Skip to main content

Full text of "Portrait and biographical album of Livingston County, Ill. : containing full page portraits and biographical sketches of prominent and representative citizens of the county : together with portraits and biographies of all the governors of Illinois, and of the presidents of the United States"

See other formats








cop. 2 

The person charging this material is re- 
sponsible for its return to the library from 
which it was withdrawn on or before the 
Latest Date stamped below. 

Theft, mutilation, and underlining of books 
are reasons for disciplinary action and may 
result in dismissal from the University. 

MAR < 

APR 2 8 


f LU 

JUL 9 


JW 25 

JUR 2 5 M 
SEP 1 1 $J 



1 4 1987 

L161 O-1096 

' 'K? IT'- ^P^ks ^> ~^T> ^f> '^Tt-^i 




Full Page Portraits and Biographical Sketches of Prominent 
and Representative Citizens of the County, 







E HAVE completed our labors in writing and compiling the PORTRAIT AND BIO- 
GRAPHICAL ALBUM of this county, and wish, in presenting it to our patrons, to speak 
briefly of the importance of local works of this nature. It is certainly the duty 
of the present to commemorate the past, to perpetuatethe names of the pioneers, 
to furnish a record of their early settlement, and to relate the story of their progress. 
The civilization of our day, the enlightenment of the age, and this solemn duty which 
men of the present time owe to their ancestors, to themselves and to their posterity. 

demai-.d t' a record of their lives and deeds should be made. In local history is found a power 
to instruct man by precedent, to enliven the mental faculties, and to waft down the river of time a safe 
vessel in which the names and actions of the people who contributed to raise this region from its, 
primitive state may be preserved. Surely and rapidly the noble men, who in their vigor and prime 
came early to the county and claimed the virgin soil as their heritage, are passing to their 
graves. The number remaining who can relate the history of the first days of settlement is 
becoming small indeed, so that an actual necessity exists for the collection and preservation of his- 
torical matter without delay, before the settlers of the wilderness are cut down by time. Not only 
is it of the greatest importance to render history of pioneer times full and accurate, but it is also essen- 
tial that the history of the county, from its settlement to the present day, should be treated through its various 
phases, so that a record, complete and impartial, may be handed down to the future. The present the age 
of progress, is reviewed, standing out in bold relief over the quiet, unostentatious olden times; it is abriliiant 
record, which is destined to live in the future; the good works of men, their magnificent enterprises, theii 
lives, whether commercial or military, do not sink into oblivion, but, on the contrary, grow brighter with age, 
and contribute to build up a record which carries with it precedents and principles that will be advanced and 
observed when the acts of soulless men will be forgotten and their very names hidden in obscurity. 

In the preparation of the personal sketches contained in this volume, unusual care and pains were 
taken to have them accurate, even in the smallest detail. Indeed, nothing was passed lightly over or treated 
indifferently ; and we flatter ourselves that it is one of the most accurate works of its nature ever published. 
As one of the most interesting features of this work, we present the portraits of numerous represent- 
ative citizens. It has been our aim to have the prominent men of to-day, as well as the pioneers, represented 
in this department ; and we congratulate ourselves on the uniformly high character of the gentlemen whose 
portraits we present. They are in the strictest sense representative men, and are selected from all the call- 
ings and professions worthy to be given. There are others, it is true, who claim equal prominence with 
those given; but of course it was impossible for us to give portraits of all the leading men and pioneers 
of the county. We are under great obligation to many of the noble and generous people of this county 
for kindly and material assistance in the preparation of this ALBUM. 

CHICAGO, March, 1888. 








^i ,.'i . 'i . 'i . 'i . 'i . 'i , 'i . 'i . 'i . >, ,,', . ', . ', f , i; ;i ; ,i ; ,i ; ,i ; ,i ;:,i ; ,i ; ,i ,i ; ,, ; ,i ; ,i ; ,r ,, , 

^' i' .' i' .' i' .' i 1 .' i 1 .' i 1 ,' i 1 ..'. i 1 .' i 1 ; i 1 ; i 1 ; i 1 ; i 1 ; \. :, . >, . *, . \ . 't ,.H''.-'t' 

HE Father of our Country was 
born in Westmorland Co., Va.., 
Feb. 22, 1732. His parents 
were Augustine and Mary 
| (Ball) Washington. The family 
to which he belonged has not 
been satisfactorily traced in 
England. His great-grand- 
father, John Washington, em- 
igrated to Virginia about 1657, 
and became a prosperous 
planter. He had two sons, 
Lawrence and John. The 
former married Mildred Warner 
and had three children, John, 
Augustine and Mildred. Augus- 
tine, the father of George, first 
married Jane Butler, who bore 
him four children, two of whom, 
Lawrence and Augustine, reached 
maturity. Of six children by his 
second marriage, George was the 
eldest, the others being Betty, 
Samuel, John Augustine, Charles 
and Mildred. 

Augustine Washington, the father of George, died 
in 1743, leaving a large landed property. To his 
eldest son, Lawrence, he bequeathed an estate on 
the Patomac, afterwards known as Mount Vernon, 
and to George he left the parental residence. George 
received only such education as the neighborhood 
schools afforded, save for a short time after he left 
school, when he received private instruction in 
mathematics. His spelling was rather defective. 

Remarkable stories are told of his great physical 
strength and development at an early age. He was 
an acknowledged leader among his companions, and 
was early noted for that nobleness of character, fair- 
ness and veracity which characterized his whole life. 

When George was 1 4 years old he had a desire to go to 
sea, and a midshipman's warrant was secured for him, 
but through the opposition of his mother the idea was 
abandoned. Two years later he was appointed 
surveyor to the immense estate of Lord Fairfax. In 
this business he spent three years in a rough frontier 
life, gaining experience which afterwards proved very 
essential to him. In 175 r, though only 19 years of 
age, he was appointed adjutant with the rank of 
major in the Virginia militia, then being trained for 
active service against the French and Indians. Soon 
after this he sailed to the West Indies with his brother 
Lawrence, who went there to restore his health. They 
soon returned, and in the summer of 1752 Lawrence 
died, leaving a large fortune to an infant daughter 
who did not long survive him. On her demise the 
estate of Mount Vernon was given to George. 

Upon the arrival of Robert Dinwiddie, as Lieuten- 
ant-Governor of Virginia, in 1752, the militia was 
reorganized, and the province divided into four mili- 
tary districts, of which the northern was assigned to 
Washington as adjutant general. Shortly after this 
a very perilous mission was assigned him and ac- 
cepted, which others had refused. This was to pro- 
ceed to the French post near Lake Erie in North- 
western Pennsylvania. The distance to be traversed 
was between 500 and 600 miles. Winter was at hand, 
and the journey was to be made without military 
escort, through a territory occupied by Indians. The 


trip was a perilous one, and several limes he came near 
losing his life, yet he returned in safety and furnished 
u full and useful report of his expedition. A regiment 
of 300 men was raised in Virginia and put in com- 
mand of Col. Joshua Fry, and Major Washington was 
commissioned lieutenant-colonel. Active war was 
then begun against the French and Indians, in which 
Washington took a most important part. In the 
memorable event of July 9, 1755, known as Brad- 
dock's defeat, Washington was almost the only officer 
of distinction who escaped from the calamities of the 
day with life and honor. The other aids of Braddock 
were disabled early in the action, and Washington 
alone was left in that capacity on the field. In a letter 
to his brother he says : " I had four bullets through 
my coat, and two horses shot under me, yet I escaped 
unhurt, though death was levelin > my companions 
on every side." An Indian sharpshooter said he was 
not born to be killed by a bullet, for he had taken 
direct aim at him seventeen times, and failed to hit 

After having been five years in the military service, 
and vainly sought promotion in the royal army, he 
took advantage of the fall of Fort Duquesne and the 
expulsion of the French from the valley of the Ohio, 
to resign his commission. Soon after he entered the 
Legislature, where, although not a leader, he took an 
active and important part. January 17, 1759, he 
married Mrs. Martha (Dandridge) Custis, the wealthy 
widow of John Parke Custis. 

When the British Parliament had closed the port 
of Boston, the cry went up throughout the provinces 
that "The cause of Boston is the cause of us all." 
It was then, at the suggestion of Virginia, that a Con- 
gress of all the colonies was called to meet at Phila- 
delphia, Sept. 5, 1774, to secure their common liberties, 
peaceably if possible. To this Congress Col. Wash- 
ington was sent as a delegate. On May 10, 1775, the 
Congress re-assembled, when the hostile intentions of 
England were plainly apparent. The battles of Con- 
cord and Lexington had been fought. Among the 
first acts of this Congress was the election of a com- 
mander-in-chief of the colonial forces. This high and 
responsible office was conferred upon Washington, 
who was still a member of the Congress. He accepted 
it on June 19, but upon the express condition that he 
receive no salary. He would keep an exact account 
of expenses and expect Congress lo pay them and 
nothing more. It is not the object of this sketch to 
trace the military acts of Washington, to whom the 
fortunes and liberties of the people of this country 
were so long confided. The war was conducted by 
him under ever)' possible disadvantage, and while his 
forces often met with reverses, yet he overcame every 
obstacle, and after seven years of heroic devotion 
and matchless skill he gained liberty for the greatest 
nation of earth. On Dec. 23, 1783, Washington, in 
a parting address of surpassing beauty, resigned his 

commission as conunander-in-chief of the army to 
to the Continental Congress sitting at Annapolis. He 
retired immediately to Mount Vernon and resumed 
his occupation as a farmer and planter, shunning all 
connection with public life. 

In February, 1 789, Washington was unanimously 
elected President. In his presidential career he was 
subject to the peculiar trials incidental to a new 
government ; trials from lack of confidence on the part 
of other governments ; trials from want of harmony 
between the different sections of our own country; 
trials from the impoverished condition of the country, 
owing to the war and want of credit; trials from the 
beginnings of party strife. He was no partisan. His 
clear judgment could discern the golden mean ; and 
while perhaps this alone kept our government from 
sinking at the very outset, it left him exposed to 
attacks from both sides, which were often bitter and 
very annoying. 

At the expiration of his first term he was unani- 
mously re-elected. At the end of this term many 
were anxious that he be re-elected, but he absolutely 
refused a third nomination. On the fourth of March, 
1797, at the expiraton of his second term as Presi- 
dent, he returned to his home, hoping to pass there 
his few remaining years free from the annoyances of 
public life. Later in the year, however, his repose 
seemed likely to be interrupted by war with France. 
At the prospect of such a war he was again urged to 
take command of the armies. He chose his sub- 
ordinate officers and left to them the charge of mat- 
ters in the field, which he superintended from his 
home. In accepting the command he made the 
reservation that he was not to be in the field until 
it wns necessary. In the midst of these preparations 
his life was suddenly cut off". December 12, he took 
a severe cold from a ride in the rain, which, settling 
in Irs throat, produced inflammation, and terminated 
fatally on the night of the fourteenth. On the eigh- 
teenth his body was borne wi'h military honors to its 
final resting place, and interred in the family vault at 
Mount Vernon. 

Of the character of Washington it is impossible to 
speak but in terms of the highest respect and ad- 
miration. The more we see of the operations of 
our government, and the more deeply we feel the 
difficulty of uniting all opinions in a common interest, 
the more highly we must estimate the force of his tal- 
ent and character, which have been able to challenge 
the reverence of all parties, and principles, and na- 
tions, and to win a fame as extended as the limits 
of the globe, and which we cannot but believe will 
be as lasting as the existence of man. 

The person of Washington was unusally tan, erect 
and well proportioned. His muscular strength was 
great. His features were of a beautiful symmetry. 
He commanded respect without any appearance of 
haughtiness, and ever serious without being dull. 




OHN ADAMS, the second 
President and the first Vice- 
President of the United States, 
was born in Braintree ( now 
Quincy),Mass., and about ten 
miles from Boston, Oct. 19, 
1735. His great-grandfather, Henry 
Adams, emigrated from England 
about 1 640, with a family of eight 
, sons, and settled at Braintree. The 
parents of John were John and 
Susannah (Boylston) Adams. His 
father was a farmer of limited 
means, to which he added the bus- 
iness of shoemaking. He gave his 
eldest son, John, a classical educa- 
tion at Harvard College. John 
graduated in 1755, and at once took charge of the 
school in Worcester, Mass. This he found but a 
"school of affliction," from which he endeavored to 
gain relief by devoting himself, in addition, to the 
study of law. For this purpose he placed himself 
under the tuition of the only lawyer in the town. He 
had thought seriously of the clerical profession 
but seems to have been turned from this by what he 
termed " the frightful engines of ecclesiastical coun- 
cils, of diabolical malice, and Calvanistic good nature,'' 
of the operations of which he had been a witness in 
his native town. He was well fitted for the legal 
profession, possessing a clear, sonorous voice, being 
ready and fluent of speech, and having quick percep- 
tive powers. He gradually gained practice, and in 
1764 married Abigail Smith, a daughter of a minister, 
and a lady of superior intelligence. Shortly after his 
marriage, (1765), the attempt of Parliamentary taxa- 
tion turned him from law to politics. He took initial 
steps toward holding a town meeting, and the resolu- 

tions he offered on the subject became very popular 
throughout the Province, and were adopted word for 
word by over forty different towns. He moved to Bos- 
ton in 1768, and became one of the most courageous 
and prominent advocates of the popular cause, and 
was chosen a member of the General Court (the Leg- 
lislature) in 1770. 

Mr. Adams was chosen one of the first delegates 
from Massachusetts to the first Continental Congress, 
which met in 1774. Here he distinguished himself 
by his capacity for business and for debate, and ad- 
vocated the movement for independence against the 
majority of the members. In May, 1776, he moved 
and carried a resolution in Congress that the Colonies 
should assume the duties of self-government. He 
was a prominent member of the committee of five 
appointed June n, to prepare a declaration of inde 
pendence. This article was drawn by Jefferson, bu) 
on Adams devolved the task of battling it througl 
Congress in a three days debate. 

On the day after the Declaration of Independence 
was passed, while his soul was yet warm with the 
glow of excited feeling, he wrote a letter to his wile, 
which, as we read it now, seems to have been dictated 
by the spirit of prophecy. "Yesterday," he says, "thf 
greatest question was decided that ever was debated 
in America; and greater, perhaps, never was or will 
be decided among men. A resolution \vas passed 
without one dissenting colony, ' that these United 
States are, and of right ought to be, free and inde- 
pendent states.' The day is passed. The fourth of 
July, 1776, will be a memorable epoch in the history 
of America. I am apt to" believe it will be celebrated 
by succeeding generations, as the great anniversary 
festival. It ought to be commemorated as the day of 
deliverance by solemn acts of devotion to Almighty 
God. It ought to be solemnized with pomp, showsj 



games, sports, guns, bells, bonfires, and illuminations 
from one end of the continent to the other, from this 
time forward for ever. You will think me transported 
with enthusiasm, but I am not. I am well aware of 
the toil, and blood and treasure, that it will cost to 
maintain this declaration, and support and defend 
these States; yet, through all the gloom, I can see the 
rays of light and glory. I can see that the end is 
worth more than all the means; and that posterity 
will triumph, although you and I may rue, which I 
hope we shall not." 

In November, 1777, Mr. Adams was appointed a 
delegate to France, and to co-operate with Bemjamin 
Franklin and Arthur Lee, who were then in Paris, in 
the endeavor to obtain assistance in arms and money 
from the French Government. This was a severe trial 
to his patriotism, as it separated him from his home, 
compelled him to cross the ocean in winter, and ex- 
posed him to great peril of capture by the British cruis- 
ers, who were seeking him. He left France June 17, 
1779. In September of the same year he was again 
chosen to go to Paris, and there hold himself in readi- 
ness to negotiate a treaty of peace and of commerce 
with Great Britian, as soon as the British Cabinet 
might be found willing to listen to such proposels. He 
sailed for France in November, from there he went to 
Holland, where he negotiated important loans and 
formed important commercial treaties. 

Finally a treaty of peace with England was signed 
Jan. 21, 1783. The re-action from the excitement, 
toil and anxiety through which Mr. Adams had passed 
threw him into a fever. After suffering from a con- 
tinued fever and becoming feeble and emaciated he 
was advised to goto England to drink the waters of 
Bath. While in England, still drooping and despond- 
ing, he received dispatches from his own government 
urging the necessity of his going to Amsterdam to 
negotiate another loan. It was winter, his health was 
delicate, yet he immediately set out, and through 
storm, on sea, on horseback and foot,he made the trip. 

February 24, 1785, Congress appointed Mr. Adams 
envoy to the Court of St. James. Here he met face 
to face the King of England, who had so long re- 
garded him as a traitor. As England did not 
condescend to appoint a minister to the United 
States, and as Mr. Adams felt that he was accom- 
plishing but little, he sought permission to return to 
his own country, where he arrived in June, 1788. 

When Washington was first chosen President, John 
Adams, rendered illustiious by his signal services at 
home and abroad, was chosen Vice President. Again 
at the second election of Washington as President, 
Adams was chosen Vice President. In 1796, Wash- 
ington retired from public life, and Mr. Adams was 
elected President,though not without much opposition. 
Serving in this office four years,he was succeeded by 
Mr. Jefferson, his opponent in politics. 

While Mr. Adams was Vice President the great 

French Revolution shook the continent of Europe, 
and it was upon this point which he was at issue with 
the majority of his countrymen led by Mr. Jefferson. 
Mr. Adams felt no sympathy with the French people 
in their struggle, for he had no confidence in their 
power of self-government, and he utterly abhored the 
class of atheist philosophers who he claimed caused it. 
On the other hand Jefferson's sympathies were strongly 
enlisted in behalf of the French people. Hence or- 
iginated the alienation between these distinguished 
men, and two powerful parties were thus soon organ- 
ized, Adams at the head of the one whose sympathies 
were with England and Jefferson led the other in 
sympathy with France. 

The world has seldom seen a spectacle of more 
moral beauty and grandeur, than was presented by the 
old age of Mr. Adams. The violence of party feeling 
had died away, and he had begun to receive that just 
appreciation which, to most men, is not accorded till 
after death. No one could look upon his venerable 
form, and think of what he had done and suffered, 
and how he had given up all the prime and strength 
of his life to the public good, without the deepest 
emotion of gratitude and respect. It was his peculiar 
good fortune to witness the complete success of the 
institution which he had been so active in creating and 
supporting. In 1824, his cup of happiness was filled 
to the brim, by seeing his son elevated to the highest 
station in the gift of the people. 

The fourth of July, 1826, which completed the half 
century since the signing of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, arrived, and there were but three of the 
signers of that immortal instrument left upon the 
earth to hail its morning light. And, as it is 
well known, on that day two of these finished their 
earthly pilgrimage, a coincidence so remarkable as 
to seem miraculous. For a few days before Mr. 
Adams had been rapidly failing, and on the morning 
of the fourth he found himself too weak to rise from 
his bed. On being requested to name a toast for the 
customary celebration of the day, he exclaimed " IN- 
DEPENDENCE FOREVER." When the day was ushered 
in, by the ringing of bells and the firing of cannons, 
he was asked by one of his attendants if he knew 
what day it was? He replied, "O yes; it is the glor- 
ious fourth of July God bless it God bless you all." 
In the course of the day he said, " It is a great and 
glorious day." The last words he uttered were, 
"Jefferson survives." But he had, at one o'clock, re- 
signed his spirit into the hands of his God. 

The personal appearance and manners of Mr. 
Adams were not particularly prepossessing. His face, 
as his portrait manifests.was intellectual ard expres- 
sive, but his figure was low and ungraceful, and his 
manners were frequently abrupt and uncourteous. 
He had neither the lofty dignity of Washington, nor 
the engaging elegance and gracefulness which marked 
the manners and address of Jefferson. 


born April 2, 1743, at Shad- 
well, Albermarle county, Va. 

His parents were Peter and 
Jane ( Randolph) Jefferson, 
the former a native of Wales, 
and the latter born in Lon- 
don. To them were born six 
daughters and two sons, of 
whom Thomas was the elder. 
When 14 years of age his 
father died. He received a 
most liberal education, hav- 
ing been kept diligently at school 
from the time he was five years of 
age. In 1760 he entered William 
and Mary College. Williamsburg was then the seat 
of the Colonial Court, and it was the obode of fashion 
and splendor. Young Jefferson, who was then 17 
years old, lived somewhat expensively, keeping fine 
horses, and much caressed by gay society, yet he 
was earnestly devoted to his studies, and irreproacha- 
able in his morals. It is strange, however, under 
such influences, that he was not ruined. In the sec- 
ond year of his college course, moved by some un- 
explained inward impulse, he discarded his horses, 
society, and even his favorite violin, to which he had 
previously given much time. He often devoted fifteen 
hours a day to hard study, allowing himself for ex- 
ercise only a run in the evening twilight of a mile out 
of the city and back again. He thus attained very 
high intellectual culture, alike excellence in philoso- 
phy and the languages. The most difficult Latin and 
Greek authors he read with facility. A more finished 
scholar has seldom gone forth from college halls ; and 

there was not to be found, perhaps, in all Virginia, a 
more pureminded, upright, gentlemanly young man. 

Immediately upon leaving college he began the 
study of law. For the short time he continued in the 
practice of his profession he rose rapidly and distin- 
guished himself by his energy and accuteness as a 
lawyer. But the times called for greater action. 
The policy of England had awakened the spirit of 
resistance of the American Colonies, and the enlarged 
views which Jefferson had ever entertained, soon led 
him into active political life. In 1769 he was chosen 
a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses. In 
1772 he married Mrs. Martha Skelton, a very beauti- 
ful, wealthy and highly accomplished young widow. 

Upon Mr. Jefferson's large estate at Shadwell, there 
was a majestic swell of land, called Monticello, which 
commanded a prospect of wonderful extent and 
beauty. This spot Mr. Jefferson selected for his new 
home; and here he reared a mansion of modest yet 
elegant architecture, which, next to Mount Vernon, 
became the most distinguished resort in our land. 

In 1775 he was sent to the Colonial Congress, 
where, though a silent member, his abilities as a 
writer and a reasoner soon become known, and he 
was placed upon a number of important committees, 
and was chairman of the one appointed for the draw- 
ing up of a declaration of independence. This com- 
mittee consisted of Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, 
Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman and Robert R. 
Livingston. Jefferson, as chairman, was appointed 
to draw up the paper. Franklin and Adams suggested 
a few verbal changes before it was submitted to Con- 
gress. On June 28, a few slight changes were made 
in it by Congress, and it was passed and signed July 
4, 1776. What must have been the feelings of that 



man what the emotions that swelled his breast 
who was charged with the preparation of that Dec- 
laration, which, while it made known the wrongs of 
America, .vas also to publish her to the world, free, 
soverign and independent. It is one of the most re- 
markable papers ever written ; and did noother effort 
uf the mind of its author exist, that alone would be 
sufficient to stamp his name with immortality. 

In 1779 Mr. Jefferson was elected successor to 
Patrick Henry, as Governor of Virginia. At one time 
the British officer, Tarleton, sent a secret expedition to 
Monticello, to capture the Governor. Scarcely five 
minutes elapsed after the hurried escape of Mr. Jef- 
ferson and his family, ere his mansion was in posses- 
sion of the British troops. His wife's health, never 
very good, was much injured by this excitement, and 
in the summer of 1782 she died. 

Mr. Jefferson was elected to Congress in 1783. 
Two yeirs later he was appointed Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary to France. Returning to the United States 
in September, 1789, he became Secretary of State 
in Washington's cabinet. This position he resigned 
Jan. r, 1794. In 1797, he was chosen Vice Presi- 
dent, and four years later was elected President over 
Mr. Adams, with Aaron Burr as Vice President. In 
1804 he was re-elected with wonderful unanimity, 
and George Clinton, Vice President. 

The early part of Mr. Jefferson's second adminstra- 
tion was disturbed by an event which threatened the 
tranquilily and peace of the Union ; this was the con- 
spiracy of Aaron Burr. Defeated in the late election 
to the Vice Presidency, and led on by an unprincipled 
ambition, this extraordinary man formed the plan of a 
military expedition into the Spanish territories on our 
southwestern frontier, for the purpose of forming there 
a new republic. This has been generally supposed 
was a mere pretext ; and although it has not been 
generally known what his real plans were, there is no 
doubt that they were of a far more dangerous 

In 1809, at the expiration of the second term for 
which Mr. Jefferson had been elected, he determined 
to retire from political life. For a period of nearly 
forty years, he had been continually before the pub- 
lic, and all that time had been employed in offices of 
the greatest trust and responsibility. Having thus de- 
voted the best part of his life to the service of his 
country, he now felt desirous of that rest which his 
declining years required, and upon the organization of 
the new administration, in March, 1809, he bid fare- 
well forever to public life, and retired to Monticello. 

Mr. Jefferson was profuse in his hospitality. Whole 
families came in their coaches with their hoises, 
fathers and mothers, boys and girls, babies and 
nurses, and remained three and even six months. 
Life at Monticello, for years, resembled that at a 
fashionable watering-place. 

The fourth of July, 1826, being the fiftieth anniver- 


sary of the Declaration of American Independence, 
great preparations were made in every pait of tho 
Union for its celebration, as the nation's jubilee, and 
the citizens of Washington, to add to the solemnity 
of the occasion, invited Mr. Jefferson, as the framer. 
and one of the few surviving signers of the Declara- 
tion, to participate in their festivities. But an ill- 
ness, which had been of several weeks duration, and 
had been continually increasing, compelled him to 
decline the invitation. 

On the second of July, the disease under which 
he was laboring left him, but in such a reduced 
state that his medical attendants, entertained no 
hope of his recovery. From this time he was perfectly 
sensible that his last hour was at hand. On the next 
day, which was Monday, he asked of those around 
him, the day of the month, and on being told it was 
the third of July, he expressed the earnest wish that 
he might be permitted to breathe the airof the fiftieth 
anniversary. His prayer was heard that day, whose 
dawn was hailed with such rapture through our land, 
burst upon his eyes, and then they were closed for- 
ever. And what a noble consummation of a noble 
life ! To die on that day, the birthday of a nation,- - 
the day which his own name and his own act had 
rendered glorious; to die amidst the rejoicings and 
festivities of a whole nation, who looked up to him, 
as the author, under God, of their greatest blessings, 
was all that was wanting to fill up the record his life. 

Almost at the same hour of his death, the kin- 
dred spirit of the venerable Adams, as if to bear 
him company, left the scene of his earthly honors. 
Hand in hand they had stood forth, the champions of 
freedom; hand in hand, during the dark and desper- 
ate struggle of the Revolution, they had cheered and 
animated their desponding countrymen; for half a 
century they had labored together for the good of 
the country; and now hand in hand they depart. 
In their lives they had been united in the same great 
cause of liberty, and in their deaths they were not 

In person Mr. Jefferson was tall and thin, rather 
above six feet in height, but well formed; his eyes 
were light, his hair originally red, in after life became 
white and silvery; his complexion was fair, his fore- 
head broad, and his whole countenance intelligent and 
thoughtful. He possessed great fortitude of mind as 
well as personal courage ; and his command of tem- 
per was such that his oldest and most intimate friends 
never recollected to have seen him in a passion. 
His manners, though dignified, were simple and un- 
affected, and his hospitality was so unbounded that 
all found at his house a ready welcome. In conver- 
sation he was fluent, eloquent and enthusiastic ; and 
his language was remarkably pure and correct. He 
was a finished classical scholar, and in his writings is 
discernable the care with which he formed his style 
upon the best models of antiquity. 




of the Constitution," and fourth 
President of the United States, 
was born March 16, 1757, and 
died at his home in Virginia, 
June 28, 1836. The name of 
James Madison is inseparably con- 
nected with most of the important 
events in that heroic period of our 
country during which" the founda- 
tions of this great republic were 
laid. He was the last of the founders 
of the Constitution of the United 
States to be called to his eternal 

The Madison family were among 
the early emigrants to the New World, 
landing upon the shores of the Chesa- 
peake but 15 years after the settle- 
ment of Jamestown. The father of 
James Madison was an opulent 
planter, residing upon a very fine es- 
tate called "Montpelier," Orange Co., 
Va. The mansion was situated in 
the midst of scenery highly pictur- 
esque and romantic, on the west side 
of South-west Mountain, at the foot of 
Blue Ridge. It was but 25 miles from the home of 
Jefferson at Monticello. The closest personal and 
political attachment existed between these illustrious 
men, from their early youth until death. 

The early education of Mr. Madison was conducted 
mostly at home under a private tutor. At the age of 
1 8 he was sent to Princeton College, in New Jersey. 
Here he applied himself to study with the most im- 

prudent zeal; allowing himself, for months, but three 
hours' sleep out of the 24. His health thus became so 
seriously impaired that he never recovered any vigor 
of constitution. He graduated in 1771, with a feeble 
body, with a character of utmost purity, and with a 
mind highly disciplined and richly stored with learning 
which embellished and gave proficiency to his subsf 
quent career. 

Returning to Virginia, he commenced the study of 
law and a course of extensive and systematic reading. 
This educational course, the spirit of the times in 
which he lived, and the society with which he asso- 
ciated, all combined to inspire him with a strong 
love of liberty, and to train him for his life-work of 
a statesman. Being naturally of a religious turn of 
mind, and his frail health leading him to think that 
his life was not to be long, he directed especial atten- 
tion to theological studies. Endowed with a mind 
singularly free from passion and prejudice, and with 
almost unequalled powers of reasoning, he weighed 
all the arguments for and against revealed religion, 
until his faith became so established as never to 
be shaken. 

In the spring of 1776, when 26 years of age, he 
was elected a member of the Virginia Convention, to 
frame the constitution of the State. The next year 
(1777), he was a candidate for the General Assembly. 
He refused to treat the whisky-lovir.g voters, and 
consequently lost his election ; but those who had 
witnessed the talent, energy and public spirit of the 
modest young man, enlisted themselves in his behalf, 
and he was appointed to the Executive Council. 

Both Patrick Henry and Thomas Jefferson were 
Governors of Virginia while Mr. Madison remained 
member of the Council ; and their appreciation of his 


intellectual, social and moral worth, contributed not 
a little to his subsequent eminence. In the year 
1780, he was elected a member of the Continental 
Congress. Here he met the most illustrious men in 
our land, and he was immediately assigned to one of 
the most conspicuous positions among them. 

For three years Mr. Madison continued in Con- 
gress, one of its most active and influential members. 
In the year 1784, his term having expired, he was 
elected a member of the Virginia Legislature. 

No man felt more deeply than Mr. Madison the 
utter inefficiency of the old confederacy, with no na- 
tional government, with no power to form treaties 
which would be binding, or to enforce law. There 
was not any State more prominent than Virginia in 
the declaration, that an efficient national government 
must be formed. In January, 1786, Mr. Madison 
carried a resolution through the General Assembly of 
Virginia, inviting the other States to appoint commis- 
sioners to meet in convention at Annapolis to discuss 
this subject. Five States only were represented. The 
convention, however, issued another call, drawn up 
by Mr. Madison, urging all the States to send their 
delegates to Philadelphia, in May, 1787, to draft 
a Constitution for the United States, to take the place 
of that Confederate League. The delegates met at 
the time appointed. Every State but Rhode Island 
was represented. George Washington was chosen 
president of the convention ; and the present Consti- 
tution of the United States was then and there formed. 
There was, perhaps, no mind and no pen more ac- 
tive in framing this immortal document than the mind 
and the pen of James Madison. 

The Constitution, adopted by a vote 81 to 79, was 
to be presented to the several States for acceptance. 
But grave solicitude was felt. Should it be rejected 
we should be left but a conglomeration of independent 
States, with but little power at home and little respect 
abroad. Mr. Madison was selected by the conven- 
tion to draw up an address to the people of the United 
States, expounding the principles of the Constitution, 
and urging its adoption. There was great opposition 
to it at first, but it at length triumphed over all, and 
went into effect in 1789. 

Mr. Madison was elected to the House of Repre- 
sentatives in the first Congress, and soon became the 
avowed leader of the Republican party. While in 
New York attending Congress, he met Mrs. Todd, a 
young widow of remarkable power of fascination, 
whom he married. She was in person and character 
queenly, and probably no lady has thus far occupied 
so prominent a position in the very peculiar society 
which has constituted our republican court as Mrs. 

Mr. Madison served as Secretary of State under 
Jefferson, and at the close of his administration 
was chosen President. At this time the encroach- 
ments of England had brought us to the verge of war. 

British orders in council destioyed our commerce, and 
our flag was exposed to constant insult. Mr. Madison 
was a man of peace. Scholarly in his taste, retiring 
in his disposition, war had no charms for him. But the 
meekest spirit can be roused. It makes one's blood 
boil, even now, to think of an American ship brought 
to, upon the ocean, by the guns of an English cruiser. 
A young lieutenant steps on board and orders the 
crew to be paraded before him. With great nonchal- 
ance he selects any number whom he may please to 
designate as British subjects ; orders them down the 
ship's side into his boat; and places them on the gun- 
deck of his man-of-war, to fight, by compulsion, the 
battles of England. This right of search and im- 
pressment, no efforts of our Government could induce 
the British cabinet to relinquish. 

On the 1 8th of June, 1812, President Madison gave 
his approval to an act of Congress declaring war 
against Great Britain. Notwithstanding the bitter 
hostility of the Federal party to the war, the country 
in general approved; and Mr. Madison, on the 4th 
of March, igtS) w as re-elected by a large majority, 
and entered upon his second term of office. This is 
not the place to describe the various adventures of 
this war on the land and on the water. Our infant 
navy then laid the foundations of its renown in grap- 
pling with the most formidable power which ever 
swept the seas. The contest commenced in earnest 
by the appearance of a British fleet, early in February, 
1813, in Chesapeake Bay, declaring nearly the whole 
coast of the United States under blockade. 

The Emperor of Russia offered his services as me 
dilator. America accepted ; England refused. A Brit- 
ish force of five thousand men landed on the banks 
of the Patuxet River, near its entrance into Chesa- 
peake Bay, and marched rapidly, by way of Bladens- 
burg, upon Washington. 

The straggling little city of Washington was thrown 
into consternation. The cannon of the brief conflict 
at Bladensbnrg echoed through the streets of the 
metropolis. The whole population fled from the city. 
The President, leaving Mrs. Madison in the White 
House, with her carriage drawn up at the door to 
await his speedy return, hurried to meet the officers 
in a council of war. He met our troops utterly routed, 
and he could not go back without danger of being 
captured. But few hours elapsed ere the Presidential 
Mansion, the Capitol, and all the public buildings in 
Washington were in flames. 

The war closed after two years of fighting, and on 
Feb. r3, 1815, the treaty of peace was signed at Ghent. 

On the 4th of March, 1817, his second term of 
office expired, and he resigned the Presidential chair 
to his friend, James Monroe. He retired to his beau- 
tiful home at Montpelier, and there passed the re- 
mainder of his days. On June 28, 1836, then at the 
age of 85 years, he fell asleep in death. Mrs. Madi- 
son died July 12, 1849. 




AMES MONROE, the fifth 
Presidentof The United States, 
was born in Westmoreland Co., 
Va., April 28, 1758. His early 
life was passed at the place of 
nativity. His ancestors had for 
many years resided in the prov- 
ince in which he was born. When, 
at 17 years of age, in the process 
of completing his education at 
William and Mary College, the Co- 
lonial Congress assembled at Phila- 
delphia to deliberate upon the un- 
just and manifold oppressions of 
Great Britian, declared the separa- 
tion of the Colonies, and promul- 
gated the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence. Had he been born ten years before it is highly 
probable that he would have been one of the signers 
of that celebrated instrument. At this time he left 
school and enlisted among the patriots. 

He joined the army when everything looked hope- 
less and gloomy. The number of deserters increased 
from day to day. The invading armies came pouring 
in ; and the tories not only favored the cause of the 
mother country, but disheartened the new recruits, 
who were sufficiently terrified at the prospect of con- 
tending with an enemy whom they had been taught 
to deem invincible. To such brave spirits as James 
Monroe, who went right onward, undismayed through 
difficulty and danger, the United States owe their 
political emancipation. The young cadet joined the 
ranks, and espoused the cause of his injured country, 
with a firm determination to live or die with her strife 

for liberty. Firmly yet sadly he shared in the mel- 
ancholy retreat from Harleam Heights and White 
Plains, and accompanied the dispirited army as it fled 
before its foes through New Jersey. In four months 
after the Declaration of Independence, the patriots 
had been beaten in seven battles. At the battle of 
Trenton he led the vanguard, and, in the act of charg- 
ing upon the enemy he received a wound in the left 

As a reward for his bravery, Mr. Monroe was pro- 
moted a captain of infantry; and, having recovered 
from his wound, he rejoined the army. He, however, 
receded from the line of promotion, by becoming an 
officer in the staff of Lord Sterling. During the cam- 
paigns of 1777 and 1778, in the actions of Brandy 
wine, Germantown and Monmouth, he continued 
aid-de-camp; but becoming desirous to regain his 
position in the army, he exerted himself to collect a 
regiment for the Virginia line. This scheme failed 
owing to the exhausted condition of the State. Upon 
this failure he entered the office of Mr. Jefferson, at 
that period Governor, and pursued, with considerable 
ardor, the study of common law. He did not, however, 
entirely lay aside the knapsack for the green bag ; 
but on the invasions of the enemy, served as a volun- 
teer, during the two years of his legal pursuits. 

In 1782, he was elected from King George county, 
a member of the Leglislature of Virginia, and by that 
body he was elevated to a seat in the Executive 
Council. He was thus honored with the confidence 
of his fellow citizens at 23 years of age ; and having 
at this early period displayed some of that ability 
and aptitude for legislation, which were afterwards 
employed with unremitting energy for the public good, 



he was in the succeeding year chosen a member of 
the Congress of the United States. 

Deeplyas Mr. Monroe felt the imperfections of the old 
^Confederacy, he was opposed to the new Constitution, 
ihinking, with many others of the Republican party, 
that it gave too much power to the Central Government, 
and not enough to the individual States. Still he re- 
tained the esteem of his friends who were its warm 
supporters, and who, notwithstanding his opposition 
secured its adoption. In 1789, he became a member 
of the United States Senate ; which office he held for 
four years. Every month the line of distinction be- 
tween the two great parties which divided the nation, 
the Federal and the Republican, was growing more 
distinct. The two prominent ideas which now sep- 
arated them were, that the Republican party was in 
sympathy with France, and also in favor of such a 
strict construction of the Constitution as to give the 
Central Government as little power, and the State 
Governments as much power, as the Constitution would 
warrant. The Federalists sympathized with England, 
and were in favor of a liberal construction of the Con- 
stitution, which would give as much power to the 
Central Government as that document could possibly 

The leading Federalists and Republicans were 
alike noble men, consecrating all their energies to the 
good of the nation. Two more honest men or more 
pure patriots than John Adams the Federalist, and 
James Monroe the Republican, never breathed. In 
building up this majestic nation, which is destined 
to eclipse all Grecian and Assyrian greatness, the com- 
bination of their antagonism was needed to create the 
light equilibrium. And yet each in his day was de- 
nounced as almost a demon. 

Washington was then President. England had es- 
poused the cause of the Bourbons against the princi- 
ples of the French Revolution. All Europe was drawn 
into the conflict. We were feeble and far away. 
Washington issued a proclamation of neutrality be- 
tween these contending powers. France had helped 
us in the struggle for our liberties. All the despotisms 
of Europe were now combined to prevent the French 
from escaping from a tyranny a thousand-fold worse 
than that which we had endured Col. Monroe, more 
magnanimous than prudent, was anxious that, at 
whatever hazard, we should help our old allies in 
their extremity. It was the impulse of a generous 
and noble nature. He violently opposed the Pres- 
ident's proclamation as ungrateful and wanting in 

Washington, who could appreciate such a character, 
developed his calm, serene, almost divine greatness, 
by appointing that very James Monroe, who was de- 
nouncing the policy of the Government, as the minister 
of that Government to the Republic of France. Mr. 
Monroe was welcomed by the National Convention 
in France with the most enthusiastic demonstrations. 

Shortly after his return to this country, Mr. Mon- 
roe was elected Governor of Virginia, and held the 
office for three yeais. He was again sent to France to 
co-operate with Chancellor Livingston in obtaining 
the vast territory then known as the Province of 
Louisiana, which France had but shortly before ob- 
tained from Spain. Tlieir united efforts were suc- 
cessful. For the comparatively small sum of fifteen 
millions of dollars, the entire territory of Orleans and 
district of Louisiana were added to the United States. 
This was probably the largest transfer of real estate 
which was ever made in all the history of the world. 

From France Mr. Monroe went to England to ob- 
tain from that country some recognition of out- 
rights as neutrals, and to remonstrate against those 
odious impressments of our seamen. But Eng- 
land was unrelenting. He again returned to Eng- 
land on the same mission, but could receive no 
redress. He returned to his home and was again 
chosen Governor of Virginia. This he soon resigned 
to accept the position of Secretary of State under 
Madison. While in this office war with England was 
declared, the Secretary of War resigned, and during 
these trying times, the duties of the War Department 
were also put upon him. He was truly the armor- 
bearer of President Madison, and the most efficient 
business man in his cabinet. Upon the return oi 
peace he resigned the Department of War, but con- 
tinued in the office of Secretary of State until the ex- 
piration of Mr. Madison's adminstration. At the elec- 
tion held the previous autumn Mr. Monroe himself had 
been chosen President with but little opposition, and 
upon March 4, 1817, was inaugurated. Four years 
later he was elected for a second term. 

Among the important measures of his Presidency 
were the cession of Florida to the United States; the 
Missouri Compromise, and the " Monroe doctrine."' 

This famous doctrine, since known as the " Monroe 
doctrine," was enunciated by him in 1823. At that 
time the United States had recognized the independ- 
ence of the South American states, and did not \\ish 
to have European powers longer attempting to sub- 
due portions of the American Continent. The doctrine 
is as follows : " That we should consider any attempt 
on the part of European powers to extend their sys- 
tem to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous 
to our peace and safety," and "that we could not 
view any interposition for the purpose of oppressing 
or controlling American governments or provinces in 
any other light than as a manifestation by European 
powers of an unfriendly disposition toward the United 
States." This doctrine immediately affected the course 
of foreign governments, and has become the approved 
sentiment of the United States. 

At the end of his second term Mr. Monroe retired 
to his home in Virginia, where he lived until 1830, 
when he went to New York to live with his son-in- 
law. In that city he died,on the 4th of July, 1831. 






sixth President of the United 
States, was born in the rural 
home of his honored father, 
John Adams, in Quincy, Mass., 
on the i ith cf July, 1767. His 
mother, a woman of exalted 
worth, watched over his childhood 
during the almost constant ab- 
sence of his father. When but 
eight years of age, he stood with 
his mother on an eminence, listen- 
ing to the booming of the great bat- 
tle on Bunker's Hill, and gazing on 
upon the smoke and flames billow- 
ing up from the conflagration of 

When but eleven years oW he 
took a tearful adieu of his mother, 
to sail with his fattier for Europe, 
through a fleet of hostile British cruisers. The bright, 
animated boy spent a year and a half in Paris, where 
his father was associated with Franklin and Lee as 
minister plenipotentiary. His intelligence attracted 
the notice of these distinguished men, and he received 
from them flattering marks of attention. 

Mr. John Adams had scarcely returned to this 
country, in 1779, ere he was again sent abroad. Again 
John Quincy accompanied his father. At Paris he 
applied himself with great diligence, for six months, 
to study; then accompained his father to Holland, 
where he entered, first a school in Amsterdam, then 
the University at Leyden. About a year from this 
time, in 1781, when the manly Loy was but fourteen 
years of age, he was selected by Mr. Dana, our min- 
ister to the Russian court, as his private secretary. 

Tn this school of incessant labor and of enobling 
culture he spent fourteen months, and then returned 
to Holland through Sweden, Denmark, Hamburg and 
Bremen. This long journey he took alone, in the 
winter, when in his sixteenth year. Again he resumed 
his studies, under a private tutor, at Hague. Thence, 

in the spring of 1782, he accompanied his father to 
Paris, traveling leisurely, and forming acquaintance 
with the most distinguished men on the Continent; 
examining architectural remains, galleries of paintings, 
and all renowned works of art. At Paris he again 
became associated with the most illustrious men of 
all lands in the contemplations of the loftiest temporal 
themes which can engross the human mind. After 
a short visit to England he returned to Paris, and 
consecrated all his energies to study until May, 1785, 
when he returned to America. To a brilliant young 
man of eighteen, who had seen much of the world, 
and who was familiar with the .etiquette of courts, a 
residence with his father in London, under such cir- 
cumstances, must have been extremely attractive; 
but with judgment very rare in one of his age, he pre- 
ferred to return to America to complete his education 
in an American college. He wished then to study 
law, that with an honorable profession, he might be 
able to obtain an independent support. 

Upon leaving Harvard College, at the age of twenty, 
he studied law for three years. In June, 1794, be- 
ing then but twenty-seven years of age, he was ap- 
pointed by Washington, resident minister at the 
Netherlands. Sailing from Boston in July, he reached 
London in October, where he was immediately admit- 
ted to the deliberations of Messrs. Jay and Pinckney, 
assisting them in negotiating a commercial treaty with 
Great Britian. After thus spending a fortnight in 
London, he proceeded to the Hague. 

In July, 1797, he left the Hague to go to Portugal as 
minister plenipotentiary. On his way to Portugal, 
upon arriving in London, he met with despatches 
directing him to the court of Berlin, but requesting 
him to remain in London until he should receive his 
instructions. While waiting he was married to an 
American lady to whom he had been previously en- 
gaged, Miss Louisa Catherine Johnson, daughter 
of Mr. Joshua Johnson, American consul in London ; 
a lady endownd with that beauty and those accom- 
plishment which eminently fitted her to move in the 
elevated sphere for which she was destined. 



He reached Berlin with his wife in November, 1797 ; 
where he remained until July, 1799, when, having ful- 
filled all the purposes of his mission, he solicited his 
recall. . 

Soon after his return, in 1802, he was chosen to 
Ihe Senate of Massachusetts, from Boston, and then 
was elected Senator of the United States for six years, 
from the 4th of March, 1804. His reputation, his 
ability and his experience, placed him immediately 
among the most prominent and influential members 
of that body. Especially did he sustain the Govern- 
ment in its measures of resistance to the encroach- 
ments of England, destroying our commerce and in- 
sulting our flag. There was no man in America more 
familiar with the arrogance of the British court upon 
these points, and no one more resolved to present 
a firm resistance. 

In 1809, Madison succeeded Jefferson in the Pres- 
idential chair, and he immediately nominated John 
Qiiincy Adams minister to St. Petersburg. Resign- 
ing his professorship in Harvard College, he embarked 
at Boston, in August, 1809. 

While in Russia, Mr. Adams was an intense stu- 
dent. He devoted his attention to the language and 
history of Russia; to the Chinese trade; to the 
European system of weights, measures, and coins ; to 
the climate and astronomical observations ; while he 
sept up a familiar acquaintance with the Greek and 
Latin classics. In all the universities of Europe, a 
more accomplished scholar could scarcely be found. 
All through life the Bible constituted an important 
part of his studies. It was his rule to read five 
chapters every day. 

On the 4th of March, 1817, Mr. Monroe took the 
Presidential chair, and immediately appointed Mr. 
Adams Secretary of State. Taking leave of his num- 
erous friends in public and private life in Europe, he 
sailed in June, 1819, for the United States. On the 
1 8th of August, he again crossed the threshold of his 
home in Quincy. During the eight years of Mr. Mon- 
roe's administration, Mr. Adams continued Secretary 
of State. 

Some time before the close of Mr. Monroe's second 
term of office, new candidates began to be presented 
for the Presidency. The friends of Mr. Adams brought 
forward his name. It was an exciting campaign. 
Party spirit was never more bitter. Two hundred and 
sixty electoral votes were cast. Andrew Jackson re- 
ceived ninety-nine; John Quincy Adams, eighty-four; 
William H. Crawford, forty -one ; Henry Clay, thirty- 
seven. As there was no choice by the people, the 
question went to the House of Representatives. Mr. 
Clay gave the vote of Kentucky to Mr. Adams, and 
he was elected. 

The friends of all the disappointed candidates now 
combined in a venomous and persistent assault upon 
Mr. Adams. There is nothing more disgraceful in 
the past history of our country than the abuse which 

was poured in one uninterrupted stream, upon this 
high-minded, upright, patriotic man. There never was 
an administration more pure in principles, more con- 
scientiously devoted to the best interests of the coun- 
try, than that of John Quincy Adams; and never, per- 
haps, was there an administration more unscrupu- 
lously and outrageously assailed. 

Mr. Adams was, to a very remarkable degree, ab- 
stemious and temperate in his habits; always rising 
early, and taking much exercise. When at his home in 
Quincy, he has been known to walk, before breakfast, 
seven miles to Boston. In Washington, it was said 
that he was the first man up in the city, lighting his 
own fire and applying himself to work in his library 
often long before dawn. 

On the 4th of March, 1829, Mr. Adams retired 
from the Presidency, and was succeeded by Andrew 
Jackson. John C. Calhoun was elected Vice Presi- 
dent. The slavery question now began to assume 
portentous magnitude. Mr. Adams returned to 
Quincy and to his studies, which he pursued with un- 
abated zeal. But he was not long permitted to re- 
main in retirement. In November, 1830, he was 
elected representative to Congress. For seventeen 
years, until his death, he occupied the post as repre- 
sentative, towering above all his peers, ever ready to 
do brave battle* for freedom, and winning the title of 
"the old man eloquent." Upon taking his seat in 
the House, he announced that he should hold him- 
self bound to no party. Probably there never was a 
member more devoted to his duties. He was usually 
the first in his place in the morning, and the last to 
leave his seat in the evening. Not a measure could 
be brought forward and escape his scrutiny. The 
battle which Mr. Adams fought, almost singly, against 
the proslavery party in the Government, was sublime 
in its moral daring and heroism. For persisting in 
presenting petitions for the abolition of slavery, he 
was threatened with indictment by the grand jury, 
with expulsion from the House, with assassination : 
but no threats could intimidate him, and his final 
triumph was complete. 

It has been said of President Adams, that when his 
body was bent and his hair silvered by the lapse of 
fourscore years, yielding to the simple faith of a little 
child, he was accustomed to repeat every night, before 
he slept, the prayer which his mother taught him in 
his infant years. 

On the 2istof February, 1848, he rose on the floor 
of Congress, with a paper in his hand, to address the 
speaker. Suddenly he fell, again stricken by paraly- 
sis, and was caught in the arms of those around him. 
For a time he was senseless, as he was conveyed to 
the sofa in the rotunda. With reviving conscious- 
ness, he opened his eyes, looked calmly around and 
said " This is the end of earth /'then after a moment's 
pause he added, "7 am content." These were the 
last words of the grand "Old Man Eloquent." 



. , 

seventh President of the 
United States, was born in 
Waxhaw settlement, N. C., 
March 15, 1767, a few days 
after his father's death. His 
parents were poor emigrants 
from Ireland, and took up 
their abode in Waxhaw set- 
tlement, where they lived in 
deepest poverty. 
Andrew, or Andy, as he was 
universally called, grew up a very 
rough, rude, turbulent boy. His 
features were coarse, his form un- 
gainly; and there was but very 
little in his character, made visible, which was at- 

When only thirteen years old he joined the volun- 
teers of Carolina against the British invasion. In 
1781, he and his brother Robert were captured and 
imprisoned for a time at Camden. A British officer 
ordered him to brush his mud-spattered boots. " I am 
a prisoner of war, not your servant," was the reply of 
the dauntless boy. 

The brute drew his sword, and aimed a desperate 
blow at the head of the helpless young prisoner. 
Andrew raised his hand, and thus received two fear- 
ful gashes, one on the hand and the other upon the 
head. The officer then turned to his brother Robert 
with the same demand. He also refused, and re- 
ceived a blow from the keen-edged sabre, which quite 
diiabled him, and which probably soon after caused 
his death. They suffered much other ill-treatment, and 
were finally stricken with the small-pox. Their 
mother was successful in obtaining their exchange, 

and took her sick boys home. After a long illness 
Andrew recovered, and the death of his mother soon 
left him entirely friendless. 

Andrew supported himself in various ways, such as 
working at the saddler's trade, teaching school and 
clerking in a general store, until 1784, when he 
entered a law office at Salisbury, N. C. He, however, 
gave more attention to the wild amusements of the 
times than to his studies. In 1788, he was appointed 
solicitor for the western district of North Carolina, of 
which Tennessee was then a part. This involved 
many long and tedious journeys amid dangers of 
every kind, but Andrew Jackson never knew fear, 
and the Indians had no desire to repeat a skirmish 
with the Sharp Knife. 

In 1791, Mr. Jackson was married to a woman who 
supposed herself divorced from her former husband. 
Great was the surprise of both parties, two years later, 
to find that the conditions of the divorce had just been 
definitely settled by the first husband. The marriage 
ceremony was performed a second time, but the occur- 
rence was often used by his enemies to bring Mr. 
Jackson into disfavor. 

Daring these years he worked hard at his profes- 
sion, and frequently had one or more duels on hand, 
one of which, when he killed Dickenson, was espec- 
ially disgraceful. 

In January, 1796, the Territory of Tennessee then 
containing nearly eighty thousand inhabitants, the 
people met in convention at Knoxville to frame a con- 
stitution. Five were sent from each of the eleven 
counties. Andrew Jackson was one of the delegates. 
The new State was entitled to but one member in 
the National House of Representatives. Andrew Jack- 
son was chosen that member. Mounting his horse he 
rode to Philedelphia, where Congress then held its 




sessions, a distance of about eight hundred miles. 

Jackson was an earnest advocate of the Demo- 
cratic party. Jefferson was his idol. He admired 
Bonaparte, loved France and hated England. As Mr. 
Jackson took his seat, Gen. Washington, whose 
second term of office was then expiring, delivered his 
last speech to Congress. A committee drew up a 
complimentary address in reply. Andrew Jackson 
did not approve of the address, and was one of the 
twelve who voted against'it. He was not willing to 
say that Gen. Washington's adminstration had been 
!' wise, firm and patriotic." 

Mr. Jackson was elected to the United States 
Senate in 1797, but soon resigned and returned home. 
Soon after he was chosen Judge of the Supreme Court 
of his State, which position he held for six years. 

When the war of 1812 with Great Britian com- 
menced, Madison occupied the Presidential chair. 
Aaron Burr sent word to the President that there was 
ah unknown man in the West, Andrew Jackson, who 
would do credit to a commission if one were con- 
ferred upon him. Just at that time Gen. Jackson 
offered his services and those of twenty-five hundred 
volunteers. His offer was accepted, and the troops 
were assembled at Nashville. 

