however, 
receded from the line of promotion, by becoming an 
officer in the staff of Lord Steding. During the cam- 
paigns pf 1777 and 1778, in the actions of Brandy 
wine, Germantown and Monmouth, he continued 
aid-de-camp; but becoming desirous to regain liii 
position in the army, he exerted himself to collect a 
regiment for the Virginia line. This scheme failed 
owing to the exhausted condition of the State. Upon 
this failure he entered the office of Mr. Jefferson, at 
that period Governor, and pursued, with consideralile 
ardor, the study of common law. He did not, howevei. 
entirely lay aside the knapsack for the green bag; 
but on the invasions of the enemy, served as a volun 
tear, during the two years of his legal pursuits. 

In 17S2, he was elected from King George county, 
a member of the Leglislature of Virginia, and by that 
body he was elevated to a seat in the Executive 
Council. He was thus honored with the confidence 
of his fellow citizens at 23 years of age ; and having 
at this early period displayed some of that abiiitv 
and aptitude for legislation, which were afterwards 
employed with unremiitii^g energy for the public good, 



lie was in the succeeding year chosen a member of 
ihe Congress of the United States. 

Deeply as Mr. Monroe felt the imperfections of the old 
Confederacy, he was opposed to the new Constitution, 
-.hinking, with many others of the Republican party, 
'.hat it gave too much power to the Central Government, 
and not enough to the individual States. Still he re- 
tained the esteem of his friends who were its warm 
supporters, and who, notwithstanding his opposition 
secured its adoption. In 1789, he became a member 
of the United States Senate ; which office he held for 
four years. Every month the line of distinction be- 
tween the two great parties which divided the nation, 
the Federal and the Republican, was growing more 
distinct. The two prominent ideas which now sep- 
arated them were, that the Republican party was in 
sympathy with France, and also in favor of such a 
strict construction of tlie Constitution as to give the 
Central Government as little power, and the State 
Governments as much power, as the Constitution would 
warrant. The Federalists sympathized with England, 
and were in favor of a liberal construction of the Con- 
stitution, which would give as much power to the 
Central Government as that document could possibly 

The leading Federalists and Republicans were 
alike noble men, consecrating all their energies to the 
good of the nation. Two more honest men or more 
pure patriots than John Adams the Federalist, and 
James Monroe the Republican, never breathed. In 
building up this majestic nation, which is destined 
to eclipse all Grecian and.Vssyrian greatness, the com- 
bination of their antagonism was needed to create the 
light equilibrium. And yet each in his day was de- 
nounced as almost a demon. 

Washington was then President. England had es- 
poused the cause of the Bourbons against the princi- 
ples of the French Revolution. All Europe was drawn 
into the conflict. We were feeble and far away. 
Washington issued a proclamation of neutrality be- 
tween these contending powers. France had helped 
us in the struggle for our liberties. All the despotisms 
of Europe were now combined to prevent the French 
from escaping from a tyranny a thousand-fold worse 
than that which we had endured Col. Monroe, more 
magnanimous than prudent, was anxious that, at 
whatever hazard, we should help our old allies in 
their extremity. It was the impulse of a generous 
and noble nature. He violently opposed the Pres- 
ident's proclamation as ungrateful and wanting in 

Washington, who could appreciate such a character, 
developed his calm, serene, almost divine greatness, 
by appointing that very James Monroe, who was de- 
nouncing the policy of the Government, as the minister 
of that Government to the Republic of France. Mr. 
Monroe was welcomed by the National Convention 
in France with the most enthusiastic demonstrations. 

Shortly after his return to this country, Mr. Mon- 
roe was elected Governor of Virginia, and held the 
office for three yeais. He was again sent to France to 
co-operate with Chancellor Livingston in obtaining 
the vast territory then known as the Province of 
Louisiana, which France had but shortly before ob- 
tained from Spain. Tlieir united efforts were suc- 
cessful. For the comparatively small sum of fifteen 
millions of dollars, the entire territory of Orleans and 
district of Louisiana were added to the United States. 
This was probably the largest transfer of real estate 
which was ever made in all the history of the world. 

From France Mr. Monroe went to England to ob- 
tain from that country some recognition of our 
rights as neutrals, and to remonstrate against those 
odious impressments of our seamen. But Eng- 
land was unrelenting. He again returned to Eng- 
land on the same mission, but could receive no 
redress. He returned to his home and was again 
chosen Governor of Virginia. This he soon resigned 
to accept the position of Secretary of State under 
Madison. While in this office war with England was 
declared, the Secretary of War resigned, and during 
tliese trying times, the duties of the \\'ar Department 
were also put upon him. He was truly the armor- 
bearer of President Madison, and the most efficient 
business man in his cabinet. Upon the return ol 
peace he resigned the Department of War, but con- 
tinued in the office of Secretary of State until the ex- 
piration of Mr. Madison's adminstration. At the elec 
tion held the previous autumn Mr. Monroe himself had 
been chosen President with but little opposition, and 
upon March 4, iSfy, was inaugurated. Four years 
later he was elected for a second term. 

Among the important measures of his Presidency 
were the cession of Florida to the United States ; the 
Missouri Compromise, and the " Monroe doctrine.'' 
This famous doctrine, since known as the " Monroe 
doctrine," was enunciated by him in 1823. At that 
time the United States had recognized the independ- 
ence of the South American states, and did not wish 
to have European powers longer attempting to sub- 
due portions of the American Continent. The doctrine 
is as follows: "That we should consider any attempt 
on the part of European powers to extend their sys- 
tem to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous 
to our peace and safety," and "that we could not 
view any interposition for the purpose of oppressing 
or controlling American governments or provinces in 
any other light than as a manifestation by European 
powers of an unfriendly disposition toward the United 
States." This doctrine immediately affected the course 
of foreign governments, and has become the approved 
sentiment of the LTnited States. 

At the end of his fecond term Mr. Monroe retired 
to his home in Virginia, where he lived until 1830, 
when he went to New York to live with his son-in- 
law. In that city he died,on the 4th of July, 1831 

K n. 

J. $, Ai 





L^J,^/^^ :-7^^ 

" 305I] Qnil]6Y ^D^IIQS. 

sixth President of the United 
^Slates, was bora in the rural 
home of his honored father. 
John Adams, m Qaincy, Mass., 
on the nth cf July, 1767. His 
mother, a woman of exalted 
worth, watched over his childhood 
during the almost constant ab- 
sence of his father. When but 
eight years of age, he stood with 
his mother on an eminence, listen- 
ing to the booming of the great bat- 
tle on Bunker's Hill, and gazing on 
upon the smoke and flames billow- 
ing up from the conflagration of 

When but eleven years old he 
took a tearful adieu of his mother, 
to sail with his fattier for Europe, 
through a fleet of hostile British cruisers. The bright, 
animated boy spent a year and a half in Paris, where 
his father was associated with Franklin and Lee as 
minister plenipotentiary. His intelligence attracted 
the notice of these distinguished men, and he received 
from them flattering marks of attention. 

Mr. John Adams had scarcely returned to this 
cou.-.try, in 1779, ere he was again sent abroad Again 
;oI.ii Quincy accompanied his father. At Paris he 
applied himself with great diligence, for six months, 
to :,Uidy; then accompained his father to Holland, 
vnere he entered, first a school in Amsterdam, then 
the University at I.eyden. About a year from this 
time, in 1781, when the manly boy was but fourteen 
yea— 5 of age, he was selected liy Mr. Dana, our min- 
ister to the Russian court, as his private secretary. 

In this school of incessant labor and of enobling 
culture he spent fourteen months, and then returned 
to Holland through Sweden, Denmark, Hamburg and 
Bremen. This long journey he took alone, in the 
winter, when in his sixteenth year. Again he resumed 
his studies, under a private tutor, at Hague. Thence, 

in the spring of 1782, he accompanied his father i. 
Paris, traveling leisurely, and forming acquaintance 
with the most distinguished men on tlie Con'inei.t 
examining arcnitectural remains, galleries of paintingi 
and all renowned works of art. At Paris he agair. 
became associated with the most illustrious men of 
all lands in the contemplations of the loftiest temporal 
themes which can engross the human mind. Aftj ■ 
a short visit to England he returned to Paris, ana 
consecrated all his energies to study until May, 1785, 
when he returned to America. To a brilliant young 
man of eighteen, v. ho had seen much of the worid, 
and who was familiar with the etiquette of courts, a 
residence with his father in London, under such cir- 
cumstances, must have been extremely attractive 
but with judgment very rare in one of his age, he pre- 
ferred to return to America to complete his education 
in an American college. He wished then to study 
law, that with an honorable profession, he might be 
able to obtain an independent support. 

Upon leaving Harvard College, at the age of twenty- 
he studied law for three years. In June, 1794, be- 
ing then but twenty-seven years of age, he was ap- 
pointed by Washington, resident minister at the 
Netherlands. Sailing from Boston in July, he reached 
London in October, where he was immediately admit- 
ted to the deliberations of Messrs. Jay and Pinckney, 
assisting them in negotiating a commercial treaty with 
Great Britian. After thus spending a fortnight ir, 
London, he proceeded to the Hague. 

In July, 1797, he left the Hague to go to Portugal a.- 
minister plenipotentiary. On his way to Portugal 
upon arriving in London, he met with despatches 
directing him to the court of Beinn, but requestirp 
him to remain in London until he should receive his 
instrucdons. While wr.iting he was married to ar. 
American lady to whom he had been previously en- 
gaged, — Miss Louisa Catherine Johnson, daughtf 
of Mr. Joshua Johnson, American consul in I ondon ; 
a lady endownd with that beauty and ihose accom- 
plishment which eminently fitted her to move in ti.t 
elevated sphere for which she wjis destined- 



He reached Berlin with his wife in November, 1797 ; 
where he remained until July, 1799, when, having ful- 
filled all the purix)ses of his mission, he solicited his 

Soon after his return, in 1802, he was chosen to 
the Senate of Massachusetts, from Boston, and then 
was elected Senator of the United States for six years, 
from the 4th of March, 1804. His reputation, his 
ability and his experience, placed him immediately 
among the most prominent and influential members 
of that body. Especially did he sustain the Govern- 
ment in its measures of resistance to the encroach- 
ments of England, destroying our commerce and in- 
sulting our flag. There was no man in America more 
rimiliar with the arrogance of the British court upon 
these points, and no one more resolved to present 
a firm resistance. 

In 1809, Madison succeeded Jefferson in the Pres- 
idential chair, and he immediately nominated John 
Quincy Adams minister to St. Petersburg. Resign- 
ing his professorship in Harvard College, he embarked 
at Boston, in August, 1809. 

While in Russia, Mr. Adams was an intense stu- 
dent. He devoted his attention to the language and 
history of Russia; to the Chinese trade; to the 
European system of weights, measures, and coins ; to 
the climate and astronomical observations ; while he 
Kept up a familiar acquaintance with the Greek and 
Latin classics. In all the universities of Europe, a 
more accomplished scholar could scarcely be found. 
All tlirough life the Bible constituted an important 
part of his studies. It was his rule to read five 
chapters every day. 

On the 4th of March, 1817, Mr. Monroe took the 
Presidential chair, and immediately appointed Mr. 
Adams Secretary of State. Taking leave of his num- 
erous friends in public and private life in Europe, he 
sailed in June, 1819, forthe United States. On the 
1 8th of August, he again crossed the threshold of his 
home in Quincy. During the eight years of Mr. Mon- 
roe's administration, Mr. Adams continued Secretary 
of State. 

Some time before the close of Mr. Monroe's second 
term of office, new candidates began to be presented 
foi the Presidency. The friends of Mr. .\dams brought 
forward his name. It was an exciting campaign. 
Party spirit was never more bitter. Two hundred and 
sixty electoral votes were cast. Andrew Jackson re- 
ceived ninety-nine; John Quincy .'\dams, eighty-four; 
William H. Crawford, forty-one; Henry Clay, thirty- 
seven. As there was no choice by the people, the 
question went to the House of Representatives. Mr. 
Clay gave the vote of Kentucky to Mr. Adams, and 
he was elected. 

The friends of all the disappointed candidates now 
'.ombined in a venomous and persistent assault upon 
Mr. Adams. There is nothing more disgraceful in 
**^ past history of our country than the abuse which 

was poured in one uninterrupted stream, upon this 
high-minded, upright, patriotic man. There never was 
an administration more pure in principles, more con- 
scientiously devoted to the best interests of the coun- 
try, than that of John Quincy Adams; and never, per- 
haps, was there an administration more unscrupu. 
lously and outrageously assailed. 

Mr. Adams was, to a very remarkable degree, ab- 
stemious and temperate in his habits; always rising 
early, and taking much exercise, ^\'hen at his home in 
Quincy, he has been known to walk, before breakfast, 
seven miles to Boston. In Washington, it was said 
that he was the first man up in the city, lighting his 
own fire and applying himself to work in his library 
often long before dawn. 

On the 4th of March, 1829, Mr. Adams retired 
from the Presidency, and was succeeded by Andrew- 
Jackson. John C. Calhoun was elected Vice Presi- 
dent. The slavery question now began to assume 
jx)rtentous magnitude. Mr. Adams returned to 
Quincy and to his studies, which he pursued with un- 
abated zeal. But he was not long permitted to re- 
main in retirement. In November, 1830, he was 
elected representative to Congress. For seventeen 
years, antil his death, he occupied the post as repre- 
sentative, towering above all his peers, ever ready to 
do brave battle' for freedom, and winning the title of 
"the old man eloquent." Upon taking his seat in 
the House, he announced that he should hold him- 
self bound to no party. Probably there never was a 
member more devoted to his duties. He was usually 
the first in his [jlace in the morning, and the last to 
leave his seat in the evening. Not a measure could 
be brought forward and escape his scrutiny. The 
battle which Mr. Adams fought, almost singly, against 
the proslavery party in the Government, was sublime 
in Us moral daring and heroism. For persisting in 
presenting petitions for the abolition of slavery, he 
was threatened with indictment by the grand jury, 
with expulsion from the House, with assassination 
but no threats could intimidate him, and his final 
triumph was complete. 

It has been said of President Adams, that when his 
body was bent and his hair silvered l)y the lapse of 
fourscore years, yielding to the simple faith of a little 
child, he was accustomed to repeat every night, before 
he slept, the prajer which his mother taught him in 
his infant years. 

On the 2 1 St of February, 1848, he rose on the floor 
of Congress, with a paper in his hand, to address the 
speaker. Suddenly he fell, again stricken by jiaraly- 
sis, and was caught in the arms of those around liim. 
For a tinre he was senseless, as he was conveyed to 
the sofa in the rotunda. With reviving conscious- 
ness, he opened his eyes, looked calmly around and 
said " This is llie end of earth ;"then after a moment's 
pause he added, " / am content" These were the 
last words of the grand " Old Man Eloquent." 










seventh President of the 
' United States, was born in 
Waxhaw settlement, N. C, 
March 15, 1767, a few days 
after his father's death. His 
parents were poor emigrants 
from Ireland, and took np 
their abode in Waxhaw set- 
tlement, where they lived in 
deepest poverty. 
Andrew, or Andy, as he was 
universally called, grew up a very 
rough, rude, turbulent boy. His 
features were coarse, his form un- 
gainly, and there was but very 
little in his character, made visible, which was at- 

Wiien only thirteen years old he joined the volun- 
teers of Carolina against the British invasion. In 
1781, he and his brother Robert were captured and 
imprisoned for a time at Camden. A British officer 
ordered him to brush his mud-spattered boots. " I am 
a prisoner of war, not your servant," was the reply of 
the dauntless boy. 

The brute drew his sword, and aimed a desperate 
Dlow at the head of the helpless young prisoner. 
Andrew raised his hand, and thus received two fear- 
ful gashes, — one on the hand and the other upon the 
head. The officer then turned to his brother Robert 
with the same demand. He also refused, and re- 
ceived a blow from the keen-edged sabre, which quite 
disabled him, and which probably soon after caused 
his death. They suffered muchother ill-treatment, and 
were finally stricken with the small-pox. Their 
mother was successfiU iu obtaining their exchange. 

and took her sick boys home. After a long illn jse 
Andrew recovered, and the death of his mother «;oon 
left him entirely friendless. 

Andrew supported himself in various ways, s i;h as 
working at the saddler's trade, teaching school and 
clerking in a general store, until 1784, wlien he 
entered a law office at Salisbury, N. C. He, however, 
gave more attention to the wild amusements of the 
times than to his studies. In 1788, he was appointed 
solicitor for the western district of North Carolina, of 
which Tennessee was then a part. This involved 
many long and tedious journeys amid dangers of 
every kind, but Andrew Jackson never knew fear, 
and the Indians had no desire to repeat a skirmish 
with the Sharp Knife. 

In 1791, Mr. Jackson was married to a woman who 
supposed herself divorced from her former husband. 
Great was the surprise of both parties, two years later, 
to find that the conditionsof the divorce had just been 
definitely settled by the first husband. The marriage 
ceremony was performed a second time, but the occur- 
rence was often used by his enemies to bring Mr. 
Jackson into disfavor. 

During these years he worked hard at his profes- 
sion, and frequently had one or more duels on hand, 
one of which, when he killed Dickenson, was espec- 
ially disgraceful. 

In January, 1796, the Territory of Tennessee then 
containing nearly eighty thousand inhabitants, the 
people met in convention at Knoxville to frame a con- 
stitution. Five were sent from each of the eleven 
counties, Andrew Jackson was one of the delegafes. 
The new State was entitled to but one member in. 
the National House of Representatives. Andrew Jack-' 
son was chosen that member. Mounting his horse he 
rode to Philedelphia, where Congress then held its 



ijsiioas, — a distance of about eight hundred miles. 

Jackson was an earnest advocate of the Demo- 
cratic party. Jefferson was his idol. He admired 
tionaparte, loved France and hated England. As Mr. 
Jackson took his seat, Gjn. Washington, whose 
second term of office was then expiring, delivered his 
last speech to Congress. A committee drew up a 
complimentary address in reply. Andrew Jackson 
did not approve of the address, and was one of the 
twelve who voted against it. He was not willing to 
say that Gen. Washington's adminstration had been 
" wise, firm and patriotic." 

Mr, Jackson was elected to the United States 
Senate in 1797, but soon resigned and returned home. 
Soon after he was chosen Judge of the Supreme Court 
of his State, which position he held f^r si.x years. 

When the war of 1812 with Great Britian com- 
menced, Madison occupied the Presidential chair. 
Aaron Burr sent word to the President that there was 
an unknown 'man in the West, Andrew Jackson, who 
would do credit to a commission if one were con- 
ferred upon him. Just at that time Gen. Jackson 
offered his services and those of twenty-five hundred 
volunteers. His offer was accej)ted, and the troops 
were assembled at Nashville. 

As the British were hourly expected to make an at- 
tack upon New Orleans, where Geu Wilkinson was 
in command, he was ordered to descend the river 
with fifteen hundred troops to aid Wilkinson. The 
expedition reached Natchez; and after a delay of sev- 
eral weeks there, without accomplishing anything, 
the men were ordered back to their homes. But the 
energy Gen. Jackson had displayed, and his entire 
devotion to the comrfort of his soldiers, won him 
golden opinions; and he became the most popular 
man in the State. It was in this expedition that his 
toughness gave him the nickname of "Old Hickory." 

Soan after this, while attempting to horsewhip Col. 
Thomas H. Benton, for a remark that gentleman 
made about his taking a part as second in a duel, in 
which a younger brother of Benton's was engaged, 
he received two severe [jistol wounds. While he was 
lingering upon a bed of suffering news came that the 
Indians, who had combined under Tecumseh from 
Florida to the Lakes, to exterminate the white set- 
lers, were committing the most awful ravages. De- 
cisive action became necessary. Gen. Jackson, with 
his fractured bone just beginning to heal, his arm in 
a sling, and unable to mount his horse without assis- 
tance, gave his amazing energies to the raising of an 
army to rendezvous at Favettesville, Alabama. 

The Creek Indians had established a strong fort on 
one of the bends of the Tallapoosa River, near the cen- 
ter of Alabama, about fifty miles below Fort Strother. 
With an army of two thousand men, Gen. Jackson 
traversed the pathless wilderness in a march of eleven 
days. He reached their fort, called Tohopeka or 
Horse-shoe, on the 27th of March. 1814. The bend 

of the river enclosed nearly one hundred acres ot 
tangled forest and wild ravine. Across the narrow 
neck the Indians had constructed a formidable breast- 
work of logs and brush. Here nine hundred warriors, 
with an ann^le suplyof arms were assembled. 

The fort was stormed. The fight was utterly des- 
perate. Not an Indian would accept of fjuarter. When 
bleeding and dying, they would fight those who en- 
deavored to spare their lives. From ten in the morn- 
ing until dark, the battle raged. The carnage was 
awful and revolting. Some threw themselves into the 
river; but the unerring bullet struck their heads as 
they swam. Nearly everyone of the nine hundred war- 
rios were killed A few probably, in the night, swam 
the river and escaped. This ended the war. The 
power of the Creeks was broken forever. This bold 
plunge into the wilderness, with its terriffic slaughter, 
so appalled the savages, that the ha'ggard remnants 
of the bands came to the camp, begging for peace. 

This closing of the Creek war enabled us to con- 
centrate all our militia upon the British, who were the 
allies of the Indians No man of less resolute will 
than Gen. Jackson could have conducted this Indian 
campaign to so successful an issue Immediately he 
was appointed major-general. 

Late in .August, with an army of two thousand 
men, on a rushing march, Gen. Jackson came to 
Mobile. A British fleet came from Pensacola, landed 
a force upon the beach, anchored near the little fori, 
and from both ship and shore commenced a furious 
assault. The battle was long and doubtful. At length 
one of the ships was blown up and the rest retired. 

Garrisoning Mobile, where he had taken his little- 
army, he moved his troops to New Orleans, 
.\nd the battle of New Orleans which soon ensued, 
was in reality a very arduous campaign. This won 
for Gen. Jackson an imperishable name. Here his 
troops, which numbered about four thousand men, 
won a signal victory over the British army of about 
nine thousand. His loss was but thirteen, while the 
loss of the British was two thousand six hundred. 

The name of Gen. Jackson soon began to be men- 
tioned in connection with the Presidency, but, in 1824, 
he was defeated by Mr. Adams. He was, however, 
successful in the election of 1828, and was re-elected 
for a second term in 1832. In 1829, just before he 
assumed the reins of the government, he met with 
the most terrible affliction of his life in the death of 
his wife, whom he had loved with a devotion which has 
perhaps never been surpassed. From the shock of 
her death he never recovered. 

His administration was one of the most memorable 
in the annals of our country; applauded by one party, 
condemned by the other. No man had more bitter 
enemies or warmer friends. At the expiration of his 
two terms of office he retired to the Hermitage, where 
he died June 8, 1845. The last years of Mr. Jack- 
son's life were that of a devoted Christian man. 

^7 7 /^l^e^ ^^^^i^J U^L^^^^z.^^ 






eighth President of the 
United States, was born at 
Kinderhook, N. Y., Dec. 5, 
17S2. He died at the same 
place, July 24, 1862. His 
body rests in the cemetery 
at Kinderhook. Above it is 
a plain granite shaft fifteen feet 
high, bearing a simple inscription 
about half way up on one face. 
The lot is unfenced, unbordered 
or unbounded by shrub or flower. 

There is but little in the life of Martin Van Buren 
of romantic interest. He fought no battles, engaged 
in no wild adventures. Though his life was stormy in 
political and intellectual conflicts, and he gained many 
signal victories, his days passed uneventful in those 
incidents which give zest to biography. His an- 
cestors, as his name indicates, were of Dutch origin, 
and were among the earliest emigrants from Holland 
to the banks of the Hudson. His father was a farmer, 
residing in the old town of Kinderhook. His mother, 
also of Dutch lineage, was a woman of superior intel- 
ligence and exemplary piety. 

,fe was decidedly a precocious boy, developing un- 
usual activity, vigor and strengtli of mind. .'\t the 
age of fourteen, he had finished his academic studies 
in his native village, and commenced the study of 
law. As he had not a collegiate education, seven 
years of study in a law-office were required of him 
Ijefore he could be admitted to the bar. Inspired with 
Ji lofty ambition, and conscious of his powers, he pur- 
sued his studies with indefatigable industry. After 
spending six years in an office in ^is native village, 

he went to the city of Mew York, and prosecuted hii 
studies for the seventh year. 

In 1803, Mr. Van Buren, then twenty-one years of 
age, commenced the practice of law in his native vil- 
lage. The great conflict between the Federal and 
Republican party was then at its height. Mr. Van 
Buren was from the beginning a politician. He had, 
perhaps, imbibed that spirit while listening to the 
many discussions which had been carried on in his 
father's hotel. He was in cordial sympathy with 
Jefferson, and earnestly and eloquently espoused the 
cause of State Rights ; though at that time the Fed- 
eral party held the supremacy both in his town 
and State. 

His success and increasing ruputation led him 
after six years of practice, to remove to Hudson, tlu; 
county seat of his county. Here he spent seven years 
constantly gaining strength by contending in tht- 
courts with some of the ablest men who have adorned 
the bar of his State. 

Just before leaving Kinderhook for Hudson, Mi. 
Van Buren married a lady alike distinguished for 
beauty and accomplishments. After twelve short 
years she sank into the grave, the victim of consump- 
tion, leaving her husband and four sons to weep over 
her loss. For twenty-five years, Mr. Van Buren was 
an earnest, successful, assiduous lawyer. The record 
of those years is barren in items of public interest. 
In 181 2, when thirty years of age, he was chosen to 
the State Senate, and gave his strenuous support to 
Mr. Madison's adminstration. In 18 15, he was ap- 
pointed Attorney-General, and the next year moved 
to Albany, the capital of the State. 

While he was acknowledged as one of the most 
prominent leaders of the Democratic party, he had 



the moral courage to avow that true democracy did 
not require that " universal suffrage" which admits 
the vile, the degraded, the ignorant, to the right of 
governing the State. In true consistency with his 
democratic principles, he contended that, while the 
]:ath leading to the privilege of voting should be open 
to every man without distinction, no one should be 
invested with that sacred prerogative, unless he were 
in some degree qualified for it by intelligence, virtue 
and some [)roperty interests in the welfare of the 

In 182 I he was elected a member of the United 
States Senate; and in the same year, he took a seat 
in the convention to revise the constitution of his 
native State. His course in this convention secured 
the approval of men of all parties. No one could 
doubt the singleness of his endeavors to promote the 
interests of all classes in the community. In the 
Senate of the United States, he rose at once to a 
conspicuous position as an active and useful legislator. 

In 1827, John Quincy Adams being then in the 
Presidential chair, Mr. Van Buren was re-elected to 
.ne Senate. He had been from the beginning a de- 
.ermined opposer of the Administration, adopting the 
'State Rights" view in opposition to what was 
deemed the Federal proclivities of Mr. Adams. 

Soon after this, in 1828, he was chosen Governorof 
the State of New York, and accordingly resigned his 
seat in the Senate. Probably no one in the United 
States contributed so much towards ejecting John Q. 
Adams from the Presidential chair, and placing in it 
Andrew Jackson, as did Martin Van Buren. Whether 
entitled to the reputation or not, he certainly was re- 
garded throughout the United States as one of the 
most skillful, sagacious and cunning of politicians. 
It was supposed that no one knew so well as he how 
io touch the secret sptings of action; how to pull all 
ihe wires to put his machinery in motion ; and how to 
organize a political army which would, secretly and 
iter'thily accomplish the most gigantic results. By 
these powers it is said that he outv/itted Mr. Adams, 
Mr. Clay, Mr. Webster, and secured results which 
few thought then could be accomplished. 

When Andrew Jackson was elected President he 
ap]X/inted Mr. Van Buren Secretary of State. This 
position he resigned in 1831, and was immediately 
appointed Minister to England, where he went the 
same autumn. The Senate, however, when it met, 
refused to ratify the nomination, and he returned 

home, apparently untroubled; was nominated Vice 
President in the place of Calhoun, at the re-election 
of President Jackson ; and with smiles for all and 
frowns for none, he took his place at the head of that 
Senate which had refused to confirm his nomination 
as ambassador. 

His rejection by the Senate roused all the zeal of 
President Jackson in behalf of his repudiated favor- 
ite; and this, probably more than any other cause, 
secured his elevation to the chair of the Chief Execu 
tive. On the 20th of May, 1836, Mr. Van Buren re- 
ceived the Democratic nomination to succeed Gen. 
Jackson as President of the United States. He was 
elected by a handsome majority, to the delight of the 
retiring President. " Leaving New York out of the 
canvass," says Mr. Parton, "the election of Mr. Van 
Buren to the Presidency was as much the act of Gen. 
Jackson as though the Constitution had conferred 
upon him the power to appoint a successor. ' 

His administration was filled with exciting events 
The insurrection in Canada, which threatened to in 
volve this country in war with England, the agitation 
of the slavery question, and finally the great commer- 
cial panic which spread over the country, all were 
trials to his wisdom. The financial distress was at- 
tributed to the management of the Democratic i)arty, 
and brought the President into such disfavor that he 
failed of re-election. 

With the exception of being nominated for the 
Presidency by the "Free Soil" Democrats, in 1848, 
Mr. Van Buren lived (juietly upon his estate until 
his death. 

He had ever been a prudent man, of frugal habits, 
and living within his income, had now fortunately a 
competence for his declining years. His unblemished 
character, his commanding abilities, his unquestioned 
patriotism, and the distinguished positions which he 
had occupied in the government of our country, se- 
cured to him not only the homage of his party, but 
the respect ot the whole community. It was on the 
4th of March, 1841, that Mr. Van Buren retired from 
the presidency. From his fine estate at Lindenwald^ 
he still exerted a powerful influence upon the politics 
of the country. From this time until his death, on 
the 24th of July, 1862, at the age of eighty years, he 
resided at Lindenwald, a gentleman of leisure, of 
culture and of wealth; enjoying in a healthy old 
age, probably far more happiness than he had before 
experienced amid the stormy scenes of his active life. 


/o\ /^)9{^yiA^ 





SON, the ninth President of 
the United States, was born 
at Berkeley, Va., Feb. 9, 1773. 
His father, Benjamin Harri- 
son, was in comparatively op- 
ulent circumstances, and was 
one of the most distinguished 
men of his day. He was an 
intimate friend of George 
Washington, \\as early elected 
a member of the Continental 
Congress, and was conspicuous 
among the patriots of Virginia in 
resisting the encroachments of the 
British crown. In the celebrated 
Congress of 1775, Benjamin Har- 
rison and John Hancock were 
both candidates for the ofifice of 

Mr Harrison was subsequently 
chosen Governor of Virginia, and 
was twice re-elected. His son, 
i William Henry, of course enjoyed 

in childhood all the advantages which wealth and 
intellectual and cultivated society could give. Hav- 
i;ig received a thorough common-school education, lie 
entered Hampden Sidney College, where he graduated 
with honor soor. r.fter the death of his father. He 
'-iien repaired to Philadelphia to study medicine under 
the instructions of Dr. Rush and the guardianship of 
lObert Morris, both of whom were, with his father, 
'igners of the Declaration of Independence. 

.'Jpon the outbreak of the Indian troubles, and not- 
witiistanding the 'emonstTances of his friends, he 
ai)'''eu his medical studies and entered the army, 
.laving obtained t commission of Ensign from Presi- 

dent Washington. He was then but 19 years old. 
From that time he passed gradually upward in rank 
until he became aid to General Wayne, after whose 
death he resigned his commission. He was then ap- 
pointed Secretary of the North-western Territory. This 
Territory was then entitled to but one member in 
Congress and Capt. Harrison was chosen to fill that 

In the spring of 1800 the North-western Territory 
was divided by Congress into two portions. The 
eastern portion, comprising the region row embraced 
in the State of Ohio, was called " The Territory 
north-west of the Ohio." The western portion, which 
included what is now called Indiana, Illinois and 
Wisconsin, was called the "Indiana Territory." Wil. 
liam Henry Harrison, then 27 years of age, was ap. 
IX)inted by John Adams, Governor of the Indiana 
Territory, and immediately after, also Governor of 
Upper Louisiana. He was thus ruler over almost as 
extensive a realm as any sovereign upon the globe. He 
was Superintendent of Indian Affairs, and was in- 
vested with powers nearly dictatorial over the now 
rapidly increasing white population. The ability and 
fidelity with which he discharged these responsible 
duties may be inferred from the fact that he was four 
times appointed to this office — first by John Adams, 
twice by Thomas Jefferson and afterwards by Presi- 
dent Madison. 

When he began his adminstration there were but 
three white settlements in that almost boundless region, 
now crowded with cities and resounding with all the 
tumult of wealth and traffic. Oneof these settlements 
was on the Ohio, nearly opposite Louisville; one at 
Vincennes, on the Wabash, and the third a French 

The vast wilderness over which Gov. Harrisoi. 
reigned was filled with many tribes of Indians. Abou' 



the year 1806, two extraordinary men, twin brothers, 
of the Shawnese tribe, rose among them. One of 
these was called Tecumseh, or " The Crouching 
Panther;" the other, Olliwacheca, or "The Prophet." 
Tecuuiseh was not only an Indian warrior, but a man 
of great sagacity, far-reaching foresight and indomit- 
able perseverance in any enterprise m which he might 
engage. He was inspired with the highest enthusiasm, 
and had long regarded u'lth dread and with hatred 
the encroachment of the whites upon the hunting- 
grounds of his fathers. His brother, the Prophet, was 
anorator, who could sway the feelings of the untutored 
Indian as ths gale tossed the tree -tops beneath which 
tliey dwelt. 

But the Prophet was not merely an orator : he was, 
i.i the superstitious minds of the Indians, invested 
with the superhuman dignity of a medicine-man or a 
magician. With an enthusiasm unsurpassed by Peter 
the Hermit rousing Europe to the crusades, he went 
from tribe to tribe, assuming that he was specially sent 
by the Great Spirit. 

Gov. Harrison made many attempts to conciliate 
the Indians, but at last the war came, and at Tippe- 
canoe the Indians were routed with great slaughter. 
October 28, 1812, his army began its march. When 
near the Prophet's town three Indians of rank made 
their appearance and inquired why Gov. Harrison was 
approaching them in so hostile an attitude. After a 
short conference, arrangements were made for a meet- 
ing the next day, to agree upon terms of peace. 

But Gov. Harrison was too well acquainted with 
the Indian character to be deceived by such protes- 
tations. Selecting a favorable spot for his night's en- 
campment, he took every precaution against surprise. 
His troops were posted in a hollow square, and slept 
upon their arms. 

The troops threw themselves upon the ground for 
rest; but every man had his accourtrements on, his 
loaded musket by his side, and his bayonet fixed. The 
wakeful Governor, between three and four o'clock in 
the morning, had risen, and was sitting in conversa- 
tion with his aids by the embers of a waning fire. It 
was a chill, cloud)' morning with a drizzling rain. In 
the darkness, the Indians liad crept as near as possi- 
ble, and just then, with a savage yell, rushed, with all 
the djsiieration which superstition and passion most 
liighly inflamed could give, upon the left flank of the 
little army. The savages had been amply provided 
with guns and aminunition by the English. Their 
war-whoop was accompained by a shower of bullets. 

The camp-fires were instantly extinguished, as the 
light aided the Indians in their aim. With hide- 
tus yells, the Indian bands rushed on, not doubting a 
speedy and an entire victor)-. But Gen. Harrison's 
troops stood as immovable as the rocks around them 
until day dawned : they then mfide a simultaneous 
charge with the bayonet, and swept every thing be- 
fore them, and completely routing \\\c foe. 

Gov. Harrison now had all his energies tasked 
to the utmost. The British descending from theCan- 
adas, were of themselves a very formidable force ; but 
with their savage allies, rushing like wolves from the 
forest, searching out every remote farm-house, burn- 
ing, plundering, scalping, torturing, the wide frontier 
was plunged into a state of consternation which even 
the most vivid imagination can but faintly conceive. 
The war-whoop was resounding everywhere in the 
forest. The horizon was illuminated with the conflagra- 
tion of the cabins of the settlers. Gen Hull had made 
the ignominious surrender of his forces at Detroit. 
Under these despairing circumstances. Gov. Harrison 
was appointed by President Madison commander-in- 
chief of the North-western army, with orders to retake 
D.-troit, and to protect the frontiers. 

It would be difficult to place a man in a situation 
demanding more energy, sagacity and courage; but 
General Harrison was found equal to the position, 
and nobly and triumphantly did he ineet all the re 

He won the love of his soldiers by always sharing 
with them their fatigue. His whole baggage, while 
pursunig the foe up the Thames, was carried in a 
valise; and his bedding consisted of a single blanket 
lashed over his saddle. Thirty-five British officers, 
his prisoners of war, supped with him after the battle. 
The only fare he could give them was beef roasted 
before the fire, without bread or salt. 

In 1S16, Gen. Harrison was chosen a ivieniber of 
the National House of Representatives, to represent 
the District of Ohio. In Congress he proved an 
active member; and whenever he spoke, it was with 
force of reason and power of eloquence, which arrested 
the attention of all the members. 

In iSig, Harrison was elected to the Senate of 
Ohio; and in 1824, as one of the presidential electors 
of that State, he gave his vote for Henry Clay. The 
same year he was chosen to the United States Senate. 

In 1836, the friends of Gen. Harrison brought him 
forward as a candidate for the Presidency against 
Van Buren, but he was defeated. At the close of 
Mr. Van Buren's term, he vi^as re -nominated by his 
party, and Mr. Harrison was unanimously nominated 
by the Whigs, with John Tyler for the Vice Presidency. 
The contest was very animated. Gen. Jackson gave 
all his influence to prevent Harrison's election ; but 
his triumph was signal. 

The cabinet which he formed, with Daniel Webster 
at its head as Secretary of State, was one of the most 
brilliant with which any President had ever been 
surrounded. Never were the prospects of an admin- 
istration more flattering, or the hopes of the country 
more sanguine. In the midst of these bright and 
joyous prospects. Gen. Harrison was seized by a 
pleurisv-fever and after a few days of violent sick- 
ness, died on the 4th of April; just one month after 
his inauguration as President of the United States. 




OHN TYLER, the tenth 
Presidentof the United States. 
He was born in Charles-city 
Co., Va., March 29, 1790. He 
was the favored child of af- 
fluence and high social po- 
sition. At the early age of 
twelve, John entered William 
and Mary College and grad- 
uated with much honor when 
but seventeen years old. After 
graduating, he devoted him- 
self with great assiduity to the 
study of law, partly with his 
father and partly with Edmund 
Randolph, one of the most distin- 
guished lawyers of Virginia. 

At nineteen years of age, ne 
commenced the practice of law. 
His success was rapid and aston- 
ishing. It is said that three 
months had not elapsed ere there 
was scarcely a case on the dock- 
et of the court in which he was 
not retained. When but twenty-one years of age, he 
was almost unanimously elected to a seat in the State 
Legislature. He connected himself with the Demo- 
cratic party, and warmly advocated the measures of 
Jefferson and Madison. For five successive years he 
was elected to the Legislature, receiving nearly the 
unanimous vote or his county. 

When but twenty-six years of age, he was elected 
a member of Congress. Here he acted earnestly and 
ably with the Democratic party, opposing a national 
bank, internal improvements by the General <^overn- 

ment, a protective tariff, and advocatmg a strict con- 
struction of the Constitution, and the most careful 
vigilance over State rights. His labors in Congress 
were so arduous that before the close of his second 
term hi found it necessary to resign and retire to his 
estate in Charles-city Co., to recruit his health. He, 
however, soon after consented to take his seat in the 
State Legislature, where his influence was powerful 
in promoting public works of great utility. With a 
reputation thus canstantly increasing, he was chosen 
by a very large majority of votes. Governor of his 
native State. His administration was signally a suc- 
cessful one. His popularity secured his re-election. 

John Randolph, a brilliant, erratic, half-crazed 
man, then represented Virginia in the Senate of the 
United States. A portion of the Democratic party 
was displeased with Mr. Randolph's wayward course, 
and brought forward John Tyler as his opponent, 
considering him the only man in Virginia of sufficient 
popularity to succeed against the renowned orator of 
Roanoke. Mr. Tyler was the victor. 

In accordance with his professions, upon taking his 
seat in the Senate, he joined the ranks of the opposi- 
tion. He opposed the tariff; he spoke against and 
voted against the bank as unconstitutional ; he stren- 
uously opposed all restrictions upon slavery, resist- 
ing all projects of internal improvements by the Gen- 
eral Government, and avowed his sympathy with Mr. 
Calhoun's view of nullification ; he declared that Gen. 
Jackson,, by his opposition to the nullifiers, had 
abandoned the principles of the Democratic party. 
Such was Mr. Tyler's record in Congress, — a record 
in perfect accordance with the principles which he 
had always avowed. 

Returning to Virginia, he resumed the practice of 
his profession. There was a rplit in the Democratic 



party. His friends still regarded him as a true Jef- 
fersonian, gave him a dinner, and showered compji- 
nients upon him. He had now attained the age of 
forty-six. His career had been very brilliant. In con- 
setiuence of his devotion to public business, his pri- 
vate affairs had fallen into some disorder; and it was 
not without satisfaction that he resumed the practice 
of law, and devoted himself to the culture of his plan- 
tation. Soon after this he removed fo Williamsburg, 
for the better education of his children ; and he again 
took his seat in the Legislature of Virginia. 

By the Southern Whigs, he was sent to the national 
convention at Harrisburg to nominate a President in 
T83g. The maioritv of votes were given to Gen. Har- 
rison, a genuine Whig, much to the disappointment of 
the South, who wished for Henry Clay. To concili- 
ate the Southern Whigs and to secure their vote, the 
convention then nominated John Tyler for Vice Pres- 
ident. It was well known that he was not in sympa- 
thy with the Whig party in the Noith: but the Vice 
President has but very little power in the Govern- 
ment, his main and almost only duty being to pre- 
side over the meetings of the Senate. Thus it hap- 
pened that a Whig President, and, in reality, a 
Democratic Vice President were chosen. 

In r84i, Mr. Tyler was inaugurated Vice Presi- 
dent of the United States. In one short month from 
that time, President Harrison died, and Mr. Tyler 
thus -cund himself, to his own surprise and that of 
the whole Nation, an occupant of the Presidential 
chair. This was a new test of the staliility of our 
institutions, as it was the first time in the history of our 
country that such an event had occured. Mr. Tyler 
was at home in Williamsburg when he received the 
unexpected tidings of the death of President Harri- 
son. He hastened to Washington, and on the 6th of 
April was inaugurated to the high and responsible 
office. He was placed in a position of exceeding 
delicacy and difficulty. All his long life he had been 
opposed to the main principles of the party which had 
brought him into power. He had ever been a con- 
sistent, hone:t man, with an unblemished record. 
Gen. Harrison had selected a Whig cabinet. Should 
he retain them, and thus surround himself with coun- 
sellors whose views were antagonistic to his own.'' or, 
on the other hand, should he turn against the party 
which had elected him and select a cabinet in har- 
n.ony with himself, and which would oppose all those 
views which the Whigs deemed essential to the pub- 
lic welfare ? This was his fearful dilemma. He in- 
vited the cabinet which President Harrison had 
selected to retain their seats. He reccommended a 
day of fasting and prayer, that God would guide and 
bless us. 

The Whigs carried through Congress a bill for the 
incorporation of a fiscal bank of the United States. 
The President, after ten days' delay, returned it with 
his veto. He (juegested, however, that he would 

approve of a bill drawn up upon such a plan as he 
proposed. Such a bill was accordingly prepared, and 
privately submitted to him. He gave it his approval. 
It was passed without alteration, and he sent it back 
with his veto. Here commenced the open rupture. 
It is said that Mr. Tyler was provoked to this meas- 
ure by a published letter from the Hon. John M. 
Botts, a distinguished Virginia* Whig, who severely 
touched the pride of the President. 

The opposition now exultingly received the Presi- 
dent into their arms. The party which elected him 
denounced him bitterly. All the members of his 
cabinet, excepting Mr. Webster, resigned. The Whigs 
of Congress, both the Senate and the House, held a 
meeting and issued an address to the people of the 
United States, proclaiming that all political alliance 
between the Whigs and President Tyler were at 
an end. 

Still the President attempted to conciliate. He 
appointed a new cabinet of distinguished Whigs and 
Conservatives, carefully leaving out all strong party 
men. Mr. Webster soon found it necessary to resign, 
forced out by the pressure of his Whig friends. Thus 
the four years of Mr. Tyler's unfortunate administra- 
tion passed sadly avi^ay. No one was satisfied. The 
land was filled with murmurs and vituperation. Whigs 
and Democrats alike assailed him. More and more, 
however, he brought himself into sympathy with his 
old friends, the Democrats, until at the close of his term, 
he gave his whole influence to the support of Mr. 
Polk, the Democratic candidate for his successor. 

On the 4th of March, 1845, he retired from the 
harassments of office, to the regret of neither party, and 
probably to his own unsjjeakable lelief. His first wife, 
Miss Letitia Christian, died in Washington, in 1842; 
and in June, 1844, President Tyler was again married, 
at New York, to Miss Julia Gardiner, a young lady of 
many personal and intellectual accomplishments. 

The remainder of his days Mr. Tyler passed mainly 
in retirement at his beautiful home, — Sherwood For- 
est, Charies city Co., Va. A polished gentleman in 
his manners, richly furnished with information from 
books and experience in the world, and possessing 
brilliant powers of conversation, his family circle was 
the scene of unusual attractions. With sufficient 
means for the exercise of a generous hospitality, he 
might have enjoyed a serene old age with the few 
friends who gathered around him, were it not for the 
storms of civil war which his own principles and 
policy had helped to introduce. 

When the great Rebellion rose, which the State- 
rights and nullifying doctrines of Mr. John C. CaU 
houn had inaugurated, President Tyler renounced his 
allegiance to the United States, and joined the Confed- 
erates. He was chosen a member of their Congress; 
and while engaged in active measures to destroy, b" 
force of arms, the Government over which he had 
once presided, he was taken sick and soon died. 




AMES K. POLK, the eleventh 
liiiPresident of the United States, 
IjI was born in Mecklenburg Co., 
N. C.,Nov. 2, 1795. His par- 
ents were Samuel and Jane 
(Knox) Polk, the former a son 
of Col. Thomas Polk, who located 
at the above place, as one of the 
first pioneers, in 1735. 

In the year 1006, with his wife 
and children, and soon after fol- 
lowed by most of the members of 
the Polk famly, Samuel Polk emi- 
grated some two or three hundred 
miles farther west, to the rich valley 
of the Duck River. Here in the 
midst of the wilderness, in a region 
which was subsequently called Mau- 
ry Co., they reared their log huts, 
and established their homes. In the 
hard toil of a new farm in the wil- 
derness, James K. Polk spent the 
early years of his childhood and 
youth. His father, adding tlie pur- 
suit of a surveyor to that of a farmer, 
' gradually increased in wealth until 

lie became one of the leading men of the region. His 
mother was a superior woman, of strong common 
sense and earnest piety. 

Very early in life, James developed a taste for 
lending and expressed the strongest desire to obtain 
:i liberal education. His mother's training had made 
iiim methodical in his habits, had taught him punct- 
ualit)- and industry, and had inspired him with lofty 
principles of morality. His health was frail ; and his 
father, fearing that he might not be able to endure a 

sedentary life, got a situation for him behind the 
counter, hoping to fit him for commercial pursuits. 

This was to James a bitter disappointment. He 
had no taste for these duties, and his daily tasks 
were irksome in the e.xtreme. He remained in this 
uncongenial occupation but a few weeks, when at his 
earnest solicitation his father removed him, and made 
arrangements for him to prosecute his studies. Soon 
after he sent him to Murfreesboro Academy. With 
ardor which could scarcely be surpassed, he pressed 
forward in his studies, and in less than two and a half 
years, in the autumn of 1S15, entered the sophomore 
class in the University of North Carolina, at Chapel 
Hill. Here he was one of the most exemplary of 
scholars, punctual in every exercise, never allowing 
himself to be absent from a recitation or a religious 

He graduated in 1818, with the highest honors, be* 
ing deemed the best scholar of his class, both in 
mathematics and the classics. He was then twenty- 
three years of age. Mr. Polk's health was at this 
time much impaired by the assiduity with which he 
had prosecuted his studies. After a short season of 
relaxation he went to Nashville, and entered the 
office of Felix Grundy, to study law. Here Mr. Polk 
renewed his acquaintance with Andrew Jackson, who 
resided on his plantation, the Hermitage, but a few 
miles from Nashville. They had probably been 
slightly acquainted before. 

Mr. Polk's father was a Jeffersonian Republican, 
and James K. Polk ever adiiered to the same politi- 
cal faith. He was a popular public speaker, and was 
constantly called upon to address the meetings of his 
party friends. His skill as a speaker was such that 
he was popularly called the Napoleon of the stump. 
He was a man of unblemished morals, genial ard 



courterus in his bearing, and with that sympathetic 
nature in the jovs and griefs of others which ever gave 
him troops of friends. In 1823, Mr. Polk was elected 
to the Legislature of Tennessee. Here he gave his 
strong influence towards the election of his friend, 
Mr. Jackson, to the Presidency of the United States. 

In January, 1S24, Mr. Polk married Miss Sarah 
Childress, of Rutherford Co., Tenn. His bride was 
altogether worthy of him, — a lady of beauty and cul- 
ture. In the fall of 1825, Mr. Polk was chosen a 
member of Congress. The satisfaction which he gave 
to liis constituents may be inferred from the fact, that 
for fourteen successive years, until 1839, he was con- 
tinuec' in that office. He then voluntarily withdrew, 
only that he might accept the Gubernatorial chair 
of I'^nnessee. In Congress he was a laborious 
meniber, a frequent and a popular speaker. He was 
always in his seat, always courteous ; and whenever 
he spoke it was always to the point, and without any 
ambitious rhetorical display. 

During five sessions of Congress, Mr. Polk was 
Speaker of the House. Strong passions were roused, 
and stormy scenes were witnessed ; but Mr. Polk per- 
formed his arduous duties to a very general satisfac- 
tion, and a unanimous vote of thanks to him was 
passed by the House as he withdrew on the 4th of 
March, 1839. 

In accordance with Southern usage, Mr. Polk, as a 
candidate for Governor, canvassed the State. He was 
elected by a large majority, and on the 1 4th of Octo- 
ber, 1839, took the oath of office at Nashville. In 1841, 
his term of office expired, and he was again the can- 
didate of the Democratic party, but was defeated. 

On the 4th of March, 1845, Mr. Polk was inaugur- 
ated President of the United States. The verdict of 
the country in favor of the annexation of Texas, exerted 
its influence upon Congress ; and the last act of the 
administration of President Tyler was to affix his sig- 
nature to a joint resolution of Congress, passed on the 
3d of March, approving of the annexation of Texas to 
the American Union. As Mexico still claimed Texas 
as one of her provinces, the Mexican minister, 
Almonte, immediately demanded his passports and 
left the country, declaring the act of the annexation 
to be an act hostile to Mexico. 

l-n. his first message. President Polk urged that 
Texas should immediateb-, Iiy act of Congress, be re- 
ceived into the Union on the same footing with the 
Other States. In the meantime. Gen. Taylor was sent 

with an army into Texas to hold the country. He vas 
sent first to Nueces, which the Mexicans said was the 
western boundary of Texas. Then he was sent nearly 
two hundred miles further west, to the Rio Grande, 
where he erected batteries which commanded the 
Mexican city of Matamoras, which was situated 01: 
the western banks. 

The anticipated collision soon took place, and wa: 
was declared against Mexico by President Polk. The 
war was pushed forward by Mr. Polk's administration 
with great vigor. Gen. Taylor, whose army was first 
called one of "observation," then ot "occupation," 
then of " in vasion," was sent forward to Monterey. The 
feeble Mexicans, in every encounter, were hopelessly 
and awfully slaughtered. The day of judgement 
alone can reveal the misery which this war caused. 
It v/as by the ingenuity of Mr. Polk's administration 
that the war was brought on. 

'To the victors belong the spoils." Mexico was 
prostrate before us. Her capital was in our hands. 
We now consented to peace upon the condition that 
Mexico should surrender to us, in addition to Texas, 
all of New Mexico, and all of Upper and Lower Cal- 
ifornia. This new demand embraced, exclusive of 
Texas, eight hundred thousand square miles. Tliis 
was an extent of territory equal to nine States of the 
size of New York. Thus slavery was securing eighteen 
majestic States to be added to the Union. There were 
some Americans who thought it all right : there were 
others who thought it all wrong. In the prosecution 
of this war, we expended twenty thousand lives and 
more than a hundred million of dollars. Of this 
money fifteen millions were paid to Mexico. 

On the 3d of March, 1S49, Mr. Polk retired from 
office, having served one term. The next day was 
Sunday. On the 5th, Gen. Taylor was inaugurated 
as his successor. Mr. Polk rode to the Capitol in the 
same carriage with Gen. Taylor; and the same even- 
ing, with Mrs. Polk, he commenced his return to 
Tennessee. He was then but fifty-four years of age. 
He had ever been strictly temperate in all his habits, 
and his health was good. With an ample fortune, 
a choice library, a cultivated mind, and domestic ties 
of tlie dearest nature, it seemed as though long years 
of tranquility and happiness were before him. But the 
cholera — that fearful scourge — was then sweeping up 
the Vnlley of the Mississippi. This he contracted, 
and died on the i5tli of June, 1849, '■'' ''''C fiftv-fourth 
year of his age, greatly mourned by his counuymen. 





^3 President of the United States, 
^'*was born on the 24th of Nov., 
1784, in Orange Co., Va. His 
%i father, Colonel Taylor, was 
(Si!;!'.- " -fy 3- Virginian of note, and a dls- 
l?i tinguished patriot and soldier of 
the Revolution. When Zachary 
was an infant, his father with liis 
wife and two children, emigrated 
to Kentucky, where he settled in 
the pathless wilderness, a few 
miles from Louisville. In this front- 
ier home, away from civilization and 
all its refinements, young Zachary 
could enjoy but few social and educational advan- 
tages. When six years of age he attended a common 
school, and was then regarded as a bright, active boy, 
rather remarkable for bluntness and decision of char- 
acter He was strong, fearless and self-reliant, and 
■manifested a strong desire to enter the army to fight 
the Lidians who were ravaging the frontiers. There 
is little to be recorded of the uneventful years of his 
childhood on his father's large but lonely plantation. 
\\\ iSoS, his father succeeded in obtaining for him 
the commission of lieutenant in the United States 
army ; and he joined the troops which were stationed 
at New Orleans under Gen. Wilkinson. Soon after 
this he married Miss Margaret Smith, a young lady 
irom one of the first families of Maryland. 

Immediately after the declaration of war with Eng- 
land, in 18 1 2, Capt. Taylor (for he had then been 
promoted to that rank) was put in command of Fort 
Harrison, on the Wabash, about fifty miles above 
Vincennes. This fort had been built in the wilder- 
ness by Gen. Harrison, on his march to Tippecanoe. 
It was one of the first points of attack by the Indians, 
icd by Tecumseh. Its garrison consisted of a broken 

company of infantry numbering fifty men, many of 
whom were sick. 

Early in the autumn of 1812, the Indians, stealthily, 
and in large numbers, moved upon the fort. Their 
approach was first indicated by the murder of two 
soldiers just outside of the stockade. Capt. Taylor 
made every possible preparation to meet the antici- 
pated assault. On the 4th of September, a band of 
forty painted and plumed savages came to the fort, 
waving a white flag, and informed Capt. Taylor that 
in the morning their chief would come to have a talk 
with him. It was evident that their object was merely 
to ascertain the state of things at the fort, and Capt. 
Taylor, well versed in the wiles of the savages, kept 
them at a distance. 

The sun went down; the savages disappeared, the 
garrison slept upon their arms. One hour before 
midnight the war whoop burst from a thousand lips 
in the forest around, followed by the discharge of 
musketry, and the rush of the foe. Every man, sick 
and well, sprang to his post. Every man knew that 
defeat was not merely death, but in the case of cap- 
ture, death by the most agonizing and prolonged tor- 
ture. No pen can describe, no immagination can 
conceive the scenes which ensued. The savages suc- 
ceeded in setting lire to one of the block-houses- 
Until six o'clock in the morning, this awful conflict 
continued. The savages then, baffled at every point, 
and gnashing their teeth with rage, retired. Capt. 
Taylor, for this gallant defence, was promoted to the 
rank of major by brevet. 

Until the close of the war, MajorTaylor was placed 
in such situations that he saw but little more of active 
service. He was sent far away into the depths of the 
wilderness, to Fort Crawford, on Fox River, which 
empties into Green Bay. Here there was but little 
to be done but to wear away the tedious hours as one 
best could. There were no books, no society, no in- 



tellectual stimulus. Thus with him the uneventful 
years rolled on Gradually lie rose to the rank of 
colonel. In the Black Hawk war, which resulted in 
the capture of that renowned chieftain, Col Taylor 
took a subordinate but a brave and efficient part. 

For twenty-four years Col. Taylor was engaged in 
the defence of the frontiers, in scenes so remote, and in 
employments so obscure, that his name was unknown 
beyond the limits of his own immediate acquaintance. 
In the year 1836, he was sent to Florida to compel 
the Seminole Indians to vacate that region and re- 
tire beyond the Mississippi, as their chiefs by tre.ity, 
iiac' promised they should do. The services rendered 
heie secured for Col. Taylor the high appreciation of 
the Government; and as a reward, he was elevated 
tc vhe rank of brigadier-general by brevet ; and soon 
after, in May, 183S, vvas appointed to the chief com- 
mand of the United States troops in Florida. 

Afier two years of such wearisome employment 
a.midst the everglades of the peninsula. Gen. 'I'aylor 
obtained, at his own request, a change of command, 
r.nd was stationed over the Department of the South- 
west. This field embraced Louisiana, Mississippi, 
Alabama and Georgia. Establishing his headquarters 
at Fort Jessup, in Louisiana, he removed his family 
to a plantation which he purchased, near Baton Rogue. 
Here he remained for five years, buried, as it were, 
from the world, but faithfully discharging every duty 
imposed upon him. 

In 1846, Gen. Taylor was sent to guard the land 
between the Nueces and Rio Grande, the latter river 
being the boundary of Texas, which was then claimed 
by the United States. Soon the war with Mexico 
was brought on, and at Palo Alto and Resaca de la 
Palma, Gen. Taylor won brilliant victories over the 
Mexicans. The rank of major-general by brevet 
was then conferred upon Gen. Taylor, and his name 
Was received with enthusiasm almost everywhere in 
the Nation. Then came the battles of Monterey and 
Buena Vista in which he won signal victories over 
forces much larger than he commanded. 

His careless habits of dress and his unaffected 
f-implicity, secured for Gen. Taylor among his troops, 
\\\& sobriquet of "Old Rough and Ready.' 

Tlie tidings of the brilliant victory of Buena Vista 
.spread the wildest enthusiasm over the country. The 
name of Gen. Taylor was on every one's lips. The 
Whig party decided to take advantage of this wonder- 
ful poi)ularity in Ijringing forward the unpolished, un- 
lettered, honest soldier as their candidate for the 
Presidency. Gen. Taylor was astonished at the an- 
nouncement, and for a time would not listen to it; de- 
claring that he was not at all qualified for such an 
office. So little interest had he taken in politics that, 
.''or forty years, he had not cast a vote. It was not 
without chagrin that several distinguished statesmen 
who had_ been long years in the public service found 
•l.iir claims set aside in behalf of one whose name 

had never been heard of, save in connection with Palo 
Alto, Resaca de la Palma, Monterey and Buena 
Vista. It is said that Daniel \Vebster, in his haste re- 
marked, " It is a nomination not fit to be made." 

Gen. Taylor was not an eloquent speaker nor a fine 
writer His friends took possession of him, and pre- 
pared such few communications as it was needful 
should be presented to the public. The popularity of 
the successful warrior swept the land. He was tri- 
umphantly elected over two opposing candidates, — 
Gen. Cass and Ex-President Martin Van Buren. 
Though he selected an excellent cabinet, the good 
old man found himself in a very uncongenial position, 
and was, at times, sorely perplexed and harassed. 
His mental sufferings were very severe, and probably 
tended to hasten his death. The pro-slavery party 
was pushing its claims with tireless energy, expedi- 
tions were fitting out to capture Cuba ; California was 
pleading for admission to the Union, while slavery 
stood at the door to bar her out. Gen. Taylor found 
the political conflicts in Washington to be far more 
trying to the nerves than battles with Mexicans or 

In the midst of all these troubles, Gen. Taylor, 
after he had occupied the Presidential chair but little 
over a year, took cold, and after a brief sickness of 
but little over five days, died on the 9th of July, 1850. 
His last words were, " I am not afraid to die. I am 
ready. I have endeavored to do ray duty." He died 
universally respected and beloved. An honest, un- 
pretending man, he had been steadily growing in the 
affections of the people; and the Nation bitterly la- 
mented his death. 

Gen. Scott, who was thoioughly acquainted with 
Gen. Taylor, gave the following graphic and truthful 
description of his character: — " With a good store of 
common sense, Gen. Taylor's mind had not been en- 
larged and refreshed by reading, or much converse 
with the world. Rigidity of ideas was the conse- 
quence. The frontiers and small military posts had 
been his home. Hence he was quite ignorant for his 
rank, and quite bigoted in his ignorance. His sim- 
plicity was child-like, and with innumerable preju- 
dices, amusing and incorrigible, well suited to the 
tender age. Thus, if a man, however respectable, 
chanced to wear a coat of an unusual color, or his hat 
a little on one side of his head; or an officer to leave 
a corner of his handkerchief dangling from an out- 
side pocket, — in any such case, this critic held the 
ofif.'nder to be a coxcomb (perhaps something worse), 
whom he would not, to use his oft repeated phrase, 
' touch with a pair of tongs.' 

"Any allusion to literature beyond good old Dil- 
worth's spelling-book, on the part of one wearing a 
sword, was evidence, with the same judge, of utter 
unfitness for heavy marchings and combats. Inshorf 
few men have ever had a more comfortao'ie, laboi- 
saving contempt for learnirg of eveiy kind." 

f-^^-i/^ ^ t^c^i^t^^e^rta 






^'MILLftHfl FILLMnHE.<^ 



teenth President of the United 
^, , States, was born at Summer 
. 'h Hill, Cayuga Co., N. Y ., on 
the yth of Januar}-, 1800. His 
""^ father was a farmer, and ow- 
ing to misfortune, in humble cir- 
cumstances. Of his mother, the 
daughter of Dr. Abiathar Millard, 
of Pittsfield, Mass., it has been 
said that she possessed an intellect 
of very high order, united with much 
personal loveliness, sweetness of dis- 
position, graceful manners and ex- 
quisite sensibilities. She died in 
1831 ; having lived to see her son a 
young man of distinguished prom- 
ise, though she was not permitted to witness the high 
dignity which he finally attained. 

In consequence of the secluded home and limited 
means of his father, Millard enjoyed but slender ad- 
vantages for education in his early years. The com- 
mon schools, which he occasionally attended were 
very imperfect institutions; and books were scarce 
and expensive. There was nothing then in his char- 
acter to indicate the brilliant career upon which he 
was about to enter. He was a plain farmer's boy ; 
intelligent, good-looking, kind-hearted. The sacred 
influences of home had taught him to revere the Bible, 
and had laid the foundations of an upright character. 
When fourteen years of age, his father sent him 
some hundred miles from home, to the then wilds of 
Livingston County, to learn the trade of a clothier. 
Near the mill there was a small villiage, where some 

enterprising man had commenced the collection of a 
village library. This proved an inestimable blessing 
to young Fillmore. His evenings were spent in read- 
ing. Soon every leisure moment was occupied v, iih 
books. His thirst for knowledge became insatiate 
and the selections which he made were continually 
more elevating and instructive. He read history, 
biography, oratory, and thus gradually there was en- 
kindled in his heart a desire to be something more 
than a mere worker with his hands; and he was be- 
coming, almost unknown to himself, a well-informed, 
educated man. 

The young clothier had now attained the age of 
nineteen years, and was of fine personal appearance 
and cf gentlemanly demeanor. It so hapi:>ened tha". 
there was a gentleman in the neighborhood of ample 
pecuniary means and of benevolence,— Judge Walter 
Wood, — who was struck with the prepossessing ap- 
pearance of young Fillmore. He made his acquaint- 
ance, and was so much impressed with his ability and 
attainments that he advised him to abandon his 
trade and devote himself to the study of the law. The 
young man replied, that he had no means of his own, 
r.o friends to help him and that his previous educa- 
tion had been verj' imperfect. But Judge Wood had 
so much confidence in him that he kindly offered to 
take him into his own office, and to loan him such 
money as he needed. Most gratefully the generous 
offer was accepted. 

There is in many minds a strange delusion abou'; 
a collegiate education. A young man is supposed tn 
be liberally educated if he has graduated at some col- 
lege. But many a boy loiters through university hal' - 
ind then enters a law office, who is by no means as 



well prepared to prosecute his legal studies as was 
Millard Fillmore when he graduated at the clothing- 
mill at the end of four years of manual labor, during 
which every leisure moment had been devoted to in- 
tense mental culture. 

In 1823, when twenty-three years of age, he was 
admitted to the Court of Common Pleas. He then 
went to the village of Aurora, and commenced the 
practice of law. In this secluded, peaceful region, 
his practice of course was limited, and there was no 
opportunity for a sudden rise in fortune or in fame. 
Here, in the year 1826, he married a lady of great 
moral worth, and one capable of adorning any station 
she might be called to fill, — Miss Abigail Powers. 

His elevation of character, his untiring industry, 
his legal acquirements, and his skill as an advocate, 
gradually attracted attention ; and he was invited to 
enter into partnership under highly advantageous 
circumstances, with an elder member of the bar in 
Buffalo. Just before removing to Buffalo, in 1829, 
he' took his seat in the House of Assembly, of the 
State of New York, as a representative from Erie 
County. Though he had never taken a very active 
part in politics, his vote and his sympathies were with 
the Whig party. The State was then Democratic, 
and he found himself in a helpless minority in the 
Legislature , still the testimony comes from all parties, 
that his courtesy, ability and integrity, won, to a very 
unusual degree the respect of his associates. 

In the autumn of 1832, he was elected to a seat in 
the United States Congress. He entered that troubled 
irena in some of the most tumultuous hours of our 
national history. The great conflict respecting the 
national bank and the removal of the deposits, was 
then raging. 

His term of two years closed ; and he returned to 
his profession, which he pursued with increasing rep- 
utation and success. After a lapse of two years 
he again became a candidate for Congress ; was re- 
elected, and took his seat in 1837. His past expe- 
rience as a representative gave him sttength and 
confidence. The first term of service in Congress to 
any man can be but little more than an introduction. 
He was now prepared for active duty. All his ener- 
gies were brought to bear upon the public good. Every 
measure received his im-press. 

Mr. Fillmore was now a man of wide repute, and 
his popularity filled the State, and in the year 1847, 
he was elected Comptroller of the State. 

Mr. Fillmore had attained the age of forty-seven 
years. His labors at the bar, in the Legislature, in 
Congress and as Comptroller, had given him very con- 
siderable fame. The Whigs were casting about to 
find suitable candidates for President and Vice-Presi- 
dent at the approaching election. Far away, on the 
waters of the Rio Grande, there was a rough old 
soldier, who had fought one or two successful battles 
with the Mexicans, which had caused his name to be 
proclaimed in tiumpet-tones all over the land. But 
it was necessary to associate with him on the same 
ticket some man of reputation as a statesman. 

Under the influence of these considerations, the 
namesofZachary Taylor and Millard Fillmore became 
the rallying-cry of the Whigs, as their candidates for 
President and Vice-Peesident. The Whig ticket was 
signally triumphant. On the 4th of March, 1849, 
Gen. Taylor was inaugurated President, and Millard 
Fillmore Vice-President, of the United States. 

On the gth of July, 1850, President Taylor, but 
about one year and four months after his inaugura- 
tion, was suddenly taken sick and died. By the Con- 
stitution, Vice-President Fillmore thus became Presi- 
dent. He appointed a very able cabinet, of which 
the illustrious Daniel Webster was Secretary of State. 

Mr. Fillniore had very serious difficulties to contend 
with, since the opposition had a majority in both 
Houses. He did everything in his power to conciliate 
the South ; but the pro-slavery party in the South felt 
the inadequacy of all measuresof transient conciliation. 
The population of the free States was so rapidly in- 
creasing over that of the slave States that it was in- 
evitable thai the power of the Government sliould 
soon pass into the hands of the free States. The 
famous compromise measures were adopted under Mr. 
Fillmore's adminstration, and the Japan Exiiedition 
was sent out. On the 4th of March, 1853, Mr. Fill- 
more, having served one term, retired. 

In 1856, Mr. Fillmore was nominated for the Pres- 
idency by the " Know Nothing " party, but was beaten 
by Mr. Buchanan. After that Mr. Fillmore lived in 
retirement. During the terrible conflict of civil war, 
he was mostly silent. It was generally supposed that 
his sympathies were rather with those who were en- 
deavoring to overthrow our institutions. President 
Fillmore kept aloof from the conflict, without any 
cordial words of cheer to the one party or the other. 
He was tiuis forgotten by both. He lived to a ripe 
old age, and died in Buffalo. N. Y., March 8, 1874. 




sfeidfiEa*^ -^■ 




^=^^^^^^,'^'».ti.jvA ^t^t,4,.t.^^t. .^^^^^ 

fourteenth President of the 
^* United States, was born in 
Hillsborough, N. H., Nov. 
23, 1804. His father was a 
Revolutionary soldier, who, 
with his own strong arm, 
hewed out a home in the 
wilderness. He was a man 
of inflexible integrity; of 
strong, though uncultivated 
mind, and an uncompromis- 
ing Democrat. The mother of 
Franklin Pierce was all that a son 
could desire, — an intelligent, pru- 
dent, affectionate, Christian wom- 
an. Franklin was the sixth of eight children. 

Franklin was a very bright and handsome boy, gen- 
erous, warm-hearted and brave. He won alike the 
love of old and young. The boys on the play ground 
loved him. His teachers loved him. The neighbors 
looked upon him with pride and affection. He was 
by instinct a gentleman; always speaking kind words, 
doing kind deeds, with a peculiar unstudied tact 
which taught him what was agreeable. Without de- 
veloping any precocity of genius, or any unnatural 
devotion to books, he was a good scholar; in body, 
in mind, in affections, a finely-developed boy. 

When sixteen years of age, in the year 1820, he 
entered Bowdoin College, at Brunswick, Me He was 
one of the most ])opular young men in the college. 
The purity of his moral character, the unvarying 
courtesy of his demeanor, his rank as a scholar, and 

genial nature, rendered him a universal favoiite 
There was something very peculiarly winning in h: ; 
address, and it was evidently not in the slightest de 
gree studied : it was the simple outgushing of his 
own magnanimous and loving nature. 

Upon graduating, in the year 1824, Franklin Pierce 
commenced tlie study of law in the office of Judge 
Woodbury, one of the most distinguished lawyers of 
the State, and a man of great private worth. Thi' 
eminent social qualities of the young lawyer, his 
father's prominence as a i)ublic man, and the brilliant 
political career into which Judge Woodbury was en- 
tering, all tended to entice Mr. Pierce into the faci 
nating yet perilous path of political life. With all 
the ardor of his nature he espoused the cause of Gen. 
Jackson for the Presidency. He commenced the 
practice of law in Hillsborough, and was soon elected 
to represent the town in the State Legislature. Here 
he served for four yeais. The last two years he was 
chosen speaker of the house by a very large vote. 

In 1833, at the age of twenty-nine, he was elected 
a member of Congress. \Vithout taking an active 
part in debates, he was faithful and laborious in duty, 
and ever rising in the estimation of those with whom 
he was associatad. 

In 1837, being then but thirty-three years of age, 
he was elected to the Senate of the United States; 
taking his seat just as Mr. Van Buren commenced 
his administration. He was tlie youngest member in 
the Senate. In the year 1834, he married Miss Jane 
Means Appleton, a lady of rare beauty and accom- 
plishments, and one admiralily fitted to adorn every 
station with wiiich her husband was honoied. Of the 



three sons who were born to them, all now sleep with 
their parents in the grave. 

In the year 1838, Mr. Pierce, with growing fame 
and increasing business as a lawyer, took up his 
residence in Concord, the capital of New Hampshire. 
President Polk, upon his accession to office, appointed 
Mr. Pierce attorney-general of the United States ; but 
the offer was declined, in consequence of numerous 
professional engagements at home, and the precariuos 
state of Mrs. Pierce's health. He also, about the 
same time declined the nomination for governor by the 
Democratic party. The war with Mexico called Mr. 
Pierce in the army. Receiving the appointment of 
brigadier-general, he embarked, with a portion of his 
troops, at Newport, R. I., on the 27th of May, 1847. 
He took an important part in this war, proving him- 
self a brave and true soldier. 

When Gen. Pierce reached his home in his native 
State, he was received enthusiastically by the advo- 
cates of the Me.xican war, and coldly by his oppo- 
nents. He resumed the practice of his profession, 
very frequently taking an active part in political ques- 
tions, giving his cordial support to the pro-slavery 
wing of the Democratic party. The compromise 
measures met cordially with his approval ; and he 
strenuously advocated the enforcement of the infa- 
mous fugitive-slave law, which so shocked the religious 
sensibilities of the North. He thus became distin- 
guished as a " Northern man with Southern principles.'' 
The strong partisans of slavery in the South conse- 
quently regarded him as a man whom they could 
safely trust in office to carry out their plans. 

On the i2th of June, 1852, the Democratic conven- 
tion met in Baltimore to nominate a candidate for the 
Presidency. For four days they continued in session, 
and in thirty-five ballotings no one had obtained a 
two-thirds vote. Not a vote thus far had been thrown 
for Gen. Pierce. Then the Virginia delegation 
brought forward his name. There were fourteen 
more Imllotings, during which Gen. Pierce constantly 
gained strength, until, at the forty-ninth ballot, he 
received two hundred and eighty-two votes, and all 
other candidates eleven. Gen. Winfield Scott was 
the Whig candidate. Gen. Pierce was chosen with 
great unanimity. Only four States — Vermont, Mas- 
sachusetts, Kentucky and Tennessee — cast their 
electoral votes against him Gen. Franklin Pierce 
was therefore inaugurated President of the United 
States on the 4th of March, 1853. 

His administration proved one of the most stormy our 
country had ever experienced. The controversy be 
tween slavery and freedom was then approaching its 
culminating point. It became evident that there was 
an "irrepressible conflict " between them, and that 
this Nation could not long exist " half slave and half 
free." President Pierce, during the whole of his ad- 
ministration, did every thing he could to conciliate 
the South; but it was all in vain. The conflict every 
year grew more violent, and threats of the dissolution 
of the Union were borne to the North on eveiy South- 
ern breeze. 

Such was the condition of affairs when President 
Pierce approached the close of his four-years' term 
of office. The North had become thoroughly alien- 
ated from him. The anti-slaverj' sentiment, goaded 
by great outrages, had been rapidly increasing; all 
the intellectual ability and social worth of President 
Pierce were forgotten in deep reprehension of his ad- 
ministrative acts. The slaveholders of the South, also, 
unmindful of the fidelity with which he had advo- 
cated those measures of Government which they ap- 
proved, and perhaps, also, feeling that he had 
rendered himself so unpopular as no longer to be 
able acceptably to serve them, ungratefully dropped 
him, and nominated James Buchanan to succeed him. 

On the 4th of March, 1857, President Pierce re- 
tired to his home in Concord. Of three children, two 
had died, and his only surviving child had been 
killed before his eyes by a railroad accident ; and his 
wife, one of the most estimable and accomplished of 
ladies, was rapidly sinking in consumption. The 
hour of dreadful gloom soon came, and he was left 
alone in the world, without wife or child. 

When the terrible Rebellion burst forth, which di- 
vided our country into two parties, and two only, Mr. 
Pierce remained steadfast in the principles which he 
had always cherished, and gave his sympathies to 
that pro-slavery party with which he had ever been 
allied. He declined to do anything, either by voice 
or pen, to strengthen the hand of the National Gov- 
ernment. He continued to reside in Concord until 
the time of his death, which occurred in October, 
1869. He was one of the most genial and social of 
men, an honored communicant of the Episcopal 
Church, and one of the kindest of neighbors. Gen 
erous to a fault, he contributed liberally for the al- 
leviation of suffering and want, and many of his towns- 
people were often gladened by his material bounty. 





- <«« 



■sii: ^^^ ^. ©^fkv^j''^^ 



AMES BUCHANAN, the fif- 
teenth President of the United 
States, was born in a small 
frontier town, at the foot of the 
eastern ridge of the Allegha- 
nies, in Franklin Co., Penn., on 
4^ the 23d of April, 1791. The place 
wliere the humble cabin of his 
father stood was called Stony 
Batter. It was a wild and ro- 
mantic spot in a gorge of the moun- 
tains, with towering summits rising 
grandly all around. His father 
was a native of the north of Ireland ; 
l^jffl a poor man, who had emigrated in 
I 1783, with little property save his 

own strong arms. Five years afterwards he married 
Elizabeth Spear, the daughter of a respectable farmer, 
and, with his young bride, plunged into the wilder- 
ness, staked his claim, reared his log-hut, opened a 
clearing with his axe, and settled down there to per- 
form his obscure part in the drama of life. In this se- 
cluded home, where James was born, he remained 
for eight years, enjoying but it\f social or intellectual 
advantages. When James was eight yeaisof age, his 
father removed to the village of Mercersburg, where 
his son was placed at school, and commenced a 
course of study in English, Latin and Greek. His 
jirogress was rapid, and at the age of fourteen, he 
entered Dickinson College, at Carlisle. Here he de- 
veloped remarkable talent, and took his stand among 
the first scholars in the institution. His application 
W study was intense, and yet his native powers en- 

abled him to master the most abstruse subjects with 

In the year 1S09, he graduated with the highest 
honors of his class. He was then eighteen years of 
age; tall and graceful, vigorous in health, fond of 
athletic sport, an unerring shot, and enlivened with 
an exuberant flow of animal spirits. He immediately 
commenced the study of law in the city of Lancaster, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1812, when he was 
but twenty-one years of age. Very rapidly he rose 
in his profession, and at once took undisputed stand 
with the ablest law)ers of the State. When but 
twenty-si-\ years of age, unaided by counsel, he suc- 
cessfully defended before the State Senate ore of the 
judges of the State, who was tried upon articles of 
impeachment. At the age of thirty it was generally 
admitted that he stood at the head of the bar; and 
there was no lawyer in the State who had a more lu- 
crative practice. 

In 1820, he reluctantly consented to run as a 
candidate for Congress. He was elected, and for 
ten years he remained a member of the Lower House. 
During the vacations of Congress, he occasionally 
tried some important case. In 1831, he retired 
altogether from the toils of his profession, having ac- 
quired an ample fortune. 

Gen. Jackson, upon his elevation to the Presidency, 
appointed Mr. Buchanan minister to Russia. The 
duties of his mission he performed with ability, which 
gave satisfaction to all parties. LTpon his return, in 
T 833, he was elected to a seat in the United States 
Senate. He there met, as his associates, Webster, 
Clay, Wright and Calhoun. He advocated the meas- 
ures proposed by President Jackson, of m.tlfjng repri- 



sals against France, to enforce the payment of our 
claims against that country; and defended tlie coarse 
of the President in his unprecedented and wholesale 
removal from office of those who were not the sup- 
porters of his administration. Upon this question he 
was brought into direct collision with Heary Clay. 
He also, with voice and vote, advocated expunging 
from the journal of the Senate the vote of censure 
against Gen. Jackson for removing the deposits. 
Earnestly he opposed the abolition of slavery in tlie 
District of Columbia, and urged the prohibition of the 
circulation of anti-slavery documents by the United 
States mails. 

As to petitions on the subject of slavery, he advo- 
cated that they should be rtrspectfuUy received; and 
that the reply should be returned, that Congress had 
no power to legislate upon the subject. ' Congress," 
said he, "might as well undertake to interfere with 
slavery under a foreign government as in any of the 
States where it now exists." 

Upon Mr. Polk's accession to the Presidency, Mr. 
Buchanan became Secretary of State, and as such, 
took his share of the responsibility in the conduct of 
the Mexican War. Mr. Polk assumed that crossing 
the Nueces liy the American troops into the disputed 
territoiy was not wrong, but for the Mexicans to cross 
the Rio Grande into that territory was a declaration 
of war. No candid man can read with pleasure the 
account of the course our Government pursued in that 

Mr. Buchanan identified himself thoroughly with 
the party devoted to the pi^rpetuatioa and extension 
of slavery, and brought all the energies of his mind 
to bear agjinst the Wilmot Proviso. He gave iiis 
cordial approval to tlie compromise measures of 1S50, 
which included the fugiiive-slave law. Mr. Pierce, 
u::on his election to the Presidency, honored Mr. 
Buchanan with the mission to England. 

In the year 1856, a national Democratic conven- 
tion nominated Mr. Buchanan for the Presidency. The 
political conflict was one of the most severe in which 
our country has ever engaged. All the friends of 
slavery were on one side; all the advocates of its re- 
striction and final abolition, on the other. Mr. Fre- 
mont, the candidate of the enemies of slavery, re- 
reived 114 electoral votes. Mr. Buchanan received 
174, and was elected. The popular vote stood 
1,340,618, for Fremont, 1,224,750 for Buchanan. On 
March 4th, 1857, Mr. Buchanan was inaugurated. 

Mr. Buchanan was far advanced in life. Only four 
-fears were wanting to fill up his threescore years and 
ten. His own friends, those with whom he had been 
allied in political princi|)les and action for years, were 
stj'iking the destruction of the Government, that they 
might rear upon the ruins of our free institutions a 
nation whose corner-stone should be human slavery. 
[n this emergency, Mr. Buchanan was hopelessly be- 
wildered He could not, with his long-avowed prin- 

ciples, consistently oppose the State-rights party in 
their assumptions. As President of the United States, 
bound by his oath faithfully to administer the laws, 
he could not, without perjury of the grossest kind, 
unite with those endeavoring to overthrow the repub- 
lic. He therefore did nothing. 

The opponents of Mr. Buchanan's administration 
nominated Abraham Lincoln as their standard bearer 
in the next Presidential canvass. The pro-slavery 
party declared, that if he were elected, and the con- 
trol of the Government were thus taken from their 
hands, they would secede from the Union, taking 
with them, as they retired, the National Capitol at 
Washington, and the lion's share of the territory of 
the United States. 

Mr. Buchanan's sympathy with the pro-slavery 
party was such, that he had been willing to offer them 
far more than they had ventured to claim. All the 
South had professed to ask of the North was non- 
intervention upon the subject of slavery. Mr. Bu- 
chanan had been ready to offer them the active co- 
operation of the Government to defend and extend 
the institution. 

As the storm increased in violence, the slaveholders 
claiming the right to secede, and Mr. Buchanan avow- 
ing that Congress had no power to prevent it, one of 
the most pitiable exhibitions of governmental im- 
becility was exhibited the world has ever seen. He 
declared that Congress had no power to enforce its 
laws in any State which had withdrawn, or which 
was attempting to withdraw from the Union. This 
was not the doctrine of Andrew Jackson, when, with 
his hand upon his sword-hilt, he exclaimed, " The 
Union must and shall be preserved!" 

South Carolina seceded in December, i860; nearly 
three months before the inauguration of President 
Lincoln. Mr. Buchanan looked on in listless despair. 
The rebel flag was raised in Charleston ; Fort Sumpter 
was besieged; our forts, navy-yards and arsenals 
were seized; our depots of military stores were plun- 
dered ; and our custom-houses and post-offices were 
appropriated by the rebels. 

The energy of the rebels, and the imbecility of our 
Executive, were alike marvelous. The Nation looked 
on in agony, waiting for the slow weeks to glide away, 
and close the administration, so terrible in its weak- 
ness At length the long-looked-for hour of deliver-* 
ance came, when Abraham Lincoln was to receive the 

The administration of President Buchanan was 
certainly the most calamifous our country has ex- 
perienced. His best friends cannot recall it with 
pleasure. And still more de|)lorable it is for his fame, 
that in that dreadful conflict which rolled its billows 
of flame and blood over our whole land, no word came 
from his lips to indicate his wish that our country's 
banner should triumph over the flag of the rebellion. 
He died at his Wheatland retreat, June 1, 186S. 







■i > 


< ABRAHAM > ^i>^^^<|S < UNCOLN. ) 









sixteenth President of the 
J^United States, was born in 
Hardin Co., Ky., Feb. 12, 
1809. About the yean 7 80, a 
man by the name of Abraham 
^^ Lincohi left Virginia with his 
family and moved into the then 
wildsof Kentucky. Only two years 
after this emigration, still a young 
man, while working one day in a 
field, was stealthily appronclied by 
an Indian and shot dead. His widow 
was left in extreme poverty with five 
little children, three boys and two 
girls. Thomas, the youngest of the 
boys, was four years of age at his 
father's death. This Thomas was 
the father of Abraham Lincoln, the 
President of the United States 
whose name must henceforth fo'-ever be enrolled 
with the most prominent in the annals of our wodd. 
Of course no record has been kept of the life 
of one so lowly as Thomas Lincoln. He was among 
(he poorest of the poor. His home was a wretched 
log-cabin; his food the coarsest and the_ meanest. 
Education he had none; he could never either read 
or write. As soon as he was able to do anything for 
himself, he was compelled to leave the cabin of his 
starving mother, and push out into the world, a friend- 
-ess, wandering boy, seeking work. He hired him- 
self out, and thus spent the whole of his youth as a 
'7 i)orer in the fields of others. 

Vv'hen twenty-eight years of age he bnill a log- 
cabin of his own, and married Nancy Hanks, the 
daughter of another family of poor Kentucky emi- 
grants, who had also come from Virginia. Their 
second child was Abraham Lincoln, the subject of 
this sketch. The mother of Abraham was a noble 
woman, gentle, loving, pensive, created to adorn 
a palace, doomed to toil and pine, and die in a hovel. 
"All that I am, or hope to be," exclaims the grate- 
ful son " I owe to my angel-mother. 

When he was eight years of age, his father sold his 

cabin and small farm, and moved to Indiana Where 
two years later his mother died. 

Abraham soon became the scribe of the uneducated 
community around him. He coidd not have had a 
better school than this to teacli him to put thoughts 
into words. He also became an eager reader. The 
books he could obtain were few ; but these he read 
and re-read until they were almost committed to 

As the years rolled on, the lot of this lowly family 
was the usual lot of humanity. There were joys and 
griefs, weddings and funerals. Abraham's sister 
Sarah, to whom he was tenderly attached, was mar- 
ried when a child of but fourteen years of age, and 
soon died. The family was gradually scattered. Mr. 
Thomas Lincoln sold out his squatter's claim in 1830, 
and emigrated to Macon Co., 111. 

Abraham Lincoln was then twenty-one years of age. 
With vigorous hands he aided his father in rearing 
another log-cabin. Abraham worked diligently at this 
until he saw the family comfortably settled, and their 
small lot of enclosed prairie planted with corn, when 
he announced to his father his intention to leave 
home, and to go out into the world and seek his for- 
tune. Little did he or his friends imagine how bril- 
liant that fortune was to be. He saw the value of 
education, and was intensely earnest to improve his 
mind to the utmost of his power. He saw the ruin 
which ardent spirits were causing, and became 
strictly temperate; refusing to allow a drop of intoxi- 
cating hquor to pass his lips. And he had read in 
God's word, "Thou shalt not take the name of the 
Lord thy God in vain ;" and a profane expression he 
was never heard to utter. Religion he revered. His 
morals were pure, and he was uncontaminated by a 
single vice. 

Young Abraham worked for a time as a hired laborer 
among the farmers. Then he went to Springfield, 
where he was employed in building a large flat-boat. 
In this he took a herd of swine, floated them down 
the Sangamon to the Illinois, and thence by the Mis- 
sissippi to New Orleans. Whatever Abraham Lin- 
coln undertook, he performed so faithfully as to give 
great satisfaction to his employers. In this adven- 



ture his employers were so well pleased, that upon 
his return tney placed a store and mill under his care. 

In 1832, at the outbreak of the Black Hawk war, he 
enlisted and was chosen captain of a company. He 
returned to Sangamon County, and although only 23 
years of age, was a candidate for the Legislature, but 
was defeated. He soon after received from Andrew 
Jackson the appointmentof Postmaster of New Salem, 
His only post-office was his hat. All the letters he 
received he carried there ready to deliver to those 
he chanced to meet. He studied surveying, and soon 
uia,de this his business. In 1834 he again became a 
candidate for the Legislature, and was elected Mr. 
^tuart, of Springfield, advised him to study law. He 
walked from New Salem to Springfield, borrowed of 
Mr. Stuart a load of books, carried them back and 
began his legal studies. When the Legislature as- 
sembled he trudged on foot with his pack on his back 
one hundred miles to Vandalia, then the capital. In 
1836 he was re-elected to the Legislature. Here it 
was he first met Stephen A. Douglas. In 1839 he re- 
moved to Springfield and began the practice of law. 
His success with the jury was so great that he was 
soon engaged in almost every noted case in the circuit. 

In 1854 the great discussion began between Mr. 
Lincoln and Mr. Douglas, on the slavery question. 
Ih the organization of tire Republican party in lUinois, 
in 1856, he took an active part, and at once became 
one of the leaders in that party. Mr. Lincoln's 
speeches in opposition to Senator Douglas in the con- 
test in 1858 for a seat in the Senate, form a most 
notable part of his history. The issue was on the 
ilavery question, and he took the broad ground of 
.he Declaration of Independence, that all men are 
created equal. Mr. Lincoln was defeated in this con- 
test, but won a far higher prize. 

The great Republican Convention met at Chicago 
on the i6th of June, i860. The delegates and 
strangers who crowded the city amounted to twenty- 
five thousand. Xn immense building called "The 
Wigwam," was reared to accommodate the Conven- 
tion. There were eleven candidates for whom votes 
were thrown. Wilham H Seward, a man whose fame 
as a statesman had long filled the land, was the most 
urominent. It was generally supposed he would be 
the nominee. Abraham Lincoln, however, received 
the nomination on the third ballot. Little did he then 
dream of the weary years of toil and care, and the 
bloody death, to which that nomination doomed him: 
and as little did he dream that he was to render services 
to his country, which would fi.x upon him the eyes of 
the whole civilized world, and which would give him 
a place in the affections of his countrymen, second 
cnly, if second, to that of AVashington. 

Election day came and Mr. Lincoln received 180 
electoral votes out of 203 cast, and was, therefore, 
constitutionally elected President of the United States. 
The tirade of abuse that vas poured upon this good 

and merciful man, especially by the slaveholders, was 
greater than upon any other man ever elected to this 
higli position. In February, 186 1, Mr. Lincoln started 
for Washington, stopping in all the large cities on his 
way making speeches. The whole journey was frought 
with much danger. Many of the Southern States had 
already seceded, and several attempts at assassination 
were afterwards brought to light. A gang in Balti- 
more had arranged, upon his arrival to" get up a row," 
and in the confusion to make sure of his death witli 
revolvers and hand-grenades. A detective unravelled 
the plot. A secret and special train was jjrovided to 
take him from Harrisburg, through Baltimore, at an 
unexpected hour of the night. The train started at 
half-past ten ; and to prevent any possible communi- 
cation on the part ot the Secessionists with their Con- 
federate gang in Baltimore, as soon as the train had 
started the telegraph-wires were cut. Mr. Lincoln 
reached Washington in safety and was inaugurated, 
although great anxiety was felt by all loyal peoi)le 

In the selection of his cabinet Mr. Lincoln gave 
to Mr Seward the Department of State, and to other 
prominent opponents before the convention he gave 
important [jositions. 

During no other administration have liie duties 
devolving upon the President been so manifold, and 
the responsibilities so great, as those which fell to 
the lot of President Lincoln. Knowing this, and 
feeling liis own weakness and inability to meet, and in 
his own strength to cope with, the difficuhies, he 
learned early to seek Divine wisdom and guidance in 
determining his plans, and Divine comfort in all his 
trials, bo'h personal and national. Contrary to his 
own estimate of himself, Mr. Lincoln was one of the 
most courageous of men. He went directly into the 
rebel capital just as the retreating foe was leaving, 
witli no guard but a few sailors. From the time he 
had left Springfield, in 1861, however, plans had Ijeen 
made for his assassination, and he at last fell a victim 
to one of them. April 14, 1865, he, with Gen. Grant, 
was urgently invited to attend Fords' Theater. It 
was announced that they would be present. Gen. 
Grant, however, left the city. President Lincoln, feel- 
ing, witli his characteristic kindliness of heart, that 
it would be a disappointment if he should fail them, 
very reluctantly consented to go. While listening to 
the play an actor by the name of John Wilkes Booth 
entered the box where the President and family were 
seated, and fired a bullet into his brains. He died the 
next morning at seven o'clock. 

Never before, in the history of the world was a nation 
plunged into such deep grief by the death of its ruler 
Strong men met in the streets and wept in speechless 
anguisli. It is not too much to say that a nation was 
in tears. His was a life which will fitly become a 
model. His name as the savior of his country ■will 
live with that of Washington's, its father; his country- 
men being unable to decide which is tKe greater. 





n^/lif iivJi}^iJiY:?5rLi^l 

teenth President of the United 
' States. The early life of 
Andrew Johnson contains but 
the record of poverty, destitu- 
tion and friendlessness. He 
f/ was born December 29, 180S, 
in Raleigh, N. C. His parents, 
belonging to the class of the 
"poor whites " of the South, T;ere 
in such circumstances, that they 
could not confer even the slight- 
est advantages of education upon 
their child. When Andrew was five 
years of age, his father accidentally 
lost his life while herorically endeavoring to save a 
friend from drowning. Until ten years of age, Andrew 
was a ragged boy about the streets, supported by the 
labor of his mother, who obtained her living with 
her own hands. 

He then, having never attended a school one day, 
and being unable either to read or write, was ap- 
prenticed to a tailor in his native town. A gentleman 
was in the habit of going to the tailor's shop occasion- 
ally, and reading to the boys at work there. He often 
read from the speeches of distinguished British states- 
men. Andrew, who was endowed with a mind of more 
than ordinary native ability, became much interested 
in these speeches ; his ambition was roused, and he 
was inspired with a strong desire to learn to read. 

He accordingly applied himself to the alphabet, and 
with the assistance of some of his fellow- workmen, 
learned his letters. He then called upon the gentle- 
man to borrow the book of speeches. The owner, 

pleased with his zeal, not only gave him the book, 
but assisted him in learning to combine the letters 
into words. Under such difficulties he pressed o\. 
ward laboriously, spending usually ten or twelve hours 
at work in the shop, and then robbing himself of rest 
and recreatio.^ to devote such time fl.s he could to 

He went to Tennessee \\\ 1S26, and located at 
Greenville, where he married a young lady who pos 
sessed some education. Under her instructions he 
learned to write and cipher. He became prominent 
in the village debating society, and a favorite with 
the students of Greenville College. In 1828, he or- 
ganized a working man's party, which elected him 
alderman, and in 1830 elected him mayor, which 
position he held three years. 

He now began to take a lively interest in political 
affairs ; identifying himself with the working-classes, 
to which he belonged. In 1835, he was elected a 
member of the House of Representatives of Tennes- 
see. He was then just twenty-seven years of age, 
He became a very active member of the legislature 
gave his adhesion to the Democratic party, and in 
1840 " stumped the State," advocating Martin ">"'ati 
Buren's claims to the Presidency, in opposition to thos^ 
of Gen. Harrison. In this campaign he acquired mucli 
readiness as a speaker, and extended and increased 
his reputation. 

l\\ 1841, he was elected Stale Senator; in 1843, he 
was elected a member of Congress, and by successive 
elections, held that important post for ten years. In 
1853, he was elected Governor of Tennessee, and 
was re-elected in 1855. In all these resiwnsible posi- 
tions, he discharged his duties with distinguished abi. 



ity, and proved himself the warm friend of the work- 
ing classes. In 1857, Mr. Johnson was elected 
United States Senator. 

Years before, in 1S45, he had warmly advocated 
the anne-xation of Texas, stating however, as his 
reason, that he thought this annexation would prob- 
ably prove " to be the gateway out of which the sable 
sons of Africa are to pass from bondage to freedom, 
and become merged in a population congenial to 
themselves." In 1850, he also supported the com- 
promise measures, the two essential features of which 
were, that the white people of the Territories should 
be permitted to decide for themselves whether they 
would enslave the colored people or not, and that 
the *"ree States of the North should return to the 
South persons who attempted to escape from slavery. 

Mr. Johnson was never ashamed of his lowly origin: 
on the contrary, he often took pride in avowing that 
he owed his distinction to his own exertions. "Sir," 
said he on the floor of the Senate, " I do not forget 
that I am a mechanic ; neither do I forget that Adam 
was a tailor and sewed fig-leaves, and that our Sav- 
ior was the son of a carpenter." 

In the Charleston-Baltimore convention of iSl-o, ne 
f7as the choice of the Tennessee Democrats for the 
Presidency. In 1861, when the purpose of the South- 
irn Democracy became apparent, he took a decided 
stand in favor of the Union, and held that " slavery 
must be held subordinate to the Union at whatever 
cost." He returned to Tennessee, and repeatedly 
imperiled his own life to protect the Unionists of 
Tennesee. Tennessee having seceded from the 
Union, President Lincoln, on March 4th, 1862, ap- 
pointed him Military Governor of the State, and he 
established the most stringent military rule. His 
numerous proclamations attracted wide attention. In 

1864, he was elected Vice-President of the United 
States, and upon the death of Mr. Lincoln, April 15, 

1865, became President. In a speech two days later 
he said, " The American people must be taught, if 
?hey do not already feel, that treason is a crime and 
must be punished ; that the Government will not 
always bear with its enemies ; that it is strong not 
only to protect, but to punish. * * The people 
must understand that it (treason) is the blackest of 
crimes, and will surely be punished." Yet his whole 
administration, the history of which is so well known, 
was in utter itw;onsistency with, and the most violent 

opposition to, the principles laid down in that speech. 

In his loose policy of reconstruction and general 
amnesty, he was opposed by Congress; and he char- 
acterized Congress as a new rebellion, and lawlessly 
defied it, in everything possible, to the utmost. In 
the beginniiig of 1868, on account of "high crimes 
and misdemeanors," the principal of which was the 
removal of Secretary Stanton, in violation of the Ten- 
ure of Office Act, articles of impeachment were pre- 
ferred against him, and the trial began March 23. 

It was very tedious, continuing for nearly three 
months. A test article of the impeachment was at 
length submitted to the court for its action. It was 
certain that as the court voted upon that article so 
would it vote upon all. Thirty-four voices pronounced 
the President guilty. As a two-thirds vote was neces- 
sary to his condemnation, he was pronounced ac- 
quitted, notwithstanding the great majority against 
him. The change of one vote from the not guilty 
side would have sustained the impeachment. 

The President, for the remainder of his term, was 
but little regarded. He continued, though impotent';', 
his conflict with Congress. His own party did not 
think it expedient to renominate him for the Presi- 
dency. The Nation rallied, with enthusiasm unpar- 
.illeled since the days of Washington, around the name 
of Gen. Grant. ,\ndrew Johnson was forgotten. 
The bullet of the assassin introduced him to the 
President's chair. Notwithstanding this, never was 
there presented to a man a better opportunity to im- 
mortalize his name, and to win the gratitude of a 
nation. He failed utterly. He retired to his home 
in Greenville, Tenn., taking no very active part in 
politics until 1875. On Jan. 26, after an e.xciting 
struggle, he was chosen by the Legislature of Ten- 
nessee, United States Senator in the forty-fourth Con- 
gress, and took his seat in that body, at the special 
session convened by President Grant, on the 5th of 
March. On the 27th of July, 1875, the ex-President 
made a visit to his daughter's home, near Carter 
Station, Tenn. When he started on his journey, he was 
apparently in his usual vigorous health, but on reach- 
ing the residence of his child the following day, was 
stricken with paralysis, rendering him unconscious. 
He rallied occasionally, but finally passed away at 
2 A. M., July 31, aged sixty-seven years. His fun- 
eral was attended at Geenville, on the 3d of August, 
with every demonstration of respect. 

y- ^ 





=l^, LYSSES S. GRANT, the 
- \ eighteenth President of the 
gS United States, was born on 
the 29th of April, 1822, of 
lI'b Christian parents, in a humble 
' home, at Point Pleasant, on the 
banks of the Ohio. Shortly after 
his father moved to George- 
town, Brown Co., O. In this re- 
mote frontier hamlet, Ulysses 
received a common-school edu- 
cation. At the age of seven- 
teen, in the year 1839, he entered 
the Military Academy at West 
Point. Here he was regarded as a 
solid, sensible young man of fair abilities, and of 
sturdy, honest character. He took respectable rank 
as a scholar. In June, 1843, he graduated, about the 
middle in his class, and was sent as lieutenant of in- 
fantry to one of the distant military posts in the Mis- 
souri Territory. Two years he past in these dreary 
solitudes, watching the vagabond and exasperating 

The war with Mexico came. Lieut. Grant was 
sent with his regiment to Corpus Christi. His first 
battle was at Palo Alto. There was no chance here 
for the exhibition of either skill or heroism, nor at 
Resaca de la Pal ma, his second battle. At the battle 
of Monterey, his third engagement, it is said that 
he performed a signal service of daring and skillful 
horsemanship. His brigade had exhausted its am- 
munition. A messenger must be sent for more, along 
a route exposed to the bullets of the foe. Lieut. 
Grant, adopting an expedient learned of the Indians, 
grasped the mane of his horse, and hanging upon one 
side of the anifoal, ran the gauntlet in entire safety. 


From Monterey he was sent, with the fourth infantry, 
10 aid Gen. Scott, at the siege of Vera Cruz. In 
preparation for the march to the city of Mexico, he 
was appointed quartermaster of his regiment. At the 
battle of Molino del Rey, he was promoted to a 
first lieutenancy, and was brevetted captain at Cha- 

At the close of the Mexican War, Capt. Grant re- 
turned with his regiment to New York, and was again 
sent to one of the military posts on the frontier. The 
discovery of gold in California causing an immense 
tide of emigration to flow to the Pacific shores, Capt. 
Grant was sent with a battalion to Fort Dallas, in 
Oregon, for the protection of the interests of the im- 
migrants. Life was wearisome in those wilds. Capt. 
Grant resigned his commission and returned to the 
States; and having married, entered upon the cultiva- 
tion of a small farm near St. Louis, Mo. He had but 
little skill as a farmer. Finding his toil not re- 
munerative, he turned to mercantile life, entering into 
the leather business, with a younger brother, at Ga- 
lena, 111. This was in the year i860. As the ridings 
of the rebels firing on Fort Sumpter reached the ears 
of Capt. Grant in his counting-room, he said, — 
"Uncle Sam has educated me for the army; though 
I have served him through one war, I do not feel that 
I have yet repaid the debt. I am still ready to discharge 
my obligations. I shall therefore buckle on my sword 
and see Uncle Sam through this war too." 

He went into the streets, raised a company of vol- 
unteers, and led them as their captain to Springfield, 
the capital of the State, where their services were 
offered to Gov. Yates. The Governor, impressed by 
the zeal and straightforward executive ability of Capt. 
Grant, gave him a desk in his office, to assist in the 
volunteer organization that was being formed in the 
State in behalf of the Government. On the 15 th of 



June, 1 86 1, Capt. Grant received a commission as 
Colonel of the Twenty-first Regiment of Illinois Vol- 
unteers. His merits as a West Point graduate, who 
had served for 15 years in the regular army, were such 
that he was soon promoted to the rank of Brigadier- 
General and was placed in command at Cairo. The 
rebels raised their banner at Paducah, near the mouth 
of the Tennessee River. Scarcely had its folds ap- 
peared ii^the breeze ere Gen. Grant was there. The 
rebels fled. Their banner fell, and the star and 
stripes were unfurled in its stead. 

He entered the service with great determination 
and immediately began active duty. This was the be- 
ginning, and until the surrender of Lee at Richmond 
he was ever pushing the enemy with great vigor and 
effectiveness. At Belmont, a few days later, he sur- 
prised and routed the rebels, then at Fort Henry 
won another victory. Then came the brilliant fight 
at Fort Donelson. The nation was electrified by the 
victory, and the brave leader of the boys in blue was 
immediately made a M.^jor-General, and the military 
district of Tennessee was assigned to him. 

Like all great captains. Gen. Grant knew well how 
to secure the results of victory. He immediately 
Dushed on to the enemies' Hnes. Then came the 
terrible battles of Pittsburg Landing, Corinth, and the 
siege of Vicksburg, where Gen. Pemberton made an 
unconditional surrender of the city with over thirty 
thousand men and one-hundred and seventy-two can- 
non. The fall of Vicksburg was by far the most 
severe blow which the rebels had thus far encountered, 
and opened up the Mississippi from Cairo to the Gulf. 
Gen. Grant was next ordered to co-operate with 
Gen. Banks in a movement upon Texas, and pro- 
ceeded to New Orleans, where he was thrown from 
his horse, and received severe injuries, from which he 
v/as laid up for months. He then rushed to the aid 
of Gens. Rosecrans and Thomas at Chattanooga, and 
by a A'onderful series of strategic and technical meas- 
ures put the Union Army in fighting condition. Then 
followed the bloody battles at Chattanooga, Lo&kout 
Mountain and Missionary Ridge, in which the rebels 
were routed with great loss. This won for him un- 
bounded praise in the North. On the 4th of Febru- 
ary, 1864, Congress revived the grade of lieutenant- 
general, and the rank was conferred on Gen. Grant. 
He repaired to Washington to receive his credentials 
and enter upon tb^ duties of his new office. 

Gen. Grant decided as sooii as he took charge of 
the army to concentrate the widely-dispersed National 
troops for an attack upon Richmond, the nominal 
capital of the Rebellion, and endeavor there to de- 
stroy the rebel armies which would be promptly as- 
sembled from all quarters for its defence. The whole 
■ continent seemed to tremble under the tramp of these 
majestic armies, rushing to the decisive battle field. 
.Steamers were crowded with troops. Railway trains 
were burdened with closely packed thousands. His 
plans were comprehensive and involved a series of 
campaigns, which were executed with remarkable en- 
ergy and ability, and were consummated at the sur- 
render of Lee, April 9, 1S65. 

