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Full Page Portraits and Biographical Sketches of Prominent 
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110 i;rL'; of Knulisli liistoiiiuis, IMacaui.av, and (uicuf tlic must brilliant uiitiMs of 
the |)iesent ecntni-y, has said : "The history of a country is best told in a record of the 
lives of its people." In conformity with this idea the roKruAiT and Hioohai-iiicai. 
Ai.iiUM of this county has been prepared. Instead of going to musty records, and 
t;ilving tiierefroin dry statistical matter that can be ai)preciated by but few, our 
corps of writers have gone to tiie people, the men and women who have, ))y their 
enterprise and industry, brought the county to a ranic second to none among those 
comprising this great and noble State, and from their lips have the story of their life 
struggles. No more interesting or instructive matter could be jjresented to an intelli- 
gent i)ublic. In this volume will be found a record of many whose lives are worthy the 
imitation of coming generations. It tells how some, commencing life in |)overty, by 
industry and economy have accumulated wealth. It tells how others, with limited 
advantages for securing an education, liave become learned men and women, witli an 
I ^^3^, intlnence extending througiiout the length and breadth of the land. It tells of men who 
' ?i. liavc risen from the lower walks of life to eminence as statesmen, and whose names have 
^•^li^^rVS* liccome famous. It tells of those in every waliv in life who have striven to succeed, and 
"^ ^ records how that success has usually crowned their efforts. It tells also of many, very 

many, who, not seeking the applause of the world, have pursued "the even tenor of their way,'" content 
to have it said of them as Christ said of the woman performing a deed of mercy — -"they have done what 
they could." It tells how that many in the pride and strength of young manhood left the plow and the 
anvil, llie lawyer's ollicc and the counting-room, left every trade and profession, and at their country'.s 
call went forth valiantly "to do or die," and how through their efforts the Union was restored and pence 
once more reigned in the land. In the life of every man and of every woman is a lesson that should not 
be lost upon those who follow after. 

Coming generations will appreciate this volume and preserve it as a sacred treasure, from the fad 
that it contains so much that would never find its way into public records, and which would otherwise be 
in.accessible. Great care has been taken in the compilation of the work and every opportunity possible 
giveii to those represented to insure correctness in what has been written, and the publishers (latter them- 
selves that they give to their readers a work with few errors of consequence. In addition to the biograph- 
ical sketches, portraits of a number of rci)resentative citizens are given. 

The faces of some, and biogra[>liical sketches of man}', will be missed in this volunir. For this tiie 
pnljlishers are not to blame. Not having a iirojicr conception of the work, some refused to give the 
information necessary to compile a sketch, while others were indifferent. Occasionally some member of 
the family would oppose the enterprise, and on account of such opposition tiie support of the interested 
one would be withheld. In a few instances men could never be found, though repeated calls were made 
at their residence or place of business. 

Chicago, September, 188'J. 




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HE Father of our Country was 
horn in WcstmorUuid Co., Va., 
'Feb. 22, 1732. His parent.s 
were Augustine and Mary 
(Ball) Washington. The fani'ily 
to which lie belonged has not 
jeen satisfactorily traced in 
England. His great-grand- 
father, John Washington, em- 
igrated to Virginia about 1657, 
and became a |)ros[>erous 
[)lanter. He had two sons, 
Lawrence and Jiiini. The 
former married Mildred W'arner 
and had three children, John, 
Augustine and Mildred. Augus- 
tine, the father of George, first 
married Jane Butler, who bore 
him foiw children, two of whom, 
Lawrence and Augustine, reached 
maturity. Of six children by his 
second marriage, Ceorge was the 
eldest, the others beiiii; Betty, 
Samuel, Jo!ni Augustine, Charles 
and Mildred. 
Augustine Washington, the father of George, died 
in 1743, leaving a large landed property. To his 
eldest son, Lawrence, he bequeathed an estate on 
the I'atomac, afterwards known as Mount Vernon, 
and to George he left the parental residence. George 
received only such education as the neighborhood 
schools afforded, save for a short time after he left 
scliool, when he received private instruction in 
mathemat'cs. His spellinii v/as rather defective. 

Remarkable stories are told of his great physical 
strength and development at an early age. He wa:; 
an acknowledged leader among his companions, and 
was early noted for that r.obleness cf character, fair- 
ness and veracity which characterized his whole life. 

When George was 14 years old he luid a desire to go to 
sea, and a midshi[)n\an's warrant was secured forhim, 
but through the ojiposition of his mother the idea was 
abandoned. Two years later he was ap|X)inted 
surveyor to the immense estate of Lord Fairfax. In 
this business he spent three years in a rough frontier 
life, gaining experience which afterwards proved very 
essential to him. In 175 r, though only 19 years ol 
age, he was apiwinted adjutant with the rank of 
major in the Virginia militia, then being trained for 
active service against the French and Indians. Soon 
after this he sailed to the West Indies with his brother 
Lawrence, who went there to restore his health. They 
soon returned, and in the summer of 1752 Lawrence 
died, leaving a large fortime to an infant daughter 
who did not long survive him. On her demise the 
estate of Moiuit Vernon was given to George, 

UlX)n the arrival of Robert Dinwiildic, as Lieuien- 
ant-Ciovernor of Virginia, in 1752, the militia was 
reorganized, and the province divided into four mili- 
tary districts, of which the northern was assigned to 
Washington as adjutant general. Shortly after this 
a very [jcrilous mission was assigned him and ac- 
cepted, which others had refused. 'I'his v,as to ])ro- 
ceed to the French post near Lake P>rie in North- 
western Pennsylvania. The distance to bo traverseil 
was between 500 and 600 miles. W inter was at hand, 
and the journey was to be made without military 
escort, through a territory occupied bv Indians. The 


trip was a perilous one, and several limes he came near 
losing his life, yet he returned in safety and furnished 
a full and useful reiwrt of his expedition. A regiment 
of 300 men was raised in Virginia and put in com- 
mand of Col. Joshua Fry, and Major Washington was 
commissioned lieutenant-colonel. Active war was 
then begun against the French and Indians, in which 
Washington took a most imix)rtant part. In the 
memorable event of July 9, 1755, known as Brad- 
dock's defeat, Washington was almost the only officer 
of distinction who escaped from the calamities of the 
day with life and honor. The other aids of Braddock 
iveie disabled early in the action, and Washington 
alone was left in that capacity on the field. In a letter 
to his brother he says : "I had four bullets through 
my coat, and two horses shot under me, yet I escaped 
unhurt, though death was levelinn my companions 
on every side." An Indian sharpshooter said he was 
not born to be killed by a bullet, for he had taken 
direct aim at him seventeen times, and failed to hit 

After having lieen five years in the military service, 
and vainly sought promotion in the royal avmy, he 
took advantage of the tall of Fort Duquesne and the 
e.xi)ulsion of tiie French from the valley of the Ohio, 
(o rasign his commission. Soon after he entered the 
Legislature, where, altiiough not a leader, he took an 
active and imixsrtant jiart. January 17, 1759, he 
married Mrs. Martha (Dandridge) Custis, the wealthy 
widow of John Parke Custis. 

When the British Parliament had closed the port 
if Boston, the cry went \\\> throughout the provinces 
that "The cause of Boston is the cause of us all." 
It was then, at the suggestion of Virgini.i, that a Con- 
gress of all the colonies was called to meet at Phila- 
delphia,Sept. 5, 1774, to secure their common liberties, 
peaceably if i)ossible. To this Congress Col. Wash- 
ington was sent as a delegate. On May 10, 1775, the 
Congress re-assembled, when the hostile intentions of 
England were plainly apparent. The battles of Con- 
cord and Lexington had been fought. Among the 
first acts of this Congress was the election of a com- 
mander-in-chief of the colonial forces. This high and 
resix)iisilile office was conferred upon Washington, 
wlio was still a member of the Congress. He accepted 
it on June 19, imt upon the express condition that he 
receive no salary. He would keep an exact account 
of expenses and e-xpect Congress lo pay them and 
nothing more. It is not the object of this sketch to 
trace the military acts of Washington, to whom the 
fortunes and liberties of the people of this country 
were so long confided. The war was conducted by 
him under every possible disadvantage, and while his 
forces often met with reverses, yet he overcame every 
obstacle, and after seven years of heroic devotion 
and matchless skill he gained liberty for the greatest 
nation of earth. On Dec. 23, 17S3, Washington, in 
a parting address of surpassing beauty, lesigned his 

commission as commander-in-chief of the army to 
to the Continental Congress sitting at Annapolis. He 
retired immediately to Mount Vernon and resumed 
his occupation as a fanner and planter, shunning all 
connection with public life. 

In February, 1 7 89, \Vashington was unanimously 
elected President. In his presidential career he was 
subject to the peculiar trials incidental to a new 
government ; trials from lack of confidence on the part 
of other governments;, trials from want of harmony 
between the different sections of our own country; 
trials from the impoverished condition of the country, 
owing to the war and want of credit; trials from the 
beginnings of party strife. He was no partisan. His 
clear judgment could discern the golden mean; and 
while perhaps this alone kept our government from 
sinking at the very outset, it left him ex|)osed to 
attacks from both sides, which were often bitter and 
very annoying. 

At the expiration of his first term he was unani- 
mously re-elected. At the end of this term many 
were anxious that he be re-elected, but he absolutely 
refused a tliird nominalion. On the fourth of March, 
1797, at the expiraton of his second term as Presi- 
dent, he returned to his home, hoping to pass there 
his few remaining yeais free from the annoyances of 
public life. Later in the year, however, his repose 
seemed likely to be interrupted by war with France. 
At the prospect of such a war he was again urged to 
take command of the armies. He chose his sub- 
ordinate officers and left to them the charge of mat- 
ters in the field, which he suiierintended from his 
home. In accepting the command he made the 
reservation that he was not to be in the field until 
it was necessary. In the midst of these preparations 
his life was suddenly cut off. December 1 2, he took 
a seveie cold from a ride in the rain, which, settling 
in liis throat, produced inflammation, and terminated 
fatally on the night of the fourteenth. On the eigh- 
teenth his body was borne wi'h military honors to its 
final resting place, and interred in the family vault at 
Mount Vernon. 

Of the character of Washington it is ini])ossible to 
speak but in terms of the highest resiiect and ad- 
miration. The more we see of the operations of 
our government, and the more deeply we feel the 
difficulty of uniting all opinions in a common interest, 
the more highly we must estimate the force of his tal- 
ent and cliararter, which have been able to challenge 
the reverence of all parties, and principles, and na- 
tions, and to win a fame as extended as the limits 
of the globe, and which we cannot but believe will 
be as lasting as the existence of man. 

The person of Washington was iinusally tali, erect 
and well proportioned. His muscular strength was 
great. His features were of a beautiful symmetry. 
He commanded respect without any appearance of 
luiughtiness, and ever serious without being dull. 




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(1HN ADAMS, ilie secoiui 
President and the Hrst Vice- 
President of tlie United Stales, 
was born in Braintree ( now 
Qiiincy ),Mass., and about ten 
^^ miles from Boston, Oct. 19, 
1735. His great-grandfatlier, Henry 
Adams, emigrated from England 
about 1640, with a Himily of eight 
sons, and settled at Braintree. The 
parents of John were John and 
Susannah (Boylston) Adams. His 
father was a farmer of limited 
means, to which he added the bus- 
iness of shoeuiaking. He gave his 
eldest son, John, a classical educa- 
tion at Harvard College. John 
graduated in 1755, and at once took charge of the 
school in Worcester, Mass. This he found but a 
"school of .iffliction,'' from which he endeavored to 
gain relief by devoting himself, in addition, to the 
study of law. For this piiriKjse he placed himself 
under the tuition of the only lawyer in the town. He 
had thought seriously of the clerical profession 
but seems to have been turned from this by what he 
termed " the frightful engines of ecclesiastical coun- 
cils, of diabolical malice, and C'alvanistic good nature,'' 
of the operations of which he had been a witness in 
his native town. He was well fitted for the legal 
profession, possessing a clear, sonorous voice, being 
ready and fluent of s()eech, and having quick percep- 
tive [lowers. He gradually gained practice, and in 
1764 married Abigail Smith, a daughter of a minister, 
and a lady of su[)erior intelligence. .Shortly after his 
I'larriage, (i7<'s), the attempt of Parliamentary taxa- 
tion turned him from law to politics. He took initial 
steps toward holdin^, a town meeting, and the resohi- 

tions he offered on the subject became very |K)pulai 
throughout the Province, and were adopted woiil fui 
word by over forty different towns. I Ic moved lo Bos- 
ton in 1768, and became one of the most courageous 
and prominent advocatesof the jiopular cause, and 
was chosen a member of the General Court (the Leg- 
lislature) in 1770. 

Mr. Adams was chosen one of the first delegates 
from Massachusetts to the first Continental Congre::S, 
which in 1774. Here he distinguished himselt 
by his cai)acity for business and for debate, and ad- 
vocated the movement for indepei;dence against t'.:^ 
majority of the members. In May, 1776, he mcved 
and carried a resolution in Congress that the Colonies 
should assume the duties of self-government. He 
was a prominent member of the committee of ive 
appointed June 11, to prepare a declaration of inde- 
pendence. This article was drawn by Jefferson, but 
on Adams devolved the task of battling it through 
Congress in a three days debate. 

()n tlie day after the Declaration of Independence 
was passed, while his soul was yet warm with tli - 
glow of e.Ncitcd feeling, he wrote a letter to his wife 
which, as we read ;t now, seems lo h.ive been dictated 
by the spirit of projihecy. " \'esterday," he says, "t'ae 
greatest ipiestion was decided that ever was debated 
in .America; and greater, perhaps, never was or wil 
be decided among men. A resolution was passed 
without one dissenting colony, ' that these United 
States are, and of right (.)Ughl to be, free and inde- 
pendent states.' The day is passed. I'lie fuurlli of 
Julv, 1776, will lie a memorable epoch in the history 
of America. I am apt to believe it will be celebrated 
by succeeding generations, as the great ar.nivetsary 
festival. It ought to be commemorated as the day of 
deliverance by solemn acts of devotion lo Almighty 
God. It ought to be solemnized v.iih (wmp, shows, 



games, sports, guns, bells, bonfires, and illuminations 
from one end of the continent to the other, from this 
time forward for ever. Vou will think me transported 
with enthusiasm, but I am not. I am well aware of 
the toil, and blood and treasure, that it will cost to 
maintain this declaration, and support and defend 
these States; yet, through all the gloom, I can see the 
rays of light and glory. 1 can see that the end is 
Wvirth more than all the means; and that posterity 
will triumph, although you and I may rue, which I 
hoi)e we shall not." 

In November, 1777, Mr. Adams was appointed a 
delegate to France and to co-operale with Benijarain 
Franklin and Arthur Lee, who were then in Paris, in 
the endeavor to obtain assistance in arms and money 
from the French Government. This was a severe trial 
to his patriotism, as it separated him from his home, 
compelled him to cross the ocean in winter, and ex- 
posed him to great peril of capture by the British cruis- 
ers, who were seeking him. He left France June 17, 
1779. In Septemljer of the same year he was again 
chosen to go to Paris, and there hold himself in readi- 
ness to negotiate a treaty of peace and of commerce 
with Great Britian, as soon as the British Cabinet 
might Ije found willing to listen to such pvoposels. He 
sailed for France in November, from there he went to 
Holland, where he negotiated important loans and 
formed important commercial treaties. 

Finally a treaty of peace with England was signed 
Jan. 21, 1783. The re-action from the e.xcitemegt, 
toil and an.xiety through which Mr. Adams had passed 
threw him into a fever. After suffering from a con- 
tinued fever and becoming feeble and emaciated he 
was advised to go to England to drink the waters of 
B.ith. While in England, still droopinganddes[)ond- 
ing, he received dispatches from his own government 
urging the necessity of his going to .\msterdam to 
negotiate another loan. It was winter, his health was 
delicate, yet he immediately set out, and through 
storm, on sea, on horseback and foot,he made the trip. 

February 24, 17S5. ("ongress apix)inted Mr. Adams 
envoy to the Court of St. James. Here he met face 
to face the King of England, who had so long re- 
garded him as a traitor. As England did not 
condescend to appoint a minister to the United 
States, and as Mr. Adams felt that he was accom- 
plishing l)ut little, he sought ])ermission to return to 
his own country, where he arrived in June, 1788. 

When Washington was first chosen President, John 
Adams, rendered illustiious by his signal services at 
home and abroad, was chosen Vice President. .Again 
at the second election of Washington as President, 
Adams was chosen Vice President. In 1796, Wash- 
ington retired from public life, and Mr. Adams was 
elected President, though not without much opposition. 
Serving in this office four years, he was succeeded by 
Mr. Jefferson, his opponent in politics. 

While Mr. Adams was Vice President the great 

French Revolution shook the continent of Europe, 
and it was upon this point which he was at issue with 
the majority of his countrymen led by Mr. Jefferson. 
Mr. .'\dams felt no symiiathy with the French people 
in their struggle, for he had no confidence in their 
lX)wer of self-government, and he utterly abhored the 
classof atheist philosophers who he claimed caused it. 
On the other hand Jefferson's sympathies were strongly 
enlisted in behalf of the French people. Hence or- 
iginated the alienation between these distinguished 
men, and two ix>werful i)arties were thus soon organ- 
ized, Adams at the head of the one whose sympathies 
were with England and Jefferson led the other in 
sympathy with France. 

The world has seldom seen a spectacle of more 
moral beauty and grandeur, than was presented by the 
old age of Mr. Adams. The violence of party feeling 
had died away, and he had begun to receive that just 
appreciation which, to most men, is not accorded till 
after death. No one could look upon his venerable 
form, and think of what he had done and suffered, 
and how he had given up all the prime and strength 
of his life to the public good, without the deepest 
emotion of gratitude and respect. It was his peculiar 
good fortune to witness the complete success of the 
institution which he had been so active in creating and 
supporting. In 1824, his cup of happiness was filled 
to the brim, by seeing his son elevated to the highest 
station in the gift of the people. 

The fourth of July, 1826, which completed the half 
century since the signing of the Declaration of Inde- 
])cndence, arrived, and there were but three of the 
signers of that immortal instrument left uixm the 
earth to hail its morning light. And, as it is 
well known, on that day two of these finished their 
earthly [lilgrimage, a coincidence so remarkable as 
to seem miraculous. For a few days before Mr. 
Adams had been rapidly failing, and on the morning 
of the fourth he found himself too weak to rise from 
his bed. On being reiiuested to name a toast for the 
customary celebration of the day, he exclaimed " In- 
dependence FOREVER." When the day was ushered 
in, by the ringing of bells and the firing of cannons, 
he was asked by one of his attendants if he knew 
what day it was? He replied, "O yes; it is the glor- 
ious fotirih of July — God bless it — God bless you all." 
In the course of the day he said, "It is a great and 
glorious day." The last words he uttered were, 
"Jefferson survives." But he had, at one o'clock, re- 
signed his spiiit into the hands of his God. 

The personal appearance and manners of Mr. 
Adams were not ]iarticularly piejiossessing. His face, 
as his ])ortrait nianifests,was intellectual ard expres- 
sive, but his figure was low and ungraceful, and his 
manners were frequently abrupt and uncourteous. 
He had neither the lofty dignity of Washington, nor 
the engaging elegance and gracefulness which marked 
the manners and address of Tcfiferson. 





^-^'" ' ' ''■^- HOMAS JEFFERSON was 
liorii April 2, IJ43, ut .Shail- 
J|>*uell, Alhermarle county, Va. 
His parents were Peter and 
Jane ( Randoli)li) Jefferson, 
tiie former a native of Wales, 
and the latter born in Lon- 
don. To them were born six 
daugliters and two sons, of 
wiioni Thomas was the elder. 
When 14 years of age his 
father died. He received a 
most liberal education, hav- 
ing been kept diligently at scliool 
from the time he was five years of 
age. In 1760 he entered Wilham 
and Mary College. Williamsburg was then the seat 
of the ("olonial Court, and it was the obodeof fashion splendor. Young Jefferson, who was then 17 
years old, lived somewhat expensively, kecjting fine 
horses, and much caressed by gay society, yet he 
was earnestly devoted to his studies, and irrejiroacha- 
alile in his morals. It is strange, however, under 
such inlluencesjlhat he was not ruined. In the sec- 
ond year of his college course, moved by some un- 
explained inward im[)ulse, he discarded his horses, 
society, and even his favorite violin, to which he had 
previously given much time. He often devoted fifteen 
hours a day to haid study, allowing himself for e.v- 
ercise only a run in the evening twilight of a mile out 
of the city and back again. He thus attained very 
high intellectual culture, alike excellence in philoso- 
l)hy and the languages. The most difficult Latin anil 
C.reek authors he read with facility. A more finished 
scholur has seldom gone forth from colle.i;eh.dls; and 

there was not to be found, perhaps, in all Virginia, a 
more pureminded, upright, gentlemanly young man. 

Immediately \\\x,\\ leaving college he began the 
study of law. For the short time he continued in the 
practice of his profession he rose rapidly and distin- 
guished himself by his energy and accuteness as a 
lawyer. ISut the times called for greater action. 
The policy of England had awakened the spirit of 
resistance of the American Colonies, and the enlarged 
views which Jefferson had ever entertained, soon led 
him into active political life. In 1769 he was chosen 
a member of the Virginia House of Hurgesses. In 
1772 he married Mrs. Martha .Skelton, a very beauti- 
ful, wealthy and highly accomplished young widow. 
Upon Mr. Jefferson's large estate at Shadwell, there 
was a majestic swell of land, called Monticello, which 
commanded a prospect of wonderful extent and 
beauty. This spot Mr. Jefferson selected for his new 
home; and here he reared a mansion of modest yet 
elegant architecture, which, next to Mount Vernon, 
became the most distinguished resort in our land. 

In 1775 he was sent to the Colonial Congress, 
where, though a silent member, his abilities as a 
writer and a reasoner soon become known, and he 
was placed uiwn a mmiber of important committees, 
and was chairman of the one appointed for the draw- 
ing up of a declaration of independence. This com- 
mittee consisted of Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, 
Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman and Robert R. 
Livingston. Jefferson, as chairman, was appointed 
to draw up the paper. Franklin and Adams suggested 
a few verbal changes before it was submitted to Con- 
gress. On June 28, a few slight changes were made 
in it by Congress, and it was passed and signed July 
4, 1776. VVhat must have been the feelings of that 



man — what the emotions that swelled his breast — 
who was charged with the preparation of that Dec- 
laration, which, while it made known the wrongs of 
America, rtas also to publish her to the world, free, 
lioverign and independent. It is one of the most re- 
markable papers ever written ; and did no other effort 
uf tJie mind of its author exist, that alone would be 
sufficient to stamp his name with immortality. 

In 1779 Mr. Jefferson was elected successor to 
Patrick Henry, i.s Governor of Virginia. At one time 
the British officer, Tarleton, sent a secret expedition to 
Monticello, to capture tlie Governor. Scarcely five 
minutes elapsed after tlie liurried escape of Mr. Jef- 
ferson and his family, ere his mansion was in posses- 
sion of the British troops. His wife's health, never 
very good, was much injured by this excitement, and 
in the summer of 1782 she died. 

Mr. Jefferson was elected to Congress in 1783. 
Two years later he was apiwinted Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary to France. Returning to the United States 
in September, 1789, he became Secretary of State 
m Washington's cabinet. This [Xjsition he resigned 
Jan. I, 1794. In 1797, he was chosen Vice Presi- 
dent, and four years later was elected President over 
Mr. Adams, with Aaron Burr as Vice President. In 
1804 he was re-elected with wonderful unanimity, 
and George Clinton, Vice President. 

The early part of Mr. Jefferson's second adminstra- 
tion was disturbed by an event whicii threatened the 
tranquility and peace of the Unior. ; this was the con- 
spiracy of Aaron Burr. Defeated in the late election 
to the Vice Presidency, and led on by an unprincipled 
ambition, this extraordinary man formed the plan of a 
military expedition into the Spanish territories on our 
soutiiwestern frontier, for the pur|X)se of forming there 
a new republic. This has been generally supixjsed 
was a mere pretext ; and although it has not been 
generally known what his real plans were, there is no 
doubt that they were of a f;ir more dangerous 

In iSog, at the expiration of the second term for 
which Mr. Jefferson had been elected, he determined 
to retire from jwlitical life. For a period of nearly 
forty years, he had been continually before the pub- 
lic, and all that time had been employed in offices of 
the greatest trust and resiwnsibility. Having thus de- 
voted the best part of his life to the service of his 
countr)', he now felt desirous of that rest which his 
declining years re(piired, and uixsn the organization of 
the new administration, in March, 1809, he bid fare- 
well forever to public life, and retired to Monticello. 

Mr. Jefferson was [jrofuse in his hospitality. Whole 
families came in their coaches with their horses, — 
fathers and mothers, boys and girls, babies and 
nurses, — and remained three and even six months. 
Life at Monticello, for years, resembled that at a 
fashionable watering-place. 

The fourth of July, 1S26, being the fiftieth anniver- 

sary of the Declaration of American Independence, 
great preparations were made in every part of the 
Union for its celebration, as the nation's jubilee, and 
the citizens of Washington, to add to the solemnity 
of the occasion, invited Mr. Jefferson, as the framer 
and one of the few surviving signers of tlie Declara- 
tion, to participate in their lestivities. But an ill- 
ness, whicl) had been of several weeks duration, and 
had been continually increasing, compelled him to 
decline the invitation. 

On the second of July, tlie disease under whit '1 
he was laboring left him, but in such a reduced 
state that his medical attendants, enteitained nc 
hope of his recovery. Fioni this time he was perfectly 
sensible tiiat his last hour was at liand. Un the next 
day, which was Monday, he asked of those around 
him, the day of the month, and on being told it was 
the third of July, he expressed the earnest wish that 
he might be ))ermitted to breathe tl e airof the fiftieth 
anniversary. His prayer was heard — that day, whose 
dawn was hailed with such rapture through our land, 
burst uixm his eyes, and then they were closed for- 
ever. And what a noble consunnnation of a noble 
life ! To die on that day, — the birthday of a nation,- - 
the day v/hich liis own name and his own act had 
rendered glorious; to die amidst the rejoicings and 
festivities of a wliole nation, who looked up to him, 
as the author, under God, of their greatest blessings, 
was all that was wanting to fill u|) the rei ord his life. 

Almost at the same hour of his death, the kin- 
dred spirit of the venerable Adams, as if to bear 
him company, left the scene of his earthly honors 
Hand in hand they had stood forth, the champions ol 
freedom; hand in hand, during the dark and desper- 
ate struggle of the Revolution, they had cheered and 
animated their desi^nding countrymen; for half a 
century they had labored together for tlie good of 
the country; and now hand in hand they de|iart. 
In tlieir lives they had been united in the same great 
cause of liberty, and in their deaths they were not 

In person Mr. Jefferson was tall and thin, ratlier 
above six feet in height, but well formed; his eyes 
were light, his hair originally red, in after life became 
white and silvery", his coniplt-xion was fair, his fore 
head broad, and his whole countenance intelligent and 
thoughtful. He ixjssessed great of mind as 
well as personal lourage; and his cominai d of tem- 
per was such that his oldest and most intimate fiieiuls 
never recollected to have seen him in a passion. 
His manners, though dignified, were simple and un- 
affected, and his hospitality was so unbounded thai 
all found at his house a ready welcome. In conver- 
sation he was fluent, eloquent and enthusiastic; and 
his language was remarkably pure and correct. He 
was a finished classical scholar, and in his writings is 
discernable the care with which he formed his style 
upon the best models of antiquity. 

(^X-o^-^ .^>^ it*..-OC^ ^1v 




spilQES n]JIDISOI].« 

of the Constitution, ' ;uul fouitli 
ijf' President of the United States, 
was born March i6, 1757, and 
died at his home in Virginia, 
June 28, 1836. The name of 
James Madison is inseparably con- 
nected with most of tlie imiwrtant 
events in that lieroic period of our 
'\l, country during which the founda- 
tions of this great repulilic were 
hiid. He was the last of tlie fountiers 
of the Constitution of the United 
States to be called to his eternal 

The Madison family were among 
the early emigrants to the New World, 
landing upon the shores of the Chesa- 
peake but 15 years after the settle- 
ment of Jamestown. The father of 
lames Madison was an o|)ulent 
ilanter, residing uiwn a very fine es- 
tate called "Montpelier," Orange t^o., 
Va, The mansion was situated in 
the midst of scenery highly pictur- 
esque and romantic, on the west side 
of South-west Mountain, at the foot of 
I'.lue Ridge. It was but 25 miles from the liome of 
Jefferson at Monticello. The closest personal and 
political attachment existed between these illustrious 
men, from their early youth until death. 

The early education of Mr. Madison was conducted 
mostly at home under a private tutor. At the age of 
18 he was sent to Princeton College, in New Jersey. 
Here he applied himself to study with the most im- 

prudent zeal ; allowing himself, for months, but three 
hours' sleep out of the 2.4. His Ireallh llius liecameso 
seriously impaired that lie never recovered any vigor 
of constitution. He graduated in 177 i, with a feeble 
body, with a character of utmost i)urity, and with a 
mind highly disciplined and richly stored with learning 
which embellisiied and gave proficiency to his subsf 
quent career. 

Returning to Virginia, he commenced the study of 
law and a course of extensive and systematic reading. 
This educational course, the spirit of the times in 
wliicli he lived, and tlie society with which he asso- 
ciated, all combined to inspire him with a strong 
love of liberty, and to train him for his life-work o( 
a statesman. Being naturally of a religious turn of 
mind, and his frail health leading him to think that 
his life was not to lie long, he directed especial atten- 
tion to theological studies. Flndowed with a mind 
singularly free from passion and i)rejudice, and with 
almost unequalled iMwers of reasoning, he weighed 
all the arguments for and against revealed religion, 
until his faith became so established as never to 
be shaken. 

In the spring of 1776, when 26 years of age, he 
was elected a member of the Virginia Convention, to 
frame the constitution of the State. The next year 
(T777), he was a candidate for the General Assembly. 
He refused to treat the whisky-lovir.g voters, and 
conse(]uently lost his election ; but those who had 
witnessed the talent, energy and public spirit of the 
modest young man, enlisted themselves in his behalf, 
and he was appointed to the Eveculive Council. 

Both Patrick I lenry and Thomas Jefferson were 
(Governors of Virginia while Mr. Madison remained 
men/iier ot the Council ; and their appreciation of his 



intellectual, social and moral worth, contributed not 
a little to his subsequent eminence. In the year 
1780, he was elected a member of the Continental 
Congress. Here he met the most illustrious men in 
our land, and he was immediately assigned to one of 
the most conspicuous positions among them. 

For three years Mr. Madison continued in Con- 
gress, one of its most active and influential members. 
In tlie year 1784, his term having ex|)ired, he was 
elected a member of the Virginia Legislature. 

No man felt more deeply than Mr. Madison the 
utter inelticiency of the old confederacy, with no na- 
tional government, witii no jxjwer to form treaties 
which would be binding, or to enforce law. There 
was not any State more prominent than Virginia in 
the declaration, that an efficient national government 
must be formed. In January, 1786, Mr. Madison 
carried a resolution tlirough the General Assembly of 
Virginia, inviting tiie other States to appoint commis- 
sioners to meet in convention at Annapolis to discuss 
this subject. Five States only were represented. The 
convention, however, issued another call, drawn up 
by Mr. Madison, urgnig all the States to send their 
delegates to Philadelphia, in May, 17S7, to draft 
a Constitution for the United States, to take the place 
of that Confederate League. The delegates met at 
the time ap[>ointed. Kvery Stale but Riiode Island 
was represented, (ieorge Washington was chosen 
president of the convention; and tjie present Consti- 
tirtion of the United States was then and there formed. 
'I'here was, perhaps, no mind and no pen more ac- 
tive in framing this immortal document than the mind 
and tlie jien of James Madison. 

The Constitution, adopted bv a vote Si to 79, was 
to be presented to the several States fur acce|jtance. 
But grave soli( itude was felt. Should it be rejected 
we should be left but a conglomeration of independent 
•States, with but little jwwer at home and little respect 
abroad. Mr. Madison was selected by tlie conven- 
tion to draw up an address to the people of the United 
States, expounding the i)rinciples of the Constitution, 
and urging its adoption. There was great opix)sition 
to it at first, but it at length triumphed over all, and 
went into effect in 1789. 

i\Ir. Madison was elected to the House of Repre- 
sentatives in the first Congress, and soon became the 
avowed leader ot the Republican party. While in 
New York attending Congress, he iiiet Mrs Todd, a 
young widovv of remarkable [xawer of fascination, 
whom he married. She was in person and character 
(pieenly, and probably no lady has thus far occupied 
so prominent a position in the very peculiar society 
which has constituted our republican court as Mrs. 

Mr. Madison served as Secretary of State under 
Jefferson, and at the close of his administtation 
was chosen President. At this time the encroach- 
ments of England had brought us to the vergeof war. 

British orders in council destioyed our commerce, and 
our flag was exposed to constant insult. Mr. Madison 
was a man of peace. Scholarly in his taste, retiring 
in his disposition, war had no charms for him. But the 
meekest spirit can be roused. It makes one's blood 
boil, even now, to think of an American ship brought 
to, ujjon the ocean, by the guns of an English cruiser. 
A young lieutenant steps on boaril and orders the 
crew to be paraded l)efore him. With great nonchal- 
ance he selects any number whom he may please tu 
designate as British subjects ; orders thein down the 
ship's side into his boat; and places them on the gun- 
deck of his man-of-war, to light, by comiailsion, the 
battles of England. This right of search and im- 
pressment, no efforts of our (^lovernment coidd induce 
the British cabinet to relinquish. 

On the iSth of June, 1812, President Madison gave 
his approval to an act of Congress declaring war 
against (Ireat Britain. Notwithstanding the bitter 
hostility of the Federal party to the war, the country 
in general approved; and Mr. Madis(jn, on the 4th 
of March, 1813, was re-elected by a large majority, 
and entered upon his second term of offire. I'his is 
not the [jlace to describe the various adventures of 
this war on the land and on the water. Our infant 
navy then laid the foundations of its renown in grap- 
pling with the most fonnlilable jxjwer which ever 
swept the seas. The contest commer.ced in earnest 
by the appearance of a British fleet, early in Februaiy, 
1813, in Cliesai>eake )5ay, declaring nearly the whole 
coast of the United States under blockade. 

The Enqieror of Russia offcied his services as ine 
dilator. America accepted ; England refused. A Brit- 
ish force of five thousand men landed on the banks 
of the Patuxet River, near its entrance into Chesa- 
])eake Bay, and marched ra;'idly, by way of Bladens- 
burg, upon Washington. 

The straggling little city of Washington was thrown 
into consternation. The cannon of the brief conflict 
at Bladensburg echoed through the streets of the 
metropolis. The whole iX)pulaticn fled from the city. 
The President, leaving Mrs. Madison in the Wliite 
House, with her carriage diawn up at the door to 
await his speedy return, hurried to meet the officers 
in a council of war. He met our troops utterly routed, 
and he could not go back without danger of being 
captured. But few hours elapsed ere the Presidential 
Mansion, the Capitol, and all the public buildings in 
Washington were in flames. 

The war closed after two years of fighting, and on 
Feb. 13, 18 1 5, the treaty of peace was signed at Ghent. 

On the 4th of March, 1817, his second term of 
office expired, and he resigned the Presidential chair 
to his friend, James Monroe. He retired to his beau- 
tiful home at Montpelier, and there passed the re- 
mainder of his days. On Jmie 28, 1836, then at the 
age of 85 years, he fell asleep in death. Mrs. Madi 
son died July 12, 1849. 








n]oi]itOE. ^mm- 

AMRS MONROE, the fifth 
'rcsidentof Till.' L'nited States, 
was liorii ill Westmoreland Co., 
Va., A|)ril 28, 1758. His early 
life was passed at tlie place of 
v,*'!,i>^ if .'/ nativity. His ancestors had fcjr 

^i.-'"-^', .i -^ many years resided in the prov- 
■ ■ ince in wiiith he wnshorn. ^Vhen, 
J^^\ 'It '7 years of age, in the process 
'/jMm *' of completing liis education at 
William and Mary College, the Co- 
lonial Congress assembled at I'iiila- 
delphia to deliberate u[)on the un- 
just and manifold oppressions of 
(ireat Hritian, declared tiie separa- 
tion of the Colonies, aiul promul- 
galed the Declaration ol Indepen- 
dence. Had he been born ten yeari^ before it is liighly 
probable that he would have been one of the signers 
of that celebrated instrument. At this time he left 
school and enlisted among the [latriots. 

He joined the army when everything looked ho|)e- 
iess and glooaiy. The number of deserters increased 
f;oni day to day. 'I'he invading armies came pouring 
i.i ; and the tories not only favored the cause of tlie 
I'.iotiier country, Imt dislicartened the new recruits, 
who were sutfuiently terrilied at the prospect ol con- 
tending witii an enemy whom they had been taught 
to deem invinciiile. To such brave spirits as James 
Monroe, who went right onward, undismayed through 
difficulty and danger, the United States owe their 
political emancipation. The young cadet joined the 
r.iiiks, ami cs|ioused the cause of his injured country, 
with a fnni determination to live or die with her strife 

for liberty. Firmly yet sadly he shared in the mel- 
ani holy retreat from Harleam Heights and While 
I'lains, and accompanied the dispirittd army as it fled 
before its foes through New Jersey. In four months 
after the Declaration of Independence, the patriots 
had been beaten in seven battles. At the battle of 
Trenton he led tiie vanguard, and, in the act of charg- 
ing upon the enemy he received a wound in the left 

As a reward for his bravery, Mr. Monroe was pro- 
moted a captain of infantry; and, having recovered 
from his wound, he rejoined the army. He, however, 
receded from the line of promotion, by iiecomin^ an 
oflicer in the staff of Loid Sterling. During the cam- 
paigns of 1777 and 1778, in the actions of Brandy 
wine, Germantown and Monmouth, he continued 
aid-decamp; but becoming desirous to regain his 
position in the army, he exerted himself to collect a 
regiment for the Virginia line. This scheme failed 
owing to the exhausted condition of the State. Upon 
this failure he entered the office of Mr. lefferson, at 
tiiat peiiod Ciovernor, and pursued, with considerable 
ardor, tlie study of common law. He did not, however, 
entirely lay aside the knapsack for the green bag; 
but on the invasions of the enemy, served as a volun- 
teer, during the two years of his legal pursuits. 

In 1782, lie was elected from King (}eorge county, 
a member of the Leglislature of Virginia, and by that 
l)ody he was elevated to a seat in the Executive 
Council. He was thus honored with the confidence 
of his fellow citizens at 23 years of age ; and having 
at this early period dis|)hiyed some of that ability 
and a|)titude for legislation, whiih were afterwaKU 
employed with unremittipgenergy for tlie public good. 



lie was in the succeeding year chosen a member of 
ihe Congress of the United States. 
Deeplyas Mr. Monroefelt the imperfectionsof theold 
Conlederacy, he was opposed to the new Constitution, 
■.hiiiking, with many others of 'he RepubHcan parly, 
'.hat it gave too unich power to the Central Government, 
and not enougii to the individual States. Still he re- 
tained the esteem of his friends wlio were its warm 
su|)porters, and who, notwithstanding his opposition 
secured its adoption. In 17S9, lie became a member 
(,f the United States Senate; which office he held for 
four years. Every month the line of distinction be- 
tween the two great parties which divided the nation, 
the Federal and the Republican, was growing more 
distinct. The two prominent ideas which now sep- 
arated them were, that the Republican party was in 
sympathy with France, and also in favor of such a 
stiict construction of the Constitution as to give the 
Central Government as little [xswer, and the State 
Governments as much ixswer, as the Constitution would 
warrant. Tlie Federalists sympatiiized witli England, 
and were in favor of a liberal construction of the Con- 
stitution, which would give as much ])ower to the 
Central Government as tiiat document could possibly 

The leading Federalists and Republicans were 
alike noble men, consecrating all their energies totlie 
good of the nation. Two more lionest men or more 
pure patriots than John Adams tlie Federalist, and 
(anies Monroe the Republican, never breathed. In 
building u]j this majestic nation, which is destined 
to eclijise all (Grecian and Assyrian greatness, tlie com- 
bination of their antagonism was needed to create the 
light ei|uililirium. .^nd yet each in his day was de- 
nounced as almost a demon. 

Washington was then President. England had es- 
poused the cause of the Bourbons against the jirinci- 
ples of the French Revolution. All Europe was drawn 
into the conflict. We were feeble and far away. 
Washington issued a proclamation of neutrality be- 
tween these contending powers. France had helped 
us in the struggle for our liberties. All the despotisms 
of Europe were now combined to prevent the French 
from escaping from a tyranny a thousand-fold worse 
than that which we had endured Col. Monroe, more 
magnanimous than prudent, was anxious that, at 
whatever hazard, we should help our old allies in 
their extremity. It was the impulse of a generous 
and noble nature. He violently opposed the Pres- 
ident's proclamation as ungrateful and wanting in 

Washington, who could apnreciale such a character, 
developed his calm, serene, almost divine greatness, 
by appointing that very James Monroe, who was de- 
nouncing the policy of the Government, as the minister 
of that Government to the Repulilic of France. Mr. 
Monroe welcomed by the Nntional Convention 
in France witn the most enthusiastic demonstrations. 

Shortly after his return to this country, Mr. Mon- 
roe was elected Governor of Virginia, and held the 
office for three yeais. He was again sent to France to 
co-ojierate vvith Chancellor Livingston in obtaining 
the vast territory then known as the Province of 
Louisiana, which France had but shortly before ob- 
tained from Spain. Tiieir united efforts were sue 
cessful. B'or the comparatively small sum of fifteen 
millions of dollars, the entire territory of C)rleans and 
district of Louisiana were added to the United States. 
This was probably the largest transfer of real estate 
which was ever made in all the history of the world 

From France Mr. Monroe went to England to ob- 
tain from that country some recognition of oui 
rights as neutrals, and to remonstrate against those 
odious impressments of our seamen. but FJng- 
land was unrelenting. He again returned to Eng- 
land on the same mission, but could receive no 
redress. He returned to his home and was again 
chosen Governor of Virginia. Tliis lie soon resigned 
to accept the position of Secretary of Slate under 
Madison. While in this office war with England was 
declared, the Secretary of War resigned, and during 
these trj'ing times, the duties of the War Deixirtnieiit 
were also i)ut upon him. He was truly the armor- 
bearer of President Madison, and the most efficient 
business man in his cabinet. Uixm the retiuii cjI 
peace he resigned the Department of War, but con- 
tinued in the office of Secretary of Stale until the ex- 
piration of Mr. Madison's adminstration. At the elec 
lion held the previous autumn Mr. Monroe himself had 
been chosen President with but little opposition, and 
upon March 4, 1817, was inaugurated. Four years- 
later he was elected for a second term. 

Among the im|>ortant measures of his Presidency 
were the cession of Floiida to the United States; the 
Missouri Compromise, and the " Monroe doctrine.' 

This famous doctrine, since known as the " Monroe 
doctrine," was enunciated by him in 1823. At that 
time the United States had recognized the independ- 
ence of the South American states, and did not wish 
to have European powers longer attempting to sub- 
due portions of the American Continent. The doctrine 
is as follows: "Tliat we should consider any attempt 
on the part of European pywers to extend their sys- 
tem to any jxjrtion of this hemisijhere as dangerous 
to our peace and safety," and "that we could not 
view any interposition for the ])urpose of oppressing 
or controlling American governments or provinces in 
any other light than as a manifestation by Euroiiean 
|iowers of an unfriendly disiwsition toward tlie United 
Slates." This doctrine immediately affected the course 
of foreign governments, and has become the ai)|)roved 
sentiment of the United States. 

At the end of his fecoiid term Mr Monroe retired 
to his home in Virginia, where he lived until 1830, 
when he went to New ^'ork to live with his son-in 
law. In that city he died, on the 4th of July, 1831 


J, ^ , oA^layiry^ 



* 30r^l| QUI1]6Y ^DyillQS. '■' 

^^V\^ /"<; k 


sixth President of the United 
^'States, w;is born in the rural 
home of his honored father, 
John Adan)s,in ()iiincy, Mass., 
|J^„ on the I ith cf July, 1767. His 
UKjllier, a woman of exahed 
worth, watclied over his childiiootl 
during the ahnost constant ab- 
sence of his father. When but 
eight years of age, he stood with 
liis motlier on an eminence, Hsten- 
ing to the l)Ooming of the great liat- 
tle on Bunker's Hill, and ga/ing on 
ujion the smoke and flames billow- 
ing up frt)m the conflagration of 

Wiien but eleven years old he 
took a tearful adieu of his mother, 
to sail with his falner for Europe, 
through a fleet ot hostile British cruisers. The bright, 
animated boy s[ient a year and a half in !\iiis, where 
his f.ither was associated with Franklin and l^ee as 
minister iilenipotentiary. His intelligence attracted 
the notice of these distinguished men, .and he received 
from them flattering marks of attention. 

Mr. John Adams had scarcely leturned to this 
cou;.try, in 1779, ere he was again sent abroad .Again 
)0l.ii (^uincy accom|)anied his father. At Paris he 
applied hiniself with great diligence, for six months, 
to .'.'udy; then accom|)ained his fatiier to Holland, 
v/nere he entered, first a school in .Amsterdam, then 
the University at I.eyden. About a year from this 
time, in 1781, when the manly I oy was but fourteen 
yea-; of age, he was selected liy Mr. Dana, our min- 
ister to the Russian court, as his private secretary. 

In this school of incessant lalior and of enobling 
culture he spent fourteen months, and then returned 
to Holland ihiough Sweden, Denmark, Hamburg and 
Bremen. This l<.ng journey he took alone, in the 
winter, when in his sixteenth year. .Aijain he resumed 
his studies, under a private tutor, at Hague. Thence 

in the spring of 1782, he accompanied his father to 
Paris, traveling leisurely, and forming ac(|uaintance 
with the most distinguished men on the Continent; 
examiningarcliitectural remains, galleriesof paintings, 
and all renowned works of art. At Paris he again 
became associated with the most illustrious men oi 
all lands in the contemplations of the loftiest temporal 
themes which lau engross the human mind. After 
a short visit to iMigland he returned to Paiis, and 
consecrated all his energies to study until May, i7<S5, 
when he returned to yXnverica. To a biilliant young 
man of eighteen, who had seen much of the world, 
and who was familiar with the eti<piette of courts, a 
residence with his father in London, under su( h lir- 
cumstanccs, must ha\e been extremely attractive; 
but with judgment very rare in one of his age, he pre- 
ferred to return to America to complete his education 
in an .Anierii an college. He wished then to study 
law, that wuh an honorable profession, he might be 
able to obtain an inilependent su|)port. 

UlK)n leaving Harvard College, at the age of twenty, 
he studied law for thiee years. In June, 1794, be- 
ing then but twenty-seven years of age, he was ap- 
pointed by Washington, resident minister at the 
Netherlands. Sailing from IJoston in July, he leached 
London in October, where he was immediately admit- 
ted to the deliberations of Messrs. [ay and Pinckney, 
assisting them in negotiating a commercial treaty with 
Ciieat Hrilian. After thus spending a fortiiiglit in 
London, he proceeded to the Hague. 

In July, 1797, he left the Hague to go to Portugal as 
minister i>lenipotenliary. On his way to Portugal, 
upon arriving in London, he met with despatches 
directing him to the court of Betlin, luit reipiesting 
him to remain in London until he should receive his 
instructions. While w:;iting he was mairied to an 
American lady to whom he had been previously en- 
gaged, — Miss Louisa Catherine Johnson, daughter 
of Mr. Joshua Johnson, American consul in I ondon ; 
a lady endownd with that beauty and tiiose ncioin- 
plishnient which emiiuiitly fitted l-cr to move in tiie 
elevated sphere for which she was destined. 



He reached Berlin with his wife in November, 1797; 
where he remained until July, 1799, when, having ful- 
filled all the puriMses of his mission, he solicited his 

Soon after his return, in 1802, he was chosen to 
the Senate of Massachusetts, from Boston, and tlien 
was elected Senator of the United States for six years, 
from the 4th of March, 1804. His reputation, his 
al)ility and his experience, placed liim immediately 
among the most prominent and influential members 
of tliat body. Especially did he sustain the Govern- 
ment in its measures of resistance to tlie encroach- 
ments of England, destroying our commerce and in- 
sulting our flag. There was no man in America more 
familiar with the arrogance of tiie British court upon 
these jx)ints, and no one more resolved to present 
a firm resistance. 

In 1809, Madison succeeded Jefferson in tlie Pres- 
idential chair, and he immediately nominated John 
Quincy Adams minister to St. Petersburg. Resign- 
ing his professorship in Harvard College, he embarked 
at Boston, in August, 1809. 

While in Russia, Mr. Adams was an intense stu- 
dent. He devoted his attention to the language and 
history of Russia; to the Chinese trade; to the 
European system of weights, measures, and coins ; to 
the climate and astronomical observations; while he 
kept up a familiar acquaintance with the Greek and 
Latin classics. In all the universities of Europe, a 
more accomplished scholar could scarcely be found. 
All through life the Bible constituted an imixntar.t 
part ot his studies. It was his rule to read five 
cha[)ters every day. 

On the 4th of March, 1817, Mr. Monroe took the 
Presidential chair, and immediately apiwinted Mr. 
Adams Secretai7 of State. T.ikiiig leave of his num- 
erous friends in public and private life in Europe, he 
sailed in June, 18 19, for the United States. On the 
i8th of August, he again crossed the threshold of his 
home in Quincy. During the eight years of Mr. Mon- 
roe's administration, Mr Adams continued Secretary 
of State. 

Some time before the close of Mr. Monroe's second 
term of office, new candidates began to be presented 
for the Presidency. The friends of Mr. Adams brought 
forward his name. It was an exciting campaign. 
Party spirit was never more bitter. Two hundred and 
sixty electoral votes were cast. Andrew Jackson re- 
ceived ninety-nine; John Quincy Adams, eighty-four; 
William H. Crawford, forty -one; Henry Clay, thirty- 
se<ren. As there was no choice by the people, the 
question wer.t to the House of Re|jresentatives. Mr. 
Clay gave the vote of Kentucky to Mr. Adams, and 
he was elected. 

The friends of all the disappointed candidates now 
combined in a venomous and persistent assault upon 
Mr. Adams. There is nothing more disgraceful in 
•l-.H nnst history of our country than the abuse whic h 

was poured in one uninterrupted stream, upon this 
high-minded, upright, patriotic man. There never was 
an administration more pure in principles, more con- 
scientiously devoted to the best interests of the coun- 
try, than that of John Quincy Adams; and never, per- 
haps, was there an administration more unscrupu- 
lously and outrageously assailed. 

Mr. Adams was, to a very remarkable degree, ab- 
stemious and temperate in his habits; always rising 
early, and taking much exercise. When at his homein 
Quincy, he has been known to walk, before breakfast, 
seven miles to Boston. In Washington, it was said 
that he was the first man up in the city, lighting his 
own fire and a|)plying himself to work in his library 
often long before dawn. 

On the 4th of March, 1829, Mr. Adams retired 
from the Presidency, and was succeeded by Andre>v 
Jackson. John C. Calhoun was elected Vice Presi- 
dent. The slaveiy tpiestion now began to assume 
[xarlentous magnitude. Mr. Adams returned to 
Quincy and to his studies, which he pursued with un- 
abated zeal. But he was not long i>ermilted to re- 
main in retirement. In November, 1830, he was 
elected representative to Congress. For seventeen 
years, until his death, he occupied the post as repre- 
sentative, towering above all his peers, ever ready to 
do brave battle' for freedoin, and winning the title of 
" the old man eloquent." Ujwn taking his seat in 
the House, he announced that he should hold him- 
self bound to no party. Probalily there never was a 
member more devoted to his duties. He was usually 
the first in his place in the morning, and the last to 
leave his seat in the evening. Not a measure could 
be brought ft)rward and escape his scrutiny. 'I he 
battle which Mr. Adams fought, almost singly, against 
I he proslavery party in the Government, was suljlime 
in Its moral dating and heroism. For persisting in 
presenting petitions for the al)olition of slavery, he 
was threatened with* indictment by the grand jury, 
with expulsion from the House, with assassination ; 
but no threats could intimidate him, and his final 
triumph was complete. 

It has been said of President Adams, that when his 
body was bent and his hair silvered by the lapse of 
fourscore years, yielding to the simple faith of a little 
child, he was accustomed to repeat every night, before 
he slept, the prajer which his mother taught him in 
his infant years. 

On the 2ist of February, 1848, he rose on the floor 
of Congress, with a paper in his hand, to address the 
speaker. Suddenly he fell, again stricken by paraly- 
sis, and was caught in the arms of those aionnd him. 
For a time he was senseless, as he was conveyed to 
the sofa in the rotunda. With reviving conscious- 
ness, he opened his eyes, looked calmly around and 
said " This is the end of earth .-"then after a moment's 
pause he added, '' I am content" These were the 
last words of the grand "OKI Man Eloquent." 





iii <^'3»i/g|,Sifflrir!rav> i 

seventh President of tiic 
'>'' Llnited States, was born in 
Waxhaw settlement, N. C, 
Marcli 15, 1767, a few days 
after his fatlier's death. His 
parents were poor emigrants 
from Ireland, and took u|) 
their abode in Waxhaw set- 
tlement, where they lived in 
deepest poverty. 
Andrew, or Andy, as he was 
universally called, grew up a very 
rough, rude, turbulent Ijoy. His 
features were coarse, his form un- 
gainly; and there was but very 
little in his character, made visible, which was at- 

When only thirteen years old he joined the volun- 
teers of Carolina against the British invasion. In 
I7S[, he and his brother Robert were cai)tured and 
imprisoned for a time at Camden. A British officer 
ordered him to brush his mud-spattered boots. " I am 
a i)risoner of war, not your servant," was the reply of 
the dauntless boy. 

The brute drew his sword, and aimed a desperate 
iMow at the head of the heli)less young prisoner. 
.Andrew raised his hand, .and thus received two fear- 
ful gashes, — one on the hand and the other uixin the 
head. The officer then turned to liis brother Robert 
with the same demand. He also refused, and re- 
ceived a blow from the keen-edged sabre, which iiuite 
disabled him, and which probably soon after caused 
his death. They suffered much other ill-treatment, and 
were finally stricken with the small-pox. Their 
mother was successful in obtaining tlieir e.xchanjje. 

and took lier sick boys home, .\fter a lung illness 
.Andrew recovered, and the death of his mother soon 
left him entirely frientlless. 

.Andrew su[)|)orled himself in various \vays,s I'lias 
working at the saddler's trade, leaching school and 
clerking in a general store, until 17 84, when he 
entered a law office at .Salisbury, N. C. He, however, 
gave more attention to the wild amusenjents of the 
times than to his studies. In 1788, he was apijoiuted 
solicitor for the western district of North Carolina, of 
which Tennessee was then a [lart. This involved 
many long and tedious journeys amid dangers of 
every kind, but .Andrew Jackson never knew fear, 
and the Indians had no desire to repeat a skirmish 
witn the Sharp Knife. 

In 1791, Mr. Jackson was married to a wonuiu who 
supix)sed herself divorced from her former husband. 
Crreat was the surprise of both parties, two years later, 
to find that the conditionsof the divorce had just been 
ilefinitely settled by the first husband. The marriage 
ceremony was performed a second time, but the occur- 
rence was often used by his enemies to bring Mr 
Jackson into disfavor. 

During these years he worked hard at his profes- 
sion, and frequently luul one or more duels on hand, 
one of which, when he killed 1 )irkenson, was espec- 
ially disgraceful. 

In January, 1796, the Territory of Tennessee then 
containing nearly eighty thousand inhabitants, the 
people met in convention at Knoxville to frame a con- 
stitution. Five were sent from each of the eleven 
counties. .Andrew Jackson was one of the delega'es. 
The new State was entitled to but one member in 
the National House of Rei)resentatives. Andrew Jack- 
son was chosen that member. Mounting his horse he 
rode to Philedelphia, where Congress then held its 



stssions, — a distance of about eight luindred miles. 

Jackson was an earnest advocate of the Demo- 
cratic [rirty. Jefferson was his idol. He admired 
Bonaparte, loved France and liated iMigland. As Mr. 
Jackson took his seat, Gon. Washington, whose 
second term of office was then expiring, dcHvered his 
last sjicech to Congress. A committee drew np a 
complimentary address in reply. Andrew Jackson 
did not approve of llie address, and was one of the 
twelve who voted against it. He was not willing to 
say that Gen. Washington's adminstration had been 
" wise, firm and [latriotic." 

Mr. lackson was elected to the United States 
Senate ni 1797, bntsoon resigned and returned home. 
Soon after lie was chosen Judge of the Supreme Court 
of his State, which [josition he held fjr six years. 

When the war of 1812 with Great Kiitian com- 
menced, Madison occupied the Presidential chair 
Aaron Burr sent word to the President that there was 
an unknown man in the West, Andrew Jackson, who 
would do credit to a commission if one were con- 
ferred ui»n him. Just at that time Gen. Jackson 
offered his services and those of twenty-five hurdred 
volunteers. His otfcr was accepted, and the troops 
were assembled at iNashviile. 

As the British were hourly exi)ected to make an at- 
tack upon New Orleans, where Gen. Wilkinson was 
in command, he was ordered to descend the river 
with fifteen hundred troops to aid AVilkinsou. The 
expedition reached Natchez; and after a delay of sev- 
eral weeks there, without accomplishing anything, 
the men were ordered back to their homes. But the 
energy Gen. Jackson had disi)layed, and his entire 
devotion to the comrfort of his soldiers, won him 
golden oi)inions; and he became the most popular 
man in the State. It was in this expedition that his 
toughness gave him the nickname of " Old Hickory." 

SoMi after this, while attempting to horsewhip Col. 
Thomas H. Benton, for a remark that gentleman 
made about his taking a part as second in a duel, in 
which a younger brother of Benton's was engaged, 
he received two severe pistol wounds. While he was 
iiugering n|Km a bed of suffering news came that the 
bulians, who had combined under Tecumseh from 
I'loiida to the L:ikes, to exterminate the white sel- 
lers, were committing the most awful ravages. De- 
cisive action became necessary. Gen. fackson, with 
his fractured bone just beginning to heal, his arm in 
a sling, and unable to mount his horse without assis- 
tance, gave his ama/.ing energies to the raising of an 
army to rendezvous at Fayeltesvillc, Alabama. 

Thi- Creek Indians had established a strong forton 
one of the bends of theTallaiioosa River, near the cen- 
ter of Alabama, about fifty miles below Fort Strother. 
With an army of two thousand men. Gen. Jackson 
traversed the pathless wilderness in a march of eleven 
d.Tys. He reached their fort, called Tohoyjeka or 
Horse-shoe, on the 27th of March. 1814. The bend 

of the river enclosed nearly one hundred acres of 
tangled forest and wild ravine. Across the natiow 
neck the Indians had constructed a formidable bri a.'.l- 
work of logs and brush. Here nine hundred warr'ors, 
with an ample suplyof arms were assembled. 

The fort was stormed. The fight was utterly des- 
Iterate. Not an Indian would acce|)t of tpiarter. ^\ hen 
l)leeding and dying, they would fight those who en- 
deavored to spare their lives. From ten in the morn- 
ing until dark, the battle raged. The carnage was 
awful and revolting. .Some threw themselves into the 
river; but the unerring bullet struck their heads as 
they swam. Nearly everyone of the nine hundred war- 
rios were killed A few i)rolial)ly, in the night, swam 
the river and escaped. This ended the war. Tiie 
[jower of the Creeks was broken forever. This 1 old 
plunge into the wilderness, with itsterriffic slaughter, 
so ajipalled the savages, that the haggaid remnants 
of the bands caine to the camp, begging lor peace. 

This closing of the Creek war enabled us to con- 
centrate all our militia upon the British, who were the 
allies of the Indians No man of less resolute will 
than Gen. Jackson could have conducted this Indian 
campaign to so successful an issue Immediately he 
was appointed major-general. 

Late in .\ugust, with an army of two thousand 
men, on a rushing march, tlen. Jackson came to 
Moliile. .\ British fleet came from Pensacola, landed 
a force uj)on the beach, anchored near the little fort, 
and from both ship and shore commenced a furious 
assault. The battle was long and doubtful. .-\t length 
one of the ships was blown up and the rest retired. 

Garrisoning Mol)ile, where he had taken his little 
army, he moved his troops to New Orleans, 
And the battle of New Orleans which soon ensued, 
was in reality a very arduous campaign. This won 
for Gen. Jackson an imiierishable name. Here his 
troops, which inmibered about four thousand men, 
won a signal victory over the British army of about 
nine thousand. His loss was but thirteen, while the 
loss of the British was two thousand six hundred. 

The name of Gen. Jackson soon began to be men- 
tioned in connection with the Presidency, but, in 182/], 
he was defeated by Mr. .\dams. He was, however, 
successful in the election of 1828, and was re-elected 
for a second term in 1832. In 1S29, just before he 
assumed the reins of the government, he met with 
the most terrible affliction of his life in the death of 
his wife, whom he had loved with a devotion which has 
perhaps never been surpassed. From the shock of 
her death he never recovered. 

His administration was one of the most memorable 
in the annals of our country; ajiplauded by one party, 
condemned by the other. No man had more bitter 
enemies or warmer friends. .\t the expiration of his 
two terms of office he retired to the Hermitage, where 
he died lune 8, 1845. The last years of Mr. Jack- 
son's life were that of a devoted Christian man. 

o 7 -i^^^ ^^z^y u<..s^^^ 



ciL^hth rresident of the 
United States, was born at 
Kiiiderhook, N. Y., Dec. 5, 
17S2. He died at the same 
Lice, July 24, 1S62. His 
iiody rests in tlie cemetery 
at Kinderhuok. Above il is 
a [ilain gianite siuil't fifteen feet 
high, bearing a simple inscription 
about halt way up on one face. 
The lot is unfenued, unbordeied 
or unbounded by siirub or flower. 

There is but little in the life of Martin Van buren 
of romantic interest. He fought no battles, engaged 
in no wild adventures. Though his life was stormy in 
lK)liiical and intellectual conflicts, and he gained many 
signal victories, his days passed uneventful in those 
incidents which give zest to biograiihy. His an- 
cestors, as his name indicates, were of Duicli origin, 
and were among tiie earliest emigrants from Holland 
to tlie banks of tlie Hudson. f{\s father was a farmer, 
residing in the old town of Kinderliook. His mother, 
also of Dutcii lineage, was a woman of superior intel- 
ligeiu:e and exem|)lary piety. 

He was decidedly a precocious boy, developing un- 
usual activity, vigor and strength of mind. At tlie 
ige of fourteen, he had finished iiis academic studies 
in liis u.itive village, and commenced the study of 
law. As he had not a collegiate education, seven 
years of study in a law-office were required of him 
before he could be admitted to the bar. Iusi)ired with 
a lofty aml)ition, and conscious of his powers, he pur- 
sued his studies with indefatigable indLislry. ;\fter 
spending si.\ years in an office in his native village. 

he went to the city of New York, and prosecuted his 
studies for the seventh year. 

In 1803, Mr. Van Buren, then twenty-one ycais of 
age, commenced the practice of law in his native vil- 
lage. The great conflict between the Federal and 
Republican party was then at its height. Mr. \'an 
lUiren was from the beginning a politician. He had, 
perhaps, imbibed that spirit while listening to the 
many discussions which been carried on in his 
father's hotel. He was in cordial sympathy with 
Jefferson, and earnestly and eloquently esiioused the 
cause of State Rights; though at thai time the l''ed- 
eral party lield the supremacy both in his town 
and State. 

His success and increasing ruputation led him 
after six years of practice, to remove to Hudson, th., 
county seat of his county. Here he spent seven years, 
constantly gaining strcngtii by contending in tht. 
courts with some of the ablest men who have adorned 
the bar of his State. 

Just before leaving Kinderhook for Hudson, Mi. 
Van Buren married a lady alike distinguished for 
beauty and acconi[ilishmeiits. After twelve short 
years she sank into the grave, the victim of consump- 
tion, leaving her husband and four sons to weep over 
her loss. For twenty-five years, Mr. Van Buren was 
an earnest, successful, assiduous lawyer. The rei ord 
of those years is barren in items of [)ublic interest. 
In 1 Si 2, when thirty years of age, he was chosen to 
the .State Senate, and gave his strenuous support lo 
Mr. Madison's adminstration. In 1S15, he was ap- 
pointed .'\ttorney-(ieneral, and the next year moved 
to .Mbany. the capital of the State. 

'iVhile he was acknowledged as one of the most 
l>iominent leaders of the Democratic party, he had 



the moral courage to avow that true democracy did 
not require that " universal suffrage" which admits 
the vile, the degraded, tlie ignorant, to the right of 
governing the State. In true consistency witli bis 
democratic princii)les, he contended that, wliile the 
path leading to the (jrivilege of voting should be oi)en 
to every man without distinction, no one should be 
invested with that sacred prerogative, unless he were 
in some degree qualified for it by intelligence, virtue 
and some property interests in ilie welfare of tlie 

In 1S21 he was elected a member of the United 
States Senate; and in tlie same year, he look a seat 
in the convention to revise the constitution of his 
native State. His course in this convention secured 
the approval of men of all [larties. No one could 
doubt the singleness of liis endeavors to promote tiie 
interests of all classes in the community. In the 
Senate of the United States, he rose at once to a 
conspicuous position as anactive and useful legislator. 

In 1827, John Quincy Adams being then in the 
Presidential chair, Mr. Van Buren was re-elected to 
the Senate. He had been from the beginning a de- 
termined opposer of the Administration, adopting the 
"State Rights" view in opposition to what was 
deemed the Federal proclivities of Mr. Adams. 

Soon after this, in 182S, he was chosen Governorof 
the State of New York, and accordingly resigned liis 
seat in the .Senate. Probably no one in tlie United 
States contributed so nmch towards ejecting John (^. 
Adams from the Presidential chair, and placing in it 
Andrew Jackson, as did Martin Van Buren. Whetlier 
entitled to the rei)Utation or not, he certainly was re- 
garded throughout the United States as one of the 
most skiiltiil, sagacious and cunning of politicians. 
It was supix)sed that no one knew so well as he how 
to touch the secret spiings of action; how to pull all 
the wires to put his machinery in motion; and how to 
organize a political army which would, secretly and 
stealthily accomplish tiie most gigantic results. By 
these ix)wers it is said that he outv/itted Mr. Adams, 
Mr. Clay, Mr. Webster, and secured results which 
lew thought then could be accomplished. 

When Andrew Jackson was elected President he 
ap|)ointed Mr. Van Buren Secretary of State. This 
[Ktsilion he resigned in 1831, and was immediately 
appointed Minister to England, where he went the 
sune autumn. The Senate, however, when it met, 
refused to ratify the nomination, and he returned 

home, apparently untroubled ; was nominated Vice 
President in the place of Calhoun, at the re-election 
of President Jackson ; and with smiles for all and 
fiowns for none, he took his place at tlie head ol tiiat 
Senate which had refused to confirm his nomination 
as ambassador. 

His rejection by the Senate roused al! the zeal of 
President Jackson in behalf of his repudiated favor- 
ite; and this, probably mure than any other cause, 
secured his elevation to the chair of the Chid Execu- 
tive. On the 20th of May, 1S36, Mr. Van Buren re- 
ceived the Democratic nomination to succeed (}en. 
Jackson as President of llie Lfnited States He was 
elected by a handsome majority, to the delight uf the 
retiring President. " Leaving New V'ork out ul tiie 
canvass," says Mr. Parton, "the election of Mr. Van 
Bnren to the Presidency was as much the act of ( Jen. 
Jackson as though the Constitution li.ul 'onfened 
ui'on him the power to appoint a successor. ' 

His administration was filled with exciting events. 
The insurrection in Canada, whicli threatened 10 in 
vwlve this country in war with England, the agitation 
of the slavery question, and finally the great commer- 
cial panic which sjiread over the country, all were 
trials to his wisdom. The financial distress was at- 
tributed to the management of the Democratic party, 
and brought the President into such disfavor that lie 
failed of re-election. 

Wiih the exception of being nomiiialcd lor the 
Presidency by the "Free Soil" Democrats, in 1S48, 
Mr. Van Buren lived ipiietlv njion his estate until 
his death. 

He had ever been a prudent man, of frugal haljits, 
and living within his inct)ine, had now furluiialely a 
competence for his declining years. His uiibleiiiished 
character, his commanding abilities, his unquestioned 
l)atriotism, and the distinguished positions which he 
had occupied in the government of our country, se- 
cured to him not only the homage of his party, but 
the respect ot the whole community. It was on the 
4th of March, 1841, that Mr. Van Buren retirctl from 
the [)resideiicy. From his fine estate at Lindi-nwald, 
he still exerted a powerful influence vqwu the politics 
of the country. F'rom tliis time until his death, on 
the 24th of July, 1862, at the age of eighty years, he 
resided at Lindenwald, a gentleman of leisure, of 
culture and of wealth; enjoying in a healthy old 
age, probably far more happiness than he had before 
experienced amid the stormy scenes of his active life. 






« WILLIAjVI, |rErN,RY- iCAFtRmC))?^, 

SON, the iiintli President nf 
the United States, was born 
at Berkeley, Va., Fel). 9, 1773. 
His father, Benjamin Harri- 
son, was in comparatively op- 
ulent circumstances, and was 
one of the most distinguished 
men of his day. He was an 
intimate friend of George 
Washington, w as early elected 
a member of the Continental 
Congress, and was conspicuous 
among the patriots of Virginia in 
resisting the encroachments of the 
British crown. In the celebrated 
Congress of 1775, Benjamin Har- 
rison and John Hancock were 
l)Oth candidates for the office of 

Mr Harrison was subsequently 
chosen (rovernor of Virginia, and 
was twice re-elected. His son, 
William Henry, of course enjoyed 
in childhood all the advantages which wealth and 
intellectual and cultivated society could give. Hav- 
ing received a thorough common-school education, he 
entered Hampden Sidney College, where he graduated 
with honor soon after the death of his father. He 
';ien repaired to Philailelphia to study medicine under 
the instructions of Dr. Rush and the guardianship of 
Robert Morris, both of whom were, with his father, 
signers of the Declaration of Independence. 

Upon the outbreak of the Indian troubles, and not- 
withstanding the remonstrances of his friends, he 
abandoned his medical studies and entered the army, 
having obtained a commission of Ensign from Presi- 

dent Washington. He was then but 19 years old. 
From that time he passed gradually upward in rank 
until he became aid to (leneral Wayne, after whose 
death he resigned his commission. He was then ap- 
pointed Secretary of tlie North-western Territory. This 
Territory was then entitled to but one member in 
Congress and Capt. Harrison was chosen to fill that 

In the spring of 1800 the North-western Territory 
was divided by Congress into two (xirtions. The 
eastern portion, comprising the region r.ow embraced 
in the State of Ohio, was called '' The Territory 
north-west of the Ohio." The western portion, which 
included what is now called Indiana, Illinois and 
Wisconsin, was called the "Indiana Territory." Wil- 
liam Henry Harrison, then 27 years of age, was ap- 
[winted by John Adams, Ciovernor of the Indiana 
Territory, and immediately after, also Governor of 
Upper Louisiana. He was thus ruler over almost as 
extensive a realm as any sovereign \\\k>\\ the globe. He 
was Superintendent of Indian Affairs, and was in- 
vested with powers nearly dictatorial over the now 
rapidly increasing white jwpulation. The ability and 
fidelity with which he discharged these responsible 
duties may be inferred from the fact that he was four 
times appointed to this office — first by John Adams, 
twice by Thomas Jefferson and afterwards by Presi- 
dent Madison. 

When he began his adminstration there were but 
three white settlements in that almost boundless region, 
now crowded with cities and resounding with all the 
tumult of wealth and traffic. One of these settlements 
was on the Ohio, nearly opposite Louisville; one at 
Vincennes, on the Wabash, and the third a French 

The vast wilderness over which Gov. Harrison 
reigned was filled with many tribes of Indians. About 



the year 1806, two extraordinary men, twin brothers, 
of the Shawnese tribe, rose among them. One of 
these was called Tecumseh, or " Tlie Crouching 
Panther;" the other, OUiwacheca, or "'I'he Prophet." 
Tecumseh was not only an Indian warrior, but a man 
of great sagacity, far-reaching foresight and indomit- 
able perseverance in any enterprise m wliich lie might 
engage. He was inspired with the highest enthusiasm, 
and had long regarded with dread and with hatred 
the encroachment of the whites upon the hunting- 
grounds of his fathers. His brother, the Prophet, was 
anorator, who could sway tlie feelings of the untutored 
Indian as the gale tossed the tree-tops beneath wliicli 
tliey dwelt. 

But the Prophet was not merely an orator: he was, 
in the superstitious minds of tlie Indians, invested 
with the superhuman dignity of a medicine-man or a 
magician. With an enthusiasm unsurpassed by Peter 
the Hermit rousing P2uiope to the crusades, he went 
from tribe to tribe, assuming that he was si)ecially sent 
by the Great Spirit. 

Gov. Harrison made many attempts to conciliate 
the Indians, but at last the war came, and at Tippe- 
canoe the Indians were routed with great slaughter. 
October 28, 1812, his army began its march. When 
near the Prophet's town three Indians of rank made 
their appearance and imiuired why Gov. Harrison was 
approaching them in so hostile an attitude. After a 
short conference, arrangements were made for a meet- 
ing the next day, to agree uix)n terms of peace. 

But Gov. Harrison was too well acquainted with 
the Indian character to be deceived by such protes- 
tations. Selecting a favorable spot for his night's en- 
campment, he took every precaution against surprise. 
His troops were posted in a hollow square, and slept 
upon their arms. 

The troops threw themselves upon the ground for 
rest; but every man had his accourtrements on, his 
loaded musket by his side, and his bayonet fixed. The 
wakeful Governor, between three and four o'clock in 
the morning, had risen, and was sitting in conversa- 
tion with his aids by the emliers of a waning fire. It 
was a chill, cloudy morning with a dri/./ling rain. In 
the darkness, the Indians had crept as near as jxjssi- 
ble, and just then, with a savage yell, rushed, with all 
the dcsiieration wliich superstition and passion most 
highly inflamed could give, ujx)n the left flank of the 
little army. The savages had lieen amply provided 
with guns and ammunition by the English. Their 
war-whoop was accompained by a shower of bullets. 

The camp-fires were instantly extinguished, as the 
light aided the Indians in their aim. With hide- 
lius yells, the Indian bands rushed on, not doubting a 
speedy and an entire victory. But Gen. Harrison's 
troops stood as immovable as the rocks around them 
until day dawned : they then made a simultaneous 
charge with the bayonet, and swept every thing be- 
fore them, and completely routing th*" foe. 

Gov. Harrison now had all his energies tasked 
to the utmost. The British descending from the Can - 
adas, were of themselves a very formidable force ; but 
with their savage allies, rushing like wolves Irom the 
forest, searching out every remote farm-house, burn- 
ing, [jlundering, scalping, torturing, the wide frontier 
was plunged into a state of consternation which even 
the most vivid imagination can but faintly conceive. 
The war-whoop was resounding everywhere in the 
forest. The horizon was illuminated willi the conflagra- 
tion of the cabins of the settlers. Gen Hull had made 
the ignominious surrender of his forces at Detroit. 
Under these des[)airing circumstances. Gov. Harrison 
was appointed by President Madison commander-in- 
chief of the North-western army, with orders to retake 
Detroit, and to protect the frontiers. 

It would be difficidt to place a man in a situation 
demanding more energy, sagacity and courage; but 
General Harrison was found equal to the position, 
and nobly and triuni[)hantly did he meet all the re 

He won the love of his soldiers by always sharing 
with them their fatigue. His whole baggage, while 
jjursuing the foe up tlie Thames, was carried in a 
valise; and his bedding consisted of a single blanket 
lashed over his saddle Thirty-five British officers, 
his [)risoners of war, supped with him after tlie battle. 
The only fare he could give them was beef roasted 
liefore the fire, without bread or salt. 

In 18 16, Gen. Harrison was chosen a member of 
the National House of Representatives, to represent 
the District of Ohio. In Congress he proved an 
active member; and whenever he s|ioke, it was with 
force of reason and power of eloc|uence, which arrested 
the attention of all the members. 

In iSig, Harrison was elected to the Senate of 
Ohio; and in 1824, as one of the jiresidential electors 
of that State, he gave his vote for Henry Clay. The 
same year he was chosen to the United States Senate. 

In 1836, the friends of Gen. Harrison Ijroughl: him 
forward as a candidate for the 'Presidency against 
Van Buren, but he was defeated. At the close of 
Mr. Van Buren's term, he was re -nominated by his 
party, and Mr. Harrison was unanimously nominated 
by the Whigs, with John 'I'yler forthe Vice Presidency. 
The contest was very animated. Gen Jackson gave 
all his influence to prevent Harrison's 'election ; but 
liis triumph was signal. 

The cabinet which he formed, with Daniel Webster 
at its head as Secretary of State, was one of the most 
brilliant with which anv President had ever been 
surrounded. Never were the prospects of an admin- 
istration more flattering, or the hopes of the country 
more sanguine. In the midst of these bright and 
joyous prospects. Gen. Harrison was seized by a 
pleurisy-fever and after a few days of violent sick- 
ness, died on the 4tli of .Aiinl ; just one montii after 
his inauguration as President of the United States. 






OHN TYLER, the tenth 

j,,i Presidentof the United States. 
He w:is born in Charles-city 
Co., Va., March 29, 1790. He 
was the favored child of af- 
fluence and high social po- 
sition. At the early age of 
twelve, John entered William 
and Mary College and grad- 
uated with much honor when 
but seventeen years old. After 
graduating, he devoted liim- 
self with great assiduity to the 
study of law, partly with his 
father and p.irtly with Edmund 
Randolph, one of the most distin- 
guished lawyers of Virginia. 

At nineteen years of age, ne 
commenced the practice of law. 
His success was rapid and aston- 
ishing. It is said that three 
months had not elapsed ere there 
was scarcely a case on the dock- 
et of the court in which he was 
not retained. When but twenty-one years of age, he 
was almost unanimously elected to a seat in the State 
Legislature. He connected himself with the Demo- 
cratic party, and warmly advocated the measures of 
Jefferson and Madison. P"or five successive years he 
w:is elected to the Legislature, receiving nearly tlie 
unanimous vote or his county. 

When but twenty-six years of age, he was tlecled 
a member of Congress. Here he acted earnestly and 
ably with the Democratic [jarty, opposing a national 
bank, internal improvements by the General Govern- 

ment, a ])rotective tariff, and advocating a strict con- 
struction of the Constitution, and the most careful 
vigilance over Stale rights. His labors in Congress 
were so arduous that before the close of his second 
term he found it necessary to resign and retire to his 
estate in Charles-city Co., to recruit liis health. He, 
however, soon after consented to lake his seat in ihe 
State Legislature, where his influence was powerful 
in promoting public works of great utility. With a 
reputation thus canstantly increasing, he was chosen 
by a very large majority of votes, Governor of his 
native State. His administration was signally a suc- 
cessful one. His popularity secured his re-election. 

John Randolph, a brilliant, erratic, half-crazed 
man, then represented Virginia in tlie Senate of the 
United States. A portion of the Democratic party 
was displeased with Mr. Randolph's wayward course, 
and brought forward John Tyler as his opponent, 
considering him the only man in Virginia of sufficient 
popularity to succeed against the renowned orator of 
Roanoke. Mr. Tyler was the victor. 

In accordance with his professions, upon taking his 
seat in the Senate, he joined the ranks of the opposi- 
tion. He opjxjsed the tariff; he spoke against and 
voted against the bank as unconstitutional ; he stren- 
uously opposed all restrictions upon slavery, resist- 
ing all projects of internal improvements by the Gen- 
eral Government, and avowed his sympathy with Mr. 
Calhoun's view of nullification ; he declared that Gen. 
Jackson, by his opjiosilion to the nullifiers, had 
abandoned the i)iincij)les of the Democratic party. 
Such was Mr. Tyler's record in Congress, — a recoul 
in perfect accordance with the principles which he 
had always avowed. 

Returning to Virginia, he resumed the |)ractice of 
his profession. There was a rplit in the Democratic 


party. His friends still regarded him as a true Jef- 
fersonian, gave him a dinner, and showered compli- 
ments upon him. He had now attained the age of 
forty-six. His career had been very brilliant. Incon- 
sequence of his devotion to public business, his pri- 
vate affairs had fallen into some disorder; audit was 
not without satisfaction that he resumed the practice 
of law, and devoted liimself to the culture of his plan- 
tation. Soon after this he removed to Williamsburg, 
for the better education of his children ; and he again 
took his seat in the Legislature of Virginia. 

By the Southern Whigs, he was sent to the national 
convention at Hanisburg to nominate a President in 
1839. The majoritv of votes were given to Gen. Har- 
rison, a genuine Whig, much to tiie disappointment ot 
the South, who wished for Henry Clay. To concili- 
ate the Southern Whigs and to secure their vote, the 
convention then nominated John Tyler for Vice Pres- 
ident. It was well known that he was not in sympa- 
thy with the Whig party in the No;th: but tlie Vice 
President lias but very little power in the Govern- 
ment, his main and almost only duty being to pre- 
side over the meetings of the Senate. Thus it hap- 
pened that a Whig President, and, in reality, a 
Democratic Vice President were chosen. 

In 1S41, Mr. Tyler was inaugurated Vice Presi- 
dent of the United States. In one short month from 
that time. President Harrison died, and Mr. Tyler 
thus found himself, to his own surprise and that of 
the whole Nation, an occupant of the Presidential 
chair. This was a new test of the stability of our 
institutions, as it was the first time in the history of our 
country that such an event had occured. Mr. Tyler 
was at home in Williamsburg when he received the 
ur.e.xpected tidings of the death of President Hani- 
son. He hastened to Washington, and on the 6th of 
April was inaugurated to the high and resix)nsible 
office. He was placed in a position of exceeding 
delicacy and difficulty. All his long life he had been 
opposed tc tlie main principles of the party which had 
brought him into power. He had ever been a con- 
sistent, honest man, with an unblemished record. 
Gen. Harrison had selected a Whig cabinet. Should 
he retain them, and thus suiround himself with coun- 
SL'llors whose views were antagonistic to his own? or, 
on the other hand, should he turn against the party 
which had elected him and select a cabinet in har- 
mony with himself, and which would op|)ose all those 
i-iews which the Whigs deemed essential to the pub- 
lic welfire? This was his fearful dilemma. He in- 
vited the cabinet which President Harrison had 
selected to retain their seats. He reccommended a 
day of fasting and prayer, that God would guide and 
bless us. 

The Whigs carried through Congress a bill for the 
incorporation of a fiscal bank of the United States. 
The President, after ten dnys' debiy, returned it wiih 
his veto. He nuizsested, however, that he vvould 

approve of a bill drawn up upon such a plan as he 
proposed. Such a bill was accordingly prepared, and 
privately r.ubmitted to him. He gave it his approval. 
It A'as passed without alteration, and he sent it back 
with his veto. Here commenced the open rupture. 
It is said that Mr. Tyler was i)rovoked to this meas- 
ure by a published letter fiom the Hon. John M. 
Botts, a distinguished Virginia Whig, who severely 
touched the pride of the President. 

The op|)osition now exuliingly received the Presi- 
dent into their arms. The parly which elected him 
denounced him bitterly. All the members of his 
cabinet, excepting Mr. Webster, resigned. The Whigs 
of Congress, both the .Senate and the House, held a 
meeting and issued an address to the people of the 
United States, proclaiming that all political alliance 
between the Whigs and President Tyler were at 
an end. 

Still the President attempted to conciliate. He 
appointed a new cabmet of distinguished Whigs and 
Conservatives, carefully leaving out all stiong party 
men. Mr. Welister soon found it necessary to resign, 
forced out by the pressure of his Whig friends, 'i'lnis 
the four years of Mr. Tyler's unfortunate administra- 
tion passed sadly away. N"o one was satisfied. The 
land was filled with murmurs and vitujieration. Whigs 
and Democrats alike assailed him. i\lore and more, 
however, he brought himself into sympathy with his 
old friends, the Democrats, until at the close of his term, 
he gave his whole influence to the support of Mr. 
Polk, the Democratic candidate for his successor. 

On the 4th of March, 1845, he retired from the 
harassments of office, to the regret of neither party, and 
probal)ly to his own unsjteakable lelief. His first wife. 
Miss Letitia Christian, died in Washington, in 1842; 
and in June, 1844, President Tyler was again married, 
at New York, to Miss Julia Gardiner, a young lady of 
many personal and intellectual accomplishments. 

The remainder of his days Mr. Tyler passed mainly 
in retirement at his beautiful home, — Sherwood For- 
est, Chades-city Co., Va. A polished gentleman in 
his manners, richly furnished with niformation from 
books and experience in the world, and jxissessing 
Itrilliant jwwers of conversation, his family circle was 
the scene of unusual attractions. With sufficient 
moans for the exercise of a generous hos|iitality, he 
might have enjoyed a serene old age with the few 
friends who gathered around him, were it not for the 
storms of civil war which his own principles and 
policy had helped to introduce. 

When the great Rebellion rose, which the State- 
rights and nullifying doctrines of Mr. John C. Cal- 
houn had inaugurated, President Tyler renounced his 
allegiance to the United States, and joined the Confed- 
erates. He was chosen a member of their Congress; 
and while engaged in active measures to destroy, by 
force of arms, the Government over which he had 
once presided, he was taken sick and soon died. 




. V.:.. 



AMES K. POLK, the eleventh 
'f^President of the United States, 
was born in Mecklenburg Co., 
N. C, Nov. 2, 1795. His par- 
ents were .Samuel and Jane 
(Knox) Polk, the former a son 
of Col. Thomas Polk, wlio located 
at the above [ilace, as one of the 
first pioneers, in 1735. 

In the year i3o6, with his wife 
and children, ar.d soon after fol- 
lowed by most of the members of 
the Polk t'ainly, .Samuel Polk emi- 
grated some two or three hundred 
miles farther west, to the rich valley 
of the Duck River. Here in the 
midst of the wilderness, in a region 
which was subsequently called Mau- 
ry Co , they reared their log huts, 
and established their homes. In the 
hard toil of a new farm in the wil- 
derness, James K. Polk sjjcnt the 
early years of his childhood and 
youth. His father, adding the pur- 
suit of a surveyor to that of a farmer, 
gradually increased in wealth until 
he became one of the leading men of the region. His 
ni(jther was a superior woman, of strong ( onniion 
sense and earnest piety. 

Very early in life, James develo|)ed a taste for 
veadijig and expressed the strongest desire to obtain 
I liberal education. His mother's training had made 
iiiui methodical in his habits, had taught him punct- 
uality and industry, and had inspired him with lofty 
l)rincip1es of morality. His health was frail ; and his 
father, fearing that he might not be able to endure a 

sedentary life, got a situation for hnn behind ihe 
counter, hoping to fit him for commercial pursuits. 

This was to James a Ijilter disa|)i)ointuient. He 
had no taste for these duties, and his daily t.i^ks 
were irksome in the extreme. He remained in this 
uncongenial occupation but a lew weeks, when at his 
earnest solicitation his father removetl him, and made 
arrangements for him to prosecute his studies. .Soon 
after he sent him to Murfreesboro Academy. \\'ith 
ardor which could scarcely be surpassed, he pressed 
forward in his studies, and in less than twoandahalf 
years, in the autumn of 181 5, entered the sophomore 
class in the University of North Carolina, at Chapel 
Hill. Here he was one of the most exemplaiy of 
scholars, punctual in every exercise, never allowing 
himself to be absent from a recitation or a religious 

He graduated in 1818, wilh llie higliest honors, be- 
ing deemed the best scholar of his class, both in 
mathematics and the classics. He was then twenty- 
three years of age. Mr. Polk's health was at this 
time much impaired by the a.isidnity wilh whic h he 
had prosecuted his studies. After a short season of 
relaxation he went to Nashville, and entered the 
office of Felix Crundy, to study law. Here Mr. Polk 
renewed his accpiaintance with Andrew Jackson, who 
resided on his plantation, the Hernn'tage, but a few 
miles from Nashville. They had probably I een 
sligh'.ly acquainted before. 

Mr. Polk's father was a Jeffersonian Republican, 
and Janus K. Polk ever adhered to the same politi- 
cal faith. He was a jxipular public speaker, and was 
constantly calle<l u|kiu to address the meetings of his 
party frieiuls. His skill as a speaker was such that 
he was [xjpulaily called the Na])olcon of the stump. 
He was a man of unblemished n^orals, geni.-,l ard 



courteous in his bearing, and with that sympathetic 
nature in the jo)s and griefs of others which ever gave 
him troops of friends. In 1823, Mr. Polk was elected 
to the Legislature of Tennessee. Heie he gave his 
strong influence towards the election -of his friend, 
Mr. Jackson, to the Presidency of the United States. 

In January, 1824, Mr. Polk married Miss Sarah 
Childress, of Rutherford Co., Tenn. His bride was 
altogether worthy of him, — a lady of beauty and cul- 
ture. In the fall of 1825, Mr. Polk was chosen a 
member of Congress. The satisfaction which he gave 
to his constituents may be inferred from the fact, that 
for fourteen successive years, until 1839, he was con- 
tinued in that office. He then voluntarily withdrew, 
only that he might accept the Gubernatorial chair 
of Tennessee. In Congress he was a laborious 
member, a frequent and a popular speaker. He was 
always in his seaf, always courteous ; and whenever 
he s])oke it was always to the point, and without any 
ambitious rhetorical display. 

During five sessions of Congress, Mr. Polk was 
S|ieaker of the House. Strong passions were roused, 
and stormy scenes were witnessed ; but Mr. Polk per- 
formed his arduous duties to a very general satisfac- 
tion, and a unanimous vote of thanks to him was 
|)as3ed by the House as he withdrew on the 4th of 
March, 1S39. 

In accordance with Southern usage, Mr. Polk, as a 
candidate for Governor, canvassed the State. He was 
elected by a large majority, and on the 14th of Octo- 
ber, 1839, took the oath of office at Nashville. In 1841, 
his term of office expired, and he was again the can- 
didate of the Democratic party, but was defeated. 

On the 4th of March, 1845, Mr. Polk was inaugur- 
ated President of the United States. The verdict of 
the country in favor of the annexation of Texas, exerted 
its influence upon Congress ; and the last act of the 
administration of President Tyler was to affix his sig- 
nature to a joint resolution of Congress, passed on the 
3d of March, approving of the annexation of Texas to 
the American Union. As Mexico still claimed Texas 
as one of her provinces, the Mexican minister, 
Almonte, immediately demanded his passports and 
left the country, declaring the act of the annexation 
to be an act hostile to Mexico. 

In his first message. President I'olk urged that 
Texas should immediately, by act of Congress, be re- 
ceived into the Union on the same footing with the 
Other States, In the meantime, Gen. Taylor was sent 

with an army into Texas to hold the country. He vns 
sent first to Nueces, which the Mexicans said was the 
western boundary of Texas. Then he was sent nearly 
two hundred miles further wesl, to the Kio Grande, 
where he erected batteries which cominandid the 
Mexican city of Matamoras, which was situated on 
the western banks. 

The anticipated collision soon took place, and war 
was declared against Mexico by President Polk. The 
war was pushed forward by Mr. Polk's administration 
with great vigor. Gen. Taylor, whose army was first 
called one of "observation," then of "occupation," 
then of " invasion, "was sent forward to Monterey. The 
feeble Mexicans, in every encounter, were hopelessly 
and awfully slaughtered. The day of judgement 
alone can reveal the misery which this war caused. 
It v/as by the ingenuity of Mr. Polk's administration 
that the war was brought on. 

'Tdthe victors belong the spoils." Mexico was 
prostrate before us. Her capital was in our hands. 
We now consented to peace upon the condition that 
Mexico should surrender to us, in addition to Texas, 
all of New Mexico, and all of Upper and Lower Cal- 
ifornia. This new demand embraced, exclusive of 
Texas, eight hundred thousand square miles. This 
was an extent of territory equal to nine States of the 
size of New York. Thus slavery was securing eighteen 
majestic States to be added to the Union. There were 
some Americans who thought it all riglit ; there were 
others who thought it all wrong. In the prosecution 
of this war, we expended twenty thousand lives and 
more than a hundred million of dollars. Of this 
money fifteen millions were |)aid to Mexico. 

On the 3d of March, 1849, Mr. Polk retired from 
office, having served one term. The next day was 
Sunday. On the 5th, Gen. Taylor was inaugurated 
as his successor. Mr. Polk rode to the Capitol in the 
same carriage with Gen. Taylor; and the same even- 
ing, with Mrs. Polk, he commenced his return to 
Tennessee. He was then but fifty-four years of age. 
He had ever been strictly temperate in all his habits, 
and his health was good. With an ample fortune, 
a choice library, a cultivated mind, and domestic lies 
of the dearest nature, it seemed as though long years 
of tranipiility and hapiiiness were before him. But the 
cholera — that fearful scourge — was then sweeping up 
the Valley of the Mississippi. This he contracted, 
and died on the 15th of June, 1S49, in the fifty-fourth 
year of his age, greatly mourned by his countrymen. 








GS:^i^VAi^ ^VVA VAVrViVtV\V A=vVr3^^^^ rX: 


«. ACHARY TAYLOR, twelfth 
ls\ I'rcsideiit of the United States, 
^:'- w;i.s born on the 24tli of Nov., 
17.S4, in Orange Co., Va. His 
3« fatlier. Colonel Taylor, was 
(@'h*'.-^i, ^'r a Virginian of note, and a dis- 
tiiignisheil iiattiot and soldier of 
the Revolution. When Zacliary 
was an infant, his fatlier with liis 
wife and two children, emigrated 
to Kentucky, where he settled in 
tlie pathless wilderness, a few 
miles from Louisville. In this front- 
ier home, away from civilization and 
all its refmeuients, young Zachary 
could enjoy but few social and educational advan- 
tages. When si.\ years of age he attended a common 
school, and was then regarded as a briglit, active boy, 
rather remarkable for bluntness and decision of char- 
icter He was strong, feailess and self-reliant, and 
■nanifested a strong desire to enter the army to fight 
Hie Indians who were ravaging the frontiers. There 
is little to be recorded of the uneventful years of his 
childhood on his father's large but lonely plantation. 
In iSoS, his father succeeded in obtaining for him 
the commission of lieutenant in the United States 
ami) ; and he joined the troops which were stationed 
at New Orleans under Cieii. Wilkinson. Soon after 
thir- he married Miss Margaiel Smith, a young lady 
?rom one of the first l.imilies of Maryland. 

Immediately after the declaration of war with Eng- 
land, in 1S12, Capt. Taylor (for he had then been 
jiromoted to that rank) was put in command of Fort 
Harrison, on the Wabash, about fifty miles above 
Vincennes. This fort had been built in the wilder- 
ness by Gen. Harrison, on his march to Tippecanoe. 
It was one of the first points of attack by the Indians, 
icd by Tecumseh. Its garrison consisted of a broken 

company of infantry numbering fifty men, many of 
whom were sick. 

Karly in the autumn of i.Su, the Indians, slealiliily, 
and ill huge immbers, moved uiwn the fort. 'I'heir 
a|)proach was first indicated by the murder of two 
soldiers just outside of the stockade. Ca[it. Taylor 
made every possible preparation to meet the antici- 
lialed assault. On the 4th of Se|)teniber, a band of 
forty painted and plumed savages came to the fort, 
waving a white flag, and informed Capt. Taylor that 
in the morning their chief would coii:e to have a talk 
with him. It was evident that their object was merely 
to ascertain the state of things at the fort, and Capt. 
'Taylor, well versed in the wiles of the savages, kejit 
them at a distance. 

The sun went down ; the savages disappeared, the 
garrison slept upon their arms. One hour before 
midnight the war-whooi) burst from a thousand lips 
in the forest around, followed Ijy the discharge of 
musketry, and the rush of the f<;e. Every man, sick 
and well, sprang to his post. Every man knew that 
defeat was not merely death, but in the case of cap- 
ture, death by the most agonizing and prolonged tor- 
ture. No pen can describe, r.o immagination can 
conceive the scenes which ensued. 'The savages suc- 
ceeded in setting fire to one of the block-houses- 
Until si.\ o'clock in the morning, this awful conllict 
continued. The savages tiieii, baffled at every point, 
and gnashing their teeth with rage, retired. Capt. 
Taylor, for this gallant defence, was promoted to the 
rank of major by brevet. 

Until tlie close of the war, Majoi 'Ta) lor was placed 
ill such situations that he saw but little more of active 
service. He was sent far away into the de[)thsof the 
wilderness, to Foit Crawford, on Fo.\ River, which 
empties into Green Bay. Here there was but little 
to be done but to wear away the tedious hours asone 
best could. 'There were no looks, no society, no in- 



tellectual stimulus. Thus with him the uneventful 
years rulled on Gradually he rose to the rank of 
colonel. In the Black Hawk war, which resulted in 
the capture of that renowned chieftain, Col Taylor 
took a subordinate but a brave and efficient part. 

For twenty-four years Col. Taylor was engaged in 
the defence of the frontiers, in scenes so remote, and \\\ 
employments so obscure, that his name was unknown 
beyond the limits of his own immediate acquaintance. 
In the year 1836, he was sent to Florida to compel 
the Seminole Indians to vacate that region and re- 
tire beyond the Mississippi, as their chiefs by treaty, 
hac' promised they should do. The services rendered 
he.e secured for Col. Taylor the high appreciation of 
the Government; and as a reward, he was elevated 
te ,he rank of brigadier-general by brevet ; and soon 
after, in May, 1838, was appointed to the chief com- 
mand of the United States troops in Florida. 

After two years of such wearisome employment 
amidst the everglades of the peninsula. Gen. 'I'aylor 
ol)tained, at his own request, a change of command, 
;.nd was stationed over the Department of the South- 
west. This field embraced Louisiana, Mississijjpi, 
Alaljama and Georgia. Establishing his headi[uarters 
at Fort Jessup, in Louisiana, he removed his family 
to a plantation which he purchased, near Baton Rogue. 
Here he remained for five years, buried, as it were, 
from the world, but faithfully discharging every duty 
imposed upon him. 

In 1846, Gen. Taylor was sent to guard the land 
between the Nueces and Rio Grande, the latter river 
being the boundary of Texas, which was then claimed 
by the United States. Soon the war with Mexico 
was brought on, and at Palo Alto and Resaca de la 
Palma, Gen. Taylor won brilliant victories over the 
Mexicans. The rank of major-general by brevet 
was then conferred uix)n Gen. Taylor, and his name 
was received with enthusiasm almost everywhere in 
the Nation. Then came the battles of Monterey and 
Buena Vista in which he won signal victories over 
forces much larger than he commanded. 

His careless habits of dress and his unaffected 
f-iinjilicity, secured for Gen. Taylor among his troops, 
the sobriquet of " Old Rough and Ready.' 

Tne tidings of the brilliant victory of Buena Vista 
.spread the wildest enthusiasm over the country. The 
name of Gen. Taylor was on every one's lips. The 
Whig party decided to take advantage of this wonder- 
ful pojjularity in bringing forward the unpolished, un- 
lettered, honest soldier as their candidate for the 
Presidency. Gen. Taylor was astonished at the an- 
nouncement, and for a time would not listen to it; de- 
claring that he was not at all (pialified for such an 
office. So little interest had lie taken in politics that, 
.•■or forty years, he had not cast a vote. It was not 
without chagrin that several distinguished statesmen 
wiio had been long years in the public service found 
t! claims set aside in behalf of one whose name 

had never been heard of, save in connection with Palo 
Alto, Resaca de la Palma, Monterey and Buena 
Vista. It is said that Daniel Webster, in his haste re- 
marked, " It is a nomination not fit to be made." 

Gen. Taylor was not an eloquent speaker nor a fine 
writer His friends took possession of him, and ])re- 
pared such few communications as it was needful 
should be presented to the public. The popularity of 
the successful warrior swept the land. He was tri- 
umphantly elected over two opix)sing candidates, — 
Gen. Cass and Ex-President Martin Van Buren. 
Though he selected an excellent cabinet, the good 
old man found himself in a very uncongenial ixjsition, 
and was, at times, sorely perplexed and harassed. 
His mental sufferings were very severe, and probably 
tended to hasten his death. The pro-slavery party 
was pushing its claims with tireless energy , expedi- 
tions were fitting out to capture Cuba ; California w.ns 
pleading for admission to the Union, while slavery 
stood at the door to bar her out. Gen. Taylor found 
the political conflicts in Washington to be far more 
trying to the nerves than battles with Mexicans or 

In the midst of all these troubles. Gen. Taylor, 
after he had occupied the Presidential chair but little 
over a year, took cold, and after a brief sickness of 
but little over five days, died on the 9th of July, 1850. 
His last words were, "I am not afraid to die. I am 
ready. I have endeavored to do my duty." He died 
universally respected and beloved. An honest, un- 
pretending man, he had been steadily growing in the 
affections of the people ; and the Nation bitterly la- 
mented his death. 

Gen. Scott, who was thoroughly acquainted with 
Gen. Taylor, gave the following graphic and truthful 
description of his character: — " With a good store of 
common sense, Gen. Taylor's inind had not been en- 
larged and refreshed by reading, or much converse 
with the world. Rigidity of ideas was the conse- 
quence. The frontiers and small military posts had 
been his home. Hence he was quite ignorant for his 
rank, and quite bigoted in his ignorance. His sim- 
plicity was child-like, and with innumerable preju- 
dices, amusing and incorrigiljle, well suited to the 
tender age. Thus, if a man, however respectable, 
chanced to wear a coat of an unusual color, or his hat 
a little on one side of his head; or an officer to leave 
a corner of his handkerchief dangling from an out- 
side pocket, — in any such case, this critic held the 
offender to be a coxcomb (perhaps something worse), 
whom he would not, to use his oft repeated phrase, 
'touch with a pair of tongs.' 

"Any allusion to literature beyond good old Dil- 
worth's spelling-book, on the part of one wearing a 
sword, was evidence, with the same judge, of utter 
unfitness for heavy marchings and combats. In short, 
few men have ever had a more comfortable, labor- 
saving contempt for learnirg of every kind." 






^'MlLLflRn FlLLMnHE. ^4^ 


?>) teenth President of the United 
ls,' States, was born at Siimnier 
Hill, Cayuga Co., N. Y ., on 
the 7th of January, 1800. His 
father was a farmer, and ow- 
ing to misfortune, in luunble cir- 
cumstances. Of his motiier, the 
daughter of Dr. Abiathar Millard, 
■> of Pittsfield, Mass., it has been 
said that she [Kissessed an intellect 
ofveryjiigh order, united with much 
personal loveliness, sweetness of dis- 
jiosition, graceful manners and ex- 
quisite sensil)ilities. She died in 
1831 ; having lived to see her son a 
young m.ui of distinguished prom-, though she was not permitted to witness the high 
dignity whicii he finally attained. 

In consequence of the secluded home and limited 
'■-leans of his father, Millard enjoyed but slender ad- 
vantages for education in his early years. The com- 
mon rxhools, which he occasionally attended were 
very irnperfect institutions; and books were scarce 
and expensive. Tliere was nothing then in his char- 
acter to indicate the brilliant career u[X)n which he 
was alx)ut to enter. He was a plain farmer's lx)y; 
intelligent, good-looking, kind-hearted. The sacred 
influences of home had taught him to revere the Bible, 
and had laid the foundations of an upright character. 
When fourteen years of age, his father sent him 
some hundred miles from home, to the then wilds of 
Livingston County, to learn the trade of a clothier. 
Near the mill there was a small villiage, where some 

enterprising man had commenced the collection of a 
village library. This proved an inestimable blessing 
to young Fillmore. His evenings were spent in read- 
ing. Soon every leisure moment was occupied with 
books. His thirst for knowledge became insatiate; 
and the selections which he made were continually 
more elevating and instructive. He read history, 
biography, oratory; and thus gradually there was en- 
kindled in his heart a desire to be something more 
than a mere worker with his hands; and he was be- 
coming, almost unknown to himself, a well-informed, 
educated man. 

The young clothier had now attained the age of 
nineteen years, and was of fmc personal api)earance 
and of gentlemanly demeanor. It so hapjiened that 
there was a gentleman in the neighborhood of ami)le 
pecuniary means and of benevolence, — Judge \Valter 
Wood, — who was struck with the ])re;)Ossessing ap- 
pearance of young Fillmore. He made hisacipiaint- 
ance, and was so much impressed with his ability and 
attainments that he advised him to abandon his 
trade and devote himself to the study of the law. The 
young man replied, that he had no means of his own, 
no friends to help him and that his previous educa- 
tion had been very imperfect. But Judge Wood had 
so much confidence in him that he kindly offered to 
take him into his own office, and to loan him such 
money as he needed. Most gratefully the generous 
offer was acce|)ted. 

There is in many minds a strange delusion about 
a collegiate education. A young man is sui)[X)sed to 
i>e liberally educated if he has graduated at some col- 
lege. But many a boy loiters through university' ■. 
Hnd then enters a law office, who is by no means a: 



well prepared to [trosecute his legal studies as was 
Millard Fillmore when he graduated at the clothing- 
mill at the end of four years of manual labor, during 
which every leisure moment had been devoted to in- 
tense mental culture. 

In 1823, when twenty-three years of age, he v/as 
admitted to the Court of Common Pleas. He then 
went to the village of Aurora, and commenced the 
l)ractice of law. In this secluded, peaceful region, 
his practice of course was limited, and there was no 
opportunity for a sudden rise in fottune or in fame. 
Here, in the year 1826, he married a lady of great 
moral worth, and one capable of adorning any station 
she might be called to fill, — Miss Abigail Powers. 

His elevation of character, his untiring industry, 
his legal acquirements, and his skill as an advocate, 
gradually attracted attention ; and he was invited to 
enter into partnership under highly advantageous 
circumstances, with an elder memlier of the bar in 
Buffalo. Just before removing to Buffalo, in 1829, 
he took his seat in the House of Assembly, of the 
State of New York, as a re|)resentative from Erie 
County, 'i'hough he had never taken a very active 
part in politics, his vote and his sympathies were with 
the \V'hig jiarty. The State was then Democratic, 
and he found himself in a helpless minority in the 
Legislature , still the testimony comes from all parties, 
that his courtesy, ability and integrity, won, to a very 
unusual degrt e the respect of his associates. 

In the autumn of 1832, he was elected to a seat in 
the United States Congress He entered that troubled 
irena in some of the most tumultuous hours of our 
national history. The great conflict respecting the 
national bank and the removal of the deposits, was 
then raging. 

His term of two years closed ; and he returned to 
his profession, which he pursued with increasing rep- 
utation and success. After a lapse of two years 
he again became a candidate for Congress; was re- 
elected, and took his seat in 1837. His past e,\pe 
rience as a representative gave hnn sl»ength and 
confidence. The first term of service in Congress to 
any man can be but little more than an introduction. 
He was now prepared for active duty. All his ener- 
gies were brought to bear u|)on the public good. Every 
measure received his impress. 

Mr. Fillmore was now a man of wide repute, and 
his popularity filled the State, and in the year 1847, 
he was elected Comptroller of the State. 

Mr. Fillmore had attained the age of forty-seven 
years. His labors at the bar, in the Legislature, in 
Congress and as Com[)troller, had given him very con- 
siderable fame. The Whigs were casting about to 
find suitable candidates for President and Vice-Presi- 
dent at the approaching election. Far away, on the 
waters of tlie Rio Grande, there was a rough old 
soldier, who had fought one or two successful battles 
with the Mexicans, which had caused his name to be 
proclaimed in tiunipet-tones all over the land. But 
it was necessary to associate with him on the saii'e 
ticket some man of reputation as a statesman. 

Under the influence of these considerations, the 
namesof Zachary Taylor and Millard Fillmore became 
the rallying-cry of the Whigs, as their candidates for 
President and Vice-Peesident. The Whig ticket was 
signally triumphant. On the 4th of March, 1849, 
Gen. Taylor was inaugurated President, and Millard 
Fillmore Vice-1'resident, of the United Slates. 

On the 9th of July, 1850, President Taylor, but 
aljout one year and four ni(inths after his inaugura- 
tion, was suddenly taken sick and tlied. By the Con- 
stitution, Vice-President Fillmore ihus became Presi- 
dent. He ap|)ointed a very alile cabinet, of which 
the illustrious Daniel Wel)Ster was Secretary of .State. 

Mr. Filliiiore had very serious difficulties to contend 
with, since the opposition had a majority in both 
Houses. He did everything in his power toconc iliate 
the South; but the pro-slavery party in the South felt 
the inade(piacy of all measuresof transient conciliation. 
The poinilation of the free States was so rapidly in- 
creasing over that of the slave States that it was in- 
evitable that the power of the Government should 
soon pass into the hands of the free States. The 
famous compromise measures were adopted under Mr. 
f'"illmcre's adminstration, and the Jafian Expedition 
was sent out. On the 4th of March, 1853, Mr. Fill- 
more, having served one term, retired. 

In 1856, Mr. Fillmore was nominated for the Pres- 
idency by the " Know Nothing " i>arty, but was beaten 
by Mr. Buchanan. After that Mr. Fillmore lived in 
retirement. During the terrible conflict of civil war, 
he was mostly silent. It was generally sup[H3sed that 
his sympathies were rather with those who were en- 
deavoring to overthrow our institutions. President 
Fillmore kejit aloof from the conflict, without any 
cordial words of cheer to the one party or the other. 
He was thus forgotten by both. He lived to a ripe 
old age, and died in Buffalo. N. Y., March 8, 1874. 




X ?W -If. 

L»aajs^ — **= 





fourteenth President of the 
'United States, was horn in 
Hillsborough, N. H., Nov. 
23, 1804. His father was a 
Revolutionary soldier, who, 
with his own strong arm, 
hewed out a home in the 
wilderness. He was a man 
of inflexible integrity; of 
strong, though uncultivated 
mind, and an uncomjjromis- 
Democrat. The mother of 
Franklin Pierce was all that a son 
could desire, — an intelligent, pru- 
dent, affectionate. Christian wom- 
an. Franklin was the sixth of eight children. 

Franklin was a very bright and handsome boy, gen- 
erous, warm-hearted and brave. He won alike the 
love of old and young. The boys on the |)lay ground 
loved him. His teachers loved him. The neighbors 
looked uijon him with pride and affection. He was 
by instinct a gentleman; always speaking kind words, 
doing kind deeds, with a peculiar unstudied tact 
which taught him what was agreeable. Without de- 
veloping any precocity of genius, or any unnatural 
devotion to l)ooks, he was a good scholar; in body, 
in mind, in affections, a finely-developed boy. 

When sixteen years of age, in the year 1820, he 
entered Bowdoin College, at Brunswick, Me He was 
one of the most ]X)pular young men in the college. 
The i)urity cf his moral character, the unvarying 
courtesy of his demeanor, his rank as a scholar, and 

genial nature, rendered him a imiversal favorite. 
There was something very peculiarly winning in his 
address, and it was evidently not in the slightest de- 
gree studied: it was the sinqile outgushing of his 
own magnanimous and loving nature. 

Upon graduating, in the year 1824, Franklin Pierce 
commenced the study of law in the office of Judge 
Woodbury, one of the most distinguished lawyers of 
the State, and a man of great private worth. The 
eminent social qualities of the young lawyer, his 
father's prominence as a public man, and the brilliant 
|)olitical career into which Judge Woodbury was en- 
tering, all tended to entice .Mr. Pierce into the faci- 
nating yet perilous path of [lolitical life. With all 
the ardor of his nature he espoused the cause of (Jen. 
Jackson for the Presidency. He commenced the 
practice of law in Hillsborough, and was soon elected 
to represent the town in the State Legislature. Here 
he served for four yeais. The last two years he was 
chosen speaker of tiie house by a very large vote. 

In 1833, at the age of twenty-nine, he was elected 
a member of Congress. Without taking an active 
part in debates, he was faithful and laborious in duty, 
and ever rising in the estimation of those with whom 
he was associatad. 