As the British were hourly expected to make an at- 
tack upon New Orleans, where Gen Wilkinson was 
in command, he was ordered to descend the river 
with fifteen hundred troops to aid Wilkinson. The 
expedition reached Natchez; and after a delay of sev- 
eral weeks there, without accomplishing anything, 
the men were ordered back to their homes. But the 
energy Gen. Jackson had displayed, and his entire 
devotion t'o the comrfort of his soldiers, won him 
golden opinions; and he became the most popular 
man in the State. It was in this expedition that his 
toughness gave him the nickname of "Old Hickory." 

Soon after this, while attempting to horsewhip Col. 
Thomas H. Benton, for a remark that gentleman 
made about his taking a part as second in a duel, in 
which a younger brother of Benton's was engaged, 
he received two severe pistol wounds. While he was 
"lingering \i\xm a bed of suffering news came that the 
Indians, who had combined under Tecumseh from 
Florida to the Lakes, to exterminate the white set- 
tlers, were committing the most awful ravages. De- 
cisive action became necessary. Gen. Jackson, with 
his fractured bone just beginning to heal, his arm in 
a sling, and unable to mount his horse without assis- 
tance, gave his amazing energies to the raising of an 
army to rendezvous at Fayettesville, Alabama. 

The Creek Indians had established a strong fort on 
one of the bends of the Tallaooosa River, near the cen- 
ter of Alabama, about fifty miles below Fort Strother. 
With an army of two thousand men, Gen. Jackson 
traversed the pathless wilderness in a march of eleven 
days. He reached their fort, called Tohopeka or 
Horse-shoe, on the 27th of March. 1814. The bend 


of the river enclosed nearly one hundred acres of 
tangled forest and wild ravine. Across the narrow 
neck the Indians had constructed a formidable breast- 
work of logs and brush. Here nine hundred warriors, 
with an ample suplyof arms were assembled. 

The fort was stormed. The fight was utterly des- 
perate. Not an Indian would accept of quarter. When 
bleeding and dying, they would fight those who en- 
deavored to spare their lives. From ten in the morn- 
ing until dark, the battle raged. The carnage was 
awful and revolting. Some threw themselves into the 
river; but the unerring bullet struck their heads as 
they swam. Nearly everyone of the nine hundred war- 
rios were killed A few probably, in the night, swam 
the river and escaped. This ended the war. The 
power of the Creeks was broken forever. This bold 
plunge into the wilderness, with itsterriffic slaughter, 
so appalled the savages, that the haggard remnants 
of the bands came to the camp, begging for peace. 

This closing of the Creek war enabled us to con- 
centrate all our militia upon the British, who were the 
allies of the Indians No man of less .resolute will 
than Gen. Jackson could have conducted this Indian 
campaign to so successful an issue Immediately he 
was appointed major-general. 

Late in August, with an army of two thousand 
men, on a rushing march, Gen. Jackson came to 
Mobile. A British fleet came from Pensacola, landed 
a force upon the beach, anchored near the little fort, 
and from both ship and shore commenced a furious 
assault The battle was long and doubtful. At length 
one of the ships was blown up and the rest retired. 

Garrisoning Mobile, where he had taken his little 
army, he moved his troops to New Orleans, 
And the battle of New Orleans which soon ensued, 
was in reality a very arduous campaign. This won 
for Gen. Jackson an imperishable name. Here his 
troops, which numbered about four thousand men, 
won a signal victory over the British army of about 
nine thousand. His loss was but thirteen, while the 
loss of the British was two thousand six hundred. 

The name of Gen. Jackson soon began to be men- 
tioned in connection with the Presidency, but, in 1824, 
he was defeated by Mr. Adams. He was, however, 
successful in the election of 1828, and was re-elected 
for a second term in 1832. In 1829, just before he 
assumed the reins of the government, he met with 
the most terrible affliction of his life in the death of 
his wife, whom he had loved with a devotion which has 
perhaps never been surpassed. From the shock of 
her death he never recovered. 

His administration was one of the most memorable 
in the annals of our country; applauded by one party, 
condemned by the other. No man had more bitter 
enemies or warmer friends. At the expiration of his 
two terms of office he retired to the Hermitage, where 
he died June 8, 1845. The last years of Mr. Jack- 
son's life were that of a devoted Christian man. 




eighth President of the 
United States, was bom at 
Kinderhook, N. Y., Dec. 5, 
1782. He died at the same 
place, July 24, 1862. His 
body rests in the cemetery 
at Kinderhook. Above it is 
a plain granite shaft fifteen feet 
high, bearing a simple inscription 
about half way up on one face. 
The lot is unfenced, unbordered 
or unbounded by shrub or flower. 

There is but little in the life of Martin Van Buren 
of romantic interest. He fought no battles, engaged 
in no wild adventures. Though his life was stormy in 
political and intellectual conflicts, and he gained many 
signal victories, his days passed uneventful in those 
incidents which give zest to biography. His an- 
cestors, as his name indicates, were of Dutch origin, 
and were among the earliest emigrants from Holland 
to the banks of the Hudson. His father was a farmer, 
residing in the old town of Kinderhook. His mother, 
also of Dutch lineage, was a woman of superior intel- 
ligence and exemplary piety. 

He was decidedly a precocious boy, developing un- 
usual activity, vigor and strength of mind. At the 
age of fourteen, he had finished his academic studies 
in his native village, and commenced the study of 
law. As he had not a collegiate education, seven 
years of study in a law-office were required of him 
before he could be admitted to the bar. Inspired with 
n lofty ambition, and conscious of his powers, he pur- 
sued his studies with indefatigable industry. After 
spending six years in an office in his native village, 

he went to the city of New York, and prosecuted his 
studies for the seventh year. 

In 1803, Mr. Van Buren, then twenty-one years of 
age, commenced the practice of law in his native vil- 
lage. The great conflict between the Federal and 
Republican party was then at its height. Mr. Van 
Buren was from the beginning a politician. He had, 
perhaps, imbibed that spirit while listening to the 
many discussions which had been carried on in his 
father's hotel. He was in cordial sympathy with 
Jefferson, and earnestly and eloquently espoused the 
cause of State Rights; though at that time the Fed- 
eral party held the supremacy both in his town 
and State. 

His success and increasing ruputation led him 
after six years of practice, to remove to Hudson, th<: 
county seat of his county. Here he spent seven years 
constantly gaining strength by contending in tin. 
courts with some of the ablest men who have adorned 
the bar of his State. 

Just before leaving Kinderhook for Hudson, Mi. 
Van Buren married a lady alike distinguished for 
beauty and accomplishments. After twelve short 
years she sank into the grave, the victim of consump- 
tion, leaving her husband and four sons to weep over 
her loss. For twenty-five years, Mr. Van Buren was 
an earnest, successful, assiduous lawyer. The record 
of those years is barren in items of public interest. 
In 1812, when thirty years of age, he was chosen to 
the State Senate, and cave his strenuous support to 
Mr. Madison's adminstration. In 1815, he was ap- 
pointed Attorney-General, and the next year moved 
to Albany, the capital of the State. 

While he was acknowledged as one of the most 
prominent leaders of the Democratic party, he had 


the moral courage to avow that true democracy did 
not require that " universal suffrage" which admits 
the vile, the degraded, the ignorant, to the right of 
governing the State. In true consistency with his 
democratic principles, he contended that, while the 
path leading to the privilege of voting should be open 
to every man without distinction, no one should be 
invested with that sacred prerogative, unless he were 
in some degree qualified for it by intelligence, virtue 
and some property interests in the welfare of the 

In 1821 he was elected a member of the United 
States Senate; and in the same year, he took a seat 
in the convention to revise the constitution of his 
native State. His course in this convention secured 
the approval of men of all parties. No one could 
doubt the singleness of his endeavors to promote the 
interests of all classes in the community. In the 
Senate of the United States, he rose at once to a 
conspicuous position as an active and useful legislator. 

In 1827, John Quincy Adams being then in the 
Presidential chair, Mr. Van Buren was re-elected to 
the Senate. He had been from the beginning a de- 
termined opposer of the Administration, adopting the 
" State Rights " view in opposition to what was 
deemed the Federal proclivities of Mr. Adams. 

Soon after this, in 1828, he was chosen Governorof 
the State of New York, and accordingly resigned his 
seat in the Senate. Probably no one in the United 
States contributed so much towards ejecting John Q. 
Adams from the Presidential chair, and placing in it 
Andrew Jackson, as did Martin Van Buren. Whether 
entitled to the reputation or not, he certainly was re- 
garded throughout the United States as one of the 
most skillful, sagacious and cunning of politicians. 
It was supposed that no one knew so well as he how 
to touch the secret spiings of action; how to pull all 
the wires to put his machinery in motion; and how to 
organize a political army which would, secretly and 
stealthily accomplish the most gigantic results. By 
these powers it is said that he outwitted Mr. Adams, 
Mr. Clay, Mr. Webster, and secured results which 
few thought then could be accomplished. 

When Andrew Jackson was elected President he 
appointed Mr. Van Buren Secretary of State. This 
position he resigned in 1831, and was immediately 
appointed Minister to England, where he went the 
same autumn. The Senate, however, when it met, 
reused to ratify the nomination, and he returned 

home, apparently untroubled ; was nominated Vice 
President in the place of Calhoun, at the re-election 
of President Jackson ; and with smiles for all and 
frowns for none, he took his place at the head of that 
Senate which had refused to confirm his nomination 
as ambassador. 

His rejection by the Senate roused all the zeal of 
President Jackson in behalf of his repudiated favor- 
ite ; and this, probably more than any other cause, 
secured his elevation to the chair of the Chief Execu- 
tive. On the 2oth of May, 1836, Mr. Van Buren re- 
ceived the Democratic nomination to succeed Gen. 
Jackson as President of the United States. He was 
elected by a handsome majority, to the delight of the 
retiring President. " Leaving New York out of the 
canvass," says Mr. Parton, "the election of Mr. Van 
Buren to the Presidency was as much the act of Gen. 
Jackson as though the Constitution had conferred 
upon him the power to appoint a successor." 

His administration was filled with exciting events. 
The insurrection in Canada, which threatened to in 
volve this country in war with England, the agitation 
of the slavery question, and finally the great commer- 
cial panic which spread over the country, all were 
trials to his wisdom. The financial distress was at- 
tributed to the management of the Democratic party, 
and brought the President into such disfavor that he 
failed of re-election. 

With the exception of being nominated for the 
Presidency by the " Free Soil " Democrats, in 1 848, 
Mr. Van Buren lived quietly upon his estate until 
his death. 

He had ever been a prudent man, of frugal habits, 
and living within his income, had now fortunately a 
competence for his declining years. His unblemished 
character, his commanding abilities, his unquestioned 
patriotism, and the distinguished positions which he 
had occupied in the government of our country, se- 
cured to him not only the homage of his party, but 
the respect ot the whole community. It was on the 
4th of March, 1841, that Mr. Van Buren retired from 
the presidency. From his fine estate at Lindenwald ) 
he still exerted a powerful influence upon the politics 
of the country. From this time until his death, on 
the 24th of July, 1862, at the age of eighty years, he 
resided at Lindenwald, a gentleman of leisure, of 
culture and of wealth; enjoying in a healthy old 
age, probably far more happiness than he had before 
experienced amid the stormy scenes of his active life. 


1 r 


SON, the ninth President of 
the United States, was born 
at Berkeley, Va., Feb. 9, 1773. 
His father, Benjamin Harri- 
son, was in comparatively op- 
ulent circumstances, and was 
one of the most distinguished 
men of his day. He was an 
intimate friend of George 
Washington, was early elected 
a member of the Continental 
Congress, and was conspicuous 
among the patriots of Virginia in 
resisting the encroachments of the 
British crown. In the celebrated 
Congress of 1775, Benjamin Har- 
rison and John Hancock were 
both candidates for the office of 

Mr Harrison was subsequently 
chosen Governor of Virginia, and 
was twice re-elected. His son, 
I William Henry, of course enjoyed 

in childhood all the advantages which wealth and 
intellectual and cultivated society could give. Hav- 
ing received a thorough common-school education, he 
entered Hampden Sidney College, where he graduated 
with honor soon after the death of his father. He 
then repaired to Philadelphia to study medicine under 
the instructions of Dr. Rush and the guardianship of 
Robert Morris, both of whom were, with his father, 
signers of the Declaration of Independence. 

Upon the outbreak of the Indian troubles, and not- 
withstanding the remonstrances of his friends, he 
abandoned his medical studies and entered the army, 
having obtained a commission of Ensign from Presi- 

dent Washington. He was then but 19 years old. 
From that time he passed gradually upward in rank 
until he became aid to General Wayne, after whose 
death he resigned his commission. He was then ap- 
pointed Secretary of the North-western Territory. This 
Territory was then entitled to but one member in 
Congress and Capt. Harrison was chosen to fill that 

In the spring of 1800 the North-western Territory 
was divided by Congress into two portions. The 
eastern portion, comprising the region now embraced 
in the State of Ohio, was called '' The Territory 
north-west of the Ohio." The western portion, which 
included what is now called Indiana, Illinois and 
Wisconsin, was called the "Indiana Territory." Wil- 
liam Henry Harrison, then 27 years of age, was ap- 
pointed by John Adams, Governor of the Indiana 
Territory, and immediately after, also Governor of 
Upper Louisiana. He was thus ruler over almost as 
extensive a realm as any sovereign upon the globe. He 
was Superintendent of Indian Affairs, and was in- 
vested with powers nearly dictatorial over the now 
rapidly increasing white population. The ability and 
fidelity with which he discharged these responsible 
duties may be inferred from the fact that he was four 
times appointed to this office first by John Adams, 
twice by Thomas Jefferson and afterwards by Presi- 
dent Madison. 

When he began his adminstration there were but 
three white settlementsin that almost boundless region, 
now crowded with cities and resounding with all the 
tumult of wealth and traffic. One of these settlements 
was on the Ohio, nearly opposite Louisville; one at 
Vincennes, on the Wabash, and the third a French 

The vast .wilderness over which Gov. Harrison 
reigned was filled with many tribes of Indians. About 


5 2 


the year 1806, two extraordinary men, twin brothers, 
of the Shawnese tribe, rose among them. One of 
these was called Tecumseh, or " The Crouching 
Panther;" the other, Olliwacheca, or " The Prophet." 
Tecumseh was not only an Indian warrior, but a man 
of great sagacity, far-reaching foresight and indomit- 
able perseverance in any enterprise in which he might 
engage. He was inspired with the highest enthusiasm, 
and had long regarded with dread and with hatred 
the encroachment of the whites upon the hunting- 
grounds of his fathers. His brother, the Prophet, was 
an orator, who could sway the feelings of the untutored 
Indian as the gale tossed the tree-tops beneath which 
they dwelt. 

But the Prophet was not merely an orator : he was, 
in the superstitious minds of the Indians, invested 
with the superhuman dignity of a medicine-man or a 
magician. With an enthusiasm unsurpassed by Peter 
the Hermit rousing Europe to the crusades, he went 
from tribe to tribe, assuming that he was specially sent 
by the Great Spirit. 

Gov. Harrison made many attempts to conciliate 
the Indians, but at last the war came, and at Tippe- 
canoe the Indians were routed with great slaughter. 
October 28, 1812, his army began its march. When 
near the Prophet's town three Indians of rank made 
their appearance and inquired why Gov. Harrison was 
approaching them in so hostile an attitude. - After a 
short conference, arrangements were made for a meet- 
ing the next day, to agree upon terms of peace. 

But Gov. Harrison was too well acquainted with 
the Indian character to be deceived by such protes- 
tations. Selecting a favorable spot for his night's en- 
campment, he took every precaution against surprise. 
His troops were posted in a hollow square, and slept 
upon their arms. 

The troops threw themselves upon the ground for 
rest; but every man had his accourtrements on, his 
loaded musket by his side, and his bayonet fixed. The 
wakeful Governor, between three and four o'clock in 
the morning, had risen, and was sitting in conversa- 
tion with his aids by the embers of a waning fire. It 
was a chill, cloudy morning with a drizzling rain. In 
the darkness, the Indians had crept as near as possi- 
ble, and just then, with a savage yell, rushed, with all 
the desperation which superstition and passion most 
highly inflamed could give, upon the left flank of the 
little army. The savages had been amply provided 
with guns and ammunition by the English. Their 
war-whoop was accompained by a shower of bullets. 

The camp-fires were instantly extinguished, as the 
light aided the Indians in their aim. With hide- 
DUS yells, the Indian bands rushed on, not doubting a 
speedy and an entire victory. But Gen. Harrison's 
troops stood as immovable as the rocks around them 
until day dawned : they then made a simultaneous 
charge with the bayonet, and swept every thing be- 
fore them, and completely routing the foe. 

Gov. Harrison now had all his energies tasked 
to the utmost. The British descending from the Can- 
adas, were of themselves a very formidable force ; but 
with their savage allies, rushing like wolves from the 
forest, searching out every remote farm-house, burn- 
ing, plundering, scalping, torturing, the wide frontier 
was plunged into a state of consternation which even 
the most vivid imagination can but faintly conceive. 
The war-whoop was resounding everywhere in the 
forest. The horizon was illuminated with the conflagra- 
tion of the cabins of the settlers. Gen Hull had made 
the ignominious surrender of his forces at Detroit. 
Under these despairing circumstances, Gov. Harrison 
was appointed by President Madison Commander-in- 
chief of the North-western army, with orders to retake 
Detroit, and to protect the frontiers. 

It would be difficult to place a man in a situation 
demanding more energy, sagacity and courage; but 
General Harrison was found equal to the position, 
and nobly and triumphantly did he meet all the re- 

He won the love of his soldiers by always sharing 
with them their fatigue. His whole baggage, while 
pursuing the foe up the Thames, was carried in a 
valise; and his bedding consisted of a single blanket 
lashed over his saddle. Thirty-five British officers, 
his prisoners of war, supped with him after the battle. 
The only fare he could give them was beef roasted 
before the fire, without bread or salt. 

In 1816, Gen. Harrison was chosen a member of 
the National House of Representatives, to represent 
the District of Ohio. In Congress he proved an 
active member; and whenever he spoke, it was with 
force of reason and power of eloquence, which arrested 
the attention of all the members. 

In 1819, Harrison was elected to the Senate of 
Ohio; and in 1824, as one of the presidential electors 
of that State, he gave his vote for Henry Clay. The 
same year he was chosen to the United States Senate. 

In 1836, the friends of Gen. Harrison brought him 
forward as a candidate for the Presidency against 
Van Buren, but he was defeated. At the close of 
Mr. Van Buren 's term, he was re-nominated by his 
party, and Mr. Harrison was unanimously nominated 
by the Whigs, with John Tyler forthe Vice Presidency. 
The contest was very animated. Gen Jackson gave 
all his influence to prevent Harrison's election ; but 
his triumph was signal. 

The cabinet which he formed, with Daniel Webster 
at its head as Secretary of State, was one of the most 
brilliant with which any President had ever been 
surrounded. Never were the prospects of an admin- 
istration more flattering, or the hopes of the country 
more sanguine. In the midst of these bright and 
joyous prospects, Gen. Harrison was seized by a 
pleurisv-fever and after a few days of violent sick- 
ness, died on the 4th of April ; just one month after 
his inauguration as President of the United States. 


55 t \ 


OHN TYLER, the tenth 
, Presidentof the United States. 
He was born in Charles-city 
Co., Va., March 29, 1790. He 
was the favored child of af- 
fluence and high social po- 
sition. At the early age of 
twelve, John entered William 
and Mary College and grad- 
uated with much honor when 
but seventeen years old. After 
graduating, he devoted him- 
self with great assiduity to the 
study of law, partly with his 
father and partly with Edmund 
Randolph, one of the most distin- 
guished lawyers of Virginia. 

At nineteen years of age, he 
commenced the practice of law. 
His success was rapid and aston- 
ishing. It is said that three 
months had not elapsed ere there 
was scarcely a case on the dock- 
I et of the court in which he was 
not retained. When but twenty-one years of age, he 
was almost unanimously elected to a seat in the State 
Legislature. He connected himself with the Demo- 
cratic party, and warmly advocated the measures of 
Tefferson and Madison. For five successive years he 
was elected to the Legislature, receiving nearly the 
unanimous vote or his county. 

When but twenty-six years of age, he was elected 
a member of Congress. Here he acted earnestly and 
ably with the Democratic party, opposing a national 
bank, internal improvements by the General Govern- 

ment, a protective tariff, and advocating a strict con- 
struction of the Constitution, and the most careful 
vigilance over State rights. His labors in Congress 
were so arduous that before the close of his second 
term he found it necessary to resign and retire to his 
estate in Charles-city Co., to recruit his health. He, 
however, soon after consented to take his seat in the 
State Legislature, where his influence was powerful 
in promoting public works of great utility. With a 
reputation thus canstantly increasing, he was chosen 
by a very large majority of votes, Governor of his 
native State. His administration was signally a suc- 
cessful one. His popularity secured his re-election. 

John Randolph, a brilliant, erratic, half-crazed 
man, then represented Virginia in the Senate of the 
United States. A portion of the Democratic party 
was displeased with Mr. Randolph's wayward course, 
and brought forward John Tyler as his opponent, 
considering him the only man in Virginia of sufficient 
popularity to succeed against the renowned orator of 
Roanoke. Mr. Tyler was the victor. 

In accordance with his professions, upon taking his 
seat in the Senate, he joined the ranks of the opposi- 
tion. He opposed the tariff; he spoke against and 
voted against the bank as unconstitutional ; he stren- 
uously opposed all restrictions upon slavery, resist- 
ing all projects of internal improvements by the Gen- 
eral Government, and avowed his sympathy with Mr. 
Calhoun's view of nullification ; he declared that Gen. 
Jackson, by his opposition to the nullifiers, had 
abandoned the principles of the Democratic party. 
Such was Mr. Tyler's record in Congress, a record 
in perfect accordance with the principles which he 
had always avowed. 

Returning to Virginia, he resumed the practice of 
his profession. There was a split in the Democratic 


party. His friends still regarded him as a true Jef- 
fersonian, gave him a dinner, and showered compli- 
ments upon him. He had now attained the age of 
forty-six. His career had been very brilliant. In con- 
sequence of his devotion to public business, his pri- 
vate affairs had fallen into some disorder ; and it was 
not without satisfaction that he resumed the practice 
of law, and devoted himself to the culture of his plan- 
tation. Soon after this he remov ed to Williamsburg, 
for the better education of his children ; and he again 
took his seat in the Legislature of Virginia. 

By the Southern Whigs, he was sent to the national 
convention at Harrisburg to nominate a President in 
1839. The majority of votes were given to Gen. Har- 
rison, a genuine Whig, much to the disappointment of 
the South, who wished for Henry Clay. To concili- 
ate the Southern Whigs and to secure their vote, the 
convention then nominated John Tyler for Vice Pres- 
ident. It was well known that he was not in sympa- 
thy with the Whig party in the Noith : but the Vice 
President has but very little power in the Govern- 
ment, his main and almost only duty being to pre- 
side over the meetings of the Senate. Thus it hap- 
pened that a Whig President, and, in reality, a 
Democratic Vice President were chosen. 

In 1841, Mr. Tyler was inaugurated Vice Presi- 
dent of the United States. In one short month from 
that time, President Harrison died, and Mr. Tyler 
thus found himself, to his own surprise and that of 
the whole Nation, an occupant of the Presidential 
chair. This was a new test of the stability of our 
institutions, as it was the first time in the history of our 
country that such an event had occured. Mr. Tyler 
was at home in Williamsburg when he received the 
unexpected tidings of the death of President Harri- 
son. He hastened to Washington, and on the 6th of 
April was inaugurated to the high and responsible 
office. He was placed in a position of exceeding 
delicacy and difficulty. All his long life he had been 
opposed to the main principles of the party which had 
brought him into power. He had ever been a con- 
sistent, honest man, with an unblemished record. 
Gen. Harrison had selected a Whig cabinet. Should 
he retain them, and thus surround himself with coun- 
sellors whose views were antagonistic to his own? or, 
on the other hand, should he turn against the party 
which had elected him and select a cabinet in har- 
mony with himself, and which would oppose all those 
views which the Whigs deemed essential to the pub- 
lic welfare? This was his fearful dilemma. He in- 
vited the cabinet which President Harrison had 
selected to retain their seats. He reccomnnjiided a 
day of fasting and prayer, that God would guide and 
bless us. 

The Whigs carried through Congress a bill for the 
incorporation of a fiscal bank of the United States. 
The President, after ten days' delay, returned it with 
his veto. He suggested, however, that he would 

approve of a bill drawn up upon such a plan as he 
proposed. Such a bill was accordingly prepared, and 
privately submitted to him. He gave it his approval. 
It was passed without alteration, and he sent it back 
with his veto. Here commenced the open rupture. 
It is said that Mr. Tyler was provoked to this meas- 
ure by a published letter from the Hon. John M. 
Botts, a distinguished Virginia Whig, who severely 
touched the pride of the President. 

The opposition now exultingly received the Presi- 
dent into their arms. The party which elected him 
denounced him bitterly. All the members of his 
cabinet, excepting Mr. Webster, resigned. The Whigs 
of Congress, both the Senate and the House, held a 
meeting and issued an address to the people of the 
United States, proclaiming that all political alliance 
between the Whigs and President Tyler were at 
an end. 

Still the President attempted to conciliate. He 
appointed a new cabinet of distinguished Whigs and 
Conservatives, carefully leaving out all strong party 
men. Mr. Webster soon found it necessary to resign, 
forced out by the pressure of his Whig friends. Thus 
the four years of Mr. Tyler's unfortunate administra- 
tion passed sadly away. No one was satisfied. The 
land was filled with murmurs and vituperation. Whigs 
and Democrats alike assailed him. More and more, 
however, he brought himself into sympathy with his 
old friends, the Democrats, until atthe close of his term, 
he gave his whole influence to the support of Mr. 
Polk, the Democratic candidate for his successor. 

On the 4th of March, 1845, he retired from the 
harassments of office, to the regret of neither party, and 
probably to his own unspeakable relief. His first wife, 
Miss Letitia Christian, died in Washington, in 1842; 
and in June, 1844, President Tyler was again married, 
at New York, to Miss Julia Gardiner, a young lady of 
many personal and intellectual accomplishments. 

The remainder of his days Mr. Tyler passed mainly 
in retirement at his beautiful home, Sherwood For- 
est, Charles -city Co., Va. A polished gentleman in 
his manners, richly furnished with information from 
books and experience in the world, and possessing 
brilliant powers of conversation, his family circle was 
the scene of unusual attractions. With sufficient 
means for the exercise of a generous hospitality, he 
might have enjoyed a serene old age with the few 
friends who gathered around him, were it not for the 
storms of civil war which his own principles and 
policy had helped to introduce. 

When the great Rebellion rose, which the State- 
rights and nullifying doctrines of Mr. John C. Cal- 
houn had inaugurated, President Tyler renounced his 
allegiance to the United States, and joined the Confed- 
erates. He was chosen a member of their Congress; 
and while engaged in active measures to deslroy, by 
force of arms, the Government over which he had 
once presided, he was taken sick and soon died. 



AMES K. POLK, the eleventh 
President of the United States, 
was born in Mecklenburg Co., 
N. C., Nov. 2, 1795. His par- 
ents were Samuel and Jane 
(Knox) Polk, the former a son 

of Col. Thomas Polk, who located 

at the above place, as one of the 

first pioneers, in 1735. 

In the year 1806, with his wife 

and children, and soon after fol- 

lowed by most of the members of 
the Polk farnly, Samuel Polk emi- 
grated some two or three hundred 
miles farther west, to the rich valley 
of the Duck River. Here in the 
midst of the wilderness, in a region 
which was subsequently called Mau- 
ry Co., they reared their log huts, 
and established their homes. In the 
hard toil of a new farm in the wil- 
derness, James K. Polk spent the 
early years of his childhood and 
youth. His father, adding the pur- 
suit of a surveyor to that of a farmer, 
gradually increased in wealth until 
he became one of the leading men of the region. His 
mother was a superior woman, of strong common 
sense and earnest piety. 

Very early in life, James developed a taste for 
reading and expressed the strongest desire to obtain 
a liberal education. His mother's training had made 
him methodical in his habits, had taught him punct- 
uality and industry, and had inspired him with lofty 
principles of morality. His health was frail ; and his 
father, fearing that he might not be able to endure a 

sedentary life, got a situation for him behind the 
counter, hoping to fit him for commercial pursuits. 

This was to James a bitter disappointment. He 
had no taste for these duties, and his daily tasks 
were irksome in the extreme. He remained in this 
uncongenial occupation but a few weeks, when at his 
earnest solicitation his father removed him, and made 
arrangements for him to prosecute his studies. Soon 
after he sent him to Murfreesboro Academy. With 
ardor which could scarcely be surpassed, he pressed 
forward in his studies, and in less than two and a half 
years, in the autumn of 1815, entered the sophomore 
class in the University of North Carolina, at Chapel 
Hill. Here he was one of the most exemplary of 
scholars, punctual in every exercise, never allowing 
himself to be absent from a recitation or a religious 

He graduated in 1818, with the highest honors, be- 
ing deemed the best scholar of his class, both in 
mathematics and the classics. He was then twenty- 
three years of age. Mr. Folk's health was at this 
time much impaired by the assiduity with which he 
had prosecuted his studies. After a short season of 
relaxation he went to Nashville, and entered the 
office of Felix Grundy, to study law. Here Mr. Polk 
renewed his acquaintance with Andrew Jackson, who 
resided on his plantation, the Hermitage, but a few 
miles from Nashville. They had probably been 
slightly acquainted before. 

Mr. Folk's father was a Jeffersonian Republican, 
and James K. Polk ever adhered to the same politi- 
cal faith. He was a popular public speaker, and was 
constantly called upon to address the meetings of his 
party friends. His skill as a speaker was such that 
he was popularly called the Napoleon of the stump. 
He was a man of unblemished morals, genial and 






courteous in his bearing, and with that sympathetic 
nature in the joy s and griefs of others which ever gave 
him troops of friends. In 1823, Mr. Polk was elected 
to the Legislature of Tennessee. Here he gave his 
strong influence towards the election of his friend, 
Mr. Jackson, to the Presidency of the United States. 

In January, 1824, Mr. Polk married Miss Sarah 
Childress, of Rutherford Co., Tenn. His bride was 
altogether worthy of him, a lady of beauty and cul- 
ture. In the fall of 1825, Mr. Polk was chosen a 
member of Congress. The satisfaction which he gave 
to his constituents may be inferred from the fact, that 
for fourteen successive years, until 1 839, he was con- 
tinued in that office. He then voluntarily withdrew, 
only that he might accept the Gubernatorial chair 
of Tennessee. In Congress he was a laborious 
member, a frequent and a popular speaker. He was 
always in his seat, always courteous ; and whenever 
he spoke it was always to the point, and without any 
ambitious rhetorical display. 

During five sessions of Congress, Mr. Polk was 
Speaker of the House Strong passions were roused, 
and stormy scenes were witnessed ; but Mr. Polk per- 
formed his arduous duties to a very general satisfac- 
tion, and a unanimous vote of thanks to him was 
passed by the House as he withdrew on the 4th of 
March, 1839. 

In accordance with Southern usage, Mr. Polk, as a 
candidate for Governor, canvassed the State. He was 
elected by a large majority, and on the i4th of Octo- 
ber, 1839, took the oath of office at Nashville. In 1841, 
his term of office expired, and he was again the can- 
didate of the Democratic party, but was defeated. 

On the 4th of March, 1845, Mr. P^ was inaugur- 
ated President of the United States. The verdict of 
the country in favor of the annexation of Texas, exerted 
its influence upon Congress ; and the last act of the 
administration of President Tyler was to affix his sig- 
nature to a joint resolution of Congress, passed on the 
3d of March, approving of the annexation of Texas to 
the American Union. As Mexico still claimed Texas 
as one of her provinces, the Mexican minister, 
Almonte, immediately demanded his passports and 
left the country, declaring the act of the annexation 
to be an act hostile to Mexico. 

In his first message, President Polk urged that 
Texas should immediately, by act of Congress, be re- 
ceived into the Union on the same footing with the 
other States. In the meantime, Gen. Taylor was sent 

with an army into Texas to hold the country. He was 
sent first to Nueces, which the Mexicans said was the 
western boundary of Texas. Then he was sent nearly 
two hundred miles further west, to the Rio Grande, 
where he erected batteries which commanded the 
Mexican city of Matamoras, which was situated on 
the western banks. 

The anticipated collision soon took place, and war 
was declared against Mexico by President Polk. The 
war was pushed forward by Mr. Polk's administration 
with great vigor. Gen. Taylor, whose army was first 
called one of "observation," then of "occupation," 
then of " invasion,"was sent forward to Monterey. The 
feeble Mexicans, in every encounter, were hopelessly 
and awfully slaughtered. The day of judgement 
alone can reveal the misery which this war caused. 
It was by the ingenuity of Mr. Polk's administration 
that the war was brought on. 

'To the victors belong the spoils." Mexico was 
prostrate before us. Her capital was in our hands. 
We now consented to peace upon the condition that 
Mexico should surrender to us, in addition to Texas, 
all of New Mexico, and all of Upper and Lower Cal- 
ifornia. This new demand embraced, exclusive of 
Texas, eight hundred thousand square miles. This 
was an extent of territory equal to nine States of the 
size of New York. Thus slavery was securing eighteen 
majestic States to be added to the Union. There were 
some Americans who thought it all right : there were 
others who thought it all wrong. In the prosecution 
of this war, we expended twenty thousand lives and 
more than a hundred million of dollars. Of this 
money fifteen millions were paid to Mexico. 

On the 3d of March, 1849, Mr. Polk retired from 
office, having served one term. The next day was 
Sunday. On the 5th, Gen. Taylor was inaugurated 
as his successor. Mr. Polk rode to the Capitol in the 
same carriage with Gen. Taylor; and the same even- 
ing, with Mrs. Polk, he commenced his return to 
Tennessee. He was then but fifty-four years of age. 
He had ever been strictly temperate in all his habits, 
and his health was good. With an ample fortune, 
a choice library, a cultivated mind, and domestic ties 
of the dearest nature, it seemed as though long years 
of tranquility and happiness were before him. But the 
cholera that fearful scourge was then sweeping up 
the Valley of the Mississippi. This he contracted, 
and died on the 15th of June, 1849, in the fifty-fourth ^ 
year of his age, greatly mourned by his countrymen. 


President of the United States, 
was born on the 24th of Nov., 
1784, in Orange Co., Va. His 
father, Colonel Taylor, was 
a Virginian of note, and a dis- 
tinguished patriot and soldier of 
the Revolution. When Zachary 
was an infant, his father with his 
wife and two children, emigrated 
to Kentucky, where he settled in 
the pathless wilderness, a few 
miles from Louisville. In this front- 
ier home, away from civilization and 
all its refinements, young Zachary 
could enjoy but few social and educational advan- 
tages. When six years of age he attended a common 
school, and was then regarded as a bright, active boy, 
rather remarkable for bluntness and decision of char- 
acter He was strong, fearless and self-reliant, and 
manifested a. strong desire to enter the army to fight 
the Indians who were ravaging the frontiers. There 
is little to be recorded of the uneventful years of his 
childhood on his father's large but lonely plantation. 
In 1808, his father succeeded in obtaining for him 
the commission of lieutenant in the United States 
army ; and he joined the troops which were stationed 
at New Orleans under Gen. Wilkinson. Soon after 
this he married Miss Margaret Smith, a young lady 
from one of the first families of Maryland. 

Immediately after the declaration of war with Eng- 
land, in 1812, Capt. Taylor (for he had then been 
promoted to that rank) was put in command of Fort 
Harrison, on the Wabash, about fifty miles above 
Vincennes. This fort had been built in the wilder- 
ness by Gen. Harrison,on his march to Tippecanoe. 
It was one of the first points of attack by the Indians, 
led by Tecumseh. Its garrison consisted of a broken 

company of infantry numbering fifty men, many of 
whom were sick. 

Early in the autumn of 1812, the Indians, stealthily, 
and in large numbers, moved upon the fort. Their 
approach was first indicated by the murder of two 
soldiers just outside of the stockade. Capt. Taylor 
made every possible preparation to meet the antici- 
pated assault. On the 4th of September, a band of 
forty painted and plumed savages came to the fort, 
waving a white flag, and informed Capt. Taylor that 
in the morning their chief would come to have a talk 
with him. It was evident that their object was merely 
to ascertain the state of things at the fort, and Capt. 
Taylor, well versed in the wiles of the savages, kept 
them at a distance. 

The sun went down ; the savages disappeared, the 
garrison slept upon their arms. One hour before 
midnight the war whoop burst from a thousand lips 
in the forest around, followed by the discharge of 
musketry, and the rush of the foe. Every man, sick 
and well, sprang to his post. Every man knew that 
defeat was not merely death, but in the case of cap- 
ture, death by the most agonizing and prolonged tor- 
ture. No pen can describe, no immagination can 
conceive the scenes which ensued. The savages suc- 
ceeded in setting fire to one of the block-houses- 
Until six o'clock in the morning, this awful conflict 
continued. The savages then, baffled at every point, 
and gnashing their teeth with rage, retired. Capt. 
Taylor, for this gallant defence, was promoted to the 
rank of major by brevet. 

Until the close of the war, Major Taylor was placed 
in such situations that he saw but little more of active 
service. He was sent far away into the depths of the 
wilderness, to Fort Crawford, on Fox River, which 
empties into Green Bay. Here there was but little 
to be done but to wear away the tedious hours as one 
best could. There were no books, no society, no in- 


tellectual stimulus. Thus with him the uneventful 
years rolled on Gradually he rose to the rank of 
colonel. In the Black-Hawk war, which resulted in 
the capture of that renowned chieftain, Col Taylor 
took a subordinate but a brave and efficient part. 

For twenty -four years Col. Taylor was engaged in 
the defence of the frontiers, in scenes so remote, and in 
employments so obscure, that his name was unknown 
beyond the limits of his own immediate acquaintance. 
In the year 1836, he was sent to Florida to compel 
the Seminole Indians to vacate that region and re- 
tire beyond the Mississippi, as their chiefs by treaty, 
had promised they should do. The services rendered 
here secured for Col. Taylor the high appreciation of 
the Government; and as a reward, he was elevated 
to the rank of brigadier-general by brevet ; and soon 
after, in May, 1838, was appointed to the chief com- 
mand of the United States troops in Florida. 

After two years of such wearisome employment 
amidst the everglades of the peninsula, Gen. Taylor 
obtained, at his own request, a change of command, 
and was stationed over the Department of the South- 
west. This field embraced Louisiana, Mississippi, 
Alabama and Georgia. Establishing his headquarters 
at Fort Jessup, in Louisiana, he removed his family 
to a plantation which he purchased, near Baton Rogue. 
Here he remained for five years, buried, as it were, 
from the world, but faithfully discharging every duty 
imposed upon him. 

In 1846, Gen. Taylor was sent to guard the land 
between the Nueces and Rio Grande, the latter river 
being the boundary of Texas, which was then claimed 
by the United States. Soon the war with Mexico 
was brought on, and at Palo Alto and Resaca de la 
Palma, Gen. Taylor won brilliant victories over the 
Mexicans. The rank of major-general by brevet 
was then conferred upon Gen. Taylor, and his name 
was received with enthusiasm almost everywhere in 
the Nation. Then came the battles of Monterey and 
Buena Vista in which he won signal victories over 
forces much larger than he commanded. 

His careless habits of dress and his unaffected 
simplicity, secured for Gen. Taylor among his troops, 
the sobriquet of " Old Rough and Ready." 

The tidings of the brilliant victory of Buena Vista 
spread the wildest enthusiasm over the country. The 
name of Gen. Taylor was on every one's lips. The 
Whig party decided to take advantage of this wonder- 
ful popularity in bringing forward the unpolished, un- 
lettered, honest soldier as their candidate for the 
Presidency. Gen. Taylor was astonished at the an- 
nouncement, and for a time would not listen toil; de- 
claring that he was not at all qualified for such an 
office. So little interest had he taken in politics that, 
for forty years, he had not cast a vote. It was not 
without chagrin that several distinguished statesmen 
who had been long years in the public service found 
their claims set aside in behalf of one whose name 

had never been heard of, save in connection with Palo 
Alto, Resaca de la Palma, Monterey and Buena 
Vista. It Is said that Daniel Webster, in his haste re- 
marked, " It is a nomination not fit to be made." 

Gen. Taylor was not an eloquent speaker nor a fine 
writer. His friends took possession of him, and pre- 
pared such few communications as it was needful 
should be presented to the public. The popularity of 
the successful warrior swept the land. He was tri- 
umphantly elected over two opposing candidates, 
Gen. Cass and Ex-President Martin Van Buren. 
Though he selected an excellent cabinet, the good 
old man found himself in a very uncongenial position, 
and was, at times, sorely perplexed and harassed. 
His mental sufferings were very severe, and probably 
tended to hasten his death. The pro-slavery party 
was pushing its claims with tireless energy , expedi- 
tions were fitting out to capture Cuba ; California was 
pleading for admission to the Union, while slavery 
stood at the door to bar her out. Gen. Taylor found 
the political conflicts in Washington to be far more 
trying to the nerves than battles with Mexicans or 

In the midst of all these troubles, Gen. Taylor, 
after he had occupied the Presidential chair but little 
over a year, took cold, and after a brief sickness of 
but little over five days, died on the oth of July, 1850. 
His last words were, " I am not afraid to die. I am 
ready. I have endeavored to do my duty." He died 
universally respected and beloved. An honest, un- 
pretending man, he had been steadily growing in the 
affections of the people ; and the Nation bitterly la- 
mented his death. 

Gen. Scott, who was thoroughly acquainted with 
Gen. Taylor, gave the following graphic and truthful 
description of his character: " With a good store of 
common sense, Gen. Taylor's mind had not been en- 
larged and refreshed by reading, or much converse 
with the world. Rigidity of ideas was the conse- 
quence. The frontiers and small military posts had 
been his home. Hence he was quite ignorant for his 
rank, and quite bigoted in his ignorance. His sim- 
plicity was child-like, and with innumerable preju- 
dices, amusing and incorrigible, well suited to the 
tender age. Thus, if a man, however respectable, 
chanced to wear a coat of an unusual color, or his hat 
a little on one side of his head; or an officer to leave 
a corner of his handkerchief dangling from an out- 
side pocket, in any such case, this critic held the 
offender to be a coxcomb (perhaps something worse), 
whom he would not, to use his oft repeated phrase, 
' touch with a pair of tongs.' 

"Any allusion to literature beyond good old Dil- 
worth's spelling-book, on the part of one wearing a 
sword, was evidence, with the same judge, of utter 
unfitness for heavy marchings and combats. In short, 
few men have ever had a more comfortable, labor- 
saving contempt for learning of every kind." 




teenth President of the United 
States, was born at Summer 
Hill, Cayuga Co., N. Y ., on 
the 7th of January, 1800. His 
father was a farmer, and ow- 
ing to misfortune, in humble cir- 
cumstances. Of his mother, the 
daughter of Dr. AbiatharMillard, 
of Pittsfield, Mass., it has been 
said that she possessed an intellect 
of very high order, united with much 
personal loveliness, sweetness of dis- 
position, graceful manners and ex- 
quisite sensibilities. She died in 
1831 ; having lived to see her son a 
young man of distinguished prom- 
ise, though she was not permitted to witness the high 
dignity which he finally attained. 

In consequence of the secluded home and limited 
means of his father, Millard enjoyed but slender ad- 
vantages for education in his early years. The com- 
mon schools, which he occasionally attended were 
very imperfect institutions; and books were scarce 
and expensive. There was nothing then in his char- 
acter to indicate the brilliant career upon which he 
was about to enter. He was a plain farmer's boy ; 
intelligent, good-looking, kind-hearted. The sacred 
influences of home had taught him to revere the Bible, 
and had laid Ihe foundations of an upright character. 
When fourteen years of age, his father sent him 
some hundred miles from home, to the then wilds of 
Livingston County, to learn the trade of a clothier. 
Near the mill there was a small villiage, where some 

enterprising man had commenced the collection of a 
village library. This proved an inestimable blessing 
to young Fillmore. His evenings were spent in read- 
ing. Soon every leisure moment was occupied with 
books. His thirst for knowledge became insatiate; 
and the selections which he made were continually 
more elevating and instructive. He read history, 
biography, oratory, and thus gradually there was en- 
kindled in his heart a desire to be something more 
than a mere worker with his hands; and he was be- 
coming, almost unknown to himself, a well-informed, 
educated man. 

The young clothier had now attained the age of 
nineteen years, and was of fine personal appearance 
and of gentlemanly demeanor. It so happened that 
there was a gentleman in the neighborhood of ample 
pecuniary means and of benevolence, Judge Walter 
Wood, who was struck with the prepossessing ap- 
pearance of young Fillmore. He made his acquaint- 
ance, and was so much impressed with his ability and 
attainments that he advised him to abandon his 
trade and devote himself to the study of the law. The 
young man replied, that he had no means of his own, 
r.o friends to help him and that his previous educa- 
tion had been very imperfect. But Judge Wood had 
so much confidence in him that he kindly offered to 
take him into his own office, and to loan him such 
money as he needed. Most gratefully the generous 
offer was accepted. 

There is in many minds a strange delusion about 
a collegiate education. A young man is supposed to 
be liberally educated if he has graduated at some col- 
lege. But many a boy loiters through university halls 
ind then enters a law office, who is by no means as 




well prepared to prosecute his legal studies as was 
Millard Fillmore when he graduated at the clothing- 
mill at the end of four years of manual labor, during 
which every leisure moment had been devoted to in- 
tense mental culture. 

In 1823, when twenty-three years of age, he was 
admitted to the Court of Common Pleas. He then 
went to the village of Aurora, and commenced the 
practice of law. In this secluded, peaceful region, 
his practice of course was limited, and there was no 
opportunity for a sudden rise in fortune or in fame. 
Here, in the year 1826, he married a lady of great 
moral worth, and one capable of adorning any station 
she might be called to fill, Miss Abigail Powers. 

His elevation of character, his untiring industry, 
his legal acquirements, and his skill as an advocate, 
gradually attracted attention ; and he was invited to 
enter into partnership under highly advantageous 
circumstances, with an elder member of the bar in 
Buffalo. Just before removing to Buffalo, in 1829, 
he took his seat in the House of Assembly, of the 
State of New York, as a representative from Erie 
County. Though he had never taken a very active 
part in politics, his vote and his sympathies were with 
the Whig party. The State was then Democratic, 
and he found himself in a helpless minority in the 
Legislature , still the testimony comes from all parties, 
that his courtesy, ability and integrity, won, to a very 
unusual degree the respect of his associates. 

In the autumn of 1832, he was elected to a seat in 
the United States Congress He entered that troubled 
arena in some of the most tumultuous hours of our 
national history. The great conflict respecting the 
national bank and the removal of the deposits, was 
then raging. 

His term of two years closed ; and he returned to 
his profession, which he pursued with increasing rep- 
utation and success. After a lapse of two years 
he again became a candidate for Congress ; was re- 
elected, and took his seat in 1837. His past expe- 
rience as a representative gave him strength and 
confidence. The first term of service in Congress to 
any man can be but little more than an introduction. 
He was now prepared for active duty. All his ener- 
gies were brought to bear upon the public good. Every 
measure received his impress. 

Mr. Fillmore was now a man of wide repute, and 
his popularity filled the State, and in the year 1847, 
he wa5 elected Comptroller of the State. 

Mr. Fillmore had attained the age of forty-seven 
years. His labors at the bar, in the Legislature, in 
Congress and as Comptroller, had given him very con- 
siderable fame. The Whigs were casting about to 
find suitable candidates for President and Vice-Presi- 
dent at the approaching election. Far away, on the 
waters of the Rio Grande, there was a rough old 
soldier, who had fought one or two successful battles 
with the Mexicans, which had caused his name to be 
proclaimed in tiumpet-tones all over the land. But 
it was necessary to associate with him on the same 
ticket some man of re'putation as a statesman. 

Under the influence of these considerations, the 
names of Zachary Taylor and Millard Fillmore became 
the rallying-cry of the Whigs, as their candidates for 
President and Vice-Peesident. The Whig ticket was 
signally triumphant. On the 4th of March, 1849, 
Gen. Taylor was inaugurated President, and Millard 
Fillmore Vice-President, of the United States. 

On the gth of July, 1850, President Taylor, but 
about one year and four months after his inaugura- 
tion, was suddenly taken sick and died. By the Con- 
stitution, Vice-President Fillmore thus became Presi- 
dent. He appointed a very able cabinet, of which 
the illustrious Daniel Webster was Secretary of State. 

Mr. Fillniore had very serious difficulties to contend 
with, since the opposition had a majority in both 
Houses. He did everything in his power to conciliate 
the South ; but the pro-slavery party in the South felt 
the inadequacy of all measures of transient conciliation. 
The population of the free States was so rapidly in- 
creasing over that of the slave States that it was in- 
evitable that the power of the Government should 
soon pass into the hands of the free States. The 
famous compromise measures were adopted under Mr. 
Fillmcre's adminstration, and the Japan Expedition 
was sent out. On the 4th of March, 1853, Mr. Fill- 
more, having served one term, retired. 

In 1856, Mr. Fillmore was nominated for the Pres- 
idency by the " Know Nothing " party, but was beaten 
by Mr. Buchanan. After that Mr. Fillmore lived in 
retirement. During the terrible conflict of civil war, 
he was mostly silent. It was generally supposed that 
his sympathies were rather with those who were en- 
deavoring to overthrow our institutions. President 
Fillmore kept aloof from the conflict, without any 
cordial words of cheer to the one party or the other. 
He was thus forgotten by both. He lived to a ripe 
old age, and died in Buffalo. N. Y., March 8, 1874. 


-S=5- ^ 




fourteenth President of the 
United States, was born in 
Hillsborough, N. H., Nov. 
23, 1804. His father was a 
Revolutionary soldier, who, 
with his own strong arm, 
hewed out a home in the 
wilderness. He was a man 
of inflexible integrity; of 
strong, though uncultivated 
mind, and an uncompromis- 
ing Democrat. The mother of 
Franklin Pierce was all that a son 
could desire, an intelligent, pru- 
dent, affectionate, Christian wom- 
an. Franklin was the sixth of eight children. 

Franklin was a very bright and handsome boy, gen- 
erous, warm-hearted and brave. He won alike the 
love of old and young. The boys on the play ground 
loved him. His teachers loved him. The neighbors 
looked upon him with pride and affection. He was 
by instinct a gentleman; always speaking kind words, 
doing kind deeds, with a peculiar unstudied tact 
which taught him what was agreeable. Without de- 
veloping any precocity of genius, or any unnatural 
devotion to books, he was a good scholar; in body, 
in mind, in affections, a finely-developed boy. 

When sixteen years of age, in the year 1820, he 
entered Bowdoin College, at Brunswick, Me He was 
one of the most popular young men in the college. 
The purity of his moral character, the unvarying 
courtesy of his demeanor, his rank as a scholar, and 

genial nature, rendered him a universal favorite. 
There was something very peculiarly winning in his 
address, and it was evidently not in the slightest de- 
gree studied : it was the simple outgushing of his 
own magnanimous and loving nature. 

Upon graduating, in the year 1824, Franklin Pierce 
commenced the study of law in the office of Judge 
Woodbury, one of the most distinguished lawyers of 
the State, and a man of great private worth. The 
eminent social qualities of the young lawyer, his 
father's prominence as a public man, and the brilliant 
political career into which Judge Woodbury was en- 
tering, all tended to entice Mr. Pierce into the faci- 
nating yet perilous path of political life. With all 
the ardor of his nature he espoused the cause of Gen. 
Jackson for the Presidency. He commenced the 
practice of law in Hillsborough, and was soon elected 
to represent the town in the State Legislature. Here 
he served for four yeais. The last two years he was 
chosen speaker of the house by a very large vote. 

In 1833, at the age of twenty-nine, he was elected 
a member of Congress. Without taking an active 
part in debates, he was faithful and laborious in duty, 
and ever rising in the estimation of those with whom 
he was associatad. 

In 1837, being then but thirty-three years of age, 
he was elected to the Senate of the United States; 
taking his seat just as Mr. Van Buren commenced 
his administration. He was the youngest member in 
the Senate. In the year 1834, he married Miss Jane 
Means Appleton, a lady of rare beauty and accom- 
plishments, and one admirably fitted to adorn every 
station with which her husband was honoied. Of the 


three sons who were born to them, all now sleep with 
their parents in the grave. 

In the year 1838, Mr. Pierce, with growing fame 
and increasing business as a lawyer, took up his 
residence in Concord, the capital of New Hampshire. 
President Polk, upon his accession to office, appointed 
Mr. Pierce attorney-general of the United States; but 
the offer was declined, in consequence of numerous 
professional engagements at home, and the precariuos 
state of Mrs. Pierce 's health. He also, about the 
same time declined the nomination for governor by the 
.Democratic party. The war with Mexico called Mr. 
Pierce in the army. Receiving the appointment of 
brigadier-general, he embarked, with a portion of his 
troops, at Newport, R. I., on the 271)1 of May, 1847. 
He took an important part in this war, proving him- 
self a brave and true soldier. 

When Gen. Pierce reached his home in his native 
State, he was received enthusiastically by the advo- 
cates of the Mexican war, and coldly by his oppo- 
nents. He resumed the practice of his profession, 
very frequently taking an active part in political ques- 
tions, giving his cordial support to the pro-slavery 
wing of the Democratic party. The compromise 
measures met cordially with his approval; and he 
strenuously advocated the enforcement of the infa- 
mous fugitive-slave law, which so shocked the religious 
sensibilities of the North. He thus became distin- 
guished as a " Northern man with Southern principles.'' 
The strong partisans of slavery in the South conse- 
quently regarded him as a man whom they could 
safely trust in office to carry out their plans. 

On the I2th of June, 1852, the Democratic conven- 
tion met in Baltimore to nominate a candidate for the 
Presidency. For four days they continued in session, 
and in thirty-five ballotings no one had obtained a 
two-thirds vote. Not a vote thus far had been thrown 
for Gen. Pierce. Then the Virginia delegation 
brought forward his name. There were fourteen 
more ballotings, during which Gen. Pierce constantly 
gained strength, until, at the forty-ninth ballot, he 
received two hundred and eighty-two votes, and all 
other candidates eleven. Gen. Winfield Scott was 
the Whig candidate. Gen. Pierce was chosen with 
great unanimity. Only four States Vermont, Mas- 
sachusetts, Kentucky and Tennessee cast their 
electoral votes against him Gen. Franklin Pierce 
was therefore inaugurated President of the United 
States on the 4th of March, 1853. 