The war was ended. The Union was saved. The 
almost unanimous voice of the Nation declared Gen. 
Grant to be the most prominent instrument in its sal- 
vation. The eminent services he had thus rendered 
the country brought him conspicuously forward as the 
Republican candidate for the Presidential chair. 

At the Republican Convention held at Chicago. 
May 21, 1868, he was unanimously nominated for the 
Presidency, and at the autumn election received a 
majority of the popular vote, and 214 out of 294 
electoral votes. 

The National Convention of the Republican party 
which met at Philadelphia on the 5th of June, 1872, 
placed Gen. Grant in nomination for a second term 
by a unanimous vote. The selection was emphati- 
cally indorsed by the people five months later, 292 
electoral votes being cast for him. 

Soon after the close of his second term, Gen. Grant 
started upon his famous trip around the world. He 
visited almost every country of the civilized world, 
and was everywhere received with such ovations 
and demonstrations of respect and honor, priv,"te 
as well as public and official, as were never before 
bestowed upon any citizen of the United States. 

He was the most prominent candidate before the 
Republican National Convention in 1880 for a re- 
nomination for President. He went to New York and 
embarked in the bro'cerage business under the firm 
nanieof Grant & Ward. The latter proved a villain, 
wrecked Grant's fortune, and for larceny was sent to 
the penitentiary. The General was attacked with 
cancer in the throat, but suffered in his stoic-like 
manner, never complaining. He was re-instated as 
General of the .'\rmy and retired by Congress. The 
cancer soon finished its deadly work, and July 23, 
1885, the nation went in mourning over the death of 
the illustrious General. 






the nineteenth President of 
the United States, was born in 
Delaware, O., Oct. 4, 1822, al- 
most three months after the 
\\/"*'^ death of his father, Rutherford 
Hayes. His ancestry on both 
the paternal and maternal sides, 
was of the most honorable char- 
acter. It can be traced, it is said, 
as far back as 1280, when Hayes and 
Rutherford were two Scottish chief- 
tains, fighting side by side with 
Baliol, William Wallace and Robert 
Bruce. Both families belonged to the 
nobility, owned extensive estates, 
and had a large following. Misfor- 
.ane ov-.-i<aking the family, George Hayes left Scot- 
.and in 1600, and settled in Windsor, Conn. His son 
George wat, born in Windsor, and remained there 
during his liJe. Daniel Hayes, son of the latter, mar- 
ried Sarah L.;e, and lived from the time of his mar- 
riage until his death in Simsbury, Conn. Ezekiel, 
son of Daniel, was born in 1724, and was a manufac- 
turer of scythej at Bradford, Conn. Rutherford Hayes, 
son of Ezekiel awd grandfather of President Hayes, was 
born in New Haven, in August, 1756. He was a farmer, 
blacksmith and tavern-keeper. He emigrated to 
Vermont at an utiknown date, settling in Brattleboro, 
where he established a hotel. Here his son Ruth- 
erford Hayes the father of President Hayes, was 

born. He was married, in September, 18 13, to Sophia 
Birchard, of Wilmington, Vt., whose ancestors emi- 
grated thither from Connecticut, they having been 
among the wealthiest and best famlies of Norwich. 
Her ancestry on the male side are traced back to 
1635, to John Birchard, one of the principal founders 
of Norwich. Both of her grandfathers were soldiers 
in the Revolutionary War. 

The father of President Hayes was an industrious 
frugal and opened-hearted man. He was of a me- 
chanical turn, and could mend a plow, knit a stock- 
ing, or do almost anything else that he choose to 
undertake. He was a member of the Church, active 
in all the benevolent enterprises of the town, and con- 
ducted his business on Christian principles. After 
the close of the war of 181 2, for reasons inexplicable 
to his neighbors, he resolved to emigrate to Ohio. 

The journey from Vermont to Ohio in that day 
when there were no canals, steamers, nor railways, 
was a very serious affair. A tour of inspection was 
first made, occupying four months. Mr. Hayes deter 
mined to move to Delaware, where the family arrived 
in 1817. He died July 22, 1822, a victim of malarial 
fever, less than three months before the birth of the 
son, of whom we now write. Mrs. Hayes, in her sore be- 
reavement, found the support she so much needed in 
her brother Sardis, who had been a member of the 
household from the day of its departure from Ver- 
mont, and in an orphan girl whom she had adopted 
some time before as an act of charity. 

Mrs. Hayes at this period was ver)' weak, and the 



subject of this sketch was so feeble at birth that he 
was not expected to live beyond a month or two at 
most. As the months went by he grew weaker and 
weaker, so that the neighbors were in the habit of in- 
quirnigfrom time to time " if Mrs. Hayes' baby died 
last night." On one occasion a neighbor, who was on 
familiar terms with the family, after alluding to the 
boy's big head, and the mother's assiduous care of 
nim, said in a bantering way, " That's right ! Stick to 
him. You have got him along so far, and I shouldn't 
wonder if he would really come to something yet." 

" You need not laugh," said Mrs. Hayes. "You 
wait and see. You can't tell but I shall make him 
President of the United States yet." The boy lived, 
in spite of the universal predictions of his speedy 
death; and when, in 1825, his older brother was 
drowned, he became, if possible, still dearer to his 

The boy was seven years old before he w.;nt to 
school. His education, however, was not neglected. 
He probably learned as much from his jnother and 
sister as he would have done at school. His sports 
were almost wholly within doors, his playmates being 
his sister and her associates. These circumstances 
tended, no doubt, to foster that gentleness of dispo- 
sition, and that delicate consideration for the feelings 
of others, which are marked traits of his character. 

His uncle Sardis Birchard took the deepest interest 
in his education; and as the boy's health had im- 
proved, and he was making good progress in his 
studies, he proposed to send him to college. His pre- 
paration commenced with a tutor at home; but he 
was afterwards sent for one year to a professor in the 
Wesleyan University, in Middletown, Conn. He en- 
tered Ivenyon College in 183S, at the age of sixteen, 
and was graduated at the head of his class in 1842. 

Innnediately after his graduation he began the 
study of law in the office of Thomas Sparrow, Esq., 
in Columbus. Finding his opportunities for study in 
Columbus somewhat limited, he determined to enter 
the Law School at Cambridge, Mass., where he re- 
mained two vears. 

In 1 845, after graduatmg at the Law School, he was 
admitted to the Ijar at Marietta, Ohio, and shortly 
afterward went into practice as an attorney-at-law 
with Ralph P. Buckland, of Fremont. Here he re- 
mained three years, acquiring but a limited practice, 
and apparently unambitious of distinction in his pro- 

In 1849 he moved to Cincmnati, where his ambi- 
tion found a new stimulus. For several years, how- 
ever, his progress was slow. Two events, occurring at 
this period, had a powerful influence upon his sul)se- 
quent life. One of these was his marrage witli Miss 
Lucy Ware Webb, daughter of Dr. James Webb, of 
Chilicothe; the othev was his introduction to the Cin- 
cinnati Literary Club, a body embracing among its 
Hiembers such men as "^hief Justice Salmon P. Chase, 

Gen. John Pope, Gov. Edward F. Noyes, and many 
others hardly less distinguished in after life. The 
marriage was a fortunate one in every respect, as 
everybody knows. Not one of all the wives of our 
Presidents was more universally admired, reverenced 
and beloved than was Mrs. Hayes, and no one did 
more than she to reflect honor upon American woman- 
hood. The Literary Cluu brought Mr. Hayes into 
constant association with young men of high char- 
acter and noble aims, and lured him to display the 
qualities so long hidden by his bashfulnejs and 

In 1856 he was nominated to the office of Judg; O'" 
the Court of Common Pleas; but he declined to a~- 
cept the nomination. Two years later, the office o* 
city solicitor becoming vacant, the City Council 
elected him for the unexpired term. 

In 1 861, when the Rebellion broke out, he was ar 
the zenith of his professional lif,. His rank at the 
bar was among the the first. But the news of the 
attack on Fort Sumpter found him eager to take -id 
arms for the of his countr)'. 

His military record was bright and illustrious. In 
October, i85i, he was made Lieutenant-Colonel, and 
in August, 1862, promoted Colonel of the 79th Ohio 
regiment, but he refused to leave his old comrades 
and go among strangers. Subsequently, however, he 
was made Colonel of his old regiment. At the battle 
of South Mountain he received a wound, and while 
faint and bleeding displayed courage and fortitude 
that won admiration from all. 

Col. Hayes was detached from his regiment, after 
his recovery, to act as Brigadier-General, and placed 
in command of the celebrated Kanawha division, 
and for gallant and meritorious services in the battles 
of Winchester, Fisher's Hill and Cedar Creek, he was 
promoted Brigadier-General. He was also brevetted 
Major-General, "forgallant and distinguished services 
during the campaigns of 1864, in West Virginia." In 
the course of his arduous services, four horses were 
shot from under him, and he was wounded four times 

In 1864, Gen. Hayes was elected to Congress, from 
the Second Ohio District, which had long been Dem- 
ocratic. He was not present during the campaign, 
and after his election was importuned to resign his 
commission in the army ; but he finally declared, "I 
shall never come to Washington until I can come by 
the way of Richmond." He was re-elected in 1866. 

Ii:! 1867, Gen Hayes was elected Governor of Ohio, 
over Hon. Allen G. Thurman, a popular Democrat. 
In 1869 was re-elected over George H. Pendleton. 
He was elected Governor for the third term in 1875. 

In 1876 he was the standard bearer of the Repub- 
lican Party in the Presidential contest, and after a 
hard long contest was chosen President, and was ir. 
an^urated Monday, March 5, 1875. He served his 
full term, not, hcwever, with satisfaction to his party. 
hit his :idmii;istration was an average o!\.= 


. ^ 


tieth President of the United 
States, was born Nov. ig, 
1S31, in the woods of Orange, 
Cuyahoga Co., O His par- 
**^ ents were Abram and Ehza 
(Ballou) Garfield, both of New 
England ancestry and from fami- 
lies well known in the early his- 
% tory of that section of our coun- 
try, but had moved to the Western 
Reserve, in Ohio, early in its settle- 

The house in which James A. was 
born was not unlike the houses of 
poor Ohio farmers of that day. It 
.;.", about 20x30 feet, built of logs, with the spaces be- 
.uzzw the logs filled with clay. His father was a 
iard working farmer, and he soon had his fields 
.;leared, an orchard planted, and a log barn built. 
The household comprised the father and mother and 
heir four children — Mehetabel, Thomas, Mary and 
'ames. In May, 1823^ the father, from a cold con- 
. /acted in helping to put out a forest fire, died. At 
iliis time James was about eighteen months old, and 
''liomas about ten years old. No one, perhaps, can 
I'ell how much James was indebted to his biotlier's 
toil and self sacrifice during the twenty years suc- 
ceeding his father's death, but undoubtedly very 
much. He now lives in Michigan, and the two sis- 
itis live in Solon, O., near their birthplace. 

The early educational advantages young Garfield 
enjoyed were very limited, yet he made the most of 
tnem. He labored at farm work for others, did car- 
^penter work, chopped wood, or did anything that 
would Kring in a few dollars I0 aid his widowed 
mother in he' 'Struggles to keep the little family to- 

gether. Nor was Gen. Garfield ever ashamed of his 
origin, and he never forgot the friends of his strug- 
gling childhood, youth and manhood, neither did they 
ever forget him. When in the highest seats of honor 
the humblest fiiend of his boyhood was as kindly 
greeted as ever. The poorest laborer was sure of the 
sympathy of one who had known all the bitterness 
of want and the sweetness of bread earned by the 
sweat of the brow. He was ever the simple, plain, 
modest gentleman. 

The highest ambition of young Garfield until hi 
was about sixteen years old was to be a captain of 
a vessel on Lake Erie. He was anxious to go aboard 
a vessel, which his mother strongly opposed. She 
finally consented to his going to Cleveland, with the 
understanding, however, that he sliould try to obtain 
some other kind of employment. He walked all the 
way to Cleveland. This was his first visit to the city 
After making many applications for work, and trying 
to get aboard a lake vessel, and not meeting with 
success, he engaged as a driver for his cousin, Amos 
Letcher, on the Ohio & Pennsylvania Canal. He re- 
mained at this work but a short time when he wen': 
home, and attended the seminary at Chester for 
about three years, when he entered Hiram and the 
Eclectic Institute, teaching a few terms of school in 
tlie meantime, and doing other work. This school 
was started by the Disciples of Christ in 1S50, of 
which church he was then a member. He became 
janitor and bell-ringer in order to help pay his way 
He then became both teacher and pupil. He soon 
" exhausted Hiram " and needed more ; hence, in the 
fall of 1S54, he entered Williams College, from which 
he graduated in 1S56, taking one of the highest hon- 
ors of his class. He afterwards returned to Hiram 
College as its President. As above stated, he early 
united with the Christian or Diciples Church at 
Hiram, and was ever after a devoted, zealous mem- 
ber, often preaching in its pulpit and places where 
he happened to be. Dr. Noah Porter, Presidert of 
Yale College, says of him in reference to his religion : 



" President Garfield was more than a man of 
strong moral and religious convictions. His whole 
history, from boyhood to the last, shows that duty to 
man and to God, and devotion to Christ and life and 
faith and spiritual commission were controlling springs 
of his beuig, and to a more than usual degree. In 
my jadgment there is no more interesting feature of 
Ills character than his loyal allegiance to the body of 
Christians in which he was trained, and the fervent 
sympathy which he ever showed in their Christian 
communion. Not many of the few 'wise and mighty 
and noble who are called' show a similar loyalty to 
the less stately and cultured Christian comnmnions 
in which they have been reared. Too often it is true 
that as they step upward in social and political sig- 
nificance they step upward from one degree to 
another in some of the many types of fashionable 
Christianity. President Garfield adhered to the 
;hurchof his mother, the church in which he was 
trained, and in which he served as a pillar and an 
evangelist, and yet with the largest and most unsec- 
Varian charity for all 'who loveour Lord in sincerity.'" 

Mr. Garfield was united in marriage with Miss 
Lucretia Rudolpli, Nov. ii, 1858, who proved herself 
worthy as the wife of one whom all the world loved and 
mourned. To them were born seven children, five of 
v/honi are still living, four boys and one girl. 

Mr. Garfield made his first political speeches in 1856, 
jn Hiram and the neighboring villages, and three 
years later he began to speak at county mass-meet- 
ings, and became the favorite speaker wherever he 
was. During this year he was elected to the Ohio 
Senate. He also began to study law at Cleveland, 
and in 1861 was admitted to the bar. The great 
Rebellion broke out in the early part of this year, 
and Mr. Garfield at once resolved to fight as he had 
talked, and enlisted to defend the old flag. He re- 
ceived jiis commission as Lieut. -Colonel of the Forty- 
second Regiment of Ohio Volunteer Lifantry, Aug. 
14, 1861. He was immediately put into active ser- 
vice, and before he had ever seen a gun fired in action, 
was placed in command of four regiments of infantry 
and eight companies of cavalry, charged with the 
vk^ork of driving out of his native State the officer 
(Humphrey M;rsliall) reputed to be the ablest of 
tiiose, not educated to war whom Kentucky had given 
to the Rebellion. This work was bravely and speed- 
ily accomplislied, although against great odds. Pres- 
ident Lincoln, on his success commissioned him 
Brigadier-General, Jan. 10, 1862; and as "he had 
been the youngest man in the Ohio Senate two years 
before, so now he was the youngest General in the 
army." He was with Gen. Buell's army at Shiloh, 
in itsoperations around Corinth and its march through 
Alabama. He was then detailed as a memberof the 
General Court-Martial for the trial of Gen. Fitz-john 
Porter. He was tlien ordered to report to Gen. Rose- 
crans, and was assigned to the "Chief of Staff " 

The military 1^'story of Gen. Garfield closed v.-ith 

his brilliant services at Chickamauga, where he won 
the stars of the Major-General. 

Without an effort on his part Get? Garfield wa» 
elected to Congress in the fall of 1862 from the 
Nineteenth District of Ohio. This section of Ohio 
had been represented in Congress for si.xty years 
mainly by two men — Elisha Whittlesey and Joshua 
R. Giddings. It was not without a struggle that he 
resigned his place in the army. At the time he en- 
tered Congress he was the youngest member in that 
body. Ther;? he remained by successive re- 
elections until he was elected President in 18S0. 
Of liis labors in Congress Senator Hoar says : " Sinct 
the year 1864 you cannot think of a question which 
has been debated in Congress, or discussed before ;* 
tribunel of the American people, in regard to whict 
you will not find, if you wish mstruction, the argu- 
ment on one side stated, in almost every instance 
better than by anybody else, in some speech made in 
the House of Representatives or on the hustings by 
Mr. Garfield." 

Upon Jan. 14, 1880, Gen. Garfield was elected to 
the U. S. Senate, and on the eighth of June, of the 
same year, was nominated as the candidate of his 
party for President at the great Chicago Convention. 
He was elected in the following November, and on 
March 4, i88r, was inaugurated. Probably no ad- 
ministration ever opened its existence under brighter 
auspices than that of President Garfield, and every 
day it grew in favo; with the people, and by the first 
of July lie had completed all the initiatory and pre- 
liminary work of his administration and was prepar- 
ing to leave the city to meet his friends at Williams 
College. While on his way and at the depot, in com- 
pany with Secretary Blaine, a man stejiped behind 
him, drew a revolver, and fired directly at his back. 
The President tottered and fell, and as he did so the 
assassin fired a second shot, the bullet cutting the 
left coat sleeve of his victim, but in.licting no further 
injury. It has been very truthfully said that this was 
" the shot that was heard round the world " Never 
before in the jiistory of the Nation had anything oc- 
curred which so nearly froze the blood of the peop"'; 
for tlie moment, as this awful deed. He was smit- 
ten on the brightest, gladdest day of all his life, and 
was at the summit of his power and ho|)e. For eighty 
days, all during the hot months of July and August, 
lie lingered and suffered. He, however, remained 
master of himself till the last, and by his magnificent 
bearing was teaching the country and the world tlie 
noblest of human lessons — how to live grandly in the 
very clutch of death. Great in life, he was surpass- 
ingly great in death. He passed serenely away Sept. 
rg, 1883, at Elberon, N. J., on the very bank of tlie 
ocean, where he had been taken shortly previous. The 
world wept at his death, as it never had done on the 
death of any other man who had ever lived upon it. 
Tlie murderer was duly tried, found guilty and exe- 
cuted, in one year after he committed the foul deed. 






^T twenty-first Presi'^.^iu of the 
*- United States was born in 
Franklin Courty, Vermont, on 
« the fifth of Odober, 1830, and is 
the oldest of a family of two 
sons and five daughters. His 
father was the Rev. Dr. William 
Arthur, a Baptist c'.rgy man, who 
emigrated to tb.s countr)' from 
the county Antrim, Ireland, in 
his iSth year, and died in 1S75, in 
Newtonville, neai Albany, after a 
long and successful ministry- 
Young Arthur was educated at 
Union College, S( henectady, where 
he excelled in all his studies. Af- 
ter his graduation he taught school 
IJj] in Vermont for two years, and at 
Js the expiration cf that time came to 
New York, with $500 in his pocket, 
and eiUered the office of ex-Judge 
V E. D. Culver as student. After 
being admitted to the bar he formed 
a partnership with his intimate friend and room-mate, 
Henry D. Gardiner, with the intention of practicing 
m the West, and for three months they roamed about 
in the Western States in search of an eligible site, 
but in the end returned to New York, where they 
hung out their shingle, and entered upon a success^ 
ful career almost from the start. General Arthur 
soon afterward nwrred the daughter of Lieutenant 

Herndon, of the United States Navy, who was lost at 
sea. Congress voted a gold medal to his widow in 
recognition of the bravery he displayed on that occa- 
sion. Mrs. Arthur died shortly before Mr. Arthurs 
nomination to the Vice Presidency, leaving two 

Gen. Arthur obtained considerable legal celebrity 
in his first great case, the famous Lemmon suit, 
brought to recover possession of eight slaves who had 
been declared free by Judge Paine, of the Superior 
Court of New York City. It was in 1852 that Jon, 
athan Lemmon, of Virginia, went to New York with 
his slaves, intending to ship them to Texas, when 
they were discovered and freed. The Judge decided 
that they could not be held by the owner under the 
Fugitive Slave Law, A howl of rage went up from 
; the South, and the Virginia Legislature authorized the 
Attorney General of that State to assist in an appeal. 
Wm. M. Evarts and Chester A. Arthur were employed 
to represent the People, and they won their case, 
which then went to the Supreme Court of the United 
States. Charles O'Conor here espoused the cause 
of the slave-holders, but he too was beaten by Messrs 
Evarts and Arthur, and a long step was taken toward 
the emancipation of the black race. 

Another great service was rendered by General 
Artliur in the same cause in 1856. Lizzie Jennings, 
a respectable colored woman, was put off a Fourth 
Avenue car with violence after she had paid her fare. 
General Arthur sued on her behalf, and secured a 
verdict of $500 damages. The next day the compa- 
ny issued an order to admit colored persons to ride 
on their cars, and the other car companies quickly 


followed their example. Before that the Sixth Ave- 
nue Company ran a few special cars for colored per- 
sons and the other lines refused to let them ride at all. 

General Arthur was a delegate to the Convention 
at Saratoga that founded the Republican party. 
Previous to the war he was Judge-Advocate of the 
Second Brigade of the State of New York, and Gov- 
ernor Morgan, of that State, apjxiinted hmi Engineer- 
in-Chief of his staff. In 1861, he was made Inspec- 
tor General, and soon afterward became Quartermas- 
ter-General. In each of these offices he rendered 
great service to the Government during the war. At 
the end of Governor Morgan's term he resumed the 
practice of the law, forming a partnership with Mr. 
Ransom, and then Mr. Phelps, the District Attorney 
of New York, was added to the firm. The legal prac- 
tice of this well-known firm was very large and lucra- 
tive, each of the gentlemen composing it were able 
lawyers, and possessed a splendid local reputation, if 
not indeed one of national extent. 

He always took a leading part in State and city 
politics. He was appointed Collector of the Port of 
New York by President Grant, Nov. 21 1872, to suc- 
ceed Thomas Murphy, and held the office until July, 
20, 1 878, when he was succeeded by Collector Merritt. 

Mr. Arthur was nominated on the Presidential 
ticket, with Gen. James A. Garfield, at the famous 
National Republican Convention held at Chicago in 
June, 1880. This was perhaps the greatest political 
convention that ever assembled on the continent. It 
was composed of the 'sading politicians of the Re- 
publican party, all able men, and each stood firm and 
fought vigorously and with signal tenacity for their 
respective candidates that were before the conven- 
tion for the nomination. Finally Gen. Garfield re- 
ceived the nomination for President and Gen. Arthur 
for Vice-President. The campaign which followed 
was one of the most animated known in the history of 
our country. Gen. Hancock, the standard-bearer of 
the Democratic party, was a popular man, and his 
party made a valiant fight for his election. 

Finally the election came and the country's choice 
.vas Garfield and Arthur. They were inaugurated 
March 4, 1881, as President and Vice-President. 
A few months only had passed ere the newly chosen 
President was the victim of the assassin's bullet. Then 
came terrible weeks of suffering, — those moments of 
anxious suspense, wher the hearts of all civilized na- 

tions were throbbing in unison, longing for the re 
covery of the noble, the good President. The remark- 
able patience that he manifested during those hours 
and weeks, and even months, of the most terrible suf- 
fering man has often been called upon to endure, was 
seemingly more than human. It was certainly God- 
like. During all this period of deepest anxiety Mr. 
Arthur's every move was watched, and be it said to his 
credit that his every action displayed only an earnest 
desire that the suffering Garfield might recover, to 
serve the remainder of the term he had so auspi- 
ciously begun. Not a selfish feeling was manifested 
in deed or look of this man, even though the most 
honored position in the world was at any moment 
likely to fall to him. 

At last God in his mercy relieved President Gar- 
field from further suffering, and the world, as never 
before in its history over the death of any other 
man, wept at his bier. Then it became the duty of 
the Vice President to assume the responsibilities of 
the high office, and he took the oath in New York, 
Sept. 20, i88i. The position was an embarrassing 
one to him, made doubly so from the facts that all 
eyes were on him, anxious to know what he would do, 
what policy he would pursue, and who he would se- 
lect as advisers. The duties of the office had been 
greatly neglected during the President's long illness, 
and many important measures were to be immediately 
decided by him; and still farther to embarrass him he 
did not fail to realize under what circumstances he 
became President, and knew the feelings of many on 
this point. Under these trying circumstances President 
Arthur took the reins of the Government in his own 
hands; and, as embarrassing as were the condition of 
affairs, he happily surprised the nation, acting so 
wisely that but few criticised his administration. 
He served the nation well and faithfully, until the 
close of his administration, March 4, 1885, and was 
a popular candidate before his party for a second 
term. His name was ably presented before the con- 
vention at Chicago, and was received with great 
favor, and doubtless but for the personal popularity 
of one of the opposing candidates, he would have 
been selected as the standard-bearer of his party 
for another campaign. He retired to private life car- 
r)'ing with him the best wishes of the American peo- 
ple, whom he had served in a manner satisfactory 
to them and with credit to himself. 

ryi^tn^r C/^c<uc^c<iyiy^\i^^ 



'^^''"'^'<^^'^-^"^*'^^^'''C*iS'^''gr*&^'^C'Q'^ ''C'^^'^c3^'''Cj-'^Z^'C*®'^ 

r0i0er dexjefamd. 


LAND, thetwenty-second Pres- 
ident of the United States, was 
born in 1837, in the obscure 
town of Caldwell, Essex Co., 
N. J., and in a little two-and-a- 
half-story white house which is still 
standing, characteristically to mark 
the humble birth-place of one of 
America's great men in striking con- 
trast with the Old World, where all 
men high in office must be high in 
origin and born in the cradle of 
wealth. When the subject of this 
sketch was three years of age, his 
father, who was a Presbyteriin min- 
ister, with a large family and a small salary, moved, 
by way cf the Hudson River and Erie Canal, to 
Fayetteville, in search of an increased income and a 
larger field of work. Fayetteville was then the most 
straggling of country villages, about five miles from 
Pompey Hill, where Governor Seymour was born. 

At the last mentioned place young Grover com- 
menced going to school in the " good, old-fashioned 
way," and presumably distinguished himself after the 
manner of all village boys, in doing the things he 
ought not to do. Such is the distinguishing trait of 
all geniuses and independent thinkers. When he 
arrived at the age of 14 years, he had outgrown the 
capacity of the village school and expressed a most 

emphatic desire to be sent to an academy. To this 
his father decidedly objected. Academies in those 
days cost money; besides, his father wanted him to 
become self-supporting by the quickest possible 
means, and this at that time in Fayette/ille seemed 
to be a position in a country store, where his father 
and the large family on his hands had considerable 
influence. Grover was to be paid $50 for his services 
the first year, and if he proved trustworthy he was to 
receive $too the second year. Here the lad com- 
menced his career as salesman, and in two years he 
had earned so good a reputation for trustworthiness 
that his employers desired to retain him for an in- 
definite length of time. Otherwise he did not ex- 
hibit as yet any particular " flashes of genius " or 
eccentricities of talent. He was simply a good boy. 
But instead of remaining with this firm in Fayette- 
ville, he went with the family in their removal to 
Clinton, where he had an opportunity of attending a 
high school. Here he industriously pursued his 
studies until the family removed with him to a point 
on Black River known as the " Holland Patent," a 
village of 500 or 600 people, 15 miles north of Utica, 
N. Y. At this place his father died, after preaching 
but three Sundays. This event broke up the family, 
and Grover set out for New York City to accept, at a 
small salary, the position of " under-teacher " in an 
asylum for the blind. He taught faithfully for two 
years, and although he obtained a good reputation in 
this capacity, he concluded that teaching was not his 



calling for life, and, reversing the traditional order, 
ne left the city to seek his fortune, instead of going 
to a city. He first thought of Cleveland, Ohio, as 
uiere was some charm in that name for him; but 
before proceeding to that place he went to Buffalo to 
isk the advice of his uncle, Lewis F. Allan, a noted 
stock-breeder of that place. The latter did not 
ri)eak enthusiastically. "What is it you want to do, 
my boy?" he asked. "Well, sir, I want to study 
law," was the reply, "Good gracious!" remarked 
the old gentleman; " do you, indeed .' What ever put 
that into your head? How much money have you 
got?" '^" Well, sir, to tell the truth, I haven't got 



After a long consultation, his uncle offered him a 
place temporarily as assistant herd-keeper, at $50 a 
year, wiiilc iid could "look around." One day soon 
afterward he boldly walked into the ofSce of Rogers, 
Bowen & Rogers, of Buffalo, and told Ihem what he 
wanted. A number of young men were already en- 
gaged in the office, but Grover's persistency won, and 
ne was finally permitted to come as an office boy and 
r.ave the use of the law library, for the nominal sum 
of $3 or $4 a week. Out of this he had to pay for 
his board and washing. The walk to and from his 
uncle's was a long and rugged one; and, although 
the first winter was a memorably severe cine, his 
shoes were out of repair and his overcoat — he had 
none — yet he was nevertheless prompt and regular. 
On the first day of his service here, his senior em- 
ployer threw down a copy of Blackstone before him 
with a bang that made the dust fly, saying "That's 
where they all begin." A titter ran around the little 
circle of clerks and students, as they thought that 
was enough to scare young Grover out of his plans ; 
out indue time he mastered that cumbersome volume. 
Then, as ever afterward, however, Mr. Cleveland 
exhibited a talent for executiveness rather than for 
chasing principles through all their metaphysical 
possibilities. " Let us quit talking and go and do 
t," was practically his motto. 

The first public office to which Mr. Cleveland was 
elected was that of Sheriff of Erie Co., N. Y., in 
which Buffalo is situated; and in such capacity it fell 
to his duty to inflict capital punishment upon two 
ctinunals. Li 18S1 he was elected Mayor of the 
City of Buffalo, or the Democratic ticket, v/ith es- 
pecial reference to the bringing about certain reforms 

in the administration of the municipal affairs of that 
city. In this office, as well as that of Sheriff, his 
performance of duty has generally been considered 
fair, with possibly a few exceptions which were fer- 
reted out and magnified during the last Presidential 
campaign. As a specimen of his plain language in 
a veto message, we quote from one vetoing an iniqui- 
tous street-cleaning contract: "This is a time for 
plain speech, and my objection to your action shall 
be plainly stated. I regard it as the culmination of 
a mos bare-faced, impudent and shameless scheme 
to betray the interests of the people and to worse 
than squander the people's money," The New York 
Sun afterward very highly commended Mr. Cleve- 
land's administration as Mayor of Buffalo, and there- 
upon recommended him for Governor of the Empire 
State. To the latter office he was elected in 1S82, 
and his administration of the affairs of State was 
generally satisfactory. The mistakes he made^ if 
any, were made very public throughout the nation 
after he was nominated for President of the United 
States. For this high office he was nominated July 
ir, 1S84, by the National Democratic Convention iX 
Chicago, when other competitors were Thomas F. 
Bayard, Roswell P. Flower, Thomas A. Hendricks, 
Benjamin F. Butler, Allen G. Thurman, etc.: and he 
was elected by the people, by a majority of about a 
thousand, over the brilliant and long-tried Repub- 
lican statesman, James G. Blaine. President Cleve- 
land resigned his office as Governor of New York in 
January, 1885, in order to prepare for his duties as 
the Chief Executive of the United States, in which 
capacity his term commenced at noon on the 4th of 
March, 1885. For his Cabinet officers he selected 
tlie following gentlemen: For Secretary of State, 
Thomas F. Bayard, of Delaware ; Secretary of the 
Treasury, Daniel Manning, of New York ; Secretary 
of War, William C. Endicott, of Massachusetts; 
Secretary of the Navy, William C. Whitney, of New 
York; Secretary of the Interior, L. Q. C. Lamar, cf 
Mississippi ; Postmaster-General, William F. Vilas, 
of Wisconsin ; Attorney-General, A. H. Garland, of 

The silver question precipitated a controversy be- 
tween those who were in favor of the continuance of 
silver coinage and those who were opposed, Mr. 
Cleveland ansv/ering for the latter, even before his 

. ^iA^a 




'^Qn^a^inin ^.ai^^mon^ 



\ , '„wenty-tbiid President, is 
>'&> the descendant of one of tlie 
historical families of this 
country. The head of tiie 
family was a Major General 
Harrison, one of Oliver 
CromweU's trusted follow- 
ers and fighters. In the zenit.hof Crom- 
well's power it became the duty of this 
Harrison to participate in the trial of 
Charles I, and afterward to sign the 
deaih warrant of the king. He subse- 
quently paid for this with his life, being 
hung Oct. 13, IGGO. His descendants 
came to America, and the next of the 
fam'ily that appears in history' is Benja- 
min Harrison, of Virginia, great-grand- 
father of the subject of this sketch, and 
after wliom he was named. Benjamin Harrison 
wa:; a member of the Continental Congress during 
the years i774-5-G, and was one of the original 
signers of the Declaration of Independence. He 
was three times elected Governor of Virginia. 
Gen William Henry Harrison, the son of the 

distinguished patriot of the Revolution, after a suc- 
cessful career as a soldier during the War of 1812, 
and with -a clean record as Governor of the North- 
western Territory, was elected President of the 
United States in 1840. His career was cut short 
by de.ath within one month after ais inauguration. 
President Harrison was born at Nortli Bend, 
Hamilton Co., Ohio, Aug. "^0, 1833. His life up to 
the time of his graduation by the Miami University 
at Oxford, Ohio, was the uneventful one of a coun- 
try lad of a family of small means. His father was 
able to give him a good education, and nothing 
more. He became engaged while at college to tho 
daughter of Dr.. Scott, Principal of a female schoo 
at Oxford. After graduating he determined to en- 
ter upon the stud}' of the law. He went to Cin 
cinnati and then read law for two years. At tht 
expiration of that time young Harrison receiv.d tb . 
only inheritance of his life ; his aunt dying left uin. 
a lot valued at §800. He regarded this legacy as a 
fortune, and decided to get married at once, taks 
this money and goto some Eastern town an ', be- 
gin the practice of law. He sold his lot, and with 
the money in his pocket, he started out wita his 
young wife to fight for a place \\\ the world. Ke 


uKlvjAMlM ifARRlSON. 

decided to go to Indianapolis, which was even nt 
that time a town of promise. He met with slight 
encouragement at first, making scarcely anj'thing 
Ihe first j-ear. He worked diligently', appl3-ing him- 
self closely to his calling, built up an extensive 
practice and took a leading rank in the legal pro- 
I'ession. He is the father of two children. 

In 186C Mr. Harrison was nouiiuated for tlie 
position of Supreme Court Reporter, and then be- 
gan liis experience as a stump speuke: He can- 
vassed the State thoroughly, and was elected by a 
handsome majority. In 1862 he raised the 17th 
Indiana Infantry, and was chosen its Colonel. His 
regiment was composed of the rawest of material, 
out Col. Harrison employed all his time at first 
mastering military tactics and drilling his men, 
when he therefore came to move toward the East 
with Sherman his regiment was one of the best 
ca-illed and organized in the army. At Resaca he 
especially distinguished himself, and for his bravery 
r.t Peachtree Creek he was made a Brig.adier Gen- 
eral, Gen. Hooker speaking of him in the most 
complimenlar}' terms. 

During the absence of Gen. Harrison in the field 
he Supreme Court declared the olHce of the Su- 
preme Court Reporter vacant, and another person 
was elected to the position. From the time of leav- 
ing Indiana with his regiment until the fall of 1864 
he had taken no leave of absence, but having been 
nominated that year for the same office, he got a 
thirty-day leave of absence, and during that time 
made a brilliant canvass of the State, and was elected 
for another terra. He then started to rejoin Sher- 
a;an, buton the way was stricken down with scarlet 
_ever, and after a most trying siege made his way 
to the front in time to participate in the closing 
xcideuts of the war. 

In 18G8Gen. Harrison declined re-election as 
.■eporter, and resumed the practice of law. In 1876 
£6 was a candidate for Governor. Although de- 
eated, the brilliant campaign he made won for him 
1 National reputation, and he was much sought, es- 
pecial.y in the East, to make speeches. In 1880, 
as usual, he took an active part in the campaign, 
i^nd vfw. elected to the United States Senate. Here 
he served six years, and T7as known as one oi the 
itblest men, best lawyer? apd sti'ougest debaters in 

that body. With the expiration of his Senatoriii! 
term he returned to the practice of his profession, 
becoming the head of one of the strongest firms in 
the State. 

The political campaign of 1888 was one of the 
most memorable in the history of our countr}'. The 
convention which assembled in Chicago in June and 
named Mr. Harrison as the chief standard bearer 
of the Republican party, was great in every partic- 
ular, and on this account, and the attitude it as- 
sumed ufron the vital questions of the day, chief 
among which was the tariff, awoke a deep interest 
in the campaign throughout the Nation. Shortly 
after the nomination delegations began to visit Mr. 
Harrison at Indianapolis, his homo. This move- 
ment became popular, and from all sections of the 
country societies, clubs and delegations journeyed 
thither to paj' their respects to the distinguished 
statesman. The popularity of these was greatly 
increased on account of the remarkable speeches 
made by Mr. Harrison. He spoke daily all through 
the summer and autumn to these visiting delega- 
tions, and so varied, masterly and eloquent were 
his speeches that they at once placed him in the 
foremost rank of American orators and statesmen. 

On account of his eloquence as a speaker and his 
power as a debater, he was called iipon at an un- 
commonly early age to talie part in the discussion 
of the great questions that then began t j agitate 
the country. He was an uncompromising ant: 
slavery man, and was matched against some of u'-e 
most eminent Dem(,cratic speakers of his State. 
No man who felt the touch of his blade de ired to 
be pitted with him again. "With all his eloq-'enco 
as an orator he never spoke for oratorical effect, 
but his words always went like bullets to the mark 
He is purelj' American in his ideas and is a spier 
did type of the American statesman. Gifted will 
quick perception, a logical mind and a ready tongue. 
he is one of the most distinguished impromptu 
speakers in the Nation. JMany of these speeches 
sparkled with the rarest of eloquence and containeci 
arguments of greatest weight. Many of Ins terse 
statements have already become aphorisms. Origi- 
nal in thought, precise in logic, terse in statement, 
yet withal faultless in eloquence, he is recognized as 
the sound statesman ami brilliant orator o- tac day 





> HADRACH BOND, ihe first 
Governor of Illinois after its 
organization r.s a State, serving 
from 1818 to 1822, was born in 
.:j Frederick County, Maryland, 
^ ^ "■> ti'e year 1773, and was 
raised a farmer 011 his father's 
plantation, receiving a plain 
English education. He emigrated 
to this State in 1794, when it was a 
part of the "Northwest Territory," 
continuing in tlie vocation in which 
he had been brought up in his native 
State, in the " New Design," near 
Eagle Creek, in what is now Monroe 
County. He served several terms as 
a member of the General Assembly 
of Indiana Territory, after it was organized as such, 
and in 1S12-14 he was a Delegate to the Twelfth 
and Thirteenth Congresses, taking his seat Dec. 3, 
1812, and serving until Oct. 3, 1814. These were 
ihe times, the reader will recollect, when this Gov- 
ernment had its last struggle with Great Britain. 
The year 181213 also noted in the history of this 
State as that in which the first Territorial Legislature 
was held. It convened at Kaskaskia, Nov. 25, and 
adjourned Dec. 26, following. 

While serving as Delegate to Congress, Mr. Bond 
\vas instrumental in procuring the right of pre-emp- 
t on on the pu!)lic domain. On the expiration of his 
lenn at W.ishington he was appointed Receiver of 
Public Moneys at Kaskaskia, then the capital of the 
Territory. In company wiih John G. Comyges, 

Thomas H. Harris, Charles Slade, Michael Jones, 
Warren Brown, Edward Humphries and Charles W 
Hunter, he became a proprietor of the site of the 
initial city of Cairo, which they hoped, from its favor- 
able location at the junction of the two great 
rivers near the center of the Great West, would 
rapidly develop into a metropolis. To aid the enter- 
prise, they obtained a special charter from the Legis- 
lature, incorporating both the City and the Bank of 

In 1818 Mr. Bond was elected the first Governor 
of the State of Illinois, being inaugurated Oct. 6 
that year, whicii was several weeks before Illinois 
was actually admitted. The facts are these: In 
January, 1818, the Territorial Legislature sent a peti- 
tion to Congress for the admission of Illinois as a 
State, Nathaniel Pope being then Delegate. The 
petition was granted, fixing the northern line of the 
State on the latitude of the southern e.vtremity of 
Lake Michigan ; but the bill was afterward so amend- 
ed as to extend this line to its present latitude. In 
July a convention was called at Kaskaskia to draft a 
constitution, which, liowever, was not submitted to 
the people. By its provisions, supreme judges, pros 
ecuting attorneys, county and circuit judges, record- 
ers and justices of the peace were all to be appointed 
by the Governor or elected by the Legislature. This 
constitution was accepted by Congress Dec. 30. At 
that time Illinois comprised but eleven counties, 
namely, Randolph, Madison, Gallatin, Johnson, 
Pope, Jackson, Crawford, Bond, Union, Washington 
and Franklin, the northern jjortion of tlie State be- 
ing mainly in Madison County. Thus it appears 
that Mr. Bond was honored by the naming of a 

LdnrT-UAD Ccr{j2<^ 



}£bwai5 Coles. 


;^)-gg-'<llll>-J®>^ : ■-<>- 

Governor of Illinois, 1823- 
6, was born Dec. 15, 1786, 
\n Albemarle Co., Va., on 
the old family estate called 
" E nniscorthy," on the 
Green Mountain. His fath- 
er, John Coles, was a Colonel in the 
Revolutionary War. Having been fit- 
ted for college by private tutors, he 
was sent to Hampden Sidney, where 
he remained until the autumn of 1805, 
when be was removed to William and 
fCT) ilt^iV Mary College, at Williamsburg, Va. 
''yi'Jj!,.^ This college he left in the summer of 
1S07, a short time before the final and graduating 
examination. Among his classmates were Lieut. 
Gen. Scott, President Joiin Tyler, Wni. S. Archer, 
United States Senator from Virginia, and Justice 
Baldwin, of the United States Supreme Court. The 
President of the latter college. Bishop Madison, was 
a cousin of President James Madison, and tiiat cir- 
cumstance was the occasion of Mr. Coles becoming 
personally acquainted with the President and re- 
ceiving a position as his private secretary, 1809-15. 
The family of Coles was a prominent one in Vir- 
ginia, and their mansion was the seat of the old- 
fashioned Virginian hospitality. It was visited by 
such notables as Patrick Henry, JeiTerson, Madison, 
Monroe, the Randolphs, Tazewell, Wirt, etc. At the 
age of 23, young Coles found himself heir to a plant- 
ation and a considerable number of slaves. Even- 
since his earlier college djys his attention had been 
drawn to the question of slavery. He read every- 

thing on the subject that came in his way, and 
listened to lectures on the rights of man. The more 
he reflected upon the subject, the more impossible 
was it for him to reconcile the immortal declaration 
"that all men are born free and equal " with the 
practice of slave-holding. He resolved, therefore, to 
free his slaves the first opportunity, and even remove 
his residence to a free State. One reason which de- 
termined him to accept the appointment as private 
secretary to Mr. M.idison was because he believed 
that through the acquaintances he could make at 
Washington he could better determine in what par', 
of the non-slaveholding portion of the Union he wouIg 
prefer to settle. 

The relations between Mr. Coles and President 
Madison, as well as Jefferson and other distinguished 
men, were of a very friendly character, arising from 
the similarity of their views on the question of slavery 
and their sympathy for each other in holding doc- 
trines so much at variance with the prevailing senti- 
ment in their own State. 

In 1857, he resigned his secretaryship and spent a 
portion of the following autumn in exploring the 
Northwest Territory, for the purpose of finding a lo- 
cation and purchasing lands on which to settle his 
negroes. He traveled with a horse and buggy, with 
an extra man and horse for emergencies, through 
many parts of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Missouri, 
determining finally to settle iu Illinois. At this time, 
however, a misunderstanding arose between our 
Government and Russia, and Mr. Coles was selected 
to repair to St. Petersburg on a special mission, bear- 
ing important papers concerning the matter at issue 
The result was a conviction of the Emperor (Alex- 



anddr) of the error committed by his minister at 
Wiishington, and the consequent withdrawal of the 
the latter from the post. On his return, Mr. Coles 
visited oiher ijarts of Europe, especially Paris, where 
he was introduced to Gen. Lafayette. 

In the spring of i8ig, he removed with all his 
negroes from Virginia to Edvvardsville, 111., with the 
intention of giving them their liberty. He did not 
make known to them his intention until one beautiful 
morning in April, as they were descending the Ohio 
River. He lashed all the boats together and called 
all the negroes on deck and made them a short ad- 
dress, concluding his remarks by so expressing him- 
self that by a turn of a sentence he proclaimed in 
the shortest and fullest manner that they were no 
longer slaves, but free as he was and were at liberty 
to proceed with him or go ashore at their pleas- 
ure. A description of the effect upon the negroes is 
best desctibed in his own language : 

" The effect upon them was electrical. They stared 
at ir.e and then at each otlier, as if doubting the ac- 
curacy or reality of what they heard. In breathless 
silence they stood before me, unable to utter a word, 
but with countenances beaming with expression which 
no words could convey, and which no language 
can describe. As they began to see the truth of 
what they had heard, and realize their situation, there 
came on a kind of hysterical, giggling laugh. After 
a pause of intense and unutterable emotion, bathed 
in tears, and with tremulous voices, they gave vent to 
their gratitude and implored the blessing of God 
on me." 

Before landing he gave them a general certificate 
of freedom, and afterward conformed more particu- 
larly with the law of this State requiring that each 
individual should have a certificate. This act of 
Mr. Coles, all the more noble and heroic considering 
the overwhelming pro-slavery influences surrounding 
him, has challenged the admiration of every philan- 
thropist of modern times. 

March 5, 1819, President Monroe appointed Mr. 
Coles Registrar of the Land Office at EdwardsviLe, 
at that time one of the principal land offices in the 
State. While acting in this capacity and gaining 
many friends by his politeness and general intelli- 
gence, the greatest struggle that ever occurred in 
Illinois on the slavery question culminated in the 
furious contest characterizing the campaigns and 
elections of 1822-4. I'l the summer of 1823, when a 
new Governor was to be elected to succeed Mr. 
Bond, the pro-slavery element divided into factions, 
IHiiting forward for the executive office Joseph 
Phillips, Chief Justice of the State, Thomas C. 
Browne and Gen. James B. Moore, of the State Mil- 
i;ia. The anti-slavery element united upon Mr. 
Coles, and, after one of the most bitter campaigns, 
succeeded in electing him as Governor. His plural- 
ity over Judge Phillips was only 59 in a total vote of 

over 8,000. The Lieutenant Governor was elected 
by the slavery men. Mr. Coles' inauguration speech 
was marked by calmness, deliberation and such a 
wise expression of appropriate suggestions as to 
elicit the sanction of all judicious politicians. But 
he compromised not with evil. In his message to 
the Legislature, the seat of Government being then 
at Vandalia, he strongly urged the abrogation of the 
modified form of slavery whi';h then existed in this 
State, contrary to the Ordinance of 1787. His posi- 
tion on this subject seems the more remarkable, when 
it is considered that he was a minority Governor, the 
population of Illinois being at that time almost ex- 
clusively from slave-holding States and by a large 
majority in favor of the perpetuation of that old relic 
of barbarism. The Legislature itself was, of course, 
a reflex of the popular sentiment, and a majority of 
them were led on by fiery men in denunciations of 
the conscientious Governor, and in curses loud and 
deep upon him and all his friends. Some of the 
public men, indeed, went so far as to head a sort of 
mob, or " shiveree " party, who visited the residence 
of the Governor and others at Vandalia and yelled 
and groaned and spat fire. 

The Constitution, not establishing or permitting 
slavery in this State, was thought therefore to be 
defective by the slavery politicians, and they desired 
a State Convention to be elected, to devise and sub- 
mit a new Constitution; and the dominant politics 
of t_]Te day was "Convention" and "anti-Conven- 
tion." Both parties issued addresses to the people, 
Gov. Coles himself being the author of the address 
pubHshed by the latter party. This address revealed 
the schemes of the conspirators in a masterly man- 
ner. It is difficult for us at this distant day to esti- 
mate the critical and e.\tremely delicate situation in 
which the Governor was placed at that time. 

Our hero maintained liimself honorably and with 
supreme dignity throughout his administration, and 
in his honor a county in this State is named. He 
was truly a great man, and those who lived in 
this State during his sojourn here, like those who 
live at the base of the mountain, were too near to see 
and recognize the greatness that overshadowed them. 

Mr. Coles was married Nov. 28, 1833, by Bishop 
De Lancey, to Miss Sally Logan Roberts, a daughter 
of Hugh Roberts, a descendant of Welsh ancestrv, 
who cami to this country with Wm. Penn in 1682. 

After the expiration of his term of service. Gov. 
Coles continued his residence in Edwardsville, sup- 
erintending his farm in the vicinity. He was fond 
of agriculture, and was the founder of the first agri- 
cultural society in the State. On account of ill 
health, however, and having no fannly to tie him 
down, he spent much of his time in Eastern cities. 
About 1832 he changed his residence to Philadel- 
\i\\\A, where he died July 7, 186S, and is buried at 
Woodland, near that city. 

C^y/^'C^^C--<^'.--yn^ O c^-c^^ 



INI AN EDWARDS, Govei nor 
from 1827 to 1830, was asoa 
of Benjamin Edwards, and 
was born in Montgomery 
^^/o County, Maryland, in March, 
1775. His domestic train- 
ing was well fitted to give 
his mind strength, firmness and 
hor.orable principles, and a good 
foundation was laid for the elevated 
character to which he afterwards 
attained. His parents were Bap- 
tists, and very strict in their moral 
piinciples. His education in early 
youth was in company with and 
partly under the tuition of Hon. Wm. 
Wirt, whom liis father patronized 
and who was more than two years 
older. An intimacy was thus 
formed between them which was lasting for life. He 
was further educated at Dickinson College, at Car- 
lisle, Pa. He ne.>ct commenced the study of law, Init 
before completing his course he moved to Nelson 
County, Ky., to open a farm for his father and to 
purchase homes and locate lands for his brothers and 
sisters. Here he fell in the company of dissolute 
companions, and for several years led the life of a 
spendtlirift. He was, however, elected to the Legis- 
lature of Kentucky as the Representative of Nelson 
county before he was 21 years of age, and was re- 
elected by an almost unanimous vote. 

In 1798 he was iicensed to practice law, and the 
following year was admitted to the Courts of Tennes- 
see. About this time he left Nelson County for 
Ru.ssellville, in Logan County, broke away from his 
dissolute companions, commenced a reformation and 
devoted himself to severe and laborious study. He 
then began to rise rapidly in his profession, and soon 
became an eminent lawyer, and inside of four years 
he filled in succession the offices of Presiding Judge 
of the General Court, Circuit Judge, fourth Judge of 
the Court of Appeals and Chief Justice of the State, 
— all before he was 32 years of age! In addition, in 
1802, he received a commission as Major of a battal- 
ion of Kentucky militia, and in 1S04 was chosen a 
Presidential Elector, on the Jefferson and Clinton 
ticket. In 1806 he was a candidate for Congress, 
but withdrew on being promoted to the Court of 

Illinois was organized as a separate Territory in 
the spring of i8og, when Mr. Edwards, then Chief 
Justice of the Court of Appeals in Kentucky, received 
from President Madison the appointment as Gover- 
nor of the new Territory, his commission bearing date 
April 24, r8o9. Edwards arrived at Kaskaskia in 
June, and on the r ith of that month took the oath of 
office. At the same time he was appointed Superin- 
tendent of the United States Saline, this Government 
interest then developing into considerable proportions 
in Southern Illinois. Although during the first three 
years of his administration he had the power to make 
new counties and appoint all the officers, yet he always 
allowed the people of each county, by an informal 


vote, to select their own officers, both civil and mili- 
tary. The noted John J. Crittenden, afterward 
United States Senator from Kentucky, was appointed 
by Gev. Edwards to the office of Attorney General of 
the Territory, which office was accepted for a short 
time only. 

The Indians in i8io committing sundry depreda- 
tions in the Territory, crossing the Mississippi from 
the Territory of Louisiana, a long correspondence fol- 
lowed between the respective Governors concerning 
the remedies, which ended in a council with the sav- 
ages at Peoria in 1S12, and a fresh interpretation of 
the treaties. Peoria was depopulated by these de- 
predations, and was not re-settled fof many je.irs 

As Gov. Edwards' term of office expired by law in 
1812, he was re-appointed for another term of three 
years, and again in 1815 for a third terra, serving 
until the organization of the State in the fall of 18 18 
£.nd the inauguration of Gov. Bond. At this time 
ex-Gov, Edwards was sent to the United States 
Senate, his colleague being Jesse B. Thomas. As 
Senator, Mr. Edwards took a conspicuous part, and 
acquitted himself honorably in all the measures that 
came up in that body, being well posted, an able de- 
bater and a conscientious statesman. He thought 
ceriously of resigning this situation in 182 1, but was 
persuaded by his old friend, Wm. Wirt, and others to 
continue in office, which he did to the end of the 

He was then appointed Minister to Mexico by 
President Monroe. About this time, it appears that 
Mr. Edwards saw suspicious signs in the conduct of 
Wra. H. Crawford, Secretary of the United States 
Treasury, and an ambitious candidate for the Presi- 
deiicy, and being implicated by the latter in some of 
his statements, he resigned his Mexican mission in 
order fully to investigate the charges. The result 
was the exculpation of Mr. Edwards. 

Pro-slavery regulations, often termed "Black Laws," 
Ciisgraced the statute books of both the Territory and 
lie State of Illinois during the whole of his career in 
Jiis commonwealth, and Mr. Edwards always main- 
tained the doctrines of freedom, and was an important 
.■ ctor in tlie great struggle which ended in a victory 
for his party in 1824. 

In 1826 7 the Winnebago and other Indians com- 
mitted sou-e depredations in the northern part of the 

State, and the white settlers, who desired the hind'; 
and wished to exasperate the savages into an evacu- 
ation of the country, magnified the misdemeanors of 
the aborigines and thereby produced a hostility be- 
tween the races so great as to precipitate a little war, 
known in history as the "Winnebago War." A few 
chases and skirmishes were had, when Gen. Atkinson 
succeeded in capturing Red Bird, the Indian chief, 
and putting him to death, thus ending the contest, at 
least until the troubles commenced which ended in 
the " Black Hawk War " of 1832. In the interpre- 
tation of treaties and execution of their provisions 
Gov. Edwards had much vexatious work to do. The 
Indians kept themselves generally within the juris- 
diction of Michigan Territory, and its' Governor, 
Lewis Cass, was at a point so remote that ready cor- 
respondence with him was difficult or impossible. 
Gov. Edwards' administration, however, in regard to 
the protection of the Illinois frontier, seems to have 
been very efficient and satisfactory. 

For a considerable portion of his time after his re- 
moval to Illinois, Gov. Edwards resided upon his 
farm near Kaskaskia, which he had well stocked with 
horses, cattle and sheep from Kentucky, also with 
fruit-trees, grape-vines and shrubbery. He estab- 
lished saw and grist-mills, and engaged extensively 
in mercantile business, having no less than eight or ten 
stores in this State and Missouri. Notwithstanding 
the arduous duties of his office, he nearly always pur- 
chased the goods himself with which to supply the 
stores. Although not a regular practitioner of medi- 
cine, he studied the healing art to a considerable ex- 
tent, and took great pleasure in prescribing for, and 
taking care of, the sick, generally without charge. 
He WAS also liberal to the poor, several widows and 
ministers of the gospel becoming indebted to him 
even for their homes. 

He married Miss Elvira Lane, of Maryland, in 
1803, and they became the affectionate parents of 
several children, one of whom, especially, is weh' 
known to the people of the " Prairie State," namely, 
Ninian Wirt Edwards, once the Superintendent c' 
Public Instruction and still a resident of Springfield 
Gov. Edwards resided at and in the vicinity of Kas- 
kaskia from 1809 to 1818; in Edwardsville (named 
after him) from that time to 1824; and from the lat- 
ter date at Belleville, St. Clair County, until his 
death, July 20, 1833, of Asiatic ciiolera. Edwards 
County is also named in his honor. 




I^OHN REYNOLDS, Governor 1831- 

{;%»« 4. ^vas born in Montgomery Coun- 
5': ty, Pennsylvania, Feb. 26, 17S8. 
His father, Robert Reynolds and 
•&£i/r \v^ 'pS- his mother, «("^ Margaret Moore, 
were both natives of Ireland, from 
which country they emigrated to 
the United States in 1785, land- 
ing at Philadelphia. The senior 
Reynolds entertained an undying 
hostility to the British Govern- 
ment. When the subject of this 
sketch was about six months old, 
his parents emigrated with him to 
Tennessee, where many of their 
relatives had already located, at the base of the 
Copper Ridge Mountain, about 14 miles northeast of 
the present city of Knoxville. There they were ex- 
posed to Indian depredations, and were much molest- 
ed by them. In 1794 they moved into the interior 
of the State. They were poor, and brought up their 
children to habits of manual industry. 

In 1800 the family removed to Kaskaskia, 111., with 
eight horses and two wagons, encountering many 
Hardships on the way. Here young Reynolds passed 
the most of his childhood, while his character began 
to develop, the most prominent traits of which were 
ambition and energy. He also adopted the principle 
and practice of total abstinence from intoxicating 
liquors. In 1807 the family made another removal, 

this time to the " Goshen Settlement," at the foot of 
the Mississippi bluffs three or four miles southwest 
of Edwardsville. 

On arriving at his 20th year, Mr. Reynolds, seeing 
tliat he must look about for his own livelihood and 
not yet having determined what calling to pursue, 
concluded first to attend college, and he accordingly 
went to such an institution of learning, near Knox- 
ville, Tenn., where he had relatives. Imagine his 
diffidence, when, after passing the first 20 years of 
his life without ever having seen a carpet, a papered 
wall or a Windsor chair, and never having lived in a 
shingle-roofed house, he suddenly ushered himself 
into the society of the wealthy in the vicinity of 
Knoxville! He attended college nearly two years, 
going through the principal Latin authors; but it 
seems that he, like the rest of the world in modern 
times, had but very little use for his Latin in after 
life. He always failed, indeed, to exhibit any good 
degree of literary discipline. He commenced the 
study of law in Knoxville, but a pulmonary trouble 
came on and compelled him to change his mode 
of life. Accordingly he returned home and re- 
cuperated, and in 18 12 resumed his college and 
law studies at Knoxville. In the fall of 18 12 he was 
admitted to the Bar at Kaskaskia. About this time 
he also learned the French language, which he 
practiced with pleasure in conversation with his 
family for many years. He regarded this language 
as being superior to all others for social intercpurse. 



From his services in the West, in the war oi i8i 2, 
he obtained the sobriquet of the " Old Ranger." He 
was Orderly Sergeant, then Judge Advocate. 

Mr. Reynolds opened his first law office in the 
winter and s'pring of 1814, inthe French village of 
Cahokia, then the capital of St. Clair County. 

In the fall of 1818 he was elected ah Associate 
Justice upon the Supreme Bench by the General 
Assembly. In 1825 he entered more earnestly than 
ever into the practice of law, and the very next year 
was elected a member of the Legislature, where he 
acted independently of all cliques and private inter- 
ests. In 1828 the Whigs and Democrats were for 
the first time distinctively organized as such in Illi- 
nois, and the usual party bitterness grew up and 
raged on all sides, while Air. Reynolds preserved a 
'udicial calmness and moderation. The real animus 
.if the campaign was " Jackson " and " anti- Jackson," 
'he former party carrying the State. 

In August, 1830, Mr. Reynolds was elected Gov- 
ernor, amid great excitement. Installed in office, he 
did all within his power to advance the cause of edu- 
cation, internal improvements, the Illinois & Mich- 
igan Canal, the harbor at Chicago, settling the coun- 
try, etc.; also reccmmended the winding up of the 
State Bank, as its affairs had become dangerously 
complicated. In his national politics, he was a 
moderate supporter of General Jackson. But the 
most celebrated event of his gubernatcrial admin- 
istration was the Black Hawk War, which occurred 
in 1832. He called out the militia and prosecuted 
the contest with commendable diligence, appearing 
in person on the battle-grounds during the most 
ciitical periods. He was recognized by the President 
as Major-General, and authorized by him to make 
treaties with the Indians. By the assistance of the 
general Government the war was terminated without 
much bloodshed, but after many serious fights. This 
war, as well as everything else, was materially re- 
tarded by the occurrence of Asiatic cholera in the 
West. This was its first appearance here, and was 
the next event in prominence during Gov. Reynolds' 

South Carolina nullification coming up at this time, 
t was heartily condemned by both President Jackson 
c.nd Gov. Reynolds, who took precisely the same 
grounds as the Unionists in the last war. 

On the termination of his gubernatorial term in 
.834, Gov. Reynolds was elected a Member of Con- 
gress, still coi:sidering himself a backwoodsman, as 
' e had scarcely been outside of the State since he 
became of age, and had spent nearly all his youthful 
days in the wildest region of the frontier. His firft 
•nove in Congress was to adopt a resolution that in 
all elections made by the House for officers the votes 
should be given viva voce, each member in his jtlace 
naming aloud the person for whom he votes. This 
created considerable heated discussion, but was es- 

sentially adopted, and remained the controlling prin- 
ciple for many years. The ex Governor was scarcely 
absent from his seat a single day, during eight ses- 
sions of Congress, covering a period of seven year^, 
and he never vacillated in a party vote; but he failed 
to get the Democratic party to foster his " National 
Road" scheme. He says, in " My Own Times " (a 
large autobiography he published), that it was only 
by rigid economy that he avoided insolvency while in 
Washington. During his sojourn in that city he was 
married, to a lady of the place. 

In 1837, while out of Congress, and in company 
with a few others, he built the first railroad in the 
Mississippi Valley, namely, one about six miles long, 
leading from his coal mine in the Mississippi bluff to 
the bank of the river opposite St. Louis. Having not 
the means to purchase a locomotive, they operated it 
by horse-power. The next spring, however, the com- 
pany sold out, at great sacrifice. 

In 1S39 the ex-Governor was appointed one of the 
Canal Commissioners, and authorized to borrow 
money to prosecute the enterprise. Accord' ngly, he 
repaired to Philadelphia and succeeding in obtaining 
a million dollars, which, however, was only a fourth 
of what was wanted. The same year he and his 
wife made at our of Europe. This year, also, Mr. 
Reynolds had the rather awkward little responsibility 
of iiitroducing to President Van Buren the noted 
Mormon Prophet, Joseph Smith, as a " Latter-Day 

In 1846 Gov. Reynolds was elected a member of 
the Legislature from St. Clair County, more particu- 
larly for the purpose of obtaining a feasible charter 
for a macadamized road from Belleville to St. Louis, 
a distance of nearly 14 m.iles. This was immediately 
built, and was the first road of the kind in the State. 
He vtras again elected tothe Legislature in 1852, when 
he was chosen Speaker of the House. In i860, aged 
and infirm, he attended the National Democratic 
Convention at Charleston, S. C , as an anti-Douglas 
Delegate, where he received more attention from the 
Southern Delegates than any other n'lember. He 
supported Breckenridge for the Presidency. After 
the October elections foreshadowed the success of 
Lincoln, he published an address urging the Demo- 
crats to rally to the support of Douglas. Immedi- 
ately preceding and during the late war, his corre- 
spondence evinced a clear sympathy for the Southern 
secession, and about the first of March, i86r, he 
urged upon the Buchanan officials the seizure of the 
treasure and arms in the custom-house and arsenal 
at St. Louis. Mr. Reynolds was a rather talkative 
man, and apt in all the Western phrases and catch^ 
words that ever gained currency, besides many cun- 
ning and odd ones of his own manufacture. 

He was married twice, but had no children. He 
died in Belleville, in May, 1865, just after the close 
of the war. 



>-5— <? o<s^-<lll!».^o 


Governor of Illinois Nov. 3 
;3 to 17, 1834, was a native 
of Kentucky, and probably 
of Scotch ancestry. He bad 
a fine education, was a gentle- 
man of polished manners and 
._ refined sentiment. In 1830 Jolm Rey- 
•^^ nolds was elected Governor of the State, 
k^ and Zaduk Casey Lieutenant Governor, 
Is, S'ld for the principal events that followed, 
and the characteristics of the times, see 
sketch of Gov. Reynolds. The first we 
see in history concerning Mr. Ewing, in- 
forms us that he was a Receiver of Public 
Mor eys at Vandalia soon after the organization of 
tftis State, and that the public moneys in his hands 
vere deposited in various banks, as they are usually 
■•■\W /resent day. In 1823 the State Bank was 
-(jbbed, by which disaster Mr. Ewing lost a thousand- 
dollar deposit. 

The subject of this sketch had a commission as 
(olonel in the Black Hawk War, and in emergencies 
ne acted also as Major. In the summer of 1832, 
^hen ivras rumored among the whites that Black 
Hawk and 'lis men had encamped somewhere on 
Rock River, Gen. Henry was sent on a tour of 
reconnoisance, and with orders to drive the Indians 
from the State. After some opposition from his 
Fubordinate officers, Henry resolved to proceed up 
Rock River in search of the enemy. On the 19th of 
July, early in the morning, five baggage wagons. 

camp equipage and all lieavy and carabersome arti- 
cles were piled up and left, so that the army migh' 
make speedy and forced inarches. For some miles 
the travel was exceedingly bad, crossing swamps 
and the worst thickets; but the large, fresh trail 
gave life and animation to the Americans. Gen. 
Dodge and Col. Ewing were both actmg as Majors, 
and composed the " spy corps " or vanguard of the 
army. It is supposed the army marched nearly 50 
miles this day, and the Indian trail they followed 
became fresher, and was strewed with much property 
and trinkets of the red-skini that they had lost or 
thrown away to hasten their march. During the 
following night there was a terrific thunder-storm, and 
the soldiery, with all their appurtenances, were thor- 
oughly drenched. 

On approaching nearer the Indians the next day. 
Gen. Dodge and Major Ewing, each commanding a 
battalion of inen, were placed in front to bring on the 
battle, but the savages were not overtaken this day 
Forced marches were continued until they reached. 
Wisconsin River, where a veritable battle ensued, 
resulting in the death of about 68 of Black Hawk's 
men. The next day they continued tlie chase, and 
as soon as he discovered the trail of the Indians 
leading toward tlie Mississippi, Maj. Ewing formed 
his battalion in order of battle and awaited the orde' 
of Gen. Henry. The latter soon appeared on the 
ground and ordered a charge, which directly resulted 
in chasing the red warriors across the great river. 
Maj. Ewing and his command proved particularly 
efficient in war, as it seems they were the chief actors 
in driving the main body of the Sacs and Foxes, iiv 



eluding Black Hawk himself, across the Mississippi, 
while Gen. Atkinson, commander-in-chief of the ex- 
pedition, with a body of the army, was hunting for 
them •in another direction. 

In the above affair Maj. Ewmg is often referred to 
as a "General," ul;ich title he had derived from his 
connection with the militia. 

It was in the latter part of the same year (1832) 
that Lieutenant Governor Casey was elected to Con- 
gress and Gen. Ewing, who had been elected to the 
Senate, was chosen to preside over that body. At 
the August election of 1S34, Gov. Reynolds was also 
elected to Congress, more than a year ahead of the 
time at which he could actually take his seat, as was 
then the law. His predecessor, Chailes Slade, had 
just died of Asiatic cholera, soon after the elec- 
tion, and Gov. Reynolds was chosen to serve out his 
unexpired term. Accordingly he set out for Wash- 
ington in November of that year to take his seat in 
Congress, and Gen. Ewing, by virtue of his office as 
President of the Senate, became Governor of the 
State of Illinois, his term covering only a period of 
15 days, namely, from the 3d to tlie 17th days, in- 
clusive, of November. On the 17th the Legislature 
met, and Gov. Ewing transmitted to that body his 
message, giving a statement of the condition of the 
affairs of the State at that time, and urging a contin- 
uance of the policy adopted by his predecessor ; and 
on the same day Governor elect Joseph Duncan 
'Fas sworn into office, tlius relieving Mr. Ewing from 

the responsible situation. This is the only time that 
such a juncture has happened in the history of Illi- 

On the 29th of December, 1835, Gen. Ewing was 
elected a United States Senator to serve out the 
unexpired term of Elias Kent Kane, deceased. The 
latter gentleman was a very prominent figure in the 
early politics of Illinois, and a county in this State is 
named in his honor. The election of Gen. Ewing to 
the Senate was a protracted struggle. His competi- 
tors were James Semple, who afterwards held several 
important offices in this State, and Richard M. 
Young, afterward a United States Senator and a 
Supreme Judge and a inan of vast influence. On 
the first ballot Mr. Semple had 25 votes. Young 19 
-and Ewing 18. On the eighth ballot Young was 
dropped ; the ninth and tenth stood a tie ; but on 
the 1 2th Ewing received 40, to Semple 37, and was 
accordingly declared elected. In 1837 Mr. Ewing 
received some votes for a continuance of his term in 
Congress, when Mr. Young, just referred to, was 
elected. In 1842 Mr. Ewing was elected State 
Audit-r^r on the ticket with Gov Ford. 

Gen. Ewing was a gentleman of culture, a lawyer 
by profession, and was much in public life. In person 
he was above medium height and of heavy build, 
with auburn hair, blue eyes, large-sized head and' 
short face. He was genial, social, friendly and 
affable, with fair talent, though of no high degree of 
originality. He died March 25, 1846. 

J^J^^^/l^ ^ 



1S34-8, was born at Paris, 
Ky., Feb. 23, 1794. At the 
tender age of 19 years he en- 
Hsted in the war against Greal 
,a ^ ,t 1/ Britain, and as a soldier he 

'l^ii^_sL^ acquitted himself wiih credit. He 
was an Ensign under the daunt- 
less Croghan at Lower Sandubky, 
or Fort Stephenson. In Illinois 
he first appeared in a public capa- 
city as Major-General of the IMilitia, 
a position vvhich his military fame 
had procured him. Subsequently 
he became a State Senator from 
Jackson County, and is honorably 
mentioned for introducing the first bill providing for 
a free-school system. In 1826, when the redoubt- 
able John P. Cook, who had previously beaten such 
men as John McLean, Elias Kent Kane and ex- 
Gov. Bond, came up for the fourth time for Congress, 
Mr. Duncan was brought forward against him by his 
friends, greatly to the surprise of all the politicians. 
ks yet he was but little known in the State. He was 
an original Jackson man at that time, being attached 
to his political fortune in admiration of the glory of 
his military achievements. His chances of success 
against Cook were generally regarded as hopeless, 
but he entered upon the campaign undaunted. His 
speeches, though short and devoid of ornament, were 
full of good sense. He made a diligent canvass of 
the State, Mr. Cook being hindered by the condition of 
his health. The most that WdS expected of Mr. 
Duncan, under the circumstances, was that he would 

obtain a respectable vote, but without defeating Mr. 
Cook. The result of the campaign, however, was a 
source of surprise and amazement to both frier.ds 
and foes, as Mr. Duncan came out 641 votes! 
He received 6,321 votes, and Mr. Cook 5,680. Un- 
til this denouement, the violence of party feeling 
smoldering in the breasts of the people on account 
of the defeat of Jackson, was not duly appreciated, 
Aside from the great convention struggle of 1824, no 
other than mere local and penonal considerations 
had ever before controlled an election in Illinois. 

From the above date Mr. Duncan retained his 
seat in Congress until his election as Governor i.i 
.\ugust, 1834. The first and bloodless year of th'c: 
Black Hawk War he was appointed by Gov. Rey- 
nolds to the position of Brigadier-General of the 
volunteers, and he conducted his brigade to Rock 
Island. But he was absent from the State, in Wash- 
ington, during the gubern,atorial campaign, and did 
not personally participate in it, but addressed circu- 
lars to his constituents. His election was, indeed, 
attributed to the circumstance of his absence, be- 
cause his estrangement from Jackson, formerly hi-; 
political idol, and also from the Democracy, largeK' 
in ascendency in the State, was complete; but while 
his defection was well known to his Whig friends, 
and even to the leading Jackson men of tiiis State, 
the latter were unable to carry conviction of that fact 
to the masses, as mail and newspaper facilities at 
that day were far inferior to those of the present 
time. Of course the Governor was much abused 
afterward by the fossilized Jackson men who re- 
garded party ties and affiliations as above all 
other issues that could arise; but he was doubtless 



sincere in his opposition to the old hero, as the latter 
j;ad vetoed several important western measures 
which were dear to Mr. Duncan. In his inaugural 
message he threw off the mask and took a bold stand 
against the course of the President. The measures 
-e recommended in his message, however, were so 
desirable that the Legislature, although by a large 
majority consisting of Jackson men, could not refrain 
.from endorsing them. These measures related 
•jainly to bar.ks and internal improvements. 

It was while Mr. Duncan was Governor that the 
people of Illinois went whirling on with bank and in- 
ternal improvement schemes that well nigh bank- 
-upted the State. The hard times of 1S37 came on, 
and the disasters that attended the inauguration of 
.hese plans and the operation of the banks were mu- 
tually charged upon the two political parties. Had 
any one man autocratic power to introduce and 
carry on any one of these measures, he would proba- 
bly have succeeded to the satisfaction of the public ; 
;:ut as many jealous men had hold of the same plow 
handle, no success followed and each blamed the other 
.^or the failure. In this great vortex Gov. Duncan 
was carried along, suffering the like derogation of 
character with his fellow citizens. 

At the height of the excitement the Legislature 
"provided for" railroads from Galena to Cairo, Alton 
to Sliavvneetown, Alton to Mount Carmel, Alton to the 
eastern boundary of the State in the direction of 
Terre Haute, Quincy via Siivin^field to the Wabash, 
Bloomington to Pekin, and Peoria to Warsaw, — in all 
about 1,300 miles of road. It also provided for the 
improvement of the navigation of the Kaskaskia, 
Illinois, Great and Little Wabash and Rock Rivers ; 
also as a placebo, $200,000 in money were to be dis- 
.ributed to the various counties wherein no improve- 
ments were ordered to be made as above. The 
estimate for the expenses for all these projects was 
placed at a little over $10,000,000, which was not 
more i.nan half enough ! That would now be equal to 
.saddling upon the State a debt of $225,000,000 ! It 
was sufficient to bankrupt the State several times 
over, even counting all the possible benefits. 

One of the most exciting events that ever occurred 
in this fair State was the murder of Elijah P. Love- 
ioy in the fall of 1837, at Alton, during Mr. Duncan's 
ierni as Governor. Lovejoy was an " Abolitionist," 
editing the Observer at that place, and the pro- 
slavery slums there formed themselves into a mob, 

and after destroying successively three presses be- 
longing to Mr. Lovejoy, surrounded the warehouse 
where the fourth press was stored away, endeavoring 
to destroy it, and where Lovejoy and his friends 
were entrenching themselves, and shot and killed the 
brave reformer! 

About this time, also, the question of removing the 
State capital again came up, as the 20 years' limit for 
its existence at Vandalia was drawing to a close. 
There was, of course, considerable excitement over 
the matter, the two main points competing for it be- 
ing Springfield and Peoria. The jealousy of the lat- 
ter place is not even yet, 45 years afterward, fully 

Gov. Duncan's term expired in 1838. In 1842 
he was again proposed as a candidate for the Execu- 
tive chair, this time by the Whig party, against Adam 
W. Snyder, of St. Clair County, the nominee of the 
Democrats. Charles W. Hunter was a third candi- 
date for the same position. Mr. Snyder, however, died 
before the cainpaign had advanced very far, and his 
party substituted Thomas Ford, who was elected 
receiving 46,901 votes, to 38,584 for Duncan, and 
gog for Hunter. The cause of Democratic success 
at this time is mainly attributed to the temporary 
support of the Mormons which they erijoyed, and the 
want o.' any knowledge, on the part of the masses, 
that Mr. Ford was opposed to any given policy en- 
tertained in the respective localities. 

Gov. Duncan was a man of rather limited educa- 
tion, but with naturally fine abilities he profited 
greatly by his various public services, and gathered 
a store of knowledge regarding public affairs which 
served him a read^ jiurpose. He possessed a clear 
judgment, decision, confidence in himself and moral 
courage to carry out his convictions of right. In his 
deportment he was well adapted to gain the admira- 
tion of the people. His intercourse with them was 
both affable and dignified. His portrait at the Gov- 
ernor's mansion, from which the accompanying was 
made, represents him as having a swarthy complex- 
ion, high cheek bones, broad forehead, piercing black 
eyes and straight black hair. 

He was a liberal patron of the Illinois ("oUege at 
Jacksonville, a member of its Board of Trustees, and 
died, after a short illness, Jan. 15, 1844, a devoted 
member of the Presbyterian Church, leaving a wife 
but no cliildren. Two children, born to them, had 
died in infancy. 

■r/a AJ^'^<^^ 



\ P'-V-'-W.1B^^:3"?'T' 

J <^JPwa^> lil 





.1 ^*'i'^-^^^ ",-,*■ *■ >•' 


'"^MhOMAS CARLIN, the sixth 
x_j,llf5/ff Governor of the State of 
llhnois, serving from 1838 
to 1842, was also a Ken- 
tuckian, being born near 
Frankfori, that State, July 
18, 1789, of Irisli paternity. 
The opportunities for an education 
being very meager in his native 
place, he, on approaching years of 
judoment and maturity, applied 
himself to those branches of learn- 
ing that seemed most important, 
and thus became a self-made man ; 
and his taste for reading and 
study remained with him through 
life. In 1803 his father removed 
to Missouri, then a part of " New Spain," where he 
died in 1810. 

In 1S12 young Carlin came to Illinois and partici- 
pated in all the "ranging" service incident to the 
war of that period, proving himself a soldier of un- 
daunted bravery. lu 1814 he married Rebecca 
Huitt, and lived for four years on the bank of the 
Mississijjpi River, opposite the mouth of the Mis- 
scari, where he followed farming, and then removed 
to Greene County. He located the town site of Car- 
ru'to:-, in that county, and in 1825 made a liberal 
donation of land for county building purposes. He 
was the first Sheriff of that county after its separate 
organization, and afterward was twice elected, as a 
Jackson Democrat, to the Illinois Senate. In the 
Black Hawk War he commanded a spy battalion, a 
post of considerable danger. In 1834 he was ap- 
pointed by President Jackson to the position of 
Receiver of Public Moneys, and to fulfill the office 

more conveniently he removed to the city of Quincy. 

While, in 1838, the unwieldy internal improvement 
system of the State was in full operation, with all its 
expensive machinery, amidst bank suspensions 
throughout the United States, a great stringency in 
the money market everywliere, and Illinois bonds 
forced to sale at a heavy discount, and the " hardest 
times" existing that the people of the Prairie State 
ever saw, the general election of State officers was 
approaching. Discreet men who had cherished the 
hope of a speedy subsidence of the public infatua- 
tion, met with disappointment. A Governor and 
Legislature were to be elected, and these were now 
looked forward to for a repeal of the ruinous State 
policy. But the grand scheme had not yet lost its 
dazzling influence upon the minds of the people. 
Time and experience had not yet fully demonstrated 
its utter absurdity. Hence the question of arresting 
its career of profligate expenditures did not become 
a leading one with the dominant party during the 
campiign, and most of the old members of the Leg- 
islature were returned at this election. 

Under these circumstances the Democrats, in State 
Convention assembled, nominated Mr. Carlin for the 
office of Governor, and S. H. Anderson for Lieuten- 
ant Governor, while the Whigs nominated Cyrus Ed- 
wards, brotherofNinian Edwards, formeriy Governor, 
and W. H. Davidson. Edwards came out strongly 
for a continuance of the State policy, while Carli: 
remained non-committal. Tliis was the first time 
that the two main political parties in this State were 
unembarrassed l)y any third party in the field. The 
result of the election was: Carlin, 35,573 ; .Ander- 
son, 30,335; Edwards, 29,629; and Davidson, 28,- 

Uixjn the meeting of the subsequent Legislature 
(1839), the retiring Governor CDuncan) in his mes- 



sage spoke in emphatic terms of the impolicy of the 
internal improvement system, presaging the evils 
threatened, and uiged that body to do their utmost 
to correct the great error; yet, on the contrary, the 
Legislature not only decided to continue the policy 
but also added to its burden by voting more appro- 
priations and ordering more improvements. Althouf^i 
the money market was still stringent, a further loan 
of $4,000,000 was ordered for the Illinois & Mich- 
■gan Canal alone. Cii'cago at that time began to 
loom up and promise to be an important city, even 
the great emporium of the West, as it has since in- 
deed came to be. Ex-Gov. Reynolds, an incompe- 
tent financier, was commissioned to effect the loan, 
and accordingly hastened to the East on this respons- 
ible errand, and negotiated the loans, at considera- 
ble sacrifice to the State. Besides this embarrassment 
to Carlin's administration, the Legislature also de- 
clared that he had no authority to appoint a Secretary 
of State until a vacancy existed, and A. P. Field, a 
Whig, who had already held the post by appointment 
through three administrations, was determined to 
keep the place a while longer, in spite of Gov. Car- 
lin's preferences. The course of the Legislature in 
this regard, however, was finally sustained by the 
Supreme Court, in a quo warranto case brought up 
before it by Jchn A. McClernand, whom the Gov- 
ernor had nominated for the office. Thereupon that 
dignified body was denounced as a "Whig Court!" 
endeavoring to establish the principle of life-tenure 
of office. 

A new law was adopted re-organizing the^Judici- 
aiy, and under it five additional Supreme Judges 
were elected by the Legislature, namely, Thomas 
Ford (afterward Governor), Sidney Breese, Walter B. 
Scares, Samuel H. Treat and Stephen A. Douglas — 
all Democrats. 

It was during Gov. Carlin's administration that the 
noisy campaign of " Tippecanoe and Tyler too " oc- 
curred, resulting in a Whig victory. This, however, 
did net affect Illinois politics very seriously. 

Another prominent event in the West during Gov. 
Carlin's term of office was the excitement caused by 
the Mormons and their removal from Independence, 
Mo., to Nauvoo, 111., in 1840. At the same time 
they began to figure somewliat in State politics. On 
account of their believing — as they thought, accord- 
ing to the New Testament — that they should have 

" all things common," and that consequently " all 
the earth " and all that is upon it were the" Lord's " 
and therefore the property of his " saints," they 
were suspected, and correctly, too, of committing 
many of the deeds of larceny, robbery, etc., that 
were so rife throughout this country in those days. 
Hence a feeling of violence grew up between the 
Mormons and "anti-Mormons." In the State of 
Missouri the Mormons always supported the Dem- 
ocracy until they were driven out by the Democratic 
government, when they turned their support to the 
Whigs. They were becoming numerous, and in the 
Legislature of 1840-1, therefore, it became a matter 
of great interest with both parties to conciliate these 
people. Through the agency of one John C. Ben- 
nett, a scamp, the Mormons succeeded in rushing 
through the Legislature (both parties not daring to 
oppose) a charter for the city of Nauvoo which vir- 
tually erected a hierarchy co-ordinate with the Fed- 
eral Government itself. In the fall of 1841 the 
Governor of Missouri made a demand upon Gov. 
Carlin for the body of Joe Smith, the Mormon leader, 
as a fugitive from justice. Gov. Carlin issued thi 
writ, but for some reason it was returned unserved. 
It was again issued in 1842, and Smith was arrested, 
but was either rescued by his followers or discharged 
by the municipal court on a writ of habeas corpus. 

In December, i84r, the Democratic Convention 
nominated Adam W. Snyder, of Belleville, for Gov- 
ernor. As he had been, as a member of the Legisla- 
ture, rather friendly to the Mormons, the latter 
naturally turned their support to the Democratic 
party. The next spring the Whigs nominated Ex- 
Gov. Duncan for the same office. In the meantime 
the Mormons began to grow more odious to the 
masses of the people, and the comparative prospects 
of the respective parties for success became very 
problematical. Mr. Snyder died in May, and 
Thomas Ford, a Supreme Judge, was substituted as 
a candidate, and was elected. 

At the close of his gubernatorial term, Mr. Carlin 
removed back to his old home at Carrollton, where 
he spent the remainder of his life, as before his ele- 
vation to office, in agricultural pursuits. In iS;g 
he served out the unexpired term of J. D. Fry in the 
Illinois House of Representatives, and died Feb. 4. 
1S52, at his residence at Carrollton, leaving a wife 
and seven children. 










5H0MAS FORD, Governor 
from 1842 to 1846, and au- 
thor of a very interesting 
history of Illinois, was born 
at Uniontuwn, Pa., in the 
year r 800. His mother, after 
the death of her first hus- 
band (Mr. Forquer), married Rob- 
ert Ford, who was killed in 1802, 
by the Indians in the mountains 
of Pennsylvania. She was conse- 
quently left in indigent circum- 
stances, with a large family, mostly 
girls. With a view to better her 
condition, she, in 1804, removed to 
Missouri, where it had been cus- 
tomary by the Spanish Govern- 
ment to jiive land to actual settlers ; but upon her 
arrival at St. Louis she found the country ceded to 
the United States, and the liberal policy toward set- 
tlers changed by the new ownership. After some 
sickness to herself and family, she finally removed to 
Illinois, and settled some tliree miles south of Water- 
loo, but the following year moved nearer the Missis- 
sippi bluffs. Here young Ford received his first 

schooling, under the instructions of a Mr. Humphrey, 
for which he had to walk three miles. His mother, 
though lacking a thorough education, was a woman 
of superior mental endowments, joined to energy 
and determination of character. She inculcated in 
her children those high-toned principles which dis- 
tinguished her sons in public life. She exercised a 
rigid economy to provide her children an education; 
but George Forquer, her oldest son (six years older 
than Thomas Ford), at an early age had to quit 
school to aid by his labor in the support of the family. 
He afterward became an eminent man in Illinois 
affairs, and but for his early death would probably 
have been elected to the United States Senate. 

Young Ford, with somewhat better opportunities, 
received a better education, though limited to the 
curriculum of the common school of those pioneer 
times. His mind gave early promise of superior en- 
dowments, with an inclination for mathematics. His 
proficiency attracted the attention of Hon. Daniel P. 
Cook, who became his efficient patron and friend. 
The latter gentleman was an eminent lUijiois states- 
man who, as a Member of Congress, obtained a grant 
of 300,000 acres of land to aid in completing the 
Illinois & Michigan Canal, and after whom the 
county of Cook was named. Through the advice of 



this genileman, Mr. Ford turned his attention to the 
study of law; but Forquer, then merchandising, re- 
garding his education defective, sent hiui to Transyl- 
vania University, where, however, he remained but 
one term, owing to Forquer's failure in business. On 
his return he alternated his law reading with teach- 
ing school for support. 

In 1829 Gov. Edwards appointed Iiini Prosecuting 
.Attorney, and in 1831 he was re-appointed by Gov. 
Reynolds, and after that he was four times elected a 
Judge by the Le>jislature, without opposition, twice a 
Circuit Judge, once a Judge of Cliicago, and as As- 
sociate Judge of the Supreme Court, when, in 1841, 
the latter tribunal was re-organized by the addition 
of five Judges, all Democrats. Ford was assigned to 
the Ninth Judicial Circuit, and while in this capacity 
.ne was holding Court in Ogle County he received a 
notice of his nomination by the Democratic Conven- 
tion for the offi ;e of Governor. He immediately re- 
signed his place and entered upon the canvass. In 
August, 1842, he was elected, and on the 8th of De- 
cember following he was inaugurated. 

All the offices which he had held were unsolicited 
by him. He received them upon the true Jefferson- 
jan principle, — NTever to ask .ind never to refuse 
office. Both as a lawyer and as a Judge he stood 
deservedly high, but his cast of intellect fitted him 
rather for a writer upon law than a practicing advo- 
cate in the courts. In the latter capacity he was void 
of the moving Dower of eloquence, so necessary to 
success with j lilies. As a Judge his opinions were 
"ound, lucid and able expositions of the law. In 
.practice, he was a stranger to the tact, skill and in- 
sinuating address of the politician, but he saw through 
;he arts of demagogues as well as any man. He was 
plain in his demeanor, so much so, indeed, tliat at 
one time after the expiration of his term of office, 
during a session of the Legislature, he was taken by 
a stranger lo be a seeker for the position of door- 
keeper, and was wai;ed upon at his hotel near mid- 
r.ight by a knot of small office-seekers with the view 
of effecting a "combuiation ! " 

Mr. Ford liad not the "brass" of the ordinary 
politician, nor that Impstnosity which characterizes a 
political leader. He cared little for money, and 
hardly enough for a decent support. In person he 
was of small stature, slender, of dark complexion, 
with black hair, sharp features, deep-set eyes, a 
pointed, aquiline nose having a decided twist to one 
side, and a small mouth. 

The three most important events in Gov. Ford's 
r.dministration were the establishment of the high 
financial credit of the State, the '" Mormon War "and 
.he Mexican War. 

In the first of these the Governor proved himself 
"•.o be eiv;inently wise. On coming into office he found 
'he State badly paralyzed by the ruinous effects of 
the notorious "internal improvement" schemes of 

the preceding decade, with scarcely anything to 
show by way of "improvement." The enterprise 
that seemed to be getting ahead more than all the 
rest was the Illinois & Michigan Canal. As this 
promised to be the most important thorouglifare, 
feasible to the people, it was well under headway in 
its construction. Therefore the State policy wa-; 
almost concentrated upon it, in order to rush it on tc 
completion. The bonded indebtedness of the State 
was growing so large as to frighten the people, and 
they were about ready to entertain a proposition for 
repudiation. But the Governor had the foresight to 
recommend such measures as would maintain the 
puldic credit, for which every citizen to-day feels 

But perhaps the Governor is remembered more for 
his connection with the Mormon troubles than for 
anything else; for it was during his term of office 
tliat the " Latter-Day Saints " became so strong at 
Nauvoo, built their temple there, increased their num- 
bers throughout the country, committed misdemean- 
ors, taught dangerous doctrines, suffered the loss of 
their leader, Jo Smith, by a violent death, were driven 
out of Nauvoo to the far West, etc. Having been a 
Judge for so many years previously, Mr. Ford of 
course was no i-committal concerning Mormon affairs, 
and was therefore claimed by both parties and also 
accused by each of syn>i)athizing too greatly with the 
other side. Mormonism claiming to be a system of 
religion, the Governor no doubt was "between two 
fires," and felt compelled to touch the matter rather 
" gingerly," and doubtless felt greatly relieved when 
that pestilential people left the State. Such compli- 
cated matters, especially when religion is mixed up 
with them, expose every person participating in 
them to criticism from all parties. 

The Mexican War was begun in the spring of 
1845, and was continued into the gubernatorial term 
of Mr. Ford's su xessor. The Governor's connection 
with this war, however, was not conspicuous, as it 
was only administrative, commissioning officers, etc. 

Ford's " History of Illinois " is a very readable and 
entertaining work, of 450 small octavo pages, and is 
destined to increase in value with the lapse of time. 
It exliibits a natural flow of compact and forcible 
thought, never failing to convey the nicest sense. In 
tracing with his trenchant pen the devious operations 
of the professional politician, in which he is inimit- 
able, his account is open, perhaps, to the objection 
that all his contemporaries are treated as mere place- 
seekers, while many of them have since been judged 
by the people to be worthy statesmen. His writings 
seem slightly open to the criticism that they exhibit 
a little splenetic partiality against those of his con- 
temporaries who were prominent during his term of 
office as Governor. 

Tiie death of Gov. Ford took place at Peoria, 111., 
Nov. 2, 1850. 




^^.^doA^c^ ^^--^y^^ 



rj^/ /^s^S)-:^ 


Atigtisttm Ce French. 

o<sSHiSi)>-^»o— ^— K" 

7;- "Augustus c. French, 

/ti^. Governor of Illinois from 




1846 lo 1852, was born in 
the town of Hill, in the 
State of New Hampshire, 
Aug. 2, i8o8. He was a 
descendant in tlie fourth 
generation ot Nathaniel 
Frencli, who emigrated from England 
in 1687 and settled in Saybury, Mass. 
In early life young French lost his 
father, but continued to receive in- 
struction from an exemplary and 
Christian mother until he was 19 years 
old, when she also died, confiding to 
his care and trust four younger broth- 
ers and one sister. He discharged his trust with 
parental devotion. His education in early life was 
Euch mainly as a common school afforded. For a 
brief period he attended Dartmouth College, but 
from pecuniary causes and the care of his brothers 
ar.d sister, he did not graduate. He subsequently 
read law, and was admitted to the Bar in 183 1, and 
shortly afterward removed to Illinois, settling first at 
Albion, Edwards County, where he established him- 
self in the practice of law. The following year he 
removed to Paris, Edgar County. Here he attained 
eminence in his profession, and entered public life 
by representing that county in the Legislature. A 
strong attachment sprang up between him and Ste- 
phen A. Douglas. 

In 1839, Mr. French was appointed Receiver of 
the United States Land Office at Palestine, Craw- 
ford County, at wb.ich place he was a resident when 

elevated to the gubernatorial chair. In 1844 he was 
a Presidential Elector, and as such he voted for 
James K. Polk. 

The Democratic State Convention of 1846, meet- 
ing at Springfield Feb. 10, nominated Mr. French 
for Governor. Other Democratic candidates were 
Lyman Trumbull, John Calhoun (subsequently of 
Lecompton Constitution notoriety). Waiter B. Scales. 
Richard M. Young and A. W. Cavarly, — an array of 
very able and prominent names. Trumbull was per- 
haps defeated in the Convention by the lumor that 
he was opposed to the Illinois and Michigan Canal, 
as he had been a year previously. For Lieutenant 
Governor J. B. AVells was chosen, while other candi- 
dates were Lewis Ross, Wm. McMurtry, Newton 
Cloud, T- B. Hamilton and W. W. Thompson. The 
resolutions declared strongly against the resuscita- 
tion of the old State Banks. 

The Whigs, who were in a hopeless minority, held 
their convention June 8, at Peoria, and selected 
Thomas M. Kilpatrick, of Scott County, for Governor, 
and Gen. Nathaniel G. Wilcox, of Schuyler, for 
Lieutenant Governor. 

In the campaign the latter exposed Mr. French's 
record and connection with the passage of the in- 
ternal improvement system, urging it against his 
election; but in the mc.ntirae the war with Mexico 
broke out, regarding which the Whig record was un- 
popular in this State. The war was the absorbing 
and dominating question of the period, sweeping 
every other political issue in its course. The elec- 
tion in August gave Mr. French 58,700 votes, and 
Kilpatrick only 36,775. Richard Eells, Abolitionist 
candidate for the same office, received 5,152 votes 



By tlie new Constitution of 1848, a new election for 
State officers was ordered in November of that year, 
before Gov. French's term was half out, and he was 
re-elected for the term of four years. He was there- 
fore the incumbent for six consecutive years, the 
only Governor of this State who has ever served in 
that capacity so long at one time. As there was no 
organized opposition to his election, he received 67,- 
453 votes, to 5,639 for Pierre Menard (son of the 
first Lieutenant Governor), 4,748 for Charles V. 
Dyer, 3,834 for W. L. D. Morrison, and 1,361 for 
James L. D. Morrison. But Wm. McMurtry, of 
Knox County, was elected Lieutenant Governor, in 
place of Joseph B. Wells, who was before elected 
and did not run again. 

Governor French was inaugurated into office dur- 
ing the progress of the Mexican War, which closed 
during the summer of 1847, although the treaty of 
Guadalupe Hidalgo was not made until Feb. 2, 
1848. The policy of Gov. French's party was com- 
mitted to that war, bat in connection with that affair 
he was, of course, only an administrative officer. 
During his term of office, Feb. 19, 1847, the Legisla- 
ture, by special permission of Congress, declared that 
all Government lands sold to settlers should be im- 
mediately subject to State taxation; before this they 
were exempt for five years after sale. By this ar- 
rangement the revenue was materially increased. 
About the same time, the distribution of Government 
land warrants among the Mexican soldiers as bounty 
threw upon the market a great quantity of good 
lands, and this enhanced the settlement of the State. 
The same Legislature authorized, with the recom- 
mendation of the Governor, the sale of the Northern 
Cross Railroad (from Springfield to Meredosia, the 
first in the State and now a section of the Wabash, 
St. Louis & Pacific), It sold for $roo,ooo in bonds, 
although it had cost the State not less than a million. 
The salt wells and canal lands in the Saline reserve 
in Gallatin County, granted by the general Govern- 
ment to the State, were also authorized by the 
Governor to be sold, to apply on the State debt. Li 
1850, for the first time since 1839, the accruing State 
revenue, exclusive of specific appropriations, was 
sufficient to meet the current demands upon the 
treasury. The aggregate taxable property of the 
State at this time was over $100,000,000, and th-'? 
population 851,470. 

\\-\ 1S49 the Legisiature adopted the townsliip or- 
ganization law, which, however, proved defective, 
and was properly amended in 185 i. At its session 
in the latter year, the General Assembly also passed 
a law to exempt homesteads from sale on executions 
This beneficent measure had been repeatedly utgeej 
upon that body by Gov. French. 

In 1850 some business men in St. Louis com- 
menced to build a dike opposite the lower part of 
their city on the Illinois side, to keep the Mississippi 
in its channel near St. Louis, instead of breaking 
away from them as it sometimes threatened to do. 
This they undertook without permission from the 
Legislature or Executive authority of this State ; and 
as many of the inhabitants thera complained that 
the scheme would inundate and ruin much valuable 
land, there was a slight conflict of jurisdictions, re- 
sulting in favor of the St. Louis project; and since 
then a good site has existed there for a city (East St. 
Louis), and now a score of railroads center there. 

It was in September, 1850, that Congress granted 
to this State nearly 3,000,000 acres of land in aid of 
the completion of the Illinois Central Railroad, 
which constituted the most important epoch in the 
railroad — we might say internal improvement — his- 
tory of the State. The road was rushed on to com- 
pletion, which accelerated the settlement of the in- 
terior of the State by a good class of industrious citi- 
zens, and by the charter a good income to the State 
Treasury is paid in from the earnings of the road. 

In 185 r the Legislature passed a law authorizing 
free stock banks, which was the source of much leg- 
islative discussion for a number of years. 

But we have not space further to particularize 
concerning legislation. Gov. French's administra- 
tion was not marked by any feature to be criticised, 
while the country was settling up as never before. 

In stature, Gov. French was of medium heiglit, 
squarely built, light comple.xioned, with ruddy face 
and pleasant countenance. In manners he was 
plain and agreeable. By nature he was somewhat 
diffident, but he was often very outspoken in his con- 
victions of duty. In public speech he was not an 
orator, but was chaste, earnest and persuasive. In 
business he was accurate and methodical, and in his 
administration he kept up the credit of the State. 

He died in 1S65, at his home in Lebanon, St 
Clair Co., ^11. 




%m\ %. Mattes^H. 


^^^|<)EL A. MATTESON, Governor 
,,l^ 1853-6, was born Aug. 8, 1808, 
, -;:' in Jefferson County, New York, 
to which place his father had re- 
moved from Vermont three years 
before. His father was a farmer 
in fair circumstances, but a com- 
mon English education was all 
that his only son received. Young 
Joel first tempted fortune as a 
small tradesman in Prescott, 
Canada, before he was of age. 
He returned from that place to 
his home, entered an academy, 
taught school, visited the prin- 
cipal Eastern cities, improved a farm liis father had 
given him, made a tour in the South, worked there 
in building railroads, experienced a slonn on the 
Gulf of Mexico, visited the gold diggings of Northern 
Georgia, and returned via Nashville to St. Louis and 
through Illinois to his father's home, when he' mar- 
ried. In 1833, having sold his farm, he removed, 
vvith his wife and one child, to Illinois, and entered 
a claim on Government land near the head of An 
Sable River, in what is now Kendall County. At 
tliat time there were not more than two neighbors 
within a range of ten miles of his place, and only 
ihree or four houses between him and Chicago. He 
opened a large farm. His family was boarded 12 


miles away while he erected a house on his claim, 
sleeping, during this time, under a rude pole shed.' 
Here his life was once placed in imminent peril by 
a huge prairie rattlesnake sharing his bed. 

In 1835 he bought largely at the Government land 
sales. During the speculative real-estate mania which 
broke out in Chicago in 1 836 and spread ovef the State, 
he sold his lands under the inflation of that period' 
and removed to Joliet. In 1838 he became a heavy 
contractor on the Illinois & Michigan Canal. Upon 
tlie completion of his job in 1841, when hard times 
prevailed, business at a stand, contracts paid in State 
scrip; when all the public works except the canal 
were abandoned, the State offered for sale 700 tons 
of railroad iron, which was purchased by Mr. Mat- 
teson at a bargain. This he accepted, shipped and 
sold at Detroit, realizing a very handsome profit, 
enough to pay off" all his canal debts and leave him a 
surplus of several thousand dollars. His enterprise 
next prompted him to start a woolen mill at Joliet, 
in which he prospered, and which, after successive 
enlargements, became an enormous establishment. 

In 1842 he was first elected a State Senator, but, 
by a bungling apportionment, John Pearson, a Senator 
holding over, was found to be in the same district, 
and decided to be entitled to represent it. Mat- 
teson's seat was declared vacant. Pearson, however 
with a nobleness difficult to appreciate in this day of 



greed for office, unwilling to represent his district 
under the circumstances, immediately resigned his 
unexpired term of two years. A bill was passed in a 
few hours ordering a new election, and in ten days' 
time Mr. Matteson was returned re-elected and took 
his seat as Senator. From his well-known capacity 
as a business man, he was made Chairman of the 
Committee on Finance, a position he held during 
this half and two full succeeding Senatorial terms, 
discharging its important duties with ability and faith- 
fulness. Besides his extensive woolen-mill interest, 
when work was resumed on the canal under the new 
loan of ^r, 600,000 he again became a heavy con- 
tractor, and also subsequently operated largely in 
building railroads. Thus he showed himself a most 
energetic and thorough business man. 

He was nominated for Governor by the Demo- 
cratic State Convention which met at Springfield 
April 20, 1852. Other candidates before the Con- 
vention were D. L. Gregg and F. C. Sherman, of 
Cook ; John Dement, of Lee ; Thomas L. Harris, of 
Menard; Lewis W. Ross, of Fulton; and D. P. Bush, 
of Pike. Gustavus Koerner, of St. Clair, was nom- 
inated for Lieutenant Governor. For the same offices 
the Whigs nominated Edwin B. Webb and Dexter A. 
Knowlton. Mr. Matteson received 80,645 votes at 
the election, while Mr. Webb received 64,408. Mat- 
teson's forte was not on the stump; he had not cul- 
tivated the art of oily flattery, or the faculty of being 
all things to all men. His intellectual qualities took 
rather the direction of efficient executive ability. His 
turn consisted not so much in the adroit manage- 
ment of party, or the powerful advocacy of great gov- 
ernmental principles, as in those more solid and 
enduring operations which cause the physical devel- 
opment and advancement of a State, — of commerce 
and business enterprise, into which he labored with 
success to lead the people. As a politician he was 
just and liberal in his views, and both in official and 
private life he then stood untainted and free from 
blemish. As a man, in active benevolence, social 
rirttles and all the amiable qualities of neighbor or 
citizen, he had few superiors. His messages present 
a perspicuous array of facts as to the condition of the 
State, and are often couched in forcible and elegant 

The greatest excitement during his term of office 
was the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, by Con- 

gress, under the leadership of Stephen A. Douglas in 
1854, when the bill was passed organizing the Terri- 
tory of Kansas and Nebraska. A large portion of 
the Whig party of the North, through their bitter op- 
position to the Democratic party, naturally drifted 
into the doctrine of anti-slavery, and thus led to what 
was temporarily called the " Anti-Nebraska " party, 
while the followers of Douglas were known as " Ne- 
braska or Douglas Democrats." It was during this 
embryo stage of the Republican party that Abraham 
Lincoln was brought forward as the "Anti-Nebraska" 
candidate for the United States Senatorship, while 
Gen. James Shields, the incumbent, was re-nom- 
inated by the Democrats. But after a few ballotings 
in the Legislature (1855), these men were dropped, 
and Lyman Trumbull, an Anti-Nebraska Democrat, 
was brought up by the fomier, and Mr. Matteson, 
then Governor, by the latter. On the nth ballot 
Mr. Trumbull obtained one majority, and was ac- 
cordingly declared elected. Before Gov. Matteson's 
term expired, the Republicans were fully organized 
as a national party, and in 1856 put into the field a 
full national and State ticket, carrying the State, but 
not the nation. 

The Legislature of 1855 passed two very import- 
ant measures, — the present free-school system and a 
submission of the Maine liquor law to a vote of the 
people. The latter was defeated by a small majority 
of the popular vote. 

During the four years of Gov. Matteson's admin- 
istration the taxable wealth of the State was about 
trebled, from §137,818,079 to $349,951,272; the pub- 
lic debt was reduced from $17,398,985 to $12,843,- 
144; taxation was at the same time reduced, and the 
State resumed paying interest on its debt in New 
York as fast as it fell due; railroads were increased 
in their mileage from something less than 400 to 
about 3,000 ; and the population of Chicago was 
nearly doubled, and its commerce more than quad- 

Before closing this account, we regret that we have 
to say that Mr. Matteson, in all other respects an 
upright man and a good Governor, was implicated 
in a false re-issue of redeemed canal scrip, amount- 
ing to $224,182.66. By a suit in the Sangamon Cir- 
cuit Court the State recovered the principal and all 
the interest excepting $27,500. 

He died in the winter of 1 87 2-3, at Chicago. 