In 1837, being then but thirty-three years of age, 
he was elected to the Senate of the United States; 
taking his seat just as Mr. Van Buren commenced 
his administration. He was the youngest member in 
the Senate. In the year 1834, he mairied Miss Jane 
Means Appleton, a lady of rare beauty and accom- 
plishments, and one admirably fitted to adorn every 
station with which her husband was honoied. Of the 



three sons who were born to them, all now steep with 
their parents in the grave. 

In the year 1838, Mr. Pierce, with growing fame 
and increasing business as a lawyer, took ii|) his 
residence in Concord, the capital of New Hampshire. 
President Polk, iiiwn his accession to office, appointed 
Mr. Pierce attorney-general of the United States ; but 
the offer was declined, in consequence of numerous 
professional engagements at home, and the precariuos 
state of Mrs. Pierce's health. He also, about the 
same time declined the nomination for governor by the 
Democratic party. The war with Mexico called Mr. 
Pierce in the army. Receiving the appointment of 
brigadier-general, he embarked, with a portion of his 
troops, at Newport, R. I., on the 27th of May, 1847. 
He took an im|X)rtant part in this war, proving him- 
self a brave and true soldier. 

When Gen. Pierce reached his home in his native 
State, he was received enthusiastically by the advo- 
cates of the Mexican war, and coldly by his oppo- 
nents. He resumed the practice of his profession, 
very freiiuently taking an active part in political ([ues- 
tions, giving his cordial sui)|iort to the pro-slavery 
wing of the Democratic party. The compromise 
measures met cordially with his approval; and he 
strenuously advocated the enforcement of the infa- 
mous fugitive-slave law, which so shocked the religious 
sensibilities of the North. He thus became distin- 
guished as a "Northern man with Southern [jrinciples.'' 
The strong partisans of slavery in the South conse- 
quently regarded him as a man whom they could 
safely trust in office to carry out their [ilans. 

On the 12th of June, 1852, the Democratic conven- 
tion met in Baltimore to nominate a candidate for the 
Presidency. For four days they continued in session, 
and in thirty-five ballotings no one had obtained a 
two-thirds vote. Not a vote thus far had been thrown 
for Gen. Pierce. Then tlie Virginia delegation 
brought forward his name. There were fourteen 
more ballotings, during which Gen. Pierce constantly 
gained strenglli, until, at the forty-ninth ballot, he 
received two hundred and eighty-two votes, and all 
other candidates eleven, (".en. Winfield Scott was 
the Wiiig candidate. Gen. Pierce was chosen with 
great unanimity. Only four States — Vermont, Mas- 
sachusetts, Kentucky and Tennessee — cast their 
electoral votes against him Gen. Franklin Pierce 
was therefore inaugurated President of the United 
States on the 4th of March, 1853. 

His administration proved one of the most stormy our 
country had ever experienced. The controversy l;e- 
tween slavery and freedom was then approaching its 
culminating point. It became evident that there was 
an " irrepressible conflict" between them, and that 
this Nation could not long exist " half slave and half 
free." President Pierce, during the whole of his ad- 
ministration, did every thing he could to conciliate 
the South ; but it was all in vain. The conflict every 
year grew more violent, and threats of the dissolution 
of the Union were borne to the North on every South- 
ern breeze. 

Such was the condition of affairs when President 
Pierce approached the close of his four-years' term 
of office. The North had become thoroughly alien- 
ated from him. The anti-slaveiy sentiment, goaded 
by great outrages, had been rapidly increasing; all 
the intellectual ability and social worth of President 
Pierce were forgotten in deep reprehension of his ad- 
ministiative acts. The slaveholders of the South, also, 
unmindful of the fidelity with which he had advo- 
cated those measures of Government which they ap- 
proved, and perhaps, also, feeling that he had 
rendered himself so unixDpular as no longer to be 
able acceirtably to serve them, ungratefully dropped 
him, and nominated James Buchanan to succeed him. 

On the 4th of March, 1857, President Pierce le- 
tired to his home in Concord. Of three children, two 
had died, and his only surviving child had been 
killed before his eyes by a railroad accident , and his 
wife, one of the most estimable and accomplished of 
ladies, was rapidly sinking in consumiition. The 
hour of dreadful gloom soon came, and he was left 
alone in the world, without wife or child. 

When the terril)le Rebellion burst forth, which di- 
vided our country into two parties, and two only, Mr. 
Pierce remained steadfast in the principles which he 
had always cherished, and gave his sympathies to 
that pro-slavery party with which he had ever been 
allied. He declined to do anything, either by voice 
or pen, to strengthen the hand of the National Gov- 
ernment. He continued to reside in Concord until 
the time of his death, which occurred in October, 
1869. He was one of the most genial and social of 
men, an honored communicant of the P^piscopal 
Church, and one of the kindest of neighbors. Gen- 
erous to a fault, he contributed liberally for the al- 
leviation of suffering and want, and many of his towns- 
people were often gladened by his material bounty. 


Zly77z^J (S^'i^yuc^ 





|■' V.^^Si'laS»l^^feV,V&^^'35^^^^^i^S'l^^^gJ^•^.V^^^^'X'.;l^;l^;^^^^^ . _ 

AMES BUCHANAN, the fif- 
teenth President of the United 
States, was born in a small 
frontier town, at the foot of the 
eastern ridge of the Aileglia- 
nies, in Franklin Co., Penn., on 
the 23d of April, 1791. The ; 'lace 
where the humble cabin of his 
father stood was called Stony 
Batter. It was a wild and ro- 
mantic sjx)! in a gorge of the moun- 
tains, with towering summits rising 
grandly all arouncf. His father 
was a native of the north of Ireland ; 
a jxwr man, who liad emigrated in 
1783, with little property save iiis 
own strong arms. Five years afterwards lie married 
Elizabeth Spear, the daughter of a respectable farmer, 
and, with his young bride, plunged into the wilder- 
ness, staked his claim, reared his log-hut, opened a 
clearing witli his axe, and settled down there to per- 
form liis obscure part in the drama of life. In this se- 
cluded home, where James was born, lie remained 
for eight years, enjoying Init few social or intellectual 
advantagis. When James was eight yeais of age, his 
father removed to the village of Mercersburg, wiiere 
his son was placed at school, and commenced a 
course of study in Englisli, Latin and Greek. His 
progress was rapid, and at the age of fourteen, he 
entered Dickinson College, at Carlisle. Here he de 
veloped remarkable talent, and took liis stand among 
the first scholars in the institution. His ap|plicaliou 
•o study was intense, and yet his native powers en- 

abled liini to master the most abstruse subjects with 

In the year 1809, he graduated witli tlie highest 
honors of his class. He was then eighteen years of 
age; tall and graceful, vigorous in health, fond of 
athletic sport, an unerring shot, and enlivened with 
an exuberant flow of animal spirits. He immediately 
commenced the study of l.iw in the city of Lancaster, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1812, when he was 
but twenty-one years of age. Very raindly he rose 
in his profession, and at once took undisputed stand 
with the ablest lawjers of the State. When but 
twenty-si.\ years of age, unaided by counsel, he suc- 
cessfully defended before liie State Senate oi:e of tiie 
judges of the .State, who was tried upon articles of 
imiieachrnent. At the age of thirty it was generally 
admitted that he stood at the head of the bar; and 
there was no lawyer in the State who had a more lu- 
crative practice. 

In 1820, he reluctantly consented to run as a 
candidate for Congress. He was elected, and for 
ten years he remained a member of the Lower House. 
During the vacations of Congress, he occasionally 
tried some important case. In 183 1, he retired 
altogether from the toils of his profession, having ac- 
cpiired an anii)le fortune. 

tjen. Jackson, upon his elevation to the Presidency, 
ap|X)inted Mr. Buchanan minister to Russia. The 
duties of his mission he performed with ability, which 
gave satisfaction to all parties. Uixin his return, in 
1833, he was elected to a seat in tlie United States 
Senate. He there met, as his associates, Webster, 
Clay, Wright and Calhoun. He advoi ated the meas- 
ures proposed by President Jackson, of making repri- 



sals against France, to enforce the payment of our 
claims against that country ; and defended the course 
of the President in his unprecedented and wholesale 
removal from office of those who were not tlie sup- 
porters of his administration. Upon this question he 
was brought into direct collision with Henry Clay. 
He also, with voice and vote, advocated expunging 
from the journal of the Senate the vote of censure 
against (ien. Jackson for removing the de[>osits. 
Earnestly he oi)posed the abolition of slavery in the 
District of Columbia, and urged the prohibition of the 
circidation of anti-slavery documents by the United 
States mails. 

As to petitions on the subject of slavery, he advo- 
cated that they should be respectfully received; and 
that the rejily should be returned, tliat Congress had 
no power to legislate u|)on the subject. " Congress," 
said he, " might as well undertake to interfere with 
slavery under a foreign government as in any of the 
States where it now e.xists." 

Upon Mr. Polk's accession to the Presidency, Mr. 
Buchanan became Secretary of State, and as such, 
took his share of the responsil)ilily in the conduct of 
the Mexican War. Mr. Polk assumed that crossing 
the Nueces by the American troops into the disputed 
territory was not wrong, but for the Mexicans to cross 
the Rio Crande into that territory was a declaration 
of war. No candid man can read with pleasure the 
account of the course our Government pursued in that 

Mr. Buchanan identified himself thoroughly with 
the party devoted to the pi-rpetuation and extension 
of slavery, and brought all the energies of his mind 
to liear against the Wilmot Proviso. He gave his 
cordial approval to the compromise measures of 1050, 
which included the fugitive-slave law. Mr. Pierce, 
upon his election to the Presidency, honored Mr. 
Buchanan with the mission to Faigland. 

In the year 1856, a national Oemocratic conven- 
tion nominated Mr. Buchanan for the Presidency. The 
])olilical conflict was one of the most severe in which 
oir country has ever engaged. All the friends of 
slavery were on one side; all the advocates of its re- 
striction and final abolition, on the other. Mr. Fre- 
mont, the candidate of the enemies of slavery, re- 
reived 114 electoral votes. Mr. Buchanan received 
174, and was elected. The popular vote stood 
1,340,618, for Fremont, r, 224, 750 for Buchanan. On 
March 4th, 1857, Mr. Buchanan was inaugurated. 

Mr. Buchanan was far advanced in life. Only four 
years were wanting to fill up his threescore years and 
ten. His own friends, those with whom he had been 
allied in political principles and action for years, were 
seeking the destruction of the Government, that they 
might rear upon the ruins of our free institutions a 
nation whose corner-stone should be human slavery. 
In this emergency, Mr. Buchanan was hopelessly be- 
wildered He could not, with his long-avowed prin- 

ciples, consistently oppose the State-rights party in 
their assumptions. As President of the United States, 
bound by his oath faithfully to administer the laws, 
he could not, without perjury of the grossest kind, 
unite with those endeavoring to overthrow the repub- 
lic. He therefore did nothing. 

The opponents of Mr. Buchanan's administration 
nominaled Abraham Luicoln as their standard bearer 
in the next Presidential canvass. The pro-slavery 
party declared, that if he were elected, and the con- 
trol of the Government were thus taken from their 
hands, they would secede from the Union, taking 
witli them, as they retired, the National Capitol at 
Washington, and the lion's share of the territory of 
the United States. 

Mr. Buchanan's sympathy with the pro-slavery 
party was such, that he had been willing to offer them 
far more than they had ventured to claim. All the 
South had professed to ask of the North was non- 
intervention upon the subject of slavery. Mr. Bu- 
chanan had been ready to offer them the active co- 
operation of the Government to defend and extend 
the institution. 

As the storm increased in violence, the slaveholders 
claiming the right to secede, and Mr. Buchanan avow- 
ing that Congress had no power to prevent it, one of 
the most pitiable exhibitions of governmental im- 
becility was exhibited the world has ever seen. He 
declared tliat Congress had no power to enforce its 
laws in any State which hnd withdrawn, or which 
was attempting to withdraw from the Union. This 
was not the doctrine of Andrew Jackson, when, with 
his hand ujion his sword-hilt, he exclaimed, "The 
Union must and shall be preserved!" 

South Carolina seceded in December, i860; nearly 
three months before the inauguration of President 
Lincoln. Mr. Buchanan looked on in listless despair. 
The rebel flag was raised in Charleston; Fort Sumpter 
was besieged; our forts, navy-yards and arsenals 
were seized ; our depots of military stores were plun- 
dered ; and our custom-houses and post-offices were 
appropriated by the rebels. 

The energy of the rebels, and the imbecility of our 
Executive, were alike marvelous. The Nation looked 
on in agony, waiting for the slow weeks to glide away, 
and close the administration, so terrible in its weak- 
ness At length the long-looked-for hour of deliver- 
ance came, when Abraham Lincoln was to receive the 

The administration of President Buchanan was 
certainly the most calamitous our country has ex- 
perienced. His best friends cannot recall it with 
])leasure. And still more deplorable it is for his fame, 
that in that dreadful conflict which rolled its billows 
of flame and blood over our whole land, no word came 
from his lips to indicate his wish that our country's 
banner should triumph over the flag of the rebellion. 
He died at his Wheatland retreat, June i, 1868. 







ABRAHAM > »fi<|p < LINCOLN. )> ^ 





'' ^ sixteenth President of the 
4i!SUnited States, was born in 
Hardin Co., Ky., Feb. 12, 
1809. Ai)out the year 1780, a 
man by the name of Abraham 
Lincohi left Virynia with liis 
family and moved into the tlien 
wilds of Kentucky. Only two years 
after this emigration, still a young 
man, while working one day in a 
field, was stealthily a|i|iroa(hed by 
an Indian and shot dead. His widow 
was left in extreme [wverty with five 
little children, three boys and two 
girls. Thomas, the youngest of the 
l)oys, was four years of age at his 
father's death. This Thomas was 
the father of Abraham Lincoln, the 
President of the United States 
whose name must henceforth fo'-ever be enrolled 
with the most prominent in the annals of our world. 
Of course no record has been kept of tiie life 
of one so lowly as Thomas Lincoln. He was among 
the |«x)rest of the poor. His home was a wretched 
lug-rabin; his food the coarsest and the meanest. 
Education he had none; he could never either read 
or write. As soon as he was able to do anything for 
himself, he was compelled to leave the cabin cjf his 
starving mother, and push out into the world, a friend- 
less, wandering boy, seeking work. He liired him- 
self out, and thus spent the whole of his youth as a 
laborer in the fields of others. 

When twenty-eight years of age he built a log- 
cabin of his own, and married Nancy Hanks, the 
daughter of another family of poor Kentucky emi- 
grants, who had also come from Virginia. Their 
second child was Abraham Lincoln, the subject of 
this sketch. The mother of Abraham was a noble 
woman, gentle, loving, ]iensive, created to adorn 
a ])alace, doomed to toil and pine, and die in a hovel. 
".AH that I am, or hope to be," excl.iims the grate- 
tul son " I owe to my angel-mother. 

When he was eight years of age, his father sold his 

cabin and small farm, and moved to Indiana. Where 
two years later his mother ilied. 

Abraham soon became the scribe of the uneducated 
community around him. He could not have had a 
better school than this to teach him to put thoughts 
into words. He also became an eager reader. The 
books he cotdd olitain were few; but these he read 
and re-read until they were almost committed to 

As the years rolled on, the lot of this lowly family 
was the usual lot of humanity. There were joys and 
griefs, weddings and funerals. Abraham's sister 
Sarah, to whom he was tenderly attached, was mar- 
ried when a child of but fourteen years of age, and 
soon died. The family was gradually scattered. Mr. 
Thomas Lincoln sold out his squatter's claim in 1830, 
and emigrated to Macon Co., III. 

Abraham Lincoln was then twenty-one years of age. 
With vigorous hands he aided his father in rearing 
another log-cabin. Abraham worked diligently at this 
until he saw the famil) comfortably settled, and their 
small lot of enclosed prairie (ilanted with corn, when 
he announced to his father his intention to leave 
home, and to go out into the world and seek his for- 
tune. Little did he or his friends imagine how bril- 
liant that fortune was to be. He saw the value of 
education, and was intensely earnest to improve his 
mind to the utmost of his power. He saw the ruiii 
which ardent spirits were causing, and became 
strictly tem|ierate; refusing to allow a drop of intoxi- 
cating liipior to pass his lips. And he had read in 
Cod's word, "Thou shall not take the name of the 
Lord thy Cod in vain ;" and a |)rofane expression he 
was never heard to utter. Religion he revered. His 
morals were iiure, and he was uncontaminated by a 
single vice. 

Yoimg Abraham woiked for a time as a hired laborer 
among the farmers. Then he went to Springfield, 
where he was employed in Iniilding a large flat-boat. 
In this he took a herd of swine, floated them down 
the Sangamon to the Illinois, and thence by the Mis- 
sissijipi to New Orleans, \\hati-vcr Abraham Lin- 
coln underttwk, he performecl so faithfully as to give 
great satisfaction to his employers. In this advcsi- 



ture his employers were so well pleased, that upon 
his return they placed a store and uiill under his care. 

In 1832, at the outbreak of the Black Hawk war, he 
enlisted and was chosen captain of a company. He 
returned to Sangamon County, and although only 23 
years of age, was a candidate for the Legislature, but 
was defeated. He soon after received from Andrew 
Jackson the appointmentof Postmaster of New Salem, 
His only post-office was his hat. All the letters he 
received he carried there ready to deliver to those 
he chanced to meet. He studied surveying, and soon 
made this his business. In 1834 he again became a 
candidate for the Legislature, and was elected Mr. 
Stuart, of Springfield, advised him to study law. He 
walked from New Salem to Springfield, borrowed of 
Mr. Stuart a load of books, carried them back and 
beg-in his legal studies. When the Legislature as- 
sembled he trudged on foot with his pack on his back 
one hundred miles to Vandalia, then the capital. In 
1836 he was re-elected to the Legislature. Here it 
was lie first met .Stephen A. Douglas. In 1839 he re- 
moved to Springfield and began the practice of law. 
His success with the jury was so great that he was 
soon engaged in almost every noted case in the circuit. 

In 1854 Ihe great discussion began between Mr. 
Lincoln and Mr. Douglas, on the slavery question. 
In the organization of the Republican party in Illinois, 
in 1856, he took an active part, and at once became 
one of the leaders in that party. Mr. Lincoln's 
speeches in opposition to Senator Douglas in the con- 
test in 1858 for a seat in the Senate, form a most 
notable part of his history. The issue was on the 
ilavery question, and he took the broad ground of 
die Declaration of Independence, that all men are 
created e(iual. Mr. Lincoln was defeated in this con- 
test, but won a far higher prize. 

The great Republican Convention met at Chicago 
on the i6th of June, i860. The delegates and 
strangers who crowded the city amounted to twenty- 
five thousand. An immense building called "The 
Wigwam," was reared to accommodate the Conven- 
tion. There were eleven candidates for whom votes 
were thrown. William H Seward, a man whose fame 
as a statesman had long filled the land, was the most 
orominent. It was generally supposed he would be 
the nominee. Abraham Lincoln, however, received 
the nomination on the third ballot. Little did he then 
dream of the weary years of toil and care, and the 
bloody death, to which that nomination doomed him: 
and aslittledid he dream that he was to render services 
to his country, which would fix upon him the eyes of 
the whole civilized world, and which would give him 
apla<:einthe affections nf his countrymen, second 
only, if second, to that of Washington. 

Election day came and Mr. Lincoln received 180 
electoral votes out of 203 cast, and was, therefore, 
constitutionally elected President of the United States. 
The tirade of abuse that was ix)ured uix)n this good 

and merciful man, especially by the slaveholders, was 
greater than upon any other man ever elected to this 
high position. In February, 186 1, Mr. Lincoln started 
for Washington, stopping in all the large cities on his 
way making speeches. The whole journey was frought 
with much danger. Many of the Southern States had 
already seceded, and several attempts at assassination 
were afterwards brought to light. .A gang in Balti- 
more had arranged, ujx)\i his arrival to "get u]) a row," 
and in the confusion to make sure of his death with 
revolvers and hand-grenades. A detective unravelled 
the plot. A secret and special train was provided to 
take him from Harrisl'urg, through Baltimore, at an 
unexpected hour of the night. The train slatted at 
half-past ten ; and to prevent ai.y possible communi- 
cation on the part ot the Secessionists with their Coi'.- 
fedcrate gang in Baltimore, as soon as the train had 
started the telegraph-wires were cut. Mr. Lincoln 
reached Washington in safety and was inaugurated, 
although great anxiety was felt by all loyal peo|)le. 

In the selection of his cabinet Mr. Lincoln gave 
to Mr Seward the Department of State, and to other 
prominent opponents before the convention he gave 
imix)rtant positions. 

During no other administration have the tluties 
devolving ui)on the President been so manifold, and 
the responsiliilities so great, as those which fell to 
the lot of President Lincoln. Knowing this, and 
feeling liis own weakness and inability to meet, and in 
his own strength to cope with, the ditficullies, he 
learned early to seek Divine wisdom and guidance in 
determining his plans, and Divine comfort in all his 
trials, bo'h personal and national. Contrary to his 
own estimate of himself, Mr. Lincoln was one of the 
most courageous of men. He went directly into the 
rebel ca|)ital just as the retreating foe was leaving, 
with no guard but a few sailors. From the time he 
had left Springfield, in 1861, however, plans had Ijeen 
made for his assassination, and he at last fell a victim 
tooneofthem. April 14, 1865, he, with Gen. Crant, 
was urgently invited to attend Fords' Theater. It 
was announced that they would l.e jiresent. (ien. 
Grant, however, left the city. President Lincoln, fee'.- 
ing, with his characteristic kindliness of heart, that 
it would be a disap|Xjintment if he should fail them, 
very reluctantly consented to go. While listening to 
the ])lay an actor by the name of John Wilkes Booth 
entered the box where the President and family were 
seated, and fired a bullet into his brains. He died the 
next morning at seven o'clock. 

Never before, in the history of the world was a nation 
plunged into such deep grief by the death of its ruler. 
Strong men met in the streets and wept in s|)eechless 
anguish. It is not too much to say that a nation was 
in tears. His was a life which will filly become a 
model. His name as the savior of his country w-li 
live with that of Washington's, its father; hisc^-intr)'- 
men being unable to decide whii h is the greater. 




fjiDjK 1'^ ^f anmii^vsri 

<^-|::,A..7 V^- 


b NDREW JOHNSON, seven- 
p teenth President of the United 
^^States. The earlj- Hfe of 
Andrew Johnson contains but 
the record of poverty, destitu- 
tion and friendlessness. He 
was born December 29, 180S, 
in Raleigh, N. C. His parents, 
belonging to the class o." tlie 
"poor whites " of the South, were 
>¥ V in such circumstances, that they 
\ could not confer even the slight- 

est advantages of education upon 
their child. When Andrew was five 
years of age, his father accidentally 
lost liis life while herorically endeavoring to save a 
friend from drowning. Until ten years of age, Andrew 
was a ragged boy about the streets, sup[K)rrecl by the 
labor of his mother, who obtained her living with 
lier own hands. 

He then, having never attended a school one day, 
and being \mable either to read or write, was ap- 
prenticed to a tailor in his native town. A gentleman 
was in the habit of going to the tailor's shop occasion- 
ally, and reading to the boys at work there. He often 
read from the speeches of distinguished British states- 
men. Andrew, who was endowed with a mind of more 
than ordinary native ability, became much interested 
in these speeches ; his ambition was roused, and he 
was inspired with a strong desire to learn to read. 

He accordingly applied himself to the alphabet, and 
with the assistance of some of his fellow-workmen, 
learned his letters. He then called upon the gentle- 
man to borrow the book of speeches. The owner, 

pleased with his zeal, not only gave him the book, 
but assisted him in learning to combine the letters 
into words. Under such difficulties he pressed o;. 
ward laboriously, spending usually ten or twelve hours 
at work in the shop, and then robbing himself of rest 
and recreation to devote such time as he could to 

He went to Tennessee in 1826, and located at 
Greenville, where he married a young lady who pos 
sessed some education. Under her instructions he 
learned to write and cipher. He became prominent 
in the village debating society, and a favorite with 
the students of Greenville College. In 1828, he or- 
ganized a working man's party, which elected him 
alderman, and in 1830 elected him mayor, which 
position he held three years. 

He now began to take a lively interest in political 
affairs ; identifying himself with the working-classes, 
to which he belonged. In 1S35, he was elected a 
member of the House of Representatives of Tennes- 
see. He was tlien just twenty-seven years of age. 
He became a very active member of the legislature, 
gave his adhesion to the Democratic party, and in 
1840 "stumped the State," advocating Martin Van 
Buren's claims to the Presidency, in opposition to those 
of Gen. Harrison. In this campaign he acquired much 
readiness as a speaker, and extended and increased 
his reputation. 

In 1 84 1, he was elected State Senator; in 1843, he 
was elected a member of Congress, and by successive 
elections, held that important post for ten years. In 
1853, he was elected Governor of Tennessee, and 
was re-elected in 1855. In all these resjwnsible ]X)si- 
tions, he discharged his duties with distinguished abi. 



ity, and proved himself the warm friend of the work- 
ing classes. In 1857, Mr. Johnson was elected 
United States Senator. 

Years before, in 1845, he had warmly advocated 
the annexation of Texas, stating however, as his 
reason, that he thought this annexation would prob- 
ably prove " to be the gateway out of which the sable 
sons of Africa are to pass from bondage to freedom, 
and become merged in a population congenial to 
themselves." In 1S50, he also supported the com- 
promise measures, the two essential features o\ which 
were, that the white people of the Territories should 
be permitted to decide for themselves whether they 
would enslave the colored people or not, and that 
the ''ree States of the North should return to the 
South persons who attempted to escape from slavery. 

Mr. Johnson was never ashamed of his lowly origin: 
on the contrary, he often took piide in avowing that 
he owed his distinction to his own exertions. "Sir,'" 
said he on the floor of the Senate, " I do not forget 
that I am a mechanic ; neither do I forget that .\dam 
was a tailor and sewed fig-leaves, and that our Sav- 
ior was the son of a carpenter." 

In the Charleston- Baltimore convention of iSlpo, ne 
was the choice of the Tennessee Democrats for the 
Presidency. In 186 r, when the purpose of the South- 
irn Democracy became apparent, he took a decided 
stand in favor of the Union, and held that " slavery 
must lie held subordinate to the Union at whatever 
cost." He returned to Tennessee, and repeatedly 
imperiled his own life to protect the Unionists of 
Tennesee. Tennessee having seceded from the 
Union, President Lincoln, on March 4th, 1862, ap- 
pointed him Military Governor of the State, and he 
established Ihe most stringent military rule. His 
numerous proclamations attracted wide attention. In 

1864, he was elected Vice-President of the United 
States, and upon the death of Mr. Lincoln, April 15, 

1865, became President. In a speech two days later 
he said, " The American people must be taught, if 
?hey do not already feel, that treason is a crime and 
must be punished; that the Government will not 
always bear with its enemies ; that it is strong not 
only to protect, but to punish. * * The people 
must understand that it (treason) is the blackest of 
crimes, and will surely be punished." Yet his whole 
administration, the history of which is so well known, 
was in utter iiKonsistency with, and the most violent 

opposition to, the principles laid down in that speech. 

In his loose policy of reconstruction and general 
amnesty, he was opposed by Congress; and he char- 
acterized Congress as a new rebellion, and lawlessly 
defied it, in everything possible, to the utmost. In 
the beginnirig of 1868, on account of "high crimes 
and misdemeanors," the principal of which was the 
removal of Secretary Stanton, in violation of the Ten- 
ure of Office Act, articles of impeachment were pre- 
ferred against him, and the trial began March 23. 

It was very tedious, continuing for nearly three 
months. A test article of the impeachment was at 
length submitted to the court for its action. It was 
certain that as the court voted upon that article so 
would it vote upon all. Thirty-four voices pronounced 
the President guilty. As a two-thirds vote was neces- 
sary to his condemnation, he was pronounced ac- 
quitted, notwithstanding the great majority against 
him. The change of one vote from the not guilty 
side would have sustained the impeachment. 

The President, for the remainder of his term, was 
but little regarded. He continued, though impotentl'", 
liis conflict with Congress. His own party did not 
think it expedient to renominate him for the Presi- 
dency. The Nation rallied, with enthusiasm unpar- 
alleled since the days of Washington, around the name 
of Gen. Grant. Andrew Johnson was forgotten. 
The bullet of the assassin introduced him to the 
President's chair. Notwithstanding this, never was 
there presented to a man a better opportunity to im- 
mortalize his name, and to win the gratitude of a 
nation. He failed utterly. He retired to his home 
in Greenville, Tenn., taking no very active part in 
politics until 1875. On Jan. 26, after an exciting 
struggle, he was chosen by the Legislature of Ten- 
nessee, United States Senator in the forty-fourth Con- 
gress, and took his seat in that body, at the special 
session convened by President firant, on the 5th of 
March. On the 27th of July, 1875, the ex-President 
made a visit to his daughter's home, near Carter 
Station, Tenn. When he started on his journey, he was 
apparently in his usual vigorous health, but on reach- 
ing the residence of his child the following day, was 
stricken with paralysis, rendering him unconscious. 
He rallied occasionally, but finally passed away at 
2 A.M., July 31, aged sixty-seven years. His fun- 
eral was attended at Geenville, on the 3d of August, 
with every demonstration of respect. 

y- a. 






-,w LYSSES S. GRANT, the 
A) eighteenth President of the 
I''-- United States, was born on 
the 29th of April, 1822, of 
Christian parents, in a humble 
" home, at Point Pleasant, on the 
banks of the Ohio. Shortly after 
his father moved to George- 
town, Brown Co., O. In this re- 
mote frontier hamlet, Ulysses 
received a common-school edn- 
cation. At the age of seven- 
teen, in the year 1839, he entered 
the Military Academy at West 
I'oint. Here he was regarded as a 
sohd, sensible young man of fair abilities, and of 
sturdy, honest character. He took respectable rank 
as a scholar. In June, 1843, he graduated, about the 
middle in his class, and was sent as lieutenant of in- 
fantry to one of the distant military posts in the Mis- 
souri Territory. Two years he past in these dreary 
solitudes, watching the vagabond and exasperating 

The war with Mexico came. Lieut. Grant was 
sent with his regiment to Corpus Cliristi. His first 
battle was at Palo Alto. There was no chance here 
for the exhibidon of either skill or heroism, nor at 
Resacade la Palma, his second battle. At the battle 
of Monterey, his third engagement, it is said that 
he performed a signal service of daring and skillful 
-horsemanship. His brigade had exhausted its am- 
munition. A messenger must be sent for more, along 
a route exposed to the bullets of the foe. Lieut. 
Grant, adopting an expedient learned of the Indians, 
grasped the mane of his horse, and hanging upon one 
side of the anir^al, ran the gauntlet in entire safety. 

From Monterey he was sent, with the fourth infantry, 
lo aid Gen. Scott, at the siege of Vera Cruz. In 
preparation for the march to the city of Mexico, he 
was appointed quartermaster of his regiment. At the 
battle of Molino del Rey, he was promoted to a 
first lieutenancy, and was brevetted captain at Cha- 

At the close of the Mexican War, Capt. Grant re- 
turned with his regiment to New York, and was again 
sent to one of the military posts on the frontier. The 
discovery of gold in California causing an immense 
tide of emigration to flow to the Pacific shores, Capt. 
Grant was sent with a battalion to Fort Dallas, in 
Oregon, for the protection of the interests of the im- 
migrants. Life was wearisome in those wilds. Capt. 
Grant resigned his commission and returned to the 
States; and having married, entered upon the cultiva- 
tion of a small farm near St. Louis, Mo. He had but 
little skill as a farmer. Finding his toil not re- 
munerative, he turned to mercantile life, entering into 
the leather business, with a younger brother, at Ga- 
lena, 111. This was in the year i860. As the tidings 
of the rebels firing on Fort Sumpter reached the ears 
of Capt. Grant in his counting-room, he said, — 
"Uncle Sam has educated me for the army; though 
I have served him through one war, I do not feel that 
I have yet repaid the debt. I am still ready to discharge 
my oliligations. I shall therefore buckle on my sword 
and see Uncle Sam through this war too." 

He went into the streets, raised a company of vol- 
unteers, and led them as their captain to Springfield, 
the capital of the State, where their services were 
offered to Gov. Yates. The (Governor, impressed by 
the zeal and straightforward executive ability of Capt. 
Grant, gave him a desk in his office, to assist in the 
volunteer organization that was being formed in the 
State in behalf of the Government. " On the 15 th of 



June, 1861, Capt. Grant received a commission as 
Colonel of the Twenty-first Regiment of Illinois Vol- 
unteers. His merits as a West Point graduate, who 
had served for 15 years in the regular army, were such 
that he was soon promoted to the rank of Brigadier- 
General and was placed in command at Cairo. Tlie 
rebels raised their banner at Paducah, near the mouth 
of the Tennessee River. -Scarcely had its folds ap- 
peared in the breeze ere Gen. Grant was there. The 
rebels fled. Their banner fell, and the star and 
stripes were unfurled in its stead. 

He entered the service witli great determination 
and immediately began active duty. This was the be- 
ginning, and until the surrender of Lee at Richmond 
he was ever pushing tlie enemy with great vigor and 
effectiveness. At Belmont, a few days later, he sur- 
prised and routed the rebels, then at Fort Henry 
won another victory. Then came tlie brilliant fight 
at Fort Donelson. The nation was electrified by the 
victory, and the brave leader of the boys in blue was 
immediately made a M.njor-General, and the military 
district of Tennessee was assigned to him. 

Like all great captains, Gen. Grant knew well how 
to secure the results of victory. He immediately 
puslied on to the enemies' lines. Then came tlie 
terrible battles of Pittsburg Landing, Corinth, and the 
siege of Vicksburg, where Gen. Pemberton made an 
unconditional surrender of the city with over thirty 
thousand men and one-hundred and seventy-two can- 
non. The fall of Vicksburg was by far the most 
severe blow wliicli the rebels had thus far encountered, 
and opened up the Mississippi from Cairo to the Gulf 
Gen. Crrant was next ordered to co-operate witli 
Gen. Banks in a movement upon Texas, and pro- 
ceeded to New Orieans, where he was thrown from 
i;is horse, and received severe injuries, from which he 
v,'as laid up for months. He then rushed Ic the aid 
of Gens. Rosecrans and Thomas at Chattanooga, and 
by a wonderful series of strategic and technical meas- 
ures put the Union Army in fighting condition. Then 
followed the bloody battles at Chattanooga, Lookout 
Mountain and Missionary Ridge, in which the rebels 
were routed with great loss. This won for him un- 
bounded praise in the North. On the 4th of Febru- 
ary, 1864, Congress revived the grade of lieutenant- 
gener:d, and the rank was conferred on Gen. Grant. 
He repaired to Washington to receive his credenrials 
and enter upon '.l'-^ duties of his new office. 

Gen. Grant decided as soon as he took charge of 
ilie army to concentrate the widely-dispersed National 
troops for an attack upon Richmond, the nominal 
capital of the Rebellion, and endeavor there to de- 
stroy the rebel armies which would be promptly as- 
sembled from all quarters for its defence. The whole 
continent seemed to tremble under the tramp of these 
majesdc armies, rushing to the decisive battle field. 
Steamers were crowded with troops. Railway trains 
were burdened with closely packed thousands. His 
plans were comprehensive and involved a series of 
campaigns, which were executed with remarkable en- 
ergy and ability, and were consummated at the sur- 
render of Lee, April 9, 1865. 

The war was ended. The Union was saved. The 
almost unanimous voice of the Nation declared Gen. 
Grant to be the most prominent instrument in its sal- 
vation. The eminent services he had thus rendered 
tile country brought him conspicuously forward as the 
Republican candidate for the Presidential chair. 

At the Republican Convention held at Chicago, 
May 21, 1868, he was unanimously nominated for the 
Presidency, and at the autumn election received a 
majority of the popular vote, and 214 out of 294 
electoral votes. 

The National Convention of the Republican party 
which met at Philadelphia on the 5tli of June, 1872, 
placed Gen. Grant in nomination for a second term 
by a unanimous vote. The selection was emphati- 
cally indorsed Ijy the people five months later, 292 
electoral votes being cast for him. 

Soon after the close of his second term. Gen. Grant 
started upon his famous trip around the world. He 
visited almost every country of the civili/ed worid, 
and was everywhere received with such ovations 
and demonstrations of respect and honor, private 
as well as public and ofiicial, as were never before 
bestowed ujxjn any citizen of the United States. 

He was the most prominent candidate before the 
Republican National Convention in 1880 for a re- 
nominatioii for President. He went to New York and 
embarked in the brokerage business under the firm 
nameof Grant & Ward. The latter proved a villain, 
wrecked Grant's fortune, and for larceny was sent to 
the penitentiary. Tiie General was attacked with 
cancer in the throat, but suffered in his stoic-like 
m.nnner, never complaining. He was re-instated as 
General of the Army and retired by Congress. The 
cancer soon finished its deadly work, and July 23, 
1885, the nation went in mourning over the death of 
the illustrious General. 







\ uthe: 

») the nir 

ineteentli President of 
^j'''the United States, was born in 
Delaware, C)., Oct. 4, 1822, al- 
most tiiree months after the 
y^ death of his father, Rutherford 
Hayes. His ancestry on both 
the paternal and maternal sides, 
was of the most honorable char- 
acter. It can be traced, it is said, 
as far back as 12S0, when Hayes and 
Rutherford were two Scottish chief- 
tains, fighting side by side with 
Baliol, William Wallace and Robert 
Bruce. Both families l)elonged to the 
nobility, owned extensive estates, 
and had a large following. Misfor- 
tune overtaking the family, George Hayes left Scot- 
land in 1680, and settled in Windsor, Conn. His son 
George was born in Windsor, and remained there 
during his life. Daniel Hayes, son of the latter, mar- 
lied Sarah Lee, and lived from the time of liis mar- 
riage until his death in Simsbury, Conn. Ezekiel, 
son of Daniel, was born in 1724, and was a manufac- 
turerof scythes at Bradford, Conn. Rutherford Hayes, 
son of F.zekiel and grandfather of President Hayes, was 
born in New Haven, in August, T756. He was a farmer, 
blacksmith and tavern-keeper. He emigrated to 
Vermont at an unknown date, settling in Brattleboro, 
where he established a hotel. Here his son Ruth- 
erford Hayes the father of President Hayes, was 

born. He was married, in September, 18 13, to .Sophia 
Birchard, of Wilmington, Vt., whose ancestors emi- 
grated thither from Connecticut, they having been 
among the wealthiest and best famlies of Norwich. 
Her ancestry on the male side are traced back to 
1635, to John Birchard, one of the principal founders 
of Norwich. Both of her grandfathers were soldiers 
in the Revolutionary War. 

The father of President Hayes was an industrious, 
frugal and opened-hearted man. He was of a me- 
chanical turn, and could mend a plow, knit a slock- 
ing, or do almost anything else that he choose to 
undertake. He was a member of the Church, active 
in all the benevolent enterprises of the town, and con- 
ducted his business on Christian principles. After 
the close of the war of 181 2, for reasons ine.\plical)le 
to his neighbors, he resolved to emigrate to Ohio. 

The journey from Vermont to Ohio in that day. 
when there were no canals, steamers, nor railways, 
was a very serious affair. A tour of inspection was 
first made, occupying four months. Mr. Hayts deter- 
mined to move to Delaware, where the family arrived 
in 1817. He died July 22, t822, a victim of niaiaiial 
fever, less than three months before the birth of ths 
son, of whom we now write. Mrs. Hayes, in her sore be- 
reavement, found the support she so much needed in 
her brother Sardis, who had been a member of the 
household from the day of its departure from Ver- 
mont, and in an orphan girl whom she had adopted 
some time before as an act of charity. 

Mrs. Hayes at this period was very weak, and the 



subject of this sketch was so feeble at birtli that he 
was not expected to live beyond a month or two at 
most. As the months went by he grew weai^er and 
weaker, so that the neighbors were in the habit of in- 
quiring from time to time " if Mrs. Hayes' baby died 
last night." On one occasion a neighbor, who was on 
familiar terms with the family, after alluding to the 
boy's big head, and the mother's assiduous care of 
him, said in a bantering way, '• That's right ! Stick to 
him. You have got him along so far, and I shouldn't 
wonder if he would really come to something yet." 

" You need not laugh," said Mrs. Hayes. " You 
:vait and see. You can't tell but I shall make him 
President of the United States yet." The boy lived, 
in spite of the universal predictions of his speedy 
death; and when, in 1825, his older brother was 
drowned, he became, if possible, still dearer to his 

The boy was seven years old before he went to 
school. His education, however, was not neglected. 
He probably learned as much from his mother and 
>f ister as he would liave done at school. His sports 
were almost wholly within doors, his playmates being 
his sister and lier associates. These circumstances 
tended, no doubt, to foster that gentleness of dispo- 
sition, and that delicate consideration for the feelings 
of others, wliich are marked traits of his character. 

His uncle Sardis Birchard took the deepest interest 
in his education; and as the boy's health had im- 
proved, and he was making good progress in his 
studies, he proposed to send him to college. His pre- 
paration commenced with a tutor at home; but he 
was afterwards sent for one year to a professor in the 
\Vesleyan University, in Middletown, Conn. He en- 
tered Kenyon College in 1838,3! the age of sixteen, 
and was graduated at the head of his class in 1842. 

Immediately after his gr.aduation he began the 
study of law in the office of Thomas Sparrow, Esq., 
in Columbus. Finding his opportunities for study in 
Columbus somewhat limited, he determined to enter 
the Law School at Cambridge, Mass., where he re- 
mained two years. 

In 1845, after graduatmg at the Law School, he was 
admitted to the bar at Marietta, Ohio, and shortly 
afterward went into practice as an attorney-at-law 
with Ralph P. Buckland, of Fremont. Here he re- 
mained three years, acquiring but a limited practice, 
and apparently unambitious of distinction in his pro- 

In 1849 he moved to Cincninati, where his ambi- 
tion found a new stimulus. For several years, how- 
ever, his progress was slow. Two events, occurring at 
this period, had a powerful influence upon his subse- 
(;uent life. One of these was his marrage with Miss 
Lucy Ware Webb, daughter of Dr. James Webb, of 
Chilicothe; the other was his introduction to the Cin- 
cinnati Literary Club, a body embracing among its 
members such men as'^hief Justice Salmor^ P.Chase, 

Gen. John Pope, Gov. Edward F. Noyes, and many 
others hardly less distinguished in after life. The 
marriage was a fortunate one :n every respect, as 
everj'body knows. Not one of all the wives of our 
Presidents was more universally admired, reverenced 
and beloved than was Mrs. Hayes, and no one did 
more than she to reflect honor upon American woman- 
hood. The Literary Cluu brought Mr. Hayes into 
constant association with young men of liigh char- 
acter and noble aims, and lured him to display the 
qualities so long hidden by his bashfulness and 

In 1856 he was nominated to the oftice of Judge of 
the Court of Common Pleas; but he declined to ac- 
cept the nomination. Two years later, the office of 
city solicitor becoming vacant, the City Council 
elected him for the unexpired term. 

In 1 861, when the Rebellion broke out, he was at 
the zenith of his professional life. His rank at the 
bar was among the the first. But the news of the 
attack on Fort Sumpter found him eager to take up 
arms for the defense of his country. 

His military record was bright and illustrious.. In 
October, 186 1, he was made Lieutenant-Colonel, and 
in August, 1862, promoted Colonel of the 79th Ohio 
regiment, but he refused to leave his old comrades 
and go among strangers. Subsequently, however, he 
was made Colonel of his old regiment. At the battle 
of South Mountain he received a wound, and while 
faint and bleeding displayed courage and fortitude 
that won admiration from all. 

Col. Hayes was detached from his regiment, after 
his recovery, to act as Brigadier-General, and placed 
in command of the celebrated Kanawha division, 
and for gallant and meritorious services in the battles 
of Winchester, Fisher's Hill and Cedar Creek, he was 
promoted Brigadier-General. He was also brevetted 
Major-General, "forgallant and distinguished f ervices 
during the campaigns of 1S64, in West Virginia." In 
the course of his arduous services, four horses were 
shot from under him, and he was wounded four times. 

In 1864, Gen. Hayes was elected to Congress, from 
the Second Ohio District, which had long been Dem- 
ocratic. He was not present during the campaign, 
and after his election was importuned to resign his 
commission in the army ; but he finally declared, " I 
shall never come to Washington until I can come by 
the way of Richmond." He was re-elected in 1S66. 

r.' 1867, Gen Hayes was elected Governor of Ohio, 
over Hon. Allen G. Thurman, a jiopular Democrat. 
In 1869 was re-elected over George H. Pendleton. 
He was elected Governor for the third term in 1875. 

In 1S76 he was the standard bearer of the Repub- 
lican Party in the Presidential contest, and after a 
hard long contest was chosen President, and was in 
augurated Monday, March 5, 1875. He served his 
full term, not, however, with satisfaction to his party, 
but his administration was an average opj^. 



^1 JAMKi i, iARFIE'M:, j 

tieth President of the United 
States, was born Nov. 19, 
I, in the woods of Orange, 
Cuyahoga Co., O His par- 
ents were Abrani and EHza 
(Ballou) Garfield, both of New 
England ancestry and from fami- 
^, lies well known in the early his-' 
^\ tory of that section of our coun- 
try, but had moved to the Western 
Reserve, in Ohio, early in its settle- 

The house in which James A. was 
born was not unlike the houses of 
{ poor Ohio farmers of that day. It 
>, as about 20x30 feet, built of logs, with the spaces be- 
tween the logs filled with clay. His father was a 
lard working farmer, and he soon had his fields 
■leared, an orchard planted, and a log barn built, 
ilie household comprised the father and mother and 
heir four children — Mehetabel, Thomas, Mary and 
Tames. In May, 1823, the father, from a cold con- 
.. acted in helping to put out a forest fire, died. At 
ihis time James was about eighteen months old, and 
riiomas about ten years old. No one, perhaps, can 
(ell how much James was indebted to his biother's 
(cil and self sacrifice during the twenty years suc- 
ceeding his father's death, but undoubtedly very 
much. He now lives in Michigan, and the two sis- 
itrs live in Solon, 0.,near their birthplace. 

The early educational advantages young Garfield 
fujoyed were very limited, yet lie made the most of 
;neni. He labored at farm work for others, did car- 
penter work, chopped wood, or did anytliing that 
would bring in a few dollars to aid his widowed 
mother in he' -struggles to keep the little family to- 

gether. Nor was Gen. Garfield ever ashamed of \\\% 
origin, and he never forgot the friends of his strug- 
glmg childhood, youth and manhood, neither did they 
ever forget him. When in the highest seats of honor, 
the humblest fiiend of his boyliood was as kindly 
greeted as ever. The jjoorest laborer was sure of the 
sympathy of one who had known all the Ijitterness 
of want and the sweetness of bread earn(jd by the 
sweat of the brow. He was ever the simple, ulain, 
modest gentleman. 

The highest ambition of young Garfield until he 
was about si.xteen years old was to be a cajjtain of 
a vessel on Lake Erie. He was anxious to go aboard 
a vessel, which his mother strongly opposed. She 
finally consented to his going to Cleveland, with the 
understanding, however, that he sliould try to obtain 
some other kind of employment. He walked all the 
way to Cleveland. This was his first visit to the city. 
After making many applications for work, and trying 
to get aboard a lake vessel, and not meeting with 
success, he engaged as a driver for his cousin, Amos 
Letcher, on the Ohio & Pennsylvania Canal. Here- 
mained at this work but a short time when he went 
home, and attended the seminary at Chester for 
about three years, when he entered Hiram and the 
Eclectic Institute, teaching a few terms of school in 
the meantime, and doing other work. This school 
was started by the Disciples of Christ in 1S50, of 
which church he was then a member. He became 
janitor and bell-ringer in order to help pay his way. 
He then became both teacher and pupil. He soon 
" exhausted Hiram " and needed more ; hence, in the 
fall of 1854, he entered Williams College, from which 
he graduated in 1856, taking one of the highest hon- 
ors of his class. He afterwards returned to Hiram 
College as its President. As above stated, he early 
united with the Christian or Dicii)les Church at 
Hiram, and was ever after a devoted, zealous mem- 
ber, often preaching in its pulpit and places where 
he happened to be. Dr. Noah Porter, Presidcrt of 
Yale College, says of him in reference to his religion : 



" President Garfield was more than a man of 
strong moral and religious convictions. His whole 
history, from boyhood to the last, sliows that duty to 
man and to God, and devotion to Christ and life and 
faith and spiritual commission were controlling springs 
of his being, and to a more than usual degree. In 
my judgment there is no more interesting feature of 
his character than his loyal allegiance to the body of 
Cliristians in which he was trained, and the fervent 
sym[}athy which he ever showed in their Christian 
communion. Not many of the few 'wise and mighty 
and noble who are called' show a similar loyalty to 
the less stately and cultured Christian communions 
in which they have been reared. Too often it is true 
that as they step upward in social and political sig- 
nificance they step upward from one degree to 
another in some of the many types of fasliionable 
Christianity. President Garfield adhered to the 
church of his mother, the church in which he was 
trained, and in which he served as a pillar and an 
evangelist, and yet with the largest and most unscc- 
tarian charity for all 'who loveour Lord in sincerity.'" 

Mr. Garfield was united in marriage with Miss 
Lucretia Rudolph, Nov. 1 1, 1858, who proved herself 
worthy as the wife of one whom all the world loved and 
mourned. To them were born seven children, five of 
whom are still living, four boys and one girl. 

Mr. Garfield made his first political speeches in 1856, 
in Hiram and the neighboring villages, and three 
years later he began to speak at county mass-meet- 
ings, and became the favorite speaker wherever he 
was. During this year he was elected to the Ohio 
Senate. He also began to study law at Cleveland, 
and in i86i was admitted to the bar. The great 
Rebellion broke out in the early part of this year, 
and Mr. Garfield at once resolved to fight as he had 
talked, and enlisted to defend the old flag. He re- 
ceived his commission as Lieut. -Colonel of the Forty- 
second Regiment of Ohio Volunteer Infantry, Aug, 
14, 1861. He was immediately put into active ser- 
vice, and before he had ever seen a gun fired in action, 
was placed in command of four regiments of infantry 
and eight companies of cavalry, charged with tlie 
work of driving out of his native State the officer 
(Humphrey Marshall) reputed to be the ablest of 
those, not educated to war whom Kentucky had given 
to the Rebellion. This work was bravely and speed- 
ily accomplished, although against great odds. Pres- 
ident Lincoln, on his success commissioned him 
Brigadier-General, Jan. 10, 1862; and as "he had 
been the youngest man in the Ohio Senate two years 
before, so now he was the youngest General in tlie 
army." He was with Gen. Buell's army at Shiloli, 
in itsoperations around Corinth and its march through 
Alabama. He was then detailed as a memberof the 
General Court-Martial for the trial of Gen. Fitz-John 
Porter. He was then ordered to report to Gen. Rose- 
crans, and was assigned to the "Chief of Staff." 

The military history of Gen. Garfield closed with 

his brilliant services at Chickamauga, where he won 
the stars 01 the Major-General. 

Without an effort on his part Gei? Garfield was 
elected to Congress in the fall of 1862 from the 
Nineteenth District of Ohio. This section of Ohio 
had been represented in Congress for si.xty years 
mainly by two men — Elisha ^Vhittlesey and Joshua 
K. Giddings. It was not without a struggle that he 
resigned his place in the army. At the lime heen- 
tered Congress he was the youngest member in that 
body. Tiiei-! he remained by successive re- 
elections until he was elected President in 1880. 
Of his labors in Congress Senator Hoar says : " Since 
the year 1864 you cannot think of a question which 
has been debated in Congress, or discussed before a 
tribunel of the American people, in regard to which 
yon will not find, if you wish instruction, the argu- 
ment on one side stated, in almost every instance 
better tlian by anybody else, in some speech made in 
the House of Representatives or on the hustings by 
Mr. Garfield." 

Upon Jan. 14, 1880, Gen. Clarfield was elected to 
the U. S. Senate, and on the eighth of June, of the 
same year, was nominated as the candidate of his 
party for President at the great Chicago Convention. 
He was elected in the following November, and on 
March 4, 1881, was inaugurated. Probably no ad- 
ministration ever opened its existence under brighter 
auspices than that of President Garfield, and every 
day it grew in favor with the people, and by the first 
of July he had completed all the initiatory and pre- 
liminary work of his administration and was prepar- 
ing to leave the city to meet his friends at Williams 
College. While on his way and at the depot, in com- 
pany with Secretary Blaine, a man stepped behind 
liim, drew a revolver, and fired directly at his back. 
The President tottered and fell, and as he did so tlie 
assassin fired a second shot, the bullet cutting the 
left coat sleeve of his victim, Init inflicting no further 
injury. It has been very truthfully said that this was 
" the shot that was heard round the world " Never 
before in the history of the Nation had anything oc- 
curred which so nearly froze the blood of the people 
for the moment, as this awful deed. He was smit- 
ten on the brightest, gladdest day of all his life, and 
was at the summit of his power and hope. For eighty 
days, all during the hot months of July and August, 
he lingered and suffered. He, however, remained 
master of himself till the last, and by his magnificent 
bearing was teaching the country and the world the 
noblest of human lessons — how to live grandly in the 
very clutch of death. Great in life, he was surpass- 
ingly great in death. He passed serenely away Sept. 
19, 18S3, at Elberon, N. J., on the very bank of the 
ocean, where he had been taken shortly previous. The 
world wept at his death, as it never had done on the 
death of any other man who had ever lived upon it. 
The murderer was duly tried, found guilty and exe- 
cuted, in one year after he committed the foul deed. 





twenty-first Presi'^.^ui of tlie 

rUnited States, was born m 

Franklin Coui ty, N'ermont, on 

thefifthofOc'obor, 1830, and is 

the oldest of a family of two 

sons and five daughters. His 

father was thi Rev. Dr. William 

Arthur, a Baptist d .rgynian, wIk. 

emigrated to tb.s country fro-a 

the county Antrim, Ireland, in 

his 1 8th year, and died in 1875, in 

Newtonville, neai .\lbany, after a 

long and successful ministry. 

Young Arthur was educated at 
Union College, S( henectady, where 
he excelled in all his studies. Af- 
ter his graduation he taught school 
' ] in Vermont for two years, and at 
the expiration cf that time came to 
New York, with $500 in his pocket, 
and entered the office of ex-Judge 
E. D. Culver as student. After 
I being admitted to the bar he formed 
a partnership with his intimate friend and room-mate, 
Henry D. Gardiner, with the intention of practicing 
in the West, and for three months they roamed about 
in the Western States in search of an eligible site, 
l)ut in the end returned to New York, where they 
hung out their shingle, and entered upon a success- 
ful career almost from the start. General Arthur 
soon afterward iivi.rr'<=d the daughter of Lieutenant 

Herndon, of the United States Navy, who was lost at 
sea. Congress voted a gold medal to his widow in 
recognition of the bravery he displayed on that occa- 
sion. JVIrs. Arthur died shortly before Mr. Arthurs 
nomination to the Vice Presidency, leaving two 

Gen. Arthur obtained considerable legal celebrity 
in his first great case, Ihe famous Lemmon suit, 
brought to recover possession of eight slaves who had 
been declared free by Judge Paine, of the Superior 
Court of New York City. It was in 1852 that Jon- 
athan Lemmon, of Virginia, went to New York with 
his slaves, intending to ship tliem to Texas, when 
they were discovered and freed. The Judge decided 
that they could not be held by the owner under the 
Fugitive Slave Law. A howl of rage went up from 
the South, and the Virginia Legislature authorized the 
Attorney General of that State to assist in an appeal. 
Wm. M. Evarts and Chester A. Arthur were employed 
to represent the People, and they won their case, 
which then v/ent to the Supreme Court of the United 
States. Gaarles O'Conor here espoused the cause 
of the slave-holders, but he too was beaten by Messrs 
Evarts and Arthur, and a long step was taken toward 
the emancipation of the black race. 

Another great service was rendered by General 
Arthur in the same cause in 1856. Lizzie Jennings, 
a respectable colored woman, was put off a Fourth 
Avenue car with violence after siie had paid lierfare. 
General Arthur sued on her behalf, and secured a 
verdict of $500 damages. The next day the compa- 
ny issued an order to admit colored persons to ride 
on their cars, and the other car companies quickly 


followed their example. Before that the Sixth Ave- 
nue Company ran a few special cars for colored per- 
sons and the other lines refused to let them ride at all. 

General Arthur was a delegate to the Convention 
at Saratoga that founded the Republican party. 
Previous to the war he was Judge-Advocate of the 
Second Brigade of the State of New York, and Gov- 
ernor Morgan, of that State, apjxainted him Engineer- 
in-Chief of his staff. In 1861, he was made Inspec- 
tor General, and soon afterward became (Quartermas- 
ter-General. In each of these offices he rendered 
great service to the Government during the war. At 
the end of Governor Morgan's term he resumed the 
practice of the law, forming a partnership with Mr. 
Ransom, and then Mr. Phelps, the District Attorney 
of New York, was added to the firm. The legal prac- 
tice of this well-known firm was very large and lucra- 
tive, each of the gentlemen composing it were able 
lawyers, and possessed a splendid local reputation, if 
not indeed one of national extent. 

He always took a leading part in State and city 
politics. He was appointed Collector of the Port of 
New York by President Grant, Nov. 21 1872, to suc- 
ceed Thomas Murphy, and held the office until July, 
20, 1878, when he was succeeded by Collector Merritt. 

Mr. Arthur was nominated on the Presidential 
ticket, with Gen. James A. Garfield, at the famous 
National Republican Convention held at Chicago in 
June, 1S80. This was perhaps the greatest political 
convention that ever assembled on the continent. It 
was composed of the 'sading politicians of the Re- 
publican party, all able men, and each stood firm and 
fought vigorously and with signal tenacity for tlieir 
respective candidates that were before the conven- 
tion for the nomination. Finally Gen. Garfield re- 
ceived the nomination for President and Gen. Arthur 
for Vice-President. The campaign which followed 
was one of the most animated known in the history of 
our country. Gen. Hancock, the standard-bearer of 
tlie Democratic party, was a popular man, and his 
party made a valiant fight for his election. 

Finally the election came and the country's choice 
.vas Garfield and Arthur. They were inaugurated 
March 4, 1 88 1, as President and Vice-President. 
A few months only had passed ere the newly chosen 
President was the victim of the assassin's bullet. Then 
came terrible weeks of suffering, — those moment* of 
anxious suspense, vvher the hearts of all civilized na- 

tions were throbbing in unison, longing for the re- 
covery of the noble, the good President. The remark- 
able patience that he manifested during those hours 
and weeks, and even months, of the most terrible suf- 
fering man has often been called upon to endure, was 
seemingly more than human. It was certainly God- 
like. During all this period of deepest anxiety Mr. 
Arthur's every move was watched, and be it said to his 
credit that his every action displayed only an earnest 
desire that the suffering Garfield might recover, to 
serve the remainder of the term he had so auspi- 
ciously begun. Not a selfish feeling was manifested 
in deed or look of this man, even though the most 
honored position in the world was at any moment 
likely to fall to him. 

At last God in his mercy relieved President Gar- 
field from further suffering, and the world, as never 
before in its history over the death of any other 
man, wept at his bier. Then it became the duty of 
the Vice President to assume the responsibilities of 
the high office, and he took the oath in New York, 
Sept. 20, i88r. The position was an embarr.issing 
one to him, made doubly so from the facts that all 
eyes were on him, anxious to know wliat lie would do, 
what policy he would pursue, and who he would se- 
lect as advisers. The duties of the office had been 
greatly neglected during the President's long illness, 
and many important measures were to be immediately 
decided by him ; and still farther to embarrass him he 
did not fail to realize under what circumstances he 
became President, and knew the feelings of many on 
this point. Under these trying circumstances President 
Arthur took the reins of the Government in his own 
hands ; and, as embarrassing as were the condition of 
affairs, he happily surprised the nation, acting so 
wisely that but few criticised his administration. 
He served the nation well and faitlifully, until the 
close of his administration, March 4, 1885, and was 
a popular candidate before his party for a second 
term. His name was ably presented before the con- 
vention at Chicago, and was received with great 
favor, and doubtless but for the personal popularity 
of one of the opposing candidates, he would have 
been selected as the standard-bearer of his party 
for another campaign. He retired to private life car- 
rying with him the best wishes of the American peo- 
ple, whom he had served in a manner satisfactory 
to them and with credit to himself 




, OOP - 

LAND, the twenty- second Pres- 
ident of the United States, was 
l)orn in 1837, in the obscure 
town of Caldwell, Essex Co., 
N. J., and in a little two-and-a- 
half-story white house which is still 
standing, characteristically to mark 
the humble birth-iilace of one of 
America's great men in striking con ■ 
trast with the Old \Vorld, where all 
men high in office must be high in 
origin and born in the cradle of 
wealth. When the subject of this 
sketch was three years of age, his 
father, who was a Presbyterian min- 
ister, with a large family and a small salary, moved, 
by way of the Hudson River and Erie Canal, to 
FayetteviUe, in search of an increased income and a 
larger field of work. FayetteviUe was then the most 
straggling of country villages, about five miles from 
Pompey Hill, where Governor Seymour was born. 

At the last mentioned place young Grover com- 
menced going to school in the "good, old-fashioned 
way," and presumably distinguished himself after the 
manner of all village boys, in doing the things he 
ought not to do. Such is the distinguishing trait of 
all geniuses and independent thinkers. When he 
arrived at the age of 14 years, he had outgrown the 
capacity of the village school and expressed a most 

emphatic desire to be sent to an academy. To this 
his father decidedly objected. Academies in those 
days cost money; besides, his father wanted him to 
become self-supporting by the quickest possible 
means, and this at that time in Fayette 'ille seemed 
to be a position in a country store, whert his father 
and the large family on his hands liad considerable 
inflaeiice. Grover was to be paid i$5o for his services 
the first year, and if he proved trustworthy he was to 
receive $100 the second year. Here the lad com- 
menced iiis career as salesman, and iii two years he 
had earned so good a reputation for trustworthiness 
that his employers desired to retain him for an in- 
definite length of time. Otherwise he did not ex- 
hibit as yet any particular " flashes of genius " or 
eccentricities of talent. He was simply a good boy. 
But instead of remaining with this firm in Fayette- 
viUe, he went with tiie family in their removal to 
Clinton, where he had an opportunity of attending a 
high school. Here he industriously pursued his 
studies until the family removed with him to a point 
on Black River known as the " Holland Patent," a 
village of 500 or 600 people, 15 miles north of Utica, 
N. Y. At this place his father died, after preaching 
but three Sundays. This event broke up the family, 
and Grover set out for New York City to accept, at a 
small salary, the position of " under-teacher " in an 
asylum for the blind. He taught faithfully for two 
years, and although he obtained a good reputation in 
this capacity, he concluded that teaching was not his 



calling for life, and, reversing the traditional order, 
he left the city to seek hii fortune, instead of going 
to a city. He first tliought of Cleveland, Ohio, as 
there was some charm in thai name for him; but 
before proceeding to that place he went to Buffjlo to 
isk the advice of his uncle, Lewis F. Allan, a noted 
stock-breeder of that place. The latter did not 
cpeak entluisiastically. " What is it you want to do, 
my boy?" he asked. "Well, si;, I want to study 
'aw," was the rejjly. "Good gracious!" remarked 
.he old gentleman ; " do you, indeed .'' What ever put 
that into your head? How much money have you 
got.""' "Well, sir, to tell the truth, I haven't got 
any . ■'■' 

Alter a long consultation, his uncle offered him a 
place temporarily as assistant herd-keeper, at $50 a 
year, wiii'e iie could "look around." One day soon 
afterward he boldly walked into the ofifice of Rogers, 
Bowen & Rogers, of Buffalo, and told them what he 
waiited. A number of young men were alreadv en- 
gaged in the ofifice, but Grover's persistency won, and 
ne was finally permitted to come as an office boy and 
have the use of the law library, for the nominal sum 
of $3 or $4 a week. Out of this he had to pay for 
his board and washing. The walk to and from his 
uncle's was a long and rugged one; and, although 
the first winter was a memorably severe one, his 
shoes were out of repair and his overcoat^he had 
I'.one — yet he was nevertheless prompt and regular. 
On the first day of his service here, his senior em- 
ployer threw down a copy of Blackstone before him 
with a bang that made the dust fly, saying "That's 
where they all begin." A titter ran around the little 
circle of clerks and students, as they thought that 
was enough to scare young Grover out of his plans ; 
i>ut indue time he mastered that cumbersome volume. 
Then, as ever afterward, however, Mr. Cleveland 
exhibited a talent for execuliveness rather than for 
chasing principles through all their metaphysical 
possibilities. " Let us quit talking and go and do 
t," was practically hii motto. 

The first public office to which Mr. Cleveland was 
elected was that of Sheriff of Erie Co., N. Y., in 
which Bufflilo is situated; and in such capacity it fell 
fo his duty to inflict capital punishment upon two 
criminals. In 1881 he was elected Mayor of the 
City of Buffalo, on tlie Democratic ticket, with es- 
pecial reference to the bringing about certain reforms 

in tlie administration of the municipal affairs of that 
city. In this office, as well as that of Sheriff, his 
performance of duty has generally been considered 
fair, with possibly a few exceptions which were fer- 
reted out and magnified during the last Presidential 
campaign. As a specimen of his plain language in 
a veto message, we quote fiom one vetoing an iuiq u- 
tous street-cleaning contract: "This is a time fur 
plain speech, and my objection to your action shall 
be plainly stated. I regard it as the culmination of 
a mos bare-faced, impudent and shameless scheme 
to betray the interests of the people and to worse 
than squander the people's money." The New York 
Sun afterward very highly commended Mr. Cleve- 
land's administration as Mayor of Buffalo, and there- 
upon recommended him for Governor of the F.mpire 
State. To the latter office he was elected in 1SS2, 
and his administration of tlie affairs of State was 
generally satisfactory. The mistakes he made, if 
any, were made very public tliroughout tlie nation 
after he was nominated for President of the United 
States. For this high office he was nominated July 
II, 1884, by the National Democratic Convention at 
Chicago, when other competitors were Thomas F. 
Bayard, Roswell P. Flower, Thomas A. Hendricks, 
Benjamin F. Butler, Allen G., etc.: and he 
was elected by the people, by a majority of about a 
thousand, over the brilliant and long-tried Repub- 
lican statesman, James G. Blaine. President Cleve- 
land resigned his office as Governor of New York in 
January, 1885, in order to prepare for his duties as 
the Chief Executive of the United States, in which 
capacity his term commenced at noon on the 41 h of 
March, 1885. For his Cabinet officers he selected 
the following gentlemen: For Secretary of State, 
Thomas F. Bayard, of Delaware ; Secretary of the 
Treasury, Daniel Manning, of New York; Secretary 
of War, William C. ^Endicott, of Massachusetts; 
Secretary of the Navy, William C. Whitney, of New 
York; Secretary of the Interior, L. Q. C. Lamar, of 
Mississippi; Postmaster-General, William F. Vilas, 
of Wisconsin; Attorney-General, A. H. Garland, of 

The silver question precipitated a controversy be- 
tween those who were in favor of the continuance of 
silver coinage and those who were opposed, Mr. 
Cleveland answering for the latter, even before hia 







'W^w^^^^^^\^ff^^**^7^'-'^?^*- ■-».''* * '*^- ^ . ^ L ^"t^^^ ^i^c^^f-^' 


"©njainin .^^a'prn^QUo 



..o«o-{§^J'VlQ-o«o. « 


\\ , twenty-third President, is 
hM, the descendant of one of the 
"/ historical families of this 
? country. The head of the 
■ jj) family was a ]\Iajor fieneral 
'■i'i,^'^ Harrison, one of Oliver 
^^ ^ Cromwell's trusted follow- 

ers and fighters. In the zenith of Crom- 
well's power it became tiie duty of this 
Harrison to participate in the trial of 
Charles I, and afterward to sign the 
death warrant of the king. He subse- 
fjiicntly paid for this witii his life, being 
hung Oct. 13, ICCO. His descendants 
came to America, and the next of the 
family that appears in history is Benja- 
r.:in ';iarrison, of Virginia, great-grand- 
father of the subject of this sketch, and 
after whom he was named. Benjamin Harrison 
was a mcmlier of the Continental Congress during 
the years 177 l-S-O, and was one of the original 
■signers of Uie Declaration of Independence. He 
was thrc,' times clectcil Governor of Virginia. 
Gen Willium lUiuy Harrison, the son of the 

dislingnished patriot of the Revolution, after a suc- 
cessful career as a soldier during the War of 1812, 
and with -a clean record as Governor of the North- 
western Territory, was elected President of the 
United States in 1840. His career was cut short 
by death within one month :ifter Ins inr.uguration. 
President Harrison war born at North Bend. 
Hamilton Co., Ohio, Aug. -"^O, 18S3. His life up to 
tiic time of his graduation by the Miami University, 
at Oxford, Ohio, was the uneventful one of a coun- 
try lad of a family of small means. His father was 
able to give him a good education, and nothing; 
more. He became engaged while at college to thj 
daughter of Dr. Scott, Principal of a female schoof 
at Oxford. After graduating he determined to en- 
ter upon the study of the law. He went to Cin 
cinnati and then read law for two years. At tht 
expiration of that time young Harrison receiv d tL . 
only inheritance of his life; his aunt dj'ing left hin; 
a lot valued at ^800. He regarded this legacy as t 
fortune, and decided to get married at once, *nk^ 
this money and go to some Eastern town an ' oe- 
gin the practice of law. He sold his lot, and with 
the mone}' in his pocket, he started out witii his 
young wife to fight for a place in the world, '"e 



decideil to go to Indianapolis, wliieh was even at 
Uiat time a town of promise. He met witli slight 
encouragement at first, making scarcely anything 
the first year. He worker! diligently', applying him- 
self closely to his calling, built up an extensive 
practice aud took a leading rank in the legal pro- 
fessif)n. He is the father of two children. 

In 1 8G0 Mr. Harrison was nominated for tlie 
position of Supreme Court Reporter, and then be- 
gan his experience as a stump speaker. He can- 
vassed the State thoroughl}', and was elected by a 
handsome majority. In 18G2 he raised the 17th 
Indiana Infantrj', and was chosen its Colonel. His 
regiment was composed of the rawest of material, 
but Col. Harrison employed all his time at first 
mastering military tactics and drilling Iiis men, 
when he therefore came to move toward the East 
with Sherman his regiment was one of the best 
drilled and organized in the army. At Resaca he 
especially distinguished himself, and for his bravery 
.",1 Peachtree Creek he was made a Brigadier Gen- 
eral, Gen. Hooker speaking of him iu the most 
complimentarj' terms. 

During the absence of Gen. Harrison in the field 
the Supreme Court declared the office of the Su- 
preme Court Reporter vacant, and another person 
was elected to the position. From the time of leav- 
ing Indiana with his regiment until the fall of 1864 
he had taken no le.ave of absence, but having been 
nominated that year for the same oflice, he got a 
thirty-day leave of absence, and during tiiat time 
m.ade a brilliant canvass of the State, and was clecteil 
for another terra. He then started to rejoin Sher- 
man, but on the way was stricken down with scarlet 
Tever, and after a most trying siege made his w.ay 
to the front iu time to participate in the closing 
incidents of the war. 

In 1868 Gen. Harrison declined r. re-election as 
reporter, and resumed the pr.actice of law. In 187G 
lie a candidate for Governor. Although de- 
'eated, the bi-illiant campaign he made won for him 
1 National reputation, and he much sought, es- 
pecial.y in the East, to make speeches. In 1880, 
as usua!, he took an active part in the campaign, 
um\ WW elected to the United States Senate. Here 
lie served six years, and was known as one of the 
ablest men, best lawyers and strongest debaters in 

that body. "With the expiration of his Senatorial 
term he returned to the practice of his profession, 
becoming the head of one of the strongest firms in 
the State. 

The political campaign of 1888 was one of the 
xTiost memorable in the history of our countr\'. The 
convention which assembled in Chicago in .Tune and 
named Mr. Harrison as the chief standard bearer 
of the Republican party, was great in ever}' partic- 
ular, and on this account, and the attitude it as- 
sumed upon the vital questions of the day, chief 
among which the tariff, awoke a deep interest 
in the campaign throughout the Nation. Shortly 
after the nomination delegations to visit Mr. 
Harrison at Indianapolis, his home. This move- 
ment became popular, and from all sections of the 
country societies, clubs and delegations journeyed 
thither to pa^^ their respects to the distinguished 
statesman. The popularity of these was greatly 
increased on account of the speeches 
made by Mr. Harrison. He spoke dail}' all through 
the summer and autumn to these visiting delega- 
tions, and so varied, masterly and eloquent were 
Jiis speeches that they at once pl.aced him in the 
foremost r.ank of American orators and statesmen. 

On account of his eloquence as a speaker and his 
power as a deb.ater, he w.a.s called upon at an un- 
commonly early age to take part in the 'liscussion 
of the great questions that then began ij agitate 
the country. He an uncompromising ant: 
slavery man, and was matched against some of \,':.e 
most eminent Democr.atic speakers of his St.ate. 
No who felt the touch of his bl.ade desired to 
be pitted with him again. AVith all his eloq-'ence 
.as .an orator he never spoke for effect, 
but his words always went like bullets to the mark 
He is purely American in his ideas and is a sjjler 
did t\-pe of the American Gifted wifi_ 
quick perception, a logical mind and a read>' tongue, 
he is one of the most distinguished impromptu 
speakers in the Nation. IMany of these speeches 
si)arkle<l with the rarest of eloquence and contained 
arguments of greatest weight. Many of his teVse 
statements have already become ai^horisms. Origi- 
nal in thought, precise in logic, terse in statement, 
3et withal f.aultless in eloquence, he is recognized as 
the sound statesman and brilliant orator of the day 






HADRACH BOND, the first 
Governor of Illinois after its 
organization as a State, serving 
from 1818 to 1822, was born in 
Frederick County, Maryland, 
in the year 1773, and was 
raised a farmer on his father's 
plantation, receiving only a plain 
English education. He emigrated 
to this State in 1794, when it was a 
part of the "Northwest Territory," 
continuing in the vocation in which 
he had been brought up in his native 
State, in tiie " New Design," near 
Eagle Creek, in what is now Monroe 
County. He served several terms as 
a member of the General Assembly 
of Indiana Territory, after it was organized as such, 
and in 181 2-14 he was a Delegate to the Twelfth 
and Thirteenth Congresses, taking his seat Dec. 3, 
181 2, and serving until Oct. 3, 1814. These were 
the times, the reader will recollect, when this Gov- 
ernment had its last struggle with Great Britain. 
The year 1812 is also noted in the history of this 
State as that in which the first Territorial Legislature 
was held. It convened at Kaskaskia, Nov. 25, and 
adjourned Dec. 26, following. 

While serving as Delegate to Congress, Mr. Bond 
was instrumental in procuring the right of pre-emp- 
tion on the public domain. On the expiration of his 
term at Washington he was appointed Receiver of 
Public Moneys at Kaskaskia, then the capital of tlie 
Territory. In company with John G. Comyges, 

Thomas H. Hanis, Charles Slade, Michael Jones, 
Warren Brown, Edward Humphries and Charles W 
Hunter, he became a proprietor of the site of the 
initial city of Cairo, which they hoped, from its favor- 
able location at the junction of the two greai 
rivers near the center of the Great West, would 
rapidly develop into a metropolis. To aid the enter- 
prise, tliey obtained a special charter from the Legis- 
lature, incorporating both the City and the Bank of 

In 1818 Mr. Bond was elected the first Governor 
of the State of Illinois, being inaugurated Oct. 6 
that year, which was several weeks before Illinois 
was actually admitted. The facts are these: In 
fanuary, 1818, the Territorial Legislature sent a peti- 
tion to Congress for the admission of Illinois as a 
State, Nathaniel Pope being then Delegate. The 
petition was granted, fixing the northern line of the 
State on the latitude of the southern extremity of 
Lake Michigan; but the bill was afterward so amend- 
ed as to extend this line to its present latitude. In 
July a convention was called at Kaskaskia to draft a 
constitution, which, however, was not submitted to 
the people. By its provisions, supreme judges, pros 
ecuting attorneys, county and circuit judges, record- 
ers and justices of the peace were all to be a[)pointcd 
by the Governor or elected by the Legislature. This 
constitution was accepted by Congress Dec. 30. At 
that time Illinois comprised but eleven counties, 
namely, Randolph, Madison, Gallatin, Johnson, 
Pope, Jackson, Crawford, Bond, Union, Washington 
and Franklin, the northern jjortion of the State be- 
ing mainly in Madison County. Thus it appears 
that Mr. Bond was honored by the naming of a 


county before he was elected Governor. The present 
county of Bond is of small limitations, about 60 to 80 
miles south of Springfield. For Lieutenant Governor 
the oeople chose Pierre Menard, a prominent and 
worthy Frenchman, after whom a county in this State 
is named. In this election there were no opposition 
candidates, as the popularity of these men had made 
their promotion to the chief offices of the Siate, even 
before the constitution was drafted, a foregone con- 

The principal points that excited the people in 
reference to political issues at this period were local 
or "internal improvements," as they were called. 
State banks, location of the capital, slavery and the 
personal characteristics of the proposed candidates. 
Mr. Bond represented the "Convention party," for 
introducing slavery into the State, supported by Elias 
Kelt Kane, liis Secretary of State, and John Mc- 
Lean, while Nathaniel Pope and John P. Cook led 
the anti-slavery element. Tlie people, however, did 
not become very much e.xcited over this issue until 
1S20, when the famous Missouri Compromise was 
adopted by Congress, limiting slavery to the south 
of the parallel of 36° 30' excejit in Missouri. While 
tills measure settled the great slavery controversy, 
so far as the average public sentiment was tempor- 
arily concerned, until 1S54, when it was repealed 
under the leadership of Stephen A. Douglas, the issue 
as considered locally in this State was not decided 
until 1824, after a most furious campaign. (See 
sketch of Gov. Coles.) The ticket of 181 8 was a 
compromise one. Bond representing (moderately) the 
pro-slavery sentiment and Menard the anti-slavery. 

An awkward element in the State government 
under Gov. Bond's administration, was the imperfec- 
tion of the State constitution. The Convention 
wished to have Elijah C. Berry for the first Auditor 
of Public Accounts, but, as it was believed that the 
new Governor would not appoint him to the office, 
the Convention declared in a sciiedule that " an 
auditor of public accounts, an attorney general and 
such other officers of the State as may be necessary, 
may be appointed by the General Assembly." The 
Constitution, as it stood, vested a very large appoint- 
ing power in the Governor; but for the purpose of 
getting one man into office, a total change was made, 
and the power vested in the Legislature. Of this 
provision the Legislature took advantage, and de 

clared that State's attorneys, canal commissioners, 
bank directors, etc., were all '" officers of the State" 
and must therefore be appointed by itself independ- 
ently of the Governor. 

During Gov. Bond's administration a general law 
was passed for the incorporation of academies and 
towns, and one authorizing lotteries. The session of 
1822 authorized the Governor to appoint commis- 
sioners, to act in conjunction with like commissioners 
appointed by the State of Indiana, to report on the 
practicability and expediency of improving the navi- 
gation of the Wabash River; also inland navigation 
generally. Many improvements were recommended, 
some of which have been feebly worked at even till 
the present day, those along the Wabash being of no 
value. Also, during Gov. Bond's term of office, the 
capital of the State was removed from Kaskaskia to 
Vandalia. In T820 a law was passed by Congress 
authorizing this State to open a canal through the 
public lands. The State appointed commissioners 
lo explore the route and prepare the necessary sur- 
veys and estimates, preparatory to its execution; 
but, being unable out of its own resources to defray 
the expenses of the undertaking, it was abandoned 
until some time after Congress made the grant of 
land for the purpose of its construction. 

On the whole. Gov. Bond's administration was 
fairly good, not being open to severe criticism from 
any party. In 1824, two years after the expiration 
of his term of office, he was brought out as a candi- 
date for Congress against the formidable John P. 
Cook, but received only 4,374 votes to 7,460 for the 
latter. Gov. Bond was no orator, but had made 
many fast friends by a judicious bestowment of iiis 
gubernatorial patronage, and these worked zealously 
for him in the campaign. 

In 1827 ex-Gov. Bond was appointed by the Leg- 
islature, with Wm. P. McKee and Dr. Gershom 
Jayne, as Commissioners to locate a site for a peni- 
tentiary on the Mississippi at or near Alton. 

Mr. Bond was of a benevolent and convivial dis- 
position, a man of shrewd observation and clear ap- 
preciation of events. His person was erect, stand- 
ing six feet in height, and after middle life became 
portly, weighing 200 pounds. His features were 
strongly masculine, complexion dark, hair jet and 
eyes hazel ; was a favorite with the ladies. He died 
April 1 1, 1830, in peace and contentment. 

Lc//^^<-Uyu) Co^2<^ 



E&wai6 Coles* 

it-g- ^ . - -ill 

gf^'-<<iiSHe> C : ■■»- 

DWARD COLES, second 
Governor of Illinois, 1823- 
6, was born Dec. 15, 1786, 
in Albemarle Co., Va., on 
the old family estate called 
" Enniscorthy," on the 
Green Mountain. His fath- 
er, John Coles, was a Colonel in the 
Revolutionary War. Having been fit- 
ted for college by private tutors, he 
was sent to Hampden Sidney, where 
he remained until the autumn of 1805, 
when lie was removed to William and 
Mary College, at Williamsburg, Va. 
This college he left in the summer of 
1807, a short time before the final and graduating 
exaaiination. Among his classmates were Lieut. 
Gen. Scott, President John Tyler, Wm. S. Archer, 
United States Senator from Virginia, and Justice 
Baldwin, of the United States Supreme Court. The 
President of the latter college. Bishop Madison, was 
a cousin of President James Madison, and that cir- 
cumstance was the occasion of Mr. Coles becoming 
personally acquainted with the President and re- 
ceiving a position as his private secretary, 1809-15. 
The family of Coles was a prominent one in Vir- 
ginia, and their mansion was the seat of the old- 
fashioned Virginian hospitality. It was visited by 
such notables as Patrick. Heury, Jefferson, Madison, 
Monroe, the Randolphs, Tazewell, Wirt, etc. At the 
age of 23, young Coles found himself heir to a plant- 
ation and a considerable numl)er of slaves. Ever 
kince his earlier college days his attention iiad been 
Irawn to the question of slavery. He read every- 

tiling on the subject that came in his way, and 
listened to lectures on tlie rigiits of man. The more 
he reflected upon the subject, tiie more impossible 
was it for him to reconcile the immortal declaration 
"that all men are born free and- equal " with the 
practice of slave-holding. He resolved, therefore, to 
free his slaves the first opportunity, and even remove 
his residence to a free State. One reason which de- 
termined him to accept the appointment as private 
secretary to Mr. Madison was because he believed 
that through the acquaintances he could make at 
Washington he could better determine in what part 
of the non-slaveholding portion of the Union lie would 
prefer to settle. 

The relations between Mr. Coles and President 
Madison, as well as Jeffsrsou and other distinguished 
men, were of a very friendly character, arising from 
the similarity of their views on the question of slavery 
and their sympathy for each other in holding doc- 
trines so much at variance with the prevailing senti- 
ment in their own State. 

In 1857, he resigned his secretarysiiip and spent a 
portion of the following autumn in exploring the 
Northwest Territory, for the purpose of finding a lo- 
cation and purchasing lands on which to settle his 
negroes. He traveled with a horse and buggy, with 
an extra man and horse for emergencies, through 
many parts of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Missouri, 
determining finally to settle in Illinois. At this time, 
however, a misunderstanding arose between our 
Government and Russia, and Mr. Coles was selected 
to repair to St. Petersburg on a s[)ecial mission, bear- 
ing important papers concerning tlie matter at issue 
The result was a conviction of the Emperor (Alex- 



ander) of the error committed by his minister at 
Washington, and the consequent withdrawal of the 
the latter from the jiost. On his return, Mr. Coles 
visited other parts of Europe, especially Paris, where 
he was introduced to Gen. Lafayette. 

In the spring of i8ig, he removed with all his 
negroes from Virginia to Edwardsville, 111., witli the 
intention of giving them their liberty. He did not 
make known to them his intention until one lieautiful 
morning in .'X-iiril, as lliey were descending the Ohio 
River. He lashed all the boats together and called 
all the negroes on deck and made them a short ad- 
dress, concluding his remarks by so expressing him- 
self that l)y a turn of a sentence he proclaimed in 
the shortest and fullest manner that they were no 
longer slaves, but free as he was and were at liberty 
to proceed with him or go ashore at their pleas- 
ure. A description of the effect upon the negroes is 
best desciibed in his own language : 

"The effect upon them was electrical. They stared 
at me and then at each other, as if doubting the ac- 
curacy or reality of what they heard. In breathless 
silence they stood before me, unable to utter a word, 
but with countenances beaming with expression which 
no words could convey, and which no language 
can describe. As they began to see the truth of 
what they had lieard, and realize their situation, there 
came on a kind of hysterical, giggling laugh. After 
a pause of intense and unutterable emotion, bathed 
in tears, and with tremulous voices, they gave vent to 
iheir gratitude and implored the blessing of God 
on me." 

Before landmg he gave them a general certificate 
of freedom, and afterward conformed more particu- 
larly with the law of this State requiring that each 
individual should have a certificate. This act of 
Mr. Coles, all I he more noble and heroic considering 
the overwhelming pro-slavery influences surrounding 
him, has challenged the admiratioti of every philan- 
tiiropist of modern times. 

March 5, 1819, President Monroe appointed Mr. 
Coles Registrar of the Land Office at Edwardsvihe, 
at that time one of the principal land offices in the 
State. While acting in this capacity and gaining 
many friends by his jxiliteness and general ititelli- 
geiice, the greatest straggle that ever occurred in 
Illinois on the slavery ques ion culminated in the 
furious contest characterizing the campaigns and 
elections of 1822-4. In the summer of 1823, when a 
new Governor was to be elected to succeed Mr. 
liond, the pro-slavery element divided into factions, 
pniting forward for the executive office Joseph 
I'hillips, Chief Justice of the State, Thomas C. 
r.rowne and Gen. James B. Moore, of the State Mil- 
iia. The anti-slavery element united upon Mr. 
Coles, and, after one of the most bitter camiiaigns, 
s'lcceeded in electing him as (lovernor. His plural- 
ity over Judge Phillips was only 59 in a total vote of 

over 8,000. The Lieutenant Governor was elected 
by the slavery men. Mr. Coles' inauguration speech 
was marked by calmness, deliberation and such a 
wise expression of appropriate suggestions as to 
elicit the sanction of all judicious politicians. But 
he compromised not with evil. In his message to 
the Legislature, the seat of Government being tlien 
at Vandalia, he strongly urged the abrogation of the 
modified form of slavery whi';',i then existed in this 
State, contrary to the Ordinance of 1787. His posi- 
tion on this sul)ject seems the more remarkable, when 
it is considered that he was a minority Governor, the 
population of Illinois being at that lime almost ex- 
clusively from slave-holding States and by a large 
majority in favor of the perpetuation of that old relic 
of barbarism. The Legislature itself was, of course, 
a reflex of the i)opular sentiment, and a majority of 
thciti were led on by fiery men in denunciations of 
tlie conscientious Governor, and in curses loud and 
deep upon him and all his friends. Some of the 
public inen, indeed, went so far as to head a sort of 
mob, or " shiveree " party, who visited the residence 
of tiie Governor and otliers at Vandalia and yelled 
and groaned and spat fire. 

The Constitution, not establishing or permitting 
slavery in this State, was thought therefore to be 
defective by the slavery politicians, and they desired 
a State Convention to be elected, to devise and sub- 
mit a new Constitution; and the dominant politics 
of the day was "Convention" and "anti-Conven- 
tion." Both parties issued addresses to the people. 
Gov. Coles himself being the author of the address 
published by the latter party, 'i'his address rev.aled 
the schemes ot the conspirators in a masterly .nan- 
ner. It is difficult for us at this distant day to esti- 
mate the critical and extremely delicate situation in 
which the Governor was placed at that time. 

Our hero maintained himself honorably and with 
supreme dignity throughout his administration, and 
in his honor a county in this State is named. He 
was truly a great man, and those who lived in 
this State during his sojourn here, like those who 
live at the base of the mountain, were too near to see 
and recognize the greatness that overshadowed them. 

Mr. Coles was married Nov. 28, 1833, by Bishop 
De Lancey, to Miss Sally Logan Roberts, a daughter 
of Hugh Roberts, a descendant of Welsh ancestry, 
who cam.; to this country with Wm. Penn in 1682. 

After the expiration of his term of service, Gov. 
Coles continued his residence in Edwardsville, sup- 
erintending his farm in the vicinity. He was fond 
of agriculture, and was the founder of the first agri- 
cultural society in the State. On account of ill 
healtli, however, and having no family to tie him 
down, he spent much of his time in Eastern cities. 
About 1832 he changed his residence to I'iiiladel- 
])hia, where he died July 7, 1868, and is buried at 
Woodland, near that city. 


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■^Vm® -'^V-Ki.© .'^*>:,5<>^ ■■'-> ■ •«- O r'i . ^_, rr, 

ill I a IX E' d. v^ ai^' d s •, 4L. 

];^-^):gf ^ 


from 1S27 to 1S30, was a son 
of Benjamin Edwards, and 
was born in Montgomery 
o County, Maryland, in March, 
''• I77S- His domestic train- 
ing was Well fitted to give 
his mind strength, firmness and 
lior.orable principles, and a good 
foundation was laid fortlie elevated 
character to which he afterwards 
attained. His parents were Bap- 
tists, and very strict in their moral 
[)iinci[)les. His education in early 
youth was in company with and 
partly under the tuition of Hon. VVm. 
Wirt, whom his father patronized 
and who was more than two years 
older. An intimacy was thus 
form.d between them which was lasting for life. He 
was farther educated at Dickinson College, at Car- 
lisle, Pa. He ne.\t conmienced the study of law, but 
before completing his course he moved to Nelson 
County, Ky., to o[)en a farm for his father and to 
purchase homes and locate lands for his brothers and 
sisters. Here he fell in the company of dissolute 
companions, and for several years led the life of a 
spendthrift. He was, iiowever, elected to the Legis- 
lature of Kentucky as the Representative of Nelson 
county before he was 21 years of age, and was re- 
elected by an almost unanimous vote. 

In 179S he was licensed to practice law, and the 
following year was admitted to the Courts of Tennes- 
see. About this tin>€ he left Nelson County for 
Russellville, in Logan County, broke away from his 
dissolute companions, commenced a reformation and 
devoted himself to severe and laborious study. He 
then began to rise rapidly in his profession, and soon 
became an eminent lawyer, and inside of four years 
he filled in succession the offices of Presiding Judge 
of the General Court, Circuit Judge, fourth Judge of 
the Court of Appeals and Chief Justice of the State, 
— all before he was 32 years of age [ Li addition, in 
1S02, he received a connnission as Major of a battal- 
ion of Kentucky militia, and in 1S04 was chosen a 
Presidential Elector, on the Jefferson and Clinton 
ticket. In 1S06 he was a candidate for Congress, 
but withdrew on being promoted to the Court of 

Illinois was organized as a separate Territory in 
the spring of 1809, when Mr. Edwards, then Chief 
Justice of the Court of Appeals in Kentucky, received 
from President Madison the ap[X)intment as Gover- 
nor of the new Territory, his commission bearing date 
.\pril 24, 1809. Edwards arrived at Kaskaskia in 
June, and on the r ith of that month took the oaih of 
office. At the same time he was appointed Su|)erin- 
tendent of the United States Saline, this Government 
interest then developing into considerable proponion.i 
in Southern Illinois. Although during the first three 
years of his administration he had the power to make 
new counties and appoint all the officers, yet he always 
allowed the people of each county, by an informal 



vole, to select their own officers, both civil and mili- 
tary. The noted John J- Crittenden, afterwrard 
United States Senator from Kentucky, was appointed 
by Gev. Edwards to the office of Attorney General of 
the Territory, which office was accepted for a short 
time only. 

The Indians in tSio committing sundry depreda- 
tions in the Territory, crossing the Mississippi from 
the Territory of Louisiana, a long correspondence fol- 
lowed between the respective Governors concerning 
the remedies, which ended in a council with the sav- 
ages at Peoria in i8i2; and a fresh interpretation of 
ihe treaties. Peoria was depopulated by these de- 
predations, and was not re-settled for many ve.irs 

As Gov. Edwards' term of office expired by law in 
1S12, he was re-appointed for another term of three 
years, and again in 1815 for a third term, serving 
until the organization of the State in the fall of 1818 
and the inauguration of Gov. Bond. At this time 
ex-Gov. Edwards was sent to the United States 
Senate, his colleague being Jesse B. Thomas. As 
Senator, Mr. Edwards took a conspicuous part, and 
acquitted himself honorably in all the measures that 
came up in that body, being well i^osted, an able de- 
bater and a conscientious statesman. He thought 
;criously of resigning this situation in 1821, but was 
ixirsuaded by his old friend, \Vm. Wirt, and others to 
continue in office, which he did to the end of the 

He was then appointed Minister to Mexico by 
President Monroe. About this time, it appears that 
Mr. Edwards saw suspicious signs in the conduct of 
Wm. H. Crawford, Secretary of the United States 
Treasury, and an ambitious candidate for the Presi- 
dency, and being implicated by the latter in some of 
his statements, he resigned his Mexican mission in 
order fully to investigate the charges. The result 
was the exculpation of Mr. Edwards. 

Pro-slavery regulations, often termed "Black Laws," 
disgraced the statute books of both the Territory and 
.he Stale of Illinois during the whole of his career in 
.his commonwealth, and Mr. Edwards always main- 
tained the doctrines of freedom, and was an important 
;xtor in the great struggle which ended in a victory 
for his party in 1824. 

In 1826 7 the Winnebago and other Indians com- 
mitted soue depredations in the northern part of the 

State, and the white settlers, who desired ilie l;uid=; 
and wished to exasperate the savages into an evacu- 
ation of the country, magnified the misdemeanors of 
the aborigines and thereby produced a hostility be- 
tween the races so great as to precipitate a little war, 
known in history as the "Winnebago War." A few 
chases and skirmishes were had, when Gen. Atkinson 
succeeded in capturing Red Bird, the Indian chief, 
and putting him to death, thus ending the contest, a*: 
least until the troubles commenced which ended in 
the " Black Hawk War " of 1832. In the interpre- 
tation of treaties and execution of tiieir provisions 
Gov. Edwards had much vexatious work to do. The 
Indians kept themselves generally within the juris- 
diction of Michigan Territory, and its Governor, 
Lewis Cass, was at a point so remote that ready cor- 
respondence vvith him was difficult or impossible. 
Gov. Edwards' administration, however, in regard to 
the protection of the Illinois frontier, seems to have 
been very efficient and satisfactory. 

For a considerable portion of his time after his re- 
moval to Illinois, Gov. Edwards resided upon his 
farm near Kaskaskia, which he had well stocked with 
horses, cattle and sheep from Kentucky, also with 
fruit-trees, grape-vines and shrubbery. He estab- 
lished saw and grist-rnills, and engaged extensively 
in mercantile business, having no less than eight or ten 
stores in this State and Missouri. Notwithstanding 
the arduous duties of his office, he nearly always pur- 
chased the goods himself with which to supply the 
stores. Although not a regular practitioner of medi- 
cine, he studied the healing art to a considerable ex- 
tent, and took great pleasure in prescribing for, and 
taking care of, the sick, generally without charge. 
He was also liberal to the poor, several widows and 
ministers of the gospel becoming indebted to Inm 
even for their homes. 

He married Miss Elvira Lane, of Maryland, in 
1803, and they became the affectionate parents of 
several children, one of whom, especially, is weh' 
known to the people of the " Prairie State," namely, 
Ninian Wirt Edwards, once the Superintendent c' 
Public Instruction and still a resident of Springfield 
Gov. Edwards resided at and in the vicinity of Kas- 
kaskia from 180910 1818; in Edwardsville (named 
after him) from that time to 1824; and from the lat- 
ter date at Belleville, St. Clair County, until his 
death, July 20, 1833, of Asiatic cholera. Edwards 
County is also named in his honor. 


goliE ^e;§ii 



- >t » o<a«l-<(((|j)».ite.o 

OHN REYNOLDS, Governor 183 1- 

^;9» 4, was born in Montgomery Coun- 
ty, Pennsylvania, Feb. 26, 1788. 
His fatlver, Robert Reynolds and 
his mother, nee Margaret Moore, 
were both natives of Ireland, from 
whicli country they emigrated to 
the United States in 1785, land- 
ing at Philadelphia. The senior 
Reynolds entertained an undying 
hostility to the British Govern- 
ment. When the subject of this 
sketch was about six months old, 
his parents emigrated with him to 
Tennessee, where many of their 
relatives had already located, at the base of the 
Copper Ridge Mountain, about 14 miles northeast of 
the present city of Knoxville. There they were ex- 
Dosed to Indian depredations, and were much molest- 
ed by them. In 1794 they moved into the interior 
of the State. They were poor, and brought up their 
children to habits of manual industry. 

In iSoothe family removed to Kaskaskia, 111., with 
eight horses and two wagons, encountering many 
Hardships on the way. Here young Reynolds passed 
the most of his childhood, while his character began 
to develop, the most prominent traits of which were 
ambition and energy. He also adopted the principle 
and practice of total abstinence from intoxicating 
liquors. In 1807 the family made another removal, 

this time to the " Goshen Settlement," at the foot of 
the Mississipi)i bluffs three or four miles southwest 
of Edwardsville. 

On arriving at his 20th year, Mr. Reynolds, seeing 
that he must look about for his own livelihood and 
not yet having determined what calling to pursue, 
concluded first to attend college, and he accordingly 
went to such an institution of learning, near Knox- 
ville, Tenn., where he had relatives. Imagine his 
diffidence, when, after passing the first 20 years of 
his life without ever having seen a carpet, a papered 
wall or a Windsor chair, and never having lived in a 
shingle-roofed house, he suddenly usliered himsel 
into the society of the wealthy in the vicinity of 
Knoxville! He attended college nearly two years, 
going through the principal Latin authors; but it 
seems that he, like the rest of the world in modern 
times, had but very little use for his Latin in after 
life. He always failed, indeed, to exhibit any good 
degree of literary disciphne. He commenced tlic 
study of law in Knoxville, but a pulmonary trouble 
came on and compelled him to change his mode 
of life. Accordingly he returned home and re- 
cuperated, and in 1812 resumed his college and 
law studies at Knoxville. In the fall of 1.S12 lie was 
admitted to the Bar at Kaskaskia. About this lime 
he also learned the French language, which he 
practiced with pleasure in conversation with his 
family for many years. He regarded this language 
as being superior to all others for social intercourse. 



From his services in the West, in the war of 1812, 
he obtained the sobriquet of the " Old Ranger." He 
was Orderly Sergeant, then Judge Advocate. 

Mr. Reynolds opened his first law office in the 
winter and spring of 1814, inthe French village of 
Cahokia, then the capital of St. Clair County. 

In the fall of 1818 he was elected an Associate 
Justice upon the Supreme Bench by the General 
Assembly. In 1825 he entered more earnestly than 
ever into the practice of law, and the very next year 
was elected a member of the Legislature, where he 
acted independently of all cliques and private inter- 
ests. In 1S28 the Whigs and Democrats were for 
the first time distinctively organized as such in Illi- 
nois, and the usual party bitterness grew up and 
raged on all sides, while Mr. Reynolds preserved a 
mdicial calmness and moderation. The real animus 
)f the campaign was " Jackson " and " anti-Jackson," 
he former party carrying the State. 

In August, 1830, Mr. Reynolds was elected Gov- 
ernor, amid great e.xcitement. Installed in office, he 
did all within his power to advance the cause of edu- 
cation, internal improvements, the Illinois & Mich- 
igan Canal, the harbor at Chicago, settling the coun- 
try, etc.; also reccmmended the winding up of the 
3tate Bank, as its affairs had become dangerously 
complicated. In his national politics, he was a 
moderate supporter of General Jackson. But the 
most celebrated event of his gubernatorial admin- 
istration was the Black Hawk War, which occurred 
in 1832. He called out the militia and prosecuted 
the contest with corp.mendable diligence, appearing 
in iierson on the battle-grounds during the most 
critical periods. He was recognized by the President 
as Major-General, and authorized by him to make 
treaties with the Indians. By the assistance of the 
gerf ral Government the war was terminated without 
much bloodshed, but after many serious fights. This 
war, as well as everything else, was materially re- 
tarded by the occurrence of Asiatic cholera in the 
West. This was its first appearance here, and was 
the next event in prominence during Gov. Reynolds' 

South Carolina nullification coming up at this time, 
t was heartily condemned by both President Jackson 
c.nd Gov. Reynolds, who took precisely the same 
grounds as the Unionists in the last war. 

On the termination of his gubernatorial term in 
.834, Gov. Reynolds was elected a Member of Con- 
gress, still coi:sidering himself a backwoodsman, as 
• e had scarcely been outside of the State since he 
:-,ecame of age, and had spent nearly all his youthful 
lays in the wildest region of the frontier. His first 
DOve in Congress was to adopt a resolution that in 
all elections made by the House for officers the votes 
should be given viva voce, each member in his place 
naming aloud the person for whom he votes. This 
created considerable heated discussion, but was es- 

sentially adopted, and remained the controlling prin- 
ciple for many years. The ex (Governor was scarcely 
absent from his seat a single day, during eight ses- 
sions of Congress, covering a period of seven years, 
and he never vacillated in a party vote; but he failed 
to get the Democratic party to foster his " National 
Road" scheme. He says, in " My Own Times " (a 
large autobiography he published), that it was only 
by rigid economy that he avoided insolvency while in 
Washington. During his sojourn in that city he was 
married, to a lady of the place. 

In 1837, while out of Congress, and in company 
with a few others, he built the first railroad in the 
Mississippi Valley, namely, one about six miles long, 
leading from his coal mine in the Mississippi bluff to 
the bank of the river opposite St. Louis. Having not 
the means to purchase a locomotive, they operated it 
by horse-power. The next spring, however, the com- 
pany sold out, at great sacrifice. 

In 1839 the ex-Governor was appointed one of the 
Canal Commissioners, and authorized to borrow 
money to prosecute the enterprise. Accord'ngly, he 
repaired to Philadelphia and succeeding in obtaining 
a million dollars, which, however, was only a fourth 
of what was wanted. The same year he and his 
wife made at our of Europe. This year, also, Mr. 
Reynolds had the rather awkward little res[)onsibility 
of introducing to President Van Buren the noted 
Mormon Prophet, Joseph Smith, as a " Latter-Day 

In 1846 Gov. Reynolds was elected a member of 
the Legislature from St. Clair County, more particu- 
larly for the purpose of obtaining a feasible charter 
for a macadamized road from Belleville to St. Louis, 
a distance of nearly 14 miles. This was immediately 
built, and was the first road of the kind in the State. 
He was again elected to the LeL;islatnre in 1852, when 
he was chosen Speaker of the House. In 1860, aged 
and infirm, he attended the National Democratic 
Convention at Charleston, S. C , as an anti-Douglas 
Delegate, where he received more attention from the 
Southern Delegates than any other member. He 
supported Breckenridge for the Presidency. After 
the October elections foreshadowed the success of 
Lincoln, he published an address urging the Demo- 
crats to rally to tlie support of Douglas. Immedi- 
ately preceding and during the late war, his corre- 
spondence evinced a clear sympathy for the Southern 
secession, and about the first of March, i86r, he 
urged upon the Buchanan officials the seizure of the 
treasure and arms in the custom-house and arsenal 
at St. Louis. Mr. Reynolds was a rather talkative 
man, and apt in all the Western phrases and catch- 
words that ever gained currency, besides many cun- 
ning and odd ones of his own manufacture. 

He was married twice, but had no children. He 
died in Belleville, in May, 1865, just after the close 
of the war. 




Governor of Illinois Nov. 3 
te.?3 lo 17, 1834, was a native 
of Kentucky, and probably 
of Scotch ancestry. He had 
a fine education, was a gentle- 
man of polished manners and 
refined sentiment. In 1S30 John Rey- 
nolds was elected Governor of tiie State, 
and Zadok Casey Lieutenant Governor, 
and for the principal events that followed, 
and the characteristics of the times, see 
sketch of Gov. Reynolds. The first we 
'^V' ' ^'^'^ "^ history concerning Mr. Ewing, in- 
'^y' forms us that he was a Receiver of Public 
Moneys at Vandalia soon after the organization of 
t<ii.. State, and that the public moneys in his hands 
vere deposited in various banks, as they are usually 
■Mh. -resent day. In 1823 the State Bank was 
ubbed, by which disaster Mr. Ewing lost a thousand- 
dollar deposit. 

The subject of this sketch had a commission as 
', olonel in the Black Hawk War, and in emergencies 
ne acted also as Major. In the summer of 1832, 
^ hen \- '■-as rumored among tlie whites tiiat Black 
Hawk ai.d "lis men had encamped somewhere on 
Rock Rive.-, Gen. Henry was sent on a tour of 
reconnoisance, and with orders to drive the Indians 
from the State. After some opposition from his 
:ulx)rdinate officers, Henry resolved to proceed up 
Rock River in search of the enemy. On the rgth of 
July, early in the morning, five baggage wagons, 

camp equii)age and all heavy and cumbersome arti- 
cles were piled up and left, so that the army might 
make speedy and forced inarches. For some mih-s 
the travel was exceedingly bad, crossing swamps 
and the worst thickets; but the large, fresh trail 
gave life and animation to the Americans. Gen. 
Dodge and Col. Ewing were both actmg as Majors, 
and composed the " spy corps " or vanguard of the 
army. It is supposed the army marched nearly 50 
miles this day, and the Indian trail they followed 
became fresher, and was strewed with much property 
and trinkets of the red-skiu'i that they had lost or 
thrown away to hasten their march. During llie 
following niglit there was a terrific thunder-storm, and 
the soldiery, with all tlieir appurtenances, were ihor- 
oughly drenched. 

On approaching nearer tlie Indians tlie next day. 
Gen. Dodge and Major Ewing, each commanding a 
battalion of men, were placed in front to bring on tlie 
battle, but the savages were not overtaken this day 
Forced marches were continued until they reached. 
Wisconsin River, where a veritable battle ensued, 
resulting in the death of about 68 of Black Hawk's 
men. The next day they continued the chase, and 
as soon as he discovered the trail of the Indians 
leading toward the Mississippi, Maj. Ewing formed 
his battalion in order of battle and awaited the order 
of Gen. Henry. The latter soon appeared on the 
ground and ordered a charge, which directly resulted 
in chasing the red warriors across the great river. 
Maj. Ewing and his command proved particularly 
efficient in war, as it seems they were the chief actor's 
in driving the main body of the Sacs and Foxes, in- 



eluding Black Hawk himself, across the Mississippi, 
while Gen. Atkinson, commander-in-chief of the ex- 
pedition, with a body of the army, was hunting for 
them in another direction. 

In the above affair Maj. Ewing is often referred to 
as a " General," which title he had derived from his 
connection with the militia. 

It was in the latter part of the same year (1832) 
that Lieutenant Governor Casey was elected to Con- 
gress and Gen. Ewing, who had been elected to the 
Senate, was chosen to preside over that body. At 
the August election of 1834, Gov. Reynolds was also 
elected to Congress, more than a year ahead of the 
time at wliich he could actually take his seat, as was 
then the law. His predecessor, Charles Slade, had 
just died of Asiatic cholera, soon after the elec- 
tion, and Gov. Reynolds was chosen to serve out his 
iniexpired term. Accordingly he set out for Wash- 
ington in November of that year to take his seat in 
Congress, and Gen. Ewing, by virtue of his office as 
President of the Senate, became Governor of the 
Stat3 of Illinois, his term covering only a period of 
15 dai's. namely, from the 3d to the ryth days, in- 
clusive, of November. On the 17th the Legislature 
met, and Gov. Ewing transmitted to that body his 
message, giving a statement of the condition of the 
affairs of the State at that time, and urging a contin- 
uance of the policy adopted by his predecessor; and 
jn the same day Governor elect Joseph Duncan 
c'as sworn into office, thus relieving Mr. Ewing from 

the responsible situation. This is the o[ily time that 
such a juncture has happened in the history of Illi- 

On the 29th of December, 1835, Gen. Ewing was 
elected a United Slates Senator to serve out tlie 
unexpired term of Elias Kent Kane, deceased. Tiie 
latter gentleman was a very prominent figure in the 
early politics of lUinoif, and a county in this State is 
named in his honor. The election of Gen. Ewing to 
the Senate was a protracted struggle. His competi- 
tors were James Semple, who afterwards held several 
important offices in this State, and Richard M. 
Young, afterward a United States Senator and a 
Supreme Judge and a man of vast influence. On 
the first ballot Mr. .Semple had 25 votes. Young 19 
and Ewing 18. On the eighth ballot Young was 
dropped ; the ninth and tenth stood a tie ; but on 
tlie I 2th Ewing received 40, to Semple 37, and was 
accordingly declared elected. In 1837 Mr. Ewing 
received some votes for a continuance of his term in 
Congress, when Mr. Young, just referred to, was 
elected. In 1S42 Mr. Ewing was elected State 
Audit-^r on the ticket with Gov Ford. 

Gen. Ewing was a gentleman of culture, a lawyer 
by profession, and was much in public life. In person 
he was above medium height and of heavy build, 
with auburn hair, blue eyes, large-sized head and 
short face. He was genial, social, friendly and 
aff.ible, with fair talent, though of no high degree of 
originality. He died March 25, 1846. 







%t}fk gHHiCllin. 



^tjj 1S34-S, was born at Paris, 
~ Ky., Feb. 23, 1794. At the 
tender age of 19 years he en- 
Usted in the war against Great 
Britain, and as a soldier he 
l!_ai acquitted liimself with credit. He 
was an Ensign under the daunt- 
less Croghan at Lower Sandusky, 
\ or Fort Stephenson. In Illinois 
he first appeared in a public capa- 
city as Major-General of the Militia, 
a position which his military fame 
had procured him. Subsequently 
he became a State Senator from 
. Jackson County, and is honorably 
mentioned for introducing the first bill providing for 
a fiec-scliool system. In 1826, when the redoubt- 
able John ?. Cook, who had previously beaten such 
men as John McLean, Elias Kent Kane and ex- 
Gov, Bond, came up for the fuurtli time for Congress, 
Mr. Duncan was brought forward against him by his 
friends, greatly to the surprise of all the politicians. 
'Vs yet he was but little known in the State. He was 
an original Jackson man at that time, being attached 
to his political fortune in admiration of the glory of 
his militaty achievements. His chances of success 
ngainst Cook were generally regarded as hopeless, 
but he entered upon the campaign undaunted. His 
speeches, though short and devoid of ornament, were 
full of good sense. He made a diligent canvass of 
the State, Mr. Cook being hindered by the condition of 
his health. Tlie most that was expected of Mr. 
Duncan, under the circumstances, was that he would 


obtain a respectable vote, but without defeating Mr. 
Cook. The result of the campaign, however, was a 
source of surprise and amazement to both friends 
and foes, as Mr. Duncan came out 641 votes ahead! 
He received 6,321 votes, and Mr. Cook 5,680. Un- 
til this denouement, the violence of party feeling 
smoldering in the breasts of the people on account 
of the defeat of Jackson, was not duly appreciated. 
Aside from the great convention struggle of 1824, no 
other than mere local and pergonal considerations 
had ever before controlled an election in Illinois. 