His administration proved one of the most stormy our 
country had ever experienced. The controversy be- 
tween slavery and freedom was then approaching its 
culminating point. It became evident that there was 
an " irrepressible conflict" between them, and that 
this Nation could not long exist " half slave and half 
free." President Pierce, during the whole of his ad- 
ministration, did every thing he could to conciliate 
the South ; but it was all in vain. The conflict every 
year grew more violent, and threats of the dissolution 
of the Union were borne to the North on every South- 
ern breeze. 

Such was the condition of affairs when President 
Pierce approached the close of his four-years' term 
of office. The North had become thoroughly alien- 
ated from him. The anti-slavery sentiment, goaded 
by great outrages, had been rapidly increasing; all 
the intellectual ability and social worth of President 
Pierce were forgotten in deep reprehension of his ad- 
ministrative acts. The slaveholders of the South, also, 
unmindful of the fidelity with which he had advo- 
cated those measures of Government which they ap- 
proved, and perhaps, also, feeling that he had 
rendered himself so unpopular as no longer to be 
able acceptably to serve them, ungratefully dropped 
him, and nominated James Buchanan to succeed him. 

On the 4th of March, 1857, President Pierce re- 
tired to his home in Concord. Of three children, two 
had died, and his only surviving child had been 
killed before his eyes by a railroad accident ; and his 
wife, one of the most estimable and accomplished of 
ladies, was rapidly sinking in consumption. The 
hour of dreadful gloom soon came, and he was left 
alone in the world, without wife or child. 

When the terrible Rebellion burst forth, which di- 
vided our country into two parties, and two only, Mr. 
Pierce remained steadfast in the principles which he 
had always cherished, and gave his sympathies to 
that pro-slavery party with which he had ever been 
allied. He declined to do anything, either by voice 
or pen, to strengthen the hand of the National Gov- 
ernment. He continued to reside in Concord until 
the time of his death, which occurred in October, 
1869. He was one of the most genial and social of 
men, an honored communicant of the Episcopal 
Church, and one of the kindest of neighbors. Gen- 
erous to a fault, he contributed liberally for the al- 
leviation of suffering and want, and many of his towns- 
people were often gladened by his material bounty. 






, '..'i '..'i '.<'i '..V. 'i '. V. '> ',.'i '. 'i '. ' ' 'i"..'i vvvx'".''!'..''!' ;v .''i' :v ."i 1 ,'V .' V .' i' .' i 1 .' i'..' i 1 .' i 1 .' i 

f^i 1 ."I'.'v y. i 1 y : y.. - y..'y.,.'y;.'y. : y ;v.:-jXi '.'/_".'> '..v..v.,v. '. '.,'. '. ' '..'> ". '> '. '< '. ' '. '>".-' 

AMES BUCHANAN, the fif- 
teenth President of the United 
States, was born in a small 
frontier town, at the foot of the 
eastern ridge of the Allegha- 
nies, in Franklin Co., Penn.,on 
the 23d of April, 1791. The place 
where the humble cabin of his 
father stood was called Stony 
Batter. It was a wild and ro- 
mantic spot in a gorge of the moun- 
tains, with towering summits rising 
grandly all around. His father 
was a native of the north of Ireland ; 
a poor man, who had emigrated in 
1783, with little property save his 
Five years afterwards he married 
Elizabeth Spear, the daughter of a respectable farmer, 
and, with his young bride, plunged into the wilder- 
ness, staked his claim, reared his log-hut, opened a 
clearing with his axe, and settled down there to per- 
form his obscure part in the drama of life. In this se- 
cluded home, where James was born, he remained 
for eight years, enjoying but few social or intellectual 
advantages. When James was eight yeaisof age, his 
father removed to the village of Mercersburg, where 
his son was placed at school, and commenced a 
course of study in English, Latin and Greek. His 
progress was rapid, and at the age of fourteen, he 
entered Dickinson College, at Carlisle. Here he de- 
veloped remarkable talent, and took his stand among 
the first scholars in the institution. His application 
to study was intense, and yet his native powers en- 

own strong arms. 

abled him to master the most abstruse subjects with 

In the year 1809, he graduated with the highest 
honors of his class. He was then eighteen years of 
age; tall and graceful, vigorous in health, fond of 
athletic sport, an unerring shot, and enlivened with 
an exuberant flow of animal spirits. He immediately 
commenced the study of law in the city of Lancaster, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1812, when he was 
but twenty-one years of age. Very rapidly he rose 
in his profession, and at once took undisputed stand 
with the ablest lawyers of the State. When but 
twenty-six years of age, unaided by counsel, he suc- 
cessfully defended before the State Senate ore of the 
judges of the State, who was tried upon articles of 
impeachment. At the age of thirty it was generally 
admitted that he stood at the head of the bar; and 
there was no lawyer in the State who had a more lu- 
crative practice. 

In 1820, he reluctantly consented to run as a 
candidate for Congress. He was elected, and for 
ten years he remained a member of the Lower House, 
During the vacations of Congress, he occasionally 
tried some important case. In 1831, he retired 
altogether from the toils of his profession, having ac- 
quired an ample fortune. 

Gen. Jackson, upon his elevation to the Presidency, 
appointed Mr. Buchanan minister to Russia. The 
duties of his mission he performed with ability, which 
gave satisfaction to all parties. Upon his return, in 
1833, he was elected to a seat in the United States 
Senate. He there met, as his associates, Webster, 
Clay, Wright and Calhoun. He advocated the meas- 
ures proposed by President Jackson, of making repri- 


sals against France, to enforce the payment of our 
claims against that country ; and defended the course 
of the President in his unprecedented and wholesale 
removal from office of those who were not the sup- 
porters of his administration. Upon this question he 
was brought into direct collision with Henry Clay. 
He also, with voice and vote, advocated expunging 
from the journal of the Senate the vote of censure 
against Gen. Jackson for removing the deposits. 
Earnestly he opposed the abolition of slavery in the 
District of Columbia, and urged the prohibition of the 
circulation of anti-slavery documents by the United 
States mails. 

As to petitions on the subject of slavery, he advo- 
cated that they should be respectfully received ; and 
that the reply should be returned, that Congress had 
no power to legislate upon the subject. " Congress," 
said he, " might as well undertake to interfere with 
slavery under a foreign government as in any of the 
States where it now exists." 

Upon Mr. Folk's accession to the Presidency, Mr. 
Buchanan became Secretary of State, and as such, 
took his share of the responsibility in the conduct of 
the Mexican War. Mr. Polk assumed that crossing 
the Nueces by the American troops into the disputed 
territory was not wrong, but for the Mexicans to cross 
the Rio Grande into that territory was a declaration 
of war. No candid man can read with pleasure the 
account of the course our Government pursued in that 

Mr. Buchanan identified himself thoroughly with 
the party devoted to the pfirpetuation and extension 
of slavery, and brought all the energies of his mind 
to bear against the Wilmot Proviso. He gave his 
cordial approval to the compromise measures of 1850, 
which included the fugitive-slave law. Mr. Pierce, 
upon his election to the Presidency, honored Mr. 
Buchanan with the mission to England. 

In the year 1856, a national Democratic conven- 
tion nominated Mr. Buchanan for the Presidency. The 
political conflict was one of the most severe in which 
our country has ever engaged. All the friends of 
slavery were on one side; all the advocates of its re- 
striction and final abolition, on the other. Mr. Fre- 
mont, the candidate of the enemies of slavery, re- 
ceived 1 14 electoral votes. Mr. Buchanan received 
174, and was elected. The popular vote stood 
1,340,618, for Fremont, 1,224,750 for Buchanan. On 
March 4th, 1857, Mr. Buchanan was inaugurated. 

Mr. Buchanan was far advanced in life. Only four 
years were wanting to fill up his threescore years and 
ten. His own friends, those with whom he had been 
allied in political principles and action for years, were 
seeking the destruction of the Government, that they 
might rear upon the ruins of our free institutions a 
nation whose corner-stone should be human slavery. 
In this emergency, Mr. Buchanan was hopelessly be- 
wildered He could not, with his long-avowed prin- 

ciples, consistently oppose the State-rights party in 
their assumptions. As President of the United States, 
bound by his oath faithfully to administer the laws, 
he could not, without perjury of the grossest kind, 
unite with those endeavoring to overthrow the repub- 
lic. He therefore did nothing. 

The opponents of Mr. Buchanan's administration 
nominal ed Abraham Lincoln as their standard bearer 
in the next Presidential canvass. The pro-slavery 
party declared, that if he were elected, and the con- 
trol of the Government were thus taken from their 
hands, they would secede from the Union, taking 
with them, as they retired, the National Capitol at 
Washington, and the lion's share of the territory of 
the United States. 

Mr. Buchanan's sympathy with the pro-slaver)' 
party was such, that he had been willing to offer them 
far more than they had ventured to claim. All the 
South had professed to ask of the North was non- 
intervention upon the subject of slavery. Mr. Bu- 
chanan had been ready to offer them the active co- 
operation of the Government to defend and extend 
the institution. 

As the storm increased in violence, the slaveholders 
claiming the right to secede, and Mr. Buchanan avow- 
ing that Congress had no power to prevent it, one of 
the most pitiable exhibitions of governmental im- 
becility was exhibited the world has ever seen. He 
declared that Congress had no power to enforce its 
laws in any State which had withdrawn, or which 
was attempting to withdraw from the Union. This 
was not the doctrine of Andrew Jackson, when, with 
his hand upon his sword-hilt, he exclaimed, "The 
Union must and shall be preserved!" 

South Carolina seceded in December, 1860; nearly 
three months before the inauguration of President 
Lincoln. Mr. Buchanan looked on in listless despair. 
The rebel flag was raised in Charleston : Fort Sumpter 
was besieged; our forts, navy-yards and arsenals 
were seized ; our depots of military stores were plun- 
dered ; and our custom-houses and post-offices were 
appropriated by the rebels. 

The energy of the rebels, and the imbecility of our 
Executive, were alike marvelous. The Nation looked 
on in agony, waiting for the slow weeks to glide away, 
and close the administration, so terrible in its weak- 
ness At length the long-looked-for hour of deliver- 
ance came, when Abraham Lincoln was to receive the 

The administration of President Buchanan was 
certainly the most calamitous our country has ex- 
perienced. His best friends canr.ot recall it with 
pleasure. And still more deplorable it is for his fame, 
that in that dreadful conflict which rolled its billows 
of flame and blood over our whole land, no word came 
from his lips to indicate his wish that our country's 
banner should triumph over the flag of the rebellion. 
He died at his Wheatland retreat, June i, 1868. 





sixteenth President of the 
United States, was born in 
Hardin Co., Ky., Feb. 12, 
1809. About the year 1780, a 
man by the name of Abraham 
Lincoln left Virginia with his 
s family and moved into the then 
wilds of Kentucky. Only two yeaYs 
after this emigration, still a young 
man, while working one day in a 
field, was stealthily approached by 
an Indian and shot dead. His widow 
was left in extreme poverty with five 
little children, three boys and two 
girls. Thomas, the youngest of the 
boys, was four years of age at his 
father's death. This Thomas was 
the father of Abraham Lincoln, the 
President of the United States 
whose name must henceforth fo r ever be enrolled 
with the most prominent in the annals of our world. 
Of course no record has been kept of the life 
of one so lowly as Thomas Lincoln. He was among 
the poorest of the poor. His home was a wretched 
log-cabin; his food the coarsest and the meanest. 
Education he had none; he could never either read 
or write. As soon as he was able to do anything for 
himself, he was compelled to leave the cabin of his 
starving mother, and push out into the world, a friend- 
less, wandering boy, seeking work. He hired him- 
self out, and thus spent the whole of his youth as a 
laborer in the fields of others. 

When twenty-eight years of age he built a log- 
cabin of his own, and married Nancy Hanks, the 
daughter of another family of poor Kentucky emi- 
grants, who had also come from Virginia. Their 
second child was Abraham Lincoln, the subject of 
this sketch. The mother of Abraham was a noble 
woman, gentle, loving, pensive, created to adorn 
a palace, doomed to toil and pine, and die in a hovel. 
" All that I am, or hope to be," exclaims the grate- 
ful son " I owe to my angel-mother. " 

When he was eight years of age, his father sold his 

cabin and small farm, and moved to Indiana. Where 
two years later his mother died. 

Abraham soon became the scribe of the uneducated 
community around him. He could not have had a 
better school than this to teach him to put thoughts 
into words. He also became an eager reader. The 
books he could obtain were few ; but these he read 
and re-read until they were almost committed to 

As the years rolled on, the lot of this lowly family 
was the usual lot of humanity. There were joys and 
griefs, weddings and funerals. Abraham's sister 
Sarah, to whom he was tenderly attached, was mar- 
ried when a child of but fourteen years of age, and 
soon died. The family was gradually scattered. Mr. 
Thomas Lincoln sold out his squatter's claim in 1830, 
and emigrated to Macon Co., 111. 

Abraham Lincoln was then twenty-one years of age. 
With vigorous hands he aided his father in rearing 
another log-cabin. Abraham worked diligently at this 
until he saw the family comfortably settled, and their 
small lot of enclosed prairie planted with corn, when 
he announced to his father his intention to leave 
home, and to go out into the world and seek his for- 
tune. Little did he or his friends imagine how bril- 
liant that fortune was to be.' He saw the value of 
education and was intensely earnest to improve his 
mind to the utmost of his power. He saw the ruin 
which ardent spirits were causing, and became 
strictly temperate; refusing to allow a drop of intoxi- 
cating liquor to pass his lips. And he had read in 
God's word, "Thou shah r.ot take the name of the 
Lord thy God in vain ;" and a profane expression he 
was never heard to utter. Religion he revered. His 
morals were pure, and he was uncontaminated by a 
single vice. 

Young Abraham worked for a time as a hired laborer 
among the farmers. Then he went to Springfield, 
where he was employed in building a large flat-boat. 
In this he took a herd of swine, floated them down 
the Sangamon to the Illinois, and thence by the Mis- 
sissippi to New Orleans. Whatever Abraham Lin- 
coln undertook, he performed so faithfully as to give 
great satisfaction to his employers. In this adven- i 



ture his employers were so well pleased, that upon 
his return they placed a store and mill under his care. 
' In 1832, at the outbreak of the Black Hawk war, he 
enlisted and was chosen captain of a company. He 
returned to Sangambn County, and although only 23 
years of age, was a candidate for the Legislature, but 
was defeated. He soon after received from Andrew 
Jackson the appointment of Postmaster of New Salem, 
His only post-office was his hat. All the letters he 
received he carried there ready to deliver to those 
he chanced to meet. He studied surveying, and soon 
made this his business. In 1834 he again became a 
candidate for the Legislature, and was elected. Mr. 
ijtuart, of Springfield, advised him to study law. He 
walked from New Salem to Springfield, borrowed of 
Mr. Stuart a load of books, carried them back and 
began his legal studies. When the Legislature as- 
sembled he trudged on foot with his pack on his back 
one hundred miles to Vandalia, then the capital. In 
1836 he was re-elected to the Legislature. Here it 
was he first met Stephen A. Douglas. In 1839 he re- 
moved to Springfield and began the practice of law. 
His success with the jury was so great that he was 
soon engaged in almost every noted case in the circuit. 

In 1854 the great discussion began between Mr. 
Lincoln and Mr. Douglas, on the slavery question. 
In the organization of the Republican party in Illinois, 
in 1856, he took an active part, and at once became 
one of the leaders in that party. Mr. Lincoln's 
speeches in opposition to Senator Douglas in the con- 
test in 1858 for a seat in the Senate, form a most 
notable part of his history. The issue was on the 
slavery question, and he took the broad ground of 
;he Declaration of Independence, that all men are 
created equal. Mr. Lincoln was defeated in this con- 
test, but won a far higher prize. 

The great Republican Convention met at Chicago 
on the :6th of June, 1860. The delegates and 
strangers who crowded the city amounted to twenty- 
five thousand. An immense building called " The 
Wigwam," was reared to accommodate the Conven- 
tion. There were eleven candidates for whom votes 
were thrown. William H. Seward, a man whose fame 
as a statesman had long filled the land, was the most 
urominent. It was generally supposed he would be 
the nominee. Abraham Lincoln, however, received 
the nomination on the third ballot. Little did he then 
dream of the weary years of toil and care, and the 
bloody death, to which that nomination doomed him : 
and as little did he dream that he was to vender services 
to his country, which would fix upon him the eyes of 
the whole civilized world, and which would give him 
a place in the affections of his countrymen, second 
only, if second, to that of Washington. 

Election day came and Mr. Lincoln received 180 
electoral votes out of 203 cast, and was, therefore, 
constitutionally elected President of the United States. 
The tirade of abuse that was poured upon this good 

and merciful man, especially by the slaveholders, was 
greater than upon any other man ever elected to this 
high position. In February, 1861, Mr. Lincoln started 
for Washington, stopping in all the large cities on his 
way making speeches. The whole journey was fraught 
with much danger. Many of the Southern States had 
already seceded, and several attempts at assassination 
were afterwards brought to light. A gang in Balti- 
more had arranged, upon his arrival to "get up a row," 
and in the confusion to make sure of his death with 
revolvers and hand-grenades. A detective unravelled 
the plot. A secret and special train was provided to 
take him from Harrisburg, through Baltimore, at an 
unexpected hour of the night. The train started at 
half-past ten ; and to prevent any possible communi- 
cation on the part ot the Secessionists with their Con- 
federate gang in Baltimore, as soon as the train had 
started the telegraph-wires were cut. Mr. Lincoln 
reached Washington in safety and was inaugurated, 
although great anxiety was felt by all loyal people. 

In the selection of his cabinet Mr. Lincoln gave 
to Mr. Seward the Department of State, and to other 
prominent opponents before the convention he gave 
important positions. 

During no other administration have the duties 
devolving upon the President been so manifold, and 
the responsibilities so great, as those which fell to 
the lot of President Lincoln. Knowing this, and 
feeling his own weakness and inability to meet, and in 
his own strength to cope with, the difficulties, he 
learned early to seek Divine wisdom and guidance in 
determining his plans, and Divine comfort in all his 
trials, bo'h personal and national Contrary to his 
own estimate of himself, Mr. Lincoln was one of the 
most courageous of men. He went directly into the 
rebel capital just as the retreating foe was leaving, 
with no guard but a few sailors. From the time he 
had left Springfield, in 1861, however, plans had been 
made for his assassination, and he at last fell a victim 
to one of them. April 14, 1865, he, with Gn. Grant, 
was urgently invited to attend Fords' Theater. It 
was announced that they would Le present. Gen. 
Grant, however, left the city. President Lincoln, feel- 
ing, with his characteristic kindliness of heart, that 
it would be a disappointment if he should fail them, 
very reluctantly consented to go. While listening to 
the play an actor by the name of John Wilkes Booth 
entered the box where the President and family were 
seated, and fired a bullet into his brains. He died the 
next morning at seven o'clock. 

Never before, in the history of the world was a nation 
plunged into such deep grief by the death of its ruler 
Strong men met in the streets and wept in speechless 
anguish. It is not too much to say that a nation was 
in tears. His was a life which will fitly become a 
model. His name as the savior of his country will 
live with that of Washington's, its father; his country- 
men being unable to decide which is the greater. 



teenth President of the United 
States. The early life of 
Andrew Johnson contains but 
the record of poverty, destitu- 
tion and friendlessness. He 
was born December 29, 1808, 
in Raleigh, N. C. His parents, 
belonging to the class of the 
"poor whites " of the South, were 
in such circumstances, that they 
could not confer even the slight- 
est advantages of education upon 
their child. When Andrew was five 
years of age, his father accidentally 
lost his life while herorically endeavoring to save a 
friend from drowning. Until ten years of age, Andrew 
was a ragged boy about the streets, supported by the 
labor of his mother, who obtained her living with 
her own hands. 

He then, having never attended a school one day, 
and being unable either to read or write, was ap- 
prenticed to a tailor in his native town. A gentleman 
was in the habit of going to the tailor's shop occasion- 
ally, and reading to the boys at work there. He often 
read from the speeches of distinguished British states- 
men. Andrew, who was endowed with a mind of more 
than ordinary native ability, became much interested 
in these speeches ; his ambition was roused, and he 
was inspired with a strong desire to learn to read. 

He accordingly applied himself to the alphabet, and 
with the assistance of some of his fellow-workmen, 
learned his letters. He then called upon the gentle- 
man to borrow the book of speeches. The owner, 

pleased with his zeal, not only gave him the book, 
but assisted him in learning to combine the letters 
into words. Under such difficulties he pressed on- 
ward laboriously, spending usually ten or twelve hours 
at work in the shop, and then robbing himself of rest 
and recreation to devote such time as he could to 

He went to Tennessee in 1826, and located at 
Greenville, where he married a young lady who pos- 
sessed some education. Under her instructions he 
learned to write and cipher. He became prominent 
in the village debating society, and a favorite with 
the students of Greenville College. In 1828, he or- 
ganized a working man's party, which elected him 
alderman, and in 1830 elected him mayor, which 
position he held three years. 

He now began to take a lively interest in political 
affairs; identifying himself with the working-classes, 
to which he belonged. In 1835, he was elected a 
member of the House of Representatives of Tennes- 
see. He was then just twenty-seven years of age. 
He became a very active member of the legislature, 
gave his adhesion to the Democratic party, and in 
1840 "stumped the State," advocating Martin Van 
Buren's claims to the Presidency, in opposition to those 
of Gen. Harrison. In this campaign he acquired much 
readiness as a speaker, and extended and increased 
his reputation. 

In 1841, he was elected State Senator; in 1843, he 
was elected a member of Congress, and by successive 
elections, held that important post for ten years. In 
1853, he was elected Governor of Tennessee, and 
was re-elected in 1855. In all these res]>onsible posi- 
tions, he discharged his duties with distinguished abil- 


ity, and proved himself the warm friend of the work- 
ing classes. In 1857, Mr. Johnson was elected 
United States Senator. 

Years before, in 1845, he had warmly advocated 
the annexation of Texas, stating however, as his 
reason, that he thought this annexation would prob- 
ably prove " to be the gateway out of which the sable 
sons of Africa are to pass from bondage to freedom, 
and become merged in a population congenial to 
themselves." In 1850, he also supported the com- 
promise measures, the two essential features of which 
were, that the white people of the Territories should 
be permitted to decide for themselves whether they 
would enslave the colored people or not, and that 
the free States of the North should return to the 
South persons who attempted to escape from slavery. 

Mr. Johnson was never ashamed of his lowly origin: 
on the contrary, he often took pride in avowing that 
he owed his distinction to his own exertions. "Sir," 
said he on the floor of the Senate, " I do not forget 
that I am a mechanic ; neither do I forget that Adam 
was a tailor and sewed fig-leaves, and that our Sav- 
ior was the son of a carpenter." 

In the Charleston-Baltimore convention of 1860, he 
was the choice of the Tennessee Democrats for the 
Presidency. In 1861, when the purpose of the South- 
ern Democracy became apparent, he took a decided 
stand in favor of the Union, and held that " slavery 
must be held subordinate to the Union at whatever 
cost." He returned to Tennessee, and repeatedly 
imperiled his own life to protect the Unionists of 
Tennesee. Tennessee having seceded from the 
Union, President Lincoln, on March 4th, 1862, ap- 
pointed him Military Governor of the State, and he 
established the most stringent military rule. His 
numerous proclamations attracted wide attention. In 

1864, he was elected Vice-President of the United 
States, and upon the death of Mr. Lincoln, April 15, 

1865, became President. In a speech two days later 
he said, " The American people must be taught, if 
they do not already feel, that treason is a crime and 
must be punished ; that the Government will not 
always bear with its enemies ; that it is strong not 
only to protect, but to punish. * * The people 
must understand that it (treason) is the blackest of 
crimes, and will surely be punished." Yet his whole 
administration, the history of which is so well known, 
was in utter inconsistency with, and the mpst violent 

opposition to, the principles laid down in that speech. 

In his loose policy of reconstruction and general 
amnesty, he was opposed by Congress ; and he char- 
acterized Congress as a new rebellion, and lawlessly 
defied it, in everything possible, to the utmost. In 
the beginning of 1868, on account of "high crimes 
and misdemeanors," the principal of which was the 
removal of Secretary Stanton, in violation of the Ten- 
ure of Office Act, articles of impeachment were pre- 
ferred against him, and the trial began March 23. 

It was very tedious, continuing for nearly three 
months. A test article of the impeachment was at 
length submitted to the court for its action. It was 
certain that as the court voted upon that article so 
would it vote upon all. Thirty-four voices pronounced 
the President guilty. As a two-thirds vote was neces- 
sary to his condemnation, he was pronounced ac- 
quitted, notwithstanding the great majority against 
him. The change of one vote from the not guilty 
side would have sustained the impeachment. 

The President, for the remainder of his term, was 
but little regarded. He continued, though impotently, 
his conflict with Congress. His own party did not 
think it expedient to renominate him for the Presi- 
dency. The Nation rallied, with enthusiasm unpar- 
alleled since the days of Washington, around the name 
of Gen. Grant. Andrew Johnson was forgotten. 
The bullet of the assassin introduced him to the 
President's chair. Notwithstanding this, never was 
there presented to a man a better opportunity to im- 
mortalize his name, and to win the gratitude of a 
nation. He failed utterly. He retired to his home 
in Greenville, Tenn., taking no very active part in 
politics until 1875. On Jan. 26, after an exciting 
struggle, he was chosen by the Legislature of Ten- 
nessee, United States Senator in the forty-fourth Con- 
gress, and took his seat in that body, at the special 
session convened by President Grant, on the 5th of 
March. On the 27th of July, 1875, the ex-President 
made a visit to his daughter's home, near Carter 
Station, Tenn. When he started on his journey, he was 
apparently in his usual vigorous health, but on reach- 
ing the residence of his child the following day, was 
stricken with paralysis, rendering him unconscious. 
He rallied occasionally, but finally passed away at 
2 A.M., July 31, aged sixty-seven years. His fun- 
eral was attended at Geenville, on the 3d of August, 
with every demonstration of respect. 



eighteenth President of the 
United States, was born on 
the 29th of April, 1822, of 
Christian parents, in a humble 
home, at Point Pleasant, on the 
banks of the Ohio. Shortly after 
his father moved to George- 
town, Brown Co., O. In this re- 
mote frontier hamlet, Ulysses 
received a common-school edu- 
cation. At the age of seven- 
teen, in the year 1839, he entered 
the Military Academy at West 
Point. Here he was regarded as a 
solid, sensible young man of fair abilities, and of 
sturdy, honest character. He took respectable rank 
as a scholar. In June, 1843, h'e graduated, about the 
middle in his class, and was sent as lieutenant of in- 
fantry to one of the distant military posts in the Mis- 
souri Territory. Two years he past in these dreary 
solitudes, watching the vagabond and exasperating 

The war with Mexico came. Lieut. Grant was 
sent with his regiment to Corpus Christi. His first 
battle was at Palo Alto. There was no chance here 
for the exhibition of either skill or heroism, nor at 
Resaca de la Palma, his second battle. At the battle 
of Monterey, his third engagement, it is said that 
he performed a signal service of daring and skillful 
horsemanship. His brigade had exhausted its am- 
munition. A messenger must be sent for more, along 
a route exposed to the bullets of the foe. Lieut. 
Grant, adopting an expedient learned of the Indians, 
grasped the mane of his horse, and hanging upon one 
side of the anirofl.1, ran the gauntlet in entire safety. 

From Monterey he was sent, with the fourth infantry, 
to aid Gen. Scott, at the siege of Vera Cruz. In 
preparation for the march to the city of Mexico, he 
was appointed quartermaster of his regiment. At the 
battle of Molino del Rey, he was promoted to a 
first lieutenancy, and was brevetted captain at Cha- 

At the close of the Mexican War, Capt. Grant re- 
turned with his regiment to New York, and was again 
sent to one of the military posts on the frontier. The 
discovery of gold in California causing an immense 
tide of emigration to flow to the Pacific shores, Capt. 
Grant was sent with a battalion to Fort Dallas, in 
Oregon, for the protection of the interests of the im- 
migrants. Life was wearisome in those wilds. Capt. 
Grant resigned his commission and returned to the 
States ; and having married, entered upon the cultiva- 
tion of a small farm near St. Louis, Mo. He had but 
little skill as a farmer. Finding his toil not re- 
munerative, he turned to mercantile life, entering into 
the leather business, with a younger brother, at Ga- 
lena, 111. This was in the year 1860. As the tidings 
of the rebels firing on Fort Sumpter reached the ears 
of Capt. Grant in his counting-room, he said, 
"Uncle Sam has educated me for the army; though 
I have served him through one war, I do not feel that 
I have yet repaid the debt. I am still ready to discharge 
my obligations. I shall therefore buckle on my sword 
and see Uncle Sam through this war too." 

He went into the streets, raised a company of vol- 
unteers, and led them as their captain to Springfield, 
the capital of the State, where their services were 
offered to Gov. Yates. The Governor, impressed by 
the zeal and straightforward executive ability of Capt. 
Grant, gave him a desk in his office, to assist in the 
volunteer organization that was being formed in the 
State in behalf of the Government. On the 1 5th of 




June, 1861, Capt. Grant received a commission as 
Colonel of the Twenty-first Regiment of Illinois Vol- 
unteers. His merits as a West Point graduate, who 
had served for 15 years in the regular army, were such 
that he was soon promoted to the rank of Brigadier- 
General and was placed in command at Cairo. The 
rebels raised their banner at Paducah, near the mouth 
of the Tennessee River. Scarcely had its folds ap- 
peared in the breeze ere Gen. Grant was there. The 
rebels fled. Their banner fell, and the star and 
stripes were unfurled in its stead. 

He entered the service with great determination 
and immediately began active duty. This was the be- 
ginning, and until the surrender of Lee at Richmond 
he was ever pushing the enemy with great vigor and 
effectiveness. At Belmont, a few days later, he sur- 
prised and routed the rebels, then at Fort Henry 
won another victory. Then came the brilliant fight 
at Fort Donelson. The nation was electrified by the 
victory, and the brave leader of the boys in blue was 
immediately made a Major-General, and the military 
Jistrict of Tennessee was assigned to him. 

Like all great captains, Gen. Grant knew well how 
to secure the results of victory. He immediately 
pushed on to the enemies' lines. Then came the 
terrible battles of Pittsburg Landing, Corinth, and the 
siege of Vicksburg, where Gen. Pemberton made an 
unconditional surrender of the city with over thirty 
thousand men and one-hundred and seventy-two can- 
non. The fall of Vicksburg was by far the most 
severe blow which the rebels had thus far encountered, 
and opened up the Mississippi from Cairo to the Gulf. 

Gen. Grant was next ordered to co-operate with 
Gen. Banks in a movement upon Texas, and pro- 
ceeded to New Orleans, where he was thrown from 
his horse, and received severe injuries, from which he 
was laid up for months. He then rushed to the aid 
of Gens. Rosecrans and Thomas at Chattanooga, and 
by a wonderful series of strategic and technical meas- 
ures put the Union Army in fighting condition. Then 
followed the bloody battles at Chattanooga, Lookout 
Mountain and Missionary Ridge, in which the rebels 
were routed with great loss. This won for him un- 
bounded praise in the North. On the 4th of Febru- 
ary, 1864, Congress revived the grade of lieutenant- 
general, and the rank was conferred'on Gen. Grant. 
He repaired to Washington to receive his credentials 
and enter upon the duties of his new office, 

Gen. Grant decided as soon as he took charge of 
the army to concentrate the widely-dispersed National 
troops for an attack upon Richmond, the nominal 
capital of the Rebellion, and endeavor there to de- 
stroy the rebel armies which would be promptly as- 
sembled from all quarters for its defence. The whole 
continent seemed to tremble under the tramp of these 
majestic armies, rushing to the decisive battle field. 
Steamers were crowded with troops. Railway trains 
were burdened with closely packed thousands. His 
plans were comprehensive and involved a series of 
campaigns, which were executed with remarkable en- 
ergy and ability, and were consummated at the sur- 
render of Lee, April 9, 1865. 

The war was ended. The Union was saved. The 
almost unanimous voice of the Nation declared Gen. 
Grant to be the most prominent instrument in its sal- 
vation. The eminent services he had thus rendered 
the country brought him conspicuously forward as the 
Republican candidate for the Presidential chair. 

At the Republican Convention held at Chicago, 
May 21, 1868, he was unanimously nominated for the 
Presidency, and at the autumn election received a 
majority of the popular vote, and 214 out of 294 
electoral votes. 

The National Convention of the Republican party 
which met at Philadelphia on the 5th of June, 1872, 
placed Gen. Grant in nomination for a second term 
by a unanimous vote. The selection was emphati- 
cally indorsed by the. people five months later, 292 
electoral votes being cast for him. 

Soon after the close of his second tenn, Gen. Grant 
started upon his famous trip around the world. He 
visited almost every country of the civilized world, 
and was everywhere received with such ovations 
and demonstrations of respect and honor, private 
as well as public and official, as were never before 
bestowed upon any citizen of the United States. 

He was the most prominent candidate before the 
Republican National Convention in 1880 for a re- 
nomination for President. He went to New York and 
embarked in the brokerage business under the firm 
nameof Grant & Ward. The latter proved a villain, 
wrecked Grant's fortune, and for larceny was sent to 
the penitentiary. The General was attacked with 
cancer in the throat, but suffered in his stoic-like 
manner, never complaining. He was re-instated as 
General of the Army and retired by Congress. The 
cancer soon finished its deadly work, and July 23, 
1885, the nation went in mourning over the death of , 
the illustrious General. 




the nineteenth President of 
the United States, was born in 
Delaware, O., Oct. 4, 1822, al- 
most three months after the 
death of his father, Rutherford 
Hayes. His ancestry on both 
the paternal and maternal sides, 
was of the most honorable char- 
acter. It can be traced, it is said, 
as far back as 1280, when Hayes and 
Rutherford were two Scottish chief- 
tains, fighting side by side with 
Baliol, William Wallace and Robert 
Bruce. Both families belonged to the 
nobility, owned extensive estates, 
and had a large following. Misfor- 
tune overtaking the family, George Hayes left Scot- 
land in 1680, and settled in Windsor, Conn. His son 
George was born in Windsor, and remained there 
during his life. Daniel Hayes, son of the latter, mar- 
ried Sarah Lee, and lived from the time of his mar- 
riage until his death in Simsbury, Conn. Ezekiel, 
son of Daniel, was born in 1724, and was a manufac- 
turer of scythes at Bradford, Conn. Rutherford Hayes, 
son of Ezekiel and grandfather of President Hayes, was 
born inNewHaven, in August, 1756. He was a farmer, 
blacksmith and tavern-keeper. He emigrated to 
Vermont at an unknown date, settling in Brattleboro, 
where he established a hotel. Here his son Ruth- 
erford Hayes the father of President Hayes, was 

born. He was married, in September, 1813, to Sophia 
Birchard, of Wilmington, Vt., whose ancestors emi- 
grated thither from Connecticut, they having been 
among the wealthiest and best famlies of Norwich. 
Her ancestry on the male side are traced back to 
1635, to John Birchard, one of the principal founders 
of Norwich. Both of her grandfathers were soldiers 
in the Revolutionary War. 

The father of President Hayes was an industrious, 
frugal and opened-hearted man. He was of a me- 
chanical turn, and could mend a plow, knit a stock- 
ing, or do almost anything else that he choose to 
undertake. He was a member of the Church, active 
in all the benevolent enterprises of the town, and con- 
ducted his business on Christian principles. After 
the close of the war of 1812, for reasons inexplicable 
to his neighbors, he resolved to emigrate to Ohio. 

The journey from Vermont to Ohio in that day, 
when there were no canals, steamers, nor railways, 
was a very serious affair. A tour of inspection was 
first made, occupying four months. Mr. Hayes deter- 
mined to move to Delaware, where the family arrived 
in 1817. He died July 22, 1822, a victim of malarial 
fever, less than three months before the birth of the 
son,of whom we now write. Mrs. Hayes, in her sore be- 
reavement, found the support she so much needed in 
her brother Sardis, who had been a member of the 
household from the day of its departure from Ver- 
mont, and in an orphan girl whom .she had adopted 
some time before as an act of charity. 

Mrs. Hayes at this period was very weak, and the 





subject of this sketch was so feeble at birth that he 
was not expected to live beyond a month or two at 
most. As the months went by he grew weaker and 
weaker, so that the neighbors were in the habit of in- 
quiring from time to time " if Mrs. Hayes' baby died 
last night." On one occasion a neighbor, who was on 
familiar terms with the family, after alluding to the 
boy's big head, and the mother's assiduous care of 
him, said in a bantering way, " That's right ! Stick to 
him. You have got him along so far, and I shouldn't 
wonder if he would really come to something yet." 

" You need not laugh," said Mrs. Hayes. " You 
wait and se. You can't tell but I shall make him 
President of the United States yet." The boy lived, 
in spite of the universal predictions of his speedy 
death; and when, in 1825, his older brother was 
drowned, he became, if possible, still dearer to his 

The boy was seven years old before he went to 
school. His education, however, was not neglected. 
He probably learned as much from his mother and 
sister as he would have done at school. His sports 
were almost wholly within doors, his playmates being 
his sister and her associates. These circumstances 
tended, no doubt, to foster that gentleness of dispo- 
sition, and that delicate consideration for the feelings 
of others, which are marked traits of his character. 

His uncle Sardis Birchard took the deepest interest 
in his education ; and as the boy's health had im- 
proved, and he was making good progress in his 
studies, he proposed to send him to college. His pre- 
paration commenced with a tutor at home; but he 
was afterwards sent for one year to a professor in the 
Wesleyan University, in Middletown, Conn. He en- 
tered Kenyon College in 1838,3! the age of sixteen, 
and was graduated at the head of his class in 1842. 

Immediately after his graduation he began the 
study of law in the office of Thomas Sparrow, Esq., 
in Columbus. Finding his opportunities for study in 
Columbus somewhat limited, he determined to enter 
the Law School at Cambridge, Mass., where he re- 
mained two years. 

In 1 845 , after graduating at the Law School, he was 
admitted to the bar at Marietta, Ohio, and shortly 
afterward went into practice as an attorney-at-law 
with Ralph P. Buckland, of Fremont. Here he re- 
mained three years, acquiring but a limited practice, 
and apparently unambitious of distinction in his pro- 

In 1849 he moved to Cincinnati, where his ambi- 
tion found a new stimulus. For several years, how- 
ever, his progress was slow. Two events, occurring at 
this period, had a powerful influence upon his subse- 
quent life. One of these was his marrage with Miss 
Lucy Ware Webb, daughter of Dr. James Webb, of 
Chilicothe; the other was his introduction to the Cin- 
cinnati Literary Club, a body embracing among its 
members such men as^hief Justice Salmon P. Chase, 

Gen. John Pope, Gov. Edward F. Noyes, and many 
others hardly less distinguished in after life. The 
marriage was a fortunate one in every respect, as 
everybody knows. Not one of all the wives of our 
Presidents was more universally admired, reverenced 
and beloved than was Mrs. Hayes, and no one did 
more than she to reflect honor upon American woman- 
hood. The Literary Cluu brought Mr. Hayes into 
constant association with young men of high char- 
acter and noble aims, and lured him to display the 
qualities so long hidden by his bashfulness and 

In 1856 he was nominated to the office of Judge of 
the Court of Common Pleas; but he declined to ac- 
cept the nomination. Two years later, the office of 
city solicitor becoming vacant, the City Council 
elected him for the unexpired term. 

In 1861, when the Rebellion broke out, he was at 
the zenith of his professional life. His rank at the 
bar was among the the first. But the news of the 
attack on Fort Sumpter found him eager to take up 
arms for the defense of his country. 

His military record was bright and illustrious. In 
October, 1861, he was made Lieutenant-Colonel, and 
in August, 1862, promoted Colonel of the 7gth Ohio 
regiment, but he refused to leave his old comrades 
and go among strangers. Subsequently, however, he 
was made Colonel of his old regiment. At the battle 
of South Mountain he received a wound, and while 
faint and bleeding displayed courage and fortitude 
that won admiration from all. 

Col. Hayes was detached from his regiment, after 
his recovery, to act as Brigadier-General, and placed 
in command of the celebrated Kanawha division, 
and for gallant and meritorious services in the battles 
of Winchester, Fisher's Hill and Cedar Creek, he was 
promoted Brigadier-General. He was also brevetted 
Major-General, "for gallant and distinguished services 
during the campaigns of 1864, in West Virginia." In 
the course of his arduous services, four horses were 
shot from under him, and he was wounded four times. 

In 1864, Gen. Hayes was elected to Congress, from 
the Second Ohio District, which had long been Dem- 
ocratic. He was not present during the campaign, 
and after his election was importuned to resign his 
commission in the army ; but he finally declared, " I 
shall never corne to Washington until I can come by 
the way of Richmond." He was re-elected in 1866. 

In 1867, Gen Hayes was elected Govern or of Ohio, 
over Hon. Allen G. Thurman, a popular Democrat. 
In 1869 was re-elected over George H. Pendleton. 
He was elected Governor for the third term in 1875. 

In 1876 he was the standard bearer of the Repub- 
lican Party in the Presidential contest, and after a 
hard long contest was chosen President, and was in 
augurated Monday, March 5, 1875. He served his 
full term, not, however, with satisfaction to his party, 
but his administration was an average on 




tieth President of the United 
States, was born Nov. ig, 
1831, in the woods of Orange, 
Cuyahoga Co., O His par- 
ents were Abram and Eliza 
(Ballou) Garfield, both of New 
England ancestry and from fami- 
lies well known in the early his- 
tory of that section of our coun- 
try, but had moved to the Western 
Reserve, in Ohio, early in its settle- 

The house in which James A. was 
born was not unlike the houses of 
j poor Ohio farmers of that day. It 
was about 20 x 30 feet, built of logs, with the spaces be- 
tween the logs filled with clay. His father was a 
hard working farmer, and he soon had his fields 
cleared, an orchard planted, and a log barn built. 
The household comprised the father and mother and 
their four children Mehetabel, Thomas, Mary and 
James. In May, 1823, the father, from a cold con- 
tracted in helping to put out a forest fire, died. At 
this time James was about eighteen months old, and 
Thomas about ten years old. No one, perhaps, can 
tell how much James was indebted to his brother's 
toil and self-sacrifice during the twenty years suc- 
ceeding his father's death, but undoubtedly very 
much. He now lives in Michigan, and the two sis- 
ters live in Solon, O., near their birthplace. 

The early educational advantages young Garfield 
enjoyed were very limited, yet he made the most of 
them. He labored at farm work for others, did car- 
penter work, chopped wood, or did anything that 
would bring in a few dollars to aid his widowed 
mother in he' struggles to keep the little family to- 

gether. Nor was Gen. Garfield ever ashamed of his 
origin, and he never forgot the friends of his strug- 
gling childhood, youth and manhood, neither did they 
ever forget him. When in the highest seats of honor, 
the humblest fiiend of his boyhood was as kindly 
greeted as ever. The poorest laborer was sure of the 
sympathy of one who had known all the bitterness 
of want and the sweetness of bread earned by the 
sweat of the brow. He was ever the simple, plain, 
modest gentleman. 

The highest ambition of young Garfield until he 
was about sixteen years old was to be a captain of 
a vessel on Lake Erie. He was anxious to go aboard 
a vessel, which his mother strongly opposed. She 
finally consented to his going to Cleveland, with the 
understanding, however, that he should try to obtain 
some other kind of employment. He walked all the 
way to Cleveland. This was his first visit to the city. 
After making many applications for work, and trying 
to get aboard a lake vessel, and not meeting with 
success, he engaged as a driver for his cousin, Amos 
Letcher, on the Ohio & Pennsylvania Canal. He re- 
mained at this work but a short time when he went 
home, and attended the seminary at Chester for 
about three years, when he entered Hiram and the 
Eclectic Institute, teaching a few terms of school in 
the meantime, and doing other work. This school 
was started by the Disciples of Christ in 1850, of 
which church he was then a member. He became 
janitor and bell-ringer in order to help pay his way. 
He then became both teacher and pupil. He soon 
" exhausted Hiram " and needed more ; hence, in the 
fall of 1854, he entered Williams College, from which 
he graduated in 1856, taking one of the highest hon- 
ors of his class. He afterwards returned to Hiram 
College as its President. As above stated, he early 
united with the Christian or Diciples Church at 
Hiram, and was ever after a devoted, zealous mem- 
ber, often preaching in its pulpit and places where 
he happened to be. Dr. Noah Porter, President of 
Yale College, says of him in reference to his religion : 


" President Garfield was more than a man of 
strong moral and religious convictions. His whole 
history, from boyhood to the last, shows that duty to 
man and to God, and devotion to Christ and life and 
faith and spiritual commission were controlling springs 
of his being, and to a more than usual degree. In 
my judgment there is no more interesting feature of 
his character than his loyal allegiance to the body of 
Christians in which he was trained, and the fervent 
sympathy which he ever showed in their Christian 
communion. Not many of the few 'wise and mighty 
and noble who are called ' show a similar loyalty to 
the less stately and cultured Christian communions 
in which they have been reared. Too often it is true 
that as they step upward in social and political sig- 
nificance they step upward from one degree to 
another in some of the many types of fashionable 
Christianity. President Garfield adhered to the 
church of his mother, the church in which he was 
trained, and in which he served as a pillar and an 
evangelist, and yet with the largest and most unsec- 
tarian charity for all 'who love our Lord in sincerity.'" 

Mr. Garfield was united in marriage with Miss 
Lucretia Rudolph, Nov. 1 1, 1858, who proved herself 
worthy as the wife of one whom all the world loved and 
mourned. To them were born seven children, five of 
whom are still living, four boys and one girl. 

Mr. Garfield made his first political speeches in 1856, 
in Hiram and the neighboring villages, and three 
years later he began to speak at county mass-meet- 
ings, and became the favorite speaker wherever he 
was. During this year he was elected to the Ohio 
Senate. He also began to study law at Cleveland, 
and in 1861 was admitted to the bar. The great 
Rebellion broke out in the early part of this year, 
and Mr. Garfield at once resolved to fight as he had 
talked, and enlisted to defend the old flag. He re- 
ceived his commission as Lieut.-Colonel of the Forty- 
second Regiment of Ohio Volunteer Infantry, Aug. 
14, 1861. He was immediately put into active ser- 
vice, and before he had ever seen a gun fired in action, 
was placed in command of four regiments of infantry 
and eight companies of cavalry, charged with the 
work of driving out of his native State the officer 
(Humphrey Marshall) reputed to be the ablest of 
those, not educated to war whom Kentucky had given 
to the Rebellion. This work was bravely and speed- 
ily accomplished, although against great odds. Pres- 
ident Lincoln, on his success commissioned him 
Brigadier-General, Jan. 10, 1862; and as "he had 
been the youngest man in the Ohio Senate two years 
before, so now he was the youngest General in the 
army." He was with Gen. Buell's army at Shiloh, 
in its operations around Corinth and its march through 
Alabama. He was then detailed as a member of the 
General Court-Martial for the trial of Gen. Fitz-John 
Porter. He was then ordered to report to Gen. Rose- 
crans, and was assigned to the "Chief of Staff." 

The military history of Gen. Garfield closed with 

his brilliant services at Chickamauga, where he won 
the stars of the Major-General. 

Without an effort on his part Gen. Garfield was 
elected to Congress in the fall of 1862 from the 
Nineteenth District of Ohio. This section of Ohio 
had been represented in Congress for sixty years 
mainly by two men Elisha Whittlesey and Joshua 
R. Giddings. It was not without a struggle that he 
resigned his place in the army. At the time he en- 
tered Congress he was" the youngest member in that 
body. There he remained by successive re- 
elections until he was elected President in 1880. 
Of his labors in Congress Senator Hoar says : " Since 
the year 1864 you cannot think of a. question which 
has been debated in Congress, or discussed before a 
tribunel of the American people, in regard to which 
you will not find, if you wish instruction, the argu- 
ment on one side stated, in almost every instance 
better than by anybody else, in some speech made in 
the House of Representatives or on the hustings by 
Mr. Garfield." 

Upon Jan. 14, 1880, Gen. Garfield was elected to 
the U. S. Senate, and on the eighth of June, of the 
same year, was nominated as the candidate of his 
party for President at the great Chicago Convention. 
He was elected in the following November, and on 
March 4, 1881, was inaugurated. Probably no ad- 
ministration ever opened its existence under brighter 
auspices than that of President Garfield, and every 
day it grew in favor with the people, and by the first 
of July he had completed all the initiatory and pre- 
liminary work of his administration and was prepar- 
ing to leave the city to meet his friends at Williams 
College. While on his way and at the depot, in com- 
pany with Secretary Elaine, a man stepped behind 
him, drew a revolver, and fired directly at his back. 
The President tottered and fell, and as he did so the 
assassin fired a second shot, the bullet cutting the 
left coat sleeve of his victim, but inflicting no further 
injury. It has been very truthfully said that this was 
" the shot that was heard round the world " Never 
before in the history of the Nation had anything oc- 
curred which so nearly froze the blood of the people 
for the moment, as this awful deed. He was smit- 
ten on the brightest, gladdest day of all his life, and 
was at the summit of his power and hope. For eighty 
days, all during the hot months of July and August, 
he lingered and suffered. He, however, remained 
master of himself till the last, and by his magnificent 
bearing was teaching the country and the world the 
noblest of human lessons how to live grandly in the 
very clutch of death. Great in life, he was surpass- 
ingly great in death. He passed serenely away Sept. 
19, 1883, at Elheron, N. J., on the very bank of the 
ocean, where he had been taken shortly previous. The 
world wept at his death, as it never had done on the 
death of any other man who had ever lived upon it. 
The murderer was duly tried, found guilty and exe- 
cuted, in one year after he committed the foul deed. 


twenty-first PresKLiu of the 
United States, was born in 
Franklin Cour ty, Vermont, on 
the fifthofOdober, 1830, andis 
the oldest of a family of two 
sons and five daughters. His 
father was the Rev. Dr. William 
Arthur, aBaptistc''.rgyman,who 
emigrated to tb.s country from 
the county Antrim, Ireland, in 
his i8th year, and died in 1875, in 
Newtonville, neai Albany, after a 
long and successful ministry. 

Young Arthur was educated at 
Union College, S< henectady, where 
he excelled in all his studies. Af- 
ter his graduation he taught school 
in Vermont for two years, and at 
the expiration of that time came to 
New York, with $500 in his pocket, 
and entered the office of ex- Judge 
E. D. Culver as student. After 
being admitted to the bar he formed 
a partnership with his intimate friend and room-mate, 
Henry D. Gardiner, with the intention of practicing 
in the West, and for three months they roamed about 
in the Western States in search of an eligible site, 
but in the end returned to New York, where they 
hung out their shingle, and entered upon a success- 
ful career almost from the start. General Arthur 
soon afterward marred the daughter .of Lieutenant 

Herndon, of the United States Navy, who was lost at 
sea. Congress voted a gold medal to his widow in 
recognition of the bravery he displayed on that occa- 
sion. Mrs. Arthur died shortly before Mr. Arthur's 
nomination to the Vice Presidency, leaving two 

Gen. Arthur obtained considerable legal celebrity 
in his first great case, the famous Lemmon suit, 
brought to recover possession of eight slaves who had 
been declared free by Judge Paine, of the Superior 
Court of New York City. It was in 1852 that Jon, 
athan Lemmon, of Virginia, went to New York with 
his slaves, intending to ship them to Texas, when 
they were discovered and freed. The Judge decided 
that they could not be held by the owner under the 
Fugitive Slave Law. A howl of rage went up from 
the South, and the Virginia Legislature authorized the 
Attorney General of that State to assist in an appeal. 
Wm. M. Evarts and Chester A. Arthur were employed 
to represent the People, and they won their case, 
which then went to the Supreme Court of the United 
States. Charles O'Conor here espoused the cause 
of the slave-holders, but he too was beaten by Messrs. 
Evarts and Arthur, and a long step was taken toward 
the emancipation of the black race. 

Another great service was rendered by General 
Arthur in the same cause in 1856. Lizzie Jennings, 
a respectable colored woman, was put off a Fourth 
Avenue car with violence after she had paid her fare. 
General Arthur sued on her behalf, and secured a 
verdict of $500 damages. The next day the compa- 
ny issued an order to admit colored persons to ride 
on their cars, and the other car companies quickly 



followed their example. Before that the Sixth Ave- 
nue Company ran a few special cars for colored per- 
sons and the other lines refused to let them ride at all. 

General Arthur was a delegate to the Convention 
at Saratoga that founded the Republican party. 
Previous to the war he was Judge-Advocate of the 
Second Brigade of the State of New York, and Gov- 
ernor Morgan, of that State, appointed him Engineer- 
in-Chief of his staff. In 1861, he was made Inspec- 
tor General, and soon afterward became Quartermas- 
ter-General. In each of these offices he rendered 
great service to the Government during the war. At 
the end of Governor Morgan's term he resumed the 
practice of the law, forming a partnership with Mr. 
Ransom, and then Mr. Phelps, the District Attorney 
of New York, was added to the firm. The legal prac- 
tice of this well-known firm was very large and lucra- 
tive, each of the gentlemen composing it were able 
lawyers, and possessed a splendid local reputation, if 
not indeed one of national extent. 

He always took a leading part in State and city 
politics. He was appointed Collector of the Port of 
New York by President Grant, Nov. 21 1872, to suc- 
ceed Thomas Murphy, and held the office until July, 
20, 1878, when he was succeeded by Collector Merritt. 

Mr. Arthur was nominated on the Presidential 
ticket, with Gen. James A. Garfield, at the famous 
National Republican Convention held at Chicago in 
June, 1880. This was perhaps the greatest political 
convention that ever assembled on the continent. It 
was composed of the leading politicians of the Re- 
publican party, all able men, and each stood firm and 
fought vigorously and with signal tenacity for their 
respective candidates that were before the conven- 
tion for the nomination. Finally Gen. Garfield re- 
ceived the nomination for President and Gen. Arthur 
for Vice-President. The campaign which followed 
was one of the most animated known in the history of 
our country. Gen. Hancock, the standard-bearer of 
the Democratic party, was a popular man, and his 
party made a valiant fight for his election. 

Finally the election came and the country's choice 
was Garfield and Arthur. They were inaugurated 
March 4, 1881, as President and Vice-President. 
A few months only had passed ere the newly chosen 
President was the victim of the assassin's bullet. Then 
came terrible weeks of suffering, those moments of 
anxious suspense, wher. the hearts of all civilized na- 

tions were throbbing in unison, longing for the re- 
covery of the noble, the good President. The remark- 
able patience that he manifested during those hours 
and weeks, and even months, of the most terrible suf- 
fering man has often been called upon to endure, was 
seemingly more than human. It was certainly God- 
like. During all this period of deepest anxiety Mr. 
Arthur's every move was watched, and be it said to his 
credit that his every action displayed only an earnest 
desire that the suffering Garfield might recover, to 
serve the remainder of the term he had so auspi- 
ciously begun. Not a selfish feeling was manifested 
in deed or look of this man, even though the most 
honored position in the world was at any moment 
likely to fall to him. 