_^ .0 ->v/sc^r>gJ S^ <%> 


^tgji'iSitig)'<igi'^'iSSit~^i'>.^,'~.y>.'.; ,' ri' .'i' ."i. :. •.'■ .'r'.'i •.'a.'ttj.'(i£.'»a>'i;^.'t^'t!^t^t^t^ 


/ ' ^.JiiiJiA''-''"'- 


ernor 1857-60, was born 
L^i I April 25, i8ir, in the 
l^,;' State of New York, near 
/%/ Painted Post, Yates County. 
II13 parents were obscure, 
l.o.iest, God-fearing people, 
uho reared their children under the daily 
example of industry and frugality, accord- 
ing to the custom of that class of Eastern 
-■■' " society. Mr. Bissell received a respecta- 
iile but not thorough academical education. 
By assiduous application he acquired a 
' f^^is ^ knowledge of medicine, and in his early 
''"'^ manhood came West and located in Mon- 
roe County, this State, where he engaged in the 
practice of that profession. But he was not enam- 
ored of his calling; he was swayed by a broader 
ambition, to such an extent that the mysteries of the 
healing art and its arduous duties failed to yield him 
further any charms. In a few years he discovered 
his clioice of a profession to be a mistake, and when 
he approached the age of 30 he sought to begin 
anew. Dr. Bissell, no doubt unexpectedly to him- 
self, discovered a singular facility and charm of 
speech, the exercise of which acquired for him a 
ready local notoriety. It soon came to be under- 

stood that he desired to abandon his profession and 
take up that of the law. During terms of Court he 
would spend his time at the county seat among the 
members of the Bar, who extended to him a ready 

It was not strange, therefore, that he should drift 
into public life. In 1840 he was elected as a Dem- 
ocrat to the Legislature from Monroe County, and 
was an efficient member of that body. On his re- 
turn home he qualified himself for admission to the 
Bar and speedily rose to the front rank as an advo- 
cate. His powers of oratory were captivating. With a 
pure diction, charming and inimitable gestures, 
clearness of statement, and a remarkable vein of sly 
humor, his efforts before a jury told with irresistible 
effect. He was chosen by the Legislature Prosecut- 
ing Attorney for the Circuit in which he lived, and 
in that position he fully discharged his duty to the 
State, gained the esteem of the Bar, and seldom 
failed to convict the offender of the law. 

In stature he was somewhat tall and slender, and 
with a straight, military bearing, he presented a dis- 
tinguished appearance. His complexion was dark, 
jiis head well poised, though not large, his address 
pleasant and manner winning. He was exemplary 
in his habits, a devoted husband and kind parent. 
He was twice married, the first time to Miss James, 



of Monroe County, by whom he had two children, 
both daughters. She died soon after the year 1840, 
and Mr. B. married for his second wife a daughter 
of Elias K. Kane, previously a United States Senator 
from this State. She survived him hut a short time, 
and died without issue. 

When the war with Mexico was declared in 1 846, 
Mr. Bissell enlisted and was elected Colonel of his 
regiment, over Hon. Don Morrison, by an almost 
unanimous vote, — 807 to 6. Considering the limited 
opportunities he had had, he evinced a high order of 
military talent. On the bloody field of Buena Vista 
he acquitted himself with intrepid and distinguished 
ability, contributing with his regiment, the Second 
Illinois, in no small degree toward saving the waver- 
ing fortunes of our arms during that long and fiercely 
contested battle. 

After his return home, at the close of the war, he 
was elected to Congress, his opponents being the 
Hons. P. B. Fouke and Joseph Gillespie. He served 
two terms in Congress. He was an ardent politician. 
Daring the great contest of 1850 he voted in favor 
of the adjustment measures; but in 1854 he opposed 
the repeal of the Missouri Compromise act and 
therefore the Kansas-Nebraska bill of Douglas, and 
thus became identified with the nascent Republican 

During his first Congressional term, while the 
Southern members were following their old practice 
of intimidating the North by bullying language, 
and claiming most of the credit for victories in the 
Mexican War, and Jefferson Davis claiming for the 
Mississippi troops all the credit for success at Buena 
Vista, Mr. Bissell bravely defended the Northern 
troops ; whereupon Davis challenged Bissell to a duel, 
which was accepted. This matter was brought up 
against Bissell when he was candidate for Governor 
and during his term of office, as the Constitution of 
this State forbade any duelist from holding a State 

In 1856, when the Republican party first put forth 
a candidate, John C. Fremont, for President of the 
United States, the same party nominated Mr. Bissell 
for Governor of Illinois, and John Wood, of Quincy, 
for Lieutenant Governor, while the Democrats nomi- 
nated Hon. W. A. Richardson, of Adams County, 
for Governor, and Col. R. J. Hamilton, of Cook 
County, for Lieutenant Governor. The result of the 

election was a plurality of 4,729 votes over Richard- 
son. The American, or Know-Nothing, party had a 
ticket in the field. The Legislature was nearly bal- 
anced, but was politically opposed to the Governor. 
His message to the Legislature was short and rather 
ordinary, and was criticised for expressing the sup- 
posed obligations of the people to the incorporators 
of the Illinois Central Railroad Company and for re- 
opening the slavery question by allusions to the 
Kansas troubles. Late in the session an apportion- 
ment bill, based upon the State census of 1855, was 
passed, amid much partisan strife. The Governor 
at first signed the bill and then vetoed it. A furious 
debate followed, and the question whether the Gov- 
ernor had the authority to recall a signature was 
referred to the Courts, that of last resort deciding in 
favor of the Governor. Two years afterward another 
outrageous attempt was made for a re-apportionment 
and to gerrymander the State, but the Legislature 
failed to pass the bill over the veto of the Governor. 

It was during Gov. Bissell's administration that 
the notorious canal scrip fraud was brought to light 
'mplicating ex-Gov. Matteson and other prominent 
State officials. The principal and interest, aggregat- 
ing $255,500, was all recovered by the State except- 
ing $27,500. (See sketch of Gov. Matteson.) 

In 1859 an attempt was discovered to fraudu- 
lently refund the Macalister and Stebbins bonds and 
thus rob the State Treasury of nearly a quarter of a 
million dollars. Tlife State Government was impli- 
cated in this affair, and to this day remains unex- 
plained or unatoned for. For the above, and other 
matters previously mentioned, Gov. Bissell has been 
severely criticised, and he has also been most shame- 
fully libelled and slandered. 

On account of exposure in the army, the remote 
cause of a nervovis form of disease gained entrance 
into his system and eventually developed paraplegia, 
affecting his lower extremities, which, while it left 
his body in comparative health, deprived him of loco- 
motion except by the aid of crutches. While he was 
generally hopeful of ultimate recovery, this myste- 
rious disease pursued him, without once relaxing its 
stealthy hold, to the close of his life, March 18, 
i860, over nine months before the expiration of hia 
gubernatorial term, at the eariy age of 48 years. He 
died in the faith of the Roman Catholic Church. 0/ 
1 ivhich he han. been a member since 1854. 




-> >Z) - 

■ -;;( )HN WOOD, Governo." 1S60-1, and 
0»« the first settler of Quincy, 111., 
^= was born in the town of Sempro- 
\. nius (now Moravia), Cayuga Co., 
j: ,.;•■ N. Y., Dec. 20, 1798. He was 
the second child and only son of 
Dr. Daniel Wood. His mother, 
nee Catherine Crause, was of 
German parentage, and died 
while he was an infant. Dr. 
Wood was a learned and skillful 
physician, of classical attain- 
ments and proficient in several 
modern lai.guages, who, after 
serving throughout the Revolu- 
tionary War as a Surgeon, settled on the land granted 
him by the Government, and resided there a re- 
spected and leading influence in his section until his 
death, at the ripe age of 92 years. 

The subject of this sketch, impelled by the spirit 
of Western adventure then pervading everywhere, 
left his home, Nov. 2, 18 1 8, and passed the succeed- 
ing winter in Cincinnati, Ohio. The following sum- 
mer he pushed on to Illinois, landing at Shawneetown. 
and spent the fall and following winter in Calhoun 
County. In 1820, in company with Willard Keyes, 
he settled in Pike County, about 30 miles southeast 
of Quincy, where for the next two years he pursued 
farming. In 1821 he visited "the Bluffs" (as the 
present site of Quincy was called, then uninhabited) 
and, pleased with its prospects, soon after purchased 
a quarter-section of land near by, and in the follow- 
ing fall (1822) erected near the river a small cabin, 


18 X 20 feet, the first building in Quincy, of which 
he then became the first and for some months the 
only occupant. 

About this time he visited his old friends in Pike 
County, chief of whom was William Ross, the lead- 
ing man in building up the village of Atlas, of that 
county, which was thought then to be the possible 
commencement of a city. One day they and others 
were traveling together over the country between the 
two points named, making observations on the com- 
parative merits of the respective localities. On ap- 
proaching the Mississippi near Mr. Wood's place, 
the latter told his companions to follow him and he 
would show them where he was going to build a city. 
They went about a mile off the main trail, to a high 
point, from which the view in every direction was 
most magnificent, as it had been for ages and as ye; 
untouched by the hand of man. Before them swept 
by the majestic Father of Waters, yet unburdened by 
navigation. After Mr. Wood had expatiated at 
length on the advantages of the situation, Mr. Ross 
replied, " But it's too near Atlas ever to amount to 

Atlas is still a cultivated farm, and Quincy is 3. 
city of over 30,000 population. 

In 1824 Mr. Wood gave a newspaper notice, 
as the law then prescribed, of his intention to apply 
to the General Assembly for the formation of a new 
county. This was done the following winter, result- 
ing in the establishment of the present Adams 
County. Daring the next summer Quincy was se- 
lected as the county seat, it and the vicinity then 
containing but four adult male residents and half 



that number of females. Since that period Mr. 
Wood resided at the place of his early adoption un- 
til his death, and far more than any other man was 
he identified with every measure of its progress and 
history, and almost continuously kept in public posi- 

He was one of the early town Trustees, and after 
the place became a city he was often a member of 
the City Council, many times elected Mayor, in the 
face of a constant large opposition political majority. 
In 1850 he was elected to the State Senate. In 1856, 
on the organization of the Republican party, he was 
chosen Lieutenant Governor of the State, on the 
ticket with Wm. H. Bissell for Governor, and on the 
death of the latter, March 18, i860, he succeeded to 
the Chief Executive chair, which he occupied until 
Gov. Yates was inaugurated nearly ten months after- 

Nothing very marked characterized the adminis- 
tration of Gov. Wood. The great anti-slavery cam- 
paign of i860, resulting in the election of the honest 
Illinoisan, Abraham Lincoln, to the Presidency of the 
United States, occurred during the short period 
while Mr. Wood was Governor, and tne e.Kciteraent 
and issues of that struggle dominated over every 
other consideration, — indeed, supplanted them in a 
great measure. The people of Illinois, during all 
that time, were passing the comparatively petty strifes 
under Bissell's administration to the overwhelming 
issue of preserving the whole nation from destruction. 

In 1861 ex-Gov. Wood was one of the five Dele- 
gates from Illinois to the " Peace Convention " at 
Washington, and in April of tlie same year, on the 
breaking out of the Rebellion, he was appointed 

Quartermaster-General of the State, which position 
he held throughout the war. In 1864 he took com- 
mand as Colonel of the 137th 111. Vol. Inf, with 
whom he served until the period of enlistment ex- 

Politically, Gov. Wood was always actively identi- 
fied with the Whig and Republican parties. Few 
men have in personal experience comprehended so 
many surprising and advancing local changes as 
vested in the more than half century recollections of 
Gov. Wood. Sixty-four years ago a solitary settler 
on the "Bluffs," with no family, and no neighbor 
within a score of miles, the world of civilization away 
behind him, and the strolling red-man almost his 
only visitant, he lived to see growing around him, 
and under his auspices and aid, overspreading the 
wild hills and scraggy forest a teaming city,' second 
only in size in the State, and surpassed nowhere in 
beauty, prosperity and promise ; whose people recog- 
nize as with a single voice the proverbial honor and 
liberality that attach to the name and lengthened 
life of their pioneer settler, "the old Governor." 

Gov. Wood was twice married, — first in January, 
1826, to Ann M. Streeter, daughterof Joshua Streeter, 
formerly of Salem, Washington Co., N. Y. They had 
eight children. Mrs. W. died Oct. 8, 1863, and in 
June, 1865, Gov. Wood married Mrs. Mary A., widow 
of Rev. Joseph T. Holmes. Gov. Wood died June 4, 
1880, at his residence in Quincy. Four of his eight 
children are now living, namely: Ann E., wife of 
Gen. John Tillson; Daniel C, who married Mary J. 
Abernethy; John, Jr., who married Josephine Skinner, 
and Joshua S., who married Annie Bradley. The 
last mentioned now resides at Atchison, Kansas, and 
all the rest are still at Quincy. 





J^i'(?l|.art YatQ^ 


:;?^ICHARD YATES, the "War 
I** Governor," 1 86 1-4, was born 
i^» Jan. 18, 18 18, on the banks of 
the Ohio River, at Warsaw, 
-^ Gallatin Co., Ky. His father 
f^^ moved in 1831 to Illinois, and 
after stopping for a time in 
Springfield, settled at Island 
Grove, Sangamon County. Here, 
after attending school, Richard joined 
tlie family. Subsequently he entered 
Illinois College at Jacksonville, 
where, in 1837, he graduated with 
first honors. He chose for his pro- 
fession the law, the Hon. J. J. Har- 
din being his instructor. After ad- 
mission to the Bar he soon rose to distinction as an 

Gifted with a fluent and ready oratory, he soon 
appeared in the political hustings, and, being a 
passionate admirer of the great Whig leader of the 
West. Henry Clay, he joined his political fortunes to 
■he party of his idol. In 1840 he engaged with great 
^rdor in the exciting " hard cider " campaign for 
Tlarrison. Two years later he was elected to the 
Legislature from Morgan County, a Democratic 
stronghold. He served three or four terms in the 
Legislature, and such was the fascination of his ora- 
-;'>ry that by 1850 liis large Congressional District, 
extending from Morgan and Sangamon Counties 
. orth to include LaSalle, unanimously tendered him 
^ tne Whig nomination for Congress. His Democratic 
opponent was Maj. Thomas L. Harris, a very pop- 
ular man who had won distinction at the battle of 
Cerro Gordo, in the Me.\ican War, and who had 
oeaten Hon. Stephen T, Logan for the same position, 

two years before, by a large majority. Yates wa; 
elected. Two years later he was re-elected, over 
John Calhoun. 

It was during Yates second term in Congress that 
the great question of the repeal of the Missouri Com- 
promise was agitated, and the bars laid down for re- 
opening the dreaded anti-slavery question. He took 
strong grounds against the repeal, and thus became 
identified with the rising Republican party. Conse- 
quently he fell into the minority in his district, which 
was pro-slavery. Even then, in a third contest, he 
fell behind Major Harris only zoo votes, after the 
district had two years before given Pierce 2,000 
majority for President. 

The Republican State Convention of i860 met at 
Decatur May 9, and nominated for the office of Gov- 
ernor Mr. Yates, in preference to Hon. Norman B. 
Judd, of Chicago, and Leonard Swett, of Blooming- 
ton, two of the ablest men of the State, who were 
also candidates before the Convention. Francis A. 
Hoffman, of DuPage County, was nominated for 
Lieutenant Governor. This was the year when Mr. 
Lincoln was a candidate for President, a period re- 
membered as characterized by the great whirlpool 
which precipitated the bloody War of the Rebellion. 
The Douglas Democrats nominated J. C. Allen of 
Crawford County, for Governor, and Lewis W. Ross, 
of Fulton County, for Lieutenant Governor. The 
Breckenridge Democrats and the Bell-Everett party 
had also full tickets in the field. After a most fear- 
ful campaign, the result of the election gave Mr. 
Yates 172,196 votes, and Mr. Allen 159,253. Mr. 
Yates received over a thousand more votes than did 
Mr. Lincoln himself. 
Gov. Yates occupied the chair of State during the 



most critical period of our country's history. In the 
fate of the nation was involved that of each State. 
The life struggle of the former derived its sustenance 
from the loyalty of the latter; and Gov. Yates 
seemed to realize the situation, and proved himself 
both loyal and wise in upholding the Government. 
He had a deep hold upon the affections of the 
people, won by his moving eloquence and genial 
manners. Erect and symmetrical in person, of pre- 
possessing appearance, with a winning address and a 
magnetic power, few men possessed more of the ele- 
ments of popularity. His oratory was scholarly and 
captivating, his hearers hardly knowing why they 
were transported. He was social and convivial. In 
the latter respect he was ultimately carried too far. 

The very creditable military efforts of this State 
during the War of the Rebellion, in putting into the 
field the enormous number of about 200,000 soldiers, 
were ever promptly and ably seconded by his excel- 
lency ; and the was ambitious to deserve the title of 
"the soldier's friend." Immediately after the battle of 
Shiloh he repaired to the field of carnage to look 
after the wounded, and his appeals for aid were 
promptly responded to by the people. His procla- 
mations calling for volunteers were impassionate 
appeals, urging upon the people the duties and re- 
quirements of patriotism; and his special message 
ill 1863 to the Democratic Legislature of this State 
pleading for material aid for the sick and wounded 
soldiers of Illinois regiments, breathes a deep fervor 
of noble sentiment and feeling rarely equaled in 
beauty or felicity of expression. Generally his mes- 
sages on political and civil affairs were able and com- 
prehensive. During his administration, however, 
there were no civil events of an engrossing character, 
although two years of his time were replete wiili 
partisan quarrels of great bitterness. Military ar- 
rests, Knights of the Golden Circle, riot in Fulton 
County, attempted suppression of the Chicago Times 
and the usurping State Constitutional Convention of 
1862, were the chief local topics that were exciting 
during the Governor's term. This Convention assem- 
bled Jan. 7, and at once took the high position that 
he law calling it was no longer binding, and that it 
ad supreme power; that it represented a virtual 
assemblage of the whole people of the State, and was 
sovereign in the exercise of all power necessary to 
effect a peaceable revolution of the State Government 

and to the re-establishment of one for the "happiness, 
prosperity and freedom of the citizens," limited only 
by the Federal Constitution. Notwithstanding the 
law calling the Convention required its members to 
take an oath to support the Constitution of the State 
as well as that of the general Government, they 
utterly refused to take such oath. They also as- 
sumed legislative powers and passed several import- 
ant "laws!" Interfering with the (then) present 
executive duties. Gov. Yates was provoked to tell 
them plainly that " he did not acknowledge the right 
of the Convention to instruct him in the performance 
of his duty." 

In 1863 tlie Governor astonished the Democrats 
by " proroguing " their Legislature. This body, after 
a recess, met June 2, that year, and soon began to 
waste time upon various partisan resolutions ; and, 
while the two houses were disagreeing upon the 
question of adjourning sine die, the Governor, having 
the authority in such cases, surprised them all by 
adjourning them " to the Saturday next preceding the 
first Monday in January, 1865 ! " This led to great 
excitement and confusion, and to a reference of the 
Governor's act to the Supreme Court, who decided in 
his favor. Then it was the Court's turn to receive 
abuse for weeks and months afterward. 

During the autumn of 1864 a conspiracy was de- 
tected at Chicago which had for its object the liber- 
ation of the prisoners of war at Camp Douglas, the 
burning of the city and the inauguration of rebellion 
in the North. Gen. Sweet, who had charge of the 
camp at the time, first had his suspicions of danger 
aroused by a number of enigmatically worded letters 
which passed through the Camp postoffice. A de- 
tective afterward discovered that the rebel Gen. 
Marmaduke was in the city, under an assumed 
name, and he, with other rebel officers — Grenfell, 
Morgan, Cantrell, Buckner Morris, and Charles 
Walsh — was arrested, most of whom were convicted 
by a court-martial at Cincinnati and sentenced to 
imprisonment, — Grenfell to be hung. Tiie sentence 
of the latter was afterward commuted to imprison- 
ment for life, and all the others, after nine months' 
imprisonment, were pardoned. 

In March, 1873, Gov. Yates was appointed a Gov- 
ernment Director of the Union Pacific Railroad, in 
which office he continued until his decease, at St. 
Louis, Mo., on the 27th of November following. 






Mieliard J. 


IB O) 

;^>f ;'^-.UCHARD J. OGLESBY, Gov- 
ernor 1865-S, and re-elected 
in 1872 and 1884, was born 
July 25, 1824, in Oldham Co., 
Ky., — the State which might 
, . be considered the " mother of 

"^^^Wlly^^ Illinois Governors." Bereft of 
K?^Q;'FJ)f'r;i^, ^ his parents at the tender a."t 
j|7<'vg^f' -^V of eight years, his early education 
was neglected. When 12 years of 
age, and after he had worked a year 
and a half at the carpenter's trade, 
he removed with an uncle, Willis 
Oglesby, into whose care he had 
been committed, to Decatur, this 
State, where he continued his ap- 
prenticeship as a mechanic, working si.x months for 
Hon. E. O. Smith. 

In 1844 he commenced studying law at Spring- 
field, with Judge Silas Robbins, and read with him 
one year. He was admitted to the Bar in 1S45, and 
commenced the practice of his chosen profession at 
Sullivan, the county seat of Moultrie County. 

The next year the war with Mexico was com- 
menced, and in June, 1846, Mr. Oglesby volunteered, 
was elected First Lieutenant of Co. C, Fourth Illinois 
Regiment of Volunteers, and participated in the bat- 
tles of Vera Cruz and Cerro Gordo. 

On his return he sought to perfect his law studies 
by attending a course of lectures at Louisville, but 
on the breaking out of the California "gold fever " in 
1849, he crossed the plains and tnountains to the 
new Eldorado, driving a six-mule team, with a com- 

pany of eight men, Henry Prather Ijeing the leader. 

In 1852 he returned home to Maco.i Cjuaty, and 
was placed that year by the Whig party on llie ticket 
of Presidential Electors. In 1856 he visited Europe, 
Asia and Africa, being absent 20 months. On liis 
return home he resu'.ned the practice of law, as a 
member of the firm of Gallagher, Wait & Oglesby. 
In 1858 he was the Republican no.ninee for the 
Lower House of Congress, but was defeated by th.; 
Hon. James C. Robinson, Democrat. In i860 lie 
was elected to the Illinois State Senate ; and on the 
evening the returns of this election were coming in, 
Mr. Oglesby had a fisticuff encounter with " Cerro 
Gordo Williams," in which he came out victorious, 
and which was regarded as " the first fight of the 
Rebellion." The following spring, when the war 
had commenced in earnest, his ardent nature 
quickly responded to the demands of patriotism and 
he enlisted. The extra session of the Legislature 
elected him Colonel of the Eighth Illinois Infantry, 
the second one in the State raised to suppress the 
great Rebellion. 

He was shortly entrusted with important com- 
mands. For a time he was stationed at Bird's Point 
and Cairo; in April he was promoted Brigadier Gen- 
eral ; at Fort Donelson his brigade was in the van, 
being stationed on the right of General Grant's army 
and the first brigade to be attacked. He lost 500 
men before re-inforcements arrived. Many of these 
men were from Macon County. He was engaged in 
the battle of Corinth, and, in a brave charge at this 
place, was shot in the left lung with an ounce ball, 
and was carried from the field in expectation of jna- 



mediate death. That rebel ball he carries to this 
day. On his partial recovery he was promoted as 
Major General, for gdlantry, his commissioa to rank 
from November, 1862. In the spring of 1863 he 
was assigned to the command of the i6th Army 
Corps, but, owing to inability froai the effects of his 
wound, he relinquished this command in July, that 
year. Gen. Grant, however, refused to accept his 
resignation, and he was detailed, in December follow- 
ing, to court-martial and try the Surgeon General of 
the Army at Washington, where he remained until 
May, 1864, when he returned home. 

The Republican, or Union, State Convention of 
1864 was held at Springfield,' May 25, when Mr. 
Oglesby was nominated for the ofSce of Governor, 
while other candidates before the Convention were 
Allen C. Fuller, of Boone, Jesse K. Dubois, of Sanga- 
mon, and Johu M. Palmer, of Macoupin. VVm. 
Bross, of Chicago, was nominated for Lieutenant 
Governor. On the Democratic State ticket were 
James C. Robinson, of Clark, for Governor, and S. 
Corning Judd, of Fulton, for Lieutenant Governor. 
The general election gave Gen. Oglesby a majority 
of about 31,000 votes. The Republicans had also a 
majority in both the Legislature and in the repre- 
sentation in Congress. 

Gov. Oglesby was duly inaugurated Jan. 17, 1S65. 
The day before the first time set for his installation 
death visited his home at Decatur, and took from it 
his only son, an intelligent and sprightly lad of six 
years, a great favorite of the bereaved parents. This 
caused the inauguration to be postponed a week. 

The political events of the Legislative session of 
T865 were the election of ex-Gov. Yates to the 
United States Senate, and the ratification of the 13th 
amend.nent to the Constitution of the United States, 
abolishing slavery. This session also signalized 
itself by repealing the notorious " black laws," part 
of which, although a dead letter, jiad held their place 
upon the statute books since 1819. Also, laws re- 
quiring the registration of voters, and establishing a 
State Board of Equalization, were passed by this Leg- 
islature. But the same body evinced that it was cor- 
ruptly influenced by a mercenary lobby, as it adopted 
some bad legislation, over the Governor's veto, nota- 
bly an amendment to a charter for a Chicago horse 
railway, granted in 1859 for 25 years, and now 
sought to be extended 99 years. As this measure 
was promptly passed over his veto by both branches 
of the Legislature, he deemed it useless further to 
attempt to check their headlong career. At this 
session no law of a general useful character or public 
interest was perfected, unless we count such the 
'^urning over of the canal to Chicago to be deepened. 
The session of 1867 was still more productive of 
private and special acts. Many omnibus bills were 
orcpcsed, and some passed. Tiie contests over the 
-c-cation of the Industrial College, the Capital, the 

Soutliern Penitentiary, and the canal enlargement 
and Illinois River improvement, dominated every- 
thing else. 

During the year 1872, it became evident that i( 
the Republicans could re-elect Mr. Oglesby to the 
office of Governor, they could also elect liim to the 
United States Senate, which they desired to do. 
Accordingly they re-nominated him for the Execu- 
tive cliair, and placed upon the ticket with him for 
Lieutenant Governor, John L. Beveridge, of Cook 
County. On the other side the Democrats put into 
the field Gustavus Koerner for Governor and John 
C. Black for Lieutenant Governor. The election 
gave the Republican ticket majorities ranging from 
35'334 to 56,174, — the Democratic defection being 
caused mainly by their having an old-time Wliig and 
Abolitionist, Horace Greeley, on the national ticket 
for President. According to the general understand- 
ing had beforehand, as soon as the Legislature met 
it elected Gov. Oglesby to the United States Senate, 
whereupon Mr. Beveridge became Governor. Sena- 
tor Oglesby 's term expired March 4, 1879, having 
served his party faithfully and exhibited an order of 
statesmanship beyond criticism. 

During the campaign of 1884 Mr. Oglesby was 
nominated for a "third term" as Executive of the 
State of Illinois, against Carter H. Harrison, Mayor 
of Chicago, nominated by the Democrats. Both 
gentlemen "stumped " the State, and while the peo- 
ple elected a Legislature which was a tie on a joint 
ballot, as between the two parties, they gave the 
jovial " Dick" Oglesby a majority of 15,018 for Gov- 
ernor, and he was inaugurated Jan. 30, 1885. The 
Legislature did not fully organize until this date, on 
account of its equal division between the two maiu 
parties and the consequent desperate tactics of each 
party to checkmate the latter in the organization of 
the House. 

Gov. Oglesby is a line-appearing, affable man, with 
regular, well defined features and rotund face. In 
stature he is a little above medium height, of a large 
frame and somewhat fleshy. His physical appear- 
ance is striking and prepossessing, while his straight- 
out, not to say bluff, manner and speech are well 
calculated favorably to impress the average masses. 
Ardent in feeling and si rongly committed to the pol- 
icies of his party, he intensifies Republicanism 
anwng Republicans, while at the same time his jovial 
and liberal manner prevents those of the opposite 
party from hating him. 

He is quite an effective stump orator. With vehe- 
ment, jiassionate and scornful tone and gestures, 
tremendous physical power, whicli in speaking he 
exercises to the utmost; with frecpient descents to 
the grotesque; and with abundant homely comj)ari- 
sons or frontier figures, expressed in the broadest 
vernacular and enforced with stentorian emphasis, 
he delights a promiscuous audience beyond measure. 



J 0- MN 3£ Pa l mem 

-— ">5— *— «<s§<i)Si>-^>c 

p*« ernor 1869-72, was born on 
Engle Creek, Scott Co., Ky , 
Sept. 13, 1817. During his in- 
fancy, his father, who had been 
a soldier in the war of 1812, re- 
moved to Christian Co., Ky., 
where lands were cheap. Here 
the future Governor of the great 
Prairie State spent his childhood 
and received such meager school- 
ing as the new and sparsely set- 
tled country afforded. To this 
he added materially bj- diligent 
reading, for v;hich he evinced an aptitude. His father, an ardent Jackson man, 
was also noted for his anti-slavery sentiments, which 
lie thoroughly impressed upon his children. In 1831 
he emigrated to Illinois, settling in Madison County. 
Here the labor of improving a farm was pursued for 
a'.'iiut two years, when the death of Mr. Palmer's 
i:;i]!her broke up tiie family. About this time Alton 
College was opened, on the "manual labor " system, 
and in the spring of 1834 young Palmer, with his 
ehler brother, Elihu, entered this school and remained 
18 months. Next, for over three years, he tried 
variously coopering, peddling and school-teaching. 

During the summer of 1838 he formed the ac- 
quaintance of Stephen A. Douglas, then making his 

first canvass for Congress. Young, eloquent and in 
political accord with Mr. Palmer, he won his confi- 
dence, ilred his ambition and fixed his purpose. The 
following winter, while teaching near Canton, he be- 
gan to devote his spare time to a desultory reading 
of law, and in the spring entered a law office at Car- 
linville, making his home with his elder brother, 
Elihu. (The latter was a learned clergyman, of con- 
siderable orginatity of thought and doctrine.) On 
the next meeting of the Supreme Court he was ad- 
mitted to the Bar, Douglas being one of his examiners. 
He was not immediately successful in his profession, 
and would have located elsewhere than Carlinville 
had he the requisite means. Thus his early poverty 
was a blessing in disguise, for to it he now attributes 
the success of his life. 

From 1839 on, while he diligently pursued his 
profession, he participated more or less in local 
politics. In 1843 he became Probate Judge. Iv 
1847 he was elected to the State Constitutional Con- 
vention, where he took a leading part. In 1852 ht, 
was elected to the State Senate, and at the special 
session of February, 1854, true to the anti-slavery 
sentiments bred in him, he took a firm stand in op- 
position to the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, 
and when the Nebraska question became a partj 
issue he refused to receive a re-nomination for th( 
Senatorship at the hands of the Democracy, issuin;. 
a circular to that effect. A few weeks afterward 



however, hesitating to break with his party, he par- 
ticipated in a Congressional Convention which nomi- 
T. L. Harris against Richard Yates, and which 
anqualifiedly approved the principles of the Kansas- 
Nebraska act. But later in the campaign he made 
the plunge, ran for the Senate as an Anti-Nebraska 
Democrat, and was elected. The following winter 
he put in nomination for the ^United States Senate 
Mr. Trumbull, and was one of the five steadfast men 
who voted for him until all the Whigs came to their 
support and elected their man. 

In 1856 he was Chairman of the Republican State 
Convention at Bloomington. He ran for Congress in 
1859, but was defeated. In i860 he was Republican 
Presidential Elector for the State at large. In 1861 
ne was appointed one of the five Delegates (all Re- 
publicans) sent by Illinois to the peace congress at 

When the civil conflict broke out, he offered his 
services to his country, and was elected Colonel of the 
i4ih 111. Vol. Inf , and participated in the engagements 
at Island No. 10; at Farmington, where he skillfully 
extricated his command from a dangerous position ; 
at Stone River, where his division for several hours, 
Dec. 31, 1862, held the advance and stood like a 
rock, and for his gallantry there he was made Major 
General; at Chickamauga, where his and Van Cleve's 
divisions for two hours maintained their position 
when they were cut off by overpowering numbers. 
Under Gen. Sherman^ he was assigned to the i4lh 
Army Corps and participated in the Atlanta campaign. 
At Peach-Tree Creek his prudence did much to avert 
disaster. In February, 11865, Gen. Palmer was as- 
signed to the military administration of Kentucky, 
whicli was a delicate post. That State was about 
half rebel and half Union, and those of the latter 
element were daily fretted by the loss of their slaves. 
He, who had been bred to the rules of common law, 
trembled at the contemplation of his extraordinary 
power over the persons and property of his fellow 
men, with which he was vested in his capacity as 
military Governor; and he exhibited great caution in 
the execution of the duties of his post. 

Gen. Palmer was nominated for Governor of Illi- 
nois by the Republican State Convention which met 
at Peoria May 6, 1868, and his nomination would 
probably have been made by acclamation had he not 
persistently declared that he could not accept a can- 

didature for the office. The result of the ensuing 
election gave Mr. Palmer a majority of 44,707 over 
John R. Eden, the Democratic nominee. 

On the meeting of the Legislature in January, 
1869, the first thing to arrest public attention was 
that portion of the Governor's message which took 
broad State's rights ground. This and some minor 
paints, which were more in keeping with the Demo- 
cratic sentiment, constituted the entering wedge f jr 
the criticisms and reproofs he afterward received 
from the Republican party, and ultimately resulted 
in his entire aleniation from the latter element. The 
Legislature just referred to was noted for the intro- 
duction of numerous bills in the interest of private 
parties, which were embarrassing to the Governor. 
Among the public acts passed was that which limited 
railroad charges for passenger travel to a maximum 
of three cents per mile ; and i-t was passed over the 
Governor's veto. Also, they passed, over his veto, 
the "tax-grabbing law" to pay rmlrosd subscriptions, 
the Chicago Lake Front bill, etc. The u^v^ State 
Constitution of 1870, far superior to the old, was a 
peaceful " revolution" which took place during Gov. 
Palmer's term of office. The suffering caused by the 
great Chicago Fire of October, 187 1, was greatly 
alleviated by the prompt responses of his excellency. 

Since the expiration of Gov. Palmers 's term, he has 
been somewhat prominent in Illinois politics, and 
has been talked of by many, especially in the Dem- 
ocratic party, as the best man in the State for a 
United States Senator. His business during life has 
been that of the law. Few excel him in an accurate 
appreciation of the depth and scope of its principles- 
The great number of his able veto messages abun- 
dantly testify not only this but also a rare capacity to 
point them out. He is a logical and cogent reasoner 
and an interesting, forcible and convincing speaker, 
though not fluent or ornate. Without brilliancy, his 
dealings are rather with facts and ideas than with 
appeals to passions and prejudices. He is a patriot 
and a statesman of very high order. Physically he is 
above the medium heiglit, of robust frame, ruddy 
complexion and sanguine-nervous temperament. He 
has a large cranial development, is vivacious, social 
in disposition, easy of approach, unostentatious in his 
habits of life, democratic in his habits and manners 
and is a true American in his fundamental principle* 
of statesmanship. 







IDGE, Governor 187 3-6, was 
born in the town of Green- 
wich, Washington Co., N. Y., 
July 6, 1824. His parents 
:; ; y were George and Ann Bever- 
-■*) idge. His father's parents, An- 
I drew and Isabel Beveridge, be- 
■J fore their marriage emigrated 
I from Scotland just before the 
\1 Revolutionary War, settling in 
^ Washington County. His father 
was the eldest of eight brothers, the 
youngest of whom was 60 years of 
age when the first one of the num- 
ber died. His mother's parents, 
James and Agnes Hoy, emigrated 
from Scotland at the close of the 
Revolutionary War, settling also in 
|Q Washington Co., N. Y., with their 
^ first-born, whose " native land "was 
the wild ocean. His parents and 
iij-y grandparents lived beyond the time 
allotted to man, their average age 
being over 80 years. They belonged to the " Asso- 
ciate Church," a seceding Presbyterian body of 

America from the old Scotch school ; and so rigid 
was the training of young Beveridge that he never 
heard a sermon from any other minister except .that 
of his own denomination until he was in his 19th 
year. Later in life he became a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, which relation he still 

Mr. Beveridge received a good common-school ed- 
ucation, but his parents, who could obtain a livelihood 
only by rigid economy and industry, could not send 
him away to college. He was raised upon a farm, 
and was in his i8th year when the family removed 
to De Kalb County, this State, when that section was 
very sparsely settled. Chicago had less than 7,000 
inhabitants. In this wild West he continued as a 
farm laborer, teaching school during the winter 
months to supply the means of an education. In the 
fall of 1 84 2 he attended one term at the academy at 
Granville, Putnam Co., 111., and subsequently several 
terms at the Rock River Seminary at Mount Morris, 
Ogle Co., 111., completing the academic course. At 
this time, the fall of 1845, his parents and brothers 
were anxious to have him go to college, even though 
.he had not money sufficient; but, njt willing to bur- 
den the family, he packed his trunk and with only 
§40 in money started South to seek his fortune. 



Poor, alone, without friends and influence, he thus 
entered upon the battle of life. 

First, he taught school in Wilson, Overton and 
Jackson Cos., Tenn., in whicli experience he under- 
went considerable mental drill, both in book studies 
and in the ways of the world. He read law and was 
admitted to the Bar, in the South, but did not learn 
to love the institution of slavery, although he ad- 
mired many features of Southern character. In De- 
cember, 1847, he returned North, and Jan. 20, 184S, 
he married Miss Helen M. Judson, in the old Clark- 
Street M. E. church in Chicago, her father at that 
time being Pastor of the society there. In the spring 
of 1848 he returned with his wife to Tennessee, 
where his two children. Alia May and Philo judson, 
were born. 

In the fall of 1849, through the mismanagement 
of an associate, he lost what little he had accumu- 
lated and was left in debt. He soon managed to 
earn means to pay his debts, returned to De Kalb 
Co., 111., and entered upon the practice of his pro- 
fession at Sycamore, the county seat. On arrival 
from the South he had but one-quarter of a dollar in 
money, and scanty clothing and bedding for himself 
and family. He borrowed a little money, practiced 
law, worked in public offices, kept books for some of 
the business men of the town, and some railroad en- 
gineering, till the spring of 1854, when he removed 
to Evanston, 12 miles north of Chicago, a place then 
but recently laid out, under the supervision of the 
Northwestern University, a Methodist institution. 
Of the latter his father-in-law was then financial 
agent and business manager. Here Mr. Beveridge 
prospered, and the next year (1855) opened a law 
office in Chicago, where he found the battle some- 
what hard; but he persevered with encouragement 
and increasing success. 

Aug. 12, 1861, his law partner, Gen. John F. 
Farnsworth, secured authority to raise a regiment of 
cavalry, and authorized Mr. Beveridge to raise a 
company for it. He succeeded in a few days in rais- 
ing the company, of course enlisting himself along 
with it. The regiment rendezvoused at St. Charles, 
111., was mustered in Sept. 18, and 011 its organiza- 
tion Mr. B. was elected Second Major. It was at- 
tached, Oct. II, to the Eighth Cavalry and to the 
Army of the Potomac. He served with the regiment 
until November, i86j, participating in some 40 bat- 

tles and skirmishes : was at Fair Oaks, the seven days' 
fight around Richmond, Fredericksburg, Chancellors- 
ville and Gettysburg. He commanded the regiment 
the greater part of the summer of 1 863, and it was while 
lying in camp this year that he originated the policy 
of encouraging recruits as well as the fighting capac- 
ity of the soldiery, by the wholesale furlough system. 
It worked so well that many other officers adopted 
it. In the fall of this year he recruited another com- 
pany, against heavy odds, in. January, 1864, was 
commissioned Colonel of the 17th 111. Cav., and 
skirmished around in Missouri, concluding with the 
reception of the surrender of Gen. Kirby Smith's 
army in Arkansas. In 1865 he commanded various 
sub-districts in the Southwest. He was mustered 
out Feb. 6, 1866, safe from the casualties of war and 
a stouter man than when he first enlisted. His men 
idolized him. 

He then returned to Chicago, to practice law, with 
no library and no clientage, and no political experi- 
ence except to help others into office. In the fall of 
1866 he was elected Sheriff of Cook County, serving 
one term; next, until November, 1870, he practiced 
law and closed up the unfinished business of his 
office. He was then elected State Senator; in No- 
vember, 187 1, he was elected Congressman at large; 
in November, 1872, he was elected Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor on the ticket with Gov. Oglesby ; the latter be- 
ing elected to the U. S. Senate, Mr. Beveridge became 
Governor, Jan. 2t, 1873. Thus, inside of a few 
weeks, he was Congressman at large. Lieutenant 
Governor and Governor. The principal events oc- 
curring during Gov. Beveridge 's administration were: 
The completion of the revision of the statutes, begun 
in 1869; the partial success of tlie "farmers' move- 
ment;" "Haines' Legislature " and Illinois' exhibit at 
the Centennial. 

Since the close of his gubernatorial term ex-Gov^ 
Beveridge has been a member of the firm of Bever- 
idge & Dewey, bankers and dealers in commercial 
paper at 7 1 Dearborn Street (McCormick Block), 
Chicago, and since November, 1S81, he has also been 
Assistant United States Treasurer • office in flie 
Government Building. His residence is still at Ev- 

He has a brother and two sisters yet residing in 
De Kalb County — James H. Beveridge, Mrs. Jennet 
Henry and Mrs. Isabel French. 

,. ^ \ 






nor 1877-83,13 the sixth child 
of the lale Richard N. Cullom, 
and was born Nov. 22, 1829,10 
Wayne Co., Ky., where his fa- 
ther then resided, and whence 
" both the Illinois and Tennessee 

branches of the family originated. In 
the following year the family emi- 
grated to the vicinity of Washington, 
Tazewell Co., 111., when that secfion 
was very sparsely settled. They lo- 
cated on Deer Creek, in a grove at 
the time occupied by a party of In- 
dians, attracted there by the superior 
hunting and fishing afforded in that 
vicinity. The following winter was 
known as the " hard winter," the snow being very 
deep and lasting and the weather severely cold; and 
the family had to subsist mainly on boiled corn or 
hominy, and some wild game, for several weeks. In 
the course of time Mr. R. N. Cullom became a prom- 
inent citizen and was several times elected to the 
Legislature, both before and after the removal of the 
catdtal from Vandalia to Springfu^ld. He died about 


Until about 19 years of age young Cullom grew up 
to agricultural pursuits, attending school as he had 
opportunity during the winter. Within this time, 
nov/ever, he spent several months teaching sr.hool. 

and in the following summer he "broke prairie "with 
an ox team for tlie neighbors. With the money ob- 
tained by these various ventures, he undertook a 
course of study at the Rock River Seminary, a 
Methodist institution at Mt. Morris, Ogle County; 
but the sudden change to the in-door life of a stu- 
dent told severely upon his health, and he was taken 
home, being considered in a hopeless condition. While 
at Mt. Morris he heard Hon. E. B. Washburne make 
his first speech. 

On recovering health, Mr. Cullom concluded to 
study law, under the instruction of Abraham Lincoln, 
at Springfield, who had by this time attained some 
notoriety as an able lawyer; but the latter, being ab- 
sent from his office most of the time, advised Mr. 
Cullom to enter the office of Stuart & Edwards. 
After about a year of study there, however, his health 
failed again, and he was obliged to return once more 
to out-door life. Accordingly he bought hogs for 
packing, for A. G. Tyng, in I'eoria, and while he re- 
gained his health he gained in purse, netting $400 in 
a few weeks. Having been admitted to the Bar, he 
went to Springfield, where he was soon elected City 
Attorney, on the .\nti-Nebraska ticket. 

In 1856 he ran on the Fillmore ticket as a Presi- 
dential Elector, and, although failing to be elected as | 
such, he was at the same time elected a Representa- ! 
tive in the Legislature from Sangamon County, by a 
local coalition of the American and Republican par- 
ties. On the organization of the House, he received 
the vote of the Fillmore men for Speaker. Practicing 



law until i860, he was again elected to the Legisla- 
ture, as a Republican, while the county went Demo- 
cratic on the Presidential ticket. In January follow- 
ing he was elected Speaker, probably the youngest 
man who had ever presided over an Illinois Legis- 
lature. After the session of 1861, he was a candidate 
for the State Constitutional Convention called for 
that year, but was defeated, and thus escaped the 
disgrace of being connected with that abortive jjarly 
scheme to revolutionize the State Government. In 
1862 he was a candidate for the State Senate, but 
was defeated. The same year, however, he was ap- 
pointed by President Lincoln on a Government 
Commission, in company with Gov. Boutwell of 
Massachusetts and Cnarles A. Dana, since of the 
New York Sun, to investigate the affairs of the 
Quartermaster's and Commissary Departments at 
Cairo. He devoted several months to this duty. 

In 1864 he enteted upon a larger political field, 
being nominated as the Republican candidate for 
Congress from the Eighth (Springfield) District, in 
opposition to the incumbent, JohnT. Stuart, who had 
been elected in 1862 by about 1,500 majority over 
Leonard Swett, then of Bloomington, now of Chicago. 
The result was the election of Mr. Cullom in Novem- 
ber following by a majority of 1,785. In 1866 he 
was re-elected to Congress, over Dr. E. S. Fowler, by 
the magnificent majority of 4,103! In 1868 he was 
again a candidate, defeating the Hon. B. S. Edwards, 
another of his old preceptors, by 2,884 votes. 

During his first term in Congress he served on the 
Committee on Foreign Affairs and Expenditures in 
the Treasury Department; in his second term, on 
the Committees on Foreign Affairs and on Territories • 
and in his third term he succeeded Mr. Ashley, of 
Ohio, to the Chairmanship of the latter. He intro- 
duced a bill in the House, to aid in the execution of 
law in Utah, which caused more consternation anion i; 
the Mormons than any measure had previously, but 
which, though it passed the House, failed to pass the 

The Republican Convention which met May 25, 
1876, nominated Mr. Cullom for Governor, while the 
other contestant was Gov. Beveridge. For Lieuten- 
ant-Governor they nominated Andrew Shuman, editor 
of the Chicago Journal. For the same offices the 
Democrats, combining with the Anti-Monopolists, 
placed in nomination Lewis Steward, a wealthy 

farmer and manufacturer, and K. A. Glenn. The 
result of the election was rather close, Mr. Cullom 
obtaining only 6,800 majority. He was inaugurated 
Jan. 8, 1877. 

Great depression prevailed in financial circles at 
this time, as a consequence of the heavy failures of 
1873 and afterward, the effect of which had seemed 
to gather force from that time to the end of Gov. 
Cullom's first administration. This unspeculative 
period was not calculated to call forth any new 
issues, but the Governor's energies were at one time 
put to task to quell a spirit of insubordination that 
had been begun in Pittsburg, Pa., among the laboring 
classes, and transferred to Illinois at Chicago, East 
St. Louis and Braidwood, at which places laboring 
men for a short time refused to work or allow others 
to work. These disturbances were soon quelled and 
the wheels of industry again set in motion. 

In May, 1880, Gov. Cullom was re-nominated by 
the Republicans, against Lyman Trumbull, by the 
Democrats; and although the former party was some- 
what handicapped in the campaign by a zealous 
faction opposed to Grant for President and to Grant 
men for office generally, Mr. Cullom was re-elected 
by about 314,565, to 277,532 for the Democratic State 
ticket. The Greenback vote at the same tmie was 
about 27,000. Both Houses of the Legislature again 
became Republican, and no representative of the 
Greenback or Socialist parties were elected. Gov. 
Cullom was inaugurated Jan. 10, iSSi. In his mes- 
sage he announced that the last dollar of the State 
debt had been provided for. 

March 4, 1883, the term of David Davis as United 
States Senator from Illinois expired, and Gov. Cul- 
lom was chosen to succeed him. This promoted 
Lieutenant-Governor John M. Hamilton to the Gov- 
ernorship. Senator Cullom's term in the United 
States Senate will expire March 4, 1889. 

At a practitioner of law Mr. C. has been a member 
of the firm of Cullom, Scholes & Mather, at Spring- 
field ; and he has also been President of the State 
National Bank. 

He has been married twice, — the first time Dec. 
12, 1855, to Miss Hannah Fisher, by whom he had 
two daughters; and the second time May 5, 1863, 
to Julia Fisher. Mrs. C is a member of the Method- 
ist Episcopal Church, with which religious body Mr. 
C, is al§o in sympathy. 




■ ■ c *^ X!X "^ ^'!^ ^* ^!vC 1^ ^XC # Ix^!^ ^ 


^y,_ TON, Governor 1883-5, was 
born May 28, 1847, in a log 
bouse upon a farm about two 
miles from Richwood, Union 
County, Ohio. His father was 
Samuel Hamilton, the eldest son 
of Rev. VVm. Hamilton, who, to- 
gether with his brother, the Rev. 
Samuel Hamilton, was among the 
early pioneer Methodist preachers in 
Ohio. The mother of the subject of 
this sketch was, before her marriage, 
Mrs. Nancy McMorris, who was 
born and raised in Fauquier or Lou- 
doun County, Va., and related to the 
two large families of Youngs and Marshalls, well 
known in that commonwealth ; and from the latter 
family name was derived the middle name of Gov. 

In March, 1854, Mr. Hamilton's father sold out 
his little pioneer forest home in Union County, O., 
and, loading his few household effects and family 
(of six children) into two emigrant covered wagons, 
moved to Roberts Township, Marshall Co., 111., being 
21 days on the route. Swamps, unbridged streams 
and innumerable hardships and privations met them 
on their way. Their new home had been previously 
selected by the father. Here, after many long years 
of toil, they succeeded in paying for the land and 
making a comforta*^''^ home. John was, of course, 

brought up to hard manual labor, wiih no schooling 
except three or four months in the year at a common 
country school. However, he evinced a capacity 
and taste for a high order of self-education, by 
studying or reading what books he could borrow, as 
the family had but very few in the house. Much of 
his study he prosecuted by the light of a log fire in 
the old-fashioned chimney place. The financial 
panic of 1857 caused the family to come near losing 
their home, to pay debts; but the father and two 
sons, William and John, "buckled to" and perse 
vered in hard labor and economy until they redeemed 
their place from the mortgage. 

When the tremendous excitement of the political 
campaign of i860 reached the neighborhood of Rob- 
erts Township, young Hamilton, who had been 
brought up in the doctrine of anti-slavery, took a zeal- 
ous part in favor of Lincoln's election. Making special 
efforts to procure a little money to buy a uniform, he 
joined a company of Lincoln Wide-Awakes at Mag- 
nolia, a village not far away. Directly after the 
ensuing election it became evident that trouble 
would ensue with the South, and this Wide-Awake 
company, like many others throughout the country, 
kept up its organization and transformed itself into a 
military company. During the ensuing summer they 
met often for drill and became proficient ; but when 
they offered themselves for the v.-ar, young Hamiho.'i 
was rejected on account of his youth, he being then 
but 14 years of age. During the winter of 1863-4 lie 
attended an academy at Henry, Marshall County 



and in the following May he again enlisted, for the 
fourth time, when he was placed in the 141st 111. 
Vol. Inf., a regiment then being raised at Elgin, 111., 
for the 100-day service. He took with him 13 other 
lads from his neighborhood, for enlistment in the 
service. This regiment operated in Southwestern 
Kentucky, for about five months, under Gen. Paine. 

The following winter, 1864-5, ^''- Hamilton taught 
school, and during the two college years 1865-7, he 
went through three years of the curriculum of the 
Ohio Wesleyan University at Delaware, Ohio. The 
third year he graduated, the fourth in a class of 46, 
in the classical department. In due time he received 
the degree of M. A. For a few months he was the 
Principal of Marshall " College " at Henry, an acad- 
emy under the auspices of the M. E. Church. By 
this time he had commenced the study of law, and 
after earning some money as a temporary Professor 
of Latin at the Illinois Wesleyan University at 
Bloomington, he entered the law office of Weldon, 
Tipton & Benjainin, of that city. Each member of 
this firm has since been distinguished as a Judge. 
Admitted to the Bar in May, 1870, Mr. Hamilton 
was given an interest in the same firm, Tipton hav- 
ing been elected Judge. In October following he 
formed a partnership with J. H. Rowell, at that time 
Prosecuting Attorney. Their business was then 
small, but they increased it to very large proportions, 
practicing in all grades of courts, including even the 
U. S. Supreme Court, and this partnership continued 
unbroken until Feb. 6, 1883, when Mr. Hamilton 
was sworn in as Executive of Illinois. On the 4th 
of March following Mr. Rowell took his seat in Con- 

In July, 187 1, Mr. Hamilton married Miss Helen 
M. Williams, the daugliter of Prof. \Vm. G. Williams, 
Professor of Greek in the Ohio Wesleyan University. 
Mr. and Mrs. H. have two daughters and one son. 

In 1876 Mr. Hamilton was nominated by the Re- 
publicans for the State Senate, over other and older 
competitors. He took an active part " on the stump " 
in the campaign, for the success of his party, and was 
sleeted by a majority of 1,640 over his Democratic- 
Greenback opponent. In the Senate he served on 
the Committees on Judiciary, Revenue, State Insti- 
tutions, Appropriations, Education, and on Miscel- 
lany ; and during the contest for the election of a 
U. S. Senator, the Republicans endeavoring to re- 

elect John A. Logan, he voted for the war chief on 
every ballot, even alone when all the other Republi- 
cans had gone over to the Hon. E. B. Lawrence and 
the Democrats and Independents elected Judge 
David Davis. At this session, also, was passed the 
first Board of Health and Medical Practice act, of 
which Mr. Hamilton was a champion, against :; 
much opposition that the bill was several times 
"laid on the table." Also, this session authorized 
the location and establishment of a southern peni- 
tentiary, which was fixed at Chester. In the session 
of 1879 Mr. Hamilton was elected President//-;? /^»z. 
of the Senate, and was a zealous supporter of John 
A. Logan for the U. S. Senate, who wa3 this time 
elected without any trouble. 

In May, 1880, Mr. Hamilton was nominated on 
the Republican ticket for Lieutenant Governor, his 
principal competitors before the Convention being 
Hon. Wm. A. James, ex-Speaker of the House of 
Representatives, Judge Robert Bell, of Wabash 
County, Hon. T. T. Fountain, of Perry County, and 
Hon. M. M. Saddler, of Marion County. He engaged 
actively in the campaign, and his ticket was elected 
by a majority of 41,200. As Lieutenant Governor, 
he presided almost continuously over the Senate in 
the 32d General Assembly and during the early days 
of the 33d, until he succeeded to the Governorship. 
When the Legislature of 1883 elected Gov. Cullom 
to the United States Senate, Lieut. Gov. Hamilton 
succeeded him, under the Constitution, taking the 
oath of office Feb. 6, 1883. He bravely met all the 
annoyances and embarrassments incidental upon 
taking up another's administration. The principal 
events with which Gov. Hamilton was connected as 
the Chief Executive of the State were, the mine dis- 
aster at Braidwood, the riots in St. Clair and Madison 
Counties in May, 1883, the appropriations for the 
State militia, the adoption of the Harper high-license 
liquor law, the veto of a dangerous railroad bill, etc. 

The Governor was a Delegate at large to the 
National Republican Convention at Chicago in June, 

1884, where his first choice for President was John 
A. Logan, and second choice Chester A. Arthur; but 
he afterward zealously worked for the election of Mr. 
Blaine, true to his party. 

Mr. Hamilton's term as Governor expired Jan. 30, 

1885, when the great favorite " Dick " Oglesby was 




fel.'ifij.ja,- . --^^ 

^:a«— t-^ t&a^^? 

> ^.o*o.-(9JA>,A^S5..o*o.. 

, ( ).SEPH 

.■^fi^l^^^ JOSEPH WILSON FIFER. This 
distinguished gentleman was 
||j^»» elected Governor of Illinois 
November 6, 1888. He was 
popularly known during the 
campaign as "Private Joe." He 
had served witii great devotion 
to his country during the Re- 
bellion, in the Thirty-third 
Illinois Infantry'. A native of 
Virginia, he was liorn in 1840. 
His parents, John and ~Slary 
(Daniels) Fifer, were American 
born, though of German de- 
scent. His father was a luick 
and stoue mason, and an old 
Henry Clay Whig in polities. John and Mar_v 
Fifer had nine children, of whom Joseph was the 
sixth, and naturally with so large a family it was 
all the father could do to keep the wolf from the 
door; to saj' nothing of giving his children any- 
thing like good educational advantages. 

Young Joseph attended school some in Vir- 
ginia, but it was not a good school, and when 
his father removed to the West, in 1857, Joseph had 
not advanced much further than tlie "First Reader." 

Our subject was sixteen then and suffered a great 
misfortune in the loss of his mother. After the death 
of Mrs. Fifer, which occurred in Missouri, the 
family returned to Virginia, but remained only a 
short time, as during the same year Mr. Fifer 
came to Illinois. He settled in McLean County and 
started a brickyard. Here Joseph and his broth- 
ers were put to work. The elder Fifer soon 
bought a farm near Bloomington and began life as 
an agriculturalist. Here Joe worked and attended 
the neighboring school. He alternated farm-work, 
briek-la3nng, and going to the district school for 
the succeeding few years. It was all work and no 
play for Joe, yet it by no means made a dull boy 
of him. All tlie time he was thinking of the great 
world outside, of which he had caught a gfimpse 
when coming from A'irginia, yet he tlid not know 
just how he was going to get out into it. He 
could not feel that the woods around the new 
farm and the log cabin, in which tlio family lived, 
were to hold him. 

The o|)portunity to get out into the w-orld was 
soon offered to young Joe. He traveled a dozen 
miles barefoot, in company with his brother (ieorge, 
and enlisted in Com[)any C. 33d Illinois Infantry; 
he being then twenty years old. In a few d.iys 



the regiment was sent to Camp Butler, and then 
over into Missouri, ami saw some vignrous service 
there. After a sefOiid time helping to chase Price 
out of Missouri, the 33d Regiment went down 
to Milliken's Bend, and for several weeks "Private 
•Joe" worked on Grant's famous ditch. The regi- 
ment then joined the forces operating against Port 
Gibson and Vickslnirg. Joe was on guard duty in 
the front ditches when the flag of surrender was 
run up on the 4th of Jul}', and stuck the bayonet 
of his gun into the embankment and went into the 
cit}' with the vanguard of Union soldiers. 

The next day, July 5, the 33d joined the force 
after Johnston, who had been threatening Grant's 
rear;' and '_ Anally an assault was made on him at 
Jackson, Miss. In this charge "Private Joe" fell, ter- 
ribly wounded. He was loading his gun when a 
minie-ball struck him and passed entirely tlirough 
his body. Heiwas regarded as mortally wounded. 
Ills brother, George, who had been made a Lien- 
tenant, proved to be the means of saving his life. 
The Surgeon told him unless he had ice his brother 
Joe could not live. It was fift3' miles to the nearest 
point where ice could be obtained, and the roads 
were rough. A comrade, a McLean county man, who 
liad lieen wounded, offered to make the trip. An 
ambulance was secured and the brother soldier 
started on the journey. He returned with the ice, 
but the trip, owing to the roughness of the roads, 
was very bard on him. After a few months' care- 
ful nursing Mr. Fifer was able to come home. The 
33d came home on a furlough, and when the 
boys were ready to return to the tented field, 
young Fifer was ready to go with them; for he was 
determined to finish his term of three years. He 
was mustered out in October, 1804, having been 
in the service three years and two months. 

"Private Joe" came out of the army a tall, 
tanned, and awkward young man of twenty-four. 
About all he possessed was ambition to be some- 
body — and pluck. Though at an age when most 
men liave finished their college course, the j-oung 
soldier saw that if he was to be anybody he must 
have an education. Yet he had no means to ena- 
ble him to enter school as most young men do. 
He was determined to have an education, however, 
and that to him meant success. For the following 

four years he struggled with his books. He entered 
Wer^ieyan University Jan. 1. 1865. He was not a 
brilliant student, being neither at the head nor the 
foot of his class. He was in great earnest, how- 
ever, studied hard and came forth with a well- 
stored and disci[)lined mind. 

Immediately after being graduated he entered 
an office at Bloomington as a law student. He had 
already read law some, and as he continued to work 
hard, with the spur of poverty and promptings of 
ambition ever with him, he was ready to hang out 
his professional shingle in 18G9. Being trust- 
worthy he soon gathered about him some influen- 
tial friends. In 1.S71 he was elected Corporation 
Counsel of Bloomington. In 1872 he was elected 
State's Attorney of McLean County. This oHice 
he held for eight years, when he took his seat in 
the State Senate. Here he served for four years. 
His ability to perform abundance of hard work 
made him a most valued member of the Legisla- 

Mr. i'ifer was married in 1870 to Gertie, daugh- 
ter of William J. Lewis, of Bloomington. Mr. 
Fifer is six feet in height and is spare, weighing 
only 150 pounds. He has a swarthy complexion, 
keen black e^'es, quick movement, and possesses a 
frank and s_ympathetic nature, and naturally makes 
friends wherever he goes. During the late Guber- 
natorial campaign his visits throughout the State 
proved a great power in his behalf. His happy 
faculty of winning the confidence and good wishes 
of those with whom he comes in i)ersonal contact is a 
source of great popularity, especiall}- during a polit- 
ical battle. As a speaker he is fluent, his language 
is good, voice clear and agreeable, and manner 
forcible. His manifest earnestness in what he says 
as well as his tact as a public speaker, and his elo- 
quent and forceful language, makes him a most 
valuable campaign orator and a powerful pleader 
at the bar. At the Republican State Convention, 
held in May, 1888, Mr. Fifer was chosen as its candi- 
date for Governor. He proved a popular nominee, 
and the name of "Private Joe" became familiar 
to everyone throughout the State. He waged a 
vigorous campaign, was elected by a good majority, 
and in due time .assumed the duties of the Chief 
Executive of Illinois. 





^^^(^^%m^. , 





SHE time has arrived when it 
becomes the duty of the 
people of this county to per- 
petuate the names of their 
pioneers, to furnish a record 
of their early settlement, 
and relate the story of their 
progress. The civilization of our 
day, the enlightenment of the age 
and the duty that men of the pres- 
ent time owe to their ancestors, to 
themselves and to their posterity, 
demand that a record of their lives 
and deeds should be made. In bio- 
graphical history is found a power 
to instruct man by precedent, to 
*>w V2i«» enliven the mental faculties, and 
^ "^ to waft down the river of time a 

safe vessel in which the names and actions of the 
people who contributed to raise this country from its 
primitive state may be preserved. Surely and rapidly 
the great and aged men, who in their ijrinie entered 
the wilderness and claimed the virgin soil as their 
heritage, are passing to their graves. The number re- 
maining who can relate the incidents of the first days 
af settlement is becoming small indeed, so that an 
actual necessity exists for tlie collection and preser- 
vation of events without delay, before all the early 
settlers are cut down by the scytlie of Time. 

To be forgotten has been the great dread of mankind 
from remotest ages. All will be forgotten soon enough, 
in spite of their best works and the most earnest 
efforts of their friends to perserve the memory of 
their lives. The means employed to prevent oblivion 
and to perpetuate their memory has been in propor- 
tion to the amount of intelligence they possessed. 
Th^ pyramids of Egypt were built to perpetuate the 
names and deeds of their great rulers. The exhu- 
mauons made by the archeologists of Egypt from 
buried Memphis indicate a desire of those people 

to perpetuate the memory of their achievements 
The erection of the great obelisks were for the same 
purpose. Coming down to a later period, we find the 
Greeks and Romans erecting mausoleums and monu- 
ments, and carving out statues to chronicle their 
great achievements and carry them down the ages. 
It is also evident that the Mound-builders, in piling 
up their great mounds of earth, had but this idea — 
to leave something to show that they had lived. All 
these works, though many of them costly in the ex- 
treme, give but a faint idea of the lives and charac- 
ters of those whose memory they were intended to 
perpetuate, and scarcely anything of the masses of 
the people that then lived. The great pyramids and 
some of the obelisks remain objects only of curiosity; 
the mausoleums, monuments and statues are crum- 
bling into dust. 

It was left to modern ages to establish an intelli- 
gent, undecaying, immutable method of perpetuating 
a full history — immutable in that it is almost un- 
limited in e.xtent and perpetual in its action; and 
this is through the art of printing. 

To the present generation, however, we are in- 
debted for the introduction of the admirable system 
of local biography. By this system every man, though 
he has not achieved what the world calls greatness, 
has the means to perpetuate his life, his history, 
through the coming ages. 

The scythe of Time cuts down all ; nothing of the 
physical man is left. The monument which his chil- 
dren or friends may erect to his memory in the ceme- 
tery will crumble into dust and pass away; but his 
life, his achievements, the work he has accomplished, 
which otherwise would be forgotten, is perpetuated 
by a record of this kind. 

To preserve the lineaments of our companions we 
engrave their portraits, for the same reason we col- 
lect the attainable facts of their history. Nor do we 
think it necessary, as we speak only truth of them, to 
wait until they are dead, or until those who know 
them are gone: to do this we are ashamed only to 
publish to the world the history of those whose lives 
are unworthy of public record. 


The Wabash. 

iO THE public aii'l our thousands of readers 
^. in general: — It will no doubt be interesting 
'J to all if we give a brief description of 
this road. The Wabash, as now known, been 
operated under several names from time to time. 
It is the offspring, as it were, of the first line of 
road projected in Illinois, then known as the 
Northern Cross, extending from Dan- 
ville to Quincy. This chartered in 1837. and 
upon it the first locomotive was placed in the 
winter of 1838-31), running from Meredosia, on 
the Illinois River, to Jacksonville. In 1842 the 
road was completed from Jacksonville to Spring- 
field, and three trips were m.ade per week. The 
track was of the old flat rail style, which was made 
by nailing thin strips of iron on two parallel lines 
of timbers placed at the proper distance apart, and 
running lengthways of the road. The engine as 
well as the road soon became so impaired that the 
former had to be abandoned, and mules substituted 
as the motor power. However, such locomotion 
was destined to be of short duration, for the State 
soon after sold the entire road for a nominal sum, 
and thus for a short time was suspended one of the 
first railroad enterprises in Illinois. But in the 
West a new era — one of prodigious industrial 
activity and far-reaching results in the practical 
arts — was dawning, and within thirty years of the 
temporarj' f.ailure of the road mentioned, Illinois 
had outstripped all others in gigantic internal im- 
provements, and at present has more miles of rail- 
rciad than any other State in the Union. 

The Great Western, whose name has been suc- 
cessively changed to Toledo, Wabash & Western, 
Wabash, and Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific, and 
Wabash Railroad, and The Wabash, the last of 
which it still bears, an extension of the Northern 
Cross Railroad, above mentioned, and traverses some 
of the finest portions of Illinois, Indiana and Ohio. 
It soon became the popular highway of travel and 
traffic between the East and the West. Through a 
system of consolidation, unparalleled in American 
railways, it has become a gi.ant among them, and 
has added many millions of dollars to the value of 
bonds and shares of the various companies now 
incorporated in the Wabash system. The road 

takes its title from the river of that name, a tribu- 
tary of the Ohio, which ic part separates the States 
of Illinois and Indiana. In looking over the map 
of the Wabash Railroad it will be seen that the 
line extends through the most fertile and wealth}' 
[jorlions of the center of the United States, having 
termini at more large cities than any other West- 
ern road. It was indeed a far-reaching sagacity 
which consolidated these various lines into the 
Wabash system, forming one immense chain of 
great commercial activity and power. Its ter- 
minal facilities are unsurpassed by any competing 
line. Its home offices are established in commo- 
dious quarters in St. Louis. Tiie lines of the road 
are co-extensive with the importance of the great 
transportation facilities required for the products 
of the Mississippi Valley. '1 his line passes through 
the States of Iowa, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio 
and Michigan. 

The various lines of load may be divided into 
the following: 


St. Louis to Chicago 286 

Toledo to Kansas City 602 

St. Louis to Dos Moines 360 

Logansport to Detroit 207, 

Chicago to Laketon Junction 123 

Clayton to Keokuk 42 

Bluffs to Quincy 1 0.5 

Slreator to Forest 37 

Attica to Covington 15 

Champaign to Sidney 12 

Edwardsville to Edwardsville 

Crossing !' 

Bement to Altamont and P^ffingham 63 

Brunswick to Omaha 225 

Roseberry ta Clarinda 21 

Salisbury to Glasgow 

Centralia to Columbia 


Miles of main lines and branches. . 2204 

From the above main line and branches as in- 
dicated, it will readily be seen that the Wabash 
connects with more large cities and great marts of 
trade than any other line, bringing Omaha, Kansas 
City. Des Moines, Keokuk, Quincy, St. Louis, 
Chicago, Toledo and Detroit together with one 
continuous line of steel rails. This road has an 
immense freight traffic of the cereals, live-stock, 
various productions and manufactured articles of 



the West and the States through which it passes. 
Its facilities for rapid transit for the vast produc- 
tions of the packing houses of Kansas City and 
St. Louis, to Detroit, Toledo and the Eastern marts 
of lra<le, is unequalled. A large portion of the 
grain |)roductions of Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Mis- 
souri, Illinois and Indiana, finds its way to the 
Eastern markets over the lines of this road. The 
Wabash has always taken an;advanced position in 
tariffs, and its course toward its patrons has been 
just and liberal, so that it has always enjoyed the 
commendation of the business and traveling ])ublic. 
The road bed is one of the best in the country, and 
is liallasted with gravel and stone, well tied and 
laid with steel rails. The bridges along the var- 
iou!-- lines and branches are substantial structuies. 
Tlie depots, grounds and general property of the 
road are in good condition. The management of 
Ihi' Wabash is fully abreast of the times. The 
road is progressive in every respect. The finest 
passenger cars on the continent are run on its lines, 
and every effort made to advance the interests of 
its i)atrons. The passenger department is unex- 
celled for the elegant and substantial comfort 
afforded travelers. On several of the more im- 
portant branches of the sj'stem, dining cars are 

Chicago & Alton Railroad. 

'HIS road traverses some of the best territory 
of Illinois and Missouri, vvith its western 
terminus in Kansas City and southern in St. 
Louis, and the principal terminus and headquarters 
in Chicago. It is one of the most important roads 
of the great system of railroads in the Mississippi 
Valley. The air-line between St. Louis and Chi- 
cago, the most prominent cities of the Great West, 
and the most pronounced commercial rivals, occu- 
I)ies a prominent position among the trans-Missis- 
sipiji railroads. This may be attributed partly to 
the manner in which the management has fostered 
and developed the local business along the line of 
the road since its organization in KSC2i Its man- 
agement has always kept abreast of the times. 

The length of the system is practically nine 
hundred miles. In brief the Chicago & Alton 
Railroad has by a judicious system of permanent 
improvement, and by the introduction of modern 
appliances which tend to the preservation (jf life 
and property, placed itself in such a condition, 
materially and physically, that its financial condi- 
tion is not easily affected. Its success as one of the 
great highways of the West is an assnred reality. It 
might be appropriately noted here that while much 
of this road's p.ast success may be attributed to its 
admirable geographical location, embracing a very 
rich section of the country for local tratlic, and 
with termini on Lake Michigan and the Mississippi 
and Missouri Rivers, yet equally as much is due to 
the wisdom and stabilitj- of the management. 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Ralli-oad. 

(i^^H E Quincy & Louisiana branch of this ex- 
({(^^ tensive system passes through a portion of 
vL^ Pike Connty. It strikes the county at See- 
horn, running in a southeasterly direction to Rock- 
port, where it diverges in a southwesterly direction 
to the Mississippi River, and crosses the Chicago & 
Alton Railroad bridge to Louisiana, Mo. At 
Hulls it crosses the Wabash Railroad. The prin- 
cipal stations on this line in the county are New 
Canton and Rockport. It furnishes an excellent 
feeder for the system, and is an important auxiliary 
to the transportation facilities for the people of 
the west side of the county. 

'■ ' ^z 


Water Transportation. 

I ITHER of these two counties has more 
river frontage than any other county in the 
Jii_^ State. The Mississippi washes their shores 
on. the west for at least one hundred and ten miles, 
and on the eastern side the Illinois River about 
eighty-five miles, thus furnishing (.splendid and 
cheap water. transportation luv the varied products 


of these counties. Hence, while in the early daj's 
of the settlement of the State, when other counties 
were devoid of railroads, Pike and Calhoun on the 
other hand were enriching tlieniselvcs by means of 
tlie clieap commerce incident to their superior 
waterways, and even to this day Calhoun, being a 
peninsular county, has no railroads. These coun- 
ties, by means of the excellent steamboat system 
plying on the rivers are placed within a few hours 
of the markets of St. Louis, Peoria and the larger 
towns of the Mississippi. Frequently the fruit 
crop of Calhoun is transported by river to St. Paul 

1 and when the enterprising citizens of the peninsular 
county wisli to visit the outside world they step 

[ aboard the floating palaces on either river and pro- 
ceed to their destination surrounded by the com- 
forts of a well-ordered home and free from the dust 
or iostle of railroad travel, and when meal time 
has arrived there are spread before them the most 
delicate viands that would tempt the appetite 
of an epicure, while from the forward cabin are 
wafted back strains of sweet music from the band. 
Under such pleasing and soothing surroundings the 
passenger flnishes his meal. 



p iBi[TOTrRaiP:f(ia^ 


>. •<S-^' 

^^.SAAC A. HATCH. Undoubtedly 
the front laiik in the financial, 
il^stf business nnd social circles of 
Griggsviilc. Pil<e County-, is held 
by the gentleman above named, 
who is Cashier of the Griggs- 
ville National Bank. He was 
born at Hillsboro, Hillsboro 
County, N. H., .September 13, 
1812, and is descended from old 
Welsh and Irish ancestors. The 
Hatch faniil}^ settled in Con- 
necticut about two hundred and 
fift\' years ago, niakinu that 
State their abode until Reuben 
Hatch Sr., settled in New 
One of that goitleman's brothers lo- 
cated in Vermont ami one in Maine. 

Reuben Hatch, Jr., father of our subject, was 
born in the Granite State and became a skillful 
physician. He married Lucy Andrews and reare<l 
a family of nine children, uur subject being the 
second In order of birth. The first-born was Seth 
C, a phj'sician and surgeon in the Sixty-second 
Illinois Infantry-, who died in Barrj', Pike County, 
111.; 0. M. who was Clerk of the Circuit Court of 
Pike Count3- for eight years and Secretary of State 
an equal length of time; he is now retired and liv- 


ing in Springfield ; Sylvanus, deceased, was a farmer 
in Pike County; Reuben, also deceased, was a 
merchant in Griggsville; he was Quartermaster in 
an Illinois regiment and died of disease contracted 
in the service; Rebecca was the wife of Alexander 
.Starr, a merchant and politician in Griggsville; 
John is novv deceased; Franklin is a farmer in 
Griggsville Township; Lutinda is the wife of L. 
B. Bush of Portland, Ore. The mother of this 
family was the daughter of Maj. Isaac Andrews, an 
officer in the War of 1812; she died in New Hamp- 
shire, and her husband came to this State in Janu- 
ary, 1836, settling at Griggsville, where he died 
when past the age of fourscore yeai's. 

The subject of this sketch spent the first seven- 
teen years of his life in his native town and ac- 
quired a good common-school education. He was 
very anxious to take a more thorough course of 
study, and went to Boston with a drover, thinking 
that in that educational center he would be able to 
gratify his wish. He found, liowever, that a poor 
boy would not be able to advance his knowledge in 
an3- of the institutions tliere, and lie became con- 
nected with a dealer in West India goods, whose 
trade mostl}' wholesale. In 1832 tiie j'oung 
man returned to his native State and became clerk 
in a general mcrcliandise business, remaining in 
Hillsboro until became to Illinois. 



After reaching this State Mr. Hatch came direct 
to Griggsville and embariicd in the sale of mer- 
chandise, finding it an upliiil business at that time. 
He therefore added to it the occupation of a farmer. 
From 1853 until the Relicllion broke out ho was 
quite largely engaged in trade, then, his partners 
having withdrawn from the business, he closed out 
on account of the slowness in collections and slack- 
ness in business. Soon after he received the ap- 
pointment of Revenue Collector in the district 
composed of Pike and Brown Counties. He was the 
first to hold the office and retained it several years, 
fortunately being able to give good satisfaction, 
although he met with a great deal of opjiosition in 
carrying out the law. This section of the State 
was a rather "hot" place in those days. 

Mr. Hatch was Collector until 1864 and vari- 
ously engaged from that time until 1870, when, 
being urged by ills friends to establish a banking 
business, he, in company with his brother, the ex- 
Secretar}- of State, opened a private bank. The 
brother withdrew in 1873 and in July of that year 
the institution became a National Bank in which 
Mr. Hatch has occupied his present position from 
that time. He has been the chief business man 
among the stockholders, and his princiiiles have 
been such that now in his old age he enjoys the 
fullest confidence of his patrons and the men with 
whom he has been associated. He is most highly' 
respected, being both shrewd and generous, and his 
estimable wife stands side by side with him in the 
esteem of the comnuinily. 

Mr. Hatch is now tlie owner of several farms in 
the vicinity of his home and is recognized as 
among the wealthy men ^ of the county. He has 
been a very busy man, eschewing politics entirely 
and has never belonged to any secret society. He 
and his wife belong to the Congregational Cliurch 
at Griggsville. Mrs. [Hatch is a native of the 
Granite State in which her marriage was celebrated 
in 1810. She is a daughter of Jonathan Baxter, 
was christened J^3dia B., and possesses education 
and culture. Prior to her marriage she was en- 
gaged in the profession .of teaching. Mr. and iSIrs. 
Hatch have reared a family of two childien — Abbie 
A. and John Franklin. The latter received a col- 
legiate education and now supervises his father's 

f.arm. He married Nettie Bose, a native of the Em- 
pire Stale and they have four children — May, 
Stella, lidna and Ethel. The attention of the reader 
is invited to a lithographic portrait of Mr. Hatch 
presented in connection with this sketch. 

'^f/ SA L. HIIjL. This venerable gentleman 
( @/l!| | was one) of _the early pioneers of Pd^e 

/// ifc County, and aided in the development of 
(^ its agriculture and in its upbuilding as a 

farmer and a mason. He is now living in retire- 
ment in Pittsfield and with his good wife is enjoy- 
ing the competence that their united labors have 
brought to them. Mr. Hill is a New Englan.ler l>y 
birth and antecedents. He was born in Weathers- 
field, Vt., May 6, 1808. 

The father of our subject, who was also named 
Asa, was likewise a native of Vermont, and he was 
of English descent. He married Sallie Bennett, 
who was born in Weathersfleld. She was of Eng- 
lish antecedents. The parents of our subject con- 
tinued to live in ^'ermont during the rest of their 
d.ays. Mr. Hill well remembers hearing his father 
tell of the War of 181"2, and of furnishing the sol- 
diers who strayed to their place after taking part in 
some battle, with a sack of apples and other edi- 

Asa Hill, the subject of this notice received his 
schooling in Burlington, Vt. He grew to man's es- 
tate on tiie home farm in Weathersfleld. and as soon 
as old enough accjuired the trade of a biickl.ayer, and 
worked at that (luring the summers and on a farm 
in the winters. Hearing much of the great West 
and desirous of trying life there, in 1832, our sub- 
ject started out on the long journey. He came to 
this State on a prospecting tour, liaving determined 
to locate here. He went from Buffalo to New Or- 
leans and there passed one winter and from there 
lie made his way to St. Louis, Mo., where he spent 
the summer and thence b^' the way of (^uincy on a 
stage to Chicago and from there took a steamer 
back to Buffalo, N. Y. where he embarked on the 
Erie and finally arrived .at Burlington, Vt. 
He had been pleased with what he saw of the 



country liere, .and in the winter of 183-2, wilti two 
horses and a sprino; wagon, wliieli lie put on a 
dump (runners), he again started out on the jour- 
ney westward. He drove to Buffah>. N. Y., where 
he |)ut his wagon on wheels, and tlien drove over the 
country to Terre Haute, Ind.. and 'from there to 
SpringtieUl. In that city the masons were jusl lay- 
ing the foundation for the old State House, and our 
subject still has a vivid recollection of the city as 
it was in e;irly days. He drove from there to 
Pittsfield in the month of March, 18.V2. He was 
accompanied thither by his younger brother, Hiram, 
and l)y Peter Hovve. who was afterwards murdered. 
After his arrival in Pike County, Mr. Hill 
worked on a farm for a time as there was not much 
doing in the w.ay of brick builduig. He did some 
plastering however, doing odd jobs until the 
country began to be more thickly settled, and he 
found work in different towns at his trade. Fi- 
nally he concluded to get married and that auspi- 
cious event in iiis life took place January 1. 1845, 
when he was wedded to Miss Charlotte Cushing 
Pratt, of Mt. Palatine, La Salle County, 111., and the 
youngest daughter of Isaac and Charlotte( Cushing) 
Pratt. Mrs. Hill is a native of We}'moutli, Mass., 
where she was born November 27, 1824. She is 
the mother of live children, namely : Fannie, tiie 
wife of Jerome Howe of Marshall County, III.; 
Charles V., married Miss Emma Atkinson cf this 
city, and resides in San Jose.Cal. ; Rowland. who died 
when twentj'-three years old; Emma, at home with 
her parents; Arthur Hovve, assistant bookkeeper in 
a private bank in Wenona, Marshall County, 

After marriage Mr. Hill settled in Pittsfield where 
he has resided ever since, following his trade, that 
of a bricklayer. He has helped to put up some of 
the best buildings in the State, among which are the 
William Watson House, Westlake House in Newburg. 
Columbia College, Shui lliff College, the court house 
in Princeton, 111., and other fine buildings. He was 
actively and exclusively engaged at his trade until 
18.55 when he turned his attention to farming and 
began to carry on agriculture also on his farm one 
mile east of Pittsfield in Newburg Township. He still 
retains possession of his homestead, which is under 
the management of a tenant, and comprises one 

hundred and sixt^- acres of choice, well cultivated 
land wliich is substantially improved in every par- 

Politically Mr. Hill was an old line Whig and 
voted for Gen. Harrison in 1840. He voted for 
the General's grandson in 1888 and is a strong 
sup|)orter of the Republican parly. Though he 
has attained the advanced age of eighty-two 3ears 
he is still hale and hearty and enjoys life well, and 
Mrs. Hill has good health in spite of the, burden of 
sixty-six years. Both are iieople of genuine worth 
and are regarded with the highest esteem and con- 
sideration by the entire communit}- where so many 
years of their life has been spent. 

(* I^ILLIAM A. STAATS. A goodly number 
\/iJ/ °^ those who have Ijorne an active part in 
W^ the development of the agricultural re- 
sources of Pike County' have entered into rest, 
leaving behind them a record of industr}-, perse- 
vei'ance and good cilizenshii) that m.ay well he 
emulated by others. Among this number is the 
late William A. Staats, who died at his home in 
Griggsville May 10, 1883. He retired to the 
village a number of years before his decease, and 
WPS spending his declining years in ease and com- 
fort, after having labored long and well as a me- 
chanic and farmer. His homestead was located on 
sections 11 and It, Griggsville Township, and 
consisted of two hundred and eighty acres, which 
he had placed under excellent improvement and 
thorough cultivation. 

Mr. Staats was a Pennsylvanian and of the old 
Dutch stock, as indicated by his surname. His 
natal day was July 16, 1807. He was quite young 
when his parents removed to Warren County, 
Ohio, where he grew to manhood, acquired his 
education and learned the trade of a blacksmith. 
He was a skillfid mechanic and through his trade 
acquired a start in life. For a short time he lived 
in St. Louis, Mo., and for three years resided in 
Qnincy, III. In 1843 he settled in Barry Town- 
ship, this county, where he improved a farm, mak- 
ing it his home for a decade, He then took pos- 



session of the properly before mentioned, which 
harl but a small part under cultivation. Caieful 
in his management, progressive in his ideas, wliile 
not unduly anxious to try new schemes, Mr. Staats 
succeeded well in his efforts to secure crops equal 
in quality and quantity to any in this section. 
He devoted considerable attention to stock, always 
keeping good animals, but making a specialty' of 
no particular breed. 

The estimable woman who for many years shared 
the fortunes of our subject bore the maiden name 
of Elizabeth Boswell and became his wife in Ohio. 
She was born in North Carolina May G, 1809, 
being a daughter of John and Catherine (Gam- 
brell) Boswell. who were born in the South and 
for some .years m.ade their home in Warren Count}-, 
Ohio. There the father died, and the widoweil 
mother subsequently going to Mississijjpi breathed 
her last there at the home of a son. Mrs. Boswell 
was an exemplary Chiistian, for long years identi- 
fied with the Baptist Churcli. She had lived to 
be more than fourscore years of age when called 

The wife of our subject was quite young when 
her parents removed to the Buckeye Slate, and 
there she grew to womanhood, acquiring a prac- 
tical education, housewifely skill, and developing 
the disposition which made her a most important 
member of the family circle. She was a true help- 
mate to her good husband, with whom she worked 
for the good of their family. Her death took place 
in Griggsville April :>.-2, 1K90, at an advanced age. 

The family of Mr. and Mrs. Staats consisted of 
seven children— Isabel died when quite young and 
Siilney in 1877. when twenty-nine years old; Ed- 
ward L. lives on the old homestead, the most of 
uliich he operates, being a successful and practical 
farmer and a worthy member of the community: 
Mary F., an intelligent, enterprising woman, is 
living with other members of the family at home; 
Emeline also resides on the homestead. Peter T. 
married Maria Edmonson, of Quincy; their home 
is in Griggsville and Mr. Staats is an attorney and 
farmer. Helen N., an educated and refined lady, 
has been for some time engaged in leaching in 
Griggsville and Flint Townships, making her home 
with her unmarried brothers and sisters. All of 

the members of the family are intelligent, honor- 
able and straightforvvard, worthy representatives 
of the family name and virtues. The sons of our 
subject vote the Democratic ticket, as did their 
honored father. 

The parents of our subject were Jesse and Mary 
Staats. who came from Ohio to this State, where 
most of the members of their family located. They 
finally took up their abode with their children, 
and died at the home of their son, Coderick, in 
Pil;e County. Both lived to a goodly .ige, and 
when called hence were mourned b}' many friends. 


<«l IVTLLIAMSON BOND is numbered among 
\oJ// the general farmers and stock raisers of 
W^J Pike County, his home being on section 
3fi, Perry Township, where he is successfully prose- 
cuting his enterprises. He is the fortunate owner 
of one hundred and seventy acres of good land, 
generally well improved, which has been his life 
home, he having been born liere July 12. 1837. 
The personal ch;.racter of ^Mr. Bond is an upright, 
honorable one, his manners are agreeable and his 
mind is well stoicd with useful information. 

The father of our subject vvas John Bond, a na- 
tive of Wilson County, Tenn., and the child of na- 
tives of the .Southern States, who lived to be quite 
aged. He grew up amid the surroundings of rural 
life and adopted the occupation of a farmer, which 
was that of his father before him. After becoming 
of age he married Bidsey Callis. who was also of 
Southern parentage and born in Tennessee. Late 
in the '20s Mr. and Mrs. Bond came to Illinois, 
bringing with them one child. They performed 
their journey in the usual wa}-, with teams, camp- 
ing out, and after a tedious journey finally landed 
in I'erry Township. I'ike County-. Here the little 
family began ijioneer life on new land obtained 
from the (government, it being the same which is 
now owned by our subject. After a few years the 
wife died, being still in the prime of life. Her 
child. Amanda, now widow of Andrew Johnson, is 
iving in Idaho. 
John Bond contracted a second matrimonial al- 



liance in this townsliip. Miss Frances A. Akin 
becomin": liis wife. Tills lady was also Ijorn in 
Tennessee and liad come to tliis State witli lier 
parents wiien a jonng woman. After some jeais 
of wedded life she passed away leaving four chil- 
dren, two of whom are now deceased. Our subject 
and a brother .Tames, the latter a farmer in Chero- 
kee Count}', Kan., are the survivors. 

The father was again mari'ied in this township, 
his last wife being Mrs. Sarah Ayers iwc Lippincott. 
She was a native of England where her first mar- 
riage look place. .Some time after the de.ath of 
Mr. Ayers she came to America and not long after 
was married to Mr. Bond. .She lived to the age of 
eightj'-three years. Mr. liond survived her some 
time, his death occurring November 21, 1871, at 
the age of seventy-five. It took place on the land 
which he hail improved from the wilderness over 
which Indians roamed even after he came here. 
He was an active local politician, belonging to the 
Democratic parly. In religion he was a Baptist, 
being an ollicinl member of the church for some 

The subject of this biographical notice grew up 
on the farm he now occupies, and after becoming of 
age won for his wife iMiss Virginia James. She 
was born in Bedford County, Tenn., October 19, 
1841, and received the greater part of her educa- 
tion in her native State, whence she came North 
with her parents. She is well informed, an eflicient 
housekeeper and conscientious Christian. To her 
have been born three children, of whom AViUiam II. 
and Elizabeth M. died young. Frances A. is the wife 
of Francis E. Metz : their home is on the Bond 
homestead which they helped to cultivate. The}' 
hare one child — Beulah B. Mr. Bond, his wife 
and daughter, belong to the Methodist Episcopal 
Church and he holds the office of Trustee. In 
politics he is a Democrat. 

Mrs. Bond is a daughter of Allen W. and Ma- 
tilda (Clardy) James, natives of Tennessee who 
began their wedded life on a farm in their native 
State. To them were born two children — Jlrs. 
Bond and Francis A., wife of James Thomas, a 
Tennessee farmer. The wife anil mother having 
passed .'iway Mr. James subsequently married Eliza- 
beth Sartin, a Tennesseean, and in 1852 a lemoval 

was ra.ade to Adain.s County, 111. Some years later 
Pike County became the family home and in 1888 
Mr. and Mrs. James removed to Bates County, Mo. 
There they now live, the one being seventy-three 
.".nd the other sixty-five years of age. They are 
members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Six 
children have been born to them, all living and all 
now married. 

^^ NDREW INGHAM. The Ingram home- 
(@0 stead is one of the well inipi-oved farms of 

III lii Pike County, consisting of one hundred 
@7/ and sixty acres on section .S, Perry Town- 

ship. The estate is well stocked and furnished 
with many conveniences for the better carrying on 
of the farm work and household economy. The 
present owner and occupant is a practical agricul- 
turist, who has for some time been making a spe- 
cialty of the Durock-Jersey swine. At the local 
exhibitions in the county he has carried off a fair 
share of the premiums for the animals he exhibits. 
At the head of his drove are Seldom .Seen and 
Rockwell, two good specimens of the breed. 

IMr. Ingram was born in Brown County, this 
Slate, Ma}' 6, 18.01, and was nine years old when 
his father came to the locality that is now his home. 
He received excellent home training from his hon- 
ored parents and obtained a practical education in 
the schools of the township. His ideas are pro- 
gressive and he has studied to improve various 
kinds of stock, including cattle and sheep as well 
as the variety of which he makes a specially. Ills 
farm Is very properly called Pioneer Durock-Jersey 
.Stock Farm, as Mr. Ingram was the first to intro- 
duce this breed of swine in this part of the Slate. 
In June, 1875, he bought his first drove in New 
Jersey, and has since had a live Interest in making 
the best of this domestic breed which is now rep- 
resented in every .State and Territory. Jlr. Ingram 
himself has shipped to many different parts of the 

For eight years i)ast our subject li,as exhibited his 
swine, showing; them with good results at a number 



of the State fairs, at the St Louis Exposition and 
the New Era Exposition at St. Joseph, Mo. At the 
latter his hog, Rockwell, ami sow. Red Daisy, car- 
ried off first premiums. Altogether he tooiv more 
prize money than any other breeder of liis class. 
He Iveeps his drove |)erfectly pure and all are regu- 
larly registered. He has taken an active part in 
matters pertaining to tlie advancement of the breed, 
he belongs to the American Diiroek-Jersey Swine 
Breeders' Association, and lias been a stockholder 
tiierein since its permanent organization some seven 
years since. 

The gentleman of whom we write is a son of 
John B. Ingram, who w.ts liorn in Eastern Tennes- 
see and reared and educated in Nashville. Grand- 
father Ingram was a distiller and his son Jtihn 
acquired considerable knowledge of that business. 
The latter was first married in his native State to 
Miss Epsie Aiken, a native of the same .State, who 
was reared in the vicinity of Nashville. A few 
years after their mariiage Jolin Ingram and his 
wife came to this State, traveling overland with 
teams. Upon reaching this side of the Illinois 
River late in the 3'ear 1831 they hud $1.50 in cash 
which was dissi|)ated before they had reached 
(Trandfathcr Ingram's, where they spent the winter. 

In the spring of 1832 John Ingram secured a 
piece of Government land in Elkhorn Township, 
Brown County, where he began to clear the forest 
and make a home. A few years later his wife died, 
leaving him with three small children to care for. 
He subsequently married Miss Susannah Harvell. a 
native of Greene Count}', III., who had grown to 
womanhood in Brown County. In 1860 Mr. Ingram 
let one of his sons have his Brown County propertj' 
and himself removed to Pike County, locating on 
land he had purchased about 1851, and which is 
now occupied by our subject. This tract was his 
home until his death, which occurred January 10, 
1884j he being then fourscore years of ,age. He 
was a good farmer, a representative citizen and a 
prominent Democrat. His last wife died March 
25, 1884, when sixty-eight years old. She was a 
member of the Christian Church and an npright, 
noble woman. She was the mother of six children, 
of whom our subject is the youngest but one. 

Andrew Ingram was married in the township in 

which he makes his home to Miss Mary O. Calhoun, 
a native of the same township, whose natal day was 
March 30, 1854. She received excellent home 
training from parents whose history is given on 
another paa-e of this Ai.iiu.m. under the head of 
Lemuel Calhoun. She grew to womanhood intel- 
ligent and thoughtful, and has earnestly endeavored 
to disch.irge her duties as wife, mother and mem- 
ber of society. Both she and her husband belong 
to the Christian Church and are rearing their fam- 
ily under religious inlluences. They are the pa-- 
ents of live ciiildren, David L., (deceased); Aletha, 
Lemuel J., Oscar C, and Nellie E. Mr. Ingram 
casts his vote with the Democratic party. 

IRAM C. BROCK. The loyal hearts of 
Americans are ever thrilled wiili admiration 
for the unswerving patriotism and valor 
disphij-ed by those whom we are jiroud to 
honor as "old soldiers," and whose deeds will lie re- 
membered as long as history endures. Among the 
dwellers in Pike County who gave up the comforts 
of home, endured the privations and dangers found 
on the tented field, and braved the loss of health 
for the sake of their country-, is Hiram C. Brock, 
now living in Montezuma Township. The years 
which he spent in the Union Armyare not the only- 
ones of his life during which he was subject to 
danger by tlood and field, and bore a part in ex- 
periences somewhat out of the common run. Time 
and space forbid the biogra|)hical writer to enlarge 
upon the incidents of his career, but even a brief 
outline will prove of interest to our readers. 

The parents of our subject were Selah S. and 
Mary Ann (Corapton) Brock, the former liorn in 
Orange County, N. Y., April 19, 1804, .and the lat- 
ter in the same State March 26, 1810. Their weii- 
ding rites were celebrated March 17, 1827, and aj 
few years later they removed from the Empirej 
State to New Jersey. JMr. Brock began the battle ' 
of life as a school teacher, then engaged in agricul- 
ture, but after removing to New Jersey, found em- 
ployment at clearing timber at Hackettstown. In 
184G he removed to Pennsylvania, and four years 



later came to Illinois, settling on a farm in Fulton 
County. After a time he changed his place of resi- 
dence to Bureau County, and in 1853 went to Iowa. 
From tiial State he came to Pike County in 1865, 
making a permanent settlement on section 31, Mon- 
tezuma Township. Tliere he breathed his last Sep- 
tember 14, 1874, being followed to the tomb a few 
years later by his good wife, who passed away Sep- 
tember 12, 1878. They v/ere both consistent mem- 
bers of the Methodist Episcopal Church. The 
famil}- of tiie worth}' couple consisted of eleven 
children, but two of whom are now living. 

The gentleman of whom we write was born Oeto- 
l)er 28, 1837, in Sussex County, X. J., and assisted 
his father in iheir various places of abode until 
18(j0. He then, in company with a Mr. Leonard, 
prepared an outfit of two wagons, four yoiie of 
cows and a yoke of oxen, and started for Pike's 
Peak. Tiie comrades milked the cows, and the 
shaking of the wagon churned the cream, so tliat 
they had fresh butter every day. After traveling 
thirty days they reached their destination, where 
they sold the flour they had remaining for $18 per 
sack. They camped on tlie Missouri Flats, where 
people were dying off with mountain fever, and 
went into the Gregory Mines. Young Brock wan- 
dered about the inountains. went to work building 
a ditch, and finally left the mountains with noth- 
ing. He had visited Leadville in its early days, 
but saw no indication of its present prosperity. 

Finding mining a delusion and a snare, Jlr. 
Brock took up a piece of land in Caeha Leprudia 
Valle}-. built a log house and put up hay which he 
hauled to the mountains with oxen. In the fall of 
18G1, he enlisted in Denver, and was enrolled as a 
private in Companj' A, First Colouado Cavalry. 
The regiment was mustered in as Infantry, and 
made the march of six hundred miles to Ft. Union, 
N. M. They took part in the battle of Pigeon's 
Ranch and Verda in that Territory, then went to 
to Ft. Lyon, Col., and later to Colorado City, where 
they were mounted and employed in protecting 
Government property against Indians. Mr. Brock 
fought under Col. Chivington at Sand Creek where 
six liundred Indian men, women, and children 
were killed. His connection with the army con- 
tinued four vcars and two months, during which 

time he saw much of the Indian warfare, and skir- 
mish work in a mountainous country, where dan- 
ger lurks behind every rock and tree. Wliile on a 
night march in Colorado he received an injury in 
the foot which left him badly crippled, and for 
which he has recently received a considerable back 

After his dischai'ge, Mr. Brock returned to the 
Prairie State and again turned his attention to agri- 
cultural pursuits in Pike County. He bought 
eighty acres of land in Spring Creek Township, that about half improved, and made it his home un- 
til 1872, when he settled on sectio 31, Montezuma 
Township. In 1879 he removed to the farm he 
now occupies, which consists of one hundred and 
five acres of improved land, containing a good nat- 
ural fish pond which is now stocked with German 
carp. Mr. Brock superintends the farm, upon 
which both grain and stock are raised. He has pros- 
pered in worldly affairs, is quite well-to-do, and 
al)undantly able to surround his family with all the 
comforts and conveniences of modern farm life. 
He occupies a pleasant residence, built in 1882, at 
a cost of $2,200, the appearance of which gives 
evidence of the presence within of refined woman- 
hood. Mr. Brock has made ten trips to the West, 
and proves an entertaining companion to all who 
enjoy hearing of the scenes and incidents whic-li his 
journeys cover. 

Mr. Brock has been fortunate in securin<rfor his 
companion a lady of intelligence and genuine 
worth of character, witli whom he was united in 
marriage January 16, 1868. She bore the maidun 
name of Florence R. Cox, her parents lieing Rob- 
ert and Mary (Curtis) Cox, formerly well-known 
in this vicinity as members of the agricultural com- 
munity, enterprising. prosperous and public-spirited. 
Both Mr. and Mrs. Cox were natives of the Buck- 
eye State, where they were married and resided 
until 1852. They then came to this State, setllino- 
on the farm now occupied by our subject, where 
the husband died in February, 1870, and the wifo 
in April, 1879. Both belonged to the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, and bestowed great care upon 
their children, seven of whom are now living. Mr. 
Cox owned one thousand acres of land. 

The birthplace of Mrs. Brock w:\s Highland 



County, Ohio, and her natal day October 4, 1843. 
She pursued her studies in the log schoolhouse of 
that daj', and under the parental rf)of acquired the 
attainments which fitted her for the position she 
has filled. Her union witli our subject has been 
blessed with the birtli of eight children, those now 
living being Clarence R., Claudis I)., Leo L., Hila 
R., and Chester A. They are still attending school, 
it being the desire of their parents that tlie_\' shall 
become thoroughly informed. 

Both Mr. and Mrs. Brock belong to the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Churdi at Milton, and have good 
standing in the society, where Mr. Brock has held 
the positions of Steward, Class-Leader and Sunday- 
school Superintendent. He has been connected 
with the administration of civil affairs as Highway 
Commissioner, and identified with the school work 
as Director. He belongs to the United AVorkmen 
at Milton. In politics he was first a Republican, 
then for a time a Greenbacker, but has returned to 
the Republican fold. 


^, HARLES B. GOSF; is a native-born citizen 
of Pike County, is one of its successful bus- 
iness men and one of the leading merchants 
of Kinderhook, where he has a well-appointed, well- 
slockcd general store. He was born in Kinder- 
hdok Township, September 4, 1837. His father, 
John Gose, was born in Russell Count3', Va., 
,'ir,d was reared to tlie life of a farmer in the place 
of his birth. He was there married to Eliza J. 
Bickley, who was liorn in the same jjlace as him- 
self. After marriage they immediately started for 
Pike County, 111., in March, 1835, and after 
their arrival located on section It, Kinderhook 
Township, in a primitive log house that stood on 
the i)lace. Mr. Gose actively entered upon the 
[jionecr work of developing his farm, liut while in 
the midst of a busy life he died while yet in his 
prime, in 1847. Pike County then lost an honor- 
able pioneer who was helping to advance its growth. 
The mother of our subject is still living at a vener- 
able age nnd will be seventy-five years old next 
Decemhei'. She makes her home on the old home- 

stead where she and her husband located when 
they came to Pike County, more llian half a cen- 
tuiy ago. Four children were born of her mar- 
riage, three sons and one daughter, of whom the 
following is recorded: Abel A., born in June, 
1836, is a resident of Kinderhook Township; 
Charles B., our subject; George C, born in Novem- 
ber, 1839, lives with his mother on the old home- 
stead; France E. married Dr. C. C. Sprague, of 
Pierre, S. D. 

The gentleman of whom this sketch is a life- 
record, was reared in this county and educated in 
its schools. He went to school in the old stone 
schoolhouse that took the place of the first log 
schoolhouse of pioneer times that was burned. 
He remained with his mother, assisting her in the 
management of the farm till he married, October 
20, 1863, taking as his wife C^'nthia J., daughter 
of H. S. and Elizabeth (Bain) Jones. Mrs. Gose 
was born in Chautauqua County, New York, and 
was reared in the place of her birth till she was 
fourteen years old, when she accompanied her par- 
ents to their new home in this county. 

After his marriage, our subject took up his resi- 
dence on a farm on section 14. and was busily 
engaged in agricultural pursuits till 1871, when he 
went to Wisconsin. After his return in 1873, he 
resumed farming here and actively carried it on 
till 1881, when he opened a general store in Kin- 
derhook. He has been much prospered in his 
mercantile career, has increased his business every 
year since he started and is enjoying an extensive 
and profitable trade. Mr. Goso also derives a good 
income from his farm of two hundred and sixty- 
five acres, which is finely located in Kinderhook 
Township, in one of the richest agricultural re- 
gions in the State. He is regarded as one of our 
most valuable citizens as he is a man of clear brain 
and well-balanced mind, possessing financial talents 
of a high order and is zealous in promoting what- 
ever enterprise he believes will best advance the 
interests of his native township and cunnty. His 
fellow-citizens, recognizing his ability and having 
confidence in his integrity, have occasionally called 
him to offices of trust and responsibility. He was 
Town Clerk in 1860. He has been School Treas- 
urer for two years and was Treasurer of the Sny 



Levee and Drainage District from 1884 to 1889. 
In politics lie takes his stand among the Democrats 
of the State. 

Four children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Gose, of whom the following is the record: Ber- 
tha, born in April, 1865, died In .January, 1866; 
Bessie, born in February, 1867. died in February, 
1871; Ernest B., born in November, 1868, is a 
graduate of the United States Military Academy 
at West Point, N. Y., and has been assigned 
to a position in the Klighth United States Infantry; 
Charles J., born at EauClaire, AViseonsin, in Decem- 
ber, 1871, is now with his father in the store. 

If^iOBERT BURBRIDGE. a practical and pro- 
lUfr^ gressive farmer of Hardin Township, resid- 
'^ * 'ng on section 17. has spent his entire life in 
this county. He was born September 25, 
1849, on the farm where T.J. Burbridge now lives. 
Little is known concerning the early history of the 
family, but the paternal great grandfatlier emi- 
grated from Virginia to Kentucky, wlien the latter 
State was a wilderness. Grandfather Robert Bur- 
bridge was a Kentucky farmer, and married a Miss 
Richards in that State. In 1825 the}' removed to 
Pike County, Mo., "'settling] near Louisiana, and 
from there came to Pike County, 111., in 1841. In 
this county the grandfather died in 1848 and the 
grandmother in 1852. 

Thomas B. 'Burbridge, the father of our subject, 
was born In Kentucky in 1818 and came alone to 
Illinois in 1840. Here he became acquainted with 
and wedded Miss Mary McNary, a native of Pike 
County and they began their domestic life on sec- 
tion 29,' Hardin Township, where "^they spent the 
remainder of tiieir lives. They were consistent 
members of the Christian Church, in the work of 
which they took an active part, and by their up- 
right lives won the high regard of all with whom 
Ihej- came in contact. In politics] Mr. Burbridge 
was a Republican and served as Road Commissioner 
and School Director. 

The first wife of Thomas B. Burliridge died in 
July, 1861, and he was afterward married to Emily 

Hodge. The children of tlie first marriage were 
nine in number, seven of whom are yet living, 
namely: Mrs. Harvey Weaver, Mrs. Calcy, Robert, 
John W., James, Mrs. Anderson Foreman, and 
Thomas J. Mr. Burbridge was a prominent citizen 
in this community and exerted a wide influence for 
good. He possessed business abilit}- of a high or- 
der and was so successful in his undertakings that 
ere his death lie became owner of fourteen hundred 
and eighty acres of land. He died August 8, 1888, 
at the age of seventy years. 

In his youth our subject was inured to hard labor 
on the farm, and thereby developcfl a siiirit of in- 
dustry and self-reliance, which has been of material 
benefit to him in his business career in later j'ears. 
Prior to the age of twenty-four years he worked at 
farming under the direction of his father, but at 
that time began life for himself. For a helpmate 
he chose Miss Louesa Foreman, the union being 
celebrated in 1874. This lad}' was born in New- 
burg Township, Pike County, August 18, 1855, 
and is a daughter of David B. and Margaret (An- 
derson) Foreman, who came from Ohio to Illinois 
at an early day. They were the parents of five 
children, three of whom are living. The mother 
died in 1867, but Mr. Foreman is still living and 
makes his home in Newburg Township. He after- 
ward married Nance}- Hill, and by this union they 
have one child. 