From the above date Mr. Duncan retained his 
seat in Congress until his election as Governor in 
.\ugust, 1834. The first and bloodless year of the 
Black Hawk War he was appointed by Gov. Rey- 
nolds to the position of Brigadier-General of the 
volunteers, and he conducted his brigade to Rock 
Island. But he was absent from the State, in Wash- 
ington, during the gubernatorial campaign, and did 
not personally participate in it, but addressed circu- 
lars to his constituents. His election was, indeed, 
attributed to the circumstance of his absence, be- 
cause his estrangement from Jackson, formerly his 
political idol, and also from the Democracy, largely 
in ascendency in the State, was complete; but while 
his defection was well known to his Whig friends, 
and even to the leading Jackson men of this State, 
the latter were unable to carry conviction of that fact 
to the masses, as mail and newspaper facilities at 
that day were far inferior to those of the present 
time. Of course the Governor was much abused 
afterward by the fossilized Jackson men who re- 
garded party ties and affiliations as above all 
other issues that could arise; but he was doubtless 



sincere in his opposition to the old hero, as the latter 
.';ad vetoed several important western measures 
which were dear to Mr. Duncan. In his inaugural 
message he threw off the mask and took a bold stand 
pgainst the course of the President. The measures 
r.e recommended in his message, however, were so 
desirable that the Legislature, although by a large 
majority consisting of Jackson men, could not refrain 
from endorsing them. These measures related 
raainly to bar.ks and internal improvements. 

It was while Mr. Duncan was Governor that the 
people of Illinois went whirling on with bank and in- 
ternal improvement schemes that well nigh bank- 
-upted the Slate. The hard times of 1837 came on, 
and the disasters that attended the inauguration of 
;hese plans and the operation of the banks were mu- 
tually charged upon the two political parties. Had 
any one man autocratic power to introduce and 
carry on any one of these measures, he would proba- 
bly have succeeded to the satisfaction of the public; 
;:ut as many jealous men had hold of the same plow 
nandle, no success followed and each blamed the other 
"or the failure. In this great vortex Gov. Duncan 
was carried along, suffering the like derogation of 
character with his fellow citizens. 

At the height of the excitement the Legislature 
"provided for" railroads from Galena to Cairo, Alton 
to Shawneetown, Alton to Mount Carniel, Alton to the 
eastern boundary of the State in the direction of 
Terre Haute, Quincy via Sjjringfield to the Wabasii, 
Bloouiington to Pekin, and Peoria to Warsaw, — in all 
about 1,300 miles of road. It also provided for the 
improvement of the navigation of the Kaskaskia, 
Illinois, Great and Little Wabash and Rock Rivers ; 
also as a placebo, $200,000 in money were to be dis- 
tributed to the various counties wherein no improve- 
ments were ordered to be made as above. The 
estimate for the expenses for all these projects was 
;laced at a little over $10,000,000, which was not 
more i.aan half enough! That would now be equal to 
saddling upon the State a debt of $225,000,000 ! It 
wss sufficient to bankrupt the State several times 
over, even counting all the possible benefits. 

One of the most exciting events that ever occurred 
^n this fair State was the murder of Elijah P. Love- 
'oy in the fall of 1837, at Alton, during Mr. Duncan's 
term as Governor. Lovejoy was an " Abolitionist," 
editing the Observer at that place, and the pro- 
slavery slums there formed themselves into a mob. 

and after destroying successively three presses be- 
longing to Mr. Lovejoy, surrounded the warehouse 
where the fourth press was stored away, endeavoring 
to destroy it, and where Lovejoy and his friends 
were entrenching themselves, and shot and killed the 
brave reformer! 

About this time, also, the question of removing the 
State capital again came up, as the 20 years' limit for 
its existence at Vandalia was drawing to a close. 
There was, of course, considerable excitement over 
the matter, the two main points competing for it be- 
ing Springfield and Peoria. The jealousy of the lat- 
ter place is not even yet, 45 years afterward, fully 

Gov. Duncan's term expired in 1838. In 1842 
he was again proposed as a candidate for the Execu- 
tive chair, this time by the Whig party, against Adam 
W. Snyder, of St. Clair County, the nominee of the 

Democrats. Charles W. Hunter was a third candi- 


date for the same position. Mr. Snyder, however, died 
before the cami)aign had advanced very far, and his 
party substituted Thomas Ford, who was elected, 
receiving 46,901 votes, to 38,584 for Duncan, and 
909 for Hunter. The cause of Democratic success 
at this time is mainly attributed to the temporary 
support of the Mormons which they enjoyed, and the 
want of any knowledge, on the part of the masses, 
ihut Mr. Ford was opposed to any given jwlicy en- 
leitained in the respective localities. 

Gov. Duncan was a man of rather limited educa- 
tion, but with naturally fine aliilities he profited 
greatly by his various public services, and gathered 
a store of knowledge regarding public affairs which 
served him a ready [jurpose. He possessed a clear 
judgment, decision, confidence in himself and moral 
courage to carry out liis convictions of right. In his 
deportment he was vi^ell adapted to gain the admira- 
tion of the people. His intercourse with them was 
both affable and dignified. His portrait at the Gov- 
ernor's mansion, from which the accompanying was 
made, represents him as having a swarthy complex- 
ion, high cheek bones, broad foreliead, piercing black 
eyes and straight black hair. 

He was a liberal patron of the Illinois College at 
Jacksonville, a member of its Board of Trustees, and 
died, after a short illness, Jan. 15, 1S44, a devoted 
member of the Presbyterian Church, leaving a wife 
but no children. Two children, born to them, had 
died in infancy. 




^ {^m^^^ ®>^J^<lP <"^^iinr> I 


<> 4 » 

'>;H0MAS CARLIN, the sixth 
Governor of the State of 
Illinois, serving from 1838 
to 1842, was also a Ken- 
tuckian, being born near 
Frankfort, that State, July 
18, 1789, of Irish paternity. 
The opportunities for an education 
being very meager in liis native 
place, he, on approaching years of 
jiid<;ment and maturity, applied 
himself to those branches of learn- 
mg that seemed most important, 
and thus became a self-made man ; 
and his taste for reading and 
study remained with him through 
life. In 1S03 his father removed 
10 Missouri, then a part of " New Spain," where he 
died in 18 10. 

In 1812 young Carlin came to Illinois and partici- 
pated in all the "ranging" service incident to the 
war of that period, proving himself a soldier of un- 
daunted bravery. In 1814 he married Rebecca 
Muilt, and lived for four years on the bank of the 
Mississippi River, oiiposite the mouth of the Mis- 
sc.ri, where he followed farming, and then removed 
to Greene County. He located the town site of Car- 
ri..'.on, in that county, and in 1825 m-ide a liberal 
donation of land for county building purposes. He 
w:is tlic first Sheriff of that county after its separate 
or_:;anization, and afterward was twice elected, as a 
1.1. kson Democrat, to the Illinois Senate. In the 
I'.i.ick Hawk War he commanded a spy battalion, a 
l'o,t of considerable danger. In 1S34 he was ap- 
l.ointed by President Jackson to the position of 
Receiverof Public Moneys, and to fulfill the office 

more conveniently he removed to the city of Quincy. 
While, in 1838, the unwieldy internal improvement 
system of the State was in full operation, with all its 
expensive machinery, amidst bank suspensions 
throughout the United States, a great stringency in 
the money market everywhere, and Illinois bonds 
forced to sale at a heavy discount, and the " hardest 
limes " existing that the peopfe of the Prairie State 
ever saw, the general election of State (jfficers was 
approaching. Discreet men who had cherished the 
hopeof a speedy subsidence of the public infatua- 
tion, met with disappointment. A Governor and 
Legislature were to be elected, and these were now 
looked forward to for a repeal of the ruinous State 
policy. But the grand schemf; had not yet lost its 
dazzling influence upon the minds of the people. 
Time and experience had not yet fully demonstrated 
its utter absurdity. Hence the question of arresting 
its career of profligate expenditures did not become 
a leading one with the dominant party during the 
campaign, and most of the old members of the Leg- 
islature were returned at this election. 

Under these circumstances the Democrats, in State 
Convention assembled, nominated Mr. Carlin for the 
ofl[ice of Governor, and S. H. Anderson for Lieuten- 
ant Governor, while the Whigs nominated Cyrus Ed- 
wards, brotherof Ninian Edwards, formerly Governor, 
and W. H. Davidson. Edwards came out strongly 
for a continuance of the State policy, while Carlin 
remained non-committal. This was the first time 
that the two main political parties in this State were 
unembarrassed by any third party in the field. The 
result of the election was: Carlin, 35,573 ; Ander- 
son, 30,335 ; Edwards, 29,629 ; and Davidson, 28,- 

Uixin the meeting of the subsequent Legislature 
( I S39), the retiring Governor CDuncan) in his incs- 



sage spoke in emphatic terms of the impolicy of the 
internal improvement system, presaging the evils 
threatened, and uiged that body to do their utmost 
to correct the great error ; yet, on the contrary, the 
Legislature not only decided to continue the policy 
but also added to its burden by voting more appro- 
priations and ordering more improvements. Although 
the money market was still stringent, a further loan 
of $4,000,000 was ordered for the Illinois & Mich- 
igan Canal alone. Cli'cago at that time began to 
loom up and promise to be an important city, even 
the great emporium of the West, as it has since in- 
deed came to be. Ex-Gov. Reynolds, an incompe- 
tent financier, was commissioned to effect the loan, 
and accordingly hastened to the East on this respons- 
ible errand, and negotiated the loans, at considera- 
ble sacrifice to the State. Besides this embarrassment 
to Carlln's administration, the Legislature also de- 
clared that he had no authority to appoint a Secretary 
of State until a vacancy existed, and A. P. Field, a 
Whig, who had already held the post by appointment 
through three administrations, was determined to 
keep the place a while longer, in spite of Gov. Car- 
lln's preferences. The course of the Legislature in 
this regard, however, was finally sustained by the 
Supreme Court, in a qjio wai-ranto case brought up 
before it by John A. McClernand, whom the Gov- 
ernor had nominated for the office. Thereupon that 
dignified body was denounced as a "Whig Court!" 
endeavoring to establish the principle of life-tenure 
of office. 

A new law was adopted re-organlzing the Judici- 
ary, and under it five additional Supreme Judges 
were elected by the Legislature, namely, Thomas 
Ford (afterward Governor), Sidney Breese, Walter B. 
Scates, Samuel H. Treat and Stephen A. Douglas — 
all Democrats. 

It was during Gov. Carlin's administration that the 
noisy campaign of " Tippecanoe and Tyler too " oc- 
curred, resulting in a Whig victory. This, however, 
did not aflfect Illinois politics very seriously. 

Another prominent event in the West during Gov. 
Carlln's term of office was the excitement caused by 
the Mormons and their removal from Independence, 
Mo., to Nauvoo, 111., in 1840. At the same time 
they began to figure somewhat in State politics. On 
account of their believing — as they thought, accord- 
ing to the New Testament — that they should have 

"all things common," and that consequently "all 
the earth " and all that is upon it were the" Lord's " 
and therefore the property of his " saints," they 
were suspected, and correctly, too, of committing 
many of the deeds of larceny, robbery, etc., that 
were so rife throughout this country in those days. 
Hence a feeling of violence grew up between the 
Mormons and "anti-Mormons." In the State of 
Missouri the Mormons always supported the Dem- 
ocracy until they were driven out by the Democratic 
government, when they turned tlieir support to the 
Whigs. They were becoming numerous, and in tlie 
Legislature of 1 840-1, therefore, it became a matter 
of great interest with Ijoth parties to conciliate these 
people. Through the agency of one John C. Ben- 
nett, a scamp, the Mormons succeeded in rushing 
through the Legislature (both parties not darin,? io 
oppose) a charter for the city of Nauvoo which nx- 
tually erected a hierarchy co-ordinate with the Fed- 
eral Government itself In the fall of iS4[ the 
Governor of Missouri made a demand upon Gov. 
Carlin for the body of Joe .Smith, the Mormon leader, 
as a fugitive from justice. Gov. Carlin issued the 
writ, but for some reason it was returned unserved. 
It was again issued in 1842, and Smith was arrested, 
but was either rescued by his followers or discharged 
by the municipal court on a writ of habeas corpus. 

In December, 1841, the Democratic Convention 
nominated Adam \V. Snyder, of Belleville, for Gov- 
ernor. As he had been, as a meml^er of the Legisla- 
ture, rather friendly to the Mormons, tlie latter 
naturally turned their support to the Democratic 
party. The next spring the Whigs nominated Ex- 
Gov. Duncan for the same office. In the meantime 
the Mormons began to grow more odious to the 
masses of the people, and the comparative prospects 
of the respective parties for success became very 
problematical. Mr. Snyder died in May, and 
Thomas Ford, a Supreme Judge, was substituted as 
a candidate, and was elected. 

At the close of his gubernatorial term, Mr. Carlin 
removed back to his old home at CarrolUon, where 
he spent the remainder of his life, as before his ele- 
vation to office, in agricultural pursuits. In iSrg 
he served out the unexpired term of J. D. Fry in the 
Illinois House of Representatives, and died Feb. 4, 
1852, at his residence at Carrollton, leaving a wife 
and seven children. 






.^tji^^ A 


-■*-- ' ■*'<«ewr^l 




!HOMAS FORD, Governor 
from 1842 to 1846, and au- 
thor of a very interesting 
history of Illinois, was born 
at Uniontown, Pa., in the 
year i Soo. His mother, after 
the death of her first hus- 
band (Mr. Forquer), married Rob- 
ert Ford, who was killed ia 1S02, 
by the Indians in the mountains 
of Pennsylvania. She was conse- 
quently left in indigent circum- 
stances, with a large family, mostly 
girls. With a view to better her 
condition, she, in 1S04, removed to 
Missouri, where it had been cus- 
tomary by the Spanish Govern- 
ment to give land to actual settlers ; but upon her 
arrival at St. Louis she found the country ceded to 
the United States, and the liberal policy toward set- 
tlers changed by the new ownership. After some 
sickness to herself and family, she finally removed to 
Illinois, and settled some three miles south of Water- 
loo, but the following year moved nearer the Missis- 
sippi bluffs. Here young Ford received his first I 

schooling, under the instructions of a Mr. Humphrey, 
for which he had to walk three miles. His mother, 
though lacking a thorough education, was a woman 
of superior mental endowments, joined to energy 
and determination of character. She inculcated in 
her children those high-toned principles which dis- 
tinguished her sons in public life. She exercised a 
rigid economy to provide her children an education ; 
but George Forquer, her oldest son (six years older 
than Thomas Ford), at an early age had to quit 
school to aid by his labor in the support of the family. 
He afterward became an eminent man in Illinois 
affairs, and but for his early death would probably 
have been elected to the United States Senate. 

Young Ford, with somewhat better opportunities, 
received a better education, though limited to the 
curriculum of the common school of those pioneer 
times. His mind gave early promise of superior en- 
dowments, with an inclination for mathematics. His 
proficiency attracted the attention of Hon. Daniel P. 
Cook, who became his efficient patron and friend. 
The latter gentleman was an eminent Illinois states- 
man who, as a Member of Congress, obtained a grant 
of 300,000 acres of land to aid in completing the 
Illinois iV Michigan Canal, and after whom the 
county of Cook was named. Through the advice of 



this gentleman, Mr. Ford turned his attention to the 
study of law; but Forquer, then merchandising, re- 
garding his education defective, sent him to Transyl- 
vania University, where, however, he remained but 
one term, owing to Forquer's failure in business. On 
his return he alternated his law reading with teach- 
ing school for support. 

lu 1S29 Gov. Edwards appointed him Prosecuting 
Attorney, and in 1S31 he was re-appointed by Gov. 
Reynolds, and after that he was four times elected a 
Judge by the Legislature, without opposition, twice a 
Circuit Judge, oice a Judge of Chicago, and as As- 
sociate Judge of the Supreme Court, when, in 1841, 
the latter tribunal was re-organized by the addition 
of five Judges, all Democrats. Ford was assigned to 
the Ninth Judicial Circuit, and wliile in this capacity 
he was liolding Court in Ogle County he received a 
notice of his nomination by the Democratic Conven- 
tion for the office of Governor. He immediately re- 
signed his place and entered upon the canvass. In 
August, 1842, he was elected, and on the 8th of De- 
cember following he was inaugurated. 

All the offices which he had held were unsolicited 
by him. He received them upon the true Jefferson- 
ian principle, — Mever to ask and never to refuse 
office. Both as a lawyer and as a Judge he stood 
deservedly high, but his cast of intellect fitted him 
rather for a writer u|X)n law than a practicing advo- 
cate in the courts. In the latter capacity he was void 
of the moving power of eloquence, so necessary to 
success with juries. As a Judge his opinions were 
■jound, lucid and able expositions of the law. In 
practice, he was a stranger to the tact, skill and in- 
sinuating address of the politician, but he saw tlirough 
:he arts of demagogues as well as any man. He was 
plain in his demeanor, so much so, indeed, that at 
one time after the e.xpiration of his term of office, 
during a session of the Legislature, he was taken l)y 
a stranger 10 be a seeker for the position of door- 
keeper, and was waited upon at his hotel near mid- 
night by a knot of small office-seekers with the view 
of effecting a "combination ! " 

Mr. Ford had not the " brass " of the ordinary 
politician, nor that impetuosity which characterizes a 
political leader. He cared little for money, and 
hardly enough for a decent support. In person he 
was of small stature, slender, of dark complexion, 
with black hair, sharp features, deep-set eyes, a 
pointed, aquiline nose having a decided twist to one 
side, and a small mouth. 

The three most important events in Gov. Ford's 
administration were the establishment of the high 
financial credit of the State, the " Mormon War "and 
the Mexican War. 

In the first of these the Governor proved himself 
to be eminently wise. On coming into office he found 
the State badly paralyzed by the ruinous effects of 
the notorious "internal improvement" schemes of 

the preceding decade, with scarcely anything to 
show by way of "improvement." The enterprise 
that seemed to be getting ahead more than all the 
rest was the Illinois & Michigan Canal. As this 
promised to be the most important thoroughfare, 
feasible to the people, it was well under headway in 
its construction. Therefore the State policy wa^ 
almost concentrated upon it, in order to rush it on Ic 
completion. Tlie bonded indebtedness of the Stale 
was growing so large as to frighten the people, and 
they were about ready to entertain a proposition for 
repudiation. But the Governor had the foresight to 
recommend such measures as would maintain the 
public credit, for which every citizen to-day feels 

But perhaps the Governor is remembered more for 
his connection with the Mormon troubles than for 
anything else; for it was during his term of office 
that the " Latter-Day Saints " became so strong at 
Nauvoo, built their temple there, increased their num- 
bers throughout the country, committed misdemean- 
ors, taught dangerous doctrines, suffered the loss of 
theirleader, Jo Smith, by a violent death, were driven 
out of Nauvoo to the far West, etc. Having been a 
Judge for so many years previously, Mr. Ford of 
course was no i-committal concerning Mormon aff lirs, 
and was therefore claimed by both parties and also 
accused by each of sympathizing too greatly with the 
other side. Mormonism claiming to be a system of 
religion, the Governor no doubt was "between two 
fires," and felt compelled to touch the matter rather 
" gingerly," and doubtless felt greatly relieved when 
that pestilential people left the State. Such compli- 
cated matters, especially when religion is mixed up 
with them, expose every person participating in 
them to criticism from all parties. 

The Mexican War was begun in the spring of 
1845, and was continued into the gubernatorial term 
of Mr. Ford's su cessor. The Governor's connection 
with this war, however, was not conspicuous, as it 
was only administrative, commissioning officers, etc. 

Ford's " History of Illinois " is a very readable and 
entertaining work, of 450 small octavo pages, and is 
destined to increase in value with the lapse of time. 
It exhibits a natural flow of compact and forcible 
thought, never failing to convey the nicest sense. In 
tracing with his trenchant pen the devious operations 
of the professional politician, in which he is inimit- 
able, his account is open, perhaps, to the objection 
that all his contemporaries are treated as mere place- 
seekers, while many of them have since been judged 
by the people to be worthy statesmen. His writings 
seem slightly open to the criticism that they exhibit 
a little sijlenetic partiality against those of his con- 
temporaries who were prominent during his term of 
office as Governor. 

The death of Gov. Ford took place at Peoria, 111., 
Nov. 2, 1S50. 

^ C^r>-i-*-v^(y^ 




„„^ ^..^^ ',.- . '-.t- ^^^^ 

~^M. I Augustus O. French. | 

Governor of Illinois from 
1846 to 1852, was born in 

the town of Hill, in the 
State of New Hampshire, 
Aug. 2, 1S08. He was a 
descendant in the fourth 
generation ot Nathaniel 
French, who emigrated from England 
in 1687 and settled in Saybury, Mass. 
In early life young French lost his 
father, but continued to receive in- 
struction from an exemplary and 
Christian mother until he was 19 years 
old, when she also died, confiding to 
his care and trust four younger broth- 
ers and one sister. He discharged his trust with 
parental devotion. His education in early life was 
such mainly as a common school afforded. For a 
brief period he attended Dartmouth College, but 
from pecuniary causes and the care of his brothers 
and sister, he did not graduate. He subsequently 
read law, and was admitted to the Bar in 1831, and 
shortly afterward removed to Illinois, settling first at 
Albion, Edwards County, wliere he established him- 
self in the practice of law. The following year lie 
removed to Paris, Edgar County. Here he attained 
eminence in his profession, and entered public life 
by representing that county in the Legislature. A 
strong attachment sprang up between him and Ste- 
phen A. Douglas. 

In 1S39, Mr. French was appointed Receiver of 
the United States Land Office at Palestine, Craw- 
ford County, at which place he was a resident when 

elevated to the gubernatorial chair. In 1844 he was 
a Presidential Elector, and as sucli he voted for 
James K. Polk. 

The Democratic State Convention of 1846, meet- 
ing at Springfield Feb. 10, nominated Mr. French 
for Governor. Other Democratic candidates were 
Lyman TgrumbuU, John Calhoun (subsequently of 
Lecompton Constitution notoriety), Walter B. Scates, 
Richard M. Young and A. W. Cavarly, — an array of 
very able and prominent names. Trumbull was per- 
haps defeated in the Convention by the rumor that 
he was opposed to the Illinois and Michigan Canal, 
as he had been a year previously. For Lieutenant 
Governor J. B. Wells was chosen, while other candi- 
dates were Lewis Ross, Wni. McMurtry, Newton 
Cloud, J. B. Hamilton and W. W. Thompson. The 
resolutions declared strongly against the resuscita- 
tion of the old State Banks. 

The Whigs, who were in a hopeless minority, held 
their convention June 8, at Peoria, and selected 
Thomas M. Kilpatrick, of Scott County, for Governor, 
and Gen. Nathaniel G. Wilco-x, of Schuyler, for 
Lieutenant Governor. 

In the campaign the latter exposed Mr. French's 
record and connection with the passage of the in- 
ternal improvement system, urging it against his 
election; but in the meantime the war with Mexico 
broke out, regarding whicli the Wiiig record was un- 
popular in this State. The war was the absorbing 
and dominating quesrion of the period, sweeping 
every other political issue in its course. The elec- 
tion in August gave Mr. French 58,700 votes, and 
Kilpatrick only 36,775. Richard Eells, Abolitionist 
c.mdidate for the same office, received 5,152 vote>s 



By the new Constitution of 1848, a new election for 
State officers was ordered in November of that year, 
before Gov. French's term was half out, and he was 
re-elected for the term of four years. He was there- 
fore the incumbent for six consecutive years, the 
only Governor of this State who has ever served in 
that capacity so long at one time. As there was no 
organized opposition to his election, he received 67,- 
453 votes, to 5,639 for Pierre Menard (son of the 
first Lieutenant Governor), 4,748 for Charles V. 
Dyer, 3,834 for W. L. D. Morrison, and 1,361 for 
James L. D. Morrison. But Wm. McMurtry, of 
Knox County, was elected Lieutenant Governor, in 
place of Joseph B. Wells, who was before elected 
and did not run again. 

Governor French was inaugurated into office dur- 
ing tlie progress of the Mexican War, which closed 
during the summer of 1847, although the treaty of 
Guadalupe Hidalgo was not made until Feb. 2, 
1848. The policy of Gov. French's party was com- 
mitted to that war, but in connection with that affair 
he was, of course, only an administrative officer. 
During his term of office, Feb. 19, 1847, the Legisla- 
ture, by special permission of Congress, declared that 
all Government lands sold to settlers should be im- 
mediately subject to State taxation ; before this they 
were exempt for five years after sale. By this ar- 
rangement the revenue was materially increased. 
About the same time, the distribution of Government 
land warrants among the Mexican soldiers as bounty 
threw upon the market a great quantity of good 
lands, and this enhanced the settlement of the State. 
The same Legislature authorized, with the recom- 
mendation of the Governor, the sale of the Northern 
Cross Railroad (from Springfield to Meredosia, the 
first in the State and now a section of the Wabash, 
St. Louis & Pacific). It sold for $100,000 in bonds, 
although it had cost the State not less than a million. 
The salt wells and canal lands in the Saline reserve 
in Gallatin County, granted by the general Govern- 
ment to the State, were also authorized by the 
Governor to be sold, to apply on the State debt. In 
1850, for the first time since 1839, the accruing State 
revenue, exclusive of specific appropriations, was 
sufficient to meet the current demands upon the 
treasury. The aggregate taxable property of the 
State at this time was over $100,000,000, and the 
population 851,470. 

In 1849 the Legislature adopted the township or- 
ganization law, which, however, proved defective, 
and was properly amended in 185 1. At its session 
in the latter year, the General Assembly also passed 
a law to exempt homesteads from sale on executions 
This beneficent measure had been repeatedly utgecj 
upon that body by Gov. French. 

In 1850 some business men in St. Louis conv- 
menced to build a dike opposite the lower part of 
their city on the Illinois side, to keep the Mississippi 
in its channel near St. Louis, instead of breaking 
away from them as it sometimes threatened to do. 
This they undertook without permission from the 
Legislature or Executive authority of this State ; and 
as many of the inhabitants thera complained that 
the scheme would inundate and ruin much valuable 
land, there was a slight conflict of jurisdictions, re- 
sulting in favor of the St. Louis project ; and since 
then a good site has existed there for a city (East St. 
Louis), and now a score of railroads center there. 

It was in September, 1850, that Congress granted 
to this State nearly 3,000,000 acres of land in aid of 
the completion of the Illinois Central Railroad, 
which constituted the most important epoch in the 
railroad — we might say internal improvement — his- 
tory of the State. The road was rushed on to com- 
pletion, which accelerated the settlement of the in- 
terior of the State by a good class of industrious citi- 
zens, and by the charter a good income to the State 
Treasury is paid in from the earnings of the road. 

In r85i the Legislature passed a law authorizing 
free stock banks, which was the source of much leg- 
islative discussion for a number of years. 

But we have not space further to particularize 
concerning legislation. Gov. French's administra- 
tion was not marked by any feature to be criticised, 
while the country was settling up as never before. 

In stature. Gov. French was of medium height, 
squarely built, light complexioned, with ruddy face 
and pleasant countenance. In manners he was 
plain and agreeable. By nature he was somewhat 
diffident, but he was often very outspoken in his con- 
victions of duty. In public speech he was not an 
orator, but was chaste, earnest and persuasive. In 
business he was accurate and methodical, and in his 
administration he kept up the credit of the State. 

He died in 1865, at his home in Lebanon, St 
Clair Co., 111. 




■"•.OEL A. MATTESON, Governor 
|^«« 1 85 3-6, was born Aug. 8, 1808, 
■% in Jefferson County, New York, 
to which place his father had re- 
moved from Vermont three years 
before. His father was a farmer 
in fair circumstances, but a com- 
mon English education was all 
that his only son received. Young 
Joel first tempted fortune as a 
small tradesman in Prescott, 
Canada, before he was of age. 
He returned from that place to 
his home, entered an academy, 
taught school, visited the prin- 
cipal Eastern cities, improved a farm his father had 
given him, made a tour in the South, worked there 
in b;iilding railroads, experienced a storm on the 
Gulf of Mexico, visited the gold diggings of Northern 
Georgia, and returned via Nashville to St. Louis and 
through Illinois to his father's home, when he mar- 
ried. In 1833, having sold his farm, he removed, 
with his wife and one child, to Illinois, and entered 
a claim on Government land near the head of Au 
Sable River, in what is now Kendall County. At 
that time there were not more than two neighbors 
within a range of ten miles of his jjlace, and only 
three or four houses between him and Chicago. He 
opened a large farm. His far.iily was boarded 12 

miles away while he erected a house on his claim, 
sleeping, daring this time, under a rude pole shed. 
Here his life was once placed in imminent peril by 
a huge prairie rattlesnake sharing his bed. 

In 1835 he bought largely at the Government land 
sales. During the speculative real-estate mania which 
broke out in Chicago in 1 836 and spread over the State, 
he sold his lands under the inflation of that period 
and removed to Joliet. In 1838 he became a heavy 
contractor on the Illinois & Michigan Canal. Upon 
the completion of his job in 184 r, when hard limes 
prevailed, business at a stand, contracts paid in State 
scrip; when all the public works except the canal 
were abandoned, the State offered for sale 700 tons 
of railroad iron, which was purchased by Mr. Mat- 
teson at a bargain. This he accepted, shipped and 
sold at Detroit, realizing a very handsome profit, 
enough to pay off all his canal debts and leave him a 
surplus of several thousand dollars. His enterprise 
next prompted him to start a woolen mill at Joliet, 
in which he prospered, and which, after successive 
enlargements, became an enormous establishment. 

In 1842 he was first elected a State Senator, but, 
by a bungling apiiortionmeat, John Pearson, a Senator 
holding over, was found to be in the same district, 
and decided to be entitled to represent it. Mat- 
teson's seat was declared vacant. Pearson, however, 
with a nobleness difficult to appreciate in this day of 



greed for office, unwilling to represent his district 
under the circumstances, immediately resigned his 
unexpired term of two years. A bill was passed in a 
few hours ordering a new election, and in ten days' 
time Mr. Matteson was returned re-elected and took 
his seat as Senator. From his well-known capacity 
as a business man, he was made Chairman of the 
Committee on Finance, a position he held during 
this half and two full succeeding Senatorial terms, 
discharging its important duties with ability and faith- 
fulness. Besides his extensive woolen-mill interest, 
when work was resumed on the canal under the new 
loan of $1,600,000 he again became a heavy con- 
tractor, and also subsequently operated largely in 
building railroads. Thus he showed himself a most 
energetic and thorough business man. 

He was nominated for Governor by the Demo- 
cratic State Convention which met at Springfield 
April 20, 1852. Other candidates before the Con- 
vention were D. L. Gregg and F. C. Sherman, of 
Cook ; John Dement, of Lee ; Thomas L. Harris, of 
Menard; Lewis W. Ross, of Fulton ; and D. P. Bush, 
of Pike. Gustavus Koerner, of St. Clair, was nom- 
inated for Lieutenant Governor. For the same offices 
the Whigs nominated Edwin B. Webb and Dexter A. 
Knovvlton. Mr. Matteson received 80,645 votes at 
the election, while Mr. Webb received 64,408. Mat- 
teson's forte was not on the stump; he had not cul- 
tivated the art of oily flattery, or the faculty of being 
all things to all men. His intellectual qualities took 
rather the direction of efficient executive ability. His 
turn consisted not so much in the adroit manage- 
ment of party, or the powerful advocacy of great gov- 
ernmental principles, as in those more solid and 
ehduring operations which cause the physical devel- 
opment and advancement of a State, — of commerce 
and business enterprise, into which he labored with 
success to lead the people. As a politician he was 
just and liberal in his views, and both in official and 
private life he then stood untainted and free from 
blemish. As a man, in active benevolence, social 
I'irtues and all the amiable qualities of neighbor or 
citizen, he had few superiors. His messages present 
a perspicuous array of facts as to the condition of the 
State, and are often couched in forcible and elegant 

The greatest excitement during liis term of office 
was the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, by Con- 

gress, under the leadership of Stephen A. Douglas in 
1854, when the bill was passed organizing the Terri- 
tory of Kansas and Nebraska. A large portion of 
the Whig party of the North, through their bitter op- 
position to tlie Democratic party, naturally drifted 
into the doctrine of anti-slavery, and thus led to what 
was temporarily called the "Anti-Nebraska" party, 
while the followers of Douglas were known as " Ne- 
braska or Douglas Democrats." It was during this 
embryo stage of the Republican party that Abraham 
Lincoln was brought forward as the "Anti-Nebraska" 
candidate for the United States Senatorship, while 
Gen. James Shields, the incumbent, was re-nom- 
inated by the Democrats. But after a fewballotings 
in the Legislature (1855), these men were dropped, 
and Lyman Trumbull, an Anti-Nebraska Democrat, 
was brought up by the former, and Mr. Matteson, 
then Governor, l)y the latter. On the nth ballot 
Mr. Trumbull obtained one majority, and was ac- 
cordingly declared elected. Before Gov. Matteson 's 
term expired, the Republicans were fully organized 
as a national party, and in 1856 put into the field a 
full national and State ticket, carrying the State, but 
not the nation. 

The Legislature of 1855 passed two very import- 
ant measures, — the present free-school system and a 
submission of the Maine liquor law to a vote of the 
people. The latter was defeated by a small majority 
of the popular vote. 

During the four years of Gov. Matteson 's admin- 
istration the taxable wealth of the State was about 
trebled, from $137,818,079 to $349,951,272; the pub- 
lic debt was reduced from $17,398,985 to $12,843,- 
144; taxation was at the same time reduced, and the 
State resumed paying interest on its debt i;i New 
York as fast as it fell due; railroads were increased 
in their mileage from something less than 400 to 
about 3,000 ; and the population of Chicago was 
nearly doubled, and its commerce more than quad- 

Before closing this account, we regret that we liave 
to say that Mr. Matteson, in all other respects an 
upright man and a good Governor, was implicated 
in a false re-issue of redeemed canal serin, amount- 
ing to $224,182.66. By a suit in the Sangamon Cir- 
cuit Court the State recovered the principal and all 
the interest exce|)ting $27,500. 

He died in the winter of 187 2-3, at Chicago. 







'^'^S&^ BBy *i^g'0' 

ernor 1857-60, was born 
April 25, 181 1, in the 
State of New York, near 
Painted Post, Yates County. 
His parents were obscure, 
honest, God-fearing people, 
who reared their children under the daily 
example of industry and frugality, accord- 
ing to the custom of that class of Eastern 
society. Mr. Bissell received a respecta- 
ble but not thorough academical education. 
By assiduous application he acquired a 
knowledge of medicine, and in his early 
manhood came West and located in Mon- 
roe County, this State, where he engaged in the 
practice of that profession. But he was not enam- 
ored of his calling: he was swayed by a broader 
ambition, to such an extent that the mysteries of the 
healing art and its arduous duties failed to yield him 
further any cliarms. In a few years he discovered 
his choice of a profession to be a mistake, and when 
he approached the age of 30 he sought to begin 
anew. Dr. Bissell, no doubt unexpectedly to him- 
self, discovered a singular facility and charm of 
speech, the exercise of which acquired for him a 
ready local notoriety. It soon came to be under- 

stood that he desired to abandon his profession and 
take up that of the law. During terms of Court he 
would spend his time at the county seat among the 
members of the Bar, who extended to him a ready 

It was not strange, therefore, that he should drift 
into public life. In 1S40 he was elected as a Dem- 
ocrat to the Legislature from Monroe County, and 
was an efficient member of that body. On his re- 
turn home lie qualified himself for admission to the 
Bar and speedily rose to the front rank as an advo- 
cate. His powers of oratory were captivating. VVitli a 
pure diction, charming and inimitable gestures, 
clearness of statement, and a remarkable vein of sly 
humor, his efforts before a jury told with irresistible 
effect. He was chosen by the Legislature Prosecut- 
ing Attorney for the Circuit in which he lived, and 
in that position he fully discharged his duly to the 
State, gained the esteem of the Bar, and seldom 
failed to convict the offender of the law. 

In stature he was somewhat tall and slender, and 
with a straight, military bearing, he presented a dis- 
tinguished appearance. His complexion was dark, 
his head well poised, though not large, his address 
pleasant and manner winning. Ho was exemplary 
in his habits, a devoted husband and kind parent. 
He was twice married, the first time to Miss James, 



of Monroe County, by whom he had two children, 
both daughters. She died soon after the year 1840, 
and Mr. B. married for his second wife a daughter 
of Elias K. Kane, previously a United States Senator 
from this State. She survived him but a short time, 
and died without issue. 

When the war with Mexico was declared in 1846, 
Mr. Bissell enlisted and was elected Colonel of his 
regiment, over Hon. Don Morrison, by an almost 
unanimous vote, — S07 to 6. Considering the limited 
opportunities he had had, he evinced a high order of 
military talent. On the bloody field of Buena Vista 
he acquitted himself with intrepid and distinguished 
ability, contributing with his regiment, the Second 
Illinois, in no small degree toward saving the waver- 
ing fortunes of our arms during that long and fiercely 
contested battle. 

After his return home, at the close of the war, he 
was elected to Congress, his opponents being the 
Hons. P. B. Fouke and Joseph Gillespie. He served 
two terms in Congress. He was an ardent politician. 
During the great contest of 1S50 he voted in favor 
of the adjustment measures; but in 1S54 he opposed 
the repeal of the Missouri Compromise act and 
therefore the Kansas-Nebraska bill of Douglas, and 
thus became identified with the nascent Republican 

During his first Congressional term, while the 
Southern members were following their old practice 
of intimidating the North by bullying language, 
and claiming most of the credit for victories in the 
Mexican War, and Jefferson Davis claiming for the 
Mississippi troops all the credit for success at Buena 
Vista, Mr. Bissell bravely defended the Northern 
troops ; whereupon Davis challenged Bissell to a duel, 
which was accepted. This matter was brought up 
against Bissell when he was candidate for Governor 
and during his term of office, as the Constitution of 
this State forbade any duelist from holding a State 

In 1856, when the Republican party first put forth 
a candidate, John C. Fremont, for President of the 
United States, the same party nominated Mr. Bissell 
for Governor of Illinois, and John Wood, of Quincy, 
for Lieutenant Governor, while the Democrats nomi- 
nated Hon. W. A. Richardson, of .\dams County, 
for Governor, and Col. R. J. Hamilton, of Cook 
County, for Lieutenant Governor. The result of the 

election was a plurality of 4,729 votes over Richard- 
son. The .\merican, or Know-Nothing, party had a 
ticket in the field. The Legislature was nearly bal- 
anced, but was politically opposed to the Governor. 
His message to the Legislature was short and rather 
ordinary, and was criticised for expressing the sup- 
posed obligations of the people to the incorporators 
of the Illinois Central Railroad Company and for re- 
opening the slavery question by allusions to the 
Kansas troubles. Late in the session an apportion- 
ment bill, based upon the State census of 1855, was 
passed, amid much partisan strife. The Governor 
at first signed the bill and then vetoed it. A furious 
debate followed, and the question whether the Gov- 
ernor had the authority to recall a signature was 
referred to the Courts, that of last resort deciding ir. 
favor of the Governor. Two years afterward another 
outrageous attempt was made for a re-apportionment 
and to gerrymander the State, but the Legislature 
failed to pass the bill over the veto of the Governor. 

It was during Gsv. Bissell's administration that 
the notorious canal scrip fraud was brought to light, 
'"mplicating ex-Gov. Matteson and other prominent 
State ofiicials. The principal and interest, aggregat- 
ing $255,500, was all recovered by the State except- 
ing $27,500. (See sketch of Gov, Matteson.) 

In 1859 an attempt was discovered to fraud'j.- 
lently refund the Macalister and Stebbins bonds and 
thus rob the State Treasury of nearly a quarter of a 
million dollars. The State Government was impli- 
cated in this affair, and to this day remains unex- 
plained or unatoned for. For the above, and other 
matters previously mentioned. Gov. Bissell has been 
severely criticised, and he has also been most shame- 
fully libelled and slandered. 

On account of exposure in the army, the remote 
cause of a nervous form of disease gained entrance? 
into his system and eventually developed paraplegia, 
affecting his lower extremities, which, while it left 
his body in comparative health, deprived him of loco- 
motion except by the aid of crutches. While he was 
generally hopeful of ultimate recovery, this myste- 
rious disease pursued him, without once relaxing its 
stealthy hold, to the close of his life, March iS, 
i860, over nine months before the expiration of his 
gubernatorial term, at the early age of 48 years. He 
died in the faith of the Roman Catholic Church, of 
which he harl been a member since 1854. 






::i )HN WOOD, Governo.- i86o-i,and 
j,ffe»» the first settler of Quincy, 111., 
was born in the town of Sempro- 
niiis (now Moravia), Cayuga Co., 
N. Y., Dec. 20, 1798. He was 
the second child and only son of 
Dr. Daniel Wood. His mother, 
nee Catherine Crause, was of 
German parentage, and died 
while he was an infant. Dr. 
Wood was a learned and skillful 
physician, of classical attain- 
ments and proficient in several 
modern lai.guages, who, after 
serving througliout the Revolu- 
tionary War as a Surgeon, settled on the land granted 
him by the Government, and resided there a re- 
spected and leading influence in his section until his 
death, at the ripe age of 92 years. 

The subject of this sketch, impelled by the spirit 
of Western adventure then pervading everywhere, 
left his home, Nov. 2, 18 18, and passed the succeed- 
ing winter in Cincinnati, Ohio. The following sum- 
mer he pushed on to Illinois, landing at Shawneetown. 
and spent the fall and following winter in Calhoun 
County. In 1820, in company with Willard Keyes, 
iie settled in Pike County, about 30 miles southeast 
of Quincy, where for the ne.\t two years he pursued 
f.irming. In 1821 he visited "the Bluffs" (as the 
present site of Quincy was called, then uninhabited) 
and, pleased with its prospects, soon after purchased 
a quarter-section of land near by, and in the follow- 
ing fall (1822) erected near the river a small cabin, 

1 8 .X 20 feet, the first building in Quincy, of whicli 
he then became the first and for some months the 
only occupant. 

About this time he visited his old friends in Pike 
County, chief of whom was William Ross, the lead- 
ing man in building up the village of Atlas, of that 
county, which was thought then to be the possible 
commencement of a city. One day they and others 
were traveling together over the country between the 
two points named, making observations on the com- 
parative merits of the respective localities. On ap- 
proaching the Mississippi near Mr. Wood's place, 
the latter told his companions to follow him and he 
would show them where he was going to build a city. 
They went about a mile off the main trail, to a high 
point, from which the view in every direction was 
most magnificent, as it had been for ages and as ye; 
untouched by the hand of njan. Before them swept 
by the majestic Father of Waters, yet unburdened by 
navigation. After Mr. Wood had expatiated at 
length on the advantages of the situation, Mr. Ross 
replied, "But it's too near Atlas ever to amount to 

Atlas is still a cultivated farm, and Quincy is ;> 
city of over 30,000 population. 

In 1824 Mr. Wood gave a newspaper notice, 
as the law then prescribed, of his intention to apply 
to the General Assembly for the formation of a new 
county. This was done the following winter, result- 
ing in the establishment of the present Adams 
County. During the next summer Quincy was se- 
lected as the county seat, it and the vicinity then 
containing but four adult male residents and half 



that number of females. Since that period Mr. 
Wood resided at the place of his early adoption un- 
til his death, and far more than any other man was 
he identified with every measure of its progress and 
history, and almost continuously kept in public posi- 

He was one of the early town Trustees, and after 
the place became a city he was often a member of 
the City Council, many times elected Mayor, in the 
face of a constant large opposition political majority. 
In 1850 he was elected to the State Senate. In 1S56, 
on the organization of the Republican party, he was 
chosen Lieutenant Governor of the State, on the 
ticket with Wm. H. Bissell for Governor, and on the 
death of the latter, March 18, i860, he succeeded to 
the Chief Executive chair, which he occupied until 
Gov. Yates was inaugurated nearly ten months after- 

Nothing very marked characterized the adminis- 
tration of Gov. Wood. The great anti-slavery cam- 
paign of i860, resulting in the election of the honest 
Illinoisan, Abraham Lincoln, to the Presidency of the 
United States, occurred during the short period 
while Mr. Wood was Governor, and the excitement 
and issues of that struggle dominated over every 
other consideration, — indeed, supplanted them in a 
great measure. The people of Illinois, during all 
that time, were passing the comparatively petty strifes 
under Bissell's administration to the overwhelming 
issue of preserving the whole nadon from destruction. 
In 186 1 ex-Gov. Wood was one of the five Dele- 
gates from Illinois to the " Peace Convention " at 
Washington, and in April of the same year, on the 
breaking out of the Rebellion, he was appointed 

Quartermaster-General of the State, which position 
he held throughout the war. In 1864 he took com- 
mand as Colonel of the 137th 111. Vol. Inf, with 
whom he served until the period of enlistment ex- 

Politically, Gov. Wood was always actively identi- 
fied with the Whig and Republican parties. Few 
men have in personal experience comprehended so 
many surprising and advancing local changes as 
vested in the more than half century recollections of 
Gov. Wood. Sixty-four years ago a solitary settler 
on the "Bluffs," with no family, and no neighbor 
within a score of miles, the world of civilization away 
behind him, and the strolling red-man almost his 
only visitant, he lived to see growing around him, 
and under his auspices and aid, overspreading the 
wild hills and scraggy forest a teaming city, second 
only in size in the State, and surpassed nowhere in 
beauty, prosperity and promise ; whose people recog- 
nize as with a single voice the proverbial honor and 
liberality that attach to the name and lengthened 
life of their pioneer settler, "the old Governor." 

Gov. Wood was twice married,— first in January, 
1S26, to Ann M. Streeter, daughter of Joshua Streeter, 
formedy of Salem, Washington Co., N. Y. They had 
eight children. Mrs. W. died Oct. 8, 1863, and in 
June, 1S65, Gov. Wood married Mrs. Mary A., widow 
of Rev. Joseph T. Holmes. Gov. Wood died June ^, 
18S0, at his residence in Quincy. Four of his eight 
children are now living, namely: Ann E., wife of 
Gen. John Tillson; Daniel C, who married Mary J. 
Abernethy; John, Jr., who married Josephine Skinner, 
and Joshua S., who married Annie Bradley. The 
last mentioned now resides at Atchison, Kansas, and 
all the rest are still at Quincy. 






l^it'l^artl Yates 4"^ 

•^WCHARD YATES, the "War 
Governor,' 1861-4, was born 
Jan. 18, 1818, on the banks of 
the Ohio River, at Warsaw, 
GaHatin Co., Ky. His father 
-s moved in 183 1 to Illinois, and^ 
'"C^^ after stopping for a time in 
- Springfield, settled at Island 

Grove, Sangamon County. Here, 
after attending school, Richard joined 
the family. Subsequently he entered 
Illinois College at Jacksonville, 
where, in 1837, he graduated with 
first honors. He chose for his pro- 
fession the law, the Hon. J. J. Har- 
din being his instructor. After ad- 
mission to the Bar he soon rose to distinction as an 

Gifted with a fluent and ready oratory, he soon 
appeared in the political hustings, and, being a 
passionate admirer of the great Whig leader of the 
West. Henry Clay, he Joined his political fortunes to 
he party of his idol. \\\ 1840 he engaged with great 
'■rdor in the exciting " hard cider " campaign for 
r'arrison. Two years later he was elected to the 
Legislature from Morgan County, a Democratic 
stronghold. He served three or four terms in the 
Legislature, and such was the fascination of his ora- 
-ry that by 1850 his large Congressional District, 
(^■tending from Morgan and Sangamon Counties 
. .jrth to include LaSalle, unanimously tendered him 
'^w". ■^Vhig nomination for Congress. His Democratic 
opponent was Maj. Thomas L. Harris, a very pop- 
ular man who had won distinction at the battle of 
Csrro Gordo, in the Me.\ican War, and who had 
aeaten Hon. Stephen T. Logan for the same position. 

two years before, by a large majority. Yates wa.s 
elected. Two years later he was re-elected, over 
John Calhoun. 

It was during Yates second term in Congress tliat 
the great question of the repeal of the Missouri Com- 
promise was agitated, and the bars laid down for re- 
opening the dreaded anti-slavery question. He took 
strong groinids against the repeal, and thus became 
identified with the rising Republican party. Conse- 
quently he fell into the minority in his district, which 
was pro-slavery. Even then, in a third contest, he 
fell behind Major Harris only 200 votes, after the 
district had two years before given Pierce 2,000 
majority for President. 

The Republican State Convention of i860 met at 
Decatur May 9, and nominated for the office of Gov- 
ernor Mr. Yates, in preference to Hon. Norman B. 
Judd, of Chicago, and Leonard Swett, of Blooming- 
ton, two of the ablest men of the State, who were 
also candidates before the Convention. Francis A. 
Hoffman, of DuPage County, was nominated for 
Lieutenant Governor. This was the year when Mr. 
Lincoln was a candidate for President, a period re- 
membered as characterized by the great whirlpool 
which precipitated the bloody War of the Rebellion. 
The Douglas Democrats nominated J. C. Allen of 
Crawford County, for Governor, and Lewis W. Ross, 
of Fulton County, for Lieutenant Governor. The 
Breckenridge Democrats and the Bell-Everett parly 
had also full tickets in the field. After a most fear- 
ful campaign, the result of the election gave Mr. 
Yates 172,196 votes, and Mr. Allen 159,253. Mr. 
Yates received over a thousand more votes than did 
Mr. Lincoln himself. 
Gov. Yates occupied the chair of State during the 



most critical period of our country's history. In the 
fate of the nation was involved that of each State. 
The life struggle of the former derived its sustenance 
from the loyalty of the latter; and Gov. Yates 
seemed to realize the situation, and proved himself 
both loyal and wise in upholding the Government. 
He had a deep hold upon the affections of the 
people, won by his moving eloquence and genial 
manners. Erect and symmetrical in person, of pre- 
possessing appearance, with a winning address and a 
magnetic power, few men possessed more of the ele- 
ments of popularity. His oratory was scholarly and 
captivating, his hearers hardly knowing why they 
were transported. He was social and convivial. In 
the latter respect he was ultimately carried too far. 

The very creditable military efforts of this State 
during the War of the Rebellion, in putting into the 
field the enormous number of about 200,000 soldiers, 
were ever promptly and ably seconded by his excel- 
lency ; and the was ambitious to deserve the title of 
"the soldier's friend." Immediately after the battle of 
Shiloh he repaired to the field of carnage to look 
after the wounded, and his appeals for aid were 
promptly responded to by the people. His procla- 
mations calling for volunteers were impassionate 
appeals, urging upon the people the duties and re- 
quirements of patriotism; and his special message 
in 1863 to the Democratic Legislature of this State 
pleading for material aid for the sick and wounded 
soldiers of Illinois regiments, breathes a deep fervor 
of noble sentiment and feeling rarely equaled in 
beauty or felicity of expression. Generally his mes- 
sages on political and civil affairs were able and com- 
prehensive. During his administration, however, 
there were no civil events of an engrossing character, 
although two years of his time were replete with 
partisan quarrels of great bitterness. Military ar- 
rests, Knights of the Golden Circle, riot in Fulton 
County, attempted suppression of the Chicago Times 
and the usurping State Constitutional Convention of 
1862, were the chief local topics that were exciting 
during the Governor's term. This Convention assem- 
bled Jan. 7, and at once took the high position that 
■''le law calling it was no longer binding, and that it 
■ad supreme power; that it represented a virtual 
assemblage of the whole people of the State, and was 
sovereign in the exercise of all power necessary to 
effect a peaceable revolution of the State Government 

and to the re-establishment of one for the "happinesS; 
prosperity and freedom of the citizens," limited only 
by the Federal Constitution. Notwithstanding the 
law calling the Convention required its members to 
take an oath to support the Constitution of the State 
as well as that of the general Government, they 
utterly refused to take such oath. They also as- 
sumed legislative powers and passed several import- 
ant "laws!" Interfering with the (then) present 
executive duties, Gov. Yates was provoked to tell 
them plainly that " he did not acknowledge the right 
of the Convention to instruct him in the performance 
of his duty." 

In 1863 the Governor astonished the Democrats 
by " proroguing " their Legislature. This body, after 
a recess, met June 2, that year, and soon began to 
waste time upon various partisan resolutions ; and, 
while the two houses were disagreeing upon the 
question of adjourning sine die, the Governor, having 
the authority in such cases, surprised them all by 
adjourning them " to the Saturday next preceding the 
first Monday in January, 1865 ! " This led to great 
excitement and confusion, and to a reference of the 
Governor's act to the Supreme Court, who decided in 
his favor. Then it was the Court's turn to receive 
abuse for weeks and months afterward. 

During the autumn of 1864 a conspiracy was de- 
tected at Chicago which had for its object the liber- 
ation of the prisoners of war at Camp Douglas, the 
burning of the city and the inauguration of rebellion 
in the North. Gen. Sweet, who had charge of the 
camp at the time, first iiad his suspicions of danger 
aroused by a number of enigmatically worded letters 
which passed through the Camp postoffice. K de- 
tective afterward discovered that the rebel Gen. 
Marmaduke was in the city, under an assumed 
name, and he, with other rebel officers — Grenfell, 
Morgan, Cantrell, Buckner Morris, and Charles 
Walsh — was arrested, most of whom were convicted 
by a court-martial at Cincinnati and sentenced to 
imprisonment, — Grenfell to be hung. The sentence 
of the latter was afterward commuted to imprison- 
ment for life, and all the others, after nine months' 
imprisonment, were pardoned. 

In March, 1873, Gov. Yates was appointed a Gov- 
ernment Director of the Union Pacific Railroad, in 
which, office he continued until his decease, at St. 
Louis, Mo., on the 27th of November following. 




Micliard J. Oqleshy. Hi- 



ib»» eriior 1865-8, and re-elected 
in 1 87 2 and 1884, was born 
July 25, 1824, in Oldham Co., 
Ky., — the State which might 
be considered the " mother of 
Illinois Governors." Bereft of 
his parents at the tender age 
of eight years, his early education 
was neglected. When 12 years of 
age, and after he had worked a year 
and a half at tlie carpenter's trade, 
he removed with an uncle, Willis 
Oglesby, into whose care he had 
been committed, to Decatur, this 
State, where he continued his ap- 
jirenticeship as a mechanic, working six months for 
Hon. E. O. Smith. 

In 1844 he commenced studying law at .spring- 
field, with Judge Silas Robbins, and read with him 
one year. He was admitted to the Bar in 1845, and 
commenced the practice of his chosen profession at 
Sullivan, the county seat of Moultrie County. 

The next year the war with Mexico was com- 
menced, and in June, 1846, Mr. Oglesby volunteered, 
was elected First Lieutenant of Co. C, Fourth Illinois 
Regiment of Volunteers, and participated in the bat- 
tles of Vera Cruz and Cerro Gordo. 

On his return he sought to perfect his law studies 
by attending a course of lectures at Louisville, but 
on the breaking out of the California "gold fever " in 
1849, he crossed the plains and mountains to the 
new Eldorado, driving a six-mule team, with a com- 

pany of eight men, Henry Prather being the leader. 

In 1852 he returned home to Macon County, and 
was placed that year by the Whig party on the ticket 
of Presidential Electors. In 1856 he visited Europe, 
.\sia and Africa, being absent 20 months. On his 
return home he resumed the practice oi law, as a 
member of the firm of Gallagher, Wait & Oglesby. 
In 1858 he was the Republican nominee for the 
Lower House of Congress, but was defeated by thj 
Hon. James C. Robinson, Democrat. In i860 he 
was elected to the Illinois State Senate; and on the 
evening the returns of this election were coming in, 
Mr. Oglesby had a fisticuff encounter with " Cerro 
Gordo Williams," in which he came out victorious, 
and which was regarded as "the first fight of the 
Rebellion." The following spring, when the war 
had commenced in earnest, his ardent nature 
quickly responded to the demands of patriotism and 
he enlisted. The extra session of the Legislature 
elected him Colonel of the Eighth Illinois Infantry, 
the second one in the State raised to suppress the 
great Rebellion. 

He was shortly entrusted with important com- 
mands. For a time he was stationed at Bird's Point 
and Cairo; in April he was promoted Brigadier Geu.^ 
eral ; at Fort Donelson liis brigade was in the van, 
being stationed on the right of General Grant's army 
and the first brigade to be attacked. He lost 500 
men before re-inforcements arrived. Many of these 
men were from Macon County. He was engaged in 
the battle of Corinth, and, in a brave charge at this 
place, was shot in the left lung with an ounce ball, 
and was carried from the field in expectation of im- 



mediate death. That rebel ball he carries to tliis 
day. On his partial recovery he was promoted as 
Major General, for g illantry, his commission to rank 
from November, 1862. In the spring of 1863 he 
was assigned to the command of the i6th Army 
Corps, bat, owing to inability from the effects of his 
wound, he relini^juished this command in July, that 
year. Gen. Grant, however, refused to accept his 
resignation, and he was detailed, in December follow- 
ing, to court-martial and try the Surgeon General of 
the Army at Washington, where he remained until 
May, 1864, when he returned home. 

The Republican, or Union, State Convention of 

1864 was held at Springfield, May 25, when Mr. 
Oglesby was nominated for the office of Governor, 
while other candidates before the Convention were 
Allen C. Fuller, of Boone, Jesse K. Dubois, of Sanga- 
mon, and John M. Palmer, of Macoupin. Wm. 
Bross, of Chicago, was nominated for Lieutenant 
Governor. On the Democratic State ticket were 
James C. Robinson, of ("lark, for Governor, and S. 
Corning Judd, of Fulton, for Lieutenant Governor. 
The general election gave Gen. Oglesby a majority 
of about 31,000 votes. The Republicans had also a 
majority in both the Legislature and in the repre- 
sentation in Congress. 

Gov. Oglesby was duly inaugurated Jan. 17, 1865. 
The day before the first time set for his installation 
ileath visited his home at Decatur, and took from it 
his only son, an intelligent and si)iightly lad of six 
years, a great favorite of the bereaved parents. This 
caused the inauguration to be postponed a week. 

The political events of the Legislative session of 

1865 were the election of ex-Gov. Yates to the 
United States Senate, and the ratification of the 13th 
amendment to the Constitution of the United States, 
abolishing slavery. This session also signalized 
itself by repealing the notorious " black laws," part 
of which, although a dead letter, had held their place 
upon the statute books since i8ig. Also, laws re- 
quiring the registration of voters, and establishing a 
State Board of Equalization, were passed by this Leg- 
islature. But the same body evinced that it was cor- 
ruptly influenced by a mercenary lobby, as it adopted 
some bad legislation, over the Governor's veto, nota- 
bly an amendment to a charter for a Chicago horse 
railway, granted in 1859 for 25 years, and now 
sought to be extended 99 years. As this measure 
was promptly passed over his veto by both branches 
of the Legislature, he deemed it useless further to 
attempt to check their headlong career. At this 
session no law of a general useful character or public 
interest was perfected, unless we count such the 
turning over of the canal to Chicago to be deepened. 
The session of 1867 was still more productive of 
privste and special acts. Many omnibus bills were 
proposed, and some passed. The contests over the 
.ocation of the Lidustrial College, the Capital, the 

Sontliern Penitentiary, and the canal enlargement 
and Illinois River improvement, dominated every- 
thing else. 

During the year 1872, it became evident that if 
the Republicans could re-elect Mr. Oglesby to the 
office of Governor, they could also elect him to the 
United States Senate, which they desired to do. 
Accordingly they re-nominated him for the Execu- 
tive chair, and placed upon the ticket with him for 
Lieutenant Governor, John L. Beveridge, of Cook 
County. On the other side the Democrats put into 
the field Gustavus Koerner for Governor and John 
C. Black for Lieutenant Governor. The election 
gave the Republican ticket majorities ranging from 
35'33-4- to 56,174, — -ihe Democratic defection being 
caused mainly by their having an old-time Whig and 
Abolitionist, Horace Greeley, on the national ticket 
for President. According to the general understand- 
ing had beforehand, as soon as the Legislature met 
it elected Gov. Oglesby to the United States Senate, 
whereupon Mr. Beveridge became Governor. Sena- 
tor Oglesby 's term expired March 4, 1879, having 
served his party faithfully and exhibited an order of 
statesmanship beyond criticism. 

During the campaign of 1S84 Mr. Oglesby was 
nominated for a " third term " as Executive of the 
State of Illinois, again^ Carter H. Harrison, Mayor 
of Chicago, nominated by the Democrats. Both 
gentlemen "stumped " the State, and while the peo- 
ple elected a Legislature which was a tie on a joint 
ballot, as between the two parties, they gave the 
jovial " Dick" Oglesby a majority of 15,018 for Gov- 
ernor, and he was inaugurated Jan. 30, 1885. The 
Legislature did not fully organize until this date, on 
account of its equal division between the two main 
parties and the consequent desperate tactics of each 
party to clieckmate the latter in the organization of 
the House. 

Gov. Oglesby is a fine-appearing, affable man, with 
regular, well defined features and rotund face. In 
stature he is a little above medium height, of a large 
frame and somewhat fleshy. His physical appear- 
ance is striking and prepossessing, while his straight- 
out, not to say bluff, manner and speech are well 
calculated favorably to impress the average masses. 
Ardent in feeling and strongly committed to the pol- 
icies of his party, he intensifies Republicanism 
among Republicans, while at the same time his jovial 
and liberal manner prevents those of the opposite 
party from hating him. 

He is quite an effective stump orator. Witli vehe- 
ment, passionate and scornful tone and gesture:., 
tremendous physical power, which in speaking he 
exercises to the utmost; with frequent descents to 
the grotesque; and with abundant homely compari- 
sons or frontier figures, expressed in the broadest 
vernacular and enforced with stentorian emphasis, 
he delights a promiscuous audience beyond measure. 

^^%^^ ^ 



I .7 

John WI. Palmer 

ernor 1869-72, was born on 
Eagle Creek, Scott Co., Ky., 
Sept. 13, 1817. During his in- 
fancy, his father, who had been 
a soldier in the war of 18 12, re- 
moved to Christian Co., Ky., 
wliere lands were cheap. Here 
the future Governor of the great 
Prairie State spent his childhood 
and received such meager school- 
ing as the new and sparsely set- 
tled country afforded. To this 
he added materially by diligent 
reading, for which he evinced an 
early aptitude. His father, an ardent Jackson man, 
was also noted for his anti-slavery sentiments, which 
he thoroughly impressed upon his children. In 1831 
he emigrated to Illinois, settling in Madison County. 
Here the labor of improving a farm was pursued for 
about two years, when the death of Mr. Palmer's 
mother broke up the family. About this time Alton 
College was opened, on the "manual labor " system, 
and in the spring of 1834 young Palmer, with his 
elder brother, Elihu, entered this school and remained 
18 months. Next, for over three years, he tried 
variously coopering, peddling and school-teaching. 

During the summer of 1838 he formed the ac- 
quaintance of Stephen A. Douglas, then making his 

first canvass for Congress. Young, eloquent and in 
political accord with Mr. Palmer, he won his confi- 
dence, fired his ambition and fixed his purpose. The 
following winter, while teaching near Canton, he be- 
gan to devote his spare time to a desultory reading 
of law, and in the spring entered a law office at Car- 
linviUe, making his home with his elder brother, 
Elihu. (The latter was a learned clergyman, of con- 
siderable orginality of thought and doctrine.) On 
the next meeting of the Supreme Court he was ad- 
mitted to the Bar, Douglas being one of his e.vaminers. 
He was not immediately successful in his profession, 
and would have located elsewhere than Carlinville 
had he the requisite means. Thus his early poverty 
was a blessing in disguise, for to it he now attributes 
the success of his life. 

From 1839 on, while he diligently pursued his 
profession, he participated more or less in local 
politics. In 1843 he became Probate Judge. In 
1847 he was elected to the State Constitutional Con- 
vention, where he took a leading part. In 1852 ht. 
was elected to the State Senate, and at the special 
session of February, 1854, true to the anti-slaverj 
sentiments bred in him, he took a firm stand in op 
position to the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, 
and when the Nebraska question became a part; 
issue he refused to receive a re-nomination for tin 
.Senatorship at the hands of the Democracy, issuin[ 
a circular to that effect. A few weeks afterward 



however, hesitating to break with his party, he par- 
ticipated in a Congressional Convention which nomi- 
T. L. Harris against Richard Yates, and which 
unqualifiedly approved the principles of the Kansas- 
Nebraska act. But later in the campaign he made 
the plunge, ran for the Senate as an Anti-Nebraska 
Democrat, and was elected. The following winter 
he put ill nomination for the United States Senate 
Mr. Trumbull, and was one of the five steadfast men 
who voted for him until all the Whigs came to their 
support and elected their man. 

Ill 1S56 he was Chairman of the Republican State 
Convention at Bloomington. He ran for Congress in 
1859, but was defeated. In i860 he was Republican 
Presidential Elector for the State at large. In 1861 
he was appointed one of the five Delegates (all Re- 
publicans) sent by Illinois to the peace congress at 

When the civil conflict broke out, he offered his 
services to his country, and was elected Colonel of the 
14th 111. Vol. Inf , and participated in the engagements 
at Island No. 10; at Farmington, where he skillfully 
extricated his command from a dangerous position ; 
at Stone River, where his division for several hours, 
Dec. 31, 1862, held the advance and stood like a 
rock, and for his gallantry there he was made Major 
General; at Chickamauga, where his and Van Cleve's 
divisions for two hours maintained their position 
when they were cut off by overpowering numbers. 
Under Gen. Sherman, he was assigned to the i4lh 
Army Corps and participated in the .'\tlanta campaign. 
At Peach-Tree Creek his prudence did much to avert 
disaster. In February, 1865, Gen. Palmer was as- 
signed to the military administration of Kentucky, 
which was a delicate post. That State was about 
half rebel and half Union, and those of the latter 
element were daily fretted by the loss of their slaves. 
He, who had been bred to the rules of common law, 
trembled at the contemplation of his extraordinary 
power over the persons and property of his fellow 
men, with which he was vested in his capacity as 
military Governor; and he exhibited great caution in 
the execution of the duties of his post. 

Gen. Palmer was nominated for Governor of Illi- 
nois by the Republican State Convention which met 
at Peoria May 6, 1868, and his nomination would 
probably have been made by acclamation had he not 
persistently declared that he could not accept a can- 

didature for the office. The result of the ensuing 
election gave Mr. Palmer a majority of 44,707 over 
John R. Eden, the Democratic nominee. 

Ou the meeting of the Legislature in January, 
1869, the first thing to arrest public attention was 
that portion of the Governor's message which took 
broad State's rights ground. This and some minor 
points, which were more in keeping with the Demj- 
cratic sentiment, constituted the entering wedge f u- 
the criticisms and reproofs he afterward received 
from the Republican party, and ultimately resulteJ 
in his entire aleniation from the latter element. The 
Legislature just referred to was noted for the intro- 
duction of numerous bills in the interest of private 
parties, which were embarrassing to the Governor. 
Among the public acts passed was that which limited 
railroad charges for passenger travel to a maximum 
of three cents per mile ; and it was passed over the 
Governor's veto. Also, they passed, over his veto, 
the "tax-grabbing law" to pay r^ilroai subscriptions, 
the Chicago Lake Front bill, etc. The new State 
Constitution of 1870, far superior to the old, was a 
peaceful " revolution" which took place during Gov. 
Palmer's term of office. The suffering caused by the 
great Chicago Fire of October, 187 1, was greatly 
alleviated by the prompt responses of his excellency. 

Since the expiration of Gov. Palmers 's term, he has 
been somewhat prominent in Illinois politics, and been talked of by many, especially in the Dem- 
ocratic parly, as the best man in the State for a 
United States Senator. His business during life has 
been that of the law. Few excel him in an accurate 
appreciation of the depth and scope of its principles- 
The great number of his able veto messages abun- 
dantly testify not only this but also a rare capacity to 
point them out. He is a logical and cogent reasoner 
and an interesting, forcible and convincing speaker, 
though not fluent or ornate. Without brilliancy, his 
dealings are rather with facts and ideas than with 
appeals to passions and prejudices. He is a patriot 
and a statesman of very high order. Physically he is 
above the medium height, of robust frame, ruddy 
complexion and sanguine-nervous temperament. He 
has a large cranial development, is vivacious, social 
ill disposition, easy of approach, unostentatious in his 
habits of life, democratic in his habits and manners 
and is a true American in his fundamental principles 
of statesmanship. 


gcv/-:r.\ors of Illinois. 



IDGE, Governor 1873-6, was 
born in the town of Green- 
wich, Washington Co., N. Y., 
J'-''y 6, 1824. His parents 
g_M) were George and Ann Bever- 
.' } idge. His father's parents, An- 
drew and Isabel Beveridge, be- 
fore their marriage emigrated 
from Scotland just before the 
Revolutionary War, settling in 
Washington County. His father 
was the eldest of eight brothers, the 
youngest of whom was 60 years of 
age when the first one of the num- 
ber died. His mother's parents, 
James and Agnes Hoy, emigrated 
from Scotland at the close of the 
Revolutionary War, settling also in 
Washington Co., N. Y., with their 
first-born, whose " native land " was 
the wild ocean. His parents and 
grandparents lived beyond the time 
allotted to man, their average age 
oeing over 80 years. They belonged to the " Asso- 
ciate Church," a seceding Presbyterian body of 

America from the old Scotch school ; and so rigid 
was the training of young Beveridge that he never 
heard a sermon from any other minister except that 
of his own denomination until he was in his 19th 
year. Later in life he became a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, which relation he still 

Mr. Beveridge received a good common-school ed- 
ucation, but his parents, who could obtain a livelihood 
only by rigid economy and industry, could not send 
him away to college. He was raised upon a farm, 
and was in jiis i8th year when the family removed 
to De Kalb County, this State, wlien that section was 
very sparsely settled. Chicago had less than 7,000 
inhabitants. In this wild West he continued as a 
farm laborer, teaching school during the winter 
months to supply the means of an education. In the 
fall of r842 he attended one term at the academy at 
Granville, Putnam Co., III., and subsequently several 
terms at the Rock River Seminary at Mount Morris, 
Ogle Co., 111., completing the academic course. At 
this time, the fall of 1845, his parents and brothers 
were anxious to have him go to college, even thougli 
lie had not money sufficient; but, n,t willing to bur- 
den the family, he packed his trunk and with only 
S40 in money started South to seek his fortune. 



Poor, alone, without friends and influence, he thus 
entered upon the battle of life. 

First, he taught school in Wilson, Overton and 
Jackson Cos., Tenn., in which experience he under- 
went considerable mental drill, both in book studies 
and in the ways of the world. He read law and was 
admitted to the Bar, in the South, but did not learn 
to love the institution of slavery, although he ad- 
mired many features of Southern character. In De- 
cember, 1847, he returned North, and Jan. 20, 1848, 
he married Miss Helen M. Judson, in the old Clark- 
Street M. E. church in Chicago, her father at that 
time being Pastor of the society there. In the spring 
of 1848 he returned with his wife to Tennessee, 
where his two children, Alia May and Philo Judson, 
were born. 

In the fall of 1849, through the mismanagement 
of an associate, he lost what little he had accumu- 
lated and was left in debt. He soon managed to 
earn means to pay his debts, returned to De Kalb 
Co., 111., and entered upon the practice of his pro- 
fession at Sycamore, the county seat. On arrival 
from the South he had but one-quarter of a dollar in 
money, and scanty clothing and bedding for himself 
and family. He borrowed a little money, practiced 
law, worked in public offices, kept books for some of 
the business men of the town, and some railroad en- 
gineering, till the spring of 1854, when he removed 
to Evanston, 12 miles north of Chicago, a place then 
but recently laid out, under the supervision of the 
Northwestern University, a Methodist institution. 
Of the latter his father-in-law was then financial 
agent and business manager. Here Mr. Beveridge 
prospered, and the next year (1855) opened a law 
office in Chicago, where he found the Ijattle some- 
what hard; but he persevered with encouragement 
and increasing success. 

Aug. 12, 1861, his law partner, Gen. John F. 
Farnsworth, secured authority to raise a regiment of 
cavalry, and authorized Mr. Beveridge to raise a 
company for it. He succeeded in a few days in rais- 
ing the company, of course enlisting himself along 
with it. The regiment rendezvoused at St. Charles, 
111., was mustered in Se[)t. 18, and on its organiza- 
tion Mr. B. was elected Second Major. It was at- 
tached, Oct. IT, to the Eighth Cavalry and to the 
Army of tlie Potomac. He served with the regiment 
until November, i86j, participating in some 40 bat- 

tles and skirmishes : was at Fair Oaks, the seven days' 
fight around Richmond, Fredericksburg, Cliancellors- 
ville and Gettysburg. He commanded the regiment 
the greater part of the summer of 1 863, and it was while 
lying in camp this year that he originated the policy 
of encouraging recruits as well as the fighting capac- 
ity of the soldiery, by the wholesale furlough system. 
It worked so well that many otlier officers adopted 
it. In the fall of this year he recruited another com- 
pany, against heavy odds, in January, 1864, was 
commissioned Colonel of the 17th 111. Cav., and 
skirmished, around in Missouri, concluding with the 
reception of the surrender of Gen. Kirby Smith's 
army in Arkansas. In 1865 he commanded various 
sub-districts in the Southwest. He was mustered 
out Feb. 6, 1866, safe from the casualties of war and 
a stouter man than when he first enlisted. His men 
idolized him. 

He then returned to Chicago, to practice law, with 
no library and no clientage, and no political experi- 
ence except to help others into office. In tlie fall of 
1866 he was elected Sheriff of Cook County, serving 
one term; next, until November, 1870, he practiced 
law and closed up the unfinished business of his 
office. He was then elected State Senator; in No- 
vember, 187 1, he was elected Congressman at large; 
in November, 1872, he was elected Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor on tlie ticket with Gov. Oglesby; the latter be- 
ing elected to the U. S. Senate, Mr. Beveridge became 
Governor, Jan. 21, 1873. Thus, inside of a few 
weeks, he was Congressman at large. Lieutenant 
Governor and Governor. The principal events oc- 
curring during Gov. Beveridge 's administration were: 
The completion of the revision of the statutes, begun 
in 1869; the partial success of the "farmers' move- 
ment;" " Haines' Legislature " and Illinois' exhibit at 
the Centennial. 

Since the close of his gubernatorial term ex-Gov 
Beveridge has been a member of the firm of Bever- 
idge & Dewey, bankers and dealers in commercial 
paper at 71 Dearborn Street (McCormick Block), 
Chicago, and since November, 1881, he has aUo been 
Assistant United States Treasurer: office in the 
Government Building. His residence is still at Ev- 

He has a brother and two sisters yet residing in 
De Kalb County — James H. Beveridge, Mrs. Jennet 
Henry and Mrs. Isabel French. 



nor 1877-83,18 the sixih child 
of the late Richard N. Culloni, 
and was born Nov. 22, 1829, in 
Wayne Co., Ky., where liis fa- 
tlier then resided, anci wlience 
" both the IHinois and Tennessee 

branches of the family originated. In 
the following year the family emi- 
grated to the vicinity of Washington, 
Tazewell Co., 111., when that section 
was very sparsely settled. They lo- 
cated on Deer Creek, in a grove at 
the time occui)ied by a party of In- 
dians, attracted there by the superior 
hunting and fishing afforded in that 
vicinity. The following winter was 
known as the " hard winter," the snow being very 
dee)) and lasting and the weather severely cold; and 
the family had to subsist mainly on boiled corn or 
hominy, and some wild game, for several weeks. In 
the course of time Mr. R. N. Cullom became a prom- 
inent citizen and was several times elected to the 
Legislature, both before and after the removal of the 
capital from Vandalia to Springfield. He died about 


Until about 19 years of age young Cullom grew up 
to agricultural pursuits, attending school as he had 
opportunity during the winter. Within this lime, 
however, he spent several months teaching school. 

and in the following summer he "broke prairie "with 
an o.K team for the neighbors. With the money ob- 
tained by these various ventures, he undertook a 
course of study at the Rock River Seminary, a 
Methodist institution at Mt. Morris, Ogle County; 
but the sudden change to the in-door life of a stu- 
dent told severely upon his health, and he was taken 
home, being considered in a hopeless condition. While 
at Mt. Morris he heard Hon. E. B. Washburne make 
his first speech. 

On recovering health, Mr. Cullom concluded to 
study law, under the instruction of Abraham Lincoln, 
at S|)ringfield, who had by this time attained some 
notoriety as an able lawyer; but the latter, being ab- 
sent from his office most of the time, advised Mr. 
Cullom to enter the office of Stuart & Edwards. 
After about a year of study there, however, his health 
failed again, and he was obliged to return once more 
to out-door life. Accordingly he bought hogs for 
packing, for A. G. Ty'>S> '" I'eoria, and while he re- 
gained his health he gained in purse, netting $400 in 
a few weeks. Having been admitted to the Bar, he 
went to Springfield, where he was soon elected City 
Attorney, on tlie .\nti-Nebraska ticket. 

In 1856 he ran on the Fillmore ticket as a Presi- 
dential H^lector, and, although failing to be elected as 
such, he was at the same time elected a Re|iresenta- 
tive in the Legislature from Sangamon County, by a 
local coalition of the American and Repulilican par- 
lies. On the organization of the House, he received 
the vote of the Fillmore men for Speaker. Practicing 



law until i860, he was again elected to the Legisla- 
ture, as a Republican, while the county went Demo- 
cratic on the Presidential ticket. In January follow- 
ing he was elected Speaker, probably the youngest 
man who had ever presided over an Illinois Legis- 
lature. After the session of 1861, he was a candidate 
for the State Constitutional Convention called for 
that year, but was defeated, and thus escaped the 
disgrace of being connected with that abortive party 
scheme to revolutionize the State Government. In 
1862 he was a candidate for the State Senate, but 
was defeated. The same year, however, he was ap- 
pointed by President Lincoln on a Government 
Commission, in company with Gov. Boutwell of 
Massachusetts and Cnarles A. Dana, since of the 
New York Sun, to investigate the affairs of the 
Quartermaster's and Commissary De[)artments at 
Cairo. He devoted several months to this duty. 

In 1864 he entered upon a larger political field, 
being nominated as the Republican candidate for 
Congress from ;he Eighth (Springfield) District, in 
opposition to the incumbent, JohnT. Stuart, who had 
been elected in 1862 by about 1,500 majority over 
Leonard Swett, then of Bloomington, now of Chicago. 
The result was the election of Mr. CuUom in Novem- 
ber following by a majority of 1,785. In 1866 he 
was re-elected to Congress, over Dr. E. S. Fowler, by 
the magnificent majority of 4,103! In 1868 he was 
again a candidate, defeating the Hon. B. S. Edwards, 
another of his old preceptors, by 2,884 votes. 

During his first term in Congress he served on the 
Committee on Foreign Affairs and Expenditures in 
the Treasury Department; in his second term, on 
the Committees on Foreign Affairs and on Territories ; 
and in his third term he succeeded Mr. Ashley, of 
Ohio, to the Chairmanship of the latter. He intro- 
duced a bill in the House, to aid in the execution of 
law in Utah, which caused more consternation among 
the Mormons than any measure had jjreviously, hut 
which, though it passed the House, failed to pass the 

The Republican Convention which met May 25, 
1876, nominated Mr. Cullom for Governor, while the 
other contestant was Gov. Beveridge. For Lieuten- 
ant-Governor they nominated Andrew Shuman, editor 
of the Chicago Journal. For the same offices the 
Democrats, combining with the Anti-Monoix)lists, 
placed in nomination Lewis Steward, a wealthy 

farmer and manufacturer, and A. A. Glenn. The 
result of the election was rather close, Mr. Cullom 
obtaining only 6,800 majority. He was inaugurated 
Jan. 8, 1877. 

Great depression prevailed in financial circles at 
this time, as a consequence of the heavy failures of 
1873 and afterward, the effect of which had seemed 
to gather force from that time to the end of Gov. 
Cullom's first administration. This unspeculative 
period was not calculated to call forth any new 
issues, but the Governor's energies were at one time 
put to task to quell a spirit of insubordination that 
had been begun in Pittsburg, Pa., among the laboring 
classes, and transferred to Illinois at Chicago, East 
St. Louis and Braidwood, at which places laboring 
men for a short time refused to work or allow others 
to work. These disturbances were soon quelled and 
the wheels of industry again set in motion. 

In May, 1880, Gov. Cullom was re-nominated by 
the Republicans, against Lyman Trumbull, by the 
Democrats; and although theformer party was some- 
what handicapped in the campaign by a zealous 
fiiction oi)posed to Grant for President and to Grant 
men for office generally, Mr. Cullom was re-elected 
by about 314,565, to 277,532 forthe Democratic State 
ticket. The Greenback vote at the same time was 
about 27,000. Both Houses of the Legislature again 
became Republican, and no representative of the 
Greenback or Socialist parties were elected. Gov. 
Cullom was inaugurated Jan. 10, 1S81. In his mes- 
sage he announced tliat the last dollar of the State 
debt had been provided for. 

March 4, 1883, the term of David Davis as United 
States Senator from Illinois expired, and Gov. Cul- 
lom was chosen to succeed him. This promoted 
Lieutenant-Governor John M. Hamilton to the Gov- 
ernorship. Senator Cullom's term in the United 
States Senate will expire March 4, i88g. 

As a practitioner oflaw Mr. C. has been a member 
of the firm of Cullom, Scholes & Mather, at Si)ring- 
field ; and he has also been President of tlie State 
National Bank. 

He has been married twice, — the first time Dec. 
•2, 1855, to Miss Hannah Fisher, by whom he had 
two daughters; and the second time May 5, 1863, 
to Julia Fisher. Mrs. C is a member of the Method- 
ist Episcopal Church, with which religious body Mr. 
C. is also in sympathy. 






^^ TON, Governor 1883-5, was 
' liorn May 28, 1847, in a log 
lioiise u[X)n a farm about two 
miles from Richwood, Union 
County, Ohio. His father was 
Samuel Hamilton, the eldest son 
of Rev. Wm. Hamilton, who, to- 
gether with his brother, the Rev. 
'■9 Samuel Hamilton, was among the 
early pioneer Methodist preachers in 
Ohio. The mother of the subject of 
this sketch was, before her marriage, 
Mrs. Nancy McMorris, who was 
born and raised in Fauquier or Lou- 
doun County, Va., and related to the 
two large families of Youngs and Marshalls, well 
known in that commonwealth; and from the latter 
family name was derived the middle name of Gov. 

In March, 1854, Mr. Hamilton's father sold out 
his little pioneer forest home in Union County, C, 
and, loading his few household effects and family 
(of six children) into two emigrant covered wagons, 
moved to Roljerts Townsliip, Marsh.all Co., III., being 
2 1 days on the route. Swamps, unbridged streams 
and innumerable hardships and privations met them 
on their way. Their new home had been previously 
selected by the father. Here, after many long years 
of toil, they succeeded in payii/g for the land and 
making a corafortaW^ home. John was, of course, 

brought up to hard manual labor, with no schooling 
except three or four months in the year at a common 
(oiMitry school. However, he evinced a capacity 
and taste for a high order of self-education, by 
studying or reading wliat books lie could borrow, as 
the family had but very few in tjie house. Much of 
his study he prosecuted by the light of a log fire in 
the old-fashioned chimney place. The financial 
panic of 1857 caused the family to come near losing 
their home, to pay debts ; but the father and two 
sons, William and John, "buckled to'' and perse 
vered in hard lalx)r and economy until they redeemed 
their place from the mortgage. 

When the tremendous excitement of the t)oliticaI 
campaign of i860 reached the neighborhood of Rob- 
erts Townshi]), young Hamilton, who had been 
brought up in the doctrine of anti-slavery, took a zeal- 
ous part in favor of Lincoln's election. Making special 
efforts to procure a little money to buy a uniform, he 
joined a company of I jncoln Wide-Awakes at Mag- 
nolia, a village not far away. Directly after the 
ensuing election it became evident that trouble 
would ensue with the South, and this Wide-Awake 
company, like many others throughout the country, 
kept up its organizatif.n and transformed itself into a 
military company. During the ensuing summer they 
met often for drill and became proficient; but when 
they offered themselves for the war, young Hamilton 
was rejected on account of his youth, he being then 
but 14 years of age. During the winter of 1863-4 'le 
attended an academy at Henry, Marshall County. 



and in tlie following May he again enlisted, for the 
fourth time, when he was placed in the 141st 111. 
Vol. Inf., a regiment then being raised at Elgin, 111., 
for the 100-day service. He took with him 13 other 
lads from his neighborhood, for enlistment in tiie 
service. This regiment operated in Southwestern 
Kentucky, for about five months, under Gen. Paine. 
The following winter, 1864-5, Mr. Hamilton taught 
school, and during the two college years 1865-7, he 
went through three years of the curriculum of the 
Ohio Wesleyan University at Delaware, Ohio. The 
third year he graduated, the fourth in a class of 46, 
in the classical department. In due time he received 
the degree of M. A. For a few months he was the 
Principal of Marsiiall " College " at Henry, an acad- 
emy under the auspices of the M. E. Church. By 
this lime he had commenced the study of law, and 
after earning some money as a temporary Professor 
of Latin at the Illinois Wesleyan University at 
Bloomington, he entered the law office of Weldon, 
Tiplon & B,3njaniin, of that city. Each member of 
this firm has since been distinguished as a Judge. 
Admitted to the Bar in May, 1S70, Mr. Hamilton 
was given an interest in the same firm, Tipton hav- 
ing been elected Judge. Iji October following he 
formed a partnership with J. H. Rowell, at that time 
Prosecuting Attorney. Their business was then 
small, but they increased it to very large pro[X)rtions, 
practicing in all grades of courts, including even the 
U. S. Supreme Court, and this [virtnership continued 
un!)roken until Feb. 6, 1SS3, when Mr. Hamilton 
was sworn in as Executive of Illinois. On the 4th 
of March following Mr. Rowell took iiis seat in ('on- 

In July, 187 [. Mr. Hamilton married Miss Helen 
M. Williams, the daughter of Prof. Wni. G, Williams, 
Professor of Greek in the Ohio We.ileyan University. 
Mr. and Mrs. H. have two daughters and one son. 

In 1S76 Mr. Hamilton was nominated by the Re- 
publicans for the State Senate, over other and older 
co.npetitors. He took an active part "on the stump" 
ill tiie campaign, for the success of his party, and was 
elected by a majority of 1,640 over his Democratic- 
Greenback opponent. In the Senate he served on 
the Committees on Judiciary, Revenue, State Insti- 
tutions, Appropriations, Education, and on Miscel- 
lany ; and during the contest for the electicjii of a 
U. S. Senator, the Republicans endeavoring to re- 

elect John A. Logan, he voted for the war chief on 
every ballot, even alone when all the other Republi- 
cans had gone over to the Hon. E. B. Lawrence and 
the Democrats and Independents elected Judge 
David Davis. .At this session, also, was passed the 
first Board of Health and Medic al Practice act, of 
which Mr. Hamilton was a champion, againct c; 
much opposition that the bill was several times 
" laid on the table." Also, this session authorized 
the location and establishment of a southern peni- 
tentiary, which was fixed at Chester. In the sessior 
of 1879 Mr. Hamilton was elected President //•<? /<->«. 
of the .Senate, and was a zealous supi^orter of John 
A. Logan for the U. S. Senate, who was this time 
elected without any trouble. 

In May, 1880, Mr. Hamilton was nominated on 
the Republican ticket for Lieutenant Governor, his 
principal competitors before the Convention being 
Hon. Wm. A. James, ex-Speaker of the House of 
Representatives, Judge Robert Bell, of Wabash 
County, Hon. T. T. Fountain, of Perry County, and 
Hon. M. M. Saddler, of Marion County. He engaged 
actively in the campaign, and his ticket was elected 
Ijy a majority of 41,200. As Lieutenant Governor, 
he presided almost continuously over the Senate in 
the 32d (xeneral Assembly and during the early days 
of the 33d, until he succeeded to the Governorship. 
When the Legislature of 1883 elected Gov. Cullom 
to the United States Senate, Lieut. Gov. Hamilton 
succeeded him, under the Constitution, taking the 
oath of office Feb. 6, 1883. He bravely met all the 
annoyances and embarrassments incidental upon 
taking up another's administration. The principal 
events with which Gov. Hamilton was connected as 
the Chief E.xecutive of the State were, the mine dis- 
aster at Braidwood, the riots in St. Clair and Madison 
Counties in M.-xy, 1883, the appropriations for the 
State militia, the adoption of the Harper high-license 
liquor law, the veto of a dangerous railroad bill, etc. 

The Governor was a Delegate at large to the 
National Republican Convention at Chicago in June, 

1884, where his first choice for President was John 
A. Logan, and second choice Chester A. Arthur; but 
he afterward zealously worked for the election of Mr. 
Blaine, true to his party. 

Mr. Hamilton's term a? Governor expired Jan. 30, 

1885, when the great favorite "Dick" Oglesby was 









=c*- • ^'^AW'iJs 


ilislinmiislind gentloman was 
fes'ii clccied Governui' of Illinois 
'MiWIfM^'ii--'- November 0, 1.S88. He was 
:f ," l®2 ■ V,. poimlai'ly known during tlie 
\^'--' '■■'^^iLi- '^"'j-' oainpaiyn as "Private Joe." He 
liad served with orcat devotion 
l() iiis conntry dnring the He- 
l)enion, in the Thirtj'-third 
Illinois Infantry. A native of 
X'irginia, he was lioiii in ISIO. 
His parents, John and Mary 
( Daniels) Fifer, were AniericaTi 
Imni. though of (IcrniMn de- 
srcnl. His father was a lii-ick 
;in<l slonc mason, and an old 
Henry (lay Whig in politics. .lohn and Mar\ 
I'ifei- h:id nine childicn, of whom .losepli was the 
sixth, and nalurall\ with so large a family it was 
.all the father conld do to keep the wolf from the 
door; to say nothing of giving his children any- 
lliing like good cdnc.ational adv.-mt.-iges. 

Vonng|ih Mllciidcd school some in Vir- 
ginia, hnt it was not a good school, and when 
his father remo\ ed to the West, in 1857, Jo.sepli had 
not advanced nnich furt licr the "First Keadei'.'" 

Onr snlijecl was si.vteen then and sntTciiMJ .i gre:il 
niisforlnne in the loss of his nnithei-. After the de.atli 
of Mrs. Fifer. which oeenrred in Missonri, the 
family ritMrne(l to X'iiginia, lint remained only a 
shoit linn-, as dnring the same ^-ear Mr. I''ifer 
eanie to Illinois. He settled in McLean Comity and 
started a briekya 1(1. Here , losepli and his liroth- 
ers were put to work. The elder Fifer .soon 
lioughl a farm near IJIoomingloii and liegaii life as 
an agriculturalist. Here Joe workeil and attcndeil 
the neighiioring school. He alternated f;irm-work, 
brick-laying, and going to the ilistriet school for 
the succeeding few years. It was all work and no 
play for Joe, yet it by no means made a iltill bo^' 
of him. All the time he was thinking of llie great 
world ontside, c>f which he had caught a glim|ise 
when coming from \'irginia, yet he did not know 
jiisl how he going to get oiili into it. He 
could not feel that the woods .around the new 
farm ami the log caMn. in which tln> famiU lived. 
were to hold him. 

The oiiportnnit.y to gel out into the uinld w:is 
soon offercul to j'oniig Joe. He traveled a dozen 
miles barefoot, in company with his brother (ieorge, 
and eidisted in Company C, HM Illinois Infantry; 
he being then twenty years old. In a few days 



the regiment was sent to Canii) Biitlev, and tlien 
over into Missouri, and saw sonio vigorous service 
tiiere. After a second time liel|)ing to eliase Price 
out of Missouri, the .'>;!d Ucgitnent went down 
to Milliiien's Bend, and for several weelvS '• Private 
Joe" worked on Grant's famous ditcli. The regi- 
ment then joined llie forces operating against Port 
(iilisiin anil \'iekslmrg. Joe was on guard duty in 
the front ditelics wiicn tlie tlag of surrender was 
run M|i<>n the llli of July, and stuck the l)a3()nel 
of iiis gun into tlie endianicnient and went into the 
city with the vanguard of Ifni<ii\ sohliers. 

The next ilay, July /», the .'iSd joined the force 
after Johnston, who had lieen threatening Grant's 
rear; and linally an assault was made on him at 
Jackson, Miss. In this charge "Private Joe" fell , ter- 
ribly wounded. He was loading his gun when a 
minie-linll struck him and p.a.ssed entirely through 
his l)od\'. He was regarded as mortally wounded. 
Ills brother, George, who lia.d been made a Lieu- 
tenant, proved to be the means of saving his life. 
The Surgeon told him unless he liad ice his brother 
Joe could not live. It was lifty miles to the nearest 
point where ice conld be obtained, and the roads 
were rough. A comrade, a McLean county man, whi> 
had been wounded, offered to make the trip. An 
ambulance was secured an<l the brother soldier 
started on the journey. lie returned with the ice, 
but the trip, owing to the roughness of the roads, 
was very hard on him. After a few months" caic- 
ful nursing Mr. Fifer was able to come home. The 
:!3d came home on a furlough, and when the 
boys were ready to return to the tented field, 
young Fifer was I'eady to go wilh them; for he was 
determineil to finish his term of thi'ee years. lie 
was mustered out in October, 18(14, having been 
in the service three years and two months. 

"Private Joe" came out of the .army a tall, 
tanned, and awkward young man of twenty-four. 
About all he possessed amln'tion to be some- 
body — and pluck. Though at an age when most 
men have linished their college course, the young 
soldier saw that if he was to be anybody he must 
have an education. Yet he had no means to ena- 
ble him to enter school as most yt)ung men do. 
He was determined to have an education, however, 
and thai to him nie;uit success. For the following 

four years be struggled with his books. He entered 
Wesleyan University Jan. 1, 18C5. He was not a 
brilliant student, being neither at the head nor the 
foot of his class. He was in great earnest, how- 
ever, stmlied hard and came forth with a well- 
stored and discijilined mind. 

Immediately after being graduated he entered 
an office at P>loomington as a law student. He had 
already read law sonic, and ns he continued to work 
hard, with the spur of poverty and promptings of 
ambition evei- with him, he was ready to hang out 
his professional shingle in 1809. Being trust- 
worthy he soon gathered about him some inlluen- 
tial friends. In 1K71 he was elected Corporation 
Counsel of Bloomington. In 1872 he was elected 
State's Attorney of McLean Count}'. This ollice 
he held for eight years, wlien he took his seat in 
the State Senate. Here he served for four years. 
His ai>ility to iierform abundance of hard work 
made him .-i most valued inemliei- of llie Legisla- 

Mr. Fifer was married in 1S70 to Gertie, daugh- 
ter of William .1. Lewis, of Bloomington. iMr. 
Fifer is six feet in height and is s|)are, weighing 
only L'lll pounds. He has a swarthy complexion, 
keen black eyes, quick movement, and possesses a 
frank and sympathetic nature, and natur.illy makes 
f I lends wherever he goes. During the l.'ite G\iber- 
natorial campaign his visits throughout the State 
proved a gi'eat power in his behalf. His happy 
faculty of winning the confidence and good wishes 
of those with whom lu^ comes in personal contact is a 
source of great popularity, esi)cci:i lly duringa [lolit- 
ical battle. As a sjieaker he is lluent, his l.-inguage 
is good, voice clear and agreeable, and manner 
forcible. His manifest earnestness in what he says 
as well as his tact as a public speaker, and his elo- 
quent and forceful laiign.age, m.akcs him a most 
valuable campaign orator and a |)otverful pleader 
at the bar. At the l\e|nibliean State Convention, 
held in iMay, 1888, Mr. Fifer was chosen as itscandi- 
dalc for (iovernor. He proved a poi)ular nominee, 
.and the name of "Private Joe" became f.amiliar 
to everyone throughout the State. He waged a 
vigorous cami)aign, was elected by a good majority, 
and in due time .assumed the duties of the Chief 
IC.xecutive of Illinois. 



Vermilion County, 






^W- ^'.^J -''"^^'^y HE time has arrived when it 
becomes the duty of the 
people of this county to per- 
petuate the names of their 
pioneers, to furnish a record 
of their early settlement, 
and relate the story of their 
progress. The civilization of our 
day, the enlightenment of the age 
and the duty that men of the pres- 
ent time owe to their ancestors, to 
themselves and to their posterity, 
demand that a record of their lives 
and deeds should be made. In bio- 
graphical history is found a power 
to instruct man by precedent, to 
enliven the mental faculties, and 
to waft down the river of time a 
safe vessel in which the names and actions of the 
people who contributed to raise this country from its 
primitive state may be preserved. Surely and rapidly 
the great and aged men, who in their prime entered 
the wilderness and claimed the virgin soil as their 
heritage, are passing to their graves. The number re- 
niaining wlio can relate the incidents of the first days 
of settlement is becoming small indeed, so that an 
actual necessity exists for the collection and preser- 
vation of events without delay, before all the early 
settlers are cut down by the scythe of Time. 

To be forgotten has been the great dread of mankind 
from remotest ages. All will be forgotten soon enough, 
in spite of their best works and the most earnest 
efforts of their friends to perserve the memory of 
their lives. The means employed to prevent oblivion 
and to perpetuate their memory has been in propor- 
tion to the amount of intelligence they possessed. 
Th-; pyramids of Egypt were built to perpetuate the 
names and deeds of their great rulers. The exhu- 
mations made by the archeologists of Egypt from 
buried Memphis indicate a desire of those people 

to perpetuate the memory of their achievements 
The erection of tlie great obelisks were for t!;e same 
purpose. Coming down to a later period, we find the 
Greeks and Romans erecting mausoleums and monu- 
ments, and carving out statues to chronicle tiieir 
great acliievements and carry them down the ages. 
It is also evident that the Mound-builders, in i)iling 
up their great mounds of earth, had but this idea — 
to leave something to show that they had lived. All 
these works, though many of them costly in the ex- 
treme, give but a faint idea of the lives and cliarac- 
ters of those whose memory they were intended to 
perpetuate, and scarcely anything of the masses of 
the people that then lived. The great pyramids and 
some of the obelisks remain objects only of curiosity; 
the mausoleums, monuments and statues are crum- 
bling into dust. 

It was left to modern ages to establish an intelli- 
gent, undecaying, immutable method of perpetuating 
a full history — immutable in that it is almost un- 
limited in extent and perpetual in its action; and 
this is through the art of [jrinting. 

To the present generation, however, we are in- 
debted for the introduction of the admirable system 
of local biography. By this system every man, though 
he has not achieved what the world calls greatness, 
has the means to perpetuate his life, his history, 
through the coming ages. 

The scythe of Time cuts down all ; nothing of the 
physical man is left. The monument whicli his chil- 
dren or friends may erect to his memory in the ceme- 
tery will crumble into dust and pass away; but his 
life, his achievements, tlie work he has accomplished, 
which otherwise would be forgotten, is perpetuated 
by a record of this kind. 

To preserve the lineaments of our companions we 
engrave their portraits, for the same reason we col- 
lect the attainable facts of their history. Nor do we 
think it necessary, as we speak only truth of them, to 
wait until they are dead, or until those who know 
them are gone: to do this we are ashamed only to 
publish to the world the history of those whi)se live? 
are unworthy of public record. 



: A MKS 8. SCONCK. It is a liUing 
^'3; testimonial to the wortli and char- 
I'.'liem acler of this citizen to present 
his portraii and liioj^rapliy on 
Ihese, tiie o|)ening pages of the 
Ai.uuM of Vermilion Comity. 
Of the many citizens of Carroll 
'l'i(\vnslii|) nime were l)etter 
known or moi'c highly' esteenic<l 
thnn this gentleman, who was 
linrn near Brook's Point, Ver- 
milion County, Nov. 14, 1831, 
and die.1 .Sept. 21, 1«88, at the 
age of fifty-seven years. In 
childhood he atlonded the pu!i- 
lic schools, as well as those more 
advanced, at Danville, receiving a liberal educa- 
tion. His father and mother were .Samuel and 
Nancy (Waters) Sconce, both natives of Jjourljon 
County, Ky., the hirlh of the former occurring in 
1802, vvhile the mother was born six years later. 

The elder iMr. and Mrs. .Sconce removed to Illi- 
nois in 1828, and settled in Vi'rmilion County in 
1.S2'.). ! hey had (hree children, who grew to ma- 
turity, namely: .lames .S.. America .).. and Thomas 
J. America J., is the wi<low of Oliver Calvert, 
and now ni;ikes her home at the residence of her 
brother, lately deceased. 'I'liomas .1. died in this 
County. Jan. 1, 18.S8, while the father [nissed away 
in .January. 1871. The mother is slill living, with 
the widow of her son, at the advanced age of 
tighty-one years. 

The Sconces were prominent in the early history 

of America, and more especially in Kentucky, of 
which State they were early settlers. The great- 
grandfather of the subject of this sketch o[ie of 
the earliest settlers of Bourbon County, where he 
lived in a log house, built especially to resist the 
depredations of the Indians. There were eight 
brothers, and they were among the brave settlers 
who reclaimed that beautiful country from the sav- 
ages, and in so doing are ontitle<l to the thanks of 
a grateful nation. Nearly all of these brothers emi- 
grated South and West. There is a large family of 
this name in Texas, .lames S. Sconce's father, Sam- 
uel, was born in Bourbon County-, Ky. He lived 
in the county of his birth untd 1828, when he 
removed to this Stale, and in the following year 
located in \ermilion County-. His wife came with 
her parents to the vicinity of Brook's Point, in 
1 820, her marriage occurring at that place the fol- 
lowing year. .Samuel Sconce engaged in farming, 
.and from start to linisli was successful. In 18/)2 he 
eng.ageil in the mercantile business in Indianola, 
under the firm name of B.ailey & Sconce. This 
firm continued to do business until the big tire, 
which destroyed their stock. Mr. Sconce then re- 
tired from active life, and died .Ian. 'J. 1871, leav- 
ing behind him a rei>utation of which any man 
might be proud. In 184'J he took a drove of 200 
fat cattle to Phil.-idclphia, where he sold half of 

I them and drove the rest to New York, returning 
the entire distance on foot. He also liauleil pro- 

! duce to Chicago in the early d.ays. 

I On November 14, 1831, James S. Sconce was 

I born, in this county, and one of its first chil- 



(Ireii born. He was early taught industry, and be- 
ing reared upon a farm was consequently used to 
hard work. He remained with Ids parents until he 
was twenty-four years of age, when he engaged as 
a clerk in tlie store of IJailey ife Sconce, drawing a 
salary of §800 a year for four years. In 1 859 lie 
went to Kansas, where he [ire-cmpted 160 acres in 
Lyon County, and at the end of three months he 
traded this piece of land for a similar tract in Illi- 
nois. Here commenced his career as a stockman 
and drover. During this time he made the ac- 
quaintance of his estimable wife. Miss Emma San- 
dusky, or as her father wrote it '• Sodowsky." She 
was the only daughter of the well-known Short- 
horn breeder of Carroll Township. After marriage 
Mr. Sconce lived one year with his father-in-law. 
when he located on the present homestead, remain- 
ing there' until the day of his death. lie worked 
systematically, and to tlii>> may be attributed his 
success. At any rate he became wealthy, and 
when he died was the owner of 2,100 acres of the 
most desirable land in the county. Upon this he 
built an elegant home, said to be the finest country 
house to be seen in the Stale. It is a large struct- 
ure, built of brick, beautifully located on a slight 
elevation, while the surroundings are all that an 
admirer of tlie beautiful could picture. Giant 
trees shade the grounds, and what nature has 
omitted art has supplied. The lawns and gardens 
are laid out artistically, adding to the beauty and 
l)iclures(jueness of the landscape, and making it a 
"thing of beauty" not excelled in this great State 
of Illinois. The place is called "Fairview," at the 
suggestion of Mrs. Sconce. The house is heated by 
the Rutan system, and every room is supplied with 
hot and cold water, while the spacious parlors and 
corridors are illuminated by gas. 

AVhen Mr. Sconce died he left a fortune variously 
estimated at from *200,000 to -'j^OO.OOO, evei-y 
cent of which was accumulated by judicious farm- 
ing and stock-raising. It will be many years be- 
fore the recollection of this good man will fade 
from the memories of the people. His life was 
sinijileand his methods straightforn^ard, his manner 
gentle, kind hearted to the poor, indulgent to the 
weak, charitable to the erring, and his memory like 
a sweet fragrance ascends on high. Generous 

friend, kind husband, noble citizen, and sincere 
Christian, the world is better for thy living, and 
the flowers of a sweet memory will ever blossom 
upon thy grave. 

Like his illustrious ancestors Mr. Sconce was a 
fine looking, active man. He had keen blue eyes, 
a personal characteristic so marked in his family, 
and was of a sanguine temperament. A lifetime of 
usefulness and business activity had develoi)ed in 
liim good judgment, and as he became older his 
attention was directed closel3' toward the things 
revealed in Holy Writ. He was a consistent 
and active member of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. Politically, he was a Democrat from con- 
viction and from principle. In 1 8S2 ho consented 
to run for the State Senate, making a brilliant can- 
vass an(' running ahead of his ticket. He served 
as Townshij) .Sui)crvisor. and always evinced a 
deep interest in public affairs, and especially in the 
welfare of his township, his county and his State. 
His library was filled with choice and valuable 
works, especially those treating upon the laril3f, a 
cpiestion which was studied by him with deep in- 
terest, he believing with other leading Democrats, 
in a tariff for revenue only. 

In matters pertaining to schools he took a great 
interest. For several years prior to his death he 
was a Regent of the Wesleyan University of 
Bloomington, 111., which was financially favored 
by his generosity. As a husband and father he 
was most loving and devoted. As a result of his 
wedlock two children were born: Anna, who was 
a student of JNIorgan Park two years, and of Wes- 
leyan University one year; and Harvey J., a bright 
lad of fourteen years. He was greatl}' attached to 
his children, and in them M'as centered his great 
love. The poor young farmer and business man, 
who is almost discouraged in life, will miss in Mr. 
Sconce a friend, for it was one of liis salient char- 
acteristics to hel]) those who would help themselves, 
and as an illustration of this, it may be stated that 
his will provided that those who owed him on 
loans, should be allowed to pay, his estate in small 
yearly installments, that they might not be dis- 

He was buried with ^Masonic honors at the Wood- 
lawn Cemetery. Tlie funeral was attended by an 



immense tlirong. and the proicssion was lieiuled tiy 
2(Hi Masons in mourning, and was over tliroe miles 
in length, the hugest funeral line ever seen in \'cr- 
miiion Count}'. It was remarked by one who 
knew Mr. Sconce well that "a secret society which 
commanded the fealty of a man like James Sconce 
must have something in it." If he loved Jla- 
sonry it was equally true that the Masons loved 
iiim. To his faithfnl wife the death of her hus- 
band was sad beyond expression. "Sorrows come 
not single." A less noble woman would ha^e given 
ii|) to despairiug sorrow at the loss of her husband, 
her father, and lier mother within the spai'c of one 
short year. Of true Christian grace and motherly 
lieart she bore up bravely in her bereavement, fidly 
determined henceforth to give u\> her life to her 
Master, and to tlK' welfare of her children. As 
before stated she is the only living child of Harvej' 
.Saniluskv and Susan Baum. Coming from illus- 
trious ancestors, ah effort will be made to herewith 
present a few facts in regard to each of her parents. 
In the }-ear of 1721 there came to America an 
exile from I'oland, of noble Iiirth and proud sijirit, 
and lofty i)atriotism. lie headed a rebellion against 
the despotism of Russia and her allies in the dis- 
graceful oppression of the defeated bnt not subdued 
Poles. For this brave act he was exiled and came 
to Riclunond. Va. That noble man was .Tames 
Sodowsky, who afterward married the sister of 
Gov. Inslip, of the Colony of Virginia, and from 
them descended Harvey Sandusky, the fatiier of 
Mrs. Sconce. Men of courage and force of char- 
acter, the family l>as been represented in every for- 
ward movement of civilization in this great coun- 
try for more than a centurj': with the gallant pio- 
neers in beating back the savages of the wilderness.; 
with the brave Continentals, liattlmg for freedom 
in the heroic days of '70; at the front in the War 
of 1812; with Daniel Boone in the wild Kentucky, 
where the grandfather of Harvey settled just after 
the close of the Revolutionary War. ITis father. 
Abraham Sandusky, was born there, and married 
Miss .lane McDowell, who bore him eight children, 
Marvty being the eldest. In 18;31 he removed 
Irom Kentucky to Illinois, and settled with his 
family on the Little ^'el■milion River, where he 
continued to reside until his death. His oldest sou, 

Harvey, was born in Bourbon County, Ky., May 
17, 1817, and came to Illinois with his father, lit- 
erally growing up with the country. In his twenty- 
fourth 3'ear he was married to Susan, daughter of 
Charles and Susan Baum, who had emigr.ated from 
Ohio and settled on the Little Vermilion River, 
After marri.age Mr, Sandusky located on the es- 
tate which has since Iiecome so famous .as '-Wood- 
lawn Stock Farm," Here, by intelligent and indus- 
trious use of tlieir f)pportunities, he and his faithful 
wife built uj) a princely home, and surrounded it 
with an abundance that enabled them to dispense 
the largest charity and most unbounded hospitality. 
INIis. Sandusk}' converted to Christianity in 
iicr girlhood, and rejoiced in the hope of an im- 
mortal life. 

In the old family Bible is found this record : 
"Harvey .Sodowsky this day found peace with 
(tO<1. March 15, lS,j8." For forty years their's 
wa.s a house of pr.ayer. To them were born three 
children: The oldest died in infancy; the second 
is Emma, lh(^ wife of the suljject of this sketch; 
Gilbert, the third child and only .sou, died at the 
early age of twenty-three years, Harve}' San- 
dusky died on Saturday', Dec. 18, 188G, and the 
following Tuesday was buried b^- the side of his 
son in the beautiful Woodlawu Cemetery, which he 
had selected and donated to the public, "Uncle 
Harvey," as he was familiarly called, w;is in many 
respects a noble man. There is ahv.ays good in a 
heart that is alw.a3s tender, :uid his was a very ten- 
der heart. To feed the hungrj-, to clothe and help 
the needy, afforded him the greatest pleasure. The 
foot-sore itinerant, whose horse had died, taken 
to the stables and told to ".select the best nag in 
the lot," willuint p.ay or promise. That preacher 
was sent on his way rejoicing, and thereby the 
Gospel was spread to those beyond. By him the 
homeless were sheltered, the friendless cheered, and 
the wretched soothed. 

He was a very successful man in business, was 
enterprising and public spirited. In the stalls and 
on the fields at Woodlawu are perhaps the finest 
specimens of Short-horn cattle in .Vmerica, if not 
in the world. For lift}' 3'ears he bad been interested 
in raising and exhibiting fine stock. No man in 
America has been more successful than he, as the 



premium lists of principal fairs will show. Evi- 
dently he has ad<led iiiUold riches to the general 
ccmimunit}^ by his enter|)rise in this particular. l>ut 
his work is done, and the toils of his busy life have 
ceased. The familiar figure lias drojiped out of the 
picture of this life, and let us hope that it 
dropped into the life that lies beyond the other 
shore. Mis home is lonely without him, his fam- 
ily mourn him, his neighbors will miss him, his 
friends regret bis absence, but ''God doeth all 
things well." — (Extract from the Rev. G. A. Fra- 
siei.) His wife, Susan Sandusky, came from an 
equallj' illustrious family. She was the (laughter 
of Charles and Sarah (IMoyer) Baum. They were 
likewise Polish jjatriots. and by the Russian au- 
thorities banished from their native land. They 
for a few years lived in Germanj-, and tlien emi- 
grated to the Colony of Virginia. This noble ex- 
ile and progenitor of the Baums of A'ermilion 
County, was Charles Bauin, the great-grandfather 
of Mrs. Emma Sconce. He married Miss Barbara 
McDonald, a relative of the brave Gen. McDonald, 
of Marion's array. He entered the Colonial forces, 
and served on reserve duty in protecting the 
frontier. After the war he settled in Bucks County 
and the year following Waj-ne's treaty with the 
Indians, sailed down the Ohio River with his fam- 
ily. They landed at the moutii of Buliskin Creek, 
and there, close to what is now the river tow-n of 
Chilo, established the first settlement in the Ter- 
ritory of Ohio. One of bis sons was Charles Baum, 
Mrs. Sconce's grandfather. He married Susan, 
daughter of John Moyer, a Revolutionary soldier, 
who fought manj' 3'ears under the immediate com- 
mand of Gen. Washington. 