At last God in his mercy relieved President Gar- 
field from further suffering, and the world, as never 
before in its history over the death of any other 
man, wept at his bier. Then it became the duty of 
the Vice President to assume the responsibilities of 
the high office, and he took the oath in New York, 
Sept. 20, 1881. The position was an embarrassing 
one to him, made doubly so from the facts that all 
eyes were on him, anxious to know what he would do, 
what policy he would pursue, and who he would se- 
lect as advisers. The duties of the office had been 
greatly neglected during the President's long illness, 
and many important measures were to be immediately 
decided by him ; and still farther to embarrass him he 
did not fail to realize under what circumstances he 
became President, and knew the feelings of many on 
this point. Under these trying circumstances President 
Arthur took the reins of the Government in his own 
hands; and, as embarrassing as were the condition of 
affairs, he happily surprised the nation, acting so 
wisely that but few criticised his administration. 
He served the nation well and faithfully, until the 
close of his administration, March 4, 1885, and was 
a popular candidate before his party for a second 
term. His name was ably presented before the con- 
vention at Chicago, and was received with great 
favor, and doubtless but for the personal popularity 
of one of the opposing candidates, he would have 
been selected as the standard-bearer of his party 
for another campaign. He retired to private life car- 
rying with him the best wishes of the American peo- 
ple, whom he had served in a manner satisfactory 
to them and with credit to himself. 






LAND,thetwenty-second Pres- 
ident of the United States, was 
born in 1837, in the obscure 
town of Caldwell, Essex Co., 
N. J., and in a little two-and-a- 
half-story white house which is still 
standing, characteristically to mark 
the humble birth-place of one of 
America's great men in striking con- 
trast with the Old World, where all 
men high in office must be high in 
origin and born in the cradle of 
wealth. When the subject of this 
sketch was three years of age, his 
father, who was a Presbyterian min- 
ister, with a large family and a small salary, moved, 
by way of the Hudson River and Erie Canal, to 
Fayetteville, in search of an increased income and a 
larger field of work. Fayetteville was then the most 
straggling of country villages, about five miles from 
Pompey Hill, where Governor Seymour was born. 

At the last mentioned place young Grover com- 
menced going to school in the "good, old-fashioned 
way," and presumably distinguished himself after the 
manner of all village boys, in doing the things he 
ought not to do. Such is the distinguishing trait of 
all geniuses and independent thinkers. When he 
arrived at the age of 14 years, he had outgrown the 
capacity of the village school and expressed a most 

emphatic desire to be sent to an academy. To this 
his father decidedly objected. Academies in those 
days cost money; besides, his father wanted him to 
become self-supporting by the quickest possible 
means, and this at that time in Fayetteville seemed 
to be a position in a country store, where his father 
and the large family on his hands had considerable 
influence. Grover was to be paid $50 for his services 
the first year, and if he proved trustworthy he was to 
receive $100 the second year. Here the lad com- 
menced his career as salesman, and in two years he 
had earned so good a reputation for trustworthiness 
that his employers desired to retain him for an in- 
definite length of time. Otherwise he did not ex- 
hibit as yet any particular " flashes of genius " or 
eccentricities of talent. He was simply a good boy. 
But instead of remaining with this firm in Fayette- 
ville, he went with the family in their removal to 
Clinton, where he had an opportunity of attending a 
high school. Here he industriously pursued his 
studies until the family removed with him to a point 
on Black River known as the " Holland Patent," a 
village of 500 or 600 people, 15 miles north of Utica, 
N. Y. At this place his father died, after preaching 
but three Sundays. This event broke up the family, 
and Grover set out for New York City to accept, at a 
small salary, the position of " under-teacher " in an 
asylum for the blind. He taught faithfully for two 
years, and although he obtained a good reputation in 
this capacity, he concluded that teaching was not his 



calling for life, and, reversing the traditional order, 
he left the city to seek his fortune, instead of going 
to a city. He first thought of Cleveland, Ohio, as 
there was some charm in that name for him; but 
before proceeding to that place he went to Buffalo to 
ask the advice of his uncle, Lewis F. Allan, a noted 
stock-breeder of that place. The latter did not 
speak enthusiastically. " What is it you want to do, 
my boy?" he asked. "Well, sir, I want to study 
law," was the reply. " Good gracious ! " remarked 
the old gentleman ; " do you, indeed ? What ever put 
that into your head? How much money have you 
got?" "Well, sir, to tell the truth, I haven't got 

After a long consultation, his uncle offered him a 
place temporarily as assistant herd-keeper, at $50 a 
year, while lie could "look around." One day soon 
afterward he boldly walked into the office of Rogers, 
Bowen & Rogers, of Buffalo, and told them what he 
wanted. A number of young men were already en- 
gaged in the office, but Graver's persistency won, and 
he was finally permitted to come as an office boy and 
have the use of the law library, for the nominal sum 
of $3 or $4 a week. Out of this he had to pay for 
his board and washing. The walk to and from his 
uncle's was a long and rugged one ; and, although 
the first winter was a memorably severe one, his 
shoes were out of repair and his overcoat he had 
none yet he was nevertheless prompt and regular. 
On the first day of his service here, his senior em- 
ployer threw down a copy of Blackstone before him 
with a bang that made the dust fly, saying " That's 
where they all begin." A titter ran around the little 
circle of clerks and students, as they thought that 
was enough to scare young Grover out of his plans ; 
but in due time he mastered that cumbersome volume. 
Then, as ever afterward, however, Mr. Cleveland 
exhibited a talent for executiveness rather than for 
chasing principles through all their metaphysical 
possibilities. " Let us quit talking and go and do 
it," was practically his motto. 

The first public office to which Mr. Cleveland was 
elected was that of Sheriff of Erie Co., N. Y., in 
which Buffalo is situated ; and in such capacity it fell 
to his duty to inflict capital punishment upon two 
criminals. In 1881 he was elected Mayor of the 
City of Buffalo, on the Democratic ticket, with es- 
pecial reference to the bringing about certain reforms 

in the administration of the municipal affairs of that 
city. In this office, as well as that of Sheriff, his 
performance of duty has generally been considered 
fair, with possibly a few exceptions which were fer- 
reted out and magnified during the last Presidential 
campaign. As a specimen of his plain language in 
a veto message, we quote from one vetoing an iniqui- 
tous street-cleaning contract: "This is a time for 
plain speech, and my objection to your action shall 
be plainly stated. I regard it as the culmination of 
a mos bare-faced, impudent and shameless scheme 
to betray the interests of the people and to worse 
than squander the people's money." The New York 
Sun afterward very highly commended Mr. Cleve- 
land's administration as Mayor of Buffalo, and there- 
upon recommended him for Governor of the Empire 
State. To the latter office he was elected in 1882, 
and his administration of the affairs of State was 
generally satisfactory. The mistakes he made, if 
any, were made very public throughout the nation 
after he was nominated for President of the United 
States. For this high office he was nominated July 
ir, 1884, by the National Democratic Convention at 
Chicago, when other competitors were Thomas F. 
Bayard, Roswell P. Flower, Thomas A. Hendricks, 
Benjamin F. Butler, Allen G. Thurman, etc.; and he 
was elected by the people, by a majority of about a 
thousand, over the brilliant and long-tried Repub- 
lican statesman, James G. Elaine. President Cleve- 
land resigned his office as Governor of New York in 
January, 1885, in order to prepare for his duties as 
the Chief Executive of the United States, in which 
capacity his term commenced at noon on the 4th of 
March, 1885. For his Cabinet officers he selected 
the following gentlemen: For Secretary of State, 
Thomas F. Bayard, of Delaware ; Secretary of the 
Treasury, Daniel Manning, of New York ; Secretary 
of War, William C. Endicott, of Massachusetts; 
Secretary of the Navy, William C. Whitney, of New 
York ; Secretary of the Interior, L. Q. C. Lamar, of 
Mississippi; Postmaster-General, William F. Vilas, 
of Wisconsin ; Attorney-General, A. H. Garland, of 

The silver question precipitated a controversy be- 
tween those who were in favor of the continuance of 
silver coinage and those who were opposed, Mr. 
Cleveland answering for the latter, even before his 










HADRACH BOND, the first 
Governor of Illinois after its 
organization as a State, serving 
from 1818 to 1822, was born in 
Frederick County, Maryland, 
in the year 1773, and was 
raised a farmer on his father's 
plantation, receiving only a plain 
English education. He emigrated 
to this State in 1794, when it was a 
part of the "Northwest Territory," 
continuing in the vocation in which 
he had been brought up in his native 
State, in the " New Design," near 
Eagle Creek, in what is now Monroe 
County. He served several terms as 
a member of the General Assembly 
of Indiana Territory, after it was organized as such, 
and in 1812-14 he was a Delegate to the Twelfth 
and Thirteenth Congresses, taking his seat Dec. 3, 
1812, and serving until Oct. 3, 1814. These were 
the times, the reader will recollect, when this Gov- 
ernment had its last struggle with Great Britain. 
The year 1812 is also noted in the history of this 
State as that in which the first Territorial Legislature 
was held. It convened at Kaskaskia, Nov. 25, and 
adjourned Dec. 26, following. 

While serving as Delegate to Congress, Mr. Bond 
was instrumental in procuring the right of pre-emp- 
tion on the public domain. On the expiration of his 
'term at Washington he was appointed Receiver of 
Public Moneys at Kaskaskia, then the capital of the 
Territory. In company with John G. Comyges, 

Thomas H. Harris, Charles Slade, Michael Jones, 
Warren Brown, Edward Humphries and Charles W. 
Hunter, he became a proprietor of the site of the 
initial city of Cairo, which they hoped, from its favor- 
able location at the junction of the two great 
rivers near the center of the Great West, would 
rapidly develop into a metropolis. To aid the enter- 
prise, they obtained a special charter from the Legis- 
lature, incorporating both the City and the Bank of 

In 1818 Mr. Bond was elected the first Governor 
of the State of Illinois, being inaugurated Oct. 6, 
that year, which was several weeks before Illinois 
was actually admitted. The facts are these: In 
January, 1818, the Territorial Legislature sent a peti- 
tion to Congress for the admission of Illinois as a 
State, Nathaniel Pope being then Delegate. The 
petition was granted, fixing the northern line of the 
State on the latitude of the southern extremity of 
Lake Michigan ; but the bill was afterward so amend- 
ed as to extend this line to its present latitude. In 
July a convention was called at Kaskaskia to draft a 
constitution, which, however, was not submitted to 
the people. By its provisions, supreme judges, pros- 
ecuting attorneys, county and circuit judges, record- 
ers and justices of the peace were all to be appointed 
by the Governor or elected by the Legislature. This 
constitution was accepted by Congress Dec. 30. At 
that time Illinois comprised but eleven counties, 
namely, Randolph, Madison, Gallatin, Johnson, 
Pope, Jackson, Crawford, Bond, Union, Washington 
and Franklin, the northern portion of the State be- 
ing mainly in Madison County. Thus it appears 
that Mr, Bond was. honored by the naming of a 



county before he was elected Governor. The present 
county of Bond is of small limitations, about 60 to 80 
miles south of Springfield. For Lieutenant Governor 
the people chose Pierre Menard, a prominent and 
worthy Frenchman, after whom a county in this State 
is named. In this election there were no opposition 
candidates, as the popularity of these men had made 
their promotion to the chief offices of the Slate, even 
before the constitution was drafted, a foregone con- 

The principal points that excited the people in 
reference to political issues at this period wjre local 
or "internal improvements," as they were called, 
State banks, location of the capital, slavery and the 
personal characteristics of the proposed candidates. 
Mr. Bond represented ths " Convention party," for 
introducing slavery into the State, supported by Elias 
Kent Kane, his Secretary of State, and John Mc- 
Lean, while Nathaniel Pope and John P. Cook led 
the anti-slavery element. The people, however, did 
not become very much excited over this issue until 
1820, when the f.ira >us Missouri Compromise was 
adopted by Congress, limiting slavery to the south 
of the parallel of 36 30' except in Missouri. While 
this measure settled the great slavery controversy, 
so far as the average public sentiment was tempor- 
arily concerned, until 1854, when it was repealed 
under the leadership of Stephen A. Douglas, the issue 
as considered locally in this State was not decided 
until i8"24, after a most furious campaign. (See 
sketch of Gov. Coles.) The ticket of 1818 was a 
compromise one, Bond representing (moderately) the 
pro-slavery sentiment and Menard the anti-slavery. 

An awkward element in the State government 
under Gov. Bond's administration, was the imperfec- 
tion of the State constitution. The Convention 
wished to have Elijah C. Berry for the first Auditor 
of Public Accounts, but, as it was believed that the 
new Governor would not appoint him to the office, 
the Convention declared in a schedule that " an 
auditor of public accounts, an attorney general and 
such other officers of the State as may be necessary, 
may be appointed by the General Assembly." The 
Constitution, as it stood, vested a very large appoint- 
ing power in the Governor ; but for the purpose of 
getting one man into office, a total change was made, 
and the power vested in the Legislature. Of this 
provision the Legislature took advantage, and de- 

clared that State's attorneys, canal commissioners, 
bank directors, etc., were all " officers of the State " 
and must therefore be appointed by itself independ- 
ently of the Governor. 

During Gov. Bond's administration a general law 
was passed for the incorporation of academies and 
towns, and one authorizing lotteries. The session of 
1822 authorized the Governor to appoint commis- 
sioners, to act in conjunction with like commissioners 
appointed by the State of Indiana, to report on the 
practicability and expediency of improving the navi- 
gation of the Wabash River; also inland navigation 
generally. Many improvements were recommended, 
some of which have been feebly worked at even till 
the present day, those along the Wabash being of no 
value. Also, during Gov. Bond's term of office, the 
capital of the State was removed from Kaskaskia to 
Vandalia. In 1820 a law was passed by Congress 
authorizing this State to open a canal through the 
public lands. The State appointed commissioners 
lo explore the route and prepare the necessary sur- 
veys and estimates, preparatory to its execution; 
but, being unable out of its own resources to defray 
the expenses of the undertaking, it was abandoned 
until some time after Congress made the grant of 
land for the purpose of its construction. 

On the whole, Gov. Bond's administration was 
fairly good, not being open to severe criticism from 
any party. In 1824, two years after the expiration 
of his term of office, he was brought out as a candi- 
date for Congress against the formidable John P. 
Cook, but received only 4,374 votes to 7,460 for the 
latter. Gov. Bond was no orator, but had made 
many fast friends by a judicious bestowment of his 
gubernatorial patronage, and these worked zealously 
for him in the campaign. 

In 1827 ex-Gov. Bond was appointed by the Leg- 
islalure, with Wm. P. McKee and Dr. Gershom 
Jayne, as Commissioners to locate a site for a peni- 
tentiary on the Mississippi at or near Alton. 

Mr. Bond was of a benevolent and convivial dis- 
position, a man of shrewd observation and clear ap- 
preciation of events. His person was erect, stand- 
ing six feet in height, and after middle life became 
portly, weighing 200 pounds. His features were 
strongly masculine, complexion dark, hair jet and 
eyes hazel ; was a favorite with the ladies. He died 
April 1 1, 1830, in peace and contentment. 



]>war& Coles. 

DWARD COLES, second 
Governor of Illinois, 1823- 
6, was born Dec. 15, 1786, 
in Albemarle Co., Va., on 
the old family estate called 
"Enniscorthy," on the 
Green Mountain. His fath- 
er, John Coles, was a Colonel in the 
Revolutionary War. Having been fit- 
ted for college by private tutors, he 
was sent to Hampden Sidney, where 
he remained until the autumn of 1805, 
when he was removed to William and 
Mary College, at Williamsburg, Va. 
This college he left in the summer of 
1807, a short time before the final and graduating 
examination. Among his classmates were Lieut. 
Gen. Scott, President John Tyler, Wm. S. Archer, 
United States Senator from Virginia, and Justice 
Baldwin, of the United States Supreme Court. The 
President of the latter college, Bishop Madison, was 
a cousin of President James Madison, and that cir- 
cumstance was the occasion of Mr. Coles becoming 
personally acquainted with the President and re- 
ceiving a position as his private secretary, 1809-15. 
The family of Coles was a prominent one in Vir- 
ginia, and their mansion was the seat of the old- 
fashioned Virginian hospitality. It was visited by 
such notables as Patrick Henry, Jefferson, Madison, 
Monroe, the Randolphs, Tazewell, Wirt, etc. At the 
age of 23, young Coles found himself heir to a plant- 
ation and a considerable number of slaves. Ever 
since his earlier college days his attention had been 
drawn to the question of slavery. He read every- 

thing on the subject that came in his way, and 
listened to lectures on the rights of man. The more 
he reflected upon the subject, the more impossible 
was it for him to reconcile the immortal declaration 
"that all men are born free and equal " with the 
practice of slave-holding. He resolved, therefore, to 
free his slaves the first opportunity, and even remove 
his residence to a free State. One reason which de- 
termined him to accept the appointment as private 
secretary to Mr. Madison was because he believed 
that through the acquaintances ne could make at 
Washington he could better determine in what part 
of the non-slaveholding portion of the Union he would 
prefer to settle. 

The relations between Mr. Coles and President 
Madison, as well as Jefferson and other distinguished 
men, were of a very friendly character, arising from 
the similarity of their views on the question of slavery 
and their sympathy for each other in holding doc- 
trines so much at variance with the prevailing senti- 
ment in their own State. 

In 1857, he resigned his secretaryship and spent a 
portion of the following autumn in exploring the 
Northwest Territory, for the purpose of finding a lo- 
cation and purchasing lands on which to settle his 
negroes. He traveled with a horse and buggy, with 
an extra man and horse for emergencies, through 
many parts of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Missouri, 
determining finally to settle in Illinois. At this time, 
however, a misunderstanding arose between our 
Government and Russia, and Mr. Coles was selected 
to repair to St. Petersburg on a special mission, bear- 
ing important papers concerning the matter at issue. 
The result was a conviction of the Emperor (Alex- 





ander) of the error committed by his minister at 
Washington, and the consequent withdrawal of the 
the latter from the post. On his return, Mr. Coles 
visited oilier parts of Europe, especially Paris, where 
he was introduced to Gen. Lafayette. 

In the spring of 1819, he removed with all his 
negroes from Virginia to Edwardsville, 111., with the 
intention of giving them their liberty. He did not 
make known to them his intention until one beautiful 
morning in April, as they were descending the Ohio 
River. He lashed all the boats together and called 
all the negroes on deck and made them a short ad- 
dress, concluding his remarks by so expressing him- 
self that by a turn of a sentence lie proclaimed in 
the shortest and fullest manner that they were no 
longer slaves, but free as he was and were at liberty 
to proceed with him or go ashore -at their pleas- 
ure. A description of the effect upon the negroes is 
best desciibed in his own language : 

"The effect upon them was electrical. They stared 
at me and then at each other, as if doubting the ac- 
curacy or reality of what they heard. In breathless 
silence they stood before me, unable to utter a word, 
but with countenance.; beaming with expression which 
no words could convey, and which no language 
can describe. As they began to see the truth of 
what they had heard, and realize their situation, there 
came on a kind of hysterical, giggling laugh. After 
a pause of intense and unutterable emotion, bathed 
in tears, and with tremulous voices, they gave vent to 
their gratitude and implored the blessing of God 
on me." 

Before landing he gave them a general certificate 
of freedom, and afterward conformed more particu- 
larly with the law of this State requiring that each 
individual should have a certificate. This act of 
Mr. Coles, all the more noble and heroic considering 
the overwhelming pro-slavery influences surrounding 
him, has challenged the admiration of every philan- 
thropist of modern times. 

Marcli 5, 1819, President Monroe ap|X>inted Mr. 
Coles Registrar of the Land Office at Edwardsvil.a, 
at that time one of the principal land offices in the 
State. While acting in th's capacity and gaining 
many friends by his politeness and general intelli- 
gence, the greatest struggle that ever occurred in 
Illinois on the slavery ques ion culminated in the 
furious contest characterizing the campaigns and 
elections of 1822-4. In the summer of 1823, when a 
new Governor was to be elected to succeed Mr. 
Uond, the pro-slavery element divided into factions, 
pulling forward for the executive office Joseph 
Phillips, Chief Justice of the State, Thomas C. 
Browne and Gen. James B. Moore, of the State Mil- 
ilia. The anti-slavery element united upon Mr. 
Coles, and, after one of the most bitter campaigns, 
succeeded in electing him as Governor. His plural- 
ity over Judge Phillips was only 59 in a total vote of 

over 8,000. The Lieutenant Governor was elected 
by the slavery men. Mr. Coles' inauguration speech marked by calmness, deliberation and such a 
wise expression of appropriate suggestions as to 
elicit the sanction of all judicious politicians. But 
he compromised not with evil. In his message to 
the Legislature, the seat of Government being then 
at Vandalia, he strongly urged the abrogation of the 
modified form of slavery whhh then existed in this 
State, contrary to the Ordinance of 1787. His posi- 
tion on this subject seems the. more remarkable, when 
it is considered that he was a minority Governor, the 
population of Illinois being at that time almost ex- 
clusively from slave-holding States and by a large 
majority in favor of the perpetuation of that old relic 
of barbarism. The Legislature itself was, of course, 
a reflex of the popular sentiment, and a majority of 
them were led on by fiery men in denunciations of 
the conscientious Governor, and in curses loud and 
deep upon him and all his friends. Some of the 
public men, indeed, went so far as to head a sort of 
mob, or " shiveree " party, who visited the residence 
of the Governor and others at Vaudalia and yelled 
and groaned and spat fire. 

The Constitution, not establishing or permitting 
slavery in this State, was thought therefore to be 
defective by the slavery politicians, and they desired 
a State Convention to be elected, to devise and sub- 
mit a new Constitution ; and the dominant politics 
of the day was "Convention" and "anti-Conven- 
tion." Both parties issued addresses to the people, 
Gov. Coles himself being the author of the address 
published by the latter party. This address revealed 
the schemes of the conspirators in a masierly man- 
ner. It is difficult for us at this distant day to esti- 
mate the critical and extremely delicate situation in 
which the Governor was placed at that time. 

Our hero maintained himself honorably and with 
supreme dignity throughout his administration, and 
in his honor a county in this State is named. He 
was truly a great man, and those who lived in 
this State during his sojourn here, like those who 
live at the base of the mountain, were too near to see 
and recognize the greatness that overshadowed them. 

Mr. Coles was married Nov. 28, 1833, by Bishop 
De Lancey, to Miss Sally Logan Roberts, a daughter 
of Hugh Roberts, a descendant of Welsh ancestry, 
who cam.: to this country with Win. Penn in 1682. 

After the expiration of his term of service, Gov. 
Coles continued his residen'-e in Edwardsville, sup- 
erintending his farm in the vicinity. He was fond 
of agriculture, and was the founder of the first agri- 
cultural society in the State. On account of ill 
health, however, and having no family to tie him 
down, he spent much of his time in Eastern cities. 
About 1832 he changed his residence to Philadel- 
phia, where he died July 7, 1868, and is buried at 
Woodland, near that city. 




from 1827 to 1830, was a son 
Y- of Benjamin Edwards, and 
was born in Montgomery 
County, Maryland, in March, 
1775. His domestic train- 
ing was well fitted to give 
his mind strength, firmness and 
honorable principles, and a good 
foundation was laid for the elevated 
character to which he afterwards 
attained. His parents were Bap- 
tists, and very strict in their moral 
principles. His education in early 
youth was in company with and 
partly under the tuition of Hon. Wm. 
Wirt, whom his father patronized j 
and who was more than two years 
older. An intimacy was thus 
formed between them which was lasting for life. He 
was further educated at Dickinson College, at Car 
lisle, Pa. He next commenced the study of law, but 
before completing his course he moved to Nelson 
County, Ky., to open a farm for his father and to 
purchase homes and locate lands for his brothers and 
sisters. Here he fell in the company of dissolute 
companions, and for several years led the life of a 
spendthrift. He was, however, elected to the Legis- 
lature of Kentucky as the Representative of Nelson 
bounty before he was 2 1 years of age, and was re- 
elected by an almost unanimous vote. 

In 1798 he was licensed to practice law, and the 
following year was admitted to the Courts of Tennes- 
see. About this time he left Nelson County for 
Russellville, in Logan County, broke away from his 
dissolute companions, commenced a reformation and 
devoted himself to severe and laborious study. He 
then began to rise rapidly in his profession, and soon 
became an eminent lawyer, and inside of four years 
he filled in succession the offices of Presiding Judge 
of the General Court, Circuit Judge, fourth Judge of 
the Court of Appeals and Chief Justice of the State, 
all before he was 32 years of age ! In addition, in 
1802, he received a commission as Major of a battal- 
ion of Kentucky militia, and in 1804 was chosen a 
Presidential Elector, on the Jefferson and Clinton 
ticket. In 1806 he was a candidate for Congress, 
but withdrew on being promoted to the Court of 

Illinois was organized as a separate Territory in 
the spring of r8og, when Mr. Edwards, then Chief 
Justice of the Court of Appeals in Kentucky, received 
from President Madison the appointment as Gover- 
nor of the new Territory, his commission bearing date 
April 24, r8og. Edwards arrived at Kaskaskia in 
June, and on the i ith of that month took the oath of 
office. At the same time he was appointed Superin- 
tendent of the United States Saline, this Government 
interest then developing into considerable proportions 
in Southern Illinois. Although during the first three 
years of his administration he had the power to make 
new counties and appoint all the officers, yet he always 
allowed the people of each county, by an informal 



vote, to select their own officers, both civil and mili- 
tary. The noted John J. Crittenden, afterward 
United States Senator from Kentucky, was appointed 
by Gev. Edwards to the office of Attorney General of 
the Territory, which office was accepted for a short 
time only. 

The Indians in 1810 committing sundry depreda- 
tions in the Territory, crossing the Mississippi from 
the Territory of Louisiana, a long correspondence fol- 
lowed between the respective Governors concerning 
the remedies, which ended in a council with the sav- 
ages at Peoria in 1812, and a fresh interpretation of 
the treaties. Peoria was depopulated by these de- 
predations, and was not re-settled for many years 

As Gov. Edwards' term of office expired by law in 
1812, he was re-appointed for another term of three 
years, and again in 1815 for a third term, serving 
until the organization of the State in the fall of 1818 
and the inauguration of Gov. Bond. At this time 
ex-Gov. Edwards was sent to the United States 
Senate, his colleague being Jesse B. Thomas. As 
Senator, Mr. Edwards took a conspicuous part, and 
acquitted himself honorably in all the measures that 
came up in that body, being well posted, an able de- 
bater and a conscientious statesman. He thought 
seriously of resigning this situation in 1821, but was 
persuaded by his old friend, Wm. Wirt, and others to 
continue in office, which he did to the end of the 

He was then appointed Minister to Mexico by 
President Monroe. About this time, it appears that 
Mr. Edwards saw suspicious signs in the conduct of 
Wm. H. Crawford, Secretary of the United States 
Treasury, and an ambitious candidate for the Presi- 
dency, and being implicated by the latter in some of 
his statements, he resigned his Mexican mission in 
order fully to investigate the charges. The result 
was the exculpation of Mr. Edwards. 

Pro-slavery regulations, often termed "Black Laws," 
disgraced the statute books of both the Territory and 
the State of Illinois during the whole of his career in 
this commonwealth, and Mr. Edwards always main- 
tained the doctrines of freedom, and was an important 
actor in the great struggle which ended in a victory 
for his parfy in 1824. 

In 1826-7 the Winnebago and other Indians com- 
mitted some depredations in the northern part of the 

State, and the white settlers, who desired the lands 
and wished to exasperate the savages into an evacu- 
ation of the country, magnified the misdemeanors of 
the aborigines and thereby produced a hostility be- 
tween the races so great as to precipitate a little war, 
known in history as the " Winnebago War." A few 
chases and skirmishes were had, when Gen. Atkinson 
succeeded in capturing Red Bird, the Indian chief, 
and putting him to death, thus ending the contest, at 
least until the troubles commenced which ended in 
the " Black Hawk War " of 1832. In the interpre- 
tation of treaties and execution of their provisions 
Gov. Edwards had much vexatious work to do. The 
Indians kept themselves generally within the juris- 
diction of Michigan Territory, and its Governor, 
Lewis Cass, was at a point so remote that ready cor- 
respondence with him was difficult or impossible. 
Gov. Edwards' administration, however, in regard to 
the protection of the Illinois frontier, seems to have 
been very efficient and satisfactory. 

For a considerable portion of his time after his re- 
moval to Illinois, Gov. Edwards resided upon his 
farm near Kaskaskia, which he had well stocked with 
horses, cattle and sheep from Kentucky, also with 
fruit-trees, grape-vines and shrubbery. He estab- 
lished saw and grist-mills, and engaged extensively 
in mercantile business, having no less than eight or ten 
stores in this State and Missouri. Notwithstanding 
the arduous duties of his office, he nearly always pur- 
chased the goods himself with which to supply the 
stores. Although not a regular practitioner of medi- 
cine, he studied the healing art to a considerable ex- 
tent, and took great pleasure in prescribing for, and 
taking care of, the sick, generally without charge. 
He was also liberal to the poor, several widows and 
ministers of the gospel becoming indebted to him 
even for their homes. 

He married Miss Elvira Lane, of Maryland, in 
1803, and they became the affectionate parents of 
several children, one of whom, especially, is well 
known to the people of the " Prairie State," namely, 
Ninian Wirt Edwards, once the Superintendent of 
Public Instruction and still a resident of Springfield. 
Gov. Edwards resided at and in the vicinity of Kas- 
kaskia from 1809 to 1818; in Edwardsville (named 
after him) from that time to 1824; and from the lat- 
ter date at Belleville, St. Clair County, until his 
death, July 20, 1833, of Asiatic cholera. Edwards 
County is also named in his honor. 


j:OHN REYNOLDS, Governor 1831- 
4, was born in Montgomery Coun- 
ty, Pennsylvania, Feb. 26, 1788. 
His father, Robert Reynolds and 
his mother, nee Margaret Moore, 
were both natives of Ireland, from 
which country they emigrated to 
the United States in 1785, land- 
ing at Philadelphia, The senior 
Reynolds entertained an undying 
hostility to the British Govern- 
ment. When the subject of this 
sketch was about six months old, 
his parents emigrated with him to 
Tennessee, where many of their 
relatives had already located, at the base of the 
Copper Ridge Mountain, about 14 miles northeast of 
the present city of Knoxville. There they were ex- 
posed to Indian depredations, and were much molest- 
ed by them. In 1794 they moved into the interior 
of the State. They were poor, and brought up their 
children to habits of manual industry. 

In 1 800 the family removed to Kaskaskia, 111., with 
eight horses and two wagons, encountering many 
hardships on the way. Here young Reynolds passed 
the most of his childhood, while his character began 

Ito develop, the most prominent traits of which were 
ambition and energy. He also adopted the principle 
and practice of total abstinence from intoxicating 
liquors. In 1807 the family made another removal, 

this time to the " Goshen Settlement," at the foot of 
the Mississippi bluffs three or four miles southwest 
of Edwardsville. 

On arriving at his zoth year, Mr. Reynolds, seeing 
that he must look about for his own livelihood and 
not yet having determined what calling to pursue, 
concluded first to attend college, and he accordingly 
went to such an institution of learning, near Knox- 
ville, Tenn., where he had relatives. Imagine his 
diffidence, when, after passing the first 20 years of 
his life without ever having seen a carpet, a papered 
wall or a Windsor chair, and never having lived in a 
shingle-roofed house, he suddenly ushered himself 
into the society of the wealthy in the vicinity of 
Knoxville! He attended college nearly two years, 
going through the principal Latin authors; but it 
seems that he, like the rest of the world in modern 
times, had but very little use for his Latin in after 
life. He always failed, indeed, to exhibit any good 
degree of literary discipline. He commenced the 
study of law in Knoxville, but a pulmonary trouble 
came on and compelled him to change his mode 
of life. Accordingly he returned home and re- 
cuperated, and in 1812 resumed his college and 
law studies at Knoxville. In the fall of 1812 he was 
admitted to the Bar at Kaskaskia. About this time 
he also learned the French language, which he 
practiced with pleasure in conversation with his 
family for many years. He regarded this language 
as being superior to all others for social intercourse. 




From his services in the West, in the war of 181 2, 
he obtained the sobriquet of the " Old Ranger." He 
was Orderly Sergeant, then Judge Advocate. 

Mr. Reynolds o|>ened his first law office in the 
winter and spring of 1814, in the French village of 
Cahokia, then the capital of St. Clair County. 

In the fall of 1818 he was elected an Associate 
Justice upon the Supreme Bench by the General 
Assembly. In 1825 he entered more earnestly than 
ever into the practice of law, and the very next year 
was elected a member of the Legislature, where he 
acted independently of all cliques and private inter- 
ests. In 1828 the Whigs and Democrats were for 
the first time distinctively organized as such in Illi- 
nois, and the usual party bitterness grew up and 
raged on all sides, while Mr. Reynolds preserved a 
judicial calmness and moderation. The real animus 
of the campaign was " Jackson " and " anti-Jackson," 
the former party carrying the State. 

In August, 1830, Mr. Reynolds was elected Gov- 
ernor, amid great excitement. Installed in office, he 
did all within his power to advance the cause of edu- 
cation, internal improvements, the Illinois & Mich- 
igan Canal, the harbor at Chicago, settling the coun- 
try, etc.; also reccmmended the winding up of the 
State Bank, as its affairs had become dangerously 
complicated. In his national politics, he was a 
moderate supporter of General Jackson. But the 
most celebrated event of his gubernatorial admin- 
istration was the Black Hawk War, which occurred 
in 1832. He called out the militia and prosecuted 
the contest with commendable diligence, appearing 
in person on the battle-grounds during the most 
critical periods. He was recognized by the President 
as Major-General, and authorized by him to make 
treaties with the Indians. By the assistance of the 
general Government the war was terminated without 
much bloodshed, but after many serious fights. This 
war, as well as everything else, was materially re- 
tarded by the occurrence of Asiatic cholera in the 
West. This was its first appearance here, and was 
the next event in prominence during Gov. Reynolds' 

South Carolina nullification coming up at this time, 
it was heartily condemned by both President Jackson 
and Gov. Reynolds, who took precisely the same 
grounds as the Unionists in the last war. 

On the termination of his gubernatorial term in 
1834, Gov. Reynolds was elected a Member of Con- 
gress, still considering himself a backwoodsman, as 
he had scarcely been outside of the State since he 
became of age, and had spent nearly all his youthful 
days in the wildest region of the frontier. His first 
move in Congress was to adopt a resolution that in 
all elections made by the House for officers the votes 
should be given viva iwce, each member in his place 
naming aloud the person for whom he votes. This 
created considerable heated discussion, but was es- 

sentially adopted, and remained the controlling prin- 
ciple for many years. The ex Governor was scarcely 
absent from his seat a single day, during eii^ht ses- 
sions of Congress, covering a period of seven years, 
and he never vacillated in a party vote; but he failed 
to get the Democratic party to foster his " National 
Road " scheme. He says, in " My Own Times " (a 
large autobiography he published), that it was only 
by rigid economy that he avoided insolvency while in 
Washington. During his sojourn in that city he was 
married, to a lady of the place. 

In 1837, while out of Congress, and in company 
with a few others, he built the first railroad in the 
Mississippi Valley, namely, one about six miles long, 
leading from his coal mine in the Mississippi bluff to 
the bank of the river opposite St. Louis. Having not 
the means to purchase a locomotive, they operated it 
by horse-power. The next spring, however, the com- 
pany sold out, at great sacrifice. 

In 1839 the ex-Governor was appointed one of the 
Canal Commissioners, and authorized to borrow 
money to prosecute the enterprise. Accord 1 ngly, Jie 
repaired to Philadelphia and succeeding in obtaining 
a million dollars, which, however, was only a fourth 
of what was wanted. The same year he and his 
wife made at our of Europe. This year, also, Mr. 
Reynolds had the rather awkward little responsibility 
of introducing to President Van Buren the noted 
Mormon Prophet, Joseph Smith, as a " Latter-Day 

In 1846 Gov. Reynolds was elected a member of 
the Legislature from St. Clair County, more particu- 
larly for the purpose of obtaining a feasible charter 
for a macadamized road from Belleville to St. Louis, 
a distance of nearly 14 miles. This was immediately 
built, and was the first road of the kind in the State. 
He was again elected tothe Legislature in 1852, when 
he was chosen Speaker of the House. In 1860, aged 
and infirm, he attended the National Democratic 
Convention at Charleston, S. C., as an anti-Douglas 
Delegate, where he received more attention from the 
Southern Delegates than any other member. He 
supported Breckenridge for the Presidency. After 
the October elections foreshadowed the success of 
Lincoln, he published an address urging the Demo- 
crats to rally to the support of Douglas. Immedi- 
ately preceding and during the late war, his corre- 
spondence evinced a clear sympathy for the Southern 
secession, and about the first of March, 1861, he 
urged upon the Buchanan officials the seizure of the 
treasure and arms in the custom-house and arsenal 
at St. Louis. Mr. Reynolds was a rather talkative 
man, and apt in all the Western phrases and catch- 
words that ever gained currency, besides many cun- 
ning and odd ones of his own manufacture. 

He was married twice, but had no children. He 
died in Belleville, in May, 1865, just after the close 
of the war. 


I2 7 


Governor of Illinois Nov. 3 
to 17, 1834, was a native 
of Kentucky, and probably 
of Scotch ancestry. He had 
a fine education, was a gentle- 
man of polished manners and 
refined sentiment. In 1830 John Rey- 
nolds was elected Governor of the State, 
and Zadok Casey Lieutenant Governor, 
and for the principal events that followed, 
and the characteristics of the times, see 
sketch of Gov. Reynolds. The first we 
see in history concerning Mr. Ewing, in- 
forms us that he was a Receiver of Public 
Moneys at Vandalia soon after the organization of 
this State, and that the public moneys in his hands 
were deposited in various banks, as they are usually 
at the present day. In 1823 the State Bank was 
robbed, by which disaster Mr. Ewing lost a thousand- 
dollar deposit. 

The subject of this sketch had a commission as 
Colonel in the Black Hawk War, and in emergencies 
he acted also as Major. In the summer of 1832, 
when it was rumored among the whites that Black 
Hawk and his men had encamped somewhere on 
Rock River, Gen. Henry was sent on a tour of 
reconnoisance, and with orders to drive the Indians 
from the State. After some opposition from his 
subordinate officers, Henry resolved to proceed up 
Rock River in search of the enemy. On the igth of 
July, early in the morning, five baggage wagons. 

camp equipage and all heavy and cumbersome arti- 
cles were piled up and left, so that the army might 
make speedy and forced marches. For some miles 
the travel was exceedingly bad, crossing swamps 
and the worst thickets; but the large, fresh trail 
gave life and animation to the Americans. Gen. 
Dodge and Col. Ewing were both acting as Majors, 
and composed the " spy corps " or vanguard of the 
army. It is supposed the army marched nearly 50 
miles this day, and the Indian trail they followed 
became fresher, and was strewed with much property 
and trinkets of the red-skins that they had lost or 
thrown away to hasten their march. During the 
following night there was a terrific thunder-storm, and 
the soldiery, with all their appurtenances, were thor- 
oughly drenched. 

On approaching nearer the Indians the next day. 
Gen. Dodge and Major Ewing, each commanding a 
battalion of men, were placed in front to bring on the 
battle, but the savages were not overtaken this day 
Forced marches were continued until they reached. 
Wisconsin River,_ where a veritable battle ensued, 
resulting in the death of about 68 of Black Hawk's 
men. The next day they continued the chase, and 
as soon as he discovered the trail of the Indians 
leading toward the Mississippi, Maj. Ewing formed 
his battalion in order of battle and awaited the order 
of Gen. Henry. The latter soon appeared on the 
ground and ordered a charge, which directly resulted 
in chasing the red warriors across the great river. 
Maj. Ewing and his command proved particularly 
efficient in war, as it seems they were the chief actors 
in driving the main body of the Sacs and Foxes, in- 


I 128 


eluding Black Hawk himself, across the Mississippi, 
while Gen. Atkinson, commander-in-chief of the ex- 
pedition, with a body of the army, was hunting for 
them in another direction. 

In the above affair Maj. Ewing is often referred to 
as a " General," which title he had derived from his 
connection with the militia. 

It was in the latter part of the same year (1832) 
that Lieutenant Governor Casey was elected to Con- 
gress and Gen. Ewing, who had been elected -to the 
Senate, was chosen to preside over that body. At 
the August election of 1834, Gov. Reynolds was also 
elected to Congress, more than a year ahead of the 
time at which he could actually take his seat, as was 
then the law. His predecessor, Charles Slade, had 
just died of Asiatic cholera, soon after the elec- 
tion, and Gov. Reynolds was chosen to serve out his 
unexpired term. Accordingly he set out for Wash- 
ington in November of that year to take his seat in 
Congress, and Gen. Ewing, by virtue of his office as 
President of the Senate, became Governor of the 
State of Illinois, his term covering only a period of 
15 days, namely, from the 3d to the lyth days, in- 
clusive, of November. On the ryth the Legislature 
met, and Gov. Ewing transmitted to that body his 
message, giving a statement of the condition of the 
affairs of the State at that time, and urging a contin- 
uance of the policy adopted by his predecessor ; and 
on the same day Governor elect Joseph Duncan 
was sworn into office, thus relieving Mr. Ewing from 

the responsible situation. This is the only time that 
such a juncture has happened in the history of Illi- 

On the 29111 of December, 1835, Gen. Ewing was 
elected a United States Senator to serve out the 
unexpired term of Elias Ken: Kane, deceased. The 
latter gentleman was a very prominent figure in the 
early politics of Illinois, and a county in this State is 
named in his honor. The election of Gen. Ewing to 
the Senate was a protracted struggle. His competi- 
tors were James Semple, who afterwards held several 
important offices in this State, and Richard M. 
Young, afterward a United States Senator and a 
Supreme Judge and a man of vast influence. On 
the first ballot Mr. Semple had 25 votes, Young 19 
and Ewing 18. On the eighth ballot Young was 
dropped ; the ninth and tenth stood a tie ; but on 
the 1 2th Ewing received 40, to Semple 37, and was 
accordingly declared elected. In 1837 Mr. Ewing 
received some votes for a continuance of his term in 
Congress, when Mr. Young, just referred to, was 
elected. In 1842 Mr. Ewing was elected State 
Audit?r on the ticket with Gov. Ford. 

Gen. Ewing was a gentleman of culture, a lawyer 
by profession, and was much in public life. In person 
he was above medium height and of heavy build, 
with auburn hair, blue eyes, large-sized head and 
short face. He was genial, social, friendly and 
affable, with fair talent, though of no high degree of 
originality. He died March 25, 1846. 




1834-8, was born at Paris, 
Ky., Feb. 23, 1794. At the 
tender age of 19 years he en- 
listed in the war against Great 
Britain, and as a soldier he 
acquitted himself with credit. He 
was an Ensign under the daunt- 
less Croghan at Lower Sandusky, 
or Fort Stephenson. In Illinois 
he first appeared in a public capa- 
city as Major-General of the Militia, 
a position which his military fame 
had procured him. Subsequently 
he became a State Senator from 
Jackson County, and is honorably 
mentioned for introducing the first bill providing for 
a free-school system. In r826, when the redoubt- 
able John P. Cook, who had previously beaten such 
men as John McLean, Elias Kent Kane and ex- 
Gov. Bond, came up for the fourth time for Congress, 
Mr. Duncan was brought forward against him by his 
friends, greatly to the surprise of all the politicians. 
As yet he was but little known in the State. He was 
an original Jackson man at that time, being attached 
to his political fortune in admiration of the glory of 
his militaiy achievements. His chances of success 
against Cook were generally regarded as hopeless, 
but he entered upon the campaign undaunted. His 
speeches, though short and devoid of ornament, were 
full of good sense. He made a diligent canvass of 
the State, Mr. Cook being hindered by the condition of 
his health. The most that was expected of Mr. 
Duncan, under the circumstances, was that he would 

obtain a respectable vote, but without defeating Mr. 
Cook. The result of the campaign, however, was a 
source of surprise and amazement to both friends 
and foes, as Mr. Duncan came out 641 votes ahead! 
He received 6,321 votes, and Mr. Cook 5,680. Un- 
til this denouement, the violence of party feeling 
smoldering in the breasts of the people on account 
of the defeat of Jackson, was not duly appreciated. 
Aside from the great convention struggle of 1824, no 
other than mere local and penonal considerations 
had ever before controlled an election in Illinois. 

From the above date Mr. Duncan retained his 
seat in Congress until his election as Governor in 
August, 1834. The first and bloodless year of the 
Black Hawk War he was appointed by Gov. Rey- 
nolds to the position of Brigadier-General of the 
volunteers, and he conducted his brigade to Rock 
Island. But he was absent from the State, in Wash- 
ington, during the gubernatorial campaign, and did 
not personally participate in it, but addressed circu- 
lars to his constituents. His election was, indeed, 
attributed to the circumstance of his absence, be- 
cause his estrangement from Jackson, formerly his 
political idol, and also from the Democracy, largely 
in ascendency in the State, was complete ; but while 
his defection was well known to his Whig friends, 
and even to the leading Jackson men of this State, 
the latter were unable to carry conviction of that fact 
to the masses, as mail and newspaper facilities at 
that day were far inferior to those of the present 
time. Of course the Governor was much abused 
afterward by the fossilized Jackson men who re- 
garded party ties and affiliations as above all 
other issues that could arise; but he was doubtless 




sincere in his opposition to the old hero, as the latter 
had vetoed several important western measures 
which were dear to Mr. Duncan. In his inaugural 
message he threw off the mask and took a bold stand 
against the course of the President. The measures 
he recommended in his message, however, were so 
desirable that the Legislature, although by a large 
majority consisting of Jackson men, could not refrain 
from endorsing them. These measures related 
mainly to banks and internal improvements. 

It was while Mr. Duncan was Governor that the 
people of Illinois w.ent whirling on with bank and in- 
ternal improvement schemes that well nigh bank- 
rupted the State. The hard times of 1837 came on, 
and the disasters that attended the inauguration of 
these plans and the operation of the banks were mu- 
tually charged upon the two political parties. Had 
any one man autocratic power to introduce and 
carry on any one of these measures, he would proba- 
bly have succeeded to the satisfaction of the public ; 
but as many jealous men had hold of the same plow 
handle, no success followed and each blamed the other 
for the failure. In this great vortex Gov. Duncan 
was carried along, suffering the like derogation of 
character with his fellow citizens. 

At the height of the excitement the Legislature 
" provided for " railroads from Galena to Cairo, Alton 
to Shawneetown, Alton to Mount Carmel, Alton to the 
eastern boundary of the State in the direction of 
Terre Haute, Quincy via Springfield to the Wabash, 
Bloomington to Pekin, and Peoria to Warsaw, in all 
about 1,300 miles of road. It also provided for the 
improvement of the navigation of the Kaskaskia, 
Illinois, Great and Little Wabash and Rock Rivers ; 
also as a placebo, $200,000 in money were to be dis- 
tributed to the various counties wherein no improve- 
ments were ordered to be made as above. The 
estimate for the expenses for all these projects was 
placed at a little over $10,000,000, which was not 
more than half enough ! That would now be equal to 
saddling upon the State a debt of $225,000,000 ! It 
was sufficient to bankrupt the State several times 
over, even counting all the possible benefits. 

One of the most exciting events that ever occurred 
in this fair State was the murder of Elijah P. Love- 
joy in the fall of 1837, at Alton, during Mr. Duncan's 
term as Governor. Lovejoy was an " Abolitionist," 
editing the Observer at that place, and the pro- 
slavery slums there formed themselves into a mob, 

and after destroying successively three presses be- 
longing to Mr. Lovejoy, surrounded the warehouse 
where the fourth press was stored away, endeavoring 
to destroy it, and where Lovejoy and his friends 
were entrenching themselves, and shot and killed the 
brave reformer! 

About this time, also, the question of removing the 
State capital again came up, as the 20 years' limit for 
its existence at Vandalia was drawing to a close. 
There was, of course, considerable excitement over 
the matter, the two main points competing for it be- 
ing Springfield and Peoria. The jealousy of the lat- 
ter place is not even yet, 45 years afterward, fully 

Gov. Duncan's term expired in 1838. In 1842 
he was again proposed as a candidate for the Execu- 
tive chair, this time by the Whig party, against Adam 
W. Snyder, of St. Clair County, the nominee of the 
Democrats. Charles W. Hunter was a third candi- 
date for the same position. Mr. Snyder, however, died 
before the campaign had advanced very far, and his 
party substituted Thomas Ford, who was elected, 
receiving 46,901 votes, to 38,584 for Duncan, and 
909 for Hunter. The cause of Democratic success 
at this time is mainly attributed to the temporary 
support of the Mormons which they enjoyed, and the 
want of any knowledge, on the part of the masses, 
that Mr. Ford was opposed to any given policy en- 
tertained in the respective localities. 

Gov. Duncan was a man of rather limited educa- 
tion, but with naturally fine abilities he profited 
greatly by his various public services, and gathered 
a store of knowledge regarding public affairs which 
served him a ready purpose. He possessed a clear 
judgment, decision, confidence in himself and moral 
courage to carry out his convictions of right. In his 
deportment he was well adapted to gain the admira- 
tion of the people. His intercourse with them was 
both affable and dignified. His portrait at the Gov- 
ernor's mansion, from which the accompanying was 
made, represents him as having a swarthy complex- 
ion, high cheek bones, broad forehead, piercing black 
eyes and straight black hair. 

He was a liberal patron of the Illinois College at 
Jacksonville, a member of its Board of Trustees, and 
died, after a short illness, Jan. 15, 1844, a devoted 
member of the Presbyterian Church, leaving a wife 
but no children. Two children, born to them, had 
died in infancy. 


IHOMAS CARLIN, the sixth 

Governor of the State of 
Illinois, serving from 1838 
to 1842, was also a Ken- 
tuckian, being born near 
Frankfort, that State, July 
18, 1789, of Irish paternity. 
The opportunities for an education 
being very meager in his native 
place, he, on approaching years of 
judgment and maturity, applied 
himself to those branches of learn- 
ing that seemed most important, 
and thus became a self-made man ; 
and his taste for reading and 
study remained with him through 
life. In 1803 his father removed 
to Missouri, then a part of " New Spain," where he 
died in 1810. 

In 1812 young Carlin came to Illinois and partici- 
pated in all the "ranging" service incident to the 
war of that period, proving himself a soldier of un- 
daunted bravery. In 1814 he married Rebecca 
Huitt, and lived for four years on the bank of the 
Mississippi River, opposite the mouth of the Mis- 
souri, where he followed fanning, and then removed 
to Greene County. He located the town site of Car- 
roxton, in that county, and in 1825 made a liberal 
donation of land for county building purposes. He 
was the first Sheriff of that county after its separate 
organization, and afterward was twice elected, as a 
Jackson Democrat, to the Illinois Senate. In the 
Black Hawk War he commanded a spy battalion, a 
post of considerable danger. In 1834 he was ap- 
pointed by President Jackson to the position of 
Receiver of Public Moneys, and to fulfill the office 

more conveniently he removed to the city of Quincy. 

While, in rSaS, the unwieldy internal improvement 
system of the State was in full operation, with all its 
expensive machinery, amidst bank suspensions 
throughout the United States, a great stringency in 
the money market everywhere, and Illinois bonds 
forced to sale at a heavy discount, and the " hardest 
times " existing that the people of the Prairie State 
ever saw, the general election of State officers was 
approaching. Discreet men who had cherished the 
hope of a speedy subsidence of the public infatua- 
tion, met with disappointment. A Governor and 
Legislature were to be elected, and these were now 
looked forward to for a repeal of the ruinous State 
policy. But the grand schema had not yet lost its 
dazzling influence upon the minds of the people. 
Time and experience had not yet fully demonstrated 
its utter absurdity. Hence the question of arresting 
its career of profligate expenditures did not become 
a leading one with the dominant party during the 
campaign, and most of the old members of the Leg- 
islature were returned at this election. 

Under these circumstances the Democrats, in State 
Convention assembled, nominated Mr. Carlin for the 
office of Governor, and S. H. Anderson for Lieuten- 
ant Governor, while the Whigs nominated Cyrus Ed- 
wards, brother of Ninian Edwards, formerly Governor, 
and W. H. Davidson. Edwards came out strongly 
for a continuance of the State policy, while Carlin 
remained non-committal. This was the first time 
that the two main political parties in this State were 
unembarrassed by any third party in the field. The 
result of the els :tion was: Carlin, 35,573; Ander- 
son, 30,335 ; Edwards, 29,629 ; and Davidson, 28,- 


Upon the meeting of the subsequent Legislature 

(1839), the retiring Governor CDuncan") in his mes- 


sage spoke in emphatic terms of the impolicy of the 
internal improvement system, presaging the evils 
threatened, and uiged that body to do their utmost 
to correct the great error ; yet, on the contrary, the 
Legislature not only decided to continue the policy 
but also added to its burden by voting more appro- 
priations and ordering more improvements. Although 
the money market was still stringent, a further loan 
of $4,000,000 was ordered for the Illinois & Mich- 
igan Canal alone. Chicago at that time began to 
loom up and promise to be an important city, even 
the great emporium of the West, as it has since in- 
deed came to be. Ex-Gov. Reynolds, an incompe- 
tent financier, was commissioned to effect the loan, 
and accordingly hastened to the East on this respons- 
ible errand, and negotiated the loans, at considera- 
ble sacrifice to the State. Besides this embarrassment 
to Carlin's administration, the Legislature also de- 
clared that he had no authority to appoint a Secretary 
of State until a vacancy existed, and A. P. Field, a 
Whig, who had already held the post by appointment 
through three administrations, was determined to 
keep the place a while longer, in spite of Gov. Car- 
lin's preferences. The course of the Legislature in 
this regard, however, was finally sustained by the 
Supreme Court, in a quo warranty case brought up 
before it by John A. McClernand, whom the Gov- 
ernor had nominated for the office. Thereupon that 
dignified body was denounced as a "Whig Court!" 
endeavoring to establish the principle of life-tenure 
of office. 

A new law was adopted re-organizing the Judici- 
ary, and under it five additional Supreme Judges 
were elected by the Legislature, namely, Thomas 
Ford (afterward Governor), Sidney Breese, Walter B. 
Scales, Samuel H. Treat and Stephen A. Douglas 
all Democrats. 

It was during Cov. Carlin's administration that the 
noisy campaign of " Tippecanoe and Tyler too " oc- 
curred, resulting in a Whig victory. This, however, 
did not affect Illinois politics very seriously. 