Mr. and Mrs. Burbridge began their wedded life 
in Spring Creek Township, and after several years 
removed to Newburg Township, where they made 
their home for two years. His next place of resi- 
dence was in Rice County, Kan., but after farming 
in that State from 1884 until 1887. he returned to 
this county and for a year operated a farm near 
Nebo. He then purchased an estate on section 1 7, 
Hardin Township, his present home, where he now 
owns one hundred and forty acres. He also owns 
a farm of one hundred and sixty acres in Anderson 
County, Kan. Both are under cultivation. He 
personally superintends the cultivation of his land 
in this county, and takes great pride in kee[)ing 
everything in first-class order. He is an indus- 
trious, energetic man, and the success which has 
attended his efforts is well mcritiMl. Mr. Burbridge 
takes considerable interest in political affair*, voting 



with the Republican party, but has never sought 
oflicial distinction. He is now serving as Director 
in Schofil District No. 3. Socially he is a member 
of tiie Masonic order, and both he and his wife 
hold membersliii) in the Christian Church. Their 
children are Bertie Arthur, David Anderson, and 
Robert Earl, and they have lost one child. 



ILLIAM J. GARNER is one of the rising 
young farmers of Pike County and was 
born on the estate which he now operates 
in Derrj' Township, his natal day being January 
10,1868. Mis cliildhoorl and youth were passed 
in the manner customary to tlie sons of well-to do 
farmers, a portion of his time being devoted to such 
home duties as were suited to his years and the re- 
mainder to the studies and recreations of boyhood. 
He acquired a practical education and a thorougli 
uuderstaudingof the various details of agricultural 
life and was tlius fitted for the position he has as- 
sumed as manager of a large estate. Since the 
death of liis father he has operated the iiomestead, 
four hundred and eighty acres, devoting a large 
acreage to the cereals and also raising horses, cattle 
and swine in large numbers. 

Mr. Garner keeps himself well informed on all 
topics of general interest, paying particular atten- 
tion to National and State politics and weighing 
carefully the [)rinciples and policy of the parties. 
He is a stanch Republican, quite capable of holding 
bis own in any argument which ma}^ arise regard- 
ing political affairs. He is honorable in his deal- 
ings with his fellow-men, possessed of good social 
qualities, and enterprising and progressive in the 
conduct of his business affairs. He is therefore 
highly respected and his manj' friends will watch 
his future career with interest. 

Our subject is a grandson of Jonathan Garner, 
a Kentuckian who came hither in 1840, settling on 
section 33, Derry Township. He was a gunsmith 
by trade and followed that occupation more or less 
throughout his life, but after coming hither he 
farmed quite extensively for that time and owned 
a large amount of land. In politics he was an old- 

line Whig, and in religious belief a Methodist. He 
died in his seventy-seventh year, his widow surviv- 
ing him but six months and being also quite old 
when called hence. They reared five children. 

James H. Garner, the father of our subject, was 
born in the Blue Gr.ass State December 27, 1824, 
and came hither when a youth. He attended the 
old fashoned log schoolhouses, becoming quite well 
informed, and as he grew older being exceptionally 
industrious. On the death of his father he inherited 
the homestead of eighty acres, and prospering in 
his affairs, accumulated other land, owning six hun- 
dred and forty acres at the lime of liis death. In 
1870 he erected the frame house of eleven rf)ouis 
which is now occupied by our subject, its cost being 
$3,000. His farm was one of tlie finest in the 
county as regards improvements. Mr. Garner was 
one of the most iuttiiential citizens of this vicinity. 
He held some official positions in the township and 
voted the Republican ticket. His deatli took place 
November ',), 1887, and he left behind iiim a record 
upon wliicli his children can look with just pride. 

Tlie mother of oui subjict bore the maiden name 
of Mary E. Williams and became the wife of James 
Garner June 2, 18G4. She was born in Wliite 
County, February 5, 1842. but in her early child- 
hood was brought to Pike County and was reared 
in Derry Township. She is still living on her de- 
ceased husband's homestead and tenderly cared for , 
by her son, our subject, and the other members of 
her family who are still at home. She has had six chil- 
dren, named respectively, Vina, William J., Otto, 
Ida, Anna and Herman. The eldest is now the 
wife of William P. Vose and Ida is deceased. 

The maternal grandfather of our subject was 
Isaac Williams, wlio was born in Kentucky in 1800 
and was twenty-two years old when he came to this 
State, settling in White County. In 1848 he re- 
moved to Pike County, locating on section 4, Atlas 
Township, where he died when sevent3--three years 
old. He was a very pious man and had been a 
member of the Primitive Baptist Church from the 
age of twenty years. His father, Stephen Williams, 
was one of the pioneer ministers of the cliurcli in 
this State and bore an important |)art in i)roinul- 
g.ating Christianity among the early settlers. A 
more detailed account of liis life and work, as well 




as that of his father, Edward 'WilliaTns, is ajiven in 
the biography of Rev. Stephen S. Williams, on an- 
other page in this volume. There also will be found 
the record of Henrj' Coleman, .Senior and Junior, 
who were ancestors of the mother of INIrs. Garner. 

THAMES H. HARKISON. Among the thriv- 
ing business estiiblishments in Perr\', Pike 
County, may be mentioned the boot and 
/ shoe house of James H. Harrison. This 
gentleman has been in business in his present loca- 
tion for the past ten 3ears. during a portion of 
which time he was engaged in the sale of general 
merchandise. His close application to business, his 
honi)rable methods and his ende.ivor to meet the 
wants of the communitj' have led to his success. 
He has gained a prominent place among the citi- 
zens, not only as a business man, but as a man of 
intelligence and deep interest in all which will ad- 
vance the welfare of the town and surrounding 
country. He lias held various local offices and 
borne an active [lart in man\' public enterprises. 

The Harrison family of which our subject is a 
descendant is of the old New England stock, orig- 
inally from the mother countr}-. The grand- 
parents of our subject took up their residence in 
Ohio at an early day, becoming well known in the 
Scioto \'alley, where they lived many years and 
whence they were gatiiered to their fathers. The 
father of our subject, William Harrison, was born 
near Washington Court house, Ohio, reared on a 
farm and while still single went to Hamilton County. 
There he married Eliza Looker, who was born in 
New England aii<l in her girlhood accompanied her 
parents to the Buckeye State. The Looker family 
was one of prominence in former years in both 
political and business affairs. Benjamin Looker, 
grandfather of the lady mentioned, was Speaker of 
the National House of Representatives and Gov- 
ernor of Ohio. The father of Mrs. Harrison was a 
prominent farmer in Hamilton County and a teacher 
of music and schools for years. 

After his marriage William Harrison lived for 
some years on a farm in Hamilton County, later re- 

moving to Cincinnati, where he did ornamental 
painting until 18.')7. He then removed to Wiscon- 
sin, settling in LaCrosse. where he is still living, a 
highly honored ohl man, at the age of nearly four- 
score and eight. His wife breathed her last in 1884 
at the age of gcventy-five years. She was a life- 
long and active member of the Baptist Church and 
Mr. Harrison has also been prominent in that de- 
nomination since his early life. The family of this 
worthy couple consists of five sons and five daugh- 
ters, all of whom are married and have families. 
All the sons served in the Union Army during the 
Civil War, and remarkable to say, escaped without 
a scratch or any being captured by the enemy. 

The gentleman of whom we write was born in 
Cincinnati, Ohio, November 9, 1840, was reared 
and eilucated there and fitted as far as parental care 
could accomplish that purpose for usefulness and 
honor in later life. He learned the trade of a plio- 
tographer, which he followed for some years. In 
1861 at Indianapolis, Ind., he enlisted in the regi- 
ment then commanded by Lew Wallace, but was 
thrown out because he was unable to pass the phy- 
sical examination. A little later he went to AVis- 
consin, enlisted in the Second Wisconsin Infantry, 
and was again refused. His loyal spirit chafed at 
being obliged to remain behind his brothers and he 
clung to his hope of joining them in defense of his 
country. Finally, in November, 1863, when the 
strength of men was not so much questioned, he 
succeeded in his desire and took the oath as a mem- 
ber of the Fourteenth Wisconsin Infantiy, Col. 
Ward commanding. 

INIr. Harrison remained with the regiment about 
two years, taking part in the Red River campaign 
under Gen. A. J. Smith, which was carried on after 
the plan of guerrilla warfare. When the war came 
to a close he was discharged with his regiment in 
Octoljcr, 186.5, and returned to his former home in 
Wisconsin. The following spring Mr. Harrison 
came to Pike County, this State, where he has since 
made his home, prosecuting his affairs with the 
same persistence which he manifested when intense 
lo3'alty was the mainspring of his actions. The 
principles embodied in the Democratic platform 
find an earnest though quiet supporter in him. 
i In 1SG7. in the cinuity which is now tueir home, 



Mr. Harrison and Miss Eunice A. Cleveland were 
joined in holy wedlock. The bride was born in 
Perry Township, Pike Count}-, September 2.5, 1845, 
was reared and educated here, and under careful 
training developed the graces of Christian woman- 
hood. She acquired a good education and since 
leaving school has kept herself well informed re- 
garding matters of interest as an intelligent woman 
ought. She is the mother of four cliildren, two on 
eartli and two in Heaven. John H. and John W. 
died in childliood, and Charles F. and Abigail E. 
still gladden their parents by their presence. Mrs. 
Harrison is a member of tlie Methodist Episcopal 
Cliurch, wliicli her husband attends. 

Tlie parents of Mrs. Harrison, Jolm K. and Eme- 
line (Canfleld) Cleveland were born, reared and 
married in Connecticut. Immediately after their 
Dfiarriage, in 1836, they came to the Prairie State, 
beginning their wedrled life as pioneers in Pike 
Count}-. After sojourning in the southeastern part 
of the count}' for a time and making improvements 
on tlieir land tliere, lliey removed to Perry wliere 
Mr. Cleveland started a smithy. He operated it 
eighteen years, during that time manufacturing 
pitchforks, etc. For over thirty years lie was Jus- 
tice of the Peace of the townsliip. In politics lie 
was a Democrat. He died in the faitii of the Pres- 
byterian Church. March 12, 18S0, at a goodly age, 
having been born May 12, 1812. During liis last 
years lie was engaged in mercantile pursuits in 
Perry and became known as a shrewd hut just 
dealer. Mrs. Cleveland died March 24, 1880. Slie 
was a prominent member of society, generous, kind 
and imbued with a true Cliristian spirit. 

\ ^^ AUL GODAR. Among the many indus 
Jl) trious and reliable men who are gaining a 
^ maintenance by tilling a portion of the soil 
[1^ of Calhoun County, is Paul Godar, whose land 
is favorably located on section 11, Hardin Precinct. 
Mr. Godar is quite an old settler, his residence in 
the county extending over a period of nearly forty 
years, during which he hcs witnessed great changes 
in the appearance of the country, a large increase 

in population and a corresponding increase in the 
appliances of civilized life. He has borne his part 
manfully in tlie duties that were presented to him 
as a public citizen and a private individual, and it 
affords his many friends great pleasure to know 
that he is meeting with success in his cliosen voca- 

Our subject is the second son born to John and 
Magdalene Godar, and opened his eyes to the light 
of day November 1, 1838, in the romantic land of 
Switzerland. He received what might be called a 
preliminary education, pursuing his studies in the 
French language, which was that of his fatliers, and 
by persistent reading lias added much knowledge 
to the foundation obtained in school. He now has 
a fair understanding of the English language, which 
lie has gained since he came to America. 

In 1853 our subject, accompanied by his mother 
and other members of the family, his father having 
died several years before, took passage at Havre on 
a sailing vessel and after a tedious voyage of al- 
most two months, disembarked at New Orleans, 
whence they came up the river to a point not far 
from St. Louis, Mo. After sojourning there about 
a twelvemonth, they came on to Calhoun County, 
III., where they were jiving when our subject at- 
tained to ins majority. A few years later he took 
to himself a wife in the person of ;\Iary Dejerlia, 
with whom his marriage rites were celebrated Octo- 
ber 1, 1863. Mrs. Godar is a daughter of Anton 
and Virginia Dejerlia, formerly residents in Hardin 
Precinct, who are now deceased. 

The present landed estate of our subject com- 
prises eighty broad and fertile acres, which under 
his intelligent and careful handling yield al)un- 
dantly of the cereals which are sown thereon, the 
crops being excellent in quality as well. Tlie land 
has been supplied with all needed improvements 
and everything is kept up in good shape. Mrs. 
Godar also owns a considerable amount of land, 
which is operated by her husband. As a School 
Director Mr. Godar has been serving for a number 
of years in an earnest and efficient manner. Real- 
izing the value of education and of modern im- 
provements, he takes a part in the projects which 
will promulgate a better understanding or higher 
life among the citizens, and is recognized as a man 





of publi'; spirit, intelligence .anil good character. 
His religious membership is in the Roin;in Catholic 
Church and iiis political adherence is given to Ihe 
Democratic partj-. 

To Jlr. and Mrs. Godar ten sons and daughters 
have come, but they have been called upon to part 
with the joungest, Frederick. Those who are still 
living bear the respective names of Paul Francis, 
William D., Benjamin F., Doratliy Alice, James 
Edward, Clara R., Lucy E., Julia E.. and John 
Alfred. They have received as thorougli educa- 
tions as circumstances would admit of and been 
taught ways of thrift and prudence. 

ARION TODD. This country is not only 
greatlj' indebted to the brave citizen-sol- 
diers who fought so noblj' during the late 
Civil War, but owes them as much for 
what they have done since that great contest was 
brought to a close. The subject of this biography 
is a good representative of these. He is now an 
important member of the farming community of 
Calhoun Count}-, and the farm that he occui)ics in 
Point Precinct is among the best managed and best 
appointed in this part of the State. He is dealing 
largely in thorough-bred stock, being interested at 
present in Berkshire and Poland-China hogs. He 
has dealt quite extensively in Short-horn cattle but 
is turning his attention at present to the Holstein 
variety, having at the head of his herd a registered 
bull that was purchased at the St. Louis (Mo.) Fair 
in 1890 from a premium herd. 

Marion Todd was born in Indianapolis, Ind., 
February 9, 1842. His father, Henry P. Todd, 
was born in Kentucky and after marriage settled in 
Indianajjolis, where he resided for a time and then 
bought a farm three miles from the Capital, where 
he was engaged in farming until death rounded 
out his life in 1845. His wife, whose maiden name 
was Sarah SIcIlvaiu, also died on the home farm, her 
death occurring in 1850. She reared five children: 
Mary J. Porter, her daughter by a former marriage, 
who married Martin Williams, and is now deceased ; 
Amanda, the wife of Thomas J. Arbuthnot, of 

Montague Countj', Tex.; Martha; Marion and Eliza 
both of whom are ileceased. 

Our subject was three years old when his father 
died, and he then went to live with his brother-in- 
law, Martin Williams, and was reareil by him on a 
farm near Indianapolis, and was still living with 
him in 1861 when the war broke out. With the 
enthusiasm of youth, and a patriotic love of his 
country, he determined to enlist and take part in 
the great conflict. September 16, 1861, he became 
a member of Company K, Fifth Ohio Cavalry and 
served with his regiment until December 3, 1864, 
in the States of Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, 
Alabama and North Carolina. Nearly all the while 
he was on detached service generally at headquar- 
ters, and displayed fine soldierly qualities, which 
won him a good militarj' record. 

Our subject was honorably discharged with his 
regiment and in 1865 went to Missouri and joined 
Mr. Williams. He remained in St. Charles Count3\ 
that State, until 1866, when he came to Calhoun 
County and in the month of June bought the phice 
where he now resides in Point Precinct. The farm 
which is one of the most desirable estates in this lo- 
cality contains two hundred and twenty acres, all 
under fine improvement and sui)|)lied with substan- 
tial, well-arranged buildings, among them the resi- 
dence which is pictured on another page. Mr. Todd 
has a fine orchard of thirty acres of choice fruit trees 
which is a good source of income. He also has 
three acres of small fruit. 

February 13, 1867, Mr. Todd and Miss Louisa 
C. Keller united their lives for better or worse, in 
what has proved to be a happ}- marriage. Mrs. 
Todd was born in t^uincy. III., and is a daughter of 
Caryton and Elizabeth Ann (Hach) Keller. Her 
father was born near Salem, N. C, and her mother 
in Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany-. To Mr. and Mrs. 
Todd have been born seven children, as follows: 
Elda E., Callie N , Edith M., Caryton B., Louisa 
E., Portia K. and Irma E., all at homo with their 

Mr. and Mrs. Todd are counted amongst our best 
people, as they are generous, warm hearted and 
kindly in their relations with others and are peo- 
ple of intelligence and high character, and have 
made their home the center of pleasant hospitality. 



In politics, Mr. Todd is a standi Republican. He 
is a me*nber of the Masonic Lodge in Grafton and 
the Grand Army Post, in Hardin. His portr.«)iL is 
a fittino: addition to this brief outline of his life, 
and his friends will be pleased to see it in this 
Album. Mrs. Todd and the three oldest daug:hters 
are consistent niembeis of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, holding membership at Winneberg. 



"^ AMES W. SPERRY is a veteran of the late 
war, who since that time has become an im- 
portant figure in the community embraced 
in Pike County, standing as he does among 
the foremost farmers and stock growers of Kinder- 
hook Township, where he has valuable and exten- 
sive agricultural interests. He is a native of Ross 
County', Ohio, born May 24, 1842, and a son of 
John Sperry, who was born in Hardin County, Va. 
The father of our subject lemained in his native 
State until he was about twenty jears old and sub- 
sequently went to Ross County, Ohio, where he 
was married to Catherine Snyder, who was a native 
of Ohio. After his marriage he setileil on a farm 
in Ross County, which he subsequently sold, and 
then removed to Greenfield, Highland County, 
Oliio, where he engaged in farming and spent the 
remainder of his life, dying there in 1878. His 
widow died in 1880, and they now now lie side by 
side in the Greenfield Cemetery. ■ They were the 
parents of fifteen children, eight sons and seven 
daughters, all of whom grew to maturity except 
one, their names being as follows: Abraham, Isaac 
(deceased), Jacob, John (deceased), Hiram B, 
William, James W., A. Judson, Mary and Elizabeth 
(deceased), Sarah, Martha, Rebecca and Nancy 

Our subject was the thirteenth child in order of 
birth and the seventli son. II is rarly life was 
passed in the place of his nativity until he was 
nineteen years old, during which time he assisted 
Ills father in working his farm. He had not attained 
manhood when the war broke out, and with the 
enthusiastic ardor and patriotism of 30uth he en- 
listed to defend the Stars and Stripes, becoming a 

member of Company H, Seventy-third Ohio In- 
fantry, which was attached to the Eastern army at' 
the liattle of Gettysburg, and then transferred to the 
Western army. He took part in the engagement 
at Lookout Mountain, where he was wounded in 
the hip by a minie ball and was then removed to 
the Cumberland hospital at Nashville, Tenn., where 
he had to endure much suffering consequent on 
the condition of his wound the ensuing three 
months. He then received a furlough and was at 
home thirty da^-s wlien he was obliged to leturn to 
the hospital, where he remained until he received 
his honorable discharge at Columbus, Ohio. Janu- 
ary 12, 1865. 

After his trying experience of a soldier's life 
Mr. Sperry came to Pike County, and located at 
Hull Station where he engaged in farming as a 
renter for about two j-ears. He then returned to 
Ohio and was married in 1867 to Nancy L . daugh- 
ter of Noah and Lucretia (Shultz) Cor\-. Mrs. 
Sperry liorn in Ross Countj^ Ohio, February 
8, 1840, and was reared in the place of her birth. 
Her father and motiier were natives of Ohio, hav- 
ing come from two of its early pioneer families, 
and her father was engaged in his native State as 
a farmer during his active life. He died in 1888 
and the mother in 1879, and both were buried side 
by side in tlie Baptist Cemetery at Frankfort, Ohio. 
They were the parents of thirteen children — Sallio 
Ann, Hannah Jane and Josei)h (deceased), Solo- 
mon G., John N. (deceased), Angeliiie. M:uy 
Ellen, F^lizabeth, Nancy L., Lucretia, William N.. 
Landa S. and Oliver A. 

After mariiage our subject returned to Pike 
County and took up his resilience on the faru) 
where he now resides. This is considered one of 
the choicest farms of the vicinitj-, its six hundred 
and twenty acres being of exceptional fertility and 
under good cultivation and well fenced. Thirty 
acres of it are in timber. The land is vevy pro- 
ductive and yields on an average sixty bushels of 
corn to the acre and has yielded as high as Ihirtv- 
flve bushels of wheat to the acre. This year Mr. 
Sperry has two hundred and fifty-five acres in corn 
which will yield fortj^ bushels to the acre, and he 
raised about twenty-two hundred bushels of wheat 
this season (1890). Our subject is extensively 



engaged in the hay business, putting up from one 
hundred and flftj' to two hundred tons of ha^- each 
year, and gives much attention to stock-raising. 
He has placed many substantial improvements on 
his farm, among which is the tine two-story frame 
residence 32x54 feet in dimensions, with ten rooms, 
ample barns and other necessary buildings. When 
he first settled on his homestead there were no 
buildings on it except a little frame house 16x24 
feet, and it is only by energetic, well-directed and 
skillful labor that he has wrought this great change. 
Mr. and Mrs. Sperry have had four children, 
two sons and two daughters: John N. and Otis O. 
(deceased) ;Cora and Bessie M.. both of whom live 
at home with their parents. Thej' have been care- 
fully trained and educated, and with their father 
and mother are among the most active working 
members of the Baptist Church. Cora is the or- 
ganist and a teacher and Bessie is the Secretary of 
the .Sunday-school at Hull Station. Mr. Sperry is 
a Deacon of the church and he is always found 
willing to support all good and just causes. Ho is 
a stalwart Republican in his political views and 
cast his first Presidential vote for Abraham Lin- 
coln. He has done his township good service as 
School Director and has ever been influential in 
elevating its social and religious status as well as in 
promoting ijts material welfare. 


'\f?OHN C. F. BOGGSis one of the most pros, 
perous agriculturists of Fairmount Township 
and in connection witn tilling the soil gives 
considerable attention to stock-raising. He 
is an extensive landowner and his home farm on 
section 18, contains Iwo hundred and tliirly-two 
acres of fine land, well-watered and higiily culti- 
vated in every respect. The residence and other 
buildings are of a substantial character and admir- 
abl}' adapted for their various purposes. 

Our subject comes of worthy pioneer lineage, his 
great-grandfallier coming to this country from 
Scotland prior to the Revolutionary War. Grand- 
father John Boggs lived and died in Hamilton 
County. Oliio. Among his children was William 

Boggs, a native of Hamilton C'onntj'. Ohio, where 
he was reared to manhood. When ready to start 
out for himself he came to Illinois and located in 
Morgan County, where he worked as foreman in a 
brewery at Meredosia for some time, later turning 
his attention to farming. In 1857 he removed to 
Pike Count}-, this State, and purchasing one hun- 
dred and sixt}'-8ve acres on section 16, Fairmount, 
at once commenced its improvement. 

The mother of our subject was known in maiden- 
hood as Caroline Fry, and was a native of the State 
of New York, born near Big Flats, April 11, 1820. 
Her parents were Charles and Pliojbe (Buck) Fry, 
also natives of the Empire Srato, where their an- 
cestors had settled at a very early period in the 
history of our nation. Mr. and Mrs. Fry emi- 
grated to Illinois in the latter part of the "30s, set- 
tling in Morgan Count}', where they died. William 
Boggs and Caroline Fry were united in marriage 
near Meredosia, Morgan County, in 1842, and to 
them were born three sons and one daughter; Henry 
C. residing in Colorado, Samuel H. in Nebraska and 
John C.F. in Illinois. After a long and useful life 
William Boggs passed from earth January 7, 1876. 
.at the age of seventy -three years. The mother is still 
alive, at the age of seventy j'ears, and makes her 
home with her daughter, Mrs. Wilbur Cobb, of lif- 
fingham, III. 

While William and Caroline Boggs were residents 
of Morgan County, III., their son. our subject, was 
born near Concord, March 8, 1846. At the age of 
eleven years he accompanied his parents to Pike 
County, and here grew to man's estate. When 
ready to establish a home of his own, he was united 
in niarri.age, December 25, 1879, with Miss Sarah 
;M. Stauffer. This estimable lady was born August 
18, 1853, to John and Sarah (Hilliard) Stauflfer, 
natives of Ohio and Virginia respectively. Mr. 
and Mrs. Stauflfer came to Pike County while very 
young and were married on the farm which is now 
the home of our subject. The father died April 
20, 1885, after attaining the age of sixty-eight 
3'ears. The mother breathed her last November 6, 
1882, when almost sixty-nine years old. 

Mrs. Boggs was the youngest of the nine cliiklreu 
born to her parents, of whom seven are still living. 
She was reared and educated in Pike County, and 



was trained to become a capable boiisekecper, a 
loving wife and wise mother. Of the three chil- 
dren born to her and her husband, one died in in- 
fancy, and two, John William and Christopher FL. 
are living. Mrs. Boggs had three brothers, George, 
Jacob E. and Henry C, in the late war, and George 
was severely crippled while in the service of the 
Union. Our subject and his wife are consistent 
Ciiristian people, and members of the Christian 
Church. Politically, Mr. Boggs is a Republican, 
and by his genial manners has won the friendship 
of his many acquaintances. 

^^=^EORGE B. GARRISON, M. D., occupies a 
'.II (— -, high place among the leading ph3'sieians of 
*\^:^ Pike County. He is conducting an exten- 


sive and lucrative practice at Pearl, where he also 
is interested in the drug business, and ha.s a well 
appointed pharmacy. He is a native of Dearborn 
County, Ind., and was born August 5, 1839, to 
Israel and Lj'dia (Garrison) Garrison, who wore 
natives resptctively of Pennsylvania and Ohio. His 
father was a son of Elijah Garrison a native of 
New Jersey, whose wife was Elizabeth Bolar, also a 
native of that State. Both the paternal and ma- 
ternal great-grandfathers of our subject served 
through the Revolution and the latter was scalped 
by a bayonet. All of their descendants have been 
lionorable law-abiding citizens, wortii}' of sucli an 
ancestry. The Garrisons came originally from 
Scotland. The paternal grandfather of our subject 
was a farmer and was one of the early pioneers of 
Dearborn County ,X)hio,ywhere he and his wife died 
and were buried. They reared seven sons and one 
daughter all of whom lived to maturity and were 

Israel Garrison was married in Hamilton County, 
Ohio, and in 1841, came to Illinois by steamboat, 
having previously lived in Indiana. He located on 
section 27, Montezuma Townshiii, where he entered 
forty acres of land and later boui;lil eiglity acres of 
l.'uid. He improved his pro]X'rty on wiiieh he lived 
until Ills death January 21, 1850. at the age of 

fortj'-nine years. His widow still survives him and 
is now eighty-two years of age, having been born 
January 11, 1808. Mr. Garrison was one of the 
foremost members of the Christian Church. He 
was a strong temperance man, and used his influ- 
ence both with tongue and pen to advance the cause 
in his adopted couut^'. He made stirring temper- 
ance speeches and composed temperance songs. He 
accumulated a comfortable property and left an 
estate of one hundred and twenty-three acres. He 
was at one time Justice of the Peace and was greatly 
respected wherever known. 

The mother of our subject is a daughter of Jos- 
eph Garrison who married Merrab Conner. They 
have nine children, four sons and five daughters, all 
of whom married and roared families with the ex- 
ception of one daughter. Mr. Garrison was reared 
in Cincinnati, Ohio, his people having come to that 
State when it was a Territory and he had manj' ex- 
periences in pioneer daj'S. He was a farmer bj- oc- 
cupation. He died and was buried near Cincinnati. 
He was a Whig in politics and was a neighbor of 
and warm supporter of William H. Harrison. 

Dr. Garrison was reared on a farm, and laid the 
basis of his education in the common schools. He 
early evinced a love of books and in the long win- 
ter evenings used to read by the light of the fire in 
the huge old fireplace. At the age of twenty-two 
the young man was well equipped for teaching and 
he entered the profession at which he was engaged 
for twelve years, averaging about eight months 
each year, and carrying on his work all that time 
in Pike County. He lived in ^Montezuma Town- 
shii), until the spring of 1884, when he located in 
the village of Pearl, where he has since resided. 
He began reading medicine while he was teaching 
and in September, 1875 commenced to attend lec- 
tures at the Bennett Medical College. Chicago, from 
which he was gi'aduated with honor. Wishing to 
still further prepare himself for the noble calling 
upon which he was to enter, he became a student of 
the American College at St. Louis, Januarj', 1877. 
He began his practice in 187C and now has all that 
he can attend to, the duties of his profession often 
taking him far Vjeyond the limits of the town, as his 
reputation as a skillful physician is known even be- 
yond the bounds of the county. He is a conspicu- 



ous figure in the social and religious life of the 
coiinnuiiily, btiiig; an active Mason and an honored 
nienilier of tho Methodist Kpiscopal Cluuch. In 
[Hijitics hf stands with tlie Rt'piibiicans. 

Dr. (larrison was man-icd Fcb.'uary 7, 1864, to 
Miss Sarah Cox, a native of Iligiiiand County. 
Oliio, and a daugliter c>f David and Rachaol 
(Brown) Cox. natives of Ohio. Her father was a 
farmer and came to Illinois witli Ins family in 1854. 
He settled in Hardin Township, and there both he 
and his wife died. .Mrs. Garrison deiiarted this life, 
,Iiine 21. 1870. She was a woman of many fine 
traits of character, which won her the esteem and 
friendship of many and she was for most of lier 
life a consistent member of the Methodist Episco- 
|)al Churc'li. Her niarriasc with our subject re- 
sulted in the birth of three children. William H., 
Malinda KHa. and Herrod D. 

The maiden name of the present estimable wife 
of our subject was Lucinda Forkner, and slie is a 
dauijiiier of Thomas and Lucretia Forkner, who 
came to Illinois from Tennessee. They first settled 
in Schuyler County, and aftervvard in Pike County. 
Mrs. Garrison is a fine woman in every respect and 
in her the Christian Cliurch lias one of its best 
members. Her union with our subject has been 
lilessed to them by four children. Harvev W., 
Elizabeth II., Thomas M. and George B. 

(^^ AMUEL B. GAINES is a well-known and 
^^^ wealtliy farmer and stoek-raiser of Pike 
||l#Ij) County. He is an honored resident of 
Kinderliook Townsiiip, wliere he has a 
large, well managed farm and oue of the most pleas- 
ant homes in this part of the country. He was born 
in Otsego County, N. Y., April 19, 1821, his father 
Ebenezer Ciaines, having been a pioneer of that 
region. He was born and reared in Connecticut, 
coming of a sterling ancestry and was there mar- 
ried to Ann Blakeslej', who was also born and 
reared in Connecticut. They were married in Hart- 
ford County, that State and then moved to New 
York, where he engaged in farming. While yet in 
life's prime his busy career was closed by his 

untimely death at the age of thirty-five years. He 
was the father of six cliildren, three sons and three 
daugliteis — Julius \V., Lester K., Sophronia, Sam- 
uel B., Lydia and Ann, of whom the latter and our 
subject are the only ones now living. 

Samuel B. was the fourth child and tliird son of 
his pareijts. When he was twenty-f)ne years of 
age he went to Ohio, and engaged in the clock busi- 
ness tliere for a time, and then proceeded to Ten- 
nessee, where be was engaged in the same calling 
for about eighteen months. He returned to Ohio, 
and in the month of .lune 1844, his marriage with 
Miss Margaret M. Twaddle was celebrated in Huron 
County, the place of her birth. She accompanied 
her husband to Pike County, died in their pioneer 
home March 0, 1849, and was interred in Kinder- 
hook cemetery. 

Mr. (iaines was married a second time, taking as 
liis wife Maiy, daughter of Thomas and Lydia 
Fitzpatrick. She was born in Butler County, Ohio, 
February 8, 1831, and came to Pike County, in 
1838 with her parents. They located in Kinder- 
hook Township, where she went to school in a log 
schoolliouse with puncheon floor. Her parents 
were pioneers of the county and took up tlieir resi- 
dence in a log house, where they were busily en- 
gaged during their life in improving a farm. They 
had ten children of whom six are now living aa 
follows: Sarah, Mrs. McTee who lives in Oregon; 
James also a resident of that State; ^usan, Mrs. 
Benson, who lives in Kinderhook; Thomas, a resi- 
dent of Kinderhook; and William, a resident of 
Tye Valley. Ore. There have been born to Mr. 
and Mrs. Gaines eleven cliildren, six daughters and 
five sons of wliom the following is recorded: 
Dorinda A. married A. J. Liggett, of Hannibal, 
Mo. ; Lydia lives at home; Mary Ella married J. 
W. Clutcli, of Kinderhook; Sylvester S., and 
Edward N., live in Barry Township and Barry City 
respectively; Minnie M. married Arthur S. Clark 
in the month of September, 1890. Of the otiier 
children, one died in infancy, Joseph F. died at 
the age of five years; Cliarles, James T., and Carrie 
B. each died at the age of one year. 

In 1846 Mr. Gaines made an important move in 
his lifevvhen he came to Illinois to make his home 
here. In 1847 he brought his wife here and loca- 



ted in Kinderhook Township, on section 36, on a 
tract of one hundred and ninety acres of land, lie 
erected a good house and developed a farm until it 
became one of the best improved places in that 
township. He remained there until 1860, and then 
built a store in Kinderhook and went into the mer- 
cantile business while lie at the same time carried 
on his farm. He was eminently successful in his 
business enterprises, and used to handle grain very 
extensivel}', besides having a well fitted up store 
where he sold merchandise of all descriptions. 

Our subject was also greatl}' prospered in his 
agricullural pursuits and at one time had sis hun- 
dred acres of good land. lie has since disposed of 
much of it at a good price, but still retains three 
hundred and thirty-seven and one-half acres, of 
which one hundred and fort3' acres is in Burr}'. lie 
has his farm amply supplied with buildings of all 
kinds of which he has fourteen in all on his place, 
including a fine barn, ice houses, granary, etc. He 
has seventeen head of good horses and other stock. 
His residence in the city of Kinderhook is a com- 
modious, well finished dwelling comprising four- 
teen rooms and he has four other dwelling houses 
besides a substantial store building 92x22 feet in 
dimensions. Mr. Gaines is pre-eminentlj' a self- 
made man. He was left fatherless at the age of 
four jears, and has always had to depend upon his 
own resources since he was large enough to earn his 
own living. He never had anything given him but 
a pair of socks, and thougli he staid with one 
man thirteen years he never received but fifty cents 
in money from him during that long jjeriod. He 
cleaned horses and did chores of all kinds for which 
he got a penny at a lime and contrived to save $21. 
which was the nucleus of his present fortune. He 
then went to work to make more money and has 
acquired his wealth b}'^ constant hard toil and strict 
attention to business. He has given his children 
$4,000 each and still has a handsome property, the 
income of which enables him to pass his declining 
years in ease and in the enjoyment of everj- comfort 
and luxury that he can desire. His life-record tiius 
far shows him to be a man of honor wlio lias made 
the best use of the talents given him b}' nature. 
His fellow-citizens have often shown their confidence 
in his uprightness and in bis ability to manage 

affairs by calling him to public positions of trust 
and responsibility. Thus he has served as Town- 
ship Collector and Assessor, has represented Iladley 
Township on the Count}' Board of Supervisors, 
was Township Trustee for sixteen 3'ears, lias been 
Road Commissioner, School Director and School 
Trustee for several years, and served twelve or 
fifteen years as Postmaster. He is highly regarded 
in social and religious circles, is a Mason belonging 
to Kinderhook Lodge No. 353, is a stanch Republi- 
can in politics and is one of the leading members 
of the Baptist Church, of which he has been Dea- 
con thirty years, his wife also being a consistent 
member of that church. Our subject has made two 
trips from Connecticut to Illinois by team. 

RNEST E. WILLIAMSON, editor and pro- 
prietor of the Independent P)-ess of Griggs- 
viUc, one of the leading papers of Pike 
County, is one of the youngest members of his pro- 
fession ill this part of the State, and as an earnest, 
bright progressive young man, has a promising 
career before him as a journalist. He is a native of 
Pike County and was born in the city of Pitts- 
field, March 16. 1868. The Williamsons are of 
mingled, Irish, .Scotch and AVelsli ancestry. The 
father of our subject, whose given name was 
Thomas, was a native of Ohio and a son of Jesse 
AVilliamson, a native of Highland Count}', that 
State, he having been born there in an early day of 
the history of that great commonwealth. He was 
reared there to the life of a farmer, and was mar- 
ried to Martha .Sloan, also a native of Highland 
County. After the birth of all their children, he 
brought his family to Illinois in 1857, journeying 
liither liy land and settling on a farm in Detroit 
Township, Pike Count}'. His land was somewliat 
improved and he spent the remainder of his active 
life in develoi)ing a farm. After the death of liis 
wife in 1869 he retired from business, removed 
from Detroit Township, and went to Pittsfiehl 
where he now lives with his son James. He has now 
reached the advanced age of eighty-two years. He 
is well known in the county where he has lived for 



somnny year?. Ik' is int'ependeiit in religion and 
]i<>lit,ifs and is a man of miioli cliaracter and capa- 

Tliomas Williamson, the father of oin- snUjeot, was 
one of llie younger of liis mother's ehildren, and 
he was reared in Ohio until he ritlair.od manhood, 
liaving been bred to the life of a fai'mcr. lie was 
there married to Esther Slagle, who was born in 
West Viriiiiiia, and came of Southern parentage 
and (ierman aneestry. After marriage Mr. and 
Mrs. Williamson moved to Illinois and settled on a 
farm in Detroit 'rownship. Me subsequently went 
to Pitt>liel(l and engaged in the drug business, 
which he carried on for a good many years. He 
afterward resumed farming and is thus engagcil at 
present in the vicinity of Pittsfield. lie is well 
and favorably known to the people of Pittsfield and 
vicinit}', where he is regarded as a man of good 
habits, who is strictly upright in his relations with 
others and has a good standing in tinancial circles. 
He had the misfortune to lose his wife wlio died in 
their home in Pittsfield, July 4, 1873, when she was 
less than forty years of age. She was a kind neigh- 
bor, a true friend, a devoted wife and a loving 
inothe'. She was an earnest Christian and was 
identified with the Methodist Kpiscopal Church. 
She was the mother of two children, our subject 
and his lirother Raymond, the latter of whom re- 
sides on a farm in Pittsfield Township. 

Ernest Williamson was quite young when he was 
deprived of the care of his mother and for a time 
was reared by his father and maternal grandmother, 
Julia A. Slagleof Pittsfield. It was while living with 
her that he secured a practical education in the 
city schools of Pittsfield. At the age of sixteen 
years, he entered upon the work which has led him 
into journalism, as he then secured a situation in 
'""the printing office of tlie Pike County Democrat. 
edited by J. M. Bush, Sr.. of whom see l)iography 
on another page of this book. Our subject soon 
became familiar with type setting and the general 
newspaper business, and for a year before he left 
to take control of his first paper he was foreman of 
the Pike Counl;i Democrat. He became proi)rietor 
of this paper in the month of June, 188!), which he 
did not change in title or politics which is strictly 
indci>endent. It is a good sized (piarto sheet, with a 

full line of l,it;d and general news, with intelligent 
and spicy editorials, and is popular wherever it cir- 
culates. It has continued to prosper since it came 
ill |)Ossefsion of our subject, who keeps it up to the 
same high standard it had reached under the edi- 
torship of Mr. A. Hughes, who remained on the 
paper on his own account until .Inne. 1889. It has 
a good circulation in Pike County, having about 
one tlKJUsaud names on the subscription list, and it 
is considered one of the and well edited 
papers of the day. Mr. Williamson is an adherent 
of the Democratic party, but as the editor of an in- 
dependent journalhe is uid)iased in the expression 
of his views through the columns of his paper and 
usually gives his support to the men who he con- 
siders best fitted for office regardless of [)olitical 

\f(_, ENKY W. BUTTERFIELD. This gentle- 
man is one of the most progressive farmers 
of Pike County and the fortunate owner 
of one of the most valuable estates, for its 
size, within the limits. It consists of three hundred 
and twenty acres, one hundred and seventy-five 
being on section 3,5, Griggsville Township, anfl the 
remainder on section 3, Newbnrg Township. The 
two tracts join, are in a high state of cultivation, 
well stocked with the better grades of domestic ani- 
mals, while the various farm Iniildings are first- 
class in construction and suflicieutly numerous and 
ciiiumodious to supply every want. The most of 
the improvements have been made by our subject, 
who has resided on the first-mentioned tract since 

Mr. Butterfield is a native-born citizen of the 
township, his birth having takcju place on his fa- 
ther's homestead on section 34, Septemlier 12, 1841. 
He the recipient of careful home training, 
being early taught that "whatever is worth doing 
is worth doing well." Carrying out this principle 
has brought him financial success and won him the 
respect of his fellow-men. 

At the bride's home in Hadley Township, Mr. 
lUitterfield was united in marriage with Miss Lydia 



Garraux. The bride was born in .St. Louis, Mo.. 
August 2, 1842, and was quite young wlien her fa- 
ther, a French mechanic, was instantly killed by 
falling from the roof of a house where he was at 
work. The daughter was reared by her mother, 
and stepfather A. W. Rieliards, in this county and 
received unusual advantages. She was graduated 
from Monticello Seminar}', this State, and for some 
years prior to her marriage was engaged in teacli- 
ing. She is a cultured, refined woman, well known 
for her mental attainments and Christian worth, 
and very prominent in the best society of the sec- 
tion. Mr. and Mrs. Butterfield have three children, 
Ethel C, Lulu E. and Arthur W., who are being 
well educated in the schools of Griggsville. Mr. 
Bntterfleld is a stanch Republican and he and his 
wife are active members of the Baptist Cliurch in 

Leonard Butterfield, the father of our subject, 
was born near Ilollis, N. IL, in 1808, coming of 
good New England families. He lost his father 
when but a small boy but his mother lived to ba 
quite aged. He learned the trade of a carpenter 
and obtained a good education. After becoming of 
age he went to Boston, Mass., where he married 
Susan Lampson, a native of the old Bay State. 
The}' subsequently went to North Carolina, Mr. 
Butterfield being sent by the Baptist Society of 
M.assachusetts as a missionary to the Cherokee 
Indians. He laliored among the red men live years, 
learning to speak their language well, and doino- 
the utmost he could to convert them to Christian- 
ity until the Government Treaty sent them West. 

Mr. Butterfield and his wife then determined to 
come to this State, which they did late in the '30s, 
making a settlement on the section adjoining that 
upon which their son now lives. They secured one 
hundred and sixty acres of Government land 
whei-eon they continued to resicle until the fall of 
1870, when the wife and mother entered into rest. 
She belonged to the Baptist Church and carefully 
instilled the principles of Christianity into the 
hearts of her children. 

After the death of his wife Leonard Butterfield 
went back to his birthplace and there finally mar 
ried a second wife. He remained in New England 
(luring the rest of his life, dying in 1877. In pol- 

itics he was a sound. Republican and in former 
years an anti-slavery man. To him and his first wife 
four sons were born, our subject being the second, 
and the eldest of those born in this State. 

•^"^^ RADFORD P. GRESHAM. Among the 
many worthy and enterprising pioneers of 

^)}lf) Calhoun County, none are more deserving 
of representation in this Album than the 
gentleman above named. He came hither in his 
youth and assisted his father in the arduous labor 
by which a portion of Hamburg Precinct was re- 
claimed from its primitive condition and made into 
a fruitful tract of land. He knows what it is to 
wield the ax on heavy timber, to burn brush and 
grub out stumps, and in fact understands the en- 
tire process of making the wilderness blossom as 
the rose. Looking backvvard, he recalls the days 
when wild game was abundant here and some of 
the more savage animals still lingered in the wilds 
making it dangerous to be out after nightfall. He 
also recalls the oldfashioned schooUiouse with its 
subscription school, and the institution of the iniblic 
schools, which, although not equal to those of the 
present day, were a decided lulvance on those which 
had preceded them. 

The Blue Grass State claims Bradford Gresham 
as one of her sons, and his parents, Abner and 
Patsy (Blakeley) Greslnni. were also born therein, 
both being of Irish ancestry. The natal day of 
our subject was February 19, 1830, and in 1845 he 
accompanied his parents to Calhoun County, 111., 
their home being established on section 3C, Ham- 
burg Precinct. The father secured one hundred 
and sixty acres of heavily-timbered land and with - 
the aid of his family brought it to a good condi- 
tion of improvement and cultivation. He lived 
here over forty years, surviving until March 9, 
1886. The wife and mother had breathed her last 
several years before that date. They were the par- 
ents of nine children, but our subject is now the 
sole representative of the family circle. 

The farm now owned and occupied by Mr. 
Gresham consists of one hundred and forty .acres 


Oc^/L^^'i^^ Oi-^l^^ 



of land, a part of which belonged to the old home- 
stead. The pleasant <lwellin<j is under tlie imme- 
diate supervision of an ellicient liouselteeper and 
devoted companion, who bore the maiden name of 
Elizabeth Neil and was united in marriage to our 
s\ibject December 3. 1863. Slie is a native of 
Mi-isouri. Tlie union has l)een blest b}' the birth 
of one son, Logan, who is occupying a home of his 
own in the same township as his parents. 

In April, 1865, Mr. Gresham enlisted in the 
Fifly-tiiird Illinois Infantrj' and started to join 
Sherman's Army, but before he arrived at the front, 
Lee had surrendered and the war been brought to 
a close. He was discharged and returned to his 
home after an absence of a few weeks. Mr. Gresham 
has been School Trustee of Hamburg Precinct and 
School Director of his district. He and his wife 
are active members of societ}-, respected by all 
who know them, and Mr. Gresham is especially 
esteemed for the part which he has had in bringing 
Calhoun County to its present condition. He is an 
excellent type of the sturdy, intelligent, honest 
pioneer, conscientious and upright in all his deal- 
ings, and a man whose word is as good as his bond. 

■ji? YCURGUS EASTMAN, one of the oldest 
I ^ settlers and most highly honored citizens in 
I 'L--"^ , Pike County, has been living in Griggsville 
since 1867. His connection with the agricultural 
development of the county did not cease at that 
time, as he was the owner of farm lands for some 
years longer. He traces his ancestry through a 
long line of noble men and women bick to the first 
settler of the name in America, earlj' in the seven- 
teenth century. 

The founder of the Eastman family in this coun- 
try was Roger Elastman, who emigrated from Wales 
in 1640, settling at Salisbury, Mass., where he was 
engaged in farming. The next in the line was 
Philip Eastman, and following him, Ebcnezcr, who 
was born January 10, 1689, married Sarah Peaslee, 
March 4, 1710, and made his home in (^oncord, 
N. H., where he was the first settler. This gentle- 
man was familiarly known as Capt. Eastman, on 

account of his having saved a ship from destruction 
during Queen Anne's War, 1710, when he found it 
necessary to bind a reckless Captain who was sup- 
posed to be able to take his vessel to Quebec. Capt. 
Eastman was a man of note in and about Concord, 
where he died at the early age of fifty- four years. 
His son, Joseph, born November 13, 1715, married 
Elinor Abigail Mellen, and their son, Moses, born 
March 3, 1743, married Lucretia Tyler and died in 
1796 at the age of fifty-three years. 

The next in the direct line of descent was Charles 
who was born December 11, 1774, and in 1798 
married Sarah Bradley'. He was always known as 
Capt. Charles, when he was not called " Old Hon- 
esty," a title which belonged as truly to his son, 
Lycurgus. This couple reared six children: Lucy, 
Eliza, Maria, Sarah, Lycurgus and Lucretia. All 
are now deceased except our subject and his sister 
Sarah, the latter of whom lives in Worcester, JIass. 
Both parents were born in Concord, N. H. After 
the death of Mrs. Sarah Eastman, the father of our 
subject married Persis Chamberlain who bore him 
six children: Moses, Betsey, George, Alfred, Frank, 
and Charles H. Moses, Alfred, and Charles H. are 
now living in California, and the others are de- 

The subject of this notice w,as born at Concord, 
N. H., July 14, 1807, and when seventeen years 
old was apprenticed to a wagon-maker in Quincy, 
Mass., with whom he lived until he was of age. 
He then went to Roxbury, where he carried on his 
business, until he came to tlie Prairie State. During 
his residence in Massachusetts, among oiher events 
of interest Mr. Eastman recalls the sight of the 
first railroad, built in 1825, for the purpose of 
transporting the rock for Hunker Hill monument, 
from the quarrj- at (.^uincy to the Neponset River. 
When the corner stone of the monument was laid, 
June 17, 1825, he saw LaFayette, and heard Daniel 
Webster deliver his oration. In 1834 he saw the 
first steam engine ever used in the United States, 
run over the Boston and Worcester Railroad. In 
1845, when on a visit to the East, he saw the first 
telegraph line, just completed between Baltimore 
and Washington. 

In making his journey from Boston to 
Griggsville. lie was six weeks on the way, arriving 




October 25, 1834, anri coming bj- the way of the 
Atlantic Ocean, Hudson Riv^r, Erie Canni and 
Lake, tlie Oiiio. Mississippi and Illinois Rivers. Mr. 
Eastman entered land in Griggsville Township, 
three and one-half miles from the village of the 
same name, containing about a dozen houses, three 
of which now stand. The next spring he built a 
shop on tlie farm. For three years he worked at 
his trade, attending also to the development of his 
lands and building up his fortunes by industry, 
prudence and enterprise. He was one of the first 
woodworkers in this town, and many of the old 
settlers remember the services he rendered ihem in 
repairing or making woodwork for their |)lows, 
etc. He retained possession of his farm until 
1872, although he had taken up his residence in 
Griggsville a few years before. He has never 
placed himself before the public as an office seeker, 
or one who desired to attract attention, but has 
quietly- pursued an ui)right course in life, honoring 
his Christian profession and exhiljiling the charac- 
teristics of noble manliood. 

From his youth Mr. Eastman manifested a great 
tnste for reading books of history and travel, and 
especially all that he could get in regard to Africa. 
Even in his old age he is usually seen with a l)ook 
or pai)er in his hand, and atlases close by for ready 
reference. He has voted for fifteen Presidents, and 
has been a stanch supporter of AVhig, Anti-slavery, 
and Republican principles. His first Presidential 
ballot was cast in 1832 for Henry Clay. For fifty- 
nine years he ijas belonged to the Baptist Church, 
for fifty-one has held the office of Deacon, and was 
for thirty-seven, Sunday-school Superintenderil. 
Since coming to Illinois he has witnessed great 
changes in farm methods. In 1834 corn was 
dropped by hand, and covered with a hoe; now, it 
is put in with check-rower and planter. Then, 
wheat was cut with a cradle; now, with self-binding 
reaper. In that day too, wheat was threshed by 
horses tramping it out on the ground. Since that, 
he has seen a son-in law thresh a thousand bushels 
in a day with a steam thresher. 

The first marriage of our subject was solemnized 
in Roxbury, Mass., in 1832, the ladj' whom he had 
won for his wife being Miss Elouisa B. Simmons, a 
native of Dorchester, who died August 12, 1844. 

She bore her husband four children: Mnria 
the wife of Hon. E. O. Hills, of Chicago; Susan B., 
wife of Judge J. P. Northrop, of Wheaton, Du Page 
Count}-; Harriet N., who has become quite noted 
as a missionary in Burmah, having spent sixteen 
years there; and Charles Lycurgus, a farmer near 
Whiting, Kan., who served three years during the 
Civil War, having been a member of Company K, 
Ninety-ninth Illinois Infantr}-. Among the affairs 
in which he took part was the entire siege of Vieks- 
burg, after which he lay nine months in the hos- 
pital, when he returned to his regiment, but has 
never fully recovered his health. His children are 
William H., Carrie G., (deceased) and Maria E. 
Mrs. Hills has a daughter Cordelia M., and Mrs. 
Northrop is the mother of Marietta. Artluu- East- 
man, Hatlie M., Carrie B., and Peter. 

In 1845 Mr. Eastman contracted a second ma- 
trimonial alliance at Roxbury, his bride being Miss 
R. L. Humphris, who was born in that city August 
29, 1814. Her parents were Edward and Reliecca 
(Leeds) Humphris, the former born in Scituate, 
Mass.. and the son of John and Mary (Palmer) 
Humphris. Edward Humphris was a car|)entcr and 
spent his entire life in Roxbury, where he died in 
1856, at the age of eighty-three years. The family 
of which Mrs. Eastman is the seventh member, in- 
cluded also Emeline, Cliarles Thompson, iMary 
Palmer, George, Harriet, Edward, Jr., and Thomas 
Rice Willard. Mary now lives at Bernardstown, 
Edward at Princeton, and Thomas at Dorchester, 
I\Iass.; the others are deceased. 

Seven children were born to Mr. and Mrs. I^ast- 
man. Their first-born, Elouisa Rebecca, died in 
infancy; the second. Lucretia Gertrude, became 
the wife of Henry Clark Love, who died in 1870. 
Mrs. Love died in 1872, leaving two children who 
were reared by their grandparents: Maria Adelaide 
is now the wife of Charles W. Hobbs, of Greenleaf, 
Kan., and Henry Clark lives in Whiting, that State. 
The third child, Emeline II., is the wife of Dr. 
Jerome L. Lovt!, of Whiting,; their' children 
being Arthur Stoner, Robert Eastman, Jennie Idella, 
(deceased), and Hallie May; Lucy J. is a teacher 
in Griggsville: Ella E. married John Q. Brown, of 
Whiting, Kan., and has six children, Alice Etta, 
Richard Eastman, Jennie Reba, Mary Elsie. Edith 



E.. and Lizzie J. Tlie sixtli daughter of Mr. anil 
Mrs. EasLuian was Etta Adelaide, wlio died in 1872. 
Tiie 30unt!:est member of the band is (ieorge E<I- 
ward, a California farmer, wiio married Jlinnie A. 
Nolan, and has four children: Bessie R.. (5eors;e L., 
William Allen, and Nellie E 

A portrait of this old settler and honored citizen 
will be found elsewhere in this volume. 

■ S > )I « S ' 

'Jl__^ ENRY THOMAS SHAW is a representative 
)^, citizen of Pike County, in whose public 
life he is a prominent figure, and with whose 
agricultural interests he is conspicuously 
identified. He owns and is managing a large farm 
lying partly in Martinsburg Township, where he 
makes his home, and partly in Atlas Township. He 
is a veteran of the late war, in which he fought he- 
fore he bad attained his majority, and he is a na- 
tive of Pike County, born June 27, 1845, and a son 
of one of its early well-known pioneers, Henry B. 

The father of our subject was born in South 
Wilbraham, Mass. August 24, 1812. His father, 
Walter Shaw, was also a native of the C)ld Bay 
State and was born in 1780. He was a blacksmith 
by trade and he was a soldier in the Mexican War. 
He followed his calling throughout life, coming to 
Pike County when quite old and spending his last 
daj-s with liis daughter, Mrs. Burnham, in whose 
home he died, February 9, 1862. His wife was 
Marcy Cadwell in her maiden days and she was also 
a native of Massachusetts, born in 1789. She 
spent her last days with the fatiier of our subject, 
and died in 1868. She and her husband are now 
quietly sleeping their last sleep in the Summer 
Hill cemetery. 

The paternal great-grandfather of our subject 
was Lieutenant John Shaw of Revolutionary fame. 
He lived to be eighty-seven 3ears of age and died 
in Massachusetts where he had been reared. He 
married Hannah Bush, who is supposed to have 
been a native of Massachusetts. She was born in 
17.52, died November 12, 1842, and is buried in 
Butler cemetery, Hampden County, Mass. The 

great great-grand father of our subject, Capt. Joshua 
Shaw, was an ofliccr in the Revolution. He was born 
in 1 737 and died in 1 793. His wife was Lucy Shaw, 
who was born in 1732 and died in 1787. All that 
is mortal of thoui is now mingled with the dust in 
the old Miinsiiu ccineiery in Hampden County, 

The father of our subject was bred to man's es- 
tate in Massachusetts and there learned the trade of 
a carpenter. He came to Pike County in the spring 
of 1836, rightly judging that men of his calling 
would find occupation in a newly settled country. 
He made the journey hither h_\- Erie Canal, down 
the Ohio and up the Mississippi Rivers, to his des- 
tination. After his arrival he erected a gristmill 
at Payson, and then came to Martinsburg Town- 
ship, where he purchased one hundred and sixteen 
acres of land on section 19. This tract was en- 
tirely unimproved and his first work was to erect a 
log cabin which he occupied while he cleared and 
cultivated his land, using oxen mostly for the 
heavy work. There was plenty of wild game here 
then and he occasionally killed a deer that he might 
supply the family larder with venison though he 
was not much of a hunter. When he came here he 
had nothing to depend upon but his kit of tools 
and a very little money. But from that small be- 
ginning he raised hin^self to a position of compar- 
ative opulence. He was quite an extensive farmer 
and was a prominent and influential man in . his 

Mr. Shaw owned upward of eleven hundred acres 
of land and raised a good deal of stock. He worked 
; at his trade and left the management of his farm 
to his wife and boys. He built three large grist- 
mills at Rockport, and man^^ of the largest build- 
ings tlirough the county, and was probably the best 
carpenter in Pike County in his da3\ He was an 
old Line Whig in early life and later fell into the 
ranks of the Republican part3-. He held some of 
the township offices and assisted in the manage- 
ment of public affairs. One of our most useful 
citizens and most worthy pioneers was removed 
from our midst when he passed awa3- from the 
scenes of earth January 3, 1 886, at the age of seven- 
t3'-four years. 

The mother of our subject whose maiden name 



was Elizabeth Collins, is still living, making lier 
home with her son Fred. She was born on Wood 
River, Madison County', this .State, November 2, 
181,5, and came to Pike County in 1825, when she 
was ten j'ears of age, and is consequently one of 
the oldest settlers now living within the bounds of 
the county. In her early life she was a Methodist 
but for many years she has been a true and faithful 
member of the Congregational Church. Six of the 
eight children born of lier marriage grew to matur- 
itj'. namel}': Lucy A. (Mrs. Ellis); Lyman J. who 
was a member of the Ninety-ninth Illinois Regiment 
Company A., and died at New Orleans; Henry T.; 
,]. Hardin; Charles R. ; and Fred. 

Henry T. .Shaw, who forms the subject of this 
biography, attended the primitive log schoolhouses 
of the early day wish their slab benches, open fire- 
places eti. The schools were conducted on the 
subscription plan and his attendance was confined 
to the winter term, as he had to work on the farm in 
the summer. He was a young lad of si.xteen years 
when the war broke out and before he had attained 
his majority his wish was gratified to become a sol- 
dier and aid in defending his country's honor. He 
enlisted February 17, 18f)5 in Company D., Seventh 
Illinois Regiment, and went with his comrades to 
New Yorlc, whence the regiment took a steamer for 
the Carolinas to join Sherman's army. They met 
the army at Point Fisher and from thence were sent 
to Goldsboro. N. C, in pursuit of Johnston and 
were on his track until his surrender. Our subject's 
regiment took part in the South Carolina campaign, 
which was a sort of running fight. The Union 
soldiers subsequently took up the line of march 
through Richmond and thence on to Washington, 
where they took ])art in the Grand Review. Our 
subject and his fellow-soldiers were then sent to 
Louisville, Ky., where he did Provost duty for 
about six weeks. He was finally mustered out July 
9, 1865, and was discharged at Springfield, 111., hav- 
ing won a good record as a soldier. 

After his return from the seat of war, Mr. Shaw 
resumed farming and has since acquired a valuable 
property solely by his own efforts. He has seven 
hundred acres of land and farms quite extensively, 
raising a good deal of stock. He has now twenty- 
eight horses of a fine breed, sixty-seven cattle of 

good breeds, and a number of sheep. His land lies 
principally in Atlas Township. 

Mr. Shaw and Miss Nettie Yokera were united in 
marriage November G. 1868. Mrs. Shaw was born 
March 31, 1848. Her marriage with our subject 
has been blessed to them by the birth of four chil- 
dren, of whom three are living, namely: Rov A., 
Jessie F., and Harry. May is the name of the child 

A man of Mr. Shaw's calibre, push and progres- 
sive spirit necessarily occupies an influential pcsi- 
tion among the citizens of any community and we 
find this to be the case with our subject. He is 
ever foremost in an3' scheme for local improvements 
and for the advancement of the township or the 
county and he is often called to till posituuij of 
trust and responsibility. For seven years he lias 
rei)resented Martinsburg Township as a member of 
the County Board of Supervisors, of which office 
he is still an incumbent. He is a director of the 
in Pike County Railroad, and is otherwise prominent 
county affairs. He has decided views in regard to 
political matters and is a firm supi)orler of the Re- 
publican party. 

^ €^-B ^ 

\I7 OAMMI R. GERARD is the owner and oc- 
I (?§) cupant of a fine farm in Perry Township, 
il'-^Vi Pike Count}'. II consists of three hundred 
acres on section 23, most of it being improved land, 
devoted to general farming and stock-raising. Mr, 
Gerard has lived here quite a numlier of years and 
has made for himself a comfortable home, where 
the many conveniences of modern civilization are 
to be found. It is probable that no citizen of the 
county is more thoroughly acquainted with the 
modes of pioneer life than Mr. Gerard, whose 
parents spent some time on the frontier in the 
heavily timbered regions of Ohio. At that time 
stoves were unknown in the nu'al districts, all C(.)ok- 
ing was done by an open fire, and corn was pounded 
by an instrument constructed for the purpose, 
mills being almost as uncommon as stoves. 

Mr. Gerard was born in Clinton County. Ohio, 
August 5, 1820, and was quite young when his par- 



ents removed to Green Count}', where he grew to 
man's estate. He bore his part in the work by 
means of whicii lliat section of the Buckeye State 
was reclaimed from a pathless wilderness to a liiglily 
cultivated tract, gained such knowledge as he could 
from the primitive schools, and learned the better 
lessons of self-reliance and earnest industry. He 
finally took up his residence in Fayette County, 
wheni.'e he removed to this State in 1856. In Oc- 
tober of that year he located where he still lives, 
resuming his agricultural labors and reaping a due 
reward from year to year. While building up his 
financial condition he has not neglected the duties 
he owes to mankind, but has walked uprightly be- 
fore his fellow-men and shown himself a friend in 
need. He is identified with the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, to which his wife also belongs. His 
vote and that of bis sons is cast with the Demo- 

Mr. Gerard was fortunate in securing for his 
companion a devoted and capable woman who has 
labored with him to make their home a |jlace of 
comfort and happiness. vShe was united to him in 
marriage in Greene County, Ohio, whither she had 
accompanied her parents from Virginia. She bore 
the maiden name of Elizabeth Daugherty, was born 
in the Old Dominion March 29, 1828, and reared 
among surroundings which developed in her the 
sturdy character and capable ways so frequently to 
be found among those reaied on the frontier. The 
fimily of which she was a member removed from 
Virginia to Ohio in an early day when the country 
was new. and the most of the children made the 
distance on foot, as their only conveyance was a 
small cart drawn by one horse. The homes of the 
pioneers were built of logs with puncheon floors 
and the most primitive furnishings, and their days 
were passed in laborious toil wlicre the comforts 
ami conveniences of life were very few. 

Mr. and Mrs. Gerard were the parents of seven 
children, two cf whom died in childhood. 'J'he 
survivors are now living in Pike County. Mary is 
now the wife of Frank Baldwin, a farmer in Perry 
Township; Walter married Delia Dexter and occu- 
pies a farm near New Salem; George lives on a 
farm in Cliambersburg Township, his wife being 
Lucinda Huddleson; Elizabeth is the wife of .John 

James a farmer in the same townshi|) as her father; 
Anna is a music teacher still making her home with 
her parents. 

Isaac Gerard, the father of our subject, was liorn 
in one of the Eastern States ami was of French an- 
cestry. He went to Ohio in boyhood and in Greene 
County married Polly Wykle, who was born in 
Clinton but reared in Greene County. She was of 
(icrman descent. After their marriage the couple 
made Greene County their home for some time, 
later removing to Clinton County, arid in 1856 go- 
ing west to Poweshiek County, Iowa. They lo- 
cated on a farm near Montezuma, spending tiie 
remnant of their days there. Mrs. Gerard died of 
the measles when sixt}' years old. Mr. Gerard sur- 
viued to the age of seventy-four years. Both were 
earnest members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. Mr. Gerard was an old-time Democrat 
until the first election of Abraham Lincoln, after 
which he vote 1 the Republican ticket as long as his 
life was spared. Our subject is the eldest of seven 
sons and seven daugiiters born to his parents, thir- 
teen of the children being still alive. All are mar- 
ried and have families. The deceased was the 
oldest daughter in the family. She had been mar- 
ried three times and left a large familj-. 

E:NRY R. BROWN is numbered among the 
substantial farmers and large landowners of 
GriggsviUe 'J'ownship, and is also one of 
its oldest settlers. His home farm consists 
of two hundred and eighty acres, and he likewise 
own.s three line tracts of one hundred and eight}', 
one hundred and sixty, and one hundred and thirty -_ 
three acres respectively, all well watered, well 
stocked, and furnished with good buildings. Each 
of these various farms has sulHcient timber land 
f(jr the use of the residents thereon for fuel, build- 
ing or fencing. In addition to these lands Mr. 
Brown owns ten quarter-sections in Jackson and 
Rooks Counties, Kan., and three hundred and 
twenty acres in Harlan County. Neb., some por- 
tions of this projierty being snp|ilicd with good 



inii)roveiiients. Moreover lie owns propert3- in 
Kansas Citj-, and Norton, Kan., each of liis town 
lots having a house upon it. 

Mr. Brown was born Jul^' 15, 1821, in Brown 
County, Ohio, but has spent the greater part of his 
life in the county in which lie now lives, having 
come hither with his [larents before he had entered 
his teens. His large fortune has been made by his 
own hands since he became of age, and it is doubt- 
ful if aiiother resident in the county can furnish a 
better record of liard work, prudence and wise in- 
vestments. While acquiring property rapidly he 
has not become miserly but has ever been generous 
in his assistance to all movements which would ad- 
vance the pnlilic good. He has given his son an 
$8. COO property and lie recentlj' donated three 
hundred and twenty acres of good land to the ben- 
efit of the new Baptist University in Chicago. His 
career is considered a somewhat remarkable one 
and he is pointed out to the rising generation as 
one whose example may well be copied by all who 
are desirous of gaining worldly goods and vvinning 
the respect of their fellow-men. Mr. Brown votes 
the Republican ticket, and with his wife and family 
are enrolled among the members of the Baptist 

The father of our sul)ject was William Brown 
who was born In England, forty miles from Lon- 
don, and came of a good English family. When 
eighteen or twenty years of age he set out for the 
United .Slates, taking passage from London to New 
York (m a sailing-vessel. He was a poor man and 
after landing he got a satchel filled with trinkets 
and, traveling on foot, sold his wares to pay his 
way until he reached Brown County. Ohio. There 
he began life as a farmer in a small w.ay, in a few 
years taking a helpmate in the person of Miss 
Mary Quinby. This lady was born and reared in 
the Buckeye State under the care of her mother 
and stepfather, her father having died either before 
her birth or soon after. 

After the birth of three children William Brown 
and his wife turned their footsteps westward, com- 
ing to Morgan County, HI., in 1828 or 1829. They 
made a settlement on unbroken land near what is 
now Chapin. In those early days cotton was be- 
ing raised there and Mr. Brown had a horsepower 

cotton-gin, the first of the kind in this part of the 
State, which he ran four seasons. In 1833 the 
famil}' came to Pike County, the father entering 
forty acres of land and being obliged to pay 
tvventy-five per cent, for the money with which to 
secure it. William Brown and his wife spent the 
remainder of their lives in Griggsville, d3ing there 
when fidl of years and lionois. !Mr. Brown 
was eighty-four atid Airs. Brown eighty years old 
when the3' entered into rest. The^' possessed the 
Christian virtues and kindly' spirits which made 
l)ioneer life bearable, and were active in the devel- 
opment of the section in which they lived. Mr. 
Brown was a Deacon forj'cars and always voted the 
Republican ticket. 

Our subject is the eldest of four sons and 
three daughters who lived to j'ears of maturit}'. 
Five of these are still living. Henrj- Brown 
became of age in the county toward whose de- 
velopment he has done his part and which he has 
seen grow from an almost unbroken wilderness 
where wild game abounded to a highly-developed 
section, the home of comfort and civilization. In 
Griggsville Township he was married to Miss Har- 
riet Parks. This lady was born and reared in 
Brown County, Ohio, and was visiting here when 
she made the acquaintance of her future husband. 
She was a woman of intelligence and goodness. 
She died in the prime of life, leaving one child, 
George, who married Mattie Greenough and now 
lives in Brown County, Kan. 

Mr. Brown contracted a second matrimonial al- 
liance in this township, having won for his wife 
Miss Jane Chapman. She was born in the South 
in 1823 and accompanied her father, Edmond 
Chapman, to this State when a young woman. Her 
mother had died at their old home in the prime of 
life. Mr. Chapman located in Newburg Township 
where he operated a farm and also worked at his 
trade, that of a shoemaker. He died when sixty odd 
years old. 

The famil}- of our subject and his piesent wife 
consists of the following children, who have been 
carefully reared under Christian influences and well 
equipped for the battle of life. John C^. married 
Ella Eastman, and tlfeir home is on a farm nnar 
Whiting, Jackson County, Kan.; Mary J. married 



.lohn F. AValkins. a farmer in Grijigsville Township; 

Fanny is the wife of Dr. W. O. Slduner. of Griggs- 

ville ; Alice is tlie wife of Charles Newman, a farmer 

i in Griggsville Town!<liip; Capt. W. inarrie<' Louisa 

' Lewis and operates a farm in Rooks C'oiint3', Kan.; 

I William H. is still at home. 

S\ OL. I)ANIP:L D. hicks. Where but little 
more than half a centiuy since was but a 
y^f^ hamlet, now stands au enterprising and 
prosperous town, the home of a thrift}- and con- 
tenteil people. Pittsfield contains fine public build- 
ings, spacious business houses, busy mills, and many 
elegant residences as well as the tasteful cottages of 
the less wealthy. One of the most beautiful of its 
homes is that of the subject of this sketch, which 
is located on Jefferson Street. The dwelling is a 
commodious frame structure of modern arcliitec- luid handsome design, surrounded by attrac- 
tive lawDS, dotted here and there by beautiful shade 
trees and other adornments. The owner has been 
i leiilified for many years witli the business, civil 
and religious prosperity of the town and is well 
known to its residents as well as to those through- 
out the adjoining country. 

The blood which flows in the veins of our sub- 
ject is that of a patriotic race, members of which 
have taken part in the wars by which America 
^'niiied her independence. His grandfather, Simeon 
lli<-ks, fouglit during the Revolution, nnrl liis fatiier, 
Truman 15. Hiciis, served in the War of 1H12. The 
latter w:is a noted physician in the Empire State, 
was Judge (if Warren C'ountv", and a member of the 
State Legislature two terms. He had married Bar- 
bara Hayes, a native of Clarendon, Vt., who bore 
liim two sons and a daughter. 

The one of whom we write opened his eyes to 
the light of daj' in Sunderland, Vt., August 12, 
1812. and was quite young when the family re- 
moved to New York. A few years later, the mother 
having died, the family returned to the Green 
Jlonntain State, but in 1830, again took up their 
abode in New York. In 1838 a removal was made 
to Pike County. III., and our subject taught in the 

vicinity of Piltslield two years. He then assumed 
a clerkship in Pittsfield. devoting his energies to 
that work until 1842, when he was appointed Dep- 
uty Sheriff by Ephraim Cannon, and served as such 
four years. 

Col. Hicks then became the incumbent of the 
shrievalty, continuing in that position four years, 
near the expiration of which time he was elected 
Tre.asurcr of the county. The onerous duties of that 
position were faithfully discharged for four years, 
!ind during the years fiom 1850-52 he was also en- 
gaged in merchandising. In 1865 Col. Hicks be- 
came clerk and teller in the First National Bank 
and in 1867 was elected Cashier of the institution, 
which position he has held to the present time. He 
is particularly well qualified for the position which 
he holds, and his reputation among the stockhold- 
ers and the other officials is a high one. 

In October, 1842, Mr. Hicks and Miss Mary J. 
Burbridge were joined in holy wedlock. The bride 
was born in Ohio, but at the time of her marriage 
was living in Pike County, this State. .She was a 
daughter of James Burbridge, Esq.. and had been 
reared to Christian womanhood. Siie was a de- 
voted member of the Christian Church, in the faith 
of which she passed away March 30, 1844. She 
left a daughter, Helen M., who died at the age of 
eighteen years. 

The present wife of Mr. Hicks was furmei ly Miss 
Julia Ann Burbridge, she being the daughter of 
Robert Burbridge and a cousin of our subject's 
first wife. The marriage rites were celebrated in 
1844 and have been hlesseii by the birth of five 
daughters and two sous, whose record is as follows: 
Frances is the wife of George Barber; Barbara E. 
married Henry R. Mills, who now lives in Inde- 
pendence, Mo,; Florena E. is the wife of E. P. 
Dow; Emma, deceased, was the wife of Harry Hig- 
bec, a prominent attornej' in Pittsfield; Robert 
T. is assistant Cashier in the bank; Laura married 
Martin S. Frick, now of Independence, Mo.; and 
James W. lives in Pittsfield. 

Both Mr. and Mrs. Hicks are worthy members 
of llie Christian Church in which the former has 
served as Elder several years. The military title 
by which our subject is known conferred upon 
him while he was a resident of New Y'orU. Hebe- 




longed to the One Hundred and vSixty-sixth Regi- 
ment, State militia, served two years as Adjutant 
and two years as Colonel of the regiment, when he 
retired from the militia to come to Illinois. 

•SON G. CHAMBERLAIN, a (lioneer of 
Pike county, is a practical farmer, owning 
and occupying a fine farm which is partly 
,^:^ included within the city limits of Barrj-, 

where he and his family have a pleasant, attractive 
home. He is a native of Ohio, born in AVatertown, 
Washington County, May 1st, 1820. His father, 
John D. Chamberlain, came of good old New Eng- 
land stock and was born in the town of Goshen, 
Hampshire County, M.issachusetts, .September 10, 
1779. He was a son of Asa Chamberlain, who was 
also of Nevv P^ngland birth and was a descendant of 
three brothers who came from England in Colonial 
times. He was a farmer .-md resided in Goshen 
some years and then moved from there to Ohio to 
join his son in Washington County, where he spent 
his last years. 

The father of our subject grew to man's estate 
In his native town, resided there till 1800, and then 
took up the march for what was then considered 
the " far West," starting on foot with all his pos- 
sessions in a knajisack, and in that manner making 
his way across the Slates of New York an(i Penn- 
sylvania, and over the Alleghany Mountains to the 
Northwestern Territory, where he located in what is 
now Washington County, Ohio, becoming one of 
its earliest settlers. He bought a tract of timber 
land within the territory now included in Water- 
town township, and near the first mill ever built in 
Ohio. He erected a log cabin to sliclter himself 
and cleared and prejiared quite a tract of land for 
cultivation. About the year 1836 he bought a 
gristmill. — the first one ever erected in Ohio. The 
dam built for that mill, the first ever built in that 
State, was washed away and our subject has in his 
possession a piece of wood taken from one of the 
ogs of which the dam was composed. Mr. Cham- 
berlain operated the mill some years and continued 
to live in Watertown till within a few years of the 

time of his death, when he made his home with a 
daughter in the adjoining township, where he 
rounded out a useful and honorable life at the ven- 
erable age of ninety years and five months. He 
had lived to see Ohio develop from a wilderness to 
a well settled and wealthy State and had borne his 
part in bringing about the wonderful change. The 
maiden name of the mother of our subject was 
Thirza Grow, and she was a daughter of pioneers 
of Ohio. She died several years before her hus- 
band, who was married a second time. By his first 
marriage the father of our subject had nine chil- 
dren, and by his second marriage two children. 

The subject of this biography passed his boyhood 
and the early years of his manhood in the home of 
his birth. He was a studious and thoughtful lad, 
and made the best of his opportunities to obtain an 
education. He first went to a school taught on the 
subscription plan, and then worked out by the 
month, to obtain money to pay his board while he 
attended the .Slate University at Athens. He pur- 
sued a good course of study there and then utilized 
his knowledge by teaching school, and subsequently 
attended the High School in the town of Chester, 
Meigs County. While a student there he used the 
money which he had earned to pay his tuition and 
he worked for his board. In 1815, concluding that 
the Prairie State held larger opportunities for a 
man of his calibre, he decided to take up his resi- 
dence here, and came hither on a steamer by the 
way of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, disembark- 
ing from the boat at Hubbard's Landing, and from 
thence making his w.ay to Barry. A few days later 
he left this cit}', which was then but a small village, 
and proceeded to Vermont, in Fulton Count}-, and 
the ensuing three 3ears was employed as a teacher 
in that town and in its vicinity. After that he 
returned to Pike County, and deciding to turn his 
attention to agriculture, he bought a tract of tim- 
ber and brush land on section 29, of Harry Town- 
sliip. He at once entered upon the pioneer task of 
developing a farm from the wilderness. He cleared 
about thirty acres, ami lived on that [jlace till the 
fall of 1853. 

After a residence of a few 3ears in Barry, our 
subject bought the farm where he now resides, a 
part of which is included in the corporate limits of 








Barry. He lias placed tbe land under good tillage, erected a neat set of frame buildings and has 
here a well-improved farm. Forlvfour yean ago 
Mr. Chan.lierlain and ^liss Glaphyra Gard were 
united in a marriage that has proved one of felicity 
and happiness. To them have come four sons, K. 
.1., .1. I).. E. M. and L. A. Mrs. Chamberlain is a 
native of Washington county, Ohio, and a daughter 
of Michael Gard. 

Besides carrying on his farming interests, our 
subject has been engaged as a surveyor many years. 
He was elected County Survcj'or in 1853, and 
served eight j'ears. The gentleman who was elected 
to succeed him failing to c(ualify, Mr. Chamberlain 
continued to act as Surveyor, and in fact has done 
more or less surveying each year. He is a good 
practical surveyor, an adept in the profession, and 
that he has been called upon so much to practice 
it shows that his work is appreciated. He is an 
unostentatious, reserved man, possesses a well- 
trained mind and sound judgment, and the integ- 
rity of his character has never been questioned. 
He is a man of broad views and in his religious 
faith is a I'niversalist. In politics he was in early 
life a Whig, as was his father before him. But 
since the formation C)f the Republican part}' he has 
been its stanch adherent. 

cognomen has liecome a sj-nonym through- 
out Pike County for uprightness of char- 
acter, usefulness of habits, and intelligence of mind. 
It is borne by a gentleman who has lived in Perry 
Townsiiip since 1833, has been one of its leading 
citizens, and although now quite aged, is still a use- 
ful member of the community. He has lived to 
see the county develop fiom an almost unl)roken 
wilderness to a productive agricultural district, 
whose crops are among the best, and whose citizens 
are intelligent and progressive. Capt. Matthews 
now lives a retired life on his pleasant farm near 
Perry, surrounded by the comforts suited to his 
declining years, and blessed by the esteem of a 
large circle of ac(]uaintances. llis home farm com- 

prises two hundred acres of fertile and well-devel- 
oped land, from which he has made his own fortune 
as a general farmer and stock-raiser. Ho also owns 
land in Missouri, from which he derives a satisfac- 
tor}' income. 

Capt. Matthews was born in Roanoke (Jount^-, 
N. C, December 15, 180C. In 1818 he accompa- 
nied his parents from his native State to Illinois, liv- 
ing in Ga latin and White Counties until 1825. 
The\' then came to Pike Count}', making their first 
home in Flint Township, where our subject became 
of age. He was well reared by careful parents, 
and being naturally bright, obtained a practical 
education, although his opportunities were limited 
to tbe "brush schoolhouse." Having determined 
to adopt the life of a farmer, his first property was 
entered in Perry Township, near that upon which 
he now lives, and he devoted himself with zeal to 
the development of his land, and the perfecting of 
his crops. While building u|) his own fortunes he 
has done all he could for the county, taking a part 
in every movement which promised to advance 
the material prosperity of the citizens, or elevate 
the standard of intelligence and moralit}'. 

In 1862_C'apt. Matthews and his son, A. C, an- 
swered the second call for volunteers, and earh 
raised a company for the Ninetj'-ninth Illinois In- 
fantrj'. Our subject became the commander of 
Company B, and under the lead of the gallant Col. 
Bailey went to Missouri, where early in 1863 he 
took part in the battle of Ilarlsville. For some 
time following, the regiment was retained in Mis- 
souri to guard the approach to Rolla. Some six 
mouths after entering the service, Capt. Matthews 
became afflicted with rheumatism, from which he 
suffered until he was obliged to be discharged on 
account of disability. Disappointed in his aim to 
expend his physical energy in the front, the valiant 
Captain returned to his home to assist in niore 
peaceful ways in carrying on the war. 

The first Presidential ballot cast by the Captain 
was for Henry Clay. It was followed by votes for 
Harrison in 1836 and 1840, by a second for his 
'■first love" in 1844, after which his favorites were 
Taylor, Scott, Fremont and Lincoln in the re- 
spective campaigns up to the outlireak of the war, 
since which time he has continued his allegiance to 



the Republican pai'ty. Mr. Matthews is a sound 
member of the Methodist Episcopal C'liurch, in 
wiiicli he now holds the office of Steward. Me lias 
been delegate to two Annual Conferences, and was 
Class-Leader during a long i)eriod. He has served 
five terms as Supervisor of Feiry Township, and in 
other minor offices lias done the best he could for 
his constituents. 

The first marriage of Capt. Matthews was cele- 
brated in Flint Tovvnslii|). his Lride being Miss Mi- 
nerva Carrington, daughter of Asa and Lucinda 
(Oalhraitli) Carrington. When she was quite small, 
Miss Carrington lost lier father, and she afterward 
accompanied her mother Korth, their lionie being 
made in Pike County. Here a common-school edu- 
cation was obtained by the young lady, who grew 
to a noble womanhood. She died in 1841, wlien 
but thirty years old, having been born in Mt. Stc- 
ling, Ky., in 1811. Siie left five children, three of 
whom are now deceased: Joseph married Miss Kate 
Whittaker, and died leaving one child; Lou be- 
came the wife of Dr. Harvey Dunn, now of Perry, 
and died leaving no children; Benjamin died when 
two years of age; Martlia, now the widow of .loUn 
McCartney, makes her home with her father, and 
is his housekeeper; A. C, the eldest son, is now 
First Comptroller of the United States Treasury, 
under Secretary Windora, having been appointed 
by President Harrison in March, 18'J0. This gen- 
tleman had serveil Pike County as Judge, and had 
been a member of the State Legislature several 
terms, being Speaker of the House when appointed 
to his present Government office. After entering 
the army as commander of Company C, Ninety- 
ninth Illinois Infantry, he fought until the close of 
the war, being promoted to the Colonelcy of his 
regiment some time prior to the firing of the last 
gun. Col. Matthews was then sent out to the 
Northwestern fi'ontier to quiet some of the Indian 
tribes that were creating disturbances there. 

Our subject won for his second wife Mrs. Sarah 
A. Wattles nee Dean, who died in 18C1, leaving 
two children: Hattie, wife of Robert A. Cheno- 
v.'cth, of Clinton County, Mo.; and Mary, wife of 
S. D. Fagon, of the same county. Mrs. Sarah Mat- 
thews was born in Litchfield, Conn., and when a 
young woman accompanied her [larcnts to Pike 

County, 111. Here she married Charles Wattles, 
subsequently returning to her native State, where 
her husband died. The widow returned to this 
State, and in Pike Count}' contracted her second 
matrimonial alliance. 

The third wife of Capt. Matthews was Miss Mary 
Layton, with whom he was united in Perry Town- 
ship. She was born and reared in the Keystone 
State, coming West after she had attained to woman- 
hood. She i)assed away November 28, 1888, when 
about fiftj^-seven years of age. She left one child, 
Anna, wife of Alexander Gregory, a telegraph op- 
erator whose home is at Centralia, Mo. The three 
estimable women who at various times presided 
over the home of Capt. Matthews, faithfuUj- dis- 
charged their duties as wives and mothers, and all 
were consistent members of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church. 

Ca[)t. Matthews is descended from two of the 
leading families of Cork, Ireland. His grandpar- 
ents were born there, pnd emigrated to America, 
settling in Virginia, where they subsequently died. 
In Rockingham County tlieir son John B. was born, 
and s[ient his boyhood and youth. He became of 
age in North Carolina, and there married Margaret 
Leach. For a year the nevvly wedded couple lived 
on a farm there, then removed to Hopkinsville, 
Ky., on Pound River, where they made their home 
until 1818. The3' then crossed the Ohio at Shaw- 
neetovin, and established themselves at Carmine, 
the county seat of White County, III. This was 
the j'ear the State was admitted to the Union, and 
Mr. and Mrs. Matthews were among the earl}- set- 
tlers in White County. 

After having made considerable improvement on 
their land, Mr. and Mrs. Matthews crossed the Illi- 
nois River at Phillip's Ferry, in the spring of 1825, 
and settled in Flint Township, Pike County. This 
was then a rough, wild section, roved over by In- 
dians in large numbers and abounding in wil'd game 
of the Mississippi Valley. After sojourning tliere 
a year, the Matthews family located on an unbroken 
tract in the northeastern part of Griggsville Town- 
sliip, where they made a good home. In 1832 the 
parents made their final home in Perry Township, 
where the wife and mother died in the spring of 
1850, when sixtj-six years old. The iiusband and fa- 



ther survived Lier some years, still making his home 
in Perry Township, but (I\'ing at the home of a 
daughter, Mrs. Stucker, whom he was visiting near 
Lancaster, Mo. His demise took place in the fall 
of 185C, he being then in the eighty-fourth year of 
hi.s age. 3Ir. Matthews was reared the teach- 
ings of the Presb^'terian faith, but lie and liis wife 
were members of the Methodist Episcopal Cliuich 
during the greater part of theii' lives. "Mr. Mat- 
thews belonged to the old-line Whig |)art}'. He 
was a stanch and -worthy citizen, [)romulgating the 
true [irinciples of manhood. 

Capt. Matthews is the eldest in a family of ten, 
his living brothers am) sisters being Robert, a 
farmer in Madison County, Iowa; Austin, District 
Clerk in Jefferson County, Neb.; Albert, a farmer 
in Montgomerj' County, 111.; Mrs. Clarissa Wilkin- 
son, of Winterset, Iowa; and Mrs. Alvira Tucker, 
of Albia, Iowa. 

On another page the reader will notice a litho- 
graphic portrait of the Captain, whose honorable 
life and upright career will be remembered long 
after he has passed hence. 

.,ILLIAM GUSS. Perhaps no resident in 
.' Barry Township, Pike Count}-, is better 

yj deserving of representation in a volume 
of this nature than William Guss. He is a splen- 
did example of the self-made man, having a well- 
informed mind, friendly manners and the sterling 
habits by means of which he has accumulated a 
handsome property. He was born near Landes- 
burg. Perry County, Pa., August 2, 1811. His 
grandfather is believed to have been born in Ger- 
many and his home for many j-ears was in Chester 
County, Pa. There Simon Guss, the father of our 
subject, was born and reared, learning the trade of 
a shoemaker. 

After his marriage to Barbara Knarr, the daugh- 
ter of a Chester County farmer who had been born 
in Germany, Simon Guss removed to the town in 
which our subject was born. Af^er following bis 
trade there for some years he changed his resi- 
dence to Juniata County, where he died at the 

age of forty-fire years. His wife survived him for 
same years, she also entering into rest in Juniata 
County. She reared ten children, nine sons and 
one daughter, of whom our subj'^ct is the youngest 
and the onl^- one now living. He was eight 3'ear8 
old when he bade adieu to his native county, and 
from that time until after he had entered his teens 
Juniata County- was his home. When fourteen 
years old he began boating on the Union and 
Sehuykill Canal, continuing to so employ himself 
twelve summers, during the winter being gener- 
ally engaged in teaming. 

Our subject finally purchased a small tract of 
land in Juniata County, which was capable of 
sustaining a family only by hard work, as the soil 
was poor. Believing that he could do better by 
going West, Mr. Guss sold his land for 8800, 
one-half cash and the rest in four years, without 
interest, and in Maj', 1848, started with a team 
toward Illinois. At Pittsburg he emb.Trked, team 
and all on a boat, thence following the Ohio and 
Mississippi Rivers, and flnall}' landing in Pike 
County. The same year he bought eighty acres of 
land on section 4, Barry Township, upon which 
there was a log house and frame barn. The re- 
sults proved the correctness of Mr. Guss' opinions, 
as he has from time to time been able to purchase 
other land, and is now one of the most wealthy 
and sidjstantial citizens of the county. He owns 
four hundred acres in one body in Barry Town- 
ship, and has erected thereon a com|)lete line of 
fine buildings, including a brick house, frame barns 
and other adequate outlniildings. 

Mr. Guss been twice married. His first wife 
was Mary Foltz, a native of Millford Township, 
Juniata County, Pa. She died in that county 
in April, 1837, leaving two children — Eliza- 
beth A. and Benjamin F. The present wife of 
our subject bore the maiden name of Eliza AVike. 
She was born in Stark County, Ohio, and possesses 
many sterling qualities of character, together with 
much useful knowledge. She has become the 
mother of seven cliildren — David P., Alfred, Will- 
iam W., Henrietta, Mary, George S. and Eliza 
B. Both Mr. and Mrs. Guss believe in the doc- 
trine of universal salvation. Mr. (iuss cast his 
first Presidential ballot for Gen. Andrew Jackson, 




xind has been a stanch Democrat from that day to 
the present. He is an excellent citizen, reliable, 
steady-going and law-abiding, and is looked upon 
with respect by a large circle of acquaintances. 

Christopher Wike, grandfatlier of Mrs. Guss, 
was born in Switzerland, and when but a boy left 
the parental roof and came to America. Landing 
in Pennsylvania, lie learned the trade of a l)lack- 
sraitii in Lancaster Cit}', and aftej- his marriage to 
Susannah Bear, a native of that place, removed to 
Cumberland County. He followed !iis trade, tlien 
purcliased a good farm on the Big Spring and 
spent his last yeais tliere. His son, George, father 
of Mrs. Guss, was born in Cumberland County, 
learned the blacksmith's trade of his father and 
also learned that of a weaver. After his marriage 
he removed to Ohio, settling in Stark County on 
land given him by his father-in-law. After sojourn- 
ing thereon a few years he returned to his father's 
homestead, which he had inherited, and died there 
when forlj-four years ol(L The maiden name of 
the mother of Mrs. Guss was Mary Essig. She 
was born in Pennsjdvania, in which State her 
father, Simon Essig, also opened his eyes to the 
light; he was of Gei-raan ancestry. Some years 
since she came to Illinois, and died at the home of 
her daughter in her eightieth 3'ear. 


W;ILLIAM B. WILLSEY, who has a fine 
farm and a beautiful residence in Martins- 
burg Township on the outskirts of the 
village of.Sumraer Hill, is prominent among the ac- 
tive 3'oung farmers of Pike County, of which he is 
a native. He was born in December, 1860, and is 
a son of Harrison Willsey, a well-known resident 
of Martinsburg Township. 

The grandfather of our subject was John Will- 
sey and was a native of New York. He was a 
farmer by occupation and came to this State in 
1855, settling on a farm in this county. He died at 
the age of sevent}' years. Religiously, he was a mem- 
ber of the Christian Church, to wliich faith he was 
always true, and in political affairs voted tiie Dem- 
ocratic ticket. His son, Harrison, the father of our 

subject was likev\ise a native of the Empire State, 
where he passed his early life and whence he came 
to Pike County, III., by rail when about twenty 
years of age. He settled in Pittsfield Township, 
where he farmed on rented land. Finally he pur- 
chased land in Martinsburg Township, which ho 
has converted into a good farm I13' constant and 
well-diiected labor and which he still makes his 
home. In his political views he is a sound Rei)uh- 

Catherine Warlej' was the maiden name of our 
subject's mother and slie was born in Indiana. A 
kind and thoughtful lady, she is also a consistent 
Christian and has for many years been a member 
of the Christian Church. She is the mother of 
five children, all of whom are living, namely: Marj' 
(Mrs. Miller), William B., George E., Melissa (Mrs. 
Miller;, and Samuel J. The maternal grandfather 
of our subject was known as ''Uncle Billy Warlej^" 
and was a native of Indiana, coming to Pike 
County at a ver}' early da3'. He was one of the 
first settlers in this part of the State and aided in 
its pioneer development. Ho was quite a hunter 
and many a deer was brought down by his unerring 
rifle. He lived to be a ver3' old man, dying when 
about ninety years of age. In politics he was an 
Old Line Whig until the formation of the Repub- 
lican part3', when he joined its ranks. 

William Willsey, of this sketch, was reared in 
Pike County by his uncle, George Stephens. He 
obtained his education in the district schools, which 
were then furnished with the old-fasiiioned punch- 
eon benches. He attended school tluring the win- 
ter and worked on the farm in the summer, thus 
gaining a sound practical knowledge of farming 
in all its branches. Upon reaching years of matu- 
rity he started out in life for himself by working 
out b3' the month for $25 per month, continuing 
thus engaged for five months. He then rented a 
j)iece of land for two3'earsand later rented another 
place in the same township. He did well in his 
efforts and finally was enabled to purchase land of 
his own and bought his present farm of ninety 
acres in February, 1889. His removal here was 
effected on the first day of the following March, 
since which time lie has been actively engaged 
in developing the jilaee. He farms quite extcn- 



sively and also raises some stock. His estate is 
embellished by a beautiful home, the residence be- 
ing a fine two-stoiy frame house, conveniently ar- 
ranged and tastefully furnished, and he has also 
erected a small frame barn and otherwise increased 
the value of the |ilace. He is a j'oung man of un- 
usual activity and force of character and is fast 
making his way toward an assured success in his 
noble calling'. lie is a consistent member of the 
Christian Church, and politically is a stalwart Re- 

Mr. AVilsey was married in March. 1885, to 
Mary E. McClintock. She was born in Pike 
County in 1860 and died in Jul^', 1887, leaving 
one child named Lloyd S. Mi-. Willsey contracted 
asecond matrimonial alliance in Marcli, 1888, when 
Miss Mary E. Grable became his wife. Mrs. Willsey 
is a native of Pike County and was born in Atlas 
Townsliip in 1865. She is a member of the Con- 
gregational Church and a most estimable woman, 
active in all good work. 

LOCUM SOUTH WORTH, M, D. is a fCen- 
lau of high professional and social stand- 
; in Calhoun County. He is a well-known 
liysiciau of Hamburg where he enjojs an 
extensive [jractice, and where he has vaUuUile farm- 
ing interests and one of the pleasantest of homes. 
He is a native of Genesee Count}-, N. Y., where he 
was boin February 25, 1827, to Wheaton and Mar- 
tha (Gifford) Southworth. natives of New England. 
His paternal ancestors are said to have been of Irish 
lineage and his grand fatlier Gifford was a Revolu- 
tionary soldier. His parents moved to Genesee 
County at an early da}- of its settlement, probably 
about 1801 or 1805 and were pioneers of that i)art 
of New York. The Doctor was the fifth son of 
the family and was reared to farming in his native 
county. He attended the village school at Bergen 
and there laid the solid foundation of a good educa- 
tion. At the age of eighteen years he began the study 
of medicine under the instruction of Dr. Samuel 
Bleason,of Bergen and studied with him some five 

years, pursuing a thorough course in the Eclectic 
system ; he subsequentl}- attended the Eclectic Medi- 
cal College at Rochester, N. J., and when he estab- 
lished himself in practice was well equiijped for his 
profession. He first entered upon its duties in Cal- 
ifornia, whither he went in 1852, going by water 
from New York City by the way of the Isthmus of 
Panama, landing at San Francisco. Cal.. after a voy- 
age of one month and three days. The first six 
uionths that he passed in the Golden State, he was 
engaged in gold mining and the ensuing three years 
practiced medicine. 

Three years and a half were spent in California 
before bis return to his native State bj- the Nicar- 
augua route. He opened an office at Bergen, Gen- 
essee County, N. Y., and passed over a year in that 
town. In the spring of 1857 the Doctor came to 
Illinois, as he shrewdly perceived that in this more 
newly settled State, an ambitious, energetic physi- 
cian would find a larger sphere of usefulness than 
in the older States. After spending a year at 
Lightsville, Ogle County, he came to this county, 
and for several years lived within a short distance 
of the village of Hamburg. He took up his abode 
where he now resides on section 10, Hamburg Pre- 
cinct in 1 864. He had already established a good rep- 
utation for skill and success in the treatment of the 
various cases that came under his care, and his prac- 
tice constantly increased from year to year untd it 
reached its present proportions. 

Besides attending to his professional duties, the 
Doctor has found time to improve a good farm, 
which when he settled on it was but little cleared. 
Under his supervision it has been finely developed, 
is well-tilled, and its tw-o hundred acres of land 
yield rich liarvests and constitute one of the best 
farms in all the precinct. The Doctor having 
taken such an active part in promoting the agricul- 
ture of the county may well be considei-edone of its • 
pioneers, and we always find him generously aiding 
any movement that in any way tends to promote the 
welfare of the precinct or the count}-. He is well- 
known for his sterling integrity in business trans- 
actions, and he and his wife are active in society 
matters and are highly esteemed by all who have 
the pleasure of their acquaintance. The Doctor is 
soundly Democratic in his political views. He has 



served as School Treasurer of Hamburg Precinct 
for a number of years and has been potent in the 
introduction of its present educational system. 

Our subject married for his first wife Eliza J. 
Blacliorby, by whom he had one child, Altheda, who' 
is deceased. The maiden name of his second wife 
was Mary A. Blackoiby, and she bore him one child, 
Bergen, wlio is now deceased. For his third wife 
he married Martha E. Blackorby. 

^.■^^ ; ; s 1 ^ — ^ ^fe=^^ 

;ILLIAM V. BUCHANAN, a veteran of 
the late war, is a native-born citizen of 
Pii<e Count}', and a son of one of its oldest 
settlers. He is now actively assisting in carrying 
on its great farming interests, owning and operat- 
ing a farm in Spring Creelt Township. He was 
born in Pleasant Hill Township, January 7, 1840. 
His father, Austin O. Buelianan.was born and reared 
in Allen Count}', Ky. 

The paternal grandfather, John Buchanan, was 
a native presumably of Bourbon County, Va., 
and an early jjioneer of Kentucky, settling near 
Scottsville, and there carrying on operations as 
a farmer and miller. He went from that State 
to Ray County, Mo., in the year 1^25, but sub- 
sequently removed to Tenr.essee, and in the fall 
of 1832 came to Illinois. Locating near the bound- 
ary lines between Pike and Calhoun Counties on 
the Mississippi River bottom, he there dwelt until 
his death two years later. He was the father of 
the following children — Nancy, John R., James, 
Henry P., Stanton, Austin O., Valentine A., and 
Sallie. Stanton died in infancj'. The paternal 
gi cat-grandfather of our subject came from Scot- 

The father of our subject was born December 
28, 1810, in an humble pioneer home in Kentucky. 
After attaining manhood he married Sarah W. 
Roachell. For some time he was eng.aged in rafting 
on the liver in winter and farming in the summer. 
He wa? one of the pioneers of this county, and 
lives in Spiing Creek Townshij) at a ripe old age, 
respected by all who know him. His wife, who 
was born in South Carolina, was a daughter of 

Nathaniel Roachell. The latter had a famil}' includ- 
ing two sons and four daughters, and was a con- 
sistent member of the Baptist Church. He died 
December 23, 1860, in Spring Creek Township, 
Pike County. 

The parental family included the following chil- 
dren: William V., our subject; Nancy A., Richard 
Whilworth, Sarah F. (Mrs. A. W. McConnell), 
John S., Mary Ann, wife of James Gunterman; 
and Elvira, Mrs. Edward Looper. The subject 
of this notice was reared on a farm with the ex- 
ception of tiiree years spent in Tennessee. He 
has always lived in Pike and Calhoun Counties, 
and received a common-school education. The 
self-reliant lad was early put to work, as the 
father was poor and the children had to help to 
maintain the family. He began plowing when 
only seven years of age and continued to assist 
his father until his marriage, October 3, 18(52, to 
Nancy Jane Sidwell, a daughter of John and Sarah 
Sidwell, of Calhoun County, 111. 

The happy and contented wedded life of our 
subject and his wife has been blessed to them by 
the birth of nine children, namely: Alexander 
M., who is married and lives in California; 
Charles E. ; Sarah A., who died at the age of ten 
years; Ella A.; Francis L. died at the age of two 
years; Olive M., wife of Joseph Scranton; Otis 
A., John O. and Lester A. Our subject and his 
wife are among the most esteemed members of the 
Christian Church, to which their eldest son and 
two of their daughters also belong. They are 
ever active in an}' good work for the social and 
religious elevation of the townsliip. 

Mr. Buchanan has served as Road Commissioner 
and School Trustee, and lie is a member of the 
Grand Army of the Republic. In [lolitics he 
votes with the Democrats. His service in the 
army began in the month of February, 18Go. when 
he enlisted in Company I, One Hundred and For- 
ty-eighth Illinois Infantry. He was in the service 
several raontlis, displaying courage and capability 
as a soldier, whose fidelity could be depended 
upon in any emergency. He was honorably dis- 
( chari;ed September 5, 1865, when he returned to 
Jjjs home and quietly resumed his old vocation. 

After their marriage Mr, Buchanan and his es- 



timable wife locaterl'on a farm helonginuf to liis 
fatlier-in-la-.v. but after his return fiom tlie army 
he bouglit one hunilrerl and sixty acres of iaiul on 
section 25, Spring C'reeiv Township. Two ^'c.irs hiter 
he disposed of tliat and bought anotiier quarter on 
section 36. In 1870, selling that st a good advan- 
tage, he pureliased sevent3'-tw() acres in Calhoun 
County, where he 'resided until 1879. In that 
^ year he returned to Pike County, and bought one 
hundred and twenty acres on section 35, Spring- 
Creek Towiisliip. lie has since added to his orig- 
inal purchase anrl now owns two hundred acres of 
rich and pr.wluctive land, one liundred and tliirty- 
five of which are under good cultivation. 



UTSON ^MARTIN, a prominent and influen- 
tial member of the agricultural community 
of Pike County, is located on section 27, 
Derr}' Township. His estate consists of two 
hundred and eigiity acres, well supplied with sub 
stantial and commodious farm buildings, and car- 
ried on according to the best methods of the 
modern agriculturists. In past years ;Mr. Martin 
has done much of the physical work which has 
brought the land to its present fine condition of 
tillage and improvement, but he now rents it, busy- 
ing himself only in management. 

Mr. Martin is a native of this State, born in Ver- 
milion County, January 16, 1832. He lived in bis 
native county until lie was fourteen years old, .at- 
tending the subscription schools in a log building 
with an open fireplace, greased paper windows, slab 
benches and a writing desk beside the wall und(T 
the windows. He came to Pike County with his 
mother in 1846, wlien deer and other game was still 
to be found here and much of the land was yet 
undeveloped. He has cleared over one liundred 
acres of heavj' timber. 

Mr. Martin was married when but twenty years 
old and began life for himself, renting land for a 
time, but ere long buying sixty acres on section 34. 
From time to time as his means would admit, he 
added to his landed estate and increased the extent 
of his farming operations. He has raised consid- 

erable stock, keeping all kinds, though lie has per- 
haps made the most money from swine, llis work 
in life has been carried on in a siiirit of enterprise 
and he has ever been ready to learn from observa- 
tion, reading, or converse with others of his call- 
ing, ways in which he could advance more rapidly 
and r, ap better and larger crops. 

The marri.age rites between Mr. Martin and Miss 
Lydia A. Chamberlain were solemnized at the 
bride's home July 31. 1851. Mrs. Martin was born 
in Ohio but came hither with her parents, Aaron 
and Rachael Chamberlain in 1835, when only six 
months old. She born September 16, 1834. 
She is devoted to the interests of her husband and 
family and knows well how to m.ake her home com- 
fortable and .attractive. Mr. and Mrs. Martin have 
had seven children, namel3': Isaiah B., now de- 
ceased: William A., Gilbert N., Mrs. Mary J. Tay- 
lor, Mrs. Delia R. Adams, Lydia A., and Flora, the 
last named having died at the .age of six j-ears. 

It is doubtful if the entire Prairie Slate contains 
a man who is more firmly cfinvinced of the worth 
of Republican doctrines or more steadfast in devo- 
tion to his principles than Ilutson Martin. During 
the war his life was threatened by Southern sym- 
pathizers on account of his stanch sujiport of the 
Union, but those who drew revolvers on him then, 
learned to respect him for his firmness on the side 
of what he thought was right. He is a member of 
the Masonic Lodge. No. 388, at El Dara. He was 
reared by a Christian mother and although not 
identified with any religious body, is moral and 
upright, receiving the respect of his acquaintances. 

AVilliani Martin, tlie father of our subject, was 
born in the Buckeye State in 1808, reared there and 
in Indiana, and adopted the occupation of a farmer. 
He was married in Kii)ley County. Ind., to Sarah 
F. Weatherby, who was born in Chautauqua County, 
N. Y., in 1813. Soon after their marriage the 
young couple came to this State, making their home 
in Vermilion County, where ilr. Martin owned one 
hundred and sixty acres of land. He was a man 
of great physical and mental energj' and a hard 
worker, lie died in 1838, at the earl^' age of thirty 
years, but his wife survived until 1889, dying in 
Adams County, .State of Washington, whither she 
had gone in 1888 with a son. Mr. Martin was a 



Democrat in polities. Mrs. Martin lielonged to the 
Cliristian Church for thirtj' years. Their family 
consisted of six oliihlien, named respectively: Ma- 
tilda, Oliver, Hutson, Tarbol W., Henry R., and 

The paternal grandfather of our subject, for 
whom he «as named, was born in Virginia in 1783. 
He went to Ohio in a ver}" earl3' day, crossing the 
mountains with pack horses. He served in the 
War of 1812 as a substitute and received forty 
acres of land in return for liis services. This was 
in Ripley County, Ind., whither he moved, farming 
there and working at the carpenter's trade. Still 
later he came to Vermilion County, 111., and after 
sojourning there about thirty years, removed to 
Oregon near Vancouver. He died there during 
the Civil War at the age of about four-.=core. He 
was a very energetic man, and therefore prospered, 
becoming a large landowner. He used to haul 
wheat from Danville, 111., to Chicago, for seventy- 
live cents per bushel. In politics he was a Demo- 
crat and he and his wife belonged to tiie Baptist 
Church. They reared a large family, comprising 
six sons and four daughters. Grandmother Martin 
also lived to be quite aged. 

the native-born citizens of Calhoun County 
none are more deserving of representation 
in a work of this nature than Mrs. Smith, 
vrhose birthi)lace was in Belleview Precinct. Her 
fatlier, it is thought was a native of Missouri. His 
father, John Howell, was a Virginian, residino- in 
the earlier part of his life near Richmond. He was 
there married, and removed to Missouri at an early 
d.'y in the settlement of that Territory, corainsr 
from there to what is now Calhoun Count}', in the 
'20s. He located in what is now Belleview Pre- 
cinct, and on the line of Pikf County, being one of 
the pioneers of that section of country. He bought 
a "squatter's" claim, and entered a tract of Govern- 
ment land which he cleared and improved into a 
f.irm. Although residing on several different 

places, he remained in tlie same precinct until his 
death at eighty-eigiit years of age. 