John Moyer lived in Pennsylvania some time 
after the war, then removed to Ohio, of which 
State he also was an early pioneer. Charles Baum, 
the grandsire of Mrs. Sconce, came to Vermilion 
Couutj' in 1839. He lived to be ninety-six years 
old. had prospered well, and was a consistent 
Christian. From the Rev. G. A. Frasier we quote 
the following concerning Mrs. Susan Sandusky. 
•■( )ur community is again called to mourn the loss of 
a most estimable lady, who fell asleep at her home 
near Indianola, March 21. 1888. She was a daugh- 
ter of Charles and Susan Baum, born in Claremont 

County, Ohio, Sept. 25, 1818. She was converted 
and joined tlie Methodist Episcopal Ciiurch when 
quite young, and was married May 20, 1840. Her 
life was singularly pure and exemplary, and she 
adorned those stations in which true womanhood 
shines the brightest. As a wife, mother, friend 
and neighbor she indeed a model woman. 
None doubted the genuinenoss of her Cliristian ex- 
perience. Alwa\s consistent, always true, she was 
a power for good in the community. Her chari- 
ties and uniform kindness for the poor had won for 
her the love of .all who knew her. Her devotion 
to dut}-, and lier unswerving fidelit}' had won the 
confidence and esteem of all. She was not only 
ready, but willing to die. In a conversation a few 
days before her death she expressed a desire to 
'reach her Father's house.' She leaves but one 
child to mourn her absence from the old home- 
stead. Mrs. James S. Sconce, the only remain- 
ing child was with her mother during her last ill- 
ness, faithfulJN'. lovingly attending to every w.ant, 
and tearfully watching the slowly ebbing tide of 
life till all was still in death. In this great be- 
reavement Mrs. Sconce has the sympathy of the 
entire community. The old homestead is left deso- 
late. A family has passed from earth. We hope 
that on tiie other side of the river they are again 

Mrs. Emma Sconce born in the old Harvey 
Sandusky homestead, better known under the name 
of --Woodlawn," a name suggested by her for her 
father's large farm, which was so famous in pro- 
ducing herdsof prize-winning Short-horn cattle. 
Here she grew up under the influences of a Chris- 
tian home, attending Georgetown Academy- for 
some time. Her loj'alty has marked her entire ca- 
reer from childhood to widowhood. As the wife 
of James S. Sconce she was ever a most worthy, 
affectionate, and loving companion ; as mistress of 
the "Fairview" mansion she is modest, kind, gen- 
erous and hospitable; while the taste with which 
the mansion is furnished reflects great credit upon 
its mistress. She possesses a great deal of knowl- 
edge, general and special, and is respected and es- 
teemed by all who know her. She is a devout 
Christian, and rich and poor alike are graced bj- 
her favors. She deeply mourns the loss of her 



iiiisl)and, for their niani:i<re proved to i)e ;i most 
liapp^' one. Slie is truly tiie type of noble Ameri- 
can womaniiood. and as a mother is fairly wor- 
shi|)ped by her two eliildron. and tliov in turn 
are held most affectionately dear. Her modesty 
prevents her giving further facts in regard to her- 
self. Her attorney, however, has furnished the 
following figures concerning her estate: Personal 
property of James S. Sconce, deceased, !t!C2. 000; 
personal property of Harvey Sandusky, deceased, 
*20,0()0; total number of acres of land bold by Mrs. 
Sconce, 3,CO0. 

-J^^- • 

IRAM ARMANTROUT. In no portion of 
jj the world is there illustrated the result of 
\S^ patient industry more forcibly than in the 
i^p great West. Could the j'ouug man of fifty 
j-ears ago have had the power to look forward into 
tlie future and discover not onlj' what he himself 
would accomplish, but what would be done by his 
brother pioneers, he would have labored with 
greater courage than he has already done; for no 
one can dispute that the first settling up of this part 
of the country was necessavilj' an experiment. Few 
however, stood in doubt .as to the final result, but 
fewer still would have prophesied the achievements 
which have really been accomplished. 

The subject of this sketch was one of the earliest 
settlers of Middle Fork Township, whence he re- 
moved to Butler Townshij) in April, 1855. He 
took up a half-section of government land, em- 
bracing a part of sections 2, 22 and 13, in tow-nsliip 
22, range 13, before there had been any attempt at 
cultivation. In the fall of 1856 he put up a small 
frame house, and being unmarried, took in a tenant . 
with whom he lived. He had, prior to tliis, broken 
sixtj- acres. He proceeded with the improve- 
ments of his property single-handed until the 
spring of 1859, when he took unto himself a wife 
and helpmate. Miss Celinda Pugh. They spent the 
first few years of their wediled life in the little 
house, and in due time, being prospercti, our sub- 
ject was enabled to erect a larger dwelling. He 
also built a good l)arn and planted forest and fruit 
trees, which flourished, and he now has the finest 
grove in the neighborhood. Ho occupied this farm 

until March, 1889, when be wisely retired from 
active labor and purcli.ased property in Rossville. 
where he took up his abode and purposes now to 

Our subject w^as born in Mi)niivomory Ci)unly. 
Ind.. Aug. 12, 1829, an<l lived there until 1H55 
with his father and mother. The former. Valen- 
tine Armantrout, was born in Rockingham County. 
Va.. April 27, 1799, .and removed with his father, 
Fiederick Armantrout, to Warren County, Ohio, 
in 1808, where he was reared to manhood. He 
married Miss Catherine Kesling, and they so- 
journed in the Buckeye State until 1828, when they 
removed to Montgomery County. In<1. There the 
father engaged in farming and blacksmitliing com- 
bined, .and lived until his decease. wlii<-li took place 
March 17. 1840. 

To the parents of our subject were born seven 
children, of whom he was the third, and of whom 
four are living: Ambrose is a resident of Chautau- 
qua County, Kan.; Simon lives in W.ajnotuwn, 
j\rontgoraery Co., Ind.; Sarah became the wife of 
C. S. Bratton, of Rossville, and she is now de- 
ceased. Mary Ann is the wife of .lames Applegale, 
of this county ; Melinda dieil at the age of seventeen 
years; Henry died in Linn County, Kan., in 1887. 
The paternal grandfather was a resident of \ir- 
ginia during the Revolutionary War. in which his 
father and two brothers fought, while he remained 
at home. He was drafted, but Washington sent 
him home. The family is of (Jerman d<'scent, and 
the first representative in this country settled in 

At the time of leaving Butler Township Mr. 
Armantrout was its oldest living male resident. One 
lady. Mrs. Pyles, had been there one year lono'cr 
than himself. As a farmer ho was more than or- 
dinarily successful, and also prosecuted stock-rais- 
ing with excellent residts. He was prominent in 
local affairs, being the first Road Commissioner in 
the township, in which office he served eleven years. 
Ho officiated as Constable four years, was Justice of 
the Pe.ace seven years. School Trustee nine years, 
and School Director for a long period. Politicallv, 
he is a Republican. 

Of the six children born to Mr. and Mrs. Arman- 
trout, the third child, a son, Harmon, died when 



one year olrl. The survivors are Scott, Celia M., 
Drusilla, Carrie and Ida. Scott married Miss 
Emma Walters, and lives on the liome farm; Celia 
Ma}' is the wife of Ira G. Philips, and the niotliei- 
of one child, a daughter, Mabel; tliey live near 
the homestead. The others are unmarried and 
remain with their parents. Mrs. Celinda (Pugh) 
Armantront was born in Warren County, Ind., 
Aug. •2(i, 1833, and is the daughter of George 
Pugh, who was a native of Pennsylvania. He mar- 
ried Miss Elizabeth Ander-son, and they reared a 
large family of children. He followed farming his 
entire life, and after leaving his native State set- 
tled near Lebanon, in Warren County, Ind., where 
he spent his last days. His death occurred about 
1 SG4, at the age of seventy years. 

, LIVER IlAPvRLSGN CRANE. The leading 
event in the life of this gentleman was his 
'i' birth whieli occurred in. Fountain County, 
Ind., on the -Ith of March, 1841, the day of the in- 
ausuration of President AVilliam Henry Harrison? 
and iu honor of whom the infant was given his sec- 
ond name. He is now a man of forty-eight years, 
and one of the most substantial farmers of Grant 
Township, being the owner of 160 acres of choice 
land, jiloasantly located on section 29, township 23, 
range 12. 

Mr. Crane spent the first eighteen years of his 
life in his native county, acquiring a i)ractical edu- 
cation in the common schools and becoming famil- 
iar with farm i)ursuits. In the fall of 1859, leaving 
the iiarental roof, he came to this county and as- 
sumed charge of the land which his father had en- 
tered from the Government at $1.25 per acre. He 
boarded at the house of a neighbor until the spring 
of 1 8G 1 ; then put up a house into which he removed 
with his young wife, having been married Feb. 7 
of that year to Miss Charlotte Bowling of his own 
county in Indiana. 

]\Ir. and IMrs. Crane, although removing into a 
more modern domicile, have occu|)ied the same 
faiin which they moved upon at the time of their 
marriage. Their labors and struggles have been 
>imilar to those of the people around chem; their 

rewards likewise. Industry and economy' have been 
repaid foiirfoUl, and now, in the enjoyment of all 
the comforts of life and many of its luxuries, they 
sit under their own vine and fig tree and are blest 
with the respect of their friends and neighbors. 
For some time after Mr. Crane settled here there 
were no neighbors north for fifteen miles, the near- 
est being at Ash Grove. Deer, wolves and other 
wild animals were plentiful, but these slowly dis- 
apjieared as the country became settled u[). 

The children born to Mr. and Mrs. Crane, eleven 
in number, are recorded as follows: The two eldest 
died in infancy; Elmer E. was born May 28, 1865; 
John N., Sept. 3, 1867; Lillian L., Jan. 6, 1870; 
Alfaretta, Feb. 11, 1872; Winifred, Dec. 4, 1873; 
Morris S.. Nov. 2, 1876; Mary A., June 24, 1879; 
Perry D., Jan. 28. 1883; Anna M., Oct. 23, 1885. 
The eldest son living, Elmer, married Miss Olive 
Keplinger, is a re.sident of Northwest Nebraska and 
the father of two children. Mrs. Charlotte (liow- 
ling) Crane was born .hily 3, 1843, in Fountain 
County, Ind., and is the daughter of Willis P. and 
Mary (Bruce) Bowling, who were natives of Ohio. 
The father was born in Warren County, Jan. 25. 
1816, and lived there until a lad of eight years. 
His parents then removed to Indiana, and after the 
death of his father in Fountain County he contin- 
ued on the farm, where he reared his, family and 
spent his last days. This farm is located in Van 
l>uren Township six miles northeast of Covington. 
The maiden name of the mother of Mrs. Crane was 
Mary Bruce, and the parents were married in 1838. 
Of the eight children born to them three are living — 
Charlotte, Arthur and Morris. The two boys live 
at the old farm in Fountain County, Ind., with their 
father. The latter, with his wife, is a 
member of the Christian Church, and the family 
stand high in their community. 

Mrs. Mary (Bruce; liowling was born in Law- 
rence Count}-, Ohio, Jan. 21, 1K17, to Joshua and 
Margaret (Innes) Bruce, the father a farmer by oc- 
cui)ation. When Mary was a girl of eleven j^ears, 
they left the Buckeye State and removed to Foun- 
tain County. Ind., where she remained umler the 
parental roof until her marriage. 

Joel Crane, the father of our subject, was bora i 
Jan. 28, 1817, in Warren County, Ohit) near the 



birthplace of Mr. Howlinjr. He lived there until 
18.32, and then, a of flftecn j'cars, migrated 
to Fountain County, Ind., with ills jinrents, where 
he was married and still lives on the old farm 
northeast of Covington which his father took up 
from the Government. His wife was formerly Miss 
Elizabeth Jenkins, and they reared a family of three 
cliildren — Oliver H., Lewis C. and Cyrus, the lat- 
ter two of Missouri and Kansas respectively. Mrs. 
Elizabeth (.Tenkins) Crane boru Dec. .5, 1820, 
in Ohio, and departed this life at the homestead in 
Indiana Sept. 2, 18.')3. She left the Buckeye St.ate 
with her parents in 1839 and remained with tliem 
until her marriage. 

Mr. Crane, our sul)ject, been a man always 
full of business and one who has little respect for 
the drones in the world's busy hive. He has kept 
himself well posted upon events of general interest, 
and is one with whom may be spent an hour very 
pleasantly and profitably. His course in life has 
lieen that of an honest man, while iiis industry has 
been rewarded with :i competence. 

HARLKSBIHL. This gentleman occu[)ies 
no unimijortaiit (xisilion among the self- 
made men of this count3- who have arisen 
by their own efforts from the foot of the ladder 
and who by untlagging industry and perseverance 
liMve accumulated a competence and in their later 
years are retired and in the enjoyment of it. Mr. 
Bulii represents a goodly amount of pro|)erty — in- 
deed is recognized as a capitalist — and has contrili- 
uted his fidl rpiota to the business interests of Dan- 
vdle and vicinity. He comes of substantial ances- 
try and is a native of Pennsylvania, having been 
born in Butler County, Feb. 8, 1812. 

Our subject remained a resident of his nati\e 
place until a young man of twenty years, acquiring 
a practical education in the common school and 
being variousl\' occupied. Finally resolving upon 
a change of location, he made his way in 1838, to 
Detroit and for two years thereafter employed 
himself as a teamster. In the fall of 18-18, he vis- 
ited Chicago and being favorably impressed with 
the outlook, established himself in the hat, cap 

and fur business on Lake street, second door west 
of Clark stieet where he operated successfully until 
abonl l.s.'iO. Then .selling out he invested the 
proceeds in a farm of 697 acres, embracing the 
present site of Kensington and which he secured 
for the sum of i!5,000. Nine months later he sold 
the bottom land — about 300 acres — to the Michigan 
Central Railway for the i>rice which he had paid 
for the whole. For about ten years thereafter he 
engaged in farming, and then sold out and coming 
to Danville investetl a portion of his capital here 
where he has since made hishonu\ 

Mr. Buhl has been engaged in different enter- since coming to Danville. He invested a 
portion of his capital in the lots embracing Nos. 1 17 
to 123 or. E.ast Main'street Where he has put up 
buildings, the rents from which yield him a hniul- 
some income. He has at different times owned 
considerable land in the county and has now eigh- 
teen acres of valuable land just outside the city 
limits! Although a sound Republican politii'ally 
he never sought office, but was twic« elected to 
represent his ward in tlie City Council and has 
served as a member of the School Bo:ud. From 
these, however, he withdrew before the expiration 
of his term. During the Civil ^\'arhis son Sidney 
served as a sohlier in the Ihiion Arm\. 

Mr. Buhl was mairiccl in Pennsylvania .Iul\- 9, 
1834, to Miss Eliza Aim McConaughy, and they 
became the parents ol six children, four of whom 
are living, namely: Sidney, Frank, Emma and 
Laura. Mrs. Bidil was born in New Lisbon, Ohio, 
Jan. 1, 1820, and is the daughter of James and 
Elizabeth McConaughy, with whom she lived in 
the Buckej-e State until her marriage. Mr. McC. 
was a farmer by occupation and the parental house- 
hold included ten children — four sons and si.\ 
daugliters. Sidney Buhl, the only son of our sub- 
ject married I\Iiss Sally Myers and they have one 
child, a daughter, Georgia; he is in the employ of 
the American Express Company. Frank is a resi. 
dent of Louisiana where he operates a fruit farm and 
nursery; Emma is the wife of William Myers, to 
whom she was married Jan. 1, 1888; Mr. M-, is em- 
ployed as a carriage salesman and they live in 
Danville. Laura was married June 5, 1883, to Mr. 
.lohn Lawrence, a lioot and shoe merchant, located 




at 117 East Main street. The (laughters are mem- 
bers of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

Christian Buhl, the father of our subject, was a na- 
tive of Germany, and came to America when a young 
man, and settled near Zelcin()i)le. I'a., where lie en- 
imaged in the manufacture of hats. He also became 
the owner of considerable land and spent the re- 
niaiuiler of his life in tiiat vicinit}'. He iiad mar- 
ried Miss Fredrika Gearing and tiiey reared a fam- 
ily of ten children, of whom Cliarles was about the 
fifth in order of birtli, and of wiioni seven are now 
living. Mr. Buhl die<i in Pennsylvania at tiie ad- 
vanced age of eight^'-seven j'ears. His wife sur- 
vived him three 3'ears .and was also eighty-seven 
years old at the time of lier decease. 

■iT/OnN W. 15AXDY, junior member of liie 
lirm of Smitii tt Bandy, druggists, is also 
owner of the Bandy Block on Vermilion 
/ street, Danville, and is well-known to the 
citizens of the city and vicinity .as representing 
some of its most important business interests. He 
is a native of this place and was born April 8, 
1844. Of his father, William Bandy, one of the 
earliest ijioneers of this county and an aged vete- 
ran of seventy-seven years, a sketch will lie found 
elsewhere in. this volume. 

The tirst four years of the life of our subject 
were spent upon a farm and then the family re- 
moved to Danville, where John W., acquired a 
practical education in the common schools. When 
approaching manhood he entered the office of the 
Danville Plaindealer, then under the control of 
John Leslie and with whom he remained until the 
oflice purch.ased by Judge Daniel Clapp. 
Young Bandy continued with the latter until 1864. 
That year he began the study of medicine with Dr. 
Samuel Humphre}' as preceptor and after a time 
began practicing to a certain extent. He, how- 
ever, concluded that he was better adapted to 
some other business than that of a physician, which 
resolution was strengthened by his failing haalth. 
He spent three or four years in recuperating and in 

1872 engiiged as clerk iu the store of E. E. Boudi- 
not about five years. At the expiration of this 

time he was admitted to partnership with his em- 
ployei'. Three years later he sold out to Mr. E. G. 
Smith, a native of Danville, and the only surviv- 
ing member of the family of Giles .Smith. These 
gcnllcmeu have been in partnership since that 
lime and Mr. Bandy has been in tlie store since 
1872. Mr. Bandy is a gentleman of great energy 
and enterprise, .and has accumulated a good prop- 
erty, including one of the finest brick blocks on 
North Vermilion sti-eet which was erected in 1887, 
and is equipped with all modern improvements. 

Mr. Bandy was married in Danville, Sept. 28, 
1861, to Miss Margaret Humphrey, who became the 
mother of one child and who died together with the 
child in 1865. Our subject contracted a second mat- 
rimonial alliance withlMiss Mary A. Campbell, of 
Lafayette, Ind., Aug. 2!l, 1879. Of this union there 
was one child, a son, Clauile W., who was born Aug. 
29, 1880, and is still living. Mrs. M.ary A. 
(Campbell) Bandy was born June 1 , 185."!, about 
fifteen miles southeast of Logansport, Ind., and 
spent her childhood and youth in Indiana. Both 
Mr. and Mrs. Bandy are members of good standing 
of the Kimber Methodist Episcopal Church. Until 
about 18G.5 Mr. Bandy voted with the IJepublican 
party but has since that time affiliated with the De- 
mocracy. He has never had any ambition for office, 
preferring to give his best efforts to his business 
aft'iiirs. His home comprises a neat residence in the 
northeast part of the city and as the son of a prom- 
inent family he occupies no secondary position in and business circles. 

ENRY L. BUSHNELL is one of the leading 
|i and successful business men of Hoopeston. 
He is the proprietor of the North Elevator, 
(^) which has a capacity of 75,000 bushels. He 
also owns several other large elevators on the line 
of the Chicago ifc Eastern Illinois Railroad. He is 
also general agent for the Brazil Block Coal Com- 
jKany. handling from 2,500 to 3,000 cars yearlvi 
besides his local trade. 

Mr. Bushuell was born Oct. 2, 1843, near what is 
now Dunlap, 111., and there remained with his father 
until he left school to enter the army, lie enlisted 



on July 2, 1SG2, in Comiiany E, 77th Illinois Iii- 
fiinti-y. This regiment was assigned to the I3tli 
Army Corps, originally under Gen. Smitii, hnt 
wiiieli was latterly under the command of (ien. 
Banks, and participated in the battles of Black 
River, Jackson, Champion Hill, Black River Bridge, 
tlic siege of Vickshurg, and also in the entire cam- 
paign which resulted in the oi)eniug of the ^lissis- 
sippi River. At \'icksburg he was wounded on the 
22d of May, 1863, in the left knee, after which be 
was in the field hospital until his recovery. The 
last seventeen months of the service he was Second 
Lieutenant of his company. Wliile on the ex[)edi- 
tion with Banks u|) the Red River, he wjis cap- 
tured at Manslield, La., April 8, 18(!1, and taken to 
Camp Ford. Tyler, Tex., and was tliere iield until 
tiie close of the war. While a prisoner of war he suf- 
fered untold hardshii)s, which impaired his health, 
the elt'ects of which he feels to tiiis day. After his he joined his regiment at Mobde, Ala., Jan- 
uary, 1 80)5, but remained there but a few days when 
he proceeded to St. Louis, where he i)roperly 
exchanged. Here he detailed on Gen. Dodge's 
staff, remaining on this duty until Aug. 1, when he 
was n)ustered out of the service having served for 
several months more than his regular enlistment. 
After leaving the army he returned to Peoria. III., 
and engaged in the lumber business with his father. 
In this he continued for some time, having an ex- 
tensive trade, and becoming accustomed to railroad 
business in the mean time, he was ai)pointed Assis- 
tant (ieneral Freight Agent of the Chicago & 
Eastern Illinois Railro,ad, with headquarters at Tor- 
re Haute. He continued in this capacity for five 
years, when in July 1883, he resigned and removed 
to Iloopeston where he has since been engaged in 
business, and it is not too broad an assertion to 
state that he transacts more business than any other 
man in Eastern Illinois. 

Mr. Bushnell has served his cit}^ as Mayor for 
two terms and for one terra has been an Alderman. 
He has also .served ftve ye.ars on the Board of Edu-' 
cation, of which he is now President. He has never 
.aspired to office but his great business talents are 
alwaj's in request by his neighbors, and he cannot 
see his way Vlear to refuse them. He is a hard- 
working Republican, is recognized as a leader in 

his party, and can be found attending all its conven- 
tions and gatherings. He is a member of the First 
Baptist Church and has been a Sunday-school Su- 
perintendent for twenty years. 

On Septendier 18, 18(;7, Mr. Bushnell married 
, Ilattie A. Littell, of Peoria, anil they have 
become the parents of ten children, two of whom 
only are living, six dying of diphtheria. The living 
are William F., who was born Jan. 25, 1872 and 
Jessie A., April 21, 1883. Mrs. Bushnell w\as born 
in New York City, ftlarch 18, 1814 and is the 
daughter of Isaa(^ Littell, who came West in 1855. 
In closing this brief sketch, it is proper to say that 
there are no more pojiular people in this section of 
the country than Mr. and Mrs. Bushnell. 

^^^\IIA1{LES IM. BAIM, a native of this 
(l( „ county, may usually be found at his well- 
^^y regulated homestead on section 25. Be- 
sides general agriculture, he is largely interested 
in the breeding of draft horses and has been of 
signal service in elevating the standard of hoi'se 
llesh in this part of the Statt'. Active, energetic 
and industrious, he i,s a scion of the pioneer ele- 
nu'iit which located in this county at an earl}' day 
and assisted largely in its growth and develop- 

There are some interesting f.acts connected with 
the family history of Mr. Baum which cannot l)\- 
an)' means be proiterly omitted from this sketch. 
His father, Samuel Baum. a farmer by occupiition. 
was born twenty-five miles south of the city of 
Cincinnati, Ohio, and was the son of Charles 
Baum, supposed to have been born in Pennsyl- 
vania, whence he removed lirst to Ohio and later 
to Illinois. He was a gunsmith by trade, but after 
coining to this country occupied himself mostly as 
a farmer, and died at the advanced age of ninetv- 
eight years. Three of his seven children are yet 
living, and Samuel, the father of our subject, was 
the oldest of the family. Samuel Baum came to 
Illinois as early .as 1828, and located on the Little 
Vermilion, near the present site of Indianola. The 
country then was ver}- thinly settled and \'ermil- 
ion County was considered quite a frontier. The 



journey was made overland in a Dearliorn wagon, 
and tlie.v brought with them a bug-horned cow 
tied behind the wagon. The incidents of that long 
and wearisome journej', during wliifh they camped 
and cooked by the wayside and slept in the wagons 
at night, and the after experiences, replete with 
toil and privation, if |)roperly related, would fill a 
good-sized volume. 

Tiie parents of our subjec't, however, possessed 
the hardy spirit requisite in the pioneers of '28 
.and entered with courage upon the task set before 
them. The mother was in her girlhood Miss Sarah 
Weaver, daughter of ^licliael Weaver, who also 
came to this county in 1828, .and the young people 
were married in Ohio. Mr. Weaver prior to this 
time had served as a soldier in the of 1812, 
and greatly prospered as a tiller of the soil t>f 
Illinois, becoming one of Vermilion County's 
wealthiest men. Mrs. Baum was the eldest of the 
eight children comprising the parental family, of 
whom only two are now living. 

The parents of our subject were married in 1823. 
Samuel Baum became a very successful farmer, 
the owner of 1,400 acres of land, and devoted him- 
self largely' to stock-raising. After the labors of a 
well spent life he departed hence in March, 1861. 
The mother had passed to the silent land fourteen 
years previously, in 1817. Of the ten children 
born to them seven are still living. Charles M. was 
the sixth child and was born Dec. 22. 1838, at the 
old homestead near Indianola. He pursued his 1 
first studies in the district school and in due time j 
entered Bryant il' Stratton's Commercial College, 
Indianapolis, from which he was graduated and at 
the age of twenty-two years liegan work for him- 
self on his father's farm. 

Our subject operated as a general .agriculturist | 
two years, then for one year turned his attention 
to shipping stock. In the meantime lie went into 
Texas and purchased .oOO Texas cattle, which he 
drove through the Indian Territory, in 1806, to 
Chicago, consuming eight months on the journey. 
He disposed of his stock, then returning to New- 
town, this I'ounty. embarked in the mercantile 
business for two and one-half years. He then pur- 
chased ground for a sawmill and in conii)any with 
Robert Craig put up the necessary- building, equip- 

ping it with machinery and operated the mill for 
two years. Then selling out he resumed iiis for- 
mer business as a live stock shipper and afterward 
farmed again for about two j'ears. 

About this time Mr. Baum became interested in 
fine horses and began imi)ortiug Clj'desdales from 
Canada and was thus occupied two years. After- 
wards he began breeding fine horses, for which his 
well-equipped farm of 200 acres affords every con- 
venience. He has thirty head mostly Clydesdales, 
including the Knight of Colander, imported by 
Galbraith Bros., of .lanesville. Wis., and a very 
valuable registered maie imported by himself. 
Mr. Banra's horses are gaining an enviable reputa- 
tion in this part of the State. 

On the 22d of March, 1869, our subject was 
united in marriage with Miss Mary J., daughter 
of William and Emil}- (Vanderin) Craig, wiio were 
among the pioneer settlers of this county. Of this 
union there have been burn five children: (iracc, 
Ernest. Katie. Charles and Frank, all of whom are 
at home with their pai'ents. Mr. Baum has been 
active in politics since l)ecoming a voting citizen, 
and is proud to record the fact, that his first Presi- 
dential candidate was the martyred Rresiilent, 
Abraham Lincoln. He kee|)s himself well |)OSted 
upon the political issues of the day, and for twelve 
years has ofHciated as School Director in his dis- 
trict. He is President of the Newtown Ho:se and 
Cattle Fair and a member of the Clydesdale 
American Association, also f(.)r the Newtown Horse 
Protector Association. He has been for tlje hist 
three years a Road Commissioner. It will thus be 
seen that he has made a g<jod record as a citizen 
and is amply worthy of representation in the I'.io- 
GKAi'iucAL Albusi of Vcrmiliou Count}'. 


LLIS AD.VMS. The history to which our 
attention is now directed is that of a man 
I possessing some admiralile traits of charac- 
ter and one whose course in life been such as to 
command the esteem and confidence of all who 
have known him. During the \i(issiludes of lil'i; 
he has spent man}' ycai's in ardiiuiis l.-llnir. has 
handled probably a million dollars in money, h;is 



dealt honestlj- and fairly bj' his fellow-men and 
should reap a large measure of consolation from 
ihe fact that comparatively few have made person- 
ally so clean and admirable record. There are few 
wiio have not experienced adversity in their strug- 
gle with the world, some more and some less, and 
while with some it has had the effect to make them 
sour and cynical, others have learned wisely from 
tlie lesson and in this respect at least come off con- 
querors in the struggle. Nature endowed Mr. 
Adams with those qualities of mind and heart, 
which have enabled him to make the best of cir- 
cumstances and leave the rest to Providence. 

The native place of our subject was not far from 
the New England coast in Sussex County. N. J., 
his birth occurring Sept. 25, 1817. He commenced 
tlie battle of life for liimself at the early age of 
fourteen years, clerking in a stoi-e from that time 
until a young man of twenty. He then accompan- 
ied his father's family to Virginia and remained 
on a farm in the Old Dominion for a period of 
five years. Then leaving the parental roof he emi- 
grated to Orange County, N. Y., where he was 
employed as clerk in the grocery store of Mr. 
Reeve in Goshen. Two 3-ears later he established 
himself as a general merchant at Unionville in the 
same county and sold goods there for fifteen years. 

Mr. Adams finally becoming wearied of mer- 
cantile pursuits concluded lie would seek the 
farther West and settle upon a farm. Coming to 
this county, in 1857, he purchased 480 acres of 
land south of Fairmount and put up tlie largest 
residence in this vicinity. Thereafter he occupied 
himself at farming and merchandising until 1886, 
when on the account of the failing health of his 
wife he removed to Kansas, living there with a 
daughter one j'ear and then returned to this county. 

Our subject in 1844 was united in marriage with 
Miss Amanda R., a daughter of Samuel King of 
Pennsjivania and a prominent farmer in his neigh- 
borhood. The ceremony took place at the home of 
the bride's mother in Philadelphia. This union 
resulted in the birth of three children, the eldest of 
whom. Frank A., was married and died leaving iiis 
widow witli two children. Anna is the wife of 
Stanley Gonklin. a member of the firm of Jarvis, 
Conklin A- Co., in Kansas City, Mo., and they 

have two children. George C, married Miss 
Nellie, daughter of Hiram Catlett of Vance Town- 
ship, and they iiave two children. Mrs Adams 
has been sorely afflicted witli rheumatism, being in 
feeble health for the past twenty years and in 1884 
was stricken with total blindne.«s. She and her 
children are members of the Baptist Church in 
whicii Mr. Adams has been a Deacon for tliirtv 
years. In politics, Mr. Adams first a Whig 
and later a Democrat. Although seventy-two 
years old he is in the enjoyment of go(jd health and 
although having met with many reverses main- 
tains the cheerful .and genial disposition which always attracted to him numbers of warm 
friends. He appreciates the importance of pre- 
serving the family record and a few years ago 
wrote up a complete history of his life placing; it 
in the hands of his son. 

The father of our subject was Joseph Adams, a 
native of New .lersey and a farmer by ocupation. 
He married Miss Martha Post, a native of New 
Jersey and they lived there until 18.311. 'I'hcn 
disposing of their interests in that State they re- 
moved to Spottsylvania Count}', Va., where the 
mother died at the age of fifty-two years. Joseph 
Adams spent his last years in \'irgini;i and de- 
parted this life in July, 1845. 

The parental household included eleven cliildrcii. 
all of whom lived to m.ature years. Grandfather 
Adams was a prominent man in Sussex Countv, 
N.J. and licbl the [losition of Jud^c for s<ime 



illOMAS D. McKEE, of Oakwood Town- 
ship, has for years been i^rominent in busi- 
ness circles, operating .as lawyer, banker ami 
farmer. His home is located on section 15. and 
the farm is chiefly devoted to stock-raising, an in- 
dustry which has always proved profitable in this 
section. Mr. McKee was born in New York State 
June 9, 183;i, at the old homestead of his parents, 
John C. .and Jeanette (Stewart) McKee, the former 
of whom was a n.ative alsf) of the Empire St.ate.and 
tlie mother of Scotland. 

John C. McKee was born in 1809, and died at 
the .age of seventy-six 3'ears. The paternal graiid- 




father. Thomas McKee. was born about 1784 in 
Dryden. Tompkins Co.. N. Y., where he spent his 
entire life, dying at the age of sixty-two years. 
The great-grandfather. James ^IcKee. was born in 
the North of Ireland, and died at the age of ninety- 
six years. Grandfather John Stewart married a 
Miss Mcintosh and emigrated to America, settling 
near Dryden. N. Y.. where he engaged in farming 
and died at the age of sixty-two }-ears. Thomas D. 
had the privilege of seeing aU three of the old 

The parents of our subject were married in New 
York State, and afterwards lived upon the same 
farm which still remains in the famiij-. and which 
is located on the old State Road four and one-half 
miles from Cortland, between the latter place and 
Ilhica. The mother passed away in 1877. and the 
father in 1885. Their family consisted of eleven 
children, all of whom grew to mature years, and of 
whom our subject is the eldest. Tliomas D.. like 
his brothers and sisters, attended the village school 
at McLean, and later was a student in Cortland 
Academj' at Homer. N. Y. He prosecuted his law 
studies in the State and National Law School at 
Poughkeepsie under the presidencj" of J. AV. Fow- 
ler, from which he was graduated and then set out 
for the West. 

Mr. McKee left his home in New York State in 
1855, and going to Maysville, Wis., taught school 
there six mouths. Prior to this before leaving his 
native Stale lie had been similarly occupied at 
South ^Cortland. In 1857 he went to Faribault, 
Minn., and platted Morristown together with sev- 
eral other towns. He tiieu migrated to St. Louis, 
Mo., and from there to Leavenworth, Kan., during 
the days of the troubles in the latter State and wit- 
neesed many scenes of violence, enacted on the soil 
of "'bleeding Kans.TS." In that State he oper.ated 
as a surveyor, and taught the first school estab- 
lished at Atchison. After a two-year's sojourn in 
that region he returned home, completed his law 
course in Poughkeepsie, and, in 1861, returning to 
Illinois, established himself at Homer. Champaign 
County, and began the practice of his chosen pro- 

The next important event in the life of our suli- 
jeet was his marriage with Miss Mary Groenendyke, 

and six or seven years afterwards the newly wedded 
pair established themselves at their present home 
stead. While at Homer Mr. McKee, in comjiany with 
D. S. Pratt, established the bank at Homer, and later 
our subject purchased the interest of his partner 
therein. That same year through the speculation 
of his clerk the bank was obliged to close its doors. 
This individual had been trusted implicitly without 
bonds, and had made away with ?23,000 in cash. 

Subsequently Mr. McKee became interested in 
farming pursuits and began operations on 240 acres 
of land, which amount has been augmented so that 
the farm now embraces 680 acres all in one bod3\ 
It is all in productive condition, but largely de- 
voted to stock-raising — fortj' to fift3' cattle in a 
j'ear. about 200 head of swine and numbers of very 
fine imported Belgium horses. 

To Mr. and Mrs. McKee there were born five 
children, four of whom are living: Samuel G., 
Stewart T., Mallie and John, all at home with their 
parents. Our subject has been for many years the 
School Director in his district, and h:is served on 
the School Board in Homer for six years. He was 
President of the Town Board there for several 
terms, and it was largelj' through his influence that 
sidewalks were laid and shade trees were planted. 
He also labored assiduousl3' in suppressing the liq- 
uor traffic. He votes the straight Republican 
ticket, and is uniformly in favor of those me;isures 
tending to elevate society and advance the inter- 
ests of the people. Mrs. McKee is a very capable 
and estimable lad^', with a good talent for business 
and is a member in good standing of the Presbyte- 
rian Church. 

Samuel Groenendyke, the father of Mrs. McKee, 
was born in Seneca County, N. Y.. in 1803, and 
married Miss Lacj' Thompson, of Cumberland 
County. Pa. In 1821 he removed with his f.imily 
to the vieinitj' of Terre Haute, lud.. and thence to 
Vermillion County-, Ind.. where he established his 
permanent home. He tinall3' became the owner of 
nearly 2.000 acres of land. Later he established him- 
self as a general merchant at Eugene, and also had 
a branch store at Homer, 111. He was very indus- 
trious and enterprising, and was the first i)ork- 
packer in his localitj-. He aided largely in encoiir- 
asjing the various industries of the new countrv. 

^tock-Farmand Residence of J. W.Goodwi 

£CS. 21, 22. 26.27 & 28. Pi LOtTr.VeRMI LION Co 



and wns prominent in his (.ommunity, lieing cspec- 
:illy well known by llic old settlers. The parental 
family included three eiiildren, two daughters and 
a son, Samuel, who is now a resident of Euirene. 

-^ ' ^ '■ ■^ ' ^ 

J -JOHN W. GOODWINE is one of the leading.' 
j farmers and stock-growers of Vermilion 
I County, and the owner of one of its largest 
/ and most valuable farms, finely located in 
the township of Pilot, his substantial residence, 
with its attractive surroundings, being situated on 
section 2G. lie is the son of a former well known 
prosperous pioneer of this section of the country, 
who was in his da}- an extensive land owner, and 
did nuK'h toward developing the vast agricultural 
resources of the county-. 

The father was a n.ative of Kentucky, of English 
descent, his parents having Ijeen earlj' pioneers of 
that State. In l.sU) he went to Bartholomew 
County, Ind., and was among its earliest settlers, 
subsequently removing from there to Warren 
County in the same State. In 1820 he came to 
Warren County while it was still in the hands of 
the pioneers, and located on government land, buy- 
ing at that time 200 acres. He built a log house 
for the shelter of his family and entered with char- 
acteristic zeal upon the development of a farm 
from the wild prairies, and from time to time in- 
creased its acreage till he becaTue the possessor of 
2,400 acres of fine farming land at the time of his 
death, so fortunate was he in his undertakings. He 
died IMarch 8, 1851. His wife, who died in 1824. 
was a native of (Germany, her maiden name being 
Elizabeth Snyder, and she came with her parents to 
this country when she young. Of her mar- 
riage nine cliildren were born: James, Martha and 
John, the only ones now living. James m.arried 
Sophia Ruckels, of Warren County, Ind., where ho 
is engaged in farming, and they have five children 
— William, Christina, Indiana, Horace and Fre- 
numt; ISIartha married Richard Lyon, of AVarren 
County, Intl., and they have three children — John, 
Martha and 

John Coodwiiie spent the early years of his life 
in his native State, gleaning such an education as 

was afiforded by the pioiu'er schools of those days, 
and on the home farm a good practical tr.-iining in 
the management of a farm. He came to \ermil- 
iou County March 15, 184S, and when he began an 
independent life for himself he had a better start 
than nnny farmer's sons, having inherited 300 
acres from his father's estate. Rut nolwif'listandino- 
such an .-ulvantage he worked with persevering en- 
ergy, and liy wise management and a jnclicious ex- 
penditure of money he has become possesse<l of one 
of the 1-irgisl ami finest estates within the limits of 
\'ermilion Coulity, owning over 1.0(10 acres of 
highly improved hind, besiiles having given his 
children 2,000. I haloes !ni extensive business in 
general farming, and makes a speci.-ilty of raisin"- 
Short-horns, having a fine herd of highly graded 
cattle of that breed. 

Mr. Goodwine has been twice marrie<]. His liist 
wife was Jane Charletou, of Indiana, and to tlieui 
were born five children — -Marion, John. James, 
Mary J. and Fremont. Marion married Susan Sel- 
sor, and lives in Marysville, this county. They 
have five children, one of whom is dead; thd others 
are Ilattie, Fred, Daly E. and Ary; John married 
Mary Alexander, and they had one child, Annie ; his 
first wifedied October, 1872, and about 1S74 he was 
again married to Miss Alice Lane, and they have 
six children — John, Wilbcr, Nora, I'lysses, Cora 
and Villa; James, a farmer in this count}', married 
Minerva King, of New Jersey, and they have three 
children — Nellie, Roy and (ioldie; Mary J. mar- 
ried James M. Tillolson, of Warren Count}-, Ind.. 
now a farmer in Louisiana, and they have three 
children — lessie, Estella and Mabel. 

The maiden name of the present w^ife of oursiib- 
ject was Arminda Sijerr}^ and she was born in this 
county Dec. 24, 1842. Her parents, Erastus and 
Until (Rees) Sperry, were of (merman antecedents 
though they were born in this country, the father 
in Ohio June 3, 181'J, and the mother in Indiana 
Aug. 11), 1819. Mr. and Jlrs. Goodwine have four 
children, namely : Martha, Helen, Dora and Grant 
\V., all of whom are at home with their parents. 

Mr. Goodwine possesses in a rare degree far-see- 
ing sagacity and energy, so comliined with those 
useful (lu.alities of prudence and steadfastness of 
liurposc. that he could not fail to increase his wealth 



l)y k'gitimate means, and accomplish whatever lie 
attempted. His I'arecr in life has been an lioiiui- 
nble one, and his place is among the most nseful 
and worthy of the citizens uf Vermilion County, 
with whose interests his own have )>ecn so inti- 
mately connected these many years, and whose ma- 
terial prosperity he has greatly extended. He has 
served on the juries of the State and county, and 
as an intelligent, observant man is greatly inter- 
ested in the political issues of the day, giving his 
support to the Republican party on all (]uestionsof 
National or local importance. » 

A fine large double page view of the handsome 
residence and surroundings on the farm of Mr. 
Goodwine is among the attractive features of the 
opening pages of the aluum, and is a fitting intro- 
duction to those which fuljow. It shiiws what can 
be accorapJished by a life of industry and energy, 
coui)led with a good business ca[)acity. 

•^} OHN R. BALDWIN. There are few of the 
older residents along the western line of 
this county who are unfamiliar with the 
' name which stands at the bead of this bio- 
graphical sketch. It is that of a man selfmade in 
the broadest sense of tlie term — one who in his 
young m.anhood resolved to make life a success if 
it could be accomplished by industry and wise 
management. Many men who are successful per- 
haps do not as fully realize the fact as those around 
them who have lieen less so, but the present stand- 
ing of Mr. Baldwin, socially and financially, should 
give him an extremel}- comfortable feeling, for his 
career has lieen worthy of emulation. It is main- 
tained that every man has his hobby, and Mr. 
Baldwin, a great lover of the equine race, has for 
many years given his attention to the breeding of 
and dealing in horses, and in this branch of business 
can scarcely be excelled. He is an excellent judge 
of this noblest of the animal kingilom, and while 
developing their fine points has made of the indus- 
tr3' a profit as well as a pleasure. 

The farm proi)ert3- of ftlr. Baldwin is pleasantly 
situated on section 17, Nance Township, and com- 
prises a homestead furnished with all the modern 

im))rovements, both for agricultural pursuits and 
for stock operations. Mr. Baldwin is now past 
sixty-one years old, having been born March 9, 
1828, and is a native of SLason County, Ky. His 
father, George Baldwin, who was born in Virginia, 
is still living and in good health, although having 
arrived at the ripe old age of over eighty-six 
years. In addition to the possession of a strong 
constitution he has for the last thirty years espec- 
ially avoided the use of liquor in any form. His 
life occupation has been that of a farmer, and he is 
now living at a comfortable home in Fairmount. 
where he enjoys the acquaintance of a large circle 
of friends. 

The mother of our subject was, in her girlhood. 
Miss Reljecca Downing. She was born in Ken- 
tucky, and was married in her native State, where 
the family lived until 1839. Thence they removed 
to Ohio, and in the fall of 186') came to this 
count}', and settled three miles south of Fairmount. 
They liecame the parents of seven children, ft)ur C)f 
whom are living, and the mother deiiarted this life 
in 1884. 

The paternal grandfather of our subject emi- 
grated from Prince Edward County, Va., to Mason 
County, IKM, during the i)eriod of its earliest 
settlement. He there spent the remainder of his life, 
dying in 1843. In the raeantiine he served as 
a soldier in the Revolutionary War, and had a son. 
Pleasant Baldwin, who carried a musket in the 
War of 1812. The latter died in 1880. 

The early education of John R. lialdwin was 
obtained partly in Kentucky' and partly in Ohio, 
and he remained a member of the [larental house- 
hold until the time of his marriage. This interest- 
ing event was celebrated Feb. 22. ISoO, the bride 
being Miss Catherine J., daughter of Nathan Glaze, 
of Maryland. After their marriage ]\Ir. and Mrs. 
Baldwin settled on a rented farm near Ripk^y. 
Ohio, where they lived until 18;>C. They then re- 
moved to a farm which Mr. Baldwin had ]iurcliased 
on Straight Creek Ridge. Ohio, and which he partly 
improved and sold at a good profit two years later. 
The next two 3'ears he operated as a renter, then 
purchased more land, which he sold at war prices. 

At the expiration of this time Mr. Baldwin, de- 
termining to see something of the Western country, 



came to Illinois, and after viewing the country 
went back home, pulili.-^lu'd liis sale of personal 
property, established his family in Ripley, and in 
May, 18G5, started out on anotiun' tour of investi- 
gation. This lime lie was accompanieil liv Ids 
father, they boarding a boat at Ripley whieh eon- i 
veyed them to St. Louis and thence to Roekport 
Landing, Mo. They were prevented from landing 
at Lexington on account of the bushwhackers, who 
were unaware that the war over. They next 
pursned their travels by stage and hack to St. Jo- 
seph, thence to (Juincy and Chicago, 111., and from 
there by way of Indianapolis and Cincinnati home. 

Having seen so many different places, and all 
with some advantages, our suliject now found him- 
self in a dilemma ,as to where it was best to settle. 
He linally concluded to remain in Ohio until he 
could get all his money together, He rented a 
farm and commenced dealing extensively in horses 
and cattle, shipping to Cincinnati and realizing 
handsome returns. The fall of 18GS again found 
him Westward bound, and passing through this 
county. From here he went to Southern Missouri 
by waj- of City, and gravitated back to this 
county via St. Louis and the Illinois Central Rail- 
road, lie found nothing in his opinion superior 
to this region, and accordingly rented a house in 
Fairmount, and returning to Ohio had collected, by 
the 11th of March, 1869, all his money, and re- 
turned to this county. He did not then intend to 
invest his capital here, and in less than two weeks 
had loaned about $4,000. He finally purchased the 
land comprising his present homestead, and which 
was embellished with the best dwelling on the prai- 
rie. His stock shipping operations have extended 
as far East as Boston and AUianj-, N. Y., and he 
has probabl}' sold more young horses than any 
other man in his neighborhood, these being shippe<l 
largely to Pennsylvania buyers, who come to him 
and make their purchases at first hands. 

During the last ten years Mr. Baldwin 
operated as a breeder, and sold four colts of his 
own raising to Pennsylvania buyers for §850. He 
does no more shipping, lint since abandoning this. 
has sold sixteen head of horses for over ^.■5.400. be- 
sides three at from ^150 to ^IDO each. 
One remarkable circumstance in his career is the 

fact, that in Ohio he never lost but |!10 in his horse 
operations. Since coming to Illinois he has handled 
large numbers of valuable horses without loss. In 
one carload he lost *-2G2, but made it all right on 
the next shipment. 

Of the twelve children born to our subject and 
his estimable wife nine are living: Charles N., the 
eldest, iii.'urieil Miss Susie fJumler, is the father of 
three children, and lives two and one-half miles 
southwest of D.-uivllle; Mary . I., the wife of Hu- 
lon F.lliott. i> the mother of three children, .•ind 
they liven half mile east of F;urmouiit; J. IIeii:y 
marriei! Miss Lizzie Price, is the fritlier of six chil- 
dren, and lives tliice miles south of Fairmount; 
Emma Belle, Mrs. William Hill, lives in Onkwood 
Township, and is the mother of one child; Lama 
E. married Edwin North, and they live; iu SMcll, 
without children; Cora L.. Mrs. Lincoln Smith, has 
no children, and they live three .and one-half miles 
northwest of Fairmount; Lizzie, Oscar G. and Rob- 
ert L. remain at home with their i)arents. 

INIrs. Baldwin was the fifth child of her parents, 
and was born Aug. 31,182!), in Brown County. 
Ohio. Her father, a prominent man in his neigh- 
borhood, came to Illinois in the spring of 18('iG, 
and died In Hancock County, in 1883, in the niiu'- 
tietli year of his age. The mother survived her hus- 
band five years, dying in 1888, in Hancock County 
at the advanced age of ninety-two. Tlieir family 
consisted of four daughters and six sons. Mrs. 
Baldwin's people on both sides of the house were 
largelj' re[)resented, many of them living to a great 
age. Her grtuidfatlier on her mother's side was 
the father of nine children, four of whom lived to 
be from eighty to eighty-eight years old; their 
united ages being 332. Her father, Nathan 
Glaze, served as a soldier in the War of 1812, and 
was a pensioner at the time of his death. Hoth he 
and his wife were members of the Christian Chnrrli 
for the long period of sixty years. Mrs. Baldwin been a member of the ISaptist Church. 

Conservative in polities, Mr. Baldwin votes the 
straight I{epulilican ticket, and recalls the fact that 
the largest and most enthusiastic political meeting 
which he ever attended, was one lielil in the inter- 
ests of William Henry Harrison, in 1 8 10. at Ripley, 
lirown Co., Ohio, when .Mr. ISaldiviu 'vas .a lad of 



twelve \'0<ais. He lias mixed very little in public 
life with tiie exception of serving as .School Di- 
rector twelve years. Ilis interests have cliicHy 
centered in live stock, and he has been a prominent 
worker in the County Fair Association. Ilis con- 
nection witli this in Ohio extended from 1853 to 
1867, and in Illinois from 1869 to 1886. He was for 
four years a member of the Board of Directors of 
Vermilion County Agricultural and Mechanical 
Association at Danville, and took an iuii)ortant 
part in the discussion of the matters pertaiiiintr to 
its best interests. He is a Royal Arcli Mason, be- 
longing to Homer Lodge Chapter, and in Fair- 
mount is a memljer of lodge number 500, in which 
he has served .as Master for two 3'ears, having 
passed all the Chairs. He is a stockholder in the 
Homer Agricultural Fair Association. 

<S^DMUND P. JONES has a valuable farm in 
llkl Da 

|fe] Danville Township, ]>leasantly located four 
I'' — ^ miles southeast of the city in the center of 
a rich agricultural region. He is a fine type of 
the sturdy, intelligent, self-reliant natives of \'er- 
milion County wlio were born here in the early 
days of its settlement, reared amid its pioneer 
scenes, and after attaining a stalwart manhood, 
took their place among its iiractical, wide awake 
citizens and liave ever since been active in devel- 
oping and sustaining its many and varied interests. 
The subject of this sketch comes of good pioneer 
stock, and both his paternal and maternal ancestry 
were early settlers of Kentucky, and there iiis fa- 
ther and mother, and .lane (Martin) 
Jones were born, the former in Harrison County, 
Feb. 21, 1700, and the latter April 15. 1 7!)5. They 
were united in marriage Jan. 23, 1816, and con- 
tinued to reside in their native State till 1828, 
when witli their six children they came to Illinois 
with a team .and east in their fortunes with the 
early pioneers of Vermilion County, locating near 
D.anville. in Danville Township. They lived a 
short time on section 16, and then the father 
bought a tract of land on section 11. It heav- 
ily timbered, and the family lived in a riiil-pen for 
a time as a temporary shelter, and then Mr. 

Jones built a log house on the place, and in that 
humble abode the subject of this sketch born 
.Ian. 13, 1830. The father improved a part of his 
land, and a few j'ears later removed to another 
l)lace, and resided in diflferent parts of the town 
till his demise. Oct. 30, 1859. A faithful citizen 
was tiuis lost to tiie community, one who had led 
an honest, sober-minded life, and was deserving of 
the resjiect accorded to him. His worthy wife 
survived him till Sept. 10, 18C7, when she too 
passed away at the home of our subject. Tiie fol- 
lowing is recorded of the eight children liorn to 
them: John P. is dece.ised ; Elizabeth is the wife of 
Henry Sallce, of Oakwood Township; Joseph M. is 
deceased; Sarah A. married Dennis Olehy, and is 
now deceased; AVilliam Perry and Mazy J. are 
deceased; Edmund P. is the suliject of this sketch; 
Thomas J. lives in Oakwood Township. 

The subject of this sketch remembers well the 
wildness of the country around about as it first ap- 
peared to him when he became old enough to 
observe his surruundings, and the beautiful scene 
presented by the virgin jnairie and primeval for- 
est liefore civilization had wrougiit its marvelous 
changes, is indellibly impressed on his mind. Deer, 
wild turkeys and other game were plentiful and 
roamed at will, unless brought down by the uner- 
ring aim of the hunter an.xious to replenish the 
scant larder in his humble pioneer home. There 
were no railways for many j'ears after our subject's 
first recollection, and tiie nearest m.arket was at 
Chicago, 125 miles distant, till after the canal was 
finished, and then produce was t.aken to Perrys- 
villc, Ind. The farmers of those d.ays to con- 
duct their agricultural operations in the most [iriin- 
itive manner, and Mr. Jones says that when he 
young grain was cut with a sickle, and when the 
cradle came into use that was considered a great 
improvement, and the present iiarvesting m.achine undreamed of. Threshing machines were then 
unknown, and the grain was either trampled out 
by horses or else whipped out by flails. The plows 
in use had wooden mold-boards, and all corn was 
dropped by hand and covered with a hoe, while 
gr.ass was cut with a scythe and hay was pitched 
with a wooden fork. Nor the work of the 
liusy housewife lightened by modern improve- 



nicnts. The good luollicr cooked the food before 
the tire in the oi(l-f:isliioiicd liieplace, and used to 
spin, weave and malvC all the cloth for tlie family. 
The intelligent pioneers earlj' sought to give their 
children educational advantages, and the first 
sciiools were conducted in rude log school-houses 
provided witii seats made of puncheon with wooden 
pins for legs, and the window comprising an 
opening from wliich a log had been removed 
and greased paper inserted through whicli the 
hght had to penetrate, and a hirge firei)Iacc, 
the cliimney of stick and clay, for heating purposes. 
In such a structure our subject gleaned his eduea-- 
tion. He commenced in his boyhood to assist his 
father on the farm, and gained from him a thor- 
ough practical knowledge of farming in all its 
branches, lie remained an inmate of the parental 
household till lie attained man's estate and then 
started out in life for himself by renting land and 
carried on agriculture thereon for a while. At 
the time of his marriage he went to Iroquois 
County and settled on a tract of wild land there, 
remaining till 1859, when he returned to \'ermil- 
ion County, and in 1861 he bought forty acres of 
land on section 13 of Danville Township. It was 
partly fenced and a few acres had been broken, 
but aside from that no improvements had been 
made, not even any buildings had been erected. 
He built a frame house on fort}- acres adjoining his 
original purchase, and has since bought other land, 
till he now has 220 acres, under excellent cultiva- 
tion and capable of producing large crops. His 
resi-'.ence, a well built house, is located on section 
12, and he has other substantial buildings, and 
everything about the place is conveniently .'u- 
ranged and '.veil ordered. 

Mr. .lones has been twice married, lie was first 
wci'iUmI Oct. 1!), 185i, to Sarah A. Cox, wlio was, 
like himself, a native of Danville Township, born 
May 5, 1831. She closed her eyes to the scenes of 
earth after a brief and happy married life, dying 
in Iroipiois County. Nov. II, 18;j8. IMr. .lones 
was married to his present wife, formerly Mary K. 
Villars, Feb. 21, 181)1. Mrs. Jones is a native of 
Clinton County. Ohio, born Dec. 11, 1810. to 
William and Hutli (Whitaker) Villars (see sketch 
of \Villiam Villars for parental history). Mr. and 

Mrs. Jones have had six children, four of whom 
are living, as follows: Rosa Belle married Joshua 
Olehy.of Danville Township; John W. married Mary 
J. Rouse, and they live in Danville Township; Lillie 
A. married Albert K. Villars of Newell Township; 
Clark S. is .at home with his parents. 

Mr. Jones is a man of self-respecting, energetic 
character, well dowered with firmness and decision, 
ami his conduct in all the various relations of life 
is such as to inspire the trust and esteem of all 
with whom he comes in contact either in a busi- 
ness or in a social w.ay. He and his wife belong to 
the Pleasant (irove United Brethren Church, and 
are active in aiding their jwstor and fellow- mem- 
bers in an3- good work, and they are alwaj's to be 
found on the side of the right. In him the Dem- 
ocratic party in this section of the country tind a 
stanch ally. 


)HOMAS UKK. Among others who came to 
Central Illinois during the period of its pio- 
'y neership was the sturdy Knglish-born citizen 
with the substantial traits of chariieter handed down 
to hira by his ancestors, the qualities of industry and 
perseverance, which were bound to win. He as- 
sisted in the development of the soil, in the build- 
ing up of communities, and almost without an ex- 
ception acquired a competence. Mr. Lee is one of 
the representative men of his nationality and an 
e.irly settler. He came to Illinois in ]8rj6 and took 
up his residence in N'ermilion County in 1874 on 
section 32, township 23, range 12. During the pe- 
riotl of his fifteen years' residence here he has 
oi)ened up a good farm of 1 20 acres and secured 
himself against want in his old .age. 

Our subject born in Devonshire, England, 
Sept. 17. 1838, and lived there until approaching 
the eighteenth year of his age. He wjis the first 
child of the family to le.ave home, and the occasion 
was one naturally mixed with regret and some ap- 
prehensions. Km harking at Liverpool, he m.ade 
the long voyage across the Atlantic in safety, land- 
ing in New York, and proceeded directly to Illinois, 
locating first in Peoria County-. He worked on a 
farm there several years, and about 1 8(50 changed 



his residence to Woodford County. In that county 
he purchased wild land, where he opened up a good 
farm and lived about twelve years. During this 
time he put up good buildings, planted an orchard, 
fenced his land, and, in fact, effected the improve- 
ments naturally suggested to the progressive agri- 

In Woodford County, 111., our subject was mar- 
ried, March 8, 1862, to Miss Grace Huxtable. The 
young people began life together on the new farm, 
and after selling out, Mr. Lee traveled all over the 
West and the Pacific Slope, but came back to Illi- 
nois, not being able to find any section of country 
which suited him better. He then came to this 
county and purchased the farm where he now lives. 
There were no buildings upon it to speak of, but he 
soon provided a shelter for his family, and here he 
has since remained, carrying on general farming 
and stock-raising successfully. He cast his first vote 
for Abraham Lincoln in 18G0, and has since been 
a stanch supporter of the Republican part^'. He 
believes in the doctrines of the Bai)tist Church, of 
which he is a member, attending services at Iloopes- 

Seven of the eight children born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Lee are still living — Hersehel J., Lizzie, Clarence, 
Delraer, Newton, Jtnnie and Morris. The eldest 
Son has been in the farther West for the past four 
years. Lizzie became the wife of Loren Briggs, 
and they live on a farm west of the Lee homestead; 
they have two children. Clarence married JNIiss 
Ada Redden and lives in Butler Township. The 
other children are at home -with their parents. Mrs. 
Lee was likewise born in Devonshire in 1843, and 
came to America with her father when a child of 
nine years, the family settling on Kickapoo Prairie. 
The father farmed there for a time and then re- 
moved with his family to AVoodford County, where 
Mr. Lee made the acquaintance of his future wife. 
Mr. Huxtable, also a native of Devonshire, came to 
America in 1852, and carried on farming in Wood- 
ford County until 1 887. Then, retiring from active 
labor, he took up his residence in Benson, Wood- 
ford County, where he now lives and is married to 
his second wife. His first wife died in England. 

William Lee, the father of our subject, also a na- 
tive of Devonshire, England, spent his entire life 

there. He married Miss Susanna Davey, and they 
became the parents of five sons and tiiree daugh- 
ters, all of whom, with the exception of two daugh- 
ters, came to America, together with the mother, 
who died in Benson in Januarj^ 1888. 

- •*-^N*$-i 

^ILLIAM DICKINSON, an honored resi- 
dent and well-to-do farmer of Catlin Town- 

ship, is numbered among the far-sighted 
men of practical ability and cool judgment, who 
have been instrumental in promoting its growth, 
and making it a rich agricultural centre. He owns 
a well-ordered farm on section 26, ever3' acre of 
which is highly cultivated, and. with its neat build- 
ings and other appointments, it does not compare 
unfavorably with the many other fine farms of which 
Vermilion County can boast. Here Mr. Dickinson 
has passed thirty -six of the best years of his life, 
coming here while yet in llie (irime of a stalwart 
manhood, and that these 3ears have been well 
spent in diligent and cheerful lajior, is shown by 
the substantial home that lie has built up, in which, 
now that the infirmities of age are upon him, he 
can rest from his toils, and enjoy its comforts with- 
out the necessit}' of labor and drudgcr3'. 

Our subject is of English antecedents and birth. 
His parents, John and Hannah Dickinson, were 
both natives of England, and tlie3- died in Lincoln- 
shire. Their son, William Dickinson, of whom this 
sketch is written, was born in the old home in Lin- 
colnshire, April 27, 1819, and amid its jileasant 
surroundings, he grew to man's estate. He earl3' 
engaged in farming, and became quite a farmer 
before he left the old country to try life in the new 
world, coming here in 1853, landing in New York 
city the first day of JMay. He came directly to 
Vermilion County in this State, having previously 
lieard of its wonderful agricultural resources, and 
has been engaged in tilling the land in Catlin Town- 
ship ever since, though on account of his advanced 
age lie has retired somewhat from the active duties 
of the management of his estate. His farm com- 
prises 197 acres of choice land, well cultivated and 
sup[)lied with all the necessary buildings and ma- 



cliiiK'rv, and is indeed one of the most desirable 
plnees in tiie vicinity. 

.Mr. Dickinson was a married iii;in when he emi- 
grated to tliis country, he having been previously' 
wedded in the liistorical old town of lk)sttm, in 
Lincolnshire, to Miss Emma Barker, a native of 
that shire. Ten chihlrcn were born of their union, 
as follows: Harriet A., wife of Frederic Jones, 
whose sketch ap|)ears on another page of this vol- 
ume: Elizabetli M., wife of (ieorge .Stonebraker ; 
William, who married Gallic Lalleu; Emma, the 
wife of Arthur Jones, whose sketch appears on 
another page of this work; James; Matilda, the 
wife of .lames Benlley : Henry. Hannah B., John 
and Joseph. 

-Vug. 14, 1888, she who had walked by the side 
of our subject many a year, leaving, for his sake, 
home and friends in the dear old England, and for 
many a year cheering and strengthening him in his 
work, passed out of his life, and entered into the 
rest that passeth understanding. 

"Her work is compassed and done; 
All things are seemly and ready 
And her summer is just begun." 

Mus Dickinson — obituary. 
Mrs. Emma Dickinson, to whose memory this 
notice is inscribed, was" born in, Boston, Lincoln- 
shire, England, Sept. 22, 1823, making her age at 
time of death, sixty-four years, ten months and 
twenty-two days. Her maiden name was Emma 
Barker. She was married to William Dickenson, 
March 2. 1847. Thcj' emigrated to this country 
May 1 4th. 1 8.53, and located within three miles of 
where the family now reside. Her sister, Mrs. Ma- 
tilda Clipson came over at the same time. She 
the mother of ten children, five girls and five boys, 
of whom the following were born in England: 
Harriet A., wife of Frederic Jones; Mary E., wife 
of (ieorge Stonebraker; Emma, wife of A. Jones, 
and William, the eldest son. The following were 
born in America: James, Henry, .lolin. Joseph 
and Matilda, wife of James Bentley, and Hannah 
U. the youngest daughter. The children are all of 
mature age, and the family have never before been 
b.'i-e:ived by death. The deceased was a member 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church in England, and 

although she did not identify herself as a member 
here, she was an attendant on divine services, and 
lived an exemplary and Christian life. Her illness 
dates back several years, however, she was not con- 
fineil to her bed until about the beginning of Sep- 
temlier, since which time she was unable to help 
lier.self. Her sufferings were very great, but were 
borne with a resignation which none but a Chris- 
tian woman could possess. She was a devoted 
wife, a faithful mother, the light of the home and 
the pride of the family. While we must bid her a 
fond farewell, her virtues will not be forgotten. 

A short funeral service was held at the home bj- 
Rev. A. C. Cummings. The music was under the 
direction of Mrs. Elsie McGreggor, and the follow- 
ing persons were (diosen as i)all bearers: A. G., G. W. L. Church, Jno. I'arker. jr., T. 
Brady, J. M. Douglass and G. W. Tilton. 

By request of the deceased, a sacred song was 
sung during the services by little Benny Louis, ac- 
companied hy his sister. A large ijrocession of 
friends accompanied the family to the Jones ceme- 
tery, where the body now reposes. 

Mr. Dickinson is justly regarded as one of the 
solid, reliable citizens of this township, as during 
the many years that he has resided here, he has 
ever shown himself to be faithful to his duties and 
responsibilities in every tlepartment of life in which 
he has acted, as a husband, father, neighbor and 
citizen, and it may truly be said that his character 
is suih as to ins|)ire respect and esteem. 

AMES .M. (;EDDES, an Illinois pioneer of 
'56, and a nuan who has been the architect 
of his own fortune, is now tlie owner of :i 
fine properly, comprising a well-appointed 
farm located on section 7, in Uoss 'I'ownsliip. He 
is a scion of an excellent old family of Scotch an- 
cestry, and the son of Joseph (Jeddes, whose father, 
George Geddes, emigrated from the Land of the 
Thistle to America about 1788. Making his way 
to the Territory of Ohio, lie located on a tract of 
land in the wilderness, near where the town of 
East Liveriiool now stands, but which then for miles 
around was destitute of any signs of civilization. He 



had been married in Bostou, Mass., to a lady who 
was descended from old Plymouth stock — people 
who came over in the Ma3'llower — and who was 
reared in the strict doctrines of the old Presbj-tc- 
rian faith. They began their wedded life together 
in the wilds of Ohio, where the}' reared their 
ily, and spent the remainder of their days, each 
attaining to a ripe old age. Of tiieir children, 
seven in number, Joseph, the father of our subject, 
was the youngest, and was born in 1805. He was 
reared at that home in the wilderness. The coun- 
try was gradually settled up, and among the other 
adventurous pioneers who followed in the wake of 
the Geddes family were William Moore, wliose 
daughter, Catherine, became the wife of Joseph 
Geddes, and the mother of our subject. The 
mother's parents lived just across the Ohio River 
in Brook County, Va., until their deaths occurred. 

Joseph Geddes and his young wife continued to 
reside near the old folk in East Liverpool about 
six 3fears, and in the meantime their son, James M., 
the subject of this sketch, was born April 21, 1837. 
About 1839 they removed to Tuscarawas Count}', 
and later to the northeastern part of Indiana, where 
Joseph Geddes departed this life at the age of 
sixty-five years, and the mother at the age of sev- 
enty-six. They became the parents of twelve chil- 
dren, all of whom, with one exception, are living. 
The second child, Elizabeth, died when about seven 
years old. Those besides our subject, are named 
respectivel}', John, William, Mary A., Wilson, 
Richard, Robert, Nancy J., Lucinda, Joseph, and 
Minerva. The latter, the youngest of the familv, 
is thirty-six years old. The household circle re- 
mained undivided by death for more than fifty 
3'ears — a circumstance scai-cely equalled in the his- 
tory of any other family in this region. 

The parents of our subject, during tlieir younger 
years, were identified with the Presbyterian Church, 
but later became connected with the United Breth- 
ren, in the faith of which they died. James M., 
upon coming to Illinois in 1856, located first at 
Momence, but later removed to Iroquois County. 
There he was married, in 1862, to Miss Emma, 
daugiiter of Thomas and Anna (Barkley) Young. 
They lived there until the spring of 1883, engaged 
in farming pursuits; then our subject disposed of 

his interests in section and purchased his pres- 
ent fine farm of 160 acres, which he proposes to 
make liis permanent home. Upon coming to this 
State he was without other resources than his good 
health and strong liands, and like the wise man of 
Scripture, he has increased his talent ten fold. 
During his younger years he experienced all the 
hardships and difficulties of life in a new country, 
and im[)roved his first farm from the raw prairie. 
He cast his first Presidential vote for Lincoln, and 
has been a steadfast supporter of Republican prin- 
ciples, especially since the outbreak of the war, and ever maintained an ardent admiration for the 
martyred President, Lincoln. Both he and his 
wife belong to the Christian Church at Prairie 
Chapel. Their seven children, who are all living, 
were named respectively: Elmer L., Josejjh F., 
Maude, Ruby, Nellie, Grace and Nora. They 
form a bright and interesting group, and are being 
given the educational advant-ages which will fit 
them for intelligent and worthy members of so- 

FRANKLIN BALDWIN. It must be ad- 
1 mitted that although no man attains to suc- 

, . cess without encountering difficulties and 

drawbacks, life still has its compensations, espec- 
ial!}' when the individual has chosen tliatwise path 
of rectitude and honor which has led him to a po- 
sition where he is looked upon by his fellow men 
with confiiience and esteem. The career of Mr. 
Baldwin has been pregnant with interesting events 
and experiences, some of them dark and trying 
and some of them filled in with a large meas- 
ure of satisfaction. The former served to devel- 
op the naturally strong points of a substantial 
character while the latter have shomi like the sun 
upon a rugged mountain side, rounding uii tiie 
whole to a complete end. 

The native place of our subject was in the vicin- 
ity of Decatur, Ohio, and the date of his birth. 
April 26, 1832. When he was a mere child Ids 
parents set out for the West and after landing in 
Grant County, Ind., stopped there and raised one 
crop. In the spring of 1838 they folded their 
tents for a further journey Westward, starting out 



with a four-li<irso (cam and taking with tlieni their 
household yoofls and a (luaiitity of pnjvisioiis. 
Arriving at the Wabasii Hivi-r at Covington, they 
then loaded their belongings on to a ferry boat. 
The wind being strong and the river iiigli, Ihey 
came very near being capsized and drowned and 
received sueh a fright that our subject distinctly 
remembers the event to tliis day. They succeeded 
however, in making the crossing in safety and ar- 
rived in tins county on the SOtli daj' of March, 
stopping at Danville, tiiat place then being a very 
small town. The country- around was compara- 
tively unsettled, the cabins of the pioneers being 
few and far between. Tliere was onlyone or two "ag- 
on roads and wild animals were plentifid. The fel- 
low feeling which makes all man kin ))revailed. and 
eaeii new comer was greeted with a heartiness 
which made him feel welcome. Tiie father of our 
subject died tiie succeeding fall and the family 
were left to struggle along .as best as tiie\- could 
under the stress of limited means, and the hard- 
ships and difilculties of life on the frontier. The 
mother was a lady of more than ordinary capacity 
and by careful management kept her famil}- to 
gether until they were old enough to take care of 
themselves. Finally, laying aside the cares and 
labors of life she removed to the home of her 
daughter in Dallas County, Iowa, where her death 
took place at the .age of seventh-six j-ears. 

The subject of this sketch acquired his educa- 
tion mostly in the suliscription schools. When lif- 
teeu j'ears old the raotiier broke up housekeejjing 
and Franklin began working out by the day. 
month and job, and managed to maintain himself 
very comfortably, splitting wood b}' the cord, 
plowing, sowing and gathering in the harvest. In 
the fall of I80G, he took an important step toward 
establishing a home of his own, being married to 
Miss Editha Jane, daughter of John and Polly 
(Stewart) Naylor. The newly wedded pair took 
up their residence near Yankee Point and JMr. 
Baldwin occupied himself as before, until 18G4. 
when he purch.ased a tract of land from which he 
built up a good farm and which he occupied for a 
period of twenty-one j'cars. In Januar}', 1886, he 
and his estimal)le wife decided, and wisely, they 
would retire from active labor, and accordingly 

leaving the farm removed to the new village of 
Sidell, of which they iiave since been residents. 

Mr. Baldwin in the fall of 1885, purchased from 
Sanson Rawlings-a stock of hardware and has since 
been engaged in trade, building up a good patron- 
.age. In the 3'ear 1887, he completed a neat res- 
idence on East Market street and with amjile means 
:\m\ all the comforts of life, is enabled to live eas- 
ily and enjoy the fruits of his early industry. 

Mr. and Mrs. Baldwin became the parents of 
nine children, the eldest of whom, John M., mar- 
ried .Miss Lucy Thornton and is farming in Car- 
roll Township, they have three children; Perry A., 
married Sarah E. Lawrence and occupies the 
homestead; (hey liave four ciiildren— Maude, Ellen 
Lester, and Rosa; Charles M.. married Miss Emily 
Crices, and they are the parents of one child ; he 
conducts a grocery store in Sidell; William A. and 
Wilbur A. were twins.; (he former is farming in 
Sidell Townsiiip, and Wilbur is with his brother 
Charles in the grocery; Benjamin lives at the home- 
stead; Norah E., died at the age of. eighteen months; 
Robert W., is in Carroll Township with his brother 

The father of our subject was in his early man- 
hood an old line Whig, and Franklin remembers 
the election of 1840, when the grandfather of Pres- 
ident Harrison was elevated to the first position in 
the land. He cast his first Presidential vote for 
J. C. Fremont, and, was a staunch supporter of Re- 
publican principles. 

James Baldwin, the father of our subject, mar- 
ried Miss Rachel Parry and both were natives of 
Brown County, Ohio. The paternal grandfather, 
John Baldwin, came from England prior to the 
War of 1812, and settled near Ripley in Brown 
County. Ohio. The grandfather of our subject 
participated in the aljove war, enlisting .at the age 
of twenty-one years, after Hull's surrender. The 
father of our subject came to this county in the 
spring of 1838, and rented a part of the Drajjer 
farm, but died the ensuing fall when Franklin was 
a lad of six years. There were eleven other chil- 
dren, one of whom, the j'oungest born. William, 
died at the age of three years. 

The remaining children of the parental family of 
our subject are recorded as follows: Caroline, the 



eldest, is a i-esident of Madison County, Iowa, and 
is seventy-four years old; Amanda lives in Marys- 
ville, this State, and is aged seventy-two; Polly, 
sixty five years of age, is a resident of Georgetown, 
111.; Jane, aged fifty-five is a resident of Dallas 
County, Iowa; Thomas lives at Yankee Point, this 
eounty, and is fifty-nine years old. He and our 
subject are tiie only two sons living. The other 
children were named respectively, Elizabeth, Dari- 
us, John N., James and Elijah. 

Mrs. Baldwin's father was born in Ohio, and her 
mother in Ireland. Mrs. Baldwin was born in Ver- 
million County, Ind., June II, 1840, and there 
spent her childhood and youth, attending the com- 
mon school and being trained by an excellent 
mother to those housewifely duties, a knowledge 
of which is essential in a well-ordered household. 
She has stood bravely by her husband in his toils 
and struggles and he avers that it is owing largely 
to her good sense and wise counsels that he has 
been enabled to attain to his present position, so- 
cially and financially. They take a natural and 
pardonable pride in their fine family of children to 
whom they have given all the advantages in their 
power. Mr. Baldwin believes in education and 
has carried out his sentiments in this respect in 
providing his children with good schooling. The 
family is widely and favorably known throughout 
Sidell Township and vicinity where they count 
their friends by the score. 

yj;ILLIAM McBROOM occupies a high place 
among the venerable and honored citizens 
^J^^ of Catlin Township, and though not among 
the earliest settlers of this jjart of Vermilion 
County, he may be denominated one of its ijioneers. 
He is still living on the pleasant tract of land on 
section 35, that at the time of his i)urchase formed 
a part of the wild iirairie,and which he has since im- 
proved into a fine farm. lie and his wife are serenely 
passing tlieir decliiung years in one of the cosiest 
and neatest homes in this community, where they 
are held in respect and atfection by the many who 
know them. 

Mr. McBroom is a Keiituckian b\- birth, born in 

Preston County April 28, IBl.J, the eldest of the 
five children of Joseph and Phebe (Young) Mc- 
Broom, the former a native of Virginia and the 
latter of Chilicothe, Ohio. After their marriage 
they had settled in Preston County, Ky., and thence 
they removed to Crawfordsville, Ind., in 1827, be- 
coming early settlers of that place. Mr. McBroom 
bought a tract of land, and cleared forty acres of 
it where the city now stands. He was a man of 
considerable enterprise, and besides engaging in 
.agriculture, he made brick in that locality for four 
years, operating two brickyards at a time, anil 
making the first brick that was ever made in that 
county. His useful career was closed in 1841, in 
the home that he built up there in Montgomery 
County, and a valued citizen was then lost to the 
community. His wife survived him several years, 
but for fourteen years previous to her ileath, which 
occurred in Cass County, Neb., at the home of her 
daughter, Mrs. Sarah Young, she was an invalid. 

Our subject still in his boyhood when his 
parents took him to Crawfordsville, Ind., and there 
he grew to maturity, developing into a strong, 
shrewd, capable man. He learned the trade of 
wagon-making in that county, and followed it 
exclusively for a long term of years, finding it 
cpiitc profitable. He removed to Tippecanoe 
County, and was engaged in his trade there, manu- 
facturing w.agonsfor some ten years He then re- 
turned to Montgomery County, where he resideil 
until the month of October, 1854, when he came to 
Vermilion County, and settled in Catlin Townshi|), 
purposing to give his attention to agriculture on 
this rich, alluvial soil, and he has ever since made 
his home here. He owns 120 acres of land that is 
very fertile and productive, and is supplied with a 
good set of buildings; everything a))uut the place 
is orderly, and the farm is under good manage- 

Mr. McBroom has been three times married. 
The maiden name of the wife of his early manhood 
was Klioda Ann Stover, and she was. like himself, 
a native of Kentucky. She bore him one child, 
which died in infancy, and, the mother dying also, 
both were buried in the same grave. Mr. McBroom 
was married a second time in Montgomery County. 
Mrs. Elizabeth Boyd becoming his wife; she was a 



daughter of Josepli Hanks. To tliera three chil- 
dren were born — Jo.seph. John and Thomas, the 
latter dying when about a year old. Mrs. Mc- 
Broom departed this life in Tippeeanoe County, 
Ind., in 1848. Our subject was married to his 
|)resent wife in that county March 13. 18ol. Her 
maiden name was Emily Allen. She the 
dausrhter of the late Judge William and Susan 
(Spurgeon) Allen, and widow of Jacob Snyder. 
He died in Montgomery County Nov. 17, 1846. 
She had by her first marriage four children — Sarah, 
Susan, Ivea Ann, Amanda M. Sar.ah was the wife 
of Arthur C. Scliocky, and she died in Kansas. 
Mrs. McBroom's parents were natives of Ken- 
tucky, and she was the sixth of their ten children. 
She was born in Bourbon County, Ky., May 20, 
1818. B}- lier marri.age with our subject she has 
had six children, as follows: Pliuibe E., Alfred, 
Franklin, Josephine, William and Eddie J. I'ha-be 
and Franklin are deceased. 

Although Jlr. and Mrs. McBroom are well ad- 
vanced in years, the snows of .age have not yet 
chilled their hearts or deadened their sympathies 
towards the needy and suffering. The}' still take 
an active interest in the .affairs of the day, and 
keep well i)0sted on topics of general interest. Mr. 
McBroom's career in life has been a useful one to 
himself and to the community at large, as lie has 
contributed his quota towards its upbuilding, and 
has alw.iys acted tlie part of a good citizen. He is 
decided in his political views, and is a t'aitiiful ad- 
herent of the Democratic party. 

*(^n1NS0N K. BOARDMAN. Occasionally 
Wi />/ we find a man who has had the enterprise to 
v|/^ see something of the world before settling 
down to the sterner duties of life, as in the case of 
the subject of this notice. He has been (piite a 
traveler throughout the Western country, and 
spent a number of years on the Pacific Slope. He 
came to this county in the fall of 1840, and settled 
on this farm in 1859, where he has "2G5 acres of 
choice land on section 26, township 23. range 12. 
This has been his home for the long period of 
lliiity-five \-ears. .and he is still on the sunny side 

of .seventy, surrounded by all the comforts of life, 
and blest with the esteem and confidence of his 
fellow citizens. 

Mr. Boardman was born in Ontario C ounty, N. 
Y., May 3, 1822, and there spent his youthful 
days, .acquiring a practical education in the com- 
mon school. He was bred to farming pursuits. In 
the spring of 1849, young Boardman decided to 
visit California, and, [)ur(hasing an ox team at In- 
dependence, Mo., started across the plains with a 
company of 125 men. They "crossed the Mis.souri 
River at St. Joseph, and followed the usual trail 
taken by emigrants. They were five months <.n 
the road, but at the end of that time 123 of the 
men were scattered to different places, only our 
subject and one man reaching their destination in 
company. The others finally drifted to the same 
place after liaving wandered around north of the 
Sacramento River. 

I'pon his arrival in California, our subject en- 
gaged in mining from early in the fall until late 
in the winter, then went down to Nappa, when 
there was only one building in Sacramento but 
acres of tents. He staid there with an att.-ick of 
fever, which lasted about four weeks, and then en- 
tered the employ of the proprietor of the citv. with 
whom he remained, hauling lumber at !$I50 per 
month until fall, when he made his way to Oregon, 
where he spent the winter. Inthespring he entered 
the mines of Northern California, but with rather 
poor success, then returned to Oregon, but finally 
went back to California and rente<l land, where he 
carried on agriculture until returning home. 

This return journey made by our subject via 
the water route, across the isthmus to New Orleans, 
and up the Mississippi, Mr. Boardman arriving in 
this county again in the spring of 1853. That 
year he visited New York State. Subsequently 
.Air. Boardman employed himself at farming. li;iv- 
ing in view the establishment of a home of his 
own, and on the 16th of November, 1854, 
united in marri:ige with Mrs. Susan Carter. Soon 
afterward lie settled on Iiis present farm, where he since made his home, although the farm did 
not equal its present dimensions, having been 
added to both b}' himself and his sons. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Boardman there were born four 



cliildren, all of whom are livinsj. Inez is the wife 
of Tliomas P.vans. and they are residing in Grant 
Townshi]); Herbert \'. and Lrnest C. arc at home 
with tiieir fallier; Marens A. is ti-aveling Auditor 
for the Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroad Com- 
pany. Mr. Boardman has boon for a ninnbcr of 
years a member of the Presb3'terian Church at 
Rossville, and politically gives his sup|iort to the 
Republican party. He is a nian(iuiet aii<l unosten- 
tatious in his manner of living, and has been con- 
tent to pursue the even tenor of his way, making- 
very little stir in the world, and never seeking po- 
litical preferment. 

The |)arents of our subject were Jesse C. and 
Mary (Runyon) l)(janlnian, the former a native 
of Connecticut. When about eight or nine 3'ears 
okl he removed with his parents to New York 
State, where he was married and settled on a farm 
in Ontario County. His wife, the mother of our 
subject, died there when the latter was four years 
old. Jesse Boardman spent his last days near 
Rushville, Ontario County, and departed this life 
when about sixt}- -seven years old. 

MHIN E. SMITH is classed among the able 
and highly intelligent ^^oung farmers of \'er- 
milion County, who are active in sustaining 
and extending its great agricultural inter- 
ests. His well appointed farm on section 2G, Pilot 
Townsliip, is in all respects finely improved, and 
compares well with other estates in the vicinity. 
He has stocked it with cattle, horses and hogs of 
fine grades, and he is cultivating it with good re- 
sults so as to make money. He is a native born 
citizen of this county, Dec. 3, 1854, being the date 
of his birth. His father, George G. Smith, was 
born in Muskingum County, Ohio, Aug. 31, 1828, 
and he came to this county in company with his 
parents, who were of German antecedents and 
birth, in 1836. They thus became the pioneers of 
Vermilion County, and were respected residents 
here till death closed their earthly career, the grand- 
father of our subject dying in 1864, and the grand- 
mother in 1812. The following is recorded of the 
nine children born to the parents of our subject: 

Elizal)eth married George Wilson, of Ohio, now a 
farmer of Blount Township, and they have two 
children; Eilias D., a farmer of Blount Township, 
married Clara Smith and the}' have three children; 
Saiah lives with her parents; Eva married Andrew 
Lanliam, of Blount Township, now of Ross Town- 
ship, and tiie\- have one child; Wesley, a farmer, 
married Emma Sperry, of Blount Township, and 
they have one child; Marshall, A\"oodard and Jo- 
seiihine are the otiiers. 

John Smith received the preliminaries of a sound 
education in the pulilic schools, wliich he attended 
till he was twent\-one years old, and then being 
ambitious to advance still farther in his studies, he 
attended the State Normal School, where he pur- 
sued a]i excellent literary course that thoroughlv 
fitted him for the profession of teaching that he 
afterward ado|ited. He was successfully engaged 
at that vocation eight years, but after marriage he 
abaniloned it to give his attention to agriculture, 
and bought eighty acres of liiiely improved farm- 
ing land. He subsequently sold that and pur- 
chased his i)resent farm of 160 acres of land equally 
good, and well adapted to general farming. It is 
under high cultivation, and is provided with a 
comfortable, conveniently arranged set of farm 

Mr. Smith has much financial capacity, is en- 
dowed with good mental qualities that have been 
stimulated by a liberal education, and he carries on 
his farming operations with intelligent skill that 
will one day place him among the wealthy and 
substantial citizens of this township, if he prospers 
as he has heretofore done. In his politics he is an 
ardent champion of the Democratic part}', and has 
been since the days when he east his first vote for 
Samuel J. Tilden, the great New York statesman, 
his last vote for president being in favor of Grover 

The marriage of Mr. Smith with Miss Mary E. 
Eirebaugh, of Blount Township, occurred ]\Iarch 
25. 187C. She was Ijorn Dec. 11, 1853, in the 
aforementioned township, her parents being Wil- 
liam R. and Melvia (Flora) P'irebaugh, the father 
being of German descent. They emigrated from 
Ohio to Indiana, and thence to Illinois. The mo- 
ther departed this life in 1872. The father still 



resides in this county. Tlioy were the parents of 
five fliildren: Curtis niarriod Clirislina Porter, of 
tiiis county, iiiiil lliey iiave twociiiiilren ; P>lizabeth 
married Georjje Snyder, of this county, n(jw liv- 
ing in Oaicwood Townsliip, .and tiie^' have two 
children; Robert, a farmer, married Leo Fairchilds, 
of iilount Townsliip, and they have two children. 
Kmma niarricil Milton Fairchilds, of Blount Town- 
slii]). The following is the record of tiie five chil- 
dren born of the pleasant wedded life of Mr. and 
Mrs Smith: Irvin W., was born June .3,1877: 
Edwin R., Jan. 2;i, 1.S79; Alfred C. Jan !), 1881; 
Everett J., Sept. 5, 1884; Alga, Nov. 6, 1886. 



most prominent and busy men of Iloopes- 
l4i ton, having large interests in v.arious 
f^ branches of industry in the town. He is 

one of the originators and present owner of the 
Hoopeston Canning Factory, and is also its (icn- 
eral Managei'. This enteri)rise was inaugurated in 
1882, and at first, was operated on a small scale, 
but has gradually increased until it has become 
a very important factor in the business interests of 
Hoopeston. Last year the establishment used 
about 2,000 acres of corn and ]ieas, being all 
raised by the company, which is composed of Mr. 
Catherwood. J. S. McFerren and A. H. Trego. 'I'he 
concern furnishes employment to 300 people and 
fift3' teams, and the out|iut of corn alone last year 
amounted t<i 2,500.000 cans. The value of the 
plant and stock is given .at §150.000. 

Mr. Catherwood is also engaged in the grain 
business on the line of the L.ake Erie and Western 
Raili'oad, on which road he owns large elevators 
at ditfi'rent points, having .associated with him 
partners at each place. He also owns a large 
grain farm of 1,520 acres in the State of hi- 
diana in company with Mr. Williams. It will lie 
seen that Mr. Catherwood has a large business, 
whicli is composed of grain handling, farming and 
manufacturing, and. it is safe to say, that there is 
no man in tliis |)art of the counti-y better able to 
handle these immense interests. lie has held dif- 
ferent public offices, and here shows his capacil\' 

for doing business for others as well as for liim.self. 
He was made Chairman to investigate the differ- 
ent i)lans of waterworks, with a view to the selec- 
tion of the best for Hoopeston. He visited differ- 
ent places in the country, and after a decision was 
finally reached, whicli pi-actically emliodied his 
recommendations, he was gi\en the general super- 
vision of the erection of the waterworks. With his 
partiier,Mr. Trego, this important inipiovemenl 
reached a successful completion. 

Mr. Catherwood was born in HelmonI County, 
Ohio, Dec. 15, 1842. and when fifteen ye.ars of 
age, and two years after the death of his father, 
he, with his mother and family, removed lo Chris- 
tian County, 111., where he remained with his 
mother on their farm until his marriage, which oc- 
curred in October. 1874. In 187(j he removed to 
A'ermilion County, settling on a f;u-m ne;ir Hoopes- 
ton. He engaged in thi.s business for awhile, 
when he purchased a grocery store. While he had 
no previous experience in the mercantile business, 
his solid common sense guided liiin on to pros- 
perity in his newly-chosen vocation. He continued 
in this trade, and also engaged extenslveh in 
stock-raising (which he still follows) until he 
launched into the grain business, as has been before 
stated . 

Mr. Catherwood's wife's maiilen name was IMiss 
Cornelia Hartwell, and they are the jiarents of 
three children living — Robert, Maud and N.afimi. 
and three who died while young. l\Ir. Catherwood 
is a member of the INIa.sonic fr.aternity, being a 
Knight Templar. He is ever willing anil ready 
to aid anyone who is deserving, and, as a leading 
man of Hooiieston, has an enviable record. It is 
safe to assume that there are few better men in this 
liortion of the State of Illinois. 

James Catherwood, father of Allen 1'., was born 
in Ireland, and when twenty years of .age came to 
this country and settled in Delaware, where he 
mai-ried Miss Lydia Tnssie. Soon after his mar- 
riage he removed to ( )iiio, where all his chlldi-eii 
were born. Allen Iieing the youngest of ten. He 
was a general farmer, and considered a suc- 
cessful man in his calling. When his death oc- 
curred, in 1.S55. his wife and her family removed 
to Christian County, as before stated, where she 



purchased a farm, which she operated until the 
marriage of Allen, when he, with the other chil- 
dren, bought her a nice property in Taylorville, 
where she now resides with a single daughter. 


'^1 OHN McVEY, general merchant, of Tilton, 
and Postmaster of Vandercook Post-office, 
^'ernlilion Co., is one of the most prominent 
business men in this locality, and is one of 
the leading civic ofHcials. He is of Celtic ancestry 
and was born in County Longford, Ireland, in June, 
1837. His father, John McVey, was a native of 
the same county, and was there reared and married, 
continuing his residence in the home of his nativity 
till 1837. In that year he came to the United 
States, seeking' to better his fortune, leaving his 
family behind, intending to send for them at a later 
date after he liecame permanently established. He 
located in Schuylkill County. Pa., where he en- 
gaged in mining for several years, till an accident 
in the mines caused his death in 1852, while yet 
scarce past life's prime. 

His son John, of whom we write, was but an in- 
fant when he had the misfortune to lose the loving 
care of a good mother, and his father being in this 
country, he was taken to the hoine of his grand- 
parents, and was reared liy them till 1851. In that 
year he followed his father to America, setting sail 
from Liverpool and landing in New York after a 
voyage of seven weeks, a poor boy in a strange 
land. He hastened to join his father whom he had 
scarce seen, he having been an infant when he had 
left home, and they were reunited in Pennsylvania. 
Our subject soon commenced life for himself as a 
mule driver in a coal mine. In 1S57 he decided 
that he would like to try life in the great West, and 
making his way to this State he tried to obtain work 
in a coal mine at Danville. Not succeeding in that 
attempt he got employment on a railway for a few 
months, and then engaged in mining. In May of that 
year he answered Lincoln's call for 90-day men, 
and enlisting in Company C, 12tli Illinois Infantry, 
served with his regiment till the expiration of his 
term of enlistment, when he was honorably dis- 
charged and returned to Danville. In Avigust,18G2, 

he again went forth to aid his adopted country, 
and enrolling his name with the members of Com- 
pany C. 125th Illinois Infantry, he went to the front 
with his regiment, and bravely faced the foe on 
man}' a hotly contested battlefield. The most im- 
portant battles in which he took part were those of 
Perryville, Ky.,and Chicamauga. On the way from 
Chattanooga to Atlanta with General Sherman, he 
fought in the various engagements with the rebels 
that they encountered and in the siege and capture 
of the Latter city. He was also present at the battle 
of Jonesboro, where lie wiis severely wounded, .and 
was obliged to go to the hospital for treatment. He 
rejoined his regiment that winter at Savannah. 
After that he was unable to carry a musket, so did 
not march with his comrades, but went by boat to 
Washington, where he was honorablj^ discharged in 
May, 18()5. 

After his experience of inilitary life, Mr. ^IcVe}'- 
returned to Danville and resumed mining, which 
occupation he continued till 1873. He then rented 
land and engaged in farming the ensuing five years. 
During that time he established himself in the mer- 
cantile business at Tilton, his wife, a woman of 
more than ordinary ability, acting as man.ager. She 
proved so successful that Mr. McVey finall}' deter- 
mined to enlarge the business and devote his time 
to it, and from that small beginning has grown his 
present prosperous business. He is the only mer- 
chant in Tilton, .and carries a large stock of general 
merchandise, groceries, etc., and has a neat, well 
appointed store. 

July 2, 18G9, Mr. MrVey took a stej) that has 
had an im[)ortant bearing on his after life whereby 
he secured a wife in the person of Mrs. Julia 
(McHenev) Mulliatt<.>n, who has been an important 
factor in his prosperit}'. She is, like himself, a na- 
tive of Ireland, born in County Monaghan, and 
is the daughter of Patrick and Ann (Mulhollan) 
McIIeney, an<l the widow of James Mulhatton. 
Her parents were both natives of Ireland, .and her 
father dying when she was very young, her mother 
soon after took her children to England, and later 
came to America, five of her children coming at 
different times. Mrs. McVey was first married iu 
County Durham, Kngland, when but a girl in her 
teens, to James Mulhatton. When she was nineteen 



years of age she accompanied her Imsband to the 
United Slates, and they lived one year in Pennsyl- 
vania. They subseqiientlj' came to Vermilion 
Connty. and here Mr. Midliallon died while in the 
prime of life. 

Our subject is a fine S|)ecimen of the genus homo 
denominated the self-made man, .as all that he has 
;uid all that he is he owes to his own exertions, 
lie is a man of honor, whose char.acter is unblem- 
ished, and his standing in business and social circles 
is of the highest. Ills fi-ank, genial. :nid pleasant 
manner has given him a warm pla<'e in the hearts 
of his many as-sociates and he is [lopular with all 
classes. In politics he afliliates with the Demo- 
crats, but is friendly with all parties. He has re- 
presented Danville Townshi|) as Assistant Supervi- 
sor of the County Board fuur years; has served 
several terms as a member of the Tilton Town 
Council, and is at piesent President of honora- 
ble body of men. He and his wife are members of 
the St. Patrick Roman Catholic Church, contribute 
liberally to its support, and are active in its every 
good work. 

- OOP - 

• ooo - 

'S^OHN W. BOGGESS. M. I)., stands high in 
I the medical profession as represented in 
^.^1 : \'ermilion County, and he has also .icfpiired 
(^^// a fair rei)utation as an intelligent, enter- 
prising agriculturalist, owning and managing the 
farm on which he makes his home, ])leasantly lo- 
cated on section 29, Catlin 'I'ownship. he having 
retired to this place a few years ngo on account of 
failing health. This, his native township, good 
reason to l>e proud of her son, and he has alwaj's 
exerted his inlluence to ele\ate her citizenship. 

The father of this subject; likewise named John, a Virginian l)y birth. Monroe County being 
his native place. His mother, .lane O. (McCorkle) 
lioggess, was born in (irecnliriar Counlv, W. Va. 
After marriage his parents settled either in (ircen 
Briar County, or in Monroe County, W. \'a., where 
the father was engaged as a farmer and stock 
raiser. In IS.SO he settled up his affairs in that 
section of the country, and with his famil}' emi- 
grated to the wilds of N'ermilion Count}', and be- 
came an early pif)neer of Catlin Township, settling 

in whiit is known as Butler's Point. About 181(1 
he removed with his wife and children to Wiscon- 
sin, considering this locality, with the newly bro- 
ken prairie sod and other miasmatic influences, 
quite unhealthful then. He did not, however, 
sell his real estate in tins township, and after an 
aljsence of three years, he returned to this locality 
with his family, and settled on the old Klliott 
place, just west of Catlin, living there for conven- 
ience a short time, and then went back on to his 
farm. In 1856 they went to D.iiiville to reside, 
and dwell there four years for the purixise of edu- 
cating their children. Mr. Boggess then returned 
again to his fnrin iu this township, and continued 
to live here till his death, which occurred in I'"eb- 
ruary. 1871. His wife h:id preceded him to the 
grave, dying in May, 1,S(;8. They had eleven 
children; William, who died in Catlin Township, 
when about twciily-lwo years old; Diana .M.. (he 
wife of .loseph (iritlilh, died when she was tliirty- 
seven years old; Uebccca ;M. is the wife of William 
M.Ray; Klizabeth died when about seventeen years 
old; Harvey H. died at the ngti of thirty-eight 
years; Charles T. is a farmer in ^■ermilion County; 
America .1. is the wife of .lames Davis; Enoch P. 
is a farmer in Vermilion County; .Iuli;i iljcd wIumi 
she was six years old; Melissa died in infancy; 
,lohn W. 

The latter, of whom we write, was born in Cat- 
lin Township, Feb. 27, 181;!, and with the excep- 
tion of three years spent in Wisconsin, when he 
was but an infant, and the four years in Danville 
when he was attending school, he was reared to 
man's estate in the townshi|) of his birth, lie was 
educated p.artly in thd publju schools, and in the 
seminary at Danville, which he attended till he was 
sixteen years old. After thai he became a te.-ichcr. 
and was engaged in that vocation in the winter of 
18(!0 and in the summer of ISdl. In l.S(i2, andii- 
lions to extend his education, he entered the Illi- 
nois Wesleyan University at Bloomington, and was 
iiraduated from that institution in 18G6, having 
attained high rank for excellent scholarship. He 
then took up the study of medicine, and while |)ur- 
suing his course he taught school to pay his ex- 
penses. He under the tutorship of Dr. A. H. 
Luce, a well-known physici;in of Bloomington, 



and remained with him till the fall of 1867. In 
the winter of that year, he entered the Chicago 
Medical College, the medical dejjartment of the 
Northwestern University, and pursued his studies 
with characteristic vigor. In the spring of 1868, 
he resumed teaching in C'atlin Township, in f)rder 
that he might he at home with his mother, to whom 
he was devotedly attached, and whose health was 
fast failing, and his presence soothed her dying 
hours. In the fall of 1 868 he returned to college, and 
resuming his studies, was graduated in March 1870, 
with all honor for having attained a high standard 
in his class. He established himself in his profession 
in Oconomowoc, Wis. Bat he did not remain there 
lf)ng, however, as in the fall of that year he heard 
of a good oiicning for an enterprising young phy- 
sician at Coon Rapids, Iowa, and proceeding to 
that place, he opened an oflice there, and continued 
there till the si)ring of 1872. when he located in 
Nevada, Iowa, the count}' seat of Story County, 
which presented a broader field, and during his ten 
years residence there, he built up an extensive and 
lucrative practice, becoming one of the leading 
physicians of the countj'. In 1882 he retraced his 
steps to liis native county, and opening an oflice in 
Danville, he soon had more patients than he couJd 
attend to, as his fame as a successful and skillful 
practitioner had preceded him to his old home; but 
under the continuous strain of overwork his health 
gave way, and he was forced to retire from the ar- 
duous duties of liis profession, and having a nat- 
ural taste for out-of door labor, and, as a wise phy- 
sician fully believing in its health restoring pro- 
perties, he came to Catlin Township in 1884 and 
went to farming, and has ever since devoted him- 
self to that occupation. He owns a fine farm of 
^ sixty acres, and has it under excellent cultivation. 
The doctor was married in Carroll County, Iowa, 
Dec. 29, 1872, to Miss ^>lora B. Piper, who pre- 
sides over his home with true grace, and makes it 
cosy and attractive to its inmates and to their nu- 
merous frieiids, and even the stranger that hap- 
pens under its roof is kindly made welcome. Mrs. 
Boggess is a native of Pennsylvania, born in Bed- 
foi'd County, Jan. 8, 1853, a daughter of Thomas 
A. and Marj- (Funk) Piper. The following is the 
record of the four children born to her and her 

husband: Charles Wesley, born March 2. 1874, 
died Aug. 8, 1874; Carrie M., born .luly 6, 1875; 
Walter Thomas, April 21, 1879; Genevieve. April 
28, 1888. 

The doctor possesses, in a rare degree, those 
noble traits of char.acter that mark a man of honor 
.and veracity, one in whom his fellow-citizens feel 
they may safely put their trust. He is a man of 
extensive learning and information, and on his 
retirement from active practice, the medical pro- 
fession of Vermilion Count\- lost one of its most 
able members. He is greatly interested in the wel- 
fare of his native township, and takes an active 
pari in everything that tends to promote its moral 
elevation, educational or material status, and is 
especially active in religious affairs, he and his wife 
being esteemed members of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, and he has l)een an active Sunday- 
school worker, holding the office of superintendent 
.and also being a teacher. He is infiuential in po- 
litical matters, being one of the leading Republi- 
cans in this vicinity, and a mcnil)er of the Repub- 
lican Central Committee of 1888, of his township. 

ON. CHARLES A. ALLEN, member of 
Ij the Thirty -sixth General Assembly, from 
the Thirty-first District, comprising Verm il- 
p ion and Edgar counties, was elected on 
the Republican ticket, first in 1884. and re-elected 
twice thereafter, having entered now upon bis third 
term. He has been a member of the Judicial Com- 
mittee and several other important committees. 
including Insurance, and has served as Chairman 
of the Railroad and Warehouse Committee, also of 
Corporations and Educatioiial Institutions. Dur- 
ing the Logan fight he was the first man on the 
roll call, at that time a very important ])osition. 
He has frequently represented his district in State 
and other conventions and is in all respects a very 
prominent man in Eastern Illinois. 

Mv. Allen was born in Danville, July 6, 1851, 
and removed with his parents when a child of two 
years to the Ridge where they were the earliest 
settlers. Charles A., upon leaving the district 
school prepared himself, to become a student of 


^^yZyC-l 1 ^f^-i^-^C^ 



Michiijan University from llie Law Department of 
which he was graduated in 1875. He commenced 
tlie iiractice of his profession at Rossviile where he 
remained until 1881, then changed liis residence 
to Iloopeston. wiiicli has since remained liis iiome. 
In addition to a lucrative law practice, he has been 
largely engaged as a real estate dealer, and has oc- 
CLipii'd many positions of trust and responsibility 
among his fellow citizens. Sociallj-. he is a char- 
ter member of the K. of P. and is identified with 
the 1. O. O. F. and Masonic fraternity. 

Tlie marriage of our subject with Miss Mary, 
daughter of L. M. Ihompsou. of Rossviile. was 
celebrated April 4. 1878. A sketch of Mr. Thomp- 
son appears elsewhere in this volume. Of this 
union there have been born two children — John N. 
and Lawrence T. The fatlier of our subject was 
William I. Allen, one of the first settlers of Ver- 
milion County, and a sketch of whom ap|)ears on 
anotlier page. 

OX. JOSEPH G. CANNON. Member of 
\' Congress representing the Danville district 

;ll Ifl 

Ji^ of Illinois. On the opposite page appears 
'■^) 'i portrait of this gentleman, who has been 
for many .years a prominent factor in the official, 
social and political life of this section of the State, 
and who made a national rejjutation as a legis- 
lator and a statesman. 

For many years there was a large exodus of the 
Society of Friends from North Carolina to the AVa- 
bash Vallej-, who left their former homes to get 
away from the curse of slaver}'. Among the num- 
ber was Dr. Horace F. Cannon, who, accompanied 
by his family, removed in 1840 to make his home 
in Park County-, Ind. Thus, far removed from 
the scenes of their j'outh he and his wife jiassed 
the residue of life in the Northern countrj-, 
surrounded l)y olil friends who had also come 
North, and by many new friends whom they had 
met in their new home. Dr. Cannon was in early 
manhood united in marriage with Gulielma Ibil- 
lingsw(,rth. He was a native of Greensboro, N. C, 
and in his early maturity practiced his [Mofession, 
being a physician and surgeon. After his removal 

to the Wabash Valley he passed the remainder of 
his life in the practice of his profession, and died 
an accidental death in 1851 when he was forty- 
five years of age. He was a man of character and 
considerable local note, being a prominent early 

Joseph G. Cannon, of whom this brief record is 
written, was born in New Garden, Guilford Co.. 
N. C, May 7, 1836. His education was received 
at the Western Manual Labor School, now known 
as Blooraingdale Academy. At the .age of fifteen 
his school work ended, and for five years thereafter 
he was engaged as a clerk in a store. 

At the age of twenty-one, having a strong desire 
for professional life, Mr. Cannon entered the law 
office of the Hon. John P. Usher, who afterward 
became one of President Lincoln's secretaries. In 
1859 he was admitted to the bar to practice in the 
courts of the State of Illinois, and located at Tus- 
cola, Douglas Co., III., for the practice of his pro- 
fession, in which he continued until 1872. In that 
year he was elected to Congress, and has since been 
consecutively re-elected, now serving his ninth terra. 
He made Tuscola his home until 1876, when he re- 
moved to Danville, where he has for many years 

Mr. Cannon now stands as one of the foremost 
men in the House of Representatives. His jjosition 
he owes to the confidence of his constituency, who 
have given him long service, and to his industry 
in the public service. His early preparation was 
not all he would have desired, as he was deprived 
of a college course, and for financial re.asons was 
compelled to enter the law practice as soon as he 
could, so it was only by strenuous exertion that he 
fitted himself for the responsible position he 

After serving for six years on the Committee for 
Post-ollices and Post-roads. Congressman Cannon 
was appointed a member of the Committee on Ap- 
propriations, on whicli he has served until the 
present time. Said 3Ir. Cannon, with the justifiable 
pride and satisfaction arising from having accom- 
plished a good work: -'I had charge of the Postal 
Appropriation Hill while on Committee, upon which 
legislation was had reducing letter postage from 
three to two cents, and containing other important 



postal revisions and reforms." During the Forty- 
seventii Congress the Republicans bad control of 
llie House. In this same Congress Mr. Cannon 
was continued on Appropriations, having special 
charge of the Legislative, Executive and Judicial 
Appropriation Bill, which carries appropriation for 
the officials of tlie Public Service, and upon which 
many reforms were wrought. For many j'ears, 
being the head of the minority on that committee, 
it has fallen to him to make a statement of the esti- 
mates and appropriations for and expenditures by 
the Government. It has been received by 
Congress and the country as authoritative and ex- 

The Republicans have a small majority in the 
present Congress, which will organize the first 
Monday of December next (1889). It seems to 
be generally conceded that from seniority of service 
and equipment for work, Mr. Cannon will be chosen 
Cliairman of the Committee on the organization 
of the House, unless he is elected Speaker, for 
which position he is a candidate. His service in 
the House, his acquaintance with public men and 
affairs has given him good standing with the Re- 
publicans, and also with those of the opposite 
party, who respect him for his sincerity and hon- 
esty, even though they differ with him in polities. 
His party in the House of Representatives did 
him the honor for six years of making him Chair- 
man of its Caucus and of the Caucus Committee, 
which has charge primarily of suggesting the policy 
of the Republicans in the House touching matters 
of legislation. 

Mr. Cannon being engaged in politics, has paid 
but little attention to law practice of late 3ears. 
He has business interests in the city of Danville, 
and also owns farms both in Vermilion and Dong- 
lass counties. 

Although politics has engaged a great deal of 
the consideration and thought of Mr. Cannon, he 
has spared the necessary time to found home ties 
of his own. His marriage was solemnized on the 
7th of .lanuary, 1862, with Miss Mary P. Reed, of 
Canfleld, Oliio. Their union has been blessed by 
tlie birth of two daughters, Helen and IMabel, who 
are now at home, having recently finished their 
college education. Thus Congressman Caiuion, in 

his leisure hours, partakes of the enjoyment of a 
beautiful home, and the society of those he loves, 
and whose interests are ever uppermost in his 

W^ALlvER T. BUTLER is an enterprising 
wheelwright of Sidell. He located in this 
village in December, 1887, at which time 
he erected bis shop on Chicago street. He has laid 
the foundation for a large business, which is con- 
stantly increasing, and in the spring of 1889 he 
enlarged his business in a substantial manner. Mr. 
Butler is one of the solid men of his adopted town, 
and one whose word is as good as a bank note. 

On February 23, 1840, Mr. Butler first saw the 
light of day in Edgar County, 111., about a mile 
from Chrisman. His father, Asa Butler, was born 
near Lexington, Kj'., while his mother, Catharine 
Porter, is a native of Madison County, that State. 
The Butlers were originally from Virginia, and 
came to Kentucky in an ea.r\y day. The father was 
a blacksmith, the entire male portion of the familj- 
of Butlers being mechanics. One of the uncles 
was a cabinet maker at the .age of ninct^'-two, and 
the subject of this sketch saw him at work making- 
spinning wheels at that great age. In 1834 Asa 
Butler and bis wife removed to A'ermilion County, 
settling dose to Indianola, erecting a shop there. 
He left this jilace and went to Chrisman, where he 
remained for a long time. This couple are the 
parents of nine children, whose names are given: 
Ephraira P., Elizabeth A., William F., Ellen F., 
Walker Turner, S.-mie F., Lucinda C, Rosa A. and 
and an infant child, the two latter being dece.a.sed. 
The father died at Indianola in 1878 at the age of 
seventj'two years, while the mother is still living 
on the old Butler homestead 

Ephraim resides in Richardson County, Neb.; 
Samuel is in the employ of the Burlington & 
ilissouri River Railroad ('om|)any at South 
Omaha, Neb., as a billing clerk; Eliza is liv- 
ing in Indianola with her mother; William F. was 
accidentally killed by a traveling man who mistook 
his head for a prairie chicken; the after- 
ward went insane; Ellen F. is the wife of .Tann s 
R. Adams, who is farming near Georgetown; Lu- 



cinrla C. married Melviii L. Porter, who is en- 
gaged in tiie clothing hu!iiness at Danville; Walker, 
of whom this sketch is written, was reared on a 
farm, working alteiiiately at farming and in the 
Maeksniillislioi). His schooling was obtained in 
the subscription scliools. His first attendance 
upon the [)ublic scliool was in Edgar County, 
111., where the sciioolhoiise was erected by sub- 
scription, and built of logs. He worked on the 
farm nine months, attending school tiie balance 
of the year. He continued in this way until he 
became eighteen years of age, when he went to 
work exclusively at his trade. On March 26. 1861, 
he w.a.s married to Miss Susan .1. Porter, daugiiter 
of Richard Porter, and a half-sister of Mrs. Hewes. 
Her mother was Elizalieth Howard. The Porters 
originall}^ came from Woodford County. K3'., emi- 
grating to Illinois in 1834. 

At the time the War of the Rebellion broke 
out Mr. Butler was a half owner in a shf)p, and 
iiad just p.assed his honeyjnoon. There was everj' 
inducement for him to remain at home, and pros- 
per in his business, but iiis duty lay in enlisting 
in the Union army, which lie did in May, 1861, 
by joining Company D, 2r)th Hlinois Infantry, being 
mustered into service on June 4, following, at 
Danville. His regiment drilled at Arsenal Park, 
St. Louis, for two months, and here he was elected 
Captain of his company. He was young and in- 
experienced, and being modest, he refused to 
serve, but afterwards accepted the position of 
Sergeant. On account of a severe wound in the 
right foot, he honorably discharged, after which 
he came home, an<l devoted his entire attention 
to his tr.ade. His army record was a brilliant 
one. and the men are very few who would refuse 
a commission as he did, which exhibits his entire 
unselfishness and patriotism. He remained in In- 
dianola until [><~'J, when he removed to Ridge 
Farm, there engaging in business at his trade initil 
18«7, when he came to his |)resent location. 