Another prominent event in the West during Gov. 
Carlin's term of office was the excitement caused by 
the Mormons and their removal from Independence, 
Mo., to Nauvoo, 111., in 1840. At the same time 
they began to figure somewhat in State politics. On 
account of their believing as they thought, accord- 
ing to the New Testament that they should have 

" all things common," and that consequently " all 
the earth " and all that is upon it were the" Lord's " 
and therefore the property of his " saints," they 
were suspected, and correctly, too, of committing 
many of the deeds of larceny, robbery, etc., that 
were so rife throughout this country in those days. 
Hence a feeling of violence grew up between the 
Mormons and "anti-Mormons." In the State of 
Missouri the Mormons always supported the Dem- 
ocracy until they were driven out by the Democratic 
government, when they turned their support to the 
Whigs. They were becoming numerous, and in the 
Legislature of 1840-1, therefore, it became a matter 
of great interest with both parties to conciliate these 
people. Through the agency of one John C. Ben- 
nett, a scamp, the Mormons succeeded in rushing 
through the Legislature (both parties not daring to 
oppose) a charter for the city of Nauvoo which vir- 
tually erected a hierarchy co-ordinate with the Fed- 
eral Government itself. In the fall of 1841 the 
Governor of Missouri made a demand upon Gov. 
Carlin for the body of Joe Smith, the Mormon leader, 
as a fugitive from justice. Gov.> Carlin issued the 
writ, but for some reason it was returned unserved. 
It was again issued in 1842, and Smith was arrested, 
but was either rescued by his followers or discharged 
by the municipal court on a writ of habeas corpus. 

In December, 1841, the Democratic Convention 
nominated Adam W. Snyder, of Belleville, for Gov- 
ernor. As he had been, as a member of the Legisla- 
ture, rather friendly to the Mormons, the latter 
naturally turned their support to the Democratic 
party. The next spring the Whigs nominated Ex- 
Gov. Duncan for the same office. In the meantime 
the Mormons began to grow more odious to the 
masses of the people, and the comparative prospects 
of the respective parties for success became very 
problematical. Mr. Snyder died in May, and 
Thomas Ford, a Supreme Judge, was substituted as 
a candidate, and was elected. 

At the close of his gubernatorial term, Mr. Carlin 
removed back to his old home at Carrollton, where 
he spent the remainder of his life, as before his ele- 
vation to office, in agricultural pursuits. In 1849 
he served out the unexpired term of J. D. Fry in the 
Illinois House of Representatives, and died Feb. 4, 
1852, at his residence at Carrollton, leaving a wife 
and seven children. 






HOMAS FOR13, Governor 
from 1842 to 1846, and au- 
thor of a very interesting 
history of Illinois, was born 
at Uniontown, Pa., in the 
year 1 800. His mother, after 
the death of her first hus- 
band (Mr. Forquer), married Rob- 
ert Ford, who was killed in 1802, 
by the Indians in the mountains 
of Pennsylvania. She was conse- 
quently left in indigent circum- 
stances, with a large family, mostly 
girls. With a view to better her 
condition, she, in 1804, removed to 
Missouri, where it had been cus- 
tomary by the Spanish Govern- 
ment to give land to actual settlers; but upon her 
arrival at St. Louis she found the country ceded to 
the United States, and the liberal policy toward set- 
tlers changed by the new ownership. After some 
sickness to herself and family, she finally removed to 
Illinois, and settled some three miles south of Water- 
loo, but the following year moved nearer the Missis- 
sippi bluffs. Here young Ford received his first 

schooling, under the instructions of a Mr. Humphrey, 
for which he had to walk three miles. His mother, 
though lacking a thorough education, was a woman 
of superior mental endowments, joined to energy 
and determination of character. She inculcated in 
her children those high-toned principles which dis- 
tinguished her sons in public life. She exercised a 
rigid economy to provide her children an education ; 
but George Forquer, her oldest son (six years older 
than Thomas Ford), at an early age had to quit 
school to aid by his labor in the support of the family. 
He afterward became an eminent man in Illinois 
affairs, and but for his early death would probably 
have been elected to the United States Senate. 

Young Ford, with somewhat better opportunities, 
received a better education, though limited to the 
curriculum of the common school of those pioneer 
times. His mind gave early promise of superior en- 
dowments, with an inclination for mathematics. His 
proficiency attracted the attention of Hon. Daniel P. 
Cook, who became his efficient patron and friend. 
The latter gentleman was an eminent Illinois states- 
man who, as a Member of Congress, obtained a grant 
of 300,000 acres of land to aid in completing the 
Illinois & Michigan Canal, and after whom the 
county of Cook was named. Through the advice of 

ft I4 



this gentleman, Mr. Ford turned his attention to the 
study of law; but Forquer, then merchandising, re- 
garding his education defective, sent him to Transyl- 
vania University, where, however, he remained but 
one term, o-ving to Forquer's failure in business. On 
his return he alternated his law reading with teach- 
ing school for support. 

In 1829 Gov. Edwards appointed him Prosecuting 
Attorney, and in 1831 he was re-appointed by Gov. 
Reynolds, and after that he was four times elected a 
Judge by the Legislature, without opposition, twice a 
Circuit Judge, once a Judge of Chicago, and as As- 
sociate Judge of the Supreme Court, when, in 1841, 
the latter tribunal was re-organized by the addition 
of five Judges, all Democrats. Ford was assigned to 
the Ninth Judicial Circuit, and while in this capacity 
he was holding Court in Ogle County he received a 
notice of his nomination by the Democratic Conven- 
tion for the office of Governor. He immediately re- 
signed his place and entered upon the canvass. In 
August, 1842, he was elected, and on the 8th of De- 
cember following he was inaugurated. 

All the offices which he had held were unsolicited 
by him. He received them uprm the true Jefferson- 
ian principle, Never to ask .uid never to refuse 
office. Both as a lawyer and as a Judge he stood 
deservedly high, but his cast of intellect fitted him 
rather for a writer upon law than a practicing advo- 
cate in the courts. In the latter capacity he was void 
of the moving power of eloquence, so necessary to 
success with juries. As a Judge his opinions were 
"ound, lucid and able expositions of the law. In 
practice, he was a stranger to the tact, skill and in- 
sinuating address of the politician, but he saw through 
the arts of demagogues as well as any man. He was 
plain in his demeanor, so much so, indeed, that at 
one time after the expiration of his term of office, 
during a session of the Legislature, he was taken by 
a stranger to be a seeker for the position of door- 
keeper, and was waited upon at his hotel near mid- 
night by a knot of small office-seekers with the view 
of effecting a " combination ! " 

Mr. Ford had not the "brass" of the ordinary 
llitician, nor that impetuosity which characterizes a 
political leader. He cared little for money, and 
hardly enough for a decent support. In person he 
was of small stature, slender, of dark complexion, 
with black hair, sharp features, deep-set eyes, a 
pointed, aquiline nose having a. decided twist to one 
side, and a small mouth. 

The three most important events in Gov. Ford's 
administration were the establishment of the high 
linancial credit of the State, the " Mormon War "and 
the Mexican War. 

In the first of these the Governor proved himself 
to be eminently wise. .On coming into office he found 
the State badly paralyzed by the ruinous effects of 
the notorious "internal improvement" schemes of 

the preceding decade, with scarcely anything to 
show by way of "improvement." The enterprise 
that seemed to be getting ahead more than all the 
rest was the Illinois & Michigan Canal. As this 
promised to be the most important thoroughfare, 
feasible to the people, it was well under headway in 
its construction. Therefore the State policy wa> 
almost concentrated upon it, in order to rush it on to 
completion. The bonded indebtedness of the State 
was growing so large as to frighten the people, and 
they were about ready to entertain a proposition for 
repudiation. But the Governor had the foresight to 
recommend such measures as would maintain the 
public credit, for which every citizen to-day feels 

But perhaps the Governor is remembered more for 
his connection with the Mormon troubles than for 
anything else; for it was daring his term of office 
that the " Latter-Day Saints " became so strong at 
Nauvoo, built their temple there, increased their num- 
bers throughout the country, committed misdemean- 
ors, taught dangerous doctrines, suffered the loss of 
their leader, Jo Smith, by a violent death, were driven 
out of Nauvoo to the far West, etc. Having been a 
Judge for so many years previously, Mr. Ford of 
course was no.i-committal concerning Mormon affairs, 
and was therefore claimed by both parties and also 
accused by each of sympathizing too greatly with the 
other side. Mormonism claiming to be a system of 
religion, the Governor no doubt was "between two 
fires," and felt compelled to touch the matter rather 
" gingerly," and doubtless felt greatly relieved when 
that pestilential people left the State. Such compli- 
cated matters, especially when religion is mixed up 
with them, expose every person participating in 
them to criticism from all parties. 

The Mexican War was begun in the spring of 
1845, and was continued into the gubernatorial term 
of Mr. Ford's successor. The Governor's connection 
with this war, however, was not conspicuous, as it 
was only administrative, commissioning officers, etc. 

Ford's " History of Illinois " is a very readable and 
entertaining work, of 450 small octavo pages, and is 
destined to increase in value with the lapse of time. 
It exhibits a natural flow of compact and forcible 
thought, never failing to convey the nicest sense. In 
tracing with his trenchant pen the devious operations 
of the professional politician, in which he is inimit- 
able, his account is open, perhaps, to the objection 
that all his contemporaries are treated as mere place- 
seekers, while many of them have since been judged 
by the people to be worthy statesmen. His writings 
seem slightly open to the criticism that they exhibit 
a little splenetic partiality ngainst those of his con- 
temporaries who were prominent during his term of 
office as Governor. 

Tlie death of Gov. Ford took place at Peoria, 111., 
Nov. 2, 1850. 





Augustus c. French. 

Governor of Illinois from 
1846 to 1852, was born in 
the 'town of Hill, in the 
State of New Hampshire, 
Aug. 2, 1808. He was a 
descendant in the fourth 
generation of Nathaniel 
French, who emigrated from England 
in 1687 and settled in Saybury, Mass. 
In early life young French lost his 
father, but continued to receive in- 
struction from an exemplary and 
Christian mother until he was 19 years 
old, when she also died, confiding to 
his care and trust four younger broth- 
ers and one sister. He discharged his trust with 
parental devotion. His education in early life was 
such mainly as a common school afforded. For a 
brief period he attended Dartmouth College, but 
from pecuniary causes and the care of his brothers 
and sister, he did not graduate. He subsequently 
read law, and was admitted to the Bar in 1831, and 
shortly afterward removed to Illinois, settling first at 
Albion, Edwards County, where he established him- 
self in the practice of law. The following year he 
removed to Paris, Edgar County. Here he attained 
eminence in his profession, and entered public life 
by representing that county in the Legislature. A 
strong attachment sprang up between him and Ste- 
phen A. Douglas. 

In 1839, Mr. French was appointed Receiver of 
the United States Land Office at Palestine, Craw- 
ford County, at which place he was a resident when 

elevated to the gubernatorial chair. In 1844 he was 
a Presidential ,Elector, and as such he voted for 
James K. Polk. 

The Democratic State Convention of 1846, meet- 
ing at Springfield Feb. 10, nominated Mr. French 
for Governor. Other Democratic candidates were 
Lyman Trumbull, John Calhoun (subsequently of 
Lecompton Constitution notoriety), Walter B. Scales, 
Richard M. Young and A. W. Cavarly, an array of 
very able and prominent names. Trumbull was per- 
haps defeated in the Convention by the rumor that 
he was opposed to the Illinois and Michigan Canal, 
as he had been a year previously. For Lieutenant 
Governor J. B. Wells was chosen, while other candi- 
dates were Lewis Ross, Wm. McMurtry, Newton 
Cloud, J. B. Hamilton and W. W. Thompson. The 
resolutions declared strongly against the resuscita- 
tion of the old State Banks. 

The Whigs, who were in a hopeless minority, held 
their convention June 8, at Peoria, and selected 
Thomas M. Kilpatrick, of Scott County, for Governor, 
and Gen. Nathaniel G. Wilcox, of Schuyler, for 
Lieutenant Governor. 

In the campaign the latter exposed Mr. French's 
record and connection with the passage of the in- 
ternal improvement system, urging it against his 
election; but in the meantime the war with Mexico 
broke out, regarding which the Whig record was un- 
popular in this State. The war was the absorbing 
and dominating question of the period, sweeping 
every other political issue in its course. The elec- 
tion in August gave Mr. French 58,700 votes, and 
Kilpatrick only 36,775. Richard Eells, Abolitionist 
candidate for the same office, received 5,152 vot-s, 




By the new Constitution of 1848, a new election for 
State officers was ordered in Novembei of that year, 
before Gov. French's term was half out, and he was 
re-elected for the term of four years. He was there- 
fore the incu.nbent for six consecutive years, the 
only Governor of this State who has ever served in 
that capacity so long at one time. As there was no 
organized opposition to his election, he received 67,- 
453 votes, to 5,639 for Pisrre Menard (son of the 
first Lieutenant Governor), 4,748 for Charles V. 
Dyer, 3,834 for W. L. D. Morrison, and 1,361 for 
James I,. D. Morrison. But Win McMurtry, of 
Knox County, was elected Lieutenant Governor, in 
place of Joseph B. Wells, who was before elected 
and did not run again. 

Governor French was inaugurated into office dur- 
ing the progress of the Mexican War, which closed 
during the summer of 1847, although the treaty of 
Guadalupe Hidalgo was not made until Feb. 2, 
1848. The policy of Gov. French's party was com- 
mitted to that war, but in connection with that affair 
he was, of course, only an administrative officer. 
During his term of office, Feb. 19, 1847, the Legisla- 
ture, by special per.nissioti of Congress, declared that 
all Government lands sold to settlers should be im- 
mediately subject to State taxation; before this they 
were exempt for five years after sale. By this ar- 
rangement the revenue was materially" increased. 
About the same lime, the distribution of Government 
land warrants among the Mexican soldiers as bounty 
threw upon the market a great quantity of good 
lands, and this enhanced the settlement of the State. 
The same Legislature authorized, with the recom- 
mendation of the Governor, the sale of the Northern 
Cross Railroad (from Springfield to Meredosia, the 
first in the State and now a section of the Wabash, 
St. Louis & Pacific) It sold for in bonds, 
although it had cost the State not less than a million. 
The salt wells and canal lands in the Saline reserve 
in Gallatin County, granted by the general Govern- 
ment to the State, were also authorized by the 
Governor to be sold, to apply on the State debt. In 
1850, for the first time since 1839, the accruing State 
revenue, exclusive of specific appropriations, was 
sufficient ta meet the current demands upon the 
treasury. The aggregate taxable property of the 
State at this time was over $100,000,000, and the 
population 851,470. 

In 1849 the Legislature adopted the township or- 
ganization law, which, however, proved defective, 
and was properly amended in 1851. At its session 
in the latter year, the General Assembly also passed 
a law to exempt homesteads from sale on executions 
This beneficent measure had been repeatedly urged 
upon that body by Gov. French. 

In 1850 some business men in St. Louis com- 
menced to build a dike opposite the lower part of 
their city on the Illinois side, to keep the Mississippi 
in its channel near St. Louis, instead of breaking 
away from them as it sometimes threatened to do. 
This they undertook without permission from the 
Legislature or Executive authority of this State ; and 
as many of the inhabitants there complained that 
the scheme would inundate and ruin much valuable 
land, there was a slight conflict of jurisdictions, re- 
sulting in favor of the St. Louis project; and since 
then a good site has existed there for a city (East St. 
Louis), and now a score of railroads center there. 

It was in September, 1850, that Congress granted 
to this State nearly 3,000,000 acres of land in aid of 
the completion of the Illinois Central Railroad, 
which constituted the most important epoch in the 
railroad we might say internal improvement his- 
tory of the State. The road was rushed on to com- 
pletion, which accelerated the settlement of the in- 
terior of the State by a good class cf industrious citi- 
zens, and by the charter a good income to the State 
Treasury is paid in from the earnings of the road. 

In 185 i the Legislature passed a law authorizing 
free stock banks, which was the source of much leg- 
islative discussion for a number of years. 

But we have not space further to particularize 
concerning legislation. Gov. French's administra- 
tion was not marked by any feature to be criticised, 
while the country was settling up as never before. 

In stature, Gov. French was of medium height, 
squarely built, light complexioned, with ruddy face 
and pleasant countenance. In manners he was 
plain and agreeable. By nature he was somewhat 
diffident, but he was often very outspoken in his con- 
victions of duty. In public speech he was not an 
orator, but was chaste, earnest and persuasive. In 
business he was accurate and methodical, and in his 
administration he kept up the credit of the State. 

He died in 1865, at his home in Lebanon, St 
Clair Co., 111. 

M7 \ 


|OEL A. MATTESON, Governor 
1853-6, was born Aug. 8, 1808, 
in Jefferson County, New York, 
to which place his father had re- 
moved from Vermont three years 
before. His father was a farmer 
in fair circumstances, but a com- 
mon English education was all 
that his only son received. Young 
Joel first tempted fortune as a 
small tradesman in Prescott, 
Canada, before he was of age. 
He returned from that place to 
his home, entered an academy, 
taught school, visited the prin- 
cipal Eastern cities, improved a farm his father had 
given him, made a tour in the South, worked there 
in building railroads, experienced a storm on the 
Gulf of Mexico, visited the gold diggings of Northern 
Georgia, and returned via Nashville to St. Louis and 
through Illinois to his father's home, when he mar- 
ried. In 1833, having sold his farm, he removed, 
with his wife and one child, to Illinois, and entered 
a claim on Government land near the head of Au 
Sable River, in what is now Kendall County. At 
that time there were not more than two neighbors 
within a range of ten miles of his place, and only 
three or four houses between him and Chicago. He 
opened a large farm. His family -was boardv^ '" 

miles away while he erected a house on his claim, 
sleeping, during this time, under a rude pole shed. 
Here his life was once placed in imminent peril by 
a huge prairie rattlesnake sharing his bed. 

In 1835 he bought largely at the Government land 
sales. During the speculative real-estate mania which 
broke out in Chicago in 1836 and spread over the State, 
he sold his lands under the inflation of that period 
and removed to Joliet. In 1838 he became a heavy 
contractor on the Illinois & Michigan Canal. Upon 
the completion of his job in i84r, when hard times 
prevailed, business at a stand, contracts paid in State 
scrip; when all the public works except the canal 
were abandoned, the State offered for sale 700 tons 
of railroad iron, which was purchased by Mr. Mat- 
teson at a bargain. This he accepted, shipped and 
sold at Detroit, realizing a very handsome profit, 
enough to pay off all his canal debts and leave him a 
surplus of several thousand dollars. His enterprise 
next prompted him to start a woolen mill at Joliet, 
in which he prospered, and which, after successive 
enlargements, became an enormous establishment. 

In 1842 he was first elected a State Senator, but, 
by a bungling apportionment, John Pearson, a Senator 
holding over, was found to be in the same district, 
and decided to be entitled to represent it. Mat- 
teson's seat was declared vacant. Pearson, however, 
with a nobleness difficult to appreciate in this day of 




greed for office, unwilling lo represent his district 
under the circumstances, immediately resigned his 
unexpired term of two years. A bill was passed in a 
few hours ordering a new election, and in ten days' 
time Mr. Matteson was returned re-elected and took 
his seat as Senator. From his well-known capacity 
as a business man, he was made Chairman of the 
Committee on Finance, a position he held during 
this half and t.vo full succeeding Senatorial terms, 
discharging its important daties with ability and faith- 
fulness. Besides his extensive woolen-mill interest, 
when work was resumed on the canal under the new 
loan of $[,600,000 he again became a heavy con- 
tractor, and also subsequently operated largely in 
building railroads. Thus he showed himself a most 
energetic and thorough business man. 

He was nominated for Governor by the Demo- 
cratic State Convention which met at Springfield 
April 20, 1852. Other candidates before the Con- 
vention were D. L. Gregg and F. O. Sherman, of 
Cook ; John Dement, of Lee ; Thomas L. Harris, of 
Menard; Lewis W. Ross, of Fulton; and D. P. Bush, 
of Pike. Gustavus Koerner, of St. Clair, was nom- 
inated for Lieutenant Governor. For the same offices 
the Whigs nominated Edwin B. Webb and Dexter A. 
Knowlton. Mr. Matteson received 80,645 votes at 
the election, while Mr. Webb received 64,408. Mat- 
teson's forte was not on the stump; he had not cul- 
tivated the art of oily flattery, or the faculty of being 
all things to all men. His intellectual qualities took 
rather the direction of efficient executive ability. His 
turn consisted not so much in the adroit manage- 
ment of party, or the powerful advocacy of great gov- 
ernmental principles, as in those more solid and 
enduring operations which cause the physical devel- 
opment and advancement of a State, of commerce 
and business enterprise, into which he labored with 
success to lead the people. As a politician he was 
just and liberal in his views, and both in official and 
private life he then stood untainted and free from 
blemish. As a man, in active benevolence, social 
rirtues and all the amiable qualities of neighbor or 
citizen, he had few superiors. His messages present 
a perspicuous array of facts as to the condition of the 
State, and are often couched in forcible and elegant 

The greatest excitement during his term of office 
was the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, by Cpn- 

gress, under the leadership of Stephen A. Douglas in 
1854, when the bill was passed organizing the Terri- 
tory of Kansas and Nebraska. A large portion of 
the Whig party of the North, through their bitter op- 
position to the Democratic party, naturally drifted 
into the doctrine of anti-slavery, and thus led to what 
was temporarily called the "Anti-Nebraska" party, 
while the followers of Douglas were known as " Ne- 
braska or Douglas Democrats." It was during this 
embryo stage of the Republican party that Abraham 
Lincoln was brought forward as the "Anti-Nebraska" 
candidate for the United States Senatorship, while 
Gen. James Shields, the incumbent, was re-nom- 
inated by the Democrats. But after a fewballotings 
in the Legislature (1855), these men were dropped, 
and Lyman Trumbull, an Anti-Nebraska Democrat, 
was brought up by the former, and Mr. Matteson, 
then Governor, by the latter. On the nth ballot 
Mr. Trumbull obtained one majority, and was ac- 
cordingly declared elected. Before Gov. Matteson 's 
term expired, the Republicans were fully organized 
as a national party, and in 1856 put into the field a 
full national and State ticket, carrying the State, but 
not the nation. 

The Legislature of 1855 passed two very import- 
ant measures, the present free-school system and a 
submission of the Maine liquor law to a vote of the 
people. The latter was defeated by a small majority 
of the popular vote. 

During the four years of Gov. Matteson's admin- 
istration the taxable wealth of the State was about 
trebled, from $137,818.079 to $349,95 [,272; the pub- 
lic debt \v:is reduced from $17,398,985 to $12,843,- 
144; taxation was at the same time reduced, and the 
State resumed paying interest on its debt in New 
York as fast as it fell due; railroads were increased 
in their mileage from something lei,s than 400 to 
about 3,000 ; and the population of Chicago was 
nearly doubled, and its commerce more than quad- 

Before closing this account, we regret that we have 
to say that Mr. Matteson, in all other respects an 
upright man and a good Governor, was implicated 
in a false re-issue of redeemed canal scrip, amount- 
ing to $224,182.66. By a suit in the Sangamon Cir- 
cuit Court the State recovered the principal and all 
the interest excepting $27,500. 

He died in the winter of 1872-3, at Chicago. 



ernor 1857-60, was born 
April 25, 1811, in the 
State of New York, near 
Painted Post, Yates County. 
His parents were obscure, 
honest, God-fearing people, 
who reared their children under the daily 
example of industry and frugality, accord- 
ing to the custom of that class of Eastern 
society. Mr. Bissell received a respecta- 
ble but not thorough academical education. 
By assiduous application he acquired a 
knowledge of medicine, and in his early 
manhood came West and located in Mon- 
roe County, this State, where he engaged in the 
practice of that profession. But he was not enam- 
ored of his calling: he was swayed by a broader 
ambition, to such an extent that the mysteries of the 
healing art and its arduous duties failed to yield him 
further any charms. In a few years he discovered 
his choice of a profession to be a mistake, and when 
he approached the age of 30 he sought to begin 
anew. Dr. Bissell, no doubt unexpectedly to him- 
self, discovered a singular facility and charm of 
speech, the exercise of which acquired for him a 
ready local notoriety. It soon came lo be under- 

stood that he desired to abandon his profession and 
take up that of the law. During terms of Court he 
would spend his time at the county seat among the 
members of the Bar, who extended to him a ready 

It was not strange, therefore, that he should drift 
into public life. In 1840 he was elected as a Dem- 
ocrat to the Legislature from Monroe County, and 
was an efficient member of that body. On his re- 
turn home he qualified himself for admission to the 
Bar and speedily rose to the front rank as an advo- 
cate. His powers of oratory were captivating. With a 
pure diction, charming and inimitable gestures, 
clearness of statement, and a remarkable vein of sly 
humor, his efforts before a jury told with irresistible 
effect. He was chosen by the Legislature Prosecut- 
ing Attorney for the Circuit in which he lived, and 
in that position he fully discharged his duty to the 
State, gained the esteem of the Bar, and seldom 
failed lo convict the offender of the law. 

In stature he was somewhat tall and slender, and 
with a straight, military bearing, he presented a dis- 
tinguished appearance. His complexion was dark, 
his head well poised, though not large, his address 
pleasant and manner winning. He was exemplary 
in his habits, a devoted husband and kind parent. 
He was twice married, the first time to Miss James, 



of Monroe County, by whom he had two children, 
both daughters. She died soon after the year 1840, 
and Mr. B. married for his second wife a daughter 
of Elias K. Kane, previously a United States Senator 
from this State. She survived him but a short time, 
and died without issue. 

When the war with Mexico was declared in 1846, 
Mr. Bissell enlisted and was elected Colonel of his 
regiment, over Hon. Don Morrison, by an almost 
unanimous vote, 807 to 6. Considering the limited 
opportunities he had had, he evinced a high order of 
military talent. On the .bloody field of Buena Vista 
he acquitted himself with intrepid and distinguished 
ability, contributing with his regiment, the Second 
Illinois, in no small degree toward saving the waver- 
ing fortunes of our arms during that long and fiercely 
contested battle. 

After his return home, at the close of the war, he 
was elected to Congress, his opponents being the 
Hons. P. B. Fouke and Joseph Gillespie. He served 
two terms in Congress. He was an ardent politician. 
During the great contest of 1850 he voted in favor 
of the adjustment measures; but in 1854 he opposed 
the repeal of the Missouri Compromise act and 
therefore the Kansas-Nebraska bill of Douglas, and 
thus became identified with the nascent Republican 

During his first Congressional term, while the 
Southern members were following their old practice 
of intimidating the North by bullying language, 
and claiming most of the credit for victories in the 
Mexican War, and Jefferson Davis claiming for the 
Mississippi troops all the credit for success at Buena 
Vista, Mr. Bissell bravely defended the Northern 
troops ; whereupon Davis challenged Bissell to a duel, 
which was accepted. This matter was brought up 
against Bissell when he was candidate for Governor 
and during his term of office, as the Constitution of 
this State forbade any duelist from holding a State 

In 1856, when the Republican party first put forth 
a candidate, John C. Fremont, for President of the 
United States, the same party nominated Mr. Bissell 
for Governor of Illinois, and John Wood, of Quincy, 
for Lieutenant Governor, while the Democrats nomi- 
nated Hon. W. A. Richardson, of Adams County, 
for Governor, and Col. R. J. Hamilton, of Cook 
r County, for Lieutenant Governor. The result of the 

election was a plurality of 4,729 votes over Richard- 
son. The American, or Know-Nothing, party had a 
ticket in the field. The Legislature was nearly bal- 
anced, but was politically opposed to the Governor. 
His message to the Legislature was short and rather 
ordinary, and was criticised for expressing the sup- 
posed obligations of the people to the incorporators 
of the Illinois Central Railroad Company and for re- 
opening the slavery question by allusions to the 
Kansas troubles. Late in the session an apportion- 
ment bill, based upon the State census of 1855, was 
passed, amid much partisan strife. The Governor 
at first signed the bill and then vetoed it. A furious 
debate followed, and the question whether the Gov- 
ernor had the authority to recall a signature was 
referred to the Courts, that of last resort deciding in 
favor of the Governor. Two years afterward another 
outrageous attempt was made for a re-apportionment 
and to gerrymander the State, but the Legislature 
failed to pass the bill over the veto of the Governor. 

It was during Gov. Bissell 's administration that 
the notorious canal scrip fraud was brought to light, 
implicating ex-Gov. Matteson and other prominent 
State officials. The principal and interest, aggregat- 
ing $255,500, was all recovered by the State except- 
ing $27,500. (See sketch of Gov. Matteson.) 

In 1859 an attempt was discovered to fraudu- 
lently refund the Macalister and Stebbins bonds and 
thus rob the State Treasury of nearly a quarter of a 
million dollars. The State Government was impli- 
cated in this affair, and to this day remains unex- 
plained or unatoned for. For the above, and other 
matters previously mentioned, Gov. Bissell has been 
severely criticised, and he has also been most shame- 
fully libelled and slandered. 

On account of exposure in the army, the remote 
cause of a nervous form of disease gained entrance 
into his system and eventually developed paraplegia, 
affecting his lower extremities, which, while it left 
his body in comparative health, deprived him of loco- 
motion except by the aid of crutches. While he was 
generally hopeful of ultimate recovery, this myste- 
rious disease pursued him, without once relaxing its 
stealthy hold, to the close of his life, March 18, 
1860, over nine months before the expiration of his 
gubernatorial term, at the early age of 48 years. He 
died in the faith of the Roman Catholic Church, of 
which he harl been a member since 1854. 


j:OHN WOOD, Governor 1860-1, and 
the first settler of Quincy, 111., 
was born in the town of Sempro- 
nius (now Moravia), Cayuga Co., 
N. Y., Dec. 20, 1798. He was 
the second child and only son of 
Dr. Daniel Wood. His mother, 
nee Catherine Crause, was of 
German parentage, and died 
while he was an infant. Dr. 
Wood was a learned and skillful 
physician, of classical attain- 
ments and proficient in several 
modern languages, who, after 
serving throughout the Revolu- 
tionary War as a Surgeon, settled on the land granted 
him by the Government, and resided there a re- 
spected and leading influence in his section until his 
death, at the ripe age of 92 years. 

The subject of this sketch, impelled by the spirit 
of Western adventure then pervading everywhere, 
left his home, Nov. 2, 1818, and passed the succeed- 
ing winter in Cincinnati, Ohio. The following sum- 
mer he pushed on to Illinois, landing at Shawneetown, 
and spent the fall and following winter in Calhoun 
County. In 1820, in company with Willard Keyes, 
he settled in Pike County, about 30 miles southeast 
of Quincy, where for the next two years he pursued 
farming. In 1821 he visited "the Bluffs" (as the 
present site of Quincy was called, then uninhabited) 
and, pleased with its prospects, soon after purchased 
a quarter-section of land near by, and in the follow- 
ing fall (1822) erected near the river a small cabin, 

18 x 20 feet, the first building in Quincy, of which 
he then became the first and for some months the 
only occupant. 

About this time he visited his old friends in Pike 
County, chief of whom was William Ross, the lead- 
ing man in building up the village of Atlas, of that 
county, which was thought then to be the possible 
commencement of a city. One day they and others 
were traveling together over the country between the 
two points named, making observations on the com- 
parative merits of the respective localities. On ap- 
proaching the Mississippi near Mr. Wood's place, 
the latter told hjs companions to follow him and he 
would show them where he was going to build a city. 
They went about a mile off the main trail, to a high 
point, from which the view in every direction was 
most magnificent, as it had been for ages and as yet 
untouched by the hand of man. Before them swept 
by the majestic Father of Waters, yet unburdened by 
navigation. After Mr. Wood had expatiated at 
length on the advantages of the situation, Mr. Ross 
replied, " But it's too near Atlas ever to amount to 

Atlas is still a cultivated farm, and Quincy is a 
city of over 30,000 population. 

In 1824 Mr. Wood gave a newspaper notice, 
as the law then prescribed, of his intention to apply 
to the General Assembly for the formation of a new 
county. This was done the following winter, result- 
ing in the establishment of the present Adams 
County. During the next summer Quincy was se- 
lected as the county seat, it and the vicinity then " 
containing but four adult male residents and half 



that number of females. Since that period Mr. 
Wood resided at the place of his early adoption un- 
til his death, and far more than any other man was 
he identified with every measure of its progress and 
history, and almost continuously kept in public posi- 

He was one of the early town Trustees, and after 
the place became a city he was often a member of 
the City Council, many times elected Mayor, in the 
face of a constant large opposition political majority. 
In 1850 he was elected to the State Senate. In 1856, 
on the organization of the Republican party, he was 
chosen Lieutenant Governor of the State, on the 
ticket with Wm. H. Bissell for Governor, and on the 
death of the latter, March 18, 1860, he succeeded to 
the Chief Executive chair, which he occupied until 
Gov. Yates was inaugurated nearly ten months after- 

Nothing very marked characterized the adminis- 
tration of Gov. Wood. The great anti-slavery cam- 
paign of 1860, resulting in the election of the honest 
Illinoisan, Abraham Lincoln, to the Presidency of the 
United States, occurred during the short period 
while Mr. Wood was Governor, and the excitement 
and issues of that struggle dominated over every 
other consideration, indeed, supplanted them in a 
great measure. The people of Illinois, during all 
that time, were passing the comparatively petty strifes 
under Bissell's administration to the overwhelming 
issue of preserving the whole nation from destruction. 

In 186 r ex-Gov. Wood was one of the five Dele- 
gates from Illinois to the " Peace Convention " at 
Washington, and in April of the san.e year, on the 
breaking out of the Rebellion, he was appointed 

Quartermaster-General of the State, which position 
he held throughout the war. In 1864 he took com- 
mand as Colonel of the i37th 111. Vol. Inf., with 
whom he served until the period of enlistment ex- 

Politically, Gov. Wood was always actively identi- 
fied with the Whig and Republican parties. Few 
men have in personal experience comprehended so 
many surprising and advancing local changes as 
vested in the more than half century recollections of 
Gov. Wood. Sixty-four years ago a solitary settler 
on the "Bluffs," with no family, and no neighbor 
within a score of miles, the world of civilization away 
behind him, and the strolling red-man almost his 
only visitant, he lived to see growing around him, 
and under his auspices and aid, overspreading the 
wild hills and scraggy forest a teaming city, second 
only in size in the State, and surpassed nowhere in 
beauty, prosperity and promise ; whose people recog- 
nize as with a single voice the proverbial honor and 
liberality that attach to the name and lengthened 
life of their pioneer settler, "the old Governor." 

Gov. Wood was twice married, first in January, 
1826, to Ann M. Streeter, daughter of Joshua Streeter, 
formerly of Salem, Washington Co., N. Y. They had 
eight children. Mrs. W. died Oct. 8, 1863, and in 
June, 1865, Gov. Wood married Mrs. Mary A., widow 
of Rev. Joseph T. Holmes. Gov. Wood died June 4, 
1880, at his residence in Quincy. Four of his eight 
children are now living, namely: Ann E., wife of 
Gen. John Tillson; Daniel C., who married Mary J. 
Abernethy ; John, Jr., who married Josephine Skinner, 
and Joshua S., who married Annie Bradley. The 
last mentioned now resides at Atchison, Kansas, and 
all the rest are still at Quincy. 



Governor," 1861-4, was born 
Jan. 1 8, 1818, on the banks of 
the Ohio River, at Warsaw, 
Gallatin Co., Ky. His father 
moved in 1831 to Illinois, and ( 
after stopping for a time in 
Springfield, settled at Island 
Grove, Sangamon County. Here, 
after attending school, Richard joined 
the family. Subsequently he entered 
Illinois College at Jacksonville, 
where, in 1837, he graduated with 
first honors. He chose for his pro- 
fession the law, the Hon. J. J. Har- 
din being his instructor. After ad- 
mission to the Bar he soon rose to distinction as an 

Gifted with a fluent and ready oratory, he soon 
appeared in the political hustings, andj being a 
passionate admirer of the great Whig leader of the 
West, Henry Clay, he joined his political fortunes to 
the party of his idol. In 1840 he engaged with great 
ardor in the exciting " hard cider " campaign for 
Harrison. Two years later he was elected to the 
Legislature from Morgan County, a Democratic 
stronghold. He served three or four terms in the 
Legislature, and such was the fascination of his ora- 
tory that by 1850 his large Congressional District, 
extending from Morgan and Sangamon Counties 
north to include LaSalle, unanimously tendered him 
the Whig nomination for Congress. His Democratic 
opponent was Maj. Thomas L. Harris, a very pop- 
ular man who had won distinction at the battle of 
Cerro Gordo, in the Mexican War, and who had 
beaten Hon. Stephen T. Logan for the same position, 

two years before, by a large majority. Yates was 
elected. Two years later he was re-elected, over 
John Calhoun. 

It was during Yates' second term in Congress that 
the great question of the repeal of the Missouri Com- 
promise was agitated, and the bars laid down for re- 
opening the dreaded anti-slavery question. He took 
strong grounds against the repeal, and thus became 
identified with the rising Republican party. Conse- 
quently he fell into the minority in his district, which 
was pro-slavery. Even then, in a third contest, he 
fell behind Major Harris only 200 votes, after the 
district had two years before given Pierce 2,000 
majority for President. 

The Republican State Convention of 1860 met at 
Decatur May 9, and nominated for the office of Gov- 
ernor Mr. Yates, in preference to Hon. Norman B. 
Judd, of Chicago, and Leonard Swett, of Blooming- 
ton, two of the ablest men of the State, who were 
also candidates before the Convention. Francis A. 
Hoffman, of DuPage County, was nominated for 
Lieutenant Governor. This was the year when Mr. 
Lincoln was a candidate for President, a period re- 
membered as characterized by the great whirlpool 
which precipitated the bloody War of the Rebellion. 
The Douglas Democrats nominated J. C. Allen of 
Crawford County, for Governor, and Lewis W. Ro:=s, 
of Fulton County, for Lieutenant Governor. The 
Breckenridge Democrats and the Bell-Everett party 
had also full tickets in the field. After a most fear- 
ful campaign, the result of the election gave Mr. 
Yates 172,196 votes, and Mr. Allen 159,253. Mr. 
Yates received over a thousand more votes than did 
Mr. Lincoln himself. 

Gov. Yates occupied the chair of State during the 



1 60 

most critical period of our country's history. In the 
fate of the nation was involved that of each State. 
The life struggle of the former derived its sustenance 
from the loyalty of the latter; and Gov. Yates 
seemed to realize the situation, and proved himself 
both loyal and wise in upholding the Government. 
He had a deep hold upon the affections of the 
people, won by his moving eloquence and genial 
manners. Erect and symmetrical in person, of pre- 
possessing appearance, with a winning address and a 
magnetic power, few men possessed more of the ele- 
ments of popularity. His oratory was scholarly and 
captivating, his hearers hardly knowing why they 
were transported. He was social and convivial. In 
the latter respect he was ultimately carried too far. 

The very creditable military efforts of this State 
during the War of the Rebellion, in putting into the 
field the enormous number of about 200,000 soldiers, 
were ever promptly and ably seconded by his excel- 
lency ; and the was ambitious to deserve the title of 
"the soldier's friend." Immediately after the battle of 
Shiloh he repaired to the field of carnage to look 
after the wounded, and his appeals for aid were 
promptly responded to by the people. His procla- 
mations calling for volunteers were impassionate 
appeals, urging upon the people the duties and re- 
quirements of patriotism ; and his special message 
in 1863 to the Democratic Legislature of this State 
pleading for material aid for the sick and wounded 
soldiers of Illinois regiments, breathes a deep fervor 
of noble sentiment and feeling rarely equaled in 
beauty or felicity of expression. Generally his mes- 
sages on political and civil affairs were able and com- 
prehensive. During his administration, however, 
there were no civil events of an engrossing character, 
although two years of his time were replete with 
partisan quarrels of great bitterness. Military ar- 
rests, Knights of the Golden Circle, riot in Fulton 
County, attempted suppression of the Chicago Times 
and the usurping State Constitutional Convention of 
1862, were the chief local topics that were exciting 
during the Governor's term. This Convention assem- 
bled Jan. 7, and at once took the high position that 
the law calling it was no longer binding, and that it 
had supreme power; that it represented a virtual 
assemblage of the whole people of the State, and was 
sovereign in the exercise of all power necessary to 
\ p effect a peaceable revolution of the State Government 


and to the re-establishment of one for the " happiness, 
prosperity and freedom of the citizens," limited only 
by the Federal Constitution. Notwithstanding the 
law calling the Convention required its members to 
take an oath to support the Constitution of the State 
as well as that of the general Government, they 
utterly refused to take such oath. They also as- 
sumed legislative powers and passed several import- 
ant " laws ! " Interfering with the (then) present 
executive duties, Gov. Yates was provoked to tell 
them plainly that " he did not acknowledge the right 
of the Convention to instruct him in the performance 
of his duty." 

In 1863 the Governor astonished the Democrats 
by " proroguing " their Legislature. This body, after 
a recess, met June 2, that year, and soon began to 
waste time upon various partisan resolutions ; and, 
while the two houses were disagreeing upon the 
question of adjourning sine die, the Governor, having 
the authority in such cases, surprised them all by 
adjourning them " to the Saturday next preceding the 
first Monday in January, 1865 ! " This led to great 
excitement and confusion, and to a reference of the 
Governor's act to the Supreme Court, who decided in 
his favor. Then it was the Court's turn to receive 
abuse for weeks and months afterward. 

During the autumn of 1864 a conspiracy was de- 
tected at Chicago which had for its object the liber- 
ation of the prisoners of war at Camp Douglas, the 
burning of the city and the inauguration of rebellion 
in the North. Gen. Sweet, who had charge of the 
camp at the time, first had his suspicions of danger 
aroused by a number of enigmatically worded letters 
which passed through the Camp postoffice. A de- 
tective afterward discovered that the rebel Gen. 
Marmaduke was in the city, under an assumed 
name, and he, with other rebel officers Grenfell, 
Morgan, Cantrell, Buckner Morris, and Charles 
Walsh was arrested, most of whom were convicted 
by a court-martial at Cincinnati and sentenced to 
imprisonment, Grenfell to be hung. The sentence 
of the latter was afterward commuted to imprison- 
ment for life, and all the others, after nine months' 
imprisonment, were pardoned. 

In March, 1873, Gov. Yates was appointed a Gov- 
ernment Director of the Union Pacific Railroad, in 
which office he continued until his decease, at St. 
Louis, Mo., on the 27th of November following. 



Richard JT. Ogles 


ernor 1865-8, and re-elected 
in 1872 and 1884, was born 
July 25, 1824, in Oldham Co., 
Ky., the State which might 
be considered the " mother of 
Illinois Governors." Bereft of 
his parents at the tender age 
of eight years, his early education 
was neglected. When 12 years of 
age, and after he had worked a year 
and a half at the carpenter's trade, 
he removed with an uncle, Willis 
Oglesby, into whose care he had 
been committed, to Decatur, this 
State, where he continued his ap- 
prenticeship as a mechanic, working six months for 
Hon. E. O. Smith. 

In 1844 he commenced studying law at Spring- 
field, with Judge Silas Robbins, and read with him 
one year. He was admitted to the Bar in 1845, and 
commenced the practice of his chosen profession at 
Sullivan, the county seat of Moultrie County. 

The next year the war with Mexico was com- 
menced, and in June, 1846, Mr. Oglesby volunteered, 
was elected First Lieutenant of Co. C, Fourth Illinois 
Regiment of Volunteers, and participated in the bat- 
tles of Vera Cruz and Cerro Gordo. 

On his return he sought to perfect his law studies 
by attending a course of lectures at Louisville, but 
on the breaking out of the California "gold fever " in 
1849, he crossed the plains and mountains to the 
new Eldorado, driving a six-mule team, with a com- 

pany of eight men, Henry Prather being the leader. 

In 1852 he returned home to Macon County, and 
was placed that year by the Whig party on the ticket 
of Presidential Electors. In 1856 he visited Europe, 
Asia and Africa, being absent 20 months. On his 
return home he resumed the practice of law, as a 
member of the firm of Gallagher, Wait & Oglesby. 
In 1858 he was the Republican nominee for the 
Lower House of Congress, but was defeated by the 
Hon. James C. Robinson, Democrat. In 1860 he 
was elected to the Illinois State Senate ; and on the 
evening the returns of this election were coming in, 
Mr. Oglesby had a fisticuff encounter with " Cerro 
Gordo Williams," in which he came out victorious, 
and which was regarded as " the first fight of the 
Rebellion." The following spring, when the war 
had commenced in earnest, his ardent nature 
quickly responded to the demands of patriotism and 
he enlisted. The extra session of the Legislature 
elected him Colonel of the Eighth Illinois Infantry, 
the second one in the State raised to suppress the 
great Rebellion. 

He was shortly entrusted with important com- 
mands. For a time he was stationed at Bird's Point 
and Cairo ; in April he was promoted Brigadier Gen- 
eral ; at Fort Donelson his brigade was in the van, 
being stationed on the right of General Grant's army 
and the first brigade to be attacked. He lost 500 
men before re-inforcements arrived. Many of these 
men were from Macon County. He was engaged in 
the battle of Corinth, and, in a brave charge at this 
place, was shot in the left lung with an ounce ball, 
and was carried from the field in expectation of im- 

^ ' 






mediate death. That rebel ball he carries to this 
day. On his partial recovery he was promoted as 
Major General, for g illantry, his commission to rank 
from November, 1862. In the spring of 1863 he 
was assigned to the command of the i6th Army 
Corps, but, owing to inability fro.n the effects of his 
wound, he relinquished this command in July, that 
year. Gen. Grant, however, refused to accept his 
resignation, and he was detailed, in December follow- 
ing, to court-martial and try the Surgeon General of 
the Army at Washington, where he remained until 
May, 1864, when he returned home. 

The Republican, or U lion, State Convention of 
1864 was held at Springfield, May 25, when Mr. 
Oglesby was nominated for the office of Governor, 
while other candidates before the Convention were 
Allen C. Fuller, of Boone, Jesse K. Dubois.of Sanga- 
mon, and John M. Palmer, of Macoupin. Wm. 
Bross, of Chicago, was nominated for Lieutenant 
Governor. On the Democratic State ticket were 
James C. Robinson, of ("lark, for Governor, and S. 
Corning Judd, of Fulton, for Lieutenant Governor. 
The general election gave Gen. Oglesby a majority 
of about 31,000 votes. The Republicans had also a 
majority in both thi Legislature and in the repre- 
sentation in Congress. 

Gov. Oglesby was duly inaugurated Jan. 17, 1865. 
The day before the first time set for his installation 
death visited his home at Decatur, and took from it 
his only son, an intelligent and sprightly lad of six 
years, a great favorite of the bereaved parents. This 
caused the inauguration to be postponed a week. 

The political events of the Legislative session of 
r86s were the election of ex-Gov. Yates to the 
United States Senate, and the ratification of the 131(1 
amendment to the Constitution of the United States, 
abolishing slavery. This session also signalized 
itself by repealing the notorious " black laws," part 
of which, although a dead letter, had held their place 
upon the statute books since 1819. Also, laws re- 
quiring the registration of voters, and establishing a 
State Board of Equalization, were passed by this Leg- 
islature. But the same body evinced that it was cor- 
ruptly influenced by a mercenary lobby, as it adopted 
some bad legislation, over the Governor's veto, nota- 
bly an amendment to a charter for a Chicago horse 
railway, granted in 1859 for 25 years, and now 
sought to be extended 99 years. As this measure 
was promptly passed over his veto by both branches 
of the Legislature, he deemed it useless further to 
attempt to check their headlong career. At this 
session no law of a general useful character or public 
interest was perfected, unless we count such the 
turning over of the canal to Chicago to be deepened. 
The session of 1867 was still more productive of 
private and special acts. Many omnibus bills were 
proposed, and some passed. The contests over the 
location of the Industrial College, the Capital, the 


Southern Penitentiary, and the canal enlargement 
and Illinois River improvement, dominated every- 
thing else. 

During the year 1872, it became evident that if 
the Republicans could re-elect Mr. Oglesby to the 
office of Governor, they could also elect him to the 
United States Senate, which they desired to do. 
Accordingly they re-nominated him for the Execu- 
tive chair, and placed upon the ticket with him for 
Lieutenant Governor, John L. Beveridge, of Cook 
County. On the other side the Democrats put into 
the field Gastavus Koerner for Governor and John 
C. Black for Lieutenant Governor. The election 
gave the Republican ticket majorities ranging from 
35,334 to 56,174, the Democratic defection being 
caused mainly by their having an old-time Whig and 
Abolitionist, Horace Greeley, on the national ticket 
for President. According to the general understand- 
ing had beforehand, as soon as the Legislature met 
it elected Gov. Oglesby to the United States Senate, 
whereupon Mr. Beveridge became Governor. Sena- 
tor Oglesby 's term expired March 4, 1879, having 
served his party faithfully and exhibited an order of 
statesmanship beyond criticism. 

During the campaign of 1884 Mr. Oglesby was 
nominated for a "third term" as Executive of the 
State of Illinois, against Carter H. Harrison, Mayor 
of Chicago, nominated by the Democrats. Both 
gentlemen " stumped " the State, and while the peo- 
ple elected a Legislature which was a tie on a joint 
ballot, as between the two parties, they gave the 
jovial " Dick" Oglesby a majority of 15,018 for Gov- 
ernor, and he was inaugurated Jan. 30, 1885. The 
Legislature did not fully organize until this date, on 
account of its equal division between the two main 
parties and the consequent desperate tactics of each 
party to checkmate the latter in the organization of 
the House. 

Gov. Oglesby is a fine-appearing, affable man, with 
regular, well defined features and rotund face. In 
stature he is a little above medium height, of a large 
frame and somewhat fleshy. His physical appear- 
ance is striking and prepossessing, while his straight- 
out, not to say bluff, manner and speech are well 
calculated favorably to impress the average masses. 
Ardent in feeling and strongly committed to the pol- 
icies of his party, he intensifies Republicanism 
among Republicans, while at the same time his jovial 
and liberal manner prevents those of the opposite 
party from hating him. 

He is quite an effective stump orator. With vehe- 
ment, passionate and scornful tone and gesture , 
tremendous physical power, which in speaking he 
exercises to the utmost; with frequent descents to 
the grotesque; and with abundant homely compari- 
sons or frontier figures, expressed in the broadest 
vernacular and enforced with stentorian emphasN 
he delights a promiscuous audience beyond measure! 







ernor 1869-72, \va.s born on 
Eagle Creek, Scott Co., Ky., 
Sept. 13, 1817. During his in- 
fancy, his father, who had been 
a soldier in the war of 1812, re- 
moved to Christian Co., Ky., 
where lands were cheap. Here 
the future Governor of the great 
Prairie State spent his childhood 
and received such meager school- 
ing as the new and sparsely set- 
tled country afforded. To this 
he added materially by diligent 
reading, for which he evinced an 
eaily aptitude. His father, an ardent Jackson man, 
was also noted for his anti-slavery sentiments, which 
he thoroughly impressed upon his children. In 1831 
he emigrated to Illinois, settling in Madison County. 
Here the labor of improving a farm was pursued for 
about two years, when the death of Mr. Palmer's 
mother broke up the family. About this time Alton 
College was opened, on the "manual labor " system, 
and in the spring of 1834 young Palmer, with his 
elder brother, Elihu, entered this school and remained 
1 8 months. Next, for over three years, he tried 
variously coopering, peddling and school-teaching. 

During the summer of 1838 he formed the ac- 
quaintance of Stephen A. Douglas, then making his 

first canvass for Congress. Young, eloquent and in 
political accord with Mr. Palmer, he won his confi- 
dence, fired his ambition and fixed his purpose. The 
following winter, while teaching near Canton, he be- 
gan to devote his spare time to a desultory reading 
of law, and in the spring entered a law office at Car- 
linville, making his home with his elder brother, 
Elihu. (The latter was a learned clergyman, of con- 
siderable orginality of thought and doctrine.) On 
the next meeting of the Supreme Court he was ad- 
mitted to the Bar, Douglas being one of his examiners. 
He was not immediately successful in his profession, 
and would have located elsewhere than Carlinville 
had he the requisite means. Thus his early poverty 
was a blessing in disguise, for to it he now attributes 
the success of his life. 

From 1839 on, while he diligently pursued his 
profession, he participated more or less in local 
politics. In 1843 he became Probate Judge. In 
1847 he was elected to the State Constitutional Con- 
vention, where he took a leading part. In 1852 he 
was elected to the State Senate, and at the special 
session of February, 1854, true to the anti-slavery 
sentiments bred in him, he took a firm stand in op- 
position to the repeal of the Missouri Compromise; 
and when the Nebraska question became a party 
issue he refused to receive a re-nomination for the 
Senatorship at the hands of the Democracy, issuing 
a circular to that effect. A few weeks afterward, 


however, hesitating to break with his party, he par- 
ticipated in a Congressional Convention which nomi- 
T. L. Harris against Richard Yates, and which 
unqualifiedly approved the principles of the Kansas- 
Nebraska act. But later in the campaign he made 
the plunge, ran for the Senate as an Anti-Nebraska 
Democrat, and was elected. The following winter 
he put in nomination for the _United States Senate 
Mr. Trumbull, and was one of the five steadfast men 
who voted for him until all the Whigs came to their 
support and elected their man. 

In 1856 he was Chairman of the Republican State 
Convention at Bloomington. He ran for Congress in 
1859, but was defeated. In 1860 he was Republican 
Presidential Elector for the State at large. In 1861 
he was appointed one of the five Delegates (all Re- 
publicans) sent by Illinois to the peace congress at 

When the civil conflict broke out, he offered his 
services to his country, and was elected Colonel of the 
I4th 111. Vol. Inf., and participated in the engagements 
at Island No. 10; at Farmington, where he skillfully 
extricated his command from a dangerous position ; 
at Stone River, where his division for several hours, 
Dec. 31, 1862, held the advance and stood like a 
rock, and for his gallantry there he was made Major 
General; at Chickamauga, where his and Van Cleve's 
divisions for two hours maintained their position 
when they were cut off by overpowering numbers. 
Under Gen. Sherman, he was assigned to the i/jlh 
Army Corps and participated in the Atlanta campaign. 
At Peach-Tree Creek his prudence did much to avert 
disaster. In February, 1865, Gen. Palmer was as- 
signed to the military administration of Kentucky, 
which was a delicate post. That State was about 
half rebel and half Union, and those of the latter 
element were daily fretted by the loss of their slaves. 
He, who had been bred to the rules of common law, 
trembled at the contemplation of his extraordinary 
power over the persons and property of his fellow 
men, with which he was vested in his capacity as 
military Governor ; and he exhibited great caution in 
the execution of the duties of his post. 