William Howell, the father of Mrs. Smith, came 
to Calhoun County when a young man, but re- 
turned to Missouri for a wife, being married in 
Cape Girardeau County, to Elizabeth Bailey, a na- 
tive of that State. Coming again to Illinois, he 
bought a tract of land in Belleview Precinct which 
was part prairie and part timber, and built the log 
house in which our subject was born. He engaged 
in the mercantile business keeping a general store 
for a few years, then resumed farming, and re- 
mained a resident of the same precinct until his 
death which occurred in 1852. His wife, the mother 
of our subject, died in 1845. Mrs. Smith was the 
eldest of their family of six children, the others, be- 
ing — Julia Ann, Lovina Caroline, John, William 
H. H., and Mary Ann. Of these Mrs. Smith, Caro- 
line, and Mary are all that survive. 

In those early days the cooking was all done at 
the open fireplace, and the mother of the household 
S|)un and wove the material for the clothes of her 
family. There were no outside amusements, and 
but scant tidings of the doings of the busy world 
reached the cabins of the pioneers, but as a com- 
pensation tliP}' were not troubled about the changes 
in fashion, or the isms and ologies which now vex 
the spirits of their descendants. 

I'pon being weaned from her mother's l)reast, 
Mrs. Smith, who was a mere infant, was taken by 
her paternal grandparents with whom she remained 
until her marriage, at the age of sixteen >-ears, to 
Wallace Joslyn. Mr. Josyln was the son of John 
P. and Sarah Joslyn, whu were pioneers of Calhoun 
Count}', where he was rea)ed on a farm. Afierhis 
marriage he went to Missouri, and soon returned 
and settled u|)on land which had been given his 
wife by her grandfather. In 1852 Mr. Joslyn fol- 
lowed the tide of emigration which was flowing to- 
ward the gold fields of California, taking a drove of 
cattle across the plains. In that jjeriod of rough 
and dangerous travel, many a man was lost sight of 
forever, and such luoved to be the case with Mr. 
Josl}-n, who never returned from his perilous jour- 

In 1859 tlie subject of this sketch was married to 
Augustus Smith. Mr. Smith was born in Hardin 

^^^c^^ (]/ lUi. 



Precinct, Callioun CounU'. in 1828, and was the 
srventli son of Ebenezer and Pollie Smith, who 
were among the early settlers here. He inherited 
tlie home farm and spent his entire life here, pass- 
injj; awaj' iu Febrnary 1888. He was an industri- 
ous thrifty man, who was higlily respected by all 
who knevv him. The farm vvliieh Mrs. Sraitii still 
occupies and manages with mucli skill, comprises 
one hundred and forty acres of good land well-im- 
jjroved. Mrs. Smitli is a member of the Methodist 
Episco|jal Church, as was her husband. 

By lier first marriage, j\Irs. .Smith became the 
niotlier of two children, one living : Sarah Elizabeth, 
the wife of C. W. Squier, wliose sketch appears else- 
where in this volume. Mr. Smith was also twice 
married, one soi\ Andrew J., being the result of his 
first marriage. lie married Mrs. Sophronia Naren, 
and died in Bachtown in 1882. 

County has its fair share of skillful and 

■educated professional men, but none more 
thoroughly versed than Dr. Rohning of Brussels. 
Tiie profession wliich he chose is one in which 
several of liis ancestors won renown and he has in- 
herited the scientific tastes and practical skill which, 
backed by thorough scliooling, have led to liis own 
high standing. Among tlie people of Brussels and 
vicinity lie is exceedingly popular and no medical 
man in this section is more iiiglily spoken of on all 
sides. We invite the attention of the reader to his 
portrait on tlie ojiposite page. 

In glancing over the ancestral history of Dr. 
Rohning's family we find Heinrieh Rolining, who 
was born in Berlin, was graduated from a medical 
college in Paris and located for practice in Got- 
tingen, German}'. This city was the birthplace of 
the next three generations of tlie family. Follow- 
ing Heinrieh was Samuel who was graduated from 
the King's I'niversitj' at Berlin when twenty-five 
years old and practiced medicine in his native place, 
during tlie remainder of his life. The next in the 
diiect line was Joseph who, after studying with his 
fathii-. was graduated from the same college at the 

age of twenty-three years. He also returned to 
Gottingen to practice and is still living there, hav- 
ing now reached the age of one hundred and two 
years. Joseph Rohning married Ernestina Freund- 
lich, a native of the same city as himself, who vvas 
removed by death in 1847. Tliey reared two chil- 
dren, Gottlieb and Charles C, the elder of whom 
now lives in Zellc, Hanover, [uacticing the profes- 
sion whicli seems liereditary in the family. This 
Dr. Rohning was graduated from the Hanover 
Medical College in Gottingen, also the King's Uni- 

Dr. C. C. Rohning of wliom we write, was born 
in Gottingen, in tiie Kingdom of Hanover, Ger- 
many, March 8, 1843. He received his classical 
education in tlie famous schools of his niitivc city, 
and began tlie study of medicine with his father 
when but fifteen years old. Three years later he 
entered the King's University at Berlin, from 
wliicli he was graduated in his twenty-second year. 
His fatiier has been Regimental Surgeon upwards 
of fortj' years and during the war between Austria 
and Prussia in 1866, our subject accompanied him 
to the front as Assistant Surgeon. 

On the 12th of October, 1869, Dr. Rohning set 
sail from Hamburg with the intention of founding 
a liome in tlie United States. He landed at Castle 
(larden, N. Y., October 26, and at once located in 
St. Louis, Mo. After practicing in that city seven 
years he removed to Kansas City wherein he so- 
journed five years, then went to Orange County, 
Tex. In 1887 by tiie express wisli of the people of 
Brussels lie came here to practice, and aitiiough his 
field of labor is not perhaps as grand a one as lifc 
would have in a metropolis, he is doing great good 
and securing llie admiration and love of the people. 
Tlie marriage of Dr. Rohning and Miss Dora 
Rolining, a native of Hermann, Mo., was solemnized 
at the bride's home January 26, 1882. Her parents. 
Christian and Lizzie Rohning, were b(ini in 
Luckau, Hanover, and died in Missouri. Doctor 
and Mrs. Rohning belong to the Evangelical Luth- 
eran Church at Brussels. Mrs. Rohning is an 
intelligent, amiable woman, thoroughly versed in 
the housewifely arts for which the women of her 
race are noted, and imbued with a kindly benevo- 
lent spirit that makes her useful wherever woman's 



sympatiiy is neederl. Dr. Rolininglis de-*cenflcrl 
from a long-lived race. His piternal graiiilfatlicr 
lived to the age of one hundred and seven j-oars 
and tbe wife of that gentleman, formerly Henrietta 
Saehs. died when one hundred and four years old. 
at which age she could thread a needle without the 
use of glasses. 


*tT|U^ENRY B. ATKINSON. Perhaps no resi- 
Y dent in New Canlon. Pike County, has been 
more closely identified with the business 

(^ life of that 'hriving town during the past 
few years than the gentleman above-named. He is 
a druggist, and also engaged in the sale of grocer- 
ies and hardware, and brings lo bear upon his busi- 
ness affairs the experience gained in mercantile 
pursuits during former years, and the keen tact and 
acumen v^iiich are his by inheritance. His business 
establisiiinents are taslefull}' arranged, well stocked 
with carefully-selected goods, and conducted ac- 
cording to the most honorable and enterprising 
methods. The proprietor is therefore carrying on 
a successful trade in the various departments, and 
securing an increase in patronage from 3'car to 

Before briefly noting the life histor}- of Mr. At- 
kinson, a few words regarding his progenitors will 
not be amiss. His father, JJuddle H. Atkinson, was 
born in New Jersey, and removed to Pike County, 
HI., in 1846, locating in Pittsfitld. He was a mer- 
chant tailor, a banker, and interested in various 
other kinds of business for many years, becoming 
well and favorably known in commercial and social 
circles. He is now retired from active business en- 
terprises, enjoying case and comfort in the county 
seat. He was bereft of his faithful companion, who 
bore the maiden name of Harriet Morgan, was a 
native of Pennsylvania, and in that State became a 
wife. Eight children were born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Atkinson, named respectively : Richard M., Sarah 
A., Henry, Mary E., Amelia L., Harriet C, Emma 
and George M. All are still living but Richard, 
wlio will be remembered by many of onr readers as 
!Ui etflcient County Judge during several years. 

The subject of this notice was born in St. Louis, 
Mo.. July 2'J, 1842. He was but four years old 
when^he began bis^residence in Pike County. His 
early school daj's were spent in private schools, and 
most of his education was obtained before he en- 
tered the public schools. After his school d.ays 
were over he remained on a farm for a time, then 
went into a store with his father as a clerk. He 
was first employed in the sale of drugs, and after 
becoming conversant with the business, entered the 
dry-goods store in which he remained until Et. 
Sumter was fired upon. His loyalty was such 
that he was not content with a merchant's calling, 
and in 1861 he became a member of Company K, 
Sixteenth Illinois Infantry. The enrollment was 
for a short i)eriod, and finding tliat the war was 
likely to continue, young Atkinson again enlisted 
in August, 1862, on this occasion becoming a mem- 
ber of Company G, Ninety-nintli Illinois Infantry. 

The first rank reached by Mr. Atkinson was that 
of Second Sergeant, and the next that of Orderlj- 
Sergeant. On January 31, 1863, he took his place 
among the commissioned officers as a First Lieuten- 
ant, from which time he had command of the com- 
pany. He received his _ Captain's [commission 
November 22, 1864, but on account of the consoli- 
dation of regiments, was not sworn lin as>ucli. The 
more important engagements in which he took part 
were at Magnolia Hills, Champion Hills, Edward's 
Station, Black River Bridge, the charge and siege' 
of Vicksburg, followed by a march to Louisiana, 
an engagement at Ft. Esperanza, and a winter spent 
in Indianola, Tex. StilUlater^in the war he was 
present at Spanish Fort and Ft. Blakeley. During 
the intervals that elapsed between these well-known 
contests, Mr. Atkinson performed the usual amount 
of camp duty, took part in skirmishes and scouting 
expeditions, and aided in the work which was as 
much needed, though not as exciting or conspicu- 
ous as that of the bloody battles. He was mus- 
tered out of theiscrvice at Baton Rouge, July 31. 
1865, paid off and honorably discharged at Spring- 
field in August. 

Capt. Atkinson at once returned to his old home 
and soon afterward engaged in the sale of hard- 
ware, stoves and furniture, continuing the business 
until the spiing of 1876 when he removed to New 



Canton, ami tmbarkcd in his present enterprise. 
Besides liis possessions in stock and store fittings, 
Mr. Atkinson is interested in ths Sny Island J^cvee 
District, where lie and his father own two thousand 
acres, and where the\' had five hundred acres of 
wiieat this season. Our sulijectis Treasurer of the 

At the of tiie household economy in Mr. At- 
kinson's pleasant abode, is a lady who became his 
wife May 12, 1868, prior to which time she was 
known as Miss Orpha Witt. She was born in 
Woodstock, Vt., in February, 1844, received an ex- 
cellent education in the schools of her native place, 
and came to this State in the fall of 1860. Her 
father died in the Green Mountain State many 3'ears 
ago. Her mother, Marinda Witt, is still living, and 
is deaf and dumb, the affliction having been caused 
by a fever and dating from her second year. Mrs. 
Witt has one son. Frank, wlio is living in Colorado. 
To our subject and his wife four children have 
come, one of whom died in infancj'. The surviv- 
ors are Fanny M., Lau a E., and Kicliard M. 

Mr. Atkinson is quite a politician, giving his ad- 
herence to the principles of Democrac}-. He was a 
member of the County Board of Supervisors from 
1884 to 1890, and Chairman of the Board during 
the last two years. He Town Clerk in Pitts- 
field one vear, and has been Clerk of Pleasant Vale 
Township a twelvemonth. He belongs to the Mod- 
ern Woodmen of America, to the Grand Array of 
the Re|>ublic, and is a Mason in high standing. He 
and his wife are considered great .additions to the 
social circles of New Canton, and are looked upon 
with much respect by their many acquaintances. 

flLLIAM H. GAY. a veteran of the late 
'/' war, is a prominent farmer and exten- 
^/ sive landowner in Atlas Township, Pike 
County. He was born in Pike County March 2, 
1840, and is a son of James Gay, of whom a 
sketch appears in this volume. Our subject spent 
his early youth in .attendance at the old log school- 
hiiiisis with open fireplaces, slab benches and other 
rude furnishings, and when not going to school 

he worked on his father's farm. He had tlie ad- 
vantage of attending the High School at I'ittslield 
one term, where he pursued an excellent course 
of study. He taught school in the winter of 1859-60. 

The breaking out of the war turned our suliject's 
attention from the vocation that he hail been pur- 
suing to thoughts of his country and the tleter- 
minaticni to enlist and help to save the honor of 
the old Hag. He was among the first to volun- 
teer, and in the spring of 1861 offered his services 
for three years, and on May 24, 1861, wss sworn 
into the United States service at Quiney, III., as 
a member of Company K, Sixteenth Illinois In- 
fantry. On June 12, 1861, his regiment moved to 
Hannibal. Mo., and spent the season along the 
Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad. In the month of 
Februaiy, 18G2, it was sent to Bird's Point, 5Io., 
and soon after joined Gen. Pope at New Madriil. 
Mo., and assisted in capturing that place together 
with the rebel forces of Island No. 10, Tijiton- 
ville. The Sixteenth Illinois received considerable 
distinction for the part it took in the capture of 
Island No. 10, and had been noticed for its gallant 
conduct in some skirmishes previous to that event. 

On July 10, at Monroe Station, our subject's 
regiment was attacked by sixteen hundred mounted 
rebels, and August 20 marched to Kirksville in 
pursuit of Gen. Green, and had some engagements 
with bushwh.ackers on the way. While at Salt River 
Bridge Gen. Grant passed with the Twenty-first Illi- 
nois, of which he was then Colonel. September 1 1 
the Sixteenth Illinois had a skirmish at Platte 
City, Mo., and January 27 was ordered to Bird's 
Point. While there our subject and his comrades 
had an eng.agement with the rebel cavalry, and 
March 3 were dispatched to New Madrid, where 
they were attached to the Army of the Mississippi, 
the Second Brigade under Col. .Alorgan and the 
First Division commanded b}- Col. E. A. Paine. 

On the eve of March 12 the Tenth and Sixteenth 
Illinois regiments were thrown forward to erect 
earthworks to mount four heavy guns within 
half a mile of Clie enemy's works. The foUowin"- 
morning the battle of New Madri<l was fought, .Mr. 
Gay's regiment supporting the siege guns, and at 
night the enemy;left the Union army in possession 
of the fort. April 7 the Federal army crossed the 



Mississippi River and followeii tlie enemy to Tip- 
tonville, vvliere it captuierl five thousand prisoners, 
a large amount of artillery and some ammunition. 

April 9 tiie .Sixtecntli Illinois went down the 
river with a gunboat fleet, but was recalled to re- 
inforce Gen. Grant at Shiloh or Corinth. The 
men arrived at Hamburo- April 22, in season to 
take an active part in the siege of Corinth, and 
also engaged in the battle of Farinington and in all 
the battles of the left wing of the army. After the 
evacuation of Corinth they followed the retreating 
enemy to Booneville and June 12 returned to Big 
Springs. There our su))ject first saw Gen. Slieridan, 
who was then Lieutenant Colonel. .Tuly lU the 
regiment marched to Tuscurabia, Ala., and Sep- 
tember 15 arrived at Nashville, Tcnn., after seven- 
teen daj's' march with almost continuous guerrilla 
warfare, in which Mr. Gay was shot in the right 
arm. the ball grazing the bone. The regiment did 
garrison duty at Edgefield, Tcnn., and was set to 
g'.iard the railway bridges. It was attacked there 
Nuveinber 5 by Gen. Morgan and repulsed him, 
the loss of our men being one killed and five 
tt'ounded, while the enemy left many dead and 
wounded on the battle-field. Mr. Gay and his 
comrades remained there until Jul3', 1863, and 
then inarched to Murfreesboro, where they re- 
mained one month and then went to Columbia, 
Teiui., and Athens, and also to Huntsville and 
Stephenson, Ala. From the latter place the^' made 
!i forced march to Bridgeport, where they did 
guard duty, and September 19 our subject acted 
as guard on a train that ran into Chattanooga, 
and then returned to Bridgeport. 

September 30 the stores blew up at Briilgeport, 
and fourteen men were killed by the explosion. 
Mr. Gay was wounded in the left hand. All the 
touts except his were burned. He was stunned at 
the time and when he recovered his senses found a 
comrade outside of his tent with a leg broken by 
a shell exploding and the tent all afire. He seized 
his comrade and carried him out of danger, ex- 
tinguishing the flames that threatened his life. 
Early in October, 1863, Mr. Gay and his fellow- 
soldiers marched up to Anderson (iap, where Ihey 
were transferred to the Urst Brigade, Second Di- 
vision, Fourteenth Army Corps, under Gen. J. D. 

Morgan, Gen. Jefferson C. Davis being the Di- 
vision Commander, and Gen. Palmer being the 
Corps Commander. They were dispatched to 
AValdron's Ridge and guarded a line of transporta- 
tion up the Tennessee River, being nearly con- 
stantly engaged in picket firing along the Tennessee 
with the rebels for two weeks. From there they 
went to Kelley's Ferry, and er gaged in unloading 
rations from the boats and sending them to Thomas' 
army at Chattano(>ga. From December 20 to De- 
cember 31 the regiment re-enlisted as veterans. 
Our subject did not re-enlist, however, but was 
transferred to Company I, Sistietli Illinois In- 
fantr\', and with that regiment eiigaged in the 
the battle at Dalton, and was with it at Tunnel 
Hill, Ringgold and Buzzard's Roost, where he was 
sliglitl}' wounded in the left arm. Soon after he 
was vaccinateil in the right arm with impure vac- 
cine, and was laid up from the effects of it iu the 
regimental hospital. He was sent from there to the 
brigade hospital, thence to the hospital at Chatta- 
nooga, and from there to Lookout Mountain, 
where he was discharged at the expiration of his 
term of service, still suffering from his arm. He 
received his discharge papers at Chattanooga, June 
12, 1864, having served long and faithfnll}- and 
won a war record that reflects credit on the sol- 
diery of his native State. 

After his experience of military life our subject 
resumed his professional work as a school teacher 
and taught north of Jacksonville that winter. In 
the spring of 1865 he began farming at Atlas 
Township, and gave his attention to stock-raising, 
teaching in the winter, teaching his last term in 
the winter of 1866. He bought his first land in 
1869. comprising part of his present place on sec- 
tion 9, Atlas Township. He now owns one thou- 
sand acres and more of choice farming land, of 
which four hundred and eight}- acres are in the 
rich bottoms of the Mississippi Valley, lying near 
Scott's Landing. His home place comprises five 
hundred and fifty -seven acres, all under excellent 
till.ageand yielding fine harvests. Mr. Gaj- farms 
quite extensively and raises many cattle, sheep and 
horses. He built his present neat frame house in 
1877, at a cost of $1,000, and has other necessary 
buildings. In his politics Mr. Gay is a firm ad- 



herenl of the Republican party, and his course 
(luring and since the war has ever shown him to 
be a true, loyal and public-spirited citizen. 

To the lad}' who presides over his pleasant home 
our subject was united in marriage October 23, 
1867. Mrs. Gay's maiden name was Elizabeth 
Sliinn. the daughter of William Shinn. She was 
born on the 19th of October. 1847. Five chil- 
dren, one daughter and four sons, have come 
of tlie happy wedded life of our subject and his 
wife, wliom they have named: !Maj-, Palmer D., 
Charles L.. William W. and Fred S. 

— ^3.^ ^ 

"jf)OHN B. CHAMBERLIN, the well-known 
' proprietor of a large and handsomely fittefl 
up clothing store in Barry, Pilvc County, 
carrying a large stock of gentlemen's fur- 
nishing goods, boots, shoes, etc., is one of the 
most enter[)i'ising' and wide-awake business men in 
this county. A native of Oliio, lie was born in 
Darrtown, Butler County, May 11, 1832. His 
father, Aaron Ciiamberlin, was born in Monmouth 
County, N. J., in 1787. His father, also named 
Aaron, was a gallant soldier in the Revolution, 
and fought in the battle of Monmouth. After tiiat 
he owned a farm near the battle-Deld, where he 
spent the remaimler of a long life, dying at the 
ripe old age of ninety-four years. 

The fatlier of our subject went to Ohio and was 
married in that State to Rachael Hryanl, a native 
of Butler County. Her father was a pioneer of 
that part of Ohio. Mr. Charal)erliii worked at 
the wagonraaker's trade in Darrtown until 1835, 
when he again became a jjioneer, coming with his 
wife and five chihlren to tlie wilds of Illinois, 
making the journey by the way of the Ohio, Mis- 
sissippi and Illinois Rivers to Phillip's Ferry, and 
thence to El Dara Township. He had previously 
visited this county and had purchased a tract of 
land in that place, of which twelve or fifteen acres 
were cleared and the remainder was wild prairie 
and timber. He and his family moved into the 
log cabin that stood there, and he resided there 
until his death in 18o0, he falling a victim to the 

cholera. His widow continued to live on the 
home farm until her death in 1888. She i eared 
four children to good and useful lives: Alfred, 
James W., .lohn, and Lydia (now INIrs. Martin). 
The father of our subject had one son by a former 
marriage named William. 

He of whom we write was three years old when 
his parents brought him to Pike County, and his 
education was conducted in the [irimitive schools 
of those days taught in a log cabin. He was reared 
amid pioneer scenes, and as wild game was then 
very plentiful as soon as he was large enough to 
handle a gun he roamed through the woods and 
over the wild piairie and brought down many a 
deer within the confines of his county. In 1848 
he entered upon the work which was to prepare 
him for his after mercantile career, commencing 
to clerk in a general store at that time at Rockport. 
In 18.30 Mr. Chamberlin accompanied his father 
on a visit to the latter's old home in New Jersey. 
They took the must convenient route at that time, 
going by the Illinois, Mississippi and Oliio Rivers 
to Cincinnati, and thence by rail to Sandusky 
City, where they arrived Saturday eviening. The 
regular packet which they intended to take did 
not leave port till Monday. Our subject and his 
father were met at the station by a man who was 
soliciting travelers to take passage on a boat that 
was to leave Sandusky that night. A lady named 
Br.adley was traveling with them^ and she being 
very tired, desired to wait till Monday, and they 
did so. Sunday they received the news of the loss 
of the boat on which they had been urged to take 
passage, with all on board, and they felt very 
thankful that they had been saved from a like 
fate by staying with their friend. Monday morn- 
ing they resumed their journey on a packet to 
Buffalo, and thence went by rail to New York 
City, and finally arrived at their destination. On 
their rctuin trip Mr. Chambeilin and his father 
came by the waj- of the lake from Buffalo to De- 
troit, and thence by rail .across the St.ate of Michi- 
gan, and from Ne^v Bufl:alo across Lake Michigan 
to Chicago, from there by canal to La Salle, and 
thence by the Illinois River home. 

Our subject continued clerking about four years 
and thus well fitted to enter uiion an inde- 



pendent career as a merchant in Rockport. In 
1858 he came to Bariy and established himself in 
business here in a rented building with a small 
stocii of ready made clothing. From that small 
begiiining has sprung up his present large and 
flourisliing business. In 1881 Mr. Chamberlin 
erected liis present building, a handsome two- 
story brieii structure, with a frontage of thirty- 
one feet and extending baciv one hundred and 
twenty feet. Here in this ample building he has 
a perfectly fitted up eslablishinent, in which he 
carries n large and complete stock of clothing and 
gentlemen's furnishing goods, boots, shoes, etc.. he 
iiaving liere as complete an assortment as can be 
found ill many a store in a metropolitan city. He 
is always at tlie front with the latest and the best, 
and thus serves the home trade with the most 
fasiiionable and stylish goods to be found in the 
market. Our subject has been in business in Barry 
for the past thirty-two years without a partner, 
and has not missed being in liis store one .Satur- 
day, a year in that time. 

Mr. Cliamherlin and Miss Martha E. Rush 
were wedded in 185-t, and they liave one of tiie 
most beautiful homes in Barry in tlie southern 
I)art of the city. They have two children living, 
Eugenie and Albert. Freddie, their second child, 
died at the age of five j'ears. 

Barry, is one of the leading business men 
of Pike Count}', prominently connected 
with the grocery trade, and has done as 
much as any man to promote its commerce and 
manufactures and its financial standing. He was 
a distinguished officer in the late war, in which he 
rendered the Government valuable service, and lie 
has been no less conspicuous in the public life of 
this conntj. 

Maj. Crandali was born in the town of Berlin, 
Rensselaer County, N. Y., August 18, 1836. His 
father, Joshua Crandali, was a native of New York, 
and was of New England antecedents. He was a 
son of Joseph Crandali, who removed from Rhode 

Island to New York, and was one of the pioneers 
of Berlin. He remained a resident of the Empire 
State until his death, spending his last years at 

The father of our subject learned the trade of 
a hatter, and also of a tanner and shoemaker. He 
lived in Berlin until 1839, when he too became a 
pioneer, emigrating to this State with his wife and 
six children. They came by the way of the Erie 
Canal to Buffalo, where the}' embarked on Lake 
Erie and sailed to Cleveland and then crossed the 
State of Ohio and traveled on the Ohio and Mis- 
sissippi Rivers to Illinois. They located at Barry, 
which was then a small village, where the father 
was engaged in business at his trades as long as his 
health would permit, and he then lived retired 
until his death in 1866. The maiden name of his 
wife was Fannie Burdick, and she was also a native 
of New York. Her death occurred here in 1865. 
The parents of our subject reared eight children, 
named Frances, Melissa, Elizabeth, Harriet, Joseph, 
Edwin A., Frederick and Emma. 

He of whom we write was but three years old 
when his parents brought him to Illinois. His 
early education was received in the pioneer school 
of Barry, and at the age of fourteen jears he en- 
tered upon his mercantile career as a clerk in a 
general store. He carefullv saved all that he 
could of his salary, as he was ambitious to obtain 
money to further bis education, and at the end of 
three years he was enabled to enter Shurtliff Col- 
lege, where he pursued a fine course of studj-. On 
his return from college he formed a partnership 
with Lewis Angle, buying the interest of B. D. 
Brown in a mercantile and pork packing business, 
and conducting it under the firm name of Angle cfe 
Crandali. They continued together three years 
and then both sold out, and our subject went to 
Washington, D. C, to become a student at Colurn- 
lia College, and at the same time read law with 
Mr. Baxter, former Alt(nney-General of Virginia. 

In 1859, having completed his studies, our sub- 
ject returned from Washington to Bai-ry, formed a 
new partnership with Mr. Angle, and they carried 
on a general merchandising and pork packing busi- 
ness until 1862. Our subject then sold liis interest 
in that concern, and la3'ing aside all personal aims 



and ambitions offered his services to tiie Govern- 
ment to aiil in cnrryino; on the war. He lielped to 
raise a companj' of volunteers, which was desig- 
nated as Company D, Ninetj'-ninth Illinois In- 
fantry, a.d he was apjiointed its Major by Gov. 
Yates, and was mustered in at Springfield. He 
inmicdiately went to the front with his regiment, 
going first to Missouri, and took part tiiere in the 
battle of Ilartville and in several skirmishes. Fronit 
Missouri be was ordered to Milliken's Bend with 
his men to join Grant's command, and he took an 
active part in all the battles fought by the General 
to the surrender of Vicksburg. The Major was 
then dispatched to New Orleans and thence to the 
Tasche Country, where he lemained a few months. 
Returning to New Orleans he went from there to 
the Rio Grande in Texas, and was stationed there 
a few months. His regiment was ordered b.ack to 
New Orleans, and after a short stay in that city 
went on the Red River expedition, and was also in 
the Mobile campaign. In November, 1864, Maj. 
Crandall resigned his commission, having won a 
fine military record for his courage, endurance 
and capability during a long and faithful service. 

After he left the army our subject returned 
home, and with others built a woolen mill in Barry 
and engaged in the manufacture of woolen goods. 
He retained his interest in the woolen mills eight 
years and at the same time was engaged in the gro- 
cery business. In 1882 he entered into the bank- 
ing business, being associated with Benjamin D. 
Brown, Eugene Smith and M. G. Patterson, and is 
still connected with the bank. In 1884 the Major 
was one of the organizers <if the Barry Milling 
Companj'. which built the Barry Flouring Mills, 
and he is still associated with the comi>any. The 
iirst two 3'ears after he became interested in the 
bank be gave that business his [icrsonal attention, 
an 1 after the mill was completed gave his time to 
its mauagenient. Since then he has devoted him- 
self to the grocery business, and is carrying on one 
of the most extensive trades in this part of the 
State, and has one of the finest, best fitted and best 
stocked establishments in the county. 

Maj. Crandall has been twice married. First in 
1860, to Eliza F. Hui't. a flaughter of Elisha and 
Jane Hurt. Their wedded life though hapi)y was 

brief, as she died in 1867, leaving one daughter, 
Fannie L. The second marriage of our subject 
took place in 1871 with Miss Jennie Gordon, a na- 
tive of New York City and a daughter of Nathan- 
iel and Emily A. Gordon. They have here a 
well appointed and attractive home, the centre of 
of a charming hospitality. Of their pleasant 
wedded life one son has been born, whom they 
have named Louis. 

A man of a well-trained, well-poised intellect, of 
marked enterprise and of good business and execu- 
tive ability, Maj. Crandall has been a prominent 
factor in advancing the rise and growth of the city 
of Barrj' in particular and of Pike County gener- 
ally. His fellow citizens, recognizing the fact 
a man of his calibre and character is well adapted 
to .administer public affairs, have often called him 
to important civic offices, and he has represented 
Barry Township on the County Board of Super- 
visors, has served as a member of the City Board, 
and for twelve years has been a memlier of the 
Board of Education. He is now at the head of the 
municipal government of Barry, and as its Mayor 
his public spirit and liberality have greatly ad- 
vanced its interests. In early life our subject was 
a Democrat and cast his first vote for Stephen A. 
Douglas, but since then he has been unswerving in 
his allegiance to the Republican party. 



.^p*IIOMAS N. HALL, capitalist and retired 
m^^ merchant, is a native born citizen of Pike 
'^^^ County, and is classed among its men of 
wealth and influence. His superior business tact 
and financial talent have been potent factors in 
bringing about its present prosperity. 

Mr. Hall was born in Detroit Township, Pike 
(lountj', November 19, 1836. He is a son of one 
of the early pioneers of this section of the countrj', 
Thomas L. Hall, who was a native of Rowan County, 
N. C where he was born in 1802, the second son 
of Joseph Hall. The Halls were of Scotch-Irish de- 
scent. Thomas was reared to the life of a farmer 



in the State of his nativity ami was there marriefi 
ti) Itliss Angeliiie Clemens, also a native of North 
Carolina, a (laiiiihter of Peter Clemens, who moved 
to that State from his old home in Virginia. He 
was a descendant of an old English and French 
family. Illustrious among his ancestors shines the 
name of Gregory Clemens, who lived in the first 
half of the sixteenth century, and was a contempo- 
rary of Shakespeare and Cromwell the Protector of 
England. He was a very prominent man in the 
public and political life of the county, and took 
sides with the liberals. He was a JMinister to France 
and was a member of Parliament at the lime of the 
trial of Charles Isl and signe<l his death warrant, 
which was executed January 30, 1649. Upon the 
accession of Charles II to the throne Gregory Clem- 
ens, with others was tried as a regicide and exe- 
cuted, his property' being confis^-ateil by the crown. 
After his execution his widow and children with his 
two brothers came to this country and settled in 
Virginia. His descendants are now scattered all 
over the United States. Some retained tlie name as 
it was spelled in olden times while oLiiers spell the 
name Clemmous. 

Thomas L. Hall and his family moved from 
North Carolina to this State in 1H30, and settled in 
Detroit Township, this county, upon a tract of wild 
land. He vigorously entered upon the pioneer la- 
bors of developing it, and in thoyeais that foU^iwed 
improved it into a valuable farm, which remained 
his home until his death in 1872 rounded out a life 
that was honoralile to himself and had been useful 
to the count}'. As a pioneer he had aided in build- 
ing up this section of the countr}-, and his name 
will ever be associated with the early develoimient 
of Detroit Township. His wife and seven children 
survived him. Of the latter there were live sons 
and two daughters, of whom six are now living, as 
follows: Joseph, a resident of Milton, this county; 
Calvin, who occupies the old homestead, which his 
father bought from the Government sixty years 
ago; John, deceased; Thomas N.; ]\largaret C, 
the wife of William McCrudden of Nevada, Mo. ; 
Louesa, wife of Dr. Thomas Shastid. of Pittsfield; 
and William C. in the furniture and undertaking 
business at Abingdon, 111. 

Our subject obtained the preliminaries of his edu- 

cation in the common schools of Detroit Township, 
and afterwards became a student at the Griggsville 
High .School where he pursued his studies two 
years. He subsequently entered into partnership 
with his brother-in-law in the marble business and 
remained with him from 18G1 until 18G5 when he 
sold out. In the month of October the same^'carhe 
engaged in the mercantile business in Detroit with 
•William McCrudden, and the}' remained together 
until the spring of 1867, when they sold out. Our 
subject then purchased a general store there 
where he continued actively engaged in business 
until 1886, when he disposed of his store in Jlilton 
and purchased in comi)any with Charles H. Luthy 
the Gano stock of goods at Pittsfield. Mr. Hall has 
met with more than ordinar}' success and by judi- 
cious investments and the careful management of 
his business affairs he has become a large landed 
proprietor and a man of wealth. He owns many 
thousand acres of land, having thirteen hundred 
acres of well-improved land in Missouri, four hun- 
dred acres of choice tanning land in Pike County, 
and nine thousand acres of valuable land in the 
State of Texas. He is a man of more than ordi- 
nary' enterprise and sagacity, and while he is bold 
and pushing in his methods of transacting business, 
he is at the same time careful and cautious, and 
hence his success. 

Mr. Hall has been twice married. In 1876 he 
was married to Miss Blary Williams of New burg 
Township, Pike County. 111., and a daughter of 
Richmond Williams. She died in 1881. Mr. Hall's 
present wife, to whom he was married in 18S5, was 
formerly Mary Haskins, of Hardin Township, and 
a daughter of Otis Haskins. 

Our subject and his wife have established a home 
that is one of the ple.asantest and nDOSt attrrc- 
live in its vicinity, and is the center of a charming 
hospitality. Mr. Hall is a man of true public spirit 
and has done much to forward various enterprises 
for the advancement of the countv. He has taken 
an active part in its government and has been a 
valuable civic official. He has been a member of 
the Board of Supervisors three terms, re|)resenting 
Montezuma Township from 1883 to 1886. He is a 
member of Milton Lodge, No. 275, A. F. & A. M. 
Ills career in life has always been guided by the 


/^i://i:cu^ -^^^ 




higliest principles of honor and reciludo and lie is 
a consistent member of the Christian Church, as is 
bis wife, and he has served several years as Deacon. 



ILLIAM GRAMiNIER is widely and favor- 
^, ably known throughout Pike Count}', with 

'yyj whose educational and agricultural interests 
he has been closely connected for many) ears. He 
lias been a consi)icuous Bgure in the political life of 
this section of the State and prominent in the man- 
agement of civic affairs. He is |)lcnsantly situated 
in one of the comfortable homes of Hadley Town- 
ship, where he has a ver)- desirable, well improved 
farm on section 30. 

Mr. Grammer is a native of Boston, Mass., where 
his birth occurred January 8, 1821. His father, 
Seth Grammer, was also a native of the old Bay 
State and was born in 1797. He took part in the 
War of 1812, and came to Pike County in an earl_y 
daj- when it was but a wilderness. Locating on 
section 2, Iladlej' Township, he built a log cabin for 
the sueller of his familj' and cleared the place of 
the timber that stood on it. He built a mill and 
was .actively engaged in the pioneer labors that de- 
veloped the county. His death in 1858 was a ser- 
ious loss to the community, toward the advancement 
of which he had accomplished so much. 

Our subject's mother. L3'dia (JIarshall) Gram- 
mer, was also a native of Massachusetts and was 
there reared to womanhood. She was a daughter 
of Joseph Marshall, who was born in JLassachusetts 
and served in tlie Revolutionaiy War. The pa- 
ternal grandfatlier of our subject, Joseph Grammer, 
was a seafaring man and took part in the Revolu- 
tion. 'I'he parents of our subject were married in 
Boston, JLass., in 1811, and twelve children came 
of their wedded life, one daughter and eleven sons, 
of whom the daughter and eight of the sons were 
reared to maturity. Those now living are >Seth W., 
William, Charles M., and Lydia M. 

William (irammer, who forms the subject of this 
biographical review was reared and educated in 
the State of lii.s birlh. wlicre he lemained until he 
was eighteen years of age. He early displayed 

good scholarship and a fondness for books and 
gained the preliminaries of his education in the 
public schools. He subsequently attended acad- 
emies at Lexington and Jlethuen, where he pursued 
fine courses of study that amply fitted him for the 
profession which he followed with success for many 
years in his after life. He was twenty years old 
when he commenced teaching in the pioneer schools 
of Pike County, and in the first school that lie 
taught he received *12 a month, and boarded 
around among the |)areuts of the pupils. Xine of 
his scholars became successful |)liysicians and others 
are prominent in various walks in life. Among 
them we mav mention J. M. Harvey ex-Governor 
of Kansas, and once United States Senator. 

In the summer time our subject assisted his fa- 
ther in the management of his farm and carried on 
his vocation at other seasons of the year, becoming 
one of the leading educators in the county. Dur- 
ing the war he received SIO a month for teaching, 
and his services were always vakuHl wherever he 
was stationed. His successful career as .a teacher 
showed that he well qualified for his work by 
temperament, by a clear well-trained intellect and a 
happy faculty for imparting information in an in- 
teresting manner. He remained on the old home- 
stead until after the death of his mother in 1871, 
and now has possession of tlie place to which he 
returned in 1874. and which he has since made his 
home. He has here two hundred and eight}' acres 
of valuable, well-tilled land, i>rovided with ample 
improvements, and all the necessary farming ma- 
chinery for conducting agriculture advanlageonsl}'. 
He is notdoing much farming at |)resent, but spends 
his declining years in the quiet enjoyment of a 
goodly competency, which he has acquired by the 
intelligent and business-like management of his af- 

Our subject "^'as united in marriage with Miss 
Eliza I'hilpot, December 2.5, 1816. She was a na- 
tive of England born in Kentshire, and came 
with her parents to Pike County, in an early day. 
She died in 1865 leaving one child, Maria, who 
married a Mr. Blake and lives on her fathei's 
lioinestcad. Our subject's second marriage was 
with Lucy (Hart) Smith. They had one son, who 
died at the age of twenty-two months. Mrs. thani- 



mer departed this life in 1872. Mr. Gramraer was 
married to liis present estimable wife in llie year 
1874. She was born in Vermont in 1828, and en- 
joys the esteem of manj' friends. 

Our subject lias always taken a deep and intelli- 
gent interest in politics, and has ever advocated 
the policy of the Republican party. For many 
years he has been one of the most prominent civic 
ofiicials of this township, which he represented on 
the County Board of Supervisors for the long 
period of twenty- seven years. He is now School 
Treasurer, having held that office ten years, and lias 
served as Commisi^ioiier of Highways, always doing 
all in his power to promote the growth and mate- 
rial prosperity of township and county. He is thus 
showing himself to be possessed of a loyal and true 
public spirit. He is President of tlie Barry Far- 
mers Mutu.'il Insurance Company, which has flour- 
ished well under his guidance as an ii.cumbent of 
that office which he has held for eight years. He 
is a man who possesses many fine personal traits of 
character, and Is very temperate and correct in his 
habits, having never used tobacco in any form and 
having abstained from the use of liquor since he 
signed the Washipgtonian pledge in 1842, nearly 
fifty years ago. 

Elsewhere in tliis volume the reader will notice 
a lithographic portrait of Mr. Grammer. 

CLEMENT L. HOSKJN. It affords the bio- 
graphical writer much pleasure to note the 
' beautiful homes in Pike County, wiiich fur- 
nish conclusive evidence of the energy and good 
judgment which have led to the prosperity of so 
many of her agriculturists. Particularly is this 
true when our attention is called to a family whose 
members have borne an important sliare in tiie de- 
velopment of the county, and ai<led by their zeal 
in its growth in all that pertains to the best civili- 

The gentleman whose name introduces these para- 
graphs, is a lineal descendant of Isaac Hoskin, who 
was born in the Empire State, and came to Illinois 

1 in 1820, settling on tlie American Bottoms, not far 
j from St. Louis, Mo., vvhen that now populous city 
comprised but a few log cabins. In a short time 
Mr. Hoskin was located in Pike County, where he 
spent tlie remainder of his life, dying when up- 
wards of eighty years of age. In common with the 
pioneers in general, he often liunted deer and other 
game, witli whicii the country abounded when he 
J fust arrived. While on one of his hunts, he came 
across some bear culjs and captured one. whose cries 
were heard by the old bear, which came to the res- 
cue of the little one, Mr. Hoskin having a very nar- 
row escape from its clutches. He succeeded in 
reaching his home, but lost the cub. Mr. Hoskin 
was a soldier during the Black Hawk AVar. He 
was an Old-Line Whig in politics, and later a Re- 
publican, and was a sincere Christian. 

The next in the direct line of descent was Charles 
Hoskin, wlio was born in Onondaga County, N. Y., 
in 1810. From the age of ten years, wlien he ac- 
companied his parents to Pike County, he made his 
home here, growing to maturity amid tlie surround- 
ings of frontier life, and bearing a part in clearing 
and otherwise developing the country. During his 
early life tlie settlers ground their corn in mills 
run by horse-power, lived principally on corn- 
bread and wild game, and wore homespun clothing. 
His father would often take his old flint-lock rifle 
before breakfast on a frosty morning, and go out 
and kill a deer which would furnish meat for some 
days. Charles Hoskin during his youth had a colt 
killed by a black wolf and setting a trap, caught 
the marauder the following night. It was neces- 
sary for the settlers to keep their sheep in a pen 
against the house in order to protect them against 
the wolves which were numerous and bold. Charles 
Hoskin traded with the Indians years ago, and oth- 
erwise occupied himself as a farmer, becoming the 
owner of about four hundred acres of land. His 
first vote was cast for Gen. Jackson, and he con^^ 
tinned to adhere to the party to which i e first gave 
his allegiance. He died at the age of sixty-seven 
years, leaving behind him the record of a worthy 
citizen and honored pioneer. 

The wife of Charles Hoskin bore the maiden 
name of Eliza Shinn, was born in Ohio, December 
20, 1810, and is still living in the enjoyment of 



good liealth. She is a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Cluirch. and has ever endeavored to eon- 
scieutioiisij' discharge hei' duties as wife, mother, 
and member of societj'. Her family consisted of 
the followinfj children: Isaac, Daniel (deceased), 
Charles, Clement (our subject), Asa, William, 
Nancy, Jane. Rachel, Lydia (deceased), and Mary. 

Clement L. Iloskin was born October 13, 1835, in 
Pike Count}', which is still his home, and reared in 
the manner usual to the sons of pioneer farmers. 
He attended school in the old log schoolhouse dur- 
ing the days when the teacher was engaged under 
the subscription method, and Improved his oppor- 
tunities to the best advantage possible. So great 
was his desire for knowledge, that after he had at- 
tained to his majorit}', he spent one winter pursu- 
ing his studies in the High School at AVinchester, 
Scott County. His lifework as a farmer was begun 
on rented land which he cultivated on shares, con- 
tinuing to labor in this way until 1861. He then 
purchased eighty acres on section 2G, Derry Town- 
ship, but soon sold it and bought a tract of the 
same size on section 22. 

Ere long Mr. Iloskin became the owner of forty 
acres on section 10, which he occupied two years, 
then bought and removed to an eighty-acre tract 
on section 14. His present residence is one of the 
best in the township, built of frame and pleasantly 
situated back from the road, to which a drive lined 
with maple trees leads. It is built of frame, and 
was erected in tiie summer of 1890. Mr. Hoskin 
now owns two hundred and thirty acres of land, all 
of fertile soil which ha.' been brought to a high state 
of cultiv.ation, and is capable of producing abun- 
dant crops. The owner raises some stock, his prin- 
cipal attention in that line being paid to swine. 

April 1, 1860, 5Ir. Hoskin was united in mar- 
riage with Miss Sarah P.iyne, who died eleven 
months after marriage, leaving an infant daughter, 
Sarah. After having lived a widower until 1866. 
Mr. Hoskin was again married, his bride being Miss 
Nancy Baker, who was spared to him but two years. 
The rites of wedlock between our subject and his 
present wife were solemnized August 11, 1872. 
Mrs. Hoskin is a native of Pike County, intelligent, 
efficient, and a consistent member of the Jlethodist 
Episcopal Cluirch. She was known in her girlhood 

as Miss Edna Ward. Her happ}' union has been 
blessed by the birth of two children, Fila, and 

The sterling qualities of Mr. Hoskin have been 
recognized by his fellow-citizens in bestowing upon 
him the office of I'ownship Assessor, in which he 
has served four terms, and that of Supervisor which 
he has held two terms. He is a member of the 
Democratic party. 

ELYILLE D. MASSIE, who is engaged in 
the sale of merchau<lise and in milling in 
New Canton, Pike County, is one of the 
popular and influential citizens of that 
thriving town. He has been intimately connected 
w^ith the civil, political, and social affairs of the 
township, and is one of the old soldiers whom it is 
the delight of all true Americans to honor. He is 
a native of the county, born in Pittsfield, January 
21, 1838, and during his boyhood attended what 
was known as the half free schools. He obtained a 
common-school education, abandoning his studies 
when fifteen years old to begin an apprenticeship 
at the trade of a carpenter, and serving a year and 
a half. 

In 1854 young Massie located in New Canton, 
giving up his trade and securing a clerkship in a 
general store. He continued in that occupation 
until after the breaking out of the Civil War, when 
his patriotic fervor would not allow him longer to 
remain in the North, while the life of his country 
was in danger. In 1862 he was enrolled in Com- 
panj' G, Ninety-ninth Illinois Infantry. He par- 
tieipaterl in all the battles from the opening of 
Grant's campaign, that year, until after the fall of 
Vicksburg, in the siege of which place he bore a 
part forty days. He afterward accompanied the 
regiment through Tennessee. Arkansas. Louisiana, 
and Texas, being present at the conclusion of the 
campaigns in the South, when Fts. Spanish and 
Blakesley were reduced, and Mobile taken. Mr. 
Massie was then sent on detached duly to the 
mouth of the Rio (Jrandc Uiver, and linally mus- 
tered out with the regiment in Springfield, in Au- 



gust, 1865. During the year in wbich be enlisted 
he was promoted to be First Lieutenant, and in 
July, 18G3. advanced to the Captainc}-, and later 
served as Assistant Adjutant General of the Brig- 

Capt. Massie was mustered out at the time and 
place where he received his discharge, and at once 
returning to his former home, engaged in his pres- 
ent business. He is now operating very success- 
full}', his enterprise iiaving grown to a very exten- 
sive dealing throughout tlie county and adjacent 
territory. In the conduct of his ati'airs lie has used 
the best business methods, tiie native energy which 
he possesses in a large degree, and the considerate 
spirit which thinks of customers as well as man- 
ager. This lias brought him trade, as his character 
and methods have become known, and given liim 
also the goodwill of the people. 

From the time when he started in business Mr. 
Massie has manifested a great interest in the town, 
and has used every means in his power to advance 
its interests encouraging every possible enterprise 
that might locate here. He has had great faith in 
the future of this section of country, and has siiown 
that faith by his works. The project of reclaiming 
the Sny Levee lands has had a firm and true friend 
in Mr. Massie, and the vicissitudes through which 
the enterprise has passed have not detracted from 
his interest or faith in the final result. 

Although, as before stated, Mr. Massie received 
but a common-school education in boyhood, he 
built upon that foundation a structure of extended 
information and practical knowledge whieli places 
him on an equality with those whose school privi- 
leges were far superior to his own, but who have 
been content with what Ihej* learned there. Mr. 
Massie has traveled quite extensively-, his journeys 
embracing thirty States, together with Canada and 
Mexico, and his close observation of the manners 
and customs of the people, and the scenes which he 
witnessed makes an hour spout in his company both 
pleasing and instructive. In his judgment the 
principles .advocated by the Republican part}' are 
those best adapted for the good of the people, and 
lie therefore supports them with his vote. He was 
the firsl Representative from the county under the 
new constitution, and was an earnest advocate of 

the rights of his constituents. He has held the 
office of Township Supervisor four years, and 
served in the school offices. He belongs to the 
Grand Army of the Republic, and is a Knight 

The father of our subject was John C. Massie. 
who was born in Montgomery County, Ky., in 
1795. He came from Sangamon County, this State, 
to Pike County in 1836, establishing himself at 
Pittsfield, whence he subsequently removed to Mis- 
souri, in which State his death occurred in 1853. 
He was a soldier in the War of 1812. He was the 
son of a Virginian who had fought in the Revolu- 
tion, and was a cousin to Nathaniel Massie, a noted 
civil engineer of the Old Dominion, who was after- 
ward a candidate for Governor of Ohio, running in 
opposition to Gen. Meigs, who was elected. It be- 
ing thought that Meigs was ineligible, Mr. Massie 
was declared Governor, but his high sense of honor 
and justice caused him to immediately resign, .as 
he considered that Mr. Meigs had the suffrages of 
the people. 

The mother of our subject was born in Cherry 
Valley, N. Y., in 1807, and died in Missouri in 
1853. Her parents were natives of the Empire 
State, whence they came to Pike County, 111., about 
1832, making a permanent location in Derry Town- 
ship two years later. Mrs. John C. Massie liore the 
maiden name of Maiy Shaw. 

The lady whoso pleasing manners and good 
qualities made her the choice of our subject, liore 
the maiden name of Mary E. Morey, and became 
Mrs. Massie in January, 1866. Her parents Amos 
and Martha Morey, were born in New York .and 
Virginia respectively, and m.ade their home in this 
county many years ago. Mr. Morey died in New 
Canton in 1867, and his widow is still living there. 
Mr. Morey was honored as few private citizens are, 
by having the Grand Arm\' Post at New Canton 
named for him. It was done as a tribute to the 
substantial aid which he had given to the soldiers 
during the late war. Mrs. Massie was born in that 
town in Feliruary, 1844, and after (tursuing the 
studies of the common schools, attended college in 
Jacksonville and Monticello. Cultured and refined, 
she is well fitted for a leading position in the social 
circles of New Canton, and is equally well qualified 



to discharge the duties which lie before her as a wife 
and mother. Mr. and Mrs. Msissie have had tliree 
sons and tliree daugliters. namely: Harry, Blanche, 
Bertha, George, Bret and Nellie. All are living 
except Bret who died in childhood. 


A ULAN P. DODGE. The name of this 
f( ))! gentleman will long be associated with the 
histor}- ot the early develo|iment of the 
Mississippi bottom land lying south and 
west of the old town of Atlas, as no man has done 
more than he to change that once vast tract of 
worthless swamp into its present state of fertility 
and productiveness. Mr. Dodge, a veteran of the 
late war, is one of the foremost farmers of Atlas 
Township, where his interests are centred, and of 
Pike County. He was born in Hancock County, 
Me., Noverabe'- 10, 1842, and came of sterling New 
England stock. 

Deacon Jonathan Dodge, his father, was also a 
native of Hancock County, Me., where he was 
prosperously engaged as a farmer during his active 
life, owning a fine farm of some two hundred acres 
of land. He was a deacon in the Congregational 
Church for over fifty years. He was reared an old- 
line Whig and later in life became a Republican. 
He married Abigail Roberts, who was a native of 
Hancock Count}*, Me. She died at the age of fifty- 
eight years, leaving the record of a life well-spent. 
She was a devoted wife and mother and was a 
member of the Baptist Church. The father of 
subject departed this life at the ripe old age of 
eight5'-four j'ears. He was a man of unblemished 
character, and was revered by the communit}' 
where he lived for his many fine personal traits. 

Harlan Dodge was one of a family of nine chil- 
dren, five sons and four daughters. The first 
years of his life were passed on his father's farm 
in JIaine. He ventured forth from home at an 
early period and sailed the seas for two years. In 
the spring of 1861 he located in Hancock Count}', 
111., where he worker! on a farm until July, 18C2. 

Our subject's jjatriotism was aroused during the 
great contest between the North and South and in 

the month of July, 1862, he enlisted to do his share 
of fighting for his country. He became a member 
of Companx- G.. Second Illinois Cavalry-, and was 
at the front iluring the remainder of the war, receiv- 
ing his discharge papers June 11, 18();j, at ^'icks- 
burg. During those long and wear}- years he 
suffered the hardships and privations of army life 
with the fortitude and |)atience of a loyal soldier 
and bravcl}' faced the enemy in many a hotly con- 
tested engagement. He was wounded in the right 
shoulder in the battle of Holly Springs, Miss., and 
was obliged to remain in the regimental hospital 
one month. He took part in the siege and capture 
■ of Vicksburg, in the battles of Champion Hill, Ray- 
j mond. Black River Bridge and Ft. Blakely. When 
' at Vicksburg he was under fire forty-eight days. 
After his experience of military life on Southern 
battle fields, Mr. Dodge went to Leavenworth Kan., 
and made an overland trip with a Government 
train to Ft. Riky. He remained there from Sep- 
tember till the following April and then came 
: eastward as far as Sandusky, Iowa, where he set- 
tled five miles north of Keokuk. He was there en- 
gaged in the mercantile business .ind farming for 
nine years. In 1S74 he wound up his affairs there 
j and came to Pike County and worked on the levee 
till its completion. He then bought up considera- 
ble bottom land and began farming. The land 
that he bought was originally a swam|», but he has 
since cleared it and drained it, and placed it 
under such flue cultivation that it now blossoms 
like the rose. He now owns nine hundred acres of 
rich bottom land of which seven hundred acres are 
under a high state of cultivation. He rents out 
much of his land and is kept busy from morning 
till night superintending the farming of it. He 
raises large quantities of wheat, corn and hogs, and 
is one of the most extensive farmers in the county. 
Mr. Dodge has a very pleasant home in Atlas, 
and to the lad}' who presides over it and co-operates 
with him in extending its hospitality to their many 
friends when occasion offers, he was united in 
marriage February 17, 18G8. Mrs. Dodge was 
formerly Emma T. Carter and she was born on the 
Susquehanna River in Pennsylvania, July 13, 
1850. She is a member of the Congregational 
Church and is a woman who walks in accordance 



with the dictates of her conscience. Of the nine 
children born to Mr. and Mrs. Dodge the following 
tliree are living: Fannie T., Marietta and Kniraa 

Mr. Dodge is a man whose energetic character, 
firmness of purpose and foresight combined with 
his f-apability in managing his affairs in a business- 
like way, have placed him at the forefront among 
the progi'essive and enlightened farmers and stock- 
men who have done so much for Pike County's 
interests. He stands well socially and financially, 
and is held to be one of our most desirable citizens. 
His political views are in accordance with the 
principles promulgated by the Republican party. 

^I7 EVI C. BAIN is worthy of representation in 
I (@ *■'''* Album as he is an honorable man and 
/IL^ as a practical farmer is contributing his 
quota towards sustaining and extending the great 
farming interests of Calhoun County. He is pleas- 
antly situated in Richwoods Precinct where he owns 
one of the many fine farms for which this locality 
is noted. Mr. Bain was born in Lincoln County, Mo., 
December 9, 1848. His father, Jolin Bain was born 
in Kentucky December 17, 1806, his father having 
been a pioneer farmer of that State. He went from 
there to serve his country in the war of 1812 and 
lost his life. 

The father of our subject was but six j-ears old 
when his father died and he was reared by his 
mother an<l step-fatlier. He early learned the trade 
of a stonemason and went to Missouri when a 
young man and was a pioneer of Lincoln County. 
He bought a tract of timber land seven miles from 
Troy and erected thereon n cabin for the shelter of 
his family, and other necessary buildings. He 
worked at his trade part of the time and the rest of 
the time was engaged in farming, continuing his 
residence there until 1860, when he wentto Arkan- 
sas and settled near Little Rock. He was there 
when the war broke out and on that account as he 
was a Union sympathizer he returned to this county 
and bought a tract of land that he might carr^' on 
farming here. Only part of it was improved and 

the rest of it was in timber, but he did not clear 
much of it as he soon sold it and moved to Madison 
County, Mo. ; from there he again went to Arkan- 
sas where he died about 1878. 

Our subject was united in marriage in early 
manhood to Mary Guinn who was born in Lincoln 
County, N. C. in 1812. Her father, George Guiiui 
was a Virginian by birth and went from there 
to South Carolina with his parents, and thence to 
North Carolina where he married, t.aking as his 
wife Annie Wheeler, a native of North Carolina. 
He flnaily moved to the Territory of Missouri 
traveling overland and was a pioneer of Lincoln 
Count}'. He bought land near Troy which he 
developed into a farm and made his home until 
his death, and his wife also died in Missouri. ]\Irs. 
Bain now resides in Batchtown with her children. 
She is the mother of thirteen children, of whom 
tlie following twelve lived to maturity: William, 
Mary, Effle, Julia, John, Emeline, Rhoda, George, 
Martha, Levi, Charles and Sarah. James, the first 
born died young. 

Levi Bain, of whom we write was twelve years 
old when he came to this county with his parents. 
He was reared to agricultural pursuits and by the 
time he had attained manhood was a thorough prac- 
tical farmer. He lived with his parents until he 
was fourteen years old and then became self-sup- 
porting, working out by the day or month until his 
marriage. After that important event in his life 
he rented farm land one year and then located on 
a tract of eighty acres of land that his father-in- 
law gave to his wife, on section 16, Ricli woods 
Precinct. He soon bought eighty acres adjoining 
it on the same section and now has it under sub- 
stantial improvement. He has the greater part 
clear and under admirable cultivation and has a 
roomy well-ordered set of frame buildings. He 
has a fine orchard of nearly twenty acres, choice 
fruit trees of various kinds, and from it he derives 
an excellent income. 

Mr. Bain took unto himself a wife February 26, 
1870, in the person of Rebecca (Wilson) Powell, 
a daughter of A. C. and Sarah Wilson, of whom an 
extended sketch appears elsewhere in this work. 
Mr. and Mrs. Bain have eight children living 
named as follows: Mary, Ida, Levi W., Ora, Lottie, 



Blanche, Rose, and Rebecca. Mrs. Bain had one 
child by a former marriage named Sallie. Mr. Bain 
is a stalwart ])emocrat in his political views and is 
a good citizen of his precinct. He is a worker who 
understands well how to direct his labors advan- 
tageously and his thrift and good maniigement are 
evidenced in the appearance of his farm and in the 
reputation that he enjoys of being a good farmer. 

1 LIAS SIMPSON. This well-known resident 
,^ of Riehwoods Precinct, Calhoun County, is 
I' — ^ one of the men whose life presents an ex- 
ample of unswerving integrity, persistent industry 
and intense loyalty, worthy of the emulation of the 
rising generation. He was born in Effingham 
County, October 10, 1837, is of remote Scotch an- 
cestry in the paternal line and is the worth}^ sou of 
respected parents. His grandfather, Abel Simpson, 
was born in Ireland whence he came to America 
when a young man. He married in Alabama, but 
spent the lat years of his life in Illinois. He was 
a soldier in the War of 1812 and his occupation 
was that of a farmer. 

George Simpson, the father of our subject, was 
born and reared in Alabama, coming to this State 
with his parents when a young man and being one 
of the early settlers of Eltingham County. In 18G1 
he enlisted in the Fifteen! Ii Illinois Infantry and 
served until after the close of the war. He was 
severely wounded at Little Rock, Ark., and is now 
a pensioner of the United States government. In 
1865 he removed to Jersey County where he is now 
living at the rii)e old age of eighty-four years. He 
married Nancy Br\-ant, who died in Etflngiiam 
County many years ago. 

Elias Simpson was born in Effingham County 
October 10, 1837, and was bereft of his mother in 
infanc}'. He taken in charge bj- an aunt and 
cared for by her until ten years old, when he went 
to Coles County to live with another aunt. He 
was reared amid the surroundings of farm life, 
adopted the occupation to which he had been bred, 
and was laboring thereat when the Civil War be- 
gan. The attempt upon the Uni(jn aroused him 

from his peaceful pursuit and Kl. Siun|)ter had 
scarcely been fired upon ere he had <li'terinincd tliat 
his duty l.ay in the front of battle. .June 10, 1861, 
his name attached to the muster roll of Com- 
pany B, Seventh Illinois Infantry, of which regi- 
ment we find the following in the Adjutant-Gener- 
al's report: "It was the first organized regiment 
from Illinois mustered into the United States ser- 
vice and was the first to return to the Capital for 
re-cnlistment. It was the only regiment in the 
whole army to buy its own guns — Henry rifles, 
sixtceu-shooters — -and pay for them out of the 
meagre salary of 8I3 per month." 

After serving with the regiment until the 
expiration of their term, July 2.5, 1861, Mr. Simp- 
son immediatelj' re-enlisted in the same company 
and on December 22, 1863, veteranized. The more 
important battles in which he participated were 
Ft. Donelson, Shiloh, luka, Tallahatchie, Swallow 
Bluff and Altoona. During a skirmish in Northern 
Alabama, Blay 7, 1864, he was captured by the en- 
emy, taken to Mobile, and from there to Ander- 
sonville. He was confined there five months, then 
tr.insferred to Florence, S. C, hut before reaching 
the latter place he and a comrade named William 
Allen jumped from the train and succeeded in mak- 
ing their escape. This was February 26, 1865, and 
they rejoined their regiment at Washington City 
and took part in the Grand Review. Mr. Simpson 
was mustered out with the regiment and honorably 
discharged at Louisville, Ky.. July 9, 1865. 

When his services were no longer needed in the 
armies of his country Mr. .Simpson resumed the arts 
of peace, making his home in Calhoun County. He 
has operated threshing machines, clover huUersand 
sawmills, has bought and improved a good piece of 
property upon which he resides, and is able to sup- 
ply his family with the comforts and many of the 
luxuries of life and still lay .aside something for a 
rainy day. His army days are lived over again in 
association with his comrades in Calhoun Lodge, 
No. 448. G. A. R. 

Mr. .Simpson is a peaceable, law-abiding citizen, 
interested as all good citizens should be in the up- 
building of the country and the thorough establish- 
ment of the civilizing institutions of the Ian 1. His 
attractive home is presided over by u lady who bore 



the maiden name of Olive Fuller and who became 
liis wife March 17. 1872. She was bom in tiie 
Precinct in which she. now lives and is a daughter 
of Alanson and Harriet ^Twitchell) FuUcr, who 
were natives of New York and pioneer settlers here. 
Mr. and Mrs. Simpson have five children — Nettie, 
Lloyd, Myrtle, and Harrison and Morton, twins. 

v^ ular and beloved ])astor of 
'J^ W olic Church at Brussels, 


f St. Mary's Cath- 
was born in the 
village of St. Peters in the Grand Duchy of 
Baden, Germany. His father, John Winterhalter, 
was a farmer and passed his entire life in the 

Our subject was left an orphan at a very earlv 
age and vvas for a time cared for by relatives, but 
when still quite young had to depend upon his own 
exertions for a living. He received excellent 
school advantages in his native land, anfl attended 
school quite regularly between the ages of seven 
and fourteen years. He ambitious to see some- 
thing more of the world, and to make more of life 
than he could in the land of his nativity and at the 
age of nineteen years he came to America. He 
was naturally studious and a good scholar, and at 
the age of twenty-two entered St. Thomas College 
at Bardstown, Ky., from which he was graduated 
five years later with high honors. He is of a reli- 
gious nature and desiring to enter the priesthood 
he prepared for his new vocation at St. Mary's 
College at Cincinnati, and was graduated from the 
theological department of that institution two and 
one-half j'ears later. 

Our subject ,vas ordained as priest , at Springfield, 
III., in 1864, and was assistant pastor at Spring- 
field, Columbia and Decatur, this State, a short 
time. He was then appointed to take charge of the 
church of his faith at Piopolis in Hamilton County, 
and continued there until 1870, doing a good work. 
In that ytnr he came to St. IMary's and has been 
here since. He has accomplished much during his 
residence in this place and has now under his charge 
one of the most flourishing churches in the diocesc. 

He has infused new life into the society, which has 
grown greatly under his administration, and now 
includes eighty families, over whose spiritual wel- 
fare he watches tenderly. Under his pastf)rate new 
buildings have been erected including the church, 
which is a handsome brick structure, 40x85 feet in 
dimensions, of a modern st^le of architecture; a neat 
and commodious parsonage also of brick, and a 
substantial school building, which is in charge of 
the Sisters from St. Joseph's, St. Louis, and has an 
attendance of from seventy-five to eigiity [jupils. 
The buildings with their ample and tastefully laid 
out grounds are an ornament to the village, and the 
readers of this volume will be pleased to see a view 
of them herein. 

Father Winterhalter is a man of fine scholarship 
and much culture, is an influence for good among 
his people and is well known and liked outside of 
his society. 

"iflOHN D. ROSE. This name will be at once 
recognized as that of the editor and pro- 
prietor of the Calhoun Herald, jiublished 
at Hardin, and his many friends will he 
pleased to sse an account of his life and labors 
in this Album. The life of a country editor is one 
which calls for an unfailing supply of t.act, a keen 
appreciation of the wants of the people in regard to 
news, and the faculty of wielding scissors and pen 
rapidly and efiicieutl}-. The journals published in 
our smaller towns and villages are expected to fur- 
nish their readers with all the important items of 
local and general information, and few consider 
that the facilities afforded the editor, are much less 
than those of his city brother, with whose sheet his 
own must comi)ete in interest. No one. therefore, 
is more deserving of credit when successful, or of 
S3'mpathy if unsuccessful, than an editor. 

A brief glance at the ancestral history will show 
whence Mr. Rose derives his persevering, entei pris- 
ing spirit, and the mental qualities which, combined 
therewith are giving him success in the journalistic 
Beld. Going back a few generations wc come to 
Francis M. Rose, a native of Virginia, and the son 









— ^ 


I — 



















I — 








of a German emigrant, t'l-ancis Rose became a 
pioneer in Giles County, Tenn., and there his son, 
William W., spent liis entire life. The latter mar- 
ried Lucinda Hickman, a native of Tennessee, who 
is still livina; in Giles County, being now eighty- 
live years old. 

In the family of the couple just mentioned is a 
son, Francis M., who was born in Giles County, 
Tenn., November 8, 1822. lie received an aca- 
demic education, and in his early manhood began 
teaching, carrj'ing on his labors in his native .State 
until 1849, then going to Jlissouri and continuing 
his profession there. After a time he joined an ex- 
ploring expedition, and traveled with wagons and 
on horseback through the territory now embraced 
in Kansas, Nebraska, and the Indian Territory. In 
July. 1853, he came to Calhoun Couuty, 111., and 
began teaching in the northern part of the county. 
With the exception of one year, this county has 
been his home since that lime. For a time he 
was engaged in dealing in staves, which in the 
early history of the county was extensivelj' carried 
on, but the greater part of his time has been de- 
voted to farming and school teaching. His family 
co'nsists of six children, the subject of this sketch 
being the third in order of birth. 

In this county, December 30, 1855, Francis Rose 
was married to Lavina Leeper. That lady was 
born in Marion County, Ind., February 15, 1839, 
and her parents were natives of Kentucky and Vir- 
ginia, respectively. She accompanied them to St. 
Charles County, Mo., in 1849, butaj'ear later they 
took up their residence in Calhoun Count}-, this 
State, where both died in 1852. Besides our sub- 
ject the familj' of Mr. and Mrs. Francis M. Rose 
includes William T., whose home is at Summit 
Grove; Mary L., wife of T. N. Tharp, living in 
Carlin Precinct; Francis L., whose home is in 
Crater Precinct: Henr^' A., who lives in the same 
precinct: and Jesse L., who died when eighteen 
years old. 

The gentleman who is the subject of this bio- 
graphical sketch, was born on a farm in Crater 
Precinct, October 22. 18G0. He was reared and 
educated in the count\-, beginning to assist his fa- 
ther on the farm when quite .young, but devoting 
every siiare moment to his studies. He had an ar- 

dent desire for knowledge, quickness of compre- 
hension, and the strong will which enabled him to 
acquire information while others were |)ursuing the 
sports of the young. When twenty-one years old 
he began teaching, making that his business until 
1890. He imbued his pupils with something of his 
own spirit and love of learning, and won their good 
will by his heartfelt sympathy. During the period 
which be devoted to pedagogy, Mr. Rose was also 
a re|)resentative of some of the best fire and life in- 
surance companies in the United States. On Jan- 
uary 25, 1890, he purchased the plant of the Cal- 
houn Herald, and is now devoting himself witli 
assiduit}' to the work of an editor. He has a job 
office, and is working up an excellent business in 
that department. He continues his insurance busi- 
ness, but gives himself particularly to journalism. 
For a few short years Mr. Rose enjoyed a hapjjy 
mairied life, having been wedded August 19, 1885, 
to Eva M. Nevius, who passed awa}- August 4, 
1889. Jlrs. Rose was born at Summit Grove, this 
county, November 7, 1860, being a daughter of D. 
S. H. and Sarah Nevius. She was an intelligent, 
lovable woman, whose earl}- death is mourned by 
many sincere friends. She left one son, Guy D. 
Mr. Rose belongs to Calhoun Lodge, No. 444. 1. O. 
O. F. His bearing is gentlemanly and courteous, 
his disposition kind, and his habits manl}' and up- 
right. He is therefore well respected by those who 
know him and his future career will be watched 
with great interest. 

WfgS^ICTOR PREGALDIN. A native of sunny 
\v / France, our subject was born in Lorraine, 
^ July 22, 1835. His father, Anton Pregal- 
din, was also a native of that beautiful vine-covered 
district, in which he spent his entire life, following 
the trade of a baker. His familj' consisted of three 
cliildren, two of whom, Victor and Peter came to 
America, the latter being a resident of St. Louis. 
The daughter, Hormine, still resides in her native 

Our subject attended school until eighteen years 
of age acquiring an excellent education, and then, 



filled with the amliilions of youth wiiich ever 
looks to the beyond for a realization of its hopes, he 
decided to seek the shores of America, tiiat land of 
promise and wide opitortunities. Sailing from 
Havre, IMarcli 1, 1854, on the "Vanilusee" he 
landed at New Orleans on the ■2Gth of April fol- 
lowing. From that city he went to St. Louis, Mo., 
and soon after engaged in the lumber business, 
buying wood, hoop-poles, staves, etc., throughout 
the surrounding counties, chiefly in the Illinois 
counties of Calhoun, Jersey and Greene, and ship- 
ping down the river on barges or on rafts. 

After 'his marriage in 1865 Mr. Pregaldin located 
on the farm of one hundred and sixty acres in 
Hardin Precinct, wiiich he now owns and occupies, 
continuing for a few j-ears to manage the lum- 
ber business also. The wife of our subject was form- 
erl3' Mrs. Seraphine (Gaudard) De Ljharlais, a 
native of Canton Freiburg, Switzerland, and a 
daughter of John Gaudard. By her first marriage 
she became the motlier of two daughters, Ellen and 
Elizabeth. Of her union with our subject, one son, 
Anton J., has been born. 

Mr. Pregaldin is a liepublican in politics and 
lias served as a member of the School Board of 
District No. 4 ever since its organization. He was 
also the Census Enumerator for Hardin Precinct in 
1890. Mr. Pregaldin is a very intelligent and well 
educated man, speaking several languages and con- 
stantly adding to his store of knowledge by a pe- 
rusal of the best authors of the past and present. 
He and his famil}' are justl}' held in high regard 
by the entire community. 

^-*-^ ^ 

\|)OSIAH S. ROWAND, the well-known drug- 
gist of Barry, Pike County, who is honored 

j and respected throughout the entire com- 
(^^' m unity, is one of the oldest business men 
in the county and is still actively engaged in busi- 
ness. He is a native of Gloucester, N. J., where 
he w.ns born April 25, 1813. His father, Thomas 
Kowand, was a native of the same place and his 
father, wlioso given name was John, is also sup- 
posed to have been born there and is a descendant 

of some of the early settlers of the State. He was 
a member of the Societ}' of Friends and reared his 
cliildren in the same faith. He spent his entire 
life ill New .Jersey. 

The father of our subject learned the trade of a 
blacksmith and followed it at Iladdenvillc or Row- 
andtown. He spent his last years at the home of 
his eldest daughter in l^hiladelphia. The mother 
of our subject, wluise maiden name was Elizabeth 
Sharp, was also a native of New Jerse_v, and she 
died in Pliiladei])liia in 1846. The parents of our 
subject reared nine children — Joseiih T., Cliarles, 
John R., Hannah A., Mary, Hamilton, Emma and 

The subject of this biographical review lived in 
his native State until he was fourteen years old, 
and then accom))anied his parents to Philadelphia, 
soon after commenced work in a sash factory 
and was there employed the greater part of the 
time until 1832. He then engaged as a clerk in his 
brother John's store in Philadelphia. He acquired 
a thorough knowledge of the drug business in all 
its details, and in 1850 established himself in that 
line, on the corner of Eleventh and Brown Streets, 
Philadelphia. He conducted that business on that 
site until 1854, and in 1856 he came to Barry, 
feeling sure that for a young man of enterprise, 
energy and good cai)acitj', a newly settled country 
would afford better opportunities for business, and 
he has ever since had a drug store here. This is 
neatl}' fitted up, is well stocked with all kinds of 
drugs and other articles, and is in all respects a 
well-managed establisliment that brings in its 
owner a good annual income. 

When he came here Mr. Rowand found Barry a 
small town of about eight hundred people. .Since 
then he has seen its population doubled and has wit- 
nessed its growth into a flourishing and busy little 
city. Within his time, all branches of business 
have changed hands, and he is now the oldest bus- 
iness man in the city in regard to the length of 
time in which lie has been established here if not 
in point of age. Though he has passed the mile- 
stone that marks a life c>f seventy -seven years, he 
is still hale and vigorous, is as prompt and active 
as a much younger man, and attends to his Iiusi- 
ness regularly. He is a man of frank, open mind, 



of .1 generous anil jovial disposition, and is a oen- 
eral favorite witb all about him. He keeps up his 
interest in politics and uses his influence in favor 
of tlie Republican part}'. He and his wife are 
true and consistent members of the Baptist Church, 
and are never found wanting in Christian charity 
and synipatliy towards tiiose in affliction. 

Our subject has been very fortunate in his do- 
mestic relations, having found in his wife a faith- 
ful companion ami helpmate. They liave two sons 
living — Bethuel and John. IMr. and Mrs. Rowaud 
have l)een called upon to endure the sorrow of 
parting with some of their children, as follows: 
Horace, who died in April. 188C. at the age of 
forty-four j-cars; Isabel, who died in her twentieth 
year, and Randolph, who died in his ninth year. 



<« IVILLIAM J. TALBERT. This gentleman 
y -„/' is entitled to a place among the old settlers 
Vr^ of Pike County, his residence here having 
begun in the year 18.33. He is thoroughly in- 
formed regarding the privations and hardships that 
were endured by the earl}' settlers, and the scenes 
and incidents connected with life on the frontier, 
where log houses, horaesimn clothing, and primi- 
tive household utensils were the rule. In those 
da3's the settlers were bound together by strong ties 
of mutual interest and protection, and a kindly 
spirit was engendered such as is scarcely known to 
thickly-settled districts. The sturdy virtues of 
persistence, zeal, goodwill and free-handed hospi- 
tality were everywhere manifest, and no one who 
dealt honorably by his neighbor, was looked down 
upon on account of his financial circumstances. On 
the contrar}', every one was ready to lend a helping 
hand, and friends gathered from far and near to 
raise a house, make a little clearing, or otherwise 
aid in establishing a new home. 

'I'he birthplace of our subject was Washington 
County, Va., in which Stale his parents, James and 
Kmily (Jones) Taibert, had been reared and mar- 
ried. A week after their union the husband en- 
li^ti'd in the War of 18r2, and being so fortunate 

as to return from the scenes of deadly conflict, he 
engaged in firming. In 1830 the family removed 
to Randolph County, III., whence they went to Mis- 
souri, and in 1833 came to Pike County, 111. A 
home was established in Atlas, where James Tai- 
bert kept a tavern for a year, after which be located 
on a farm west of New Canton. He took up his 
residence in a hewed log house, and began to im- 
prove the farm upon which he remained until 18.')4. 
He then removed to Barry, where his death occur- 
red in 1865, his wife having died two years pre- 
vious. The family of James and Emily Talbcrt 
included five sons and four daughters. 

The gentleman whose name introduces this sketch 
was born July 1'2, 1818, and was fourteen years old 
when the first removal was made to this State. He 
remained with his parents until be had jjassed the 
age of twenty-one. accompanying them to Mis- 
souri, and later to Pike County. During his boy- 
hood and youtli he pursued his studies in the old- 
fashioned logschoolhouses, becoming as well versed 
in the practical branches of knowledges as the cir- 
cumstances would permit. When about twenty- 
two years old he went to learn the tanner's trade, 
and after working as an apprentice two years, 
started a business of his own, one and a half miles 
east of New Canton. He carried on the enterprise 
at that place twenty-si.x years, and although he did 
not become a millionaire, he was able t(j live well, 
and lay aside something for future needs. 

About 1864 Mr. Taibert bought land on section 
36, Kinderhook Township, and establishing himself 
there im[)roved the place in many ways, settino- 
out an orchard and otherwise adding to its value 
and attractive appearance. He has one hundred 
and thirteen acres of fertile land, which, by means 
of due rotation of crops and the most approved 
methods of cultivation, has been made to produce 
abundantly of the fruits of the earth, and to "ive a 
satisfactory yield in quality as well as quantity. 
Mr. Taibert still manages his .agricultural affairs, 
but has rented most of his land. He keeps »ood 
stock of various kinds, and his home is one of com- 
fort and refinement. 

November 20, 1841. Mr. Taibert led to tlie 
hymeneal altar Miss Elizabeth Hull, who was born 
in Randolph County, 11'.. March 20, 182.'>, For 



nearly half a century, Mrs. Talbert aided her hus- 
band by her counsel, her sympathy, and the labor 
of her hands in household affairs, then laid aside the 
cares of life to enter into rest, dying January 21, 
1890. To the happy couple nine children had 
come. ''Some are mairied, some are dead," one 
daughter alone remaining with her father on the 
homestead: Sarah E. died when six years old, and 
William K. at tlie age of nine; George, who was 
born March 11, 1857, died when nineteen years old; 
Hattie, born July 11, 18G3, lived to the age of 
twenty-four \'ears. The survivors of the circle are 
Thomas N., born January 28, 1850, whose home is 
in Washington; Martha E., her father's house- 
keeper and com()anion, who was born February 28, 
1852; Mary I., wiio was born Januar}' 25, 1855, 
married J. Dilley, and lives in Denver; Charles L., 
who was born October 20, 1859, and resides in 
Springfield, Mo.; Etta A., who was born January 
11, 1865, married F. A. Clark, and lives in Barry 
Township, Pike County. 

Mr. Talbert is a man of Christian character, lidd- 
ing membership in the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
of which he was Class-Le.ader eighteen years, and 
Sunday-school Superintendent an equal lengtii of 
time. In politics he is a sturdy Republican, and 
as he voted for our present President looks back 
with delight to tlie casting of his first vote, which 
was for William Henry Harrison. He has ad- 
vanced the interests of the traveling public as Road 
Overseer, and been useful in the educational field 
as School Director. 

<| felLLIAM P. CLUGSTEN. The fact that a 

wAw ''^■'^" ^'^^ '" ''''^ service of iiis country 
W^ during tlie trying days of the Civil War is 
sufficient to cause him to be looked upon with favor 
by all loyal Americans. When to this is added a 
manly character, industrious habits and business 
acumen, the result is the respect and esteem of all 
who enjoy his acquaintance, and a position of in- 
fluence in the community of which he forms a part. 
Such a place in the minds of Calhoun County citi- 
zens is held liy the gentleman whose name intro- 

duces these paragraphs, who for more than twenty 
years has been identified with the interests of Ham- 
burg Precinct. 

Mr. Clugsten is descended in both lines from 
German ancestors and his parents, John and Caro- 
line (Alford) Clugsten, were natives of Pennsyl- 
vania. They were quite early settlers in Scioto 
County, Ohio, and in Portsmouth the father carried 
on the jewelry business for a time. There our sub- 
ject opened his C3'es to the light January 16, 1842. 
He was one of five children born to his [larents, 
and is tlie youngest of those who are now living. 
The other survivors are Eveline, wife of Charles E. 
Rose, who resides in Hamburg, and Mary, wife of 
Robert Jordan, whose home is in Xebraska. Oui- 
subject was reared to manhood in his native county, 
and pursued the common-school branches in the 
schools of Portsmouth. 

The patriotism which slumbers in the bre.ast of 
every true American, was aroused to life by tlie 
firing upon Ft. Sumter, and our subject, although 
he lacked some months of having leached his ma- 
jorit3', was determined to offer his services to his 
country. October 21, 1861, he entered the navy 
as second assistant engineer on the tug "Sampson," 
from which he was transferred a year and a half 
later to the tug "Thistle." He served on the latter 
about thirty months, his connection with the navy 
coraiirising over four years. June 5. 1863, he was 
promoted to be second assistant in charge, and as 
such served until he was honorably discharged, 
November 30, 1865. His position was one of great 
responsibilitj- and extreme danger, requiring fully 
as much discretion and courage as that needed by 
the soldiers who led the van in battle. Mr. Clug- 
sten particiiiated in tlie naval engagements at Ft. 
Henry, Ft. Pillow. Arkansas Post, and a minibcr of 
others less famous. 

After receiving his discharge, our subject re- 
turned to his native State, then went to Albany, 
N. v., and securing employment as a fireman on 
the New York Central Railroad, remained in that 
State five months. In 1868 he came to Calhoun 
County, III., where he has since resided. He is en- 
gaged in business as a silversmith and jeweler — a 
luisiness which he has followed more or less during 
his life, having begun to learn the trades when quite 



young. In connection willi that business, he is en- 
gaged in fruit raising, having over ninety-one acres 
of land on section 2G, Hamburg Precinct, upon 
wliich stand four hundred apple trees of different 

•January 16, 1869, JNIr. C'lugston was married to 
Elmira Praul, willi wliom he lived happily until her 
demise, January 16, 1875. The union was blessed 
by the birth of two children, Charles and LaP'aj'- 
ettc, the former of whom is now deceased. On In- 
dependence day. 1875, Mr. Clugsten was again 
married, his bride on tliis occasion being Amanda 
Nimrick. a native of Calhoun County, who has be- 
come the motlier of two children, Xellie and John. 
Mrs. Clugsten is, like her husliand, an active mem- 
ber of society, and boasts of a large circle of friends. 
Mr. Clugsten has served his fellow-citizens in the 
capacitj- of School Director. He always deposits a 
Republican ballot on election daj'. In the manage- 
ment of his business affairs he exhibits the strictest 
integrit\', and his word is considered as good as his 

- oco - 

, ATH AN W. JONES. This gentleman, who 
was the first actual settler in (iriggsville. 
Pike County, has been a very important 
factor in the history of the communitj' and closely 
identified with that of- the entire county. He has 
led a very active life, and even yet, although eight3'- 
seven j'ears of age. is mentally and phj'sically equal 
to many men twenty years his junior. Pike County 
nia\- well be proud to claim him as a citizen and to 
know that manj of his descendants are filling 
important positions of trust in various cities of the 
I'nion, adding to the lustre of a name that is already 
highly respected. 

Our subject was born in "Worcester County, 
Mass., April 27, 1803, and passed his boyhood amid 
the surroundings of farm life. His father having 
died, the lad was apprenticed to a baker in Wil- 
mington when fourteen years of age, and remained 
with that gentleman until his term was out. He 
then went to Boston, first working as a journeyman 
and then beginning business for himself, ere long 
transferring his establishment lo Arlington, where 

he resided until 1830. Physicians having told him 
that his wife must leave the sea coast, he came West 
to look over the country. His journey was full of 
adventure, seventeen days being consumed in going 
from Cincinnati, Ohio, to St. Louis, Mo. The 
travel across the countrj- being so tedious and try- 
ing, he determined to return to Boston bj' boat via 
New Orleans. At the mouth of the Ohio River 
an accident occurred to the vessel, but Mr, Jones 
finally reached New York, whence by stage, boat 
and rail, he arrived in Boston in February, 1831. 

Mr, Jones embarked with his family- on a packet 
for New Orleans, thence coming up the rivers to 
Cairo and St. Louis, the Indian agent for Chicago 
being a fellow passenger. The part3' continued by 
boat to Naples, 111., whence a team conveyed them 
to Jacksonville. There Mr. Jones was employed 
as Steward in the college until, in companj' with 
Joshua R. Stanford and David R. Griggs, he opened 
the first store in Pike County north of Atlas, then 
the count3' seat. When a town was founded Mr. 
Griggs was determined to name it in honor of O'lr 
subject, but Mr. Jones rebelled, saying there would 
be plenty of Jonesvilles in the country but no other 
Griggsville, and so called it after his partner. At 
that time there was no such place as Pittsfield and 
many of the other thriving towns of the county 
were as yet unknown. 

Mr. Jones was the first man to buy grain in this 
section and ship to St. Louis. He had a warehouse 
on the Illinois River for that purpose. The firm 
soon sold out their mercantile business and Mr. 
j Jones became a farmer, following that avocation 
I until old age compelled his withdrawal from active 
! life. He was formerly agent for the McCormick 
Reapers and made the best record known in selling 
them. Throughout his long life the course of Mr. 
Jones has been marked with sterling integrity, zeal 
in whatever he undertook, whether for himself or 
the public, and a due regard for the feelings and 
needs of those about him. '-Tncle Nathan W.Jones" 
is respected and venerated by all who know him 
and may well be pointed out .as a model to the 
younger generation. 

The marriage of our subject was solemnized in 
Boston, August 17, 1823, his bride being Miss 
Hannah P. (Hazier. This lady was a native of Ips- 



wicli, Essex County, Mass., daughter of David 
Glazier, a seaman and officer wiio was lost at sea. 
She was born December 10, 1801, and died Febru- 
ary 7, 1888. She possessed the qualities of true 
womanhood, was a tender and devoted mother, a 
good neighbor, and a wife whose price was far 
above rubies. She belonged to the Baptist Church 
of which Mr. Jones is still a member. 

Mr. and Mrs. Jones reared eight children. The 
second born was George W., now Clerk of the 
Appellate Court at SpringHeld, and formerly Clerk 
of the Court of Pike County for twelve years. He 
is a man of more than ordinary intelligence, flnan- 
ciall}' strong, and well known. The first child was 
Sarah M., formerly the wife of Jas. H. Chase, but 
now deceased. The third was John Watson, a line 
little boy who died in Jacksonville six days after 
tiie arrival of the family from the East. William 
Henry died in California in his twentieth j'ear. J. 
Howard now lives in Chicago. The others were 
daughters who died when sixteen and fifteen res- 
l)ectively, and Charles W., the youngest child, is 
married and lives in Griggsville. 

^/ILLIAM T. F. PETTY. A prominent place 
P^ijl among the farmers of Pike County is ac- 
corded to this gentleman, who is located 
in Martinsburg Township and carries on agriculture 
and stock raising quite extensively. In the latter 
branch he makes a specialty of trotting horses and 
now has eighteen head of good animals. Mr. Petty 
is a native-born citizen of tlie county, descended 
from one of the settlers who came hither at so early 
a period that in raising a log house it was necessary' 
to gatlicr together nearly every man in the count}'. 
The memory of our subject extends back to some 
rather primitive scenes, among tliem being the old 
log schoolhouse with slab benches and writing-desk 
under the window, which he attended in early 

George Petty, the grandfather of our subject, 
was of (iernian descent, a farmer by occupation, 
and lived in Ohio. In Cincinnati, Fisher Petty, 
the father of our suliject, was born in 1 799. He 

grew to manhood in the town of his birth, learning 
the trade of a tanner, at which he continued to 
work until the son of whom we write was sixteen 
years old. About 1818 he changed his residence 
to Frankford, Pike Count}-, Mo., traveling on a 
flatboat to St. Louis, which was then but a village. 
In 1825 he came to this State, taking up Govern- 
ment laud on section 12, Martinsburg Township, 
and later securing a second quarter section. He 
devoted himself principally to his trade, but farmed 
to some extent for a number of years, but before 
his death he was quite extensively engaged in agri- 
culture. He first erected a log house, which was 
the home of the family for some years, having an 
addition built after a time. Indians were still to be 
seen in this section when Mr. Petty came hither, 
deer and panther and turkej's were ver}- numerous 
and bears were sometimes met with. 

While living in Missouri. Fisher Pett}' was 
united in marriage with Sarah Jackson, who was 
born in Kentuckj^ in 1799, and lived to be sixty-six 
years old. The husband survived until 1866, being 
sixt3--nine years old when called hence. Both were 
identified with the Baptist Church. Mr. Petty voted 
the Democratic ticket. He held the office of Com- 
missioner when Pittsfield was laid out. 

The family of this worthy couple consisted of 
nine sons and daughters, named respectively, Polly 
A., Jerome J., Alvin, James, Leroy, Lucinda E., 
Tabitha J., Sarah and Thomas. The daughters are 
now known as the Mesdames Bagby, Duffield, 
Young and Sealy. The maternal grandfather of 
our subject was Leroy Jackson, who was born 
October 2, 1772. 

The natal day of the subject of this biographical 
notice was March 19, 1841, and his birthplace was 
on the farm in Martinsburg Township which has 
been mentioned as the home of his father. He 
enjoyed such educational i)rivileges as the section 
afforded and in the intervals of study worked in 
the tankard, until fifteen years of age, thoroughly 
learning the trade. After his father turned his 
attention to farming, 3-oung Petty became well 
acquainted with the details of an agricultural life 
and fitted to carry on the vocation which has 
claimed his attention during his mature years. 
When twenty-one years of age he began his per- 



sonal career on the homestead, one hundred and 
sixty acres of which was willed to him a few j'ears 
later, when his parents died. He is now farming 
two hundred acres and has made some modern 
improvements upon the old |)laee. The residence 
which he occupies was i)nt up in 187."), and a com- 
modious barn in 1889. 

In 1864 Mr. Petty went to California, making 
the journey by the water route, and for two years 
was occupied in farming there. During this time 
both his father and mother died. In 1866 he 
returned hither, again using the water route, and 
took possession of his laud, where he has since 
remained. In politics he believes in and supports 
the principles of the Union Labor party. He is a 
man of more tiian average intelligence, progressive 
in his ideas regarding his own calling and matters 
which will advance the puWic welfare, and is in all 
respects a worthj' son of a father who was classed 
among the best of the pioneers. 

At the bride's home in this township, November 
22, 1860, Mr. Petty was united in marriage with 
Marj' J. Britton, with whom he lived happilj' until 
.1865, when she died at the early age of twenty- 
one years. She left one son, George R. In 1866 
Mr. Petty was again married, his bride being Caro- 
line Britton, who was born in this township, July 
7, 1843. She is a woman of estimable character, a 
consistent member of the Christian Church, and 
valued not only in the home circle, but in the com- 
munity of which she is a member. This union has 
been blest by the birth of three children, all living 
and named respeclivel}', Marj' E.. Clara H. and 
Ellen Blanche. The eldest is now 'the wife of C. 
M. Doss. 

--i— ^^^ 

isHOMAS H. COLEY of Pittsfield, holds the 
('/|^^^ important oflice of Treasurer of Pike 
^^^^' County. He has for along time been iden- 
tified both witli the agricultural and tlie educational 
interests of this section of country, and is promi- 
nent in its social, religious and public life. 

Mr. Coley was born in Putnam County, Ind., 
December 21. 1836. His father, William B. Colcy, 
was born in Virginia, October 10, 1799, a son of 

Isom Coley who was supposed to be of^German 
descent. The mother of our subject, Elizabeth 
(McLain) Coley, was a daughter of John McLain, 
a native of Irel.and, and she was born in German- 
town, Ky., in 1802, and there grew to womanhood 
and married. The father of our subject was a car- 
penter and joiner. He moved to Indiana and lo- 
cated near Greencastle, whence he' came with his 
family to Pike County in He settled per- 
manently on a farm in Martinsburg Township, and 
there followed the business of general farming quite 
profitably until his death Augusts, 187.). His wife 
and eight of his children survived him. there hav- 
ing been originally nine children, of whom eight 
giew to maturity and married, and six of them are 
still living. Of the children the following is writ- 
ten: Robert L, lives in Coles County, 111.; Nancy 
J. married William S. Brown and died in Gra3'son 
County, Tex.; Albert G. is a blacksmith in Pitts- 
field; Lewis J. died in Parke County, Ind.; Eliza E. 
is the wife of J. W. Crow of Calhoun, Henry 
County, Mo. ; Thomas H., our subject; John L. is 
a farmer of Pike County; Ann Elizabeth is the wife 
of B. T. Duftield of Edge wood, .Mo; Maiy V. mar- 
ried William A. Goodin and died in Pike County. 

Thomas H. Coley of whom we write, lived in his 
native countj' until he was fourteen years old and 
laid the basis of his education in its schools. He 
attended school a short liine in Pittsfield after 
coming to Pike Couuty, and then began life for 
himself as a farmer, and also engaged in teaching, 
following those vocations alternately. He subse- 
quently bought a steam flouring mill at El Dara. 
which he operated twelve years with good pecuni- 
ary success, and at the same time carried on his 
farm work in connection with milling. He still re- 
tains possession of his farm, which is well improved 
and is in every way a valuable and desirable piece 
of propert}-. 

In the fall of 1886, Mr. Coley was elected Treas- 
urer of Pike County, and assumed the duties of his 
office in December, 1886, for a term of four years. 
In the management of the affairs thus entrusted to 
him, he shows good financial talent, and excellent 
business ability, and is conducting the moneyed in- 
terests of the county in a very satisfactory- manner. 
Mr. Colej' has long mingled in public life, and 



while a resident of Derry Township, was one of its 
most prominent civic officials. He represented it 
on the County Board of Supervisors several years, 
and he was local Sciiool Treasurer for twelve years. 
Politically, he is identified with the Democrats. 
Religiously, lie is a. member of the Christian Church, 
and his whole career has been guided by its lofty 

Mr. Coley was married September 30, 1860, to 
Martha E. Goodin and their wedded life has been 
productive to them of much happiness. Mrs- 
Coley is a daughter of Hardin Goodin, who came 
from Missouri to Pike Countj'. The union of our 
subject and his wife has been greatly blessed to 
them b}' the birth of nine children as follows: 
Mary E., wife of Freil V. Chamberlain; Lewis H., a 
resident of Texas; ^Yilliam L , Principal of the 
Milton schools; Carrie M., a teacher in San Antonio, 
Tex.; Lucius A., a clerk; Henrj' Virgil, a school- 
boy; Lillie M., Goldie R. ; and George Everett. 
The four latter are at home with their parents. 

\Y70HN a. hoover, who is engaged in gen- 
eral farming and fruit culture on section 13, 
Montezuma Township, was horn on his fa- 
J titer's farm on section 8, January 2G, 1834. 
His parents, John and Cynthia A. (P.ntton) Hoover, 
were for many years residents of Pike county. 
Their marriage was celebrated in White County, 
111., and four years later they removed to Pike 
County, where thoj- spent the remainder of their 

Our subject was reared to manhood among the 
wild scenes of frontier life and in his youth was 
inured to hard labor. His educational advantages 
were very limited. He attended the first school 
built in Montezuma Township, which was taught 
by Walter Tucker, who is now deceased. The 
building was made of logs, the seats were of slabs 
and Ihe windows were covered with greased paper. 
Like a dutiful son Mr. Hoover remained at home 
assisting his father in the cultivation of farm until 
he had attained his majority, when he began life 
for himself. In company with his youngest brother, 

Eli, he rented the old homestead which together 
Ihey operated for five years, when he turned his 
attention to mercantile pursuits. Going to Milton 
in 1859 he entered the general merchandise store 
of William Crary, who afterward sold out to Will- 
iam McCrudden, with whom he remained as sales- 
man until 1869. His employer then sold out and 
removed to Nevada City, Mo., taking with him 
Mr. Hoover who assisted in openinga general store 
and continued as clerk for Mr. McCrudden for two 
j^ears. He then returned to his home in Milton, 
where for some time he was again engaged as a 
salesman, but during later years he h:ts devoted 
his time and attention to superintending his farms. 

On the 11th of December, 1889, Mr. Hoover was 
united in marriage with Miss Augusta, daughter of 
Isaac and Linnie (Siltoii) Ammerman, both of 
whom were natives of Missouri, in which State they 
were married and resided until 1875 when they 
came to Pike County, 111. The mother died in 
1880, but Mr. Ammerman is still living at the age 
of sixty-three jears. He served in the State Mil- 
tia of Missouri, doing duty at Rolla, Phelps County. 
He is a farmer by occupation and has followed that 
business throughout his entire life as a means of 
livelihood. Mrs. Hoover was one of nine children, 
seven of whom are living, namely : Henry, Ver- 
lenia, wife of Daniel Burns, of Griggsville; Re- 
becca, wife of Jasper Jennison, of Detroit, 111., by 
whom she has five children; Franz; Eunice, wife of 
Fred Stoner of Detroit Township, by whom she has 
three children; Eliza and Augusta. The mother of 
this family was a member of the Baptist Church. 

Mrs. Hoover was born October 30, lSo8, in 
Mary's County, Mo., and in her maidenhood she 
walked two and one-fodrth miles to and from 
school. She is a member of the Christian Church 
and in politics Mr. Hoover atliiates with the I'nion 
Labor party. He keeps himself well informed on 
all questions of general interest, whether political 
or otherwise and is a well-known citizen of this 
commnnity. He owns one hundred and twenty 
acres of land which is divided into two farms, each 
being su[)plied with all the necessary buildings and 
improvements. One of these he rents, while the 
other, situated on section 13. lie personally oper- 
ates. The greater part of his land is devoted to 







fruit culture. His apple orchard comprises twelve 
acres containing tive hundred trees; Ijeside these he 
raises plums, cherries, pears, peaches and apricots 
and a great deal of small fruit, such as blackberries, 
raspberries, gooseberries and currants. He proposes 
to engage extensivel}' in fruit culture and will no 
doubt be quite successful in his undertakings as he 
is a man of good business principles. 


ON. JOHN McDonald, whose portrait is 
y presented on the opposite page, was l.)orn in 
.=>^ Gilead Precinct, Calhoun County, February 
"^^ 10. 1832, and consequently is one of the 
oldest native-born citizens of this section. His 
father, John McDonald, w-as a native of Chambers- 
burg. Pa., his birth taking place in April, 1797. 
The grandfather of our subject, Edward McDonald, 
was a native of Ireland, and so far as known is the 
only member of his family' who came to America 
and made a permanent settlement. He located in 
Cliambersburg and there lived till his death. The 
maiden name of his wife was ^Mar}' Campbell, who 
was also born in the Emei-ald Isle of Scotch 
ancestry. They reared a family of seven children, 
as follows: Patrick, Perrin, John, James, Edward, 
Mary and JIaria. 

John, the father of our subject, was educated bj^ 
an uncle, into whose store he was afterward taken 
as book-keeper, retaining the position till 1825, 
when he resolveil to try his fortune in the far West. 
His first location was made in Wayne County, this 
.State, where he spent some time in teaching and 
clerking. He then removed to the vicinity of 
Galena and was employed in tlie lead mines for 
eighteen months. In 1829 he came to Calhoun 
County, settling in Point Precinct, where he taught 
one term of school. Removing from there to 
Ciilead, he spent his time in teaching and clerking 
till 1837, when he i)urchased a tract of timber 
land on section 23, now included in Hardin Pre-. 
cinct. There was a log cabin on the place, into 
which the family removed, and there the father 
resided till his death in July, 1846. In politics he 
was a Democrat, and served as Sheriff from 1836 

to 1840. lie was elected to the Slate Legislature 
three times in succession and was a member of that 
body at the time of bis death. He had also 
creditably filled the ofiices of County Commis- 
sioner, Assessor and Treasurer of Calhoun County, 
and was widely-known and highlj' I'espected. 

The maiden name of the mother of our subject 
was Ann Red. She was born in Pennsylvania; her 
father, Daniel Red, who was a native of Ireland, 
having come to America with his father at the age 
of seventeen years. Daniel Red settled in Penn- 
sylvania and farmed there for a while, removing 
to Wayne Count)'. III., at an early day, where he 
engaged in the mercantile business and also carried 
on farming. After a few years lie went to Calhoun 
County, settling in Point Precinct, where he pur- 
chased land and improved a farm, and on this 
place he died. The maiden name of his wife was 
Mary Welch, and she was born in the Keystone 
State, and spent her last years in Point Precinct. 
The mother of our subject died on the home farm 
in 1884. They reared a family of six children, 
named respective!)': Mary, John. .James, Charles, 
Ann and Stephen. 

John McDonald, our subject, was reared and 
educated in his native county, where be attended 
the pioneer schools held in the rude log school- 
houses, so often described in the history of those 
early times. His home surroundings were of the 
same primitive nature, his mother, like all the 
housewives of those days, carding and s|)inning 
the flax and wool, from which she manufactured 
the family wardrobes, and doing her cooking by 
the open fireplace. Her first stove was purchased 
in 1845, and doubtless its arrival was an event of 
great importance. 

At the death of his father our subject became the 
head of the famil\-,and has ever since managed the 
estate. He now owns U|)vvard of fifteen hundred 
acres, all in Calhoun County. The home farm 
comprises one hundred and eighty acres of land, 
the greater part of which is in the Illinois River 
bottoms; fiflj' acres of this property is in orchard. 
A view of his pleasant home ai)pears elsewhere in 
this volume. Mr. McDonald is a member of St. 
Joseph's Catholic Church, and in politics is a 
Democrat. His popularity in this section of the 



country is evinced In' the fact tliat he has been 
twice chosen to represent it in the State Li-gislature, 
his second election taking place in the fall of 18S8. 
He is a highly respected citizen, with whom no 
fault can be found, except that he prefers a life of 
single blessedness to that of the married state. "_ 



,^?^E0ROE R. SANDERSON is ably serving 

(ff , the public as Postmaster of Pittsfield. He 

V\;J]([ is a line representative of the natives of 
Pik-e County, wlio fought in the late war and did so 
much to preserve the Union in its integrity. He 
was born July 29, 1S40, on his father's homestead, 
near Summer Hill, iu Atlas Township. 

JohnR. Sanderson, the father of our subject, was 
a native of New York, and was born in Troy, 
March 7, 1800. He was a millwright in his early 
years, carrying on his trade in New York till his 
removal to Pike County in 1836, he thus becoming 
a pioneer of this county, and his industry, energy 
and enterprise aided in building it up. He settled 
near Summer Hill, and there erected the Rockport 
Flouring Mills, and for the rest of his active life 
was engaged at his trade, being a millwright, and 
placed himself in comfortable circumstances. He 
is still living at the venerable age of ninety years, 
and makes his home with his daughter, Mrs. A. G. 
Coley, iu Pittsfield. He married when a young man 
in New York, taking as his wife Miss Abigail 
Bennett, a native of New York. Their union 
was productive of four boys and two girls, 
of whom two' boys are deceased. The sons were 
named as follows: Robert B.. William, George 
R., and Charles F. The latter sacrificed his 
life on the altar of his country. He was a member 
of the Sixteenth Illinois Infantry and died while 
engaged in battle. 

George R. Sanderson passed his school days at 
Summer Hill, and began life for himself as a clerk 
in the store of Abbott & Dickson at Pittsfield. 
The breaking out of the war roused all of his 
patriotic fervor and he was among the first to spring 
to arms to defend the honor of our country, and in 
April, 18G1, his name was enrolled as a member of 

Company G, Eighth Illinois Infantry, commanded 
by Col. Richard Oglesby. Our subject served five 
years and one month and took part in many battles. 
He assisted in capturing Ft. Donelson. was present 
at Shiloh, was active in the siege »of Corinth, 
and in the siege and battles of Yicksburg, fought 
nobly at Ft. Henry, in the siege of Mobile and at 
Ft. Blakeslcy, where he was shot, a ball entering 
his chest near the heart and coming out on the left 
side. It was supposed he was mortally wounded, 
and he was taken to New Orleans, where he lay in 
a hospital suffering greatly some nine months. He 
then rejoined his regiment at Marshall, Tex. His 
services were recognized by his superiors, who 
found in him a very able soldier who was prompt 
in obeying orders, was decisive in action, cool and 
courageous in the heat of battle, and he whs com- 
missioned First Lieutenant. He was ordered to 
Springfield, 111., and finally mustered out of the 
service in the month of May, 1866. 