Mr. Butler is one of the members and 
organizers of the l'.ai)tist Church of Sidell. which 
came into existence May 2, 1889, and of which 
he was lb cle I Deacon. He has belonged to this 
church since lie was eighteen years of age, and 
for twenty-two years was .Superintendent of a 

.Sabbath-school. He is also \'ice-President of the 
Snnd.ay-sciiool Association of Carroll Township. 
.Mr. Butler belongs to Vermilion Lodge, No. 2G5, 
A. !•'. it A. M., and its JIaster for three terms, 
and also its delegate to the Grand Loilge at Chi- 
cago in the years 1873, 1874 and 1875. He is 
also a charter member of the C. A. Clark Post, 
No. 184, C. A. U., located at Ridge Farm. The 
office of School Director has been filled by him 
for fifteen \ears. 

.Mr. and .Mrs. Butler have iiad five children: Mel- 
vine S., Gracie E., Adoniram J., Leslie F., Bessie 
and Willie. ^Melvine S. was educated at the .lack- 
sonville Blind Institute. He dieil, and his parents 
deeply felt his loss, (ir.acie E. is the wife of 
John Fletcher, a farmer of Edgar County, III.; 
thej' have three children: Henry T., Howard and 
Charles. Adoniram .1. and the rest of the chil- 
dren are living at home. Mr. Butler is a stanch 
Republican, and for several j-ears has served his 
party on the County Central Committee. He has 
alwavs been in favor of temperance lavvs. and 
tiieir strict enforcement, and \i was largely through 
his instrumentality that the sale of whisky was 
finally abolished in Carroll Township. Mr. But- 
ler is one of the very best men of ^'crmilion 
County, and is so regarded by his neighbors. 

$ I^ILLIAM CA.ST. The subject of this notice 
imbered among the pioneer residents 
well-to-do farmers of this count}', who 
carved out their fortunes b}' the labor of their 
han<ls. and to whom we are indebted for the devel- 
opment of the rich resources of llie Prairie State. 
Jlr. Cast has been a resident of Danville Township 
for a long period, and is held in high repute among 
its best citizens. 

The subject of our sketch was born in Vernon 
Township, Clinton Co., Ohio, A[)ril 17.1821, and is 
the sou of Aquilla and Mary (\'lllars) Cast, the 
former born in Kentuekj-, Dec. 7, 1799, and the 
latter born in Pennsylvania, Dec. 13, 1798. The 
paternal grandfather, Ezekiel Cast, is supi)osed to 
have been likewise a native of Kentuck3-, whence 
he removed to Ohio in 1805, while it w.os in the 



third year of its dignity as a State. He was one of 
the earliest pioneers of Clinton County, and pur- 
chased a tract of timber land in Vernon Townsliip, 
wliere he improved a farm and resided until his 

Tiie father of our subject was quite young when 
his parents removed to Ohio. He was reared and 
married in Clinton County, and purcliased land in 
Vernon Township, where he engaged in larming 
until his death in September, 1831. The mother sur- 
vived her iuisband for a period of twenty-five 
years, and died in Clinton County in 1856. Her 
father, James Villars, is supposed to have been a 
native of Pennsylvania, whence he removed to 
Ohio in 1806, making the journey down the river, 
and landing at Cincinnati, which was then in its 
embryo state. He also, Ukc grandfather Cast, was 
one of the earliest pioneers of Clinton C^ountj', 
and like him cleared a farm from the wilderness, 
where he spent his last da3S. lie married Miss Re- 
becca Davis, of Pennsylvania, and she also died in 
Clinton County, Ohio. 

Aquilla C'ast, and his estimable wife became the 
parents of eight children, seven of whom grew to 
mature years, and of whom William, our subject, 
was the fourth in order of birth. He was only ten 
years old when his father died, but remained on the 
farm with his mother, acquiring his education in 
tiie common school and becoming familiar with the 
labors inci<lent to the routine of farm life. He 
continued a resident of Clinton County until 1843, 
then started out to seek iiis fortunes, liis destination 
being this county. He w^as equipped with a team 
of horses and a wagon and accompanied by his 
family, they bringing with them their household 
goods. After fourteen days' travel they landed in 
Danville Township, and Mr. Cast, in the fall of that 
year, purchased U)0 acres of land, the nucleus of 
bis present farm. 

There were no railroads in Illinois for some years 
after Mr. C.ast settled in this county, .and for a long 
period Covington and I'errysville were the nearest 
markets. Deer, turkeys and other game were 
plentiful. The Cast family battled with nian3- dif- 
ficulties and some hardships, and uiulerwent the 
usual experience of life on the frontier. Our sub- 
ject proceeded steadily with the improvement of 

his property, and was greatly prospered in his la- 
bors. As time passed on, he .ad<led to his landed 
est.ate, and now has a well-improved farm of 320 
acres. He erected good buildings, anil has 
gathered around 'himself and his family all the 
comforts and conveniences of modern life. 

The marriage of our subject with Miss Rachel 
Villars was celebrated at the bride's home in Clin- 
ton County, Ohio, Oct. 28, 1843. Mrs. Cast was 
born in Vernon Township, Clinton Co., Ohio, May 
16, 1823. Her father, William Villars, was born 
in Pennsylvania, Aug. 31, 1802, and is the son of 
.Tames and Rebecca Villars, who removed to Oh if) 
when he was four 3'ears old. He was reared in the 
Buckeye State, and married ISIiss Ruth Whittaker, 
a native of Clinton County. Her parents were 
Oliver and Mary Whittaker, natives of New Jer- 
sey, who removed to Clinton County, Ohio, during 
its earl3' settlement. The father of Mrs. Cast in- 
herited a large tract of land in that count}', where 
he carried On farming until 1843. He then came 
to this county, purch.asing land in Danville Town- 
ship, and has been a resident here since that time, 
and is now in his ninety-seventh year. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Cast there were born four chil- 
dren, the eldest of whom, James W., married Miss 
Klla Karris, and is the father of two children — 
Mabel and Minnie. John Oliver married INlarj' 
Thayer, and has two children — (xcorge and Carrie. 
Mary is the wife of Perry Brown, of Clietopa, 
Kan. George Aquilla died at the age of nineteen 
months. In jiolitics Mr. Cast has been a staunch 
Democrat, as also his father, and Mrs. Cast 

-5 #.# 5^ 


((^/lJI| born near Elizaliethtown, Hardin Co., Ky., 
li on the 27th day of February, 1823. His 
father, Richard C. Kiml)rough, was a 
native of Wexliall County, S. C., and his grand- 
father, Goldman Kimbrough. was born in the St.ate 
of Virginia. The Kiml)rongli family settled early 
in Virginia, and in Colonial times owned a lai'ge 
tract of land and were extensive farmers. They 
served with distinguished ability in the Revolu- 
tionary War. The grandfather of Andrew H. 



KimliiDiigli removed from Viriiiiiia to South Caro- 
lina aftor the Kevolutionary War aiul later to 
Alabama, where he bouglit large blocks of l;in<l, 
and where he died in 18.'5.'). He was a large slave- 

Richard C. Kimbrougli, the father of Dr. Kim- 
brougli, was under ago when the AVai- of 1812 
broke out, and in order to enlist, he ran awaj- from 
home and served in the arra^' until the close of the 
war. He was in several battles including the 
Horse Shoe fight and was with Gen. .Jackson at 
New Orleans. lie was wounded in the former 
battle. After the close of the war he went with 
some of his comr.adesto Hardin Count}', Ky.. and 
there taught school until his marriage, and then 
with a brother, he engaged in the business of tan- 
ning. In 1825 he emigrated to Illinois and was 
therefore a pioneer of ivigar County. The re- 
moval was made with teams, bringing all the liouse- 
liold goods along, camping out on the way. He 
entered a tract of eighty .acres of laud in Wayne, 
now Stratton Township. There no house on 
the place and he was comiielled to rent a cal)in, but 
in the following spring he erected a house on his 
his own land, which was surmounted by a stick 
and clay chimnej'. There were no sawmills in the 
county, a fact which compelled him to m.ake his 
own boards iu order to build the doors. He had" 
no nails and so used wooden pegs instead. The old 
fashioned fire-place was used to cook food in those 
days, stoves being an unknown utensil in the 
economy of kitchen work. The chitli with which 
they made their clothes was constructed from yarn 
S|)un entirely by hand. He l)ought another eighty 
acres of land which aiUled to his former purchase 
made a good farm. He die<i in 1833. The maiden 
name of the mother of the subject of this sketch was 
■lane Morrison, a native of Kentucky. Her father, 
James Morrison, it was thought was l>orn in \ir- 
ginia and removed from there to Kentucky and 
settled in Hardin County. He was a farmer and 
spent his host years there. The maiden name of 
his wife was Mary McWilliaras. She was born in 
Virginia and removed to Kentucky with her par- 
ents in 1791. This family were pioneers of Hardin 
County, where they brought a large tract of timber 
land and improved a farm which Mr. McWilliams 

afterward lost on .an old claim. Air. McWilliams 
spent his last years in that State. The mother of 
our sniiject was married a second time in 1847 to 
Hall Siuis ami resided in Kdgar County until her 

-Vndrcw II. Kind)riiugh was eleven years old 
when his father died leaving his mother with six 
children to care for. He resided with his guard- 
ian until 1842. and then lelurned home and man- 
aged the farm for his mother until her second 
marriage, when he purchased her interest in the 
farm. He continued farming until 18r)4. He had 
some time before resunuMl the stud}- of medicine, 
l)nt had to abandon that on the account of the lack of 
funds, but later he again took up the study and grad- 
uated from .TetTerson Medical College, Philadelphia, 
in March, 18.")S. In that year he commenced 
pr.actice .at Georgetown, this county, and contin- 
ued so doing until 1S73, when he removed to 
Danville and has practiced there continuously since 
that time. He married Sarah Ashmore. who 
born in Clark County. April 10, 1820. She was a 
danghter of Amos and Patience Ashmore, natives 
of Tennessee. They were truly pioneers of Clark 
County, 111. 

Andrew H. Kimbrough is the fathei- of three 
children — Laura II.. K. R. Kugene, .and Lillie A. T. 
Politically, he is a Democrat, and socially, is a 
member of Fianklin Lodge K. of II. He joined 
the I. O. O. F. in 18.")0 and has filled all the chairs. 

— •* io♦o~@;^^-^^•.o♦o.. <<— 

ENRY D.VVIS. The man who ventured 
into Central lUinnis during its i)ioneer 
■Si^ daj's is worthy of more than a passing 
((^ mention. Few who did not undergo the 
ex|)erience can have a full realization uf the hard 
lot of the early settlers. The distant markets, 
the inadequate price for the cro|)S which they 
raised under great dillictdties, the inferior educa- 
tional advantages, ami thi' miasma from the fre- 
quently low, wet laud, which confronted the 
pioneers with illness — a physician miles away — 
and the generally wild condition of their surround- 
ings, no railroads or stage lines, and in some 
sections scarcely a well-defined wagon track, made 



life in the pioneer times a liire struggle frequentlj', 
for existence. 

The subject of this sketch has had a fall exper- 
ience of pioneer life in all its details, but at the 
same time he has been the privileged witness of 
changes almost miraculous. He was born in this 
county, May 5, 1841, iiis father, William Davis, 
being among the earliest pioneers. The latter was 
a native of Ohio, and descended from excellent 
Scotch-Irish stock. He was prospered in his labors 
as a tiller of the soil of Illinois, and in due time 
became the owner of 2,000 acres of land, a large 
portion of which he gave to his children. 

The father of our subject still has about 1,000 
acres of land, all in this county, and is likewise in- 
terested in the hardware business at Fairmount, 
while he has considerable other property. The 
mother, Mrs. Elizabetii (Hayes) Davis, was a na- 
tive of Ohio, and the parental household inchided 
ten children, six of whom are living, and of whom 
Henry is the fourth in order of birth. He, like 
his brothers and sisters, pursued his earh' studies in 
the old log schoolhouse, the system of instruction 
of that day being fully in keeping with the fashion 
and furnishings of the temple of learning, into 
which light was admitted through greased paper, 
and the seats and desks of whicli were made of 
slabs, the floor of puncheon, a wide fireplace ex- 
tending nearly across one end, and the chimney 
built outside of dirt and sticks. Young Davis at- 
tended school mostly on stormy d.iys, when he 
could not work at iiome. He had few companions 
and little recreation, as the county was very thinly 
settled, and for a distance of forty miles south 
there was not a single cultivated farm. 

Our sul)ject remained at home working with liis 
fatiier until about twenty-two years old. and then 
determined to strike out for himself. The first in- 
teresting event which followed was his marriage 
with Miss Nancy Cox, on ti)e 24th of December, 
1803. Tills lady remained the companion of her 
husband less than nine yeais, her decease taking 
place Oct. 24, 1874, leaving no cliildren. Their 
wedded life had been begun in a log house on the 
present farm of Mr.Davis, and that humlile dwel- 
ling is still standing. Mr. Davis was married a 
second time, Sept. 7, 1875, to Miss Rebecca E. I 

Baird. This union resulted in the birth of three 
children — Fred L., born May 24. 1876; Grace 
Klizabeth, July 30, 1877; and Sarah Mabel, Dec. 
18. 1878. Mrs. Rebecca K. (Baird) Davis de- 
parted this life July 18, 1880. 

On the 5th of April, 1881, Mr. Davis was mar- 
ried a third time, to Miss M. Belle, daughter of 
Nathan B. and Mary F. (Wilson) Pemberton. Mr. 
Pemberton was a native of Ohio, and his wife of Ken- 
tuck}'. The father of Mrs. Davis left his native 
State, when twenty-one years old, going to Ken- 
tucky, where he engaged in farming and was married. 
Nineteen years ago thev left the Blue Grass State 
for Indiana, where they lived on a farm for seven 
years, then came to this county, and settled two 
miles northwest of Fairmount. After living there 
two j'ears they made another removal, and are now 
living one and one-iialf miles west of Catlin, in the 
enjoyment of good health, Mr. Pemberton being 
sixty -seven and his wife flft3-eight years old. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Pemberton there were born 
seven children, five of whom are living, and of 
whom Mrs. Davis was the third. She first opened 
her eyes to the light in Maysville, Ky., July 2'J, 
1855. She i-eceived excellent educational advan- 
tages, and grew up an attractive and accomplished 
young woman, fitting herself for a teacher, and 
pursuing this calling in Indiana jnior to her mar- 
riage. Mr. Pemberton some years .igo was wounded 
by an ax in his own hands, which struck his knee, 
and which resulted in confining iiim to the house 
for three years thereafter. He has suffered from 
this almost continuously since that time. He has 
been a plain and upright man and a member of 
the Baptist Church, while Mrs. Pemberton belongs 
to the Presbyterian Church. 

Mr. Davis erected his present residence about 
1874, and in connection with his farming opera- 
tions gives considerable attention to live stock. 
raising about seventy-five head of swine annually, 
besides graded cattle and horses. His farm com- 
prises 120 acres of land, including a timber strip 
of fifteen acres. One year he was engaged in the 
grocery trade at Fairmount. Politically he has 
always been a strong Democrat, and has held the 
office of Commissioner of Highways for the past 
nine years. He is a School Director in his district, 



and for five years i)ast has been I'resident of the 
Vcnnilion County AgikMiltiiial and Meclianieal As- 
sociation. He is also a member of the lioard of 
Direetors of the Fair Assoeiation, and is crop re- 
jiorter for llie Ag-ricultiiral Deitartnient at Spring'- 
tield. He has exereised no small intlaenee upon 
party politics in this region, ollieiating as a mem- 
ber of the Central Committee, and as a delegate 
to the various county conventions. Both he 
and ills excellent wife are members in good stand- 
ing of the Baptist Church, in which ^Ir. Davis lias 
labored faithfully in the .Sunday-school, and offic- 
iated a,s Librarian. Without making any preten- 
sions to elegance, the Davis homestead is without 
question the abode of peace and comfort, and wliilo 
the of the family acquitted himself in a 
creditable manner, his very intelligent and .^,miable 
partner, a lady of great worth and refinement, has 
fulfilled her whole duty in making home the most 
attractive spot on earth for those dearest to her. 

-^ .^^ ^ 

W ABAN CiRITTEN is classed among the lead- 
I (f§) ing farmers and stock raisers of Pilot Town- 
JI L^ ship, he having contributed much towards 
making it a great agricultural center. His farm on 
section 22 is comparable with the finest and best 
in this section of Vermilion County, is so cultivated 
as to produce large harvests, and its buildings and 
all other appointments are fii'st-class. Mr. Gritten 
has evolved this desirable farm from tlie wild prai- 
ries of Illinois, as they were many years ago. before 
they had been changed by cultivation, it having 
been government land when he purchased it more 
than thirty years ago, and situated in the midst of 
a sijarsely jiopulated, scarcely civilized countrj-. 

Mr. Crilten is a Kentuckian by birth, born in 
Mercer County. -Ian. r.t. 1832. His father, John 
R. Gritten, was born in the same county in 1807. 
He married Nancy Atkinson, who was born there 
in 1806. and they came to this county with their 
familv in 1812. and located on a farm of 120 acres, 
pleasanti}' situated in Blount Townshii), where 
they have built up a comfortable home, and now, 
in life's decline are enjoying the hard-earned fruits 
of their united labor. Three of the children that 

have blessed their union are still living: Ann, re- 
siding in Danville Township, is the widow of Frank 
Watson, of Oliiii, and li;is five children — William, 
-bihn, Xaney .1.. .Margaret and Martha; Lloyd mar- 
ried Sarah (iriltcn. daughter of one of the first set- 
tlers of the county, and they have four children — 
Wesley. iVunic. Ella and Klisha; Laban is the 
subject of this sketch, and we will write further of 

W^e have seen that his parents brought him here 
in |)ioneer times, when he was a mere lad. and here 
they bred him to a life i)f usefulness, and lilted 
him for an honorable career, and to their careful 
training he doubtless owes much of his prosperity. 
He became manly, self-reliant and a good worker, 
and in early manhood prudently invested his money 
in government land, proposing to make farming his 
life work, and purchased 320 .acres of land at 
twenty-five cents an acre. He now has the land all 
under excellent cultivation, and has greatly in- 
creased its value by the many fine improvements 
that he has made, including substantial Imildings, 
etc. He does a general farming business, has his 
farm well stocked with stock of high grades, from 
the sale of which he makes good profits, and he 
raises a good deal of grain and other farm produce, 
from which he derives an income amply sutticing 
to carry on his agricultural operations in good 
shape, and for all his personal wants. 

Mr. Gritten has been twice married. His first 
wife was a Miss Sarah Potter, who was of Knglisli 
descent, and her father, an early settler of this p;:rt 
of Illinois, took part in the Black Hawk Way under 
(ieneral Taylor. Five children were horn to our 
subject in that union, of whom one died; the others 
are Orsmus, Charles, Ivhvard and Thomas. Orsmus, 
a carpenter in Danville, married .Aliss M.ay Gritten; 
Charles, living with his father on the homestead, 
m.arried Matilda (irilten, and they have seven chil- 
dren — Clarence, Arthur, Orsmus, Kl/.m-a, Oliver, 
Ross and Rock. Edward, a farmer in this county, 
married Miss Belle Davis, of Ohio, and they have 
one child, B. ; Thomas, a blacksmith at Bixliy, 
married Martha Schank.and Ihe^- have three children 
— Earl. Maude and Olive. 

For his second wife ^Ir. (Written married Miss 
Lydia Pile, a native of Breckenridge County. Kv., 



and pf tlioii- eleven children tlie following five are 
living: (_)i'ac'ena, Alvina, .Tacdb, Eli and William. 

Wiliiair and Elizabeth Pile were the parents of 
Mrs. Gritten, the father a native of Virginia, tlie 
mother a, native of Kentucky, and both are de- 

Mr. Gritten may well be proud of his farm, whose 
increased value is due to his hard labor and excel- 
lent business capacity and management. He pos- 
sesses sober judgment, keen discernment and a 
resolute nature that has overcome all obstacles in 
the path to success. In his political views he sides 
with tiie IJemocr.ats, and gives his hearty approval 
to party measures. 

/// a company of young men who came to this 
tl^—^j county at different times in the spring of 
1853, was a young man named Ilolloway, plainly 
attired .and with no means to speak of. quiet and 
unobtrusive in his demeanor but with the lixed pur- 
pose of giving the Western country a fair trial in 
the building up of a future home. He was not pre- 
pared to purchase land and so was obliged to locate 
upon a rented farm in Plount Township which had 
been but slightly improved and offereil few advan- 
tages to the pioneer. Upon tins amid many dilli- 
culities he prosecuted farming for a period of 
four yeai-s. then changed his residence to Newell 
Township where he sojourned two years. His next 
removal was to a farm adjoining that whicli he 
now owns and occupies, in the southern part of 
Ross Township. This brought him up to 1859 in 
which year he purchased eighty acres of wild prai- 
rie and two years later established himself upon it 
with his young wife in a log cabin. 

Mr. Ilollowa^' begaii the cultivation of his land 
with an ox team and in the meantime made his 
home in Newell, then a very unimportant villao'e. 
In the spring of 1860 he hired thirty acres plowed, 
which he jilanted in^corn. From that time on he 
labored industriously early and late until he had 
eighty acres under a lugh state of cultivation and 
had erected a neat and sulistantial house and barn 
besides effecting other improvements. '31 As oppor- 

tunity permitted he jjlanted fruit and shade trees 
and after a number of years found himself in a con- 
dition to purchase additional land and thus in- 
vested his surplus capital until he became the owner 
of 400 acres. P^or many years he has dealt in cattle 
realizing therefrom handsome returns. 

Our subject generousl3- acknowledges that he has 
been greatly assisted and encouraged in his labors 
and struggles by his excellent wife, who bore with 
her husband the heat and burden of the daj- and 
assisted him in saving as well .as earning. They 
are the |)arents of four children, all living, namely: 
Albert, Alford, Frank, and Ivy, the wife of C. R. 
Crawford, of Ross Township. 

Upon becoming a voting citizen i\Ir. Holloway 
identified himself with the Republican party and 
later cordially endorsed Republican doctrines. He 
has made a speciality of attending to his own con- 
cerns and consequently meddled very little 
with public affairs, having no desire for the re- 
sponsibilities of office. His jjleasant home with its 
attractive surroLindings and his intelligent family 
have largely- supplied his social needs, altliough he 
is not lacking for troops of friends among the peo- 
l)le whose intelligence always leads them to respect 
the man who has been the architect of his own for- 
tune and who has made the most of his op|>ortuni- 
ties, .adding to the talent with wliich nature en- 
dowed him. 

John Holloway, tlie father of our subject, was 
the son of Elijah Holloway, a native of Maryland 
and one of eight children. The others were named 
respectiveljr, Adam, William. Elijah, Armel. Fran- 
ces, Hettie and Mary, .lohn also was born in Mary- 
land, where he was reared to man's estate and mar- 
ried Miss Elizabeth Uavis. About 1804. with a 
party of probably eighty i)ersons, they set out 
across tlie mountains with teams and landed in Ross 
County, Ohio, where it is believed the grand- 
parents also settled. The journey at that time was a 
dangerous one, the country being infested with des- 
perate characters, who frequently juurden d trav- 
elers for their money. The trip occupiid about 
six weeks and the llollowa}^ family fortunatily were 
not molested. 

The parents of our suliject settled in the lier.vy 
timber of Ross County, Ohio, where Zachariah C. 



was l)oin -lime 10, 1821. aiu) where the parents 
spent their last days. The fatlier died in Septem- 
ber 1863, at tiie age of eighty-live years and the 
mother at the same age, in IMarcli, 1865. Uoth 
were members of the Methodist Kpiseojial Cliiireh, 
in the faith of wiiich tiiey serenely passed away. 
Many and great were the hardships enchired liy tlie 
pioneers in the wilderness of Ross Comity and our 
sid)ject lii<e his l)rotliers and sisters was tangiit to 
mal<e liimself useful al a very early age. lie as- 
sisted in clearing the farm and received a limited 
education in the subscription sehoc>l. Ilis life 
passed quietly and uneventfully during his boy- 
hood and youlli, and like the other young men of 
that day and place, his chief ambition was in due 
time to have a farm and a liresidc of his own. 

Our subject continued a resident of his native 
county until his marriage, in 18U). The maiden 
of Ilis ciioice Miss ^lary, daugliter of Joshua 
fihockie}-, formerly of Delaware, but who, like the 
Ilolloways, an early pioneer of the IJuckeye 
fState. Mrs. Ilollow.ay was born in Delaware and 
was lake by her parents to Ohio when al)out two 
years old. Her father died lliere. in 1811. The 
mother later came to this county- and made her 
h<mie with her daughter, her death occurring in 
May, 1888. 

Jf)OSErH S. CllRlSTMANisem[ihaticallyone 
I of the l/usiness men of ^'ermilion County, 
j who has risen to prominence through his 
j) own exertions. He was born on the ;!Otli 
day of January-, 185,0. He spent his boyhood days 
with his parents until he became seventeen years 
of age, wdien being of a studious mind, he went to 
IndianaiJolis and attended business college in that 
city, where he graduated. After leaving school he 
returned to AVarren County, Ind . where his par- 
ents were living at the time, and remained there 
for a short peril id engaged in a dry goods store in 
Attii.a. He returned to Indianapolis and entered 
into the elastic roofing business at241 IMassachu- 
setts Ave., being successfully employed for one 
year. He then bought a grocery store on Merid- 
ian street, where be carried on a good business for 

a period of one year, when he sold out and came to 
Rossvillc, III., where he landed in his twenty-first 
year wiili ab(jut ><1.0(MI. He contemplated pur- 
chasing a half interest in the dry goods store of 
Henderson it Co., but the coini)any making arrange- 
ments more satisfactory to themselves, our subject 
found he could invest his money to agood advant- 
age by loaning it and did so, in the meantime en- 
tering the employ of the dry goods firm mentioned 
as clerk. About this time he bought GOO .acres of 
his present home of 1,100 acres of land upon 
whi<h be erected his present farm buildings, and 
where he now lives. 

Joseph S. Christ man is the son of Isaac and Kli- 
zabeth Christman. who are natives of Ohio, but 
who came to Illinciis when they were voung. They 
were married Oct. 25, 1843. when they immediately 
moved to Warren County. Ind., where they settled 
on a farm which they condnclcd for two 3-ears, at 
the expiration of which i)eriod. they came back lo 
Vermilion County, settling here on a(iuarter section 
of land where they now live. The family compi'ised 
the following children — Sarah J., is at home; Su- 
san G., is the wife of W. 11. Lincoln and is liv- 
ing in West Lebanon, Ind. ; .Mar^' II., is the wife of 
H. C. Swisher and the\- also reside in the same 
jilace; Eliza E.. was killed when nineteen years of 
age by being thrown from a carriage: Maria C, is 
the wife of William Hunter, a farmer who is living 
in Warren (duuty. Ind.; Joseph S., of whom this 
sketch is written; Frank is in the real estate liusi- 
ness at York, Neb.; Mahala L..died when two years 
of age. The mother of this family Mrs. Elizabeth 
Christman, died July 8, 1872. She was an ardent 
member of tlie Methodist Church, and sustained a 
fine reputation in her neighborhood. Jlr. Isaac 
Christman is (piietly living with his son, .Iosei)h, 
and enjoying his latter days in a manner which he 
has won by hard work, lie is a Rcpulilican in 
politics, and takes great interest in his party. 

Mr. Joseph S. Chrislman is a dealer in live stock 
shipi)ing considerable ipiantities every year to Chi- 
cago. He makes a specialty in breeding Hamble- 
tonian horses, of which breed he owns se\eral fine 
specimens. I'olitieallj'. Mr. Christman is a Repub- 
lican and has held the otlice of Township Trustee 
for a long time. He is also a member of the Ma- 



sonif fraternity, having joined that order in 1876, 
by nniting with Lodge No. 527 at Rossviile. He 
is also a member of tiie Oriental Consistory which 
meets on Monroe street, Chicago. His career in 
bnsiness is a good illustration of what grit and in- 
telligence can do, and shonld be eniul.ated b_v otli- 
ers of the younger generation. Mr. Christman is 
unmarried, ))ut has succeeded in nialving a very 
comfortable home, and tlie view given in this vol- 
ume, represents a resilience that in no wise displays 
tlie absence of a mistress. 

»— *-^- 


R. GEORG EDENS. In the person of 
this able [)ractitioner the biographer dis- 
covers a gentleman in love with his pro- 
fession — one who adopted it on account of 
the lieen interest which he has taken in it almost 
from bo3'hood, and whose aim has been to excel. 
He has been located in Danville for the past ten 
years, and it is not surprising to learn that he has 
built up a lucrative patronage among its best peo- 
l)le. He has been faithful and conscientious in the 
discharge of his duties, and aimed to gain a full 
understanding of the disorders which he has been 
called upon to remedy before making the applica- 
tion of chemicals or drugs. 

Dr. Edens was l)orn in the Province of Ilolstein, 
Germanj-, June 10,1851, and remained a resident 
of his native province until 1867. Then, a youth 
of sixteen years, he crossed the Atlantic with his 
parents, they settling on a tract of land in Cham- 
paign County, this State. The father prosecuted 
farming, while the son, who also assisted around 
the homestead, continued the reading of medicine, 
which he had begun when a lad of fifteen years. 
Two years later, in 1868, he began to dispense 
medicine to his acqu.aintances, and there followed 
such excellent results from his prescrii>tions that 
before he bad realized the fact he had quite a num- 
ber of regular patrons. 

In 1876 young Edens repaired to Chicago and 
entered Hahnemann College, from whicii he was 
graduated in 1879, after taking the special courses. 
On the 17th of ^March, that year, he came to Dan- 
ville, and commenced the regular practice of his 

chosen profession, which he has since followed 
with really surprising results. He adopts many of 
the customs common to the Fatherland, where the 
students of medicine are subjected to the most 
thorough training, and not allowed to practice 
until they are masters in their profession. 

The otlice of Dr. Edens is situated on Noitli 
Street, near the Chicago & Plastern Illinois depot, 
where he has around him his books and the various 
appliances requisite for his extensive business. He 
not only has a large practice in Danville, but also 
in the country surrounding it. He rejiairs to dif- 
ferent points at regular intervals, usually once a 
month. There is every indication that he has be- 
fore him a most prosperous future, and the pros- 
pects of attaining to eminence in his profession. 
He has naturally been too full of bnsiness to t;ive 
much attention to politics, but has liecome fidly 
identified and in sympathy with American institu- 
tions, and usually votes for the men and not the 

Dr. Edens was married in Danville. March 14. 
1885, to Miss Frances Kcchler, who was born in 
Posen, Germany, Ajiril .lO. 1»5'.). She came to 
America in 1881, after having acquired a careful 
education, and thereafter was employed as a [ui- 
vate teacher in tJerman and French, and also in the 
public schools of St. Louis and Chicago. Mrs. 
Edens likewise pijssesses considerable musical tal- 
ent, and is at once recognized as a very accom- 
plished and intelligent lady. They occujjy a pleas- 
ant and attractive home, and enjoy the friendship 
of the best citizens of Danville. 

AMUEL COOK, the son of a pioneer 
family of ^■ermilion County, as one of its 
[u-.-ictical, well-to-do farmers, a man of 
sound sense and good understanding, is 
classed among its most desirable citizens. His 
homestead on section 1 1. Catlin Township, com- 
prising 160 acres, is one of the finest in the vicin- 
ity, and he has 100 acres of excellent farming land 
in Georgetown Township besides valuable property 
in Danville. 

James Cook, the father of our subject, was born 



eitlier in Marylaud or Virginia, June 23, 1797. In 
early manhood be was united in marriage to JMiss 
Susanna Mo3"er, their union taking place Oct. G, 
1822. She was born in Pennsylvania. Dec. 2, 
1803. and is still living at an advanced age. After 
niarriaue Mr. and Mrs. Cook settled in Clermont 
Count}', Ohio, living there among its early pioneers 
till 1834, when they migrated across the country 
with their family to Vermilion County and became 
early settlers of Brook's Point in Oeorgetown. 
There the father rounded out a useful life, holding 
the respect and esteem of all about him as he was 
in all respects a good man. The wedded life of 
himself and wife was blessed to them by the birth 
of six sons and five daughters. 

Our subject was the second child of the family, 
and he was born in Clermont County, Ohio, Oct. 
4. 182.5. He was nine years old when he came to 
'\'ermilit)n County with his parents more than fifty 
years ago. but he still retains a recollection of that 
memorable journey through the forests primeval 
.and over the wild prairies to this then sparsely 
settled country. He grew to man's estate in 
(ieorgetown Township, and gleaned an education 
in the old log 'school-house in which the children 
of the pioneers were taught the rudiments of learn- 
ing. He remained with his father and mother till 
he was twenty-six and a half years old, when he 
married and established a home of his own. He 
has devoted himself principallj' to farming, and 
through many years of persistent toil has accumu- 
lated a goodly amount of property, iucluding one 
of the best farms in Catlin Township. He has his 
land under fine tillage, and has erected a sul)stan- 
tial. conveniently arranged set of buildings, in- 
cluding a handsome, roomy residence, replete with 
all the comforts of life. When he was a young 
man Mr. Cook assisted in making five fiatboats to 
go down the Vermilion River into the Wabash, 
and thence down the Ohio and Mississippi, and 
once he took a trip to Memphis. 

Mr. Cook has been twice married. He was first 
wedded to Miss Amanda M. Graves, .\pril 1. 1852, 
in Georgetown Township. She was a native of 
that place, born Aug. 18, 1833, to James and Mar- 
garet (Black bourn) Graves, who were among its 
earliest pioneers, coming there from Kentucky in 

1829, and spending their remaining days on their 
homestead in that township. By that marriiige 
our subject became the father of six children, of 
whom the following is recorded: George W. mar- 
ried Eliza Douglas; .lames P. married Miss Eveline 
O'Neal; Mary married John II. Wherry; Margaret 
died when she was eighteen years old; Charles 
married Miss Celia Padgett; Ellen died when about 
six months old. Aug. 19, 1866, after a happy mar- 
ried life of fourteen years Mrs. Cook passed away 
from the scene of her usefulness, and thus was lost 
to her househohl a wife who had always striven to 
aid her husband and make his home pleasant and 
comfortable, a mother who devoted to her 
children, a neighbor who a kind :ind tiuc 

Mr. Cook was married to his present wife, for- 
merly Mrs. Martha E. (Citizen) Moreland, in La- 
f.ayette, Ind., April 14, 1870. Their wedded life 
has been blessed to them by the birth of three 
children: Bertie J., John F., and Fred. Mrs. Cook 
was the fourth of the nine children, six sons and 
three daughters, born to William and Esther 
(Parker) Citizen, and her birth occurred in Dark 
County, Ind., July 25, 1838. Her father was horn 
in Mar^-land, Nov. 10, 1809, and her mother in 
North Carolina, Aug. 4, 1812, her death occurring 
in Warren County, Ind. The father survives at 
an advanced age. When she was two years old 
;Mrs. Cook's parents moved to Wayne County, 
Ind., and when she was thirteen ye.ars old her 
father brought her to this St.ate. She was married 
in AVarren County, Ind.. Aug. 25, 1854, to Joseph 
Jloreland. Of this union there was one son. 
Charles \V., an intelligent, well educated young 
man, who has been engaged in the profession of 
school-teaching seven years. 

It is said of Mr. and Mrs. Cook th;it ■' they are 
people whom it is a pleasure to meet, so friendly 
and generous are they toward all who come under 
their influence, and so kiiul and considerate are 
they in their relations with all about them." They 
are consistent members of the Christian Church — 
of which he is an elder — contribute liberally' to its 
support, and are never backward in aiding all 
schemes that look to the moral or social advance- 
ment of the comnumity. In our subject the Dem- 



ocratic partj- fiiuls one of its most honest snpport- 
eis and the township one of the promoters of 
education within its borders, he having held seve- 
ral of the school offices, and also being School 
Director for years, discharging the duties thus de- 
volving upon him with characteristic fidelity and 
to tlie eminent satisfaction of all concerned. 




^ OHN L. JACKSON. In the career of this 
leading business man of Sidell, we recognize 
the t3'pe of the live, energetic American 
citizen, who has been peculiarly favored 
l)y Providence, being the owner of a fine property, 
the son of one of the wealthiest men in the county, 
anil one of its leading citizens, and having had the 
happ>- faculty of improving all his advantages. By 
his straightforward methods of proceedure he has 
fully established himself in the esteem and confi- 
dence of all witli whom he has had dealings. He is 
at present engaged in general merchandising at 
Sidell. and is in the enjoyment of a jjatronage which 
is steadily increasing. The firm of John L. Jack- 
son tt Co. is considered A 1. 

Mr. Jackson was bt>rn in Douglas County, this 
State, Sept. 22, 1860, and is the son of Amos and 
Sarah (Hesscler) .Lackson, the former of whom was 
born near Frankfort, Ind., and the latter in this 
county. The}' were married in Michigan. The 
elder Jackson operates as a farmer and cattle 
raiser, and is now a resident of Danville. I/e is 
represented on another page in this volume. The 
parental household was completed by the birth of 
four daughters and two sons, .and of these .lohn was 
the eldest. He was twelve years of age when his 
parents came to this county, and settled near In- 
dianola. in Carroll Township. Later tiiey removed 
first to Paris and then to Danville. At the age of 
nineteen years our subject entered the Commercial 
College at Terre Haute, from which he grad- 
uated in the class of 1870. Upon leaving school 
he engaged in buying and sliipiiing stock, with 
which business he had been familiar since a boy. 
He shipped his first load from Archie Station, and 
was occupieil at this business until 1883. 

The marriage of our subject with Miss Eva 

Gray was celebrated at the bride's home, in March, 
1883. This lady was born and reared in Cham- 
paign County, and is the daughter of Henry and 
Louisa (Weislger) (iray. who settled in tiie above- 
named county in 1861. The f.ather died in 1876, 
aged about forty years. The mother was subsc- 
quentlj^ married and now resides near Kankakee. 
The three daughters were named Eva. Cora and 
Nettie. Mr. and i\Irs. Jackson have one child, a 
daughter, Meta J. 

Mr. Jackson purchased the store .and stock of 
general merchandise belonging to William Danley, 
the pioneer merchant of Sidell, and in addition to 
looking after the affairs of this establishment, con- 
tinues to deal in cattle. Politically, he is an un- 
compromising Democrat, and socially belongs to 
Peace Dale Lodge Number 25, I. O. (). F. He is 
also a member of the Modern Woodmen. His farm 
comprises 172 acres of choice land, pleasantly 
located southwest of Sidell. 


and honored citizen of Vermilion County, is 
classed among its leading farmers and stock- 
i^^ raisers, he having been intimately connected 
with Its .agricultural interests for many years; and, 
the son of parents who were early settlers of this 
part of Illinois, he nny indeed be regarded as a 
pioneer himself, as since, and even before, attain- 
ing man's estate, he has done much to develop the 
rich resources of tiiis region and make it a great 
agricultural center. He owns a farm on section 16, 
Catlin Township, that is justly considered one of 
the best places in the county, and here he ,has 
erected a handsome commodious residence that, 
with its surroundings, beautiful lawns adorned 
with shade trees, etc., forms an attractive scene in 
the landscai)e. and in this lovely home he is quietly 
p.assing his declining years, calmly awaiting life's 
great change. 

The subject of this sketch was born in what is 
now Ohio County, Ind., Aug. 23, 1823, the second 
child in a family of ten children, five sons and five 
daughters, belonging to Thomas W. and Delilah 
(Peyne) Douglass. The former born in the 



State of ^Slaine, on the Penobscot River, and tlie 
iiiotlier w;is ;i native of tlie State of New \oik. 
After marriage tliej' first settled in Dearliorn 
County, Ind., in tliat part of it now called Ohio 
Count3', and thence journoyeil to this State in the 
siiring of IH30. and located in Catlin Township, Ver- 
milion Coiint3-, where the County farm now is, and 
where they spent their declining years, and the 
mother closing her eyes in death in September, 1856, 
and in October, 1805, the father departed this life. 
They were people of solid merit, who faithfully per- 
formed their allotted tasks in life, and. as pioneers of 
\ermilion County, their memories will ever be held 
in reverence .along with those of other courageous, 
self-sacrificing spirits who came here in the early 
days of the settlement of the country, and toiled to 
make it a fitting home for those who came after 

Their son John Milton, of whom we write, was 
seveit j-ears old when he accompanied his parents 
in iheir migration from the home of his birth to 
this county, and here the remaining days of iiis 
boyhood and j-outh were i)assed, and his entire 
manhood has been spent within the limits of the 
county. He early began his career as a farmer, 
and has been greatly prospered in his life work, 
lieing the fortunate owner of a fertile farm of 
317i acres that is not surpassed in point of culti- 
vation and value of improvements by any other 
l>lace in the township. He has erected a commo- 
dious, well-built house, a barn fifty feet square 
on a stone foundation, and other necessary build- 
ings, and has set out numerous beautifid shade 
and fruit trees, and, taken altogether, he has one 
of tlie finest estates in the county. Mr. Douglass' 
farm is well adapted to stock-raising, and he makes . 
a specialty of Short-horn cattle, and his fine herd 
of that breed, highly graded, is one of the best in 
this locality. 

On the 1 Itli of November, liS4 1, the marriage of 
our subject and Miss .Mahala liurroughs was sol- 
emnized in Catlin Township, one mile west of the 
village of Catlin. Mrs. Douglass was born in Rip- 
ley County. Ind., April 3, 1824, a daughter of 
Jesse and Polly (Wilson) Burroughs. Of her 
union with our subject nine children were born, 
as follows: Judith A., wife of Joseph Trisler; 

Winfield S., who married Lizzie Clark; Delilah, who 
died when she was two years old; Thomas U'., 
who died when he was eleven months old; Clarissa, 
the wife of James Clipson; Maliala; Pamclia. who 
died in infancy; Arniild.i. the wife of Richard 
O'Conell; and Ksthcr. who died when one week 

On the loth of October, 1887. the iilcasant 
•wedded life of our suliject was brought to a sad 
close by the death of lier with whom he had 
walked, hand in hand, for more than forty -two 
years. This wife and companion had been 
to him all that a true and devoted woman can be 
to her husband, and to her children she had liecn a 
wise and tender mother, and her presence is sorely 
missed in the household where she had been the 
home-maker so long. But our subject does not 
mourn as one without comfort, as his Christian 
faith points to a reunion beyond the grave. 

Mr. Dougl.ass is a man of decided character and 
sound understanding, and his career has marked him 
as possessing those qualities that enable man to make 
his own way in the world without the adventitious 
aids of fortune and hirt^. He and five of his chil- 
dren are members of the Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church, and are among its most earnest workers. 
In politics Mr. Douglass taken part in the iinb- 
lie affairs of the townslii|) .as School Director and 
Highway Commissioner. In politics he favors the 
Democratic party, firmly lielieving that its policy 
is the only safe one for the guidance of National 

■il/OHN B. CRANSON. It is a homely and 
time-worn adage that '-virtue brings its own 
reward," but the truth of it is frequently 
brought to mind, .as in contemplating the 
career of Mr. Craiison, which has been that of au 
honest man and a good citizen, and in which he has 
performed life's duties in a creditable manner, with 
the exception that he is still jikxlding along life's 
road singlc-hiinded .and alone, although having 
passed the fifty-second j-ear of his age. While he 
may not be the hero of any very thrilling event he 
has seen much of life in its different ph;u5es. and 
during the Civil War gave his services to assist in 




the preservation of the Union. His army record is 
a creditable one, as has been that of liis life after 
leaving it, when he settled down to farm life 
again in 1878 on his present farm, and has now 
one of the attractive homesteads in his township. 
His specialty is Jersey cattle, and he is likewise in- 
terested in the chicken industry, having a goodly 
number of fine fowls in which he takes a pardon- 
able pride. 

The subject of this notice is a native of Lock- 
port, N. Y., and was born April 15, 1837. His 
parents, Joel and Rhoda (Gray) Cranson, were 
natives of Massachusetts and Vermont respectively, 
and lived in New York until 1854, then removed to 
Michigan, and from the Wolverine State to In- 
diana, and from there came to Illinois in 1864, 
where tlieir death occurred; the fatlier died in 1875, 
and tlie mother in 1882. They were the parents 
of six children, three of whom besides our subject 
are still living. 

The union school at Lockport furnished young 
Cranson with his early education, which was com- 
pleted at the age of fifteen years. He then began 
an apprenticeship at the trade of tinsmith, which 
he followed two years, and after the removal of the 
family to Michigan he engaged in the lumber busi- 
ness. After their removal to Indiana he Ijecame 
interested in farming. Upon the outbreak of the 
Civil War he enlisted in 1861 in Conipan}- 15, 29th 
Indiana Infantry, and six months later was pro- 
moted to the post of Orderly Sergeant. The regi- 
ment was organized at La Porte, Ind., was assigned 
to the command of Gen. McCook, and afterward 
l)articipated in the battle of Pittsburg Landing, 
after which lie fell and was hurt. Upon recovering 
sufiflcientl3' he was transferred to the veteran re- 
serve corps, in which he remained until the expira- 
tion of his term of service. He received his hon- 
orable discharge in September, 1864, and after a 
brief visit to his old home in Indiana set out for 
Illinois with the view of permanently establishing 
himself in this State. Prior to entering the army 
he had purchased a farm in Indiana and sold it be- 
fore coming to Illinois. 

The domestic arrangements of our suliject are 
presided over by his two sisters, and he has one of 
the pleasantest homes in the county. The sisters 

are members in good standing of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, while Mr. Cranson is identified 
with the Cumberland Presbyterian. The three op- 
erate together in the business of raising chickens, 
which is can-ied on by the natural process and by 
incubators. They market about 800 per 3'ear, and 
have all the modern conveniences for hatcliing and 
taking care of the chickens. The whole process is 
so systematized that the industry is pleasurable as 
well as profitable. Their cattle are grade Short- 
horn and full-blooded Jersejs. 

In politics Mr. Cranson uniformly votes the 
straight Republican ticket. Socially, he is a mem- 
ber of Homer Post. G. A. R., and as a Mason bo- 
longs to Blue Lodge and the Chapter in Homer, in 
the latter of which he is Master of Third Veil. Both 
in social and business circles he occupies an envi- 
able position, and is one of those men whose word 
is considered as good as his bond. 

^f^ENRY G. BOYCE. Sixteen years have 
[l/jV passed since this worthy pioneer folded his 
J^^' hands in rest from the labors of life, Imt 
(^) his name will be recalled by many as that 
of one of the first men coming to the vicinity of 
Danville and performing some of the earliest work 
in connection with his trade as a carpenter and 
joiner. He came witii his parents to this count}' 
in 18.31 and two years later established himself in 
the embryo town of Danville, which then consisted 
of only a few houses. With his young wi''e ho 
took up his abode in the domicile which he built 
that year, which was weatiier-boarded in walnut 
and which is still standing and the property of his 
widow, who |)reserve it as a relic of the older days. 
Opi)Osite it was built the engine house whicli now 
shelters the fire apparatus of a thriving and pro- 
gressive modern city. 

A native of New York State, Mr. Hoyce was 
born in Schoharie County. Feb. 20, 1809. Thirteen 
months later his parents rcinoved to Harrison 
County, Ohio, where the father entered a tract of 
land from the (xovernment and whei'e the family 
lived until 1831. Then pusliiiig still further west- 
ward they came to this county and Henry (i. 



worked on a farm until 1832. Thnt j'ear he turned 
liis attention more particularly to his trade of a car- 
penter and until his marriage tiie year followinif 
was in the employ' of Mr. Heekwith and Gov. 
l>eander Rntledge. His marriage with Miss Eliza 
Potter occurred on the ;?d of March, 183;5. the 
Rev. Freeman Smally olJiciating at the ceremony. 

After their marriage Mr. and .Mrs. Boyce estab- 
lished tiiemselves in a log cabin on what is now 
Walnut street and where their first child was born, 
Mary Jane, now Mis. Henr\- Fulton of Vallejo, 
Cal. In the summer of 1833 Mr. Bt)yce went to 
Chicagi) when there were onlj' two houses between 
l^anviile and that now gre.-it city. After the father, 
hrotlier and brother-in-law of Mrs. Boyce arrived 
there, tlie}' dug the cellar for the first brick house 
ever built in Chicago, which was for a named 
Chapman. Mr. Boyce did the carpenter work on 
said building. He remained there tliat fall in order 
to earn money to p.ay taxes and later returned to 
Danville purchased land lying along is now 
Walbut street. He pursued his trade as a carpenter 
and finally became a contractor and builder, put- 
ting up many <if the first buildings in the town. 
lie thus lab(jred until about 1850 and in 18.")t) was 
appointed Postmaster of Danville, i)rior to the 
election of President Buchanan. He served until 
the ip.cimiing of President Lincoln's administration 
and later was Deputy Postmaster under President 

Mr. Boyce a man of more than ordinary 
abilities and occupied a leading position in his coin- 
munity. He was elected .lustice of the Peace, 
serving four terms of four years each, holding this 
ottice at the time of his decease. He was an .active 
member of the Methodist Elpiscopal Church and 
waiinly interested in the cause of temperance. Up- 
right and honorable in his transactions he enjoyed 
the esteem and confidence of all who knew him 
and at his death, which occurred Dec. 3, 1873, was 
deeply mourned not only by his own family but 
liy the entire cf)niniunitv. 

The father of our subject Peter Boyce, a 
native of Washington County, X. Y., and a farmer 
by occu|)ation. He was reared to manhood in his 
native State where he married Miss Jane Potter, 
and later removed to Schoharie ('ounty, N. Y. He 

was three times married anrl the father of 
twenty-one children. In his father's family there 
were thirteen children and his mother died in Ibir- 
rison County, Ohio. After coming to Illinois he 
lived here only a few years, then returning to Ohio 
settled near Springfield where he spent his last days. 
He was a man of considerable force of character 
.and a devout member of the Methodist Kpiscoiial 

Mrs. Eliza J. (Potter) Boyce was born in Jeffer- 
son County. N. Y.. one half mile from Sackett's 
Harbor. Sept. 11). 1813. and is the daughter of 
Elijah and I>ana Potter, the former of whom 
born in Washington County, N. Y., Sept. 4, 1787. 
He was there reared upon a farm and was mai-ried 
to a maiden of his own township, IMiss Lana \'an 
Wormer, in 1810. Not long afterw aid the young 
people removed to a point near Sackett's Harbor, 
in .Icfferson County. Mrs. L.aiia I'otter was born 
June 2, 17'J3 and consequently seventeen years 
of iige at the time of her marri.age. 

The three eldest children of Mr. and Mrs. Potter 
were born in Jefferson County, N. Y., l<;iiza .1. 
being the eldest. Six more children were addc<l 
to the family after they left the Empire State. 
With one exception they all lived to mature years, 
one being killed when about f»ur years old li\ the 
falling of a tree upon him. About 1820 the Potter 
family resolved to seek what then the farther 
West and accordingly removed to Richland County, 
Ohio, settling near the present site of the town of 
Ashland. That region w:is then a wilderness, 
peopled chiefly b3' wild animals and Indians, there 
being only four other white families in the town- 
ship. Mr. Potter entered a tract of land from the 
Government and the f.amily endured all the hard- 
ships and privations of life on the frontier. The 
nearest mill was thirty miles aw.ay ancl the road 
which led to it was for long distances nothing more 
than .an Indian trail. 

As the country began settling up .Mr. I'ottcr 
distinguished himself as a leading citizen and was 
one of the first to exert himself in the establish- 
ment of a school which effected after much dilii- 
culty, Mr. Potter riding three days to find a teacher 
who could even write. The family sojourned in 
that neighborhood for a period of seventeen years 



and in 1 830 concluded to make anollier change of 
residence, this time seekinjj the Prairie State. After 
due preparation they in October set out overland 
with a two-horse team and two cows, and tlieir 
household goods and provisions. They were three 
weeks on the road, camping and cooking t)y the 
wayside. They arrived near tlie present site of 
Newtown, on Middle Fork Townshi)), in November 
following. The father three or four years later, 
purchased land on tlie State road, at tiie edge of 
Eight ISIilc Prairie, ten miles north of Danville, 
where he opened up a good farm and lived until 
I860. The death of the wife and mother occurred 
June 17, 1856. Eleven years later Mr. Potter re- 
moved to Missouri and subsequently made his home 
with his son, Joseph, who was located on a farm 
nine miles from Chillicothe. 

Mrs. Lana(Van Wormer)Potter was the daughter 
of Jacob Van Wormer, one of the early pioneers 
of Washington County, N. Y., and a strict adher- 
ent of the doctrines of tlie Methodist Episcopal 
Church. His house for man^' years was the meet- 
ing place for the annual conference and was the 
frequent resort of the itinerant. Among the early 
preachers of that da3- was the renowned Lorenzo 
Dow, who made for himself a name intimately as- 
sociated witii the early history of Metliodism. He 
and his wife finally removed to Jefferson County 
and made their home with Mrs. Potter, his young- 
est daughter. Tliej' intended going to Ohio with 
tlie Potter fainilj', but on account of the mother's 
health the}' were obliged to remain in Jefferson 
County N. Y., where they spent their last days. 
The Van Wormer family traced its ancestry to 

The paternal giandfatlier of Mrs. Boyce was 
William Potter one of the pioneers of Washington 
County, N. Y., who married Miss Elizabetli Sher- 
man and settled near Fort Ann. They became the 
parents of nine sons and two daughters and eight 
of their sons lived to mature years. They remained 
residents of Fort Ann until quite aged, then went 
to live with their son, William, near Buffalo, where 
their decease took place. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Boyce there were born four 
children, the eldest of whom, Mary J., has been 
already mentioned. The second daughter, Emilj-, 

is at home with her mother. Sarah M. died July 

30, 1861; William during the late Civil War served 

three j'ears as a Union soldier in Company A, 1 1th 

Indiana Infantry and was wounded at Champion 

Hill. At the expiration of his first term of enlist- 

i ment he re-entered the ranks and at the battle of 

' Winchester received a fatal shot and his remains 

j now lie in Winchester burying ground. Mrs. Boyce 

and her daughter, Emily, are members in good 

standing of the Methodist Ejjiscopal Church. Miss 

Euiina is a well educated lady and has followed 

the profession of a teacher fifteen years in Danville. 

Jacol) Van Wormer served in tlie Revolutionary 

War, Elijah Potter served In the War of 1812 and 

Henry (J. Bo3'ce tendered his services in the Black 

Hawk War. 

- — -b^m- — • 

^^EORCiE CLARKSON. This gentleman upon 
III (=1 coming to Vermilion County purchased 
^^^iSI 160 acres of land in Sidell Township which 
is now occupied by his widow, Mrs. Elvira Clark- 
son, a very capable and intelligent lady who enjoys 
the friendship and esteem of all who know her. 
Since the death of her husband she has released the 
estate from its indebtedness and managed it in a 
manner reflecting great credit upon her discretion 
and good judgment. Without making any pre- 
tentions to elegance, she lives simplj-, comfortably 
and modestl}', and has a true and motherly heart, 
full of sympath}' for all the wrongs and woes of 

Mrs. Clarkson was born in Kentucky where she 
lived until a maiden of eighteen years and then 
her parents removed to Illinois. She was married 
in 1805, and settled with her husband on the farm 
which she now occupies. Mr. Clarkson had also 
been reared in Kentucky. Of their union there 
were born two sons and two daughters — Henry T., 
Jennie M., Allie V., and George J. The youngest 
was onl}- two months old at the time of his father's 
death. Mrs. Clarkson has reason to be proud of 
her family, her sons and daughters being more 
than ordinarily bright and attractive, the daugh- 
ters especially handsome. 

Mrs. Clarkson after the death of her husband 
was forced to assume the responsibilities of the 


> % 

» C/' ^'^"Zy^yijtu) 



farm and riglit nobly bas she fultilled tlie duties of 
her position and reared her children in a manner 
which shall make of them useful and respected 
uienibers of the community. Mrs. Clarkson is an 
active member of the Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church, in the northern part of Sidell Township 
and comprises in her life and ciiaracter the faith- 
ful and devoted niotlier and the true woman. A 
sketch of her father. .James Thompson, will be 
found on another p.ageof this work. Mr. Clarkson 
died Sept. 3, 1877. 

|1 of Hoopeston, is also a practicing physician 
^ ,, and suryeon an 

and senior })artner of the firm 
!^; of Peirce & McCaughcy, proprietors of the 
diug store on ^lain street. The various titles ap- 
pended to his name have been justly earned and 
friini tliem it will be readily guessed that he occu- 
pies no secondary position in his community. 

Dr. Peirce was born in Chautauqua County. N.V., 
March 2.5, 1830, and lived there until about 1852, 
cDmpleting his education in what was then Fredonia 
Academ}', but is now the Fredonia State Normal 
School. Upon leaving school he commenced tiie 
study of medicine under the instruction of his 
fatiier. Dr. Austin Peirce, beginning liis readings 
at the age of eighteen years. Later he entered 
upon a course of lectures in the Universitj' of the 
City of New York, from which he was gradaated 
in the class of 18o2. 

In the fall of the year above mentioned young 
Peirce came to Illinois and began the practice of 
his chosen profession in Kendall County where lie 
resided until the outbreak of the Civil War. In 
June, 1861, he raised a company of volunteers 
named Company D, and assigned to the 36th Illin- 
ois Infantrj' and of which he was elected Cajjtain. 
After a year's faithful service in this capacity, he 
was appointed .Surgeon to one of the new regi- 
ments, the 88th Illinois, with the rank of Major, 
and remained with it until the close of the war. 
He met the enemy in many important battles, being 
in the fight at Pea Ridge, Bentonville, Ark., Wil- 
son's Creek, Mo., Shiloh, Tenn., and the siege of 

Corinth, at which places he was in command of 
his company. After receiving the appointment 
of Surgeon, he was at Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, 
in the Atlanta campaign, and at Nashville and 
Franklin, Tenn., besides many other important en. 
gagements. The greater part of the time he acted 
as Brigade Surgeon and discharged his duties in 
such a manner as to gain him the friendship of his 
subordinates and the approval of his superiors. 

After the war was ended Dr. Peirce returned to 
Illinois and located in Lisbon, Kendall Co., 111., and 
subsequently at Lemont, Cook County-, where he 
followed his profession until 1880, when he took 
up his residence in Hoopeston and is now in the 
enjoyment of a lucrative business. He makes a 
specialty of surgery and has met with unqualified 
success. He soon afterward established his drug 
store and being a liberal and public spirited citizen, 
has always interested himself in the welfare and 
progress of his adopted town. 

While a resident of Kend.all County, Dr. Peirce 
was elected on the Republican ticket to represent 
his party in the 25th (ieneral Assembly and during 
the sessions which followed, served on the com- 
mittee of State Charitable Institutions and Revenue. 
Later he was ap|)ointed a delegate from the Fif- 
teenth District to the Constitutional Convention 
of 1870 .at Springfield. In 1871 he was elected 
Senator from the district comprising Kendall, 
Grundy and Will counties, living at the time in 
Minooka, Grundy County, where he practiced 
until his removal to Cook County. During the 
Constitutional Convention he was on the committee 
of Federal Relations, Revenue and Judicial Dis- 
tricts, sometimes serving as Chairman. In the 
Senate he was Chairman of the ComYnittee on Slate 
Charitable Institutions, Railroads, Penitentiary and 
Education. Wherever residing he has usually 
been a representative to district and State conven- 
tions, having always taken a lively interest in 
political affairs. He is a member of tin- County 
Medical Society and in Masonry is a i. uight 

In Cook County, this State, Dr. Peirce was 
married July 18, 1879, to Miss Ella Anderson. 
The four children born of this \uiion were nametl 
respectively: William, James, Lamartine and John 



Logan. They are all living and form a bright and 
interesting grouj). which the parents look n|i(in 
with iiarddiKilile [jride. Mrs. Peirce was liorn in 
llarrisbnrg, Pa., May 12, 1848, and is the daiigjiter 
of James Anderson, who removed first to Cook 
•County, 111 , and then to Kansas where he died in 

Hon. Austin Peirce, the father of our subject, 
wa.s a native of ^'ermont and born in 1799. Wiien 
a young man he emigrateil to Chenango County, 
N. Y., where he lead medicine with Dr. Pitcher, of 
the town of Pitcher, and afterward took a course 
of instruction at Geneva. He commenced the 
practice of his profession at Hamlet, Chatauqua 
Co., N. Y., where he made his home for many 
years. His decease occurred in 18(50, when he 
sixty- one years old. Tiie motiier in her girlhood 
was Miss Mary Ann Sterling of Chenango County. 
The parental household included eleven chihlren, 
eight of whom lived to mature years and five of 
whom are still living. The mother also survives 
and makes her home in Fredonia, N. Y. She was 
born in Connecticut in 1808 and came with her 
father, James Sterling, to Chenango County, N. Y., 
when quite young, living there until her marriage. 

The elder Peirce during his younger years be- 
longed to the old Whig party and about 1842 was 
a member of the New York Legislature. He was a 
man of decided views and attained to much prom- 
inence in his community, serving as Township 
Supervisor many years. In religious matters he 
belonged to tlie Presbyterian Cluircii in which he 
officiated .as Deacon (or a long period. Dr. Peirce, 
our subject, is a member of the Universalist Churcii 
at Hoopeston. 

A lithographic portrait of Dr. Peir?e appears 
elsewhere in this volume in connection with this 
brief outline of his life. 

-^5 #w# ^ 

(^-.^.^ENRY L. CHACE. The farming lands of 
'f/ji! Vermilion County comprise its most val- 
'i\^ uable property, and the men who have re- 
{^; deemed them from their primitive condi- 
tion occujiy no unimportant position among a vast 
and intelligent population. The subject of this 

notice may be properly classed among these, as he 
turns in annually a handsome sum to the county 
treasury as taxes on the property which he has ac- 
cumulated, largely by the labor of his own hands. 
He is a land owner to the extent of a tine farm of 
440 acres, with the residence, on section 5, town- 
ship 23, range 12, which, together with its build- 
ings and improvements, forms one of the most de- 
sirable estates in this part of Vermilion Count}'. 

The native place of our subject was Newjiort, 
l{. I., where he first opened his eyes to the light 
March 7, 1843. There he sjjcnt his boyhood and 
youth, completing his education in the High 
School. This brought liini up to the time of the 
Civil War. On the 13lh day of October. 18G2, he 
enlisted .as a Union soldier in Company D, 12th 
Rhode Island Infantry, in which he first served a 
short time as a private, and later received the 
rank of Sergeant. His regiment was made a part 
of the First Brigade, Second Division, !)th Army 
Corps, and operated mostlj' with the Army of the 
Potomac. He particip.-ited in the battle of Fred- 
ericksburg, and under Gen. Burnside in his 
skirmishes through Kentucky. He left the regular 
ranks in August, 1803, and was assigned to the 
Quartermaster's department, and given charge of 
two large pontoon trains, numbers 15 and 17, 
Army of the James, and was mostly stationed at 
City Point until the fall of 1865, when he assisted 
in the reconstruction of the burned bridge at Rich- 
mond after the surrender of Lee's army, when he 
was mustered out and returned home. 

Our subject for a year after leaving the army 
engaged in business in his native town, and in the 
meantime was married, IMarch 26, 1866, to Miss 
Anna E. Cogswell. Soon afterwards they removed 
to Kendall County, this State, where he engaged in 
farming two years, then moved to the vicinity of 
Seneca, LaSalle County, where he sojourned for a 
period of eight years. His next removal, in 1877, 
was to the farm which he now owns and occupies. 
Upon this he has effected manj^ improvements, 
gathering around him all the conveniences and ap- 
pliances of the enterprising and progressive agri- 
cultiu'ist. He votes the straight Republican ticket, 
and has held the various minor offices of his town- 
ship. As an ex-soldier he belongs to the G. A. R., 



:iii(l finils liis leligious home in tlie Uiiiversalist 

Henry C'liacc, the IVitlicr of our suhjecl. was like- 
wise a native of Newpoit, R. I., wiiere lie was born 
in 1812. The paternal grandfather was Capt. 
James Cliaee. who followed the sea for many years, 
hut finally settled on terra firiim in Xowport, and 
lliere spent his last days. There was a largo repre- 
sentation nf the C'liaee family in that eily, where 
they were faniiliarl}' known for several generations, 
and traeed their ancestors to the Puritans. Henry 
Chaee in early manhood was married to Miss Mary 
Lyon, and for a time was engaged as a merehant 
in (ieorgetown, iS. C. The wife of our subject was 
also a native of Newport. She was the daughter 
of Aaron S. Cogswell, of Revolutionary fame, 
who was the representative of an old and honor- 
.'ililc family, which furnished a numbei- of success- 
ful liusinoss men to the commercial interests of that 


>* IVILLIAM PANDV. In taking this intelji- 
\/\JJl gent old gentleman by theliand, we extend 
VtW greeting to the oldest living resident of 
Danville. He is now approaching tlie seventy-sev- 
enth year of his age, having been born July 22, 
1S12. in Bedford County, ^'a. When a youth of 
sixteen years, he was brought by his foster-parents, 
.Samuel and Elizabeth Howell, to this county, thej- 
arriving at the present site of Danville, Dec. 13, 
1828. There were then not to e.vceed nine families 
in the town. Some men go abroad to look upon 
great and wonderful things, but Mr. Bandy has 
seen enough at home to satisfy the ordinary indi- 
vidual in the almost incredible change which has 
eome over the Prairie State since his arrival within 
its limits. 

Upon leaving the Old Dominion, the little cara- 
van of which our subject was a member, having 
amid much ))re|)aration and siieculation l)idden 
their friends adieu, set out with a four-horse team, 
the wagon loaded with bonseliold effects and pro- 
visions, and traveled for thirty-six dajs before 
reacliing their destination. They made their bed 
in their wagon at night, and set their table by 
the wayside, traveling in the primitive f.ashion of 

those days, before the time of railroads, or even 
st.ages in this region. 

I |)on their arrival here the emigrants could not 
even rent a caliin, but limdly succeeded in finding 
shelter in a log house which already contained two 
families of four persons each, and which was six- 
teen feet square, and stood upon the (iresent site of 
the First National Bank. Thus they spent the 
winter, being able to do but little except to make 
preparations for the spring cani|)aign. The nearest 
land ollice was at Palestine, ninety miles away, and 
the father, after making the joiu-ne.y thither, was 
not able to purchase, as the ollicer in charge re- 
fused to accept the \'irginia money, which was the 
only currency Mr. Howell possessed. Finally, how- 
ever, he bridged over his'ditliculties, and succeeded 
in entering 481) acres of land, upon wliich he erected 
four cabins, the princii)al one of which was located 
one mile southeast of the court house and con- 
structed of rough logs, with a puncheon floor, two 
windows and a door, using greased piaper instead of 
glass. The building was lGxl8 feet square, an<l 
boasted of window shutters of rived boards. For 
the lireiilace there was was made in the logs an ap- 
erture eight feet wide, and liuilt out three feet 
back, and this was lined with earth, while the chim- 
ney was Ijuilt outside six feet high and covered witli 
mortar. This contrivance lasted for j'ears, and 
furnished suflicient heat for cooking purposes, as 
well as warming the building. 

The furniture in this humble domicile was like- 
wise home-made, the bedstead being riven boards 
set up on wooden legs, and upon it there was (irst 
placed a straw tick, and then a feather tick. The 
table was constructed in a similar manner, only 
made higher. The family had brought with them 
tvvo chairs, which were given to the father and 
mother, while the boys had to m.ake stools to sit 
ui)on. Tlie groceries and provisions had to be 
transported fifty miles from Terre Haute, and as 
may be supposed, at times the family were placed 
upon short rations in this line, although 'wild oamo 
being plenty, they never lacked for meats, and in a 
few years there was a surplus of cattle and 

After the cabin was built, the Bandy faniilv had 
to carry water 300 yards until a well w.«ls du"'. 



The father anil sons made a contract to get out 
10,000 black walnut rails at 25 cents per 100, and 
in the meantime carried on as rapidly as possible 
the cultivation of the new farm. William, our 
subject, assisted in lireaking the first timber land in 
this region, and harvested some of the finest corn 
ever raised. There was, however, no market for it. 
and he was oliliged to feed it to his liogs, and sell 
the perk for from ^1 to 81.50 per 100. A daj^'s 
work was equal to ten or twelve pounds of salt 
pork, or eight bushels of corn, or from thirty- 
seven and a half to fifty cents in casli, and tlie 
latter jirice could onl\' be cinnmanded by extra 
good men. 

In tliis waj^ were pa.ssed the first few years of 
the life of our subject in this county, lie attended 
the first school taught in his township, and re- 
mained a member of the parental household until 
1831. About that time he engaged witli the State 
Militia in the Black Hawk War, under Capt. J. 
Palmer and Col. I. R. Moore. They went first to 
Joliet and built a fort. Two or three of their 
comrades were killed by the Indians. Thence they 
])roceeded to Ottawa, and subsequent!}' our subject 
joined the United States Mounted Rangers, which 
comprised six com|)anies. At Rock Island many were 
stricken down with cholera. After operating around 
Oalena and I'rairie-du-Chien, tlioy finally returned 
!uid wintered southeast of Danville until .January, 
when they were ordered to the other side of the 
Illinois River, but there being no need of their 
services in that region, they came back to the old 
cami). and remained until the 1st of May. They re- 
mained ready for duty and reeonnoitering in dif- 
ferent sections until the fall of that year, when 
they were discharged. 

Mr. Bandy now, in comp.any with JMr. Howell, 
commenced oiierating as a carpenter, and put up a 
house on what was called Sul[)hur Spring Place, 
about one mile southeast of the present court- 
house. In the spring of 1834 the}- built a flat boat, 
75x16 feet in dimensions, and upon this loaded 
great quantities of [xn-k, which Mr. Bandy had 
purchased for the purpose of transporting to New 
Orleans. The craft was propelled by hand power, 
and when arriving at the Crescent City, the "trav- 
eling salesman" was confronted by a cholera epi- 

demic, and sold only enough to pay exjienses, 
putting the balance of his propert}- into the hands 
of commission men. He then returned home and 
awaited results. One morning, two years later, 
going to the post-oftice soon after the blowing of 
the horn by the carrier on horseback, he received a 
letter, stating that all his i)ork had been sold, but 
at very little profit, and the proceeds were sent him 
in a draft on a bank in Louisville, Ky. 

Mr. Bandy finally succeeded in getting iiis 
money, and after building another boat, proceeded 
as before, and carried on this business for several 
years, conveying wheat and pork to New Orleans, 
and building a new boat each year. He was the 
first man to run a boat down the Mississippi River, 
and about 1839 or 1S40 aljandoned the river until 
after the close of the Mexican War. He then .se- 
cured a sub-contract to deliver horses in New Or- 
leans, and by this time could transport by steam- 
boat. The business proved quite profitable until 
the last trip, when he got as far as St. Louis, and 
found that the war was ended, and he was left with 
fifty horses on his hands. He finally traded them 
for a lot of worn-out Santa Fe horses, getting §17 
a i)iece for his own to boot, and reserving two of 
his best animals. He returned home with the poor 
horses, fed them u|i. and sold them to the Illinois 
Canal Ciimpauy. receiving therefor gc)od prices. 
Later Mr. Bandy furnished a large proportion iif 
the packet horses of this company, and in the 
meantime had carried on general merchandising in 
company with his father-in-law. William Murphy, 
they operating together five or six years. Later 
he engaged in the hardware trade and conducted 
the largest business of this kind in the count}- for 
a number of years. Finally selling out for a large 
lot of Wisconsin lands, he began dealing in real 
estate, and was at one time the owner of 1,500 
acres. Mr. Bandy sold considerable of this land 
afterwards, but he and his wife own together 
1,600 acres at the present time. 

In addition to his other enterprises, Mr. Bandy 
put up a large number of business houses and resi- 
dences, and during the last years of his active life 
confined himself largely to the business of real 
estate dealer and capitalist. About 1882 he re- 
tired, and for the last eight years has made his 



home in I):mville. His first residence was on North 
street, nliere lie Larl a half acre of ground, and ef- 
feele'l sonic fine improvements. In 183(5 he 
.ipiwinted l)y the Legislature as one of the com- i 
niissioners to make the slack w,ater of the N'errailion ' 
River, but did not see it practical. Later lie was 
appointed Marshal of the Eastern District of Illi- 
nois, with a bond of $10,000, but there being 
nothing particularly desirable in the office, he with- 

Mr. Bandy has represented his towuihip in the 
County Board of Supervisors two terms; he has 
served as President of the City Council, and also 
as Alderman. He voted with the Republican party 
until the administration of President Lincoln, and 
lias since been a Democrat. His whole career has been 
signalized by liberality and publie-spiritedness, he 
having probably contributed as much as any other 
man in furthering the interests of Danville and 
vicinity. A goodly portion of his capital is now 
invested in the live-stock business, which yields 
him handsome returns. 

The marriage of William Bandy and Miss Har- 
riet J. Mur()hy occurred at the home of the bride 
in Edgar County, III., Oct. 16, 1833. Of this 
union there were born five sons and two daughters, 
and six of the children are living. Samuel J., the 
eldest, is a resident of Danville; .John W. Is the 
owner of the Bandy block, and is in the drug busi- 
ness; Bennett E. is the School Commissioner of the 
townshq), and interested in the Building Associa- 
tion; Emma, thi; youngest born, remains at home 
with her parents, and there is also in the lionsehold 
circle a foster child named Bella E. Bandy. Mrs. 
Harriot Bandy departed this life March, 1872. She 
was born in Bedford County, Va., and came with 
her parents to this count}' in 1818, about the time 
that Illinois was transformed from a Territory into 
a State. 

Mr. Bandy, in 1881, contracted a second mar- 
riage with Mrs. Deborah (King) Johnson. This 
lady was born in Kentucky. Oct. 13, 1815, and 
when quite young was taken by her parents to 
Indiana, they settling on the western line of the 
State, just across from Danville. She spent the 
gro-iter part of her early life in Warren County, 
Ind. wliere she was married to Mr. Johnson, who 

died near West Lebanon. Ind., in 18.")3. Joseph 
King, the father of Mrs. Bandy, wa.s a native 
of \irginia, and a farmer by occupation. He spent 
his last years in Missouri. 

The father of our subject was James Bandy, who 
was born in Virginia about 1790, and upon reach- 
ing man's estate was married to Miss Xancy Brown, 
also of the Old Dominion. Only two of their chil- 
dren lived, and the mother died, when William, our 
subject, was an infant of three years. A few years 
later he was taken into the home of the Ilowells. 
James Bandy finally removed to Tennessee to take 
care of his father. He was married a second time, 
and came to the southern part of Illinois, where he 
died in 1883, at Ihe advanced age of ninet^'-three 
years. He came to Virginia after his children, both 
of whom were with the Ilowells, but the latter 
were unwilling to give them up. He became the 
owner of lands and slaves, which he gave to his 

. pro . 

' cC>o • — 



stock shipper of Newell Township was 
on the 1.5th day of Decendjer, 1838, 
in this township, and is the son of James and Mary 
(Andrews) Cunningham, the father a native of 
Kentucky. The mother of the subject of this 
sketch was born in New York, and is deceased. 
The father is now retired and living at State 
Line, Ind. 

William O., of whom we write, is the third child 
of a famil}' of four children. He spent his boy- 
hood days at home on the farm until he was about 
eighteen years of age when the restless spirit of 
the typical American youth seized him and he con- 
cluded to see more of the world ; .accordingly he 
went to Nebraska where he wtjrked for a time 
breaking prairie sod, but this being too slow work 
for him he made up his mind that he would go to 
California, which he did. He started from Nebras- 
ka City for Pike's Peak in 1859, and from llicre 
went overland to California. Here ho was engaged 
in mining and farming alternately, and worked 
with .some degree of success in this manner for 
about four years, when he returned to Nebraska 
where he worked for a short time and then came 



back to Illinois with §1. 200 in his pocket, every 
cent of which was gained by reason of his indus- 
trious and prudent habits, lie invested his money 
ill land, buying his father's farm of 200 acres 
which was really the nucleus of his present fortune. 
He then married Feb. 22, 1865, Martha J. Chand- 
ler; she is the daugliter of James and Elizabeth 
(Frazier) Chandler, who both died in one week 
from milk sickness, also two children; at that time 
Mrs. Cunningham was only five years old. Mr. 
and Mrs. Cunningham became the parents of nine 
children, of whom seven are living, viz; Irwin, 
Alice. James. Porter, Sophia, Minnie and Roy. 
Stella, the oldest child, died in infancy, and a baby 
boy died unnamed, and the balance are at home. 
Mr. Cunningham is giving his children the benefit 
of a good education. 

Mr. Cunningham is the owner of a large farm of 
556 acres of as good land as there is in Illinois, es- 
timated to be worth at least $70 per acre. His 
residence and buildings are models of convenience 
and of these he ought to feel proud. He has dis- 
pla3-ed a great deal of common sense in all of the 
inprovements he has made and in none more than 
in the erection of his buildings. Mr. Cunning- 
ham makes a specialty of Cotswold and Shropshire- 
down sheep, of which he always keeps a large 
flock. He is also engaged in buj-ing and shipping 
live stock to Chicago, a business which he has pros- 
ecuted with success, all due to his shrewd judg- 
ment as a buyer. He supplements his other bus- 
iness by dealings in superior grades of fine horses, 
and it is said that he is a most excellent judge of 
this noble animal. 

Politically, Mr. Cunningham believes that the 
part}' that obliterated slavery from the American 
continent is right, and he therefore votes and works 
for the Republican party and never omits an op- 
portunity to forward its success. He has never 
been an active aspirant for political honors, but by 
reason of his superior judgment has held the of- 
fice of Assessor of this township. While he was liv- 
ing in California he made an endeavor to enlist 
duriuu the War of the Rebellion, his motives be- 
ing based wholly upon the love he bore his coun- 
trj-. But being disabled he was refused admission 
to the ranks of the Union army, though he was al- 

ways in hearty and active sympathy with the ob- 
jects for which it fought. Mr. and Mrs. Cunning- 
ham are active members of the Christian Church 
and are alwa^'s alive to any move that will uplift 
humanity and make life hap[)ier. 

RA FAUROT. This venerable gentleman was 
long intimately connected with the agricult- 
/4i ural interests of Vermilion County, and is still 
the possessor of one of its many valuable farms, 
finely located in the midst of a rich farming re- 
gion on section 34, Pilot Township. When he pur- 
chased this farm it was wild, uncultivated land 
with no l)uildings on it, and but one dwelling house 
in sight, the country roundabout still being not far 
removed from its primitive condition and sparsel}' 
settled. It is a fact of which he may well be proud 
that our subject has witnessed the greater part of 
its development, and has aided its growth as only 
a skillful, practical farmer can do. He is now liv- 
ing here in retirement in his comfortable home, 
having accumulated a competency sufficient to 
guard his old age against want in any form. 

The ancestors of our subject were natives of 
sunny France as is betokened liy his name, and 
from them he inherite<l those genial and pleasing 
traits of character that have gained him a warm 
place in the hearts of those about him, and also the 
thrifty and industrious habits that have led him to 
prosperity. His parents, Joseph and Sarah (Sears) 
Faurot, were of French ancestry, but were natives 
of this country. They at one time made their home 
in Ontario County, N. Y., whence they came 
to Illinois, and located in Champaign County, 
Ohio. They afterward turned their steps, and go- 
ing to Steuben County, Ind., made their home 
there till death claimed them, the father dj'ing in 
1836, and the mother in 1839. They were the pa- 
rents of five children, of whom two are living: 
Jane is the widow of David Porter, of Kentucky, 
and she is now living in Missouri with her three 
children; Benjamin, deceased, married Louisa 
Avey, of New York, and they had two children, 
Elmira and Harriet; Alva, deceased, was a farmer; 
he married Louisa Farmer, of Ohio, and they had 



lliree children — AVilliam II., Alva ami Fanner; 
Henry, deceased, married Maria Wolf, of Ohio, and 
she is now living in iMissouri nith iier four chil- 
dren — Sylvester, Theodore, Melvin and iSIary. 

Our suljject horn in Ontario County, N. Y., 
April 23, 1>>19, and he accompanied his parents to 
('hami)aign County, Ohici, when he was young. At 
the age of fifteen a liardy, self-reliant youth, manly 
heyond his years, he left tlie slielter of the parental 
roof to go forth into the world to fight life's bat- 
tles on his own account, and for some years wiis 
engaged in working l)y the month. After mar- 
riage he commenced to rent land, but always with 
the end in view of owning land himself as soon as 
his means would allow. Hy frugality and hard la- 
bor, at the expiration of three years, he had money 
enough to buy sixty acres of timbered land, ami he 
lived on it the next nine years, busily engaged in 
its clearance and imprctvement. In 1850 he sold 
it, and going to Marion County, in this State, he 
resided there the ensuing four years. Returning 
to this county he invested some of his money in 
200 acres of wild land, from which he has devel- 
oped his [jresent tine farm, on which he has erected 
suitalile, well-a|)pointed Imildings, and has every 
convenience for carrying on agriculture to the best 

To the wife who shared his fortunes and been 
an imi)ortant factor in bringing about his pros- 
perity, Mr. Faurot was united in marriage July 2, 
1840. Her maiden name was Elvira Fowler, and 
she is a daughter of Willey and Cynthia (Perkins) 
Fowler, natives respectively of London, P^ngland, 
and (ierinany. They came to this country and 
spent their last days here. The following is the 
record of the five children born to our subject and 
his wife: Hannah was liorn June ;!0, 1841 ; Cyn- 
thia. Feb. 19, IHi;!; Sarah. Feb. l.O, 184C; Victo- 
ria, Aug. 21, LSI!), died Oct. 10, 1851; Willie, 
born Sept. 11,1 852 ; Joseph, Jan. 1 8, 1858. Hannah 
marr'cd John Davidson, of Ohio, now living in this 
county, and they have five children — Arabella, Ira, 
Zcruah and two <lead; Cynthia married Hugh V. 
Davidson, of Maiion County, Ohio, now living in 
this county, and they have four chiklren — Ella, 
Josephine, James and Estella; Sarah has been 
twice married. Her first husljan<l was Aaron Davis, 

of Shelby County. 111., and they four children 
— Olive, Seigel, Ktlie and Leona. Her present hus- 
band is .Vlexander Steward, of Champaign County, 
111., and the\' have four children — l.i/.zie, .\lviiia, 
Jessie and James ().; Willie married Annie .\y, of 
Douglas County, 111,, and they are living in this 
county; they have three children — Ira. KIsie and 
Florence; Joseph, a retired farmer living in Arm- 
sti'ong. married Flora Thompson, and they have 
one child. Amy. 

.Mr. Faurot is a thoroughly good and upright 
man. who is well thought of by the entire commu- 
nity. His life-record shows that he is a man of 
good cap.acity and sound discretion, always cordial 
and kindly in his I'elalions with others and fair 
in his dealings with them. As consistent members 
of the Christian Chuich, he and his wife and chil- 
dren exert a good influence in the township, or 
wherever they may be. Politically, Mr. Faurot is 
a decided Republican, and gives his party the ben- 
efit of his hearty support. 

'^JOSEPH J. SIDELL. The son of the 
founder of the village of Sidell, naturally 
occupies no secondary- position among the 
I people, not only of the village but the town- 
ship at large. The late Hon. John Sidell, after 
whom the township was named, was long recog- 
nized as one of the leading men of ^'ermilion 
County, and posscs.sed those talents, both natural 
and re(piired, which distinguished him as a charac- 
ter more than ordinarily forcible and efficient, and 
one who had a sensible and permanent influence 
on the community where he was so favorably 
known for so many years. 

The father of our subject was l)orn at Ilagers- 
lown, Washington Co., M<l.. .luue 27. 181G, and 
his early life was spent in IMaryland and Ohio. 
His father having died when he was a of eight 
years the boy was thrown largely upon his own re- 
sources, but he seemed to have within him the ele- 
ments of success, and those years which were 
fraught with perhaps hardship and privation suf- 
ficed to develop a character vi more than ordinary 
excellence. At the :ige of nineteen years, being 



dissatisfied witii his condition nnd liis prospects in 
his native state, he emigrated to Ohio and engaged 
to work out by the month in Greene County on a 
farm at $12.50 per month. 

Saving what he could of his earnings young 
Si(1ell in due time purchased a horse and mounting 
it started for the farther West. He crossed Illinois 
and visited Iowa, but linding notliing jmrticularly 
desirable returned to Ohio and took a contract to 
cut cordwood at tliirty-three and one-third cents 
per cord. This was extremelj' hard work for sucli 
small pa}', but he persevered at it until he was able 
to do something better. While a resident of Ohio 
he was married Jan. 20, 184C, to Miss Elizabeth 
Cline, vvho became the mother of two children and 
died in 1854. He was then married to Miss Ada 
B. Ransoni, who also died after a comparatively 
short period of married life. 

Mr. Sidell came to the county in 18G0, and for 
the first few years occupied himself iu agricultural 
'pursuits. Later he drifted into stock-raising and 
became one of the leading men in this industry iu 
Vermilion County. His eldest son, George A., 
started West at the age of nineteen years and i>ros- 
pected for gold in and around Fair Play, South 
Park, Col. He was one of the first men to discover 
silver at Leadville. and was founder of the town. 
He became owner of the celebrated Beaver Creek 
Silver Mine, eight or ten miles southwest, and con- 
tinues his residence there. Allie E., the daughter 
of his first wife, married Mr. C. C. Tincher, who 
is well known in the linancial circles of Danville. 

Mrs. Ada B. (Ransom) Sidell, mother of the 
subject of this sketch, was born in the city of 
Toronto, Canada, and being left an orphan 
when quite young, was reared to womanhood by 
an excellent family who gave her a good educa- 
tion. She left the Dominion when a young lady, 
and going to Greene County, Ohio, engaged in 
teaching, and formed the acquaintance of her fut- 
ure husband. There were born to them two chil- 
dren. Mr. Sidell in coming to Illinois settled near 
Paris in Eidgar County, and having some means 
engaged .at once extensively in the cattle trade. 
He had learned carpentering early in life. Before 
locating, however, he traveled extensively on 
horseback in the West, crossing Illinois nine times 

and through portions of Texas and Iowa. He was 
in the Lone Star State before its admission into 
the Union. It will be remembered that Samuel 
Houston was chief sovereign of that" country at 
that time, and .John Sidell erected a residence for 
him at Houston. 

The live stock enterprise of Mr. Sidell prospered 
very well, and not finding a sufficient area of land 
to suit his purpose in Edgar County he came to 
this county where in d^ie time he became the owner 
of 7,000 acres. Upon becoming a voter he had 
identified himself with the Old AVhig party, but 
upon its abandonment allied himself with the Re- 
[lublicans. He interested himself greatly in politi- 
cal affairs, and was elected a representative to the 
Lower House of the Legislature, in which position 
he acquitted himself in a manner reflecting great 
credit upon his good judgment and honesty. He 
was instrumental in defining and improving the 
road laws of Illinois, an<l was an iulluential member 
of the General Assembly, participating in most of 
its important deliberations. In later years he 
gradually retired from public life. 

At the suggestion of Mr. .lohn C. Short, one of 
the earliest settlers of Sidell Township, it was 
given its present name. JMr. Sidell was verj' lib- 
eral and public spirited and cheerfully gave of his 
time and means to encourage the enterprises calcu- 
lated for the general good. Several years iigo he 
decided to open a portion of his lands to settlers 
who would locate and make homes for themselves, 
and thus disposed of a large tract at a very reason- 
able price, realizing from the sales the sum of 
8115,000. At the s.Tme time he retained a large 
portion of land himself and was instrumental in 
bringing the Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroad to 
this section, freely donating the right of way. The 
town of Archie had been laid out and was boom- 
ing before Sidell had an existence, but finally was 
practically absorbed by the superior advantages 
offered by the founder of Sidell as a business point, 
and consequently enterprising men invested their 
ca|)ital here. 

Mr. Sidell at one time chartered a train and ran 
it free from Columbus, Ohio, for the benefit of 
those desiring to make a home in the West. Sidell 
was laid out in 1884, and its illustrious founder 

Hazel Farm '.'Residence of a. g. Olmsted .Sec. 22.(T.19.-R. 12.) Catlin Township. 


Residence or Alvin Stearn5, , 5ec 1. ( VanccTownship. 


Residence of John R. Kinsey, 5ec.23.(T.I9.- R.13) Oakwojod Township. 



lived to note its piienoraenal growth and prosper- 
ity, lie departed tliis life Jan. 29, 1889, after a 
severe illness of eleven weeks. Altlioiigli not a 
member of any church he donated generously to- 
ward the erection of the various church edifices in 
this region, giving to the Kimlior Methodist Epis- 
copal CMiurcli alone SoOO, this structure being lo- 
cated in Danville. He had identified iiiniself with 
the Masons some years before his decease and was 
buried witli the honors of the fraternity. 

To Mr. Sidell and his second wife there were 
born three children, Jennie II., Joseph John and 
Luella Blanche. The eldest daughter is now the 
wife of William Southwick, a clothier of Streeter, 
III.; Luella married Frank Hastings, an extensive 
cattle breeder, and they live in Essex, Page Co., 
Iowa; Mr. Hastings makes a specialty- of three dif- 
ferent breeds of cattle, the AVest Higiiland Scotcii 
— the first ever bred in America — the Hereford 
and the Short-horn. 

The sulijeet of this sketch was born March 14, 
1862, at Dudley. Edgar Co., III., and the scenes of 
his first recollections were in connection with the 
first cattle ranch of his father near that place. He 
began at an early age to assist his father in looking 
after the cattle, and mounted on his broncho 
scoured the couiitry for many a mile in the fall 
enjoyment of boyish j'outh and strength. He at- 
tended the schools of his home district. While a 
boy of seven he went in charge of a train load of 
cattle from Farimonnt, III., to Buffalo, N.Y. In 
case one of the bovines sought repose by l3"ing 
down at the risk of being trampled to death, he 
exerted himself to keep it in a standing position, 
and if not able to do this alone would solicit the 
assistance of a brakeman. 

When a youth of seventeen our subject entered 
the Russell Preparatory School for Yale College, 
but he was Western in his mode of thinking and 
in his habits and manners, and an utter stranger to 
the mode of living of the light-headed Eastern 
students, so he abandoned his first intention of en- 
tering Yale, and returning home continued with 
his father in the cattle business. He is now re- 
volving in his mind the plan of embarking exten- 
sively- in this in the near future farther west, prob- 
ably in Nebraska, but will make his home at the 

old place, which is be;iulifnlly silualcd 210 rods 
northwest of Sidell. 

The marriage of onr subject with Miss Maude 
C, daughter of Michael Eislier, of Indianola, took 
place at the bride's home in 1884. Mr. Fisher is a 
hardware merchant and one of the leading nieii of 
his town. A sketch of him will be found elsewhere 
in this Ai.nuM. Mrs. Sidell was born at Indianola. 
where she completed her studie.s, being graduated 
from the High School. Of her union with our sub- 
ject there are two children: Rozalia and Zelda 
Luella. Mrs. Sidell belongs to the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. Our subject, like liis father be- 
fore him, is Republican in politics and belongs to the 
Masonic fraternity, being a member of Vermilion 
Lodge, No. 2f)5, of Indianola. He is endeavoring 
to comply with his father's wish of having a Ma- 
sonic lodge established in Sidell, and is a charter 
member of the M. W. C. at this place. He is a 
young man of sterling worth .and very popular 
both in business and social circles. 

nent and influential citizen of Blount Town- 
ship, is tlie owner of a farm on section 16, 
which in regard to cultiv.ation and neat, well-ap- 
pointed buildings is indeed one of the best in this 
part of Vermilion County. The Elder is one of the 
leading members of the Regular Bai)tist Church, 
and for a number of years has preiiched almost 
constantly in this and Champaign County, .and .as a 
man of true piet}' is an acknowledged power for 
good wherever he may be. He is also closely con- 
nected with the m.anagement of local public affairs, 
and has been an incumbent of some of the most re- 
sponsible civic offices. He has held the position of 
Supervisor of Blount Township three terms, has 
served :is Road Commissioner the same length of 
time and has been School Director many j'ears. He 
has not taken an active part in political affairs, but 
is a decided Democrat in his views. 

The subject of this biographical review was born 
in the vicinity of Hendricks, in Boone County, 
Ind., Aug. 1, 1839, being the eldest son and fifth 
child of Ihe six children, four daugliters and two 



sons, born to Kuel and Mar}' (Diekerson) Dodson, 
natives, respectively, of Kentucky and Virginia. 
His parents married and settled in Boone County 
and lived there till February. 1848, when tliey 
came to Vermilion County and cast in tlieir lot 
with tlie pioneers of Blount Townshiii. settling 
about a mile northeast of Higginsville. They lived 
there only three or four years, however, when tlie 
fatlier sold that farm and bought another that he 
considered more desirable, pleasantly located in the 
Fairchild settlement in Blount Township. There 
the mother died Aug. 8, 1860. and the father took 
for his second wife Lucinda Walls, who survives 
liini. He died at Riekart's Corner in Blount Town- 
ship, Feb. 28, 1871, thus rounding out a life that 
was a credit to himself, his friends and his com- 

His son George, of whom we write, between 
eight and nine years old when his parents brought 
iiini to their new home in A'ermilion County, and 
he grew to man's estate in Blount Township, his 
parents training him in all useful labors and care- 
fully instilling into his mind those high and hoi}' 
l)rincip!es that have been his guides in all his after 
life. He attended the common schools, and being 
an apt pupil gained a good practical education. He 
has alwaj'S paid attention to the calling to which 
he was bred, and there is no more skillful or shrewd 
farmer in the neighborhood than he, as is shown by 
the appearance of his farm of 350 acres of well 
tilled land, with its comfortable dwelling, fine con- 
venientl}' arranged barn and other substantial 
buildings, among the best in the township. 

Elder Dodson has been twice married. The first 
time in Blount Township, to Miss Sarah A. Walls, 
who was boin in Hendricks County, Ind., July 29, 
1842. She was a member of the Regular Baptist 
Church and a truly good and virtuous woman, 
whoso death Aug. 8, 1867, was deplored far beyond 
the home circle. She bore her husband three chil- 
dren: Annie M.. the wife of William O'TooIe; 
Juhn AV.. who married Eva K. Fairchild; George 
W., who married Lillie Parks. 

Our subject was married to his present wife March 
12, 1868. and in her he has found a cheerful and 
ready lielper, and an able man.ager in her depart- 
ment, she making their home cosy and comfortable 

for the family and attractive to others, who often 
share its generous hospitalities. Mrs. Dodson's 
maiden name Dorcas T. Pilkington. and she was 
b(irn in Hamilton County, Ind., Dec. 10, 184C. 
Her marriage with our subject has been blessed by 
the l)irlh of eleven children, as follows: Sarah L., 
who died when about two years old; Carrie E.; 
Ruel F., who died when six months old; Ira W. W., 
Dora E.. who died at the age of nine months; James 
F., Jesse R., Effle L., Bertha W., who died when 
one year old; Lillie M. and Bessie Orella. 

In all his useful and honoraljle career the Elder 
has been guided b\' tlie highest moral sentiments, 
and has ever shown himself to be a just, kind- 
liearted, pure-souled man, one in whom his fellow- 
men can safel}' place their trust, and whose sagacity 
and wisdom eminently fit him for the part of coun- 
sellor. He has been identified with the Regular 
Baptist Church for many years, has filled the office 
of Deacon, and was ordained Elder in the church 
Nov. 28. 1874, since which time he has preached 
regularly in this and Champaign County, as before 
mentioned, with great acceptance to his hearers. 
His ministry has been very successful and much 
good has resulted from it. He has brought joy to 
many hearts, has soothed and comforted many in 
grief, and many have turned from the error of their 
ways, persuaded to do thus by his simple, earnest 
words of warning, and by the example of a godly, 
upright life. 

n SAAC Cl'RRP]NT comes of sterling pioneer 
I stock, his immediate ancestry on both sides of 
/ii the house having been early settlers of Ver- 
milion Count}', who figured honoral)ly in the his- 
toiy of its settlement. He is a fine representative 
of the native born citizens who ai-e sustaining and 
extending the large agricultural interests of this 
fair land of their birth, and the farm that he ovvns 
and is successfully managing in Danville Town- 
ship compares very favorably with the best in this 
vicinity in point of cultivation, neat and substan- 
tial buildings and well ordered appearance, and its 
fertile acres yield him an ample income. 

Mr. Current was born in Newell Township, Xer- 


2.) 7 

milion County. Nov. 17. 184.i. lie is .i descend- 
ant of ^'il•ginia families, both his [larenls and their 
parents having been born in the Old Dominion, 
his father, William Current. April 2(1. 180:3, and 
his mother, Mary R.aston, Oet. 19. 1807. The pater- 
nal grandfather of subject a farmer in Harri- 
son Count}'. Va., but he finally disposed of his 
property in that State, and coming to Vermilion 
County in 1827. with his family, was one of the ear- 
liest settlers in ■nhat is now known as Newell Town- 
ship. He entered a tract of Government land 
and was a resident in that township till death called 
him hence, though he did not die on that farm, 
but on the old of his father, which he 
had entered; after the death of his father he buying 
that farm of tlie other heirs. The father of our 
subject was reared in his native State, and there 
married Miss Mary, daughter of Henry liaston. 
Her father was a resident of Harrison County in 
his native Virginia till 1827, when he came with 
others to Vermilion Count}-, and entered a tract of 
land and improved a farm in is now Danville 
Township, .and lived here m.iny 3'ears. He had 
learned the tr.ade of a hatter in his youth; and after 
he came here found it very profitable to work at it 
a part of the time, his hats finding a ready sale. 
From this place Mr. Baston moved to Iowa in 
1848 and became a pioneer of Marion County. A 
few 3'ears later he came back to Illinois and made 
his home with his children for a time, and then re- 
turned to the Hawk Eye State and resided there till 
his demise at the advanced age of ninet^'-eight 
years. His wife lived to be about the same .tge. 
They were the parents of fourteen children, ten of 
whom grew to maturity and married. 

The father of our subject continued to live in 
Harrison Countj' till 1827, but early that year he 
left the State of his nativity accompanied bj- his wife, 
his parents and her parents, bound for the then far 
West, and made tlie entire journey with ox teams. 
He settled in Newell Towmship and entered the 
tract of Government land that is now owned and 
occupied by his eldest sou. It was wild prairie at 
the time, with no improvements whatever, .and he 
had to erect a rude pole house for temporary shel- 
ter, and in that the family resided a year. It was 
then burned with all its contents, and a more sub- 

stantial log house was put up in its place, and in 
that humble abode the most of his children were 
born. When he first went onto this land he did 
not have money enough to i)uy for it and held it 
as a claim till he could earn money enough break- 
ing prairie for others, to buy it. He had learned 
the trade of wagon-maker before coming here, and 
he liuilt a shop on his place and devoted part of 
his time to making wagons. When he had three 
or four wagons made he would yoke his oxen and 
start for Chicago to sell them, and at the same time 
his wife, who was a thrifty, economical housekeep- 
er, would send the eggs and butter that she had 
saved, to market. There were no railways for 
years after he settled here, and deer and other 
kinds of wild game were plentiful and often troub- 
lesome in the wheat fields of the pioneers, and 
where the flourishing city of Danville stands there 
was then no village. Mr. Current closed a life 
that had bt-eTi a useful one and an honor to his coni- 
munit}-, on his old homestearl Aug. 6. 1851, dvino- 
while yet in his prime. His wife died in October, 

Isaac Current of this sketch was reared and educa- 
ted in this, his native county. He was but six 
years old when his father died, and he continued 
with his mother till his marriage. He then estab- 
lished himself on a part of the homestead, and two 
years later bought his present farm, where he has 
built up one of the most attractive homes in the 

Mr. Current been three times married. Clar- 
issa E. Lynch, to whom he was wedded Dec. 14, 
1862,was bis first wife. She was born in Danville 
Township in 1843, and died here June 14, 18C9, 
leaving one child. Rachel 11. She is now the wife 
of Isaac Bowman of Vance Township, and they have 
one child named William Isaac. Mr. Current's 
second marriage was to Mary (Campbell) Wy.att, 
their union taking place Oct. 28, 1 809. She 
born in Newell Township Aug. 1, 1845, and died 
June 21, 1872. 

Mr. Current's marriage with his |)resent wife. 
Mrs. Derotha (Jones) Noel, took place .Ian. 
26, 1883. Her first hnsbaml was Arthur Noel by 
whom she had one son. Shelby 1". Noel — he married 
Hannah Lappin, they have three children, viz : Percy 



Leo, Lofla Belle, and Artluir Raymond. She was 
born in Rockville. Park Co.. Ind...Jan. 13, 1845. Her 
father, CorneHiis .loues was born in Viiginia, and 
when a joiuig man went to Park County, Ind., and 
there married Nancy Hull, a native of Ohio. He 
lived in Park County till 1881, and then came to 
Illinois and made liis home witli a son in Douglns 
County' till his decease in March, 1885. His wife 
died May 10, 18(J0. ]Mr. and Mrs. Current liave 
one .son, Charles P. 

It may well be the pride of our subject it 
lias been his privilege not only to witness the won- 
derful progress of his native county since his birth, 
but that he had a share in adv.ancing its mate- 
rial (nosperity and making it a great agricultural 
centre. ' He has .accumulated a valuable i)roperty 
by the exercise of those faculties that mark him as 
a man of more than usual sagacit}', far reaching 
foretliought, and practical tenacit3- of purpose. 
Underlying all these traits are- tliose high princi- 
ples that have gained him tlie trust and respect of 
his fellow-citizens. Both he and his wife are act- 
tivc members of the Asbury Methodist p]piscopal 
Church, as is also their son. In politics, on Na- 
tional issues he sides with tlie Democrats, but in 
local affairs the best man for the office gets his 
vote without regard to his party affiliations. 


■JYiOHN J. SOUTHWORTH is one of the young 
leading and progressive business men of one 
of the most promising villages in Vermilion 
County, Allerton. The town lies on the line 
which divides Vermilion from Cliami)aign County, 
and was laid out in 1887. The depot was built the 
same fall and located on lands given to that pur- 
pose b}' .Sam \V. Allerton, of Chicago. 

Mr. South worth the first business man who 
located at the town of Allerton. Before coming 
here he was engaged in the town of Arciiie in tiu; 
lumber l)usiness. In 1887 he took charge of A 1- 
lerton's steam elevator, removing his lumber yard 
here at the same time, and on July 20, 1887, he 
bought the first load of grain purchased in Aller- 
ton, a load of corn, from Thomas L. Miller, of 
Champaign County. The price paid was fortj' cents 

a bushel. As soon as the railroad was completed 
to his town he added to his stock of lumber, salt, 
liinding twine, sand and barbed wire. Mr. South- 
worll) is a son of John H. and Anna ( Akcrs) South- 
worth, the nativity of the former being at Thom- 
aston, Mass., while the latter was born in Harris- 
burg, Pa. 

John R. Soutlnvorth was reared as a mechanic, 
working in the woolen mills at Lowell, Mass., but 
ill 1854, thinking the l)road prairies of tiie West 
were more conducive to liappiness tlian the 
cramped shops of the East, he came to Champaign 
County, III., eventually. His first removal west 
was to Ohio, where he was married. As a farmer of 
Illinois he was fairly prosperous, and was promi- 
nently identified with the progress of his neighbor- 
hood. Ho died on his farm at the age of seventy- 
four years, while his wife still lives there. The 
maternal grandparents of the subject of this sketch 
died while Mrs. Soutliworth was quite young. They 
were natives of lOngland, .as were also tlie paternal 
grandparents. The great-grandfather, Roy South- 
worth, served with distinguished honor througii 
the entire period of the Revolutionary War, and 
his descend.'uits are in possession of a cane, tlie head 
of which is composed of solid silver in thesiiape of 
a dog's head, and inscribed thereon are the words, 
"Soutliworth, 1776." The silver was taken from 
the hilt of a British sword, which he captured from 
the eneni}'. Our subject's parents had six children: 
Addie, Julia, Frank, Lehmond, John J. and Lillie. 

John Jay Southworth was born .at Coldwater, 
Mich., in 1852, and when he was but three years 
old emigrated with his parents to Illinois, where he 
was reared upon a farm and received his primary 
education at the public schools. At the age of 
twenty he entered Oberlin College, where he con- 
tinued a .student for some time, and afterward com- 
pleted his education at Champaign. In 1875 he was 
married to Miss Mar^- F. Irwin, who born in 
Ch.ampaign County, HI., and who was graduated 
from the women's department of the Bloomington 
College. She was engaged as a teacher in her na- 
tive county, for sometime and was reckoned as one 
of the best te.achers. Soon after their marrjnge the 
young couple removed to Archie, where Mr. Soutli- 
worth engaged in business, and from the start has 



vftAyw "liose frtlluT was likewise nai 
W^ a native of Ireland, having 

been successful. They have hart four ehildreu: 
Grace. Walter. Ida and Anna Mary; the latter died 
when she was twenty months old. 

Mr. Soutliworth owns a line farm of eighty acres 
four miles nortii of Aiiertou. lie is also engaged 
in the hotel Imsincss. he and his wife being the i)ro- 
prietors of the Allerton House. He is a member of 
the Odd Fellows lodge, and votes the Repulilican 
ticket. The offices of Scliool Director and Trustee 
have been fdled by him with ability. In all his 
efiforts of life in which he has succeeded he lias 
been ably seconded by his intelligent and faithful 
wife, and it is safe to predict that they will go on 
prospering. Thej- are prominently identified with 
the prosperity of llic'r town, and tliere are no 
better people in it. 

ILLIAM COPELAND is the son of Samuel. 

me<l Samuel, 
g been born 
near Dublin. He, with his brother, Robert, came 
to the United States when young men and located 
at Phihideiphia, Pa. From there the brother went 
to South Carolina, and has not since been heard 
from by our subject. The grandfather married 
near Philadelphia, and after a few years removed 
to Galia Count}-, Ohio, tlie sul)ject's father being 
then a little boy. The jouiiiey was made on pack 
horses. The father an:l older brothers, Isaac and 
Robert, were carried in a basket i.a.shed to a horse. 
That journey was made al)0ut 1805, many years 
(irevious to the building of an}' railroads. Plven 
road wagons were not in general use at that time. 
Sleds were used in all seasons of the year. The 
onl}' wagons in use in those parts were such as wore 
known as truck wagons, the wheels of which were 
made of a piece, perhaps six inches, sawed off the 
end of a round log and a hole bored in the center 
for the axle, which was also wood. The wheels 
were held on the axle b\ wooden linch-pins, in (ait 
the entire wagon was made of wood. The grand- 
parents located among the hills and heavy timber 
and there made a farm on which they reared their 
family of eight children, of whom our subject's 
father was the third child ami only survivor. The 

children were: Robert, Lsaiic, .Samuel, James, Ham- 
ilton. Mary A. Jane, and Mahala. The grand- 
l>arents spent their last days on the Ohio farui. 
The parents of our subject were married in (i.alia 
County. Ohio, the mother being Klizabeth, daugh- 
ter of William Ham. of (iermau aucestry and early 
settlers of Ohio. 

Like the graudparents, the parents of our subject 
reared a large family consisting of eleven children: 
William H., George W., Perry. Mary A., Njuicy. 
Malinda, Andrew, Delila, Ciarinda, Kmily. and 
Elizabeth. The four elder were born in Ohio. 
In 1827. the i)areuts of the subject of this sketch, 
with their family, removed to this county ;ind 
made the journey on a keel-boat down the Ohio 
and up the to Perrysville, Ind. The father 
made the boat for the journey and brought the 
household goods ami also salt. Out of the profit <m 
that k)ad of salt he made a start in life. He sold 
it at Perrysville, where he hired a man with a team 
j to haul his goods and family seven miles north- 
west of Danville, where he entered eighty acres, 
part timber and part prairie. His first house was 
made by laying a (jole from one tree to another 
about ten feet apart on a fork in either tree, against 
which poles and rails were leaned on each side for a 
roof. In that tent they lived until they could 
build a log house, and in this house the family was 
chiefly reared. After getting the eight}' acres in 
a good state of cultivation he would buy more 
land .as he could, until he had increased his farm to a 
considerable extent. On that farm the worth \ 
mother spent her last days. The father makes his 
home with our subject during the winter and with 
his daughter, Elizabeth, now Mrs. Milton l,;iml), 
of Danville, in the summei-. Thefatherof William 
H. is a member of the .Missionary Baptist Church, 
in which faith his mother died. 

In the wilds of Illinois education;d advantasi'es 
were very limited, and the school which our sub- 
ject attended at twelve years of .age was called a 
••subscription school." Each family would board 
the teacher in proportion to the nundier of puplis. 
The school-house was built of round logs, punch- 
eon floor and slab doors. The window made 
with gre:i.sed paper pasted over the hole cut in a 
log. The seats were also made of puncheon. The 



scLool term only lasted about three jnontlis of the 
year, these being the winter months, when the 
work on the farm was retarded by cold weather. 

The next step of importance was the marriage of 
our subject to Miss Rachael Sterns. Her i)arents 
were Zara and Mary (Smalle^y) Sterns. They too 
were pioneers in this county and came from near 
Clarkesville, Ohio, and were among the verj^ earl- 
liest settlers. They died at an advanced age near 
Williamsport. Ind. hy his first marriage there 
were ten children: Mary married James Wilson 
and died in 1800. Mr. "Wilson enlisted in the war 
and was killed at tlie battle of Chickasaw. Tlieir 
only surviving child, William II., was reared by 
our subject for whom he was named; Nane^y, now 
Mrs. W. II. Duncan lives in this county; E. II.; 
Ahneda is married to Frank Johns and died 
al)0ut 1875; Eli lives in Missouri; Andrew Z ; an 
infantsou; Elizabeth now Mrs. John B. Chambers; 
George; Harmon; and Charles, who died at the age 
of four years. Mrs. Copeland died Jan. 27, 1831, 
a wortiiy member of the ISaptist Churcli in which 
faitli she lived. Our subject was married a sec- 
ond time to Elizabeth Kirkliart, September, 1885. 
Her parents were also early settlers here and came 
from Whitsell County, Va., in which State they 
were born. Her mother, Ann (^Courtney) Kirk- 
hart, died when Mrs. Copeland was about eight 
years old. Her father, John died a few 3-ears 
later, thus leaving her an orphan in early life. 
Previous to her marriage with the subject of this 
sket'ch Mrs. Copeland had been married to Stephen 
Lamb, wiio died in 1882. 

William Copeland is a member of the Baptist 
Church, while his wife is a member of the United 
Brethern Church. He has held the offices in this 
county of Supervisor, twelve years; School Direc- 
tor, twenty years; Road Commissioner, three years. 
His politics are strictly Republican. His indus- 
trious habits have been crowned by a splendid 
property in the village of Potomac, where he lives. 
He owns a large, well furnished frame house and 
three lots, finely planted with shade and fruit trees. 
The house has all modern conveniences, and testi- 
fies to the neatness and taste of its owners. He 
also owns another residence and a large business 
house in the village. Beside these, a fine farm of 

440 acres in this county, wliere lie lived for many 
_vears, and here his family was reared. He has 
given each of his children at their marriage §2,500, 
and still has a com|)eteuc\' remaining to keep 
himself and wife as long as the)- live. His pres- 
ent prosperous condition speaks well for his good 
management and frugality, for when first married, 
in 1841, he was destitute of means. Mr. Copeland 
is one of those worthy pioneers, who is novv living 
a life of peaceful retirement. 

HARLES E. WHITTON has been a resident 
of Illinois nearlj' all his life, though he has 
( lived in Vermilion County but a short time. 
He was born in Oneida County, N. Y., July 3, 
1847, and when a boy. came West with his parents, 
l\ol>ert and Mar)- (Ferguson) Whitton. They set- 
tled on a farm in Grundy County, 111., and the 
father and mother are now living at Hammond, 
Ind., near Chicago. The former is an Englishman 
by birth, and came to this countrj- with an elder 
brother when quite young, while the latter is a 
native of Oneida County, N. Y. 