Gen. Palmer was nominated for Governor of Illi- 
nois by the Republican State Convention which met 
at Peori.i May 6, 1868, and his nomination would 
probably have been made by acclamation had he not 
persistently declared that he could not accept a can- 

didature for the office. The result of the ensuing 
election gave Mr. Palmer a majority of 44,707 over 
John R. Eden, the Democratic nominee. 

O.i the meeting of the Legislature in January, 
1869, the first thing to arrest public attention was 
that portion of the Governor's message which took 
broad Slate's rights ground. This and some minor 
points, which were more in keeping with the Demo- 
cratic sentiment, constituted the entering wedge fir 
the criticisms and reproofs he afterward received 
from the Republican party, and ultimately resulted 
in his entire aleniation from the Litter element. The 
Legislature just referred to was noted for the intro- 
duction of numerous bills in the interest of private 
parties, which were embarrassing to the Governor. 
Among the public acts passed was that which limited 
railroad charges for passenger travel to a maximum 
.of three cents per mile; and it was passed over the 
Governor's veto. Also, they passed, over his veto, 
the "tax-grabbing law" to pay railroad subscriptions, 
the Chicago Lake Front bill, etc. The new State 
Constitution of 1870, far superior to the old, was a 
peaceful " revolution " which took place during Gov. 
Palmer's term of office. The suffering caused by the 
great Chicago Fire of October, 1871, was greatly 
alleviated by the prompt responses of his excellency. 

Since the expiration of Gov. Palmers 's term, he has 
been somewhat prominent in Illinois politics, and 
has been talked of by many, especially in the Dem- 
ocratic party, as the best man in the State for a 
United States Senator. His business during life has 
been that of the law. Few excel him in an accurate 
appreciation of the depth and scope of its principles- 
The great number of his able veto messages abun- 
dantly testify not only this but also a rare capacity to 
point them out. He is a logical and cogent reasoner 
and an interesting, forcible and convincing speaker, 
though not fluent or ornate. Without brilliancy, his 
dealings are rather with facts and ideas than with 
appeals to passions and prejudices. He is a patriot 
and a statesman of very high order. Physically he is 
above the medium height, of robust frame, ruddy 
complexion and sanguine-nervous temperament. He 
has a large cranial development, is vivacious, social 
in disposition, easy of approach, unostentatious in his 
habits of life, democratic in his habits and manners 
and is a true American in his fundamental principles 
of statesmanshiD. 






' ; V ; ' :v; ::. '.>'t '. s . '. ; 'iVi '.'.-. ' '. v. ' ( . v. v. T'.n v 

IDGE, Governor 1873-6, was 
born in the town of Green- 
wich, Washington Co., N. Y., 
July 6, 1824. His parents 
were George and Ann Bever- 
idge. His father's parents, An- 
drew and Isabel Bcveridge, be- 
fore their marriage emigrated 
from Scotland just before the 
Revolutionary War, settling in 
Washington County. His father 
was the eldest of eight brothers, the 
youngest of whom was 60 years of 
age when the first one of the num- 
ber died. His mother's parents, 
James and Agnes Hoy, emigrated 
from Scotland at the close of the 
Revolutionary War, settling also in 
1 Washington Co., N. Y., with their 
first-born, whose " native land "was 
the wild ocean. His parents and 
grandparents lived beyond the time 
allotted to man, their average age 
being over 80 years. They belonged to the "Asso- 
ciate Church," a seceding Presbyterian body of 

America from the old Scotch school ; and so rigid 
was the training of young Beveridge that he never 
heard a sermon from any other minister except that 
of his own denomination until he was in his igth 
year. Later in life he became a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, which relation he still 

Mr. Beveridge received a good common-school ed- 
ucation, but his parents, who could obtain a livelihood 
only by rigid economy and industry, could not send 
him away to college. He was raised upon a farm, 
and was in his i8th year when the family removed 
to De Kalb County, this State, when that section was 
very sparsely settled. Chicago had less than 7,000 
inhabitants. In this wild West he continued as a 
farm laborer, teaching school during the winter 
months to supply the means of an education. In the 
fall of 1842 he attended one term at the academy at 
Granville, Putnam Co., 111., and subsequently several 
terms at the Rock River Seminary at Mount Morris, 
Ogle Co., 111., completing the academic course. At 
this time, the fall of 1845, his parents and brothers 
were anxious to have him go to college, even though 
he had not money sufficient; but, njt willing to bur- 
den the family, he packed his trunk and with only 
$40 in money started South to seek his fortune. 

f, , 


Poor, alone, without friends and influence, he thus 
entered upon the battle of life. 

First, he taught school in Wilson, Overton and 
Jackson Cos., Tenn., in which experience he under- 
went considerable mental drill, both in book studies 
and in the ways of the world. He read law and was 
admitted to the Bar, in the South, but did not learn 
to love the institution of slavery, although he ad- 
mired many features of Southern character. In De- 
cember, 1847, he returned North, and Jan. 20, 1848, 
he married Miss Helen M. Judson, in the old Clark- 
Street M. E. church in Chicago, her father at that 
time being Pastor of the society there. In the spring 
of 1848 he returned with his wife to Tennessee, 
where his two children, Alia May and Philo Judson, 
were born. 

In the fall of 1849, through the mismanagement 
of an associate, he lost what little he had accumu- 
lated and was left in debt. He soon managed to 
earn means to pay his debts, returned to De Kalb 
Co., 111., and entered upon the practice of his pro- 
fession at Sycamore, the county seat. On arrival 
from the South he had but one-quarter of a dollar in 
money, and scanty clothing and bedding for himself 
and family. He borrowed a little money, practiced 
law, worked in public offices, kept books for some of 
the business men of the town, and some railroad en- 
gineering, till the spring of 1854, when he removed 
to Evanston, 1 2 miles north of Chicago, a place then 
but recently laid out, under the supervision of the 
Northwestern University, a Methodist institution. 
Of the latter his father-in-law was then financial 
agent and business manager. Here Mr. Beveridge 
prospered, and the next year (1855) opened a law 
office in Chicago, where he found the battle some- 
what hard; but he persevered with encouragement 
and increasing success. 

Aug. 12, 1861, his law partner, Gen. John F. 
Farnsworth, secured authority to raise a regiment of 
cavalry, and authorized Mr. Beveridge to raise a 
company for it. He succeeded in a few days in rais- 
ing the company, of course enlisting himself along 
with it. The regiment rendezvoused at St. Charles, 
111., was mustered in Sept. 18, and on its organiza- 
tion Mr. B. was elected Second Major. It was at- 
tached, Oct. n, to the Eighth Cavalry and to the 
Army of the Potomac. He served with the regiment 
until November, 1863, participating in some 40 bat- 

ties and skirmishes : was at Fair Oaks, the seven days' 
fight around Richmond, Fredericksburg, Chancellors- 
vine and Gettysburg. He commanded the regiment 
the greater part of the summer of 1863, and it was while 
lying in camp this year that he originated the policy 
of encouraging recruits as well as the fighting capac- 
ity of the soldiery, by the wholesale furlough system. 
It worked so well that many other officers adopted 
it. In the fall of this year he recruited another com- 
pany, against heavy odds, in January, 1864, was 
commissioned Colonel of the ijth 111. Cav., and 
skirmished around in Missouri, concluding with the 
reception of the surrender of Gen. Kirby Smith's 
army in Arkansas. In 1865 he commanded various 
sub-districts in the Southwest. He was mustered 
out Feb. 6, 1866, safe from the casualties of war and 
a stouter man than when he first enlisted. His men 
idolized him. 

He then returned to Chicago, to practice law, with 
no library and no clientage, and no political experi- 
ence except to help others into office. In the fall of 
1866 he was elected Sheriff of Cook County, serving 
one term; next, until November, 1870, he practiced 
law and closed up the unfinished business of his 
office. He was then elected State Senator; in No- 
vember, 1871, he was elected Congressman at large; 
in November, 1872, he was elected Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor on the ticket with Gov. Oglesby ; the latter be- 
ing elected to the U. S. Senate, Mr. Beveridge became 
Governor, Jan. 21, 1873. Thus, inside of a few 
weeks, he was Congressman at large, Lieutenant 
Governor and Governor. The principal events oc- 
curring during Gov. Beveridge 's administration were: 
The completion of the revision of the statutes, begun 
in 1869; the partial success of the "farmers' move- 
ment;" " Haines' Legislature " and Illinois' exhibit at 
the Centennial. 

Since the close of his gubernatorial term ex-Gov. 
Beveridge has been a member of the firm of Bever- 
idge & Dewey, bankers and dealers in commercial 
paper at fi Dearborn Street (McCormick Block), 
Chicago, and since November, 1 88 1, he has also been 
Assistant United States Treasurer : office in the 
Government Building. His residence is still at Ev- 

He has a brother and two sisters yet residing in 
De Kalb County James H. Beveridge, Mrs. Jennet 
Henry and Mrs. Isabel French. 


nor 1877-83,13 the sixth child 
of the late Richard N. Cullom, 
and was born Nov. 22, 1829,111 
Wayne Co., Ky., where his fa- 
ther then resided, and whence 
both the Illinois and Tennessee 
branches of the family originated. In 
the following year the family emi- 
grated to the vicinity of Washington, 
Tazewell Co., 111., when that section 
was very sparsely settled. They lo- 
cated on Deer Creek, in a grove at 
the time occupied by a party of In- 
dians, attracted there by the superior 
hunting and fishing afforded in that 
vicinity. The following winter was 
known as the " hard winter," the snow being very 
deep and lasting and the weather severely cold; and 
the family had to subsist mainly on boiled corn or 
hominy, and some wild game, for several weeks. In 
the course of time Mr. R. N. Cullom became a prom- 
inent citizen and was several times elected to the 
Legislature, both before and after the removal of the 
capital from Vandalia to Springfield. He died about 


Until about 19 years of age young Cullom grew up 
to agricultural pursuits, attending school as he had 
opportunity during the winter. Within this time, 
however, he spent several months teaching school, 

and in the following summer he "broke prairie "with 
an ox team for the neighbors. With the money ob- 
tained by these various ventures, he undertook a 
course of study at the Rock River Seminary, a 
Methodist institution at Mt. Morris, Ogle County; 
but the sudden change to the in-door life of a stu- 
dent told severely upon his health, and he was taken 
home, being considered in a hopeless condition. While 
at Mt. Morris he heard Hon. E. B. Washburne make 
his first speech. 

On recovering health, Mr. Cullom concluded to 
study law, under the instruction of Abraham Lincoln, 
at Springfield, who had by this time attained some 
notoriety as an able lawyer; but the latter, being ab- 
sent from his office most of the time, advised Mr. 
Cullom to enter the office of Stuart & Edwards. 
After about a year of study there, however, his health 
failed again, and he was obliged to return once more 
to out-door life. Accordingly he bought hogs foi 
packing, for A. G. Tyng, in 1'eoria, and while he re- 
gained his health he gained in purse, netting $400 in 
a few weeks. Having been admitted to the Bar, he 
went to Springfield, where he was soon elected City 
Attorney, on the Anti-Nebraska ticket. 

In 1856 he ran on the Fillmore ticket as a Presi- 
dential Elector, and, although failing to be elected as 
such, he was at the same time elected a Representa- 
tive in the Legislature from Sangamon County, by a 
local coalition of the American and Republican par- 
ties. On the organization of the House, he received 
the vote of the Fillmore men for Speaker. Practicing 


, k 176 



law until 1860, he was again elected to the Legisla- 
ture, as a Republican, while the county went Demo- 
cratic on the Presidential ticket. In January follow- 
ing he was elected Speaker, probably the youngest 
man who had ever presided over an Illinois Legis- 
lature. After the session of 1861, he was a candidate 
for the State Constitutional Convention called for 
that year, but was defeated, and thus escaped the 
disgrace of being connected with that abortive party 
scheme to revolutionize the State Government. In 
1862 he was a candidate for the State Senate, but 
was defeated. The same year, however, he was ap- 
pointed by President Lincoln on a Government 
Commission, in company with Gov. Boutwell of 
Massachusetts and Cnarles A. Dana, since of the 
New York Sun, to investigate the affairs of the 
Quartermaster's and Commissary Departments at 
Cairo. He devoted several months to this duty. 

In 1864 he enteied upon a larger political field, 
being nominated as the Republican candidate for 
Congress from the Eighth (Springfield) District, in 
opposition to the incumbent, JohnT. Stuart, who had 
been elected in 1862 by about 1,500 majority over 
Leonard Swett, then of Bloomington, now of Chicago. 
The result was the election of Mr. Cullom in Novem- 
ber following by a majority of 1,785. In 1866 he 
was re-elected to Congress, over Dr. E. S. Fowler, by 
the magnificent majority of 4,103! In 1868 he was 
again a candidate, defeating the Hon. B. S. Edwards, 
another of his old preceptors, by 2,884 votes. 

During his first term in Congress he served on the 
Committee on Foreign Affairs and Expenditures in 
the Treasury Department; in his second term, on 
the Committees on Foreign Affairs and on Territories ; 
and in his third term he succeeded Mr. Ashley, of 
Ohio, to the Chairm.mship of the latter. He intro- 
duced a bill in the House, to aid in the execution of 
law in Utah, which caused more consternation among 
the Mormons than any measure had previously, but 
which, though it passed the House, failed to pass the 

The Republican Convention which met May 25, 
1876, nominated Mr. Cullom for Governor, while the 
other contestant was Gov. Beveridge. For Lieuten- 
ant-Governor they nominated Andrew Shuman, editor 
of the Chicago Journal. For the same offices the 
Democrats, combining with the Anti-Monopolists, 
placed in nomination Lewis Steward, a wealthy 

farmer and manufacturer, and A. A. Glenn. The 
result of the election was rather close, Mr. Cullom 
obtaining only 6,800 majority. He was inaugurated 
Jan. 8, 1877. 

Great depression prevailed in financial circles at 
this time, as a consequence of the heavy failures of 
1873 and afterward, the effect of which had seemed 
to gather force from that time to the end of Gov. 
Cullom's first administration. This unspeculative 
period was not calculated to call forth any new 
issues, but the Governor's energies were at one time 
put to task to quell a spirit of insubordination that 
had been begun in Pittsburg, Pa., among the laboring 
classes, and transferred to Illinois at Chicago, East 
St. Louis and Braidwood, at which places laboring 
men for a short time refused to work or allow others 
to work. These disturbances were soon quelled and 
the wheels of industry again set in motion. 

In May, 1880, Gov. Cullom was re-nominated by 
the Republicans, against Lyman Trumbull, by the 
Democrats; and although the former party was some- 
what handicapped in the campaign by a zealous 
faction opposed to Grant for President and to Grant 
men for office generally, Mr. Cullom was re-elected 
by about 314,565, to 277,532 forthe Democratic State 
ticket. The Greenback vote at the same time was 
about 27,000. Both Houses of the Legislature again 
became Republican, and no representative of the 
Greenback or Socialist parties were elected. Gov. 
Cullom was inaugurated Jan. 10, 1881. In his mes- 
sage he announced that the last dollar of the State 
debt had been provided for. 

March 4, 1883, the term of David Davis as United 
States Senator from Illinois expired, and Gov. Cul- 
lom was chosen to succeed him. This promoted 
Lteutenant-Governor John M. Hamilton to the Gov- 
ernorship. Senator Cullom's term in the United 
States Senate will empire March 4, 1889. 

As a practitioner of law Mr. C. has been a member 
of the firm of Cullom, Scholes & Mather, at Spring- 
field ; and he has also been President of the State 
National Bank. 

He has been married twice, the first time Dec. 
12, 1855, to Miss Hannah Fisher, by whom he had 
two daughters; and the second time May 5, 1863, 
to Julia Fisher. Mrs. C is a member of the Method- 
ist Episcopal Church, with which religious body Mr. 
C. is also in sympathy. 





TON, Governor 1883-5, was 
born May 28, 1847, in a log 
house upon a farm about two 
miles from Richwood, Union 
County, Ohio. His father was 
Samuel Hamilton, the eldest son 
of Rev. Wm. Hamilton, who, to- 
gether with his brother, the Rev. 
Samuel Hamilton, was among the 
early pioneer Methodist preachers in 
Ohio. The mother of the subject of 
this sketch was, before her marriage, 
Mrs. Nancy McMorris, who was 
born and raised in Fauquier or Lou- 
doun County, Va., and related to the 
two large families of Youngs and Marshalls, well 
known in that commonwealth; and from the latter 
family name was derived the middle name of Gov. 

In March, 1854, Mr. Hamilton's father sold out 
his little pioneer forest home in Union County, O., 
and, loading his few household effects and family 
(of six children) into two emigrant covered wagons, 
moved to Roberts Township, Marshall Co., 111., being 
2 1 days on the route. Swamps, unbridged streams 
and innumerable hardships and privations met them 
on their way. Their new home had been previously 
selected by the father. Here, after many long years 
of toil, they succeeded in paying for the land and 
making a comfortable home. John was, of course, 

brought up to hard manual labor, with no schooling 
except three or four months in the year at a common 
country school. However, he evinced a capacity 
and taste for a high order of self-education, by 
studying or reading what books he could borrow, as 
the family had but very few in the house. Much of 
his study he prosecuted by the light of a log fire in 
the old-fashioned chimney place. The financial 
panic of 1857 caused the family to come near losing 
their home, to pay debts ; but the father and two 
sons, William and John, "buckled to" and perse- 
vered in hard labor and economy until they redeemed 
their place from the mortgage. 

When the tremendous excitement of the political 
campaign of 1860 reached the neighborhood of Rob- 
erts Township, young Hamilton, who had been 
brought up in the doctrine of anti-slavery, took a zeal- 
ous part in favor of Lincoln's election. Making special 
efforts to procure a little money to buy a uniform, he 
joined a company of Lincoln Wide- Awakes at Mag- 
nolia, a village not far away. Directly after the 
ensuing election it became evident that trouble 
would ensue with the South, and this Wide-Awake 
company, like many others throughout the country, 
kept up its organization and transformed itself into a 
military company. During the ensuing summer they 
met often for drill and became proficient ; but when 
they offered themselves for the v/ar, young Hamilton 
was rejected on account of his youth, he being then 
but 14 years of age. During the winter of 1863-4 he 
attended an academy at Henry, Marshall County. 


1 80 



and in the following May he again enlisted, for the 
fourth time, when he was placed in the 14151 111. 
Vol. Inf., a regiment then being raised at Elgin, 111., 
for the loo-day service. He took with him 13 other 
lads from his neighborhood, for enlistment in the 
service. This regiment operated in Southwestern 
Kentucky, for about five months, under Gen. Paine. 

The following winter, 1864-5, Mr. Hamilton taught 
school, and during the two college years 1865-7, ne 
went through three years of the curriculum of the 
Ohio Wesleyan University at Delaware, Ohio. The 
third year he graduated, the fourth in a class of 46, 
in the classical department. In due time he received 
the degree of M. A. For a few months he was the 
Principal of Marshall " College " at Henry, an acad- 
emy under the auspices of the M. E. Church. By 
this lime he had commenced the study of law, and 
after earning some money as a temporary Professor 
of Latin at the Illinois Wesleyan University at 
Bloomington, he entered the law office of Weldon, 
Tipton & Benjamin, of that city. Each member of 
this firm has since been distinguished as a Judge. 
Admitted to the Bar in May, 1870, Mr. Hamilton 
was given an interest in the same firm, Tipton hav- 
ing been elected Judge. In October following he 
formed a partnership with J. H. Rowell, at that time 
Prosecuting Attorney. Their business was then 
small, but they increased it to very large proportions, 
practicing in all grades of courts, including even the 
U. S. Supreme Court, and this partnership continued 
unbroken until Pel). 6, 1883, when Mr. Hamilton 
was sworn in as Executive of Illinois. On the 4th 
of March following Mr. Rowell took his seat in Con- 

In July, 1871. Mr. Hamilton married Miss Helen 
M. Williams, the daughter of Prof. Win. G. Williams, 
Professor of Greek in the Ohio Wesley an University. 
Mr. and Mrs. H. have two daughters and one son. 

In 1876 Mr. Hamilton was nominated by the Re- 
publicans for the State Senate, over other and older 
competitors. He took an active part " on the stump " 
in the campaign, for the success of his party, and was 
elected by a majority of 1,640 over his Democratic- 
Greenback opponent. In the Senate he served on 
the Committees on Judiciary, Revenue, State Insti- 
tutions, Appropriations, Education, and on Miscel- 
lany ; and during the contest for the election of a 
' U. S. Senator, the Republicans endeavoring to re- 

elect John A. Logan, he voted for the war chief on 
every ballot, even alone when all the other Republi- 
cans had gone over to the Hon. E. B. Lawrence and 
the Democrats and Independents elected Judge 
David Davis. At this session, also, was passed the 
first Board of Health and Medical Practice act, of 
which Mr. Hamilton was a champion, agair:t r; 
much opposition that the bill was several times 
"laid on the table." Also, this session authorized 
the location and establishment of a southern peni- 
tentiary, which was fixed at Chester. In the session 
of 1879 Mr. Hamilton was elected President pro tern. 
of the Senate, and was a zealous supporter of John 
A. Logan for the U. S. Senate, who wa<s this time 
elected without any trouble. 

In May, 1880, Mr. Hamilton was nominated on 
the Republican ticket for Lieutenant Governor, his 
principal competitors before the Convention being 
Hon. Wm. A. James, ex-Speaker of the House of 
Representatives, Judge Robert Bell, of Wabash 
County, Hon. T. T. Fountain, of Perry County, and 
Hon. M. M. Saddler, of Marion County. He engaged 
actively in the campaign, and his ticket was elected 
by a majority of 41,200. As Lieutenant Governor, 
he presided almost continuously over the Senate in 
the 3zd General Assembly and during the early days 
of the 33d, until he succeeded to the Governorship. 
When the Legislature of 1883 elected Gov. Cullom 
to the United States Senate, Lieut. Gov. Hamilton 
succeeded him, under the Constitution, taking the 
oath of office Feb. 6, 1883. He bravely met all the 
annoyances and embarrassments incidental upon 
taking up another's administration. The principal 
events with which Gov. Hamilton was connected as 
the Chief Executive of the State were, the mine dis- 
aster at Braidwood, the riots in St. Clairand Madison 
Counties in May, 1883, the appropriations for the 
State militia, the adoption of the Harper high-license 
liquor law, the veto of a dangerous railroad bill, etc. 

The Governor was a Delegate at large to the 
National Republican Convention at Chicago in June, 

1884, where his first choice for President was John 
A. Logan, and second choice Chester A. Arthur; but 
he afterward zealously worked for the election of Mr. 
Blaine, true to his party. 

Mr. Hamilton's term as Governor expired Jan. 30, 

1885, when the great favorite "Dick" Oglesby was 







OME of the fairest and most 
productive counties of the 
great Prairie State are to be 
found in what is known as 
Central Illinois, and the chief- 
est among these is Livingston 
County. Though settlers came into 
this county as early as 1829, yet the 
commencement of its rapid growth 
was not until many years later. It 
was the railroad that did so much 
toward the encouragement of sturdy 
tillers of the soil to come to the 
fair and fertile prairies. Since then 
the county has enjoyed steady 
growth, until to-day it stands among the foremost 
counties of the great Northwest. In the growth 
and development of her vast resources, in her agri- 
culture and stock-raising, in all the departments of 
labor in which busy man is engaged ; in her churches 
and schools, in civilization and culture, Livingston 
County has taken a front rank. Well may her 
people be proud of their product; well may her 
pioneers turn with pride to their achievements. 
Within half a century a wilderness lias been sub- 
dued and converted into beautiful farms and 
thriving, populous cities, and a community estab- 
lished commanding the admiration of the country. 

Transportation Facilities. 

ER1IAPS th^ most important factor in the 
business development and prosperity of a 
city or county is its railroad communica- 
tions. At least it is safe to assert that 
such has become a demonstrated fact with regard 

to Livingston County. A retrospection of her 
history since the advent of railroad facilities will 
convince the careful observer of the immense ben- 
efit resulting from the introduction of this essential 
adjunct of commercial enterprise, hence we give 
brief sketches of the railroads traversing this 

Wabash Railroad. 

>1IE Wabash Railroad Company, now under 
the able management of John McNulta, Re- 
ceiver, has two lines traversing this county 
the Chicago Line and the Streator Branch. The 
former extends through the eastern part of the 
county from north to south, and has in this county, 
including side tracks, about forty miles of road. 
At Streator Junction connections are had with the 
Blooinington Branch of the Illinois Central, at 
Forest, the most important station on the road in 
this county, with the Toledo. Peoria & Western, 
and at Scovel with the Minonk Branch of the Illinois 
Central. The Streator Branch traverses the county 
diagonally from the southeast to the northwest cor- 
ner, making connection at Streator with the main 
roads which center there. At Pontiac, the county 
seat of Livingston County, it crosses the lines of 
the Chicago & Alton and the Minonk Branch of 
the Illinois Central, and at Fairbury, the second 
town of importance in the county, with the Toledo, 
Peoria & Western. 

The W abash has more miles of railroad in this 
county than any other company, and owing to its 
splendid facilities and connections with the sea- 
board traffic and the principal Southern and West- 
ern cities, is destined to do more toward the de- 




velopment of the agricultural and material resources 
of the county than any other road. The principal 
lines of this road, including the Chicago Branch, 
have steel-rail track, well-ballasted road beds, and 
altogether constitute one of the greatest railroad 
systems in the West. It is one of the most enter- 
prising roads in the country, and the finest passen- 
ger coaches on the continent are run on its linos 
and every effort put forth for the comfort and 
safety of its patrons. The number of miles now 
operated by the Receiver is 956, all of which, with 
the exception of that extending from the State 
line to Toledo, is in Illinois. 

Illinois Central .Railroad Company. 

>>HE Illinois Central Railroad Company has 
two branches which pass through this county, 
one known as the Chicago, Pontiac & Chats- 
worth Division, and the other as the Bloomington 
Division. There are something over sixty-six 
miles of track in this county. The line extending 
from Kempton to Minonk passes through the cen- 
ter of the county, crossing the line of the Chicago 
Branch of the Wabash at Scovel, and the Chicago 
& Alton and the Streator Branch of the Wabash at 
Pontiac. At Minonk the connections are made 
with the main line. The Bloomington Branch 
crosses the Toledo, Peoria & Western at Chats- 
worth ; the connections of these lines with the main 
line and the Chicago Divison makes this road one 
of the best for transportation in the count}'. 

In September, 1850, Congress granted an aggre- 
gate 2,595,053 acres to aid in building this road. 
The act granted the right of way and gave alter- 
nate sections of land for six miles on cither side of 
the road to the company. The grant was made 
directly to the State, and Feb. 10, 1851, the Illi- 
nois Legislature gave a charter to an Eastern com- 
pany, represented by Rantoul and others, to build 
the road. In granting the charter and transferring 
to the corporation the land, the Legislature stipu- 
lated that seven per cent of the gross earnings 
of the road should be paid semi-annually into the 
State Treasury forever. This wise provision in 
lieu of the liberal grant yields a handsome annual 
income to the State. 

The Illinois Central is one of the great trunk 

lines of the Mississippi Valley, connecting Chicago 
with Sioux City and New Orleans, and toward de- 
veloping the material resources of Illinois, stands 
first in importance. Strict attention to local busi- 
ness has always been a marked characteristic' of its 
management, hence their land has been eagerly 
sought after, and its officials have the satisfaction 
of knowing that the value of the road is not en- 
tirely dependent upon its identification with the 
through business of the country, but on the con- 
tribution of local traffic, which shows a permanent 
and certain increase. The total mileage of this road 
in Illinois alone is over 1,100 miles. 

Other Roads. 

illE Chicago & Alton is an important road 
and has about fifty -seven miles of track in 
Sir this count}'. The main line enters the 
county near Dwightfrom the north. Here connec- 
tions are had with the Streator Branch of the Chi- 
cago & Alton and Indiana, Illinois & Iowa Railroad. 
The next important station is Pontiac, the county 
seat, where the road crosses the Wabash and the 
Illinois Central The Alton is the pioneer road in 
this county, and one of the best in the country. 
The rolling stock is excellent and the road bed one 
of the best in the State. This road has contributed 
largely to the development of the county. 

The Indiana, Illinois & Iowa has thirty -two miles 
of track in this county, passing through the north 
tier of townships, viz.: Round Grove, D wight, 
Nevada, Sunbury and Newtown, having its western 
terminus at Streator. 

The Toledo, Peoria Ar Western is a line extend- 
ing from east to west, in the southern part of the 
county, through the townships of Chatsworth, For- 
est and Indian Grove. The most important sta- 
tion in the county is Fairbiiry, and at Forest con- 
nection is had with the Wabash system, and at 
Chatsworth with the Bloomington Branch of the 
Illinois Central. Its mileage, including side tracks, 
is twenty-two. 

The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe has recently 
constructed a line through the northwestern corner 
of the county, traversing a portion of Reading Tp. 

The Chicago & St. Louis is a short line in the 
northwestern part of the county, passing through 
the west corner of Newtown Township, through 
the center of Reading and the northwest corner of 
Long Point. The length of road in this county 
is about eleven miles, and the principal stations are 
Reading and Aneona. 





HE portrait on tlie opposite 
page is that of David Mc- 
Williams, who was the first 
merchant of Dwight, and 
who followed mercantile life 
there for many years, and with 
the growth of the place grad- 
ually drifted into his present 
business, that of banking ; he 
settled in Dwight in April, 1855. 
Of his ancestors we gather the 
following: His great-grandfather, 
Alexander Me Williams, emigrated 
in company with a small colony 
from Scotland in 177G. While on 
the ocean passage his grandfather, Alexander, Jr., 
was born. The colony had selected a place not 
far from Pittsburgh, Pa., which afterward became 
known as Pease's Iron Mills, where Alexander, Jr., 
was reared, and about the time of his becoming of 
age he, in company with a number of young men 
of the colony, located in Belmont County, Ohio, 
and the place is still known as the Scotch Ridge 
Settlement. It is about six miles from the cit\- of 
Wheeling, Va., on the Ohio side. James McWill- 
iams, the father of the subject of this sketch, 
was born there March 2, 1802, and upon ar- 
riving at manhood purchased a small portion of 
his father's farm, and was married to Margaret 
Lattimer, the daughter of a well-known Scotch 

family of the same settlement, who had come 
direct from Scotland to this colon}' only a short 
time previous. He occupied his farm until 1834, 
when he sold out and migrated to Griggsville, 
Pike Co., 111. His familj- then consisted of five 
children, named in order of their ages Alexander, 
Elizabeth Jane, Rachel, John and David. Mary 
was born afterward in Illinois. Rachel died soon 
after their arrival, and Alexander died in 1842. at 
the age of seventeen, and all the rest are now living. 
Mrs. McWilliams, the mother, died in Pike County, 
in December,! 839, and Mr. McWilliams was married 
again, to Miss Lucretia Prescott, of Concord, Mass., 
who was at the time the Principal of the Griggs- 
ville Female Acadeniy. She was a highly culti- 
vated lady, and they passed forty years of wedded 
life together. She died in 1880, and Mr. James 
McWilliams in 1883, having spent nearly fifty 
years in and about Griggsville. having served his 
community in almost all positions of honor and 

David McWilliams was born in Belmont County, 
Ohio, Jan. 14, 1834, and was eight months old 
when his parents moved to Illinois. He was en- 
gaged in farm work, attending the district school 
during the winters until he was fourteen years of 
age. At that time an offer was made by Z. N. 
Garbutt, the editor and proprietor of the Free 
Press, of Pittsfield, Pike Co., 111., to enter his 
printing-olh'M. This he accepted, and remained 


4 s 

, 188 


there for some time, gaining a knowledge of print- 
ing 'and becoming familiar with the general methods 
of newspaper work. During his residence at tin: 
count}' seat he had the opportunity of seeing the 
great lawyers of those days, among whom were Lin- 
coln, Douglass, Col. E. D. Baker, O. H. Browning, 
C. A. Warren, Archibald Williams, O. C. Skinner, 
William A. Richardson, John J. I lard in, and ofthe 
younger lawyers. Milton Ha} 1 and Jackson Grim- 
shaw. Judge Lockwood at that time was on the 
bench, and he well recollects the Presidential cam- 
paign of that year, when Zachary Taylor ran for 
the Presidency on the Whig ticket and was elected. 
He also recollects, during that campaign, of hearing 
Col. E. D. Baker, who was called the Silver Tongued 
Orator of Illinois in those days, make one of his 
great speeches at the court-house in Pittsfield, and 
such was the enthusiasm at the meeting that at its 
close Col. Baker was carried on the shoulders of 
his friends to his hotel. In the year 1849, his 
father, upon the opening of the Illinois & Michi- 
gan Canal, embarked in the pine lumber trade, and 
he returned home and in a short time the entire 
charge of the yard developed upon him. The 
business grew in proportions rapidly, and proved 
to bo quite lucrative, and at this he continued un- 
til the spring of 1855, when he settled in D wight, 
erected the first store building, which was in size 
20x32 feet, and two stories high, and his first 
stock of goods cost less than $2,000. The railroad 
had been completed through Dwight only a few 
months before, and but few families were in or 
about that place on his arrival there. The country 
settled up quite rapidly and his first year's business 
amounted to about $20,000. He gave his personal 
attention to his mercantile business for eighteen 
years, and was also interested in the same for 
seven years longer. 

While engaged in the mercantile business our 
subject had been doing more or less of a banking 
business, receiving deposits -from the farmers and 
selling New York and Chicago exchange, and has 
ever since been doing a regular banking business, 
and enjoys the confidence and credit of the 
moneyed interests of hi.- portion of the State. His 
career has been quite successful, having pa>-e<l 
through all the financial panics miscarred, and has 

never been compelled to dishonor a draft or ask 
for an extension of credit. As he accumulated 
means he invested in farm lands and has done so 
ever since, and is now one of the largest land-own- 
ers of Livingston County. 

Coining, as wo have before stated, of Scotch 
origin, Mr. McWilliams' family wore all Presby- 
terians, but at the age of eighteen years he identi- 
fied himself with the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
at Griggsville, 111., and was one of the six members 
who organized the Methodist Church of Dwight, 
in 1855, and has been connected with it over since. 
He was quite active in the erection of the present 
church edifice of Dwight, which was built in 1867, 
and contributed liberally to its erection. He has 
served the church in about all the positions that 
laymen arc eligible to, and was honored by an 
election to a seat in the first General Conference 
to which laymen were admitted, which was held in 
Brooklyn, N. Y., in 1X72, and also served again in 
Baltimore, in May, 187G, and at Cincinnati in 1880. 
He was also a delegate to the Ecumenical council 
of all the Methodist bodies of the world, held in 
London, England, in September, 1^81, and also to 
a similar council of the Methodist bodies of the 
United States, held at Baltimore in December, 
1885. He has been quite liberal to the various 
benevolence objects of the church, and in 1870 
made the first donation of 110,000 to the Loan 
Fund of the Methodist Church Society, which fund 
he has lived to see increased to over 000,000. 
The Onarga Seminar}', the Wesleyan University, at 
Bloomington, the Garrett Biblical Institute, and 
I ho Northwestern University at Evanston have 
realized great benefits from his generosity, . and 
ho has served the Northwestern University for ten 
years past. 

Politically, Mr. McWilliams has always been a 
stanch Republican, his first vote being cast for 
John C. Fremont. He was present at the first 
State Republican Convention which was held in 
Bloomington, in 185II, and there for the lir.-l time 
.-aw and heard Owen Lovejoy. There wore also 
present Abraham Lincoln, John M. Palmer, N. 
I!. Jndd, B. C. Cook, and many others of like polit- 
ical faith. In 1884 he was the elector for the Ninth 
Congressional District, and was permitted to cast 




his vote at Springfield for James G. Blaine for 
President. He has alwa}'s been active in temper- 
ance work in his own town and takes pleasure in 
pointing to the fact that Dwight has had no saloons 
for ten years past. 

In December, 185(5, Mr. McWilliams returned to 
Griggsville, and was married to Miss Louisa M. 
Weaglcy. They commenced life together at Dwight 
in a modest home, and thirty-two years later they 
still occupy the same homestead. There have been 
born to them four sons and two daughters, namely : 
Edward, the eldest, succeeds his father in the mer- 
cantile business in Dwight: James is engaged 
in the mercantile business in Odell ; Nellie remains 
at home with her parents; John manages the landed 
interests of his father, and otherwise assists in his 
business affairs; Louise is completing her studies at 
Mt. Yernon Institute, Washington, I). C., and 
Charles, the youngest, is attending the High School 
at Dwight. 

In 1881 Mr. and Mrs. McWilliain> crossed the 
Atlantic, and made quite a tour of Europe, travel- 
ing through Ireland, Scotland, England, Holland, 
Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Italy and France, 
visiting the cities of Naples, Rome, Florence, Yen- 
ice, Milan, Geneva, Paris and London. In 1887 
they were again abroad, revisiting England, and 
spent three weeks in London during the Jubilee, 
from there going to Norway, and visiting the 
land of the midnight sun, also visiting the cities of 
Christiana, Stockholm, the capital of Sweden, 
Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark, and from 
there to Berlin, the capital of the German Empire; 
Dresden, the capital of Saxony, Prague, the capital 
of Bohemia, and as far east as Vienna, the capital 
of Austria: They returned across Southern Ger- 
many to Switzerland, where they spent some time 
at Lucerne and Geneva, thence going to Paris and 
London, and home by the way of Liverpool. 

Mr. McWilliams has always encouraged the en- 
terprises best calculated for the good of the people 
around him, rightly judging that whatever affects 
the community in general also has due influence 
upon the interests of the individuals which compose 
it. The institutions which he has assisted in build- 
ing up and the large property interests with which 
ho is connected will remain as a monument to his 

enterprise and worth long after, in accordance with 
the common lot of man, he shall have been gath- 
ered to his fathers, and the accompanying portrait 
will show to succeeding generations the features 
of the man thus useful and honored. 

AVID HUNTLEY resides on section 24, 
Broughton Township, and is engaged in 
farming and stock-raising. He is the son 
of Hezekiah and Priscilla (Smith) Hunt- 
ley. and was born in the town of Sand Lake, Rens- 
selaer Co., N. Y., Aug. 22, 1885. His father was a 
farmer, and when our subject was twelve years old 
the family moved to Ohio, locating in Lucas County. 
Here the son, David, received the common-school 
education picked up in the way common to those 
times, that is, attending school during the few 
months of the winter season. 

When our subject was twenty-one years old, in 
the spring of 1857, he came west to LaSalle Count}', 
111., where he worked by the month for Benjamin 
French during the following summer. This limited 
experience in Illinois gave him a good impression 
of the State and its great possibilities, and he re- 
solved to make it his future home. The first im- 
portant step in that direction was to get a wife, 
and in the fall of that year he returned to 
Ohio, and was united in marriage with Miss Eliza- 
beth Cooper, whom he had previously selected as the 
girl of his choice. She was the daughter of Reming- 
ton and Anna (Fogle) Cooper. Their marriage oc- 
curred Nov. 26, 1857. In the winter of 1858-59, 
his father sold his small home place of forty acres 
in Ohio for $350, and by the persuasion of his son 
was induced to migrate to LaSalle County, 111., 
whither our subject followed him, with his young 
wife, in the spring of 1859. 

During the following summer David Huntley ran 
a mole-ditcher for C. II. Horine & Co., then of 
Mendota, 111., but since of the Chicago stockyards. 
The next summer he farmed for himself, paying 
cash rent, and doing extra work wherever he could 
find employment. In February, 1 8(11 . he removed to 
Livingston County, where he settled on land on 
section 30, belonging to the canal, which he finally 


A , 190 


Nought. In the spring of 18fi2 our subject caught 
the Western fever, and started in April for Idaho, 
leaving his family in Livingston County. His work 
then; was divided between the gold mines and a 
stock ranch, and he received $200 per month for his 
labor. lie returned from Idaho in about a year, 
and soon afterward sold his farm and bought the 
one where he now lives, to which he moved in 1867. 
It is a fine body of land, well cultivated, splendidly 
watered, and has good improvements. A more 
convenient and well located farm can scarcely be 
found in Livingston County, it being just near 
enough to both Caberyand Keuipton to be pleasant. 

Mr. and Mrs. Huntley have six children, of whom 
the record is as follows : Altie E. was born in Lucas 
County, Ohio, Sept. lf>, 1858, married John Slimpin, 
Sept. 15, 1878, and lives in McHeury County. 111.; 
they have four children. Albert E. was born May 1 2, 
1861, married Sarah H. Canliam, Oct. 2, 1882; they 
have three children, and live at Rogers, Ford 
County, 111. Alice E. was born Feb. 28, 1863, mar- 
ried George Schumacher, Nov. 9, 1887, and lives in 
Rogers Township, Ford County ; Alcie E. was born 
Sept. 20, 1865, and lives at home, as does Alfred E., 
born Nov. 17, 1867; Andrew E. was born Nov. 22, 

Our subject is the eldest in a family of three chil- 
dren. His brother Asil was a soldier in the 129th 
Illinois Infantry, serving under Gen. Grant, and 
was four years in the army. He was wounded once, 
had typhoid fever, and saw nearly all the fighting 
in which the famous 1 29th Regiment was engaged : 
he has five children, and lives in Ford Count}'. 
His sister, Mary S., married George Rogers, lives in 
Chetopa, Labette Co., Kan., and has three chil- 
dren. Our subject's father was born Oct. 8, 1807, 
in Rensselaer County, N. Y., where the birth of his 
mother also took place June 3, 1808; they were mar- 
ried Oct. 25. 1829. The father died Oct. 25, 1887, 
and the mother Fob. 27, 1853; they were descend, 
ants of the early settlers of New England. The 
grandfather of our subject, Obediah Little, was a 
soldier in the Revolution and in the War of 1812. 

Mrs. Huntley's father was born July 8, 17111, :it 
Providence, R. I. Her grandfather, William Cooper, 
was cousin of Peter Cooper, of Greenback fame, 
and was born in Vermont. Her mother was born i 

in Toronto, Canada, March 20, 1800. She was 
married March 20, 1815, on her fifteenth birthday. 
Mrs. Huntley, the wife of our subject. \\;i- born 
April 1, 1833, and was the seventh child in a family 
of ten, all of whom givw to maturity, and five of 
whom, including Mrs. II., are still living, as follows: 
William married Maria Wilcox, and dying, left four 
children; Julia married Isaac Rogers, and is de- 
ceased, leaving six children, who live in Michigan: 
Laura married Richard Kimball, lives in Cabery, 
111., and has four children; Phu-be married John 
Komiskey, and died living no children; Philip 
married Sarah Hendrickson, lives in Lucas County, 
Ohio, and has one daughter; Mary married John 
Parker, who resides in Adrian, Midi., and has t\v<> 
sons; Elizabeth; Horace married Mary Kimball, 
and was killed in the battle of Shiloh; his widow 
and son live in Ohio. Harriet lives in Ohio, and is 
unmarried; A I mini married Wallace Mushreau; 
she is deceased and left no children. 

GLASS, of Dwight Township, is 
comfortably located and in possession of a 
good farm on section 34. His course in 
life has been marked by the persistence and indns- 
try which he inherited from his substantial Ger- 
man ancestry, and which has distinguished the 
Glass family as far back as it can be traced. The 
later descendants have been familiarly known 
throughout Central Pennsylvania, where Thomas 
Glass, the father of our subject, was born, and was 
one of the first of that name to take up his residence 
in another State. 

Thomas Glass, ST., upon leaving his native 
county, located in Ohio, where he married Miss Re- 
becca Storrer, who was born in Maryland and went 
with her parents to the Buckeye State when but a 
child. At the time of their courtship the story 
goes that Mr. Glass, who lived on one side of the 
Ohio River while his sweetheart lived on the other, 
in the absence of a ferry, was obliged to swim the 
river to meet her. Love in this case, as in nearly all 
others, laughed as much at water as at locksmiths, 
and ever since the world began there has been 
found a way out of these peculiar difficulties. The 

: -^ 




191 ' 

3'oung people were happily married, as they de- 
served, and in due time the household circle in- 
cluded eight children. These were named respect- 
ively: James, Robert, Elizabeth, Isaac, Jackson, 
Thomas, Seambns and George. 

The parents of our subject continued in Ohio 
and became possessors of a good farm in Guernsey 
County, where all their children were born. In 
1852 Thomas Glass, Sr., migrated to this State with 
his family and located near Gardner, Grundy County, 
during the early settlement of that region. He 
was at once recognized as n valuable addition to 
the community, and became the owner of a hand- 
some property. Politically, he was a Democrat, 
and with his estimable wife, a devout member of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. He was foremost 
in those enterprises calculated for the good of the 
growing township, and exerted himself particularly 
to encourage the immigration of an intelligent and 
thrifty class of people. He provided generously 
for his children, assisting each of them in securing 
a quarter section of land. He was a man of ro- 
bust frame, six feet in -height, and weighing 260 
pounds, while he possessed a dignified and com- 
manding figure which attracted attention wher- 
ever he went. During the war troubles of 1812 
he served as a soldier under Gen. Harrison, his du- 
ties lying in the country around Ft. Meigs. The 
mother of our subject departed this life at her home 
in Illinois at the age of sixty-one years. She pos- 
sessed all the womanly qualities so admirable in 
the wife, mother and friend, and was in all respects 
the suitable companion and helpmeet of her hus- 

Our subject was born on the old homestead in 
Guernsey County. Ohio, .July 10, 1832. He ac- 
quired a common-school education, and was of that 
temperament which naturally inclined to the free 
and independent life of a farmer. He therefore 
cheerfully assisted in the duties around the home- 
stead, and upon coming to Illinois when twenty years 
of age, soon began to lay his plans for the establish- 
ment of a home of his own. In 1854 he was united 
in marriage with_Miss Mary, daughter of Francis and 
Mary (Pyatt) Evans, of Kendall County, 111. The 
father of Mrs. Glass was a native of Pennsylvania, 
and descended from Welsh ancestry. The parents 


spent their last years in Illinois, the mother passing 
away in 1883, and the father in 1877. 

After marriage the 3'oung couple went to live on 
their own farm, which Mr. Glass had inherited 
from his father. A year later, however, they re- 
moved to Kendall County, where they resided fif- 
teen years, and where, with the exception of the 
youngest, all their children were born. These were 
named respectively : Nellie A.. Mary J., George 
G., Elizabeth A., Thomas W., Edward B. and De- 
los H. 

In 1871 Mr. (Mass came to this county and pur- 
chased his present farm, to which he soon after- 
ward removed his family, and where he has since 
remained. He is widely and favorably known for 
his straightforward methods of doing business, and 
his skill and industry as an enterprising agricult- 
urist. His children are receiving the advantages 
of a good education, the younger members of 
whom are still pursuing their studies and remain 
at home with their parents. The eldest daughter, 
Nellie, was married, in 1885, to Mr. L. B. Kale, 
of Sand Brook, N. J., but they now reside on a 
farm near the homestead of our subject. 

r J/-RANCIS M. DAVIS, although not an old 
y resident of Dwight Township, is numbered 
among its most substantial and reliable citi- 
zens, and has been doing business in Livingston 
County for probably thirty years or more. He is 
of Welsh ancestry, and bears the reputation of an 
industrious and upright man of unimpeachable 
moral character and correct business methods. He 
became familiar with farm life in his youth, but has 
had experience in other branches of business. He 
has concluded, however, that there is nothing more 
satisfactory than the independence and quiet of the 
country, and proposes to spend his declining 3'ears 
amid its scenes and occupations. 

Mr. Davis when but a lad was deprived of the 
protecting care of his parents, and of the disinter- 
e>tcd counsels which a father and mother naturally 
give to their offspring. He was fortunate, how- 
ever, in having preserved a good part of the family 
history, from which we find that his paternal grand- 

4 s 

< , 192 


father, a native of Wales, located in West Virginia 
sometime in the latter part of the last century. He 
married a lady of excellent birth, and they reared a 
family of children, among the sons being James, 
who became the father of our subject. 

James Davis was born in West Virginia about 
1808, where he developed into manhood, and mar- 
ried a lady of his own count}', Miss Jane Taylor. 
He followed farming extensively, and secured pos- 
session of quite a large tract of land. The house- 
hold circle was completed b} 1 the birth of eleven 
children, and the father departed this life amid the 
comforts of the home which he had built up in 
Greene County, Pa., at the age of sixty-five years; 
the mother had died some time before. Most of the 
children attained to mature years, and are named 
as follows: William II., Samuel. Jackson, James, 
Francis, Harriet, Betsey, Clarinsy, Annie and Jane. 

Our subject was born in Marshall County, W. 
\'a.. in May, 1842, and after the death of his mother 
was taken into the home of Mrs. Bradford, of 
Greene County, where he remained until twelve 
years of age, when he came to this county with Eli 
Bradford. Although this section was rapidly com- 
ing into notice as a desirable place of residence and 
for carrying on agriculture, no regular school sys- 
tem was yet established, and consequently young 
Davis received but a limited education. He learned 
the art of farming, however, most thoroughly, and 
kept himself well posted upon matters of general in- 
terest by the perusal of instructive books and all 
the papers which he could obtain. He had watched 
with interest the aspect of political affairs, and es- 
pecially the career of the newly elected President, 
Abraham Lincoln, and when the call came for 
300,000 troops, to put down the Rebellion, young 
Davis, although but nineteen years old, was one of 
those who promptly responded, and enlisted as a 
private in Company C, 44th Illinois Infantry. He 
was mustered in in July, 1861, and for three years 
following suffered all the hardships and privations 
of a life in the army, lie served under Siegel. 
Buell and Rosccrans, and participated in the battles 
of Pea Ridge. Shiloh, Perry ville, Ky., and Stone 
River, and although experiencing many hairbreadth 
escapes, fortunately was neither wounded nor cap- 
tured. After two years of service, however, he had 

a severe attack of rheumatism which confined him 
to the field hospital for three months. As soon a> 
sufficiently recovered, he was transferred to tiie 15th 
Veteran Reserves, and went with his regiment to 
Buffalo, N. Y., to enforce the draft, in the fall of 
18G3. From Buffalo the loth Regiment was de- 
tailed to Rock Island to guard the prisoners at that 
point, and there his services as a soldier terminated. 
Mr. Davis received his honorable discharge on 
the 12th of September, 1864, and returning to this 
county, prepared to enter upon the further business 
of life. His constitution had been considerably 
shattered, and purchasing a stock of goods, he em- 
barked in trade at Coalville, Livingston County, 
where he continued with fair success until the 
spring of 1 869, when he sold out, and removed to 
a farm in Newtown Township. The results of this 
venture, however, not proving so satisfactory as he 
desired, he transferred his interests to the town of 
Newtown, and assumed charge of a hotel, where he 
officiated as "mine host" afterward for a period of 
fourteen years. He conducted this with excellent 
tact and good management, and the house was 
known for miles around as one of the most desir- 
able places for the transient traveler in that sec- 

! tion. Mr. Davis thus became widely and favor- 
ably known, and retains the friendship and esteem 

; of a large circle of acquaintances. In 188") he 
abandoned his hotel interests, and invested a part 
of his capital in a snug farm near the town limits of 
Dwight. where he now resides, taking life in an 
easy and sensible manner. 

One of the most interesting and important events 
in the life of our subject was his marriage with the 
amiable and excellent lady who has presided over 
his domestic affairs for more than twenty years. 
She was in her girlhood Miss Anna Horford. and 
their wedding took place at the home of the bride 
near Manville, Jan. 24, 1866. Mrs. Davis was born 
Sept. 28, 1844, and is the daughter of Thomas and 
Jemima (Leonard) Horford. natives of Pennsyl- 
vania, who came to this county about 1801, and are 
now living in the village of Dwight. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Davis there were born three 
children Lyda ('.. William T. and Jessie M. Lyda 
C., an intelligent and accomplished young lady, was 

i married, Sept. 28, 1887. tol-'inleyj. Hohensliell, of 




this county, and they are now living in LaSallc 
County, where Mr. H. is carrying on fanning; Will- 
iam T. and Jessie M. continue at home with their 
parents. The entire family are held in the highest 
respect, and their homo is the frequent resort of the 
best residents of the conntv, where, in the social in- 
terchange of sentiment and the comparison of the 
past with the present, there is often recalled the un- 
written history of other days. 


HARLES W. SHELDON, residing on sec- 
tion 33, is one of the prominent farmers of 
Round Grove Township, and the founder of 
the village of Campus, 111. He was born in Otsego 
County, N. Y., July 31, 1831), and was reared to 
manhood upon the farm. His parents moved to 
Ohio and settled in the Western Reserve when he 
was eighteen months old, and at the age of twelve 
he returned to New York where he attended school 
four years, and thence to Butler County, Ohio. At 
the age of twenty j'ears he worked for himself and 
with the money he thus obtained he was enabled to 
enter Miami University, in Butler County. Ohio, 
where he attended for two years, and was then 
obliged to abandon his course of study, on account 
of his eyes. He then turned his attention to farm- 
ing, and in 1X62 he came with his father's family 
to Iroquois County, 111. 

In the spring of 1X63 our subject enlisted in 
Battery B, 1st Illinois Artillery, in which he served 
until the close of the war. In the battle of Chicka- 
manga, on the I'.tth of September, 1803, he was 
wounded in the left hip and injured in the spine so 
severely that he had to be left on the field and was 
taken prisoner, and paroled eleven days later. He 
lay on the battle-field of Chickamauga for eleven 
days without any attention given him whatever, 
and received no care until he was taken from the 
field to Chattanooga, the eleventh day after the bat- 
tle. He suffered untold pain from his wound, which 
was caused by the explosion of a shell that struck 
the wheel of his gun carriage. Every man except 
two on the piece was either killed or wounded. It 
war- fortunate for Mr. Sheldon that he was so 

wounded that he could not be transported farther 
south, for had he been he would have been consigned 
to Andersouvillc prison pen. During the winter of 
1X63 he spent four months in the parol camp at 
Camp Chase, Ohio. In the spring of 1X(>4 he was 
exchanged and returned to his battery, and took an 
active part in all the engagements, with one excep- 
tion, in the Atlanta campaign. After the fall of 
Atlanta he was in Gen. Thomas' corps, with which 
he went back to Nashville, and was in the battles 
of Spring Hill, Franklin and Nashville. He was 
mustered out of the service at Chicago in Sep- 
tember, 1865, and then returned to Iroquois Comity, 
111., where he remained until he came to Living- 
ston County. For two years he, in company with 
two brothers, was engaged in merchandising at 
Clifton, Iroquois County. In the spring of 18611 he 
came to Livingston Comity, and bought 640 acres 
of land on section 33, Round Grove Township, 
where he settled and has since lived. Upon this 
farm he erected good buildings and made other first- 
class improvements. 