After the close of the war our subject began clerk- 
ing in Pittsfield for Furry, Adams & Thompson, 
with whom he remained two years, and his experi- 
ence there, with what he had gained in the mer- 
cantile business prior to the war, gave him a fine 
insight into business. He subsequently went to 
River Falls, Wis., where he acted in the same 
capacity for his brother, William Sanderson. He 
was engaged with him two years, and then return- 
ing to Pittsfield embarked in business on his own 
account, opening a store for the sale of boots and 
shoes. He was appointed Postmaster of Pittsfield 
in 1882. He served the remainder of President 
Arthur's administration, and retained the position 
some two years after President Cleveland took the 
chair. His whole course while in office was such as 
to secure the confidence of the people, with whom 
he is popular as he is always obliging, pleasant and 
courteous, and he performed his duties in a 
systematic business-like way. Hence it was that 
in November, 1889, hj received the compliment of 
a re-appointment to the Postraastership by President 
Harrison, and is carrying on the affairs of the office 
with his former promptness and ability, and to the 
satisf iclion of all whom he serves. 

In Mr. Sanderson the citizenship of his native 
county finds one who is in every way worthy of it, 



as has been proved by his noble course in time of 
war and by- his conduct in times of peace. Mr. 
Sanderson was happily married in the month of 
May. 1869, to Miss Matilda E. Matthews, a daughter 
of John Matthews, and tlieir pleasant home is 
blessed by the presence of their daughter, AnnaG., 
wlio is now in her sixteenth year. 

/<^EORGE H. WIIITTAKER. a resident of 
[|j (— p Pittsfield, is County Surve^yor of Pilve 
■V^J County, and is regarded as one of our most 
eflicient civic officials. He is a native of Rhode 
Island, born in the town of Lonsdale, in the month 
of October, 1852. His faliier, George Whittaker, 
was born in Lancashire, England, in 1814, and was 
the son of Roland Whittaker. 

The mother of our subject, Mary (Cunniff) 
Whittaker, is a native of Ireland, a daughter of 
Hugh and Bridget (Moran) Cunniff, and was born 
in 1813. She was the second vvife of the father of 
our subject, to whom she was united in marriage in 
1819, in tlie citv of Providence. R. I. Tliree chil- 
dren were born of their union, as follows: Mary- 
Ann, deceased; George H., our subject; and Eliza- 
betli, wife of P.atrick Morris, of Pittsfiejd. 

The father of our subject came to Pike County 
in 1857, and cast in his lot with its pioneiMS. He 
took up his residence in Pittsfield, and here died in 
1874, in his fifty-ninth year. George H. Whit- 
taker, of whom this sketch is written, is the grand- 
son of Hugh Cunniff, who was a man of fine parts 
and of unich learning, having received bis educa- 
tion at the noted Dublin College in Ireland. He 
was a surveyor, and it would seem that from him 
our subject inherited qualifications for the profes- 
sion and a taste for tlic work to which he has de- 
voted himself so many years. The father of our 
subject was a block printer of calicoes, and was em- 
ployed Rt his business in the factories at Providence 
until he removed to Pittsfield. 

He of whom we write was a mere lad when he 
came to this city, and his education was received 
mainly in the excellent public schools of Pitts- 
field, where he obtained high rank for scholarshii>. 

In due time he entered the profession of a teacher 
i'.aving been well prepared for the calling, and for 
four years, he was successfully engaged at it. At 
the expiration of that time Mr. Whittaker was ap- 
pointed Deputy County Surveyor under Isaac A. 
Clark for a term of four years. So ably did he dis- 
charge the duties tlius devolving upon him, tiiat it 
seemed to follow that he should be promoted to tiie 
position of County Surveyor, to wliich office he 
was elected when his term expired as Deputy. He 
acted in that capacity four years, and so well did he 
transact its business that he was re-elected and is 
still County Surveyor. Mr. Whittaker was united 
in marriage on the 29th of October, 1890. wiili 
Miss Rose B. McGary, a daughter of Bernard 
and Mary McGarj-, of Pittsfield. She was born in 
that place on the 10th of March, 1857. He is a man 
of bright, well trained mind, possesses a firm and 
resolute character, and stands high in his commu- 
nity both in public and private life. In political 
sentiment he is with the Democrats, and they have 
always enthusiastically supported him wiien he has 
been nominated for office. 

Mr. Whittaker is the proprietor of a fine little 
farm of sixt}' .acres, and lias built a neat and sub- 
stantial residence in the eastern part of the citv of 
Pittsfield, for himself, wife and aged mother for 
whom he cares in her declining years. 

'LBERr G. CRAWFORD, of the law firm 
of Orr ct Crawford, Pittsfield, although 
still on the sunny side of life has attained 
a iiigh rank among the lawyers of Pike 
County. His native ability and energy ensured 
his success when he determined to devote himself 
to legal studies, and the record which he is making 
has not disappointed his friends. He is a native of 
this county, liaving been born near Perry, March 
17, 1854. His parents, John G. and Rhoda ( Mc- 
Lear) Crawford, are living in Pittsfield, passing 
their declining years in the enjoyment of the com- 
forts of life, the confidence and esteem of their fel- 
low-men. and the devoted love of their children. 
Samuel Crawford, grandfather of our subject, 



was of Scotch-Irish extraction, being a member of 
a familj' which emigrated to America prior to the 
Revolution. He was living in Tennessee, wlien 
October 8, 1816, the son was born who became the 
father of our subject. In the same State Rhoda 
MeLear was born September 3, 1825. In 1836 
John G. Crawford came to the Prairie State, mak- 
ing his home in Scott County until 1847, tlien re- 
moving to Pike County, and locating on a farm in 
Fairmount Townsiiip. There he remained until 
his removal to the county seat. He and his good 
wife had thirteen children, of whom six are now 
living, our subject being the second son. 

The subject of this notice received his earl}' 
education in tlie scliools of Perry, after which he 
entered Blackburn University at C'arlin\ille, III. 
After completing the course of study there, Le read 
law with Jefferson Orr, at that time State's Attor- 
ney, and then going to Chicago, entered the Union 
College of Law, from which he was graduated in 
June, 1876. On July 4 of the same year, Mr. Craw- 
ford was admitted to the bar and began the prac- 
tice of his profession in Pittsfleld, carrying on his 
labors alone until 1881, when he formed a copart- 
nership with his former preceptor. He practices in 
all the courts, Federal, State and local, is in the en- 
joyment of a lucrative business, and is adding year 
by year to his reputation as one who understands 
the principles underlying, and the precedents estab- 
lished in the profession. 

Mr. Crawford has been twice married, first in 
1876 to Mary E., daughter of Dr. Doan, of Fair- 
mount, and herself a native of Pike County. She 
survived onl}' until October 7, 1877, when she 
closed her eyes in death, leaving an infant daugh- 
ter ten days old, who bears her mother's name, 
Mary Doan Crawford. A second matrimonial alli- 
ance was contracted by Mr. Crawford September 
.s, 1880, when he was united with Miss Charlotte, 
daughter of Capt. B. F. Westlake, who was a Pro- 
vost Blarshal during the war. The present Sirs. 
Crawfoifl is the mother of three children, one son 
and two daughters, named respectivel}-: Albert Jr., 
Florence and Edith. The neatness which charac- 
terizes the substantial dwelling occupied by our 
subject, affords abundant evidence of the house- 
wifclv skill of his wife, and the mention of her 

name is sufficient to indicate that she has many 
friends among the intelligent and worthy members 
of the community. 

The principles laid down by the Republican party 
find a stanch supporter in Mr. Crawford. He is 
identified with the Knights of Honor and the An- 
cient Order of United Workmen in which, as in 
the social circles of the town, his intelligence and 
courtesy give him prominence. Financially he is 
well situated, owning three good farms in Pike 
Count}' and one of eighty .acres in .Shelby County. 


<* l^/ILLIAM H. CROW, attorney at law and 
\rJ// Master iu Chancery at Pittsfleld, stands at 
\^/^ the head of his profession in Pike County. 
Aside from his legal abilitj' he possesses financial 
t-,lent of a high order and is one of the well to do 
men of this part of the country. 

Mr. Crow was born in the city of Wheeling, 
West Virginia, March 12th. 1848. Charles F. 
Crow, his father, was a native of Pennsylvania, 
and was a blacksmith by trade. He was a son of 
William Crow, a native of Germany. The mother 
of our subject was Margaret (Hughes) Crow. She 
was born in Virginia in 1834, and was a daughlir 
of George Hughes who was of Scotch descent. Si;e 
died in the spring of 1878. The father of our sub- 
ject is still living, m'lking his home in Carter 
County, Mo., and is in his seventy-first year, 
he having been born in 1820. 

William H. Crow is the second son of a family 
of five children, of whom four survive, the oldest 
brother being now deail. The others are George, 
a resident of Kansas; Wa3'ne, who lives in Texas; 
Mary C. Bales, a widow living witli her father. 
and our subject. The latter laid the foundation 
of his education in the public schools, and was 
thus well prepared for college when he entered 
Butler University, at Indianapolis, Ind. He pur- 
sued a course of study there ami afterward attended 
Eureka College, at Eureka, 111., and was thus finely 
equipped for the profession of a teacher, which he 
pursued the ensuing five years. He then aban- 
doned that vocation to take up the study of law 



witli .1. \V. .lolinson. iind was admitted to llie bar 
in 1883 at Pittsfield, wlieie lie established himself 
ill practiee. 

Ill 1877, Mr. Crow was elected Cdunly Superin- 
tendent of Sehools, and served in that ciipaeit}' for 
live years, having been ap|)iiinted for tlie .addi- 
tional year on account of the change in the school 
law. He was subsequently appointed Master in 
Ciianeery for a period of two yeais, was twice 
re-appointed and is now serving his third term. 
He is am lily fitted for this oltice, as he lias a thor- 
ough knowledge of the law, possesses keen and 
read}- judgment and is never influenced by per- 
sonal or money considerations. He is very promi- 
nent in the politicrd life of this county, being a 
leader among the Democrats and one of tiie finest 
campaign orators in the county. 

Mr. Crow has a decided talent for business and 
has become rich by dealing in real estate in Kansas 
City and Chicago. He has a handsome and sub- 
stantial residence in the west part of PiltsBeld and 
he owns two valuable farms and has a half interest 
in another. He is also interested in breeding draft 
horses and trotters and his farms well stocked 
with animals of a high grade. 

Mr. Crow was married September "2, 1869, to 
Miss Emma Clark of Eureka. III. Mrs. Crow is a 
daughter of Robert M. and Cynthia Clark. Mr. and 
Mrs. Crow are people of high social standing, and 
are valued members of the Christian Church. 



sides on section 26, Belleview Precinct, is 
numbered among the early settlers of Cal- 
houn Count\-, is a native of Virginia, and 
a daughter of Daviil and Elizabeth (Knight) Trow- 
bridge. Her father is now deceased and her mother 
is a resident of Calhoun Count3^ The daughter 
was born .lanuary 29, 1834, and received a fair 
education in the schools of her native State. After 
arriving at years of womanhood, she gave her 
hand in marriage to Henry V. Foiles, their union 
being celebrated July 17, 18.53. .Mr. Ecjiles was 
also a native of Viriiiuia and was a Ijrolher of John 

Foiles, whose sketch appears elsewhere in this 
volume. Their marriage was blessed with a large 
family of chililren of whom the following yet 
abide: Roselia, wife of William H.Tliarp of Cal- 
houn County; Elizabeth, wife of Alexander Libbel, 
of Calhoun County; John AV. residing in Callioun 
County; Mary C. wife of John .Skirven of Pike 
County; Eliza at home; Alice, wife of .Sloeum 
Glowers, of Missouri; Lewis L. of Caliioiin County; 
Luella, wife of Peter Miller of Wisconsin; and 
Thomas J. who makes his home in Calhoun County. 
Three of the famii}- are now deceased. Sabantha 
L., Harriet and Laura. 

About 1854, Mr. Foiles and his father visited 
Calhoun Count}-, III., witli the intention of making 
a permanent location should the}' find the country 
to be all that it had been represented to them. Tliej- 
were not disappointed in their hopes and after a 
year Mr. Foiles returned to Virginia and brought 
his famil}' to the new home whicli he had prepared 
for them in the West. In his youth he had learned 
the trades of wasonmakiiig and blacksmithiiig and 
he now built a shop on the farm of Uncle John 
Foiles where he worked at the two trades for some 
time. He afterward built a shop on the farm 
now owned by George Luraley. where he carried 
on business for a number of years. Being an ex- 
pert workman he soon won a liberal patronage and 
the excellent trade which he received was fast gain- 
ing for him a comfortable competence, but during 
the latter part of the war he was drafted into the 
service anil compelled to leave his home. He par- 
ticipated in several skirmishes and at the close of 
the war was honorably discharged. Returning to 
his home he once more resumed his former occu- 
pations which he continued up to the time of his 
death January 12, 1884. 

Mr. Foiles was a Republican in politics and a 
public-spirited and i)rogressive citizen whose death 
proved a great loss to the community in which he 
made his home. He enjoyed the confidence and 
esteem of his fellow-townsmen in a marked degree 
and the sympathy of the entire community was ex- 
tended to his bereaved family. He left to his 
widow a good farm of one hundred and sixty .acres 
of land which releases her from the cire which 
would devolve upon her had she to labor for her 



own support. Mrs. Foiles is a lady of many ex- 
cellencies of character and like her husband has 
many warm friends. 

Their son Lewis L. was born in Callioun County, 
March 26, 1868, and was educated in its public 
schools. Under the parental roof he spent the days 
of his childhood and at length, having attained to 
mature years, on August 10, 1890, he was joined 
in wedlock with Miss Mary Nevius, daughter of 
D. S. H. Nevius, whose sketcli appears on another 
page of this work. Lewis Foiles is a Republican in 
politics and is classed among the representative 
young farmers of the neighborhood. Upright and 
honorable in all his dealings, his word is as good as 
bis bond and he deserves special mention in this 
history. We lake great pleasure in presenting this 
brief sketch of the Foiles family, knowing that it 
will be received with interest by many of our 

— -i^m — 

ORRIS FISHER. It requires but a cur- 
sory view throughout the business streets 
of any municipality- to give an observer a 
fair idea of the most prominent and pro- 
gressive dealers. In walking about Hardin one 
will find several flciurishing establishments, but will 
soon he led to conclude that that uf our subject 
occupies the front rank. A handsonie frsme build- 
ing, o2xG9 feet and two stories in height, is the 
seat of the mercantile operations of Mr. Fisher, 
whose business tact and enterprise are meeting with 
their due reward in securing for him a competency. 
The upper floor of the building is occupied by the 
Odd Fellows and the lower is filled with a full line 
of groceries, dry-goods and other articles of house- 
hold use. The goods are nicely arranged, are well- 
selected and are willingly displayed by the courteous 

Mr. Fisher was born in the Dukedom of Coburg, 
now a province of Prussia, Feliruary 25, 1834. His 
father, .Idhn Fisher, was born in the same province 
and there grew to maturity and married Mary Reih- 
ienier. a native of the same place. John Fisher 
learned the trade of a shoemaker and followed it in 
his own land until 1836, when he came to .Vraerica. 

He had lost his wife, and their only child, our sub- 
ject, was left in charge of an uncle. Mr. Fisher 
settled in York County, Pa., buying a home and 
continuing to work at his trade there until about 
1854. He then came to the Prairie State and set- 
tled upon a farm a mile and a half north of Milton, 
Pike County. From that time until his decease he 
devoted himself principally to agriculture. 

Our subject two years old when his mother 
died and he remained with his uncle attending 
school until fifteen 3ears old. He then came to 
America to join his father and a few months after 
his arrival began to learn the trade of a carpenter. 
He served an apprenticeship of three years in York 
County, Pa., did journey-work there a year and 
then spent a year in Memphis, Tenn. Returning 
to Pennsylvania he carried on the business of a 
contractor and builder until 1860, when he went 
again to Memphis and sojourned until 1861. He 
then came to Pike County, this State, and lived in 
his father's neighborhood a year, after which he 
followed his trade in the rural districts of Calhoun 
County five years. 

At the expir.ation of that time Mr. Fisher located 
in Hardin, working at his trade until 1883, and 
during the last ten years of the time being also en- 
gaged in tlie sale of furniture and hardware. He 
finally gave up his work at the bench and turned 
his attention entirely to mercantile pursuits. He 
kept a full line of furniture, groceries, hardware 
and undertaking goods and was prospering in busi- 
ness, wiien on March 7, 1885, his store, shop, dwell- 
ing and stable were destroyed b}' fire and the 
savings of twenty-five years nearly swept away. 
Undismayed by tlie catastrophe, Mr. Fisher at once 
began his preparations for rebuilding and soon his 
present handsome store reared its walls aloft. Gro- 
ceries and dry-goods, queens ware, h.ardware, boots 
and shoes, hats and caiis. and harness arc kept in 
stock, and almost everything in ever3'day use in 
the home may be found in jMr. Fisher's store. 

The family of Mr. Fisher now occupies a pleas- 
ant and commodious dwelling, erected by him in 
1885 not far from the store. At the head of the 
household is the lady who became his wife in Sep- 
tember, 1855, prior to which date she had borne the 
name of Sarah Weller. She was born in York 



Countj'.'Pa., to Jacob Weller, her father being a 
native of Gerinaiiy and her raotliev of the same 
phic'O. Mr. ami Mrs. Fisher have six chil<Irpn 
living nr.uied respectively: Henry, I.oiiisa, Jans, 
Annie, Morris and Clara. The entire family belong 
to the Presbyterian Church. Mr. Fislier votes the 
Democratic ticket. 

■ILLIAM G. HUBBARD, a brave veteran 
of the late war is now connected witli the 
W^ agricultural interests of Pike County, 
having a good, well improved farm in Barry Town- 
shii). He is well-known in Pike County of whicli 
he has been a resi<lent for many years and is re- 
garded witli feelings of confidence and esteem. 
Troy, Lincoln Count}', Mo., is the place of his 
birth, and December 1, 1829, the date thereof. His 
father, Eli Hubbard was, it is thought, born in one 
of llie Carolinas. The gramlfather of oui suliject 
was a [lioneer of Pike County, and finally died on 
his farm in Pleasant Hill Township. 

The father of our subject went to ^Hssouri when 
a youn^ man and was there married to Margaret 
Myers. .She was a native of Kentucky and a 
daughter of Elijah Myers, who is thought to have 
been born in \'irginia. He moved from Kentucky 
to Missouri in an early d.ay of its settlement and 
was a pioneer of Lincoln Count}'. He was a mill- 
wright and worked at his trade a part of the time 
while superintending his farm. In 184.j he returned 
to Kentucky and after residing there for a time 
went to Texas where his Last years were spent. The 
maiden name of the maternal grandmother of our 
subject was Hannah Barnett and she died in Ken- 

The father of our subject spent his early married 
life in Missouri, and subsequently came to Hlinois 
in pioneer times and settled in Pleasant Hill Town- 
ship, of which he was a pioneer. He bought land 
and improved the farm on. whicli he resided until 
185:^. He then went witli a team across the plains 
to Oregon, where he bougiit land and engaged in 
farming. He later became a preacher in the Bap- 
tist Church and did much good work in his profes- 

sion until death closed his useful career on a farm 
in .Salem, that State. 

Our subject was an infant when his mother died 
and he then went to live with his maternal grand- 
parents in Lincoln County. Mo. Shortly after that 
his father came to Hlinois and servi-d in the Black 
Hawk War When William was a boy he used to 
make frequent visits to his father in this State and 
spend a short time. AVhen he returned he made his 
home with his grandparents in Lincoln County, 
Mo., untd 1845 and then came to Pike County, 
and made his home; with his father the ensuing 
eighteen months. At the exi)iration of that time 
he started out in life for himself and found w^ork 
by the month on a farm, at wliich he engaged one 
year. He then commenced work in the woolen 
mills at Barry and was there engageil at the break- 
ing out of the war. 

As soon as convenient Mr. Hubbard threw in his 
lot with the brave citizen-soldiers of our i ountry 
who had gone to the South to fight for the honor of 
the old flag. He enlisted August 5. 186-2, in Com- 
pany D, Ninety-ninth Illinois Infantry and served 
untd July. 1865. He had a chance to show of what 
stuff he was made in many hotly contested battles 
and stood the test well. He took part in the en- 
gagement with the enemy at Hartsville. Mo., and 
in the siege and capt ire of Vicksburg, Ft. Blakes- 
ley, and Spanish Fort. While he was in the ser- 
vice, he was in the following Stales: Missouri, 
Arkansas, Louisana, Texas, Mississippi, Alabama 
and Tennessee, and with his regiment walked thou- 
sands of miles. He was discharged with his com- 
rades in July, 1865, and returned to Barry to 
recuperate. In 1868, Mr. Hubbard was elected to the 
im|)ortant office of Sheriff of the county. He made 
a popular and efficient official and was well liked 
and respected by all about him, his civic position 
bridging liim in contact with many people. After 
the expiration of his term of office. Mr. Hubbard 
bought an interest in a woolen mill, which proved 
to be a bad investment, and in due lime his money 
was lost by the failure of the enterprise. Mr. Hub- 
bard turned his attention to farming and in 1875 
bought his present fine farm, and since been 
actively engaged in its management. It contains 
eighty acres of highly improved hind, pleasantly 



located on the southwestern quarter of section 15; 
the buildings are of a substantial order and here he 
has a comfortable residence. He is an intelligent, 
industrious man, and has won his way to a 
position of comfort by his untiring efforts, and b}' 
the assistance of that richest of treasures, a good 

His marriage in the month of April, 1867 was to 
Miss Sarali (AVikes) Selby. She was born in Penn- 
sylvania and is a daughter of William and Hannah 
(Hagy) Wike, and widow of Nathan Selby. Our 
subject and his wife have four children living — 
Hattie, William, Mary and Lettie. He has given 
them good educations and two of his daugkters are 
teachers. Our subject is a Democrat in politics 
and sturdily upholds the principles of his party. 
He is a man naturally observant and of quick mind, 
and though his educational advantages were lim- 
ited, he made the best of his opportunities and by 
extensive reading keeps himself well posted on all 
matters of general interest. 




^OHN GHEEN, Esq., who follows farming on 
section 33, Hardin Township, Pike County. 
was born in Davie County, N. C, April 14, 
1847, and is a son of James Gheen who 
was born in the same State. He was a blacksmith 
by trade and also followed farming and in the Mex- 
ican War he served his country as a faithful sol- 
dier. In North Carolina he marrie<l Temperance 
Keller, a native of that State. The^' were parents 
of but two children — William and John; the for- 
mer was in the Confederate service an.l after the 
war came to this county. The father died in his 
native State, anil in the autumn of 1867 Mrs. 
Gheen came with her sons to Illinois, where she 
spent her remaining days, dying at the home of her 
son William on the 2nd of July, 1884. 

John Gheen was reared to manhood upon his 
father's farm and his boyhood days were spent 
amidst what was afterward the scenes of the Civil 
War. Coming to this county, when twenty-one 
years of age, he then began life for himself and has 
since followed farming in pursuit of fortune. For 

two years he made his home in Detroit Township, 
then removed to Newburg Township, but in a short 
time we again find him in Detroit Township. Once 
more he settled in Newburg, where he resided for 
four 3'ears, when selling out he purchased his pres- 
ent farm which has been his home since 1878. He 
is the owner of a quarter section of arable land, one 
hundred and thirty acres of which having been 
Ijlaced under the plow, yields a golden tribute to 
his care and cultivation. He erected a comfortable 
residence in 1880, where he is surrounded by all 
the comforts of life. 

In 1870 Mr. Gheen was united in marriage with 
Mrs. Elizabeth Young, daughter of Bedford and 
Elizabeth (Frame) Griflin, both of whom were na- 
tives of Ohio. They came to Illinois at an early 
day and settled in Montezuma Township, but both 
are now deceased. Mrs. Gheen was their only child 
and a daughter onl^- graced her marrl.age — Minnie, 
wlio was born November 28, 1870, and is now the 
wife of K. K. Robinson, son of William Robinson, 
a representative citizen of the county, whose sketch 
may be found on another page of this work. They 
make their home with Mr. Gheen, and the old farm 
is brightened by the presence of their little daugh- 
ter, Inu, May, who was born August 4, 1889. 

In 1887 Mr. Gheen was called upon to mourn 
the loss of his wife who died on the 16Lh of Janu- 
ary, and was buried in Blue River Cemetery. She 
was a member of the Christian Church and was al- 
ways found in her place in the house of worship. 
She took an active part in the Sunday-school work 
and fur many years was a teacher in the school. 
She lived an exemplary Cliristian life and her loss 
was mourned not only by her immediate famil}' but 
by a large circle of friends as well. 'Squire Gheen 
has also long been identified with the Christian 
Church as one of its active and faithful members. 
He served as Deacon, was Superintendent and 
teacher in the Sund.ay-school and was Elder of tlie 
church at Clover. He is ever ready to extend a 
helping hand to the poor and needy and out of the 
kindness of his heart he has performed many acts 
of charity and benevolence. Quiet and unassum- 
ing in his manner he works not for praise, content 
to know that he is following the teachings of his 
Master, If any his enemies are few, but his friends 



are many. He is now liolding the offlee of Justice 
of the Peace and is Scliool Director of District No. 
8, in which position he lias served since coming to 
this county. lie was also Road Commissioner. 
Until quite recontl}', he was a Republican in pol- 
itics but is now independent. 

•EREMIAH FOWLER is the resident direc- 
tor and superintendent of the Thomas Pressed 
Brick Co.'s works at Thomas Landing, Cal- 
houn Count}', one of the most valuable 
plants for the manufacture of pressed brick in the 
United States. This is one of the most important 
manufacturing industries in this part of the State, 
and much credit is due to Mr. Fowler, who is a man 
of marked executive ability and peculiarly adapted 
for the successful management of such an enter- 
prise. As a prominent business man and influential 
citizen, we are pleased to present his portrait to 
the readers of the Aluuji. 

Mr. Fowler is a native of Columbia County, N. 
Y., where he was born March 11, 184L in the town 
of Kinderhook. His father, Samuel A. Fowler, 
was born in the same county and was a son of 
Lawrence Fowler, who is thought to have been a 
native of that county also. The great-grandfather 
of our subject, Samuel Fowler, was a native of 
Rhode Island, and removing from there to Colum- 
bia County, N. Y., became one of lis early pioneers. 
He bought land in both Ghent and Kinderhook, 
and engaged in farming, continuing his residence 
there till death called him hence. Grandfather 
Lawrence Fowler was reared on a farm and followed 
farming in his native county, of which he was a 
life-long resident. He married IMaria Lewis, who 
survived him and died at the home of a daughter 
in Columbia County. 

Samuel A. Fowler, the father of our subject, was 
bred on a farm, but after attaining manhood gave 
his attention to mercantile business for a time in 
Kinderhook and later at Stuyvesant Landing. At 
the present time he is a resident of Gloverville, 
whore he is occupied as a book-keeper in a whole- 
>ali' hduse. He took for his wife Rebecca Shufelt, 

who was also born in Columbia County. Her 
father, -Jeremiah Shufelt, was a wealthy farmer and 
spent his entire life in Columbia County. He mar- 
ried Lucy liortlc, who also lived and died in that 
county. Tlie mother of our subject reared four 
children, namely : Jeremiah; William II., who met 
his death in a railway accident on the Hudson River 
Railroad in the month of June, 1889; Herbert, who is 
the manager of the company store at Thomas Land- 
ing; and Lydia, the only daughter, who married 
Charles T. Rosenkrans, and died in the Stale of 
New Y'ork in January, 1890. 

Mr. Fowler was educated at the Kinderhook 
Academy, which he left in his eighteenth year with 
a mind well trained for any position he might occupy 
in after life. He first engaged in the profession of 
a teacher, and taught. one term of school. He tlien 
went to Albany to seek a situation. He was not 
looking for a mere sinecure but was prepand to 
take any emploj'ment whereby he could earn an 
honest living, and he first found work in a .-^aw anrl 
planing mill as a teamster. He was thus employed 
fifteen months, and then engaged in freighting 
lumber on the Hudson River from Albany- to New 
York City the ensuing three years. He subse- 
quently entered the employ of the firm of Beecher 
& Silliman, lumber dealers, as inspector of lumber, 
and remained with them two years. Wishing to 
prepare himself to a greater extent for a business 
life, he then took a course in Bryant & Stratton's 
Commercial College at Albany. After leiiving 
college he resumed his former position as lumber 
inspector, and was thus engaged with the firm of 
Thomas & Hyatt, W. G. Thomas being the senior 
member of the firm. Soon after Mr. Hyatt with- 
drew, and Mr. Ilubbell became a partner and the 
firm conducted business under the name of 
& Co. Five 3'ears later Mr. Thomas withdrew and 
Mr. Hill became Mr. Ilubbell's partner. Our sub- 
ject continued with the firm as inspector two years 
and then as salesman and book-keeper until April, 

In that month j\Ir. Fowler made a new departure 
in life and came to Thomas l^anding to take charge 
of the Coke and Coal works, then owned bj' W. G. 
Thomas, Jr., bringing with him a colony of emi- 
grants as employes in the works. In 1880 a stock 



company was formert, kriown as the Thomas Pressed 
Brick Company, and Mr. Fowler became a stock- 
liolder, and local director and manager of tiic 

The plant of wliicli our subject has charge is one 
of tlie largcs't and most valuable in tlie country. The 
• company does a very extensive business, having 
every facilitj* for conducting it after the most ap- 
proved methods and emi)loying none but the best 
modern machinery for their purposes. They have a 
large building for their stores, and fifty-seven tene- 
ments occupied by the operatives and also own three 
hundred acres of land, besides the coal underlying 
sixteen hundred acres of land. Six distinct vari- 
eties of clay are used in tlie manufacture of the 
bricks, which are made in innumerable colors with- 
out the use of chemicals. The company mines its 
own coal and generates the gas to burn the brick, 
being the only firm in the United States to do this. 

]\Ir. Fowler was married August 9, 1882, to Miss 
Catherine A. Russell, and they have a well- 
appointed, tastefully furnished home, that is the 
scat of a charming hospitality. ]\lrs. Fowler is a 
native of this county. Point Precinct being her 
birthplace, and she is a daughter of William Russell, 
a pioneer of the count}'. Three children have 
been born to our subject and his wife, named as 
follows: Maud Russell, Lydia Russell and Alice 
Russell. Mr. Fowler is a prominent man socially 
and is a member of Greenbusli Lodge No. 337, A. F. 
& A. M. He is a man of genial presence, whose bus- 
iness talent and force of character have placed him 
in his present responsible position; he is popidar with 
nil who serve under him, and the company whose 
interests he is so faithfully guarding have implicit 
confidence in him. 

ALMEDUS D. ROBERTS. A high rank 
)j, among the agriculturists of Pike County 
^' is held 1)3' tlie gentleman above named. 
( I who is one of the extensive operators of 
Martinsburg Township and been successfully 
wooing Dame Fortune. His estate consists of one 
hundred and fiftv-five fertile acres which, under 

his careful and intelligent management, produce 
abundanti}' of first-class crops. Mr. Roberts pays 
some attention to stock, as do all good farmers, but 
devotes his chief time and care to the cultivation of 
the cereals. The most of the improvements upon 
the place have been made by himself and include 
his fine residence wliich was erected in 1885 at a 
cost of i!I500. 

The occupation of farming is one in which the 
ancestors of our subject have been engaged for 
some ganerations. His grandfather, David Roberts, 
was thusengjiged in Ohio until 1841, when he came 
to this State, spending the remnant of his days with 
the father of our subject and dying at a ripe old 
age. David Roberts, .Jr., father of our subject, was 
born at Deerfield. Ohio, in 1799. There he married 
Levina Pool, who was born in New York in 1805, 
and lived until 1871. Their family consists of 
eleven children, — Sally, Mary, George. Lewis, 
Lafayette, Lavina, David, Ira. Emily, Palmedus 
D. and James. 

When David Roberts determined to remove to 
Pike County, III, in 1841, he journeyed hither with 
teams and wagons, bringing liis family and house- 
hold goods. He bought land and at one time 
owned several hundred acres. He exercised the 
right of suffrage in liehalf of Democratic principles 
and candidates. He held some of the township 
offices. Both he and his wife belonged to the 
Christian Church for many ^'e.irs and he preached 
at various points in the county. Mr. Roberts died 
at his home, in 1855. 

The gentleman whose name introduces this life 
history, was born in the county in wliich lie is now 
influential a citizen, October 1, 1841. He was 
reared on the farm, in the work of which he assisted 
as his increasing strength would i)ermit. His first 
schooling was obtained in the old log schoolhouse, 
whose teacher was engaged under the subscriiition 
plan, but be afterward enjo3'cd the free schools. 
When eighteen years old be began working for him- 
self, first on rented land, but after a time on tliat 
which he had pui'chased. The first real estate which 
he owned was ninety- two acres un section 34, to 
which he added until his estate reached its present 
size. As a citizen he is relialile, and interested in 
the ofeneral good, as a neighbor he is cordial and 



kindlj', while in the home he is affectionate and 
considerate. He is therefore entitled to that which 
he receives, — the respect of tliose who know him. 
He is now a member of the Union Labor I'arty, 
although formerly lie was a Democrat. 

Realizing that it is not good for man to live 
alone, Mr. Roberts won for his wife an amiable 
and attractive woman, who was born in Pike 
County in 1845, and bore the name of Lucy Berry. 
Il(>r father. Willis Berry, now deceased, was one 
of the early settlers in this vicinity. The marriage 
rites between Mr. Roberts and JMiss Berry were cel- 
ebrated April il, 1868, and neither have had cause 
to regret the event. Their union has been blest 
liy the birth of three children — Laura, Myrtle and 
Mamie — who are being reared in useful habits 
and firm principles. Mr. and Mrs. Roberts united 
witli the Christian Church some four years since 

^^EORGK P. GRAFF, M.D. Tliis gentle- 
flj man is one of the most successful practi- 

'^yj tioners in Calhoun County, his office being 
locateil in Brussels, and his professional duties tak- 
ing him some distance from that town. Although 
a native-born American, he is of foreign extr.action 
and has himself spent considerable time abroad, 
attending one of the famous universities. His mind 
has been cultured to a more than ordinary degree, 
and his years from boyhood have been spent in 
well-directed and persistent efforts to accumulate a 
good estate and make a mark in the world in the 
business which he had in hand. 

The father of our subject was Michael Graff, 
who was born in Alsace, Germany, in which prov- 
ince the ancestors, so far back as their history is 
known, resided. He and four other members of 
liis parents' household eventually came to Amer- 
ica, the names of those who emigrated being Henry, 
Sarah, Barbara, Michael and Dora. Michael Graff 
had learned the trade of a weaver and operated a 
hand loom. After his marriage he crossed the 
(iccan, locating in Rochester, N. Y., where he and 
hi-, good wife, formerly Barbara Miller, spent their 

last years. In that city our subject was born April 
23, 183G. He was but twelve years old when he 
left home, going to Chicago, where he enteicil a 
drug-store. He was employed therein until 18.'J2, 
when he went to Strasburg, France, now in Ger- 
many, and entered the university. 

After spending some time in assiduous pursuit 
of knowledge, young Graff returned to America 
and resumed the labor of a clerk in Chicago, con- 
tinuing it until 1S57, when he engageil in business 
for himself on Clark .Street. He carried on his 
drug-store until 1861, when he sold out and went 
to Nashville, Tonn., but soon returned to the 
Garden City. He did not eng.age in an^- particular 
business, but speculated somewhat in grain and 
produce until 1863. In 1865 he went to St. Louis 
and engaged as a drug clerk in the house of J. H. 
Merrill. In 1866 he came to Brussels and began 
the practice of his profession, and has now been 
living a professional life for almost a quarter of a 
century. His reputation extends over a consider- 
able area of country, and it is easy indeed to find 
scores of people to speak well of Dr. Graff, both as 
a physician and as a man. 

After having lived a bachelor for a number of 
years Dr. Graff decided that it was not good for 
man to live alone and therefore won an estimable 
woman for his companion. In 1887 the marriage 
rites were celebrated between himself and .^Irs. 
Cassie E. Messer, nee Bush. This lady wab I)orn 
in Calhoun Countj-, is a daughter of Henry L. 
Bush and a devout member of St. Mary's Catholic 
Church. Dr. Graff is a member of Grafton Lodge, 
No. 341, A. ¥. & A. M. 


)LIJAH PETTY comes of an oM pioneer 
family of Pike County, and was born Au- 
gust 16, 1832, in the earl\' years of the set- 
tlement of the county. He grew with its growth, 
in time became identified with its agricultural in- 
terests, and as the years passed on became one of 
its most extensive farmers and stock-raisers, and 
to-dav owns a large and valuable faun of mure 
than twelve huixlred acres of choice, will-improved 



land. lie is now living in comparative retirement 
in tlie enjoj-ment of a liandsomo income on section 
20, Atlas Townslii|), vvliere he lias a substantial two 
story lirick residence situated at the foot of the 
1)1 u Its one-half mile southeast of the village of 

Elisha Petty, the father of our subject, was a 
native of Ohio and was born in the Scioto River 
Valley, near Cliillicothe. llis father. Joseph Petty, 
was a native of New England. He came to Illi- 
nois from Ohio in 1818, and was one of the fiist 
settlers of l*ike County. There were many Indians 
here then and |)lenty of deer and wild game in the 
forests. Mr. Potty located on the Sny Bottoms 
first and soon after entered the place on which our 
snbjiict lives on section 20. He did an important 
work in assisting in the development of the agri- 
cultural interests in this section of the country and 
made many improvements on his farm ere he 
passed away to his final rest in 1843, when more 
than seventy 3ears of age. He reared three bo^-s 
— Icthro, Joseph and Elisha. He was a very strong 
Churchman and one of deep, religious convictions. 
Ill his political views he was a stanch advocate of 
the Democratic party. 

The father of our subject was a young man when 
he accompanied his fatlier to this county in 1818. 
Here he met and married Elizabeth McLaughlin, 
who is thought to have been a native of Kentucky. 
iShe died in 1846, when only about forty years of 
age. The seven children horn of that marriage 
are named as follows: Elijah, William, Benjamin, 
Milton, Josephus, George and Elizabeth, of whom 
three grew to maturity. The father farmed here 
a part of the time in early years and kept a store at 
Rockport and Atlas, lie was doing much to ad- 
v.ance the prosperity of his .adopted county when 
his career was closed by bis untimely death in 
1843, at the age of forty years. 

Elijah Petty, Ihesubjectof this brief life record, 
is the only chihl of his parents' family now liv- 
ing. His maternal grandfather, Benjamin Mc- 
Laughlin, was an early settler of Pike County, 
coming here in the early '20s. He subsequently 
located in Scott County, and died there at the age 
of eighty years. His wife died about the same 
time and also at the same age. He was a farmer 

by occupation. Elijah attended the old-fashioned 
log schoolhouses with slab benches and heated by 
the opeu fire-place, and there he gained his educa- 
tion. He worked on the farm in the summer, and 
after the death of his father the stalwart lirave 
little lad of thirteen years became self-supporting. 
He lived out at different places, receiving as pay- 
ment for his work §.5 a month. He was employed 
b}' Cap^. Horton one jear and then worked for 
various other parlies for eight years. At the e.x- 
[liration of that time he received his share of the 
old homestead and bought out the interest of the 
other heirs. He was then unmarried and tue first 
j'ear after the farm came into his possession kept 
house for himself. He was alwaj's bus^', man- 
aged his work with sagacity and good judgment, 
invested his money judiciously' from time to time, 
and is now the proprietor of over twelve hundred 
acres of land, of which seven hundred acres are 
rich bottom land and the remaining live hundred 
acres are high lands. He has farmed quite exten- 
sively in his lime and has raised many horses, 
cattle and mules. He now reuts most of his land 
and has wisely retired to enjoy his wealth ere 3'et 
old age shall enfeeble him and deprivi; him of the 
power of using it at his pleasure. 

Mr. Petty and Miss Louisa Miller were married 
February 22, 1855. She was born in this county 
and died in 1871, in the pleasant home that she 
had assisted her husband in making. She was then 
in the prime of life and was but forty-three years 
of age. She was the mother of six children, of 
whom five grew to maturity — Margaret, Tabitlia, 
Sarah, Elizabeth and James. Mr. Petty was mar- 
ried a second time, on the I2lh of Septemlier 1872, 
to JMartha Townsend. They have six children, viz: 
Louisa, Maria, Austin, Leroy, Warren and John. 
Mrs. Pettj' is a woman whose many virtues entitle 
her to the esteem in which she is held. She is a 
member of the jMethodist Episcopal Church and is 
one of its most zealous workers. 

Mr. Petty has witnessed much of the growth of 
this county. He can well remember when deer, 
turkeys and other game were plentiful here, and he 
used to shoot them to obtain meat for the family 
larder. He has seen a great change wrought by 
cultivation and has seen the bottom land redeemed 



from its original swamoy nature till its well-tilled 
fields now form some of tiie best farming lands in 
the' country. He lias always been loj\al and faitli- 
fid to the county of his nativity and has sought to 
benefit it in various ways. He is a .strong Democrat 
and i.. deeply interested in polities. 

'^7\ ARON H. DEAX. Among the men who 
(@y-^l are tilling a portion of the soil of Pike 

|( 1) County and reaping a satisfactory result 
1^ from their labors, may be mentioned Aaron 

II. Dean, whose home is in Griggsville Township. 
He owns and occupies a good farm of one hundred 
acres, which, with its substantial and adequate 
buildings and various other improvements, forms 
a comfortable home. A passer-b3' will observe that 
order prevails upon the estate, and that the sur- 
roundings of the dwelling are indicative of good 
taste and judgment, and will wiseh' conclude that 
the occupants arc hospitable, intelligent and well 

The life of our subject has been marked by no 
unusual events, but has been lived quietly and con- 
scientiously. He was born in Litchfield, Conn,, 
March 17, 1831, and was still a child when his 
father came to this .State. He has since resided on 
land secured by his father, and since the death of 
his parent has owned that which is now bis home. 
In the town of Detroit he led to the hymeneal altar 
Miss Delilah Senniff, a true-hearted, worthy woman, 
who shared his joys and sorrows but a few j'ears, 
dying in the jirime of life in 1860. She was born 
in Ross Count3% Ohio, and accompanied her parents, 
.lesse and Martha Senniff, to this county during her 
early years. .'>he was a member of the Methodist 
Church and her constant aim was to live in 
accordance with her profession. She bore her hus- 
band two children — Martha and Emma. The elder 
married Marshall Wisdom and both are now do- 
ceased, Mrs. Wisdom having died in 1888, when 
twenty-six j'ears old. Emma is the wife of Hiram 
Rush and their home is on a farm in Detroit 

Mr. Dean wun for his second wife Miss Xancy 

DniuiiHay. .'ho was born in Detroit Township, this 
county, in 1842. being the youngest child of David 
and Anna (Crow) Dunniwa}'. Mr. and Mrs. 
Dunniw.iy were pioneers in this county and good 
citizens, the wife being a memljcr of the Methodist 
Church. Mr. Dunniwtiy was both farmer and shoe- 
maker, and during his residence in this count}' oc- 
cupied and operated an estate. He and his wife 
were born in Kentucky, whence the}- removed to 
this State. 

Mrs. Nancy C. Dean had the advantage of care- 
ful home training, and grew to womanhood in 
possession of man}- virtues and much useful 
knowledge. She is one of the most kind-hearted, 
benevolent women, obliging to all with whom she 
comes in contact, and her geniality and goodness 
give her popularity and influence in the neighbor- 
hood. She has borne her husband one child, David, 
who was removed from them by death when seven 
months and twenty-two d.iys old. Both Mr. and 
Mrs. Dean are active members of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, Mr. Dean being an ofticer there- 
in and an earnest worker in the Sunday-school, 
which he helped to organize in Griggsville Town- 
ship. Politically, Mr. Dean is a stanch Republican. 
His thorough reliability in private and social life, 
his manly character and steady habits, win for him 
the respect of his fellow-men. 

Amos Dean, the grandfather of our subject, was 
born in Connecticut, coming of the old New 
England stock of the better class. He married 
Anna Doubledee, who was of similar birth and 
ancestry, and with her established a home among 
the rocks and hills of Litchfield County. To them 
were born four sons and three daughters — Hiram 
L., the father of our subject, being the first-born. 
Some years after his marriage, his parents, with 
three sons and three daughters, started westward, 
coming via the water route to this State. They 
brought with them their worldly effects and located 
on section 36, Griggsville Township, on a tract of 
land which was but slightly improved. Subsequently 
Grandfather Dean, his wife and their live unmarried 
children, found a home on section 34, w'here they 
built up a good estate from the raw prairie. They 
lived to see the country about them imiiroved and 
built up, d\ing when about four-score years of 




age. Criand father and (4iandmother Dean belonged 
to llie Congregational Cliiirt'li and were honest, up- 
rijiht people. 

The laUier of our subject learned liie trade of a 
blacksuiitli in iiis native State, and after removing 
hither coiilinned to do jonrney-vvork. For two 
years he walked to Griggsville in the morning and 
home at night, but he then built a shop on his farm 
and carricil on the two occupations of blacksmithing 
and farming there during the rest of his active life. 
He lived to be upwards of three-score and ten years 
of age, dying September 7, 1876. He was a man 
of good principles, an active member of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, and in politics was a strong 
Republican. His wife, whose maiden name was 
Wealthy Sanders, survived him some years, dying 
March 13, 1890, when within a few days of being 
seventy-nine years old. Slie was of New England 
parentage, a native of Connecticut, and exemplified 
the stei'ling characteristics of the Yankee race. 
From earl}' girlhood she was a consistent member 
of the Methodist Episcoi)al Church. She was the 
mother of two children — our subject and a sister, 
Maria, who is the wife of David W. Stoner, a 
retired farmer living in Detroit Township, Pike 

lishers of the Album would fail in their 
■lAi \Vi object of presenting to their readers the 
^^ life-history of the jiroininent residents of 
Pike County, were they to omit that of the Rev. 
J. F. "Wohlfartli, now pastor of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church at Griggsville. All will admit 
that none are more deserving of representation in 
such a volume than the men who devote their time 
and talents to the promulgation of the Gospel, and 
who earnestly endeavor in their daily walk and con- 
versation to adorn the profession which the}- have 

In tracing the history of this gentleman we find 
that several of his ancestors have been connected 
with the learned professions and that mental ability 
is a characteristic of the family. Grandfather 

Wohlfarth was a Lutheran minister in Germany 
and his son, Frederick R., studied for the ministry 
but was not ordained. The latter was born in 
Wurtemburg, Germany, 1800, and not only studied 
theolog}' but medicine in his native land. When 
twentj'-nine years of age, after he was graduated, 
he emigrated to Bucks County, Pa., where he prac- 
ticed the latter profession twenty j^ears. He re- 
mov(^d thence to Columbia Count}', finall}' settling 
in Northumberland County, where he bought a 
farm, retiring thereto in old age. There he i)assed 
away in 1882, honored by those among whom his 
lot had been cast and devotedly loved by his chil- 
dren. He was an ardent advocate of the principles 
of Democracy and in whatever, he undertook was 
energetic and enthusiastic. He was a liberal con- 
tributor to newspapers, particularly to the German 
press. He held various county offices, having 
served as Treasurer many terms. One of his broth- 
ers, Henry AVohlfarth, settled in Iowa and a sister 
also came to America, becoming the wife of Henry 
Robinson of the Hawkeye State. 

The mother of our subject was a native of 
Pennsylvania and became the wife of Dr. Wohl- 
farth in Columbia Count}', Pa. She bore the 
maiden name of Catherine Ebner, vi'as a daughter 
of Jonathan Ebner, her ancestors having lived 
in America for several generations. She breathed 
her last in 1885 when sixty-eight years old. She 
was the mother of eleven children, seven of whom 
grew to maturity: Abram is a farmer in Columbia 
County, Pa.; Angeline is the wife of Valentine 
Bock, a shipbuilder of Boston; Melindais the wife 
of Conrad Iloffsommer, a shoe dealer in Mt. Car- 
mel. Pa.; William is a farmer and contractor, mak- 
ing his home in Seattle, Wash.; Sarah is the wife 
of Hiram Conrad, a minister of the Evangelical 
Association, and they occupy the AVohlfarth home- 
stead ; Rebecca, deceased, was the wife of Samuel 
Clark. The fourth of the children living is the sub- 
ject of this biographical sketch. 

'J'he Rev. Mr. Wohlfarth was born near Blooms- 
burg, Columbia County, Pa., February 24, 1853, and 
reared at Locust Dale, near Ashland, where he ob 
tained a common-school education. His first per- 
sonal enterprise was that of a (jhotograiiher, in 
which he was engaged somewhat more than a year 



ami a luilf. lie then obtained a position as freight 
agent at Aslilanrl. in tlie einploj- of tlie Philadel- 
phia & Reading Railroad Company, witii whieli he 
remained until he enterefl the ministry in 1871. 
He had employed all his leisure moments in fitting 
Limself for ministerial work, and while acting as 
freight ageiit had preached on Sundays. In 1871 
he was received on trial, and filled the pulpit at 
Mverstown the first year and at L'niontown the sec- 
ond year. 

At the end of that time our snbioct was regularly 
ordained and sent to Annville, Lebanon County, 
to preach to the students of the Lebanon Valley 
College. After laboring there a year he was lo- 
cated in Williamstown, where his pastorate con- 
tinued three years. His next charge was at 
Treverton, whence he was transferred to tlie Kansas 
Conference and located in Virgil City, Mo., on 
the line of Vernon and Cedar Counties of that 
State. There he remained two years, during which 
time he purchased a piece of land and built up a 
home. AVhile there he withdrew from the Evan- 
gelical Church and united with the denomination 
for which he is now laboring. His first charge as 
a Methodist minister was in De Soto, Mo., where 
he remained three years, belonging to the St. Louis 
Conference. Being transferred to the Illinois Con- 
ference, he was sent to Augusta, Hancock County, 
where he ofliciated two years, this being followed 
by pastoral labor at Paloma, Adams County, three 

The Rev. .1. F. Wohlfarth next assumed charge 
of the Trinity Methodist Episcopal Church at 
CJuincy, but n twelvemonth later, in accordance with 
the custom of the church, was removed to another 
field of labor and assumed the pastorate in C4riggs- 
ville. Here he will be located another- year and as 
the rules regai'ding the itineracy of ministers have 
been somewhat modified, he ma)' remain longer. 

The graces of mind and heart possessed by Miss 
Louisa Rotliermel won the deep esteem of Mr. 
Wohlfarth. and his feelings being reciprocated, they 
were united in marriage at Treverton, Pa., in 1873. 
Mrs. Wolilfarth was a native of the above-men- 
tioned town, where her father was extensively en- 
gaged as a merchant and near which he also 
superintended a farm. Her parents were AVilliam 

and .Judith (Herb) Rotliermel and she is related to 
many wealthy and noted people. Among them is 
Abrani Kothermel. painter of the celebrated pic- 
ture, the Battle of Gettysburg. Mr. and [Mrs. 
Wohlfarth have three children— Howard. Minnie 
and .Jenny. 

INIr. Wohlfarth became a member of Swatara 
Lodge. No. 267. A. F. & A. M. at Tremont. Pa., 
and is demilted from the same. He was formerly 
a member.of the[|Odd-Fellows fraternity and the 
Knights of Pythias, .ilso the Good Templars and 
the Sons of America. He has been an active mem- 
ber of temperance societies. 

USTIN BARBER. Among the honored 
@/uil citizens of Pike County who h.ive been 
well rewarded b^' Dame Fortune for their 
<,^^ yeais of toil and assiduity is the gentle- 

man above named. This venerable man now occu- 
pies a cozy home in Pittsfield, where he is 
surrounded by all the comforts that money can 
purchase and enjoys the pleasures and friendships 
that make life worth living. His landed estate 
consists of seven hundred acres, most of which is 
near the county seat, and so has an additional 
value beyond that depending upon its fcrtilit}'^ and 

The natal day of our subject was October 31, 
1809, and his birthplace Marietta, Washington 
Countj-, Ohio. He is of English descent in both 
lines, and his parents, Levi and filizabeth (Rouse) 
Barber, were natives of New England. The for- 
mer was born in Vermont October 16, 1777, and 
was one of the first settlers in Marietta, Ohio, 
where he died at the age of sixty years. His busi- 
ness was that of a merchant, and he held the posi- 
tion of Postmaster many yrars, also serving for a 
considerable period as Member of Congress, and 
did a great deal of surveying in Ohio and Ken- 
tucky. Politically he was a Whig, and a per- 
sonal friend of Henr)' Cl.iy. Mrs. Barber went to 
Ohio with her parents during her girlhood and 
spent long \'ears in Marietta, dying there in her 
fifty-ninth year. The family includeil four sons 



and one daughter, all being now deceased except 
our subject. David died in 1877; Elizabeth was 
the wife of Dr. Felix Regnier, both being now 
dead; Levi died in infancy, and another son, who 
was given the same name, breathed his last in 

Austin Barber passed his early scliool days in 
his native place, and then pursued his studies two 
years in the Athens (Ohio) College. His first con- 
nection with business life was as a clerk in his 
father's store and Assistant Postmaster. He re- 
mained with his parents until he had grown to 
manhood, and in September, 1833, first set his 
foul on the site of the town which is now his home. 
That was the year in which Pittsfleld was platted, 
tl)e first lots having been sold in IMay preceding 
the arrivrd of Mr. B.arber. This gentleman and 
Robert R. Greene established a store under the 
style of Greene & Barber, carrying a stock of gen- 
eral merchandise, in which they continued to deal 
until 1811. The business was then closed out and 
the [lartners removed to Florence, on the river, 
where thej- carried on a general store, ran a steam 
flouring mill and handled large quantities of prod- 
uce and pork. 

In 1847 the gentlemen returned to Pittsfleld and 
Mr. Barber engaged in farming, an occupation in 
which he continued until 1870. The land which 
he operated was a fine tract one mile from Pitts- 
field, in what is now Newburg Townshiji, and is 
still in his possession. He remained on it until 
1853, when he was elected Count}- Clerk on the 
old Whig ticket, and in order to fully discharge 
the duties of his otlice he gave over his agricul- 
tural pursuits for a time. When his term of two 
years had expired he retired to private life and 
devoted himself with renewed ardor to his former 
occupation. In 1839 he had erected a dwelling 
which still stands in a good state of preservation. 
The weather-boarding was of black walnut, and 
having been kept well painted, is as good as the 
day it was put on. 

The first marriage of Mr. Barber was solemnized 
in 1838, in this county, his bride being Miss Caro- 
line Johnson, a native of Missouri. She shared his 
joys and sorrows until ISoO, when she passed away, 
leaving three sons — Levi, a merchant in Kansas; 

George, si resident of Pittsfleld; and Austin D., 
a farmer in Hancock County. Three daughters 
who were born of this union died in infancy. The 
second wife of Mr. Barber was Emily W. Raynard, 
with whom he lived happily twenty-seven years. 
Mrs. Emily Barber was a devoted member of the 
Christian Church, and our subject has been iden- 
tified with the same body thirty j'ears. 

Mr. Barber represented Pittsfleld two terms on 
the Board of Supervisors. His political adherence 
was first given to the Whig party, his initial vote 
having been cast in 1832, and for many years past 
he has been a stanch Repulilican, his last ballot 
having been given to Benjamin Harrison. Mr. 
Barber is an enthusiastic sportsman, and although 
now in his eighth-first year he has by no means 
given up hunting. He is hale and hearty and can 
see to shoot as well as ever, and it is no unusual 
thing for him to kill nineteen prairie chickens out 
of twenty shots. He makes an annual hunting 
trip to the West, and no member of the party en- 
ters more heartily into the spirit of outdoor life 
than Mr. Barber. Few men possess a more genial, 
kindly nature than he, or can call a greater num- 
ber of their acquaintances by the royal name of 

-''' -#-#^ "^- 

P' ^RED SHAW. Many of the sons of the 

\ early pioneers of Pike County figure ijrom- 
inently in the various interests that con- 
tribute to its prosperity. Among these is our 
subject, who is one of the most keen, progressive 
and business-like farmers and stock-raisers in this 
section. He is busily prosecuting his calling in 
Marlinsburg Township, where he has a well- 
appointed and well-e(iui|)ped farm, which under 
his able management yields him large returns in 
paj'ment for the care and monej' he bestows on its 
cultivation and imijrovement. 

Mr. Shaw comes of fine old Revolutionary stock 
and is the son of Henry B. Shaw, an early settler 
of this county, and at one time one of its promi- 
nent and influential citizens and a leatling farmer 
of Martinsburg Township. He was born in South 







Wilbraham, Mass., August 24, 181?^, and was a son 
of Walter Sliaw, who was also a native of Massachu- 
setts and was born in 1780. He in turn was a son 
of Lieut. Jolni .Shaw, an officer in the Revolu- 
tion, who was born in Massachusetts in 1750. His 
father, Capt. Joshua .Shaw, who was born in 
1727 and died in 1793, was also a Revolutionary 
officer. For further ancestral and parental iiistory, 
see sketcli of Henry T. Shaw on another page of 
this Biographical Album. 

The gentleman of whom we write was born April 
10, 1858. and was reared on his father's homestead. 
He obtained his education in the district schools 
and a practical knowledge of farming under his 
father's instruction on the home farm. When the 
time arrived for him to select his life calling, he 
naturally chose that of a farmer, as his tastes led 
him that way. He was an inmate of the parental 
household till he was twenty-four 3ears of age, and 
since then he has been carrying on farming inde- 
pendently. He now owns the old homestead, 
which comprises four hundred acres of choice, 
fertile farnjing land. He carries on a general farm- 
ing business and I'aises considerable stock of 
standard grades. His place is finely improved and 
he has here one of the substantial, comfortable 
homes that adorn this township, and here he and 
his wife practice a generous hospitality which ren- 
ders them two of the most popular people in their 

March 18, 1880, was an eventful date in the life 
of Mr. Shaw, as he then took unto himself a wife 
ill the person of Clara B. Sanderson, who was 
born in this countj' in 18G1, and is a daughter of 
Rol)ert . 'Sanderson. The fruit of the marriage of 
Mr. and ilrs. Shaw is three children whom they have 
named Guy L., Lloyd B. and Hally B. Mrs. Shaw 
Is a woman of exceptionally refined character and 
is one of the prominent members of the Congrega- 
tional Church. Mr. Shaw is the present Assessor of 
Martinsburg Township, and is ever ready to per- 
form his share in forwarding anj- enterprise that 
that will in anj' way conduce to the advancement 
of his township or county. He is a stalwart Kepub- 
licau in politics and uses his influence among his 
associates to forward the policj' of the party. 
Though he is yet comparatively young and it is 

scarcely more than a decade since be started out to 
make his own way in the world, he has acquired 
considerable property and by strict attention to his 
business is constantly adding to it. He already 
stands among the successfid stock-raisers of his 
community and has on his home place on section 
19, twenty-five horses of good standard grades and 
a flock of two hundred and fift}- sheep which come 
of the best breeds. 


t AMUEL CURF.MAN. The present home' 
of this gentleman is situated on section 32, 
Perr}- Township, Pike County, the prop- 
erty consisting of two hundred and seventy 
acres of good land. The most of the acreage is 
under cultivation, well improved, an excellent set 
of farm buildings occupying convenient positions 
upon it. Mr. Curfman pays some attention to 
farming, but his chief occupation is tliat of a me- 
chanic. His time is principally given to house and 
barn carpentering and being a master of his trade 
his services have lieen in demand and lie has made 
money. With good judgment he has invested his 
earnings in improved propert}' which has brought 
him good results. 

Mr. Curfman has lived in the township and 
county above named since 1805, and in the State 
since 1860. He came hither from Pennsylvania, 
of wliicli State he is a native, having been born in 
Huntingdon County, May 21, 1827. He received 
his education in the schools of his native county, 
which were not only well-taught but held during a 
considerable part of tiie j'ear. He learned his trade 
under .Jackson Ingard at Mar-kleysburg, where he 
worked for some time on his own account before 
his removal. He has ever been hardworking and 
industrious, prudent in the man.agement of his 
affairs and in the investments which he has made. 
By dint of his personal efforts he has become well- 
to-do and while gaining his property he has also 
won respect. 

Mr. Curfman is a Democrat, although his father 
voted the Republican ticket, lie is identifierl with 
the Methodist Church. As a citizen he is reliable 



and steady-going, as a private individual intelli- 
gent and honorable and, unless we except llie fact 
that he has never mariied, he may be said to have 
borne well his part in life. 

Mr. Curfmari is a son of Peter Ciirfnian who was 
a native of the same county as himself and de- 
scended from German parents. The father was a 
farmer in his native county, where he spent many 
years in industrious and honorable life, dying when 
seventy years ohl. He married Mary Taylor, who 
was also born and reared in Huntingdon County 
and was of German ancestry. The [jreceding gen- 
eration of the Taylor family were farmers of ex- 
cellent reputation, who died in that county. Mrs. 
Curfman died a few j'ears before her husband, 
when about sixty-eight years of age. Both belonged 
to the Methodist Episcopal Church, to the work of 
which they were generous donors. Their family 
consisted of seven sons and three daughters, all of 
whom but one daughter lived to maturity. Eight 
married and reared families, and five are still liv- 
ing; three in Illinois, one in Missouri and one in 

In connection with this sketch we present a litho- 
graphic portrait of Mr. Curfman. 

•• ^=^:=s ^ 

EDWIN HITCH. Among the respected cit- 
izens of Pike County who have entered into 
7 rest, is he whose name introduces these par- 
agraphs. He breathed his last at his home in 
(iriggsville, Januarj' 29, 1877, leaving behind him 
the record of an honorable and enterprising man, a 
successful financier, and one whose association with 
his neighbors was kindly and pleasant. Practical 
in his judgments, careful in his investigations, and 
assiduous in the pursuit of that to which he turned 
his attention, he made money by what were con- 
sidered his lucky deals, but which were really the 
result of clear foresight and due consideration. 

Our subject was the son of Lewis Hitch, a native- 
of Delaware, who lost his father when quite young 
and, his mother marr^'ing again, set out for him- 
self while still but a bo3'. He came to Pike County 
HI., and for some time made his home with Mr. 

Rush of Fairmount Township, from whom he 
learned the art of good farming. After he had at- 
tained to yeais of discretion Lewis Hitch began 
farming on his own account, also p.aying consider- 
able .-itlention to stock-raising in Hadley and Barry 
Townships. He secured a fine home near Barry, 
where he died in iniddle life after a successful ca- 
reer, during which he gained the good will of many 
true friends. 

Lewis Hitch won for his vvife Miss Mary Mc- 
Lean to whom he was united in marriage in this 
county, wherein she had been reared to woman- 
hood. She was born in Kentucky and died at her 
home in Hadley Township when but thirty 3-ears of 
age. Some time after Mr. Hitch married again 
and his second wife is now deceased. The first 
marriage was blessed by tiie birth of four children, 
the only one now living being Cyrus, whose home 
is near Ashland and his occupation farming. 

Edwin Hitch was born in Barry Townsiiip in 
1843, being the third meml)er of the familj'. His 
mother died when he was quite young and he was 
reared under the care of his father with wiiom he 
remained until the death of the parent. He tiien 
took up the battle of life on his own account, en- 
gaging in the live stock trade with his headquar- 
ters in Griggsville Township. Some time after his 
marriage he settled on a farm belonging to his vvife 
but three }-ears later removed to Griggsville, still 
carrying on the estate, however. It consisted of 
seven hundred and twentj' acres, chiefly on sections 
33 and 34, supplied with all needful and convenieot 
buildings and appliances, and capable of produO] 
ing an abundant income. 

This fine, large property is now skillfully man-^ 
aged by Mrs. Hitch who bore the maiden name of 
Marj' Simpkin. She was born on her father's home- 
stead in the township that is still her home, De- 
cember 22, 184.5, was carefully reared, receiving! 
excellent advantages for mental am? moral develop-] 
ment. After studying in Griggsville she attendedj 
the Female Seminary in Jacksonville, thus securing ] 
a fine education. Her naturally bright mind has 
been strengthened, her practical qualities developed, I 
and she is well fitted to bear her part in the | 
scenes amid which her lot is cast. She belongs to I 
the Congregational Church. Her family consists] 



of four briyiht Lhildioii — Lewis E., Thomas S., Riifus 
C. and Roy M., wlio are being thoroughly equipped 
for tlic battle of life. 

Mrs. Hitch is a d.TUghter of Thomas nnd Ann 
(Wharton) Simpkiii, natives of Yorkshire, England, 
who came to America in early life auvl were inai- 
ried in this county. They began life poor but ac- 
quired a fortune, their landed estate consisting of 
upwards of two thousand acres of land in (iriggs- 
ville Township. Their latter years were spent in a 
beautiful home and the enjoyment of the comforts 
and even luxuries to which their labors fairly en- 
titled them. Mr. Simpkin died while on a visit 
to his native land in search of hcaltli, when fifty- 
three years old. Mis wife survived liim someyears, 
breathing her last at the home of her daughter, Mrs. 
Lasbury, in tliis township, when seventy-five years 
old. Both were well known and respected. 

OHN KENNEDY was a pioneer of Pike 
Count}', and was for many years actively 
engaged in farming and stock-raising, having 
I a large and well-improved farm, on section 
18, Griggsville Township, and he contributed his 
quota to the upbuilding of the county. He was 
born in Huntingdon County, Pa., October 1.5, 1802, 
and was a son of Gilbert and Jane (Appleby) Ken- 
nedy, natives respectively of Ireland and Pennsyl- 
vania. The former came to America with his 
parents when be was seven j'ears old, the family 
locating in Pennsylvania, where he grew to man's 
estate on a farm. He married and spent the re- 
mainder of his life in Huntingdon County, as did 
his wife also, they both dying at a very old age, 
being upwards of ninety-five years old when they 
passed from the scenes of earth. The}' were close 
adherents of the Presbyterian faith, having come 
of Scotch- Irish ancestry, and could trace their 
forefathers back many j-ears. 

John Kennedy was the first son and third or 
fourth child of his parents who had a large family, 
and he grew up on a farm. Besides gaiiiing a 
thorough |)ractical knowledge of agriculture he 
followed teaming, and was engaged in running a 


stage line some years in Illinois, after he came here 
in 1836. He was also a famous stage driver in the 
early days here in different parts of the Slate, his 
most notable route being between Quincy and 
Naples. He finally settled down on his farm in 
Griggsville Township, and here spent the rest of 
his days. When he lirst located on his land it was 
only slightlv improved, and his was the pioneer 
task of further developing it and making it into a 
fine farm, which is now one of the best in the lo- 
cality, comprising three hundred and twenty acres 
of well-tilled and substantially improved land. 
October 3, 1883, the honorable life of our subject 
was brought to a close and one of Griggsville 
Township's practical, useful pioneers passed to bis 
rest. He was a man of unblemished character, of 
good habits, was a sincere Christian, a member of 
the Methodist Episcopal Cliurch, and always stood 
well in the community with whose interests his own 
bad been identified for so many years. In his pol- 
itics'he was an unswerving advocate of the princi- 
ples promulgated by the Kcpulilican party. 

Our subject undoubtedly owed much of his suc- 
cess in life to the f.act that he bad the active co- 
operation of a wife who was a capalilc wc)rker and 
ever faithfully assisted him wherever she could. 
She survives him and is living on the old home- 
stead, where she helped him to build up a com- 
fortable home. Mrs. Kennedy's maiden name was 
Sarah J. Morrow, and she was born in Franklin 
County, Pa., February 16, 1822. Her parents, 
Michael and Elizabeth (Stark) Morrow, were na- 
tives of Nevv Jersey, the Morrows coming of Irish 
ancestry. Mr. Morrow and his wife had gone from 
their native home to Franklin County, Ohio, with 
their parents when they were young people, and 
were there married. They began their wedded 
life on a farm, and were actively engaged in its 
cultivation some years. The wife, who was a good 
and true woman. de|)arled this life in 1850, at the 
age of sixty-three years. She was a Piesbylerian 
in her religious belief. 

After his wife's death, Mr. Morrow came to Illi- 
nois and lived with his daughter, Mrs. Kennedy, 
and died in 1852 at the age of sixty- four years. 
He had been an energetic, hard-working man all 
his life. He was a Demociat in politics, and relig- 



iousl}' was a member of the Presbyterian Church. 
Mrs. Kennedy was the first daughter and second 
child of her motiier's four children, two sons and 
two daughters, and she and her sister, Miss Nanc3' 
Morrow, who is living with her, are now the only 
survivors of the family. Mrs. Kennedy is a mem- 
ber of the Methodist Episcopal Church and her 
everyday life ^hows her to be a true Christian. 
She was carefully reared and received a very good 
education so tiiat she was enabled to teach. She 
was thus engaged in Pennsylvania for some time 
and when twenty-tliree j'ears old came westward, 
and was a teacher for some lime in Pike County, 
before her marriage. She is the mother of nine 
children, of whom one died in infancy. The others 
are: Calvin A., a farmer near Hale, Mo., who mar- 
ried Ida Ingbly ; James M., also a farmer near Hale, 
who married Cenia Martin; Nancy, who lives at 
home with her mother; Harden J., a farmer near 
Griggsville Township, who marriefl. Mary B. S3'- 
{)hers; Albert J., who lives with his mother and 
assists in carrjnng on the houie farm; David O., 
also at iiome with his mother; Stanton, a farmer in 
this township, who married Ortha J. Dunham; 
Idelbert S., who lives at home with his mother. 

■^OHN S. LANE, the subject of this sketch, 
is a representative citizen and honored 
pioneer of the county, residing on sec- 
tion 8, Carlin Precinct. He was born in 
New Hampshire, May 5, 1822, and is a son of 
Robert and Betsy (Currier) Lane, I)oth of whom 
are natives of New England. When a babe of 
three j'cars, John S. Lane was taken b^- his parents 
to Essex County, N. Y., and in the Empire State 
was reared to manhood. The educational advan- 
tages of that period were not such as are afforded 
to the j'ouths of the pi'esent day and age, but he 
mastered the common English branches and by ex- 
perience and observation has gained a knowledge 
of men and the ways of the world vvhich has prob- 
ably been of more practical bench t than much he 
could have learned from text books. He resided 

in niinois for nine years before coming to Calhoun 
County, his home during that period being in Greene 
County'. In 18fi0, he entered upon a business ca- 
reer in this county where he has since resided, de- 
voting his energies to agricultural pursuits. He 
immediately settled upon a farm which is still his 
home and began the cultivation of the land which 
was hitherto xuiimproved. It was his hand that 
turned the first furrows and jilanted the first crops 
and it is but meet that prosperity should crown his 

Ere leaving New York, Mr. Lane was joined in 
wedlock with Miss JMary P. Miner and of their 
union were born four children, three of whom are 
yet living: Emma, wife of Jefferson Thursten, of 
this county; Eunice, wife of Aaron Miner; and 
Mary P., wife of Samuel Gourley. Mr. Lane mar- 
ried for his second wife Mary A. Simmons, widow 
of Jesse D. Simmons, of Calhoun County, who still 
survives and enjo3'S with our subject the pleasures 
of married life. Their weilding was celebrated 
April 19, 1860. In 1839, when a small child, Mrs. 
Lane removed with her parents from Ohio to 
Greene County, III., where her second raarrl.age was 
celebrated, after wliich Mr. Lane and his wife came 
to Calhoun County. Their landed possessions now 
aggregate four hundred and fifty acres. He is a 
self-made man and to his own efforts may be at- 
tributed his success In life. In religious belief he 
is a Baptist and one of the active workers in the 
church, being familiarly known throughout the 
county as Deacon Lane, having held that odice in 
the congregation to which he belongs for many 
years. In polities he is independent and votes for 
the man rather than the party. His integrity, fair 
dealing and upright life have won him friends 
without number and secured him the contidcnce 
and goodwill of the entire community. 

Mrs. Lane, who like her husband, is a worthy 
member of the Baptist Church, was born on the 
31st of August, 1819, in Gallia, Ohio, and is a 
daughter of James and Rebecca (Slonebcrger) 
McGrain, the former a native of Dublin, Ireland, 
and the latter of Ohio. Her father died when she 
was a j'oung child and with her mother and step- 
father she came to Illinois in 1831, the famll3' lo- 
cating in Bluff Dale, Greene County. Later her 



rnotlier came to Calhoun County where she spent 
her last days. Mrs. Lane was reared in Greene 
County, where on the 3d of March, 1836, she gave 
her Land in marriage to Jesse D. Siuimons, by whom 
slie had two children, John and Nannie, both of 
whom are deceased. She came with her first hus- 
band lo this county in 1838, they settling on Silver 
Creek, where they remained until 1855, when they 
removed to the farm which is still the !i<imo of Mrs. 


OHN W. CALVIN is one of the substantial 
farmers of Pike County, and is prosperously 
carrying on his agricultural interests in 
Pearl Tow-nship. A native of Pike County, 
Mo., the date of his birth was October 20, 1841. 
lie is a son of John and Rosanna (Sherwood) 
Calvin. The grandfather of our sul)ject was 
William Calvin, a native of Vermont, who in an 
early day removed to Pittsburg, Ky., with a wagon, 
and after reaching the head waters of the Alleghany 
River, made the trip down that stream and the 
(Jhio with some traders. Later, with a four-horse 
team, he again took up his westward way and 
finally arrived in Pike Countj', Mo., of which he 
was one of the early settlers. A few j-ears later he 
made the trip from that State back to A'erinout, 
going both w,ays on foot, and usually camping at 
night. The way was often verj' lonely, and led 
through dense forests or sparsely inhabited districts, 
and he would sometimes travel two or three days 
without seeing a while man. He finally died in 
Lincoln Count}-, I\Io., a few years before the war. 
He was twice married. His first wife bore him 
seven sous and two daughters, and his second wife 
five sons and two danghters, making him the father 
of sixteen children. He was a pioneer of both 
White and Lincoln Counties, Mo., where he had 
entered land. 

The father of our subject was born in Kentucky, 
March 5, 1813, and was reared and lived on a farm 
all his life. He resided in Pike County, Mo., till 
1864, when he came lo Pearl in this county, where 
he lived till 1887. In that year he rented his farm 
of two hundred and twenty acres and moved to 

Clarkesville, where he is living retired in the en- 
joyment of a comfortable competence. He is still 
hale and hearty, and a great lover of hnnling and 
fishing; enjoying those sports in his old age with the 
same zeal with which he (lartook of them in his 

Mr. Calvin has been twice marric'i. He had one 
son and four danghters, born to iiim by his first 
wife, as follows: Sarah J. (deceased). Mar}' A., 
Nancy Ellen, John W., and Eliz.'ibeth K. The 
mother of these children died before the war. Mr. 
Calvin took as his second wife Mary Newcomb, and 
they have had the following four children: Amanda 
v.; Rachael V., who died at the .age of two years; 
James, who died at the age of twenty years, and 
Francis N. He and his wife were formerly mem- 
bers of the Methodist Episcopal Church, but now 
belong to the Christian Church. He is a sound 
Democrat in regard to political matters. 

He of whom this notice is written passed the 
early years of his life on a farm, and received his 
education in the primitive rude log schoolhouses 
of the time. The first schoolhouse that he attended 
was heated b}' a fire in a rude fire-place, and planks 
on the side of the walls uniler greased paper 
windows served as writing desks. He was twentj'- 
six years old when he started in life for himself, 
having assisted his father in the management of 
his farm after he came to this State. The most 
important event in his career in early manhood 
was his marriage, which celebrated in the 
month of July, 1867, with iMatilda, daughter of 
William and Matilda (Battershell) Wheeler. Of the 
nine children born to our subject and his amiable 
wife, one son and a daughter died in infancy, while 
seven were reared to years of maturity. His chil- 
dren were named as follow: EfHe. wife of P^dward 
Smith; Edna: Elmer, who is deceased; Thomas, 
Elbiiia, William, Lucinda, Olive, and Carna. Mr. 
and Mrs. Calvin are true and upright people, and 
follow the principles of the Christian Church, of 
which they are members. 

Mr. Calvin has been a fainier all his life and is 
an intelligent member of the Farmers' Alli.ance. 
He has made his own way in the world, and to-day 
stands among the solul citizens of Pearl Township. 
After marriage he rented land of his father-in-law. 



some seven years, and then purchased a quarter of 
seetion 21, on which he no^v resides, he having 
purchased only a part interest in it at first. It is 
well developed and under good cultivation, and 
here be and his family' have a most comfoitalile 
home. Our subject proved his patriotism when he 
enlisted in the fall of 1861 in the five months in- 
fantry, and served creditably for six months in John 
B. Henderson's regiment. 

<«\ IVILLIAM A. EVANS. Pike County is the 
\/\// ^ovac of a large number of energetic and 
V*/VV prosperous farmers, whose careful and in- 
telligent management of that portion of the soil 
which they cultivate has made of the county a 
garden spot in appearance and secured to them- 
selves a fair share of the comforts of life. One of 
this number is William A. Evans, whose farm con- 
sists of two hun<lred acres on sections 11 and 13, 
Martinsburg Towiislii[). His years have been 
spent in industrious labor, and all who know him 
rejoice in the knowledge that he has a fine and re- 
munerative estate. 

The Evans familj' trace their origin to Germany, 
although several generations have lived in this 
countrj'. Joseph Evans, the father of our subject, 
was born in the ]>lue Giass .State and lived there 
until eighteen years old, when he ran away from 
home. He learned the carpenter's trade, finishing 
his apjirenticeship in the first brick house built in 
St. Louis, Mo. He settled near Waleiloo, Monroe 
County, III., making that his home many years, hut 
finally removed to Washington County, Mo., where 
he died at the age of sixty-five. He followed his 
trade more or less during his life, but also farmed 
a little until his children were grown, when they 
carried on the farm. Mr. Evans was an expert 
carpenter, having so good an eye and such skill in 
the use of tools that in framing timbers for a house 
they would m.atch to a "T" when brought together. 
His political adherence was given to the Demo- 
cratic party. 

The mother of our subject bore the maiden name 
of Martha Davis, was born in North Carolina, and 

came to this State when three years old. Her par- 
ents settled in Monroe County, where she grew to 
maturiti" and married Joseph Evans. She lived to 
be sixty-two years of age, rearing eight children to 
useful manhood and womanhood. She was a mem- 
ber of the Methodist Church and possessed a fine 
character. Her father, Elijah Davis, was born, in 
North Carolina and was one of the very first set- 
tlers in Monroe Count}', 111., where Indians were 
still numerous when he arrived. He was one of the 
largest farmers of the time. He was an old-lino 
Whig in politics and a Methodist in religion. He 
lived to the age of sovent3--five years. 

Our subject was born in Monroe County near 
Waterloo, August 31, 1827. Duiing his boyhood 
he attended school in the primitive log schoolhouse 
with its home-made furniture and open fireplace, 
and when but ten years old began working on the 
farm. When he ha'l attained his m.ajoiity he began 
bis personal career, first operating a rented farm in 
his native county. In Jaiuiary, 1845, he removed 
to St. Louis County, Mo., rented land there for 
twelve years and then went to Montgomer}! 
County. He entered forty acres and bought forty, 
which he farmed twelve years, then selling out he 
crossed over to Pike County, 111., October 24, 

Mr. Evans purchased eighty acres of slightly 
improved land in Martinsburg Township, and 
went to work with a will to grub out stumps and 
otherwise fit the land for tillage. He made the 
place his home for ten 3ears, bringing the estate to 
a good condition, then sold out. and bought the 
land he now occupies. This also he improved, and 
changed its appearance iii man^' respects. The 
soil is well adapted for the cultivation of wheat, 
and Mr. Evans therefore devotes a greater |)art of 
the aci'eage to t\iat grain. 

In 1844 Mr. Evans was united in marriage with 
Elizabeth Huston, a native of Ireland, who died 
when but twenty-five years old. She had borne 
her husband three children, all of whom died when 
quite young. In June, 1852, Jlr. Evans contracted 
a second matrimonial alliance, his bride being 
Elizabeth J. Carter, a native of North Carolina, 
This lady and her mother, together with three other 
members of the family, traveled across the moun- 



tains on foot and settled in Tennessee. She subse- 
(luently accompanied a family by the name of 
Myers to St. Louis CouiUv. Mo., where she and 
our subject became acquainted and were iinaily 
inarricii. 'Wliile journeying down tlie Tennessee 
River on her w.iy to ^lissou.-i the tlalboat sr.iik on 
the Mussel Shoals and tiio yjart^' were carrie(1 in a 
wa^on to St. Charles County. Mo. 

Mr. and 3Irs. Evans have had twelve chiUlron, 
eleven of whom reached mature years. These are 
named respectively: William F., Theodore .1., 
Commodore W.. Ruth L, Thomas J.. Robert E., 
Silissia E., Charles, Enoch, Leonard D. and Eliza- 
beth C. Mr. Evans votes the Democratic ticket. 
He and his wife have been iilentiBed witli the 
Christian Church for twelve years past, and are 
numbered among the most respectable members of 
the community. 

>^',OYN S. PENNINGTON, a native of this 
.Slate and a member of a well-known familyof 
(1 Pittsfiehl. Pike County, is station agent of the 
AVabash Railroad Company in the city mentioned. 
He is the oldest man in his deparlment in the em- 
ploj' of the company, by whom he is justly held in 
high regai'd for his fidelity to the interests of his 
employers and the able manner in which he dis- 
charges his duties. 

Mr. Pennington was born in Whitehall, Greene 
County, 111., March 15, 1841, the eldest son of 
Joel and Abigail (Goltra) Pennington, natives of 
New .Tersey. They first came to Pike County' in 
a wagon in 1849, having become residents of this 
State, locating in Greene County in 1841, a short 
time before the birth of our suliject. His father 
was a hatter .md proprietor of a livery barn. He 
subsequently became the proprietor of the Mansion 
House, in Pittsfleld, of which he was the landlord 
for thirty years, from 18,58 to 1890, with the ex- 
ception of tW'O years absence. He died here July 
27. 1890, at the age of seventy-two years, having 
been born in 1818. At his death one of tlie old 
landmarks of the cit}' was removed and an iionored 
citizen was lost to the community. The mother 

of our subject is still living. 8he is a woman of 
more than ordinary force of character and capabil- 
ity, and is managing the Mansion House with 
marked success, it being one of the best kept hotels 
in this vicinity, and well known throughout south- 
ern Illinois. Mrs. Pennington is the mother of 
nine children, of whom seven arc living. 

The subject of this biography was principally 
educated in the city schools of Piltsfield, and at 
the Illinois College at Jacksonville, 111., where he 
l)ursued a fine course of study for two years. After 
leaving college he entered the employ' of the Gov- 
ernment as Clerk in the United St.ates mustering 
and disbursing oflice at .Springfield, 111., and filled 
that position with ability and to the satisfaction of 
all concerned from 186'2 until 1865, and at the 
time he was mustered out of the service at Camp 
Butler he was serving as Chief Clerk, having been 
promoted on account of his proficiency. 

After retiring from his Government position, 
Mr. Pennington became a clerk for C. M. Smith & 
Co., at Springfield, 111., in their general store which 
was then the largest in the city. A year later he 
threw up that place and returned to Pittsfleld. He 
subsequently became station agent for the Wabash 
Railroad Company, entering upon his duties in 
the month of Februarj', 18G9. and he ever since 
retained that position. His services are appreciated 
bj' the compaii}', who reganl iiim as one of their 
best employes, and he is well liked and popular 
with the patrons of the road, as be is always oblig- 
ing, genial and courteous. 

Mr. Pennington has been twice married. The mai- 
den nama of his first wife was Annette Stout and she 
was from Rockport, III. She died in 1878, leaving 
one son, Frank, vvlio is a telegraph operator and an 
assistant of his father. Mr. Pennington's present 
wife was formerly Miss Maggie Sutton, of Spiing- 
field. 111., and is a daughter of James Sutton, a 
prominent business man and Director of the First 
National Bank of that cit}'. hy this marriage our 
subject and his vvife have three children — James, 
Charles and .Susan C. 

Mr. Pennington has borne an honorable part in 
the management of local affairs. He has served 
one term as a member of the Town Board of Trus- 
tees, and was apiiointed one of the members of the 



Local Board of the Bloomington Loan Association. 
Politically, he is a sound Democrat. Religiously, 
he is a member of the Congregational Churcli. He 
and his family have a comfortable, commodious 
residence, pleasantl3' located in the east part of the 
town on Fajette Street, and their numerous friends 
often share with them its bounteous hospitality. 

' UGUSTUS ROTH. The enterprising Ger- 
man citizen is to be found all over the 
Mississippi Valley, as in other parts of the 
United Stales, pushing his way ahead and 
uniformly proving industrious and frugal and be- 
coming well-to-do. The subject of this sketch, a 
true child of the Fatherland, has built up a good 
farm in Crater Precinct, Calhoun Count3', and well 
merits representation in this Bio(;RAriiiCAL Album. 
The native place of our subject was Wurtemburg, 
Germany, and his natal day, August 1 1, 1826. His 
parents were .John and Theresa Roth, who came of 
old German stock. Augustus received a good edu- 
cation in tlie German language and since he emi- 
grated to America has acquired a fair knowledge 
of Englisli, so that he is enabled to transact busi- 
ness with English-speaking citizens as accurately as 
vfitii those of his own nationalitj'. He was reared 
to farm life and has pjade it his occupation when- 
ever circumstances would admit. 

In October, 1852, Mr. Roth was united in mar- 
riage with Frances Kramer, who was born in Wur- 
temburg, May IG, 1826, to Anton and Julia A. 
Kramer. Accompanied by his j'oung bride Mr. 
Roth left the Fallierland and reaching Havre took 
passage on a sailing vessel and after a voyage of 
nearly three weeks disembarked at New York City. 
For several years the young couple made their 
home in lister County, N. Y., where the husband 
busied himself in different occupations as opportu- 
nities presented themselves. In the spring of 1858, 
they turned tiieir footsteps westward and reachino- 
Calhoun County made it tlieir permanent home. 

The fiist land purchased by Mr. Roth was an 
eighty-acre tract for which he paid the sum of 880 
and whicii he still owns. A rude log caliin stood 

in a three-acre clearing and the rest of the land 
was almost in the condition in which the Indians 
left it, the most of the acreage being covered with 
timber. Assiduous toil and well-directed efforts 
reclaimed the land, and cleared tiie subsequent pur- 
chase« from timber, making of the entire estate, 
which consists of two hundred acres, a fine and 
fruitful farm. A view of this pleasant homestead 
appears on another page. 

The old log cabin still stands as one of the pio- 
neer landmarks of the neighborhood, but was long 
since abandoned as a family- residence, being sup- 
planted by a substantial and commodious structure, 
whose neatness and order attest to the housewifely 
skill of JMrs. Roth. This lady has ably seconded 
her husband in his efforts to acquire a good home 
and to rear their children in such a manner as to 
fit them for honorable and useful positions in life. 
Her prudent management of liousehold affairs and 
the good counsel which she has given are recog- 
nized by our subject as important factors in his 

Mr. an<l Mrs. Roth liave two living children: 
Lawrence and Joseph, and they have been called 
upon to part with tliree daughters wlio bore the 
names of IMary, Rosiua and Frances. Mr. and 
Mrs. Rotli are active members of societ}' and enjoy 
tlie confidence of their neighbors and acquaint.inces, 
being especially well regarded by their associate 
members of the Catholic Church. Mr. Rotli al- 
ways deposits a Democratic vote upon election 

AMES C. THARP, one of the early settlers of 
Calhoun county and a representative of one 
of its pioneer families, resides on section 3(), 
Carlin Precinct. His fatlier, Charles Tliarp^ 
was a native of North Carolina of Scotch descent, 
and emigrating westward located in this county in 
1829. He here became acquainted with and mar- 
ried Miss Louisa Newell who vvas bc>rn in Utica, 
N. Y., and when a maiden of some thirteen sum- 
mers accomprmied her family to Caliiotin County. 
III. Their union was blessed with a number of 
children, of whom the following are now livinff: 

Residenceof Augustus RoTH, CraterTp. Calhoun Co. Ill, 






Residence of M. A. Kam p, Kampsville.I ll. 




James C; Emma, wife of Edmund Likes, of this 
county; Esther, wife of F. H. Dierking, of Calhoun 
County; William II., of the stime of)unty; Clara, 
wife of S. H. Plummer, of Columbus County, Kan. ; 
Thomas N., of Calhoun County. 111.; and Mrs. 
Martha Lumle\', a widow living in this county. 
The iiarents of the family after many years' resi- 
dence in Calhoun County were called to their final 

James C. Tharp, whose name lieads this sketch, 
was born on iiis fatlier's farm July 15, 1838, and 
in the usual manner of farmer lads of that day his 
childhood and youth were spent. Me was sur- 
rounded by the wild scenes of pioneer life and with 
the family shared in its hardshi|)s and adversities. 
At that day one had ample opportunity to gratify 
a taste for hunting and Mr. Tharp became quite ar 
expert with the rifle. On one occasion he killed 
tliree deer in a single day and many wild fowls, 
brought down by his trustj- gun, furnished a meal 
for the family. The educational advantages of 
that time do not compare favorably with tliose of 
to-day, but he improved every opportunity and 
mastered the common brandies. 

On arriving at years of maturity Mr. Tharp was 
united in marriage with Miss Sarah Sampler, the 
union being celebrated on the 4th of September, 
18C5. The lad}- is a native of Hardin (^ount^', 111., 
and a daughter of Felix and Nancy (Barley) Sam- 
pier. The children born of their marriage are, 
Aemilius A., a school teacher of this county; Etta, 
wife of John Penz, of Calhoun County; William 
E., Anna A., John C. ; Alta, deceased; Francis M., 
and Cora E. The children have all been provided 
with good educational advantages, such as would 
fit them for the practical duties of life and do honor 
to the teachings of their parents. 

In 1869 Mr. Tharp purchased a farm on section 
30, Carlin Precinct, where he }'et makes his home. 
It comprises one hundred and sixty acres of good 
farming land which he transformed from a wild 
and unimproved state into rich and fertile fields. 
He is an enterprising and industrious man who is 
not afraid of work, but with thrift and industry 
pushes his wa}' forward, using every opportunity 
to secure a propert}- which will provide for the 
wants and comfort of his familj'. Both he and his 

wife are members of the Baptist Churchriand in 
political sentiment lie is a stalwart Republican. 
He is now serving as School Director but has never 
sought or desired public olRce. preferring to give 
his time and attention to his business interests 
which have profited thereby and made him a sub- 
stantial citizen of the comraunitj-. Few h.-\ve longer 
been residents of Calhoun County than Mr. Tharii. 
It was his birth-place, the scene of his boyhood and 
the years of his manhood have here been passed. 
It is endeared to him by every association of life 
and he feels a just pride in its progress and ad- 

AVID KURFMAN has lived in Pike 
County since 1850. and is therefore classed 
among its pioneers. Since 1858 he has been 
the proprietor of one of the many fine farms 
for which this region is noted. It is pleasantly 
located on section 7, Fairmount Township, and is 
exceedingly well-cultivated and well-improved. 

Philip Kurfman, the grandfather of our sul)ject, 
was a native of Germany, and it is thought by Mr. 
Kurfman of this notice that he was unmarried when 
he crossed the ocean and settled in iSIaiyland, 
where it is supposed he secured his wife. They 
subsequently settled in Huntingdon Count}-, Pa., 
and there they passed the rest of their dajs on a 
farm, dj'ing when nearly eighty years of age. In 
their last years they were members of the Method- 
ist Episcopal Church. They were the parents of 
five sons and three daughters, all of whom are now- 

Daniel Kurffman, the father of our subject, 
the third child of the family, and he was born in 
Bedford, Huntingdon Count}', Pa., during the last 
years of the eighteenth century. He was bred to 
the life of a farmer in his native county, and after 
attaining manhood went to Bradford County, Pa., 
where he was married to Susannah Barnett, a native 
of that county and a daughter of Jacob Barnett, 
who was a native of German}-. When her father 
was a child he was decoyed on board an .Vmerican- 
bound vessel, and after arriving on these shores was 



sold, the terms of the sale being that he was to work 
seven years to pa}' for his passage before he could 
obtain his libert}'. He was then seven years old 
and was reared in the State of Maryland. He mar- 
ried and settled in Bedford County, Pa., where he 
was engaged as a farmer and there both he and his 
wife, vvho were known aS good Cliristian people, 
rounded out their lives at a ripe age. It is thought 
that their daughter, Mrs. Knrfman, was born and 
reared in Bedford County, she having been the 
youngest of her father's children. 

After marriage Daniel Kurfman and wife made 
their home in Huntingdon County, near Cassviiie, 
and there reared their family. Mr. Kurfman died 
there in the sixty-sixth year of his age. He was 
greatly esteemed and was known as an honest, hard- 
working man, and he was a sincere Christian in 
every sense of the word. His widow came to Illinois 
with her son, our subject, and died in lliis town- 
ship at tlie age of nearly seventy-two years. She 
was a noble woman and an active member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 

David Kurfman. of whom this sketch is written, 
was tlie second child and lirst son in a farail}' of ten 
children, five sons and five daughters, of whom 
three sons and two daughters are yet living. Mr. 
Kurfman was born in Huntingdon County, Pa., 
January 29, 1815. He was brought up on a farm 
in liis native county, and was there first married to 
Miss Hannah Deeter, who was born and reared in 
the western part of Bedford Countj*. She died in 
Huntingdon County, at the age of twenty-eight 
years, after the biith of two children, Ellen (now 
deceased) and Susan. The second marriage of our 
subject took place in Pike County, at which time he 
was united to Miss Nancy Bagbj-, a native of this 
county, born in Highland Township, February 5, 
1835. She is a daughter of Larkin D.and Rachael 
(Kinman) Bagby, natives of Montgomery County, 
Ky., and Pike County. Ind. Her parents were 
young people when they migrated to this count}' 
in a very early day of its settlement and were here 
married and began their wedded life in Highland 
Township. Some years later they settltd in Pitts- 
fielii Township, and there Mrs. Bagliy died during 
the war at the age of forty-seven years. She left a 
family of two sons and four daughters, Mrs. Kurf- 

man being the eldest of the family. Mr. Bagby 
later was married three times and died in Pittsfield 
Township when an old man. 

Mrs. Knrfman was reared to womanhood by lier 
parents and was carefully trained in all that goes 
to make a good housewife. Her marriage with our 
subject has been blessed to them by the birth of 
seven children, two of whom are deceased, Rachael 
A. and Larkin D., both of whom died at tiie age of 
twenty-two 3'ears. Those living are Lavina, wife 
of Henry Bowen, a farmer in Brown County, HI.; 
George W., a farmer in this township, who married 
IMaiy Woodard ; Thomas O.. a farmer m Brown 
County, who married Almira Bowen; Fannie 11., 
wife of John Jarvis, a farmer of Brown Count}-, i 
and William R. who lives at home. ^ 

Mr. Kurfman is a tlioroughly practical fainier 
and in the prosecution of his calling has met with 
assured success, and besides his homestead has 
another small farm and is in comfortable circum- 
stances. He and his wife have long been identified 
with the Baptist Chuicli as two of its most valued 
members and he is a Deacon thereof. In his |iolit- 
icaj sentiments he is a stanch advocate of the 
Republican party. 

y/.i: NDREAS WINTJEN, who is the owner 
u\\ and operator of a good farm of two hun- 

dred and eighty a(;res on section 35, Belle- 
view Precinct, Calhoun County, has lieen 
a resident of the county for a third of a ecu- • 
tury. He is of German birth and his parents, John | 
H. and Elizabeth AVintjen, were also natives of 
Germany. Andreas was born in Hanover on the 
6th of June, 1837, and under the parental roof 
was reared to manhood, acquiring a good education i 
in the mother tongue. AV'hen sixteen years of age, I 
bidding good-by to his native land and many J 
friends, he started for America, taking passage on 1 
a sailing-vessel which left the port of Bremen in 1 
1853, and arrived at the harbor of New Orleans 
after a voyage of seven weeks. Mr. Wintjen re- 
mained in the Crescent City but a short time, 
when he resumed his journey, traveling as far 



northward as' St. Louis, Mo., where he remained 

for fdur years. With the exception of about six 
inontlis, lie was employed during that time in the 
large pork packing establishment of Ames & Co., 
serving in the important capacity of foreman. About 
1858 he came to Illinois, and locating in Calhoun 
County, has since resided here. He lias made 
farming his principal occupation since ills arrival, 
and is numbered among the leading agriculturists 
of tlie communitj'. 

Prior to leaving St. Louis, Mr. Witjen was united 
in maniage with Miss Elizabeth Schlichting, and 
unto them was born a family of ten chililren, 
eight of whom are living at this writing in the 
autumn of ISilO, namely: John. Andreas, John 
H., Ludwig J., Gevert; Catlierine, wife of Michael 
Seiiuman; Louisa and Christina. Mary and Peter 
C. are now deceased. 

On coming to this county Mr. Wintjen pur- 
chased one hundred and sixty acres of land, all in 
an unimproved state, the Indians having just va- 
cated it and gone to their reservation be3-on<l the 
Mississippi. Tliat farm is yet his home, but its 
boundaries have been extended until it now com- 
prises two hundred and eighty acres, the greater 
part of which is under a good state of cultivation. 
Man}' improvements which he has made greatly 
enhance its value and add to the beauty of its ap- 
pearance. i\Ir. Winljen is an enterprising and 
progressive citizen, and the support and aid he has 
given to public interests have not done a little 
toward its growth and progress. He is a mem- 
ber of the Lutheran Church and for over a quar- 
ter of a centur}' lias officiated as Treasurer of the 
congregation in which he holds membership. His 
wife was also connected with that church. She. 
who had been his devoted helpmate and counselor 
for many years, was called to her reward in 1875, 
departing this life on the 7th of October. Her 
many excellencies of character had endeared her 
to the hearts of the people of the community, who 
shared with the family their great loss. In poli- 
tics iMr. Wintjen is a Republican and a stalwart 
advocate of the party principles. lie has taken an 
active part in local political affairs and has served 
as School Director and Road Commissioner, dis- 
cliar'nng the duties of both positions with prompt- 

ness and fidelit}^ An upright life has won him 
many friends and he is widely and favorably known 
throughout the community. Although of German 
birth. Calhoun County has no better citizen than 
Mr. Wintjen, and we arc pleased to present this 
sketch to the readers of the Alium. 


^ lilLLIAM HOYT. The farming interests of 
\/2s/// Barr}' Township are no better represented 
'\^yS than by this gentleman, who owns and is 
ably managing one of its finest farms, comprising 
the northeast quarter of section 28, and pleasantly 
located two miles west of the village. Mr. Hoyt 
has placed upon it many substantial improvements, 
thus greatly adding to its value since it came into 
his possession. He has erected a fine and well- 
appointed set of frame buildings, has planted fruit, 
shade and ornamental trees, and has otherwise 
beautified the pl.ace. In addition to this farm he 
owns another of eighty acres, with good frame 
buildings, and under excellent cultivation, situated 
on the south one-half of the southe.ast quartei' of 
section 28. 

Mr. Hoyt was born in Delaware County, N. Y., 
October 29, 1838. His father. Elder William Hoyt, 
was born in Schoharie County, N. Y., and was a 
son of Ebenezer Hoyt, who was a native of Con- 
necticut and was derived from earl}' English 
ancestrj'. He removed from that New England 
State to Schoharie County, N. Y., of which he wjis 
a pioneer. He lioughta tract of land, cleared a farm 
and there made his home till death called him 
hence. The maiden name of his wife was Hayes, 
and she was also a native of Connecticut. She 
came to Pike County with her son William, and 
died at his home in Barry Township. She reared 
five children as follows: Lydia, Ebenezer, Hannah, 
Abigad and William. 

Our subject's father learned the trade of a car- 
penter, and followed it a greater part of the time 
while he lived in the State of New York. In 1845 
he came to Pike County by the w.ay of the E>'ie 
Canal to Buffalo, and thence b}' Lake to Erie, Pa., 
from there by canal to Pittsburg, and so on down 



tlie Oliio and up the Mississippi Rivers to St. 
Louis, Mo. The night tiiey arrived in the latter 
city the river froze, and as the little company 
could proceed no farther by boat, they crossed the 
river with teams on the ice. and came overland to 
Pike ("ouQty. Mr. Hoyt had visited this section of 
the country in 1839, and had then bouglit the east 
one-half of section "28, in Barry Township, and at 
that time built on the place. The family located 
on his land and were obliged to live in the most 
primitive manner, as the surrounding country was 
wild and sparsely settled, and was but very little 
improved. The most of the settlers were living in 
log houses then, and deer and other kinds f)f wild 
game still abounded. Mr. Iloyt was very industri- 
ous, and improved a good farm which he occupied 
some years. He sjient his last days in the village 
of Bany, where he died in the month of May, 1890, 
at the venerable age of eighty-five years; and thus 
passed away one of the most respected pioneers of 
Barry Township. In earlj' life he had m.arried 
Nancy Bain, a native of the Empire State, and she 
died in 1880. They reared eight children, namely : 
E'.euezer, Katie, Hannah, William, James, Lydia. 
Mary and Maria. 

He of whom we write was seven years old when 
his parents came to this county, so lie has grown up 
with tlie country. He commenced when very young 
to assist his father on the farm, and remained with 
his parents till he grew to manhood. He then 
rented land for a time, and subsequently purchased 
the place he now occupies. 

December 29, 1859, Mr. Hoyt and Miss Millie 
McDaniel were united in marriage. Mrs. Iloj't is a 
native of this township and a daughter of Levi 
McDaniel, who was born in Edgefield District, S. C. 
His father, John McDaniel. was born in the same 
State, and his father was a native of Ireland, of 
Scotch ancestry, who came to America in Colonial 
times. He settled in South Carolina, and there 
passed his remaining years. Mrs. Hoyt's grand- 
father served five years in the regular army, and 
with that exception spent his entire life in bis 
native State. 

Levi McDaniel was reared and married in South 
Carolina, taking as his wife Elizabeth Jennings. 
She was a daughter of William Jennings who was 

a native of Edgefield District, S. C, where he spent 
his entire life. Mrs. McDaniel died on the home 
farm in this township in 1879. 

After marriage, Mr. McDaniel continued to 
reside in his native Slate till 183(), when he started 
for what was then the far West, and made an over- 
land journey to Illinois. His wife drove a pair of 
horses attached to a carriage the entire distance. 
He located in what is now Barry Township, bought 
a tract of land and built thereon the log house in 
which Mrs. Hoyt was born. It was a double-hewed 
dwelling, and was one of the best in the country at 
that time. Both Mr. and Mrs. McDaniel were de- 
voted members of the Baptist Church and religious 
meetings were (requentl3- held in their house. 

Mr. McDaniel cleared a good farm, of which he 
remained a resident till his death, which occurred 
in April, 1876. Mr. and Mrs. Hoyt have six children 
— Nancy Ella, Elvira Elizabeth, AVilliam Henry, 
Levi W., Roscoe Dwight, and Floyd Elben. Our 
subject and wife are sincere Christian people, as 
is betokened by their everyday life, which is guided 
l)y high principles, and they are zealous members of 
the Methodist I^piscopal Church. 

n SAAC BARTON. Perhaps there is no resident 
' in Pike County who is better deserving of 

'is representation in this volume than the gentle- 
man above named, who has aided much in the de- 
velopment of the material resources of the county 
and borne his part in worthy public enterprises. 
In 1880 he removed into Summer Hill where he 
has since been living retired from active life, en- 
joying merited comfort and repose. By dint of 
persistent industrj-, wise economy and good habits 
he succeeded in acquiring a comfortable fortune, 
although he began his personal career with no cap- 
ital other than his sturdy qualities of mind, his 
physical strength and a common-school education. 
The natal d.ay of our subject was June 7, 182.5, 
and his birthplace Knox County, K^-. He is of 
English ancestry in the paternal line and of Eng- 
lish and Irish in the maternal. He made his home 
in his native State until twelve years of age, at- 



tending the old-fashioned log schoolhouse with its 
open fireplace, its writing desk beneath the win- 
dows and the other primitive arrangements which 
were common at tiiat |)eriod. Just before entering 
his teens he went witi) a brother to Parke Countj', 
Ind., which was tlien an undeveloped, sparsely- 
settled region. He worked out by the month on a 
farm, receiving $7 per month for his first year's 
work. He continued to occupy himself as a farm 
laborer about eight years, then learned the carpen- 
ter's trade and followed it four or five years. 

Mr. Barton next ran a carding machine two 
j'ears and worked in sawmills some. In December, 
184(), he came on horseback to this State, liis only 
possessions being his horse and saddle and about 
*15 in money. He worked in the sawmills of 
Rockport, Pike County, two years and then bought 
eighty acres on section 8, Warlinsburg Township, 
ten acres of which were cleared. A log house had 
been built into which he moved, but after making 
some improvements he sold the place and bought 
seventy-nine acres in Pleasant Hill Township. For 
that propcrt\- lie paid $600 and after occupying it 
a year sold it for -isTiOO. He purchased one hun- 
dred and sixty acres farther north and soon dis- 
posed of it at a profit of $300. He finalh' purchased 
one hundred and sixty acres of timber land north 
of Rockport and taking up his residence there lan 
a sawmill ten years. 

From time to time Mr. Barton bought more 
land and at one time owned six hundred and forty 
acres. He farmed quite extensively and also 
raised large numbers of domestic animals. He 
made the best of improvements u|)on his estate, 
among them being a very fine dwelling, which was 
erected at a cost of over $.3,000. The work which 
was carried on there was conducted according to 
tlie most approved methods, order was everywhere 
manifested, and no part of the estate was allowed 
to assume a neglected or ill-cared for appearance. 
While in no wise penurious. Mr. Barton understood 
that a penny saved is a penny earned and built up 
his fortunes where those less prudent and industri- 
ous would have failed. 

Grandfather Barton was born in Virginia and 
followed the occupation of a farmer. He enteied 
the Colonial army when the Declaration uf Imle- 

pendenee was made and was killed in the battle of 
Bunker Hill. His wife live;l to be eighty years of 
age and reared a family of five children, taking as 
far as possible their father's place after his decease. 
Grandmother Barton belonged to the Baptist 
Church during most of her life. 