Charles E. Whitton was brought upon the home 
farm in Grundy County, and when Fort Sumter 
was fired upon, ardently desired to enter the Union 
army, but was not accepted because of his youth. 
On Feb. 7, 1865, however, he stole a few months 
of the time necessar)-, and at the age of seventeen 
3'ears and six months enlisted in Company C, 147th 
Illinois Infantr)'. and served for a 3'ear. On the 
declaration of peace, his company was assigned to 
Provost Marshal duty in Georgia, and was so en- 
gaged until Jan. 20, 1866. on whicli daj' they were 
mustered out. After his return, being still but a 
boy, although a veteran, Mr. Whitton went to 
school, and for two years studied with an especial 
view of preparing himself for the profession of 
school teaching. In this vocation he was subse- 
quently engaged for more than twelve years, mostlj- 
in Iroquois County. III., and in Benton County, 
Ind. In the latter county he was also Superinten- 
dent of Schools for two years, discharging the res- 
ponsible duties of that position satisfactorily to 
the people, and with credit to himself. During ail 



tlie 3eais ho was teacliiiia: he was also working at 
farming during tliesnninier months. In the spring- 
of 1884 he began work ()n a rented farm in Iro- 
quois County, but his first wife dying about that 
time, Mr. Wliitton gave u\i this place, and after his 
second marriage lived for three years on a farm in 
Iroquois County, belonging to his present wife. 
This they sold in 1S88, and then bought and re- 
moved to the fine farm of 200 acres, on section 21, 
in Grant Township, where they now make their 

As stated, Mr.Whitton has been twice ni.arried — 
first in 1877, to Miss Salinda Jones, who died in the 
spring of 1884, leaving two boys, Lewis and Law- 
rence. On Dec. IG, 1884, Mr. Whitton was united 
in marriage with Mrs. Laura B. Dunham, widow of 
Quiney Dunham, of Logan County, III. She is a 
daughter of David and Mary (Ilouser) Alsop. and 
was born in Spencer County, Ky., Aug. 26, 1849. 
Both the i)arents were also born in that county, 
where Mr. Alsop was a farmer. They emigrated 
to Logan County, 111., when Laura was but nine 
years old, and she has ever since been a resident of 
this State. Her mother died in 1875, and her 
father is still living in Logan County. He, loo, 
although a southerner by birth, was a soldier of 
freedom, and served for three years in the Union 
army as a member of Companj' F, lOGth Illinois 
Infantrv. In fact, all of .Mrs.Whitton's connections 
showed themselves to be true patriots, her father, 
her father-in-law, her first and her second husband, 
all having served bravely in the Union ranks. Wil- 
liam Dunham, her first husband's father, was Cha]i- 
lain of the 106th Illinois Infantry, the same regi- 
ment in which her father was a soldier. He served 
through the war, but contracted a disease from 
which he never recovered, and which termin.-ited 
his life in 1877. 

Laura B. Alsop (now .Mrs. Whitton) was married 
to (^)uincy Dunham, Dec. 1.0, 1870. He, like Mr. 
Whitton, was a youthful soldier, having been horn 
Aug. 6, 1847, in Warren County, Ohio, and on 
Feb. 10, 1865, when seventeen years and six months 
old, enlisted in Company M, 6th Illinois Cavalry, 
serving for nine months, and was discharged Nov. 
5,186.5. After his return from the army, young 
Dunham was engaged in farming [iursuitsin Logan 

County until his death. He bouglit the farm in 
Iroquois County, on which Mr. and .Mrs. Whillon 
lived after their marri.age. but never occupied it 
himself. The circumstances attending his death, 
which occured Dec. I), were very sad. A ni;iu 
wiiom he had iiireil to work on the farm was found 
to be suffering from smalipo.x:, and Mr. Duniiani 
contracted the disease, and died from it. His 
brother, Monroe Dunham, who was married tj) a 
sister of Mrs. Whitton. and a sister of Mrs. I.ucv 
ZoUars, with a child of Monroe's, named Maud, 
also fell victims to the same dread flisease, as did 
five of their neighbors, making nine in all who died 
before the pest could be controlled. 

Mr. and Mrs. (,)uincy Dunham became the parents 
of six children, all of whom are now living with 
their mother, and are named Clarence F., Mary L.. 
William D., Arthur A., I'earl F. and Grace L. Mr. 
and ftlrs. Whitton have one child, a bright little 
girl, named Fstella K. Though not long residents 
in Vermilion County, they have lived near its bor- 
ders, and are well known in this partof the county. 
Both are respected members of the Christian 
Churcli, and he is a member of Boswell Lodge, No. 
486, A. F. & A. M., of Boswell, Ind. 

Mr. Whitton is known as an industrious, hard- 
working man, who attends closely to the duties of 
his farm, in which he is ably .assisted by his ener- 
getic and capable wife. The farm they now own 
is a fine property, and under their careful manage- 
ment is being rapidly improved, and when their 
plans are fully carried out, it will be one of the 
best properties of its size in this neighborhood. 

•• •J*?^- 

OHN H. PARHISIl hMs for twenty yens 
or more been one of the leading men of 
Sidell Township. As a farmer he is skillful 
and successful, has a comfortable and be;ui- 
tiful home, and is genial and hospitable in his 
manner, gaining the good will of all with whom he 
comes in contact. He is considerable of a i)()liti- 
cian, and in 1879 was elected Highw.ny Commis- 
sioner for a term of three years. He was re-elected 
in 1885. and served another term. I'rior to his 
assuming the duties of this ollice the Commis- 



sioners had contracted for a large amount of road 
grading, and unwisely involved the township in 
debt to the amount of 84,000. By careful man- 
agement on the part of Mr. Parrish this sum has 
been greatly reduced, so that the township finances 
are placed upon a sound basis. 

Our subject was born May 7, 1839, In Coshocton 
County, Ohio. There his early life was spent, and 
as his brother had left the parental roof when 
about sixteen years old, John naturall3- assumed 
the principal charge of the homestead. To this he 
brought a bride in 1864, being married that year 
to Miss Elizabeth Donnelly. This lady was a na- 
tive of his own county — in fact they had grown up 
together from childhood. They resided in Ohio 
until after the birth of two children, coming to 
this county in 1868. In the meantime the brother, 
Joseph Parrish. had become owner of a large farm, 
a part of which oursul)ject rented, and upon which 
lie operated with success. He, however, with many 
others at the time suffered greatly from ague, a 
disease common among the early settlers, be- 
fore the land had been sufficiently cultivated to 
do away with miasma. 

The first purchase of our subject in this county 
was eighty acres, the nucleus of his present home- 
stead, and to which he added until he had 200 
acres. He ]jut up a fine dwelling in 18S8, and has 
brought his land to a good state of cultivation. To 
him and his estimable wife there were born nine 
interesting children, the eldest of whom, a daugh- 
ter, Giula, is the wife of Joseph Thompson, of 
Sidell Township; Melvin P. remains at the home- 
stead; Charles died when eighteen months old: 
Horace t'., Allie, Grace, and llarley are at home. 
Belle died at the age of eighteen months, and Gro- 
ver C. died when an infant. Mr. I'arrish votes 
with the Democracy, and is quite prominent in 
local politics, frequently' serving .as a delegate to 
the county conventions. He has also served on 
tlie Circuit, Petit, and Grand .Juries, and has ofii- 
eiated as School Director for a period of fifteen 

James and Lania (Hardman) Parrish, the parents 
of our subject, were natives respectively of Bel- 
mont and Coschocton counties, Ohio. The Par- 
rishes were originally from Pennsylvania, in which 

State the mother's family also flourished quite nu- 
merously at an early day. The parents were mar- 
ried in Kosciusko County, where the father success- 
fully pursued his trade of carpenter .and joiner, and 
lived to be seventy-two years old. The mother 
died when our subject was a lad of seven, leaving 
besides himself, an older brother, Joseph, and a 
sister younger, Hannah, now Mrs. W. B. Shane, who 
lives in Smithfield, Ohio. 

-s^^^^* ■ 

^^lUY C. HOWARD. Among the most promi- 
lll (=j, nent merchants of Armstrong, Mr. G. C. 
^^5) Howard takes the lead. He is noted for his 
success and excellent business qualifications. He 
was the son of Joseph, whose father, Nathan, was 
a native of Ohio, and who was of English descent. 
This gentleman came to Illinois among the j)io- 
neers, and located three miles northeast of Dan- 
ville. His wife, Nancy, was of Irish ancestry. 
This worthy couple were blest with six children; 
Joseph, Clinton, Milton. Richard; Julia, who mar- 
ried C. Campbell, and died in tins county; and one 
other, who died quite young. Our subject's father, 
who was born in Ohio, is the eldest of these chil- 
dren. Here he was united in wedlock with Miss 
Barbara Snyder, a daughter of Asa B. Snyder, who 
was also a pioneer. Of this marriage there was but 
one child, our subject. The father had been pre- 
viously married to a daughter of Ralph Martin, 
another [lioneer of this county. It was here in 
Vermilion County that the father died in the year 
IS.'jO, eighteen months after the birth of their son. 
The mother lived and devoted all her attention to 
her child, whom she reared on the farm with great 
care and precision, and whom she has educated in 
the district schools. When he became of age lie 
was married to Miss Emil3% daughter of William 
H. Price. This happy event occurred in April, 
1878. He profitably engaged in farming until 
1887, when he found emiJoyraent as a clerk for a 
Mr. Tilton, in Potomac, for aliout eighteen months. 
From here he came to Armstrong, where he has a 
general store and where he enjoys great prosperity. 
His stock is valued from $3,000 to $.5,000. His 




trade runs from $12,000 to ¥15,000 a year. He 
carries an unusnallj' fine line of general merchan- 

Mr. Howard is a Democrat, and ameml)er of the 
A. F. it A. M. of Potomac, his wife being a mem- 
bi'r of the " Eastern Stnr'' of that lodge. When 
our subject began business he had nothing to help 
him on but a determined character and a pair of 
willing hands. These, however, are effectual in- 
struments, and never fail to prove themselves true 
weapons in his battles with the ordinary obstacles 
of life From what we have already seen of his 
energy, we cannot l)ut predict for him a bright and 
prosi)erous future. 

-{fOHN M. McCABE. This friend of the 
iaborino' man has made for himself an un- 
deniably fine record in connection with the 
/ important question which is to-day absorb- 
ing the minds of intelligent men everywhere. A 
man of more than ordinary talent and possessed of 
hu-ge information, he has not only studied this but 
many other questions of political economy, and his 
iniblished opinions have had a marked effect upon 
the complexion of party politics in this part of the 
Stale. A man of broad and liberal ideas, and with 
the faculty of giving voice to his opinions in forci- 
ble language, he has for years been a power in the 
community, and has, it is evident, sought to exert 
his influence for good and good only. Mr. JSIc- 
Cabe, while alliliating with the Union Labor party, 
is also a strong advocate of prohibition, and fa- 
vored a union of the two parties. 

We are constrained, before proceeding further, 
to glance at the home surroundings of Mr. McCabe, 
who has one of the most j)leasant and inviting 
mansions in Fairmouut and vicinity — a large, old- 
fashioned house, built in the early days, and situ- 
ated on the corner south of the Methodist Episcoiial 
Church. It stands on an eminence gentl}' slo|(ing 
to the south, while stretching east is a fine orchard 
containing large and spreading trees, a useful old- 
fashioned garden, and twenty acres of pasture, in 
the midst of which is a fish pond stocked with 
German carp. Recently the School Directors have 

purchased two acres of the twenty for the purpose 
of building a fine graded school building. The 
whole premises are both comfortable and elegant, 
and form one of the most attractive features in the 
lan(lscai)e of this region. The tile works, of which 
Mr. McCabe is proprietor, and which lie at the 
north end of Main street, were erected in 1882, 
and have been prosecuted successfully since that 

The subject of this sketch was born in Dearborn 
County, Ind., Feb. 19, 18-14, and is the fifth child 
in a family of nine, the offspring of Alex and 
Rhoda (Knai)p) McCabe, who were natives respect- 
ively of Ohio .and North Carolina. The father 
followed farming after his marriage, in Dearliorn 
County, Ind., to which he had removed with his 
parents at an early day. Grandfather Knapp w.a.s a 
native of New York State. Alex McCabe, after 
his marriage, continued in Indiana until 1872, then 
removed with his family to Stanberr}', Mo., where 
he and his excellent wife still live. '•x sons and 
two daughters lived to become men and w. '^en. 

Mr. McCabe, our subject, attended school cpiite 
regularl}' until a youth of eighteen years, mostly 
in the winter season, and worked on the farm with 
his father. In 1863, desirous of starting out in 
life for himself, he left home, arriving at Fair- 
mount with a capital of $2.37, and in debt $5 to 
his mother for money borrowed to help him get 
away. Arriving at Fairmount, he engaged in work 
for Mr. James M. Dougherty, about one mile north- 
east of town, and with whom he rera.ained until the 
fall of that }-ear. The winter following he taught 
school at Walnut Grove. The year following he 
attended school at Danville a short time, and sub- 
sequently resumed work on a farm. 

In the meantime our subject had his mind in- 
tent upon establishing a home of his own, .and in 
the fall of 1861 was united in marri.age with 
Miss Mary E., daughter of Mr. Samuel Dougherty. 
The maiden name of Mrs. McCabe's mother was 
.lane Dalby, and Miss Mary was the third child in 
a family of seven. The newly wedded pair set- 
tled on a rented farm, where they struggled along 
amid man^' dilliculties and drawbacks, Mr. McCabe 
farming in summer and teaching school in winter 
until the spring of 1880. He then resolved to 



change his occupation, .inri aliandoniiig' the farm. 
sociD'ed an interest in a flour mill at Fairmount. 
He wilhiii-ew from this eighteen months later, anil 
turned liis attention to the manufacture of tile. 
He put up an old-fashioned Indiana tile shed on a 
small scale, using one kiln. B_v the exercise of 
great industry and energy his Ijusinoss advanced 
slowl3' but surely, and in time he was obliged to 
enlarge his facilities. He now has one of the most 
extensive factories of the kind in his part of the 
State, and in addition to the lirst products, has 
added brickmaking and roofing-tile of a new de- 
sign known as '-Donaldson's patent," which is by 
one-half the lightest roofing-tile ever manufac- 
tured in any country. 

Mr. McCabe has now the only manufactory, ex- 
cepting a flour mill, in the town, and the people of 
this vicinity are justly proud of this enterprise, 
which gives employment to a numljer of men. and 
enters largely into the success and reputation of 
its industrial interests. At present (June, 1889) 
the works demand the services of fifteen men, with 
a prospect in the near future of the number being 
doubled. The buildings and equipments are fully 
in keeping with the demands of the business, which 
is not only a credit to the town, but to its instigator 
and proprietor. 

In politics Mr. McCabe always has an opinion 
and is never afraid to express it. He in for- 
mer years an ardcMit Republican, but of late has 
not been tied to any jiarty. He was a delegate to 
the National Labor Conference at Cincinnati, Ohio, 
and was nominated for Representative in this dis- 
trict on the Union Labor ticket in 1888. He has 
officiated as Justice of the Peace, Village Trustee 
and .School Director, and has been for years a 
member of the Knights of Labor, the Good Tem- 
plars, the Grange, and the Masonic fraternity, hold- 
ing in each organization important ofUces. He and 
his excellent wife are members of the Cumberland 
Presbyterian Church at Fairmount, and for some 
time Mr. McCabe was Superintendent of the Sun- 

Only two of the four children born to our sub- 
ject aud his estimable wife are living, both daugh- 
ters. The eldest, Effie, was married in March, 
1889, to Owen McClenathan, and they live five 

miles east of F'airmount. Elsie, a bright child of 
nine years, is pursuing her studies in the village 
school, and is a fine amateur musician, playing well 
on both organ and guitar. 

Among other valuable features of this volume, 
the portraits of influential citizens of the county 
hold no second rank. And of these portraits an 
important place belongs to Mr. McCabe, the friend 
of the laborer. 



'( points in the character of this most efficient 
minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
p have been his energetic and uniform advo- 
cacy of temperance, and his flevotion to the cause 
of the Master, as exemplified in his pul[)it work, ex- 
tending over a period of thirty-five years. He is 
possessed in a marked degree of the gift of lan- 
guage, and has delivered some ver3' powerful and 
stirring sermons, calculated to have a lasting effect 
upon his hearers. A man's habits and disposition 
are usually indicated l)y his home surroundings, and 
the fact that we find Mr. Oakwood the possessor of 
a fine farm, with all needful appurtenances, and 
surrounded by the evidences of refined and culti-j 
vated tastes, indicates the effieienfy with which hei 
luas labored and the si>lidity of his general character, " 
by which he has attained to an enviable position j 
socially and financially among his fellow-citizens. 

The subject of this sketch was born in Drown 1 
County, Ohio, Nov. 10, 1823. His father was a) 
native of Virginia, of German ancestry, and reared! 
in Tennessee. Being an only son, the name was 
only preserved in America through him. When a] 
youth of nineteen years he emigrated to Kentucky,! 
where he afterward married Miss ^Margaret Remley, 
who was also of German descent. She, with her 
parents, had emigrated to Kentucky from Pennsyl- 
vania, going down the Ohio River on a flatboat,j 
when the Indians were numerous along its shores. ' 
Tlie Remleys were a thrifty and long-lived family, 
the mother of our subject living to nearly the 
eighty-ninth year of her age. 

Henry Oakwood departed this life at the age of 
sixty-five 3ears. He was a strong, athletic man. of 



very geiiinl tciiiperament, and kept himself well 
posted 111)011 the geiieia! events of the age in which 
he lived, especial!}' in the polities of the country. 
He was a warm siipi)(.)rter of the Whiu- party, and 
iield some of the local offices, ainoiig them justice of 
the peace. lie f<illowcd f;inning for hisocciipalion. 
and reared a family of si.\ sons and three dangli- 
ters. He served in the War of 1812. and partici- 
pated in the battles of the British and Indians at 
the fall of the celebrated chief, Tecumseh. 

The father of our subject was a resident of Oliio 
for a nunilier of years, but in 1833 emigrated to 
Illinois, settling in this county when .Mieh.ael was a 
lad of ten years. 'Ihe people around him were few 
and f;ir between, and located inostl}' along the bor- 
ders of the timber that skirted the streams. The 
broad |)rairies were occupied by deer, wolves and 
other wild animals in abundance. A village of In- 
dians was located about a mile from the Oakwood 
residence, which was frequently visited bj- these 
native sons and daughters of America, who seemed 
to enjoy their contact with civilization although 
unwilling to give up their own rude manner of life. 

On account of the limited number of white i)co- 
ple in the new settlement, the early education of our 
subject waf conducted at home, there being no es- 
tablijhed school in his township for three years. 
This want, however, was partially compensated for 
I)}' the father taking the place of instructor on win- 
ter evenings, when the eliildren would form a semi- 
circle around the huge fireplace, and, largel}- by the 
light of the burning wood, would pursue their 
evening studies with their books and slates. Greater 
ambition to excel is seldom witnessed in the school- 
room than existed in that little family circle, and 
Michael was greatly encouraged to find himself a 
little in .advance of some of his older lirothcrs in 
his studies. 

B}' the prosecution of his home studies, with the 
aid of the later meager school privileges afforded, 
our subject, with four of his brothers, became a 
teacher, and still further anxious to excel in learn- 
ing, mastered some of the higher branches of an 
English education, and especiall}' delighted iu 
wrestling with difficult mathematical problems and 
investigating the principles of metaplj3"sical science. 
Historv. both ancient and modern, received a fair 

share of attention. He was much interested in the 
history of the nations of the earth, as made in his 
own day by their struggles, both in time of war and 
in peace, the gradual advance of human liberty, and 
the improved condition of mankind, politically in- 
tellectually, morally, socially and religiously. 

In politics Mr. Oakwood a Ivepulilican from 
the foundation of the party through all its strug- 
gles an<l took an active part in promoting its suc- 
cess. During the Civil War he was frequently 
called upon to address large gatherings of citizens, 
and labored as far as he was able to keep alive the 
enthusiasm necessary to the success of the I'nion 
arms. Although never aspiring to political honors, 
he frequently held the local offices. He was a mem- 
ber of the board of supervisors seven years, served 
one term as justice of the i)eace much against his 
inclination, and frequently discharged the duties of 
the other local office:^. 

Mr. (Jakwood very early in life was made the 
subject of deep religious impressions. His parents 
were members of the Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church, and in the piimeordays before the couiitr}' supplied with church buildings, their large farm 
house afforded a place for regular meetings for 
preaching and other religious services. Being lib- 
eral in their views, there wei"e welcomed under this 
hospitable roof JMethodisls, Presbyterians, and vari- 
ous other religious denominations, who were all 
permitted to seek God in the manner best suited to 
their separate views. 

Michael Oakwood, at the age of twentj'-eight 
years, united with the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
and soon afterward was licensed to preach, but de- 
clined entering the itinerant field. He was ambi- 
tious to study and to " show himself approved unto 
God, a workman that need not be .ashamed, rightly 
dividing the word of truth," as Paul advised Tim- 
otliy. So he committed himself to a Biblical and 
theological course of study. 

In entering upon his ministerial career. Mr. Oak- 
wooil rather adopted the expositor}' and didactic 
style, and his gifts .as a pul|)it orator were speedily 
recognized to be such as would command the re- 
spect and attention of his hearers. On the 2d of 
October, 1864, he was ordained deaccni by Ibsliop 
K. R, Ames, and on Sept. 28, 1873, was ordained 



elder by Bishop I. W. Wiley. During his ministry 
ho hns rteeiveil m;uiy inlu the church, united many 
in marriage, preached many funeral sermons, and 
administered upon many occasions the ordinances 
of the church, haptizing as many as fifty in ;i day. 
at other times tiiirty, twenty and in lesser numljers. 
He held the office of recording steward for the long 
period of thirty-one years, besides many other offi- 
cial positions in liis church. 

Mr. Oakwood has been twice married. In 1846 
he was wedded to Aliss Nancy, daughter of Samuel 
Copcland of Blount Townshi|). with whom he lived 
happily for six years, and at her death was left with 
one child — Samuel II. Their first-born, Elizabeth, 
died in infancy. In 1853 Mr. Oakwood was again 
married to Miss Elizabeth, daughter of Rev. John 
P. Mills, then of Ross Township. She is still liv- 
ing, and is a higiily-esteemed Christian lady, well 
educated, and for some time before her marriage 
was engaged as a teacher. The issue of this union 
was one daughter and three sons. The daughter, 
Belle, died at the age of twenty-five years; she was 
possessed of superior intellectual endowments and a 
fine Christian character, wiiieb. united to her thor- 
ough education and usefulness as a teacher, con- 
spired to draw around her a large circle of warm 
friends. AVilbur, a promising boy, died in the sec- 
ond year of his age; Edwin, a deeply pious child. 
!Uid a member in full connection with the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church, died at the age of nine 

John M. Oakwood, the only surviving child of 
our subject, is now (1880) twent3'-three j'cars of 
age. He was married in 1888 to Miss Effie, daugli- 
ter of Rev. A. (4. Copel.and of Danville. He has 
lieen a Christian from childhood and a member of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. He is well edu- 
cated, a lover of books, and has been engaged 
in teaeiiing in the Champaign county schools for 
several years, being at present principal of the high 
school at St. Joseph. Samuel H., the son of the 
first marriage, has likewise been a consistent mein- 
ber of the Methodist Episcopal' Church since child- 
liiiod; he is now forty years of age. He acquired 
a good education in his youth, and followed the 
profession of a teacher several years, after which he 
embarked in the mercantile business at Newtown. 

He lived there a few years, then removed his busi- 
ness to Danville, where he still resides. In 1878 
he was united in marriage with Miss Laura Bennett, 
daughter of John Bennett of Georgetown. Two 
sons and two daughteis were born of this union, but 
only one child is living, Belva, a promising little 
girl of four j^ears. 

The Oakwood homestead is one of the most at- 
tractive and l)eautiful in the township of the same 
name, and our subject, at the age of sixty-six years, 
with his faithful and estimable companion, sur- 
rounded by friends and in the enjoyment of a happy 
home, sees nuuli that is desirable in life, and as op- 
portunity occurs seeks to alleviate the afflictions of 
those less fortunate. 

Rev. John P. Mills, the father of Mrs. Oakwood, 
was a regularly ordained local preacher of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and died at his home 
in Fairmount Aug. 20, 1882. His estimalile wife 
passed away some years before, Nov. 15, 1868. 
The father of Mr. Oakwood died in October, 1856, 
and the mother March 8, 1878. 

ivHILlP Y. PETERSON is one of the 
I younger citizens of Grant Township, living 

Ton section 5. He was born in Salem 
County, N. J., Nov. 11, 1847. His parents 
were named Samuel and Jane (Paden) Peterson, 
both of whom are now living in Woodford County, 
this State. The elder Peterson is now retired from 
active life, being seventy-two years of age, and his 
wife sixty-seven. Both are hearty and rugged. 
They are natives of Salem County, N. J., and are 
descended from Swedish ancestors who settled in 
this country many generations ago. The elder 
Peterson was left an orphan at the age of four 
years, and his mother marrying again, he was 
brought up in the liouse of his stepfather, and is 
essentially a selfmade man, who has made his own 
way in the world, and now, in his old age is enjoy- 
ing an ample fortune, the result of years of indus- 
try and good management. He was married in his 
native State at the age of twenty-five, but some 
ye.ars later he determined to try his fortunes in the 
great West, and with his wife and family moved 



to Jefferson County, Ind., but lie staj-ed there only 
six months, not liking the conntrj', and so, taking 
his wife, six cliildren and household goods, he came 
to Peoria, 111. This was in the fall of 1856, and 
to support liis family that winter he engaged in 
hauling coal, his wife also helping to support the 
family' by her labor. Next spring he rented a farm 
twentj' miles west of Peoria and the succeeding 
year bought a place twenty-five miles northeast of 
that city. On this latter place he made his home 
till 1885, when he relinquislied all active labor. 
When he first came to Illinois. Mr. Peterson was 
poor In this world's goods, but rich in pluck, energy 
and ambition. He now owns three farms in Wood- 
ford County, 111., for the poorest of which he has 
refused 870 an acre. He owns 400 acres of land 
altogether. lie also possesses a half interest in the 
elevator at Benson, a handsome residence there, 
and other proijerty, also a farm of 160 acres in 
Grant Township, this county, besides personal 
pru[)erty. Mr. I'eterson has all of his lifetime 
been very industrious and has taken care to avoid 
public office, attending strictly to his own affairs. 
He and lils wife joined the Baptist Church the year 
after they were married, and for manj' years he has 
Ijeen an officer of his church in Benson. He was also 
Trustee of his township. He is a man of genial, 
happy temperament and kind disposition, upright 
and lionoraljle in his dealings with his fellow men 
and Is held In universal esteem for his correct life 
and conduct. 

Samuel and Jane Peterson are the parents of 
eight children, all (»f whom are living, the family 
cord being unlirokeu by death. They are named 
respectively: Mary P. wife of James I. Jeter, a 
farmer in Woodford County; .Simeon P., was mar- 
ried to Sarah .lane Iluxtable and is a farmer, tile 
manufacturer and owner of three threshing ma- 
chines and Is living in Benson, 111.; Philli) Y. was 
next In order, then David C, who married Ellen 
Deal: he is a butcher in Rossvllle, this county. 
Lewis S. and Sarah Jane are twins; the former is 
married to Emma Raj', living In Benson, where 
Lewis S. is running an elevator, lumber yard, and 
also operates a liranch bank. Sarah Jane is the 
wife of George Tallman, a dairyman of Grant 
Town-hip. this county; Annie Margaret is the wife 

of Cal. Hoff, a farmer in Woodford County, 111., 
and Maria Frances is married to James, 
a merchant of Benson, 111. Beside their children 
Mr. and Mrs. Peterson have twenty-four grand- 
children living, and an unusual ease, is that they 
have never lost a child by death, and but one 

Philip Y. Peterson, was eight years of age when 
his parents emigrated to Indiana. He well remem- 
bers passing through Danville on their way to 
Peoria, and says then it was but a collection of 
small houses, principally shanties Inhabited by coal 
miners. He spent his boj'hood on the home farm 
in Woodford County, 111, receiving such education 
as was afforded by the limited facilities of the time 
and place. The nearest school three and a half 
miles away and not a bridge being built in the lo- 
cality, when he attended school he had to wade 
across the sloughs the best way he could. Under 
these circumstances he got what little schooling he 
received. He st.ayed on the home farm until he 
was twenty-one, after which he began farming on 
land belonging to his father, who furnished each 
of his boys with a team, and boarded them the 
first year for half the produce of their farms. He 
lived on land of his father's for five years and then 
bought a place of 120 acres in Woodford County, 
and there continued to live until in March, 1882, 
he sold out and removed to this county. Land 
here was much cheaper, and just as good as there, 
and he bought 120 acres of his present home, sub- 
sequentlj' adding forty more, and he also leases 
eighty acres, which joins his land on the south. In 
1886 Mr. Peterson erected the fine new modern 
house which he now occupies and which makes a 
conifortalile and commodious home for the family 

February 23, 1872, Mr. Peterson was united in 
marriage with Miss Allie Chaney, who was left an 
orphan at an earlj- age, her mother dying when she 
was six years old, and her father two years later 
while he was in the Union army. She was adopted 
and brought up by a German couple, n:inied .Shonp. 
She was born in Huntington Count3', Ind., Aug. 10, 
1854. Mr. and Mrs. Peterson are the parents of 
four children, all at home: Katie F., Lillle Dell, 
Bessie Jane and Myrtle Edna. Mr. Peterson has 
never held any office in this county other than that 



of School Diroetor. Me and his wife are membei's 
of the Clirlstian Church in Grant Township and he 
isconnecled with its Sabbath-scliool. By his neigh- 
bors who know him best, Mr. Peteison is highly 
respected as an honest straightforward man and a 
arood citizen. 

ANII<;L CAMPBELL stands among the 
honest, manly, industrious farmers and 
stock- raisers of Pilot Township who have 
made its interests their own, and while 
building up comfortable homes in this pleasant 
locality have materially contributed toils advance- 
ment. His fine well-stocked farm on section 12 
compares favorably in all its appointments witli 
the liest in the vicinit}'. and is sntHcient evidence 
that he has achieved success in iiis chosen calling, 
although he began life as a [wor man and tias had 
to work his way up from the lowest round of the 
ladder leading to prosperity. 

Our subject is a native of New York, and tirst 
opened his eyes to the light of da^- in Washington 
County Aug. 20, 1828. His father, Thomas Cani})- 
bell, was born in Massachusetts, came to this coun- 
ty in 1868. following his son Daniel to this place, 
and died in 1879 at a ripe old age. The mother of 
our subject was Nabj' Swain, whose parents were of 
.Scottish birth and ancestry, and they came to this 
country- some time early in this century or in the 
latter part of the last one, and settled in Washing- 
ton County, N. Y., where she was born. She died 
in 1831, while yet a young woman. She bore to 
her husband five children, two of whom are living, 
Marvin S. and our subject. The former, who mar- 
ried a Miss Cole of New York, lives in Tro3', that 
State, retired from active business. 

Daniel Campbell passed his boyhood and the 
opening 3-ears of his manhood in the State of his 
nativity, gleaning such education .as was afforded 
b_y the schools of the time. In 1856, being then 
twenty-eight years of age, and in the possession of 
a sound mind in a sound body, he determined to 
try life on the rich, virgin plains of the great West, 
and selecting this part of Illinois as having in all 
respects the characteristics of soil,climate, etc., most 

desirable in the c^'es of a young farmer and neces- 
saiy to the successful prosecution of his calling, he 
came to Vermilion County and bought 240 acres 
of improved land in Pilot Township. lie imme- 
diately', entered iijion his task of bringing it to a 
high state of cultivation, erecting suitable build- 
ings as his means allowed, making the place in every 
way one of the most desirable farms in this part of 
Vermilion County. By well-directed toil, close 
economy and sagacious management lie has become 
ver}- prosperous, and now owns 500 acres of ;is 
well tilled and productive soil as is to be found in 
this fine agrleulUiral region, and he has erected a 
comfortable, roomy set of buildings for all needful 
jjurposes. He is engaged extensively in mixed 
hustiandry, raising grain, and other farm products 
common to the soil, and he has his farm well sup- 
plied with stock of good grades, comprising sixty 
head of cattle, thirty horses, 160 sheep and forty- 
five hogs. 

Mr. Campbell has had the effective aid of one of 
the most heli)ful of wives in his work, their mar- 
riage occurring in 1854. Mrs. Campbell's maiden 
name was Maggie Campbell, and she was of Irish 
l)irth and parent.age. her parents being James and 
Nancy (Pinkertou) Campbell. She came to this 
country with two of her l)rothers. .Seven children 
have come to our subject and his amiable wife in 
their pleasant wedded life, of whom the following 
are married and settled in life: Sarah J. is the wife 
of Marion Kirkpatrick. a tile maker, of Indiana, 
and they have one child. Pearl; Thomas, an agri- 
cultural implement dealer and grain buj'er of I'en- 
fleld. III., married Dora Kirkpatrick of Indiana, 
and they have two children, Samuel and May; Mary 
F. is the wife of Fred Thomas, a farmer of AVis- 
consiu, and they have two children, Otis and Reed; 
Rosetta is the wife of Henry Hibbler, a farmer of 
this county, and they have five children — Logan, 
Earl, Lola, Amj', Ernest. 

Mr. Campbell is gifted with keenness and tenacity 
of purpose, and a well-balanced mind, and these 
attributes have not only placed him with the solid, 
representative men of the townslii|). but they have 
rendered his services as a civic official invalualile 
during his incumbency of the various local offices 
that have been entrusted to him by the votes of 



liis fellow townsmen, and as a jurvman. In politics 
lie is a firm believer in the Re|)ubliran party, and 
;idvocates its policy on all proper times and occa- 
fiions. IJotli he and his wife are devoted members 
of the Christian Church, and their children also 

^ ACOB DAZEY. The present commercial 
importance and prosperity of Hoopestoii is 
UM(|iu'stit>nnl)ly traceable to the wisdom of 
her merchants, and it is a fitting tribute to 
those who have honorably distinguished tiienisolves 
in the coninieriial arena that their names sliould be 
commcnioraled in history. It is a fact worth}' of 
consideration tliat nearly all of our prominent busi- 
ness men have struggled up from obscurity to the 
foremost places in every branch of trade. As a 
representative of this cl.ass, the following is a brief 
outline of one who has attained the leading positioii 
he holils to-diiy among the merchants of ^'ermilion 

IMr. Dazey is a prominent merchant of lloopeston, 
where he carries on an extensive business in heavy 
and shelf hardware, agricultural iraiilenients and 
lumlier. In 1)^55 he came from Indiana, his native 
State, having been born there on tlie 2.>th of March. 
1831, near Attica. lie remained with his father on 
the old homestead until he was married, which 
event occurred on Aug. 18, 1853. His wife. Miss 
Sarah Whitlatch. died about one year after her 
marriage. When Mr. Daze}- came to Illinois, he 
purcliased a farm of IGO acres which he increased 
later on to 640. Upon this tract of land he erected 
the very best of buildings and the improvements 
are of the very highest order. He continued the 
business of farming until Dec. 15, 1881 when he 
removed to lloopeston and engaged in his present 

On .\|)ril 27. 1855, Mr. Dazey married the second 
time, taking for his wife. Miss Loriiida Wilkinson, 
who was born in Montgomery County, Ind., May 
1. 1838, where slie resided until coming to Illinois 
in 1851. She is the daughter of Abrani Wilkinson, 
one of the earl}' pioneers of Vermilion County, who 
mnrried Mrs. Harriet Hawkins. They were the 
parents of two SOUS and two daughters. Mr. Haw- 

kins came from Indiana to this county and entered 
Land upon which he resi<led until about 1877, when 
he removed to I'.enton County. Ind.. remaining 
there until 1881. when he finally came to Hooi)eston, 
where he has lived with his wife a retired life. 
Mr. and Mrs. Dazey are the parents of si.x sons 
and one daughter, all of whom are still living: — 
Charles M.,.Uanies H.. John, William. Frank, (Jeorge, 
and Klizalieth. 1 lie youngest son .■uid daughter 
are at home. James II. is married and has three 
children; Charles M. married Miss Mary Kitzgil)- 
bons; they are living on a farm near Jlilford, 
111., and have one child. John married Maggie 
AVilliarason and is residing on the old homestead; 
they have one child. William m;irried MissSmith; 
they are living on a farm and have two children. 
Frank married Jliss Eva Dobe; he is engaged in the 
mercantile business at Hoopeston. 

Mr. and Mrs. Dazey are raembeis of the Metho- 
dist F^piscotxal Church in which they take great 
interest. He is one of the trustees of that organi- 
zation and politically he is identified with the Re- 
publican party. 
I James Dazey, father of the subject of this sketch, 
was born in Ohio, where he married Miss .Mary 
C4obel and came from Montgomery County, Inil., 
where he was engaged in farming. In his early 
days he was a shoemaker, a business he carried on 
with success, but latterl}- he was a farmer. He died 
at Tolona, 111., his wife passing away at the same 
place in 1883. 


(l^p'REDERlC JONIvS is intimately connected 
|[Mfe> with the material prosi)erity of Catlin 
tL\ Township as one of its enterprising, pro- 
gressive, business-like farmers and stock-raisers, 
and the farm that he possesses here, finely hicated 
on section 35, is in all respects a well-appointed, 
well-managed estate, comparing favorably with the 
best in this region of line farms. 

Our subject is of English ancestry and birth, as 
were also his parents, Henry and Sarah (Hougli) 
Jones. He was their sixth child and was born in 
the city of London, England, May 28, 1814. In 
1849 his parents brought him to America, and he 



was reiired to manhood in Catlin Township, and 
can scarcely remember any other home. He was a 
quick scholar and gleaned a very good education 
in the common schools. When about fourteen 
years old he entered upon a mercantile career, going 
into his father's employ at that age as a clerk. He 
was in the store about a vear and a half when he 
went to Lafayette, Ind., to learn the trade of a black- 
smith in the Lafa3'ette and Indianapolis Railway 
shops. He served an apprenticeship of two years 
and two months, and at the expiration of that time 
returned to Catlin and building a blacksmith shop, 
formed a partnership with S. A. McCiregor, 8r., 
and carried on his trade, of which he had gained 
I thorough mastery, the ensuing two j'ears. At 
the eij 'f that time he dissolved his partnership 
with Mr. IK Oregor and again became a clerk in 
his brother Richard's store. He remained with 
him sixteen years, and when his brother died he 
entered into partnership with his brother Arthur, 
and they conducted the business together about two 
years. Our subject then sold out his interest, having 
decided to devote his attention to the more conge- 
nial calling of a farmer, and at that time invested a 
part of his capital in his present farm, which he 
has owned since 1880. It comprises 171 acres, all 
under good cultivation and finely improved, having 
an excellent set of farm buildings and modern ma- 
chinery for conducting agriculture after the most 
approved methods. 

The successful career of our subject is partly 
attributable to the fact that he is blessed with a 
wife who is in every sense a helpmate. Their mar- 
riage was solemnized Dec. fj, 1866, and to them 
have come ten children — James, Emma, Richard, 
Harriet A., Elizabeth, fSarah, Frederic, Arthur, 
Henry, Edward. Mrs. Jones' maiden name was 
Harriet Ann Dickinson, and she is like her husband 
a native of Englantl, born in Boston, Lincolnshire, 
Dec. 28, 1847, to William and Kmnia (Barker) 
Dickinson. (For parental history see the sketch of 
William Dickinson that appears on another page of 
this work). 

Mr. Jones is in all respects a manly, upright 
man, is well and favorably known here, and his in- 
fluence In the community is felt in everything that 
tends to promote its welfare. He takes an active 

part ill |iolitic:il matters, and in him the Republican 
pari}' finds one of its truest and staunchest advo- 
cates. Religiously both he and his amiable wife 
sympathize with the teachings of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, and carry its Christian spirit 
into their everyday lives. They are genial, court- 
eous people, and their attractive home is the center 
of perfect hospitality. 

/p^ EORGE M. EVANS. The Keystone State 
II (— , has contributed largely of her best elements 
^^^4 to the development of the Great West, 
numbers of men coming thither at all ages and un- 
der all conditions, the greater majority, perhaps, 
those who were dependent upon their own resources 
and just starting out in life to carve their fortunes 
by the labor of their hands. The homes of these 
men are among the finest in Central Illinois. The 
farm of Mr. Evans, finely situated on the northern 
line of this county, invariably attracts the attention 
of the })assing traveler, and gives ample evidence 
of iK'ing under the control of a man of more than 
ordinary ability. It will be acknowledged that lie 
has the true conception of the manner in which to 
conduct agriculture, and he possesses the cultivated 
tastes which have enabled him to construct a home 
second to none in this region. 

The property of Mr. Evans embraces 328 acres 
of land, lying on section 26, township 23, range 
12, where he settled seven years ago, although lie 
purchased it in 1879. He has effected a radical 
change in its condition, and purposes to still fur- 
ther augment its beauty and value. He came to 
Illinois when a young man, twenty-four years old, 
from Berks County, Pa., where he was born in 1852. 
He made his first trip West in 1876, and after so- 
journing in Grant Township one j-ear he returned 
to Pennsylvania, where he spent the winter follow- 
ing and came back to this county in the spring of 
1877, and tvvo years later purchased his present 

The subject of this sketch was married in Grant 
Township, to Miss Tillie Groom, the wedding tak- 
ing place at the bride's home, Sept. 22, 1885. This 
lady is a native of this county. Her father, Fred- 

! 7 5 



erick Groom, came to Illinois from England, car- 
ried on farming a number of years, and then retir- 
ing from active labor took ui) his abode in Rossville, 
where he now lives. John Evans, the father of 
our subject, was a native of Pennsylvania, where, 
upon reaching manhood, he married Miss Anna 
Aliller. He settled on a farm in Berks County, 
and died when his son George M. was a lad of ten 
(jr twelve j'ears. His widow survived him until 
about four years since, her deatii taking place in 

Mr. Evans upon becoming a naturalized citizen 
allied himself with the Republican party, and still 
gives to it his unqualified support. Aside from 
serving as School Director in his district he had 
very little to do with public affairs. 

-5 #-#* i— 

=^, HILLIP CADLE. an extensive and well- 
known farmer of Vermilion County and 
one whose career has been marked by suc- 
cess, was born in England on the 22d of 
February, 1849. Wlien four years of age he came 
to America with his parents and is practically an 
American bred man. His education was acquired 
in the common schools, and until he became of 
age, he worked for his father faithfully on the old 

Phillip Cadle is the son of George and Elizabeth 
(Saunders) Cadle, who were natives of England 
and were living in Bradfordshire at the time they 
concluded to better themselves by emigrating to 
America. The}' sailed from the old country in 
IS.").'} and after landing upon American soil, they 
immediately proceeded to Attica, Ind., where for 
four years they were engaged in farming, at the 
expiration of which period they removed to Iro- 
quois County, 111., four miles north of Hoopeston. 
Here they remained for two years more, when they 
again removed to a farm ?ituatetl one and a half 
miles southwest of Rossville, 111., remaining there 
for three years. Their next removal was to Salt 
Fork, west of Danville, where they lived for thir- 
teen years, removing from that place to Homer, 
111., where the elder Cadle is living in retirement, 
with his wife, enjoying a vvell earned rest. They 

are the parents of eight children : Emma was mar- 
ried in England to Edwards and they are 
now living near Armstrong, 111.; .\nn is the wife of 
D. Young and they are residing in Idaho; Jane 
married .James Tolliver. both of whom are deceased; 
Rachael is the wife of C. Hayes. She died some 
years ago; Sidney G. is dead; Martha married 
John Mann; Phillip is the subject of this article, 
while Dora is at home with her father and mother 
at Homer, 111. Mr. Cadle's first marriage occurred 
in Vermilion County, 111., May 30, 1871, his wife 
being Miss Emma Weaden, a native of Virginia. 
Of this union one child was born, Mary Anna, who 
died when four months of age. The wife died 
Oct. 23, 1872. 

In 1875 Phillip Cadle married Miss America 
Seymour. She is a native of Virginia but came 
here when a very small child with her parents, wdio 
are living at Oakwood, this county. She was the 
sixth child of a family of nine children. .Mr. and 
Mrs. Cadle are the parents of four bright children: 
Lilian, Maud, George and Dode, all of whom are 
living at home and going to school. In addition 
to his general farming i\Ir. Cadle is engaged very 
extensively in the stock business, a combination 
wliieh has been a success from a pecuniary point 
of view. 

In 1876 he purchased 381 acres where he now 
lives, and at this time, really commenced his active 
career as a large dealer in hogs and cattle. In the 
aggregate he owns 915 acres of the very choicest 
land that lies in Vermilion County, and the build- 
ings that he has erected are nearly equal to that of 
a small village, consisting of barns, stables, gran- 
eries, an elevator, and in fact everything that goes 
to make up a well appointed farm. He has also a 
fine system of water-works that sui)plies his house, 
pastures and different barns with fresh, pure water. 
Mr. Cadle deals in grains of all kinds, but more 
especially in wheat. 

Mr. Cadle is a consistent Republican and wliile 
he has never aspired to office, has held local posi- 
tions, filling them with the same fidelit}' which he 
has shown in his private affairs. Mr. Cadle's suc- 
cess in life can be directl}" traced to his prompt 
business habits, his integrity and his capacity for 
judging human nature. He is truly a self-made 



mail and the fortune he now owns has been accu- 
niuhiteil within the last eighteen years. 

A view of tlie t'aiin residence of Mr. C'adle is 
shown elsewhere in tliis volume. 

^=^EORGE ALLEN is the proprietor of Shrop- 
[II |_^ shire Park. His father, George Allen, was 
^^^ known to Europe and America as the lead- 
ing breeder of Hate Short-horn cattle and Shrop- 
hire sheep. The history of this extensive enter- 
prise of breeding, dates Ijaek to the early life of 
the father. While yet a yi)ung man he showed a 
desire and liking for the better grades of cattle and 
sheei) and his son has inherited this disposition to 
an eminent degree. 

(4eorge Allen, Sr., was born in Derbyshire, Eng- 
land, while the grandfather was a tenant farmer 
of the same place and born there also. This 
family were all remarkable for their great stature, 
the great-grandfather of the subject of this sketch 
being a man of six feet five inches in height, and 
mcasuied one yard from one shoulder i)oint to au- 
jiother. George Allen, Sr., was a remarkably 
large and well-proportioned man and possessed 
great vigor and unusual activity'. Me served in 
the English cavalry for several years, and was dis- 
tinguished as one of the finest ajjpearing soldiers 
in the British army. He married Elizabeth Tur- 
ner, who was a native of England and the d.augh- 
ter of William and Sarah Turner, farmers. After 
their marriage, thev settled at Knightly, England, 
and there began the breeding of Short-iiorn cattle, 
and for the long period of thirty-five j-ears, ]\Ir. 
Allen continued in this business on the same farm, 
gaining a wide-spread reputation as a most success- 
ful breeder of the best strains of cattle and sheep 
111 England. He operated an extensive farm of 
400 acres and here he reared a familj- of four chil- 
dren — George, Robert H., Mary Ann and Harrj-. 
Robert IL, is residing at Darlington, Ind., where 
he is engaged in the mercantile business. Mary 
Ann is residing at Stafford, England, where she 
married William Ebbern. who is an extensive man- 
ufacturer of ladies' fine shoes and operates a very 
large business. They have four cliildren, Harry, 

is the executor of the Allen estate and the firm ac- 
cording to the father's will is to continue under 
the same management and retain the firm name of 
George Allen & Son. 

The subject of this sketch and bis father saw 
greater fields for operations in America than in 
England. They shi|)ped several cargoes of sheep 
here, exhibiting them for the first time at St. 
Louis in 1871. This shipment proved profitable 
and fully exceeded their expectations. The entire 
management of this enterprise was under (ieorge, 
Jr. He exhibited his stock at Dayton, Ohio, also, 
in 1K72. on the occasion of Goldsmith Maid's mak- 
ing her great record. The same _year he also 
showed his stock at Indianai)olis and St. Louis. 
This plan of business was followed for several 
years and so successfully that in 187;», (ieorge and 
his father — including the entire family — came to 
America, for the purpose of engaging in cattle and 
sheep raising, bringing 100 head of Shropshire 
sheep and twenty-two head of the Bate Sliort-hom 
cattle. After casting about for a suitable location 
they finally' concluded that Vermilion County, met 
all the requirements they were seeking. H<>re they 
purchased 9G0 acres of land, and at once entered 
upon a career as breeders of cattle and sheep, which 
in many ways cannot be duplicated inAmerica. 
The mother died M.arch G, 1881, at the age of 
fifty-six j-ears, while the father met his death, 
March 16, 1889, at the age of sixty-two. And so 
p.assed away a couple whose reputation was of the 
very best and who made this world the better for 
their living in it. 

George Allen, of whom this is written, was born 
April 15, 1848 at Tean. Staffordshire, England. 
He was reared as a stock-raiser and fanner, an oc 
cupation which he has folk)wed since he was twelve 
years of age. He received a common school 
education, which has been added to since by 
intelligent and careful reading. At the age of 
twenty-seven years he was married to Miss Ann 
lilizabeth E^llsmore, who is a daughter of .lohn and 
Lucy EUsinore. They were farmers in England 
and had two children that grew to maturity: Ann 
E., and William T. The latter is residing at Staf- 
ford, England, and is a shoe manufacturer. Mr. 
and Mrs, Allen had two children born in England; 



Ocoiiie and FloiX'iico. who are now at lionu' and 
nttenilinn; t^cliool. Since t'oniin<r to America the 
following chihlren have been born — Frederick C, 
William. Elizabeth and Harry. 

It is unnecessary to state that perha|)s there is 
no man in this country who has a bettor reputation 
as a breeder of Short-horn cattle and Shropshire 
shee|>, than Mr. Allen, who has taken more [jrizes 
for the excellent qualities of sheep than any other 
man in the world, a record of which he feels, nat- 
•urally, very proud. From a linancial standpoint, 
he has been most eminently successful, and the pro- 
ceeds of the earnings of his great stock f;uin is in- 
vested in more lands and stock. He has liccome a 
naturalized citizen and is a Republican in iMilitics. 
Mr. and Mrs. Allen worship at the Presliyterian 

Of the celebrated Bate Short-horn cattle, the Al- 
iens have on hand about 150 of the following fam- 
ilies: Airdrie Duchess, Grand Duchess, Oxfords, 
Barringtons. Wild Eyes, Waterloos, Kirk Leving- 
tons. Fletchers, Fennel Duchess. Acombs, Places, 
Darlingtons, Gcoi'giannas, Eden Rose, Rose of 
Sharon and Surmises. The Duke of Vermilion No. 
80443, stands at the head of the herd. The Grand 
Duke of Oxford holds the second [ilace, and is the 
son of the Duke of Vermilion. lie will some day 
take his i)lace at the head of the herd. The 
most valuable animals on the farm are the 
Duchess of Vermilion, Grand Duchess No. 28 and 
the Duke of Vermilion, which in point of excel- 
lence have never been surpassed inlhe State of Illi- 
nois or perhaps in America. They have a flock of 
500 sheep with three celebrated imported rams at 
the head. Goodsort No. 9904, won second prize 
at the Royal Agricultural Society in Elngland in 
1888, and cost $300 delivered at Boston. True- 
type, No. 5603, A. S. R. A., won first prize as a 
lamb at the Shropshire Agricultural Show, .at 
Shrewsbury, England, in 1887. This animal was 
importi'd the same year. T. it W. S. No. 13438, 
A. S. R. A. was the first prize winning lamb in 
England in 1888. Among the most valuable ewes 
on this farm may be mentioned Lady Bradburn 
second, and Jane L., who are great prize winners. 

The horse breeding department of this farm has 
been added lately. The celebrated English Shire 

horse Wymondlifuu 29(;o E. ('. U.S. I',, isconsidered 
to be as well bred a shire horse as can be found in 
America. There are also six registered Shire 
mares on this farm. 

Shropshire P:uk is a most fitting name for this 
extensive f;um, which is one of the most valuable 
in the State of Illinois It has more the appear- 
ance of a fair ground than a farm. It is well pro- 
vided with a nudtilude of houses, sheds, corn cribs 
and implement houses. There are live windmills 
on the farm which furnish water and grinding 
power. In concluding this sketch it woidd be 
proper to state that there are probably no more 
intelligent stock breeders than the gentlemen who 
compose the lirm of George Allen & Son, of Aller- 
ton. 111. 

ESSE DAVIS. Although not a native of 
Vermilion Count}', this gentleman, the son 
of pioneer parents, was reared within its 
limits, and has for many years occupied an 
important place among its enterprising, far-seeing, 
thrifty, well-to-do farmers and stock-raiseis. On 
section 36, C'atlin Townslu|), he owns a large and 
valuable farm, cultivated by the best methods, so 
that It yii4ds an extensive yearly income. He has 
erected a line residence and other substantial, wi'U 
arrangetl buildings, while everythiiTg about the 
place shows every evidence of a master n)ind and 
skillful hand controlling affairs. 

Our subject is of Southern antecedents, although 
a native of Ohio. His parents, Joseph and Eliza- 
beth (George) Davis, are supposed to have been 
natives of Virginia, but after their marriage they 
settled in Pickaway County, Ohio, among its earl\' 
settlers. The}' remained there until 1833, when, 
hoping to better their pecuniary condition by going 
to a still newer country, they came with their 
family to \'ermilion County to try farming on its 
virgin soil. They selected Catlin 4'ownship .as a 
desirable location, and thus became pioneers of the 
township. The father's useful career was cut short 
however, in a few years, and while yet in life's 
prime it was closed in death, August, 1839. He 
was a man of sound sense, a good farmer, and one 
whom all respected for his unswerving integrity 



aiifl kind heart. His widow survived liim many 
years, dying in tliis townsliip Dec. 30, 18G9. She 
was a woman of true Cliristian i)iety and a faithful 
memljer of the Presliyterian Cliiucli. To lier and 
her husl)and were horn four sons and four daugli- 
ters, our subject being the j-oungest son and the 
seventh child. 

He was l)orn near Darbysville, Pickaway Co., 
Ohio. Oct. 24. 1832. He was about a year old 
wiien his parents brouglit him to Vermilion Coun- 
ty, and here, amid the pioneer scenes of tliose early 
days in tlie settlement of the county, he grew to 
be a stalwart, manly man. He had sucii schooling 
as could lie obtained in those days of limited edu- 
cational advantages wiien the rude log cabin was 
the only literary institution of this section of 
country, and its doors were only opened to the 
children of the pioneers a few short weeks in the 
different seasons of the year. He was bred to the 
life of a farmer, and has made the tilling o( the 
land his principal occupation. He has met with 
more than ordinary success in his calling, and may 
well feel |)roud of what he has achieved by hard 
labor, directed by sound business acumen and 
the prudent management of his monetary affairs. 
His farm, comprising 44<t acres of land of exceed- 
ing fertility, is well stocked and isamijly provided 
with all the necessary appliances ,and machinery for 
making it one of the model places of the township. 

Mr. Davis holds that a ])art of his prosperity is 
due to the f.act that he is blessed with a good wife, 
who has actively oo-operated with him in all his 
plans. They were united in marriage in Catlin 
Township March 10, 1859. and to them have come 
live children, as follows: Clara J., the wife of 
Willis Lesher; Van C; one who died in infancy; 
Scott G.; Minnie L., the wife of David McMillin. 
The maiden name of Mrs. Davis was Melvina Eliza- 
beth Hj'att, .and she is the daughter of James and 
Martha (Rouland) Hyatt, both of whom are de- 
ceased. Her father was born in South Carolina 
and her mother in Kentucky, and after marriage 
they settled in Davis County, Ky., where he was 
engaged in farming, and there thej' died. Thev 
had seven children, four sons and three daughters. 
Mrs. Davis was their second child, and she was born 
in Davis County, Ky„ Nov. 24, 1838, She grew 

to womanhood there, and came to ^'ermilion Coun- 
ty in the month of November. 18.58, with her sister. 
Mis. M:uy Wallace, who was an invalid. .She is a 
genial, lovable, motherly woman, whose genuine 
kindness has won her a warm [ilace in the hearts of 
the entire community. 

When i\Ir. Davis was brought here in his infancy, 
the surrounding country jjresented a far different 
npiiearance from what it does to-day. Then it was 
a literal wilderness, savage animals and abundant 
game roamed over the wild, uncultivated prairies, 
or found shelter in the primeval forests along the 
water courses, and the bold, hardy frontiersman had 
scarcely more than begun to turn the virgin sod 
and lay the foundations of the wealth and pros- 
perity that obtain to-day on all sides, as evidenced 
by flourishing and busy towns, smiling farms, and 
many happy homes. That he has had a hand in 
bringing about this great change may be a source 
of pride to our subject, who is a man of eminent 
liublic spirit, and has generously contributed of his 
means to further all enterjjrises that will in any 
way add to the prosperity of the community with 
whose interests his own are identical, and among 
whose peoiile he has lived in peace and friendship 
for more than half a century. He is a man of high 
moral character, and is gifted with many worthy 
attributes that render him respected of all men. In 
his political views he strongly favors the Prohibi- 
tion party, being himself a sound temperance man. 
He and his wife are worthy members of the Pres- 
byterian Church, she having been a communicant 
ever since she was thirteen yeaj-s old. 

APT. -lOSKPH TRUAX. Oakwood Town- 
ship contains no more active or energetic 
business man than Capt. Truax, who is in 
the prime of life and in the midst of a prosperous 
career. The opening years of his life were spent 
in Muskingum County, Ohio, where be wa? born 
July 25, 1838, being the eighth in a family of nine 
children, the offspring of Josejjh, Jr., and Nancy 
(Robison) Truax, who were both natives of Penn- 
sylvania, the father born in Bedford County, May 
16, 1800, , and the mother March 15,1801. The 



paternal grnnflfatlier, .Iosei)li Tniax. Sr., was like- 
wise a native of the Keystone State and of (iernian 
descent. He entered the Revolutionary Army at 
tlie betrinning of the war and served on the side of 
the colonists until its close. His wife was a Miss 
Slillwell. a native of his own .State, where they set- 
tled and died. Their family consisted of four sons 
•ind two daughters, all of whom are deceased. 

The mother of our subject was the dausrhter of 
James and Ellen Robison, lioth of whom were na- 
tives of Dublin, Ireland. Grandfather Robison 
was a very prominent Knight Templar of iJublin. 
and our subject has in his possession a demit once 
belonging to the olil gentleman and signed 107 
years ago. 

Tlie parents of our subject were married in I'enn- 
s^ivania and remained there until 1.S39. Then re- 
moving to Ohio they settled on a farm in Mus- 
kingum County where they lived until the fall of 
1854. then took up their line of march for Illinois. 
Coming to this county Ihej' settled two miles east 
of Pilot Grove, and in 1859 removed to Blount 
Township, where the father died March 7.1861. 
The mother passed away Jan. I, 1885. Seven of 
their nine children lived to mature years and three 
are still living. 

Our subject, upon coming to this county, had a 
fine young horse which he sold and devoted the 
proceeds to advance his education, attending school 
in Danville, where he closely applied himself to his 
studies for some eighteen months. In 1859 he be- 
gan teaching .at Collison's Point .and remained there 
til rough the fall .and winter until spring. In the 
latter part of 1860 he commenced teaching at 
Craig's schoolhouse, and in the winter taught in the 
old Union Church building at Blue Corner. On the 
:?d of July, 1861, the Civil War having broken 
out. he entered the I'nion Army as a member of 
Company 1, 35th Illinois Infantry, being mustered 
in as First Lieutenant. Aug. 24, 1861 at .St. Louis. 

The 35th Illinois saw much hard service. The}' 
were first ordered to Jefferson City, thence to Se- 
dalia, Mo., and from there started south on the 
lookout for the rebel General Price. They marched 
120 miles to Springfield, and from there to Rolla, 
a like distance. Lieut. Tiuax was here seized with 
illness and sent home on a two month's furlough. 

He returned to his regiment in Fel)ruary. 1862, 
and was placed in command of n detachment of 
seventy men, with which he repaired to Spring- 
Held still after Gen. Price. Later he was detailed 
with his command to remain and guard the city. 
After the battle of Pea Riilge he rejoined his regi- 
ment on the road to Batesvillc, Ark., but .it this 
place they were ordered to t'ai)e Girardeau, ji dis- 
tance of 250 miles, which distance they covered in 
nine d.ays, taking one d.aj' to rest, making ten in 
all. On account of walking without shoes the feet 
of many of the men were sore and bleeding. At 
Cai)e Girardeau they were i)aid their monthly sti- 
pend by Maj. McKibben, an old resident of this 

Lieut. with his regiment, now boarded 
the transport ".Sunshine" and proceeded to Cairo, 
and from there up the Ohio to the mouth of the 
Tennessee, anil tiionc(> to the old battle-ground of 
Pittsburg Landing. Here thej- joined tiie army of 
Gen. Halleck and moved toward Corinth from the 
east, witnessing the burning of the city. From 
there they marched to Clear .Springs and spent .Inly 
4 near Jacinto. Miss. Later they were placetl on 
guard at Bear Creek Bridge, near luka. Then tlie 
division to which the 35th Regiment l)elonged cut 
loose and crossed the Tennessee at Mussel .Shoals, 
marching through the enemy's country and joining 
Buell's army at Murfreesboro. 

Our subject and his comm.and now started after 
the rebel General, Bragg, reaching Louisville be- 
fore him and followed him on his retreat to Perry- 
ville, to Crab Orchard and to Nashville, Tenn. 
Afterward, succeeded the battle of Murfreeslioro, 
and the regiment then entered upon the Cliicka- 
mauga camp.aign. .Subsequently followed the two 
day's battle of Cliickaniauga wlien they fell back to 
Chattanooga, and the November following charged 
upon Mission Ridge driving the enemy before 
them and capturing the place. Their next business 
was to relieve Cien. Burnside at Knoxville, to 
which they hurried on a forced march, .and later 
the}' proceeded to Strawberry Plains and to Lou- 
don, Tenn., where they built a bridge in the spring 
of 1864. 

The 35th Regiment then ordered to the vi- 
cinity of Clevcl.and, Tenn., where they prepared to 



join Sherman's Army on its march to the sea, and 
Lieut. Truax was with his regiment in every battle 
and skirmish in which it afterward participated. In 
1862 he was rewarded for his bravery and fidelity 
to duty by promotion to a Captaincy, receiving his 
commission at Crab Orchard, and with his regi- 
ment at his expiration of term of enlistment, was 
relieved from duty ou the 28th of August, 1864, 
and was mustered out at Springfield in September 

After retiring from tiie army. Capt. Truax first 
took his mother to 01iio,then came back and resumed 
teaching in the same old I'nion Chureii building 
soutii of Oakwood. On tlie 19th of March, 1865, 
he was married to Miss Marj' E. Ilelmick, and set- 
tled on a farm one and one-half miles west of Oak- 
wood, where they lived until the fall of 1884. He 
then bought out the firm of Stillwell <fe Young, 
general merchants, and has since been in trade, be- 
sides handling grain quite extensively. He owns 
the entire block in which his store is located, and 
has also a good residence in the northern part of 
the city. 

Capt. Truax takes an active part in politics and 
votes the straight Republican ticket. He has served 
as School Trustee for twenty years. Justice of the 
Peace four years, and Commissioner of Iligliways 
two terms. lioth ho and Ills wife belong to the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, with which the Cap- 
tain became identifie<l in 1866, and in which he has 
served as Steward and Trustee. Socially, he be- 
longs to Oakwood Lodge Xo. .564, I. O O. F., in 
wliich he has occupied .all the offices from Warden 
to Past Grand. He is also identified with George 
Morrison Post, G. A. R. The Captain and his es- 
timable lady are the parents of five children, one of 
whom, Nancy B., who was born Dec. 21, 1868, 
died Jan. 20, 1869; Frances E. was born Feb. 10, 
1866; Ruberta A., April 1, 1867; Charles E., 
Aug. 9, 1872, and Josephine, March 24, 1876. 

Rev. Eli Ilelmick, the father of Mrs., was 
born in Randolph County, Va., INIay 4, 1800, and 
her mother. May 25,1804. After marriage they 
resided in the Old Dominion for awhile, then about 
18.32 came to this count}'. He was an ordained 
minister of the Methodist Episcopal Churcli, a man 
of fine aliilities. good judgment and great perse- 

verance, and was of essential service in tiie Master's 
vine3-ard. After the death of his first wife. .Airs. 
Rachel (Villers) Ilelmick. the mother of ilrs. 
Truax, he was married to Miss Amanda Oakwood, 
who died about 1874. Mr. Ilelmick departed this life 
July 18, 1887, at the advanced age of eighty- 
five j'fars. Of his first marriage there were born 
nine children, of whom Mrs. Truax was the sixth. 
Her birth took place in Vermilion County, 111., 
Nov. 21. 1835. 

-^ -#-^ V- 

^OHN J. PARTLOW. Th- neat and well- 
I regulated home of this gentleman lies adja- 
I cent to the city of Danville, and embraces 
I twenty -six acres of land, which is in a high 
state of cultivation, and devoted to the raising of 
small fruits. Upon it the proprietor has erected a 
fine residence, and e.ach year .adds something to the 
beauty and value of the property. Mr. Partlow is 
numbered among the steady-going and reliable citi- 
zens of this count}- — one who without making a 
great deal of stir in the world has fulfilled his obli- 
gations, to his family and societ}- in a praisew-orthy 
manner, and deserves more than a passing notice. 

A native of this county, our subject was born in 
Middle Fork Township, Aug. 7, 1832. and is the 
son of James Partlow, who was born in Miginia, 
and was the son of Samuel Partlow, to whom fur- 
ther reference is made in the sketch of Asa Part- 
low, on another page in this volume. J.ames Part- 
low was reared in Kentiick}', and learned the trade 
of a wheelwright in his youth, wliicii lie followed 
in the Blue Grass regions until 1831. Tiiat j'ear 
he came to Illin<iis, overland with a team, accom- 
panied by his family and traveling after the prim- 
tive f.ashion of those days — carrying with him his 
household goods, and camping and cooking Ijy the 

The father of our subject upon his arrival in this 
county took up a claim of (Jovernnient land before 
it had come into the market. Indians were still to 
be seen prowling over the country, while deer, wild 
turk_v and wolves were also plentiful. 'l"hc land 
which Mr. Partlow selected was part timber anil 
jiai-t prairie. He put up a rail pen for the tempor- 




ary shelter of liis family, and afterward built a \og 
house, iu whieb structure the sulijeet of this sketch 
was horn. The eliininey of this primitive dwell- 
ina was made of earth and sticks outside, the floor 
was laid of split puncheon, and the roof covered 
with chiphords. It was before the time of rail- 
roads, and the nearest market was at the towns ou 
the Wabash River. James Partlow here spent the 
remainder of his days, passing away about the year 
\H')l. lie had lived to see the wilderness around 
him transformed into smiling grain fields and com- 
fortable homes, and himself put up a third dwell- 
inii, in tlie shape of a commodious frame house. 
This latest structure was built prior to the con- 
struction of the railroad through this part of the 
county, and the doors for it were hauled from Chi- 
cago. The weather-boarding was sawed from black- 
walnut loss which Ml-. I'artlow drew to the mill. 
He brought his farm to a good state of cultivation, 
and in liis last years was surrounded liy all the com- 
forts of life. 

Mrs. Ellen (Milton) Partlow, tlie mother of our I 
sulijeet, was born in Kentucky, and died at the 
home of her daughter, Mrs. Dr. Humphrey, of i 
Danville, about IX-'u). Both she and her husband 
hail been twice married. .John .T., our subject, pur- 
sued his first lessons in a log scIkxiI-Iiouso. into 
which light was a(imitted through greased paper 
stretched along an aperture from which one of the 
logs been sawed away. He was at an early age 
trained to habits of industry, and as soon as large 
enouo-h his services were utilized in the labors of 
the farm. At the age of fourteen he was employed 
in a drug store two years, but later attended 
Georo-etown Academy and the Red Seminary in 
Danville. Later he officiated as clerk in the dry- 
goods store of E. V. & P. Leshure three years. 
Subsecjuently he became the' employe of Partlow S; 
Humphrey, with whom he remained one year. At 
the expiration of this time he assoeiatei! himself 
in partnership with R. A. Short, and they engaged 
in mercantile business together two years, when 
our subject purchased the interest of his partner in 
the business, and conducted it twelve years. At 
tliis point, abandoning merchandising, Mr. Partlow 
entered the employ of tin: Chicago & Eastern Illi- 
nois Company, with whom he continued 

two years, and was then appointed n Railway Mail 
Clerk on the same road, running lirst from Chicairo 
to Danville, and later from Chicago to Tcric 
Haute, IikI. lie performed in this mannei- failhfiii 
and efticient service for a period of eleven years, 
and in 1884 invested a portion of his earnings in 
his present projierty. 

Miss Frances L. Giddings. the eldest child of 
William and Caroline(Kitchener)Giddings. became 
the wife of our sulijeet Nov. 5. 18.')7. Of this un- 
ion there have been born two children, the eldest 
of whom. Elmer E.. marrieil Miss Mattie Collins, 
and is the father of a son and two daughters — 
(ieorge E.. ^'era and Frances. The younger son, 
Charles, is a printer by trade. :ind makes his home 
with his parents. Mr. Partlow, politicHlly, is a 
stanch Republican, and with his estimable wife is 
a member iu good standing of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church. 

yfelLLIS B. CAITSLE, Physician and Sur- 
/ geon. Among the truly successfid pro- 
fessional men of this county is the younu- 
man whose name initiates this sketch. He came 
to Sidell right after bis graduation from Rush 
Medical College, of Chicago, through the urgent 
reipiest of some of the leading citizens of this eii- 
ter|irising village. Naturally gifted to fill his re- 
sponsible position of ministering to the health of 
his fellownien. and after a long and studious course 
in the intricacies of his profession at diffcicnt 
places, he is well ecpiipped to meet the expectations 
of his friends. 

Dr. Cauble was born at Alto Pass, riiimi Co . 
111., where his father is a large land owner and one 
of the wealthiest and most prominent men of bis 
county. Willis C. and Serena, father and mother 
of the subject of this sketch are leading people in 
society in I'nion County, the native place of the 
former. The grandfather of Willis Jr.. John F. 
Cauble, was born in North Carolina, where he was 
an extensive land owner. He subsequently came 
to Illinois, where he acquired large tracts of land 
also. His son, Willis Sr., being the onl}- heir and 
a good business man, became the owner of the 



large property left by his father, and he afterward 
engaged in the erection of a sawmill and grist- 
mill, shipping lumber and flour to St. Louis and is 
now very extensively engaged in growing fruits 
and vegetables. He owns three large farms, one 
of them being two miles and three-quarters long. 
The parents of Willis Jr., had nine children, five 
of whom are living, namely : Willis Benton, Cora 
E., Adam J., Flora M., and Myrtle A. 

Dr. Cauble passed his childhood days in rural 
life with his parents and in his early boyhood at- 
tended the district scliools. Later on he entered 
St. Vincent College at Cape Girardeau, Mo., 
from which institution he graduated with distin- 
guished honors in the class of 1885, in the scientific 
course. While studj'ing at college, he became 
imbued with the idea that the medical profession 
was one which would suit his inclinations and he 
therefore chose that for his life work. He studied 
under the direction of Dr. W. W. Esick of 
Murphysboro, III., for one year, and in the fall 
of 1887 entered the medical department of the 
University of Tennessee at Nashville, there prose- 
cuting his studies for one year. From there he 
proceeded to Louisville, Ky., and attended for six 
months the summer lectures at the Medical and 
Surgical Institute of that city. He graduated from 
those two courses, when he returned to Murphys- 
boro and began practice under his old pre- 
ceptor which he continued for two months. In the 
fall of 1887 he entered Rush Medical College, 
graduating in Feb. 1888. His thesis on "T^'phoid 
Fever and Death from Uremic Poisoning," was de- 
livered before the faculty and won the prize, and 
was also pronounced by Prof. Ross as one of the 
ablest productions of any student of Rush College, 
while a letter was written by Dr. Ross to Dr. 
Cauble's preceptor, filled with commendatory 

Dr. Cauble was born April 24, 1866 and is one of 
the j'oungest medical men of the State and the 
youngest practitioner in Vermilion County. He 
seems intent uijon reaching the highest round in 
the ladder of his profession, and never wearies in 
studying and writing upon subjects connected with 
his noble calling. He is especially proficient in the 
subject of the diseases of women and children. The 

citizens of Sidell may well congratulate themselves 
upon the acquisition of a physician of such marked 

The Doctor is a member of the Catholic Church 
and votes with the Democratic part}'. He was ap- 
pointed County Ph3'sician of the district including 
Sidell, and is also the examining phj'sician of the 
Aetna Life Insurance Company of Hartford, and 
he fills a similar position for other insurance com- 
panies. It is his intention to go to Vienna in three 
or four 3'ears and there take instruction under the 
celebrated German medical professors. There is a 
great future in store for Dr. Caulile. 

■ > y sA.^ 

llJj-^ ARRY L. FREEMAN, junior partner in 
k] the firm of John Jackson & Co., dealers in 
general merchandise at Sidell, although 
young in years, occupies no secondary posi- 
tion among the business interests of this thriving 
village. He is bright, capable and energetic, and 
is universally popular among the people who have 
known him almost since his boyhood. He was 
born in Fairmount, this county, and is the son of 
Alfred C. and Mary W. (Dustin) Freeman, the 
former a n.ative of Washington County, Pa., and 
the latter of St. Johnsbury,Vt. Mrs. Freeman was 
a direct descendant of Hannah Dustin, one of the 
most notable and heroic women of her time — the 
old Puritan days. 

The parents of our subject came to Illinois prior 
to their marriage, Mr. Freeman settling in Edgar 
County, and Miss Dustin with her i)arents in this 
county. They were married at Fairmount. The 
father was reared to farming pursuits, but finally 
changing his occupation, became station of 
the Wabash Railroad at Fairmount, and served in 
that capacity satisfactorily several years. Finally 
in 1868, he changed his residence to Danville, and 
has been citj' clerk there for the last sixteen or 
eighteen years. During this time he has made 
many warm friends, having performed the duties 
of his olBce in an admirable manner, and possessing 
the good judgment and discretion which is so 
essential to every individual occupying a position 
of trust and responsibility. The wife and mother 





is still living, and is now about fifty j'ears of age. 
Their family consisted of five children, wlio were 
named respectively Harry L.. Fred D., Bert D., 
Nettie .]., and Edmund fJ. 

The subject of this notice was born Sept. 8, 1 86,t. 
He attended school at Danville during his boyhood 
and youth, and received careful parental training. 
When of suitable years and attainments he launched 
out in life for himself, and at the early age of 
seventeen j-ears became Deputy Assessor and Col- 
lector of Danville Township, which position he 
held for nine years. Shortly after reaching the 
twentieth year of his age he was married, Dec. 2, 
1885, to Miss Jennie W. Jackson, daughter of 
Amos Jackson, a sketch of whom will be found 
elsewhere in this volume. 

Mrs. Freeman was born in Indianola, thiscount\-, 
Dec. 3, 1865, where she was reared to womanhood. 
Of her union with our subject there was one child, 
Anna J., born Sept. 6, 1887, died Nov. 13, 1888. 
Mr. and Mrs. F"recman removed to Sidell in July, 
1888, in which time our subject became a member 
of the firm above-mentioned. They occupy a neat 
and tasteful dwelling in the southern part of the 
city, and number their friends among its best peo- 
ple. Mr. Freeman votes the Republican ticket, 
and socially, belongs to the Modern Woodmen. 
He has started out in life with fair prospects, and 
has the wishes of hosts of friends for his continued 

<^ frILLIAM 

\J// si^'efani 

\W 3,800 ac 

fclLLIAM G. IIERRON is the most exten- 
rmer in Vermilion Countj', having 
acres under his immediate super- 
vision, all of which is in a highly improved state 
of cultivation. Tiie firm of Allerton & Ilerron was 
established in 1880, when Sam W. Allerton, of 
Chicago, purchased this extensive tract of land, 
from J. G. Clark, of the Singer Sewing Machine 
Company, who foreclosed the mortgage on the cel- 
el)rated Joseph Sullivan farm, which called by 
the earlier settlers "Twin Grove." 

Two groves of about 100 acres each on this tract 
of land looked so much alike that the people gave 
the farm the name (]uoted above. Michael Sulli- 

van was made trustee of the Sterling estate in 
Kentucky and Ohio, by reason of his son Joseph 
being one of the heirs. The father invested the 
funds thus inherited in lands, purchasing them at 
their regular government price, immediately upon 
the reopening of the land oflice after the Illinois 
Central Railroad's time for choosing its lands in 
the State of Illinois had expired. This period ex- 
fended from 1849 to 1852. 

William G. Herron was born in Madison County, 
Ohio, near London. He remained on a farm until 
he was twentj' years old, and there learned his earl^- 
lessons of industry. His father, Gardner Herron, 
and his mother, Maria (Moraine) Herron, were born 
in Dorchester Count}-, Md. His father was a sol- 
dier in the War of 1812, and at the age of twenty- 
two he removed to Ohio. His mother was brought 
to Madison County when she was fouryears of age. 
Ilis father and a brother and sister were left or- 
phans; the sister married and died when sixtj^ 
J'ears of age. Gardner Ilerron was a man of mod- 
erate circumstances, owning his farm in Madison 
County where he died, which event occurred in 
1855. His wife is still living with a daughter at 
Mahomet, 111. This worthy couple had ten chil- 
dren, of whom four boys and three girls grew to 
maturity; the others died in infancy. 

William G. Herron was born April 6, 1829. His 
educational advantages were exceedingly limited. 
He was the oldest child of the family, and of course 
was expected to take an important part in carrying 
on the farm. In 1851 he left Ohio in the employ 
of a stockman. On his first visit to Illinois, which 
was at the time indicated, his impressions were not 
favorable to his location in this county, for at the 
time he remarked he would not give ten cents an 
acre for any of the land. So he continued in the 
occupation of drover, proceeding backward and 
forward from Ohio on horseback and in a buggy, 
driving many cattle from Illinois to Ohio and 
Pennsylvania. He became very well acquainted on 
the National Road, so that he knew almost every 
one located on that thoroughfare. He was married 
in 1855 to Miss Evelyn liobison, a native of Mad- 
ison County, Ohio, and the same j'ear he settled in 
Piatt County. III. Ilis wife is the daughter of 
Thomas and Mary (Lane) Robison. the former of 



whom was one of the early settlers of Madison 
County. lie was born in South Carolina, wliile 
Mrs. Robison was a native of Maryland. Tiiey 
came of good Revolutionary stock. The Robison 
family was a leading one in the Soutii, while the 
Lanes were prominent in colonial times. 

After marriage Mr. Ilerron engaged in farming 
and stock-raising until 1860, when lie bought into 
a general meichandise business at Monticello. 111., 
continuing in this with varied results for several 
years. He and S. W. Allerton became acquainted 
in Chicago in 1860. Fortune had favored ilr. Al- 
lerton, and in 1881, when he [lurchased this vast 
farm, he offered his friend an opportunity that was 
embraced, giving Mr. Herron the entire man.age- 
ment of the place. 

The firm of Allerton & Ilerron was therefore 
formed, and it has been a successful business ven- 
ture from the start. The influence of this firm in- 
duced the Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroad to 
forward its work, and Mr. Allerton donated the 
right of way through his land and laid out the vil- 
lage i)lat of Allerton which is .yet in its infancy, but 
on account of its fine loeai,ion is destined to become 
a good point for shipping grain, cattle and liorses. 
General trade is also bound to prosper here, and the 
people of the town have great faith that their hopes 
will be fully realized. The large steam elevator was 
put up by Mr. Allerton in 1887, and is operated by 
.John II. Herron, our suliject's son, and is run in 
the lirm name of Allerton & Herron. Mr. Herron 
gives employment to about twenty-five men, and 
runs from sixty to seventy teams. He is following 
general or mixed farming, and is constantly im- 
proving his large farm. 

Mr. .and Mrs. Ilerron have reared nine children: 
Fannie died when she was twenty-one years of age, 
at the time being a student at the Wesle^'an Uni- 
versity at Bloomington, III.; Emma was married 
■June 26, 1889, to Prof. F. W. Martin, of Chaddock 
College, Quincy, III. She is one of the faculty at 
Chaddock College. She is a graduate of the Wes- 
lyan University and is a Master of Arts and Pro- 
fessor of (ireek and Latin; David W. is on a ranch 
at Cedar Rapids, Neb., where he is conducting a 
7,000-acre farm for Allerton. He is married and 
has two children ; William H. is connected with the 

United States Geological Survey, and has charge 
of the survey in Kansas; John H. is running the 
steam elevator at Allerton; Una is a student at 
Chaddock College in the class of '90; Edwin is at- 
tending the High School at Mahomet; Clyde is at 
home as is also Raliih, who is attending school. 
Mr. Herron has given all of his children the ben- 
efit of good educational advantages, and they have 
improved them. 

Mr. Herron is an tincomprising and stalwart Re- 
publican and attends most of the conventions his 
party holds. He has served as a member of the Ex- 
ecutive commitee and is President of the Republi- 
can Club of Sidell. He has been an active mem- 
ber of the Methodist Episcopal Church from boy- 
hood up. He has given large sums to the Wesleyan 
University. He and his wife have been members 
of the Broad land Jlethodist Episcopal CHiurch for 
many years, where they take great interest in the 
Sunday-school. Jlr. Herron was Superintendent 
of the Sabbath-school at Monticello, 111., for 
eighteen years, and in this work he is perhaps bet- 
ter known than in any other, as he began active 
operations in the Sunday-schools thirty years ago, 
and has continued in the work without ll.agging 
during long period. He assisted in the for- 
mation of most of the Sunday-schools of Piatt and 
Chami)aign counties, and also of the southern por- 
tion of Vermilion. In all things he is a leader, 
whether in politics or religion. As a man and as a 
neighbor, there is none who stands higher than 
William G. Ilerron. 

On another page of the Album appears a tine 
portrait of Mr. Herron, who occupies a prominent 
position among his fellow-men, and is accordingly 
worth}- of an important jilace in a book of this 

ORIN SPERRY represents the agricultural 
interests of Blount Township as a farmer of 
more than ordirary shrewdness and practical 
ability. He met with marked success in his 
chosen calling, and a large farm on section 20, 
which by good management he has made one of 
the most valuable estates in this part of Vermilion 
County. Mr. Sperry is the son of a pioneer fam- 



ily, was reared here from ciul}' uliihlliood, :niil lins 
.•ihvays made his home here. 

Mr. Speriy is of New England ancestry on his 
fallier's side, and tlial parent, whose name was 
\VaUace Six'rry, was born in the good ohl State of 
Connectifut. Sarah Watkins, the mother of our 
subject, came of Southern parentage, and she was 
born in Maryland. During some period in their 
lives the parents went to Ohio, in the early days of 
its settlement, and there he was born in Warren 
County Sept. 4, 1828, the sixth of nine children. 
When he was but two years old, in 1830, they 
brought him to this State, and in their new pioneer 
home in Blount Township he was reared to a stal- 
wart, vigorous manhood. He gleaned a practical 
education in the district schools, and his parents 
trained him thoroughly in the duties of life, drill- 
ing iiim well in all that pertains to a farmer's ciill- 
ing. When he became independent, after reaching 
man's estate, he bought a Mexican land warrant, 
paying $150 for 160 acres of land, which he took 
up on section 20, Blount Township, and still re- 
tains it in his possession. But he has added to 
it as he became more prosperous and wealthy, and 
now owns 509 acres of as fine farming land as is to 
be found within the limits of the county. He has 
it under admirable tillage, and has a comfortable, 
substantial set of Ijuildings, and everything nec- 
essary to carrying on agriculture to the best ad- 

Mr. Sperry has been twice married. He was first 
wedded Sept. 23, 1852, to Mary Stewart, daughter 
of William and Charlotte Stewart, who at that 
time lived in Scotland, but afterward came to this 
county. Of that marriage nine children were 
born, of whom the following four are living: 
Eli S., who married Sueldo .lohnson; Demna, who 
married Wesley Smith; Asa and Eben are 3-et un- 
married. The others, who died when quite 3oung, 
are William A., Charles F., Clarissa J., George M., 
and .lessie G. Aug. 30, 1883, the household of 
our subject was bereft of the beloved wife and 
mother, who had been devoted to the interests of 
her family, and was in every respect a true woman 
whom to know was to respect. 

Mr. Sperry was married to his present amiable 
wife Oct. 11, 1888. She is a good hous'-wife and 

looks carefully after the comforts of the inmates of 
the pleasant home over which she presides. Her 
maiden name was Ellen Cozatt, and she is a daugh- 
ter of Henrj' and Nancy Wood, and widow of 
Perry C. Cozatt. 

Mr. Sherry is a man of sterling worth, one in 
whom his fellow-citizens place the utmost confi- 
dence. He possesses foresight, thrift and sound 
discretion in an eminent degree, and they have been 
factors in his prosperity. In him the United Breth- 
ren Church finds one of its most earnest and valued 
members, who carries his religion into the every 
da}' affairs of life. In politics he has been a stanch 
Republican since the early days of the formation of 

the party. 

. <xrx> , 

fl ICHAEL McCAUL. There are many 
\\\ greater men than their g.irb would indi- 
LB cate. We find in the person of this gen- 
tleman a classical scholar who pursued his 
30uthful studies with the intention of becoming a 
priest, but untoward circumstances compelled him 
to leave college and engage in manual labor. This 
necessarily changed the whole course of his life 
and we now find him a thorough-going farmer, 
who in company with his brother owns 120 acres 
of land on sections 1 and 6 in Sidell Township. 

Probablj' Mr. McCaul is the only man in his 
township who has circumnavigated the globe. 
After leaving college his mother was unwilling to 
have him come to America on account of the 
Civil War, so he went to Australia. He was born 
In County Cavan, Ireland, in August, 1844, and 
pursued his earlj- studies in the common schools 
until the age of fifteen years, when he entered the 
Larrali Classical School in the same count}-, where 
he pursued his studies for tlu'ee years and then his 
lack of finances compelled him to withdraw. In 
setting out for Australia, he was accompanied by 
his brother, Bernard. They sailed around the coast 
of Africa, doubled Cape Hope and arrived at IMor- 
ton Bay Colony, Queensland, where they became 
employed on the public works, principally railroads 
for five years. 

At the expiration of this time the McCaul 
brothers determined to come to America and set 



tail from Melbourne, going up through the Pacific. 
douLling Cape Horn and landing in Liverpool, 
whence they embarked on a steamer to the prom- 
ised land. They arrived in New York in tlie earl3' 
part of November, 18G7, and thence made tlieir 
wa3' to Marshall County, this State, where they be- 
gan farming together and o|ierated thus several 

Our subject finally removed to Woodford 
County, where he sojourned a few j'ears, then 
changing his residence to Champaign County, from 
which he came, in 1880, with Ins brother to his 
present farm. The}' took out their nattiralization 
papers in 1884. Mr. MeCaul believes in protection 
to American industries and consequently has iden- 
tified himself with the Republican party. He is in full 
s^'mpath}^ with the cause of Ireland and a warm 
admirer of Patrick Egan, Patrick Ford and other 
who are endeavoring to free their country from 
the oppressions of British rule. He has signi- 
fied his sympathy in a substantial manner, donat- 
ing liberally of his means. 

The parents of our sulijeet were Bernard and 
Mary (McEiitee) Mc(Jaul, natives of County Cavan, 
Ireland, and the father was a farmer by occupation. 
They spent their entire lives upon their native 
soil, each living to be sixty -three j-ears old. Their 
five children were named respectively, Ann. Ed- 
ward, Patrick, Bernard, and Michael. Ann is 
the vvidow of John Reile^' and resides in 8idell 
Township; Edward and Patrick remain in their 
native Ireland. Bernard married Jliss IMary 
Gulcheon, a native, like himself of County Cavan. 
and they have three chihlren — Mary, Bernard, and 
Maggie. Michael, our subject, continues in a state 
of single blessedness. 

ri) as one of the most enterprising of the 
younger farmers of Grant Township, was 
born in Brown County, Ohio, Sept. 12, 1859, and 
came to Illinois with his parents when but six 
years of age. His parents were "Wilson and Sarah 
J. (Brown) Abbott, who were natives of Ohio and 
after their removal to Illinois, coming direct to 

Verniilion County, they settled on a farm on sec- 
tion 22 in this same township a short distance 
from where Franklin K. now resides. 

There the family lived for about three years when 
they removed to a rented farm a short distance 
off, and a year later Mr. Abbott bought a 40- 
acre farm on which the family made their home 
for many years, and on which place Wilson 
Abbott died on Feb. 14, 1883 at the age of fifty- 
two. He was a farmer all his life-time, giving his 
entire time and attention to the work pertaining to 
his farm, and having no desire for notoriet}-, 
as far as possible avoided public position, never 
holding any office, save such as school director, or 
the like, that he could not evade. He was known as 
one of the older settlers of the township, which was 
comparatively new when he located here, a quar- 
ter of a century ago. He left behind him a splen- 
did record as a man and as a farmer. Mrs. Sarah 
J. Abbott survived her husband nearly four years, 
dying in the house of her son, Franklin E., on Dec. 
10, 1 886, aged fifty-two years. 

Wilson Abbott and wife were the parents of eight 
children, of whom seven are 3'et living as follows: 
F^ ranees Evelyn, is the wife of Martin Davis, a 
farmer in Grant Township; James L., is married to 
iSIiss JIaggie Schoolcraft, and is also a farmer in 
Grant Township; Franklin E., was next in order 
of birth; Isodora Albertine is the wife of William 
Trueheart, a farmer in INIead County, Kan.; !Mar\- 
Luella and Cyrena Belle, make their home with 
their brother of whom this is written, and Charles 
L. is unmarried and engaged in farm work. 

Franklin E. Abbott, the subject of this sketch, 
has spent his entire life in the count}- and town- 
ship, where he now lives, since he was six years old. 
Two or three years after the death of his father, 
the old farm was sold and the family home has 
since been where Franklin now lives. The elder 
members of the family were justly regarded as the 
very best people in the neighborhood for industr}-, 
intelligence and straightforward conduct, and 
the younger members are closely following the 
footsteps of their parents. INIr. Abbott is unmar- 
ried, his sisters keeping house for him. He has 
been School Director of the township, and all of the 
family are members of the Christian Church, he 



being treasurer of the Sabhatli-sc-liool connected 

Mr. Abbott belongs to that \oiinger element of 
of farmers of Illinois, which is rapidly coming to 
tiie front, and after attaining that position is 
sure to remain there. He is constructed of the 
material that make a useful citizen and a good 

• OHN E. THOMPSON. The people of Oak- 
wood Township with one accord declare 
that this is "•one of the finest old gentlemen 
within its precincts." This kindlj' express- 
ion of opinion among those who have known him 
long and well, should in a measure compensate him 
for the artliction from which he is suffering, he hav- 
ing become almost blind and passing many days 
which seem long and dreary. He, however, has a 
mind to direct his farming operations, and is en- 
abled to live comfortably upon his little farm of 
eighty acres, besides which he has eight acres of 
timber. He raises as much stock as the place will 
support Comfortably, and in his struggles and la- 
bors has been ahly assisted by his estimable wife — 
a lad^' possessing all the womanly virtues, devoted 
to her family, remarkably industrious and frugal, 
and who has ordered the waj's of her household in 
the most admirable manner. 

The subject of this notice is the offspring of an 
excellent old family, and was one of a pair of twins 
born March 5. 1824, in Clark Count}', Ohio. His 
boyhood days were spent in his native State, where 
he received a practical education in the common 
school, and when reaching his majority began farm- 
ing for himself. ^Vhen twenty-five years old he 
was married in 1849, to Miss Sarah E. Simpkins. 
and the young people lived thereafter for three 
years at the Thompson homestead. In 1852 they 
came to Illinois and settled first in Edgar Count}', 
where they sojourneil five years. Their next re- 
moval was to their present farm, which was then 
merely a tract of wild land with not a stick of tim- 
ber or a shrub upon it. 

Our subject set himself iudustriousl}' to work for 
the improvement of his property ablj' assisted by 
his faithful wife, and making each year some head- 

way toward the desired end. After a lapse of years 
six children were embraced in the family house- 
hold, four of whom are living: Rowena Harriet is 
now the wife of Silas Bean, and the mother of one 
child by her present husband; they live in Hodge- 
man County, Kan. By her first marriage with 
Frank Funk she became the mother of four chil- 
dren; .John Henry married Miss Emma Royer; 
they live in Kansas City, Mo., and have two chil- 
dren; Darius S. is unmarried, and has principal 
charge of the home farm, and is a member of Lodge 
No. 489. I. O. O. F.; Charles S. married Miss Re- 
becca Hubbard, and lives in Pilot Township, hav- 
ing no children. 

Mr. Thompson cast his first Presidential vote for 
Zaehary Taylor, :uid was a memlier of the Old 
Whig party until 185G, when he cast his lot with 
the Republicans at the organization of this party. 
He has ofl3ciated as Road Overseer in Edgar County, 
and has been School Director in his i)resent dis- 
trict for eight years. Socially, he belongs to Lodge 
No. 489 I. O. O. F. at Fithian, in which he has 
been Right Supporter and Outside Guardian. Jlrs. 
Thom[(son is a devout member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. Her parents were D. S. and 
Rowena Simpkins. the former of whom was a na- 
tive of Maryland, and later removed with his fam- 
ily to Ohio, settling in Clark County, where he be- 
came prominent and well-to-do. The parental 
household included eight children, of whom Mrs. 
Thompson was the fourth in order of birth. .She 
was born Nov. G, 1828, in Maryland, and received 
an excellent education. Her parents spent their 
last years in Clark County, Ohio. 

The father of our subject was Jeremiah C. 
Thompson, a native of Harper's Ferr^-, Va., and a 
farmer by occupation. He married Miss Susannah 
Wolfe, a maiden of his own township and a daugh- 
ter of Henry Wolfe, a native of ^'irginia and a 
prominent man of his time, who lived till nearly 
eight}^ years of age. From the Old Dominion, 
about a year after their marriage, the parents of 
our subject emigrated to Clark County, Ohio, set- 
tling among its earliest pioneeis. The father in due 
time became owner of nearly- 400 acres of land and 
was prominent in the community, ofticiating as 
Justice of the Peace and occupying other i)osition5 



of trust and responsibility. He departed this life 
at the old homestead in 1851. The mother had 
preceded her husband to the silent land eleven 
years, her death taking place in 1840. They were 
the parents of eleven children, the most of wliom 
lived to mature years, and were scattered through 
different States. 

y^ILLIAM CLirSON, deceased, was form- 
erly an honored resident of Vermilion 
Couniy, with whose farming interests he 
was identified. Coming here with his family when 
this section of the country was still in the hands of 
the pioneers and purchasing land in Catlin Town- 
ship, he was actively engaged in its improvement, 
and in the few years that he was spared to the 
community he greatly increased the value of his 
farm. His death when but a few years past the me- 
ridian of life was a severe blow to the township 
with whose interests his own were bound up, and 
his name and memory are still cherished here by 
those who knew him best. 

He was of English birth and breeding, born in 
Lincolnshire, May 18, 180C, and reared to man- 
hood in a town known as Minonsb^', where he 
lived till he was about eighteen years old, when he 
went to Devonshire, England. He was first married 
in that shire to Jane Shaw, by whom he iiad eight 
children, of whom only two lived to grow up, 
Catherine and Jane. Catherine is the wife of Mil- 
ligan M. Moore, of Georgetown, 111. Jane married 
John Swanell, and died in Leavenworth, Kan., in 
1859. After his marriage Mr. Clipson removed to 
London, and there his wife died July 1, 1839. 
While in Devonshire he enlisted as a soldier in the 
British Army, and served as raessman to King 
William. After his removal to London he served 
on the police force of that city, and was afterward 
inspector for the London Gas Company for some 
ten or twelve years, and at the same time was en- 
caged in the management of a' hotel. He was mar- 
ried a second time in that city, his union with 
Miss Matilda Ann Barker being solemnized Nov. 5, 
1840. She was born in Boston, Lincolnshire, Eng- 
land, Dec. 22, 1815. Of the thirteen children born 

of her marrin^e with our subject the following six 
grew to maturity: William H., John C, James, 
Harriet A., Richard, Albert. William married 
Mirantlia Tipton, and they reside in Clarinda, 
Iowa. John C. married Margaret Hutchinson, and 
they reside in Clarinda, Iowa. James married Cla- 
rissa Douglas, and they reside in Catlin Township. 
Albert married Ethlen Sanford, and they reside in 
Catlin Township. Harriet and Richard live with 
their mother on the old homestead. 

Mr. and Mrs. Clipson continued to live in Lon- 
don till thespringof 1853, when they emigrated to 
America with their family, making the voyage on 
a sailing vessel in six weeks, and landed in New- 
York, whence they came directly to Vermilion 
County. They settled in Catlin Township, cast- 
ing in their lot with its pioneers, and here he en- 
gaged in farming, having purchased IGO acres of 
wild land. He caused a good house to be erected, 
and made man}' other substantial im|)rovements, 
besides getting much of the land under excellent 
cultivation, and was continually increasing the 
value of his farm, when death closed his busy, use- 
ful career July 6, 1862. He was a man of varied 
experience in life; intelligent and thoughtful, and 
his place in this township was among its best and 
most desirable citizens. He was a fair-minded 
man, and was possessed of ripe judgment, tact and 
sound discretion, and was always found to be faith- 
ful and Irustworth}- in his dealings, so that his life- 
record is without stain. His venerable widow is 
still making her home on the old homestead, sur- 
rounded by all the comforts that the loving care of 
her children can devise. She is a fine lady of well- 
known English stock, is hospitable and entertain- 
ing, and with her family occupies a high position 
in the social circles of the community. She is a 
valued member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
and has been connected with it for more than 
twenty years, and her conduct in the daily affairs 
of life show her to be possessed of a trul^- religious. 
Christian nature. 

Richard and Albert Clipson, sons of our subject, 
have formed a partnership and are extensively en- 
gaged in the stock business. Besides having the 
management of the old homestead, they own and 
operate 360 acres of choice farming land. They 



buy find ship a large aiiiount of stock, liaving sev- 
eral men in their employ who are engaged all tlie 
time in buying for them. The firm is well-known 
throughout this part of the West and stands high 
in limiufinl circles, as the Clipson Bros, are known 
to be men of honor who are always fair and up- 
right in their dealings. They are men of large en- 
terprise, full of energy and push, and possess a 
marked talent for business, which they conduct 
system.atically and after the most approved meth- 
ods. Richard Clipson is a member of the I. O. O. F., 
of Catlin. and Albert belongs to the Modern 
Woodmen Camp of Catlin. 


UGH WRIGHT is the son of William, whose 
father, Hugh, was a native of Bourbon Co., 
'*V<^' Ky., where he married Miss Anna Patter- 
'^) son. After their marriage the}' removed to 
Bourbon County, Kentucky, where they located on 
a fnrm and reared their family of eight children, 
viz.: William, .lohn, Hugh, Thomas, Margred, 
Polly, Peggy, and our subject's father, William. 
The four eldest died at an early age; Margred, the 
lifth child, niarrieil a Mr. Piper, who is now de- 
ceased, after which she was again married to Eli 
Current, of Kentucky, who also died. She, how- 
ever, continued to live in Kentucky. Polly and 
her husband, Mr. Piper, both died leaving two chil- 
dren; Peggy, the seventh, married James Looman, 
who died. She now resides in Kansas. The sub- 
ject's father, the eighth and Last born, was married 
in Kentucky, to Miss Ellen, daughter of Silas and 
Margaret (Duffy) Waters. 

The subject's grandfather was a native of Vir- 
ginia but removed to Kentucky when the children 
were young. In 1828 Hugh's father with his 
family came to this county; there were at this time 
but three children, Hugh, Silas and James. The 
latter was born in Hush County, Ind., where the 
parents lived one year previous to coming here. 
Those born here are John A., William A., now de- 
ceased, Margaret A., who died at the age of eight- 
een years, and Elizabeth, who married John Rut- 
ledire. Since her husljand's death Mrs. Rutledge 

has lived in McLean County. The first settlement 
made here by the father was some three miles north 
of Danville. At the time of his location here there 
were but three white families in the village, this 
part of the county being chiefly occupied by In- 
dians. The land had not 3'ct come into market: 
he, however, ventured to settle in the timber, and 
reckoned that the prairies would never become 
populated. The first liouse was made of logs, and 
the firejjlace was concocted of a substance called 
stone-coal, which was supposed to be fire-proof. 
This, however, proved to l)e a mistake, for the fire 
was no sooner built than the stone-coal at once be- 
gan to burn, and it was with ditliculty that the 
cabin itself was saved. After considerable exertion 
the flames were extinguished. Immediately after 
this disaster what remained of the coal chimney 
was torn down and it was replaced by a stick and 
clay one. 

The little log cabin was soon surrounded by a 
nicelj- cultivated farm, and later, in its stead a 
pretty house might be seen. There the family 
lived for ten years. During this time the vil- 
lage of Denmark, as it is now called, was started. 
It was a rough frontier town situated near to the 
house of our subject's father. On .account of the 
many disadvantages arising from their nearness to 
Deiunark, the father sold his farm and removed to 
this township, which was better suited to his taste. 
Here he spent his last days. His death occurred in 
1845. His wife survived him by thirty-six years. 
She died at Farmer's City, McLean County, in 
1881, her daughter being with her at the time. 

Hugh Wright was married first in this county to 
;\Iiss Manerva, daughter of Peter and Elizabeth 
Payne, who came from New York, their n.ative 
city, to be pioneers in this county. Of this mar- 
riage there were six children: Margaret, America. 
Mary, Fannie, now Mrs. Henry Kadymaker, Clarissa 
and Frank. Margaret and America are no longer 
living; Mary is now Mrs. .Samuel A. Oliver, and 
resides in Southern Texas; Clarissa married Mr. 
Staunton Foster and lives in this township; Fannie 
and her husband are living in Armstrong. The 
whole family are members of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, of which the father was a Class- 
Leader for many 3'ears. Hugh Wright's first wife 



(liwl ill April, 1881. After seven j'ears he was 
again married to Mrs. Stacy (Potts) Wilcoff. This 
happy event took place in Nov. 1888. By her 
first husband she had three children: Thomas, 
Ellen and James. Wikoff is a name well remem- 
bered among the old families of Ohio. 

Mr. Wright is the proprietor of a fine farm com- 
prising 400 acres all under good cultivation. This 
he has made his home, adding yearly to it all the 
advantages and improvements that suggest them- 
selves. An important feature in his character is 
his business accurac}^ and punctuality. These 
enable him at any time to command the assistance 
of any bank with which he does business. Besides 
the farm on which he lives, he is the owner of 800 
acres, all fine farms, in this township. His mill 
has been improved and an artesian well has been 
supplemented to the list of conveniences on his 

Mr. Wright's father seems to have been consti- 
tutionally destitute of fear. He was made, as it 
were, without that peculiar faculty which makes 
people take danger into the account and try to 
keep at a distance from it. Tlie full possession of 
tliis deficienc}' (if the phrase is not too direct a 
contradiction in terms) is now quite uncommon. 
It was therefore without trepidation he made 
a friend of W.ipanim, the chief of an Indian tribe. 
They were in fact on such friendly terms that Mr. 
Wright did not hesitate to allow his son Hugh, 
who was then a child, to ride on the Indian's back 
through the woods. The tribe was at that time a 
peaceful one. 

One day while talking with Mr. AV'right the 
chief requested him to report anything that a mem- 
ber of his tribe might do which did not happen to 
meet with Mr. Wright's approbation. This request 
was soon to be made use of. The occasion was as 
follows: A stalwart Indian came to the house and 
threatened to harm our subject's mother for having 
refused to give him the eggs that he had asked for. 
This fact was stated to the chief, who had the In- 
dian whipped most severely. The lash used was a 
stout one and was plied by a strong hand. The 
result was that the poor creature's skin was Ijroken 
and the raw bleeding flesh exposed. Still the pun- 
ishment was continued so long that fully a pint of 

lilood iiuist have been shed. ]\Ir. Wright and his 
family were called upon to witness the scene. 

This little incident is given partly to direct at- 
tention to the care and assiduity with wliieh this 
exceptionally good chief guarded the interests of 
the white families against the barbarous injustice of 
his own men. Wapinim spoke English well, and 
for a man of his type was unusually intelligent. 

Hugh Wright was seventeen years old when he 
got his first suit of store clothes, which he bought 
with the money he himself had earned by tramping 
out some oats with horses and hauling them to 
Chicago, where the}- sold at ten cents per bushel. 
Before this his clotlies were such as his mother 
would make by means of the old spinning-wheel. 
He was very proud of his new apparel, which cost 
him $10, the price of 100 bushels of oats. 

-*?=5^EORGE WHEELER JONES, M. D.. one 

of the foremost phj'sicians of the State of Illi- 
nois, and who has a fine professional reputa- 
tion beyond its borders, was born in Bath, Steuben 
Co., N. Y., in February, 1839. Dr. Jones' father, 
John S. Jones, also a phj-sician, was born in High- 
land, Kings Co., N. Y., and his fatiier, John Jones, 
was born in or near New York City. The}' were 
of Welsh ancestry. Dr. Jones, father of George 
W., commenced the study of medicine while quite 
a young man, and was graduated from the medical 
college at Albany, after which he practiced his pro- 
fession in New Y'^ork State until 1847, when he re- 
moved to Indiana and settled in Covington, practi- 
cing there many years. He removed from Coving- 
ton to Danville, where he died in the fall of 1871, 
but a few months after his last removal. Dr. 
Jones, Sr., married Charlotte Wheeler, a native of 
Steuben County, N. Y. Her father, George 
Wheeler, was a native of Connecticut, and they 
trace their ancestry to England. The mother of 
the subject of this article still resides in Danville. 
There were seven children born to her: George 
W., James S. (deceased), Ly-dia, Frank and 
Caleb (deceased), Mary S. and Lottie E. James 
enlisted, at the age of eighteen, in the 63d Indiana 
Infantry, and was mustered in as private, but was 

Residence and Farm Property of John LEEMON.or, 

Ec'sA.^iO.(23.-lE.) AND Sec's. 33.(2-^.-12.) Vermilion &. Iroquois Cos.. 



rapidly i)romotecl through difiFerent gTarlcs until he 
reached tlie rank of < Quartermaster. He served 
until the close of the war, and is now deceased. 

Dr. G. W. Jones attended the pulilic schools in 
New York State and later in Covington, and finally 
completed his literary studies at Wabash College, 
and also hegan the study of medicine with his 
father and uncle Caleb .lones, at Covington. lie 
attended several courses of lectures at a medical 
college in Chicago, during which time he received 
private instructions from Dr. Byford. of that city. 
In March, 1862, he was graduated, and imme- 
diately entered the army as Acting Surgeon of the 
2Gth Illinois Regiment. After a few month's serv- 
ice in that capacitv he was tendered a commission 
with the rank of Major and Surgeon of that regi- 
ment, but preferred to be with his brother in the 
63d Indiana, and .accepted the position of Assistant 
Surgeon of that regiment, where he served until 
the close of the war. For two years he was one of 
the Surgeons in charge of the field hospital of the 
third division of the 2."d army corps. He served 
with Sherman in the Atlanta campaign, and also in 
the operations against Hood's armj- in Tennessee. 
He carries the scars of the wound received at 
Pumpkin "Vine Creek, caused by tiie explosion of a 
shell. After being mustered out of the service in 
18G5 he came to Danville, and at once inaugurated 
a successful practice. Dr. Jones has a brilliant war 
record, and one of which he can justly feel i)roud. 
The subject of this sketcli was married in 1865, 
to Emelyn K. Enos, of Cincinnati, Ohio, and a 
daughter of Benjamin and Susan Enos. She is the 
mother of one child, Hubert W. Dr. Jones and 
wife are members of llul}' Trinity (Episcopal) 
Church. Politicallj', the Doctor is a standi Repub- 
lican, and for many }'ears has served as a member 
of the Pension Board, a position he has filled with 
marked ability. He is a member of the following 
medical societies: The Vermilion County Medical 
Society, The Illinois Central, Chicago Medical So- 
ciety. Illinois State Medical Society, Mississippi 
Valley, and the American Medical Association. 
He was a delegate to the meeting of the Inter- 
national Medical Congress which met in Washing- 
ton, D. C, in 1888. and which was composed of 
many of the scientific men of the world. While 

Dr. Jones stands at the head of his profession in 
his portion of the country, he is reckoned :us one of 
the l)est of neighbors and citizens. The Doctor is a 
member of Lodge No. 69, I. O. O. F., of Danville, 
and also a prominent Mason, olflciating with (Jri- 
ental Consistory of Chicago, and several other 
secret societies. 

'ifJOHN LEEMON. The man who has flowing- 
I through his veins the blood of an lionor- 
I able ancestry has occasion for being jnoud, 
' for he has thus been endowed with thac 
which is better than silver and gold. If he has like- 
wise been endowed with the wisdom to improve his 
talent, he is doubly fuituu.itc, for no matter what 
circumstances surniund him. he is usually able to 
fight his way resolutely to success. Some men are 
met with seeminglv more than their share of ad- 
versit3-, while the course of others is comparatively 
smooth, but in either event men usually have about 
all they wish to contend with of trouljlc and toil. 
Those who have succeeded in breasting the waves 
are naturally looked up to by their fellow-men, 
among whom the^' become captains and leaders. 

The subject of this notice presents a fine illus- 
tration of the results of perseverance, and what 
man maj' accomplish from a very humble begin- 
ning. Commencing in life without other resources 
than his own energy and resolution, he climbed his 
w.ay steadih' upward until he is now a man of 
property and importance, owning one of the finest 
farms in Central Illinois. This comprises 1,080 
acres in one boily, occui)ying the greater portions 
of sections 4 and 10, township 23, range 12, the 
residence being on 4, and the balance in Iroquois 
Counts' on the north, in township 24. range 12 
In Fountain Creek he has 520 acres, and 120 acres 
near East Lynn. In Scott and Christian counties 
he has an interest in 1,785 acres. The home farm, 
which has naturally been under the especial over- 
sight of the proprietor, has been brought to a high 
state of cultivation, and mainly devoted to general 
farming together with stock-raising. The residence 
with its surroundings, which are represented by a 
lithographic engraving on another page, give it 



the air of plenty and comfort which is delightful to 
coiiteinplate. The buildings and machinerj' are 
all that is required for the successful prosecution 
of agriculture. 

Mr. Leemon was horn of Scotch parentage in 
County Armagh in the North of Ireland, May 8, 
18-29, and emigrated to America when he was 
twenty-two years old, coming directly to Illinois 
and settling in Jersey Count3^ He worked out by 
the mouth, first at *512, and during the winter sea- 
son husked corn at fifty cents per day and board. 
His wants were few, and at these small wages he 
managed to save a little money nntil he had enough 
to buy a team. This accomplished, he rented a 
tract uf land in Jersey County, where he carried 
on farming until 185G. In the meantime he had 
come to this county and purchased 444 acres of 
wild land. As soon as possible he commenced its 
improvement and cultivation at a time when there 
was not a house in that vicinity, excepting the one 
occMi)ied by Mr. Iloopes, with whom he boarded, 
going back and forth to his place, two and one- 
h:ilf miles, night and morning. 

In the fall (_>f IS.jT Mr. Leemon put up a small 
house on his farm, and, like the bachelor of old, 
"lived b}' himself," until he judged it prudent to 
take unto himself a wife. In the meantime he 
planted forest and fruit trees, set out a goodly 
anuniul of hedge, and instituted the improvements 
winch, as time passed on, resulted in making his 
farm a vevy valuable and desiiable piece of prop- 
erty. He has now two windmills and a feedmill, 
his barn being underlaid witli water-pipes which 
lead to various tanks wherever recpiired for the 
convenience of stock. The wet land has been 
thoroughly drained with tiling, which was con- 
veyed from Bloomington. When Mr. Leemon 
settled here wild animals of all kinds were plentiful, 
especially deer and wolves. He has seen as mani- 
as seventy-five deer in one herd, while men fre- 
quently got together to hunt the wolves, which 
hunger made altogether too familiar to suit the 
settlers, sometimes stealing the deer meat from 
their doors. 