In April, 1880, Mr. Sheldon laid out and platted 
the village of Campus, which is on the line of the 
Wabasli Railwa}'. It has a population of about l.'ii) 
inhabitants, and is rapidly assuming the proportions 
of a prosperous town. Mr. Sheldon is actively 
engaged in farming, and has laid on his place over 
thirty-two miles of tile drain, the larger portion of 
which was made at his own factory on his farm. 
He was the first man who began laying tile in this 
part of the country, and is the senior partner of the 
firm of Sheldon it Straight, tile manufacturers, at 
Campus. In company with his brother, C. II. Shel- 
don, he owns and operates a cattle ranch in Western 
Nebraska, and owns 200 head of cattle. In Bos- 
ton, Mass., on the 2;>th of May, 1X6!), Mr. Sheldon 
was married to Miss Mary Fisher, who was born 
in Butler County, Ohio, on the Ifith of Decem- 
ber, 1X42. Her parents were James and Eliza 
(Tucker) Fisher, who were natives of New England. 
In 1X71 they came to Livingston County, and 
resided with their daughter. Mrs. Sheldon, for three 
years, and then returned to Boston, Mass. Jabez 
Fisher, a brother of Mrs. Sheldon's father, is the 
oldest living pork packer in this country. He is 
now living in Washington, N. H., in his ninety- 

' > 194 


seventh year. James Fisher had a family of eight 
children, of whom Mrs. Sheldon was the second. 
There have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Sheldon four 
children, who bear the following names: Eliza S., 
Sarah G., James M. and Mary Ellen. 

Mr. Sheldon's parents were John B. and Sarah A. 
(Seeley) Sheldon. The father was a native of 
Rhode Island and the mother was a Vermonter by 
birth. They were the parents of eleven'children, of 
whom our subject was the seventh: they both died 
in Iroqnois County, 111. Mr. aud Mrs. Sheldon are 
member:- of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Mr. 
Sheldon is a Republican in politics and has held the 
office of Supervisor for Round Grove Township two 
year>, and was a member of the board during the 
erection of the new court-house at Pontiac. Dur- 
ing hi? residence in Livingston County he has taken 
an active part in public affairs, -and being a large 
tax-payer has done what he could to inculcate a 
spirit of economy and judicious expenditure of the 
public funds. 

HARLES A. F1NEFIELD, senior member 
of the hardware firm of Finefield & Larson, 
at Odell. has been a resident of this county 
since 1860. He is regarded as a man upright in 
his business transactions, public-spirited and liberal, 
and is in all respects one of the important factors 
of an enterprising and progressive city. He has 
done much in building up its interests, and nothing 
pleases him better than to note the progress of the 
people both morally and intellectually. He takes 
some interet in politics, enough to cast hi* decided 
vote with the Republican party, and is a member 
in high standing of the Masonic fraternity. He 
has been connected with '.he Village Board for a 
period of fourteen years, and i> naturally looked to 
for aid in those enterprises which are calculated to 
advance the general interests of the town. 

Our subject was born in St. James, forty mile:- 
from Montreal. Canada. Sept. 23, 1830, and is the 
youngest child of Charles and Magdalena (Pellerin) 
Finefield, also natives of the Dominion, where the 
father followed carpentering and was a quiet, in- 
offeiisi\e citizen, neither identified with polities nor 

war. In his younger years he had engaged in lum- 
bering in Upper Canada and with his wife spent 
his entire life in his native Province. Charles 
Finefield was placed in school at. a suitable age and 
became familiar, with both the French and English 
languages. Much of his time until he was fourteen 
years of age was spent in the carpenter-shop with 
his father, and then the death of that parent neces- 
sitated a decided change in his life. Not long after- 
ward lie came to the States, locating first at Bur- 
lington, Vt, where he engaged at carpentering one 
3'ear aud then took up the trade of a blacksmith, 
which he followed two years in New England, and 
in 1847 migrated westward to Chicago. Not being 
fortunate in finding work there he went to Peoria 
and fron; there to Oswego, of which he was after- 
ward a resident eight years and engaged in black- 

From Oswego Mr. Finefield came to Odell and 
continued in the blacksmith-shop >ix years. Then 
deciding upon a change of occupation he purchased 
160 acres of wild land in Union Township, and with 
his family established himself in a small frame 
dwelling which had been erected upon it. Two 
years later, however, he returned to town, took up 
his trade, and afterward became associated in part- 
nership with ex-Sheriff J. A. Hunter. They oper- 
ated together five years, the firm being dissolved 
by mutual consent. Mr. Finefield carried on the 
business three years by himself, and then cro>sing 
the Mississippi purchased 300 acre> of Kansas land 
with a view of improving a farm. He, however, 
met with a good opportunity to sell and conse- 
quently returned to Odell. His sons in the mean- 
time who had learned blacks mi thing of their father 
were carrying on that business, and Mr. Finefield 
invested a part of his capital in a stock of hardware 
He operated alone from 1882 until 1885, and then 
his ^resent partner wa> admitted to the business. 
They carry a well-as>orted stock of the articles 
mainly required in the country hoii;-ehold and the 
lighter implement* of the farm. Both men are en- 
terprising and honest in their transaction.-, and the 
firm is ranked among the stronger of this section. 

Mr. Finefield chose for his life companion a lady 
of his own country, namely. .Mi Julia St. Dennis, 
who became his wife on the -'oth of July. l?v><>. 


Mrs. Fiiieficld was born at St. John, Canada. June 
."), 1826, and is tlie daughter of Louis and Aggate 
Si. Dennis, natives of the Dominion, whence they 
removed at an earl_y day to Oswego, Kendall 
Comity, during its first settlement. They after- 
ward, however, returned to Canada, where the 
father died about 1856, the mother having pre- 
ceded him to the better land in about 1837. 

Of the seven children born to Mr. and Mrs. Finc- 
field two are now deceased : Mary Jane who died 
in 1853, at the age of eleven months, and Ephraini 
at the age of eleven years, in 1866. The record of 
the others is as follows: Ellen is the wife of Leroy 
McAllen, a carpenter; Frank married Miss Helen 
Woodbury; Charles remains with his father; Fred 
married Miss Carrie Erschens; these are all living 
at Odell. Willie, the youngest, is unmarried and 
engaged in buying grain in Dakota. Mrs. Finefield 
departed this life at her home in Odell. March 11, 
1887. She was reared in the faith of the Catholic 
Church to which she adhered to the end of life. As 
a wife and mother she was faithful in all respects 
and fulfilled nobly the responsibilities committed to 
her. She presented in her daily life all those amia- 
ble and estimable qualities which made her home, 
to her husband and children, the most .attractive 
spot on earth, while in the community which had 
known her so long and well she was held in univer- 
sal esteem. 

jpALTER S. HUNT, a prominent and well-to- 
do farmer of Broughton Township, owns 
240 acres of good land on section 28, and 
a quarter section in Iowa, which he has acquired by 
his own unaided industry, except eighty acres which 
came from the estate of the father of Mrs. Hunt. He 
commenced in life for himself on H cash capital of 
$3, and it is hardly necessary to say that his career 
has been marked by tireless perseverance and re- 
markably good judgment. The term self-made will 
apply most properly to this gentleman, who is 
widely and favorably known throughout this com- 
munity as one of its representative men. For many 
years he engaged in general fanning, and later 
made a specialty of stock-raising, in which he has 

met with unquestioned success^ ..'Politically lie nllil- 
iates with the Republican party, and although 
steadily declining to become an office-holder IIMS 
exerted much influence in township affairs. 

Our subject, a native of Chenango County, N. 
Y., was burn Aug. 13, 1839. His parents. Edwin 
and Emeline (Ladd) Hunt, were also natives of the 
Empire State, where they owned a modest property, 
and whence they migrated in the spring of 1843 
to Kendall County, 111., during its early settlement. 
The father of our subject, with his patient and 
courageous wife, endured all the hardships and pri- 
vations incident to pioneer life, and were numbered 
among the most highly respected residents of that 
section of country. They spent the remainder of 
their days in Kendall County, the father passing 
away Jan. 11), 1864, and the mother on the 9th of 
March, 1879. The elder Hunt had transformed a 
portion of the uncultivated prairie into a good 
homestead, which later passed into the hands of 
his son J. B. 

The subject of this history was the eldest child of 
his parents, and spent his childhood and youth on 
the farm in Kendall County. His first lessons were 
conducted in the subscription schools, which were 
carried on only a few weeks in winter. The re- 
mainder of the time his services were utilized on 
the farm, and he early in life acquired those habits 
of industry and economy which later paved his 
way to success. He continued with his parents 
until the outbreak of the Civil War, and in May, 
1861, soon after the call for troops, enlisted in 
Company H, 13th Illinois Infantry, and was with 
the commands of Gens. Grant and Sherman during 
his entire service. As may be supposed he par- 
ticipated in the most important battles of that 
period, including the fight of Arkansas Post, the 
siege and capture of Vicksburg, the second battle 
of Jackson, the engagements at Lookout Mountain 
and Mission Ridge, besides meeting the enemy at 
various other points, and engaging in numberless 
skirmishes. At Chickasaw Bayou young Hunt was 
wounded three times, once in each arm, and once 
in the left leg. He was in the volunteer service 
until receiving his honorable discharge on the 18th 
of June, 1864; in the meantime he was promoted 
to Second Sergeant, and received many evidences 




of the approval of his superior officers. His life as 
a soldier was similar to that of thousands of others, 
and like most of the brave boys he seldom refer- 
to that dark period in the nation's history which in- 
volved so much affliction, bereavement and distress. 

Upon his retirement from the army Mr. Hunt re- 
turned to Kendall County, where he continued the 
pursuit of farming, and on the tith of February, 
1 868, was married to Miss Sallie A. E. Wagner, then 
a resident of that county. Mrs. Hunt was born in 
Highland County, Ohio, Jan. 31, 1842, and is the 
daughter of William and Delilah A. (Golladay) 
Wagner, natives of Virginia. Upon leaving the Old 
Dominion they lived in Ohio until the fall of 18~>2, 
and thence removed to Kendall County, where they 
were among the earliest settlers. Mr. Wagner car- 
ried on farming successfully, and departed this life 
on the 28th of March, 1884; the mother had de- 
parted this life Aug. 31, 1873. Their family in- 
cluded eight children, of whom five are living, 
namely: Silas F., a resident of Nebraska; Mary J.. 
the wife of H. A. MeKinzie, of Kansas; Pauline R.. 
Mrs. David Hall, of Kendall County; Sallie A. E., 
and Samuel S., who is farming in Pottawattamie 
County, Iowa. 

The children of Edwin and Emeline Hunt besides 
Walter are as follows: John B. is living in Oswego, 
111.; Sarah A. is the wife of Zopher Ketchum, of 
Kane County; Mary A. is living in Aurora, 111. ; 
Ellen L., Mrs. Edson Wheeler, is in Dakota; Charles 
E. is engaged in the carshops at Aurora, 111. Our 
subject and his wife have three children : Edwin W., 
who was born June 4, 1870; Walter S., Sept. 11, 
1876, and Celia, Dec. 17, 1877; one child, Lnla A., 
died April 19, 1874, aged four years. They have 
been resident* of Broughton Township nearly four- 
teen years, having located on their present farm in 
the spring of 1874. 

AMUEL HOKE, after a long and industri- 
ous life, is now a retired farmer living 
in the city of Odell. He was born in Mc- 
C'onnellsburg, Pa., on the 24th of April, 
1827, and was the youngest of six boys, and the 
eighth in a family of ten children born to Jacob 
and Margaret (Lohr) lloke, who were natives of j 

Pennsylvania. The father w,-is born in Hanover, 
Oct. 10, 1783, and the mother in Gettysburg, April 
22, 1793. The father was a mechanic, and moved 
tn McConnellsbiirg about 180H, where he spent his 
declining .years, dying on the 28th of November, 
1867. His excellent wife survived him, and died 
in Epworth, Iowa, Oct. 10, 1872, while she was 
visiting her daughter who resided there. Jacob 
Hoke was a soldier in the War of 181 2, serving 
until its close, and was present when the British 
invaded Baltimore. The paternal grandfather was 
Henry Hoke. Our subject's maternal grandparents 
were Jacob and Margaret (Zeigler) Lohr, who were 
natives of Pennsylvania. Both grandfathers par- 
ticipated in tho Revolutionary War. 

Samuel Hoke was reared in town, and his educa- 
tion was almost entirely neglected. At the age of 
seventeen he went to Chambersburg to learn the 
trade of a painter, where he was apprenticed and 
served four years. At that time the customary 
rule was to board the apprentice and pay him $2 
per month in cash, and while thus engaged Mr. 
Hoke formed his habits of prudence and economy. 
At the age of twenty-one years he began work for 
himself, and engaged one year in Chambersburg, 
after which he went to Gettysburg, where he re- 
mained one year. From there he went to Williams- 
burg, and opened a paint and cabinet-making shop, 
and while living at that place, met the lady who 
became his wife. 

On the 18th of April, 1850, Mr. Hoke was mar- 
ried to Miss Laura M. Kenney, who was born in 
Martinsburg, Bedford Co., Pa., on the 22d of No- 
vember, 1831. She was the youngest child in a 
family of five, born to Alexander W. and Hannah 
E. (Harvey) Kenney, natives of Pennsylvania. 
Her father was born June 6, 1797, in Lewistown, 
Mint in Co.. Pa., and was a saddler by trade, but he 
went into business as a merchant and grain-buyer 
in his later years. He died April 13, 1858, in Hol- 
lidaysbnrg, Pa. His wife, Hannah E., daughter of 
Samuel and Elizabeth Harvey, was born June 13, 
1792, in Chester County, and died in Martinsburg, 
June 31, 1837. A. W. Kenney was the son of 
Robert and Margaret Kenney, both of Pennsyl- 

Mr. Hoke and his wife settled in life at Williams- 



burg, where he was engaged in business and re- 
mained there nine years. In 1 859 lie sold his pos- 
sessions there and moved to Dwight, Living.-tim 
County, where he opened the first furniture store 
started in the town, and also pursued his vocation 
as a painter. He soon sold out his business and 
purchased a farm of eighty acres, on which he built 
a house, and in the fall of the same year he removed 
to this farm, which was located in Union Town- 
ship. Here Mrs. Hoke taught the second school in 
that township, with an enrollment of but five pu- 
pils, three of whom were her own children. Mr. 
Hoke was one of the first to advocate a division of 
the township into districts, and being one of the 
Trustees, he eventually accomplished his object. 
In 1860 the township was laid off by Samuel Hoke. 
William Thompson and Arthur Marshall, into four 
sectional districts, which remain to-day as they 
were designated then. The first school-house iu 
the district in which Mr. Hoke resided was located 
on his land. Mr. Hoke continued to live on this 
farm until 1880, through thrift and enterprise in- 
creasing it to 400 acres of fine arable laud, which 
he put under a fine state of cultivation, and man- 
aged with great success until he retired from act- 
ual business life. In 1864 he was drafted as a sol- 
dier in the army, but sickness prevented his re- 
sponding to the call, and he provided a substitute. 
During his residence there he served as Assessor 
five years, and during nearly the entire time he was 
School Director. He and his wife have given up 
active life, and are now living comparatively at 
their ease, enjoying the fruits of their early labors. 
Mr. and Mrs. Hoke are the parents of seven chil- 
dren, six of whom are living: Alexander Rees was 
born Sept. 16, 1851 ; Hannah Margaret, Jan. 8, 
1854; William Elias,Oct. 2, 1850; Charles Harvey, 
June 28, 1860; George Kenney, Dec. 17, 1862; 
Samuel Lewis, July 8, 1867, and Frank Lincoln, 
Nov. 11, 1871. Lewis died Jan. 19, 1887. He 
was a member of the Congregational Church, which 
he joined at the age of sixteen, and was active in 
the Sunday-school and meetings of that denomina- 
tion; he always evinced a readiness to come for- 
ward and identify himself with the cause of Chris- 
tianity. He was a teacher, and while engaged in 
that profession was taken sick at Belle Prairie, this 

county, and remained at his post in the school- room 
until within five days of his death. He was grad- 
uated at the Odell High School, and afterward at- 
tended Dixon College. He had taken a high course 
in mathematics, and prepared himself for the work 
of a civil engineer, but all the events of his life 
tended toward the ministry, which would eventu- 
ally have become his work had he lived. During 
his last school term he lived at the residence of 
Mr. and Mrs. I). Spence. 

Mr. and Mrs. Iloke are members of the Presby- 
terian Church, and are active and earnest in all 
their Christian labors, to which they devote much 
of their time. 

>HOMAS J. JOHNSON, who is now a retired 
farmer residing in Dwight, is a native of the 
State of Connecticut, being bom in Sterling. 
Windliam County, March 1, 1827. He is of Pro- 
testant-Irish stock, and his remote ancestors settled 
at a very early day in Connecticut. John L. John- 
son, the father of our subject, was born in Rhode 
Island, and was a farmer by occupation. He after- 
ward went to Connecticut, where he worked for 
James Bailey, Sr., whose daughter, Miss Eunice 
Bailey, he eventually married ; her mother's name 
was also Eunice. The Baileys were of Protest- 
ant-Welsh origin, who settled at an early day in 
New England. 

The parental family of our subject included eight 
children Nancy, Thomas J., Henry D., Mary A., 
John F., Gilbert C., Jane and Alexander. After 
marriage, Mr. Johnson went to Oneco, Conn., where 
he had the management of several farms for Mr. 
Valentine, who was the proprietor of the extensive 
manufacturing establishment located there. Mr. 
Johnson bought out the heirs of the Bailey estate, 
and lived upon that homestead for many j-ears, and 
died there at the age of sixty-seven. He was a 
well-disposed man, and of religious principles, but 
was never a mem her of any religious organization. 
He was a representative New England farmer, mod- 
est and retiring in his disposition, and always de- 
clined to accept office. 

Thomas J. Johnson was born on the farm named 




above, and received a good common-school educa- 
tion. When young he had an ambition to obtain 
a more liberal education than the common school.- 
of Connecticut afforded, and he worked and strug- 
gled by teaching school and canvassing for books 
in the West, to earn the money needed to gratify 
this worthy ambition. With the money thus pro- 
cured he managed to attend the Smithville Semi- 
nary, Rhode Island, and Phillips Academy at And- 
over, Mass. He was obliged to abandon his inten- 
tion of obtaining a university education, on ac- 
count of his delicate constitution, but having natural 
ability as a conversationalist, he engaged with Hon. 
Henry Bill, a prominent and well-known publisher 
of Norwich, Conn., to canvass for his publications. 
Mr. Johnson traveled extensively in Ohio, Illinois, 
Missouri and Iowa, and besides canvassing himself, 
employed others to work for him. He was in the 
book trade from 1850 until IXliS, and was very 
successful. The professional book men of the 
United States are a class by themselves, and have 
distributed among the masses of the people a vast 
amount of useful information. They, next to the 
common school, the press and the pulpit, have been 
one of the greatest causes for the advancement of 
the people. Numberless valuable books have been 
circulated in the highways and byways, where oth- 
erwise few or no books would have found their 
way. Often situated many miles from an}' book- 
store, the people would seldom see a valuable book 
but for the energetic agent, who allows no obstacle 
to prevent his sales. The professional agents are 
usually men of fair education, unusual energy and 
intelligence, and possess perseverance and industry 
to a remarkable degree. After following this busi- 
ness for fifteen years, and having saved a consider- 
able amount of money, Mr. Johnson concluded to 
take to himself a life partner. 

On the 31st of January, 1870, Mr. Johnson was 
married to Miss Jennie E., daughter of Albert and 
Deborah (Kittle) Field, of Rhode Island. Her 
parents were people of English descent, who came 
to New England at an early clay. Immediately 
after marriage Mr. and Mrs. Johnson moved upon 
a farm in Broughton Township, Livingston Co., 111., 
which he had previously purchased. They have 
become the parents of six children, who were named 

Byron L.. Irving E., Bertie, Byron (2d), Roscoe 
and Florence. Mr. and Mrs. Johnson have been 
sadly afflicted in the death of all their children ex- 
cepting Florence. Byron L. died at the age of 
three and one-half years, and in December, 1882, 
the four boys, Irving, Bertie, Byron (2d) and Ros- 
coe, died of scarlet fever within two weeks of each 
other, in Dwight, 111. This severe blow has been 
endured with great patience and resignation. Flor- 
ence is now attending school at Dwight, where Mr. 
Johnson resides, having retired from active life. 

Our subject possesses a substantial property con- 
sisting of two farms, together containing 375 acres 
of land, a good residence and thirty-two town lots 
in Dwight. In politics Mr. Johnson is a Democrat, 
but does not take an active interest in political 
affairs. He is a self-made man, who by intelligence 
and perseverance has accumulated his large prop- 
erty. Wide-awake and well informed on most sub- 
jects, he stands well in the community in which he 

PHRAIM S. CLARK, the owner of 480 acres 
land located on sections 32 and 33. Read- 
Township, after a busy and successful 
life as a farmer, has retired from active work. He 
was born in Meigs County, Ohio, on the 27th of 
February, 1819, and is the son of Samuel and 
Pirn-be (Sayre) Clark. The father was the son of 
Samuel Clark, a native of New Jersey, and the 
mother was the daughter of Ephraim and Lydia 
(Fosett) Sayre, who were of English descent. 

Samuel Clark, .the father of our subject, was a 
volunteer soldier in the War of 1812, and also in 
the Black Hawk War. He was born on the 8th of 
March, 1792, and died on the 2d of June, 1*40. 
Phoebe, the mother of our subject, was born Feb. 
4, 1797, and died Aug. 5, 1845. To Samuel and 
Phu'be Clark were born fourteen children, named 
as follows: Mary, Lydia, Ephraim S., Hannah, 
Sarah, Caroline, Amos, Esther, Robert, Rosetta, 
Charles Wesley, Malvina, John Nelson and Eliza 
Ann. Mary, born Aug. 27, 1815, died Aug. 30, 
1823; Lydia, born Oct. 4, 1817, married Philip 
Shull, and died leaving five children; Hannah, born 
Oct. G, 1820, married Abram Hoffman, a farmer, 

<^p^ PHRA 

tof lan 
ing T 




has six children, and lives in Indiana; Sarah, born 
May 10, 1822, married Isaac F. Cashman, of Bu- 
reau County, 111., has five children, and resides in 
Iowa County, Iowa; Caroline, born March 16, 182 1. 
died April 18, 1824; Amos, born March 27, 1825, 
married Lucy Reither, and they have one child ; 
Amos is a shoemaker by trade, but he is now a 
traveling salesman. Esther, born Nov. 2(>, 1826, 
was married to George Washington Grant, a far- 
mer, has four children, and resides in Missouri: 
Robert, born April 1, 1831, married Hannah Ostran- 
der; they have two children, and reside in Boone 
County, Iowa. Rosetta, born Oct. 18, 1832, mar- 
ried George Hoffman; they have three children, 
and are residents of Holt County, Neb. Charles W., 
born Feb. 23, 1834, married Catherine McManus, 
and they have a family of four children, and reside 
in Southern Missouri; his occupation is that of a 
farmer, and he served three years during the late 
war in Company 1), 20th Illinois Infantry. Mal- 
vina, born Oct 14, 18:55, married Calvin Roberts, a 
carpenter by trade; they have six children, and re- 
side in Barton County, Mo. John N., born Dec. 
18, 1837, enlisted in Company D, 20th Illinois In- 
fantry, and received a wound at Ft. Donelson, 
from which he died ; his remains were brought 
home and buried in Ancona Cemetery, where his 
grave is marked by a fine marble monument. Eliza 
A., bom July 2-2, 1839, married Henry Sultzbaugh; 
they have four children, and reside in Webster 
County, Iowa, where the husband is engaged in 
mining coal. 

On the 10th of April, 1845, Mr. Clark was mar- 
ried to Mildred Ann Jones, a native of Kentucky, 
who was born on the 6th of November, 1822. She 
is the daughter of Lewis and Catherine Jones, to j 
whom, besides the wife of our subject, were born 
the following-named children : Edward. Sarah Ann, , 
Winnie Ann, Silas, Lucetta and Nancy Eleanor. 
Edward married Mary Goodrich, and died, leaving 
a large family ; Sarah Ann married James McManus, 
and they both died, leaving one child*; Winnie Ann 
married Jacob Doll, a tailor by trade; they have 
three children, and reside in Terre Haute, Ind. 
Silas died when a young man in Ancona; Lucetta 
married James Mclntyre, a fanner and stock- raiser, 
who died at Ransom, 111., leaving two children; 

Nancy Eleanor married Daniel Foster, who died in 
Iowa, leaving five children; after the death of her 
first husband she was married to William McGee, a 
farmer, and they reside in LaSalle County, 111. 

In the winter of 1828-29, our subject accom- 
panied his parents when they removed from Ohio 
to Indiana, making the trip by water in a boat built 
for the occasion. When they arrived at the mouth 
of the White River, a considerable delay was occa- 
sioned on account of the water being low, and they 
had to remain at this point until the river arose 
sufficiently to permit them to continue their jour- 
ney to Terre Haute, their destination. At the age 
of ten years our subject, with his sister, began at- 
tending school at Mt. Carmel, 111., in 1829, and 
remaining at school about three months, returned 
to his home in Indiana. In the fall of 1845 our 
subject, with his young wife, removed to Bureau 
County, 111., where he remained for about five 
years, and in December, 1850, he came to Living- 
ston County, and at once erected a log house, cut- 
ting and hauling the logs and completing his house 
in two days. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Clark have been born the fol- 
lowing-named children: William Talbot, Tarsina, 
Annice, Frank, Lycurgus, John Ephraim and Win- 
field Scott. William T., born March 4, 1848, mar- 
ried Amy Coe, who has borne him six children, 
five of whom are living; he is a farmer and stock- 
raiser by occupation, and resides in Livingston 
County. Tarsina, born Oct. 12, 1851, married Al- 
bert Coe, a farmer; they have five children, and live 
in Woodson County, Kan. Annice, born March :!, 
1854, married William Boatman, a farmer by occu- 
pation, has two children, and resides in Woodson 
County, Kan.; Frank, born Jan. 8, 1856, married 
Kate Willoughby, who is now deceased ; he resides 
in Livingston County, and is a prominent teacher 
and farmer. Lycurgus, born Dec. 22, 1857, died 
Jan. 19. 1859; John E., born Oct. 28, 1859, died 
Sept. 18, 1871 ; he met his death by being kicked 
by a horse. Winfield S., born Oct. 1 7, 1 862, was 
educated in the common schools and at the Normal 
School at Valparaiso. Ind., and now resides at home. 

Mr. Clark purchased land in Livingston County 
in the fall of 1852, paying for it with a land war- 
rant procured from a neighbor, which was issued 




for services rendered as a ranger during the Black 
Hawk War. He first settled in Reading Township, 
on section 27, where the village of Ancoua now 
stands, and from which place he hauled his grain 
and pork to Ottawa, and his milling to Dayton, 
four miles northeast of Ottawa. Mr. Clark now 
owns 480 acres of excellent land, which has been 
well improved, and contains, besides the homestead, 
two tenant houses. A double-page view of his 
estate may be found in the pictorial department of 
this volume. 

Mr. Clark was formerly a member of the Demo- , 
cratic part}', with which he remained up to 185C. 
In 1860, however, he voted for Stephen A. Doug- 
las, and since that time has acted independently. 
Ke is a strong advocate of the principles of tem- 
perance, and never neglects an opportunity to ad- 
vance that cause. He has served twenty-six years 
as School Director, and six as Town Trustee, and has 
also served as Assessor and Justice of the Peace. 
He is one of Reading Township's foremost citizens, 
and has always espoused everything that tended 
toward the general welfare of the people. He is j 
widely known for his benevolence and kindness as 
a neighbor, and indulgence as a husband and father, 
and enjoys the confidence of all the people of that 
section of Livingston County. None of those rep- 
resented in the portrait department of this ALBUM 
are more worthy of a place there than Mr. Clark. 
As a fitting accompaniment of his portrait we give 
that of his estimable wife. 

J^ESSE UIFFENBAUGH is a prominent grain 
dealer of Dwight, whose transactions are so 
extensive as to embrace nearly all the farm 
' products of the section of country adjacent. 
He was born on the 21st of August, 1830, near 
Westminster, Md. The Diffenbaughs are of an 
old pioneer family of that State, of sturdy origin, 
who came to Maryland in the old Colonial times. 
On the maternal side Mr. Diffenbaugh is of English 
descent, from one of the old Baltimore families. 

John Henry Diffenbaugh was the first of the name 
of whom we have any record, and IIP was brought 
to this country when a small boy by his father, who 

was the original pioneer, and brought with him 
three sons. In those- early days it was a long dis- 
tance to mill, ns they were located along the creek 
and were far apart. One of the brothers started to 
mill to be absent two or three days, but never re- 
turned. It is supposed he was taken and carried 
into captivity by some wandering band of Indians. 
Mr. Diffenbaugh settled on a farm near Westmins- 
ter, Md., and was drafted as a soldier in the War 
of 1812, but being in ill-health he was permitted to 
secure a substitute. The maiden name of his wife 
was Bumgardner, and they were the parents of four 
daughters and one son Elizabeth, Catherine, 
Lydia, Susan and John H. They are all now living 
except Lydia, who'was thrown from a buggy and 
killed. Elizabeth is eighty-eight years of age, 
Catherine eighty-four, John H. eighty-one, and 
Susan seventy-seven, the combined ages of the four 
being three hundred and thirty years. The father 
of this family died in 1813. 

John Henry, the father of our subject, was born 
in 1806, and followed the occupation of a farmer. 
He received a common-school education, and has 
for many years been a member of the Christian 
Church. In political opinions he was a Democrat 
up to the breaking out of the war, and after that he 
became a Republican. In 1826 he was married to 
Miss Elizabeth Powell, daughter of John and Eliza- 
beth Powell, who lived on a neighboring farm. Mr. 
Powell came from England when a young man, in 
company with his mother, one sister and two broth- 
ers. Mrs. Powell was a Stewart, whose mother mar- 
ried a Towson, who belonged to a celebrated Balti- 
more family during the War of 1812, in which 
Capt. William Towson wa> an ollicer. Mrs. Powell 
wai a woman of superior intelligence, and is well 
remembered by her grandchildren as a woman pos- 
sessing great force of character. She was a very 
skillful nurse and of great service to the sick, who 
at that day did not have the best medical atten- 
dance. Mr. Diffenbaugh by his union with Miss 
Powell became the father of fourteen children 
John T.. Angelina, Jesse, Margaret, Catherine. 
Emily J., Lucinda, Adam II., Louisa, Mary, Mar- 
tha, and three who died in infancy. Martha mar- 
ried David Burns, of Maryland, and died in 187H, 
leaving two children, Harvey and Ernest. The 





remainder of the family are all in Maryland, ex- 
cepting Jesse, and Louisa, who married Isaac Perry, 
and is at present a resident of Dwight. Mr. Diffen- 
baugh was a man of sterling character and brought 
up his large family to principles of the strictest 
integrity. Mrs. Diffenbaugh died in 1868, at the 
age of sixty-one years. 

The subject of this sketch received a common- 
school education during his boyhood days and early 
learned the trade of a shoemaker. Leaving home 
in 1852, at the age of twenty-two, he went to Mill 
Creek, Pa., where he engaged as a clerk in a store 
for eight years. He afterward opened a store of 
his own, and operated a sawmill, engaging in a gen- 
eral lumber business. In 1860 Mr. Diffenbaugh 
was married to Miss Sarah Goodman, daughter of 
John Goodman, a farmer of Mill Creek. They have 
had two children, Harry J. and Nora E., of whom 
the latter died when about eleven years of age. In 
1868 Mr. Diffenbaugh sold out his business and 
moved to Dwight, 111., where he began farming on 
land which he had previously bought about two 
miles south of Dwight. In 1870 he engaged in the 
grain business, which he has prosecuted with suc- 
cess up to the present time. 

In political matters Mr. Diffenbaugh acts with 
the Democratic party, and has been Assessor of the 
township for three years, and a member of the 
School Board. He is a prominent member of the 
Masonic fraternity, and takes an active interest in 
lodge matters. A life of perseverance and indus- 
try has earned for Mr. Diffenbaugh an excellent 
reputation as a business man, and he stands de- 
servedly high in commercial circles. In his social 
relations with the people he has popularized him- 
self with all classes, by whom he is held in the high- 
est esteem. 


EWIS HOLLOWAY, dealer in dry-goods, 
groceries, tin and glassware in the village 
i 'v of Wing, Pleasant Ridge Township, was 
born in Hamilton Count}', Ohio, in 1838. He is 
the son of John and Mary (Massey) Holloway, the 
former of whom was born in 1809 and died in 1849 
in Ohio. He was a cabinet-maker b}' trade, and 

was skillful in his calling. The father's death oc- 
curred one day after that of the mother, the death 
of both being caused by cholera. They were the 
parents of seven children, whose names are as fol- 
lows: John, Ann, Lewis, William, Sarah, Edward 
and Emily. 

Mr. Holloway came to Illinois in 1855, and lo- 
cated in LaSalle County, where he learned the 
trades of bricklaying and plastering, at which he 
worked for four years and then engaged in farm- 
ing. On the 8th of January, 1862, he enlisted in 
the army, and was mustered in as a private in an 
independent company attached to the 53d Illinois In- 
fantry as Company A Cavalry, and known as Will- 
iam Ford's Cavalry, afterward Gen. Halleck's es- 
cort, and later Gen. Grant's escort, and later as 
Company L, 15th Illinois Cavalry, and soon after- 
ward it participated in the siege at Corinth, where 
it remained for about one month. Thence it went 
to Shewalla, where it remained until the second 
siege of Corinth, in which it was engaged. The 
first general engagement in which this company 
participated was at Hatchie River on the 25th of 
September, 1862. The company afterward went 
to Glendale, where it remained until the spring of 
1863. In the engagement at Hatchie River Mr. 
Holloway had received injuries which rendered him 
unfit for any service, and he was discharged for 
permanent disability. His discharge bears date Feb. 
25, 1863. Immediately upon his discharge he re- 
turned home, and after recruiting his health about 
one year he engaged in farming. His first purchase 
of land was forty acres, to which he has from time 
to time added until he now owns 140 acres of good 
land on section 13, this township, and all under 

On the 24th of July, 1858, Mr. Holloway was 
married to Miss Mary A. Brundage, a native of 
Pennsylvania, who was born on the 10th of Septem- 
ber, 1842. Mr. and Mrs. Holloway have had ten 
children, eight of whom are now living: Oscar, 
Clarence, Alice, Ida J., Harry, Clifford, George and 
Alma. Mr. Holloway began his present business in 
May, 1880, but afterward disposed of it and went to 
the farm, where he staid two years. He then returned 
to Wing and erected another store building, which 
he supplied with a large and varied stock of goods, 






consisting principally of flour, boots and shoes, dry- 
goods, groceries, tin and glassware. lie has built 
up an extensive trade with the people of that sec- 
tion of the country, and is meeting with marked 

In politics Mr. llolloway acts with the Repub- 
lican party, and has been selected by the people to 
discharge the duties of various offices. He has 
filled the office of Road Commissioner nine years 
and has been Justice of the Peace eleven years, 
and during that time none of his decisions have 
been reversed upon an appeal to a higher court. 
He has jurisdiction in certain criminal cases, and 
the decisions he has rendered in those cases have 
been approved whenever an appeal has been 
taken. Mr. llolloway does not belong to any church 
organization, but is a strong believer in religion as 
taught by Christ, and is a Second Adventist in 
belief, but his children are active members of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. He is a Comrade 
of Post No. 114, G. A. R., at Forest, and is quite 
regular in his attendance. As a citizen Mr. Hollo- 
way is highly esteemed, and as a prompt and cor- 
rect business man has earned an enviable reputa- 


(AMES TANNER. This gentleman is one 
of the oldest living citizens of Avoca Town- 
ship, and has made his impress in the his- 
_ ' tory of both the county and township. He 
was born in Montgomery County, Ohio, on the 
27th of September, 1815, and is the son of Rob- 
ert and Jane Tanner, the former a native of Ken- 
tucky, and the latter of Pennsylvania. His pater- 
nal ancestors were of English and the maternal an- 
cestors of Irish descent. His parents settled in 
Montgomery County, Ohio, about the j'ear 1812, 
and were among the very earliest pioneers of that 
region of country. His father has been twice mar- 
ried, and of a large family of children there are but 
three survivors James, John A. and Ann M., the 
last the wife of Samuel Parrott, of Kansas. 

The subject of this sketch, when about twelve 
years of age, accompanied his parents when they 
removed to and settled in Fountain County, Ind., 
where lie was reared to manhood and received a 

rudimentary education in the early subscription 
schools, which were the only kind they had before 
the inauguration of the present free school system 
in Indiana. His early days were spent upon the 
farm, where he gained that practical experience 
which has been so' valuable to him in active life. 
lie was first married in Indiana, on the 24th of 
December, 1840, to Ann, a daughter of Robert 
Buchanan, and a native of Pennsylvania. She died 
on the 5th of March, 1852. Mr. Tanner's second 
marriage occurred in Illinois on the 1 4th of Decem- 
ber, 1853, when he was united with Ulala Tucker, 
who was born on the 14th of December, 1823, in 
Butler County, Ohio. She was a daughter of Joel 
and Sarah Tucker, who were natives of Kentucky 
and Pennsylvania respectively. When seven years 
of age she accompanied her parents when they re- 
moved to Tippecanoe County, Ind., where she was 
reared to maturity. In 1851 with her parents she 
came to Livingston County, where they settled on 
the Vermilion River in Avoca Township, and were 
among the pioneer settlers of that section. The}' 
both died in this place. 

In the spring of 1850 Mr. Tanner came from 
Indiana to Livingston County, and bought eighty 
acres of land on section 17, in Avoca Township, to 
which he has added by subsequent purchases until 
he now owns 154 acres, most of which is under cul- 
tivation, lie has resided continuously on section 
17 since he became a citizen of Livingston County. 
At the time he settled here the market for his farm 
products and the base of supplies was Ottawa, to 
which point he hauled all his grain. He endured 
all the usual hardships that befall the pioneer in a 
new country, but he has been successful in life, 
overcoming all obstacles, and has now one of the 
most pleasant homes and best improved farms in 
the county. 

Mr. and Mrs. Tanner arc members of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, and for years he has served 
as Class-Leader, Steward and Superintendent of 
the Sunday-school. To the church he is a liberal 
contributor, and as ;i member his example is wor- 
thy of emulation. To encourage those actively 
engaged in the battle of life, a few words of his 
Christian experience from his own pen are quite 
appropriate in this connection. "I was born of 



Christian parents, who in early youth taught me 
the fear of the Lord, and to read His holy word. 
I \VM.S eon verted and gave my heart to God in my 
sixteenth year, finding great peace in believing in 
the Lord Jesus Christ. In this Christian faith and 
hope I have lived for fifty-six years. A large ma- 
jority of my friends and neighbors have passed on 
before, and I hope to -meet many of them in the 
land where sickness and death will never come." 
He has served as Road Commissioner of the town- 
ship one term, for several years of said board as 
Treasurer, and as Justice of the Peace five years, 
and all these positions he has filled with credit to 
himself and to the satisfaction of the people. Mr. 
Tanner was appointed Postmaster of Lodemia, Oct. 
24. 1878, and has held the office up to the present 
time. He is a Republican in politics, and is thor- 
oughly imbued with the doctrines and modern 
ideas of that party. He has a tendency toward the 
doctrines of the Prohibition party, and looks upon 
the evil of intemperance as one of the greatest 
curses of the land. He and his wife are now in 
their declining years, but are enjoying the fruits of 
a life spent in usefulness and well-doing. They 
are both highly esteemed b'y their neighbors and 

A. HUNTER. One of the most 
jH] prominent young business men in the city 
of Odell, and one who deserves special men- 
tion for the energy with which he conducts his 
business, is the subject of this sketch, who is a 
dealer in drugs and medicines. He was born in 
Lawrence Count}-, Pa., on the 5th of November, 
1857. and in order of birth was third in a family 
of four children born to James A. and Jane 
(Struthers) Hunter, whose biographies appear in 
this Ai.ncM. 

Mr. Hunter was reared to city life and educated 
in the schools of Odell, where his parents located 
when he was eight years of age. From that time 
until he was sixteen years of age he constantly at- 
tended school, and was then granted a teacher's 
certificate, and engaged to teach school in the 
country, but an eminent physician. Dr. \Valdon, at 

this time bought a half interest in the Odell City 
Drug .Store with J. P. Kidder, with the understand- 
ing that young Hunter should take charge of his 
interest there. At the end of the first week in the 
school-room he turned over to a successor his 
school work and entered the store, in 1874. It 
being the home of his youth, his acquaintance ex- 
tended throughout the entire city and many miles 
in the surrounding country, and his natural genial 
disposition and upright life, which was an open 
book to all, brought to him the patronage of the 
best people of the community, llis business ca- 
reer proved him to be, as a man, what his' conduct 
as a boy indicated. After being engaged as a 
clerk four years, and Dr. Waldon desiring to with- 
draw from the business in Odell, for the purpose 
of going West, Mr. Hunter arranged to buy his in- 
terest in the store. Negotiations were soon com- 
pleted and at the age of twenty-one years he was 
in full possession of a half interest in the best pay- 
ing store in the city. 

On the 17th of November, 1881, Mr. II. was mar- 
ried to Florence M. Shaw, who was born in Lawrence 
County, Pa., on the Kith of February, 1 80!) , and 
was the second child of eight born to Stephen and 
Harriet (Ramsey) Shaw, who were natives of Penn- 
sylvania. Her father was a stanch Abolitionist 
during the exciting days of the discussion of the 
slavery question, and during the war was one of 
the most active aiders and abettors of anti-slavery 
doctrines. An early acquaintance between Mr. Hun- 
ter and his wife during their childhood led up to 
their marriage. The}' are the parents of two chil- 
dren: James A. was born on the 29th of Septem- 
ber, 1882, and Harriet J., on the 4th of March, 
1887. Mr. Hunter has been remarkably successful 
in his business affairs, and makes safe investments 
of his surplus cash. The cottage home which he 
purchased some four years ago was the beginning 
of his investment in real estate. In addition to 
this he also wwns a half interest in the store build- 
ing where his business is carried on, and a quarter 
section of fine farming land in Dakota. 

Mr. Hunter is quite active in political matters, 
displaying the same energy as he does in his busi- 
ness, and all his political efforts are directed for the 
benefit of the Republican party. There i> no self- 



ish motive to any part he may take in politics, for 
he does not desire public office, preferring to de- 
vote his time to his private business. He is a 
member in high standing of the Masonic fraternity, 
and both lie and his wife are members of the Con- 
gregational Church, in which he serves as Trustee, 
and is an active Sunday-school worker. 

<jw?AMES E. MORRIS, one of the oldest settlers 
of Broughton Township, is a native of En- 
gland, having been born in Wiltshire, June 
21, 1815, and is the son of Prince and Sarah 
Morris, both of whom were natives of England. 
When the subject of this sketch was fifteen years 
old his parents decided to emigrate to America, 
taking passage at Bristol on the sailing-vessel "Mary 
Jane," which left her port May 4, 1831. They 
came via Quebec to Hamilton, Ontario, where they 
landed June 21 following. His parents located on 
what was then known as the "Huron Tract," near 
Goderick, which was a wild country in those days, 
and the family remained there until 1851, when 
the father came to LaSalle County, 111., our subject 
following the year after. 

Mr. Morris received but a limited education, 
even for his day, and learned the trade of a car- 
penter, which he followed for thirty years, part of 
the time in connection with farming. He was first 
married in 1843, to Mis's Charlotte Carey, by whom 
he had four children, only one of whom survives, 
Susan, wife of Martin Seabert, of Round Grove 
Township, this county. Mr. Morris was married a 
second time, Oct. 1 3, 1853, to Miss Mary A. Carey, 
and this marriage resulted in the birth of eleven 
children, of whom eight are now living, namely : 
Emma J., the wife of Frank Foltz, and Lydia, the 
wife of Edward Lakin, both of whom reside in 
Campus, 111. ; James C., a hardware merchant of 
Emington, 111. ; Seth E., John E., Sarah A., Han- 
nah E. and Benjamin C. 

The subject of this sketch came to Livingston 
County in December, 1858, settling in Broughton 
Township, on the place where he now resides. His 
farm was then in a primitive condition, and it 
was only by much hard and unremitting labor thai 

he transformed it into its present finely improved 
condition. He experienced the usual hardship> <>f 
pioneer life, such as distant markets and small 
prices for the products of his labor. An uncon- 
querable will, however, overcame all obstacles, and 
he now owns 161 acres of good land, all of which 
has been the result of his own efforts. Mr. Morris 
is a member of the Baptist Church, in which he 
has officiated as Deacon for several years. He was 
among the first to preach the Gospel in his 
neighborhood, which he did in the capacity of a 
local preacher for many years. In recent years, 
however, owing to increasing age and infirmities, 
he has not engaged actively in ministerial labor, 
but is still an active worker in the Lord's vine- 
yard, and is an earnest promoter of every move- 
ment tending to improve society. While not an 
active politician he has filled several of the local 
offices, having served as Assessor and School Di- 
rector. In politics he is a Republican, and as a 
man his unsullied reputation has won for him the 
esteem and confidence of all who know him. 

OHN GEIS, cigar manufacturer of D wight, is 
regarded among the substantial German citi- 
zens of the town, and is a fine representative 
of the industry and persistence which are so 
essential in the building up of communities, both 
agricultural and industrial. He is the descendant 
of a long line of pure German ancestry, and was 
born and reared near the town of Villmar, in the 
Province of Hesse-Nassau, of which his father was 
one of the most prosperous farmers. The latter, 
who owned a large extent of land, and accumulated 
a good property, is now retired from active life, 
spending his declining years in ease and comfort. 
Only two of the family came to the United States, 
our subject and his brother Joseph, the latter being 
now a resident of Nebraska. 

Mr. Geis was born in 184'J, and spent his boy- 
hood years not far from the beautiful valley of the 
IMiine, which is so renowned for its fertility and 
richness in quarries of marble and iron ore. In 
common with the youth of his country, he was thor- 
oughly educated in the schools of his native Prov- 



ince, iincl remained there until eighteen years of age. 
In the spring of 1807 he embarked on a steamer 
from Bremen, and after a fair passage set foot on 
American soil, and proceeded directly to the city of 
Chicago. Thence, -not long afterward, he migrated 
to Milwaukee, Wis., where he learned the shoe- 
maker's trade, and remained four years. Then re- 
turning to Chicago he took up cigar-making, re- 
maining there four years also, and in 1 N75 was 
married to Miss Mary A. Schmidt of that city. 
They are now the proud parents of four boys 
John, William, Joseph and Edward. 

The children of Mr. and Mrs. Geis were all born 
at Dwight after their removal here, March 30, 1875, 
where during a residence of twelve years, they have 
fairly established themselves in the esteem and con- 
fidence of the community. The career of Mr. G. 
has been steadily onward, and he has built up a suc- 
cessful patronage, both as a wholesale and retail 
dealer, he owning his residence and his store. He 
is declared to be one of the most straightforward 
and honorable business men of Dwight. He is 
Democratic, politically, and socially, belongs to the 
I.O. O. F. and the K. of P. 

11. CHISAM. It being generally believed 
that heredity has much to do with the forma- 
tion of character, and that our lives are 
stimulated by the indirect as well as the immediate 
influences of our ancestors, a short resume of the 
lives of Mr. Chisam's parents may serve as the in- 
dex to the liberal and humane impulses which mark 
his daily life, and which have won for him the 
esteem of those who know him. 

The subject of this sketch, a dealer in grain and 
hay at Odell, was born in Rome, N. Y., on the I'.Hh 
of July, 1849, and is the eldest child born to James 
and Margaret (Hayden) Chisam, natives of New 
York. The paternal grandparents were James and 
Mary (Cook) Chisam, of North of Ireland descent 
and of the Protestant faith. They came to America 
about 182(1, where James Chisam was engaged in 
farming, and spent his declining years. The ma- 
ternal grandparents were Dr. Ansonand Kate (Ilill- 
iard) Ilayden. natives of New York, where he was 

a practicing physician when the wolves chased night 
travelers across the country to their doorj'ards. 
The grandparents all lived to be more than ninety 
years of age. 

The father of the subject of this sketch was a 
carriage-maker by trade, and for many years car- 
ried on the business in Taberg, N. Y. After the 
death of his wife he came West, and spent his declin- 
ing years in Springlield, 111., with his son Charles, 
freight agent of the Chicago & Alton Railroad. He 
was a quiet, conservative citizen, taking but little 
part in politics, though he espoused the principles 
of the Republican party. At the age of sixty-two 
years he died in Springfield. 

C. II. Chisam was reared to city life, and was 
educated in the common schools until thirteen 
years of age, when he entered a general store at 
Taberg, as clerk, where his parents resided at that 
time. In that line he remained five years and then 
came West to see what this section of country had 
in store for him. lie came by the way of Chicago, 
and down to Lincoln, where he had friends, and en- 
gaged iii a general merchandise store for two years. 
At the end of that time he went to Springfield, '111., 
where he served in the capacity of railroad agent 
for the Chicago & Alton Railroad Company, for 
about eight years. 

While residing at Springfield, Mr. Chisam was 
married, on the 1 2th of Ma_y, 1875, to Clara Arming- 
ton, of Atlanta, 111., who was born Oct. 1!), 1850, 
and was the third in a family of four children born 
to Hezekiah and Frances (Verry) Armington, who 
were natives of the State of Vermont, but were early 
settlers at Armington, Tazewell County, where their 
daughter was born. After marriage Mr. and Mrs. 
Chisam settled at Springfield, where he was em- 
ployed, and thence removed to Atlanta, when Mr. 
Chisam accepted an engagement as a traveling sales- 
man in Illinois. Five years later he left the road, 
and coming to Odell, engaged in the grain business, 
leavinghis wife and family at Atlanta. They were 
the parents of three children, all of whom are liv- 
ing. Mr. Chisam had been in business only a short 
time, spending his Sundays at home, when his wife 
died on the 22dof March, 1H85, having been a suf- 
ferer from consumption. 

Mrs. Chisam was a lad}' of high womanly virtue 



and inanj- accomplishments, a graduate of the High 
Scliool in Atlanta, and identified with the best in- 
t crusts of the young people of that city. She was 
a bright, vivacious, open-hearted young woman. 
whom all her associates respected and loved. She 
had always been a promising flower, and was a faith- 
ful wife and loving mother; her bright, happy man- 
ner, mid many excellent traits of character making 
her the friend of all who knew her. The little boys 
are with their father in Odell, which he contem- 
plates making their permanent home. Mr. Chisam 
is a Republican in politics, but does not take an act- 
ive part; he is a member of the City School Board. 

II. HINKEY, a prominent farmer, stock 
^ii - _ dealer and breeder of full-blood Percheron 

and Norman horses, on section 31, Dwight 
Township, is of German origin. Herman Hinkey, 
the founder of the family in America, came to this 
country from Germany in 1853, and settled in La- 
Salle County, 111. His father bought a farm in 
Wallace Township, LaSalle County, and this home- 
stead is still in the hands of his son, John H. Hinkey. 
lie was the father of ten children, and lived on this 
farm until his death, which occurred in 1881, at 
the age of sixty-four years. He was a hard-work- 
ing and industrious man, reliable in all his transac- 

The subject of our sketch was born on the 15th of 
February, 18411, and came to this country with his 
parents when he was but four years of age. While 
yet a boy he received a good common-school educa- 
tion and took his first lessons in the details of farm- 
ing. Early developing a great interest in stock of 
various kinds, and especially in horses, he has been 
given opportunities in after life of fully gratifying 
his inclinations. When but twenty-two years of 
age, young Hinkey went to Humboldt County, 
Nev., .in 1871, and worked three years by the 
month for his brother. Saving his money he rented 
his brother's ranch of 640 acres of land, and raised 
15,000 bushels of barley and wheat, which he sold 
for ninety cents per bushel, and cleared $5,000. 
At this time Mr. Hickey was prostrated by a very 
serious illness, and was confined to his room for 

three months, but ultimately regained his health. 
In 1873 he bought a half interest in a hotel in 
Winneniucca, Nev., and was successful in the con- 
duct of the business. 

In 187") Mr. Hinkey returned to LaSalle County, 
and on the 20th of April, he was married to 
Miss Mary McGinnis, daughter of Philip and Ellen 
(Lynch) MeGinnis, of LaSalle County, 111. To 
them have been born six children, namely : Maggie, 
Philip, Ella, Agnes, Belle and Mary. Mr. Hinkey 
took his young bride to his hotel in Nevada, where 
they remained until the fall of 187~>, when he sold 
the hotel and purchased a ranch, which he stocked 
with cattle. He continued in this business until 
1884, and was very prosperous. 

In 1884 Mr. Hinkey returned with his family to 
Illinois, and purchased 320 acres of land in Dwight 
Township, which is situated on a gently rolling 
prairie. On this land he began farming and rais- 
ing blooded Norman horses. He now has two im- 
ported stallions, "Taducah" and "Superb," full- 
blooded Percheron Normans, which were purchased 
from the importer, J. J. Kemp, of Lexington, III., 
at 12,000 each. Mr. Hinkey has also four full- 
blooded mares, imported by Mr. Kemp. The}' are 
all first-class animals, and were purchased at a cost 
of $2,000, which makes a total investment in Nor- 
mans, of $6,000. In point of superior beauty, power 
of draft and weight, these horses are unequaled. 
Mr. Hinkey is also a large feeder and dealer in 
steers, and as he is a man of large and varied ex- 
perience in this line of business, his work is all 
conducted upon an intelligent basis. His stock has 
achieved a reputation throughout the West equaled 
by few and surpassed by none. 

ANIEL REED is familiarly known through- 
out Reading Township as the leading 
dealer in full-blooded Jersey cattle and 
high-grade Durhams, in which business lie 
has had several years' experience, and has operated 
with success. His headquarters are at a pleasantly 
located farm on section 2',), where he also lia> a 
blacksmith-shop, in which he employs his leisure 



lime, and which proves a great convenience in the 
general business of the farm, enabling him to re- 
pair the machinery and at once save time and labor. 