William Barton, the father of our subject, was 
born in the Old Dominion, reared on a farm there 
and in his early manhood went to Tennessee. There 
he married Mary Brewer, a native of that State and 
a woman of Christian character, belonging to the 
Baptist Church. Mr. Barton subsequently removed 
to Knox County, Ky., on the Cumberland River, 
being one of the earl>- settlers. He acquired a 
considerable tract of land and prospered in his 
worldlv affairs. He was killed in a runaway ac- 
cident when about sixty years of age. For many 
years he was a Deacon in the Baptist Church 
and was well known in the neighborhood as a man 
of deep religious convictions. Politically, he was 
an old line Whig. His wife lived to be fifty odd 
years old, she also being a member of the Baptist 

The family of this good couple consisted of the 
following children, only four of whom arc now 
living: Susan, Henry, .lames and John deceased; 
Solomon; William, Lewis, Elizabeth and Sarah 
deceased; Mary J., Isaac, Daniel; Nancy, deceased. 

The subject of this biographical sketch was mar- 
ried February 15, 1847, to Rachel M. Owslej-, who 
was born in Tennessee, December 27, 1830. She is 
a capable, efficient, intelligent woman, possessing 
the Christian graces and endearing herself to the 
hearts of family and fricnils by her virtues. She 
has borne her husband eleven children, eight of 
wlioin grew to maturity. These are Mrs. M. AVells, 
William T., John A., Fred, Dellie R, Perry F., Anna 
and Clyde E. Anna is now teaching music in the 
Western College at La Belle, Mo. All were care- 
fully reared and fitted, in so far as parental love 
and watchfulness could accomplish that purpose, 
for usefulness and honor. 

From the time he deposited his first ballot until 
1888 Mr. Barton was a Democrat, but he has now 
determined to throw his influence into the Prohi- 
bition party. He has hold all the offices in Atlas 
Townshii), discharging his duties in a manner crcd- 



itable alike to himself and those who elected him. 
He is well informed on all the topics of general 
interest, honest and straightforward in all his deal- 
ings, and both lie and his wife belong to the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, in which the}' have held 
membership for thirty-five years. 

/ESSE WILSON. This gentleman is very 
well known throughout Northern Calhoun 
County, being identified with the farming 
((^J/ and stock-raising interests of Hamburg Pre- 
cinct. His comfortable and pleasant home is favor- 
ably located on section .5, wlierc he owns nearly 
two hundred acres of land, which he has acquired 
by dint of industry, perseverance and good man- 
agement. The land is intelligently handled and 
so produces crops equal in quality and quantity to 
any in the vicinitj', and has furthermore been sup- 
plied with all needed improvements. 

Our subject is a native of this county, in vvhich 
his parents, Silas and Nancy (Crader) Wilson, 
were pioneers. On coming hither they made a set- 
tlement in the woods in Hamburg Precinct, and 
in clearing and developing their farm endured 
many hardships usual in pioneer times and dis- 
played the sturdy virtues so characteristic of the 
class to which they belonged. They reared a large 
farail\', of wiiom the survivors are: P^lizabeth, 
Samuel, Jesse, Caroline, Mary .]., Silas and Will- 
iam. The father, altliough in his youth denied 
educational advantages, was possessed of natural 
intelligence and his character was such that his 
death was regretted as a loss to the entire commu- 
nity. The widowed mother is still living at an 
advanced age, respected as her virtues merit. 

The natal day of our subject was May 27, 1844. 
He grew to maturity amid the primitive scenes of 
a country which was still far from being well set- 
lied, and as he grew toward manhood did consider- 
able of the pioneer work by means of which the 
county has reached its present condition. His edu- 
cation was obtained in the early subscri|)tioi) and 
public schools and although his advantages were not 
equal to those affoi'ded to the ho^'s and girls of to- 

day, he acquired a fair share of practical knowledge. 
He has made farming his life work and has en- 
deavored to carry on his estate according to the 
best methods, making use of advanced ideas and 
modern appliances as fast as they were proven 
feasible or wise. 

Mr. Wilson has been twice married, his first 
companion having been Mary A. Lawson, a na- 
tive of Missouri, who became the mother of three 
children — William, Charles and Lilly M. The first 
named only is living. The lady whom Mr. Wilson 
won for his second wife bore the maiden name of 
Mary E. Gordon, She is a daughter of John R. 
and Mary (McDonald) Gordon, of Calhoun County, 
and is not only an industrious and kindly woman, 
but is much esteemed for her Christian character. 
This marriage has been blest by the birth of eight 
children, the survivors being Sarah, John, Dona 
J., Stella and Martha. 

Both Mr. and Mrs. Wilson belong to the Chris- 
tian Church and earnestly endeavor to mold their 
lives according to the piecepts of the Gospel. Mr. 
Wilson is now serving as Deacon in the church. 
In politics he is a Democrat. In the spring of 1888 
he was elected Road Commissioner of Hamburg 
Precinct for a term of three years and he is also 
serving as School Director of his district. He com- 
mands the respect of the business coranuinity and 
is recognized as an intelligent, liberal and pul)lic- 
spirited citizen. 

W EWIS H. SNEEDEN. The life of this gen- 
I (j^ tieman is a record of difficulties successfully 
jl'—^Vi overcome, adversities bravely combated and 
success finally won. Although possessed of but few 
advant.iges when beginning life for himself he has. 
become wealthy, and his fine farm on section lit, 
Detroit Township, will be a monument to his in- 
dustry' and toil, long years after he has passed 

In tracing his lineage we find that ]\Ir. Sneeden 
comes of a substantial stock, his father, Charles 
Sneeden, being a native of the Old P>ay State and 
born in 1817. He followed the occupation of a 



stonemason, ami on ari'ivino- at years of uialuritv 
married Mary Siulditli, a native of ^'irgi^ia and 
born in 181. '3. I'rior to iiis marriage Charles Snee- 
deii had emigrated to the Old Dominion and it 
remained his home until 18G;3, when he came to 
Illinois and settled in the village of Detroit, where 
he made a [lermanent home for his family. The 
wife and mother died in 18SS2 after a long life de- 
voted to the welfare of her husband and children. 
The father still survives and now lives in Detroi*;. 
They both joined the Jlethodist Episcopal Church 
in their earlier years. He still maintains a hearty 
interest in political affairs and voted first with the 
Whig party but upon the organization of the IJc- 
publican party became identioed with that organi- 
zation. His upright life is a priceless heritage he 
has given to his children, and he enjoys the esteem 
of all who know him. 

The parental family included nine children, of 
whom five now survive whose record is as follows: 
Our subject the first born; Sarah J., Mrs. Will- 
ian Keel, lives in Detroit Township and has nine 
children; Fannie, Mrs. Matthew Williams, lives in 
Hardin Township and has three children. By a 
previous marriage to William Manker she became 
the mother of two children: Miranda, Mrs. Burten 
Elliott, resides in Detroit Township and is the 
mother of four children; Charles, who resides in 
Detroit Township, is married and they have three 

In Fairfax County, Va., tlie birth of our subject 
occurred March 15, 1845. He passed his youth in 
the Old Dominion and attended a select school for 
a sliort time. He was fifteen years of age when the 
Civil War broke out and lived about fourteen 
miles from the famous battlefield of Bull Run. He 
well remembers the battle. During the war the 
family lost all their possessions and the father, on 
account of his Union sentiments, was taken by the 
rclielsand imprisoned four months at Castle Thun- 
der, Richmond, and twelve months at Salisbury, 
N. C. After suffering all kinds of inhuaian treat- 
ment he was released in 1865 and leturning home 
soon started for the West. 

Upon reaching the age of twenty-one years our 
subject commenced the battle of life for himself, 
and for one year worked by the month for James 

Stduer. and the following se.ason rented a farm 
and worked for himself one year. In 1868 he went 
to Kansas and Iccated in Shawnee County, whence 
after working by the month for one and one-half 
years he returned to I'ike County-. His marriage 
was solemnized September 11, 1870, in Detroit 
Township, when Miss Susan M., daughter of David 
and Melviua (Castcel) Sliuler, became his wife. 
Mr. and Mrs. Shuler were natives respectively of 
North Carolina and Tennessee, and were married 
in Jlontezuma Town»liip, this county. After their 
marriage they settled east of Milton, and after a 
residence of a few \ears there removed to Newburg 
Township. They sojourned there a short time then 
located in Detroit Township on the farm now owned 
by W. Scarborough. She died there in 1864 and 
Mr. Shuler subsequently married and passed from 
earth in 1886. 

By his first marriage Mr. Shuler became the fa- 
ther of six children, of wjiom the following survive: 
Lucinda (Mrs. Gobble), Susan M. (Mrs. Sneeden) 
and Mary J. (Mrs. Scarborough). The mother 
was a sincere Christian and a devoted member of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. The father was 
in the Mormon War at Nauvoo, 111., and was al- 
ways interested in politics, voting the Democratic 
ticket and serving as a School Director. The 
daughter, Mrs. Sneeden, was born October 14, 1853, 
in Newburg Township, Pike County, and received 
her education in district No. 8, Detroit Township. 

Unto Mr. Sneeden and his excellent wife there 
have been born eight chiklren, namely : David, now 
a stalwart youth of nineteen years; Lewis, who was 
born in 1873; Maud, in 1876; Charles, a bright 
boy of twelve vcars; Edna, Cora, Haltie and Ethel, 
the latter a winsome child of two years. After 
niarriage our subject lived two miles east of De- 
troit for one year, then rented a part of the farm 
which Mr. Scarborough now operates. After liv- 
ing there one year he removed one-half mile south 
on section 30. He only remained tliere one 3ear, 
and then selling his household effects and farm 
implements removed to Kansas and located in Rice 

Finding life in not congenial to his taste 
Mr. Sneeden returned to I'ike County after a resi- 
dence of two and one-hrdf j-ears in the Sunflower 



State, and bought a farm on section 31, Detroit 
Tovvnsliip. Tliis place continued to be liis home 
for eleven years and in the meantime he etfected 
good improvements upon it and made it one of tiie 
finest estates in the vicinity. In 1886 he purchased 
the place where he now resides, paying for it $97 
per acre. He has one liiuidred and ninety-five 
.acres, of which one hundred and sixty acres are 
under excellent cultivation. Here he carries on 
general farming, also raises cattle, horses, hogs and 
siieep. The jjlace is admirably ada[)ted to the rais- 
ing of stock and he been quite successful in liis 
ventures in that line. 

Although devoting most of his time to the de- 
velopment of his farm Mr. Sneeden yet finds time 
for public duties, and has served as School Director 
in his district, and is now Township Trustee. He 
is, socially, a member of the Masonic Order at 
Milton, of which he has been Steward. He has 
always voted the Democratic ticket and is thor- 
oughly in sympathy with the principles of that 
party. He is deeply interested in the education of 
his children, who will receive all the advantages of 
a thorough training in the best schools of the 


"^I^LI GRIMES. Few citizens of Pike County 
l^ have shown a greater degree of business 
!}} — -^/ tact and enterprise than Eli Grimes, of Mil- 
ton, who is now filling the ofHce of Postmaster in 
a very eflicient manner. He has been one of the 
leading sjjirits in the Republican ranks in this sec- 
tion for some years and is one of the most uncom- 
promising advocates of the party policy. In the 
conduct of his business affairs he has from his youth 
up followed the old ad.age, "Nothing venture, noth- 
ing have," but has likewise wisely calculated prob- 
abilities and rtsults. 

The father of our subject is John D. Grimes and 
his mother was Elizabeth A. (Cox) Grimes. Both 
parents were born in the Blue Grass State and came 
to Illinois when quite young, Grandfather Cii'irnes 
settling in Pike County and Grandfather Cox in 
Cass County. The marriage took place at the 

home of the bride, and Mr. and Mrs. John Grimes 
immediately settled on a farm near Milton, Pike 
County. Mr. (i rimes operated his farm and en- 
gaged in speculating. He was one of the leading 
citizens, tjiking a prominent [jart in public enter- 
prises, among which was the building of the Chris- 
tian Church. He a member of the society and 
a Deacon of the same. He is now living in Kan- 
sas City, Mo., with his second wife, the mother of 
our subject having l)reathed her last in 1868, and 
is engaged in the real-estate business. Six children 
came to bless the union of .lohn and Elizabeth 
Grimes and all are still living. 

Our subject is the eldest child and opened his 
eyes to the light in Milton, January 3, 1843. He 
received his education in the schools of his n.ntive 
place and, inheriting a taste for trade, began spec- 
ulating when but seventeen j'ears old. For ten 
years after the war he was a heavy dealer in horses 
and mules in Louisiana, Mississippi and Arkansas, 
and he has also done a large trade in cattle. After 
his marriage in 1864, he established his home in 
Milton and is still living in the same house. In 
addition to this property he owns two hundred and 
sixty acres of farm laud in Detroit Township, which 
is imjiroved with a comfortable residence and ade- 
quate barns, and occupied by a renter. Mr. Grimes 
gives his attention to stock-dealing and to the du- 
ties of the ofHce to which he was appointed April 
7, 1889. 

The lady who presides over the home of Mr. 
Grimes bore the maiden name of Ellen E. Brown 
and was born in Greene County, this State, Decem- 
ber 15, 1843. She is an educated, refined woman 
who has many friends in the community. Her par- 
ents, Isaac S. and Catherine E. (Hay) Brown, re- 
moved from New York to Illinois, making their 
first settlement in Greene County and coming to 
Pike County in 1850. Mr. Brown was killed at 
the siege of Vicksbnrg in 1863, he having been a 
wagonmaster in the Ninety-ninth Illinois Infantry. 
Mrs. Brown survived until 1889. Their family 
consists of six sons and daughters, all still living. 
Mr. and Mrs. Grimes are the parents of three 
daughters, named respectively: Clara, Catherine E. 
and Hawley A. All have I'eceived good educations 
and the daughters held teachers' certificates. The 


-->- « \ 


73. ^y^ 

^lA O^'H CS-ir-O-^-Z-lX 



first-born is now deceased, but was formerly the 
wife of C. White. Catherine married J. A. Miller, 
lives in Detroit Township and lias one child, Mary 
Ellen. The youngest. Hawley A., is still residing 
under the parental roof. 

Mr. Grimes is a member of the Blue Lodge in 
Millon, in which he has held office, and also belongs 
to Milton Chapter, No. 119. He has been a mem- 
ber of the School Board and was Assessor of Monte- 
zuma Townslup nine years. He was a candidate' 
for the office of Supervisor but was beaten by five 
votes. His first Presidential ballot was cast for 
Abraham Lincoln at his second candidacy and he 
has never withdrawn his political allegiance from 
his first love. He has frequently been a delegate 
to State conventions and is recognized as a promi- 
nent member of the local party organization. Our 
subject was Postmaster under Arthur's administra- 

*. : j g^J^i^: : . 

RS. BENJAMIN D. BROWN, widow of 
'■ the late Benjamin Brown is a revered resi- 
dent of the town of Barrv, to whose peo- 
ple she has endeared herself by her manj' 
benevolent and charitable acts. To her belongs 
the honor of suggesting the name this township 
has borne for fifty years or more, and as an early 
settler of the county we are pleased to present her 
personal sketch and portraits of herself and hus- 

Mrs. Brown has been a resident of Pike County 
since 1833, and therefore has witnessed almost its 
entire development. She was born in the town of 
Barrr. Washington County, Vt., May 27, 1805. Her 
father, Charles Kellum, was also a native of New 
England and his parents removed from New 
Hampshire to Vermont in an early day of the set- 
tlement of that State and were pioneers of Iras- 
burg. The grandfather of our subject was a farmer 
and spent his last years in the Green Mountain State. 
He was a good man, a sincere Christian and a Dea- 
con in the Baptist Church and was well known far 
and wide as "Deacon Kellum." 

Mrs. Brown's father settled in Barre before his 
marriage, and there was emplo3-ed as a carpenter 

and a painter. He bought a home adjoining the 
village of Barre and spent his last years in that 
town. His wife, who bore the maiden name of 
Rebecca Rice was born in Worcester, Mass., and 
spent her last years with Mrs. Brown at her home 
in Barry, this county. She of whom this personal 
sketch is written was reared and educated in her na- 
tive town and was carefully trained by her good 
mother in all that goes to make an excellent, capa- 
ble housewife, so that at the time of her marriage, 
April 3, 1831, to Benjamin D. Brown, she well 
fitted to take charge of a home of her own. Directly 
after marriage the young couple removed to Utica, 
N. Y., going by st.age to Burlington, thence b}' 
Lake Champlaiu,Cliamplain Canal and Erie Canal to 
their destination. They sojourned in Ulica until 
the fall of 1833, when they again started westward 
traveling by Erie Canal to Buffalo, thence by lake 
to Detroit, from there b}- stage across the Territory 
of Michigan, and then by Lake Michigan to Chi- 
cago. At that time Chicago was a small village, 
and Northern Illinois was practically uninhabited, 
though the Indians still lingered there. At Chi- 
cago Mr. and Mrs. Brown hired a carriage and drove 
across the country to Pike County. Here they 
found but few settlements, and Atlas was then the 
principal town, Pittsfield having been laid out that 

Our subject and her husband lived there until 
the spring of 1834, and then went to Louisiana, 
Mo., and to St. Louis. In 1839 tho3- came to the 
present site of Barry, and admiring its beautiful 
sjtuation took up their residence here. At that 
time there was but one store here and a hotel kept 
in a frame building, besides about six dwellings. 
The place was then known as Worcester, hut it 
happened that there was another town of the same 
name in Illinois, and as the name must be changed 
the Postmaster suggested that Mrs. Brown name 
the place and she [iroposed Barre in honor of her na- 
tive town in Vermont. 

This venerable lady has lived in Barry for more 
than half a century, and no name is more beloved 
and honored than hers among the old settlers 
of the town. She is a noble type of the pioneer 
women of this county who so faithfully and capa- 
bly aided their fathers, husbands and brothers in 



its upbuilding, and have greatly helped to iai<e 
its moral, social and religious status. Many a 
kind act has she done to relieve want and distress, 
and the snons of age have not chilled her generous 
blood and warm heart, for she is as ready to-day as 
ever to extend a helping hand and give words of 
counsel and sympatiiy wherever needed. She uses 
her wealtli freely for charitable purposes and other- 
wise. She has recently donated opera chairs to seat 
tlie Baptist Church here and previously gave the 
society a handsome and commodious dwelling for 
a parsonage. 

|=^if^ - . 

n SOM L. INGRAM. Among the successful far- 
mers of Pike County, is numbered Isom Ing- 
/j i-am, whose estate is pleasantly located on 
section 2, Perry Township. It is the old home- 
stead on which the father of our sul)ji:ct began his 
pioneer labors in 1833, and the son grew to man- 
hood, assisting his father more and more from year 
to year. Mr. Ingram was born in Smith C<junty, 
Tenn., June 12, 1822. and after passing some of 
his boyhood years in his native State, accompanied 
his parents hitlier. The journey took place in the 
fall, and was accomplished by means of a two- 
wheeled cart drawn by a poke of oxen with a liorse 
in the lead. All the earthly possessions of the lit- 
tle family were brought with them, and they began 
their new life in an almost unbroken wilderness. 

The hardships endured in obtaining a foothold 
were such as were common to many of the pioneers, 
and served to develop in our sul)joct the more 
sturdy traits of manhood. A good farm was ere 
long acquired and improved, and here the active 
life of our subject, with the exception of three 
years spent in Brown County, has been passed. As 
the oiily child of his parents he inherited the estate 
where he has continued the work begun by them, 
further developing the resources of the land, and 
gaining a competency in so doing. 

At the home of the bride, October 25, 1843, in 
Brown County, this State, Mr. Ingram was united 
in marriage with Miss Perlina Rusk. This lady 
was born in Morgan County, cast of Jacksonville, 

June 15, 1825, and carefully reared by Christian 
parents. She had four sisters and five brothers. 
and three sisters and two brothers are still living. 
Her parents, John and Nancy (Swegett) Rusk, na- 
tives of Kentucky', were married in that State and 
about 1820 came to Illinois, settling in Morgan 
County. They develo|ied a good farm from the 
prairie wilds, making it their home some twenty 
years, and then locating in Brown County. There 
Mr. Rusk breathed his last October 8, 1844, when 
about fifty-three years old. For some years after 
his death his widow lived with her children, dying 
at the home of our subject in 1866, when she had 
passed the age of fourscore. Both ^Ir. and Mrs. 
Rusk belonged to the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

The children born to our subject and his esti- 
mable wife, are Louisa, who passed awaj' in the dawn 
of her womanhood, at the age of sixteen years; 
Isaac, who married Kllen Ledgett, and occupies a 
farm near Mt. Pleasant. Brown County; Susan, 
wife of James York, a farmer in Adams County; 
Joshua T., who married Sarah Banning, and after 
her death her sistei Rhoda, and is farming in Brown 
County; Benjamin F., who married Henrietta Han- 
nah, and lives in Nebraska City, Neb.; Nancy A., 
wife of George Walling, astock-shii)per in Douglas 
County; Martha J., wife of Alexander Collier, 
who operates a farm in the same township as our 
subject; Henry W., unmarried and a farmer; M. ^^ 
FJla, wife of Cary Ilarllen, is a farmer in I'ike ^H 
County. ^^ 

Mr. Ingram is a sound Democrat in his political 
views. Mrs. Ingram and most of the children be- 
long to the Christian Church. The family are ac- 
corded their due measure of respect as worth}' 
members of the agricultural class and of society in 
general. , 

Our subject is presumed to be of Scotcli-lri.^h an- 
cestry, and his grandfather, John Ingram, w,as 
born in Ireland but reared in Tennessee whither 
his parents had emigrated in his early childhood. 
John Ingram married Rachel Blanton, the daughter 
of Irish parents, and herself probalily a native of 
the Emerald Isle. In 1830 John Ingram, his wife 
and five sons, came to this State, making their home 
on Government land in an unsettled part of Pike 
County. The}' lived to be quite aged, securing 




and improving two or three farms, and becoming 
well known and higiily res[)ected by their associates 
in tiie development of tlie county. Mr. Ingram 
was a stanch Democrat, and he and his wife in- 
clined to the Methodist faith. 

Joshua Ingram, the father of our subject, was the 
eldest of seven sons who lived to maturity, became 
residents of this State, and i eared families here. 
All are now deceased, the youngest having died 
within the past year. Joshua grew to manhood in 
Smith County, Tenn., and there married Susannah 
Lemox, a native of that county, and daughter of 
Isom Lemox. After most of their children were 
grown to maturity. Mr. and Mrs. Lemox went to 
Indiana in which State they spent the remainder of 
their days. Their daughter, Mrs. Ingram, was 
reared b3' her grandparents in her native county, 
and thence removed to this State with her husband 
and only child in the manner before mentioned. 
She and her husband were intelligent, industrious 
and pious, adhering to the faith of the Methodist 
Church. Mr. Ingram, like bis father before him, 
was a stanch Democrat. 

ETER STAFF. When the natural re- 
|) sources of such a region as that of Pike 
Count}' are developed and enhanced by all 
that goes to m,ike up a model farm, the 
scene is attractive indeed. A visitor to the home 
of Peter Staff could not fail to be struck with ad- 
miration for the enterprise and industry that ac- 
quired, and the good judgment and tact which 
carries on this fine estate. The farm consists of 
eighty acres on section 29. Barry Township, which 
has been cleared and placed under thorough culti- 
vation by its present owner. lie has erected upon 
it a set of frame buildings which will compare fa- 
vorably with any in the township. In addition to 
Ibis farm he owns thirty-three acres on section 20, 
of tlie same township which also is in good con- 
dition as to its cultivation and improvement. 

Mr. Staff is a native of Hesse-Cassel, Germany, 
in which province his ancestors liave lived for many 
years. His grandfather and father, both of whom 

bore the name of Peter were weavers and spent 
their entire lives in their native province. The 
father died in 18i;3 when our subject was but an 
infant. The mother, who bore the maiden name 
of Catharine Kestner, died in 1852. She bad reared 
three sons — John, George and Peter, all uf whom 
came to America. The first makes his home with 
our subject and George resides in Quincy. 

The subject of this biographical sketch was left 
motherless when nine years old. His natal day was 
September 4, 1842. He attended school quite 
steadily until he was thirteen years old, then with 
his brother George came to America. They set 
sail from Bremer-Haven in November, 1855, land- 
ing at New Orleans after a voyage of forty-eight 
days, and at once came north to C^uincy, III., where 
our subject landed with but $1 in his pocket. He 
found work on a farm near the city, receiving at 
first but $5 per month and his board. He continued 
to work on the farm until 1860, when he began to 
learn the shoemaker's trade, working at it until 
August, 1861. On the 20th of that month he was 
enrolled in Company A, Twenty-seventh Illinois 
Infantr}' and from that time until September, 1864, 
was an active participant in the duties devolving 
upon a soldier of the Union. 

Among the more important battles in which Mr. 
Staff participated were Belmont, LTnion City, Island 
No. 10, siege of Corinth, Stone River, Mud Creek, 
Chickamauga and Missionary Ridge. He joined 
Sherman's command at Chattanooga and partici- 
pated in the Atlanta campaign, being present at 
the battles of Rocky Falls, Resaca, Dalton and Ken- 
esaw Mountain. He was wounded at the battle of 
Mud Creek but not so severely as to incapacitate 
him for duty, and he was always able to answer to 
roll call, never being sick during the period of his 
army life. At the expiration of his term of ser- 
vice he was discharged with the regiment, after 
having satisfied his commanders of his valor, de- 
votion to duty and loyalty to the country of his 
adoption. Returning to this State he bought eighty 
acres of the land be now owns, ten of which were 
cleared and the remainder brush and timber land. 
The work which he has done upon this place and 
its present appearance have been already noted. 

The good wife of Mr. Staff bore the maiden 



name of Katlieiiiia Rosina Auer. She. was born in 
Wu item burg, Germany, and came to America willi 
her parents, becoming the wife of our subject in 
18G6. She possesses the iiouselieeping abilities so 
characteristic of German VTomanhood, and lilie 
others of her race is intensely devoted to the wel- 
fare of lier husband and children. The family con- 
sists of four sons — George, Peter, Edward and 
Leonard who, like their parents, belong to the 
German-Lutiieran Church. 


■ tist Church at Griggsville, Pike County, is 
/ii \\\ in charge of a man of bioad culture, corn- 
el preiiensive views, and earnest zeal in tlie 
cause to which he has devoted his talents. His 
scholarly tastes are inherited and he lias been a 
lifelong student, eager to olitain knowledge, par- 
ticularly in those lines which will add to his in- 
fluence over the minds of those to whom he is 
presenting the truths of the Gospel. 

The Coffey family has been known in America 
for about two hundred years, its founder having 
come from the North of Ireland and located in 
Virginia, whence the family afterward went to 
Nortli Carolina. The Rev. Reuben Coffey, grand- 
father of our subject, was a native of Caldwell 
County, N. C. He won for his wife Polly Dowell. 
Their sou Cornelius was born March 12, 1812, was 
well educated and studieii for the ministry, at the 
same time working at the carpenter's bench or at 
farming. He was never ordained, but became a 
voluminous writer for religious papers. He be- 
came a resident of Indiana, marrying in that State 
Miss Margaret Smith, the ceremony being solemn- 
ized in 1836 near the town of Bloomington. The 
bride was born in Kentucky and was a daughter of 
John and Ach<ah (Belcha) Smith. Mr. and Mrs. 
Coffey spent their entire wedded lives in the Hoosier 
State, the husband d3'ing there in 1852 at the age 
of forty years. The widow survived until 1883 
and breathed her last when sixty-five years old. 

The family of this good couple consisted of four 
children, our subject being the third in order of 

birth. The oldest, Copernicus H., became a soldier 
in Company I, Twenty-second Illinois Infantry 
and w.'is promoted to the position of Orderly- 
Sergeant. When his term of enlistment expired he 
re-entered as a veteran and was at the head of his 
company at Kenesaw Mountain, Ga., where he fell 
mortally wounded. He lay on the field two days 
and nights before death ended his sufferings. Susan 
S., the second child, is engaged in teaching in 
Ulysses, Grant County, Kan., and Sarah B., the 
youngest child, is devoted to the same work in that 

The gentleman of whom we write was born at 
Bloomington, Ind.. November 11. 1847. He took 
advantage of every opi)ortunity to attend school, 
advancing his knowledge in the district schools 
principally until he was sixteen j'ears old, when he 
entered Ladoga, Ind., Seminar^', taking an acad- 
emic course. He subsequently taught in that in- 
stitution one year as head assistant. He next went 
to Shurtleff College, Upjier Alton, III., where he 
com|)leleda collegiate course, being graduated with 
the degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1871. He then 
took up the study of theology in the same institu- 
tion and three years later received the degree of 
Doctor of Divinity. 

In 1875, the year following his grailuation, Mr. 
Coffey was ordained in the Baptist Church and 
spent some time in Appleton, Wis., engaged in min- 
isterial labors. He was then sent as a missionary 
to Kansas, in which .State he sojourned nine yei'rs, 
preaching in various places, building up the church 
and opening up new fields. He came from Hering- 
ton to Griggsville in February. 1889, and with his 
customary ardor is endeavoring to meet the wants 
of the people in his new field of labor. His affable 
manners, which seem incited by the law of love, 
give him a foothold among those who are not easily 
attracted toward Christianity, and are an additional 
reason for the respect of his peo|)le. 

The Rev. Mr. Coffey, at IJpper Alton in 1875. led 
to the hymeneal altar Miss Julia A. Vallette and 
the congenial union has been blest by the birth of 
five children — Grace, Ro3% ftL-iggie, Carrie and 
May. Mrs. Coffey was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, 
where her father was formerly engaged in business. 
j Her parents, Frederick A. and Marcia (Field) Val- 



lette came to this State some j-ears ago and her fa- 
ther became a lumber dealer. Mrs. Coffey is cul- 
tiired and lefined, and possesses the kindly spirit so 
nece.'Sirv to a minister's wife. 

HARLES M. WEEMS, M. D. is a young 
II , physician of more than ordinary skill and 
ability and is very successfully' prosecuting 
his noble calling in Rockport, Pike County, and 
vicinity where he has an extensive practice. He 
is a native of the town of Albany, Gentry County, 
Mo., where he was born September 14, 1859. He 
comes of an ancient and distinguished family and 
his ancestry is traceable back to the time of King 
.lames wh':'n one of the family won considerable 
prominence in the wars of that period and held the 
title of Baron. 

Our subject is the son of the Rev. Thomas D. 
Weems, who was formerly prominent in the Meth- 
odist ministry, but was superannuated in the month 
of September, 1890, on account of ill health. He 
was born in Pennsylvania in 1833 while his father, 
l-)avid Weems, was a native of Maryland. He was 
a son of the noted Dr. John Weems, one of Wash- 
ington's biographers. He was a native of Scotland 
who coming to this country in Colonial times was a 
soldier in the Revolution. He was a friend of 
Washington and l)Oth during and after the war was 
his attending physician, and was with the General 
at Mt. Vernon during his last sickness. lie died in 
Maryland when quite an old man. 

The grandfather of our subject was a farmer in 
Ohio, of which he was an early settler. He was a 
a finely-educated man and was thoroughly con- 
versant with the classics. He finally emigrated to 
Iowa and died there in 1879 at the age of seventy- 
five years. The father of our subject was born in 
Uniontown, Pa. and was reared in Ohio, until he 
was fifteen years of age, when he went to Indiana. 
He was married at the age of eighteen years, and 
then the j'oung husband moved with his bride to 
Miss)uri. He was a strong Union man, and the 
pro-slaver^' sentiment of that State was too much 

for him so that a year later he left, and coming to 
Illinois organized a company of soldiers in Vermil- 
ion County. He was First Lieutenant of his com- 
pany, was dispatched to the seat of war, and served 
nearl}' three years, winning an honorable military 
record. After his retirement frojii the army he 
entered the ministry, joining the Illinois Annual 
Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Churcli. He 
worked hard in the interests of religion, became 
quite widely known and was regarded as one of the 
most earnest and faithful ministers of his denomi- 
nation in this Stale. The condition of his health 
finally obliged him to abandon his beloved calling 
aud lie is now living in retirement. 

The Rev. ]Mr. Weems married Mary Reese who 
is a native of Ohio, and was reared in Indiana. She 
is still living and devotes herself to the comforts 
of her husband aud family. She is the mother of 
six children, all of whom grew to maturity, namely : 
Albert, Elwood W. (a physician), James, Thomas 
R., LuUa M., (Mrs. Snider), aud Charles M. Mrs. 
Weem's father, Zachariali Reese, was born in 
North Carolina in 1800 and died in Indiana in 1887. 
He was of English extraction and a Quaker in re- 
ligion. He was a farmer by occupation. 

Dr. Weems was only a year old when his famil3' 
came to this State, and his father being a minister 
the family moved from town to town at different 
times, and he attended school in various places, and 
laid the solid foundation of his present liberal edu- 
cation. His connection with the public schools 
ceased when he was eighteen years of age, and at 
that time he began the study of medicine at Rush 
Medical College, Chicago, which he attended two 
terms. He subsequently was a student at the Col- 
lege of Surgeons and Physicians at Keokuk, Iowa, 
one term and was graduated from there with honors. 
The first four years of his experience as a physician 
were passed in the town of Weir, Cherokee Cotintj", 
Kan., aud he then opened an oflice at liaylis, this 
county, where he was engaged until 188'J. He then 
located at Rockport where he has worked up quite 
a pr.ictice, his lepulation having preceded him, 
and he has the field to himself. 

Dr. Weems was married July 2, 1883 to Lee Anna 
Pastor. Mrs. Weems was born in Virginia City, 
Ncv., April 22, 1864, and is the daughter of Sam- 



uel E. and Frances I. (Davis) Pastor. Her father 
is a gold miner in the Territory of Arizona. Her 
parents are botii living and she is their only child. 
She is a member of tlie Methodist Episcopal Cluirch 
and possesses a fine Christian character. The Doc- 
tor and his wife have four clii'.dren, two sons and 
two daughters, whom they have named Thomas D., 
Harris R.. Helen and Mabel. The Doctor is a Re- 
publican in politics and is true to all the duties im- 
posed upon him as a man and a citizen. 

JUSTUS FRANKE. It is always a pleasure 
to the biographical writer to record the his- 
torj- of a self-made man and to give credit 
where credit is due in the accumulation of 
property and the securing of an honorable reputa- 
tion. We are glad, therefore, to be able to present 
to our readers the main facts in the life of Justus 
Franke of Richwoods Precinct, Calhoun County, 
one of the wealthy and substantial farmers whose 
prosperity is due to personal effort. 

Mr. Franke is descended from old and respectable 
families of Hesse-Cassel, Germany, and is himself a 
native of that province. His grandfather, Henry 
Franke, entered the army when a young man, serv- 
ing during the time of Napoleon's invasion. After 
his discharge he followed the trade of a shoemaker 
some years, then turned his attention to farming. 
Cliris Franke, the father of our subject was also a 
soldier, but served only three years. He then 
ailopted the occupation of a farmer in which he 
busied himself until called hence. He breathed his 
last in 18S2. 

The maiden name of the mother of our subject 
was Minnie Thias. She was also a native of Hesse- 
Cassel and died there about 1855. She was tlie 
mother of five children and the father's second mar- 
riage resulted in the birth of three. But two of the 
family emigrated to America, our subject and his 
brother Henry, who lives near Batchtown. 

The natal day of Justus Franke was F'ebruary 4, 
1846. In accordance with the custom in the Ger- 
man Em|)ire, he attended school from six years old 
until nearly fifteen, and in the intervals of study 

assisted his father. He continued to reside under 
the parental roof until he was eighteen years of age, 
when he bade adieu to his native land and turned 
his footsteps westward, firmly believing that in the 
New World he would find a better opening in which 
to exert himself. In March. 1866, he set sail from 
Bremen on the steamer "Hansa" and after a voyage 
of thirteen days landed at New York. He went 
directly to Wayne County, found employment on a 
farm near Clyde, and worked industriously to pay 
off a debt of $66 which hung over him when he 

Two years after arriving in the States J'oung 
Franke came to Calhoun County and here also be 
worked bj' the month at farm labor. He was dili- 
gent in his habits and economical in his expendi- 
tures and was therefore soon enabled to begin life 
for himself on rented land. His farming opera- 
tions prospered and in 1876 he purchased one hun- 
dred acres of land included in his present estate. 
At the time of his purchase there were two log 
houses on the place and one of these was occupied 
by him as a dwelling some years. He was obliged 
to go in debt for a portion of his purchase money 
and his first endeavor was to again free himself 
from incumbrance. 

After that was accomplished JMr. Franke made 
arrangements for securing one hundred and twenty 
acres of the Mississippi River bottom land .and was 
soon able to pay for it and buy forty acres adjoin- 
ing the home farm. After this Land was secured lie 
turned his attention to preparing better quarters for 
his family, building a substantial and attractive 
frame house on his first purchase. Fortune has 
continued to smile upon the labors of Mr. Franke 
and he has added another tract of four hundred 
and thirty-seven acres to that already mentioned^ 
his present landed estate being over six hundred 
and ninety-seven acres, all in Richvvoods Precinct. 

In his efforts to secure a good home Mr. Franke 
has had the assistance of a faithful and devoted 
wife with whom he was united in marri.age in 1868. 
To this lady, whose maiden name was Martha Dil- 
ling, has been due the wise management of house- 
h(ild affairs which have prevented the little leaks 
that drain a man's finances. Mrs. Franke was born 
in Hesse-Cassel August 21, 1843, and in the same 



province Phillip and Emanuel Dilling, her father 
and grandfather were lifelong residents. Her 
father was eraplo^-ed in one factory from the time 
he was fourteen until sixty-six years of mie. He 
l)ioathed his last in 1884. The mother of Mrs. 
Franke bore the maiden name of Louisa (irasscut, 
and she also spent her entire life in (ierman^y. The 
tamily of Mr. and Mrs. Dilling consists of eight 
eliildren, but tvvo of whom have come to America, 
Mrs. Franke, and a brother Philij), who lives in 

The record of the family of Mr. and .Mrs. Franke 
is as follows: William, born June 21, KS6'J; Henry, 
February 24, 1H71; Charles, January 9, 1873; Al- 
bert, March 15, 1875 ; August, April 23, 1877; 
Fritz, July 26, 1880, Minnie, November 14, 1882. 
'I'he parents belong to the Lutheran Church and 
are not only conscientiously endeavoring to live 
aright, but are rearing their children with firm prin- 
ciples and industrious habits. Mr. Franke was form- 
erly a Republican, but now votes the Democratic 
ticket. He is a member of the .School I5oard. and 
manifests a deep interest in the cause of education 
and in all other movements which will elevate 
society and im[)rovethe condition of the people. 

''^ AVID ROBERT.S. Xo member of the farm- 
)1 ing community of Pike County is more 

worthy of representation in this Biogkaph- 
icAL Album than David Roberts vvho is 
one of the skillful enterprising farmers and stock- 
raisers of Montezuma Township. He came of 
sturdy New England stock. His father, David 
Roberts, was a native of Vermont born in 1800, 
and there reared to the life of a farmer. His mother in her maiden days Lavina Pool, and she was 
born in New York in 1802. 

David Roberts, the paternal grandfather of our 
subject was a native of Vermont, born in the earlj' 
j-ears of the settlement of that place and he was a 
soldier in the Revolution. He was a wheelwright 
by trade .and in 1816 left his old New England 
hnwc and became a pioneer of Ohio. He came to 
Illinois in 1839 and died here in 1847. Joseph 

Pool, the maternal grandfather of our subject was 
a resident of New York, whence he wont to Ohio 
as early as 1816 and wjis a pioneer of the State. 
Both he and his wife passed tliei.- remaining days 

The parents of our subject were married in Ohio 
in 1818, when very young. They resided there 
until 1839 and then came to Illinois and settled on 
section 36, JIartinsburg Township, Pike County. 
Mr. Roberts ^1,500 after he sold his posses- 
sions in Ohio and he invested part of it in raw 
timber land which he iiurchaseil of old Franklin 
Turpin. It lay on section 6, Spring Creek Township, 
and he built a house thereon in 1842, and lived on 
it until 1847. He then bought eighty acres on 
section 26, to which place he moved in the spring 
of 1847. He sold that at an advance in 1850, and 
moving his family to Pittsfield went to California 
to try his fortune. He remained there one year, 
and then had to borrow money to enable him tore- 
turn home as, like so many gold-seekers he was 
not successful in his search of the precious hjetal. 

After he came back to Pike County Mr. Roberts 
bought forty acres of land on section 15. Martins- 
burg Township, which he disposed of in 1854 and 
took up his abode in Ple.asant Hill Township, where 
lie bought one hundred acres of land on section 8. 
He was a minister of the Christian Church nearly 
all his life, and was widely known and greatly- es- 
teemed as a man of true religious faith and of un- 
blemished char.acter. His honorable life was brought 
to a close in 1856, and his wife died in 1872. They 
were the parents of twelve children of whom the 
following four are now living: our subject; Ira, a 
resident of Pleasant Hill Township; Palmedus and 
James, who live in Martinsburg Township. 

David Roberts of whom these lines are a life- 
record, was born August 8, 1833, in Delaware 
Count)', Ohio, and he was six j'ears of age when 
his parents came to Illinois, He first attended 
school in a log schoolhonse in Pleasant Hill Town- 
ship, near the Hanks fan^'aid. The schoolhouse 
was lighted by taking a log out of the wall and 
inserting glass in the opening thus made, which was 
held in by sticks, and the rude benches on which 
the scholars were made of slabs. For three 
months our subject was under the tuition of Elder 



Joseph Troutncr. Later in 1842 a Mr. Kelso was 
teacher, and the schools were taught on the sub- 
scription plan. Our subject attended three terms 
in Miirtinsburg Township, and was then "gradu- 
.ited" at thirteen 3ears of age. When he was six- 
teen j'ears old he accompanied his father to Cali- 
fornia in 1850. They started in the month of 
April, journeyed across the plains and mountains 
and arrived at Ilangtown or Placerville, July 27. 
Mr. Roberts worked in the mines until the fall of 
1852 and then went into the valleys and farmed 
until the fall of 1853. He then returned to the 
mines at Coloma in El Dor.ado County and he sub- 
sequently learned the daguerreotype business and 
followed that for three months until he was pros- 
trated by the smallpox in its most virulent form. 
When he recovered from that dreadful disease, 
custom, money and everyl-hing except life itself 
had left him, and he sold his outfit and went into 
Stanislaus County, where he worked on a farm 
three months. From there he went to Yolo County 
where he remained until the fall of 1856, and in 
the meantime was elected Constable. lie attended 
to the duties of his office and carried on farming 
tliere until his removal to Placer County, to a min- 
ing town named Forest Hill, where he worked in 
the mines until the spring of 1858. He had been 
absent from home and friends eight long years, and 
he then decided to return to the scenes of his youth, 
and leaving California April 1 he came back to 
Illinois by the way of the Isthmus of Panama and 
New York. 

After his return Mr. Roberts helped to work his 
father's farm three years and he also rented other 
places. In 1861 he leased a farm near Martins- 
hurg for three years. In 1864 he bought forty 
acres of land a mile and one-half south of ^Martins- 
hurg, onto which he moved. He purchased fifty- 
two acres more after that and staid there until the 
fall of 1868 when he sold the place to his brother 
and moved to his brother George's homestead, a 
raile north and a quarter of a mile west of Martins- 
burg. His brother had recently died and he man- 
aged the farm there for one year. His next ven- 
ture v"as to buy eighty acres of land on section i'7, 
the same township, where he staid one winter. 
He tin n sold it and moved to his present farm in 

the spring of 1870 where he has since remained. 
He now owns three hundred and thirty-eight acres 
of land of which two hundred and fifty acres are 
under fine cultivation and the remainder in timber 
and pasture. He built his residence in 1877 and 
has other necessar}- buildings and all the appliances 
for carrying on agriculture to tlie best advantage. 
He gives his attention to mixed farming, mostly to 
stock-raising and raises one hundred sheep a yenr, 
from fifty to sixty cattle, and has sixteen horses 
and a few hogs. All the improvements on the 
home farm of one hundred and sixtv. three acres 
have been the work of his own hands, except the 
orchard which is an old one and from which he has 
an excellent income. 

Mr. Roberts was married March 20, 1862, to Miss 
Susan Cooper, a daughter of Asa and E.eanor 
(Goodin) Cooper, natives of Tennessee. They 
came first to Morgan County, and then to pike 
County where they were married. Mrs. Cooper 
died in March, 1854, and Mr. Cooper in December, 
1858. They were the parents of ten children of 
whom six are now living: John II. ; JIarv, Mrs. 
W. E. Hutler; Susan, JNIrs. Roberts; Nancy Jane. 
Mrs. Adams; Jam^s; Mrs. Lewds Johnson. Mrs. 
Roberts was born December 15, 1840, in Martins- 
burg Township and received her education in the 
public schools. Her pleasant wedded life with our 
subject lias brc'ught them five children, as follows: 
Lavina Ellen; Lizzie, (deceased); John Ira, David 
and George. Miss Lavina is a graduate of the 
Normal School at Normal. 111., has taught five 
terms of school and is eminently successful in her 
profession. She has been induced by the voters of 
the county to accept the eandidacj' of Superintend- 
ent of Schools in Pike County and is running on 
an independent ticket. Sue is amply qualified for 
the office and would doubtless make a veiy able 
superintendent if elected. The sons of our sub- 
ject are ca[)able, enterprising young men who are 
courteous and gentlemanly in their conduct and . 
have high reputations. 

The family are members in high standing of the 
Christian Church of which Mr. Roberts was ap- 
pointed Elder some j'ears ago. He takes an active 
interest in tlio Sunday-school and at one time was 
Assistant Superintendent. He was School Director 



^, ^'PjK^^^o-yyiyi) 



in this district for five j'ears and is now serving 
liis second term as Townsiiip Trustee of Scliools, lie 
liiiving first iield that otliee in Martinsburg Town- 
ship; he was Collector of Martinsburg Township in 
ISG3, Supervisor of the same in 18G4 and Assessor 
of Montezuma Township; at the present time is 
Trustee. He was Roa() Commissioner of Monte- 
zuma Township in 1884. He is a good type of 
our self-educated men having gained a good fund 
of information tlirough observation and reading. 
For the past thirty-five years he has taken a deep 
intcicst in political questions and keeps himself 
thoroughly posted. His first vote was for a Whig 
all hough he was a Democrat at heart. He voted 
for James Buchanan as President. In 1880 he 
changed his political views and became a member 
of the Greenback party liaving had a leaning that 
way since 1868. Since that time he has been in- 
dopen<leiit in politics. 

^' A. KAMP. Calhoun County is the home 
of many citizens of foreign birth who 
take as deep an interest in the growth of 
their adopted countrj' in all that is truly 
elevating, as if it were the land of their birth. One 
of tills class is the gentleman above named, whose 
portrait will be noticed on the opposite page and 
who has been connected with the business life of 
the county for a number of years and enjoys the 
confidence of commercial circles to the fullest ex- 
tent. In 1873 he took up his residence in what 
was then called Farrowtown, but which was after- 
ward re-christened Kampsville in his honor, the 
people petitioning for the change of name. 

Mr. Kamp is a native of Bavaria, Germany, a 
son of John and Magdalena Kamp and opened his 
eyes to the light August 21, 1829. He attained to 
man's estate in his native country, learning the arts 
of a barber and surgeon, which he followed for 
manj- j-ears. He received a thorough education in 
the German tongue and has acquired a good knowl- 
edge of English since he left his native land. He 
belonged to the Bavarian Arm}' during the Revo- 
lution of 1849. 

In 1853 Mr. Kamp bade adieu to the laud of his 

birth, and taking passage at Havre, crossed the 
broad Atlantic and landed in New Orleans fifty- 
two days later. He immediately went North to 
St. Louis, Mo., and there followed surgery and the 
tonsorial art until the breaking out of the Civil 
War. He had become thoroughly imbued with the 
spirit of loyalty to his adopted country and in 
April, 18()I, took his i)lace in Company D, Fourth 
Missouri Reserve Corps, with which he was out 
about four months. He was then discharged and 
sub.sequently enrolled his name in a Missouri 
militia regiment, becoming First Lieutenant of 
Company F, in which capacity he served until he 
resigned during the year 1863. 

The same year Mr. Kam|) came to Calhoun 
County, III., settling at Silver Creek Post-office 
where he carried on the dual occupations of mer- 
chant and farmer, meeting with success in both lines 
of business. A decade later he ch.anged his resi- 
dence to the town of which he has become a leading 
citizen and on the Board of which he is now serv- 
ing as President. He manifests his faith in the re- 
sources of this section of the United .States by 
entering into the various movements which will 
promote the growth of the community in civiliza- 
tion and material [u-osperity. For twelve years he 
has served as County Commissioner. He casts his 
vote with the Republican party. 

The wife of Mr. Kamp bore the maiden name of 
Elizabeth BuUierand the happj- union was blest by 
the birth of six children — William B.. John B., 
Joseph A.. Francis N., Katie E. and Alois. Tiie 
last two named are deceased. By unceasing elTorts 
Mr. Kamp has accumulated a competency and has 
a pleasant residence, a view of which will bi^ found 
on another page. 


/p^EORGE W. DOYLE, M. D., a brave veteran 
(|| (- — of the late war, is now one of the most 
^^s4l successful phj'sicians of Pike County, and 
lias an extensive practice in Barry his home, and 
in the surrounding country. He is a native of 
Seneca County. Ohio, and was born December 28, 
1835. Nicholas Doyle, his father, was born in Ire- 



laiid .'iiul wns the son of Antlion.y Doyle. Tlio 
grjindfallier of oui- subject spent liis entire life in 
Ireland. Of liis children, Nicholas, William, Mar- 
garet, Catherine and George W., fonr came to 
America with their mother. 

The father of onr subject was twelve years olil 
when his mother brouglit her children to America. 
Tliey stopped a short time in Canada and then re- 
itioved to Seneca Countj-, Ohio, in 1818, and were 
among the early settlers of that section of country. 
Mr. Doyle grew to man's estate there, and some 
years later went to Hardin County, where he 
bought a tract of land. He did not build on the 
place, however, but soon sold it. He was unfortunate 
in his investments, lost all he had and was oliliged 
to start anew in life, but never recovered from his 
loss. In 185C he came to Illinois and resided in 
Champaign County till death closed liis life. 

Maria Blair was the maiden name of the mother 
of our subject. She was born in Pennsylvania 
and her father, Joseph Blair, is thought to have 
been a native of that State and of Scotch i)ar- 
entage. He served under Gen. Scott in the War 
of 1812 and his father was a Revolutionary 
soldier. He was a mechanic and in 1810 removed 
to Knox Count}', Ohio, and became a pioneer there- 
of. He spent his last years at Mt. Vernon, dying 
at the venerable age of ninety-six years. The 
mother of our subject died in Champaign County, 
111. Her marriage with the father of our subject 
had been blessed to them by the birth of nine chil- 

Dr. Doyle laid the foundation of his education 
in the pioneer schools of this State. His father 
being jioor, our subject had to earn his own living 
at an early age. He came to Illinois in 185G and 
settled in Champaign County wiiere he bought 
eighty acres of land, and was actively engaged in 
farming there till 1861. That was the year in 
which the rebellion broke out and he early threw 
aside his work at his country's call and enlisted in 
the month of June in Company C. Twenty-fifth 
Illinois Infantry. He was first with the Western 
army under Fremont, and later with the Army of 
the Cumberland, and displayed the fine soldierly 
qualiti(.= of endurance, courage , promptness to obey 
orders and a willingness to face any danger when- 

ever commanded to do so. He was with his regi- 
ment in the battles of Pea Ridge, Corinth, Perry ville. 
Stone River, Chickamauga, Mission Ridge and 
Lookout Mountain. Our subject and his comrades 
were with Sherman from Chattanooga to Atlanta, 
and fought in the principal engagements on the 
way. He was three times wounded. The first 
time at Blissionary Ridge where aminicball passed 
through his right limb, and soon after that he was 
granted a furlough and returned home. 

The Doctor rejoined his regiment at Knoxville, 
Teun., and on the March following was wounded a 
second time. His third wound was received while 
on a skirmish line at Noon Day Creek. Referring 
to the circumstances under which he received that 
wound, the Doctor humorously says: "We sometimes 
hear of the soldier behind the tree, but in this case 
the tree was not large enough." Each man in the 
regiment was looking out for himself during the 
fight and was watching the enemy closely. The Doc- 
tor had a good position behind a large tree, but 
unfortunately left it to get a chew of tobacco, and 
when he returned found another soldier there, so 
he had to take his place behind a tree much smaller. 
Thus imperfectly sheltered, while he was loading 
his rifle, a minie ball aimed by a rebel hit him on 
the ;,honlder, causing a i)ainful wound. The Doctor, 
however did not on that account leave the regiment, 
but heroically staid by his fellow-soldiers for a 
few days, though he could not carry a gun. The 
third wound was received at Kenesaw Mountain 
where he was hit with a piece of shell. Our subject 
was discharged with his regiment in the month of 
September 18C4, after more than three years of 
hard work on the battlefield. 

After the exciting experiences of his military 
life. Dr. Doyle returned home and commenced the 
study of medicine. He pursued a tliorough course 
at the Eclectic Medical College in Cincinnati, from 
which he was graduated in the class of 18G7. He 
entered upon the practice of his calling at St. 
Joseph in C'hampaign County, and was engaged 
there till 18G9, when he came to Barr}' and has 
been in |)ractiee here continuously since for a period 
of more than twenty years. Duiing that time he 
has met with the success that he so well deserves 
on account of Ids close attention to his business. 



j his careful study of the cases that come under bis 
I notice, and his sliill in the treatment of disease. 
Dr. Doyle .ind Mary J. Bar]<lc3' were married in 
18G7, and tlieir union has been one of mutual bene- 
fit and happiness. Mrs. Doyle is a native of Cham- 
paign County, and a daughter of James and Matilda 
I Barkley. Two ciiildren have been born to the 
Doctor and liis wife — Sadie and Charles. The 
former is the wife of Frank j\I. McNeal of Barry. 

The Doctor and his family are prominent in 
social circles and he is a member of the following 
organizations, his gallant services during the war 
being commemorated by his present cf)nnection with 
the John McTuclver Post, No. 154, G. A. R. ; he 
belongs to Barry Lodge No. 34, A. F. it A. M. ; and 
is a member of Barry Lodge, No. 55, A. O. U. W. 


LEXANDER CRADER. This young gen- 
tlenian affords an excellent example of the 
agricultural element whicii has been de- 
,^^ veloped in Calhoun County, and is coming 

rapidly to the front in all matters pertaining to 
farm work and the interests of the tillers of the soil. 
His early life was passed amid surroundings and 
under influences which developed and strengthened 
the better traits of his character and taught him the 
value of inlegrilj-, industry and wise economy. 
His pleasant home is located on section 24, Ham- 
burg Precinct, whore he owns a half-interest in one 
hundred and sixt}- acres of land, from the cultiva- 
tion of which he is gaining a comfortable mainte- 

Mr. Crader is a representative of one of the 
pioneer families of the county, his grandparents 
being numbered among the verj' early settlers. 
llis father, Isaac Crader, was born here and reared 
to manhood amid the scenes of pioneer life, bear- 
ing a goodl_y share in the development of the 
section in which he lived. He is now in his sixty- 
fourth year living in Gilead Precinct and rejoic- 
ing in the growth of the countrj- which he has seen 
develop from an almost primitive condition to one 
of great productiveness and high cultivation. He 
is a pulilicspirited citizen, who upholds the 

doctrines promulgated by the Church of Christ, 
and has for years modeled his life in accord with 
them. His vote is cast with the Democratic 

The first wife of Isaac Crader was Maiy J. 
Wilson, who breathed her last March 30, 1877, 
leaving behind her the record of a useful life. The 
children who survive her are Henry, Alexander, 
Austin and Isaac. The present wife of Isaac Crader 
was Mrs. Rosana Gresham, who was united in mar- 
riage to him in 1880. 

The natal day of our subject was February 22, 
1863. He was reared to manhood in the country, 
attending the public schools and acquiring a fair 
amount of practical knowledge, although he was 
not privileged to take a collegiate course. As he is de- 
sirous of understanding what is going on about him 
in the world's history and the work of mankind he 
devotes considerable time to reading, and is one of 
the most intelligent men in the community-. When 
but sixteen years old our subject began working 
for himself, spending about four 3'ears as a farm 
hand for different parties, averaging §12 per month 
and board the year round. In the spring of 1884 
he settled where he is now living and where he is 
surrounding 1 imself with more and more of what 
are considered the comforts of life each year. 

July 25, 1883, the interesting ceremony took 
place which transformed Miss Malinda Ullery into 
Mrs. Alexander Crader. The bride was born in 
Lincoln Count3', Mo., is an intelligent, industrious 
and earnest woman who wears her religion as an 
everyday garment and is devoted to the interests 
of her family. The happy union has been blessed 
b\' the birth of three children — Sylvester, DeFortst 
and Lena. The younger son has crossed the river 
of death, but his parents mourn not as those with- 
out hope, being cheered by the consolations of 

The interest of Mr. Crader in all which will 
elevate society and advance the material interests 
of the neighborhood is well understood by all who 
know him. Their confidence in him has been 
manifested by his election to the office of Justice of 
the Peace in the fall of 1889, for a term of four 
years, and to his continuance in the office of Town- 
ship School Trustee, in which he is now serving his 



second term. In Lis official capacity he is recog- 
nizrd as a fair-iniiided otHcer whose intention it is 
to do justice to all i)arties; in business circles he 
wins c(intiflence by his intea;rity and strictly honor- 
able dealiuif. Both Mr. and Mrs. Grader belong to 
the Christian Church, and he is now serving as 
Deacon in the society which meets in the school- on Fox Creek. As a rising and representative 
young farmer be merits a prominent place in this 

,OBERT J AVALKER, who came from En- 
gland many years ago ere he had attained 
to man's estate, was one of the pioneer 
of Griggsville Township and as a farmer 
anil stock-raiser has contributed his quota in bring- 
ing about the prosperity of Pike Count}'. He was 
born December 28. 1819, in Lincolnshire, Engliind, 
and came of a sterling English ancestry. When not 
quite seventeen years old he left his native shire with 
hi:' uncle James Temple for America, taking passage 
on the sailing-vessel •■Liverpool," November 10, 
1836. and after a voyage of thirteen weeks, during 
which time he celebrated his seventeenth birthday, 
luided in New York. In the fall of 1837 he came 
to Griggsville with his uncle, having made a 
tedious journey by land and water from New York 
to Pittsburg, Pa., down the Ohio, up the ^Mississippi 
and Illinois to Griggsville, and landing at Phillip's 

After he came to this place Mr. Walker learned 
the trade of a carpenter, working three years as an 
apprentice and later followed that calling for sev- 
enteen years. He was a very skillful workman and 
during that time made money enough to purchase 
his first eighty acres of land lying on sections 1 
and 12. Griggsville Township. He hatl also pur- 
chased forty acres on section 13, of the same town- 
ship, on which he now resides. His farm comprises 
some fine, highly productive farming land, pro- 
vided vvitli good improvements, and he has forty 
acres of it devoted to an orchard of choice fruit 
trees which is very valuable. Mr. Walker is a 
broad-minded man, progressive in his views, and 

a great reader, ho keeps up with the times. He has 
always been a loyal and worthy citizen of his 
adopted country and lias interested himself in its 
jiolitics. He was formerly a Whig and Free Soiler 
and is now a sound Republican. He is a member 
in high standing of the Methodist Episcopal 

Mr. AYalker was married in Newburg Township. 
Pike County, to Miss Amanda Evans. She was 
born in Indiana on the bank of the Ohio River; 
she came to Illinois with her parents, George and 
Susan (Armstrong) Evans, when she was quite 
young, the family locating south of (iriggsville in 
1830. After imjiroviug a farm in this townshi|) 
Mr. Evans sold it in 18-tG, and with his wife and 
children removed to Newluirg Township where lie 
purchased the farm now owned by his son, George 
M.. and there Mrs. Evans died when ().ast threescore 
j'ears of age. She was a Christian ami a member 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church. After the 
death of his wife Mr. Evans lived with his chil- 
dren and finally died while with his daughter, Mrs. 
Sarah Shinn, of Griggsville Township, when he was 
about eiglity jears of age. He had always been a 
farmer and he was a soldier throughout the War 
of 1812, fighting with Gen. Harrison on his cam- 
paigns. He was in early life a Jackson Democrat, 
later became a Whig and died a Republican. 

Mrs. Walker was one of a family of two sons 
and eight daughters, some of whom are yet living. 
She was well and carefull}' reared b^' her parents, 
was given a good education and was a teacher for 
some years before her marriage. She was in every 
respect a true, womanly woman, of fine personal 
character and her death at her limne in this town- 
ship, December 17, 1881, when jiast middle life, was 
a severe blow to her husband and children. She 
belonged to the Methodist Episcopal Church and 
was devoted to its good works. 

The marriage of our subject ami his lieloved 
wife was blessed to them by the birth of eleven 
children, of whom three died young. Those re- 
maining are: Jane, wife of Alexander Morton, a 
farmer of Su|)erior, Neb.; Ann, who resides in 
Griggsville, where she has amillineiy establishment; 
George, an invalid at home with his father; .Mary, 
who lives with her father; Catherine, wife of Ben- 



aiiiin Windsor n fanner of Flint To\viislii|); Kliza- 
K'tii, wife of Parvin 15utler, a farnicr at Superior 
JJel).; ami ^^'iIlar(l and Fannie, who are at home 
iviUi llieii father. 


RANK L. HALL, M. ]). A prominent iilaee 
I* among the professional men living in 
Perry, Pike County, is accorded to tliegen- 
Llemau above named wiio represents tlie oldscliool 
of medicine. In the short time tliat lias elapsed 
since be opened liis oflice here, lie lias made a good 
record as a surgeon and general practitioner, and 
has justly won a reputation that has not only made 
him prominent, but advanced his finances. In all 
matters that pertain to the progress of the profes- 
sion, he is to be found taking an earnest part, and in 
every possible way continuing the study of the 

Dr. Hall was born in Florence, Pike County, 
September 10, 1861, and carefully reared by parents 
who taught him industrious habits, wisely believing 
that the capability to endure hard work would dc- 
velo|) his physical forces and lit him for the strug- 
gle of life. He received a good common-school 
education and afterward entered Eureka College at 
Eureka, where he made wonderful progress in his 
studies and held a grade as nearly perfect as possi- 
ble. He graduated therefrom in the class of 1885, 
and entering Rush ^ledical College in Chicago 
pursued his jirofessional studies until Fibruaiy 15, 
1887, when he received his diploma. In the last- 
named institution he took two siiecial courses of 
study nniler Profs. E. Fletcher Ingals and lirophy, 
the former of whom occupies the front rank in 
lung and throat diseases. His specialty work did 
not interfere with his prosecution of the regular 
course nor (ireveiit him from receiving his diploma 
in line time. 

At the residence of the bride's parents .John S. 
and Mary A. (Harvey) Dorsey, the rites of wed- 
lock were celebrated between our subject and Miss 
Emma X. Dorsey. Mrs. Hall was born January 8, 
1864, in the village which is still her home. She is 
a cultured, refined and accomplished woman, who 

was educated in the Female Acad.'uiy of .lackson- 
ville, pursued her musical studies in the Conserva- 
tory of Music there and was a teacher of instru- 
mental music some six years. She is a skillful 
performer, and by reason of her musical talent and 
charming manners is a general favorite in society. 
Her parents are well-known early settlers and 
highly respected citizens of Pike County. After 
having successfully prosecuted farm work i\Ir. 
Dorsey has made a good home in the village. His 
family consists of two sons and two daughters, 
Mrs. Hall being the j'oungest but one in the little 

Dr. Hall is prominent in the social circles of the 
town in which he lives, possessing in a high de- 
gree the cordial and polished bearing of the true 
gentleman. His habits are exemplary, and he is 
one of the rising generation who make the name of 
Christian attractive to those with whom they asso- 
ciated. He is one of the charier members of the 
Christian Chuich in Detroit Township, Pike 
County, and the eldest member, still retaining his 
connection with that congregation, of which he has 
been Clerk for a number of ^ears and also Sunday- 
school Superintendent. 

Dr. Hall is of Scotch ancestry but his father and 
grandfather were born in North Carolina. The 
latter, T. L. Hall, was a planter and slaveholder. 
He married Angelina Clemens, a native of the 
same State as himself, and in 18.'?0 with his two 
children — Calvin L. and .loseph \V. — removed to 
Illinois. The family settled in Detroit Township, 
Pike Count}-, on a squatter's claim, a part of their 
farm being on section 16. There Grandfather and 
Grandmother Hall passed the remnant of their 
days, living to see what was a wilderness when 
they came, developed into good homes. Mr. Hall 
died .lanuary 5. 1872. at the age of sixty-nine years 
and five months. His widow survived until July, 
1887, reaching more than threescore and ten years, 
lioth had formerly been members of the Presbyte- 
rian Church, but after they came to this .State the}' 
became identified with the (church of Christ. 

Calvin L. Hall, the father of <nir subject, was 

the second son and child born to his parents, his 

I natal day being February 14. IM.'SO. In September 

' of the same year his ii.arents removed to this State 



and he grew to maturitj' in the county and town- 
ship mentioned above, acquiring his education in 
the primitive schools. Wheli lie liad become 
grown he followed the trade of a ship carpenter, later 
becoming a merchant, and after a time giving his 
attention to carrying on a flouring-raill. He finally 
began farming and has since been thus engaged. 
His landed estate now consists of more than two 
thousand acres of land, upon which he has a. home 
in which all of the comforts and manj- of the luxu- 
ries of life are to be found. Mr. Hall has held 
some of the township and county offices and is a 
stanch Democrat. He is a member of the Chris- 
tian Cluirch and one of the founders of the organi- 
zation in his township, of whicli he has been Elder 
for many years and to which lie has contributed 

The marriage of Calvin L. Hall was solemnized 
in the township where he now resides, his bride 
being Miss Melissa Thomas, who was born in Ox- 
ville, Scott County, and was still young when her 
parents removed to Florence, Pike County. She 
has been a true iielpinate to her husband, hard- 
working and earnest in every department of her 
life work. She has many womanly virtues and 
many friends. She is an active member of the 
Christian Church. She is the mother of six living 
children — three sons and three daughters — and has 
lost three, who died in early life. 


■iylOIlN R. HARDY, an old settler and success- 
ful farmer of Perry Township, Pike County, 
owns a fine farm on sections 19 and 30. The 
estate comprises two hundred and thirteen 
acres of well-im|)roved land, two hundred of which 
are under tlie plow. The farm-house is commo- 
dious and substantial, and the numerous outbuild- 
ings which add to the value of the farm and the 
convenience of its: occu|)ants are also well built, all 
having been put up by the present owner. The 
farm is well stocked with good swine, tine cattle, 
and draft and Cleveland-Bay horses of a high grade. 
This tine rural abode has iieen developed from al- 
most new land by Mr. Hardy, who has lived here 

twenty-nine years and owned the greater part of 
the land for that length of time. His residence in 
the township extends over a period of forty-four 
years and has sufficed to give him a thorough ac- 
quaintance with its resources and development. 

Mr. Hardy was born in Pickaway Count}', in the 
Buckeye State, February 8, 183H, and is the young- 
est but one of a family consisting of three brothers 
and one sister, all now living in the same county. 
His parents, John R., Sr., and Maria (Battley) 
Hardy, were the son and daughter of early settlers 
in Ohio and natives of that State. The former was 
reared to the life of a farmer, and after his mar- 
riage, aided by his wife, began an agricultural ca- 
reer. AVben our subject was but a few months old 
they emigrated to Illinois with their three children 
this being in 1838. Tiiey settled in Naples, Scott 
County, established a store and carried it on for 
some years. 

Mr. and Mrs. Hardy subsequently purch.ised a 
farm in the Illinois River bottoms, not far from the 
town and there the husband died when but little 
past thirty years of age. He was a stanch Democrat 
in politics, an active member of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, and an excellent man. In 1848 the 
widow with her children came to Pike County and 
()urchased a farm in Perry Township, making it her 
home until her death, which occurred in Feliruary, 
1876, at the age of sixty five years. After she 
came to this township she became a member of the 
Christian Church. She was a woman of intelligence, 
kind to her neighbors, loving to her children, and 
worthy of respect in every department of life. 

Our subject remained with his mother until his 
marriage, whicli occurred in Perry, November 4, 
1858, the lady whom he won for his wife being 
]\Iiss Rebecca Walker. She was born in Griggs- 
ville April 18, 1842, but was reared and educated 
in Perrj' Township. Siie is an excellent woman, 
intelligent and refined, and a consistent rneuilier of 
the Christian Church. Her father, Robert Walker, 
was a native of Lincolnshire, England, but having 
come to this country when young' became a suc- 
cessful farmer in Griggsville Township. After im- 
proving a large farm there, he sold and i)iirchased 
near tlie village of Perry, later selling tiiat estate 
and buying two large farms in Perry and Fair- 



mount Townships. Some years later lie retired from 
active life, settled in the village of Perry and died 
tliere April 22. 1861, when past sixty years of age. 
In politics he was a stronsj Republican and his re- 
ligious belief was expressed by the principles and 
practice of the Christian Church with which he was 
identified. His second wife, formerly Cathena 
Wiidc, was born in Kentucky but became a resident 
in this county when j'oung;. She became tlip 
mother of four children, of whom Mrs. Hardy is 
fourth in order of birth. 

Mr. Hardy has voted the Republican ticket since 
he became of age. He is a member of the United 
Workmen and Modern Woodmen, identified with a 
lodge of each order in Perry. An honorable man, 
a reputable citizen and a good neighbor, Mr. Hardy 
has his friends wherever he is known. 

-—^ ^3-^ ^^ 

tleman is an influential citizen and large 
\\ landowner of Pike County, living on the 
southwest quarter of section 31,Derry Town- 
ship. He has led a useful life,and looking back over 
the long years that have passed can recall scenes and 
incidents whose recital would be of great interest 
to all who are interested in the story of the de- 
velopment of the country, but which space will not 
permit us to enlarge upon. Mr. AVilliams has la- 
bored for more than thirty years to promulgate 
Christianity, preaehing the glad tidings of salva- 
tion and being the means under Christ of adding 
inany souls to the Church. 

The history of the Williams family is not de- 
void of interest, and before entering upon the ca- 
reer of our subject we will speak briefly of his 
ancestors. His great-grand father, Edward Williams, 
was born in Virginia, went to ' Kentucky when a 
j'oung man, and for some time lived in a block 
house and fought against the Indians. His first 
wife and two of their children were killed by sav- 
ages, and a third child, a son, was taken prisoner 
and held in cajitivity eight years, being finally re- 
stored to his father through a treaty. Mr. Will- 
iams was a planter and spent all his niature life in 

Kentucky, dying at the extreme age of ninety- 
three years. He reared fourchildren. one of them, 
a son, Stephen, being born in Kentucky about 1780. 
This gentleman pursued the same occupation as his 
father, and was also a minister in the Baptist 
Church. lie came to this State in 1822, settling 
in White County, on the Wabash River, and was 
prominent in the pioneer ministry there. He was 
active in establishing the church and probably 
baptized more peo|)le than any other man in the 

In 1854 Stephen AVilliams removed to Jefferson 
County, Iowa, where he continued his ministerial 
labors until his death. He was eighty-three years 
of age when he entered into rest and was called 
by the death angel while on one of the journeys 
pertaining to his calling. His labors in the Gos- 
pel field had extended over a period of sixty years, 
during which time he never charged a dollar for 
his preaching, but on the contrary gave from his 
own means to aid the poor. He reared nine chil- 
dren, eight sons and one daughter. 

The next in direct line of descent was' Isaac 
Williams, the father of our subject, who born 
in Kentucky in 1800. He sojourned in his native 
State until he was twenty-two years old, then came 
to White County, 111., in compan}' with his father. 
He followed Larming throughout life. In 1848 
he came to Pike County, settling on section 4, 
Atlas Township. He lived to be seventy-three 
years of age and from his twentieth year had been 
a member of the Primitive Baptist Church. His 
good wife also united with that church when twenty 
years old and faithfully adhered to its doctrines 
until called home in her eightieth year. She bore 
the maiden name of Sarah Coleman, was born in 
Kentucky in 1800, and was one of a family of 
twenty-two children. She was the mother of thir- 
teen children, ten of whom were reared. 

The maternal grandfather of our subject was 
Henry Coleman, who spent his entire life in the 
Blue Grass State and was quite old when called 
from time to eternity. He belonged to the Bap- 
tist Church and was a farmer by occupation. His 
father, who bore the same given name as himself, 
was born in Germany and came to America prior 
to the Revolution, during which he fought in the 



Colonial army. He went to Keutuck}' while it 
was still a Territory, and when the settlers lived 
in stockades and were often engaged in conflicts 
with the Indians. He lived to be ninet\-three 
years of age and reared a small family. 

The snbject of this sketch opened his eyes to the 
light November 12, 1820, in Ohio County, Ky. 
He was but two years old when brought to this 
State and grew to maturity in Wliite County, 
amid the primitive scenes whose memory is vivid 
and includes much of interest. His education was 
obtained in the old log sclioolhouse of the early 
days, with its puncheon floors and seats, its im- 
mense fireplace and the greased paper windows 
through wliicli the light struggled for admission. 
The schools were kept up by the subscri|)tion plan 
and the teacher -'boarded round" as an lionored 
guest in the pioneer homes. 

In 1844 the gentleman of whom we write came 
to Pike County, making the journey by team and 
wagon and camping en route. His first location 
was in J'ittsfield Township, where he remained a 
year. Wild game was still to be found in this 
section and he hunted quite a little, killing turkeys 
and deer. When he arrived here he liad but one 
shilling in mone^^, but he vvas blest with a good 
wife and three children. He rented land for seven 
years, and then purchased one hundred and sixty 
acres on section 32, Derry Township. lie has 
been abundantly prospereil in financial affairs and 
now owns six hundred acres of land in a body and 
eighty acres on the bottom. He now lives a some- 
what quiet life, but in former years carried on ex- 
tensive farming operations and raised stock of all 
kinds in great numbers. 

In 1837 Mr. Williams was married to Nancy 
Funkhouser. She was born in White County' in 1 820 
and died at the age of sixty-three years. She was the 
mother of twelve children, of whom the following 
grew to maturity: Virgil, William, Sarah, Isaac, 
Henry and Mary. In 1883 our subject was again 
married, his bride being Rachel Shinn.who was born 
in this county June 2(>, 1857. She is a woman of 
exemplary cliaracter, a capable housewife and de- 
voted companion. She belongs to the Primitive 
Baptist Church. 

The political adherence of our subject is given 

to the Democratic party and he has held various 
township offices. In 1842 he united with the Primi- 
tive Baptist Church, was subsequently ordained as 
a minister of tlie Gospel and has preached in tiiis 
State, Missouri and Iowa. He has baptized a great 
many converts. For many years he has been 
Moderator of liie Ml. Gilead Assembly of the 
Regular Baptist Church. lie still preaches in two 
eliurches and frequently addresses the people in dif- 
ferent settlements through the county. 

,ip=^ AMUEL S. GOURLEY, a farmer residing on 
^^^ section 9, Carliii Precinct, Calhoun County, 
'v^UrJ '* ^ native of the North of Ireland, but 
though of foreign birth the county has no 
belter citizen than our subject or one more worthy 
of representation in this volume. He was born 
Jul}' 10, 1833, his parents being John and Rosa E. 
(Orr) Gourley, both of whom were natives of Ire- 
land; his father however spent his last days in 

At the age of thirteen years, Samuel left the 
Emerald Isle and made his way to Scotland where 
lie engaged in coal mining for a number of years 
or until 1858, when he came to America. Attracted 
by the advantages of the New World and with a 
desire to try his fortune in a free country he took 
passage on a sailing vessel at Liverpool which 
landed him in New York City after twenty-eight 
days. The succeeding seven j'ears of his life were 
spent in Canada, working as a farm hand, after 
which, in the fall of 1865 he returned to the Em- 
pire State where he passed the winter. The spring 
of 1866 witnessed his arrival in Illinois, he making 
a location in Greene County, whence about a year 
later he came to Calhoun County. 

On the 4th of November, 1867, Mr. Gourley was 
united in the holy bonds of matrimony with Miss 
Mary Lane, daughter of John S. Lane, of Carlin 
Precinct. Unto them has been born a family of 
nine children, namely: John S., Luanna, Rosa B., 
George C, Aaron J., Fremont, Tiiomas, Lulu and 
Ada. The family circle remains unbroken and all 
are ^et under the parental roof. Their home is 





situated on section 9, Carlin Precinct, where I\Ir. 
Goiuley owns two hundred and eightj'-one acres 
of land, constituting one of the best farms in tlie 
neigliboriiuod. In addition to the care and culti- 
vation of his land he devotes considerable atteution 
to stock-raising, keeping on hand good grades of 
horses, cattle and iiogs. His business ability sup- 
plemented b}' industry and perseverance have nuade 
his life a success and he is now numbered among 
the substantial citizens of Calhoun County. In re- 
ligious belief he is a Presb3'terian and in political 
sentiment he is a supporter of the Republican party. 
Widely known throughout the county, his friends 
are many and bis enemies few. 

,^^ AMUEL J. MERIDA is a man of much en- 
^^^ terprise and is extensivel}' engaged as a 
III// U) farmer, nurseryman and fruit raiser in 
Calhoun County, carrying on his opera- 
tions on section 2, Hamburg Precinct. He is a 
native of Bollinger County, Mo., and was born 
March 4. 18.51, to Samuel and Margaret ( Pauter- 
baugh) Merida, natives respectively of Tennessee 
and Ohio. His father was left an orphan at an 
earl}- age and subsequently went to Missouri, set- 
tling in Bollinger County in ]Sid and ^becoming 
one of the pioneers of that region. In the fall of 
18,i6 he came with his family to Calhoun Count}' 
and settled on the farm now occupied bj- our sub- 

The father of our subject first purchased one 
hundred and sixty acres of land for which he paid 
>!120() in gold. About four acres of it were 
cleared, the remainder being covered with under- 
brush an<l timber. He moved into the log cabin 
that stood on the place, beginning at once to 
clear liis laud and in time developing a good farm. 
His death occurred here May 2G, I8'J0, at the ven- 
erable age of seventy-nine years, five months and 
one d.'iy. Thus closed the life of one of Calhoun 
County's res|iected pioneers and good citizens. 
His wife preceded hiui in tleath. passing away March 
3, 1879. They were the [larents of seven chihlren, 
of whom four survive: .Samuel J., Caroline, wife of 

Wesley Bovee, of Belleview Precinct; Julia, wife 
of E. L. Bess, of Belleview Precinct, and Sarrh A., 
wife of Henry Darr, of Hamburg Precinct. The 
father was one of the first settlers of Fox Creek, 

j and did his sliare in developing that region. He 
was a Democrat in politics and in religion a strong 
Baptist and a member of the church of that denom- 

I ination. 

Samuel J. Merida, of whom this biographical 
review is written, was quite j'oung when his par- 
ents brought liim to this county and here ho was 
reared under the influences of a pioneer life and 
has witnessed much of the growth of the count}-. 
lie received his education in the early subscription 
schools of this region and for the limited advan- 
tages of his boyhood he made up by reading 
and obserration, so that be is quite well posted on 
all topics of general interest. On the 23rd of May, 
1869, his marriage with Lucy Blackorby, a native 
of Lincoln County, Mo., took place. One daugh- 
ter was born to them — Arleltic, who is now de- 
ceased. Mr. and Mrs. Merida have for years had 
living with them a niece, Miss Mollie Blackorby, 
whom they have adopted and who is now known 
as Miss ISIollie Merida. Mrs. Merida was born 
April 9, 185"2 and is a daughter of John and Eliza- 
beth (Sanders; Blackorby, natives respectively of 
Kentucky and Virginia. At the early age of eleven 
years she accompanied her sister to Calhoun County 
and here her union with our subject was solemn- 

Mr. Merida owns two hundred and two acres wiiich 
are under excellent tillage. He is carrying on a large 
and lucrative nursery business, and besides having 
from fifty to seventy-five thousand trees carries 
much other nursery stock, and has a large orchard 
of about three tbfiusand apjile trees of the leading 
varieties, all in l)earing. He has served as Justice 
of the Peace for nine years, and in 18.30 was a 
candidate for .Sheriff but was defeated by only 
twelve votes. He is quite prominent in Democratic 
circles and lakes a genuine interest in whatever 
will proniote the welfare of Calhoun County. He 
and his wife are among the most active members 
of the Christian Church, in which he holds the of- 
fice of Deacon. 

Mr. Meritla is a man of much energy and has 



been very [successful in the various enterprises 
■which lie has untlertaken. He makes a specialty of 
cattle and bogs and during the apple season usually 
engages in buying and shipping apples. Samuel 
J. Merida & Co., shipped from Mosier Landing 
during the season of 1890, eighteen thousand bar- 
rels of "apples, from which they realized from 13 to 
13.25 per barrel. In whatever enterprise Mr. Mer- 
ida eno'ao-es he devotes to it his accustomed energy 
and consequent!}' is known as one of the leading 
citizens of Hamburg Precinct, holding an assured 
position among its substantial residents. 

On another page of this volume will be found a 
lithographic portrait of Mr. Merida. 


<^AMER R. EA8LEY. When the natural 
resources of such a region as that of I'ike 
' Count}' are developed and enhanced by all 
i^^J that goes to make up a model farm, the 
scene is attractive indeed. A visitor to the home 
of James Easley on section 18, Derry Township, 
could not fail to be struck with admiration for the 
judgment and tact that carries on this fine estate of 
two hundred acres, and the good taste displayed in 
and about the dwelling. One of the very best farm- 
houses in the county is the substantial frame dwell- 
ing in which our subject makes his home. It stands 
on a spacious lawn adorned with fine shade trees, and 
in its green setting is a conspicuous and attractive 
feature in the landscape. 

The farm which our subject now oi)crates is his 
birthplace and the first house built in tiiis locality 
in 1825 is tliat in which he opened his ej'es to the 
light. His natal day was August 31, 1857. He 
has been fortunate in receiving educational advan- 
tages that stored his mind with useful knowledge 
and fitted him to successfully conduct business af- 
fairs and understand the various movements in 
political and social circles which have a bearing 
upon the world's historj'. Some of his school daj's 
were spent in the log schoolhouse of the district and 
he also attended the El Dara High School, and that 
at St. Louis, ISIo. louring his boyhood and youth 

he bore more or less share in farm work, and when 
twenty-one years old began to operate the home 
place on shares. 

This work was continued by Mr. Easley until bis 
father's death, when the tract he now operates was 
deeded to himself and two sisters who were still at 
home — Mary F. and Laura A. He carries on quite 
extensive operations in tilling the soil and stock- 
raising, keeping all kinds of domestic animals of 
good breeds and grades. He brings to bear upon 
his enterprise the intelligence and progressive 
spirit which are rapidly bringing him to the front 
among the 3'oung farmers of this section, and secur- 
ing him a satisfactorj' financial reward for bis 
thouglit and physical labor. 

Mr. Easley believes in the principles of Dem- 
ocracy and votes a straight ticket. He has held 
the office of Township Assessor three terms and is 
now serving his first term as Supervisor. He has 
been School Trustee sevenj'ears and takes a deep 
interest in the advancement of the cause of educa- 
tion as well as in other public-spirited movements. 
He belongs to Elm Camp Lodge,. No. 1 148, M. W. 
A., at New Canton. He is considered an ac- 
quisition to social circles, as he is cordial and well 
bred, while his reputation as a man of honor is ex- 
cellent. He has never married, but has felt no need 
of a housekeeper as his wants are carefully looked 
after by his sisters. 

Our subject is a son of Moses R. Easley, a man 
of English extraction who was born in Tennessee 
in 1820. His home was on a farm but he learned 
the trade of a mason as well as a knowledge of 
farming. In 1840 he came to Pike County, 111., 
making his journey partly on a boat, partly by 
wagon and partly on foot. For the first two or three 
years he worked at his trade near Pittslield, then 
rafted about two years on the Mississippi River. 
He was taken with chills and fever and lay sick for 
over a year. 

Moses Easley finally bought one hundred acres of 
land in Derry Township and sojourned thereon 
about two years, then sold it and bought another 
tract of one hundred and sixty acres in the north- 
eastern part of the same township. After living 
there a few years lie disposed of his property, and 
in the spring of 1857 bought eighty acres on 




I section 19, moving into the first bouse that had 
been built in this vicinity. Altliough sixty-live 
years old, tliis buildino still stands in so good a 
state of preservation that it is occupied. Mr. 
Easley prospered in his worldly affairs as a farmer 
and stock-raiser and at the time of his death owned 
three hundred and twenty acres of land. He 
held some of the township offices and voted the 
Democratic ticket. He passed away February 7, 

The mother of our subject bore the maiden name 
of Mary A. Tittswortb. She was born in Tennessee 
in 1822, her father, Jesse Tittswortb, being a native 
of the same State and a farmer therein. Mr. Titts- 
wortb came to this State in 1831 and died here at 
the age of seventy-flve ye.irs. He was quite prom- 
inent in agricultural circles. Mrs. Easley breathed 
her last in January, 1885, leaving seven children, 
two of her family having died in early life. She 
was a devout member of the Methodist Church 
during the greater part of her life. Her surviving 
' cliildreu are Thomas L., Sarah A., William F., 
I James R., Mary F., Nancy I. and Laura A, 


I ICHARD CARNES. Perhaps no resident 

il^i in the agricultural districts of Pike County 

cli \V has acquired a more substantial fortune 

"^^i than our subject, and that by dint of good 

judgment and energy and the education which he 

! has won from contact with mankind and keen ob- 
servation only. Mr. Carnes owns about fifteen 
hundred acres of fine land, divided in no less than 

Ihalfadozen farms, most of which are adequately 
supplied with farm buildings. The greater part of 

'the estate is well watered and the various portions 

lare well supplied with good stock. The possessions 
of Mr. Carnes will foot up into the hundreds of 
thousands and all his business affairs are transacted 
with accuracj'and skill, although he has absolutely 
no book learning. 

The name indicates that the Carnes family is of 
Englisli descent. The grandparents of our subject 
wore Thomas and Elizabeth (Duiiliara) Carnes, who 
were born and reared in Maryland and after their 

marriage made their home in Harrison County, 
Ohio. When thev began their life there the coun- 
try was new but they lived to see their pioneer 
labors rewarded and the country around them well 
develojied. Both died when full of years and 
honor, having been numbered among the best citi- 
zens of the section, and worthy members of the 
United Brethren Church. Mr. Carnes served as a 
private during the War of 1812. 

John Carnes, the father of our subject, was one 
of a large family and born in Harrison Count}', 
Ohio, in 1812. He married Eliza Nelson, a native 
of the same county, whose parents were born in 
JIaryland and are believed to have been of Scotch 
descent. John Carnes a^id wife occupied a farm in 
their native county until 1854 when they came to 
Pike County, 111., settling on partially improved 
land in Griggsville Township. They were poor 
when the}- arrived in this State, but being indus- 
trious, persevering and prudent they succeeded in 
tlieir worldly affairs and eventuallv possessed quite 
a large farm. Mr. Carnes voted the Whig ticket. 
Both he anil bis wife were active in the work and 
generous in the support of the United Brethren 
Church. Both died in this county, the death of 
Mr. Carnes taking place in New Salem Township 
in 1870, some }ears after his wife had been borne 
to the tomb. 

Our subject is the first-born in a famil}' of whicli 
three sons and four daughters are still living. One 
sou was fatally burned when a child and one killed 
bj' a log rolling on bira when eight years old; one 
daughter is also deceasefl. Richard Carnes was 
born in Harrison County, Ohio, near Cadizville, 
June 23, 1832, and was quite young when the fam- 
ily removed to this State. The circumstances were 
such that he enjoyed no educational privileges 
but through his participation in the work of life he 
acquired an excellent understanding of agricultural 
aff;,irs and a comprehension of business matters 
which has resulted in making him a skillful and 
successful farmer. Unlike some men who have 
worked hard to acquire a fortune he is generous 
with his means, giving liberally to the support of 
the church and various local interests. Although 
be has not in the conduct of his affairs realized the 
need of an education as do most men, yet he is 



anxious that Lis children and tliose of ills neigh- 
bors shall have eveiy opportunity to acquire 
Ivnowledge. In politics Mr. Carnes is a sound Re- 
publican and lie and his wife are active members 
of the L'nited Brethren Churcli. 

The marriage rites between our subject and Miss 
Guldy E. Moore were solemnized in New Salem 
Township at the home of the bride's parents, John 
and Sarah (Simpson) Moore. Mrs. Carnes was born 
in Maryland May 5, 1834, and wasscarcly more than 
an infant when her parents turned their stops west- 
ward, making a home in Harrison County, Ohio. 
Some j'ears later they came to Adams County, this 
State, but finally settled in Pil^e County where 
tliey died at the respective ages of seventy-five 
and eighty-three years. They were successful in a 
worldly sense and were known to many citizens 
wlio had learned to respect them. They reared 
quite a large famil}-, five of whom now survive. 

Mrs. Carnes received careful training from her 
parents will) whom slie lived until lier marriage. 
She is an excellent neighbor, a devoted helpmate 
and mother and has a warm place in the hearts of 
many of the best people in the county. Siie is the 
mother of nine cliiidren, of whom the following are 
living: Henry R. who married Elizabetli White and 
lives on a farm in the same township asiiis parents; 
George, vvlio married Margaret White and also oc- 
cupies a farm in Griggsville Township; S. Edward 
a student in the Quincj' schools; Marv A. and Sa- 
lena who still occupy their places bj- the home 

\t7 EVI THOMAS, one of the early settlers of 
I (?§) Belleview Precinct, Calhoun County, has 
Jj'-^\ been identified with the history of the 
county since an early day and is well worthy of 
representation in the volume where is recorded the 
lives of its prominent settlers and honored pioneers. 
He is a native of Kentucky, his birth having oc- 
curred on the Ith of .lulj', 1832, in Simpson County. 
His parents, .lohn and Rebecca (Butler) Thomas, 
were also natives of that State and his father served 
in the War of 1812. Until about fourteen years of 
age Levi remained in Kentucky-, when with liis 

parents he removed to Shelby County, Mo., where 
he was reared to manhood. His educational ad- 
vantages were very limited. The school wliich he 
attended was built of logs and the furnishings 
were slab seats and desks. A puncheon floor, clap- 
board door and immense fire-place completed the 
structure. The boys attending generall}- carried 
with them their rifles, for wild animals were still 
quite numerous in the settlement. On one occasion 
our subject, when a lad of sixteen years, shot and 
killed a bear while on his way to school. Although 
his scholastic training did not carry him much be- 
3'ond the rudiments of knowledge, Mr. Thomas has 
always been a great reader, a deep thinker and 
possessing a retentive memory, has become a well- 
informed man. The year 1851 witnessed his arri- 
val in Illinois and he chose Calhoun Count}' as the 
scene of his future labors. The succeeding four 
years he spent in procuring raw material used in 
making barrels of various kinds in a coopering 
establishment of the county, after which he pnr- 
chasefV eighty acres of land, the farm on which he 
now resides, although it bore little resemblance to 
the cultivated fields which to-day pa}- tribute to 
his care and labor. He took up his residence in a 
small log cabin and began the development of the 
raw i)rairie. The improvements have all been 
made by hitn and to-day stand as monuments of 
his thrift and industr}'. 

On the 3d of August, 1853, Mr. Thomas was 
joined in wedlock vvilh Miss Mary Cloninger, a na- 
tive of Virginia and their union has been blessed 
with nine children, eight of whom are now living: 
John, the eldest, now of Oregon: AVilliam, also 
living in tiiat State; Elizabeth, wife of Turner 
Lumlej", of Calhoun Count}-; Edward, a resident 
of this county; Emma, at home; James, a success- 
ful school teacher in the county; Anne, at home; 
and Charles. The deceased member of the family 
was a daughter, MoUie. 

As before stated, Mr. Thomas is the owner of 
eighty acres of land and is accounted one of the 
leading farmers of the community. Beginning life 
without capital and steadil)' working his way up- 
ward, he may truly be called a self-made man. The 
difHculties and disadvantages arising from lack of 
education and fin'incial help he overcame and by 



fail- and honest dealing, good management and per- 
severance has acquired a coaifortable com potency. 
Not afraid of work, he eagerly grasped every op- 
portunity which would better enable him to pro- 
vide for the wants and comfort of his family-. He 
has also faithfully discharged his duties of citizen- 
ship and for many years he served as School Direc- 
tor. He helped to raise tlie first log sehoolhousc 
erected in Belleview Precinct and has ever been a 
friend to education or any interest which would 
advance the social and moral welfare of the com- 
munity. In politics he is a Democrat, and relig- 
iously is a Baptist. His memory goes back to tlie 
days in the early history of Calhoun County when 
ox-teams were used in place of horses even when 
going to church, when the land was in its primitive 
condition and when the settlements were few and 
far between, Init all this has now changed and no 
one has taken a deeper interest in the advancement 
of the count}' or done more to promote its welfare 
than Levi Thomas. This gentleinan is well known 
for his intcgrit}- and honest)- and cnjo3'S the confi- 
dence of the business communitj'. 



HARLES A. WATSON. Among the native- 
born citizens of Calhoun County who have 
become well known throughout its bounds 
is Charles A. Watson, of Hardin. He has made a 
fine record as a faithful public servant, and is 
popular not only in the ranks of his own party but 
among his political opponents. Still quite a 3'oung 
man, his official term has extended over a period 
of eight years and he has also done good work as a 
teacher. He adds to the book knowledge necessary 
to an instructor, the tact in governing and the 
skill in Imparting instruction to the young, which 
are fully as necessary' as mental acquirements. He 
has gained the good-will and respect of his pupils 
and made them realize the beauty of knowledge 
and discipline. 

Our subject is a grandson of William Watson, a 
Kenuickian, who was engaged in mercantile pur- 
suits and .also dealt extensively in real estate. Dur- 
ing the early settlement of Illinois he removed 

hither locating in Greene County, but later becom- 
ing a resident of Calhoun County. His son James, 
the father of our subject, was born in tlie Blue 
Grass State, and being quite a young man when his 
parents made their removal grew to nialuritv in 
this State. While a single man ho bought a tract 
of partly impiDved land in Gilead Precinct, upon 
wliich he made still further impiovements and to 
which he added other lands. He made the farm 
his home until 18.59, then bought an hotel in Hard- 
in carrying it on until 18(54. He then returned 
to tiic farm but some years later sold it and pur- 
chased another home in the same precinct. In 1869 
he engaged in mercantile pursuits in Hardin, con- 
tinuing thus occupied until 1872, when he retired. 
He breathed his last July 21, 1890, in the seven- 
tieth year of his age. 

James AVatson led to the hymeneal altar Miss 
Mary P. Church, an estimable woman, who died on 
the home farm when our subject was but a child. 
She was born in Calhoun County among the pio- 
neers of which her father, Thomas Church, is num- 

The gentleman whose life is the subject of these 
brief paragraphs was born April 10, 1853, on the 
farm which was for so many years the family home. 
He began to assist his father thereon as soon as he 
was large enough and likewise pursued his studies in 
the public schools. In 1869 he began clerking in 
his father's store, continuing to act in the same ca- 
pacity until 1875, when he began his professional 
work as a teacher. He devoted himself with earn- 
estness to his profession until 1882, when he was 
elected Sheriff. His coolness and determination 
gave him etliciency and his faithfulness during 
the ensuing four years led to his continuance in 
public service. In 1886 he was elected County 
Clerk for a term of four years and in 1890 was 
again elected for a similar length of time. 

At the bride's home April 23, 1885, Mr. Watson 
was united in marriage with Miss Claia M. (Treat- 
house. This lad}' was born in Milton, Pike County, 
April 13, 1865, to the Hon. Francis M. and Belle 
(.Morris) Greathouse. She is a well-informed, at- 
tractive lady and has many friends in her new 
home, as she had in her old. Mr. and Mrs. Watson 
are the happy parents of two children — Leslie A. 



and Arleigh F. Mr. Watson belongs to Calhoun 
Lodge, Xo. 792, V. & A. M., having been the first 
member initiated in the first Masonic Lodge or- 
ganized in the county. He is a Democrat in poli- 
tics, lias l)een Chairman of the County Central 
Committee three j'ears, and during the past three 
years has been a member of the School Board and 
for two years was a member of the Town Board. 

^|(_-^ ARRY F. WELLS occupies a leading posi- 
jj tion among the young farmers of Pleasant 
Hill Township, Pike County. He is a rep- 
l^) resentative of a family which located here 
in 1837 and his maternal ancestors were even 
earlier settlers in the county. He is a native of the 
township in which he now lives and was reared on 
the farm of which he has sole control and manage- 
ment. His natal day was June 4. 1864. He was 
reared amid the surroundings of farm life, received 
a good English education in the common schools 
and those of Griggsville, completing his higher 
studies in the Bloomington College at Blooming- 
ton. His sister completed her studies in the State 
Normal University in Normal, 111. 

Since the death of his father Mr. Wells has had 
control of five hundred and thirty-five acres of the 
estate which consists of twelve hundred acres of 
fine land. He is carrying on his work in accordance 
with the most approved methods and winning the 
respect of his fellow-men by his manly character, as 
well as by his assiduity in worldly affairs. 

Our subject is a grandson of Richard Wells, who 
removed from Kentucky to Missouri about 1817, 
and thence came to this State, making Pike County 
his home during the remainder of his life. The 
father of our subject was Perry Wells who was 
born in Madison County, Ky., January 27, 1814, 
and was reared and educated at Painesvillo, Pike 
County. Mo. Before and after the Black Hawk 
War he was an extensive trader between Minneapo- 
lis and St. Louis. In 1837 he came to this State 
and located a soldier's claim of three hundred and 
twenty acres in Pike County. His farm was on 
Six Mile Creek, west of the village of Pleasant 

Hill, and comprised a part of sections 7 and 8. He 
improved tlie land, carrying on farming and stock- 
raising and won a high degree of success, finally 
becoming the owner of the large acreage before 
noted. He was an active and influential member 
of the Methodist Pipiscopal Church, was one of the 
organizers of the societj' in Pleasant Hill, and was 
honored by all who knew him. 

Perry Wells was twice married, his first wife 
having been Elizabeth Kerr, a daughter of Richard 
Kerr, a prominent trader and citizen in Missouri in 
the early days and later a resident of this State. 
Mrs. Elizabeth Wells was born in Kentucky, but 
died in this State in 1862. She bore six children 
all of whom lived to maturity and married. They 
are Richard, Ruth, Molly, George, Elizabeth and 
Retta. The second wife of Perry Wells was Kate 
Fesler, who bore him two children — Harry F. and 
Jessie E. The mother of our subject was born in 
Pike County, 111., her parents, Henry and Eliza 
(Clark) Fesler, being natives of Clark Count3'. Mr. 
and Mrs. Fesler came to this Stale in 1833, first 
settling in El Dara, Pike County. They afterward 
removed to the northwestern part of Pleasant Hill 
Township, where Mr. Fesler died about 1847 and 
Mrs. Fesler resides with her daughter, Mrs. Wells. 
Besides the daughter who became the wife of Mr. 
Wells, their family included Thomas J., Mary and 
Amanda C. 

DWIN O. GOLDMAN is an intelligent and 
skillful farmer and stock-raiser, who stands 
well among the men of his calling in Pike, 
his native county. His father, Charles W. Gold- 
man, is also a native of this county. He is a son 
of Martellas Goldman, who came from Indiana to 
Illinois in a very early day of the settlement of this 
county and located in Flint Township. He is now 
deceased. The father of our subject was educated 
in the old log schoolhouses of pioneer times, and 
was married in this county to Jane Dunniway, a 
daughter of Benjamin Dunniway, who came from 
South Carolina and was an early settler of this 

About 1858 Mr. Goldman removed from Griggs- 



ville, where he had settled after marriage, to De- 
troit Township, where he leased a farm known as 
the Ellis Farm. From there he went to St. Louis, 
.an<l for two years was engaged in the stockyards 
in the city. He then returned to Detroit village, 
where he remained for about three years before 
going back to St. Louis, where he was again em- 
ployed in the stockyards two years. Coming buck 
to Detroit Township he engaged in broom making 
until four years ago, since which time he has lived 
partly retired. He is a man of sterling habits and 
correct principles, and with his wife is a member 
of the Southern Methodist Cliurcli, of which he has 
been Steward. He has taken an active interest in 
education and likewise in politics, giving his sup- 
port to tlie Democratic part^'. He is a member of 
the Ancient Order of United Workmen at Detroit. 
Seven of the nine children that have blessed him 
and his wife are now living, as follows: Albert P., 
Edwin O., Sytha Ann (Mrs. Seniff), Frank, Will- 
iam. Benjamin and Rumsey. 

He of whom this sketch is written was the second 
child of the family and was born August 1, 1865, 
in Flint Township. He did not attend school until 
he was ten years old, when he became a pupil in a 
district school in Detroit Township. The hard 
work of life began for him at the age of fourteen 
years, when he was employed at farming in the 
summer and was allowed to go to school winters, 
he living at that time with Aaron Loveless, remain- 
ing with him five years. He continued to work 
out by the month until he was married. That im- 
portant step in his life took place in 1877, when he 
was united to Miss Jennie Porter, a daughter of 
John and Eliza Porter, of whom see sketch on 
another page of this BiodiiArinCAL Alhum. Mrs. 
Goblman was born in Newburg Township, August 
31, 1858. She received a good common-school 
education and an excellent training in housework 
and is particularly noted for her fine cooking and 
other housewifely accomjilishments. Her pleasant 
married life with our subject has been productive 
to them of five children, whom they have named 
Flora B., Leila E., John E., Sarah E. and Eliza J. 

After marriage Mr. Goldman lived one winter 
in Hancock County, III., and then resided on the 
John Porter f^rm until 1879, when he came to his 

present liomestead, where he and his family have 
lived ever since. He has here one hundred and 
thirty acres of land, of which ninety acres are tilla- 
ble and are under admiralile cultivation. He car- 
ries on mixed farming, raising grain and slock, 
p.aying particular alienlion to raising Poland- 
China hogs. Mr. Goldman is a man of industrious 
habits who is always busy in carrying on his farm- 
ing labors and is doing very well from a financial 
standpoint. He is a young man of exceptional 
integrity; all his transactions are conducted with 
honestj' and fairness and his reputation is of the 
highest. He keeps well posted in political matters 
and votes the Democratic ticket. 

T/AMES MORTLAND. Among the many 
who are cultivating a portion of the soil of 
,_^ Calhoun County successfully, may be men- 
((^y' tioned James ]\Iortland. a farmer and horti- 
culturist, near Hardin. He is a native of the Em- 
erald Isle, born in County Tyrone in 1826, and 
possesses many of the strongest and most worthy 
characteristics of the Irish race. His parents, John 
and Mary Mortland, are spoken of at greater 
length in the sketch of William Mortland, on an- 
other page in this Album. Onr subject reared 
and educated in his native count}- and resided with 
his parents there until his removal to America. 

After reaching the shores of tlie New World,Mr. 
Blortland came West to Illinois and for six years 
was employed as a llat-boatman on the Illinois River. 
At that time Louisville and St. Louis were but 
small towns anfl many of the now flourishing cities 
throughout the Mississippi ^'alley were not even 
dreamed of. During the j^ears which he spent as 
a boatman Mr. iMortland hoarded his resources and 
bought land where he now resides. He settled 
down to farm life and from j'ear to year has added 
to the improvements around him. gained a higher 
standing among agriculturists and a firmer finan- 
cial footing. He now owns one hundred and sixty 
acres of Illinois bottom land, well improved in 
every particular, the buildings that have been 
erected upon it being above the avarage. Adjoin. 




ing this home farm nrc ninety-six acres on the bank 
of the river and Mr. Mortland also owns one hun- 
dred and sixty acres of bluff land. He pays con- 
siderable attention to horticulture and many bar- 
rels of fine fruit are hauled from his orchards to tlie 
market, he having over twenty acres in orchaid. 

Mr. Mortland was accompanied to the United 
States by a wife who had borne the maiden name of 
Isabel kSproule. She was a native of the same 
county as himself and during tlie years of her 
wedded life aided him as best she could in the up- 
building of his fortune. She died in St. Louis, 
Mo., in 1853, leaving two children — S. 
and John James, the second of whom is now de- 

Mr. Mortland subsequently married Margaret 
Smith, daughter of Henry Smith, and a native of 
Jersey County, this State. This estimable woman 
died six years after her marriage, leaving a daugh- 
ter, Fanny, who is the wife of Asher J. Gutlirie, 
and lives in Platte Count}', Neb. The present wife 
of our subject bore the maiden name of Jane Smith, 
is a native of County Fermanagh, Ireland, and a 
capable, intelligent woman. Both Mr. and Mrs. 
Mortland belong to the Presliyterian Church and 
have high standing in the community by reason of 
their consistent lives. Mr. Mortland exercises the 
right of suffrage in behalf of Republican principles 
and candidates. 

-■ — * — 7 ^-=^'»- ^ =^v^°^^ \ < r i». r^T — ;^ — ^ 

ENRY HALL. Among the citizens of Pike 
County few have sliown more entei'prise 
than the gentleman above named, whose 
(^) pleasant home is located on section 27, 
Derry Township. A visitor will see there every- 
thing needful and convenient in the way of farm 
buildings, will note with pleasure the prevailing 
neatness and order, and be struck with admiration 
for tlie energy which has acquired and the tact 
which carries on the fine estate. 

Mr. Hall is of Southern ancestry, at least two 
generations of the family having been natives of 
Kentucky. In that State Henry Hall, his grand- 
father was born, removing therefrom to Ohio \x\ a 

very early day. The journey was made with pack 
horses and the part}' camped by the way, much 
care being exercised in extinguishing the fires 
which the\' had used for cooking that the light and 
smoke might not be seen bj' the Iiulians who were 
rather too numerous and hostile for the comfort or 
safety of travelers. Mr. Hall settled in Butler 
County near where the town of Oxford now stands, 
and entering one hundred and sixty acres of 
Government land devoted himself to tilling the 
soil. He was a soldier in the War of 1812, and in 
politics was a Democrat. He died at the extreme 
old age of ninety-four years. 