When the time came that Mr. Leemon felt that 
he could justifiablj' assume the resjjonsibility of a 
family, hewasxinited in marriage with MissLodema 

Brown, of Butler Township, the wedding taking 
place at Rossville Aug. 26, 1865. Mr. and Mrs. 
Leemon commenced the journey of life together in 
their own home, and in due time they became the 
parents of six children, the eldest of whom, a 
daughter, Izele, died at the age of twelve j-ears. 
The survivors are Lida, Robert A., John A., 
Charles N. and Edith, and they are all at home 
with their parents, being given the training 
and education which will fit them for their proper 
station in life, as the offspring of one of the first 
families of this county. 

Upon becoming a voting citizen Mr. Leemon 
identified himself with the Democratic party, but 
in local or State politics, votes independently, 
aiming to support the men whom he considers best 
qualified to serve the interests of the people. He 
has been the incumbent of nearl3' everj' office in 
Fountain Creek Township. He served as Justice 
of the Peace eight j'ears, also as School Director, 
and Trustee, and Supervisor for four 3'ears, and 
has uniformly distinguished himself as a man of 
progressive and liberal ideas — one willing to give 
his time and influence to those enterprises calcu- 
lated for the general good. He was reared in the 
doctrines of the Presbyterian Church. During the 
early days he labored early and late, frequently 
plowing all night long and resting a part of the 
daj', on account of the flies. Notwithstanding this he 
took good care of his health, never abusing himself 
by using liquor, and is consequently still a well- 
preserved man and able to enjoy the fruits of his 
labors, now that he is in a condition to retire. 
Many of the enterprises of Hoopestown have found 
in Mr. Leemon a substantial friend and benefactor. 
He is ^'ice President and Director of the new bank. 

Thomas Leemon, the father of our sidiject, was 
likewise a native of the North of Ireland, to which 
his forefathers had been driven during tlie times of 
religious persecution in Sci>tland. lie married 
IMiss Elizabeth Thompson, and they reared a fam- 
ily of six children, all of whom followed our sub- 
ject to America in 1854, three 3'ears after his arri- 
val here. They sojourned for a time in Jersey 
County, this State, then removed to Christian 
County-, where the father died in 1862. The 
mother survived lier husband some 3-ears, and 



spent her last days with her son John, (inssing 
away in 1883. S.iniuel aTul William Leeiuon, the 
two brothers of our subject, are residents of Chris- 
tian County. Mis. Leemon was born near Lock- 
poit.'in Niagara County, N. Y., and when about 
seventeen j'ears old emigrated with her parents to 
Indiana, where she lived until about twenty-two 
\-ears old. They then removed to East Lynn, this 
county. Her father, John Brown, spent his last 
days in Marysville. EastTenu.. where he died some 
3'ears ago. The mother. Mrs. Catherine (Bears) 
Brown, still lives, and makes her home with her 
daughter, at the advanced age of eight3'-one years. 



Jr)OHN R. THOMPSON. Few men are bet- 
I ter known throughout Oakwood Township 
I than Mr. Thompson. He owns a good farm 
j of COO acres, on sections 24 and 25, where ue 
has effected most of the improvements upon it, 
erecting the barn and other buildings, and himself 
clearing loO acres. He has made a specialty of 
sheep-raising — Shropshires and Merinos — and has 
probably had a larger experience in this industry 
than any other man in the county. In this he has 
been unifornil}' successful, and maintains that the 
only money he has ever made and saved, he has 
accumulated in this manner. He has also dealt 
largel}' in cattle, swine and general farm produce, 
and cultivates 250 acres, which, from its soil and 
location, is classed among the best land in the 
township. He is a lover of the equine race like- 
wise and has four fine specimens of thorough-bred 
Kentucky running stock, two of Harkaway, one of 
Gloster, and one from Laurence, promising young 
horses, who will probably make a fine record. Mr. 
Thompson proposes retiring from active labor in 
the near future, which he can well afford to do, 
having an ample competence. 

The eighth in a familj' of eigiiteen children, our 
subject was born April 12, 1830, in W.ashington 
County, Pa. His parents were Joseph and Nancy 
(Stonghton) Thompson, natives respectively of 
New Jersey and Pennsylvania. The p.iternal 
grandfather was a native of Wales, whence he emi- 
grated to America at an early d.ay. Joseph 

Thompson and his wife spent their entire lives in 
their native State, the father dying in 18C5. and 
the mother in 1880. Thirteen of their childien 
lived to mature years, and ten are still living, mak- 
ing their homes mostly in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illi- 
nois and Kansas. 

The boyhood d.ays of Mr. Thompson were spent 
in his native county and his education was acquired 
in the district school, after which he engaged in 
farm work until 1851. Then, having reached his 
majority, he started for the farther West, landing 
in this county and for six years thereafter operated 
as a shepherd, thus gaining his knowledge of the 
proper care and treatment of sheep. He watched 
his flocks on the wild prairie when the settlers were 
few and far between and occupying farms within 
a mile of the timber. In coming to Illinois Mr. 
Thompson drove a flock of 1,300 sheep for another 
man. lieing sixty-six daj's on the way. He attended 
these until the spring of 1852 then returned to his 
native State and returned with a flock of 1,500 to 
this countj', making the entire distance on foot and 
consuming seventy-two days. 

On the 27 of November, 185G, our subjet;t was 
united in marriage with Miss Elizabeth, daughter 
of David C. Wright, who had died previously. 
The j'oung people commenced the journey- of life 
together on ai-ented farm which the}' occupied three 
years, Mr. Thompson still maintaining his inter- 
est in sheep, which he began to raise in goodly 
numbers and which brought him handsome returns. 
In due time he purchased I GO acres of land adja- 
cent to that which he now owns. He lived upon 
this four years, then sold it and purchased lilO 
acres, partly improved and near the timber. Three 
years later he sold out once more and purchased 
his present farm. 

To Mr. and .Mr. Tlioui|)son there were born 
twelve children, one of whom died young. The 
survivors form an unusually bright and interesting 
group, of which the parents are justly proud. The 
eldest, Joseph Morton, married Miss Molly Steen 
and is a leading member of the (!. A. R., of Dan- 
ville. D. Lincoln married Miss Melissa Hall and 
is senior member of the firm of Thompson Bros., 
general inorchauts at Fithian; he has two children. 
Annie, Mrs. Elijah Board, is the mother of one 



child and lives in Oakwood Township; Nellie F., 
Jolin R., (iertie E., Ulysses S., Frauciena, Maude, 
Harrison and DoUie, are at home with their pa- 
rents. The firm of Thompson Bros., is conspicuous 
for its admiral)le business abilities and has few 
equals in this part of the country. The children 
of our subject have all been given an excellent edu- 
cation, four of the six eldest receiving first-gi-ade 
certificates. .Joseph M. was graduated from the 
University of Michigan, .at Ann Arbor, receiving 
special instruction from Judge C'ooley. 

Mr. Thom[)son votes the straight Republican 
ticket, being the only one of seven brothers who 
cast his lot with this party — the other six and the 
the father being staiinch JJemocrats. He has offi- 
ciated as School Director most of the time since 
coming to Oakwood Township and has been Path- 
master for many years. Socially, he belongs to 
the I. O. (). F. at Fithian and has passed all the 
Chairs and tlirougli the Encampment. A man 
never idle when there is anything to do, he has 
uinde for himself a good recortl in point of industry 
and perseverance. One of the most fortunate 
things which has fallen to his lot is his estimable 
and sensible wife, a lady greatly esteemed in her 
community for her excellent qualities of character 
and her devotion to her family. 

Mrs. Thompson was the eldest child of her pa- 
rents and was born Dec. 26, 1837, in Champaign 
County, 111. Of the four children born to her pa- 
rents three are now living, one residing |n Iowa 
and one in Nebraska. Her grandfather, John B. 
Wright, of Pennsylvania, removed first to Indiana 
and tlien to this county of which he was one of the 
pioneer settlers. 


(«1 ^ILLIAM W 

\J// '"ember of 
W^J nan, is with 

Ihe lirm of Crimmins & Bucha- 
his partner operating the liv- 
ery stable at Sidell, and is highly popular among 
the residents of this well-regulated little village. 
He also operates considerably as an auctioneer and 
salesman. He is a man of undoubted ability, and 
fine personal appearance, and possesses those correct 
ideas in relation to both public and private life 

from which spring the better elements of society. 
He was born in Gentry County, Mo., March 17, 

The parents of our subject were Enoch and Su- 
san (Beard) Buchanan, the father a native of Ohio 
and the mother of Kentuck}-. The paternal grand- 
father removed from the Buckeye State and settled 
in Edgar County, 111. about 1845, bringing his 
family with him. He and his father both served 
in the war of 1812. The Buchanan family is of 
Scotch ancestr}- and upon coming to this country, 
settled in Pennsylvania where they carried on farm- 
ing. They were a 'large, muscular set of people 
and usually thrifty and well-to-do. Enoch Bucha- 
nan was reared to manhood in Edgar County, this 
State, l)ut was married in Vermilion County, 
whence he moved to Missouri about 1854, settlino' 
on a farm near Fairview. The troubles during the 
Civil War induced him to return to Illinois and in 
the meantime his properly was destroyed. He was 
thus left without resources, Imt set himself to work 
and was prospered, finally becoming the owner of 
a farm in Carroll Township. He departed this 
life in 1878 after an active career of fifty 3ears. 
The mother is still living and makes her home with 
our subject; she is novv fifty-eight years old. 
Their four children were named respectively, Sarah, 
John. William Wilson and Elizabeth. The eldest 
daughter is a resident of Carroll Township; John 
died at the age of one 3'ear; Elizabeth became the 
wife of Benjamin Black, one of the leading citi- 
zens of Carroll, Township. 

Our subject acquired his education in the com- 
mon school and as his father's business called the 
latter away from home, William W., being the 
onl}' son, necessarily assumed the responsibility 
of looking after the family, although but twenty 
years of age. In 1878 Mr. Buchanan engaged in 
the sewing machine business which he followed un- 
til the spring of 1889. At the same time lie super- 
intended the operation of his farm. He was 
married in 1881 to Miss Alice C. Gilroy at her 
home in Carroll Township. Mrs. Buchanan is the 
daughter of William and Elizabeth (Beard) Gilroy, 
whose parents came to this county in 1845 and 
were among the pioneer settlers of Carroll Town- 
ship. The mother is still living and makes her 



home in Butler Count}', Kan. ; she is about fifty- 
two years old. Of her first niarringe tliere was 
liiini niie child only — Mrs. Burhanaii. After the 
death of lier first husband she was married twice, 
having three cliildren by the second husband and 
one liy the third. 

Mrs. Bnclianan was reared to womanhood in 
Carroll Township, this county, and com])leted her 
studies in the High School at Indianola. Of her 
union with our subject there have been born four 
cliildren^Essie, Leila, Floy E. and Elma. Mr. 
Buchanan, politically, votes the Democratic ticket 
and socially belongs to the Modern AVoodmen 
Camp at Indianola. The firm of which he is a 
member was organized April 17, 1889. but not- 
withstanding the business is comparatively' new, is 
in the enjoyment of a good patronage. They have 
put in an excellent stock of new buggies and 
harness, have good horses, and, in fact, conduct 
their enterprise in a manner which makes it ex- 
tremely i>opular among the people of this region. 
They are consequently justified in their expectations 
of the future. 

Aside from his livery business Mr. Buchanan is 
recognized as one of the leading auctioneers of 
this county, operating principally along its south- 
ern line. He has been in practice for the last five 
years, his transactions being princii)ally in live- 
stock deals. He is thus widely known throughunt 
Western Indiana and Northern Illinois. He also 
oHiciated as Constable of Carroll Township. 

.JLLIAM DAVIS. The man who has thought 
much and studied much, and whose char- 
acter has commended itself to his fellow- 
men, naturally has an influence in shaping their 
views and opinions; and this influence will be felt 
](>n<i after he has been gathered to his fathei's. Here 
and there we find one far in advance of his age — 
one whose children will probablv live to see the 
time when his i)rophecies will have been fulfilled 
and his ideas adopted by a later generation. These 
thoughts involuntarily arise in contemplating the 
cireer of Mr. Davis, who is a man of more than 
ordinary intelligence, possessing a mind filled with 

those broad and philanthropic ideas which musi 
necessarily in time become of benefit to the human 
race. He was born with a natural antipathy to 
tyranny in all its forms, believing with P:itriek 
Henry, that death is preferable to oi)prcssion. He 
is totally averse to trusts and monopolies and when- 
ever opportunity occurs lifts up his voice .against 
those corijorations whicli have proved the ruin, not 
only of individuals, but sometimes almost of entire 

Mr. Davis was one of the earliest pioneers of 
Vermilion County and was at an early day acknowl- 
edged as one of its leading men. He was born in 
Guernsey County, Ohio, .Tan. 2,"), 181 Land was the 
third in a family- of ten children, the olTspring of 
Ilenrv and Rachel (Polock) Davis, both natives of 
Pennsylvania and the father born in Greene 
County. The paternal grandfather, also a native 
of the Keystone State, was a patriot of the Revolu- 
tionary War, after which he settled in Ohio, reared 
two families of twelve children each and departed 
this life aliont 1823. Grandfather Polock died in 
Guernse\- County about 1820. This liranch of llie 
Davis family was of Dutch and Welsh descent while 
the Polocks traced their ancestry to Ireland. Henry 
Davis occupied himself largely as a farmer and was 
also successfullv engaged in raising tol)acco. 

The parents of our subject after marriage lived 
in Pennsylvania two years, then in 1807 matle their 
w.ay to the young State of Ohio, accompanied by 
grandfather Polock, and settled in Guernsey 
County. The mother of our subject died in Illi- 
nois in 1848. The father survived his wife five 
years, dying in 1853. They came to Illinois in 
the fall of 1836. Mr. Davis, prior to this, had vis- 
ited Illinois four times, being determined to settle 
here. Five of their children are still living, making 
their homes in Illinois and Iowa. 

The boyhood and yf)uth of our suliject were 
spent amid the wild scenes of pioneer life during 
the earlj' settlement of Ohio and he naively states 
that the only bear' hunt he ever took part in was 
when he was five months old .and his father killed 
the bear. He attended school two months in the 
winter season for a few years, and after reaching 
his majority' began making arrangements for the 
establishment of a home of his own. In the fall of 



1834, he was married to Miss Elizabetli, daughter 
of David Hayes of Washington Couiitj', Pa. The 
young couple thirteen days afterward started for 
Illinois with a wagon and accompanied by an uncle 
of our subject and his brotiier Azariah with his 
wife and child. They were nineteen days on the 
journey and Mr. and Mrs. Davis walked nearly all 
the way. 

Mr. Davis received from his father seventy -seven 
acres of land in Vance Townsliip, this county, upon 
which was a hewed log cabin. The newly wedded 
pair liad brought with them a couple of beds and 
a few things stowed away in sacks, while Mr. Davis 
had his ax and gun. Two hours after reaching their 
destination they were visited by prairie wolves 
which were frequent callers for many years after- 
ward. After olitaining some wheat which had been 
raised on his place the year before, Mr. Davis re- 
paired to Eugene, Ind., and selling tliis wheat, 
purchased a few cooking utensils. He and his 
wife had stools to sit upon and a table made by 
boring holes in the log wall of their dwelling, driv- 
ing in a couple of pins and laying a few slabs 

In those days there were only a few houses 
between Catlin and Sidney. Homer was not in 
existence. The Wabash Railway track was sur- 
veyed in 1837. Our subject's little farm was 
partly liroken before it became his, his father 
giving liini the deed for it in 1837. He was suc- 
cessful in his first fanning operations, although he 
had very crude implements with which to culti- 
vate the .soil and uo help save that of his wife. 
He struggled along in the new country and grew 
slowly with it. He thinks the most prosperous 
times for this "section were between 1850 and 1860 
and the two years following the close of tlie war. 

Ten children came to bless the union of Mr. 
and Mrs. Davis, seven of whom grew to mature 
years. Rachel became the wife of Daniel Roudebush 
wlio is now deceased; she has four children and 
lives near Portland, Ore.; Edith married Ben- 
jamin Browning and became the mother of four 
children; they live near Sacramento, Cal.; D. Cook 
married for his second wife a Mrs. Miller of Pen- 
field. III., and they have six children; Henry is 
written of elsewhere in this volume; Jemima is the 

wife of Sullivan Cox, lives in Dement and has one 
child; Lydia, E., the wife of George W. Baird, is 
the mother of four children and they live in Vance 

Mrs. Elizabeth (Hayes) Davis departed this life 
at the homestead in the fall of 1861. 

Our subject contracted a second matrimonial al- 
liance Aug. 21, 1863, with Miss Mary C, daughter 
of Lawrence T. Catletl and sister of Hiram and 
Harold Catlett of Vance Township. Mrs. Davis 
was the third in a family of twelve children and 
was born Aiig. 23, 1821, in Charlottesville, Va. 
She attended school for a time in her native State 
and comi)leted a good education in Ohio. She fol- 
lowed the profession of a teacher for some years 
prior to her marriage. The family came to Illinois 
in 1846 and Miss Mary taught school for some 
time in this county. She is a most estimable and 
worthy lady, kind, generous and hospitable and 
especially attentive to those in affliction. She has 
always been interested in educational matters and 
donated $75 from her own private purse to the 
university at Upper Alton. She also gave $50 to 
the Baptist Church in Danville of which both she 
and her husband have been members for many 
years, Mv. Davis serving as Deacon and Trustee 
and both laboring earnestly in the Sunday-school. 
The health of Mrs. Davis for the past two years 
has been delicate, preventing her from pursuing 
this good work as she would have liked. 

Mr. Davis, more fortunate than many of lii.s com- 
peers, ru)anciall3% received $2,500 fromhis father and 
had the good judgment to take care of it and add to 
it. He is now the owner of about 1,000 acres of land 
in this county and five good houses. He an 
interest in the implement firm of Davis & Stearns, 
and also in a large grain warehouse. Besides this 
he owns fifteen or eighteen lots in Fairmount and 
has given to each of his children $3,500. He 
donated $1,000 to the Universitj- at Chi- 
cago, $500 to the Wabash Railroad, $500 to the 
university at Upper Alton and always been a 
liberal supporter of the schools, churches and other 
worthy enterprises in this County. His estate is 
valued at $60,000. While busy with the accumu- 
lation of this world's goods for himself he has the 
satisfaction of knowing that the needy have never 



been turned empty from liis door. He sympathizes 
with those less fortunate than himself and none are 
more ready to aid those, who will try to help them- 

The first presidential vote of Mv. Davis was cast 
in 1832 for Andrew Jackson, and he been a 
uniform supporter of the Democratic party until 
1876, since which time he has been a Greenbacker. 
Taking a lively interest in polities, his expressed sen- 
timents have al w.ays been pure and upright and could 
he have his way there would be no wire-working and 
no political dishonesty. During the election of 
1888 he supported the Union-Labor nominee .and 
he has favored the election of a Greenbacker. He 
is ratlier opposed to secret societies and has held 
aloof from them. He served .as School Director 
many years and for several terras officiated as 
Road Overseer. Few men have kept them.selves 
more conversaiit with matters of interest 
to the intelligent citizen, and few have been of more 
essential aid in supporting the various worthy en- 
terprises tending to elevate society and benefit the 

^p^EORGE HO AG LAND. In the fall of 18G0 
ml ^—. there might have been seen wending their 
^^jl wa}' across the new country, a young man 
with his wife and four children, intent upon mak- 
ing a home in a new section, and practically grow- 
ing up with the country. Few men had settled at 
that time in township 23, range 12, where our sub- 
ject secured 120 acres on section 32. Upon this 
land there was a small house, into which he moved 
his family, and made them as comfortable as pos- 
sible. Little of the land around them had been 
fenced or cultivated, while deer, wolves and other 
wild animals had scarcely learned to be afraid at 
the approach of man. The nearest trading point at Rossville, and for anything out of the com- 
mon line of merchandise Mr. Hoagland was obliged 
to repair to D.anville. Attica or Paxton, twenty 
miles away. 

Our subject came a long distance from his birth- 
place to seek a permanent home, having first opened 
his eyes to the light on the Atlantic coast. New 

Jersey, M.ay l.i, 1802. There he spent the first 
nineteen years of his life, and then emigrated with 
Ills jjarents to Hamilton County. Ind., where they 
were among the earliest pioneers. In due time he 
was married to Miss Mary Van Zant. who died, 
leaving one child. His second wife was Rachel 
Cushman, and to them there were born five chil- 
dren, of whom Jonathan C, who lives on the farm 
with his father, is the only survivor. 

Our subject first cleared eighty acres from the 
wilderness, then sold out, and purchased that which 
he now owns and occupies. He l)uilt this up from 
the raw prairie, and given to it the labor of 
many years in bringing it to its present [josition, 
besides a generous outlay of money. Although 
now quite well advanced on the down hill of life, 
he retains much of the activity of his former yc'ars, 
and keeps himself well posted upon current events. 
He voted for both the Harrisons, and no man has 
rejoiced more in the results of the war whiih 
brought about freedom and preserved the LTnion. 
He has been a member of the Baptist Church since 
1828, and is of kindly and genial disposition 
which has made him friends wherever he so- 

Jonathan C. Hoagland, the onl\- living child of 
our subject, born in Indiana, April 24, 1846, 
and lived there until coming to this countv. in 
1860. Soon .after the outbreak of the Civil AVar 
he enlisted in Company E, 149th Illinois Infantry, 
which was assigned to the Arm}' of the Tennessee. 
Tliis regiment, however, while before Atl.anta dur- 
ing the siege of the city, was not called upon to 
do any active fighting, but was sinipl}' assigned to 
guard duty. They received their honorable dis- 
charge, and were mustered out in 1866. Mr. Hoag- 
land then returned to this county, and eng.agcd in 
farming with his father, and has since remained a 
resident here. 

Jonathan C. Ho.agland, son of our subject, was 
married on tlie 24th of December, 1874, to Miss 
Rebecca Sanders, of Butler Township. The three 
children born to them — Rose E., M.ary ;\I. and 
Flora B. — are .all living at home with their parents. 
Jonathan C. Ho.agland been School Direc- 
tor in his district several terms, and, like his hon- 
orcil father, is held in high esteem by his neighbors. 



Mrs. George Iloaglancl. wife of our subject, was 
born in Pennsylvania, July 30, 18L5. and removed 
witii her parents to hidiana when a maiden of eigh- 
teen years. She remained under tlie parental roof 
until her marriage. Her father, Thomas Cushman, 
was a farmer bj' occupation, and spent his last 
years in Indiana. 

Charles Bareus, the grandson of our subject, and 
the child of his daughter, Mary, resides at the 
homestead. John Barcus, his father, after his mar- 
riage with iMiss Hoagland, located in Grant Town- 
ship, and they became the parents of three sons 
and one daiigiiter, one older than Charles, and two 

• '^^^m- 

!|i!_,^ENRY LLOYD, a veteran of the late war. 
jT")!' wherein he did loyal service for his adopted 
'l^^ country, is one of the leading citizens of 
(^) Catlin Township, jn'ominent in the manage- 
ment of its public affairs, and closely identified 
with its material interests as an intelligent, pro- 
gressive farmer, stock- raiser, and stock-dealer. 
His farm on section 3-1, with its broad, well-tilled 
acres, its orderly, commodious buildings, and pleas- 
ant dwelling is one of the most desii-able and at- 
tractive places in this part of Vermillion County. 

Mr. Lloj'd is of good English stock, and is him- 
self a native of the mother country, born in Berk- 
shire, April 5, 1841. His parents, Richard C. and 
Susan (Wicks) Lloyd, were also born in England, 
and were life-long residents of the old countrj', 
dying in Berkshire. They were people of sterling 
worth, well thought of by their neighbors, and the}' 
trained their seven children to habits of useful- 
ness and honesty. 

Henry Lloyd was the fourth child of the family 
and the years of his boyhood were passed among 
the pleasant scenes of his native land. In 1858, 
when seventeen years of age he left his old home, 
ambitious to see more of life and to avail himself 
of the many advantages offered by the United 
States of America to the poor 3'outh of other coun- 
tries to make their w.ay in the world to positions of 
comfort and even affluence. After landing on 
these shores be came to Catlin Township, of which 
he has been a resident since, excepting during 

the trying times of the great Rebellion, when with 
a patriotism not exceeded by those native and to the 
manor born, he bravely consecrated his young life 
to the defence of the land of his adoption. In 
August. 1862, tearing himself away from his little 
family, and laying aside all business interests, he 
enlisted, and in the following September he was 
mustered into Compau}- G, 12.")th Illinois Infantry, 
and was in the army until after the war closed. 
He took an active part in the battles of Perryville, 
Mission Ridge, second battle of Mission Ridge, 
battle of Dallas, and was with Gen. Sherman in his 
famous march to the sea. During two years of his 
service he detailed to haul ammunition. He 
was honorably discharged June 9, 1865, and re- 
turning to Catlin, resumed his former vocation. 
The first four years after coming to Catlin Town- 
ship he was engaged in the butcher business, but 
aside from that he has been occupied in farming and 
in raising, burying and shipping stock quite ex- 
tensively. He owns 240 acres of choice land, all 
improved, and amplj- supplied with excellent 
buildings for .all necessary purposes and with mod- 
ern machinery for facilitating the labors of the 

Mr. Lloyd and ^Miss Sarah Church were united 
in marriage in Catlin Township, Dec. 20, 1860, 
and nine children have been born to them — Edwin 
C, who died when ten and a half months old; 
Maria L. is the wife of Abraham Wolf; two who died 
in infancy; Alice E., Fred R., Fannie E., Edwin 
H., and William R. 

Mrs. Lloyd is like her husband, a native of 
England, born in London Jan. 7, 1844. In 1850, 
when she was six years of age, her parents, Henry 
and Sophia (Puzey) Church, who were likewise of 
English birti), brought her to this country\ They 
cast their lot with the early settlers of Catlin 
Township, and passed their remaining days here. 
They had seven children, Mrs. Lloj'd being the 
youngest. She is a woman of a happy, amiable 
disposition, is well liked by .all who know her, 
and is a member in higli standing of the Methodist 

Mr. Lloj'd is a frank, open hearted man, gifted 
with rare energy and stability of character. His 
public spirit is well known, and any good scheme 





that will in an3' way promote the best interests of 
tiic town.ship is sure to meet with his cordial ap- 
proval and sul)stantial support. His fellow-citi- 
zens have often calk'd, upon him for advice in 
weiifiity matters, and as a public ofticial he has 
shown his disinterested regard for the welfare of 
the community. He has been Road Commissioner 
three }-ears, Township Collector two years, School 
Director six years, and Vice-President of the 
Vermilion Agricultural Society seven ^-ears. He 
is connected with tlie A. F. & A. M. as a member 
of C'atlin Lodge, No. 28.5. He and his familj- are 
people of high social standing in this community, 
and their pleasant residence, situated a short dis- 
tance from the road and close to the corporation 
of Catlin, is the centre of a genuine hospitality, 
tlie graceful and kindly courtesy of its inmates 
making friends and strangers alike feel at home 
within its walls. 


IRAM YERKES. The firm of Yerkes & 
Reese conduct a first-class meat-market in 
Fairmounl, obtaining their supplies from 
the farm of Mr. Yerkes, which furnishes 
the pure article so essential to the health of man- 
kind. The firm is one of first-class standing, and 
enjoys the patronage of the best peojjle of Fair- 
mount and vicinit}'. The subject of this notice is 
a man of more than ordiniuy abilities, with a thor- 
ough-going business talent, while at the same time 
he is whole-souled, genial and companionable, en- 
J03'ing the esteem and confidence of hosts of friends. 
The Y'erkes family originated in German}-, from 
which country tlie paternal great-grandfather of 
our subject emigrated jirior to the Revolutionary 
War. He reared a fine family, and among his sons 
was Jacob S., the father of our subject, who was 
liorn in Pennsylvania and adopted the business of 
a wagon-maker and farmer combined. He was 
married, in his native State, to Miss Ann S. Shoe- 
maker, who was born there, and not long after- 
ward they removed to Ohio, where Mr. Yerkes 
followed wagon-making for four years. Then he 
removed to Indiana, and remained a resident of 

the Hoosier State a quarter of a century and en- 
g.aged in wagon-making and agricultural pursuits. 
There the parents passed tlie remainder of tlieir 
lives, the mother dying in 1882, and tiie father in 
the fall of 188G. 

To the parents of our subject there were l)oni 
eight children, only four of whom reached their 
m.ajority. Hiram, the second in the family, was 
born Jlay 7, 18-10, in Ohio, and was a mere child 
when his parents left the Buckeye State for Indi- 
ana. In the latter State his early education was 
conducted in the primitive log schoolhouse, the 
terms being very short and far between. He, how- 
ever, took kindly to his books, and gained a very 
good knowledge of the common liranches. He re- 
mained under the home roof until the outbreak of 
the Civil War, and in August, 18G2, enlisted in the 
Union army as a member of Company II, G3d In- 
diana Infantry, which regiment was organized in 
Indianapolis, first commanded by Col. Williams 
and later by Col. I. N. Stiles. 

Mr. Yerkes fought in sixteen battles and fol- 
lowed his regiment in all its marches, participating 
in all the hardships and vicissitudes of a soldier's 
life. The records indicate that he was one of the 
bravest men of his company, and while at the fr(mt, 
in some of the hardest fought battles of the war, 
stood at his post without fear or llinching. He was 
content to enter the ranks as a private, and was 
first promoted to the post of Corporal, and after- 
ward to Sergeant. He met the enemy in the field 
at Uesaca, Ga., Franklin and Nashville, Tenn., At- 
lant.i. Kenesaw JNIountain, Jonesboro, Cassville, 
Lost Mountain, Altooua, Chattahoochie, Town 
Cicek. Burnt Hickory, Buzzard's Roost, Ft. Ander- 
son, Wilmington and Columbia, N. C. 

Although experiencing many hairbreadth es- 
capes, Mr. Yerkes never received a scratch. He 
was at one time entirely buried in the dirt plowed 
up bv a Rebel cannon ball, escaping by a miracle 
from lieing torn to pieces by the deadly missile. 
He had the satisfaction of witnessing the sur- 
rciiilor of the rebel (ien. Johnston to Gen. Sher- 
man, but the joy of the Union array was soon sad- 
dened by the news of Lincoln's assassination. 
After tlie surrender spoken of, they remained in 
(Ireensburg until July, 18G.'), wluni tlu- regiment 



was dischargeil, anfl our suliject, being mustcreil 
out at IiKlianapolis, returned to his home in In- 

On the 21st of Septemlier, in the above-men- 
tioned 3ear, our subject was united in marriage 
with Miss Hester E. Prevo, daughter of a promi- 
nent farmer of Fountain County, Ind., and one of 
tlie most lovely young ladies of tliat region. Mrs. 
Hester E. Yerkes was one of a family of six chil- 
dren, and was born in Indiana, in Octolier, 18.39. 
Soon after tiieir marriage Mr. and Mrs. Ycrices 
came to Illinois, arriving in tliis county Oct. 17, 
1865, and settling upon tlie land wliicli constitutes 
the present homestead of onr subject. Of this con- 
genial union tliere were born six cliildren, the 
eldest of wliom, a son. Spencer G., remains at 
home with his fatlier. Alice M. is the wile of 
Charles Price, and they live on a farm two miles 
northeast of Fairmount. Ella Ma^-, Anna L., 
Snsie and Hattie are at home with their fatlier. 
Tlie mother of tliese cliildren departed this life 
at the home farm in Vance Township, on the 
Gtli day of September, 1877. She was a lady 
greatly Ijeloved by her family and friends, possess- 
ing those estimable qualities by which she was en- 
abled to illustrate in her life the best traits of the 
devoted wife and mother, the kind and generous 
friend, and the hospitable neighbor. Iler name is 
held in tender rememhrance by all who knew her. 

Our subject, in January, 1878, contracted a sec- 
ond marriage with Miss Mary Olive, daughter of 
the Rev. J. H. Noble, a prominent minister of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. This union resulted 
in the birth of four children, one of whom. Pearl, 
died in infancy. The others are Hiram N.. Lola 
G. and Winnie M. The boj' Hiram is especially 
bright, very attentive to his studies in school, and 
maintains his position at the head of his class, 
gaming great eneoniums from his teacher. Mr. 
Yerkes has ofliciated as Township Supervisor for 
five years, holding the office during the erection of 
the County Court House (at Danville), which bears 
his name upon its corner-stone. This was a scheme 
in which he was intensely' interested, and it was 
largely through his efforts that the edifice was fin- 
ished in good shape and without involving the loss 
of a dollar to the county. So judiciously were its 

affairs managed that the taxpa3ers hardly realized 
that they were contributing to its erection, and 
never missed the additional sum imposed. The 
County Jail was erected about the same time and 
under the same conditions. 

Our subject has officiated as Highway Commis- 
sioner three years, and in this, as in all other posi- 
tions of trust and responsibility, which he has 
occupied, bent his energies to effect those improve- 
ments which would benefit the people and at the 
same time prevent excessive taxation. While hold- 
ing the above-mentioned office, he furthered the 
introduction of the system of stone arch bridges 
in Vance Township, and they arc, without question, 
the cheapest and most durable bridge which can 
be erected. Sewer drainage for the small streams 
instead of the old plank culverts was also adopted, 
through the persistent efforts of Mr. Yerkes. He 
has been School Director in his district for many 
years, and so well has he performed his duties in 
connection therewith, that the ISoard is about to 
purchase a site and erect a new building at a cost 
of about §7,000. 

Politicall}', Mr. Yerkes uniformlj' votes the Re- 
publican ticket, and has frequently been sent as a 
delegate to the County Conventions. In connec- 
tion with this, as in all other matters, he is content 
with no halfway measures, and has thus been of 
effective service to his party in this section, being 
thoroughly well-informed and alive to all tlie po- 
litical issues of the day. Both he and his estimable 
wife are members in good standing of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church. Sociall}', Mr. Yerkes be- 
longs to Fairmount Lodge No. 590, A. F. & A. JI., 
and to George N. Neville Post, G. A. R.. of which 
he was once Vice Commander. In his church he 
officiates as Steward and Trustee, and for the p.ast 
eighteen years has been one of the most efficient 
workers in the .Sunday- school, officiating as Super- 
intendent nine years, as teacher of the Bible Class 
the same length of time, and, when not chief Su- 
perintendent, acting as assistant. 

The farm of Mr. Yerkes is finely situated on 
section 9, and com])rises 320 acres of land — all in 
one body. Being just outside the corporate limits 
of Fairmount, on the southwest, it is naturally very 
valuable. Ihe whole is in a productive condition, 



and yields abundantly the rich crops of Central 
Illinois. Mr. Yerkes feeds nearly 100 head of 
cattle each year, and alxMiL seventy-five head of 
swine. He keeps sini[)ly enough horses to operate 
the farm. He has recently disposed of 18,i acres 
of ro.'il land, seven miles west of Danville. 

It is an appropriate testimonial to the worth of 
Mr. Yerkes that his portrait should occupy a 
prominent place in the Album of the county, to the 
material ndvnni'cment of which he has so largely 

fact that tills gentleman is successfuUj* oper- 
ating three farms in Sidell Township is suf- 
ficient indication of his aljilitj' as a business 
man and agriculturist, while his home is one of the 
most hospitable places to be found in many a mile. 
Although not a long-time resident of the town- 
sliip, he has established himself in the esteem and 
confidence of its people, and is recognized as a citi- 
zen holding no secondary place in point of sterling 
worth, honesty and integrity. He has supervision 
of the Charles Wright farm — 220 acres in extent 
— upon which he resides; the A. J. Baura farm of 
;540 acres, and a little farm of seventy acres, be- 
longing also to this estate, all of which comprises 
6.30 acres, and all of which, with the exception of 
forty acres, is under the jjIow. The land is largely 
devoted to the raising of corn and oats, and in the 
operation of this extensive tract there are utilized 
thirteen teams, with a goodly amount of machinery 
and all the other implements required for success- 
ful agriculture. The firm of Snowden & Sons has 
become generall}' recognized in this section as the 
svnonym of reliability, push and enterprise. 

William Snowden. the father of our subject, with 
his wife, formerly Miss Martha Pigg, were natives 
of Clark County, Ky., where the paternal grand- 
father, Joshua Snowden, was also born and was tlu; 
son of David Snowden, a native of Virginia, wlios.- 
father was also l)orn in the Old Dominion and 
whose grandfather emigrated from Kngland. Joshua 
Snowden served as a soldier in the War of 1H12, 

and the great-grandfather of our subject carried a 
musket in the Revolutionary War. The Snowden 
family is noted for longevity, many of them reach- 
ing the age of ninety years ami some living to be 
over one hundred years old. The Pigg family in 
X'irginia owned lands and slaves. They had origin- 
ally settled in Kentucky, and several of the male 
ancestors of our subject on Ibis side of the house 
likewise served in the Revolutionary War. 

The father of our subject carried on farming 
and prosecuted quite an extensive trade in fine 
horses, cattle and mules, purchasing them in Ken- 
tucky and shipping to ^'irginia, IMissouri. Illinois 
and other States. He lirought about the first Short- 
horn cattle known in this State, landing them in 
Blooniington, 111. He was born, reared, married 
and died in Clark County, Ky., where he was a 
prominent citizen, well known and highly respected. 
His business relations extended to Bourl)on. Fay- 
ette, Merritt, Esther, Powell, and other counties of 
that State, as also into various other States of the 
Union. In addition to his extensive private in- 
terests he served as Notary Public several years, 
and was noted for his i)ublic-spiritedness and gener- 
osity. He beca'me quite wealthy, but finally became 
security for large amounts and lost the whole of his 
property, leaving his son, our subject, almost penni- 
less. His death occurred April 17, 1884, at the age 
of sixty-seven years. The mother only survived 
her husband a short time, her death taking place 
.luly 4, 1883, when she was sixty-five years old. 

Nine children were born to the parents of our 
subject, being named respectively : Benjamin Frank- 
lin of this sketch, Thomas J., William N., John W., 
Louisa, Joshua, Mary, Melissa, who died at the age 
of thirteen years, and Nancy, who died when three 
years old. Thomas J. is a live-stock commission 
merchant at the Union Stock Yards, Cincinnati, 
Ohio; William N. is farming in Clark County, Ky. ; 
John AY., a physician and surgeon, is located at 
Wade's ISIill iii Clark County, Ky.; Louisa is the 
wife of T.aylor Mansfield, a farmer of the above- 
mentioned county; Joshua is farming and resides 
on the Parkvillc homestead; Mary is the wife of 
David 15. Duncan, a f.'irmcr of Madison County, 

Thesul)ject of this notice was luirii Dec. 8, 1839, 



fourteen miles east of Paris in Bourbon Count}', 
Ky. He was a mere child when his father's family 
removed to Clark Count}-, where he developed into 
manhood. He attended the subscription schools 
before the days of public schools, and engaged in 
farming and shipping stock. When twenty-one 
years old he was married to Miss Amanda F. Craig 
of Estill Count3% Ky., and the daughter of Olando 
Whitne}' Craig, one of the first Methodist i:i)isco- 
pal preachers in tlie Blue Grass State. Her mother, 
Miss Maria (Bellis) Craig, was a native of Estill 
County. Mr. Craig was born in Montgomery 
County. The progenitors of both removed from 
Virginia at an early date. The great-grandfather 
Craig w;is one of the earliest settlers of Montgom- 
ery County, locating tliere aliout 1821, and he lived 
to be one hundred and two years old. He also was 
a preacher of tlie Methodist Episcopal Church. His 
son, William, the grandfather of our subject, spent 
his entire life in Montgomer}' County. 

The father of Mrs. iSnowden preached at various 
places in Kentucky — in Montgomery, Clark, Estill 
and Powell counties — and died in Estill County in 
1848, when only forty years of age; the mother 
survived her husband several years, d}ing in 1802 
at the age of fortj'-two. Their children, six in 
number, were named respectively William T., 
Amanda F., Eliza J., John T., Mary E. and Sarah 
E. The parents were excellent and worthy people, 
and the father esiieciall}' beloved wherever known. 

Mrs. Snowden was born in Estill County, Ky., 
and received a very good education. She finall}' 
began teaching, and followed this three years prior 
to her marriage and for some time afterward. Mr. 
Snowden in the meantime engaged extensively as 
a stock dealer, buying and selling cattle, horses 
and mules. He also carried on farming in Ken- 
tucky. In the spring of 1887 he came to this 
county and rented the Wright farm, where they 
iiave since lived. Tlie record of the eleven chil- 
dren born to them is as follows: Nancy B. died at 
the age of three years; .lohn W. assists his father 
in his extensive farming interests; Thomas ,). is 
?>lso at home; Martha M. is the wife of .James W. 
Young of Danville, and they have one child, Annie 
L'lura; William M., Lena Rivers, .Joshua H., Mary 
E. and Nora A. are at home with their parents. 

The eighth child, Maggie L., died at the age of 
nine years and the youngest born, Algan, died 
when seven months old. 

Mr. Snowden, political!}', affiliates with the Dem- 
ocratic party. Socially, he belongs to Estill Lodge, 
No. 469, of Spout Springs, Ky., and his wife is a 
member of the Ladies' Aid Society. The maternal 
grandfather of Mrs. Snowden served in the Revo- 
lutionary War, and one of her uncles was in the 
Mexican War. Two of her brothers were in the 
late Civil War- — William in the Confederate Army 
and John in the Union Army, in which he enlisted 
three times. The old home of Mr. Snowden is 
located ten miles from Boonesboro, Clark C'o.,Ky., 
and was formerly the home of Daniel Boone, the 
old pioneer of Kentucky and of historic fame. 
Our subject is well acquainted with several mem- 
bers of the Boone family, and speaks of them as 
very worthy people, prominent in local aff.airs and 
invariably Hard Shell Baptists in their religious 

ARL C. WINTER, editor of the Danville 
Deutsche Zeitung, was born in Heidelberg, 
any, April 21, 1841. He is descended 
from a prominent .and distinguished ancestry, who 
have wielded much influence in their native land. 
Originally the family came in the seventeenth cen- 
tury from the coast of Holland, near Amsterdam. 
settling first at Heilbronn, whence the great-grand- 
father of our subject removed to Heidelberg in 
1807. His grandfather, Christian Frederick Win- 
ter, was for many years Mayor of the City of Hei- 
delberg, an office of greater honor and respectability 
in that country than in this, and one to which only 
prominent men are chosen. He was for many 
years also a member of the Legislatiiie of the 
Grand Duchy of Baden, and exercised a wide in- 
tliience in its affairs. He introduced and procured 
the passage of the bill inaugurating the jury system 
in the State, and securing the liberty of the press. 
He was afterward Commissioner of the Republic 
of Baden during the celebrated Revolution of 
1849, in Germany, which was the successor of the 
abortive attempt of 1848. During the year the 

^^^ Germai 



Independent Republic of Baden existed, Jlr. Win- 
ter was one of the leading spirits in the affairs of 
the new Stale, being an orator of great power and 
influence. On tlie supi)ressioii of the Republic b}' 
the Prussians, Mr. Winter was imprisoned in Hei- 
delberg, and was compelled to indemnify the gov- 
ernment for all the odieial funds in the treasury at 
tiie time of the inauguration of the Republic. This 
cost him almost all his large private fortune. He was 
a political prisoner for about a year and after his 
release occupied a |)rominent position in business 
life, and for several years prior to his death was 
again INIaj'or of Heidelberg. He was a close per- 
sonal friend of the leaders of the revolutionary 
movement, and esi)ecially of Col. F"ritz llecker. He 
was also an intimate associate of Liebig, the chemist. 
Humboldt, Goethe, Fichte, Schlegel, and Schlosser, 
the celebrated German historian, with vvhom he was 
engaged in literary correspondence. He was the 
founder of the great jiuhlishing house of C. F. 
Winter, which printed the works of Dr. Liebig, of 
Bunsen, the chemist, of Ilaeusser, of Fresenius, 
AV'ohler's "Annals of Chemistry," and the works of 
many other world renowned writers. 

Christian Frederick Winter died in IS.'jG, and his 
wife in 1858. Of their sons several became prom- 
inent in the State and in business circles. The eld- 
est, Jonathan, whom in his admiration for this free 
land his father had named after -'Brother Jonathan," 
held the position of Under-Secretary of State in 
Baden, and was about to be promoted to the posi- 
tion of Minister of State, when he died in 1886, in 
Carlsruhe, being then in the prime of life. Another 
son. Christian Frederick, afterward became a prom- 
inent publisher in Frankfort, and printed many 
famous works, principally on theological and agri- 
cultural subjects. lie died in Frankfort in 1883. 
Carl became publisher and bookseller in his native 
city of Heidelberg, where he was a prosperous and 
inlluential citizen. He died in 1871, leaving a 
numerous family and a large estate. The remain- 
ing son. Anton, was the father of our subject. He 
was born in Heidelberg in 1808. and received his 
higher education in tlu^ celebrated university of 
that city. He succeeded to his father's business, 
wliich he had conducted during the latter part of 
bis father's life. He maintained the national repu- 

tation of the great publishing house of C. F. Winter 
fully up to the standard which had been reached 
by its founder. After his father's death he removed 
the establishment to Leipsic, the great center of the 
book trade of Germanj% and there he conducted 
it until his death, which occurred in 1851). 

Anton Winter was married in 1840 to Emily 
Broenner, whose father, H. L. Broenner, was a pub- 
lisher at Frankfort. She was born in that city in 
1820, and was a highly educated lady, a graduate 
of the Female Academy at Rumperheim-on-the- 
Main. She died in Decemlier, 1887. She was a 
lad}' of many accomplishments, a fine painter, and 
well versed in science, literature and art. Her 
union with Mr. Winter was blessed b}- the birth of 
six children, of whom our subject was the eldest; 
Henrietta, the second child, died in Leipsic in 
1885; Ludwig is a landscape gardner and florist, 
and has an establishment of world-wide reputation 
at Bordighera, on the Riviera, near Nice, Italy. 
He was educatetl in his profession at Potsdam, is 
royal gardener to the King of Italy, and holds a 
position in his art second to none in the world. 
Sophia is a noted teacher in the Female Academy 
of Leipsic, of which she was a graduate; Ferdi- 
nand is a merchant in London, England, being a 
partner in and manager of the English house of 
the Hamlnirg Rubber Company, the largest hard 
rubber establishment in the world. Clara died in 

Carl C. AVinter, our subject, passed his boyhood 
amid the beautiful scenery in and around the city 
of his birth. His early education was in its public 
schools, and he was carefuU}- trained, both mentally 
and physically, by highl}' cultured parents, who left 
upon him impressions deep and lasting. He was 
prepared for and entered the Lyceum at Heidel- 
berg, then under the direction of Professor Ilautz. 
He was thoroughly prepared for the Universit\-, 
which he entered at the unusually early age of 
eighteen. He was educated especially to lit liim 
for the business of publishing, and took a general 
historical course under Prof. Ludwig Ilaeusser. 
author, amongst other works, of an exhaustive his- 
tory of the Revolution of 1819. He attended a 
course in philosophy under Prof. Kuno Fischer, 
and a course in English and French literature under 



Prof. Dr. Emil Otto, wlio gave him private lessons, 
a distinction shared by two other people only. On 
nccount of the death of his father he left the Uni- 
versity to assist his mother in settling up the busi- 
ness of the estate, and, being himself too young to 
carry it on, the publishing business was sold to an 
association of capitalists, who still continue it at 
Leipsic, under the original title of C. F. Win- 

In order to become practically acquainted with 
the printing business, our subject worked in several 
book publishing houses in Prague, Bremen, Mar- 
burg and in London, England. During this period 
he contributed man}' articles to the Ilhislrirte Welt 
and the Illustrirtes Faniilienbuch, the former pub- 
lished at (Stuttgart, and the latter at Trieste and 
Vienna. While in London, he decided to come to 
the iruited States. He made a short visit to his 
native land in the early part of the year 18C6, and 
in Ajiril of tliat year sailed for New York, landing- 
there about the first of May. In that city he en- 
gaged as a clerk with L. W. Schmidt, bookseller 
and publisher, but his inclinations being toward 
literary pursuits, he soon became city editor of the 
New York Staats-Zeitunrj, under the veteran editor 
Oswald Ottendorfer. He tilled that position for 
two years, at the same lime contributing literary 
articles to the New York Herald, and articles on 
German and French literature to tiie New York 
Nation. In 18(j8 he resigned from the Staals-Zei- 
tumj. to accept the position of editor of the Lehigh 
County Patriot, published at Allentown, Pa. There 
he remained for a year, and in that time wrote for 
the Nation a series of articles on the Pennsylvania- 
Dutch dialect, also contributing a series of letters 
on American life to the Daheim of Leipsic, Ger- 

In 1869 Mr. Winter was offered and accepted the 
position of city editor of the Daily Telegraph, a 
German paper, publisiied in Indianapolis, Ind.,and 
remained with that paper until 1871, when he re- 
ceived a flattering offer from the manager of the 
Louisville Aiizeiger, tendermg him the position of 
city editor and literary- writer. He stayed there until 
187"J. when he was re-engaged by the Indianapolis 
Telegraph to conduct its cit}- department during 
the exciting Presidential contest of that year. He 

was also engaged by Elijah Halford, then editor of 
the Indianapolis Journal, now Pres. Harrison's pri- 
vate secretary, and also by the managing editor of 
the Indianapolis Sentinel, to report and translate 
for their respective papers the first speech in that 
memorable campaign delivered in German at In- 
dianapolis by Carl Schurz. Mr. Winter, after writ- 
ing out his notes for the German paper, began the 
translation into P^nglish for the two other journals, 
using manifold paper, finishing the task in little 
over two hours, the speech occupying nearly two 
columns in each paper. Each of the editors, after 
reading a few pages. i)aid him the compliment of 
sending his manuscript to the printers witliout re- 
vision. Mr. Schurz afterwards told Mr. ^V'inter it 
was the best translation ever made of any of his 
German speeches. 

Mr. Winter stayed in Indianapolis until 1873, when 
he was called by telegraph to accept the position 
of city editor of the Westliche Post, the German 
paper published in St. Louis b\- Carl Schurz. He 
managed that successfully, and while there, also for 
two years contributed literary articles to his Sunday 
edition, and several times, while the Missouri Legis- 
lature wiis in session, acted as its correspondent at 
Jefferson City, the capital. In 187.J, failing eye- 
sight necessitated a cessation of night work, and 
Mr. Winter resigned his position, and went to Rock 
Island, 111., where he began the publication of the 
Volks Zeitung, a semi-weekly journal. In this ven- 
ture he was very successful, and he conducted the 
paper until 1882, when lie sold it. He then bought 
an interest in the Champion of Personal Liberty, a 
paper published in Chicago in the interest of indi- 
vidual freedom. He traveled in the interest of this 
journal .as correspondent collector and agent six 
mouths, then came to Danville, where he bought 
the good will of the journal of which he is now 
the editor, and which had by mismanagement been 
compelled to suspend [uiblication. This paper he 
has placed upon a secure basis, and it has acquired 
much influence among the German speaking resi- 
dents of the county, by whom it is liberally patron- 

Another literary venture of Mr. Winter's was 
the writing of a four-act comedy in German, en- 
titled ".Ks Siimmt," which has been successfully 



performed in the German theaters of Cliicago. 
Davenport, Molina, Dayton, Fort Madison, and in 
several otlier places. l\Ir. Winter submitted it to 
a celebrated critic at Leipsic, who spol<e iiiglily of 
it, s.iying it was a very dramatic and interesting pic- 
ture of German-American life. Tiiis work he pro- 
duced in 1880. wliile lie was publishing his paper in 
Rock Island. 

Since taking up his residence in N'crniilion 
County, Mr. Winter has become a leader in its 
German-American circles, in which he wields much 
inllueuce. He was United States Deputy Collector 
for the eighth district of Illinois from the fall of 
1885 until 1887, when the office was abolished. He 
is a bus}' man. for in addition to conducting his 
paper he performs the duty of a Notary Public, 
attends to applications for United States licenses, 
is a fine insurance and real-estate agent, procures 
steamship tickets, attends to Eurojiean collections 
and is the Secretary of the Germania 15uilding As- 
sociation of Danville. Being a man of force and 
executive capacity, he drives his multifarious busi- 
nesses, and does not let them drive liim. He is also 
correspondent of the Chicago Times. 

The social relations of Mr. Winter are extremely 
pleasant. He is happily married, and moves among 
the best elements of German society. He is a mem- 
ber of the Feuerbach Lodge, No. 499, I. O. O. F., 
and of tlie Danville Turner Society, of which he 
has twice been President, and also Corresponding 
Secretarj'. He is pleasant and genial in his deport- 
ment, liberal to his friends, to whom his hand is 
ever open, and is deservedly esteemed b}' all who 
know him. 



J'jOHN CESSNA is busily engaged in tilling 
' the soil and raising stock on his well-man- 
I .aged, corafortablj' improved farm on section 
' 10, Pilot Township. He is a representative 
self-m.ade man, and by industrj' and prudence has 
succeeded in accumulating a competence and in 
building a cosy liome where he may pass his de- 
clininff j^ears well fortified against want and pov- 
erty, Mr. Cessna was born in Cociiocton Countj% 

Ohio, June 29, 1833, his parents being Jonathan 
and Margaret (Divan) Cessna. His father was 
born in Pennsylvania in 1810, his mother in Bel- 
mont County, Ohio. 

At the age of seventeen thesubjeil of this sketch 
accompanied his i)arents to another home near 
Toledo, Ohio, where tlii'y lived but a short 
time. 'I'hey then went down the Ohio River 
on a trailing to Cairo, III., where the father 
died in 1844. After that sad event the subject 
with his mother and sister returned to Coshocton 
Count\', Ohio, and in about two years the mother 
married again, becoming the wife of Josepli Rich- 
ardson. In 1848 the famil}- once more came to 
Illinois and located on the homestead Mr. Richard- 
son then purchased in this county, and now occu- 
pied 1)3' the mother of our subject. Mr. Cessna 
has but one sister now, the widow of Elisha Grimes, 
living on her husband's homestead. She has eight 
children, namely: John JI., Elisha C, William 
and Jacob (who are deceased), Alvin, Margaret, 
Ellen, Charles and Belle. 

John Cessna, of whom we write, commenced 
life as a farm hand. He wisely saved his earnings 
and in a few years had money enough to buy a 
good farm. In 18.)7, smitten with a desire to ac- 
cumulate wealth still faster, he went to California 
by the wa}' of New York and Panama. In the 
Golden State he found employment on a ranche, 
and was well paid for his work in that country, 
where good and reliable help was scarce. Twenty- 
two months of life in that climate satisfied our sub- 
ject and he retraced his steps homeward, and on 
his return invested some of his capital in an 80-acre 
farm, which he subsequently disposed of at a good 
advance price, and then bought his present home- 
stead, which then com])rised but 140 acres. He 
has kept adding to his landed pro|)erty till he now 
owns 2G0 acres of fine land, with excellent im- 
provements, that add greatly to its value, and he is 
profitably engaged in a general farming business, 
raising cattle, horses antl hogs of good grades. 

Mr. Cessna has twice married. The maiden name 
of his first wife was Ann Rebecca Truax. She was 
born in Muskingum County, Ohio, in 1841, and died 
in the pleasant home slie helped her husband to 
build up, in 187(). Her people were of Irish origin. 



Of lier marriage with our subject seven children 
were born, two of whom are dead ; those living are 
William, Mar}', Charles E., Lemuel .E., and Eliza- 
beth. Mr. Cessna was united in marriage to his 
present wife in 1877, and to them have come six 
children, two of whom are dead, Frank and Jona- 
than. Tiie others are Ann R., John R., Albert B., 
and Mont P., all being at home. 

Mr. Cessna has been a hard working man, but 
ids labors have been amply rewarded, as he knows 
well how to direct his energies so as to produce the 
desired results. He is possessed of sound sense, 
discretion and other good traits, is honest and 
straitforward in his manner and dealings, and is in 
all things a sensible man. He and his wife are es- 
teemed members of the Christain Cliureh,of which 
he is one of the trustees at the time of the erection 
of the present house of worship. He is prominentlj- 
connected with the Masonic order as Master Mason. 

In politics, he is a good democrat, and is loyal 
in every fibre to his country. He has held school 
offices and has served on the juries of his county. 
Our subject's mother died since the above was writ- 
ten, her death occuring June 30, 1889. 


^ **» 

j^^AMUEL ALBRIGHT. The subject of 
^^^^ this notice was one of the first men to set- 
(l\/_l|) -tie in Ross Township, along Bean Creek, 
taking up his abode there on the 11th day 
f>f (Jctober, 1855. His first purchase was 240 acres 
of land where he built a small house, and he was 
the first man to stir the soil with a plowshare. 
He did a large amount of breaking himself, en- 
closed and divided liis fields with fencing, put out 
fruit and shade trees and erected buildings as his 
needs multiplied and his means permitted. He was 
prospered as a tiller of the soil and invested his 
surplus capital in additional land which under his 
wise management became very fertile and yielded 
handsome returns. His property lies on sections 
19, 30 and 31, and is considered as including some 
of the most desirable land in this part of the 

About 1875, the first humble domicile of ' our 

subject uave i)laee to an elegant residence, wliile 
adjacent is a very fine barn flanked by the other ne- 
cessary- buildings. He has the latest improved ma- 
chinery, including an expensive windmill and an 
artesian well which throws a running stream of wa- 
ter two feet above the ground, with its source 130 
feet below. In his stock operations, Mr. Albright 
breeds mostly horses and cattle. 

Mr. Albright in March, 1886, rented his farm 
and retiring from active labor, purchased a 
pleasant home in Rossville where he now resides. 
His has been a remarkabl}' bus}' life, as in addition 
to his farming operations, he has given consider- 
able of his time to looking after the local interests 
of his township, officiating as School Director and 
serving as Justice of the Peace for seven years. 
He nsuallj^ gives his support to the Democratic 
party and for a period of forty-five years has been 
a member of the United Brethren Church. He 
has been at two different times the candidate of his 
party in this county for the Legislature, but being 
in the minority, was beaten as he expected. 

Mr. Albright was born in Fairfield Count}-, Ohio, 
Sept. 12, 1816', and lived there until a lad of 
twelve years. He then removed to Pickaway 
County where he sojourned until his marriage, 
which took place four miles southeast of Circleville 
the bride being Miss Clemency jMorris. Of this 
union there were born two children — John ]\I. and 
Mary Ellen, the latter the wife of William McMur- 
trie of Potomac, and is the mother of four children. 
Mrs. Clemency (Morris) Albright died at her home 
in Ross Township in 1865. 

Our subject contracted a second matrimonial al- 
liance, Sept. 10, 1866, with Miss Mary M. Davis. 
This union resulted in the birth of two children — 
Orrie Lulu and Lilly Belle. The elder is the wife 
of William Cunningham of Rossville and the 
younger remains with her parents. Mrs. Mary M. 
(Davis) Albright was born in Muskingum County, 
Ohio, Februar}% 1836, and is the daughter of Am- 
aziah Davis, who came to this count}' at an early 
day and became one of its most prominent farmers 
and citizens. 

David Albright, the father of our subject, was 
a native of Pennsylvania, whence he removed to 
Ohio when quite young. He was there married to 



Miss Pbebe Newman and tliey reared a family of 
nine children. Upon leaving tbe Buckeye State 
they settled in Frankfort, Ind., wliere the father 
died some years ago. The mother subsequently 
came to this county and made her home with our 
subject until her death. 

^ WILLIAM II. PRICK, the son of an e.irly 
\^f/ settler of Vermilion C'ount3', may also be 

wW denominated as one of its pioneers, as he 
iiad a hand in developing its great agricultural 
resources and assisted in laying the foundations 
of its wealth and high standing among its sister 
counties. lie is to-day one of the foremost 
farmers and stock raisers of Pilot Township, and is 
a man of considerable importance in the public life 
of this community. He has a large farm of over 
700 acres of well-improved land, comprising sec- 
tions 8, 9 and 10, whose broad fields are under high 
cultivation,and which is amply supplied with roomy, 
conveniently arranged, well made buildings, and 
all the appliances for facilitating farm work, while 
everything about the place betokens order and 
superior management. 

Mr. Price was born in Pike County, Ohio, July 
4, 1827. His father, Robert Price, was a native of 
Lexington, Ky., born of pioneer parents July 29, 
1788. The grandparents were from Wales and 
England. They removed to Pike County, Ohio 
when the father of our subject was a lad of nine 
years, and there he grew to maturity and married 
Miss Nancy Howard, a native of Ohio. Her par- 
ents came from England to that part of the coun- 
try in the early da3-s of its settlement. She was 
born Feb. 27, 1793 and died in middle life, Dec. 22. 
1842, some years after the removal of the family 
to this county, which occurred in 1830. She and 
her husband were early pioneers of this section of 
the country. 

The father died Jan. G, 1850, in Vermilion 
County, 111. They were tiie parents of four chil- 
dren, of whom our sul)ject is the only survivor. 
The others were Lloyd H., Drusilla, and Jerusha. 
JJoyd married Minerva Ilow'ard, of Pike County, 

Ohio, whose parents came to Vermilion County in 
an early day, and to them (Lloyd and wife) were 
born nine children, namely: William. Robert, 
Thomas, Sarah, Nancy, P'rank. Lloyd. May, and 
George. Drusilla was the wife of Joseph Dalay, of 
^'ermilion County, now deceased, and they left one 
child, Nancy, who became the wife of David Clay- 
pole, a farmer, and they have five children. Jeru- 
sha married Franklin Adams, of X'ermilion County, 
now deceased, and Ihey have three children — 
John L., William, and Sanuiel. 

When our subject was brought to tins county, a 
child of three years, it was a wild waste of prairie, 
and the settlers at that time thought that the land 
away from the streams where the timber giew was 
worthless for settlement, so they confined them- 
selves to the banks of the creeks and rivers. He 
grew to a strong manhood in the pioneer life that 
obtained at that day, and early became independ- 
ent and self-supporting. Having determined to 
make farming his life work, he entered 200 acres 
of prairie land from the Government, as his keen 
discernment foresaw the worth of the rich and 
fertile soil to the intelligent and enterprising ^'oung 
farmer. After his marriage in 1850, he erected a 
house and commenced the task of upbuihling his 
[iresent desirable home. He is still living on the 
land that he purchased from the Government, and 
has added more to it as his means have allowed 
till he owns one of the largest farms in the neigh- 
hood, comprising, as before mentioned over 700 
acres of choice land. He has besides helped to 
establish his children in life by giving them land. 
He does a general farming business, raising all 
kinds of stock, making a speciality of breeding 
Short-horn cattle, of which he has a herd of sixteen 
thoroughbreds, besides all other kinds of stock us- 
ually found on a model farm. 

Mr. Price and Mary A. Cazatt were \inited in 
marriage in 1850. She was born in Mercer County, 
Ky., Jul3' 4, 1833, to Henry and Susan (Gritten) 
Cazatt, native of the same county, her father was 
born about 1808 and her mother Dec. I, l.sio. 
Mrs. Prices's grandparents were Irish and Dutch. 
They were pioneers of X'erniilion County, coming 
here in 1837, and here they spent their remaining 
years, thefnlher dying in 1811, and the mother in 



1878, aged sixty-three years. Mrs. Price has one 
own sister — Minerva J., who married Otho Allison, 
a resident of this county. The union of our sub- 
iect and his wife has been blessed to them by the 
birth of six children — Jerusha J., Lloyd IL, Emily 
M., Ch-irles R., Alice N.. EinraaB., the latter is 
deceased. Jerusha married Ileniy J. Ilelmick, a 
farmer of this county, and they have two children 
— Charles and William E. Lloyd IL, a farmer, 
married Mary J. Snyder, of this county. Emily 
married Gu3^ C. Howard, a merchant in Armstrong, 
this county. Charles R.. a farmer, married Delia 
Hatfield, of this county, and they have one child — 
Everett Lloyd. Alice married Berry Duncan, a 
farmer of this county, and they have one child, 

Mr. Price is a noble type of our self-made men, 
who while building up a fortune for themselves 
have been instrumental in advancing the material 
interests of the county. He, and his wife are lead- 
ing members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
of which he has held the office of Steward and 
Trustee. He has held the office of Highwaj' Com- 
missioner for twelve years. He is prominently 
identified with the A. F. & A. M. order, and is a 
Master Mason. In politics, he is a thorough and 
consistent Republican. He has served with credit 
on the juries of the State and county. 

Mr. and Mrs. Price have some valuable heir- 
looms, which they highly prize, in the old bibles 
of their fathers and mothers. 

A fine lithographic view of the country resi- 
dence and surroundings of Mr. and Mrs. Price 
appears in the Ai.uuji, and represents a home 
of which the owners are justly proud. 

^ .^^ '^ 

I'THER TILLOTSON, Supervisor of Pilot 
Townsiiip. and one of its most intelligent 
and iuHuential public officials, is closely 
connected with its material interests as a practical 
agriculturist, owning and profitably managing a 
good farm on section 30. He was born in Warren 
County, Ind., Aug. 13, 1849, a son of E. B. and 
Mary A. (Cronkhite) Tillotson. His father was 

born in Cayuga County, N. Y., Dec. 8, 1811. and his 
father, Luther Tillotson, was a native of New 
York. The mother of our subject was born in 
Hamilton, Ohio, Dec. 26, 1816. During some 
period of their lives the parents of our subject 
settled in Indiana, and of their marriage twelve 
children were born, and the following is recorded 
of the nine now living: Sarah A. married Edward 
Foster, a farmer living near Armstrong, this count}', 
and they have seven children. Rebecca married 
,leremiah Butts, who lives retired in Potomac, and 
they have six children. James IM.. a stock dealer 
and farmer in Calcasien Parish, La., married 
;Mary J. Goodwine, and tUey have three children. 
Buell, a farmer of Pilot Township, married Eliza- 
beth Wiles and the}- have one child. Walter B., 
a farmer of Pilot Township, married Lucetta Endi- 
cott. Frances married J. A. Knight, a farmer of 
this county, and they have four children. William 
M.,a farmer of this county, married Millie French, 
and they have three children. Mary A. married 
Frank H. Ilenr^', who is living retired in Armstrong 
Village, and they have two children. Luther is 
the subject of this sketch. [For parental history 
see sketch of Buell Tillotson.] 

Our subject came this county iu 18j6 with his 
parents. His father is deceased ; his mother resides 
in this county. Mr. Tillotson and Mary E. Myrick 
were united in the holy bonds of matrimony Sept- 
ember. 1871, and five children complete their happy 
household — Bertie, Alden, Cora E., Luther E., and 
Charles. Mrs. Tillotson was born in Illinois Sept. 
15, 1853, and is a daughter of Thomas P. and 
Susanah (Firebaugh) M3'rick, natives of Ohio and 
Indiana respectively. They came from the Buck- 
eye State to this and settled in Pilot Township at 
an early day. 

After marriage Mr. Tillotson rented land for 
eleven years and carried it on to such good advan- 
tage that at the expiration of that time he had 
money enough to invest in eighty acres of improved 
land, which forms his present farm. He has his land 
well tilled, and it is capable of yielding large crops 
in repa3'ment for the care bestowed upon it, and 
Mr. Tillotson has a neat and well ordered set of 
buildings for every needful purpose. He is doing 
well from a financial standpoint, has his farm 



stocked with cattle of good grade as many as it 
will carry, and (lis|)lays commendable enterprise in 
the management of his interests. 

Mr. Tillotson brings a well trained mi ml to bear 
on his work and fully understands how to perform 
it so as to obtain the best results, which is the 
secret of his success. His fellow-citizens, feeling 
that in a man of his education, of sound and sensi- 
ble views on all subjects, the township would find a 
superior civic oflicial who would promote its high- 
est interests, have called him to some of the most 
responsible offices within their gift, and his whole 
course in public life has justified their selection. 
He has been .Supervisor for six years, and was re- 
elected to that office this spring, and he has 
been Assessor for one term, besides having held 
the otKce of Justice of the Peace for eight 3'ears. 
In politics he is a true Republican, although he 
performs his official duties without regard to party 

*~*~W ^ 

^^; ARON DALBY. The late Civil War de- 
*v/ I veloped some rare characters, the depths 
/// i£ of which would probably never have been 
(^ disturbed had it not been for this revolution 
which shook the country from turret to foundation 
stone. There were then brought to the surface 
that God-given quality — the love of the true man 
for his native land — and the extent of the sacrifices 
which he was willing to make to save her from dis- 
memberment. Among all those who are written 
of in this volume there probably no truer pat- 
riot during the war than Aaron Dalby, and he 
justly esteems the period of his life spent in the 
Union Army as one of the brightest spots in his 
whole career. We give this matter prominence be- 
cause it is a subject dear to his heart and he has 
lost none of the patriotic affection which enabled 
him a quarter of a century ago to lay aside all per- 
sonal ties and give his best efforts to the preserva- 
tion of the Union. We now find him comfortably 
located in a quiet country home, embracing a well- 
regulated farm on section 11, in Vance Township, 

where, since the war, he has g.athered around him 
all of the comforts and many of the luxuries iif 

In reverting lo the family histury of our .'iul)ject 
we find that his father, James Dalby, was a native 
of Pennsylvania, a car()enter by trade and in politics 
an old line Whig. He married Miss .Sarah Sewell, a 
native of Ohio, April 4, 1820, the wedding taking 
place in Clinton County, that State. They lived there 
about fourteen years, Mr. Dalby engaged as a gro- 
ceryman, a farmer and an hotelkeeper. conducting 
the old-fashioned country tavern after the most 
approved methods of those times. 

About this time the lead mines near Dubuque 
were being opened up and the demand for carpen- 
ters was great, so the father of our suljject re- 
moved 'hither with his family' in 1835, purposing 
to work at his trade. He found the times very hard 
and the countiy peopled largel3' with desperate 
characters, among whom a murder was committed 
nearl}- ever}' night. This state of things made it 
impossible for him to remain and so he established 
himself at Quinc}-, III., where he lived three years 
and woj'ked at his trade. He then returned to 
Ohio, where he sojourned two years and f lom there 
removed to Peru Ind., but only remained there 
eight months. In August, 1843, he came to this 
count}- and on the 19th of October following 
passed from earth at the age of fifty-three years. 
He was a well educated man and especially fine 

The mother uf our subject survived her first 
husband for the long period of nearlj- fortj'-eight 
j-cars. She was born March 12, 1803, and died 
Feb. 26, 1885, when nearly eighth-two years old. 
The parental household was completed by the birth 
of six children, four of whom are living. Aaron, 
our subject, was the fourth in order of birth and 
was born in Clinton Count\-, Ohio, April 25, 1831. 
He attended school at t^uincy, 111., and also in 
Ohio a short time and in Indiana, and came to this 
count}- in time to avail himself of instruction in 
the subscription schools here. Being the eldest 
son, he, after the death of his father, naturally in 
due time assumed many responsibilities, and at the 
age of twelve years worked out for 83 per month, 
six mouths, from spring until fall. The year fol- 



lowing lie was employed by the same man. with an 
increase of salary of *1 i)er month. 

The mother of onr snliject was married a second 
time to James Elliott. Our subject was bound out 
for a term of six years to Alvin .Stearns. Becom- 
ing dissatisfied with the arrangement he served out 
only half his time and went to Ohio to learn a 
trade. He came back to Illinois, however, a \'ear 
later and employed himself at whatever he could 
find to do, being at one time the partner of Aaron 
Hardin in si)litting rails and cord-wood. Their 
best week's work was forty-eight cords of wood, 
cut, split and juled, and this was done at twenty- 
live cents per cord, when I'ails were forty-five cents 
per 100. 

The next most important event in the life of our 
suljjeet was his marriage, which occurred Dec. 23, 
lb.34, with Miss Martha E. Custer. The newl^- 
wedded pair commenced the journey of life to- 
gether at the old Custer homestead, which is now 
the [jroperty of our subject, and Mr. Dalby there- 
after farmed on rented Land until the outbreak of 
the Civil War. In l.S()2 he went one day to assist 
a neighbor with his work and when he came back 
with his pitchfork over his shoulder his attitude 
and bearing were such that his wife exclaimed 
when she saw him coming, "there, I liethe is going 
to the war." He entered the house and asked for 
some clothing, and in ten minutes was off for Ho- 
mer, and joining some of his comrades repaired 
with them to Camp Butler and enlisted in Company 
E, 7.3d Illinois Infantry. 

Mr. Dalby accompanied his regiment to the 
front and Qrst engaged in the battle of Perryville, 
Oct. 8, 1862. In the early part of the engage- 
ment he was in the front line of battle and had 
only discharged six or seven shots when a rebel 
bullet struck him in the right side of the abdomen, 
passing through the npijer lobe of the liver and 
came out at the right of the spine, grazing the 
point of one of the vertebrifi. The ball before en- 
tering his body struck the cap box on his belt, 
passed through the box and his belt, through his 
coat, the waistband on his pants then through his 
body and returning cut through the waistband and 
" body belt " and knocked the handle off the 
butcher knife on his belt, leaving the blade in its 

scabbard and glanced off to the rear. He pulled 
out of the wound a bunch of the wood from his cap 
box, some cotton-batting from his coat and a metal 
primer which he carried in the box. He was taken 
to the field hospital and a rubber tube pulled 
through his bod3' twice: He was then conveyed to 
the Perryville General Hospital, where he remained 
until October 1863, and was then transferred to 
New Albany, Ind. He was discharged from the 
hospital there, Jan. 20, 1864. 

Mr. Dalby now returned to his family and al- 
though he has been almost wholly disabled for 
work since that time he declares he is ready to 
fight the battle over .again if the occasion arises. 
He and his excellent wife have no children of their 
own. but have performed the jjart of parents to a 
boy and girl, the former the sou of a comrade of 
Mr. Dalby, who was discharged from the army for 
disability and died. The 1)03' Joe H. .Summers, be- 
came an inmate of their home at the age of seven 
years and remained there until twenty-one. He is 
now married and lives in Mendon, Neb. The 
girl Mary J. Custer was taken by them when but 
eleven months old and is still with them, now 
grown to womanhood. 

It is hardly necessary to say in view of his war 
record that Mr. Dalby, politically, is a decided Re- 
publican. He had two brothers in the army, one 
of whom, Alliert, enlisted in Compan3' C. 2.5th 
Illinois Infantry and at Blurfreesboro was wounded 
through the wrist and arm. At the expiration of 
his first term of enlistment he entered the veteran 
reserve corps from which he was honorablj' dis- 
charged. Anotlier brother, William H. H., the 
3'oungest of the family, was born in 1840 and en- 
listed in Company D, 63d Illinois Infantry. He 
was killed by the explosion of a magazine at Co- 
lumbia, S. C, Feb. 19. 1865, being terribly 
mangled and blown into a river. He had strength, 
however, to swim ashore and was taken to the hos- 
pital where he died. He had been i)romoted to the 
rank of Sergeant. Mr. Dalbj- has officiated as Road 
Overseer and is a member of Homer Post No. 263, 
G. A. R. 

Jacob M. Custer, the father of Mrs. Dalbj, was. 
with his wife , Elizabeth Ocheltree, a native of Vir- 
ginia. They came to Illinois in 1849 settling in 



this county, but Later removed to Clianipaign 
County, where the death of Mr. Custer to<jk place, 
Sept. 17, 1865. His widow svdjsequentlj' married 
.lolui L. Myers who has since died, and Mrs. flyers 
is now living .at Homer at the ripe age of seventy- 
nine years. She is the mother of nine children, six 
of whom are living and of whom Mrs. Dalby 
next to the eldest. She was born Sept. 4, 18.'5G, in 
Fayette County Ohio, received a fair education and 
was married at the age of eighteen years. Siie 
is a very estimable lady of more than usual benev- 
olence and is a member of the Homer Woman's Re- 
lief Corps, No. 69. She was at one time President 
of this body and presented with a very fine 
gold badge as Past President by the members of 
her corps as a token of their appreciation of her 
worth and services. She has never missed a meet- 
ing, either regular or special since its organization, 
in April, 1887. In religious matters, she belongs 
to the Cumberland Presbyterian Cliurch. 

Mr. Dalb\' during the days of his early manhood 
was an exjjert hunter and has brought down many 
a deer in this county. He is naturally possessed 
of great courage and bearing, but is unifornfily 
kind-hearted to all except the enemies of his 

\ ; OHN COLE. The bold, h.ardy, intelligent 

S(;ns of New England have borne a i)rom- 

inent part in the settlement of the great 

West, and as a noljle type of these, one who 

• was a |)ioneer of Vermilion County in early days, 

we are pleased to present to the readers of this 

work a review of the life of the gentleman whose 

name is at the head of this sketch. 

In the pleasant spring month of May. 1837, just 
fifty-two years ago, our sul)ject, then in the prime 
and vigor of early manhood, twenty-two years of 
age, left Lis native home among the beautiful hills 
of Vermont to see if life held anything better for 
him on the broad prairies of this then far Western 
.State, animated doubtless, bj' the pioneer spirit 
that caused some remote ancestor to leave his En- 
glish cot and seek a new home on this side of the 
Atlantic, and still later caused one of his descend- 

ants, in turn, to journey to the Green Mountain 
State on the same quest. In that day the tripcon- 
teMii)latod by our subject was a great undertaking, 
it being but slow traveling before railways spanned 
the continent, and many days and weeks even 
passed before he reached ii is destination. He went 
first with a team to Tro}'. and thence by the Erie 
Canal to Buffalo, expecting to proceed on his jour- 
Uf^y from there on the lakes, but the ice ])revented 
furtiier passage after the boat had gone thirty miles 
on Lake Erie. His next courses was lo hire a man 
to take him in a wagon to Chicago, paying him 
$10. There he saw a little city, or village, rather, 
situated in a low sivamp, from which the frogs 
would venture to sun themselves on the narrow 
plank walks till some passing pedestrian disturbed 
their repose and caused them to jump into the 
water. There were no indications that one <hiy that 
spot was to bo the site of one of the largest and 
finest cities on the continent. From there Mr. Cole 
proceeded on foot to the fertile and beautiful val- 
ley of the Fox River, and after tarrying there a 
few days to visit some old friends he walked on to 
Vermilion County. He loaned what money he had 
taking a mortgage on a piece of land which was 
encumbered by a prior mortgage, and he soon had 
to buy the land in order to save his money. The 
summer of 1838, was noted among the early settlers 
as the sickly season, and almost everybodv was ill, 
but Mr. Cole's tine constitution withstood the at- 
tacks of diseaseand lie remained sound and healthy. 
Our subject found here the virgin ))rairieand prim- 
eval forest scarcely disturbed by the few pioneers 
that had preceded him; there were still traces of 
the aboriginal settlers of the country, and deer, 
wolves, and other wild animals had not tied before 
the advancing step of civilization. .Settlements 
were few and scattering, and Chicago and New Or- 
leans were the most accessible markets, the only wav 
' lo the former city being over rough roads by team, 
and to the latter by tlatboat, via the ^'erlnilioll, Wa- 
bash, Ohio and Mi-ssissippi rivcis. Mr. Cole fie- 
ipiently sent jjioduce to those cities but did not 
journey there himself. He was one of the first 
wool growers in the county, but experienced much 
difficulty in raising sheep in the early days here on 
account of the wolves that would frequently kill 



some of his flock In sight of the house. He liad a 
small horse that was an expert jumper and mount- 
ed on that animal Mr. Cole pursued the wolves 
and killed many of them. He commenced with 
forty-nine sheep and finall}- had a large flock, num- 
bering 2,200 of a fine breed. He invested in real 
estate here and engaged in farming, and in course 
of years met with more than ordinary success in 
his calling and became a large land owner, and 
now has 1,360 acres of fine land, divided into three 
farms. The one on which he resides on sections 
19 and 20, is one of the choicest in the county. 

We must now go back to the early history of our 
subject, and refer to his birth and ancestry. lie 
was born in the pretty town of Shaftsbury, Ben- 
nington Co., Vt., May 27, 1815, a sou of Uriah 
Cole, a native of the same county and town. Par- 
ker Cole, the grandfather of our subject, was a na- 
tive of Rhode Island, of Elnglish ancestry. Wlien 
he was sixteen j-ears old his parents moved tu the 
wilds of Vermont, before the Revolutionary War, 
the removal being made with one yoke of oxen 
and one cow, they were guided by marked trees for 
twenty miles, the road from Williamstown, Mass., 
being a mere trail. The grandfather of our subject 
spent his remaining da3's in the (Treen Mountain 
State, buying a tract of timbered laud, from which 
he cleared a farm, and he at oue time owned 1,000 
acres of land. For some time the nearest market 
was at Williamstown, Mass., twenty miles away, 
and Troy, N. Y., thirty-two miles distant was also 
a market town. The maiden name of the grand- 
mother of our subject was Mollie Nash, and she was 
also a native of Rhode Island. She frequently told 
her grandchildren the story of their removal to 
Vermont, and how when she forded the Connecti- 
cut River, the water was so deep that the pony on 
which she rode had to swim. She died in the eighty- 
fourth year of her age, on the old homestead, 
and now lies beside her husband in the cemetery 
at Shaftsbury. The father of our suliject was reared 
in his native town, and after he grown to man's 
estate his father gave him a farm in Shaftsbury, 
and he bought other land till he had about 400 
acres. He spent his entire life in iiis birthplace, 
dying there when about sixty years of age. The 
maiden name of his wife, the mother of our sub- 

ject, was Nanc3' Barton, and she was also a native 
of Shaftsbury, coming of good old New England 
stock. Her father, Garner Barton, was a native of 
Rhode Island, and in earl3' life was a sailor. He 
was a pioneer of Shaftsbury and buying land he en- 
gaged in farming and also built and operated a 
tanner3^ He was a resident there till his demise at 
the advanced age of ninety-six 3'ears. The mater- 
nal grandmother of our subject died on the home 
farm at the venerable age of ninety'-four years. 
She was a Quaker. The mother of our subject was 
reared and spent her entire life among the green 
hills of Vermont in the town of Shaftsbury-. There 
were seven chiljlren born of her marriage, namel3': 
Hiram, living in North Bennington, Vt. ; John; 
Ahnira, who married George Clark, and died two 
years later; Elizabeth, who died in infanc3'; James 
I!., living in Vermilion Counl3-; Mary, wife of Jon- 
athan C. Houghton, of North Bennington, Vt.; 
George Byron ilied in Shaftsbury'. 

The subject of this sketch grew to man's estate 
in the home of his birth, gleaning his education in 
the public schools, and as soon as large enough he 
assisted on the farm until he came West as before 
mentioned. In the summer of 1839 he returned to 
Vermont, and in the following December he was 
married to Miss Aurelia Miranda Huntington, and 
at once started with his bride for his new home in 
the Western wilds; traveling with a horse and a 
covered wagon, they arrived in Vermilion County 
six weeks and three days later. There was an un- 
finished frame house on iiis land on sections 29 and 
30, Danville Township, and in that he and his bride 
commenced housekeeping. He resided there about ' 
nineteen years, and then rented his farm and moved 
to Elwood Township where he improved a large 
farm, and made his home theie till 1877. Then 
leaving his son in charge he went to Shelbyville, 
111., wheie he bought property, and was a resident 
of that city till 1882, when he bought the farm on 
which he now resides in Danville Township. 

Jlr. Cole has been married three times. The 
wife of his earl3' manhood died in Janu.ar3', 1847, 
leaving one child, Miranda S., now the wife of 
James McKee. of Danville. Mr. Cole's second mar- 
riage, which occurred in 1850, was to Miss Nanc3' 
Weaver, a native of Brown Count3-, Ohio, a daugh- 



ter of Michael and Mary Weaver. She ilied about 
1HG3. leavinii one son, Henry .T.. who lives on the 
Ridge farm in Klwood Township. Mr. Cole was 
married to his present wife Sue Patterson, and to 
them have come one ehild, Mar^- Edith. 

Our sul)jeet can look back over a long life that 
has been wisely spent, and his record is that of an 
honorable, upright man, whose high personal char- 
acter has made him an influence for good in the 
county where he has made his home for over half 
a century, and witli whose interests his own are so 
closely allied that in .acquiring wealth he has fur- 
thered its material prospeiity. In politics be is a 

^I^DREW J. SINKHORN, Supervisor of 
Blount Township, with whose .igricultural 
1) and milling interests he is connected as a 
^// practical, wide-awake farmer and skillful 

miller, owning and operating a sawmill, is a fine 
type of the citizen-.soldiers of our country, who 
.saved the Union from dissolution in the trying 
times of the Great Rebellion, and since then have 
quietly pursued various vocations and professions, 
and have been important factors in bringing this 
country to its present high status as one of the 
greatest and grandest nations on earth. In the 
carl}' days of the war our subject went forth with 
his brave comrades to fight his country's battles, 
he being then but nineteen years of age, a stalwart, 
vigorous youth, and he consecrated the opening 
years of his manhood to the cause for which he was 
ready to give up even life itself, if need be. Not- 
withstanding his j'outhfulness, he displayed the 
qnalities of a true soldier, and in course of time was 
promoted from the ranks. 

Andrew Sinkliorn, the father of our subject, was 
born in Virginia. During some period of his life 
he went to Kentucky, and was there married to 
Frances Shannon, a native of that State, and the}' 
began their wedded life there in Boyle County, 
and there their useful lives were rounded out in 
death. They had a family of nine children, of 
whom our subject was the eighth in order of birth. 

Dec. 3. 18^-2, he was born in his parents' pleasant 
home in Boyle County, Ky. He was reared on a 

' farm. .Tud his education was obtained in the common 
schdols. Aug. 1'2, 18G1. his heart beating high 
with youthful ardor and patriotism, he entered 
upon his career as a sohlier. enlisting at tliat date in 
Company A, 4th Kentucky Infantry, and four 
years experience of life on the balllefield or in 
rebel prisons. He took an .active part in the bat- 
tles of Chicaumauga and Mill Springs, Ky.. and in 

\ the latter contest lost a part of his inde.x finger. 
He was at Perryville, Ky., Mission Ridge, .and 
Atlanta, and while near the latter city he cap- 
tured by the rebels, and was held for seven months, 
during which time he was confined in Anderson ville, 
and later in Florence, S. C, suffering all the horrors 
and hardships of life in rebel prisons. His steady 
courage and heroic actions in the face of the enemy, 
and his obedience to his superiors, won him their 
commendation, and he received deserved promo- 
tion from the ranks to the position of Sergeant. 
After the close of the war he vvas nuistered out 
of the s( rvice and honorably discharged. 

After his bitter experience of militar}- life Mr. 
Sinkhorn returned to his old Kentucky home and 
engaged in farming in Boyle County the ensuing 
two years. In the spring of 1869 he decided that 
he could do still better in his chosen calling on the 
rich soil of Illinois, and coming to \'ermilion 
County, he settled in Blount Township, and has re- 
sided here and in Ross Township since that time, 
engaging both in .agricultural pursuits and in mill- 
ing with great success, and he is justi}- cl.assed 
among the most citizens of the township. 
Mr. Sinkhorn has been three times married. 
He was first married in his native county, to Je- 
mima .^nn Cozatt, who also a native of Boyle 
County. After the birth of one chikl that died in 
infancy, she |)assed away in her native county. 
Mr. Sinkliorn's second marriage was to Emily J. 
Sexton, they having been wedded in Ross Town- 
ship, this county. March 28, 1880, she departed 
this life. She was a sincere and active member of 
the Christian Church. Four children were born of 
that marriage — William II., Edward E.. Jesse O.. 
and Anna M. The maiden name of Mr. Sinkliorn's 
present wife, to whom he was united in Blount 



Township, was IVLary E. Pilkington, and she was 
the widow of John Pilkington, and dauglitor of 
Williaiu Giitton. Two children have been born of 
this marriage, Ida E. and Girtie. 

Since coming to this township Mr. .Sinkhorn has 
proved a usefnl citizen, and a valuable addition 
to the citizenship of the place. He takes an active 
part in the administration of public affairs, and in 
every way manifests an earnest desire to promote 
the highest interests of the community. His pleas- 
ant, genial di.sposilion has made him popular with 
his fellow-townsmen, and, what is better, he enjoys 
their confidence. He was elected Constable of 
Blount Township, and served to the satisfaction of 
his constituents seven years. In the spring of 
1886 he was elected Supervisor of the township, 
held the office one year, and in the spring of 1889 
was again selected for this important office, and is 
still an incumbent thereof. He has a deeply re- 
ligious nature, and in him the Free Methodist 
Church has one of its most esteemed members, and 
at the present time he is Class-Leader. 


||r^^ EV. THOMAS COX was born Aug. 6, 1829, 
Viic in Lawrence County, Ky. He is the son 

.John and P< 

Cox, the former of 

\ whom was born in Lawrence County, June 
22, 1799, while his wife, Polly (Markham) Cox, 
first saw the light at the same place on Feb. 17, 
1817. John Cox served in the War of 1832 known 
as the Black Hawk War, and was the father of six 
children, Thomas being the fourth child. 

John Cox and family came to this county in 
1829, settling six miles west of Danville on the 
Middle Fork, where he followed, with a large de- 
gree of success, the occui)ation of acar|ienter, and 
also owned a fine farm. He died on May 23, 1840, 
universally respected by all his acquaintances. Po- 
litically he was a Democrat. Both he and his wife 
belonged to the Baptist Church; the latter died on 
Sept. 2, 1851. This couple were among the origi- 
nal settlers of this county, and as such, went 
through all the vicissitudes that surround the pio- 

neer. They were faithful in everything they un- 
dertook, and with them life was not a failure. 

Thomas Cox, of whom this sketch is written, 
came to this county with his father when he was 
but six weeks old, and at the age of fifteen years 
his father died leaving him to make his own way 
in the world. He went into the unequal battle 
with a determination to win, and his endeavors 
have been met by success. He followed agricul- 
tural pursuits until he was twenty-two years old 
when he commenced to learn the carpenter's trade, 
which occupation he followed until 1867, when he 
purchased a farm in Xewell Township and where he 
now resides. On Nov. 28, 1850 he was married to 
Susan On-, daughter of John and Parthenia Orr, 
natives of Kentucky. They came to Indiana in a 
very early day and were united in marri.ige in 
Fountain County, that State. Mrs. Cox was horn 
July 1, 1831, she being the fourth child of a family 
of twelve. She resided in Indiana until she became 
eighteen 3'ears of age, when she removed to Illinois 
with her parents, both of whom are dead. The 
Rev. Mr. and Mrs. Cox are the parents of three 
children: William L., who is a farmer of this 
county, married Miss Kate Robinson; Martha J., is 
the wife of A. Clapp, who is engaged in farming in 
Newell Township, while David M. is the husband 
of Miss Sarah Bell. Thej' are living on a farm in 
the same townshi)). 

iMr. Cox is the owner of 200 acres of good land 
which he cultivates with a large degree of success, 
and l>esides this he has given all his children a farm 
and has educated them as best he could in the pub- 
lic schools. This is one of the beauties of the sys- 
tem of American farming which makes it possible 
for the parent to start his children out in life with 
land enough to insure their comfort and even com- 
petence, and it is within the reach of every provi- 
dent farmer to do this to a Large or small extent. 
The industry that Mr. Cox inherited has been the 
keynote to his success. In 1886 he was ordained 
as a regular minister of the gospel of the Regidar 
Baptist Church. Before his ordination as" a minis- 
ter, he was actively and intelligently engaged in 
religious work, a f.nct which led him up to occupy 
a pulpit. 

Mr. Cox has served his township as a Comrais- 



sioner of Highways :iml Sclioul Treasurer, filling 
these offices with rare fidelity and intelligence. He 
has always taken great interest in educational 
matters and has consequently aided his neighbor- 
hood in having the best of schools. I'olitically 
he acts with the Democratic party, but since en- 
tering ministerial woric he docs not take nuicli 
interest in political ipiestions. As a Christian 
worker jMr. Cox is very zealous. He preaches 
every Sabbath eitlier at home or on a circuit, 
which comprises Crawfordsville, Ind., l>ig Shaw- 
nee and .Stony Creek. The record of Mr. Cox 
as a citizen and a preaciicr is of the very best. 

JOHN W. TURNER. M.D., Mayor of Fair- 
mount and a practicing phj'sician of first- 
class standing, has been a resident of this 
city since 1881. He occupies one of the 
finest residences in tlie place, and there are few 
men more widely or f.avoral)l3' known in the town- 
ship. He has been iirominent in polities and relig- 
ion — a leading light in the Republican party and 
an earnest laliorer in tlie Sunday -sciiool, the friend 
of temperance and the uniform supjiorter of all 
those measures instituted to elevate society and 
benefit the people. 

In referring to the parental history of our sub- 
ject, we find that lie is a son of Jolin T. Turner, a 
native of Maryland, who married Miss Catherine 
Shane, a native of ^'irginia. Soon after marriage 
the ])arent9 settled in Warren County, Ohio, then 
removed to Clay County, Ind. The father was a 
wagon manufacturer, and tlie household circle in 
due time included eight children, four sons .and 
four daughters. Of these John W. was the seveutli 
ciiiid. He was born in C'la^- County, Ind., March 
24, 1839, and there spent the da3'S of his boyhood 
and youth, pursuing his early studies in the com- 
mon schools. 

The subsequent years of Dr. Tuniei' until a man 
of twent\-six were occupied mostl\- as a medical 
student. Tiien determined to see something of the 
country in wliich lie lived, lie started over the 
plains to Oregon, crosserl the Mississippi at Oiiiaiia 

and soon afterward bidding farewell to the haunts 
o( civilization, journeyed on the north side of 
the Platte River, through Nebraska. Wyoming. 
Idalio and on to Oregon. He reached Portland 
six mouths after leaving home. During the trip 
the party had numerous engagements with the 
Sioux Indians, one verj- serious among the Black 

Besides the Indians the Doctor met men from 
most all parts of every couuti\ during his lour iu 
the wild West, and learned many interesting facts 
in connection therewith and the habits of life on 
the frontier, besides having an opijortunity to view 
some of the most wild and romantic scenery in the 
world. We next find him ofliciating as a peda- 
gogue in Oregon for six months. He had already 
made up his mind to adopt the medical (n'ofession, 
and at the expir.atiou of this time entered the med- 
ical department of Willamette University, Oregon, 
from which he was graduated with honors in J 872. 
He commenced the practice of his profession at 
Vancouver, Wash., where he sojourned four years. 
Here occurred the first great affliction of his life in 
the loss of his estimable wife, which occurred in 
187(j. Soon .afterward he returned to this State 
and was located in O.aklaud, Coles County, for five 

In 1881 Dr. Turner took uii his residence in 
Fairmounl, where he has made all arrangements to 
spend at least the greater part of his life. He has 
a most pleasant and attractive home, a fine and 
growing practice and apparently everything to make 
existence desirable. first married in 18(31 to 
I\Iiss Harriet N., daughter of Judge William E. 
Smith, of Toledo, Cumberland County, this st.ate. 
Of this union there were born four children, the 
eldest of whom, a son, Alva M., married Miss 
Phieba A. Reese,'and is employed in the drug-store 
of Lamon & Lamon, of Fairinount; his wife died 
April 25. 188'.), of aiioplexy; Sharon C. is doing 
a large business as a contractor at Ocean Beach, 
Pacific Co., Wash. He is unmarried; Nancy C. 
is the wife of Ednanl Busby and lives seven miles 
south of Fairmount; they have no children; Will- 
iam E. was .accidentally killed on the railroad track 
west of llie depot, April 18, 18,SiJ. at tlie age of 
lliirteeu years. Mrs. Harriet X. (Smith) Turner 



fleparted this life at her residenee, in Vancouver, 
Wash., in .laniiarv, 187G. 

Dr. Turner contracted a second marriage in 
April, 1877, with Miss Kh'za J. Hongland, foster 
daughter of John 8. C'ofer, of Areola. 111., the wed- 
ding taking place at Paris. This union resulted in 
the birth of two children, John W. and Mary, hotli 
living with their father and attending school. The 
mother died April 30, 1884. On the 10th of July. 
1884, the Doctor was married to IMiss iSIary E. 
Mills, one of the leading lady teachers of ^'ermilion 
County. Mrs. Turner is a lady of more than ordi- 
nary accomplishments and stands high in the social 
circles of the community. The Doctor and his 
wife with the elder children are all connected with 
the Methodist Episcopal Cluirch. Dr. Turner is a 
member of the Official Board and Vice-president 
of the Township Sunday-school Association, which 
latter office he has held for the last three years. 
He gives much time to the religious instruction of 
the young, a subject in which he has entertained a 
lifelong interest. 

At the last election for the city offices. Dr. Turner 
was reelected President of the Board of Aldermen, 
receiving, with the exception of eleven, all of the 
votes cast for this office. He is a pronounced Re- 
j)ublican with broad and liberal ideas, and belongs 
to the A. F. & A. M., being Master of the lodge at 
Fairmount for four years in succession. He also 
belongs to the Modern Woodmen, in which Order 
he is Medical Examiner and holds the same position 
in connection with eight life insurance companies 
doing business in this state. As may be supposed, 
his practice and his official duties absorb a large 
portion of his time, but he still finds the opportun- 
ity to indulge occasionally in hunting and fishing, 
in which he is an expert and of which sports he is 
excessively fond. The temperance cause finds in 
him one of its firmest advocates. Genial and com- 
panionable by nature, he is one naturally making 
hosts of friends. As an orator he possesses talents 
of no mean order, and is frequently called upon to 
address political, religious and other meetings. 
There are always a few men who must lead in a 
community, and Dr. Turner, of Fairmount, is an 
admirable representative of this class of the com- 
munity. Therefore we are pleased to jiresent 

to the readers of this volume a splendid por- 
trait of Dr. Turner, as perpetuating the features 
of one honored and esteemed by all, and the pres- 
ent incumbent of the most important official posi- 
tion in Fairmount. 


/^^EORGE W. SMITH, who lives on section 
II (i-- 31 in Grant Township, Vermilion County, 
^^U) has resided here but six j-ears. He for- 
merly resided in Champaign Count}', 111. He was 
born in Fairfield County, Ohio, July 11, 1833, his 
parents being John C. and Azenith (Lewis) Smith, 
the former a native of Delaware and the latter of 

The parents of John C. Smith died in Delaware 
when he was quite young, and at the age of twenty- 
one years, in 1808, he emigrated to what was then 
considered the Far West. He a carpenter by 
trade, and located at what is now the capital of 
Ohio, Columbus, then known as Franklin. There 
he put on the first shingle roof ever constructed in 
that locality. He was still there when the War 
of 181 "2 broke out, and he enlisted in the army 
under Capt. Sanderson, of Lancaster, Ohio. He 
served during the entire time of the war, and re- 
ceived for his services two warrants, each entitling 
him to eighty acres of land. He w.ts with the 
army at Detroit, and there endured the hardships 
suffered bj' that part of the army during that try- 
ing period. At the conclusion of the war Mr. 
Smith returned to Lancaster, staying there for two 
or three years. He never located his land war- 
rants, which he did not receive for manv years, 
but sold them to another part}-. In 181',) he 
settled on a farm on the line that separates 
Fairfield and Pickaway counties, Ohio, and there 
lived for the remiiuder of his life, dying Maj' 21, 
1857, in his seventy-first year, having been born 
March 10, 1787. He was married in Fairfield 
County, in 1819, to Mrs. Azenith Julian, widow of 
Stephen L. Julian, by whom she had three chil- 
dren, one of whom yet survives, and is also named 
Stephen L., and who is now living near Marion, 
Grant Co., Ind.. and is in his sevent}- -seventh 



3'ear. Slie owned ;uul lived on tlic farm, where they 
afterwiird both died. Mr.s. Smith was born May 
24. 1 7.SK. and ilied Sept. 24, 1852, aged sixty-four 
j-ears and four months. Mr. and Mrs. Smith were 
the parents of seven chiklren, the following four 
being deceased: Rebecca L. was the wife of James 
M. Stewart, and died near Logan, Ohio; Hliza H. 
was married to llenr}' Dustman, and died at Reaver 
Dam, Wis.; Mary W., who the wife of James 
S. ]\IcDowell, died at Tolona, 111.; and Kli/.abeth S., 
wlio was married to John Burton, died also at that 
place. The survivors are: Ilann.ah A., the wife of 
L. C. Burr, a furniture dealer in Tolona; ^Martha 
J. is living with tlie subject of this sketch, the lat- 
ter being the youngest of the famil3-. 

(ieorge W. Smith was brought up on the home 
farm at Tarleton, Ohio, where he lived until he 
was twenty-five years of age. Both his parents 
being deceased, lie sold the Ohio farm in 18.58 
and removed to Tolona, 111., where he bought a 
farm, on which he lived until 1883, when be sold 
it and removed to his present home. His birlli- 
place was in a hilly country, and the work in clear- 
iiig and cultivating it was arduous. lie, therefore, 
had long directed his attention to Illinois as a 
place where he could better his fortunes. When he 
came to Illinois he was accompanied by his tlirec 
younger sisters, all remaining with him until the 
the marriage of the two eldest. Mr. Smith was 
united in marriage Feb. 14, 1865, to Miss Julia 
II. Lock, daughter of William and Hannah (Eseot) 
Lock, natives of England, where Mrs. Smith was 
born March 20, 1842. llcr parents emigrated to 
Canada when she was seven years old, and in 
1864 settled in Champaign County, 111. Both are 
now deceased, the mother dying in Canada of apo- 
plexy while on a visit to a son living there, in 
1874, aged sixty-eight. Her father died in Cham- 
paign County, in 1885, in his eighty-fonrth year. 
Mr. Lock came to Canada alone in 1842, and 
bought a -farm there, and then returned to Eng- 
land, where he remained for seven years, and then 
came back with his family. He made several 
changes there before coming to the United States, 
buying considerable propertj'. He ultimately be- 
came a large land-owner, alone owning 1 ,500 acres 
in Champaign County, 111. Mr. and Mrs. Lock 

iiad eleven children, all but one of whom are now 
living. William is a farmer in Canada; Louisa is 
the wife of Joseph Spettigue, of London, Canada; 
Henry is a f.armer at Belmont, Canada; Eliza 
was the wife of Corelia Fields, and died in 
Canada; James is living at St. Thomas, Canada, 
where he is a boot and shoe dealer; P.enjamin lives 
in Champaign County, 111. Mrs. Smith was next 
in Older of birth, then Daniel, a farmer in Marshall 
County, Kan. John is also a farmer ,at Philo, III., 
and Hattie is the wife of M, L. Brewer, a farmer 
in the same place. Frank was drowned while swim- 
ming, when eight years of age. Mr. and Mrs. 
Smith have no children, but the child of his sister 
Rebecca L., Frank L. Stewart, has lived with them 
since he was four months old, having been adopted 
by his aunt. Miss Martha J. Smith. He was born 
in Logan, Hocking Co., Ohio, Jan. 30, 1857, 

While living in Champaign Count}', III., Mr. 
Smith was a School Director for twenty-four j'cars, 
and also Assessor for five consecutive terms. He 
also held the oftices of Highway Commissioner, 
Treasurer .and Clerk of the Board. He is now one 
of the School Directors of Vermilion County, and 
has been since the first year of his residence here. 
iMr. Smith has always sustained the character of 
an upright man, and the people who know him 
best are those who admire him most for his good 
qualities as a man and a neighbor. 

]Jl EWIS HOPPER. Among the notable 
characteristics in the makeup of this gen- 
tleman is his great self-reliance and the abil- 
ity to take care of himself, which was evinced at 
an early age and when thrown among strangers. 
His life occupation has been that of farming, in 
which he has been eminently successful and from 
which it been exeeedingly difficult for him to 
make up his mind to retire, although he has now 
done so, and is comfortably established in a pleasant 
vilLage home at Fairmount. Among the other 
fortunate things which befell him during his early 
manhood was the careful wife anri mother who has 
stood by the side of her husband for these many 



years, encouraging liim in his worthy- ambitions and 
aljly assisting liini in the struggle for a competence. 
They have lived happily together for manj^ j-ears 
and are now reaping a mutual enjoyment from the 
fruits of their earl}- toil and sacrifices. Such have 
heen their lives that tliej- have commanded the 
esteem and confidence of the people wherever they 
have lived, I)earing tliat reputation for solid work 
.and reliability of character, which form the basis of 
all well regulated society. 

In reviewing the antecedents of Mr. Hopper we 
find that his parents were Beverly and Sarah 
(Miller) Hopper, natives of Virginia and the 
father born in Culpeper County. The\' lived in 
the Old Dominion after their marriage until 1829, 
then changed their residence to the vicinity of 
Newark in Licking Co., Ohio. Later, they re- 
moved to Indiana, where they died after their nine 
children were married and scattered. (_)f these 
our subject, was the youngest born and six are still 
living. He first opened his eyea to the light in 
Virginia on the 13th day of February, 1827, and 
was a child in his mother's arras when they 
removed to the Buckeye State. He attended the 
subscription school and worked with his father on 
the farai until a youth of eighteen years. 

Upon reaching his majority young Hopper be- 
gan learning the carpenter's trade, but the failure 
of his eniploj-ers soon threw him out of business 
and he returned to the farm. He was married in 
1847 to Miss Margaret, daughter of Jacob Kinsey, 
of Peru, Ind.. and lived in the Iloosier State until 
August. 1853. That year he came to this county 
with his little family and settled four miles north- 
east of Fairmount, residing thei-e for a period of 
eleven years. He then sold out and purchased a 
farm five miles south-east of Fairmount and com- 
prising 160 acres all prairie. He turned the first 
furrow there and effected all the other improve- 
ments which finally rendered it a valuable piece of 
prdpcrty. and occupied it until their removal to 
the village. 

The six children born to our subject and his 
fii'st wife are recorded as follows: John married 
Miss Rebecca A. Carrington, is the father of three 
children and lives on a farm four miles south-east 
of Fairmount; Sarah is the wife of Joseph English, 

lives near Peru, Ind.. and is the mother of one 
child; Susannah married George Darr and is the 
mother of four children; they live three miles 
south-west of P'airmount; Martha Jane, Mrs. 
Charles Pemberton, is the mother of four children 
and lives six miles south of Fairmount; Frank 
married Miss Cora Hall, is the father of one child 
and lives six miles south of Fairmount; Vina, Mrs. 
James Smith, is the mother of three children and 
lives near Peru, Ind. Mrs. Margaret (Kinsey) 
Hopper departed this life at the home farm in 1876. 

Mr. Hojiper contracted a second marriage March 
27, 1H80 with Mrs. Lou (Stansberry) Olmstead, 
daughter of Bonai)arte and Jane (Wooden) Stans- 
berry of Catliu this State. Mr. Stansberry was a 
farmer by occupation and the parental household 
included six children of whom Mrs. Hopper was 
the fifth in order of birth. She was born at Cat- 
lin, Jan. 27. 18t2, and grew u)) amid the scenes of 
pioneer life, her parents having been early settlers 
of that region. IMr. Stansberry died when his 
daughter Lou was a young child. The mother is 
still living and is now aged seventy-seven years; 
she is a bright and intelligent old lady and takes 
delight in reviewing the scenes of her early life in 
Illinois to which her father came as early as 1812. 
She was present at the opening of the first court in 
Vermilion County. 

Mrs. Hopper attended the common schools dur- 
ing her childhood days and was carefully trained 
by an excellent mother in those housewifely duties 
which have so much influence upon the happiness 
and comfort of a home. Although not belonging 
to an}- religious denomination Mr. and Mrs Hop- 
per have made it the rule of their lives to do unto 
others as they would be done l>y, and among their 
neighbors and friends have maintained that kindly 
Christian character, which is the true index of an 
unselfish and benevolent heart. Their home is 
pleasantly situated at the east edge of Fairmount, 
where they have five acres of ground and a neat 
residence, erected in 1887. The year following 
Mr. Hopper put up a fine barn. He keeps some 
stock and pays special attention to the raising 
of swine. He has enough to keep himself com- 
fortably busy without overtaxing his energies. 

While not by any means a politician, Mr. IIo[i- 



per keeps himself well infonned ii|)on .State and 
National events and votes indeiiendentl}- of any 
party. He has otiiciated as School Director and 
Trnstce in his District, also as Road Overseer, fulfiU- 
ini^ the duties of the latter office in an especially 
creditable manner. He identified himself with 
the A. F. & A. M. fraternity some 3'ears ago, and 
is connected with Fairmonnt Lodge No. 590. 


yylOI-IN F. McfTEE has been a highly respected 
citizen of Blount Township since 1857, and 
is numbered among its prosperous farmers. 
\f^/J He has a good, well-a|)pointed farm on sec 
tion 34. comprising eighty acres of well-tilled soil 
that yields him rich harvests in repayment for the 
care and skill that he expends in its cultivation. 
In the COS3' home that he has built up here he and 
his wife are enjoying the comforts of life, and are 
well fortified against want and privation. 

The father of our subject, William McGee, was 
a native of East Tennessee, born in one of its pio- 
neer homes in the year 1807. He was bred to the 
life of a farmer, and in 1831 assumed the responsi- 
bilities of a domestic life, marrying Rebecca Hes- 
sey, daughter of John and Sarah Ilessey. Some 
time after they removed to Missouri, .lud, after 
living in St. Louis awhile, they settled in Greene 
County. Twelve years later they went to .Scott 
County, Ark., where the father bought a farm. 
They lived there only two years, however, and in 
1852 departed for the Lone Star State. They 
staid but three j'ears in Texas, in Cook County, 
when they again found themselves on the move, 
and, ret\irning to Missouri, they settled in New- 
ton Count}', on .Shoal Creek, eleven miles above 
the Neosha (New Granby) lead mines. March 3, 
1856. the father closed his earthly pilgrimage when 
scarce past the prime of life. His wife died in 
October, 1882. Of the ten children born to that 
worthy couple seven are now living, and he of 
whom we write was their fourth in order of birth. 
He was born during their residence in St. Louis, 
Mo.. Doc. 19. 1839. Shortly afterward his parents 
removed to Greene County, that State, and there, 

as soon as old enough, he was sent to a subscrip- 
tion school, which was conducted in a rude log 
cabin without a lloor. and with rough logs for 
benches, wooden pins in the ends serving as legs. 

Our subject accompanied his parents in their 
various removals to and fro, and, being a lad of 
intelligence and observation, profited by what he 
saw of the country. He remained an inmate of 
the parental household till the year of his fa- 
ther's death (1856), and then, in 1857, came to 
V^ermilion County and to this township. Being 
pleased with the country around here, and the fa- 
cilities offered to an industrious, brainy, young 
farmer, he decided to locate here permanently, 
and, with that end in view, two years later bought 
his present farm. In the years of hard labor that 
have followed his settlement here Mr. McGee has 
greatly increased the original value of his farm, 
and has brought it under good cultivation. He 
has it amply provided with the necessary build- 
ings, and everything about the place is in good 
order, and betokens thrift and neatness on the part 
of the owner. 

Mr. McGee been twice married. In 1860 
he wiis wedded to Sarah Jane Watson, daughter of 
James Watson. She was a truly estimable woman, 
and made a good wife and a true helpmate. In 
1866 she closed her eyes in death, leaving three chil- 
dren as the fruit of her union — Rebecca Jane,Joseph 
Thomas, and Precious. The marriage of our sub- 
ject with his present wife took place in 1874. Her 
maiden name was Elizabeth Ilessey, and she is a 
daughter of Abram Hessej'. Mrs. IMcGee is a 
true helpmate in every sense of the word, and of 
her pleasant married life four children have been 
born, two of whom died in infancy. The names 
of the others are Mary M. and Farrin A. 

During the thirty-two years that he has been a 
resident of Vermilion Count}', Mr. McGee has won 
the esteem and respect of all about him by his 
kind, obliging ways, and by his conscientious, uj)- 
right conduct in all the affairs of life. He is a 
hard- working, cajiable man, and by persevering 
and well-directed labor has established himself 
comfortab]}'. In politics he is a sound Democrat, 
and, religiously, is a consistent member of the 
Christian Church, known as the Campbellite 



Chureli. He was elected Road Commissioner in 
1886, and again in 1889, and is performing the 
duties of that office with credit to himself and to 
the advantao-e of the townsliiii. 