Mr. and Mrs. Hall reared a family of eight chil- 
dren, one of whom, Peter C, was the father of our 
subject. He was born in Kentucky in 1795 and 
was but five years old when the journey was made j 
from his native State to Ohio. He was therefore 
principally reared in the Buckeye Stale, attending 
the pioneer schools in the old-fashioned log school- 
house of that period. He served during the War 
of 1812 and is now one of the few surviving pen- 
sioners of that war. His life has been spent in 
farming and he now lives in Warren County, Ind., 
at the age of ninety-tive years. His vote is cast 
with the Denu)crats. He married Hannah Shoe- 
maker, a native of Hamilton County, Ohio, whose 
birth occurred in 1799. Her father was born in 
Virginia, a volunteer in the Indian War under 
Gen. Anthony Wayne, and an extensive farmer. 
He belonged to the Methodist Church in the faith ' 
of which he died at a ripe old age. The mother of 
our subject lived to be seventy-four years old. She ' 
bore nine children, of whom the following grew to I 
maturity: Harriet, Silas. Catherine, Henr}' and 

Henry Hall, who is the subject of this sketch, was 
born on the 7th of January, 1836, and lived in 
Ohio until nineteen }ears old when he left the pa- 
rental roof to begin life for himself. He had at- 
tended the log schoolhouses, acquiring a good 
practical education and began his career b}' work- 
ing by the month, continuing so to do three or 
four years, having come to Pike Count}', 111. He 
then married and farmed his mother-in-law's estate 
until 1868, when he purchased eighty acres on sec- 
tion 27, Derry Township. He has labored ardu- 

Residence OF Henry Hall, Sec.2T. Derry Tp. Pike Co. 111. 

Residence or Charles B.Dustin ,5ec.24. Atlas Tp. PikeCo.Ill. 



ously, been a wise economist, and now sees the 
results of bis care and industry in a fine estate of 
two liundred acres of valualile land. It is under 
liigli cultivation, well-improved in every respect, 
aiiiong the buildings which a<lorn it being an at- 
tractive and substantial two-stury frame residence, 
erected in 1875 at a cost of 82,n00 and represented 
liv a view on another page. Mr. Hall raises con- 
siderable stock but by no means neglects the ce- 
reals for which this section of the Prairie State is 

The lady to whom the coziness and pleasant sur- 
roundings of the home are due. became the wife of 
our subject August 7, 1859, and bore the maiden 
name of Mary L. Taylor. Her parents were early 
settlers in the county, in which her eyes opened to 
the light August 21, 1841. She was carefully 
reared, developing estimable qualities of character 
and habits of usefulness in home and society. Mr. 
and Mrs. Hall have had nine children, four only 
surviving, these l)earing the names of Frederick, 
Clarence, Jenn}' and Mabel. 

Mr. Hall figures quite prominently in the iiolit- 
ical circles of the county, being a stanch Republi- 
can and one who believes in working for tlie good 
of the party. His fitness for positions of public re- 
sponsibility has been recognized by his associates 
and in 1875 he was placed upon the ticket as can- 
didate for the office of Treasurer. Notwithstanding 
the fact that the Democratic majority in the county 
is from eight hundred to one thousand votes, his 
personal popularity was such that he came within 
one hundred and twentj' votes of being elected. In 
1879 he was again nominated for the office, losing 
the race by three hundred and twenty-five votes. 

....ii,...' ' 

IIARLES B. DUSTIN. But few of the sons 
of Pike County have met with more success 
^^J in carrying on farming and stock-raising 
than the subject of this biographical review. He 
is one of the foremost agriculturists of this State 
wiiere he owns many acres of choice land, and has 
in Atlas Township, the center of his interests, a 

large and highly-improved farm and one of the 
most charming and attractive homes to be found 
for man}' miles around. 

Mr. Dustin was born in Atlas Township, this 
county, November 29, 1843. He is a son of one 
of its pioneer settlers, William Dustin, a native of 
New Hampshire and a son of Moody Dustin who 
is also supposed to have been a native of the Gran- 
ite State. The latter was a farmer, and a soldier in 
the War of the Revolution, lie and his wife 
reared a family of nine children. 

The father of our subject was bred to the life of 
a farmer among the hills of New Hampshire and 
showed early in life those sturdy, energetic, manly 
traits so characteristic of the New England stock. 
At the age of twenty four years, early in the '30s 
he left his old homestead and made his way west- 
ward mostly b}' water to this State and county. He 
was among the first settlers of Atlas Townshii) 
where he entered land. The country around liere 
was then in a wild uncultivated condition and in 
the forests and on the open prairie deer, turkeys 
and other wild game were often seen. He passed 
the first years of his life here in a log house. 

Having but little money to start witii William 
Dustin used to shuck corn after nightfall to earn 
monej' with which to make his payments. His in- 
dustry and persistence were well rewarded and he 
became very prosperous, was one of the extensive 
farmers of this vicinity, and at one time owned up- 
wards of two thousand acres of land. His life was 
terminated in the month of October, 1873, at the 
age of sixty-one years, and thus passed to his eter- 
nal rest an honored pioneer of the county' who had 
been an important factor in promoting its growth. 
Religiously, he was a firm believer in the Methodist 
faith and belonged to the church of that denomi- 
nation. In ixililics he was an unswerving Republi- 
can and he bore an active part in the administration 
of local affairs, holding most of the township offi- 
ces and at the time of his death was Levee Commis- 

The mother of our sulijcct is still living on the 
old homestead, and has atlaincd a venerable .age. 
Her maiden name was Sarah Beiitley and she was 
born in the Stite of New York. Her life has been 
guided by the highest principles of (.'hiisti.-inity 



and she has long be^n a membei' of the Methodist 
Church. She lias rcaied three eiiildren to good 
and useful lives, two daughters and one son, namely : 
Jennie; Nettie, now Mrs. .Sayers; and Cliarles. The 
latter forms the sulject of this sketch. His educa- 
tion was obtained in the |)ioneRr logschooliiouse of 
the early days with its primitive furnishings of 
slab benches and a board placed on the side for a 
writing desk and the room heated by a rude fire- 
place. After leaving the district school he pursued 
a good course of study in a school at Jacksonville 
which he attended two winters after he had grown 
to maturity. When ho attained his majority he 
began life on his own account, and for five years 
farmed on rented land. He then bought seven 
hundred acres of his father and has since pursued 
farming very extensively. He is one of the lead- 
ing Short-horn cattle raisers of Pike County, and 
has his farm well-stocked with a fine herd of cattle 
of that breed. At one time he owned three thou- 
sand acres of land but has sold some of it, and now 
has an estate of sixteen humhed acres. He has 
thirteen hundred acres in cultivation and pasture, 
while eight hundred acres are bottom land and 
very valuable. His homestead comprises two hun- 
dred and sixty acres of choice, finely improved 
land, and here he has made a beautiful home. His 
father erected a handsome frame residence on the 
farm before liis death and it is surrounded by a 
lovely, shady lawn. He has substantial frame barns, 
his cattle barn being a commodious and couveniently 
arranged building, fitted up with stalls for seventy- 
five head of cattle. A view of the homestead is 
shown on another page. 

Mr. Dustin lias been fortunate in his wedded life, 
as by his marriage with Miss Emma P. Stebbins, 
which was solemnized October 29, 1867, he secured 
a true and devoted wife who has actively co-oper- 
ated with him in his work, and by her judicious 
management of household affairs has contributed 
greatly to his prosperity. She is a native of the 
city of Springfield, Mass., where she was born 
March 10, 1 848. She is tiie mother of two children, 
AVilliiim A. and Homer M. Mrs. Dustin is an es- 
teemed member of the Congregational Church and 
her influence is felt in its every good work. 

Mr, Dustin is a man of large enterprise, seconded 

by rare judgment, great capability and good busi- 
ness habits. With such traits it is not remarkable 
that he has been more than ordinarily prospered in 
life and has placed himself among the moneyed men 
of Pike County. He is a standi advocate of the 
Republican party, taking an intelligent interest in 
all political matters. He has mingled in the public 
life of the community and has represented Atlaa 
Township on the County Board of Supervisors. 

AVID WATKINS. Perry Township, Pike 
County, is the home of many practical farm- 
ers, but none evince a better understanding 
of the work before thom than David Wat- 
kins, who has acquired a desirable piece of propertj' 
on sections 8, 17, 18 and 19. It consists of two hun- 
dred and nineteen acres, most of which is improved 
and all well watered by Snyder (J reek. The place 
is well stocked with high grades of cattle, swine, 
etc., and has upon it a good house and adequate 
outbuildings. Mr. Watkins identified himself with 
the agriculturists of Perry Township in 1860, and 
has acquired an excellent reputation as a reliable 
and energetic member of the community. 

The Watkins family is believed to be of Welsh 
ancestry and was probabi}' represented for some 
years in Pennsylvania. In that State, near West- 
chester, Peter Watkins, father of our subject, was 
born. He grew to maturity in his native State 
and learned the trade of a shoemak<^r, armed with 
which equipment for the liattle of life, he went to 
New Jersey. .Some time later he was married at 
Egg Harbor, Atlantic County, to Miss Margaret 
Risley, who was born in that county in 1801. Her 
parents. Mr. and Mrs. Edward Risley. were natives 
of the same State and made it their home during 
their entire lives. The mother died when in mid- 
dle life, but the father reached an advanced age. 
They were members of the Methodist Church and 
in that faith reared their daughter. Peter Watkins 
and his wife continued to make their home in the 
section in which tliej' were married, until they had 
reached a goodly age when tliej' were called from 
time to eternity. Their family consisted of seven 



sons and three daughters, of whom but three now 
survive. These are, our subject, tlie foiiitli mem- 
ber of the p.arental family; Peter, who raises oysters 
at Cape Alay ; and Mrs, Hannah King, whose home 
is in San Francisco, Cal. 

David Walliins. the subject of this bioij;raphy, 
was reared in liis native county, and after becom- 
ing of age embraced the oceui)ation of a seaman. 
He W.1S employed as a coaster for six years wlien. 
in 18.57, he came West and has been a permanent 
resident in Pike County most of the time since. He 
devotes the most of liis time to his affairs, 
but does not neglect the duties he owes to his fel- 
lowmen, in whose welfare he manifests a sufficient 
interest. He does not seek office, but is a sound 
Republican, giving his support to the principles of 
the party and the candidates who are pledged to 
support them. He holds quite a prominent posi- 
tion among tbe citizens and is regarded with such a 
measure of respect as his character deserves. 

In Perry Township in 1862 the marriage rites 
were celebrated between our subject and Mrs. Jlary 
Hannant, 7iee Wiird. That estimable woman was 
born in Norfoikshire, England, in 1816, afid there 
grew to womanhood. She married John Hannant 
with whom she came to America some years later, 
their settlement being made in the township before 
mentioned. Here Mr. Hannant died in March, 
1861, when somewhat past middle life, leaving five 
children. Tliey are all living, now married and 
settled in homes of their own. Their given names 
are, Mares'MO, John, Rebecca, Fred and William. 
Some time after the death of Mr. Hannant the widow 
became the wife of our subject, witli whom she 
lived happily until removed by death, in December, 
1883. She was a memberof the Episcopal Cluircii. 

element that has contributed so mucli to the 
upbuilding of Calhoun County-, is well rep- 
resented by this gentleman, who was an early- 
settler of Hamburg Precinct, where he owns a fine 
and well improved farm on section 23, and is one 
of the substantial, highly respected citizens of this 

community. He is a native of Hanover, Germany, 
his birth occurring lliere June 20, 1818. His par- 
ents, Henr^- and JMinnie Suhlieper, were also of 
German birth and antecedents. He was reared in 
the land of his birth to a stalwart, active manhood 
and was tliere bred to the life of a farmer. He 
received a fair education in the (ierman schools. 
He was married in (iermany, August 13, 1842, 
Lena Witlihoun becoming his wife. Of the twelve 
children born of that niarri.age the following five 
are living: Henry in Pike County; Charles and 
William in Calhoun County ; and Lena and Edward 
at home. 

In the fall of 1852 our subject emigrated with 
his family to America, taking passage at Bremen, 
on a sailing vessel, September 13, and arriving at 
New Orleans, November 2.'). The family then took 
passage in a boat for St. Louis, Mo., where they 
spent the winter and the following spring came to 
Calhoun County. Mr. Schlieper first bought forty 
acres of land in Point Precinctand lived on it three 
years, clearing some of it, and chopping cordwood. 
He finally moved to his present farm and has lived 
here ever since. His farm comprises ivue hundred 
and sixt}^ acres of land of exceeding fertility which 
was in a wild state just as it had lieen left by the 
Indians when it came into his ijossession, and like 
most pioneers he had to endure mau}^ hardships 
and privations ere he brought it to its present fine 
candition. He has proved to be a good citizen of 
his adopted country and the prosperity Hamburg 
Precinct enjoys is partly due to his labors as an 
intelligent, skillful farmer. He is a stanch member 
of the Lutheran Churcli and is one of our best 

In the month of September, 1859, our subject 
was dee[)ly bereaved by the ileath of the wife of his 
early manhood, who had accompanied him to this 
country and had faithfully aided him in the 
upbuilding of their new home. Mr. Schlieper was 
subsequently married to Mrs. Caroline Becker, 
who was devoted to his interests and faithfully 
co-operated with him in his work. By her death 
in 1881, he lost a helpmate who was good and true 
and a loving wife. 

William .'^clllleper. a son of our subject, is a 
native of Callioun County, his birth taking place 



here, July 15.1 860, and he is now one of its prom- 
ising young fanners. He lives on tiie home farm 
belonging to his father anrl is tlie owner of sixty-one 
and one-lialf acres of choice land, which he culti- 
vates very successfully. He received his education 
in the public schools, and is an intelligent, well- 
informed young man. 

Mr, Schlieper has estal)lished acozj' home with 
the aid of his good wife, to whom he was united 
in marriage February 3, 1889. Mrs. Schlieper's 
maiden name was Clara Schonstein. and she is a 
native of Berlin, Germany. She is a daughter of 
Ludwig and Louisa Schonstein, who are resi- 
dents of Belleview Precinct. She was two years 
old when she came with her parents to America, 
and for nearly two years resided with them in 
C^uincy. The family then came to Belleview 
Precinct, where they have since lived. Mr. 
Schlieper is a Republican in politics anfl is a 
credit in every way to the citizenship of his 
native county. 

EDWARD YATES, who is practicing law 
very successfully at PittsQeld, stands among 
I the foremost members of his profession in 

this part of Hlinois. He is a representative native- 
born citizen, Griggsville Township, Pike County, 
the place of his birth, and September 21, 1846, the 
date thereof. He is a son of one of the pioneers of 
tills State, George Yates, who was a native of Bar- 
ren County, K}'., born in the year 1807. He was a 
son of Samuel Yates, a native of Virginia, of En- 
glish extraction. The mother of our subject was 
Maria (Hinman) Yates, a native of Kentucky, 
and a daughter of Col. George Hinman, a resident 
of that State. 

George Yates was among the first settlers of Pike 
County, coming to Illinois in 1823, and locating in 
Griggsville Township in 1833. When the Black 
Hawk War broke out, he was one of the volunteers 
who hastened to the front to fight the Indians. He 
improved a fine farm in Griggsville, and there spent 
the remainder of his days engaged in raising cattle 
and hogs. When he died August 13, 1878, a ven- 

erated pioneer was removed from our midst, one 
who had aided in the growth and development of 
the county, of which he was a resident for nearly 
half a centur}-, living to see busy towns and beau- 
tiful farms where he first saw a wilderness. 

The mother of our subject departed this life in 
1867, leaving seven children, three sous and four 
daughters, all of whom are living: Catherine, wife 
of Jerome W. Rush, of Fairmount; William IL, a 
resident of CTriggsville; Monroe, also a resident of 
the same place; Emma, wife of J. W. Fisher, of 
Paris, Ky.; Eila M., wife of Jefferson Orr. of Pitts- 
fleld; .Mattie F., wife of Levi McMahon, of Griggs- 

Mr. Yates, our subject, was the fifth child of the 
family. His early school days were passed at 
Griggsville, and he suljsequentl\' entered McKen- 
dree College at Lebanon, 111., and after pursuing a 
course of study there he became a student at Jack- 
sonville College, afterward entered the English and 
German College at viuincy. 111., and was graduated 
from that institution with a high rank for scholar- 
ship. He entered upon the study of law with 
Messrs.' Warren cfe Wheat, at (iuiucy,and completed 
his course of reading with Col. Jack Grimshaw, 
also of (^uinc}'. He was thus finely prepared to en- 
ter upon the work of his chosen calling, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1869. He immediately opened 
an office in Quincy, but afterward went to Trenton, 
Mo., and was in active practice there until 1874, 
when he returned to Pittsfield. Here he entered 
into partnership with Jefferson Orr, and was with 
him for some time. He subsequently spent five 
years on the Pacific Coast, the greater part of the 
time in the employ of the Government as Deputy In- 
spector of Survej'S, and also investigated fraudulent 
claims and entries upon the public domain. After 
his return to Pittsfield he resumed the practice of 
law, and has now a large clientage, and transacts 
an extensive legal business. 

Mr. Yates was married January 1, 1890, to Miss 
Mary H. Sharpe, of Griggsville, daughter of A. P. 
Sharpe, who came to this county from Connecticut 
and was one of its early settlers. Mr. and Mrs. 
Yates have est.ablished a charming home, which the 
gracious cordiality of the hostess and the genial 
courtesy of their host renders very attractive to 




their large circle of frieiKls. Besides being an able 
lawyer, Mr. Yates is a man of much literary talent 
and is a contributor to several important Journals. 
His articles are always read with interest, as he is a 
clear and logical writer and jiosscsses a pleasing, 
graceful stj-le. 

\l(_, ENRY L. ANDERSON, of the firm of 
Anderson ife JNIarsli, general merchants at 
Summer Hill, is one of the leading business 
men of this part of Pike County and is also 
a large landowner and stock-raiser. He was born 
in Hartford County, Conn., September 4, 1841. 
His father, whose given name was also Henry, was 
likewise a native of Connecticut and was born in 
1818, a sou of Timoth}- Anderson who was of Eng- 
lish parentage and was born in Connecticut. He 
was a farmer and during the Revolutionary War was 
a soldier. He lived to be seventy-seven years of 
age and died in his native State. 

The father of our subject was reared and educa- 
ted in the State of his birth and farmed there quite 
extensively for that time. While j'et in early man- 
hood and when it would seem that he had many 
more years of usefulness before him, his life was 
terminated at the age of thirty-one years. He had 
married Delcena Elmore, who was a native of Con- 
necticut, where she was born in 1811). She is still 
living in that State east of Hartford, with a daugh- 
ter. She reared two children, Emma and Henry 
L., our subject. She is a devoted Ciiristian and 
a member of tlie Congregational Church. Her 
father was a native of Connecticut, where he car- 
ried on farming and he died there at upwards of 
eighty years of age. 

He of whom we write spent his early days on a 
farm. He attended the district school until he was 
thirteen years of age and then entered an academy 
at Hartford, where he pursued a fine course of study 
for two years. He worked in Hartford two years 
in a wholesale grocery house, and then came to 
Pike County in the spring of 1858, this newly set- 
tled region offering fine advantages for young men 
of ambition, energy and talent. He first located at 

Summer Hill and engaged as a farm laborer, work- 
ing for his uncle with whom he staid five years. 

Our subject is one of the [jatriotic veterans of 
the late war, in which he fought during the open- 
ing 3'ears of his manhood, and did brave service 
for his country. He enlisted August 22, 1862. 
when scarcely twenty-one years of age, in compaii}- 
A, Ninetj'-ninth Illinois Infantry, and was in the 
army three years. He took part in the battle of 
Magnolia Hills, was present at the siege and capture 
of ^'icksburg, took part in the engagements at Ft. 
Esperanza, Mobile and Spanish Fort and Blakesley, 
was in man\- other skirmishes and contests with the 
enemy, and wherever he was he ilisplayed fine sol- 
dier y qualities that marked him as a courageous, 
high-spirited, loyal and obedient soldier. 

Mr. Anderson was mustered out of the army in 
the latter part of August, 18(55, and returned to 
Hartford, Conn. He was ambitious to improve 
his education and he then became a student of Bry- 
ant & Stratton's Business College at that city, where 
he pursued a thorough mercantile course and was 
graduated after eight months of hard stud}-. Upon 
leaving college he turned his thoughts and his foot- 
steps westward, and coming here, gave his attention 
to farming two years. He then entered the busi- 
ness world by accepting a position as clerk for 
Carlisle Burbage. He was with him one j-ear in 
that capacitj' and then bought an interest in the 
firm. He was in partnership with his old employer 
six years and then for a like period was with Fos- 
ter Carrill, who bought the original firm out. Mr. 
Anderson then bought out Carrill and ran the 
business six years himself. He Hnall3' took a part- 
ner in the person of Charles O. Marsh, in 1887. 
They are conducting a fine business with marked 
financial success, as they have here a neatly fitted 
up, well-ordered store, stocked with the best of 
goods. Mr. Anderson built his present commodi- 
ous and handsome residence in 187G and erected a 
large barn in 18110. As before mentioned, besides 
carrying on an extensive general merchandise trade, 
he has other interests to look after, having a valu- 
able farm on which he raises a good deal of stock. 
May 5, 1870, was the date of the marriage of our 
subject with Miss Eliza 1). Stebbiiis, who been 
to him all that a true helpmate can be, tilling in a 



perfect measure the position of wife, companion and 
friend. Mrs. Anderson was born July 15, 1851, 
and is the motlier of nine cliildren, of whom seven 
are livintc, — Warren, Ray, Nora, Gu3', Leslie, Clair 
and Alma. Mr. and Mrs. Anderson are among the 
most prominent members of the Congregational 
Church and as intelligent, cultured, hospitable 
people, stand high in social circles. Mr. Anderson 
is a true Republican and uses his influence to sup- ^ 
port the policy of his party. He has been promi- 
nent in the |)ublic life of his township and county, 
having served five terms as a member of the count}' 
Board of Supervisoi's, representing Atlas Township. 

"'" I 'S^ l ' S ' l" ^ — 

\f / USTUS GklFFETH. The many friends of 
the gentleman above named will be pleased 
to see a sketch of his life's labors in 
this Albdm, and those who do not enjoy the 
pleasure of his acquaintance will find ranch of in- 
terest in his history, although space forbids us 
to enter into detail regarding it. It is doubtful 
if another resident in Pike County has traveled 
more extensively, visited a greater number of the 
States of the Union or labored more assiduously 
than he. Beginning his career in life at a very 
early age, he turned his hand to various occupa- 
tions, manifesting a willingness to undertake any 
labor, however hard, providing only that it was 
honest and useful. 

Mr. Griffeth is of Irish ancestrj' in both lines, 
although his parents, Samuel C. and Esther (Wil- 
son) Griffeth, were born in New Jersey. His ma- 
ternal grandfather Reuben Wilson, a Hibernian, 
fought in the Colonial Army during the Revolu- 
tion, afterward removing to Clermont County, 
Ohio, still later to Indiana, and at last to I>ima, 
HI., where he died. The mother of our subject 
was born April 28, 1799, and became the wife of 
Samuel Griffeth in the Buckeye .State, her first 
home after marriage being on a farm in Clermont 
County near Batavia. About 1838 they re- 
moved to Pike County, 111., settling on section II, 
Salem Township, on an eighty-acre tract of land. 
There were but few neighbors and these lived some 

distance awu}-, and wild animals, such as deer, 
wolves, wildcats and turkeys, were frequently met 
with. As the father's circumstances were verj' lim- 
ited he was obliged to work hard to support his 
family and develop his farm, on which very 
slight improvement had been previously made. He 
passed away in 1842, leaving several children to 
the care of their devoted mother. 

Mrs. GriffeUi ojaintained her family by spinning 
and weaving Rnd other work which her hands 
found to do, a portion of the time even carding 
her own wool. She lived upon a rented farm, 
which she was finally able to purchase. She kept 
her own cows and walked one and one-half miles 
to New .Salem to market her eggs, butter, etc. She 
was a woman of remarkable strength, both of 
mind and body, and did her own work and trans- 
acted her own business until the summer before 
her demise, which occurred forty-five years after 
her husband's decease, on February 25, 1887, 
when she had reached the advanced age of eighty- 
eight years. Mrs. Griffeth was very highly thought 
of by the people, many of whom she had assisted 
in times of illness or bereavement, as she was al- 
ways read}' to sacrifice her own comfort to assist 
those in need of friendly offices. She belonged to 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, and no member 
of the society is more lovingly remembered than 
"Grandma Griffeth" as she was generally called. 

Our subject is the second of the surviving chil- 
dren in a family that once numbered eleven 
brothers and sisters. The others who now survive 
are: Samuel J., Mrs. Caroline Hughes, John D., j 
L3-dia A. and James W. The fraternal band en- 
joyed but limited school privileges, but their | 
motlier did the best she could toward giving them 
educations, and made up as far as ],ossil)le by 
home instruction for what the>- lacked in school at- 

Our subject was born March 25, 1825, in Cler- 
mont County, Ohio, and was thirteen years of age 
when the family came to Pike C'ountj-. His school 
days would not foot up to more than a ^'car, and 
imnediately after the removal was made he was put j 
to work. He was tending Philli[)'s P>rry when the 
Mormons emigrated to Missouri, and he heli)ed 
to take Hiram Smith and his family across the 



river. He heard the men talking of their fu- 
ture intentions, and pointing to the boys, saj' they 
intended to take all such urchins and knock their 
brains out against the trees. The river was very 
high at the time and passage was made in a flat- 
boat, manned by oars in the hands of our subject 
and an older brother. The lads determined that 
all the Mormons should not reach the Far West 
and laid their plans to sink a boatload of them. 
They overloaded their boat and pulled out to cross 
•as a stuamcr was coming, but one of the fattest 
horses on board fell into liie river and lightened 
the boat sufficiently to jsrevcnt the catastrophe for 
which the boys had planned. Tlie lads w^ere very 
much disappointed and cared much more for their 
ill success than for the reprimand they received for 
their supposed carelessness. The wife of Hiram 
Smith was one of their passengers and during the 
crossing of the swollen stream she sang, prayed 
and cursed the boys in turn. 

Young Griffeth worked out by the day or 
month, breaking prairie with an ox-team of seven 
yoke, and a thirty- inch plow, and tlireshing with 
a "chaff-pilcr" machine. He also helped to clear 
the home farm, grubbing, making rails and chop- 
ping cord wood, and worked .as a wood chopper on 
the Illinois Hiver one winter at forty cents per 
cord. When laboring by the month he never 
paid higher than $10. and generally received but 
$7 per month and was obliged to do liis own wash- 
ing. In whatever employment he was engaged 
his wages went to his mother, with whom he made 
bis home until his marriage, when he was twenty- 
three years old. 

November i, 1848, Mr. Griffeth took for his 
wife Elizabeth Conkright, with whom he lived hap- 
pily until .lanuary 27, 1850, when she laid aside 
the cares of life to enter into rest. She was born 
in Kentucky .January 12, 1826, and her i)arents, 
William and Martha (Bell) Conkright. were also 
natives of the Blue Grass Slate. The Conkrights 
were ver^- early settlers in Pike County and came 
to Salem Township in 1835, settling on section 34, 
■where the father and motlier died many years 
ago. Of the original family — the parents and four 
children — not one is now alive. Mrs. Elizabeth 
Griffeth bore her husband Ave children, but two 

of whom are now living. These are Riley P. 
and John F. The former married Carrie Shrigley 
and lives in the same township as his father, iiav- 
ing a family of four children; the latter married 
Matilda Bridgeman and they have also four chil- 
dren; their home is in Griggsville Township. 

After his marriage Justus Griffeth settled on a 
tract of raw land on section 28, Salem Township, 
his dwelling being a log cabin which contained the 
usual primitive furnishings. He improved his 
land, then sold it and bought a tract in Martins- 
burg Township near New Hartford, and subse- 
quently disposed of that. In 1858 he puichased 
on section 25, Salem Township, and made a perma- 
nent location. He has added all the improvements 
in the way of farm buildings which now stand upon 
the estate and has a home of which any man might 
well be proud. He owns two hundred and twenty 
acres of fine land and has a fourth interest in two 
hundred and forty more. He hiis now retired from 
active work, enjo^'ing the pleasures of a happy 
home, and blest with an adequate store of this 
world's goods to enable him to pursue any recrea- 
tion to which his tastes lead him. For eight 3-cars 
he was engaged in shipping grain and stock from 
Maysville, PiltsHeld, (iriggsville, New Salem and 

Mr. Griffeth led Miss Margaret J. Kennedy to 
the hymeneal ,altar March 16, 1860. That lady 
was a native of Pennsylvania and was the mother 
of one child, now deceased. She breathed her 
l.ast M.ay 13, 1886, and a year later, May 10, 
1887, Mr. Griffeth was again married, his bride 
being Mrs. Mar}' A. Kinman, nee Cannon. 

The present Mrs. fTriffeth is the daughter of 
Ephraim and Dorothy (Hunter) Cannon, natives 
of Kentucky and Arkansas respectively, 'fhe par- 
ents of both removed to Lincoln County, Mo., 
and there the couple became man and wife. In 
1832 while wild animals were still numerous in 
Pike County, the}' came here, moving into a log 
cabin where Pittsfield now stands. Mr. Cannon 
helped to Lay out the county seat, served as Sheriff 
two terms and was very prominent in political 
circles and numbered among the large land- 
owners of the county. He ditd in 1865 but his 
I wife survived him until 1878. They were the par- 



ents of eleven eliiklren, the survivors being Mrs. 
Margaret Troiitner, Mrs. Watson, James A.. Mrs. 
Griffelb, Mrs. .Jane Goodin, Henr^- S. and Lewis 
L. Nearly- all the children belong to the Chris- 
tian Church, of which their mother was a member, 
and in the tenets of which she instructed them. 

Mrs. Griffeth was born December 30, 1836, in 
Pittsfleld Township, and was the recipient of a 
tine education. She is not only well read, but 
possesses a Christian cliaracter and the useful at- 
tainraents which abundantly qualifj' her for ber 
position at the head of a liousehold. When sev- 
enteen years of age she was united in marriage 
with T. .7. Kinman, a brave and loyal citizen who 
entered the army as a member of Company K, 
Ninet3'-ninth Illinois Infantry. He rose to the 
rank of Second Lieutenant and, like many gallant 
comrades, laid down his life on the altar of his 
country, being killed in the charge upon Yicks- 
burg. May 22, 1863. His wife bore him four chil- 
dren — Martin L., Lizzie C, AUie and Susie. The 
son is now married, has one child and lives in Mis- 
souri; the oldest daughter is the wife of Ellet 
Goddard and the mother of one child, her home 
being in Arkansas; Susie is living in Indianapolis, 
being the wife of A. D. Higgins, and the}' have 
one child. 

Mr. Griffeth has served as School Director twelve 
years and Assessor one j'ear, and in the latter of- 
fice proved most efficient. He Las alwa3's taken 
an earnest interest in politics and has been active 
in county affairs since 1846, nearly always being 
sent as a delegate to conventions or acting as a 
member of the Central Committee. During the 
border troubles before the admission of Kansas, 
he traveled through Missouri in a wagon, and al- 
though he talked abolition he never suffered harm. 
He now votes the Republican ticket, but years ago 
was a Whig. Mrs. Griffeth belongs to the Chris- 
tian Church and her husband aids her in support- 
ing the good work which is promulgated by the 
society. Square dealing, good fellowship and manly 
worth characterize Mr. Griffeth in all his sentiments 
and actions and make him one of the most con- 
spicuous figures in the neighborhood. 

Mr. Griffeth has alwa^-s had an ardent love for 
hunting and has made excursions to Arkansas, 

Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, Wis- 
consin and Minnesota, in order to enjoy the sport, 
on fifteen different occasions having left this State 
for that jjurpose. He is a capital off-hand shot, 
and enjoys recounting his experiences in field and 
forest, thus living over the pleasant hours s|)ent 
in his favorite recreation. On New Year's Day, 
1870, he and the late Thomas Grej- killed a black 
bear, which weighed over five hundred pounds, in 
the swamps of Mississippi. The}' caught the ani- 
mal in a steel trap that weighed forty pounds but 
Bruin broke loose, and after following him three 
hours they shot him dead, eight bullets piercing 
his body before a vital spot was reached. They 
brought the animal home and exhibited it on the 
public square at PittsfiehL 

Mr. Griffeth has been quite a traveler, having 
voyaged over ten thousand miles on the ocean, 
twice crossed the Isthmus of Panama, visited two 
cities in Old Mexico and more than half of the 
Stales in the Union. In 1856 he made a trip to 
California by the water route, spent some months 
in prospecting, but returned home before the year 
had expired. 


^ ., LBERT SEVIER is one of the enterprising 
iOJLJ! and progressive young farmers and stock- 
raisers of Calhoun County who are materi- 
ally contributing to its prosperity. He is very 
successfully conducting bis farming interests in 
Hamburg Precinct where he bas a good farm. He 
is a native of Pike County, this State, where his 
birth occurred March 15, 1855. and is a son of John 
A. and Amelia A. Sevier. His father is dead and his 
mother is now living in Missouri. When he was 
nine years old he came with his mother and other 
members of the family to Calhoun County, 111. 
The family settled in Belleview Precinct and lived 
there a number of years until the mother returned 
to Missouri, some years ago. Mr. Sevier was bred 
to the life of a farmer and having a natural liking 
for that calling, adopted it as his own when he ar- 
rived at years of discretion. He was quite well 
educated in the public schools of this county, ami 
started out on his career well equipped mentally 







and physically for the work before him. He owns 
one hundred and sixty-eight acres of land in Ilain- 
buio; Precinct and already has it under very good 
tillage and supplied with necessary im|)rovenients. 
He stands well among his fellow farmers in this 
commuiiity.and by his straight-forward manner and 
even dealings has tiie confidence of all with whom 
he comes in contact, his word being considered as 
good as a bond. 

December 2, 1875, Mr. Sevier contracted a mar- 
riage with Miss Mary E. Freesmeyer, a daughter of 
Rotger Freesmeyer, of whom a sketch ap|)ears in 
this Album. Mrs. .Sevier born in this county 
May 18. 1856. In their wedded life Mr. and Mrs. 
Sevier have been blessed l\v the birth of seven chil- 
dren of whom the following is the record: Kotger 
was born November 21, 187G; Mar\' E., March 22, 
1878; Charles A., March 3. 1880; Josephine, Feb- 
ruary 1, 1882; Anton, November 23.1883; Charles, 
January 27, 1886 and Sarah H., April 11, 1888. 

r:^ AMUEL CLARK. A striking illustration 
of the force of industrj- in a man, of the 
benefit of small means carefully saved, and 
of the power which an upright life exerts 
upon the character and conduct of others, is fur- 
nished b_y the gentleman of whom this biographical 
review is written, and whose i)ortrait, together with 
that of his good wife will be noticed on the oppo- 
site page. Jlr. Clark rose from an humble position 
to one of influence, simply by the constant exercise 
of frugality, industrj- and persistence, and can now 
look back upon a career of honor and a life whose 
standard of dutj' has been the faithful discharge of 
even the smallest duties in a truthful, honest spirit. 
Mr. Clark is one of the large landowners of Pike 
County, his possessions amounting to nine hundred 
and fortj' acres in Kinderhook Township, all but 
forty acres of which has been acquired by his own 
hard labor and strict attention to his financial affairs. 
The entire estate is fenced and the greater part is 
under cultivation. There are four dwelling houses 
on the land, the one occupied by the jjroprietor 
being a two-story structure 16x44 feet on the 

ground, with an "L" 16x16 feet and a kitchen 

16x16 feet and but one story in height. Three 
well-built barns afford shelter for In.rses and fod- 
der, while granaries, stock-sheds and all other 
necessary and convenient buildings are properly 
disposed upon the land. Mr. Clark generally has 
about seventy head of cattle, fifty of hogs and 
twelve of horses, but devotes himself largely to the 
cultivation of the cereals which are so productive 
in this section. 

In the State of New Jersey Samuel Clark. Sr., 
father of our subject, opened his ejes to the light 
of daj-. He grew to maturity in A'irginia, where 
he married Elizabeth Shinn, a native of West Vir- 
ginia. In 182'J they came with tlieir family to this 
Stale and made a settlement in Pike Countj' on 
se(;tion 3, Kinderhook Townslu'i). There Mr. Clark 
built a log house which was afterward replaced by 
a more modern structure, and set himself to con- 
tinue the improvements which were very slight 
when he arrived. He continued to reside there 
until called hence September 26, 1862. His good 
wife |)assed away in 1875. Their family consisted 
of eight children, the record of the brothers and 
sisters of our subject being as follows: Amos died 
in Virginia when two years old ; Phebe breathed 
her last in Missouri: Obediah <lied in 1848; Levi 
passed away in 1830; Hester Ann lived until 1880, 
when she joined the silent majority; Asa is now 
living in JIarion Count}', Mo.; Elizabeth died in 

The natal day of our subject was September 23, 
1826, and his birthplace Harrison County, "\V. Va. 
He was the youngest child in the parental family 
and was three years of age when he came to this 
State with his parents. He attended school in the 
Greencastle schoolhouse. a log building which was 
furnished with puncheon seats, desks and floor. He 
remained an inmate of his parents' household until 
his marriage, when he and his wife became the 
homekeepers and his [larents lived with them until 
called from time to eternity. The first land owned 
by our subject consisted of forty acres given hini 
bj- his father, and by dint of diligence and assidu- 
itj- he has gained his present high standing among 
the landowners and .agriculturists of this part of a 
great commonwealth. 



In 1851 Mr. Clark was united in niariiage with 
Emma, daiiwliter of Isaiali and Nancj' (Robey) 
Sliinn. This amiable and efficient young lady was 
born in Virginia and spent her early life in her 
native State. The congenial union has been blest 
by the birth of seven children, of whom we note 
tlie following: Henrietta A. married Thomas H. 
Snodgrass, their home being in the same township 
as our subject's; Francis V. married R. W. Gay and 
tlieir hortie is in Delano, Ca!.; Sabra E. married 
John T. llavner and lives in Pl.ainville, this Slate; 
IMiiinie S. still lingers under the parental roof ; Cyrus 
is deceased; Florence N. married Sherman Havner 
and their home is in Plainville; Arthur S. was mar- 
ried September 25, 1890, to Minnie Gaines, and at 
present is dwelling in the parental home. 

The first Presidential ballot east )iy Mr. Clark 
was for Zachary Taylor and he was subsequently 
identified with the Republican party until a few 
years since, when he became in sympatiiy witli the 
Union Labor movement. He was at one time a 
candidate for Representative on the Union Labor 
ticket and carried the partj^ vote but was defeated 
by opposing political elements. He was also a can- 
didate for Township Treasurer on the same ticket. 
He has served as Township Supervisor and as Road 
Commissioner, in each position having endeavored 
to carrj- out the wishes of the people in so far as 
was consistent with the general good. Mr. Clark 
is also active in the capacity of School Director. 
In his religious views he is a Unitarian. 


^^ HARLES LEE AVOOD. Perhaps no better 
(|( representative of the agricultural commu- 

^^^' nity of Hamburg Precinct, Calhoun County, 
can be found than the subject of this biographical 
notice, and it may be doubted if the entire county 
contains a more public-spirited, intelligent and 
efficient farmer and stock-raiser. Mr. Wood is 
pleasantly located on section 1 , having a good es- 
tate of two hundred acres of land, which contains 
some rather features. In common with other 
first-class farmers he keeps stock of good grades, 
among them being Poland-China hogs and Jersey 

cattle. The improvements which he has made upon 
his land include many conveniences and all neces- 
sary buildings. .Seventeen acres are devoted to 
the growth of apple trees, the varieties included in 
the orchard being Ben Davis, Roman Beauty-, Wil- 
low Twig, Huntsman's Favorite, Missouri Pippin 
and Maiden Blush. This orchard is one of the 
most attractive features in the landscape, and Jlr. 
Wood finds both pleasure and profit in it. 

The parents of our subject were Jonathan and 
Anna (Schooley) Wood, the father a n.ative of 
Pennsylvania, and the mother probably of New Jer- 
sey. They were early settlers in Madison Countj', 
111., their home for many years being in Alton, 
where Mr. Wood carried on his trade of a cooper. 
He died when our subject, the only son, was about 
four years of age. The widow with her family sub- 
sequently came to Calhoun County, making her 
home in Hamburg, where she breathed her last in 
June, 1858. She was a member of the Baptist 
Chui'ch and carefully instilled the principles of right 
living into the minds of her offspring. 

The natal day of the gentleman of whom we 
write, was August 24, 1849, and his birthplace 
Madison County. Most of the years of his boy- 
hood and youth were passed on a farm, and he has 
been engaged in agricultural pursuits sinc(^ he 
old enough to bear a part therein. He atlendud 
the early public schools of the county, and had not 
the advantages afforded young men at the jiresent 
time, but being desirous of keeping himself well in- 
formed, he has made good use of the means af- 
forded by the public press to extend his knowledge. 

In 1874 Mr. Wood settled on his present farm, 
and set up a home of his own, being married in 
November, to Miss Mary E. Swarnes. This good 
woman shared his joys and sorrows until May 24, 
1881, when she was called hence. .She was the 
mother of four childrLUi, but the only one now liv- 
ing is Anna. Charles, Alma, and an infant are de- 
ceased. Mr. Wood was again married October 28, 
1883, having won for his companion Meliie A. 
Hooker. This lady was born in Jackson County. 
Mich., her parents being William and Harriett 
(Rcxford) Lane, under whose carefid training she 
acquired an excellent knowledge of those attain- 
ments which would lit her for the duties of wife 



and mother, and make her a useful member of so- 
ciet\'. She is a consistent nicnil)er of the IJaptist 
Church, wiiile her step-daughter, Anna Wood, be- 
longs to tiie Methodist p]piscopal Cluircli. 

The enterprises which are promulgated to ad- 
vance the interests of the citizens in this part of our 
great commonwealth find a friend and supporter in 
Mr. Wood. In politics he is a Republican. He is 
identified with the Masonic fraternity at Hardin. 
As a School Director he has endeavored to advance 
thecauseof education, am\ his services were credit- 
able to himself, and useful to the community. The 
entire family occupy leading positions in tiie so- 
cial circles of this section, and have a large num- 
ber of friends who are most hospitably entertained 
under tlie roof of Mr. Wood, and are equally anx- 
ious to entertain the family in their own homes. 


OSEPH HARVEY is numbered among the 
practical and progressive farmers of Pike 
County-, occupying a beautiful home in 
Griggsvilie Township. His estate consists 
of one hundred and twenty-six acres of well-tilled 
land, upon which may be seen the various improve- 
ments expected of a man of enterprise, including a 
comijlete line of farm buildings, modern in design 
and substantial in construction. Tiie residence is 
an attractive building, sulliciently commodious to 
answer every purpose, and arranged with a view to 
the comfort and convenience of the occupants. 

Before outlining the life history of our subject, 
it will not be amiss to note some facts regarding 
the ancestral history. The Harveys were first rep- 
resented in this country by John, who was of pure 
English blood, and emigrated to Virginia just be- 
fore the Revolution. He fought in the Colonial 
Army, and afterward drew a pension for his ser- 
vices. He married a lady who was born in tiie Old 
Dominion, and some years later removed with his 
family to Clermont County, Ohio. This was early 
in the history of the Buckeye State, with the pio- 
neer development of which the Harveys were closely 
identified. The next in the direct line of descent 
was Joseph Harvey, who was born in Virginia and 

roared a's a farmer. He married Miss Sarah Wright, 
who belonged to one of the liist families of the 
State and was, like himself, born not far from Bull 
Run. A few years after their marriage, Joseph 
Harvey and iiis wife accompanied his parents to 
tiie Buckeye State. 

The removal was made very early in the nine- 
teenth century, and pioneer labor was taken up in 
the heavy forests of Clermont (bounty. Mr. Harvey 
literallj' hewed out a home from the wilderness, 
clearing a large tract of land which had been cov- 
ered with heavy limlier. and making of it a well- 
improved farm. He was a soldier in the War of 
1812, and a local minister in the Methodist Church, 
societies of which he lielped to organize. He died 
when seventy-four years old. He had been twice 
married, his first wife having died when a little 
past middle life. His second companion survived 
him, d^'ing but a few yeavs ago, when more than 
four-score years of age. Both wives belonged to 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, and were good, 
whole-souled women. Joscpii Harvey and his fa- 
ther before him belonged to the Whig party. 

John W. Harvey, the father of our subject, is 
the next on the genealogical tree. He was the old- 
est of nine children born to his jiarents, eight of 
whom lived to manhood and womanhood, and two 
still survive: Joseph, Jr.. of Abingdon, this State, 
and Robert, of Iowa, both now old men. John W. 
Harvey was born in Virginia in 1805, reared and 
educated in Ohio, and brought up to the hardest 
kind of farm labor. After he reached man's estate 
he married Nancy Jenkins who was living in the 
same county, and was born there or in New Jer- 
sej^ in 1807. Her parents, John and Catherine 
(\'aughan) Jenkins, natives of New Jersej^ settled 
in Ohio at an early day, and died there at the re- 
spective ages of sixty-four and seventy-four. Mr. 
and Mrs. Jenkins bore their part in the pioneer de- 
velopment of Clermont County, and helped to or- 
ganize the churches of the Methodist Episcopal 
faith in that section. 

For some years after their marriage John W. 
Harvey and his wife continued to reside in the 
Buckeye State, but in 1839 they came with their 
famil3' to Illinois. Their journey was performed 
in the customary manner with teams and they 



caijipeil out b}' the way. The}' reached PiUe'C'oiHity 
in the fall and settled on section 23, Giiggsville 
Township, on an eighty-acre tract that was slightly 
improved. The section was but sparsely settled, 
Griggsville was but a hamlet, and the many con- 
veniences now to be found here were unknown. 
The active lives of Mr. and Mrs. Harvey were com- 
pleted at their home here, although neither died on 
the homestead. Mr. Harvey breathed his last in 
Polk Countj', Wis., in 1876, and his wife in Kan- 
sas, near Coffey ville, in 1878. Both were lifelong- 
members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and 
possessed the virtues of the true believer. Mr. 
Harvey was first a Whig and then a Republican, 
and \ery positive in his sentiments on political 
matters. ' 

The subject of this biographical sketch is the 
first-l)orn in a family which includes five brothers 
and four sisters. All are still living, all married, and 
all except our subject have reared families. Joseph 
Harvey first saw the light in Hamilton County, 
Ohio, August 2, 1827. He was quite young when 
his parents returned to Clermont County, which 
was his home until twelve years old, when the fam- 
ily came to this State. Since that time he has been 
a resident of Pike County, and most of the years 
that have passed have been spent on the homestead 
of which he is now the owner. The farm is well 
stocked with Poland-China swine of a high grade, 
which were introduced into this county by his fa- 
ther. John W. Harvey was also much interested 
in the advancement of the breeds of horses, and 
was recognized as an authority on equines. The 
son of whom we write, inherits much of his father's 
love for horses and olh(^r good stock, and a visitor 
to his home is sure to see tine animals upon the 

In Newburg Township some years since, the rites 
of wedlock were solemnized between Joseph Har- 
vey and Martha A. ^^'ade. The bride was born in 
Vandalia. this State, December 14. 1824, to Rich- 
ard and Nanc}' (Hays) Wade, natives of Kentucky 
and North Carolina respectively. Mr. and Mrs. 
Wade were married in the Blue Grass State, and 
subsequently made their home in Vandalia, later re- 
moving to the American Bottoms, Madison County. 
About 1828 iliey settled in Griggsville Township, 

this count}', on Government land wliicli Mr. Wade 
improved. There Mrs. AVade died in 1838. Mr. 
Wade afterward removed to Newburg Township, 
where he married a second wife, and died at the 
age of fifty-eight years. Politicall}' he was a Whig, 
and then a Republican, and religiously, an active 

The wife of our subject received the most care- 
ful attention from her devoted mother, and later 
from her step- mother, aided by her father. She is 
kindly in disposition, capalile in womanly attain- 
ments, and a Christian in character, and is well liked 
by all who know her. She belongs to the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church, which her husband also 
attends. Mr. Harvey never fails to vote the Repub- 
lican ticket. Mr. and Mrs. Harvey have no chil- 
dren, but are the foster parents of two girls — Mary, 
who is still with them, and Martha J., now the 
widow of Moses A. Br^'ant, and living .at Raylis. 

(^ IMLLIAM FLETCHER. One of the com- 
\/\/// fortable rural homes of Barry Township 
}y^ Pike County, is that of the subject of this 
sketch, who is one of the eldest native-born citizens 
of the township. He has, however, not yet [)assed 
middle age, having been born September 17, 184i>. 
During his boyhood, deer and other species of wild 
game were still plentiful near his home and all the 
surroundings indicated the newness of the settle- 
ments. He attended the pioneer schools, the first 
to which he went being one and one-quarter miles 
from his heme. As there was no road leading to 
it he followed a trail made by blazed trees. 

The schoolhouse was built of logs and all its 
furniture was of the most primitive description. 
The scholars occupied benches made by splitting 
logs, hewing one side smooth, and inserting wooden 
pins for legs. A board laid on pins inserted in 
the walls in either side of the house served as a 
desk for the larger scholars to write on, and was 
the only article of the kind in the room. One of 
the early recollections of our subject is of a journey 
made iiy his parents to their oUl Kentucky home, 
to which they traveled witli a team, taking their 



cooking utensils 'along and camping by tlie way. 
Tliey were accompanied by their three ciiihhen 
and he of whom we write enjoyed the trip as only 
a careless active clilhl might. 

ilr. Kletclier remained witli his parents until his 
marriage, llien bought the farm he now owns and 
occupies and estaliiislied liis own liome. He had 
begun to assist his father in farm woric at, an early 
age and was tlierefore well acquainted witli all that 
goes to make up a model farm.' The marriage 
rites lietween himself and Rliss Mary J. Boulware 
were celebrated June 17, 18G1. Mrs. Fletcher is an 
estimable woman, devoted to the interest of her 
husband and children, kindly in her intercourse 
with her neighbors and rejoicing in the esteem of 
those about her. She is the mother of seven chil- 
dren — ^'ernon, Elida, Robert, Olive. Daniel, Cliarles 
and I'earl. Mr. Fletcher votes the Republican 
ticket. He is a reliable citizen, is well read and 
intelligent and possesses excellent habits. 

The paternal grandfather of our subject was one 
of the early settlers in Jlontgomerj' Count}-, Ky., 
where he located when the Indians were more 
numerous than the whites. He superintended the 
improvement and clearing of the farm, the labor 
being performed b}' the slaves wiiom he held. 
There his son Robert, father of our suliject, was 
born and reared, remaining with his parents until 
he iiad reached years of maturity. He then came 
to Illinois, locating in Barry Township, Pike 
County, and buying a tract of timber land on sec- 
tion 5. He was very industrious, possessed of 
good judgment and so prospered in his worldly 
affairs. He purchased other land from time to 
time until at the time of his death lie owned six 
hundred acres which is now divided among his 
heirs. He passed away in 18G8, having lived to 
see the couutr}- around him develop from a wild- 
erness into a well settled region, the home of a 
wealth}' community. 

The mother of our subject was born in Spottsyl- 
vauia County, Ya., and bore the maiden name of 
Mary M. Boxley. Her father, William Boxley, 
was born in the Old Dominion and became a pioneer 
in Adams County, 111. After improving a farm 
there he came to Pike County, where he improved 
another tract of laud, afterward selling it and mak- 

ing his final location in ISarry Township. The 
mother of our sul)ject brcatlied her last on the 
homestead in .March, 188G. having survived iier 
husband some years. She had reared six children — 
William, Charles. Sarah, Henry, Rosy and Lois, all 
of whom are still living. 

The mother of Mrs. Fletcher, Christina (Pulhun ) 
Boulware, was born near Mt. Carmel, Wabash 
County, this State, November 26, 1813. Her father, 
Thomas PuUam, was born in the Old Dominion and 
her grandfather, Benjamin I'ullam was, so far as is 
known, a native of the same State. The latter re- 
moved to Kentucky in an earl}- day, spending the 
remainder of his life there. Thomas Pullam was 
still a boy when the removal took place and he 
grew tcj manhood at the new home, whence he 
went to Indiana. In the Iloosier State he married 
Nancy Decker who was of German ancestry but 
born in Indiana. 

jNIr. Pullam removed to Illinois about 1815, 
being one of the earl\- settlers of the Territory. In 
1829 he journeyed from his former location to 
Pike County, driving his stock and bringing his 
household goods and family with a team and 
wagon. As was the common custom with travelers 
through a new country the little family camped 
by the way doing their own cooking. Mr. Pullam 
located in what is now Barry Township, there 
being then no villages where Barry or Pittsfield 
stand, and Atlas being the county seat. He bought 
a tract of land which included Ijoth prairie and 
timber, cleared and improved it and resided thereon 
until his death. His wife survived him a few- 

Miss Christina Pullam was in her sixteenth year 
when her I'arents came to Pike County, whither 
she accompanied them. Two years later she be- 
came the wife of Daniel Boulware, who was born in 
the Old Dominion, accompanied his parents to Mis- 
souri and thence came to this county about 1828. 
He locateil on a tract of land where he built a log 
cabin, splitting the puncheon for the floor and the 
boiirds for the roof, which was held in place b}' 
poles. The land belonged to a man in Massachusetts 
and after some years Mr. Boulware found hira out 
and purchased the farm. 

He made it his home some years, improving a 



large tract and erecting substantial frame buildings 
of various iciiids. After reariiio- bis family he 
moved into Barr}', wliere he lived retired until his 
death, July 31, 1885, at the age of eightj'-one years. 
His good wife had learned to card, spin and weave, 
and used to make the cloth used in the family. She 
vividly recalls the time when that was the common 
custom of the houselieepers, and when various 
kinds of wild game supplied the tables of the 
pioneers. 3Ir. and Mrs. Boulware had nine sons 
and six daughters, twelve of the children being 
still alive. They were carefully reared by their 
estimable parents, whose earnest wish it was that 
they might become useful and honored members of 

"^'^= j!^ 



\Y7AMES a. ROBERTS, a prominent farmer 
of Martinsburg Township, was born in Pike 
County, May 18, 1846. He attended the 
old-fashioned log schoolhouse in the winter, 
and as soon as his strength would [lerrait began to 
bear a share in farm work in the summer. When 
but seventeen years old he began working for him- 
self, soon buying an interest in one hundred acres 
of land on section 4, Pleasant Hill Township. He 
farmed that place ten years, then purchased two 
hundred and sixty-five acres on sections 33 and 34, 
Martinsburg Township, together with eighty acres 
on section 4. He now owns three hundred and sixty- 
five acres all told, the greater portion of which he 
personally conducts. 

Mr. Roberts began his life work with very small 
means, having but a quarter-interest in the one 
hundred-acre tract, but has made money in his 
chosen vocation. He has made manj' of the im- 
provements on both places which he owns, carries 
on farming on an extensive scale and raises quite 
large numbers of stock. In the latter branch of 
business he has given the most of his attention to 
sliecp-raibing, and now has seven hundred head of 
the fleecy animals. He is building a modern 
residence which will cost at least $1,600, and has 
already \n\t, up good barns, granaries, etc. 

December 20, 1877, Mr. Roberts led to the 

hymeneal altar Miss Mary V. Ric'hardson, an in- 
telligent Christian woman who was born in this 
county December 8, 1859. Her father, Luke Rich- 
ardson, was an early settler here. A few months 
after his marriage Mr. Roberts settled where he now 
lives. His home is brightened b}' the presence of 
two children — Maude S. and Lloyd — and he and 
his wife have suffered the loss of one. Mrs. Roberts 
belongs to the Christian Church which the other 
members of the family attend. Mr. Roberts was 
brought up to believe in Democratic principles but 
is now independent in politics. He is a well-informed 
man, particularly in matters which have a bearing 
upon agriculture, has a manly character and is well 
regarded by his fellow-men. 

Our subject is a son of David and Laviua 
(Pool) Roberts, whose life is sketched in the 
biography of Palmedus Roberts on another page of 
this Album. Both were Christians, aiming to ful- 
fill every duty owed to their offspring and their 
fellow-men, and the mother was especialh' devoted 
to 'her children who owe much to her counsel and 
care. The paternal grandfather of our subject was 
David Roberts, Sr., a native of Ohio, who came 
to this State in 1841 and spent h's last days with 
the son who bore his own name. He was of English 

\|/^_^ A.YES COLVIN, a member of the Pike 
County Board of Supervisors, representing 
Hardin Township, is influential and promi- 
nent in its public and political life. His 
business is mixed farming, and he has a jiroductive 
and well-stocked farm, located on the rich bottom 
lands of Honey Creek, in the afore-mentioned town- 

Isaac Colvin, his father, is a native of [Highland 
Count}-, Ohio, where he was born in 1822 and was 
reared to the life of a farmer. He came to Illinois 
in 1 848 and settled on section 21, Hardin Town- 
sliip, where he took part in the pioneer labors that 
have ma<le this township what it is to-da}-. He 
was married in this township in 1850 to Catherine 



Forbes nee Hayes, a native of Highland Count3', 
Oliio, where she was born in 1815. They became 
the parents of two children, our subject and Isabel 
.lane, now Mrs. AVilliam Caley who lives on sec- 
tion 21, of this township and is the niotliei' of five 

Hayes Colvin was born August 4, 1851, in the 
pioneer home nf his parents on liie section where he 
now resides. lie received liis education in the old 
lo.y sclioolhouse with its primitive furniture of slab 
benches, wliere there were no black-boards or other 
conveniences sucli as the niodeiii pupil enjo^'S. lie 
remained at home and helped his father on the 
farm until he was twenty-three years of age. lie 
then began for himself, by managing his father's 
farm until he was twenty-six 3-eai'S old. After 
marriage he settled on his present farm and has 
made his home here ever since. He has one hun- 
dred and twent\- acres of land lying along Honey 
Creek of which eighty acres are highly improved, 
and the rest is in timber. lie carries on mixed 
farming, raising grain and standard grades of stock, 
and lins aliout Hl'ty head of Southdown sheep. He 
is succeeding well in his enterprises and is regarded 
as one of the solid men of his township. 

December 27, 1877, Mr. Colvin and Miss Susan 
J. Dinsmore were united in matrimon3'. Mrs. Col- 
vin is the eldest child of Marshall and Martha 
(January) Dinsmore, natives respeetivel}' of Scott 
and Greene Counties, this State, and she was born 
on the 25th of August, 1855, in Hardin Town- 
ship where she received her education in the public 
schools. Her father came to this county about 
1838 and was one of its pioneers. He married here 
and estabished a home in Hardin Township. In 
18-19 he crossed the plains to California, and was 
one of the first to return by the Nicaragua route in 
1851. At his death, March 2, 1890, an old pioneer 
of the county passed to his reward. His widow is 
still living. She is the mother of four children. 
Of tiie six children born to Mr. and Mrs. Colvin, 
five are now living, namely: Esther Pearl, who is 
eleven years old; C^eorge E., eight years of age; 
Edith six years, Howard four years, and Bessie 
two years. 

Mr. Colvin is one of the leading citizens of Jiis 
township, and his hand is felt in various enterprises 

for pushing forward its best interests. As a man 
who is well gifted mentally, who possesses a firm 
and decided character and sound common sense 
he is invaluable .as a civic ofllcial, and is often called 
upon to hold offices of responsibility and trust. He 
has been School Director of this district for six 
years. Previous to his election to that office he 
was Township Trustee of Hardin for a like length 
of time, and was Highw.ay Commissioner for five 
years. He was elected to represent Hardin Town- 
ship on the County Board of Supervisors in the 
month of April, 1890, .and is giving entire s.atis fac- 
tion to men of all parties in his discharge of the 
duties thus devolving u|>on him. He has always 
been prominent in politics, is an advocate of the 
Democratic party, and has frequently been a dele- 
1 gate to countv conventions. He and his wife are 
among the foremost people in religious circles, and 
are members of the Christian Church at Independ- 
ence. Mr. Colvin was a Deacon of the society in 
Clover District, and was also Treasurer of the 

^ OHN WARD occupies a good position among 
the practical, skillful farmers of Pike County, 
^^ who are prosperously carrying on their vo- 
f^l/ cation and while so doing are materially con- 
tributing to the welfare of this section of the State. 
He has a large and well ordered farm finel}' located 
in Atlas and Pleasant Vale Townships, his home 
lying on section 36, of the latter place. 

Mr. Ward was horn in Alleghan3' Count3-, Md., 
.lunc 17, 1816. His father, Samuel Ward, was a 
native of Virginia. He was a son of Abijah Ward, 
who was a millwright and died at a ripe old age. 
Samuel Ward married Mary House in Maryland. 
She was a daughter of Andrew House who vvas a 
native of that State, and a soldier in the Revo- 
lution. He died in Ohio whither he had gone in 
earl3' pioneer times. His wife died in Adams 
Count3' at the advanced age of nearly ninety 3cars. 
She was a woman of strong constitution and never 
took a dose of medicine in her life. After mar- 
riage the |)arenls of our subject settled among the 
pioneers of Columbiana Count3', Ohio, where tbey 



remained about eleven years. During the next 
eleven j'ears they were residents of Knox County, 
Ohio, whence they came to Pike County, III., 
in 1844 and located on section 36, Pleasant Vale 
Township, making their home in a log house. The 
same year while on a trip to Qaincy to buy land 
Mr. Ward was thrown from his horse and killed, 
and his community lost thus one of its practical, 
hard working pioneers. His widow survived him 
many years, her death occurring when she was about 
eighty years old. The}' were the parents of the 
following twelve children, eight sons and four 
daughters : Cornelius, Andrew, Abi jah, John, James, 
Samuel, Isaac, Christopher C, Racliael, Elizabeth, 
Susannah and Mary Jane. They were all reared to 
manhood and womanhood, married and reared fam- 
ilies of their own, and five of them are now living, 
Andrew, John, Samuel, Christopher C, and Susan- 

John Ward was reared on a pioneer farm in 
Ohio, and received his education in Columbiana 
and Knox Counties, Ohio, where he attended school 
in a log bouse, which was lighted by greased paper 
pasted over a hole in the side of the old log house. 
Mr. Ward remained with his parents after he had 
attained manhood and undfrtook the management 
of his father's farm until he was about twenty-five 
years old. He subsequently worked out liy the 
month and also farmed as a renter until about 1 868, 
when he bought one hundred and sixty acres of 
land on section 10, Pleasant Vale Township. Two 
years later he sold it advantageously and bought 
three hundred and sixty-five acres, the most of which 
is in Atlas Township except forty-five acres which 
are in Pleasant Vale Township where liis residence is, 
and here he has lived ever since. He has worked 
with a will and his labors have been guided bj- clear 
discernment and by good business al)ility, so that 
success has met his efforts. He has added two hun- 
dred acres of land to his original purchase and now 
has five hundred and sixty-live acres of exception, 
ally fprlile and valuable farming land, of which he cleaieil a good portion and now has in cultiva- 
tion two hundred and fifty acres. 

The subject of this sketch started out in life 
witli no other capital than a stalwart heart and 
guod muscles and he had to endure many privation? 

and to sacrifice much before he attained prosperity. 
Many a day he has worked hard all d.ay for fifty 
cents and then had to take his ])ayment in provis- 
ions as he was not able to get any money. When 
he first came here wolves, deer, turkeys and other 
wild animals were very plenty, and he has killed 
many a deer. He was at one time a great bee hun- 
ter and once found nine feet of honeycomb in one 
tree from which he procured many gallons of de- 
licious honey. He has always been a very hard 
working man and there is not a farm between New 
Canton and Ambrose Creek upon which he has not 
slacked wheat, for a distance of nine miles up and 
down the bluff road and he has the reputation of 
being the fastest wheat stacker in the county. He 
has stacked from three to four hundred bushels of 
wheat in one day and his stacks have been known 
to stand twoj'ears before threshing when the wheat 
would be found to be .as good as new wheat. Mr. 
Ward follows in the footsteps of his father and 
grandfather as regards his politics and is a true Re- 
publican. His forefathers were all Methodists, but 
he is a meml)er of no church though he is a man 
of strictly ui)right habits, whose course in life has 
won him the honor and esteem of the entire com- 
munity. He has been .School Director in his town- 
ship and has ever done his best to advance its 

Mr. Ward was married in 1842 to Rhoda, daugh- 
ter of Isaac and Elizabeth Enrow. She was born 
in Knox County, Ohio, in 181G in the pioneer home 
of her parents and was there reared. She received 
her schooling in the same school that Sir. Ward at- 
tended in Knox County. Her father was a native 
of Maryland and her mother of Ireland. The for- 
mer died in White County, 111., and the latter in 
Ohio. IMrs. Ward had one brother and one sister, 
five half-brothers and a half-sister, her father hav- 
ing married a second time. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Ward have been born thirteen 
children of whom four died young and one son 
died at the age of nineteen years. Those living are 
Liicinda, wife of James Frances, of Pleasant Vale 
Township; Noah, of Ple.asant Vale Township, who 
married Mary Alice Drumonds; Lyman and Juliet 
twins; Sarp.h E., wife of C. E. Lame, a resident of 
Pittsrteld; Harry L., who lives at home with his 






parents and M.ary E. wife of Joseph Diickwoitb, of 
Pleasant Vale Township. Lyman who lives in 
Pleasant "\'ale Township, inanied Sarah Decker, 
anil .Juliet married Newton .1. Miller, of Atlas 
Township. Our subject and his wife have had 
four great-grandciiildren and twenty-one grand- 

\f OHN C. STArPFEK. a wealthy and popu- 
lar young agriculturist and stockman on 
section 9, Fairmount Township,Pike Count}', 
is the owner of a vahialile farm that em- 
braces four hundred and sixty acres of good farm- 
ing land. He a remarkably practical man and 
one who certainly understands the art of wooing 
Uame Fortune successfulh'. He has lived here all his 
life and is closely associated witli every improvement 
and public feature of the place, and is universally 
conceded to be a valuable citizen of the com- 

Mr. Stanffer's birth occurred on the old home- 
stead on section 18, August 7. 18.55. He is the 
youngest living child of John and Sarah (Hilyard) 
Stauffer, both of whom are dead, the father having 
passed to his final resting place April 25, 1885, at 
the age of sixty-eight years. The mother breathed 
her last November 5, 1882, after attaining 
her sixty-eighth year. The father was born in 
Pennsylvania, and was of German descent. He 
was quite young when his parents, Jacob and Nancy 
(Leighty) Stauffer, moved to Ohio, where they 
lived for some 3'ears in Fayetteville. Later they 
moved to Illinois, settling in Beverl}' Township, 
Adams County, and there the grandparents of our 
subject died. John Staufifer after reaching man's 
estate was married in Fairmount Township and 
continued ever afterward to make his home there. 
He was the owner of a valuable farm that com- 
prised fifteen hundred acres of fine land all under 
excellent cultivation. 

Our subject was carefully reared in this count}-, 
and received his education in the schools here and 
in the college at Valparaiso, Ind., and for a time 
devoted his attention to teaching. He married 

Miss Sarah Josephine Reed, who was born in Elk- 
horn Township, Brown County, this State, June 1, 
1864. She was the daughter of Elias and Celesta 
(Rogers) Reed, natives of Delaw.are and Ohio, re- 
spectively. Mr. Reed died December 1, 1881; he 
w.^s a wagonmaker by trade, and a prominent man 
in his community. He was a good man and one 
largely interested in I'lililic affairs. His wife is now 
living at the age of sixty -one, and makes her home 
with her youngest daughter, Clara, in the old home- 
stead in Brown County. She is a faithful member 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church and has many 
warm friends. Of the ten children born of her 
marriage, only four are living at the present lime, 
viz.: George, Eugenia, Sarah J. and Clara. 

Mr. Stauffer is a member of the Christian Church 
and Mrs. Stauffer of tiie Methodist Episcopal 
Church. The former is held in the highest possible 
esteem in commercial circles and has several times 
been called upon to fill olticcs of public trust. In 
whatever position he is placed his energy and up- 
rightness are conspicuous, while his business ability 
has won for him the admiration and respect of the 
commercial world. We invite the reader's atten- 
tion to his portrait, which appears on another page. 

^^-v, IIARLES H. RENOVD is the owner of a 
fine farm of three hundred and twenty acies 
if) situated on section 32, Montezuma Town- 
ship, but is now practically living a retired life, 
his land being rented to his son. He is descended 
from one of the early New England families, prob- 
ably founded in Colonial days. His father, Stephen 
Renovd, was born in Connecticut in 1788, and by 
trade was a cooper, but after following that occu- 
pation for man}' years he turned his attention to 
farming. In his native State he married Miss Let- 
tie Donelson, who was born in Connecticut in 
1792, and there continued to reside until 1829, 
which year witnessed their removal to Genesee 
County, N. Y. Eight years were there passed and 
in 1837 they emigrated westward, locating in Pike 
County, III., where .Mr. Ucnovd entered lai d in Mar- 
tinsburg Township. Subsequently he relumed to 



the Empire Slate, but after a sliort time we find iiim 
engager! in staging in Scioto County, Ohio, wht^re 
he remained until the spring of 1843. Returning in 
that year to Illinois, he located in Detroit Township, 
Pike County, where he carried on farming until 
1855. when he spent another season in staging in 
Ohio. The succeeding year he worked for our 
subject, after which he purchased property in 
Henry County, 111., where he made his home until 
after the breaking out (>f the late war. In 18G4 he 
purchased the farm now owneil by his son Charles, 
an<l settling thereon the following spring he car- 
ried on farming until his death in 1866. His vvife 
long survived him, dying in 1881. Their family 
once numljered ten children, but only three are now 

In Fairfield, Conn., on the Gth of February, 
1820, Charles Rcnovd was born but when a lad of 
nine summers he accompanied his parents to New 
York, where in the common schools he acquired a 
good English education. With the desire to be- 
come self-supporting he left the parental roof at 
the age of eighteen years and in the Empire Stiite 
le.'irned the cooper's trade, by which he made his 
start in life. That continued his means of se- 
curing a livelihood until 1837, when he accompanied 
his father to Illinois. He earned his first mone}- in 
the West by working as a farm hand near Lincoln, 
receiving $21 for three months work. Believing it 
would be more profitable, he then abandoned agri- 
cultural pursuits and worked at his trade in Mil- 
ton, manufacturing pork barrels for Richard 
Robinson. The following season he was employed 
in Atlas, after wiiich he returned to Milton and 
secured a iiosition as stage driver, which business 
occupied his time and attention until the succeed- 
ing spring. We next find him in Genesee County, 
N. Y., where he engaged in staging until 1842, but 
the attractions of the West again called him to 
Illinois and for two or three years he was employed 
in the manufacture of barrels for Jonathan Fryze, 
of Detroit Township. 

In the spring of 1843 Mr. Renovd made a trip 
to Coshocton County, Oliio, where he was joined in 
wedlock with Miss Mary, daughter of George 
Wicken, who was a native of England and a cooper 
b^- trade. Mrs. Renovd was born on tlie 5th of 

January, 1824, and died on the 5th of March, 
1865. Ten children had been born of their mar- 
riage and with one exception all are yet living. 
George, the eldest of the family, residing in Pearl 
Township, married (Jueen Boren, by whom he has 
seven children; Caroline is the wife of Robert A. 
Foreman, of Carroll County, Mo., and unto them 
have been born four children; Mary, wife of David 
Wood, of Pike County, is the mother of four chil- 
dren; Eliza is the widow of William Riddle, who 
died leaving one child; Robert, of this county, 
married Maria Coats and five children grace their 
union; Marcia is the wife of William Deemer, of 
Pearl Township, and their family numbers four 
children; Richard, the next youoger, is single; 
Charles, who wedded Allie Johnston by whom he 
has one child, is living in Montezuma Township; 
Stephen, who completes the family, married Ella 
Smith, and makes his home in this county. 

On October 14, 1865, Mr. Renovd was again 
married, the maiden name of his wife being Lorena 
Duff, a daughter of Hiram and Lucinda (Thacker) 
Duff, the former a native of Kentucky and the Lat- 
ter of Indiana. Their marriage was celebrated in 
Illinois and until 1823 they resided in Sangamon 
County, whence they came to Pike County in 1825, 
locating in ^Montezuma Township. Mr. Duft" was 
then in very limited circumsta-.ces, having hardly 
the necessaries of life. He made the journey to 
this county in an ox cart and underwent all the 
hardships and privations which fall to the lot of 
the pioneer. At length he sold his farm and in 
1833 removed to Jacksonville, where he engaged 
in staging for a year when he returned to his home 
in this county'. He died at his home in Detroit 
Township in 1859. and the death of his wife oc- 
curred the succeeding year. He had by industry 
and good management acquired some (jroperty and 
in later years he was surrounded Ity all of the com- 
forts and many of the luxuries of life. The family 
of Mr. and Mrs. Duff numbered eight children, 
three of whom are now living. 

Mrs. Renovd was born in Sangamon County, 
October 20, 1823, and was a babe of six months 
when her parents came to this county. Her edu- 
cation was acquired in a log schoolhousc and her 
father made rails to pay her tuition. She was first 



married in Febrn.irj', 1843, becoming the wife of 
William Riddle, a native of Pennsjlvania. In 
I.Sj2 he crossed the plains to California, where his 
death occurred. There were six children born of 
that marriage liut all are now deceased. 

Mr. and ^Slrs. Renovd liave spent their en- 
tire married life on the farm which is now their 
luinie. As before stated it comprises three lum- 
drod and twenty acres of richly cultivated land 
and has all the improvements necessary to a model 
farm of the nineteenth centurj'. He takes a jnst 
pride in its splendid a[ipcaranee an<l equipments .as 
well he may, for it stands as a monument to his 
thrift and enterprise. Mr. Renovd is a worth}' 
citizen who in the interest of the public has done 
not a little. He was formerly a Whig in political 
sentiment but at its organization joined the Repub- 
lican party, of whicli he is a stalwort supporter. He 
has served as School Director, a position which his 
son now occupies, and his wife, a worthy lad}-, is a 
member of the Christian Church. From East to 
West, from North to South, Mr. Renovd has trav- 
ersed this countr}'. Born in Connecticut, when a 
babe he was a passenger on lioard the first steam- 
boat ever constructed; his bo^diood days were 
spent in New York where he saw the first railroad 
ever built; he has traveled across the plains of the 
West to California, returning by way of the Isth- 
mus of Panama and New Orleans, and Ohio and 
lUinoisdiave furnished him homes in his mature 

—^ ^^-#" ^— 

^OHN M. SEANEY, M. D.. a well-known, 
skillful physician of Barry, is not only con- 
ducting his profession with success, but is 
I also interested in agriculture and is the pro- 
prietor of a valuable farm in this township. He 
was born in Kent County, Del., August 5, 1849. 
His father, Thomas Seaney, was a native of the 
same place, and a son of David Seane}', who was 
also born in Delaware. The latter was a farmer and 
followed his occupation all his days, spending his 
entire life on his native soil. 

Thomas Seanej', was reared on his father's 
farm and inherited the old homestead which his 

grandfather had developed from the wilderness 
and there the whole of ins life was passed. He 
married Mary Molloston, a native of Philadelphia, 
Pa., and she resides on the home farm in Kent 
County. Thoy were the parents of the following 
four children: John M., Elizabeth, Molleslon and 

The gentleman of whom this liiography is writ- 
ten was reared in the place of his birth, and was 
given fine educational advantages. He pursued 
excellent courses of study, both at AV^yoming Semi- 
nary and Felton Academy in Kent County, and 
when about eighteen years of age to utilize 
his knowledge by teaching. He was thus engaged 
for four jears. and during that time, being very 
anxious to enter the medical profession, he having 
a decided taste in that direction, he commenced to 
study that he might attain his end. Robert Har- 
gardine was the preceptor and after receivina' care- 
ful instruction from !iim our subject attended 
medical lectures at the University at Philadelphia, 
one of the most noted institutions of the kind in 
the country, and from there he was graduated with 
a thorough preparation for the duties of the new 
life upon which he was .about to enter. In the 
month of November following his graduation, he 
opened an office in Philadelphia, and i)racticed 
there until his visit to Ross Count}', Ohio, in April, 
1877, when he removed to Kinderhook to practice 
with Dr. Penick. 

Our subject was associated with that gentleman 
until 1881, when he located on the farm where he 
now resides. He has since given much attention to 
agricultural pursuits and has in Barry Township a 
choice farm of two hundred and thirty acres, which 
is finely cultivated and is in every way sul)stan- 
tially improved. He has been equally successful in 
both vocations, placed himself high in the ranks 
of the medical men of Pike County and is classed 
among its most intelligent and practical farmers. 

Dr. Seaney and Miss Lois Fletcher were united 
in marriage September 1, 1878. Mrs. Seanev is a 
woman of fine personal character and of great 
worth, ."iud the Doctor owes to her administration 
much of the attractiveness and comfort of a i.-ozv 
home. Mrs. Seaney i.s a native of this tovvnship and 
a daughter of Robert and Nancy Fletcher. For her 



parentul history see sketch of William Fletclici', 
vvliiuh maj- be found on another page of this vol- 
ume. The greatest grief of the wedded life of 
our subject and his wife has been in the death of 
their little daughter Mary, at the age of three 

As we have seen the Doctor stands well profes- 
sionally, and as a man of irreproachable character 
and high principles, possessing true public spirit, 
and one who is honorable and true in all his relations 
with others he has i)roved to be a valuable acquisi- 
tion to the citizenship of this community where 
both he and his wife are greatly esteemed for their 
personal qualities. 

IIARLES MEISENBACH, who is classed 
among the keen, substantial business men of 
yj Pike C'ount3', is one of the most prominent 
citizens of Pearl Township with whose mercantile 
interests he is closely identified and he is active in 
the administration of its public affairs. He was 
born in Seheiderhoche, Province of Rhine, Prussia, 
November 11, 1834. His parents, Daniel and Fran- 
ceska (Hagen) Meisenbach, were also born in that 

Daniel Meisenbach was a farmer and tanner by 
occupation. Wishing to improve his condition he 
came to the United Sates in the fall of 1849, em- 
barking at Havre de Grace, France, with his family 
and landing in New York on the 28th of October. 
He spent the remainder of his life in this country. 
He and his wife were the parents of six sons and 
three daughters, allof whom were born in Germany 
except the youngest. 

Our subject was a bright, active lad of fourteen 
wiien he accompanied his father and mother to 
America. He remained in St. Louis till the fall of 
1857, when he came to Bedford, Pike Counlj^ 
where he engaged in bl.acksir.ilhing. In the spring 
of 1859 he moved to Bee Creek Post-offlce, in the 
southeastern corner of Pike County, and here he 
has ever since resided. In 1871 he abandoned his 
trade to give his attention to the mercantile busi- 
ness and to speculating. In the month of August, 

1882, with his son he opened a store at Pearl Station, 
which his son has operated successfully since. Mr. 
Meisenbach has met with more than ordinary suc- 
cess in his various enterprises. He started in life 
without a dollar, but liy industry, wise economy 
and perseverance he has accumulated a valuable 
estate. He has invested his money very judiciously 
and is now an extensive land-owner. He has two 
hundred and fifty nine acres in Calhoun Count}- aud 
farms and timber land containing eight hundred aiid 
fifteen acres in Pike County, all of which is paid 
for. His credit stands high in financial circles as 
he owes no man a dollar. He has served as Post- 
master of ]')ee Creek for sixteen years and he has 
held the important and responsible office of Treas- 
urer of the township eighteen 3'ears, proving him- 
self in both capacities to have fine qualifications for 
civic life. He takes an intelligent interest in poli- 
tics, was formerly a Republican but is now an 
earnest advocate of the Union Labor party. 

October 11, 1857, our subject and Caroline 
Lange were united in matrimony, and have here 
one of the most desirable homes in the community, 
where comfort and hospitalit}- reign supreme. Mrs. 
Meisenbach was born in Hanover, Germany, and 
came to the I'nited States with her parents in 1848. 
They landed at New Orleans and settled near St. 
Louis. Mr. and Mrs. Meisenbach have had seven 
children, of whom two died in infancy. The otiiers 
are: William H. ; Charles D., who died at the age of 
twenty-seven years; Louisa, Albert E., and Julia C. 


OATHANIEL DUNHAM is one of the mc 
' prosperous farmers and stock-raisers 
J Griggsville Township, Pike County, ai 

[lii^tig uriggsvuie iownsnip, riKe t;ounty, and 
occupies a good place among the intelligent, 
tical men who have aided in the upbuilding of that 
county. The grandfather of our subject was Will- 
iam Dunham, who is thought to have been a native 
of Maryland. His fatlier was an Englishman. 

William Dunham grew uj) on a farm, and was 
married to Miss Mary Chane}'. who was, like him- 
self, a native of jNIaryland, her parents, like the 
Dunhams, having come to this country about the 



lime of the Revolution. Mr. and Mrs. Dunham 
lived in Maryland and Ohio until about 1845, and 
then in their old age came to Illinois and puiehased 
a small farm in Griggsville Township, and Mr. 
Uuiiliam finall}' died here at the age of three-score 
and ten years. His wife survived him some years, 
and then she too died at the same place in this 
township on section 17, at an advanced age. Both 
were active members of the United Brethre.i 
Church and were very religious people. They had 
a very large family of children, of whom Lewis, 
the father of our subject, was the eldest. 

Lewis Dunham was born in Maryland, Septem- 
ber 12, 1802, and died at his home in New Salem 
Township, September 14, 1866. He had passed his 
early life in his native State and had received his 
education there. It is thought that he was mar- 
ried in Ohio, and there he began life as a farmer 
and cooper. He made his home in that State until 
1844, when he came to Illinois in the month of 
April. Three years later he settled on land of his 
own in New Salem Township, and was there suc- 
cessfully engaged, and from a poor man became 
comparatively wealthy, and improved a valuable 
farm of two hundred and sixty acres. He was a 
useful citizen of the township, and was an active 
and conscientious worker of the United Brethren 
Church. He was known for his truthfulness, hon- 
esty and other fine tr lits of character, which won 
him the esteem of the communit}^ He was a 
sound Democrat and had held some of the local 

The mother of our subject was in her maiilen 
days Sarah A. Nelson, and she was a native of 
Maryland. She was a daughter of Elisha and 
Mary (Stringer) Nelson, who were also natives of 
Maryland and are thought to have come of Scotch 
ancestry. They were farmers and lived after mar- 
riage in Maryland and Harrison County, Ohio, 
until 1842, when they came to Illinois, and lived 
and died on the farm thej' owned in New Salem 
Township, Pike Count}'. They were members of 
the United Brethren Churcii for many years. Their 
daughter Sarah was reared in Maryland, and came 
to Illinois with her husband, whom she survived 
several years, finally dying when [last eighty years 
of age. She was a consistent member of the United 

Brethren Church. She was the mother of nineteen 
children, of whom nine are now living. 

Our subject was born in Harrison County, Ohio, 
February 14, 1834, and came to Hlinois with his 
parents. He attained his majority' in New Salem 
Township, and began to farm on his own account 
at that time. His success as a shrewd, practical, 
energetic farmer has been great, and he is now the 
owner of four hundred and twenty acres of land in 
Griggsville Township, located on sections 7, 8, 
17 and 18, with liis residence on the latter, 'i'lie 
homestead is a good and fine!}' improved farm, 
supplied with buildings of a neat and substantial 
order, and with every appurtenance for car ying on 
farming so as to produce the b(!St results. He has 
paid great attention to stock-raising, and made 
a speci.alt}' of high grade horses, from the sale of 
which he has made much mone}'. 

Mr. Dunham was married in Martinsburg to 
Miss Mary A. Kiser. She was born in Warren 
Count}', Ind., May 3, 1838, and is a daughter of 
Daniel and Eliza J. (Foreman) Kiser, natives re- 
spectively of Virginia anrl Ohio. They were mar- 
ried in Indiana, and after marriage lived on a farm 
not far from Danville. In 1844 thej- came to Pike 
County, III., settled in Ncwburg Township, and 
later in Martinsburg, where Mr. Kiser died in tlie 
fall of 1860 when about three-score j'ears of age. He 
came to this count}' a poor man, but purchased and 
improved three hundred and fifty acres of good 
land while he lived here, though he had been all 
his life a cripple from white swelling. He was 
possessed of remarkable energy, was a hard worker 
and a good manager. He was a member in high 
standing of the United Brethren Church, with 
which his wife is still connected. She is living, at 
the venerable age of seventy-five j'ears, and is 
making her home with her son John in Milton. 

Mrs. Dunham, our subject's wife, is the second of 
her mother's children, and was young when her 
parents came to Illinois. She is the mother of 
seven children, of whom two are deceased — David 
M. and Nicholas, who died young. The others 
are : Daniel, a farmer of New Salem Township, who 
married Martha ,1. Wood; William 11., a farmer 
on section 7, of this township, who married Eliza- 
beth Aber; Lewis O., in Aurora County, Neb., who 



married Anna McCla}'; Charles E., who is at home 
with his parenis and assists in working the farm ; 
Orpha J., the wife of Stanton M. Kennedy, a farmer 
in this township. Mt. Dunham and his farail}' are 
vahied members of the United Brethren Church, 
and are very highly thouglit of in Griggsville 
Township and the surrounding county, where they 
are well known. Mr. Dunham takes an intelligent 
interest iu polities and uses his influence in favor 
of the Democratic [)artv. Mr. Dunham is a trustee 
of the Westficld United Brethren College, of Clark 
County, 111. 

AMUEL BRAKEFIELD was for many 
jears an honored and well-known resident 
of Pike County, where he acquired wealth 
through his operations as a skillful farmer 
and stock-raiser, he having a large and valuable 
farm and other property in Griggsville Township, 
making his home in the city of Griggsville during 
the latter part of his life. 

Our subject was born in Pennsylvania, Novem- 
lier 27, 1824, and was there reared and educated by 
good parents till the removal of the family to the 
State of New York. His father and mother, Charles 
and Mary Brakefield, were natives of Kent, Eng- 
land, coming of old English stock of the better 
class. After their marriage and the birth of the 
most of their family they came to the United 
States and settled in Pennsylvania about 1823. 
They spent the latter part of their lives in the State 
of New York, dying there when past fourscore 
years. They were honest, hard-working people of 
Christian character, and members of the Episcopal 

He 'of whom we write was the youngest of the 
familj', and his birth occurred witliin a year after 
his parents had arrived in America. lie was about 
twenty-four years old when he came to Illinois in 
1847, and coming thus in the opening years of a 
stalwart, vigorous manhood, the most of his active 
life was passed here. He first purchased land on 
section 27, in Griggsville Township, and became 
the owner of a very large estate, which was well 

improved and was put under fine cultivation by our 
sul)ject and his brother .Tames, with whom he owned 
it in partnership for a time, subsequently becoming 
the proprietor of the whole, amounting to seven 
hundred acres of land and several city lots. For 
some time after first coming to the county, he and 
his brother successfully carried on the manufacture 
of brooms, and had later purchased land together 
in one of the finest farming localities in thecount3^ 
Mr. Brakefield was a hard-working man, possessed 
of sound common sense and gooil business qualities, 
which were important factors in bringing about his 
prosperous circumstances and making him one of 
the mone3-ed men of the county. He was a pillar in 
the Methodist Episcopal Church for man}' years and 
assisted in the management of its affairs. He was a 
sound Republican iu politics, but was not an office- 
seeker, though he held some of the local township 
oflices. As an honest business man, as a Christian 
gentleman, as a devoted husband, loving father and 
kind neighbor, no man stood higher in the com- 
munity than he, and his death cast a sliadow of 
gloom over the people of this town and vicinity, 
amongst whom he had lived so many years. 

Our subject's career was brought to a close under 
peculiarly sad circumstances, he having met instant 
death at G:30 a. m. June 13, 1874, by a passenger 
train running upon him while be was driving a 
team to a wagon, and crossing the Wabash Railroad 
within the city limits of Griggsville. The engine 
struck the wagon with such force as to throw Mr. 
Brakefield upon the pilot and he was carried several 
rods and mutilated in a most shocking manner, 
receiving many gashes and cuts and his neck and 
limbs being dislocated. 

^RANCIS M. LYNN is a native-born citizen 
of Calhoun County, and is a worthy rep- 
■'A^ resentative of its citizenship. He has Ijeen 

as.sociated with its educational affairs ever since his 
early manhood, and as an intelligent, progressive 
teacher occupies a high place in his profession. 
He is also identified with the agricultural interests 
of this region and has a good farm in Carlin 




Precinct wliich was his father's honu'Stead in 
pioneer times, bis fatlier being- one of the early 
settlers of this part of the count}'. 

Our subject was born in Carlin Precinct, October 
19, 1848, and is a son of Lewis and Mary (Maiipin) 
Lynn. His father was a native of Tennessee or 
North Carolina and his mother of ^'irginia. His 
grandfather Maupin was a soldier in the War of 
1812 and fought at the battle of New Orleans. 
The parents of our subject settled in Calhoun 
Count}' early in the '40s, permanenlly locating 
on the farm on section 31. Carliu Precinct, which 
is now the home of their son of whom we write. 
Mr. Lynn , energetically set about the work of 
developing Lis land, and was busily engaged in iis 
improvement till death cut short his useful career 
in 1856 and removed from our midst a valued 
pioneer. His widow survived him only a few 
years, when she too passed awa}'. The}^ were the 
parents of five children, of whom four are living: 
Lewis, in Chautauqua, Kan. ; Mar}', the wife of R. 
E. Bennett, in Belleview Piecinct; Francis M. ; 
and Marlitia, wife of Oeorge W. Luraley, in Carlin 

Francis M. r>ynn was reared amid tiie inliuenees 
of pioneer life in Carlin Precinct and was bred to 
the life of a farmer. He received his education in 
the public schools of his native county, and always 
fond of books and a close student he became well- 
fitted for a teacher and entered upon that pro- 
fession in 1874. He has taught every consecutive 
year but one since that lime and is one of our most 
popular and successful educators. 

Mr. Lynn has a finely cultivated farm of one 
hundred and five acres, and here hr. has a home 
where comfort predominates and which is the center 
of the true hospitality that '■ welcomes the coming 
and speeds the parting guest." Our subject is a 
man of a thoughtful, well-trained mind and a fine 
character, and he is always courteous and kindly in 
his relations with all who come in contact with 
him. He is regarded as one of the representative 
citizens of Carlin Precinct and enjoys the esteem 
and confidence of the business community. He is 
earnestly interested in politics and gives his 
allegiance to the Republican party. His public 
spirit is unquestioned, as he always endeavors to 

promote the best interests of his native county 
materially, morally and socially. He is a member 
in good standing of the Methodist Elpiseopal Church. 
He has served one term as Justice of the Peace 
and discharged the duties of that office with 
fairness and to the complete satisfaction of all 

iMr. Lynn was married October 20, 1872, to Mary 
Barkiey. a native of Calhoun County and a 
daughter of .loliu and Charity (Mill) Barkiey, early 
settlers of this part of the State, botii of whom are 
now deceased. A happy married life has brought 
to our subject and his wife seven children, of 
w'hom one is deceased — Chester O. The others are 
Nellie L., Mellie E., Georgiana, Lewis M., Francis 
W. and Jesse U. Mrs. Lynn departed this life 
March 25, 1886. 



L-alers in live stock in Pike County. He 
owns many acres of choice land, has two finely 
improved farms, and is a man of wealth and consid- 
eration in this community. He is of English birth 
and antecedents. He was born in the great 
metropolis of London. December 12. 1818, and is a 
son of Christopher and Elizabeth (Hewitson) 
Appleton. His father was a moderate farmer in 
the old country, and emigrated to America with his 
family and located in Bedford County, Pa. The 
parents of our subject continued to live in that 
part of Pennsylvania the remainder of their days, 
the father dying November 10, 1857, and the 
mother October 2G, 1873. They were the parents of 
fourteen children. 

Christopher Appleton was but eight months old 
when his parents brought him to this country, 
therefore he has known no other home but this, and 
having been bred under American institutions and 
educated in the schools of this country he is as 
loyal and patriotic a citizen as if he were a native 
of the soil. He was principally educated in Bedford, 
Pa., and remained an inmate of the parental house- 
holil till he reached hfs twentieth year. He then 



started out into the world as a traveling salesman 
for a marble firm, and continued thus engaged for 
eight 3'ears. From 1865 to 1872 lie was employed 
in the huckstering business, and besides selling 
buttvjr and eggs handled wool and fur quite exten- 

In 1872 our subject began dealing in cattle, 
horses and hogs, feeding and raising them for a 
number of years and carrying on farming quite 
successfully. He now owns two good and well- 
improved farms which comprise five hundred acres 
of land of superior quality, on whic^h are placed ex- 
cellent buildings, and they have every appliance 
for carrying on agriculture after the best methods. 
Politicall3', IMr. Appleton is rather conservative, 
but in State matters he votes with the Democrats. 
He is a member of Pittsfield Lodge, No. 95, I. O. 
O. F. In him the Baptist Ciiurch finds one of its 
most valued and active members, he being one of 
its Deacons. He is a man of far-seeing fore- 
thought, of keen business qualifications, and while 
he understands well how to manage his affairs ad- 
vantageonsl}' he is always square and upright in his 
dealings, and his honesty and integrity have never 
been questioned. 

Mr. Appleton has not been without the assistance 
of a good wife, who has shared his laliors and has 
been an important factor in bringing about their 
prosperity. Their marriage was solemnized De- 
cember 11, 1845. Mrs. Appleton was formerly 
Charlotte Stinnett and is a native of Virginia. She 
is a daughter of Joel jNI. Stinnett, who is now de- 
ceased. Mr. and Mrs. Appleton have one daughter 
— Anna — the wife of John S. Sedberry, of Pittsfield 
Townsliip, HI. 

sturdy German-American citizens of Cal- 

i i houn County who have labored long and 
1^;^ well in connection with the development 

of this section, is the gentleman above named, who 
resides on section 19, Hamburg Precinct. Coming 
herewith but little means in 1850, he sought em- 
l)loyment at any honorable labor which he wan 

able to perform, and finding work labored so ar- 
duously and hoarded his resources so carefully 
that in a few years he was able to buy property and 
establish himself as an agriculturist. From year 
to year he manifested the same industry' and fru- 
gality by means of which he secured his first cap- 
ital and placed his affairs on a more substantial 

Mr. Dirksraeyer is a Prussian, born July 22, 
1822, in the kingdom which takes iirecedence 
among the states of the German Empire. His par- 
ents, Joseph and Eva (Paulmeyer) Dirksmeyer, 
were natives of the Fatherland and occupied a farm 
upon which our subject spent his early life. He re- 
ceived a good education in his native language and 
since he came to America has acquired a fair knowl- 
edge of English. During the Revolution in Baden 
Mr. Dirksmeyer served in the Prussian Army. The 
land beyond the sea offered attractions to him which 
led to his departure from his native clime in 1850, 
on board a sailing vessel, which sot out from 
Bremen and after a voyage of nine weeks an- 
chored at New Orleans. 

Mr. Dirksmejer came direct to Calhoun County, 
HI., where he first found work as a wood chopper 
and lumberman, doing most of his choijping for $1 
per cord. He engaged in these employments 
about two years, after which he bought a tract of 
land on section 13, Hamberg Precinct, and made 
his home there for a number of years. About 
twenty years ago he settled on the farm he now 
owns and operates, which consists of three hundred 
and sixty acres, whose fertile soil has been carefully 
and intoUigentl}' tilled and which has been supplied 
with every needed improvement. 

Realizing the worth of a faithful companion, 
Mr. Dirksmeyer won for his wifeThakla Abeln, to 
whom he was married in 1854. Twelve children 
came to bless the happy union. William, Mary, Jo- 
so|ili, John, Sophia, August, Anton, Anne and 
Frank are living; John H., Ilenr}' and Peter are 
deceased. Marj' is now the wife of E. Meyer, and 
Sophia of M. Kellc. The wife and mother passed 
away in 1881. leaving behind her the memory of 
an industrious and useful life. 

Mr. Dirksmeyer is a believer in and a supporter 
of the [irinciples laid down b}- the Democratic 

vyu^^^^t^ ^. ^dt.^^-^ /^.^ 



party, and molds his life according to the teach- 
ings of the Catholic Churcli, to which he belongs. 
He has served as School Director and is now Road 
Coniniissioner of Hamburg Precinct. He is justly 
classed among the public-spirited and leading Ger- 
man citizens of the county and has won the 
goodwill of his acquaintances. 


SJSAAC S. BERREY, M. D. An excellent stand- 
ing among the professional men in Calhoun 
Count3' is held bj' the gentleman above named, 
who is now located in Batchtovvn. From that thriv- 
ing place his reputation extends over a wide terri- 
torj", and the demands for his professional services 
take him some distance from his home. He is a 
native of Richwoods Precinct, and is still quite a 
young man, his natal day having been October 17, 
IS.'je. He possesses a collegiate education, and be- 
fore he began his medical studies had iiis mind so 
drilled that he was able to advance rapidly in his 
comprehension of the profession. He was gradu- 
ated from one of the best medical schools in the 
country and during the 3ears which have passed 
since that time, has taken advantage of every op- 
portunity to further increase his knowledge, and 
add to his practical skill. 

The paternal ancestors of our subject were na- 
tives of Virginia as far back as the family record 
extends. His grandfather, Lawson Borrey, was 
born in Culpeper County, reared in his native 
State, and removed to Missouri in 1836. He had 
learned the trade of a cooper, and after locating in 
the West, continued to give his attention to it but 
also improved some land. He bought property in 
Ralls County, built a home and lived there until 
1846 when he breathed his last. He had married 
Elizabeth Somers, a daughter of Philip and Bar- 
bara (Sauers) Somers, natives of Germany, whose 
last years were spent in Page County, Va. 

James Berrey, the father of our subject, was one 
of ten children born to his parents. His natal day 
was November 4, 1821, and his birthplace Page 
County, Va. He was fifteen years old when he ac- 
companied his parents to Missouri, the removal be- 

ing made with a team to the Ohio River, thence on 
a steamer to Hannibal, Mo., and by teams to the 
new home twent^'-five miles distant. At that time 
the county was sparsel}- settled, but few improve- 
ments had been made and all of the surroundings 
were of the most primitive nature. Young Berrey 
began his labors, working bj' the daj-, but finally 
advanced to yearly engagements, and after his mar- 
riage rented land for a time. He then bought 
eighty acres living thereon until 1852, when he 
sold and came to Calhoun County, 111. Purchas- 
ing a tract of timber land in Riciiwoods Precinct, 
he built a log house and at once began the work of 
improvement. He lived upon the homestead until 
1883, when he rented it and removed into Batch- 
town, where he had built the house he now occu- 

The marriage of James Berrey and Emil}' J. Sco- 
bee was solemnized in April, 1845. The bride was 
born in Ralls County, Mo., February 2, 1825. Her 
father, Robert Scobee, was born in Kentucky, and 
her grandfather, John Scobee, was probably a native 
of the same State. The latter became a pioneer of 
Ralls County, Mo., buying land about twenty-five 
miles from Hannibal. The father of Mrs. Berrey 
was reared to farm life, and followed it, spending 
his last years in Missouri. He married Lydia 
Turner, daughter of Samuel and Anna Turner, and 
a native of Culpeper County, Va. That lady did 
all her cooking by a fireplace during the early 
j-ears of her married life, and also manufactured 
the greater part of the cloth used in the family, 
having been taught to card, spin, and weave. Mr. 
and Mrs. James Berrey are the parents of five liv- 
ing children — Robert, Isaac, Lizzie, Mary, and 
Alice; and have lost four — Andrew, Jane, Abner 
and Lydia. Both [)arents are devout members of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

Dr. Berre}' received his early education in the 
stone schoolhouse of Batchtown, and further ad- 
vanced his knowledge by attendance at McKendiee 
College in Lebanon, 111. He taught one term at 
the Nicholas schoolhouse in Riciiwoods Precinct. 
During his youth when not attending school he 
assisted his father in operating the farm. At the 
age of twenty-two years he turned his attention to 
the study of medicine, and in the winter of 1878-79 



attended lectures at the Missouri Medical Col- 
lege at St. Louis, Mo. During tlie winter of 1881- 
82, he was again present there, and was graduated 
in March, 1882. He at once began practice in the 
precinct of which he is a native, locating on a farm 
which he carried on in connection with his profes- 
sional duties until 1887. He then took up liis 
abode in Batchtown, and devoted himself entirely 
to his growing practice. He is successful in diag- 
nosing and treating diseases, and is a very popular 
member of society, as well as of his profession. 

At tlie home of Joseph and Harriet Bell, in Rich- 
woods Precinct, September 15, 1880, Dr. Bcrrey 
was united in marriage with Mary Obedience, 
daughter of the host and hostess. The bride is a 
refined Christian woman, and a consistent member 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church. The happy 
union has been blessed by the birth of four chil- 
dren — Marquis Otto, Ruth Ulu, Rosa, and Mary 
Josephine. Ruth Ulu and Mary Josephine are de- 
ceased. The Doctor is a candidate for Coroner of 
Calhoun County on the Republican ticket, and is 
prominent in the ranks of that party. His portrait 
is presented elsewhere in this volume. 

WfclLLIAM B. JAMES, a retired farmer of 
Pike County, makes his home in Atlas 
Township, where he enjoys the esteem and 
confidence of the entire community. He was born 
in the village of Scawbc^', Lincolnshire, England, 
August 22, 1811. His fatlier, Thomas James, was 
born in the same village, August 10, 1783. His 
father who was also named Thomas, was a native of 
that village, where he spent his entire life. He was 
a mason by trade, and accumulated a little prop- 
erty. He was a member of the old established 
Church of England. 

The father of our subject was reared in the vil- 
lage of Ills birth, and learned of his father the trade 
of a mason, whicli he followed all his life in his 
birthplace, where he died January 27, 1849, at the 
age of sixty-one years. lie was a consistent mernber 
of the Church of England He was married in early 

manhood to Saloma Reynolds, who was born in the 
village of Ashby-Cum-Fenby, Lincolnshire, March 
20, 1791. She died in 1871 in her eightieth year. 
She was the mother of thirteen children, of whom 
ten grew to maturity, namel}': our subject, George, 
Joiin, Henr^-, Hannah, Sarah, Thomas, Amaziah, 
Joseph, and Maria The mother belonged to tlie 
Churcii of England. Her father, William Rey- 
nolds, was a native of Lincolnshire, where he was 
engaged as a farmer, owning and occupying a farm 
of about fifty acres of land, and he died at the age 
of seventy years. He was a strict member of the 
Church of England. He and his good wife reared 
a family of six children. 

The gentleman of whom these lines are written, 
passed his early life in his pleasant English home, 
and there learned the trade of a mason of his fa- i 
ther. After attaining manliood he went to the 
town of Hull and worked for his uncle iu a slioe ' 
store for about one year. Returning to his native 
village he worked tliere as a mason until lie was 
thirty years old. He then went back to Hull and I 
clerked in the store ten months. We next hear of 
him in York, England, where he engaged in busi- 
ness for himself as a shoe dealer. He conducted 
the store there about ten months, when he became 
insolvent and had to give up business. He went i 
back to Scawbey and resumed work as a mason, and i 
carried on his trade there until 1852. In that year 
he made a new start in life, and coming to America 
in the month of April he made his waj- to this 
State, and settled on one hundred and twenty aeies 
of land in Martinsburg Township, this county, 
whicli when he jHU'chased it was unimproved. He 
built a little one-story frame house, and actively 
went to work to develop his land, which he cleared 
and improved into a good farm. He was unaided 
in ills pioneer labors, and had to work hard to 
bring his place to its present state of cultivation. [, 
He made his home on it until the summer of 1884, 
when he retired to his present home at Summer Hill, 
where lie is living iu the enjoyment of tlie fruits of 
his early industry, with his daughter, Elizabeth 
Shaw, and is surrounded by every comfort that 

filial love can devise. { 

He has been twice married. On the 10th of 

March, 183U, he was wedded to Ellen Jackson, who 



was born in Lincolnshire, England in 1813. Sliedied 
of constimption at the age of twenty-seven years, 
leaving two children : Thomas died when young; 
and Elizabeth (Mrs. Shaw). Ilis second marriage, 
which was celebrated April 1 1, 1842, was with Anna 
Toi)ham, who was born in Yorkshire, England. 
They had two children, Thomas who died leaving a 
widow and three children; and Henry, who died 
young. Mrs. James departed this life April 12, 
18b4, at the age of seventy-eight years. 

Mr. .lames has borne an honorable part in the 
administration of public affairs, and has been a 
prominent factor in promoting the social and re- 
ligious life of Martiusburg Township. He is a 
true and consistent member of tlie Congregational 
Ciiurch, and in politics is a follo^ver of the Demo- 
cratic party. While a resident of Martiusburg 
Township he served as Collector, School Trustee 
and Director. 

^i for many years a prominent and widely- 
' known citizen of Pike County, with whose 
interests he was closely identified from pio- 
neer daj's. He was an early settler of Barry Town- 
ship, which at his death, August 3, 1887, lost one 
of its most valued citizens. 

Mr. Brown was born in Wenham, Essex County, 
Mass., February 22, 1804, and was a son of William 
and Anne (Dodge) Brown. He went to Vermont 
with ilis parents at tlie age of fifteen years and as he 
was one of a large family of children, he soon after 
left home to seek his own living. He went to Bur- 
lington and there met a Mr. Twing, a millwriglit 
from Barre, and he accompanied him home and 
learned of him his trade. He was naturally a fine 
mechanic and became a master workman before he 
was of age. He earned good wages and ns he was 
industrious he wisely saved up his money, and be- 
came independent, having the wherewithal to buy 
a farm from iiis father. 

Shrewdly foreseeing that in a new State like Illi- 
nois there would be many openings for a man 
of his skill and ability, he determined to try life in 

the West, and in 1833 he came to Illinois, accom- 
panied by his wife, they having previously lived 
for two years in Utica, N. Y. Soon after coming 
here Mr. Brown crossed the river into Missouri, 
and built a mill at Louisiana and another at St. 
Louis. During the time he lived there he bought 
a farm svhich is now included in the city of Barry, 
and includes Diamond Hill. He settled here in 
1839, and devoted a part of his time to his trade 
and the rest of it to farming for some years, and 
finall}' engaged in the mercantile business. He car- 
ried that on with great success, building up a large 
trade and he subsequently entered into the banking 
business, and was prospered financially at that. 

Mr. Brown was a man of more than ordinary cal- 
ibre and business capacity, whose honorable and 
upright dealing won him a high place in the busi- 
ness circles throughout the count}- for which he did 
much. He represented it in the Legislature of 
1841-42 and was always active in everything that 
tended to advance its welfare. His widow sur- 
vives him and a sketch of lier life appears elsewhere 
in this work. 

No words of ours can render full justice to the 
life and character o