ILLIAM JUDY. Tiiis gentleman bears 
the reputation of being one of tlie best 
farmers in Middle Fork Township, where 
where he has resided since aljout 1851. That year 
he came with his parents to this county from Hardy 
County, Ya., the journey being made overland with 
teams and occupying thirty-one days. The father 
located a claim ajjon wliicli tliere was a log cabin, 
and into it the family removed, and lived there 
several years. William was then a lad of thirteen 
years. L'pon reaching manhood, he purchased a 
half section of land in sections 19 and 20, and by 
subsequent purchase 100 acres have been added to 
the original purchase. The elder Judy and his 
boys improvetl a good farm, and the father died 
in 1854, at the age of about sixty -two j'ears. The 
mother is still living, making her home with her 
son Samuel, in Iroquois County, this State. 

Our subject during his boyhood pursued his 
studies in a log cabin on the subscription plan, at- 
tending there two terms. Afterwards a regular 
schoolhouse was built at Wallace Chapel, about 
two miles from his liome. wliich he also attended 
for a time. Later he prosecuted his studies in 
Danville. He distinctly remembers the time when 
this section of the countr3r was a wild prairie, 
thinly settled, when deer and wolves were numer- 
ous, mill and market far away, and when the set- 
tlers endured mau}- privations and hardships in 
the struggle to maintain existence. 

Young Judy remained with his widowed mother 
until his marriage, in 1862, to Miss Nancj' A. 
"Wood. This lady the daughter of Absalom 
and Melinda (Copeland) Wood, and the grand- 
daughter of Henry A. Wood, a native of Virginia, 
who emigrated to this county- antl settled in Grant 
Township, when tbere was scarce!}' another white 
man within its limits. (Further notice will be 
found in the biography of Samuel Copeland in 

another ciinpter of this book.) Here he reared a 
large family' and spent his last days. He was a 
man of great energy and industr}', and improved a 
good farm from the wilderness. The father of 
Mrs. Judy was his eldest child, and also entered a 
tract of land from the Government, from which he 
built up a farm. The grandparents were members 
of the Methodist Church. Her great-great-grand- 
father Wood was born in England in 1739. Grand- 
mother Wood's maiden name was Hoover. 

The young couple took up their abode in the 
humble dwelling, and from that time on labored 
with the mutual purpose of making a home for 
themselves and their children. Their toils and 
sacrifices in due time met witli a reward, and, in 
addition to developing his first land, Mr. Judy 
added to his possessions until he now has -420 
broad acres, the greater part of which is enclosed 
with beautiful hedge fencing, neatly trimmed, and 
the land all in a high state of cultivation. A fine 
large dwelling has supplanted their first humble 
residence, and a barn and other necessary out- 
buildings, a flourishing apple orchard and the 
smaller fruit trees form a most attractive picture 
in the landscape. 

There came in due time to the fireside of our 
subject and estimable wife, twelve children, who 
were named respectively : Lizzie Grant, now Mrs. 
F. M. Slusher; Frank L., J. Milton, Charles, An- 
nettie, Alta jMay. Robert Earl, Myrtle Florence, 
Fanny Clarinda. Wilber Wood, Mary Melinda and 
Grace Ethel. They are all living, and form a re- 
m^arkably bright and interesting group. Mr. and 
Mrs. Judy are members in goo'I standing of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, attending Wallace 

Two brother of our subject, Ambrose and John, 
during the late Civil War enlisted in Company E, 
51st Illinois Infantry. John was killed in the 
battle of Franklin, Tenn., and his friends have 
never been able to find his resting-place. All the 
male members of the family uniformly vote the 
Republican ticket. The father, Nicholas Judy, 
was tiie son of Martin Judj', who reared his fam- 
ily in Virginia, the State of his birth. 

The father of our subject passed his bo3liood 
aiul youth in the Old Dominion, and was married 



to Miss Mary, daughter of Andrew and Mary Skid- 
more. To tiiem was born a family of seventeen chil- 
(lieii: .leliii, .lolin. Andrew, Rebecca, Isaac, Ellen, 
Amos. Elizabeth. William (our subject), Gabriel, 
Eve, Ambrose, Edward, Xannie, Samuel, and two 
who <lied in infanc)'. Eight of these children are 
living, and making their homes mostly in Illinois. 

Our subject's grandfather, Andrew Skidmore, 
married Miss Mary Stonestreet, of Virginia. They 
were both born in that State. He was a farmer 
and stock dealer, and was the owner of slaves, and 
died at the age of eighty-four years. Grandmother 
Skidmore was a noble woman, and taught the first 
Sabbath-school ever held in that county. 

(irandfather Martin Judj' was of (German ances- 
try and the father of twelve children, six boys and 
six girls. He was also a farmer and stock-raiser, 
and a member of the liUtheran Church. He lived 
and died in Pendleton Co., Va. 

(ireat-grandfather John Skidmore, an English- 
man by birth, married a (ierman lady, Mary 

Grandfather Stonestreet, on the mother's side, 
married Miss Williams, an English lady. 

^ ESSE LEEKA, M.D. One would scarcely 
suppose upon meeting this gentleman that 
he has attained to nearly his threescore 
/ years, for he is still young looking and 
more than usually active. This has been the re- 
sult of a correct life and temperate habits and ex- 
ercising good care over -'the house he lives in." 
He has been a resident of Oakwood Village since 
1886 and is numbered among its most successful 
and prominent physicians, having built up a good 
patronage and accumulated a fair amount of this 
world's possessions. 

The first thirty years of the life of our subject 
were spent in Clinton County, Ohio, where he was 
born May 19. 1830. He received a common 
school education and at the age of twenty years 
began his apprenticeship to the trade of a cabinet- 
m.aker. at which he worked in connection with 
farming for many years. At the age of twenty-five 

he was married, Feb. 2, 18.55, to Miss Rebecca A., 
daughter of Francis B. Macy, of Indiana, and now 
resding- in Kokomo, that state. Afterward the 
newly wcdiled pair settled in New ^'ienna, Ohio, of 
which the Doctor in diic time became Mayor. 
Subsequently he resided in Rush County, Ind., 
where he was Constable and later in Howard 
County, that State, where he held the office of 
Coroner two terms. After the outbreak of the 
Civil War, he on the 12th of December, 1863, en- 
listed in Company E. 9th Indiana Cavalry and was 
detailed to serve in the ( Juartermaster's depart- 
ment. He was willi his regiment all through 
Hood's campaign and in theengagement at Pulaski. 
He, however, saw little of active service but en- 
dured the hardships and privations incident to life 
in the army, was afflicted with rheumatism some 
time, and in October, 18G-4, hatl a severe attack of 
bilious remittent fever. After the close of the war 
he received his honorable discharge with the regi- 
ment, Aug. 28, 1865, at Vicksburg, Miss. 

Dr. Leeka began the practice of his profession 
in the spring of 1876 at Jerome, Ind. Later he 
entered the medical college of Indianapolis, from 
which he was graduated in the class of 1878. He 
has practiced in Howard Count}', Ind., at Fair- 
mount, this county, whence he came to Oakwood, 
and is the only established ph^-sician in this place, 
where he has property and a pleasant home. 

The father of our subject was Philip Leeka, a 
native of Virginia, who in early, life was taken by 
his parents to Washington Countj-, Tenn., where 
;he was reared to manhood. The patL-rnal grand- 
father. Christian Leeka, was a native of Germany 
and crossed the Atlantic as one of the body of 
troops employed by the British Government to 
subjugate the American Colonists. Upon his ar- 
rival here Grandfather Leeka was ill and was con- 
fined in the hospital until after peace was declared. 
He settled in Southern Virginia and married an 
American lady of German parentage. In 1815 
they removed to Clinton County, Ohio, wliere the 
grandfather died a few j-ears later. Philip, the 
father of our subject, was the fifth of his seven 
children. Two of the older boys served under 
General Jackson in the Seminole War. One of 
them. Christian, Jr., died while in the service in 



Floiida. The other, Henry, after leaving the army 
settled in Randolpli County, Ind.-, where he became 
a prominent citizen and served as Justice of tlie 
Peace for a period of eighteen years. He there 
spent the remainder of his life, passing away at a 
ripe old age. 

Philip Leelia was bom March 21, 1799, and 
reared to farming pursuits. lie acquired a good 
education and taught school considerabl3^ after his 
marriage. He maintained a warm interest in edu- 
cational matters and ofHciated as a School Director 
in his district from the time of settling there until 
his decease. He was married in Clinton County, 
Ohio, in 1821, to Miss Elizabeth Hodson, who wasof 
Quaker parentage and was born in North Carolina 
in 1797. The Hodson family emigrated to Clinton 
County, Ohio, about 1814. After their marriage 
the parents of our subject settled on a farm in that 
countj-, poor in jnirse but with strong hands and 
hopeful hearts, and after years of industry and 
economj', accumulated a good propertj' including a 
fine farm. Tlie mother passed away at the old 
homestead in lSi'2,. Philip Leeka survived his 
wife forty-two years, his death taking place near 
New Vienna, in 1884, when he was'quite aged. The 
household circle included ten children, nine of 
whom are still living, and of whom Jesse, our sub- 
ject, was the fifth in order of birth. 

To the Doctor and his first wife there were born 
five children, four sons and a daughter. The latter, 
Cora A., died when an interesting girl of twelve 
years. The sons are all living. Francis Edgar 
married Miss Sadie Sisson, and lives in St. Joe, 
111.; Charles Frederick married Miss Ida Ayles- 
worth, and they live in Hebron, Ind. Of the four 
children born to them only one is living. William 
L. married Miss Mary Gibson, is the father of three 
children, and lives in Durango, Col.; Daniel 
Cary is unmarried and a resident of Danville. 
Mrs. Rebecca A. Leeka departed this life April 14, 

Our subject contracted a second matrimonial 
.alliance in April, 1885, to Miss Elizabeth J. Tim- 
mons, formerly of Carroll County, Ind. Her father 
Elijah Timmons was a native of Ohio, her mother 
was Mary A. (Bennett) Timmons. of Pickaway Co., 
Ohio. This lady was one of a family of ten children, 

five boys and five giils, and was born May 15. 1838. 
Seven only are living. The Doctor became iden- 
tified with the Masonic fraternity thirtj'-six years 
ago and has always taken a warm interest in its 
prosperit3'. He is Senior Vice Commander of 
George Morrison Post, No. 635 G. A. R., Depart- 
ment of Illinois, in which he has held the office of 
Surgeon. He was at one time a member of the 
Sons of Temperance, and religiously is connected 
with the Societ3'"of Friends. Mrs. Leeka finds her 
I'eligious home in the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
Politically the Doctor is an ardent Republican, tak- 
ing a lively interest in the success and princijiles 
of his part}' and laboring as he has opportunity, to 
advance the political doctrines which he believes 
are the surest means of prosperitj' to one of the 
best governments on the face of the earth. 

ENOCH VANVICKLE. More than sixty years 
have gone by since the subject of this bio- 
^_ ' graphical review, then a stout, manly lad of 

fourteen years, first came to Vermilion County 
with his parents from his early home in the Buck- 
e^'e State. Here he grew to a stalwart, capable 
manhood, and has since been identified with the 
development and prosperity of his adopted county, 
and has been a factor in promoting its agricul- 
tural interests, with which he is still connected, 
having a good farm on section 35, Blount Town- 
ship, comprising 140 acres of as fine, tillable land as 
is to be found in the whole precinct. By down- 
right, hard and |)crsistent labor he has brought 
it to a high state of cultivation, it yielding him a 
good income, and he has erected suitable buildings. 
His parents were among the early settlers of the 
county, and it has been iiis pleasure to witness and 
assist in almost its entire development from a state 
of nature. 

The father of our subject. Evert Vanvickle, 
born cither in Pennsylvania or Virginia. His 
mother, whose maiden name was Sarah White, was 
a native of Pennsylvania, and after marriage the 
•parents settled in IJutler Countj^, Ohio, from there 
they removed to Jennings County, Ind.. where 

: f ^"*-^ ^ ;5, -fr^fm^ *r^ 

Residence of William Kelly, 5ec.2. Danville Township. 

Residence ofMrs. Cliza CASSEL, Pilot Township. 

iiif8^(?B^ri'»''^^»»''^^^>g=<iifei^^-^fe.i^feA»w^ — , ^ , ^ .■■ -T-^. ,^i^.-....^vj^-aiiigteu..»t<a3»^»ff,«yy»yi^^ 

Residence of B.C.PATE,SEc.2l.(T.i9rR.l2) CatlinTowmship. 



they lived till 1828. In that year tliey made an- 
other move westward and penetratiny to tiie wilds 
of Illinois, came to Venuilion Count}' and settled 
in Blount Township. After a residence here of 
some twenty j-ears they went to Holt County, Mo., 
where their remaining years were passed. To that 
worthj' cou[)lc were born five sons, of wliom the 
subject of this sketch was the second. 

Our subject was born in the pioneer home of his 
parents in Hutler County, Ohio, Ai)ril 26, 1814. 
He accompanied his parents to this county in 1828* 
and has ever since been an honored citizen of this 
place. After attaining man's estate he .adopted the 
calling of agriculture to which he had l)een reared 
and for which he had a natural taste, and as the 
years have rolled In- he has acquired a comfortalile 
competency, and with the aid of a good wife he 
has built up a cozy home, in which they are spend- 
ing the declining j-ears of a life of usefulness in 
quietness and peace, enjoying the full respect and 
affection of their neighbors and friends. 

Mr. Vanvickle has been twice married. The 
first time in Vermilion County, in 1837, to Miss 
Nancy White. Nine children were the fruits of 
that union, of whom the following seven grew to 
maturity: Ruth; Andrew, who was a soldier in the 
army, enlisted from Indiana, and gave up his life 
for his country at Knoxville, Tenn.; Sarah, Evert, 
Harriet, John, and Enoch. Mrs. Vanvickle de- 
parted this life in her husband's home in Blount 
Township. She was a thoroughh' gooil, upright 
woman, and an esteemed member of the Chris 
tian Church. Mr. Vanvickle was married a second 
time in Blount Township to Mrs. Cynthia (Souders) 
Cline. She is a native of Pike County, Ohio, born 
April 11, 1823. She has also been twice married. 
Her first husband was Nathaniel Cline. He was a 
native of Gallatin, Tenn., and took part in the 
Rebellion, enlisting from Danville, 111., in Com- 
pany A, 125th Illinois Infantry. He died at Gal- 
latin, Tenn. By that marriage Mrs. ^'anvickle 
became the mother of eight children — Amanda, 
Martha, Marj', Benjamin F., John B., Charles, 
Luketta, and Emma. Amanda and Martha are 

Our subject is held in veneration by his fellow- 
men not only for his pioneer labors in Blount Town- 

ship, in whose welfare he lias always taken a genuine 
interest, but for those honest traits of mind and 
heart that mark him as a good man and a desirable 
citizen. He is one of the few survivors of the 
famous Black Hawk War, in which he served 
about thirty days, Iteing then a youth of eighteen 
years. He, and his wortliy wife are esteemed 
members of the Cliristian Church, with which he 
connected himself some twenty years ago, and she 
joined thirty years ago. Mr. Vanvickle is a true 
Republican, and in him the party finds a devoted 

- cx-x> ■ 


J'"' AMES DAVIS is one of the prosperous and 
influential farmers of ^'ennilion County, 
who takes great pride in doing all things 
well. His father was Henry Davis, who 
was born in Pennsylvania. He removed to 
Ohio in 1808, and lived there twenty-eight 
years, and in 18.'5C settled in Illinois, locating 
on the farm now owned and occupied by his son 
James. His mother, whose maiden name was 
Rachael Pollock, was also a native of Pennsylvania. 
Henr3' Davis lived in Pennsylvania but a short 
time after his marriage, when he emigrated to Ohio, 
and there cleared a farm of 200 acres. After his 
removal to Illinois he became a ver}- large land- 
holder, owning at one time about 4,200 acres of 
uncultivated Illinois prairie. He was the father of 
ten children, five of whom are now living. The 
mother died in 1848, at the age of sixty -one, while 
the father p.assed away in November, 1855, aged 
seventy-four years. James was the youngest of 
this family of children, his hirlii occurring Jan. 
21, 1828, in Guernsey, County. l)hio. He received 
a limited education in tiie old-fashioned logschool- 
house, and his boyhood was mostly employed at 
work upon the farm. In those days he spent a 
great deal of time hunting deer, wolves, and other 
wild game, and refers to these times as the hap- 
piest moments of his life. He remained at home 
helping his father on the farm until he was twent}'- 
two years of age. when he m.arried America J. 
Boggess, Oct. 18. 184",). She is the daughter of 
John Boggess, who was one of the earliest pioneers 



of Vermilion Count}'. He selUed at Brooks' 
Point, and was a representative farmer of his time. 
Eleven chililren were born to him, nine of whom 
grew to maturity. He and his w^ife have been 
dead for many years. Mrs. Davis, wife of the sub- 
ject of tiiis sketch, was born at Brooks' Point, May 
3. 1833. Slie grew to womanhood in this section, 
where she received a limited school education. 

After marriage Mr. and Mrs. Davis located on 
his present farm, wliere his father gave iiim 397 
acres of as good land as there is in the county. It 
will be seen that Mr. Davis luid a comi)eteney with 
which to begin life. He possesses the common 
tense and Ijiisiness skill necessar}' to keep his in- 
herited wealth and add to it. He is a first-class 
ftirmer. and raises cattle, horses, sheep and bogs. 
In 1805 Mr. Davis erected a fine residence at a 
cost of iJn.OOO, and since that time has added to it, 
and made many improvements in its surroundings. 
He also owns a good house and lot in Danville. 
Mr. and Mrs. Davis have had two children: John 
T., the elder of the two, is married to Miss Katie 
Thomas, and tliey are living three miles southwest 
of Fairmount. He is the father of one son — James 
Roy — by a former marriage. Rachel A. married 
E. R. Danforth; they reside in Danville with their 
three children — Jennie, Annie and James. 

Mr. Davis has held many of the local offices of 
liis township, and has given the best of satisfac- 
tion in conducting them. For nine years he held 
the offices of Road Commissioner and School Di- 
rector, and is now a Trustee of his school district. 
He is a member of Homer Lodge No. 199, A. F. & 
A. M., of which he has been Senior and Junior 
AVarden, Junior Deacon and Treasurer. The offices 
of King and Scribe have been held by him in the 
lodge of Royal Arch Masons No. 94. He is also a 
member of the commandery at Danville. Mr. 
Davis has been a member of the Baptist Church 
for many years, and he takes some interest in poli- 
tics. He was born and reared a Democrat, and 
continued with that party until the War of the Re- 
bellion, when he changed his political belief, and 
since that time he has invariably voted the Repub- 
lican ticket at National and State elections, but in 
local affairs lie casts his vote for the best man. Mr. 
Davis has been somewhat of a traveler. His first 

trip was to Chicago, in 1842, with a load of wheat, 
and in 1848 he took a second trip to Chicago with 
a load of apples. In 1875 he visited California, 
and made an extended trip through that State. He 
attended the Centennial at Philadelphia in 1876, 
and on that journe}- visited many different States. 
Mr. Davis enlisted in Company C, 71st Illinois In- 
fantry, and served with his regiment until late in 
the autumn of 1862. when he was discharged. 
There is no farmer in this section of the country 
whose judgment is better, and his record is one of 
the best. 

fj)IRGIL C. T. KINGSLEY, M.D. is a native 
of New York State, having been born near 
Utica. His father, Jedediah S. Kingsle}-, 
was also a native of the same State and Utica was 
his home for a great many years. The grandfather 
of the subject of this sketch, Obediah Kingsley. 
was a native of New England and traced bis an- 
cestry to England. He settled in Herkimer County, 
N. Y. and pursued the calling of a farmer, living on 
his first homestead for nearly a half century and 
dj'ing there. He was one of the earliest settlers of 
Herkimer County, and earl}' in the century, pur- 
chased a tract of timber land from which he cleared 
a farm. He built two saw-mills, was an extensive 
dealer in lumber and furnished the lumber for the 
large asylum at Utica. 

Jedediah S. Kingsle}-, the father of the subject 
of this sketch was reared to agricultural pursuits, 
and followed farming for some time after his mar- 
riage, when his health gave way and he turned his 
attention to the study of medicine, a profession to 
which he was eminently adapted, as time later on 
demonstrated. He graduated from the University 
of Vermont, at Bnrlington, when he immediately 
commenced the practice of his profession at Rome, 
N. Y., and has remained there since. The maiden 
name of his wife was Angeline Myers, a native of 
New York State and to whom was born five child- 

Dr. Kingsley, of whom this biography is written, 
was educated in the common schools of Rome, and 
was graduated from the High School there. Early in 



life he coiifliuled that he was adapted to the pro- 
fession of medicine and surgery, and following that 
idea, he commenced the study of medicine with liis 
father, after which he attended three years at the 
medical department of Michigan University' at Ann 
Arbor, and graduated in the class of '83. After 
his graduation he returned to Rome and commenced 
l)ractice and pursued his profession there until the 
spring of 1884, when he removed to Danville, 
where he has built up an extensive and lucrative 
practice. Tlie doctor nitikes a specialty of cancer, 
tuni(jr.s and clu'onic diseases, and has been eminently 
successful in pursuing these specialties. Patients 
visit him from many different states. His office is 
well filled, a greater portion of the time, and all 
curable diseases are treated with success. The 
Doctor's pleasant ways and professional ability are 
drawing cards. 

Dr. Kingsley was married in 1884, to Miss Ella 
Brown, a native of Oneida County, New York 
State .and daughter of Marv Brown. 

— sJli-i- 


^-IMOTHY PARK, who lives on section 24, 
in Grant Township, \'ermilion County, near 
the Indiana State line, was born in Franklin 
County, Ohio, in 1844. His parents were .Silas 
and Mary (Good) Park, both of Virginia. The}- 
removed to Franklin County, Ohio, at an early 
day, but later went to Delaware County in the same 
State, where both died, the father in 1877, the 
mother about twenty years ago. Silas Park was a 
farmer by occupation, and a plain, hardworking 
man who never took any part in public affairs, but 
attended closely to the business of making a home 
for his family, and he succeeded. They had nine 
children, of whom five are living, namely: Ezek- 
iel, William and Branson, farmers in Delaware 
County, Ohio; Rose, who is the wife of William 
Hazlett, also living in Ohio. Those deceased were 
named respectively: Susanna, Samantha, Hardy 
and Ashforth. 

Timothy Park, of whom we write, was brought 
up to farmmg, which has been ins lifelong occu- 
pation. He remained in Ohio until 186'J, when 

he came to this county, buying a farm on section 
25 in Grant Township, one-half mile south of his 
present home. He lived there but a year, however, 
when he returned to his native State. A few 
months later he came back to this county, was 
married and rented a farm on section 19, town- 
ship 23, range 10 and 11, and there he and his 
wife lived for four years, when he bought the 
farm which he now owns and occupies. It was 
then but a tract of uncultivated prairie, without 
a building, fence or tree, in fact, being wholly 
destitute of the work of man. Now he has all 
the improvements necessary for a well regulated 
farm, his house being neat and comfortable, his 
buildings ample for all his needs, and his land 
more than ordinarily well cultivated, the trans- 
form.ition being due to his untiring energy and 
knowledge, and the picture of his broad acres with 
their fine surroundings is one on which he can look 
with just pride. Eighty acres of his land are on 
the section on which his house stands, while another 
eighty is located on section 13, adjoining it on 
the north. Mr. Park has always been an ardent 
advocate of thorough drainage, and was one of 
the first to build tile drains in this pavt of the 
countj^ and he now has his entire farm tiled in tlie 
most thorough manner. On the northern half of 
his farm he has the biggest and deepest ditch in the 
northeast corner of the county, and the results of 
tills careful attention to proper drainage and till- 
age of the soil are apparent in the splendid con- 
dition of his land and his usual good crops. 

Although not one of the original settlers of the 
county, Mr. Park located here when the land was 
new and sparsely settled. The presence of large 
sloughs and much low land in the neighborhood 
had retarded the progress of this section of the 
county, and he has witnessed its development from 
its wild state to its present prosperous condition, 
and has been no small factor in assisting its growth, 
to which he has contributeil his full share. The 
first work that he did here was for his wife's father, 
James Bndd, who was largely interested in the cul- 
tivation of broom corn, having as much as 300 
acres planted at one time. The nearest market for 
the product was at Lafayette, Ind., and no regular 
and direct roads having been laid out, the w.agons 



had to go the best way they could around the 
nuineroiis sloughs and across the prairies, making 
the distance between here and there from fort3f-flve 
to fifty miles. Often Mr. Park has started long 
before daj-light, sometimes as early as two o'clock 
in the morning, in order to get to Lafayette l)y 
sundown, which could only be accomplished by 
hard driving. The next day was occupied bj' the 
return trip. Farmers of the present day would 
think this an overpowering hardship, but such trials 
as this the pioneers had to endure in their efforts 
to build up homes on the prairies, and their labors 
and sacrifices have made this country what it is. 
Without them railroads would not so soon have been 
built to carrj' the farmer's produce so far and near, 
and bring the articles he needs almost to his very 
door. All honor, then, to those brave and sturdy 
men who from the wild and bleak prairies have 
made this country one of prosperous farms, dotted 
with groves, among which nestle thousands of 
comfortable homes. Theirs were the toils and sac- 
ritices, while we in comfort and ease enjoy the 
fruits of their labors. Among these true men, Mr. 
Park is justly' entitled to a place. When he settled 
here, Hoopeston was not thought of, and he men- 
tions as an interesting fact that he sold the first 
dozen brooms ever disposed of in that now thriv- 
ing town. Although yet a young man, he is to-day 
one of the oldest settlers living in the northeast 
corner of the county. 

On April IG, 1876, Mr. Park was united in 
marriage with Miss Nancy S. Budd, daughter of 
James and Susanna Budd, then and now resi- 
dents of Iroquois County, 111., who emigrated 
from Ohio, where Mr. Budd was largely en- 
gaged in the occupation of sheep-raising. He 
has now a general farm, but is virtual!}' retired 
from active life, being seventy -six j'ears of age. 
]Mrs. Park was born in Ohio, 1841, and is the 
mother of one child — Elnora Jeanette, a bright 
3'oung miss, now attending school. Mr. Park is 
one of tlie younger farmers of Orant Township, 
who is becoming known as one of its most enter- 
[irising and go-ahead citizens. He has never been 
an applicant for public office, but has held some of 
the minor township positions. lie is an honest, 
trustworthy man. whose neighbors give him an ex- 

cellent character as a citizen, and one of the sub- 
stantial sort who contribute much to the prosperity 
of the county. Politically he is a supporter of 
the Democratic party in State and national affairs, 
but in local matters party ties rest lightly on him, 
for he believes in voting for the man best qualified 
for the position, the proper waj' for those who 
have the best interests of the community at heart. 


(»^?^I10i\IAS KEPLINGER. The snug and well- 
^, regulated farm occupied bj' the subject of 
this sketch comprises 120 acres of choice 
land, located on section 29, Grant Township. 
This, when he took possession of it in 1870 was but 
slightly improved, only a little breaking having 
been done and not a shrub, post or tree upon it, 
being all open prairie. During the nineteen years 
of his proprietorship Mr. Keplinger has effected a 
great transformation, there being now a fine resi- 
dence with a good orchard and numerous shade 
trees, together with a barn and the other outbuild- 
ings required for the successful prosecution of farm 
pursuits. 'J'hc fields are enclosed to a good extent 
with hedge fencing, and by a process of underdrain- 
ing the land has become remarkably fertile and 
the source of a handsome income. 

At the time of his coming to Illinois. Mr. Kep- 
linger found deer, wolves and all kinds of wild 
animals in abundance. For the first few years his 
farm was mostly devoted to the raising of grain to 
which it seemed best adapted, but now he raises 
all the cereals, besides the jn-oduce required for 
family use and considerable to sell. He is at this 
writing (April 1889) completing a handsome new 
residence, the main part occupj-ing an area of 
16x24 feet with an "L" 15x26 feet and which when 
finished, set in the midst of shrubbery as it is, 
will form one of the most attractive homes in this 
region. Everything about the place is indicative 
of thrift and prosperity, cultivated tastes and the 
refinements of modern life. 

Mr. Keplinger was born in Fountain County, Ind., 
six miles east of Covington, April 7. 1829, and 
lived there until a man of thirty-two years. He 



remained a menibor of tlie parental household until 
the death of his father, which occurred in 1859, at 
the age of fifty-three j-ears. The mother had died 
when he was a lad of twelve. On the 10th of Maj', 
I860, he was married to i\liss Eliza Shaffer and 
the year following removed to the vicinity of 
Sugar Grove, Champaign County, upon which he 
operated ten or eleven years. In 1870 he came to 
this county and secured the land which he now 
owns. Since Incoming a voting citizen he has 
given his influence and support to the Democratic 
part}-, but has carefully avoided the responsibili- 
ties of ollicc. 

Mr. and Mrs. Keplinger have had six chihlren, five 
of whom are living, as follows: Nancy, born Feb. .5, 
1 800, and died Aug. 2, 1862; James married Miss 
Ella Gunn, is a resident of lloopeston and is the 
father of one chilli; George, Annie and Andrew- 
are at home with their parents; Allie, the third 
child, is the wife of Elmer Crane and lives in Ne- 
liraska; they have two children. Mrs. Keplinger 
was born in Fountain County, Ind., Jan. 24, 1835, 
and is the daughter of Daniel Shaffer, a farmer of 
that county. She received her education in the 
common school and remained with her parents 
until her marriage. 

Jacob Keplinger, the father of our subject, was 
born in Virginia and lived there until a man of 
twenty -seven years. He then emigrated to Indiana 
and was married to Miss Nanc}' Dediraore. To 
them there were born three sons and two daugh- 
ters of whom only three are living — Thomas, our 
subject, and his brother, John, a resident of Indiana 
and a sister ^Martha, who resides in Iowa. 

LFRED M. DIXON. This well-known 
gentleman, who owns a farm on section 10, 
in Grant Township, was born in Fayette 
County, Pa., May 25, 1834, his parents 
being William and Jane (Montgomery) Dixon, 
both natives of the Keystone State. The father 
was a farmer in the county where his son was born, 
and there he died when the latter about ten 
years of age. Alfred was brought up to farm work 

from an early age, also drove cattle to market, and 
worked at all such like occupations until 1861, in 
which year he removed to near Attica, in Fountain 
County, Ind., making that his home for two or 
three years, but spending a summer during that 
time in \'ermilion County, in which he settled per- 
manently in April, 1868, .at a place known jis Burr 
Oak Grove, in Grant Totvnship. There he worked 
for four years, when he remove,! to the farm on 
which he now lives. This land was given to him- 
self and wife by the hitter's father and was then 
nothing but a tract of raw prairie land, with neigh 
bors few and far between, and to one accustomed 
to the more densely populated communities of the 
Eastern States ii did not present a very invititio- 
appearance. With stout hearts and w-illing hands, ■ 
assisted by the labors of a faithful wife, our subject 
set to work improving his land, and at length 
brought it to its present state of thorough cultiva- 
tion. Wild game was in that day plentiful in this 
region, and Mr. Dixon mentions that he counted at 
one time seven deer at a small creek near his 
house. Wild fowl were also plenty-; ducks, geese 
and prairie chickens being constant and not always 
welcome visitors to the farmers' grain fields. 
Prairie wolves were unpleasantly numerous, the 
farmers' pig pens often suffering by their depra- 

In the seventeen years that have elajised since 
Mr. Dixon settled at his present home, great 
changes have been wrought, and the countr}' about 
has been thickly settled. His own place shows the 
work of an industrious and thrifty hand. About 
nine years ago he put up a new frame house and 
his outbuildings are all that the necessities of his 
farm require. These have all been the results of 
his own labor, and the comforts he is now enjoying 
are deserved. 

In October, 1804, Mr. Dixon was married in 
F'ountain County, Ind., to Miss Serena Dunkel- 
barger, born in that place in 1845 and a daughter 
of John and Fanny Dunkelbarger, whose home 
was in the county named, but who w-ero the own- 
ers of large tracts of land in Vermilion County, 
comprising 900 acres in all. Both of Mrs. Dix- 
on's parents were natives of Perry County, Pa., 
and they removed to Indiana at an earl}- day. 



The mother died a few years afterward and Mr. 
Dunkelbarger has since been twice married, both of 
his later wives being from Indiana, where he still 

Mr. and Mrs. Dixon became the ijarents of ten 
children, six of whom are yet living, four d3n'ng 
vuung. The survivors are: Fannie, wife of Burn 
Deeten, a farmer of Grant Township; John, who 
is a machinist by trade, lives in Milwaukee. Wis.; 
Jennie, Emma, Ella and Dale Wallace are yet under 
the parental roof. 

Mr. Dixon takes an active interest in township 
affairs and has held several offices. He is now 
Highway Commissioner. He is a member of the 
Masonic fraternity, affiliated with Star Lodge, No. 
709, A. F. & A. M.; and with the Hoopestou 
Chapter, No. 181, R. A. M. In everj' position Mr. 
Dixon has filled he has discharged the duties im- 
posed upon him with such fidelity and judgment as 
to win the good opinion of all, and to-day no man 
stands higher in the respect and esteem of all who 
know him than does he. 

'^1 OHN H. VAN ALLEN. In noting the men 
of prominence who are residents of Oak- 
wood Township and have been instrumental 
in bringing it to its present position, the 
suliject of this notice could by no means properly 
be omitted, and those who in the future may 
peruse the records of this county will recognize in 
him one of its representative men, who, in assist- 
ing to develop a portion of its soil and each year 
turning in a handsome sum to the county treasurj' 
from the proceeds of his taxable property, has 
borne no unimportant part in estalilisliing its repu- 
tation and importance. The value of history and 
biograpli}' are becoming more thorouglily recog- 
nized each year among the intelligent people of the 
great West, who realize the fact that their cliildren 
and their children's children in future years will 
reap great satisfaction in noting the names of their 
progenitors among those who contributed to the 
development of Central Illinois. 

In noting the events of the life of a prosperous 

and respected citizen, the mind naturally reverts 
to those from whom he drew his origin. The 
father of onr subject was Stats B. Van Allen, a 
native of New York City, who learned carpenter- 
ing when a young man and in later j-ears operated 
quite extensively as a contractor. The family is of 
Scottish descent, and was represented in this coun- 
try probably during the colonial days. Mrs. Mar- 
garet (Hill) Van Allen, the mother of our subject, 
was a native of Muskingum County, Ohio, and the 
daughter of William Hill, who was born in Virginia, 
and for a time was connected with the iron works 
in Gilim's Falls as foreman of a forge. He also 
carried on farming. He spent his last years in 
Henry County, Ohio, dying at the age of seventy- 

Stats B. Van Allen, tiie father of our subject, 
spent his last years in the Buckeye State, dying in 
February, 1888, at the age of seventy. The mother 
is still living there, and is now in the sixty-eighth 
year of her age. They were the parents of twelve 
children, all of whom lived to mature years. John 
H., our subject, was the thiid in order of birth, 
and first opened his eyes to the light <Lan. 22, 1843, 
in Licking County, Ohio. His boyhood was spent 
in his native State, and he received a limited edu- 
cation in the common schools. He remained at 
home with his parents, turning over his cainings 
into the family treasury-, until entering the army 
to fight the battles of the Union. 

Our subject, on the 14tli of August, 1862, en- 
listed in Company G, 97th Ohio Infantry, and 
served one year. Tiie regiment was first ordered 
to Cincinnati and then to Louisville to follow up 
Gen. Bragg's army. At Wild Cat Mountain he 
received a very severe fall and was sent to the 
hospital at Nashville, where he was confined in tin' 
Zollii'offer House. Being very discontented here he 
left and returned to his regiment, with which he 
remained until the battle of Murfreesboro. Thence 
he went to Nashville, and finally was sent to Camp 
Denison, Ohio, where he was obliged to accept his 
honorable discharge on account of disability. 

Mr. Van Allen now returned to his father's farm 
and remained there about one year. On the 24th 
of November, 1864, he united in marriage witli 
Miss Rebecca, daughter of John Morrison, a i)r()ni- 



inent faniicr of his locality and one of the repre- 
senlalivc men of Licking County. Mv. Morrison 
died in Jlarch. 1889, at the age of seventy-two 
years, lie had been twice married, and by his first 
wife, the mother of Mrs. Van Allen, was the father 
of seven children. After her death, which occurred 
about twenty-four years ago, he was married the 
second time and there were born to him two more 

Mrs. Van Allen was the second child of her par- 
ents and was born in Licking- County, Ohio, Fell. 1. 
1812. She received a very good education in the 
common schools, and remained a member of the 
parental household until her marriage. The newly 
wedded pair commenced tiie journey of life to- 
gether in Mt. Sterling, Ohio, and Mr. A'an Allen 
employed himself as a carpenter for two years 
thereafter. Next he engaged in teaming three 
years, hauling principally stoneware and crockery. 
Finally, in 1861), he determi)ied to seek the farther 
West, and coming to Illinois with his family located 
nearGlenlnirn, where he established a pottery which 
he conducted about eighteen months. Then aban- 
doning this he turned his attention to farming, with 
which he has since been occupied and has met with 
flattering success. 

Tlie property of Mr. Van Allen embraces 205 
acres of choice land, mostly in one body and nearly 
the whole under a thorough state of cultivation. It 
is pleasantly located on section 26. The residence 
was put up in IS81, and comprises a neat and sub- 
stantial dwelling, which, with its surroundings is 
indicative of the enterprising and progressive spirit 
of the proprietor. Of the nine children born to 
our subject and his estimable wife, .seven are living 
and all at home with their parents. They were 
named respectively: Effle, Charles H., William K., 
-lames M., Jessie F., Gracie M. and Robert S. 

In politics Mr. Van Allen is a Republican both 
by inheritance and a most decided preference for 
the principles of this i)arty. At the time of Gen. 
Oarfield's election as President of the United States 
the father of our subject had the lumor of casting 
eleven votes for the Republican ticket, nine of 
these being for his own sons .and one for a giand- 
son. Our subject has served as Si-hool Director 
for the last twelve years, and still occupies the 

oflice. In religious matters his views coincide witli 
those of the Methodist E|)iscopal Church. Mrs. 
Van Allen is a member in good standing of the 
Christian Church. Socially, Mr. Van Allen belongs 
to Newtown Lodge, No. 7 1 4, A. F. & A. M., and also 
to George Morrison Post, No. 635, G. A. R., of 

ji,., LEX L. WHITE, a highly esteemed old 
(ff"*iy|l resident of Vance Township, is without 

questioji one of the most popular men of 
Fafrmount, where he has spent many years 
and with whose people he been closely identi- 
fied both in friendly and business relations. His 
wide knowledge of human nature and his uniform- 
l}' good judgment m.ake him the recipient of many 
confidences, especially among the old people of the 
place, who often solicit hira for advice in business 
matters, and he seldom fails to give them wise and 
judicious counsel. 

The native place of Mr. White was in the vicin- 
ity of Logan, Ohio, and the date of his birth Nov. 
2, 1849. His early education was conducted in the 
schools of his native town, and he made such good 
use of his time that at the .age of sixteen years he 
began teaching, and followed this profession at in- 
tervals for a period of fourteen years. He taught 
first in the schools of his native town, when there 
were but two male teachers out of a corps of nine. 
At one time he was Superintendent of the Gore 
Coal Mines. Upon coming to Fairmount he oHici- 
ated as Principal of the schools, and in 1880 took 
the census in Sidell Township, this county. The 
3ear following he journeyed to the Indian Terri- 
tory and became superintendent of the lunilier 
business conducted by Osgood it Haywood, of 
Indianapolis, being stationed in the Creek Nation. 
In the si)ring of 1882 Mr. White elected 
Assessor and Collector of Vance Township, and 
belli the positicni two years. In 1884 he was elected 
Township Supervisor, which office he has since held 
by re-election each year. He was appointed Post- 



master of Fairmountin 1885, retaining the position 
until 1889, when he resigned ou account of ill 

The marriage of our suliject and Miss Angelina 
E. Noble took place at tlie bride's liome in Fair- 
mount July 20, 1876. Rev. J. II. Noble, the father 
of Mrs. White, was a, leading member of the Illi- 
nois Conference and Presiding Elder of the Dan- 
ville district. Later he was stationed at .Springfield, 
and now, after an active service in the blaster's 
vineyard of over forty years, contemplates retir- 
ing from his arduous duties. He is a strong and 
eloquent expounder of the Word, and thousands 
have listened to the admonitions which have fallen 
from his lips and borne good fruit. In the dis- 
charge of his pious duties he has been stationed at 
Lincoln, INIattoon. Slielbyville and Paxton in Illi- 
nois; and in Indiana was in Greencastle, New 
Albany and Indianapolis. 

Mr. Noble was born in Ohio in the fall of 1821, 
and was twice married. He became the father of 
thirteen children, ten of whom are living. His 
first wife was Miss Angeline Simmons, and his sec- 
ond her sister Caroline. 

Mrs. White was born Aug. 3, 1857, in Indiana, 
and received an excellent education. She was 
married to our subject when a maiden of nineteen 
years, and is now the mother of three children, the 
eldest of whom, Anna Lee, was born Jul3'' 30, 1877. 
The latter is a bright young girl, and takes a re- 
markable interest in her studies, priding herself 
upon her progress therein. The second daughter, 
Edna Noble, was born June 20, 1879, and the only 
son, Edgar Paul, April 14, 1885. Mr. White 
politically is a strong Democrat, and has been quite 
prominent in politics. Several of his male rela- 
tives in Ohio occupied prominent positions, one 
uncle being Clerk of the County Court, another 
County Commissioner, and two others Auditor and 
Recorder respectively, all holding olfice at the same 
time. Leaving Ohio in 1873, he came to this coun- 
ty, locating in Fairmount, with which his interests 
have since been closely identified. For the last six 
years he has been manager for the firm of Davis 
& Stearns, dealers in lumber, hardware and aa:ri- 
cultural implements. He only officiated as Post- 
master six months, and when sending in his resig- 

nation Mrs. White received the appointment and 
held the ofiice until the early part of June, 188'J. 
Mrs. White is a very estimable lady and a member 
in good standing of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. Our subject socially lias been Master of 
Fairmount Lodge, No. 590, for the last three years, 
and still holds the position. 

Mr. White was the third child of his parents, 
Darius and Esther (McBroom) White, who were 
also natives of the Buckeye State, and the father 
is now principal owner of the Logan Manufacturing 
Plant. The paternal grandparents were likewise 
natives of the Buckeye State. Grandfather Mc- 
Broom, also a native of Ohio, served in the War 
of 1812 and died in 1883, when over ninety years 
of age. His wife was a native of Maryland, and 
died in 1882. They had lived together for the 
long period of sixty-four years. To Darius White 
and his estimable wife there were born nine chil- 
dren, all of whom are living, together with tlie 
parents — a circumstance seldom equalled the world 
over, death having not yet entered this interesting 
household circle. 

(^LBERT GIDDINGS. One of the largest 
@lUl and best-api)ointed conservatories in East- 
ern Illinois, embracing 8,000 square feet 
of glass, is owned and conducted b}' the 
subject of this notice, who commands a wholesale 
and retail trade extending into most of the States 
froni the Atlantic to the Pacific. As a florist he 
cannot be excelled, and he is of that enterprising 
and go-ahead disposition which is the surest guar- 
antee of success. His life-long interests have cen- 
tered in Vermilion County, for it is the county of 
his birth, wliieh took place in Danville, Dec. 3, 

Our subject is the son of William and Caroline 
(Kitchener) Gidtlings, prominent residents of this 
county, and a sketch of whom appears elsewhere 
in this work in connection with that of John W. 
Giddings. their son. Albert was reared and edu- 
cated in his native cit}', although spending much 
of his time at the farm of his father, where he con- 

(s^ (^yy't^^^^ 



tinned until the death of liie lallei-. He tlien en- 
gaged in the gioceiy trade in parlnersliip with 
W. H. Johns, and the firm of .lolms A- (iiddings 
existed until May, 1HK2. Our subject then <lis- 
posed of his interests in lite business to his partner, 
and the year following established himself in that 
in which he is now engaged. 

The marriage of our subject with Miss Mary 
J. Cromer took place at the home of the bride, 
Oct. 4, 1877. Mrs. Ciddings was born near 
Perrvville, Ind., in February, ISi'j'J, and was the 
daughter of Francis and Isabelle Cromer. Mrs. 
Giddings died .lune 5, 1883. and nui- subject, on 
the ■23d of March. 1887, contracted a second mar- 
riage with Miss Ella Dill, of Danville. Ind. This 
lady was born Jan. 4, 18C3. in Clearnninl. Ind. 
Mr. and ilrs. (iiddingsare members in good stand- 
ing of the First Methodist Episcopal Church, and 
INIr. (biddings, politically, is a Republican. Socially, 
he belongs to Olive Branch Lodge No. 38, A. F. 
& A. M.; Vermilion Chai>ter No. 82, R. A. M.; 
Athelstane Commandery No. 45, Knight Temp- 
lar, and Oriental Consistory of Chicago. He 
is a man intelligent anil well informed, and a favoi'- 
ite iioth in social and business circles among the 
people with whom he has grown up from boyhond. 


y^ILLIAM CANADAY. Su. In giving their 
just due to the i)ioneers of Central Illinois, 
^f^ there is required the pen of the historian, 
who will perpetuate, their names and deeds to fu- 
ture generations, who as time passes on will learn 
to appreciate tliem at their full value. It is doubt- 
ful if those sturdy characters themselves realized 
the magnituile of the work which they had begun, 
and the resnlts which were to follow. Not only 
did their labors affect themselves personally, but 
the works of each man contributed to make a grand 
whole in the development of a rich section of the 
country which is looked u|)on with pride by the 
l)eople to-day. The fact that Mr. Canaday came 
to Elwood Township when there was but one cabin 
within its limits is sufficient to establish him as one 
of the most prominent men of this region, and the 

further fact that he has labored industriously and 
lived worthily, forms for him t)ne of the most en- 
during monuments which can be erected to man. 

Tliere are four men in Elwood Township bearing 
the name of William Canaday, and of these the 
subject of this sketch is the most prominent and 
the oldest. Of Southern birth .and |)arentage, he 
was born in Jefferson County, East I'enn., Dec. 22, 
1809, and is the son of Henry Canaday, a native of 
North Carolina, who removed with his family to 
^Vayne County, Ind., in the fall of 1820 and there 
spent the following winter. In the meantime two 
of the sons came to this e<iuuty and \n\i up in El- 
wood Township a round leig cabin near the present 
residence of our subject and on the same section. 
Earl\- in tlie spring of 1821 the family took posses- 
sion of the cabin, the only house in this region. 
Indians were numerous and often visited the family 
to beg, trade or steal. They camped on the banks 
of the Little N'ermilion in the spring of the year to 
hunt and fish, but never serionslj' troubled the 

The Canad.ays made sugar that first spring and 
prepared to carr\- on farming, but flnall}- one of 
the sons, Benjamin, returned to Tennessee, where 
he bought a farm and soon afterwards was joined 
by the balance of the family. The whole family 
returned to this county the following fall, having 
sold their Tennessee property. They were visited 
considerably with sickness and the nearest doctor 
was at Clinton. They had to go to the mill to 
Racoon Creek, in Park County, Ind., and Terre 
Haute was the nearest trading point. Thej- had no 
horses and broke the new ground with oxen. Wild 
o-ame was i)lentiful — deer, turkey and a few buffalo. 
In the fall they filled the smoke-house with deer 
hams and also had plenty of pork. 

When returning to Tennessee the Canaday family 
left thirty hogs whii'h they had brought from 
Indiana and which the}- could not well take with 
them upon going back South. So the animals ran 
wild, and for years thereafter their progeny roamed 
through the woods and became so ferocious that a 
boar would sometimes kill a cow. The Canaday 
family occupied the small log cabiu, containing one 
room, for some time, and the mother did the cook- 
ing by the rne-i)lace. The tloor was of puncheon, 



the roof of clapboarris held down with weight polos 
and the stick and clay chimney was built on the 

About the second year'of their residence in Ver- 
milion Count}', Henry Canaday, the father of our 
subject, together witii John Haworth, set up a 
"meeting," as it was called by the Society of 
Friends, (or in common i)arlance organized a 
church). These two men and others who after- 
wards came to the neighborhood built a log cabin 
and worshiped therein, and afterwards built a 
church of hewed logs. Sometimes the attendance so small that Henry Canaday and his son Bi-n- 
jamin would go to ''meeting" and sit through 
the hour for worship, in order to keep up the 
church organization as per the discipline of that 

Mrs. M.atilda (Barnard) Canad.ay was a native of 
Nantuckett's Island, Mass., whence she went to 
North Carolina with her parents when a little girl. 
Her father, Capt. Benjamin Barnard, followed the 
sea for man}' years. The parental family- consisted 
of five children, of whom Mrs. Canad.ay is the onl}- 
one living. Her brother Benjamin, died at the age 
of seventy-eight years; John died when about fifty 
years old; Frederick and Mary were each about 
eighty-two years of age at the time of their de- 

The subject of this sketch was reared at tlie olil 
homestead and grew up with a limited education, 
there being no schools during his boyhood in this 
region. His fatiier established a tanyard in which 
young Canaday worked, he also learned saddlery 
and harness-making. Besides his tanyard and the 
farm the father also conducted a tin shop. William 
in later years turned his attention exclusively to 
farming .and stock-raising and operated largely as 
a stock-dealer. He grew wealthy and is now the 
owner of 430 acres of land, besides having given 
540 acres to his children. 

The marriage of our subject with Miss Mary 
Haworth took place in 1831. This lady was born 
in East Tennessee and is the daughter of William 
Haworth, a well-known resident of this county. 
This union resulted in the birtli of ten children — 
seven of whom are living, viz: Julia A.. Mrs. 
Harold ; G. Franklin; Richard II. ; .lames A.; ]\Ia- 

tilda J., Mrs. Brown; Benjamin F. and Alice, Mrs. 
Morris. Julia married Wilton Harold, of Ridge 
Farm, but has no children; Fr.anklin married Miss 
Mary Jackson, who lived near Homer, and thev 
have two children — Gcrtude and Edwin ; Richard 
married Miss Catherine Harold and occujiies part 
of the homestead, he has one child, William: James 
married Miss Drusilla Diven,and lives at Burr Oak 
Grove, in Ch.ampaign County; they have four 
children — Mary E., Dora, Earl and Ora; Matilda 
married Rev. C. Brown, of Elwood Town- 
ship, and has two children — M. Alice and Oliver 
W.; Benjamin took to wife Miss Cornelia Green, 
and lives in Elwood Township, and has seven chil- 
dren — Howard W., Richard A.. Anna A., Jesse, 
Mary, Martha and an infant boy unnamed. The 
last three are tri|)lets; Alice married Dr. Charles C. 
Morris, of Rockville, Ind., and they have three 
children — Jesse C, Estella E. and Mary H. 

Mrs. Mary (Haworth) Canaday departed this 
life in the fall of 1855. Our subject was married 
the second time, Oct. 30, 1873, to Miss Elizabeth, 
daughter of Nathaniel Diament, deceased. She was 
was born in New Jersey, (Jet. 26, 182G, and is a 
member of the Presbyterian Church. Mr. Canaday 
was reared in the faith of the (^lakers, to which 
be still loyally adheres. In politics he is a sound 
Republican but has held aloof from the res])onsi- 
bilities of office. A fine lithographic portrait of Mr. 
Canada}- is shown elsewhere in this volume. 

-^,L MOS JACKSON was born in Clinton 
i^O| County, Ind., on Sept. 15, 1837. He is 
IS' one of the largest land-owners in the 
township of Sidell. His father and mother 
were born in Washington County, Pa., and Ohio, 
respectively. By his first marriage bis father had 
eleven children, of which Amos was the tenth 
child and youngest son. The first wife died at 
Jefferson, Ind., in 1840, when Amos was a little 
over two years of age. His father remarried but 
died soon after at the age of forty-eight years. 

Thus it will be seen that Amos was left mother- 
less at the age of two and a half years, and when 



he was ten years old he was left without a fatlier, 
and at this time ho bciran to fight the battle of life 
alone. His fnthiT left a fMiiii of 200 acres. Imt the 
ailministration of the estate left hut little for the 
lieiis. As before related, Amos be<;an at the age 
of ten years, to work for his l)o;ird and elothes, 
and nnder these eircnmslaiu'es his e<lneational ad- 
vantages were necessaril}' extremely limited. He 
attended school abont eight months in all in a little 
log sehool-honse, walking two miles. He continued 
to live in Indiana until he was eighteen years of 
age, when, in 1855. in company with his uncle, 
Johnson Ross, he came to Kdgar County, 111., and 
assisted his nnele in elcaring up a farm. At the 
age of twenty he returned to Indiana b\it remained 
only a year when he returned to Illinois and en- 
gaged at brick-making at Indianola. It was at 
this place he first met his wife, ^liss Sarah Hesler. 
who at that time was living with her grandfather, 
John Gilgis. one of the earliest pioneers of Indian- 
ola. Her father and mother were born in()hio 
and Kentucky respectively. IMr. (i ilgis was a mer- 
chant at Indianola and a man of considerable 
wealth. Francis Hesler, father of Mrs. Jackson, 
was a farmer in Douglas County and the father of 
eleven children, of whom six were girls. He was 
married three times and had two children by his 
first, two liy his second and seven by his third wife. 
Mrs. Jackson's mother was his first wife, who died 
when Mrs. Jackson was but three or four years old. 
and since that time and till her marriage she re- 
sided with her grandfather. Mr. and Mrs. Jackson 
became attached to each other while very young, 
and at the age of seventeen years, and recognizing 
the fact that "love laughs at locksmiths," quietly 
crossed over into the State of Michigan, where 
they were married. Returning to Indianola, the}- 
were of course forgiven and at once launched out 
on life's highway with the resolution of contradict- 
ing the theory that marriage is a failure. And in 
this they have succeeded. In the spring of 18()U 
Mr. Jackson rented a farm north of Indianola and 
commenced work in earnest to earn a home. ]\Irs. 
fJilgis died about two years subsequent to their 
marriage and they were called back to the home of 
Mrs. Jackson's grandfather, and when he died he 
left the young couple eighty acres of land. After- 

ward Mr. .Tackson purcli.a.sed a section of land, 640 
acres, in Sidell Township, for which he .agreed to 
pa^' §20,000. He sold his (jriginal eighty acres for 
*4,000, this leaving him in debt ^Ifi.OOO. drawing 
ten jier cent, interest. 'I'hrough prudent in.'inage- 
nient Mr. .I.'ukson has not oidy paid for that land 
but has .added thereto 492 .acres. lieside all that 
he had made many valuable improvements, auKtng 
whicli may be mentioned 5.100 rods of drain tile, 
and there is not five .acres of w.aste land on this 
immense tract. He also erected a splendid 
barn for general purposes, a cattle barn (1(1x100. 
a granary and feed-mill .'SOxaO, and the other nec- 
essary buildings for a large, well regulated farm. 
He has 150 head of cattle and is feeding a large 
number of hogs. Of late years Mr. Jackson has 
begun breeding running horses and has abandoned 
the raising of Clydesdales. He is a great lover of 
the Morgan horse, of which he has some si)lendid 
specimens. He owns the celebrated running horse 
''King Nero," who took the four first prizes on a 
Chicago track in the fall of 1887, amounting to 
§1,000. He is said to be the best bred horse in 
Illinois, being sired by " Harry Baasett," the cele- 
br.ated Kentucky horse. As a stock-raiser there is 
none who stands higher in Vermilion County than 
Amos Jackson. 

Mr. and Mrs. Jackson are the parents of seven 
children: John L.; Bertie, who died at the .age of 
four months; Jennie. Laura, Frank, Ada and Lula 
B. Politically Mr. Jackson acts with the Demo- 
cratic party and is a member of the Masonic Lodge. 
Mr. Jackson is exceedingly popular with his neigh- 
bors, and is fully entitled to enjoy the large for- 
tune which he has .iccumulated by his energy and 
good management. 

<i| OHN S. CRANE, a resident of Vermilion 
] County for more than twenty years, 
lived in (i rant Township since the spring of 
18(37, and on his present place for sixteen 
years. He is a native of Yoxford, Suffolk County, 
England, and was born Aug. 22, 1828. He was 
brought up in his native county, leru'ning the trade 



of a shoemaker, in which lie was engaged until his 
removal to Illinois. After his marriage in the fall 
of 1852, he emigrated to Canada accompanied by 
his parents. They started from London for New 
York, and on arrival there at once left for Gault, 
in the Province of Ontario, Canada. There the 
family settled and John 8. eaniid on business in 
his trade as a manufacturer and dealer, until he re- 
moved to the United States. His parents made 
their permanent home in Gault where tliey were 
afterwiirds joined by others of the family who 
emigrated from time to time. 

When he was eighty-four years of age, Grand- 
father Crane made a trip to America alone to see 
his descendants. Here he .stayed two years and re- 
turned to his home in England where he lived to 
be ninety-six years of age. The parents of .John 
S. Crane were namnd John and Mary (Girling) 
Crane. The father was also a shoemaker and like- 
wise carried on business on his own account until 
he was quite old. He also lived to be an old man 
and at the age of eighty-four made a visit to his 
son in this country. He died four years afterward 
in his eighty-ninth year. His wife died several 
years ])rior to the decease of her husl)and, aged 
about seventy-six. Of their nine children six are 
now living, a record of whom folloivs: Harry, who 
is a carpenter and builder in Gault; George was a 
1 lumber and painter by trade in London, England 
and is now a farmer in Kanosli, L'tah; William, 
also a carpenter and builder in Gault; Caroline is 
the wife of John Milligan, a graindealer in Ross- 
ville, this county ; Charles is also a resident of Kan- 
oshjUtah, and is largely interested in sheep raising 
and is President of the Wool (Growers Association 
of Utah. He is also interested in the Salt Lake 
Tribune, the leading pfii)er in that territory. He 
was learning the trade of a carpenter at Lafayette, 
Ind., when the war broke out and at the age of 
seventeen enlisted in the 10th Indiana Infantry 
for three months, during which time he was in the 
battle of Rich Mountain. He afterward joined 
the 63d Indiana Infantry, serving until the close of 
the war and for some time after that was Govern- 
ment messenger on the supply trains to the South. 
The other survivor is John S. 

The three who are deceased arc Clara, who was 

the wife of James McKendrick, of Gault, and died 
in that place leaving a family of four children. 
James was a resident of New Orleans at the out- 
break of the Rebellion, and being a LTnion man 
made his escape from that city intending to go to 
Canada, but contracted a fever and died on reach- 
ing Lafayette, Ind., where his brother Charles was 
then living. Adaline, the youngest sister, died on 
her way to America and was buried at sea. 

John, of whom this sketch was written, stayed 
in Gault until 1867, when he decided to give up 
his business and move to the United States. He 
had always desired to become a farmer, and the 
year prior to his removal came to Illinois to visit 
an uncle whom he had not seen for many years, 
and being much pleased with the appearance of the 
country he decided to make this State his home. 
Returning to Canada he sold out his proi)ert3- and 
in the spring of 1867 located east of where the 
thriving city of Hoopeston now stands. No rail- 
road was then in existence here and the site of 
Hoopeston was an o[)en prairie. On the place 
where he first settled he stayed but a year, when 
he removed ti:) a farm of the uncle named, situated 
on what is known as the Chicago road. Having 
bought 125 acres, a pait of his present pro|)erty, 
he rented a farm east of it while he was imtting up 
a house and other buildings. The farm was then 
all wild prairie and the improvements upon it have 
been made b}' Air. Crane — all the buildings, fences, 
trees, etc., being the result of his labors. To-day 
it is as fine a property of its siz^.- .as there is in this 
part of the county, and comprises in all 217 acres. 

Mr. Crane was united in marriage in England in 
1852 with Miss Eliza (iarwood, who was boi'n in 
Stratford, St. Mary, that county, March 21, 18,'iO. 
She was the only one of the family to come to 
America. Mr. and Mrs. Crane are the parents of 
four children, one of whom Adeline, died in Gault 
at the age of three years. The survivors are 
Oscar G., who is now a resident of Rossvillc, this 
county; Edith is the wife of II. A. Hoover, living 
near Oskaloosa, Iowa; Charles G. is at home with 
his parents. Mr. Crane is a gentleman who has, by 
his quiet, unassuming manners, and upright living, 
won the respect of the people with whom he has 
lived for now more than a score of j'ears, and he 



is justly counteil as one of the most valued citi- 
zens of the nortlic:isterii jiart of \'erinilion County'. 
He belongs to the ]\Iasoiiic fraternity, being a 
member of Star Lodge No. 709, of Hoopeston. 
lie is a gentleman of domestic habits and tastes 
and has never aspired to oflSce, preferring the 
quiet of his own home to the worry attending 
public position. In his comfortable home he and 
his estimable wife dispense hospitality to all who 
visit them, and they are justly entitled to the high 
mea,<ure of esteem in which tiiey are held. 

„..^ SA PARTLOW is a native of Danville, 
!iLUi where he was born on the Gth day of Jan- 
uary, 183."5. His father, Rueben Partlow. 
was born in A'irginia and his grandfather, 
Samuel Partlow, was a native of the same State. 
Tlie latter removed from Virginia to Kentucky in 
an early day and located in Nelson Count}-, vvliere 
he purchased a tract of land and cleared a farm. 
In 18;?5, accompanied by his wife, he came to ^'er- 
milion Count\- to spend the winter with his cidl- 
dreu. who were then living here. The journey was 
made on horseback, and in tiic fall of the year. 
They stopped witii their son Samuel, in Middle 
Fork Township, where the old gentleman was 
taken sick and died during tlie winter. In these 
times lumber was very scarce, there being no saw- 
mills in tills section of the country and it was with 
difficulty that Itoards could be purchased at anj- 
price. At any rate, it is stated that not enough 
lumber could be had to construct a cotHn in which 
to liury Jlr. Partlow. His sons went to the timber 
and cut down trees and split enough off them to 
build a coffin, and in this manner Mr. Partlow was 
interred. .Soon after, and during the same winter. 
his wife was seized with illness and followed her 
husband to the grave. In this family there were 
nine children, seven of whom came to this county 
and are entitled to the aijpellalion of pioneers. 
There were four sons — .lohn. James, Reuben, and 
.Samuel, and three daughters. 

Reuben Partlow, the father of Asa, was very 
yi>ung when his parent.s removed to Kentucky, 

where he was reared and resided until 1831. He 
married, and then accompanied by his wife, came 
to Vermilion County, making the journey on 
horseback, carrying a few household goods with 
them. He located at Danville, and being a wheel- 
wright and cooper, he worked at his ir.ade until 
1834, when he made a claim in Newell Township, 
upon which he Innit a log house. At this lime 
stoves were possessed only by the rich, but fuel 
was plenty, and their old fashioned fire-place was 
a typical one. They made all their clothes of 
homespun cloth, and were ha[)pier than many 
who wear their fine clothes in these later da3'S. 
Mr. I'artlow lived there about a year, when he dis- 
posed of his claim and returned to Danville, where 
he followed his trade for a while, afterward taking 
another claim in Jliddle Fork Township. When 
this came into market, lie purchased it from the 
Government, and this tract of land has since been 
the old homestead. Of course, in those d.ays there 
were no I'ailroads, and for many years all sup|)lies 
were drawn by horses or oxen from Perrvsville 
and LaFayette and also from Chicago. At one 
time Mr. Partlow took a half barrel of honey to 
Chicago and supplied the whole town, returiung 
home with a good portion of it. He was a resident 
of the old homesteail until 18.52. when he relumed 
to Danville and lived retired until his death which 
occurred in May. 1866, aged sixty-two years. His 
wife's maiden name was Llizabeth H. Huraphrev, 
a native of Kentuck}'. Iler father, .lohn Ihuii- 
plirey was born in Virginia and one of the 
early settlers of Kentucky. She died in 1865. 
She was the mother of six chihlren — Asa, Alraira, 
who married Robert Davidson (now deceased); 
.John H. died when tV)urteen years of age; David 
is also dead; Sarah A., married A.I. Draper, and 
the}' are residents of Danville; Elizabeth married Z. 
Morris, of (Jeorgetown, this county, who is now 

Asa Partlow, whose name initiates this sketch, 
attended tiie pioneer public schools, ile describes 
the first school-house, which he atteudeil, as having 
no window, but sim|)ly a log was taken out where- 
with to admit the light. As soon as he was large 
enough he was comi)elle(l to assist his father on the 
farm, but at the age of seventeen he went to 



Georgetown, where lie attended a semiiian-, and 
after tliat taught one term of school. In 1852 he 
formed a partnership with S. A. Humphrey and J. 
M. Partlow, under the firm name of Humphrey & 
Co. The}- prosecuted a general mercantile busi- 
ness, and financially were very successful. He was 
in the trade until 1873, with various partners, and 
in that year he sold out his store and engaged in 
llie insurance business, and has built up a fine trade. 
He is also secretary of the Equitable Building 
and Loan Association. 

In 1857 Mr. Parilow was united in marriage with 
Mary Murdock, who was born near LaFayette, 
Ind., March 15, 1831. She was the daughter of 
John and Jane Murdock, natives of New Jersey, 
and is tiie mother of the following children: Harry 
G. married Stella Doane and resides in Danville; 
Edwin R. and Augustus. Fannie Mabel died at 
the age of four jears; Minnie Ellen died at the age 
of ten months. 

Mr. and Mrs. Partlow are members of the First 
Methodist Episcopal Church, of which Mr. Part- 
low has been steward and treasurer for a long time. 
He is also a member of Danville Lodge No. 69, 
1. O. O. F. 

— ■^■^mi' — - 

*-RUMAN WILLIAMS. The farming com- 
\ munity of Catlin Township has no more 
worthy representative than this venerable 
gentleman. an<l it gives us pleasure to insert a 
review of his life in this Biographical Album. He 
has been a resident of this place for more than 
forty years, and during that time has improved a 
good farm on section 36, and has built up a cozy 
home, in which he and his estimable wife, who lias 
worked Ijy his side for more tliau half a century, 
are comfortably spending life's declining years, en- 
joying the respect and affection of all about them. 
Eli Williams, the father of subject, was born in 
tlie good old New England State of Connecticut, 
as was also his mother, whose maiden name was 
JIartha Aldermon. They first settled in their 
native State after their marriage, but subsequently 
removed from there to Pensyl vania, and from thence 
to Onondago County, N. Y., and afterwards to 

Gcnisi'u ('(iiiiity. Finally the}' returned to the 
Keystone State and settled in Crawford County, 
and there their earthly pilgrimage ceased, and they 
were gathered to their fathers at a ripe old age. 
Ten children were l)0rn of their marriage, five sons 
and five daughters. an<l of these our subject is the 
third in order of birth and the only one now liv- 

He was burn in Onondago County, N. Y., Sept. 
6, 1812. Those were pioneer times in that part of 
the country, and our subject was bred to a hardy 
manhood under their influence. He remained an 
inmate of the parental household till he was twen- 
ty-six years old, and then married and established 
a home of his own, his marriage with Miss Marga- 
ret Nelson taking place in Crawford County, Pa., 
Oct. 30. 1838. Mrs. Williams was born in that 
county Jan. 29, 1817, the third child in the family 
of nine children, two sons and seven daughters of 
James anil Sarah (Sloan) Nelson. Her father was 
a native of Ireland, and came to America when he 
was about thirteen years old. His wife was a 
native of Virginia, and after their marriage they 
settled in Crawford County in an early day of its 
settlement, and lived there till death closed their 
earthly career. 

After marriage our subject and his wife contin- 
ued to live in Crawford County until the fall of 
1846, .and then with their little family of children 
they made their w.ay across the country by the slow- 
modes of traveling in those days, and came to the 
still wild and sparsely settled country, embraced 
in this part of the State of Illinois. They spent the 
first two years after their arrival in Danville Town- 
ship, and at the ex[)iration of that time located on 
the farm where they still make their home in Cat- 
lin Township. Its 120 acres are under good til- 
lage and many valuable improvements have been 
made, so that as a whole it compares very favor- 
ably with the farms around it. and it yields fine 
harvests in repayment of the care bestowed on its 

Mr. and Mrs. Williams are the parents of ten 
children, .as follows: Minerva; Charles, who died 
when about six years old; Nancy, the wife of John 
Harrin; Clarissa, who was the wife of George Jami- 
son, and died when about twenty-four years old; 



Ann (lied when about ten years old; Elizabeth, the 
wife of Joiin Gones; Nelson manied Mis. Ida 
(C'hilds) Doran ; Charles marrifd Liida Tonant; 
Truman married Isadora ^'alentine; Maggie is the 
wife of George Cook. 

Mr. Williams iniierited from a sterlinc: New 
England ancestry the tiiritt and wisdom that have 
marked his course and tiie honorable traits of char- 
acter that make him a good husband, father, neigh- 
bor, citizen. He has borne a part in tlie [jublic 
affairs of lils township and has served very accept- 
ably as School Director and in minor othces. In 
pf>litics, he firmly adheres to the Republican jjarty. 
Religiously, both he and his wife have been mem- 
bers of the Methodist Episcopal Church a long 
term of years, and have always performed the 
duties incumbent upon tiiem in a true Christian 

ILLIAM WHITE, a vete-au of the late war 
is numbered among the .skilled farmers of 
Catlin Township, and his pleasantly located 
farm on section 2, with its well-tilled fields and at- 
tractive buildings, is one of the first-class places of 
this locality, and from its cultivation he derives 
an excellent income that puts him among the well- 
to-do agriculturists of his neighborhood. 

James White, the father of our sul)ject, born 
in Baltimore, Md., while his motlier, Hannah Rodg- 
ers, was a native of Perrysville, Vermillion Co., 
Ind. After marriage in 1839 these people settled 
in Perrysville, and there she died in 184.0 while 
yet in life's prime. The father married again and 
in 1859 came with his family to Vermilion Count}', 
this .State, and settling in Catlin Township, he made 
his home here till his demise .July (!, 1882. He was 
a good man, who led an upright life, and was well 
thought of by the neighbors among whom he had 
lived for so many years. He was the father of 
three children by his first marriage, as follows: 
William, Samuel and Hannah. 

William, of whom this sketch was written, was 
born in Perrysville, \ermillion Co., Ind., Oct. 30, 
1841. llis education, conducted in the common 
schools, was necessarily somewhat limited, as being 

the eldest of the family, his father required his as- 
sistance. He .accompanied his father to this county 
in 1859, an<l has since been a useful citizen of this 
communit\. He had not attained his majority 
when the war l)i(ike out, and in August, 18G2, 
though not yet of age, ho patriotically resolved to 
do what he could to aid the cause of his country, 
and enlisted in Company K, 12:y Illinois Infantry. 
To his regret his eyesight became imi)airodso much 
as to disable him for a soldier, and he was honora- 
bly discharged in October of the same year. Since 
then he has given his attention wholly to farming 
and stock-raising. He owns eighty acres of highly 
fertile land, which is under admirable cultivation 
and is well supplied with an excellent class of build- 
ing, including a substantially built, commodious 
residence. He has his farm well stocked to its full 
capacitj' with cattle of good grades, and is doing 
well in that branch of agriculture. 

Mr. White has been twice married. He was first 
wedded in Danville to Miss Susan Cook, by whom 
he had three children — Oscar, James and Susan. 
March 19, 1872, this happy household was bereft 
of the much loved wife and tender motlier by her 
untimely death. Mr. White's second marriage, 
which took place in Georgetown Township, to 
Miss Minerva Bowen. Three children blessed their 
union — Elmer who died when about a year old; 
Melvin and Dotlie B. Jan. 11, 1889 the dark 
shadow of death again fell across the threshold of 
the dwelling of our subject, and in a few days all 
that was mortal of her who had been the home- 
maker was borne to its last resting place. In her 
happy wedded life she had been all that a true wife 
and mother could be; devoted to her husband's in- 
terests, and to the motherless children that thus fell 
to her charge she gave as much care and love as if 
they were her own, and in her death the}' have 
again lost a good mother, while her own darlings, 
the youngest a dear little girl, scarce two years 
old, have met with an irreparable loss. 

Mr. White has succeeded by p.atient toil in plac- 
ing himself on a solid basis fin.ancially speaking, 
and since becoming the owner of this farm has 
greatly increased its value by wise management 
and a judicious expenditure of money for improve- 
ments. He is a quiet, unassuming man, but withal 



has that force of character that en.ihles him to work 
with a iiurposc. and cany his plans to a successful 
issue. He has never given his fellow-citizens 
cause to distrust him, hut has always aimed to do 
rightly by others. In i)olitics, he affiliates with 
the Democrats, and is ever loyal to his party. For 
nearly nine years he has held the important office 
of School Director, and tiie educational interest.^ of 
the township with wiiich he has thus heconie identi- 
fied liave not suffered at his hands. 


srt isiLLiAM \villia:\j 
\/\/l' P*''*'".? ^^^^ history 
^n? settlers of Vermilio: 

<\1 I^ILLIAM WILLIAMS. In a record com- 

ry of tiie principal old 
ion County, the name of 
Mr. Williams cannot pro|)erly he omitted. He e3- 
taljlislied himself in township 23, range 12, in 
1871, securing- a tract of wild land, whicii, after 
years of arduous labor, he has converted into a 
comfortable homestead. It is IGO .acres in extent, 
and |)leasantlj' located on secticms 18 and I'J, the 
dwelling being on the latter. His career has been 
similar to that of many of the men around him, in 
whicli he labored early and late to provide for 
tiie wants of coming years, and in all respects has 
conducted himself as an iionest man .and a good 
citizen . 

Mr. Williams is a native of the Prairie State, 
liaving been born in McLean County, D(>c. 13, 
1832. He there reared to farming pursuits, 
and remained a member of bis father's household 
until reaching his majority. He was blest with 
good common sense and excellent health, and made 
the most of his opportunities for obtaining a prac- 
tical education in the common school. At the .age 
of twenty-one years he began the battle of life on 
his own account, operating first on rented land, and 
within a few years purchased land and constructed 
a farm of his own. 

In the fall of 1871 Mr. Williams took pcissession 
of the land which he now owns and occupies, at a 
time when it was nothing but raw prairie. He has 
effected all the improvements which we now behold, 
and which certainly do great credit to his taste .and 
industry. He made it his business at an early day 

to set out a grove of young trees, which are now 
grown, and furnish a delightful shade for the resi- 
dence and surroundings. Under his wise manage- 
ment the land become highly productive. Mr. 
Williams at first purchased eighty acres, and sub- 
sequently .added to it until he is the owner of the 
quarter-section. He has a goodly assortment of 
live stock, and the necessary conveniences for their 
care and keeping, besides the required machinery 
for running the farm in a scientific and profitable 

Shortly before reaching the twenty second year 
of his age Mr. Williams was married, Aug. 27, 
18.54, to Miss Abigail Dean. The young couple 
commenced the journey of life together on rented 
Land in a manner corresponding to their means and 
surroundings, and worked with a mutual purpose 
for the future. In due time the household circle 
included six children, four of whom are living: 
Elnora is the wife of Samuel Umbanhowar; they 
live .about one- ha If mile east of the Williams home- 
stead, and arc th.e parents of five children — Nellie, 
(ieorge, Charles, May and William. .lames .1. mar- 
ried INIiss Anna Sellers, and lives north of his 
father's place on a farm; he is the father of two 
children — Girace and Lula. Mary Evarilla, usually 
called Eva, and .lonathan Lee arc at home with 
their parents. 

Mrs. Aliigail (Dean) Williams, the wife of our 
subject, born in Knox County, Ohio, Nov. 20, 
1833, and is the daughter of J. M. Dean, a native 
of Maryland. Jdr. Dean emigrated when a young 
man to the Ikickeye State, and was there mar- 
ried to Miss Mary Elwell. They removed to 
McLean County, this State, when their daughter 
Abigail was a maiden of seventeen years, and set- 
tled on a farm, where the father died in 1872 at 
the age of seventy years, and the mother in Feb- 
ruary, 1888, .aged eighty-seven. Thej- were the 
parents of nine children, five of whom are living, 
and residents of Illinois, Kansas and Nebraska. 

William Williams, Sr., the father of our suT;)ject, 
was born in Tennessee, and when a you7ig man 
came to McLean County, 111., where he took up a 
tract of raw land, and began farming in true pio- 
neer style. In INIcLean County he married Miss 
Eyarilla Hobson. and they became the parents of 

. S'.lVUiV 

Residence ofW!^. Hawkins , Sec. 7.,(T.18. R.12.) Catlin Township. 

:.-\\J-: ■■-.-'-^^i^t^iic-f^.^--.*' 

Residence of W- Jurgensmeyer, Sec.23.(T.18.-R.i^) Vance Township. 



one child, William, onr subject. Mr. Wiilinms 
dierl when a young man, and his widow subse- 
([uently married to J. G. Hpyburn; she died in 
1848, when her son William was a youth of sixteen 
years. .She was a native of North Carolina, when 
she removed with her parents to Ohio, and from 
there to McLean C'ount3', where her father, Joshua 
Ilobson, enijajied in farming and spent the re- 
mainder of his life. 

Mr. Williams, our subject, cast his first Presiden- 
tial vote for .lohn C. Fremont, and while not mix- 
ing any with political nffairs, has his own ideas in 
regard to matters and things, and gives his un- 
(lualiticd supiiort to the Rcp\iblican party. He is 
one of those solid old landmarks whose word is 
considered as good as his bond, and w-ho can always 
be depended upon to do as he says. 


Al WILLIAM llA\Vlvl.> 

\/\/l " '"' '"'' *'"* niuch t 
^^^ from destruction in 

ILLIAM HAWKINS. The citizen-soldier, 
toward saving the L'nion 
the late war, since, as 
is well-known, been a prominent element in further- 
ing the dcvelo|>ment of the vast resources of our 
country, and has contributed largely to its material 
prosi)erily. As a representative of element it 
gives us pleasure to transcribe to these pages a 
brief record of the life-work of William Hawkins. 
He is actively engaged in tilling the soil and raising- 
stock in \'ermilion County, having on section 7, 
Catlin Township, as finely improved and well cid- 
tivated a farm .as is to be found throughout the 
length and l)readth of this rich agricultural region. 

Our subject is a native of Indiana, his birth 
taking place in Wayne County, .I.'in. 1, 1S31. His 
parents, Nathan and Sarah (Wright) Hawkins, 
were also born in that county, and there they were 
reared and married, and in turn reared a family of 
ten children. The good mother passed away from 
the scenes amid which her entire life had been 
passed, stricken by the hand of death, but the aged 
father still survives, and makes his home in the 
place of his nativity. 

He of whom we write was the eldest of the fam- 
ily, and was bred to the life of a farmer, and habits 

of industry and frugality were early taught him by 
precept and example. He engaged in farming 
tending sawmill, and in other occuiiations till he 
had obtained man's estate, and in the spring of 
18()(i sought the fertile prairies of Vermilion 
County, this State, accompanied by his wife and 
child, with a view of establishing a home here per- 
manently. He has since been a valued resident of 
Catlin Township, with the exception of the bitter 
years spent on Southern battlefields, when with 
true patriotism he heroically gave iii) home and 
tore himself from his loved ones to aid his country 
ill the time of her greatest trial. He enlisted on the 
1 1th of August. 18()2. in Company G, 12r»th Illinois 
Infantry, and for three long and weary years served 
faithfully and efiicientl}' through many hard cani- 
jiaigns. and suffered the hardships and privations of 
a soldier's life without a murnuir. He took jiart 
in all the engagements with which his regiment 
had anything to do, with the exception of that at 
Chickamauga. At Dallas. Ga., while on picket 
duty, he came near being captured, but he cun- 
ning'}' managed to elude the rebels. His gallant 
conduct in the face of the enemj'. received merited 
commendation from his superior officers and he 
was promoted to the rank of sergeant before his 
honorable discharge at Washington, D. C. 

After his experience of military life Mr. Hawkins 
returned to this county, and resumed his interrupted 
labors, and has since given his entire attention to 
farming and stock-raising. He owns 170 acres of 
choice, well-tilled land, on which he has erected a 
fine set of Iniildings, including a I'oomy, substan- 
tially built residence, a view of which with the 
surrounding lawns, beautified by lovely shade trees, 
is an attractive addition to this volume. 

March 28, 1855, Mr. Hawkins and Miss Duaiiah 
IJurgoyne were united in the holy bonds of niatri- 
nioiiy. Mrs. Hawkins is a native of Ohio, born in 
Muskingum County, Aug. 20. 1835, to .lames and 
Mary (Miner)15iirgoyne, the former of English an- 
tecedents. The wedded life of our subject and his 
wife been blessed to them by the birth of four 
children, namely: Lizzie, the wife of George Patter- 
son; Nora, the wife of Thom.os Church; Ella; Etta. 

Mr. Hawkins is a valued member of this com- 
munity, and his loyalty to his country is as 



marked as in the da3's when he courageously took 
his life in his hands and marched fortli to do battle 
for its honor and the preservation of its integrity. 
In him the Republican parly finds one who faith- 
fully upholds its principles at the ballot bos. He 
and his wife belong to the Presbyterian Church, 
and are zealous workers in the cause of religion, 
seeking to promote the moral and social elevation 
of the community. 

^ felLLIAM JURGENSMEYER. The career 
\/\j// of the subject of this biography illustrates 
'^7^ in an admirable manner what may be ac- 
complished by a man beginning at the foot of the 
ladder and by force of persistent industry making 
his way upward to a good position socially and 
financially. I'pon coming to this county, Mr. 
Jurgensraeyer had verj' little means but is now 
quite an extensive land owner and has a homestead 
of great value embellished with fine buildings and 
everything to make life pleasant and desirable. 
His course in life should prove an encouraging ex- 
ample to the young man starting out dependent 
upon his own resources and with nothing but his 
own hands t<) pave his way to a wortiiy position 
among his fellow men. 

The .lurgensmeyer family originated in Prussia 
where Gottlieb, the father of our subject, served 
as a soldier in the Prussian army three years, hold- 
ino- the rank of Lieutenant. He was married in 
early manhood to Miss Caroline Rohlfink, a native 
of his own I'rovince and whom he met after com- 
ing to this country in Lancaster, Ohio. In that 
place they were married and lived about ten years. 
Thence they removed to Hamburg in the same 
county and five years later changed their residence 
to Hocking County, sojourning there also five 
years. Their next removal was to Logan, county 
seat of Hocking County, where they spent their 
last years and died within a week of each other, in 

The father of our subject began life in this 
country without means, but was prospered in his 
labors as a farmer and liesides comfortably sup- 

porting his family of ten children, managed to 
.accumulate a goodly amount of property. Nine 
of these children lived to mature years and seven 
are now living. William, our subject, was the sec- 
ond child and was born March 30, 1843, in Lan- 
caster, Ohio. He received very limited schooling 
and with the ax and mattock assisted in digging 
out two big farms in the Buckeye State. He re- 
mained with his father until twenty-three years of 
age, then, in 1867, left home for Illinois, coming 
directly to Fairmount, this county. Here he met 
an .acquaintance, Jacob Hies, whose brother was 
well-known to his father's family. He staid with 
him about a week, then entered the employ of 
.Tan)es Dickson with whom he worked for nine 
months. Later he engaged for a short time with a 
threshing machine and after that for four weeks 
earned ^18 per week cutting corn. 

Our subject now sent home for money and pur- 
chased 160 acres of land which is included in his 
present farm and of which he took possession in 
1868. He put up a house, then returning to Ohio 
was married April 18, 1869, to Miss Elizabeth 
Hengst. The young couple shortly afterward 
directed their steps to their new home in this 
countj' and began laboring hand in hand with a 
mutual purpose in view. The young wife had 
come from her father's homestead well supplied 
with all modern conveniences, to a new country and 
a home tiien presenting few attr.actions. It required 
great courage and perseverance to meet the diffi- 
culties with which they had to contend, as the}' 
were poor and at one time they could not raise 
enough cash to mail a letter. Mr. Jurgensmeyer 
began breaking the sod and preparing his land for 
cultivation as rapidly .as iwssible. There were 
fences to be laid and buildings erected and it re- 
quired incessant labor to make both ends meet and 
cany on the desired improvements on the new 

The condition of things since that time have 
materially changed with our subject and his indus- 
trious and efficient wife. Their estate now com- 
prises 640 acres of good land with as fine a resi- 
dence as can be found in A'ance Township. The 
main barn occupies an area of 60 x 54 feet with 
20-foot posts, being built in tiiat solid and sub- 



stantial iiiannor wliicli will insure its solidity for 
the sirealcr jKait of a cciitiirv unless some very 
unusual eatastro|)he destroys it. A fnie api)le 
ort'liard of thirteen acres, more than supplie': the 
needs vf the family in this direction while there is 
a flourishing vineyard and an abundance of the 
smaller fruits. A beautiful grove of maple trees 
stands adjacent to the residence and the whole 
very nearly approaches the ideal country home, 
where peace and plenty- aliound. A view of their 
beautiful residence is presented on another page 
and will be appreciated by all the readers of this 

Stock-raising forms one of the distinctive feat- 
ures of the Jurgensme\er farm, our subject having 
usually about \.')o head of high-grade. Short-horn 
cattle, twenty-four of horses and about 150 
swine. It is conceded the world over that the 
sons of the Fatherland have especial good taste 
and discretion in the selection of their draft ani- 
mals and in their care of them. Mr. .hirgensiiiey- 
er's favorite breed is the Clydesdales, while he has 
some fine roadsters of the Gold Dust strain. His 
sleek and well-fed stock are at once an ornament to 
the farm and a matter in which he may take par- 
donable pride. 

Of the four children born to our subject .and his 
estimable wife only two are living: Mary Eliza- 
beth was born Sept. 18, 1871, and has received a 
good education completing lier studies in the schools 
of Danville; she is a flue performer on the piano 
and has an elegant instrument which adds greatly 
to the home recreations. The son, Louis V., was 
born May 3, 1876, and is a bright and promising 
boy still pursuing his studies. ISIr. .lurgensmeyer 
votes with the Democratic party on national issues 
bvit at the local elections aims to su|)port the men 
best cpialified to serve the interests of the people. 
He has served as School Director for a period of 
fifteen years, and with his excellent wife inclines 
to the doctrines of the Lutheran Church but there 
being no organization of that cliuich in their town- 
ship, they have united with the Methodist Episcopal 
Church and are greatly interested in Sunday -school 

In the fall of 1864 Mr. Jurgensmeyer returned 
to his native laud where he spent several months 

visiting some of the i)rincipal cities of (Jermany— 
Hanover, Bremen and Berlin, also going into Eng- 
land. This journey was a source of great enjoy- 
ment and much useful information, and Mr. .lur- 
gensmeyer considered the time and money well 
spent, returning with enlargcl views and noting 
with satisfaction the n.atural changes occurring 
anK)ng an energetic and progressive peo|)Ie. 

The wife of our subject is the daughter of I^ewis 
Hengst, who with his estimable wife is still living 
in Fairfield County, Ohio, both being in the seven- 
tieth year of their age, having been bcnn the same 
year. Mr. and ]Mrs. Jurgensmeyer in addition to 
their own children took into their home and uiiiler 
their protecting love about 188?, a little girl, Edna 
.biliiisoii, whom they purpose to keei) until she 
shall have attained womanhood and goes to a home 
of her own. She was bom Aug. 27, 1879, in Eu- 
gene, Vermillion Co., Ind., and will be given a 
good education with the careful training which 
the\' have bestowed upon their own children. 
Mrs. Jurgensmeyer is a ver}' capalile and intelligent 
lady and has done her full share in the accumula- 
tion of the fine estate, the taxes upon which each 
Near add handsomelv to the sum in the countv 



JAMES HAYS. Here and there upon the 
dusty highway of life we come across an 
individual plentifully moistened with the 
dew of human kindness, and of this class 
Mr. Hays is a shining light. All his neighbors 
testify to his generosity and hospitality, he being 
one who is ever ready to lend a helping hand to 
those in need, never asking or expecting any re- 
turn, lie has a comfoitalile homestead, compris- 
ing a good farm on section 14 in Nance Township, 
where he pursues the even tenor of his way, letting 
the world wag as it will and striving to do good 
as he has opportunity. 

In referring to the parental history of Mr. 
[lays, we find that his father, lienjamin Hays, was 
a native of Fayette Count\-, Ohio, and born .Alarch 
5, 1809. The paternal grandparents were natives 
of Kentucky, and two uncles of our subject served 



ill tbe War of lHr2. one receiving an honorable 
wonnd in tlie leg, from which he recovered. 

Benjamin Ilays. in 1820, was married to Miss 
Elizabeth Thompson, in Fayette County, Ohio, 
wliere he operated as a farmer and trader, and so- 
journed there with his famil}- about forty years. 
Then, emigrating to Illinois, he settled on 320 
acres of land in the vicinitj' of Sydney. Champaign 
County, 200 acres of which he l)rouglit to a fine 
state of cultivation. The jounu\v hither was made 
overland, in 1850, witli teams, the travelers being 
thirteen days on the road. The family included 
nine cliildreu. of whom only three are living, 
.lames being the eldest of these. The otiicrs are 
Mrs. ^Nlartlia Humes, of Sidney, and Mrs. Maggie 
I lulling, of San Francisco, Cal. The mother died 
on llie 'Jth of August, 1870. 

After the death of his wife. Benjamin Hays 
1 in (lie u|) housekeeping, sold liis farm and pur- 
cliased property in Sidney, 111. Later, he went to 
Oliio on a visit, which he prolonged about six 
years. Upon returning to Illinois, be took up his 
abode with his son, our subject, with whom he has 
since lived, and is now in his eightieth year. He 
ride^ about the farm on horseback every daj^, looks 
after the stock, and is iu S|ilendid health, plaj'ing 
his violin and dancing with much of the grace and 
agility of his earlier years. He is a great lover of 
the equine race, and has owned some valuable 
horseflesh, among which was "Buck K!k," a Keii- 
tuck^' racer of phenomenal speed, and "Cherokee," 
a very fine animal which he purchased of Thomas 

'J'he subject of this sketch was the second child 
of his parents, and was born Dec. 10, 1830. iu the 
same house in F^aj'ette County, Ohio, wherein his 
honored father first opened his eyes to the light of 
day. He received a practical education in the 
common school, mostly under one teacher, David 
Eastman, who died about fourteen yesLvs ago. He 
made his home with his father on the farm, assum- 
ing many of the responsibilities, until twenty -tn-o 
years of age, when he began the business of life for 
himself by breaking prairie with seven yoke of 
oxen. In the winter of 1852-53 he fed 100 head 
of cattle for Hendrickson & Cowling. In the 
spring of 1853, April 10. he started with these 

cattle on foot for New York City, where he ar- 
rived safely on the 1 1th of July. The head steer 
of the herd was led by Heniy White, of Cham- 
paign. This errand executed, Mr. Hays retarned 
home, and in due time started with another lot of 
cattle from I'arisb's Grove, near LaFayette, Ind., 
driving them through to Lancaster, Pa., and being 
105 daj's on the voad. UiJOii returning home, he 
engaged in a store at Old Homer for two years, 
and in the meantime shipped a load of cattle to 
Chicago for his father. Afterward he handled con- 
siderable stock for other parties. He assisted in 
removing the first house from Old Homer to the 
present town, and all this time watched the growth 
and development of Central Illinois with that abid- 
ing interest which is only felt b}' the intelligent 
and thoughtful citizen. 

The 6th of May, 1858. witnessed the marriage 
of our subject with Miss Maiy E., daughter of .1. 
M. Custer and sister of Mrs. Aaron Dalbe}'. These 
were the only girls in the Custer family. Mrs. 
Hays born Oct. 10, 1838. in Fayette County, 
Ohio, and was ten years old when she came with 
her parents to Illinois. She received her education 
in lioth States, and grew up a very attractive 
young woman, with a large amount of practical 
good sense. After their marriage, Mr. and Mrs. 
Hays lived in Sidney two years, removing to their 
present home in 1861. 

The neat and well-regulated farm of our subject 
bears very little resemblance to the uncultivated 
tract of land upon wdiieli he and his young wife 
settled upon coming to this county'. It was theri 
an open prairie, uufenced and without buildings. 
Although ni.aking no pretentions to elegance, they 
live comfortably, and probably enjoy more solid 
happiness than maii3' who make a greater dis- 
play in the world. The five children born to Mr. 
and Mrs. Ilaj's are all living. The eldest, Dollie 
E., is the wife of George T. Poage, a merchant at 
Prairie View, and they have two children; Mattie 
E. married Amos C. Harden, who is now deceased, 
is the mother of one child, and lives three miles 
west of Fairmount; William S., Ella and John M. 
remain at home with their parents. 

Mrs. Hays and most of her children are mem- 
bers in good standing of the Cumberland Presby- 



teriau Church, and Mr. H.. although not identified 
witli any religious organization, has a full belief in 
the doctrines of the Christian religion. He main- 
tains a lively interest in politics, and keeps himself 
well posted in regard to those questions of inter- 
est to every intelligent citizen. I'pon becoming a 
voting citizen, he identified himself with the Demo- 
cratic part}', but in 1800, when Abraham Lincoln 
had steal his way to Washington for fear of assas- 
sination, Mr. Hays said to hiniself,".Ianies, this party 
is not your right place." Since that time he has been 
a decided Republican. He is a strong temperance 
man. never having used ardent spirits, and steadily 
o|)poses their manufactxire. Aside from serving as 
a Road Overseer in 1864, he has steadily declined 
becoming an office-holder. Socially, he belongs to 
Homer Lodge No. 199, A. F. 6j A. M.. being the 
oldest member but one, entering the lodge after its 
formation, and in this he otlicialed only as Tyler, 
although he might have held all the other ofHees. 

l^tJ^\ ILES ODLE. This gentleman is one of the 
most prominent and best known citizens in 
the northeastern part of this count}-. He 
was born in Warren County. Ind.. Dec. 26, 
1841, and was brought up to farming, receiving 
in his boyhood such education as could be obtained 
in the common schools of his native i)lace. His 
parents were Nathan B. and Frances (Watkins) 
Odle, the father a farmer in the place where his 
son was Ijorn. Our subject remained quietly at 
the liome farm until the outbreak of the War of the 
Rebellion, when he offered iiis services to his 
country and enlisted, while still under age, on 
June 3. 1861, in Company A.. 15th Indiana In- 
fantry, commanded by Col. D. G. Wagner and on 
the 14th of the same month, was mustered into the 
United States service at Lafayette. Ind. For over 
three years the young soldier did valiant service in 
his country's cause. His regiment was first en- 
gaged in active duty in West Virginia and three 
mouths after being mustered in, was in the battle 
of Cheat Mountain, W. Va , on Sept. 12, 1861, and 
on Oct. 3, following, was eng.oged at Greenbrier 

Springs. W. Va., both being Federal successes. In 
November, 1861, the 1.5th Indiana was transferred 
to the army of the Ohio, under Gen. Buell. Nelson's 
division, and here Mr. Odle took a part in several 
general engagements. He was in the great battle 
of Shiloh. Tenn., begun on April 6, 1802, his regi- 
ment taking part on the second day, when the 
hardest fighting done, Buell arriving on the 
7tli in time to reinforce Grant's troops. He was 
under fire at the siege of Corinth, Miss., and after 
the evacuation of that place, went East with his 
regiment to Decatur, Ala., and later from there to 
Tuscumbia. Tenn., and was in all the toilsome 
marches and maneuvers, undertaken to prevent the 
return of the rebel, Gen. Bragg to Kentucky. 
Finally the Union army fell back on Nashville, 
Tenn., and from that point were sent to Louisville, 
K}'. The first open Ij.altle between the opposing 
forces fighting for the possession of Kentucky' was 
fought at Perry ville on Oct. 8, 1862, .and in that 
the l.jth Indiana were active participants. They 
were then returned to Nashville, where they stayed 
uuntil Dec. 26, 1802, when they were hurried to 
the front, and were engaged on the last day of the 
year on the hotly contested field of Stone River. 
The following ^car they were all through the Tul- 
lahoum campaign, and were afterwards engaged at 
the battle of Chickamauga on Sept. 19. and in the 
great fight at Mission Ridge, the}' were a part of the 
army that marched to the relief of Knoxville. when 
it beleaguered by the enemy, and succeeding 
that were in many minor battles and skirmishes. 
The 15th Indiana, were no holiday soldiers, but 
during their entire term of service, were acti\ely 
eng.aged, marching and fighting, and in all their 
trials, hardships, battles, and skirmishes. Mr. Odle 
bore himself as a brave and gallant soldier. His 
term of service having expired, he was mustered 
out at Iudlana|)olis on the 30th of .June, 1804. 
Returning then to the pursuits of peace Mr. Odle 
engaged in farming in his native county, in which he 
remained until he decided to make his home in 
Vermilion Count} . III. He bought 120 acres of 
land on section 3 in Grant Township, now a part 
of his homestead, and to that pl.ace removed in 
March 1871. and there his home has since been. To 
this property he has aiKIeil by subsequent purchase, 



Laving now a flue farm of 490 acres, all thoroughly 
improved and cultivated with a good house and 
farm buildings, and worth probahly about $18,000. 
In addition to this Mr. Odle is tiie owner of a farm 
of 320 acres in Holt County, Neb., and of otlier real 
estate, and personal property, and all has been 
acquired b)' his own energy, industry, and fore- 
sight. He is a man of keen business judgment, 
and his success is the legitimate reward of his close 
attention to his own affairs. 

Although always a farmer, Mr. Odle has been a 
a successful merchant as well. The store in Che- 
neyville, in this township, was his property, and on 
Dec. 1. 1886, he took it into his own possession, 
and under his own immediate care and direction 
he successfully carried on mercantile business there 
until May 1889, when he exchanged it for a West- 
ern farm. 

The subject of this sketch has been twice mar- 
i-ied — first on Aug. 30, 1866 to Miss Susan Hunter, 
who was born Nov. 25, 1847 and died May 17, 
1870, leaving two children, Ella Florence, born 
Sept. 17, 1867, and Anna Ross. Oct. 18,1869. The 
first wife's parents are both living in Warren 
County, Ind., at the advanced age of seventy years. 

Mr. Odle was on Jan. 12, 1872, united in mar- 
riage with Sarah E. Hunter, born Jan. 22, 1850. 
His present wife was a daughter of John Hunter, 
a farmer of Warren County, Ind. He was 
a native of Scotland, and came to this countr\' 
when eighteen years old, in the year 1836. He 
staid in the city of New York for a couple of 
years, and then emigrated to Warren County, Ind., 
of which he was a very early settler. There he 
adopted the vocation of a farmer. He died Nov. 
18, 1880, when nearly sixty-three years of age. He 
was a well-informed man and took considerable in- 
terest in public affairs, but never held office. In 
politics he was a stauncli Republican, and through 
the Civil an ardent supporter of the Govern- 
ment. He was married in Warren County, Jan. 13, 
1842, to Miss Jane Montgomery, a native of Ken- 
tucky, born April 22, 1820. Tiiey had eight chil- 
dren, of whom five are now living. Mrs. Hunter 
lives with her different children but her home is 
with Mrs. Odle. 

Mr. and Mrs. Odle have five children, .as follows: 

Hattie Letilia, born Feb. 21, 1874; John Lindsay, 
Aug. 3, 1875; Miles Sherman, Nov. 2, 1878; Na- 
than W., Nov. 2, 1880, and Frances J., Nov. 3, 

Mr. Odle is a man of mark and influence, in the 
community in which he lives, and his sound judg- 
ment leads his advice to be sought by his neigh- 
bors in business affairs. From comparatively hum- 
ble beginnings, he has raised himself to the position 
lie now occupies, and the competence he has ac- 
quired he is justlj' entitled to. For a number of 
years he has been a School Trustee in Grant Town- 
ship, and from 1885 to 1889, was Justice of the 
Peace. He is a member of Harmon Post No. 115, 
G. A. R., of Hoopeston. and in politics is a stau.ich 
adiierent of the Republican part\' in all State and 
National affairs. 

ORIN M. DANIEL is extensively identified 
with the agricultural interests of Vermilion 
Count}-, and is one of its most enteri)rising, 
energetic and able farmers. He has a fine farm on 
section 20, Danville Township, comprising sixty 
acres, pleasantly located on the Georgetown Road, 
two and one-half miles from the court-house. He 
also leases a large tract of land from the coal com- 
pany, and has 1,000 acres under his jjersonal super- 
vision, and in addition has the contract to fur- 
nish timber to the Grape Creek and Consolidated 
Coal Company. 

Mr. Daniel was bi>ni .lune 19, 1842, in Moores- 
ville, Delaware Co., N.Y.. and is a son of Aaron 
Burr Daniel, a native of the same place, who was 
in turn a son of Mathew Daniel. The latter was a 
native of Scotland who came to America when a 
young man. and so far as known, is the only mem- 
ber of his family that came to this country. He 
located in the wilderness at Mooresville, buying a 
tra(!t of timbered land, from which he cleared a 
farm and resided there some years. He then sold 
that place, and removing to Deposit about 1840, 
bought a farm there on which he made his home 
till (Jeath claimed him. The maiden name of his 
wife was Eunice Sturgis, who is thought to have 



been a native of New York Stsito, and her last 
days were also passed on the homestead in D('i)osit. 
The father of our subject was reared and married 
in his native county, and then bought a farm one 
mile from Deposit, located partly in Delaware and 
partly in Broome County. He resided there till 
187tl, iirosperously prosecuting his calling, and 
then came to Vermilion C'ount3% where he is now 
passing the declining years of a busj', honorable 
life. He has been twice married, and is the father 
of twelve children, seven by the first marriage and 
five by the second. 

Orin M. Daniel of this l)riof biograpliical review 
was educated in the public schools of his native 
town, and from his father received a sound, prac- 
tical training in agricultural pursuits. He re- 
mained under the parental roof till he was twenty- 
one, and then in the pride of a vigorous, self-reli- 
ant manhocid. he came West to try life in the 
Prairie State, rightly thinking that its rich soil 
offered man}' inducements for one who intended 
at some time to become a farmer. He came to 
Danville, but did not at first enter upon his career 
as a farmer but was employed by his uncles in the 
coal business. He subsequently engaged on the 
Illinois Central Railway in some capacity for two 
years. At the expiration of that time he returned 
to his native New York, and was engaged in farm- 
ing and other kinds of work in that part of the 
country till 1872. In that year he came b.nck to 
Illinois and obtained employment with the Ells- 
worth Coal Company, remaining with them five 
years. Since first coming here he had wisely saved 
his money, and at the expiration of that time had 
enough to invest in a good farm and so bought the 
one where he now resides. It is well tilled, is sup- 
plied with substantial, conveniently arranged build- 
ings and all kinds of machinery for conducting 
agriculture in the best possible manner, and it is 
indeed a model farm. We have referred to his 
other interests in the first part of this sketch. 

In June 2, 1868, Mr. Daniel took unto himself 
a wife in the person of Miss Jane Thompson, who 
has proved to him a veritable helpmate, and he is 
indebted to her for aiding him to become prosper- 
ous. She was born in Delhi, Delaware Co., N.Y., 
May 8, 1841, to Robert and Nellie (Shaw) Thomp- 

son. The pleasant household of our subject and 
his wife is completed by the live children born to 
them: Orin, Alvin, Walter F., Perry, Eflie. 

Mr. Daniel is a busy man, devoting his time to 
his many and varied interests, and while so doing 
has done much to promote the material prosperitv 
of his township and county. He is prompt and 
systematic in his work and knows how to conduct 
it so as to produce the best results financially. He 
and his wife are esteemed members of the Presby- 
terian Church, contribute liberally to its supjmrt, 
and are always active in advancing all charitable 
and benevolent objects. In politics Mr. Daniel is 
a decided Democrat. Socially he is a member of 
Vermilion Camp, No. 244 M. W. A. 

-€-*^ — ^ 

ir^)KrBEN JACK. Notary Public and eng.aged 
1^ in the insurance business at Fairmount. is a 
W man of note in his communit}'. possessing 
^P) good business capacities and making for 
himself the record of an honest man and a good 
citizen. He was born in Carroll County, Ind., 
March 19, 1840. and was the eldest child of Silas 
S. and Bashaba (Elmore) J.ack who were both na- 
tives of Ohio, and the mother belonging to the So- 
ciety of Friends. They left their native State in 
their youth and were married in Tijipecanoe Count\-, 
Ind., in 1837. 

The parents of our subject remained residents of 
Indiana until April, 1860, then came to this county 
and located in Fairmount. Only three of their 
children lived to mature years, viz: two daugh- 
ters and Reuben, our subject. During the pro- 
gress of the Civil War the father enlisted in Com- 
pany E, 73d Illinois Infantry in August, 1862 and 
was given the post of Orderly Sergeant. He soon 
afterward contracted a fatal disease and died in 
the hospital at St. Louis on the 11th of September 
following. The mother survived her husband over 
twenty years, remaining a widow, and died in .Jan- 
uary. 1883. 

Our subject ac(iuired his education in the com- 
mon school of his native State and when approach- 
ing manhood learned the trade of a shoemaker 



whicU he has followed continuously until quite re- 
cently. He remained at home with his parents 
until after the outbreak of the Rebellion and en- 
listed in the same company and at tlie same time 
witli his father. He was first made a Corporal and 
later promoted to a Sergeant. He served three 
years and engaged in all the marches and battles in 
which his regiment participated, being at Stone 
River, Chattanooga, Mission Ridge and all the bat- 
tles of the Atlanta campaign, including Franklin and 
Nashville. Aside from the natural effects of hard- 
•shii) and exposure on hi.s constitution, and a slight 
affection of his eyes, he escaped uninjured, being 
neither wounded or taken prisoner. He was under 
the command of (len. George H. Thomas, Phil 
Sheridan. Granger, Rosecrans, Sherman, O. O. 
Howard and (irnnt, at the time when .lames A. 
Gartield was Adjutant General of Rosecran's arm>'. 
He received his honorable discharge with his regi- 
ment in .lunc, 1865. Like thousands of others 
who were willing to offer up their lives as a sacri- 
fice to their country, he was content in knowing 
that he had done iiis whole duty, standing his 
his ground during the enemy's fire and bearing 
with fortitude and patience the vicissitudes of a 
soldier's life. 

I'ljon retiring from the army jNIr. Jack resumed 
work at his trade and on the 'Jth of August, 1865, 
was married in Fairmount to Miss Mar}', daughter 
of Daniel Shroyer. This lady was born in Indiana 
and departed this life in Fairmount, Felj. 20, 1869, 
leaving no children. Our subject contracted a 
second matrimonial alliance June 15, 1870, with 
IMiss Frances, daughter of Charles Rufing, of Del- 
phi, Ind. Mrs. Frances Jack departed this life 
March 7, 1871, witliout children. 

Mr. Jack was married to his present wife, form- 
lerly Miss Jennie Fellows, Sept. 17, 1872 Mrs. 
Jennie Jack born in Wells County, Ind., and 
is the daughter of (Jeorge and Mary Fellows, who 
are now, the mother in Fairmount the father de- 
ceased. This union resulted in the birth of two 
children— George B., born June 7, 1875, and Nellie, 
June 26, 1884. They area bright pair and will be 
given the education and advantages suited to their 
position in life. 

Mr. Jack has been quite prominent in local af- 

fairs. He was elected Assessor and Collector of 
Vance Township, in 1884, and has been re-elected 
each }'ear since that time. In 1872 he was elected 
Township Clerk, holding the office until 1881. lu 
1877 he was elected Justice of the Peace and served 
eight years. He cast his first Presidential vote for 
Lincoln and has ever continued a staunch supi)orter 
of the Republican parly. As an ex-soldier he was 
one of the leading members of the G. A. R. at 
Fairmount, which has recently surrendered its char- 
ter. In this organization he was first an Adjutant 
and later a Commander. In the I. O. O. F. he is a 
member of Homer Lodge, No. 252, in which he is 
Past (irand. He formerly belonged to the Lodge 
at Faii'mount in which he held all the ollices, until 
it disbanded. 

r)ur subject and his estimable wife are active mem- 
bers of the ISIethodist E|)iscoi)al Churcii, in which 
Mr. Jack has been an earnest Sunday-school worker 
for years, officiating as Superintendent of the school 
and Trustee of the church. A man of domestic 
tastes and correct habits, he makes it his aim and 
object to stand on the right side of all questions 
and give his su|)port to those projects calculated to 
benefit the community, socially, morally and finan- 
cially. In connection with his other business 
already spoken of, he does some conveyancing and 
represents as a Fire Insurance Agent, the Phienix of 
Brooklyn, the Hartford and the ^F^tna. He is gen- 
tlemanly, courteous and liberal, and while not pos- 
sessed of great wealth manages to stand square 
with the world and extract a large measure of com- 
fort and happiness from life. 

^UY SANDUSKY. The surname of this 
gentleman is well-known in Vermilion 
County as that of a pioneer family who had 
a share in its early development and in promoting 
its later growth. The subject of this sketch is a 
worthy representative of his sire and grandsire, who 
planted their homes here when the surrounding 
country was a w ilderness, and, in doing so, pur- 
chance were more fortunate than they at first 
deemed possible, and he of whom we write is en- 





joying the result of tlieii- labors, ;vs well as of his 
Oivn active toil. He was born Feb. .5, I.Sol, on the 
old homestead on section 34. C'atlin 'rowiisiiip, that 
he now owns and occiii)ies. and licrc he has erected 
a handsome residence, one of tlie most attiactive 
homes in the county. He is carrying on agricul- 
ture and stock-raising with great skill, and from his 
3(K)-aere farm derives a substantial income. 

The iiarents of our subject, Josiah and Elizabelli 
(Sandusky) Sandusky, were natives of Bourlion 
County, Ky., where they marrietl. and iuimediatel}- 
came to tiiis township. The father had lived in 
this count}' while a single man, having removed 
here with his parents as early as 1811), and he went 
iiack to Bourbon County, Ky., to marry. His 
father, Isaac Sandusk}', had come here in the early 
days of its settlement, he accompanying him, and 
had made a claim, and before his death accumu- 
lated quite a little property. In 1837 the father 
and mother of our subject, after their marriage, 
settled in this count}-, and lived at Brook's Point 
some two or three years, and then Isaac Sandusky, 
the paternal grandfather of our subject, dving, the 
father was appointed administrator of tlie estate, 
and coming to Catlin Township .villi his family, he 
located southwest of Catlin Village on section 31. 
He resided with his wife on this homestead vintd 
his demise Sept. 15, 1868. she surviving him until 
Jan. 10, 1884. Of their eight children four lived to 
maturity, three sons and a daughter. 

Guy Sandusk}', of whom we write, was the third 
child of the family, and he was born and reared on 
the old homestead where he has spent his entire life. 
His education was conducted in the common 
schools, and was supplemented at home by a wise 
training from his worth}- parents, and on arriving 
at years of discretion he chose farming, of which 
he had a thorough, practical knowledge, as the [nir- 
suit best adapted to his tastes. He has a good- 
sized farm that is complete in all its appointments, 
and is, indeed, one of the choicest places in the 
whole township. It is amply provided with a con- 
veniently arranged set of buildings for every nec- 
essary purpose, and with all kinds of machiner}- 
for lightening the labors of farm life. The resi- 
dence is one of the handsomest in the county. 

Mr. Sandusk}' and Miss Ada M. Williamson 

were united in marriage Nov. 12, 1876, and to 
them has come one child. Inez. Mrs. Sandusk)- 
is a daughter of Henry and Jane (Gray) William- 
son, natives respectively of Ohio and Indiana, and 
now residents of l.iun County, Kan. Mrs. San- 
dusky born about ten miles northwest of JJan- 
ville Oct. 15, 1868. 

Mr. Sandusky possesses an abundant and never 
failing supply of sound sense and sharpness, cou- 
pled with a faculty of doing well whatever he 
attempts, so that his success in his chosen calling is 
not at all surprising. The Democratic party finds 
ill him a steadfast supporter through fair and 
through foul report. He is a valued member of 
Catlin Lodge No. 285, A. F. & A. M. 

\y) AMES CLIFTON. The results of persever- 
ance and energy have been admirabl}' illus- 
trated in the career of this gentleman, who 
(^^i is one of the most prosperous citizens in a 
prosperous communit}-, who has been the architect 
of his own fortune and is in the enjo3'mont of a 
competence. He is approaching the fifty-seventh 
year of his age, having been born Oct. 8, 1832, 
and has spent his entire life in Vermilion County, 
III., in Georgetown Township where he was born. 
He remembers the time when wild animals abounded 
in this region and killed deer within the limits of 
this township as late as twenty-five years ago. 

William Clifton, the father of our subject, was a 
native of