Mr Reed carae to this State from Ohio in 1850, 
and early in life had been made acquainted with 
hard labor and economy, and his early education 
was extremely limited. When quite young he la- 
bored to assist in the support of his father's family. 
Notwithstanding this disadvantage, the experience 
he acquired was of such value that on starting out 
for himself he was found well fitted for the strug- 
gle of life, and only sought the reward of his hon- 
est efforts. This in a measure he now enjoys, as he 
lias a good farm of 160 acres under a high state of 
cultivation. Upon this farm was laid the first tile 
for agricultural purposes in Reading Township, and 
Mr. Reed has in other respects been one of the 
most progressive men in this part of the county, 
availing himself of approved methods and modern 

Mr. Reed was born in Clermont County, Ohio, 
Dec. 2'J, 1*26, and is the son of Conrad and Cath- 
erine (Weaver) Reed, natives respectively of Penn- 
sylvania and Maryland. Conrad Reed was born in 
Washington County, Pa., in 1796, and was the son 
of John Reed, one of the pioneer settlers of the 
Keystone State, whence he removed later to Ohio, 
and was also a pioneer there. The mother of our 
subject was born in 1805, and is still living, in 
Streator, 111. ; she has now been a widow twelve 
years, her husband having died in 1875, at the ripe 
old age of seventy-nine years. Their children 
were named Elizabeth, Mary, Daniel, Amanda, 
William, Nancy, Catherine, Conrad, Matilda, Jane 
and Jacob. Elizabeth became the wife of David 
Tullis; Mary married Thomas Osborne, and is now 
a widow; Amanda was the second wife of David 
Tullis, who served three years in the arm}' and en- 
dured great exposure and hardship, which finally 
resulted in his death at home; William receives no- 
tice elsewhere in this volume; Nancy is the wife of 
A. D. Thomas, a practicing physician of Missouri; 
Catherine married Charles .Werner, and is now de- 
ceased; Matilda is the wife of Leonard Wet/., a 
fanner of Long Point Township; Jane is the wife 
of John Wetz, brother of the above Conrad; the 
twin brother of Catherine died when quite young 

in Ohio, and Jacob died there when nine years of 
age; one infant died unnamed. 

Mr. Reed learned the trade of a blacksmith in 
Butlei ville, Warren Co., Ohio, and remained a res- 
ident of his native county until thirty years of age. 
Before coining to the West he was united in mar- 
riage with Miss Eliza G. Merrill, the wedding tak- 
ing place at the home of. the bride, in Clermont 
County, Ohio, March 8, 1849. Mrs. Reed is the 
daughter of William and Mary Ann (Woliver) 
Merrill, natives of New Jersey. Mr. Merrill, who 
was a wagon-maker by occupation, boarded a ship 
bound for Australia which is supposed to have 
been lost with all on board, as she was never after- 
ward heard from. His wife died in Clermont 
Count}', Ohio, in 1833, when her daughter Eliza 
was but seven years of age. The parental house- 
hold included the following-named children : Maria, 
Eliza, Margaret, Hannah, Emma and Mary Jane. 
Maria became the wife of Hugh Lemmons. and 
the mother of one child ; she died of cholera at 
Pickaway, Ohio, in. 1840. Eliza was born Feb. 

6, 1829, in the State of New Jersey. Margaret 
died in Michigan when ten years of age, while 
Hannah came to her death by being scalded when 
about five years of age; Emma married David 
Brown in Hamilton County, Ohio, and they are 
now residents of Reading Township; Mary Jane 
died when three months old, and the youngi-st died 
unnamed in infancy. 

Mr. and Mrs. Reed commenced life together in 
Clermont County, Ohio, whence they removed to 
their present farm in 1856. In due time the house- 
hold was increased by the birth of the following- 
named children : Catherine, Amanda, Lucy Jane, 
Conrad and Daniel M. Catherine was born March 
14, 1850, and married Samuel Yerty, who is Con- 
stable of Ancona; they have two children. Amanda 
was born July 10, 1851, and died March 5, 1853; 
Lucy Jane was born March 5, 1853, and died Sept. 

7, 1858; Conrad was born Dec. 7, 1855, and died 
Oct. 20, 1857; Daniel M. was born May 28, 1860, 
and is now in LaSalle. 111. 

Mr. Reed, politically, is untrammeled by party, 
and in religious views he and his estimable lady are 
independent. Their children were given the ad- 
vantages of a good education, and have taken their 




places in society as the honored representatives of 
wise and judicious parents and good citizens. The 
Reed homestead is one of the most attractive in 
Livingston County, the result of the labors of a 
self-made man, who commenced in life without 
means and has proved an admirable example of 
what may be accomplished by persevering industry. 
No man is more highly respected among his neigh- 
bors, and few have contributed more toward em- 
bellishing the county and assisting to develop its 
resources than he has. 

As illustrative of the prosperity of this section 
of country, and especially so of the gentleman 
whose life is here briefly sketched, we present on 
an ad joining page of this ALBUM a view of his resi- 
dence, with its environments. 

GORGE ORB, Postmaster at Round Grove, 
and an extensive grain dealer, is senior 
member of the firm of George Orr & Co., 
which was established in 1882, and is evidently 
taking the lead in this business in the northeastern 
part of Livingston County. They are young and 
enterprising men, keeping pace with the progress 
of the times, and to whom the community look for 
assistance in those enterprises best calculated for 
its advancement, socially and financially. 

Mr. Orr, a native of Pennsylvania, was born in 
Allegheny Comity, April 11, 1847, and is the young- 
est of seven sons and seven daughters, the offspring 
of John R. and Nanc3' (Thompson) Orr, natives of 
Ireland. They came to America early in life, 
locating first in Pennsylvania, where the father 
died in Allegheny County, in 1852. The mother 
came with her children to the \Vest when (ieorge 
was :i lad nine years of age, and settled first in Do 
Kalb County, 111., where the\- lived five years, then 
took up their residence for a like period in Kendall 
County, and in 18(17 came to Livingston, of which 
our subject ha. since been a resident. The mother 
is still living and a resident of Round Grove Town- 

Mr. Orr was bred to farm pursuits, in which lie 
engaged until the spring of 1882. Besides his in- 
terest in the grain business, in which the firm 

handles from 80,000 to 100,000 bushels annually. 
he owns a fine farm of over 400 acres, upon which 
are first-class buildings and all other modern im- 
provements. There is the usual quantity of ma- 
chinery and farm stock which the agriculturist of 
to-day requires for his convenience and profit, and 
the estate in all its appointments forms a complete 
country home. 

Mr. Orr, while a resident of Kendall County, w.-i> 
united in marriage, in March, 1877, with Miss Jane 
Ilaverhill, who was a native of that county, and 
born in June, 18">2. Mrs. Orr is the daughter of 
Oliver and Juliett Haverhill, natives of New York. 
and now of Kendall County, 111. She received a 
fair education and was carefully trained to those 
household duties and accomplishments which aid so 
much in the happiness and contentment of a home. 
Of her union with our subject there are three chil- 
dren : Burton L., who was born Feb. 11, 1 877 ; Amy 
E.,Jan. 9, 1880, and James, Jan. 1,188(5. Mr. O. was 
appointed Postmaster in 1882, and the fact that he 
holds his office under a Democratic administration, 
being himself a stanch Republican, is sufficient 
proof of the estimation in which he is held b}' the 
people of his community. He takes a genuine in- 
terest in local affairs and has served as Constable 
and School Director. 

pBUSTIN HOWARD in the winter of 1*80 
came with his family to this county, and 
shortly afterward secured possession of 160 
acres of good land on section 2!i, in 
Broughton Township. This he has since occupied, 
bringing about many improvements, and proving 
himself to be a thorough and skillful agriculturist, 
a good business man, and a valued addition to the 
community. lie makes a specialty of stock-raising, 
and lias all the conveniences for carrying on the 
various pursuits of the farm after the most ap- 
proved methods. 

Mr. Howard is comparatively a young man, hav- 
ing been born July 20, 1843, and is a native of 
Kane County, this State. His parents, Philo and 
Annie (Colvin) Howard, were born in New York 
State, and are the descendants of prominent fami- 




lies, well known throughout the East, where they 
are largely represented. They left New York State 
in 1841, and the father, after reaching Illinois, pur- 
chased eighty acres of Government laud .soon after 
the organization of Kane County, of which he was 
one of the earliest pioneers. The mother died soon 
after Ihe removal, and the father followed his de- 
voted wife in January, 1869. The latter, after the 
death of his first wife, was married the second time, 
and was the father of ten children, of whom the 
following survive, namely: Melvin, of DeKalb 
County, this State ; Oriu, of Broughton Township, 
this county; Jane, the wife of Mahlon Snj'der, of 
Cook County; Emerson A., and Zada, of Kane 
County, and Austin, our subject. 

Mr. Howard was the third son of his father's 
family, with whom he remained in Kane County 
until reaching manhood. He received a common- 
school education, and with the exception of four 
years spent in selling agricultural implements and 
four years dealing in horses has been engaged in 
farming. He was married after reaching his twenty- 
fifth birthday to Miss Ella Bidden-, the wedding 
taking place at the home of the bride in Kendall 
County, Dec. 81, 1868. Mrs. Howard was born in 
Quebec, Canada, Nov. 18. 1849, and is the daugh- 
ter of Jeremiah and Nancy (Brown) Biddore, the 
father a native of France, and the mother of Lower 
Canada. Her father died in Quebec about 1850, 
and the mother, when her daughter Ella was about 
fifteen years of age, came to the United States, and 
located in LaSalle County, 111.; she died in 1X69. 

Mr. and Mrs. Howard continued in Kendall 
County until 1880, and became the parents of eight 
children La June, Zenas H., Philo E., Auson L., 
John A., Edward J., Everet B. and Ray C. La June 
was born Nov. 26, 1869, and is attending the High 
School at Pontiac: Zenas H. was born Oct. 23, 1X71, 
and with the younger children is at home with his 
parents ; Philo E. was born Dec. 4, 1*73; Anson L., 
April 1 1, 1876; John A., Sept. 8, 1879; Edward J., 
Aug. 23, 1X81; Everet B., Nov. 4, 1884, and Ray 
C'., Jan. 20, 1X87. Mr. Howard has always been a 
Republican and is serving his third term as High- 
way Commissioner, the duties of which office he is 
discharging with great credit to himself and satis- 
faction to the people of his district. Botli he and 

his estimable lady belong to the church of the Lat- 
ter-Day Saints. He is public-spirited and liberal, 
and in all respects a valued member of society. 

The mother of Mrs. Howard was twice married. 
By her first union, with John Perrin, she had five 
children, namely : Mary, Mrs. Joseph Sear, of Ken- 
dall County, 111., William P. and Stephen, of Can- 
ada ; Rachel, of DeKalb County, 111., and Nancy, wife 
of A. Bowers, of Kendall County. By her second 
union, with Jeremiah Beddore, two children, Ellen 
and Mrs. Howard of this notice, were born. 

DWIN DILLON. The little burnt clay 
-j tubes used in draining land have revolu- 
tionized fanning during the last few decades, 
and the Illinois farmer who puts 600 rods of 
tile under 160 acres of land full}- understands 
their efficacy, and receives his reward in the in- 
creased production of corn and wheat. Mr. Dillon 
believes in the tile, and as an evidence of the 
practical application of that faith he has one of the 
finest and most productive farms in Livingston 
County, located on secticn 35, in Eppard's Point 
Township, where he is engaged in farming and 
stock-raising. This farm is located on the south 
line of the township, one mile from the town of 
Weston, in McLean County, and is under a most 
excellent state of cultivation. 

Mr. Dillon was born on the l'.)th of October, 
1839, in Tazewcll County, 111., and is the son of 
Daniel and Ruth (Hoskins) Dillon. The former was 
a native of North Carolina, where he was born in 
1 802, and was brought to Ohio by his parents when 
two years of age. In 1816 several families moved 
from Ohio to Illinois, and settled in Tazewell 
County, and in 1826 Mr. Dillon's father settled in 
the same county, where he lived until IcS.'io, and 
then moved to Delavan Prairie in Mason County, 
where he lived until his death, which occurred in 
March, 1 8X5. He was the father < >f eleven children 
Jane, Cyrus, Emily, Caroline, Catherine, Mary, 
Edwin, Daniel, Lorenzo, Annie L. and George. 
Jane died in childhood; Cyrus is married, has three 
children, and is a farmer in Tazewcll County; 
Emily is the wife of Z. B. Kidder, who is engaged 

' > 214 


in milling in Russell County, Kan.; Caroline and 
Catherine arc twins; the former is the wife of Ed. 
Lyons, lives in Mason County, and has three chil- 
dren. Catherine is the wife of R. B. Summers, 
and lives in Kansas. Mary married Abner Summers, 
and died in Sullivan County, Mo., in 1882, leaving 
four children; Daniel has a wife and four children, 
and follows the trade of a carpenter in Peoria; 
Lorenzo has a wife and four children, and re- 
sides in San Jose, Mason Co., 111. ; Annie L. mar- 
ried William Kent, and lives in Florence, Kan. ; 
George died in 1857, when ten years old, in Mason 
County, 111. Mr. Dillon's mother died in Mason 
County, 111., in 1857. Both the parents were mem- 
bers of the Society of Friends, in which the father 
was a preacher and leader. 

Mr. Dillon was educated in the common schools 
and lived at home until twenty-one years of age. 
when he began farming for himself, and continued 
until the year 1862. He then enlisted in the 
108th Illinois Infantry, and was assigned to mem- 
bership in Company H, in which command he re- 
mained until he was honorably discharged on the 
7th of July, 1865, at Camp Butler, Springfield, 111. 
During the time he was in the service he partici- 
pated in the second attack on Vicksburg, which was 
unsuccessful; the battle of Arkansas Post, where 
7,(H)() prisoners were captured; the siege of Vicks- 
burg; the Union defeat of Guntown, where 2,500 
Union prisoners were taken, and nearly all of 
their provisions. By this defeat this army was 
made almost destitute, and during the subsequent 
march of nearly 140 miles there was but one pound 
of provisions to issue to each man. During the 
time he was in the service Mr. Dillon contracted a 
disease which became chronic, and was also afflicted 
with inflammation of the eyes, which destroyed the 
sight of one of them. In 1H64 he was sent to the 
hospital in the field, and after remaining there 
sonic time was sent to the hospital at Springfield, 
111., where he remained until lie was discharged. 
After his discharge he went to Mason County, III., 
and engaged in farming. 

At the age of twenty-one Mr. Dillon married 
Elizabeth \Vakelield. who is a native of Pennsyl- 
vania, and daughter of Robert and Martha \Vake- 
lield. She wa.- reared to womanhood in her native 

State, and then accompanied her parents to Illinois, 
where she had two brothers, who lived in Mason 
County for many years. To Mr. and Mrs. Dillon 
have been born five children Clark, Edwin. Alida, 
Oscar and Edith. Clark and Edwin died in infancy; 
Alicia was born July 11, 1865; Oscar, Oct. 27, 
18(57; and Edith, June 11, 186!l. In addition to 
their own children they have an adopted child, 
whose name is Mabel J. Fultz, and was born March 
3, 1884. Mr. Dillon first came to Livingston 
County in 1867, but had purchased a farm the year 
before. He has expended much labor and money 
upon this farm, but in return has the satisfaction of 
knowing that it is one of the most productive and 
valuable pieces of farm property in Livingston 
County. For his family he has provided a com- 
fortable and convenient residence, and for the pro- 
tection of his products and the shelter of stock has 
made ample provision. He and his wife are mem- 
bers of the Christian Church, and attend services 
at Fairbury. 

RS. ELECTA JEFFERS is the widow of 
the late Nelson Jeffers, of Round Grove 
Township. Soon after the death of her 
husband she took up her residence with 
her daughter in Broughton Township, of which she 
has since been a resident, and where she is held in 
universal respect as a lady possessing many amiable 
qualities, and excellent business capacities. 

Mrs. Jeffers was born in New London, Huron 
Co., Ohio, Sept. 13. 1823, where she was reared at 
the country home of her parents, receiving a good 
education in the common schools. She was also 
trained by her careful mother to those housewifely 
duties which have such a great influence in the 
happiness and comfort of the domestic circle. 
In those days learning to spin and weave was 
an essential element in the training of young girls, 
and Mrs. J. became expert in these arts before 
reaching the fifteenth year of her age. At this 
early age she commenced teaching school, which 
profession she followed until the time of her first 
marriage, July 4, IH44. to Mr. John B. Conway, a 
native of her own State, and one of the associate- 



of her youthful days. Two years before her mar- 
riage she had created quite a sensation in herneigh- 
liorhood by spinning 100 knots of yarn between 
sunrise and sunset, an amount of labor which was 
considered really wonderful, as it usually consumed 
two and one-half days. 

The year following their marriage John B. Con- 
way and his young wife, accompanied by the family 
of his father, James B. Con way, left the Buckeye 
State and migrated to Green County, Wis. The 
young people upon their arrival had but fifty cents in 
money, besides two cows and a team of horses, but 
their stout hearts and willing hands comprised a 
capital which at that time and in that section of 
country proved, perhaps, full}' as available as 
money. The following spring the younger Con- 
way purchased eighty acres of land of his father, 
upon which he operated about two years, when, on 
account of poor health, he decided to leave Wis- 
consin and try the climate of Illinois. His parents 
spent the remainder of their days in Wisconsin. 
Soon after his arrival in Kendall County Mr. Con- 
way purchased eighty acres of land, upon which he 
farmed about two years, and then sold out and pur- 
chased 160 acres in Grundy County. This also he 
sold two years later, and in 1854 came to Living- 
ston County, purchasing ICO acres in Broughton 
Township, which comprises the farm still occupied 
by Mrs. Jeffers. There was then but one family 
besides themselves within the limits of the town- 
ship, and their first winter was one of unusual 
hardship, even at that day, and at a time when who- 
ever ventured into that section of country expected 
little else. They located on prairie land, and were 
obliged to go a long distance for fuel, the labor of 
gathering a load of wood employing three days' 
time. The nearest mill was at Wilmington, a 
journey which involved the same length of time. 
The little household had been increased in numbers 
by the birth of one child, and Mrs. Comvay dur- 
ing the forced excursions of her husband from 
home was obliged to remain alone with her little 
ones and the house unfinished. Upon one occasion 
a fearful storm came on, and in the absence of a 
door and window sash the rain blew through the 
house so that both mother and children almost per- 
ished from fright and cold. The experiences of 

those years of hardship would make a long and in- 
teresting tale, and fully prove the correctness of 
the adage that truth is stranger than fiction. 

Mr. and Mrs. C'onway continued at the place 
where they so bravely endeavored to establish a 
home until the winter of 1861-02; in the meantime 
they had surrounded themselves with many com- 
forts, and the settling up of the country had made 
.life quite endurable. The outbreak of the Re- 
bellion now interrupted their plans for the future, 
as Mr. Conway decided to enlist as a Union soldier, 
and assist in fighting the battles of his country. He 
joined Company D, 58th Illinois Infantry, and par- 
ticipated in many of the principal battles of the 
first important campaign, being present at the sieges 
of Ft. Donelson and Vicksburg, and the battles 
of Corinth, Shiloh and Red River, besides many 
minor engagements and skirmishes. The sufferings 
and hardships incident to army life brought on an 
incurable disease, and Mr. Conway, after being 
confined in the hospital at Joe Holt, Intl., died on 
the 17th of January, 1865. His remains were laid 
to rest in the cemetery in Broughton Township. 

Mr. and Mrs. C'onway became the parents of 
four children, of whom but one survives. The 
eldest, Olive E., was born March 28, 1846, and 
died on the 8th of October, 1855, from the effects 
of a fall; James J. was born Sept. 18, 1849, and 
died Jan. 22, 1850; Ezra B., born June 7, 1855, 
died in infancy; Emily C. was born April 4, 1857, 
and first married, Sept. 8, 1874, to Charles H. Glass, 
and became the mother of one child, Frederick E. 
Glass, born Aug. 8, 1875. She was divorced from 
Mr. G., and on the 1st of October, 1879, became 
the wife of Charles H. George, of this township. 
Of this marriage there were born four children, 
two living, namely : John Newell, who was born 
July 8, 1880, and Frank Irvin, Feb. 5, 1883. Mrs. 
George is a lady of good education, and much in- 
telligence, and makes a pleasant home for the 
mother who is now passing down the hill of life, 
being in the sixty-fifth year of her age. 

Mrs. Electa Conway, on the 25th of March, 1866, 
was united in marriage with Nelson Jeffers, of 
Round Grove Township, where the}' settled upon 
a farm which Mr. Jeffers operated successfully un- 
til compelled by his last illness to abandon his 


21 (I 


labors His death took place on theCthof August, 
1878, in tlu' fifty-sixth year of his age. After the 
death of her husband Mrs. J. took up her abode 
with her daughter in Broughton Township, where 
she has since resided. 

The father of Mrs. Jeffers was Isaiah Day, who 
was first married to Mrs. Annie (Durphy) Tripp, 
and the}' became the parents of three daughters 
and one son, Electa being the second child. The 
mother died at her home in Ohio about 1827. Mr. 
Day was a second time married to a widow, and 
reversing the order of children, became the father 
of three sons and one daughter by this marriage. 

JOSEPH R. KING. The subject of this 
sketch has recently become one of the land- 
owners of Waldo Township, but has nearly 
all his life been identified with the agricult- 
ural interests of Livingston County. He has al- 
ways been a resident of the State, and is thoroughly 
enlisted in the work of making Illinois stand at the 
head of the great agricultural States of the Union. 
He is full of energy and enterprise, and the work 
he has in hand is prosecuted with that vigor char- 
acteristic of the man. He is engaged in fanning 
and stock-raising on section 24, Waldo Township. 
Mr. King was born in McLean County, III., on 
the 25th of May, 1854, and is the son of Christian 
R. and Mary (Beckler) King. He is the second 
child in a family of twelve, and was about twelve 
years of age when his father moved to Livingston 
County, and bought 1GO acres of land, to which he 
has added until he now owns 640 acres. Mr. King 
was reared on his father's farm, but the educational 
advantages during his boyhood days were so mea- 
ger that he reached manhood without obtaining 
more than a partial education. At the age of 
twenty-one years he began farming operations for 
himself on his father's farm, and after harvesting 
one crop concluded that it would be better if there 
were two instead of one to occupy a farm. 

On the 7th of November, 1875, Mr. King was 
married to Miss Mary, daughter of Christian and 
Salome (Summers) Slagell. After Mr. King's mar- 
riage he continued to farm on land owned by his 
father until 18s:i, when he moved to the farm 

which he at present occupies, which is well im- 
proved and under a high state of cultivation. Mr. 
and Mrs. King are the parents of the following- 
named children : Elias, who was born Sept. 25, 
1 87'! ; Christian, April 23, 1878; Benjamin, June 4, 
1881; Joseph, Oct. 30, 1883, and Ada, June 2, 
1 885. 

Mrs. King was born on the 18th of June, 1851), 
near Pekin, 111. Her girlhood was spent with her 
parents upon the farm, and she attended the com- 
mon schools, in which she received a good educa- 
tion. Her parents were natives of France, where 
the father was born in February, 1819, and the 
mother on the 17th of June of the same year. 
They were united in marriage in the city of Cin- 
cinnati, and came to Livingston County when 
Mary was five years of age. The father died on 
the 26th of November, 1884, and tin mother is 
still living in Waldo Township. 

Mr. and Mrs. King have made an excellent start 
in life and their prospects for the future are bright. 
They both participate actively in all matters that 
concern the welfare of the community in which 
they reside. In the management of their own af- 
fairs they are prudent and economical, yet liberal 
when and where liberality will accomplish the most 
good. Mr. King is thoroughly interested in the 
growth and improvement of Livingston County, 
and particularly of Waldo Township, where his in- 
terests lie. The family enjoy the respect and es- 
teem of all those with whom they associate. 

As indicative of the progress made in this sec- 
tion of country we present on another page of this 
AI.IU-M a view of Mr. King's residence. 

3 A. GARRELS is the proprietor of a 
comfortable homestead on section 16, Ne- 
braska Township, which invariably attracts 
the eye of the passer-by from its neat and well-kept 
appearance, the convenient and substantial build- 
ings, the goodly array of well-fed stock, and all the 
other appurtenances of a modern farm. A view of 
this pleasant and valuable homestead is given in 
this volume. Our subject, a highly respected Ger- 
man citizen, crossed the Atlantic in his youth, and 
commenced at the foot of the ladder to work his 



way up in the world. He should bo reasonably 
well satisfied with the position which he has attained 
as a citizen and a property owner. His accumula- 
tions are the result of his own industry, and lie has 
pursued that steady and straightforward course 
which forms the basis upon which men establish 
themselves in the esteem and confidence of those 
with whom they have to deal. 

Our subject was born in the Province of Han- 
over, Germany, Dec. 22, 1841, and is the son of 
Abjet and Franke (Kaiser) Garrels, who were also 
of German birth and parentage. They immigrated 
to America when George A. was about fifteen years 
of age, landing in the city of New Orleans, Nov. 2, 
1857. Thence they proceeded up the Mississippi 
River to Quincy and located in Adams County, 
this State, where the father purchased fifty acres of 
land, upon which they lived for the following seven 
years. Then selling out they came to this county 
and purchased the land which constitutes the pres- 
ent homestead of our subject. 

There is one law of" the German Empire which 
might well be imitated by countries all over the 
face of the earth, and that is compulsory education. 
In compliance with this law, oursubject was placed 
in school at an earlj' age, and pursued his studies, 
which he completed at fourteen years old. He re- 
mained with his parents until the breaking out of 
the Civil War, and then enlisted in the 100th Illi- 
nois Infantry. His first engagement was at Dyer's 
Station, where he and a number of his comrades 
were captured by Forrest's Cavalry. Upon being 
paroled they were sent to Benton Barracks, St. 
Louis, and there remained about nine months. 
After being exchanged, in October, 1863, they 
were sent to Memphis, Tenn., where they remained 
during the winter following, and then, after partici- 
pating in the siege and capture of Vicksburg, joined 
the army of Gen. Sherman and assisted in destroy- 
ing the railroad line from Vicksburg to Meridian, 
Miss. Subsequently they met the rebels in battle 
at Pleasant View on Black River, and after a skir- 
mish at Meridian returned to Vicksburg, and from 
there set out on the Red River expedition. Mr. 
Garrels while at Shreveport, La., was taken ill and 
put upon a boat bound for Vicksburg. It was at- 
tacked by the rebels but finally succeeded in mak- 

ing the passage in safety. In the meantime the 
Red River was so low that vessels could not pass, 
and a dam was built in order that the boats might 
be taken over the rapids. Oursubject after recov- 
ering, was finally sent to Jefferson Barracks, St. 
Louis, to defend the city against the rebel General, 
Price. When the danger was passed, they repaired 
to Nashville and engaged in a two clays' fight, al- 
most completely annihilating Hood's army, there 
being of 45,000 troops only about 7,000 able- 
bodied men remaining after the battle. They 
pressed him on to Eastport, where they put up for 
the winter, and in the spring moved upon Mobile, 
and the capture of Ft. Blakesley followed soon after 
in April, 1865. The war had now practically 
closed, and Mr. Garrels, with his companions, was 
honorably discharged at Mobile on the 26th of 
August following. 

Mr. Garrels upon retiring from army life, re- 
turned to his old haunts in Livingston County, 
where he operated on rented land a year, and then 
assumed the management of his father's homestead, 
where he continued until his marriage. This in- 
teresting event took place at the home of the bride, 
Miss Sophia Obert, on the 6th of August, 1870. 
Mrs. Garrels is the daughter of Vincent and The- 
resa (Schwenderman) Obert, and ivas born in Bos- 
ton, Mass., March 1, 1852. She came to Illinois 
with her parents when a mere child, and has the 
most of her life been a resident of Livingston 
County. Mr. and Mrs. G. became the parents of 
eight children, namely : Elizabeth, who was born 
.June 3, 1871; Ida M., Jan. 19, 1873; Martin J., 
Nov. 23, 1875; Hermann H., Jan. 25,1878; Henry 
\V., Dec. 1), 1879; John J., July 14, 1883; Will- 
iam H. and Mary L. (twins) Sept. 2<s, 1887. Mr. 
G. is Republican in politics, but has never been an 
olfice-seeker, and gives his attention wholly to his 
farm pursuits. He was reared in the Lutheran 
Church, of which he is now a Deacon and Trustee. 

The father of our subject was born in 1815, and 
departed this life at his home in Nebraska Town- 
ship, in February, 18(!7. His remains were laid to 
rest in Central Cemeteiy. The mother was born 
Nov. 23, LSI 2, and surviving her husband twenty 
years, passed away April 1 1, 1887. She was buried 
in the Lutheran Cemetery in Nebraska Township. 




A sister of Mr. Garrets, Elske by name, \vns lioni 
in Hanover, Feb. 22, 1845, and is now the wife of 
Herbert Duis, who is carrying on fanning near 
Milfortl, Iroquois County, this State; they have 
nine children. Two half-brothers, Alex J. and 
John II. Park, are residents of Nebraska Township, 
this county. 

ATTHEW R. MAXSON, sou of one of the 
early pioneers of the Prairie State, came to 
Illinois with his parents when a lad ten years 
of age, locating first in Tazewell County. 
Thence the family removed to Peoria County, and 
from there our subject, in 1880, came to Livingston 
and located upon his present farm in Saunemin 
Township. He is comparatively a young man and 
is one of those of whom much is expected in the 
future, being wide-awake, enterprising and indus- 
trious, and taking a lively interest in the enterprises 
calculated to advance the morality and education 
of the people, rightly judging thai, whatever affects 
the whole will, in a like degree, affect each member 
singly. A. well-regulated farm increases the value 
of the property adjacent, just as a fine building in 
the city enhances the value of property around it. 
Our subject was born in Rensselaer County, N. 
Y., April 2, 1X44, and is the son of Randall and 
Deborah (Kenyon) Maxson, also natives of the Em- 
pire State. His paternal ancestors were of Scotch 
descent, and Mr. Maxson is one of a family of 
eleven children : Mary, the eldest, is the wife of 
William Judson, of Nebraska; Potter is engaged in 
the nursery business at Benton Harbor, Mich.: 
Norman is farming in Jefferson County, Kan. ; 
Elizabeth is the wife of Clinton W. Card, of Morris, 
111.; Orson lives in Nebraska; William in Ford 
County, 111.; Matthew R.; Add ie is the wife of San- 
ford .Stillman, of Jefferson County, Kan. ; Ellen L., 
Mrs. Lewis Johnson, lives in Fayette Count}', this 
State; Jane, wife of William Cole, of Nebraska, died 
Julv 22, 1887; Delia is the wife of Anson Stillman. 
of Jefferson County, Kan. The parents passed their 
last years in Peoria County, where the father died 
in March, 1XG7, and the mother, surviving twelve 
year-, passed away in .May, 1879. They were most 

excellent and worthy people, fulfilling their whole 
duty as parents and neighbors, and are kindly re- 
membered by a large circle of friends and acquaint- 

Young Maxson during his youth became familiar 
with the various employments of farm life and re- 
ceived a fair education in the district schools, pur- 
suing his studies mostly in the winter. He was 
naturally inclined to be industrious and economical, 
and was extremely prudent about taking upon him- 
self the responsibilities of a family until he could 
suitably provide for them. After reaching his 
thirty-fourth 3 7 ear, he was married, Nov. 27, 1878, 
to Miss Alice E. Miller, who was born in Peoria 
County, 111., July 26, 1 8;">6, and was consequently 
twenty-two 3'ears of age at the time of their marriage. 
The wedding took place at the home of the bride, 
and Mr. and Mrs. M. at once settled in Peoria 
County, where they remained until removing to their 
present farm. 

The wife of our subject was the daughter of John 
E. and Eliza A. (Hare) Miller, who were pioneer 
settlers of Peoria County, locating there in 1841*. 
Mr. Miller was born in Reusselaer County, N. Y., 
and his wife was a native of Kentucky; she died 
Nov. 7, 1 887. Their family included four children : 
George; Flora, the wife of Edgar Davis, Harry 
L. and Alice. All but Mrs. Maxson are residents 
of Peoria County. Mr. and Mrs. M. have two chil- 
dren: Fred R., who was born Sept. 24, 1X81, and 
Alice E., Aug. 19, 1884. The homestead includes 
eighty acres of good land, a comfortable farm resi- 
dence, a fair-sized barn and all the other buildings 
required for the shelter of stock and the storing of 
grain. They do not pretend to live elegantly, but 
are simply surrounded by all the comforts of life, 
and probably are far more contented than those who 
shine in the fashionable world. Mr. Maxson takes 
an interest in school matters and for the past five 
years has served as School Director. 

During the late war Mr. Maxson served in the 
Army of the Cumberland several months, being a 
member of Company C, 8(>th Illinois Infantry. He 
participated in the battle at Peri^-ville, Ky., and 
was engaged in numerous other skirmishes with the 
enemy. lie is an ardent Republican, politically, and 
a member of the G. A. R. Post at Saunemin. 




)ENNET HUMISTON, deceased, was a pio- 
neer settler of Livingston County, in Esmen 
Township, becoming a resident in October, 
1852. He became well and widely known, 
as one of the most enterprising farmers and stock- 
breeders of the county, and during all the years of 
his residence here was recognized as a business 
man of the utmost probity of character, one whose 
word was considered as good as his bond. Born in 
the good old State of Connecticut, and descended 
from a long line of Puritan ancestry, who were 
noted for their sterling qualities of man and woman- 
hood, it could not be otherwise but that he would 
inherit in a large measure the pure principles which 
are characteristic of those people. 

Bennet Humiston was born Sept. 6, 1830, in the 
town of Thomaston (then known as Plymouth), 
Conn., and was the son of Bennet and Emily (War- 
ner) Humiston. His parents were natives of Ply- 
mouth, Conn., and his father was extensively en- 
gaged in farming and stock-raising. His father, 
Jesse, the grandfather of our subject, was also a na- 
tive of Thomaston, and was likewise a farmer. 
The grandparents of Bennet on the mother's side, 
were Aaron and Mary (Camp) Warner, who were 
farmers, and descended from a long line of English 

Our subject was liberally educated in the district 
schools and the academy in his native town, after 
which he spent a year in assisting his father on the 
farm, then came West as above stated, with Mr. 
Camp, and they entered into partnership in the 
stock business, and were so engaged most of the 
time until 1876, the date of Mr. Humiston's re- 
moval to Pontiac. While still a single man, he 
came with Mr. Apollos Camp to this county in 
October, 1852, and purchased a tract of land and 
settled in Esmen Township; he subsequently be- 
came an extensive breeder of imported horses, and 
was also a large stock-raiser of the higher grades. 

Mr. Humiston was married, May 22, 185G, to 
Harriet, the only living child of Apollos and Nancy 
(Thomas) Camp, whose biography and portraits 
are shown on another page. Mr. and Mrs. Humis- 
ton continued to live in Esmen Township until 
1876, when they removed to Pontiac, and there re- 
sided until his death, which took place Nov. 14, 

1883. He had accumulated a handsome com- 
petency before his death, and was known and loved 
in the community where he had resided for over 
thirty years. In politics he was a stanch Democrat. 
When a child he was baptized in the Episcopal 
Church. He was a liberal contributor toward the 
erection of the beautiful church of that denomina- 
tion in Pontiac. He left to his widow a large landed 
estate besides other property. 

The portrait of Mr. Humiston, which is shown 
in this connection, will be looked upon with pleas- 
ure by all who knew him, as being the likeness of 
one who at all times used his influence on the side 
! of right. As a fitting accompanying picture, that 
of his wife is also given. 

ILLIAM CAPES. The connecting link be- 
tween an American and an Englishman is 
so close that it is difficult to tell when one 
ceases to be an Englishman, and begins to be an 
American. The Americans sprung from the En- 
glishmen at a time when tyranny drove Englishmen 
to the New World, and made Americans of them. 
Ever since then has the work of making Americans 
out of Englishmen been going on. Through proc- 
esses which are largely pleasant, the subject of 
this sketch, who is a representative farmer on sec- 
tion 33, Pontiac Township, became an American 
citizen. Mr. Capes was born on the 23d of July, 
1851, in Lincolnshire, England, arid during that 
year his parents emigrated to America. He is the 
son of Willoughby and Elizabeth (Milner) Capes, 
both natives of England. Upon their arrival in 
America in 1851, they came direct to Tazewell 
County, and there resided for twelve years, when 
they moved to Livingston County, and settled in 
Pike Township, where they still reside. There was 
born to them a large family of children, nine of 
whom survive : Charles ; Hannah, Mrs. John Crabb ; 
William, George; Jennie, Mrs. A. Mott; John; 
Sarah A., Mrs. Herman Baxter; David; and Mary 
L., Mrs. George Crow. The parents are ardent 
members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and 
are widely and favorably known throughout their 
locality, enjoying the respect and confidence of 



their neighbors and friends. The father is a Re- 
publican in politics, and takes an active interest in 
political affairs. 

When a boy, the subject of this sketch came to 
Livingston County with his parents, where he has 
ever since resided, and the very liberal education 
he enjoys was obtained in the district schools of 
this county. He was married on the 21st of August, 
1874, to Miss Mary Kirkpatrick, daughter of G. L. 
Kirkpatrick, formerly a citizen of this county, but 
now residing in Kansas. They have two children: 
Mary E., born on the 3d of June, 1875, and Delia 
M., on the 2d of October, 1880. Mr. Capes be- 
came a citizen of Pontiac Township in 1880, where 
he has since resided. His admirable farm consists 
of seventy acres of most excellent land, finely un- 
derdrained, and well cultivated. He has erected 
good and substantial buildings, and employs the 
most improved machinery in the cultivation of his 
farm. He acts with the Republican party, and has 
been four years Overseer of Highways in his road 

Mr. Capes and his wife are identified with the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, which they regularly 
attend. They are highly respected members of the 
community in which they live, and engage in all 
social and moral undertakings that are calculated 
for the improvement of themselves and neighbors. 
In their own affairs they have been signally suc- 
cessful, and not yet having reached the meridian 
of life, the future before them looks bright. They 
have learned that "where there is a will there is a 
way," and they have the will to yet accomplish 

J~ ACOB YOUNG. Some of the most stable 
and substantial citizens of this country have 
been contributed by Germany, and this is es- 
' pecially true of that portion of our country 
known as the boundless West, where magnificent 
farms have taken the place of the wilderness, and 
the wild prairies "blossom as the rose." The sub- 
ject of this sketch, a native of Bavaria, has done 
his part in this world of transformation, so far as 
one of the most beautiful portions of Illinois is 

concerned. He is a farmer and stock-raiser on sec- 
tion 33, Rook's Creek Township, and was born on 
the 29th of November, 1844, in Bavaria, the son of 
Henry and Margaret (VVirth) Young. 

Mr. Young arrived in this country on the llth 
of May, 1866, making the voyage across the ocean 
in the steamer "Pennsylvania," which required 
about fourteen days. He remained in New York 
while awaiting information concerning his relatives 
who had come to this country before him. Leav- 
ing New York, he went to La Salle County, 111., 
where he remained nearly seven years, six of which 
he spent as a hired man, and the seventh he worked 
for himself on a rented farm. On the 1st of Jan- 
uary, 1873, he left La Salle County and rented 
land near Pontiac, on which he remained five years, 
and then came to Rook's Creek Township, where 
he purchased 160 acres of land on section 33, and 
subsequently eighty more on section 34. On the 
9th of January, 1872, he was married to Mary 
Hensel, daughter of Christian and Annie (Hensel) 
Hensel, of La Salle County, who were natives of 
Wurtemberg, and came to this country in May, 
1867. Thej' are still living in La Salle County. 
Mr. and Mrs. Young are the parents of seven chil- 
dren, all living with their parents: Annie, born 
Oct. 28, 1872; Charles, born March 31, 1874; Ja- 
cob, born June 4, 1876; Christian, born July 12, 
1878; William, born Dec. 13, 1880; Mary, born 
Jan. 6, 1883; Henry, born Aug. 10, 1885. 

The father of Mr. Young was born in the year 
1819, the mother in 1816, and they were married, 
as nearly as Mr. Young can remember, about 1838. 
The state of the father's health disqualified him 
for military service, and he met his death by being 
struck by lightning while seeking shelter under a 
tree during a storm. Our subject was the youngest 
in a family of three children, the other two of 
whom are still living in Bavaria. The brother 
Henry was born in 1842, and has four children. 
His sister Catharina, born in 1839, married Peter 
Wirth, and has two children. The name of Mr. 
Young's grandfather was Michael Young, born 
about 1790, and was old enough to be a soldier in 
the French army under Napoleon. He avoided 
service in Russia by employing a substitute, which 
consumed all of his portion of his father's estate. ' 




He was a very rugged man physically, and lived to 
be eighty-six years of age, accumulating consider- 
able property. Mr. Young remembers seeing his 
great-grandfather, and of hearing him relate the 
details of procuring the release of his son from the 
army. The father-in-law of Mr. Young's grand- 
father, also named Young, was a wagon-maker by 
occupation, and a great hunter, fifty years of his life 
being devoted to the latter pastime as a business. 
He was born about 1760, and lived to be ninety-six 
years of age. 

Mrs. Jacob Young had five brothers and one sis- 
ter, their names being as follows: Christian, born 
in 1849; Fred, born in 1853; Christina, born in 
1857; Mary Gottlieb Walker; John, born in 1862; 
Gottlieb, born in 1865, and August, born in 1869. 
Her grandfather's name was Michael Hensel, who 
was born in 1791 and died in 1853, being sixty- 
two years of age. 

Mr. Young is not a party man. but in elections 
votes for the men he considers the most compe- 
tent to discharge the duties of the office. He is a 
member of the Lutheran Church. 

SEORGE ANDREWS, who is largely engaged 
in farming and stock-raising on section 29, 
Waldo Township, is a native of Lincoln- 
shire, England, which is one of the best known of 
the counties of that country. It excells in its agri- 
cultural products; its cattle, which are mostly 
Short-horn and attain a great weight; its sheep, 
which are famous for size and long wool; its fine 
horses, flue soil, and number and beauty of its 
ancient parish churches. Our subject was born on 
the 31st of May, 1848, his parents being James 
and Elizabeth (Plowright) Andrews. They came 
to this country when he was about seven years of 
age, landing in New York, and going at once to 
La Salle County, 111., where the father rented laud 
and lived for about two years. He then lived in 
Knox County for a time, then returned to La Salle 
County, and then went to Putnam County, where 
he remained two years. He then came to Livings- 
ton County in 1861, and purchased 160 acres of 
land, to which he after ward added 160 acres. 

At that time the chances for obtaining an educa- 
tion in Livingston County were very limited, and 
in the township in which our subject lived there 
were but two school-houses, and they were so far 
distant that a greater portion of the day was con- 
sumed in going to and fro. Besides, it was neces- 
sary to devote the greater portion of his time to 
work upon the farm. He managed, however, by 
close application to his studies during the time he 
was permitted to attend school, and at odd times, 
to secure a fair common-school education. At the 
age of twenty-one years he began doing for him- 
self, and engaged in working by the month for 
about one year, then rented ground of his father, 
which he began farming. This arrangement was 
continued with profit to himself until he was twen- 
ty-*ix years of age, when he purchased eighty acres 
of land, which he owned and farmed until 1883. 
In 1880 he bought another eighty acres, which he 
also sold in 1883, and purchased 200 acres, upon a 
portion of which bis house now stands, and the 
other portion is on section 32. 

On the 14th of December, 1876, Mr. Andrews 
was married to Mary J. Kingdon, daughter of 
Henry and Mary Ann (Hodge) Kingdon. To them 
have been born three children : Mary Elizabeth, 
born Oct. 31, 1878, died November 4 of the same 
year; Lillie Mabel, born May 19, 1880, .and Percy 
Henry, April 15, 1887. Mrs. Andrews was born 
on the 20th of August, 1856, in Peoria County, 
111. The father of Mr. Andrews was born in En- 
gland on the 5th of April, 1820, and died on the 
5th of August, 1883. He was a Republican in 
politics, and after becoming a citizen of this country 
took an active interest in political affairs. The 
mother of our subject was born in England in 
1825, and is still living in Gridley, 111. Our sub- 
ject is the third child in a family of fourteen, nine 
of whom are still living. Unlike his father, in 
political matters he is a Democrat. In the way of 
official positions he has held the office of Township 
Collector three years in succession, and was elected 
and re-elected as Road Commissioner. He is a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church at 
Gridley, in which he is a Steward. 

Mr. and Mrs. Andrews have surrounded them- 
selves with very many of the comforts of life, and 



the home which they occupy is one of the pleasant- 
est in Waldo Township. The farm is well im- 
proved, being under-drained, and thorough!}' 
fenced. In their social relations with the people 
among whom they live they stand well, and enjoy 
the respect and esteem of all who know them. 

ERBERT F. ADAMS, one of the enterpris- 
ing and promising young business men of 
Livingston County, is a member of the firm 
of R. C. Adams & Son, general merchants, 
dealers in lumber, and proprietors of the Black- 
stone Creamer}'. He is a native of Livingston 
County, being born in Nevada Township Feb. 28, 
1861, and is the second son of R. C. Adams, whose 
biographical sketch appears on another page of this 
ALBUM. Our subject received a good education 
in the public schools in the town of Dwight, which 
he attended until eighteen years of age. At that 
time he began clerking in the banking house of 
D. McWilliams, of Dwight, and remained in that 
institution for about four years. After this he oc- 
cupied a trusted and confidential position in the 
bank of J. C. Hetzel, and at the end of one year, 
with another party he purchased this bank, and 
they conducted it one and one-half years, when he 
sold his interest to his partner and came to Black- 
stone, purchasing an interest in his present busi- 
ness in connection with his brother, Edwin F. They 
were associated together until the latter's death, 
which occurred in the terrible Chatsworth railroad 
disaster, on the morning of the 10th of August, 
1887. In 1886 they established the creamery 
business in Blackstone, which proved to be a very 
profitable adjunct to their other business. 

On May 27, 1885, Mr. Adams was married to 
Miss Mamie Bradford, who was born in Will 
County, 111., on the 29th of February, 1864. Her 
father was Chauncy Bradford, who was a native of 
Vermont and the lineal descendant of Gen. Will- 
iam Bradford, who came to America as a member 
of the Plymouth Colony, and was its second Gov- 
ernor. To Mr. and Mrs. Adams have been born 
two children, upon whom they have conferred the 
names of Jennie Olga and Catherine. 

The firm of R. C. Adams & Son is one of the 
best known in Livingston County, not only for the 
magnitude of its business, but for its business 
methods. It is prompt, reliable and enterprising 
in all its dealings with the people, and has estab- 
lished itself in their confidence. While the busi- 
iness in which they are engaged is remunerative to 
them, R. C. Adams & Son may be looked upon as 
public benefactors, in that 'they furnish a good, 
ready and cash market for the products of that 
section of the country. 

kUCAS H. BROWN is the proprietor of eighty 
acres of good land on section 35, in Rook's 
Creek Township, where he carries on farm- 
ing and stock-raising, and is known as a peaceable 
and law-abiding citizen. He is a native of this 
State, and the son of Henry O. and Margaret M. 
(Schonbeck) Brown, who were of German birth 
and parentage. Henry O. Brown was born in 1807, 
and the mother in 1816. They were married in 
1844, and came to this country in May, 1857, where 
the father died of lung fever. The mother married 
again, and of this union there was born one son, 
who is married and farming in this township. 

On their arrival in this country in 1857, the fam- 
ily of Mr. and Mrs. Henry Brown consisted of 
three children, and was increased in September of 
the same year by the birth of our subject. The 
eldest son, Henry, enlisted as a soldier in the Union 
army during the late war, and since the close of 
that struggle has never been heard from ; Frederick 
C. was twice married, is a painter by trade, and is 
now a resident of St. Louis; Anna H., the wife of 
G. Westermann, is the mother of six children, and 
a resident of Woodford County. 

Mr. Brown was educated in both English and 
German in the common schools, and with the ex- 
ception of a brief season spent at wagon-making, 
has followed agriculture all his life. When twenty- 
three years of age he purchased his present farm, 
which was then a tract of partially cultivated land, 
and he has made good improvements. Two years 
later, Sept. 24, 1882, he was united in marriage 
with Miss Lottie Frobish, at the residence of the 



bride's mother, in Rook's Creek Township. This 
union has resulted in the birth of two children, 
namely, Daisy, born Oct. 31, 1884, and Elbert C., 
Oct. 21, 1880. The parents of Mrs. Brown are J. 
Michael and Elizabeth (Konner) Frobish, the 
former a native of Germany, and the latter of 
Switzerland. They were married in Ohio. 

EDWIN F. ADAMS, deceased, formerly a mer- 
chant at Blackstone, was born in Nevada 
Township May 1 1, 1859, and was the oldest 
son of R. C. Adams (see sketch.) He received 
his early education in the public schools at Dwight, 
after which he advanced in his studies by attend- 
ance at the State University at Champaign. After 
completing his education at that institution he en- 
gaged as clerk in a drug-store in 1880, where he 
continued for three years. He then formed a part- 
nership with B. B. Dow, and rented a building at 
Blackstone, in which they began the business of 
general merchants. This firm continued in exist- 
ence until 1884, when he bought his partner's in- 
terest and conducted the business alone until 1885. 
He then sold an interest to his brother, H. F. 
Adams, with whom he was associated at the time 
of his death. On the morning of the 10th of 
August, 1887, he joined an excursion which was to 
run over the Toledo, Peoria & Western Road, from 
Peoria to Niagara Falls. Within a short time after 
boarding this train, and while running at the rate 
of forty miles an hour, it ran upon a bridge which 
had been partially destroyed by fire, and many of 
the cars were precipitated into the chasm be- 
low. The train being very much crowded at the 
time, many persons were either instantly killed or 
burned to death. Among those who lost their 
lives in this terrible disaster was the subject of this 
sketch. The Chatsworth railroad disaster has gone 
into history as one of the most destructive of 
human lives that has occurred in the annals 
of railroading. 

On the 7th of December, 1881, Mr. Adams was 
married to Miss Elizabeth Baker, who was born in 
Lebanon, Ind., in October, 1858. She is the daugh- 
ter of Nathan and Margaret Baker, of Dwight, 111. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Adams were born two children 
Ethel and Harry. The widow is now living in 
Dwight. At the time of his death the subject of 
this sketch was one of the most promising young 
business men of Livingston County. He was thor- 
oughly fitted by education for business affairs, and 
his natural inclination led in that direction. His 
death, and the manner of it, was a terrible shock 
to his family and all who knew him. He had en- 
deared himself to the people among whom he lived, 
and will live long in their memories. The wife 
and orphaned children were the recipients of the 
tenderest and most heartfelt sympathy of relatives 
and friends. 

ATTIG, an industrious young farmer 
of Rook's Creek Township, occupies a snug 
homestead on section 34, comprising eighty 
acres of land, with a neat farm residence 
and the necessary out-buildings. He has spent his 
life thus far in the Prairie State, being a native of 
Woodford County, where his birth took place Nov. 
19, 1859. He has started out fairly for a young 
man, and is making good progress toward the es- 
tablishment of a permanent home and the accumu- 
lation of that which greatly assists in smoothing 
the rugged path of life. 

Mr. Attig is the son of German parents, who passed 
their youth in their native land, and emigrated to 
America after their marriage. Upon their arri- 
val in New York City they staid a few weeks, 
when they came West and remained residents of 
Woodford County until 1878. The father then 
removed to Rook's Creek Township, this county, 
and afterward to McLean County, where he still 
resides, near Chenoa. The parental household in- 
cluded eight children, of whom the record is as 
follows: Catherine, the eldest daughter, became 
the wife of John Snyder and is a resident of Mar- 
shall County ; Frederick married Miss Mary Trucke- 
miller, has two children, and is farming in Pontiac 
Township; John, our subject, is the third child; Sa- 
rah, Mrs. Frank Laschen, is the mother of two 
children and lives in Woodford County; William 
is unmarried and engaged in farming in Pontiac 




Township; George, Maggie and Christopher re- 
main under the home roof. 

The subject of our notice was united in marriage 
with Miss Dorothea Salzman, March 4, 1886, the 
wedding taking place in Rook's Creek Township at 
the home of the bride's parents, Christopher and 
Mary Salzman, of whom a sketch will be found 
elsewhere in this ALBUM. The young people com- 
menced housekeeping at their present homestead, 
and have many friends in the community around 

THOMAS M. SPENCE. This gentleman 
ranks among the representative farmers 
and stock-growers of Rook's Creek Town- 
ship. He has been a resident of the western 
country about thirtj r years, and is of the opinion 
that it is about the finest locality in the world. He 
commenced life in Warren County, Ohio, Nov. 26, 
1846, aijd is the son of James and Lucinda (Shields) 
Spence, who emigrated from the Buckeye State to 
Illinois in 1855. They lived near Pontiac about 
two years, when they returned to Ohio and resided 
there until 1870. In the meantime occurred the out- 
break of the Rebellion and our subject, yet but a 
boy, ran away from home with a companion, Caleb 
Whittaker, and enlisted in an Ohio regiment, re- 
ceiving a bounty of about $600. He was as- 
signed to the 13th regiment of cavalry, and with 
his comrades marched to the front, meeting the 
enemy first at Petersburg, but not engaging in any 
serious conflict, as the war was nearing its close. 
He received an honorable discharge July 4, 1865, 
and returned to his home in Ohio, where he con- 
tinued until the death of his father, which occurred 
March 13, 1867. The following year he left home 
and engaged to work on a farm in Allen County 
six or seven months, at the expiration of which 
time, after a brief visit to his mother, he started 
for Illinois. He worked by the month in Shelby 
County about one year, when he came to Living- 
ston, where he concluded to remain. A year later 
he returned to Ohio for his mother, and they sub- 
sequently located a tract of land from a warrant 
which had been held by the maternal grandmother 
on account of the services of her husband in the 

War of 1812. This land is now included in the 
present home of Mr. Spence. 

Our subject, in 1873, returned to his native 
State, and was there married to one of the compan- 
ions of his childhood, Miss Hannah, daughter of 
James and Isabella (Martin) Walker, Sept. 10, 
1873. Of this union there has been one child 
only, a son, Franklin M., born Nov. 3, 1875. 

The subject of this sketch comes from excellent 
Pennsylvania stock, who afterward became resi- 
dents of Kentucky, where his father was born Feb. 
4, 1803. The maternal ancestors were also from 
the Keystone State, and the mother, Mrs. Lucinda 
Spence, was born in Ohio July 2, 1812. She was 
married to the father of our subject, Sept. 28, 
1841, and Thomas M. was the third child in a 
family of six sons all living, whose record is as fol- 
lows: William Preston, born Aug. 25, 1842, 
served in the Union army one year, married, and 
became the father of three children now living 
with him near Ft. Scott, Kan; his wife is dead. 
Robert Franklin was born April 7, 1844, and en- 
listed in the 4th Indiana Cavalry, serving two 
years and participating in several important bat- 
tles. He is married, has one child, and lives at 
Hazen, Ark.; Thomas M. is our subject; Calvin 
B., born Dec. 15, 1848, is married, has three chil- 
dren, and is a resident of Ft. Scott; James C., born 
March 2, 1851, is a resident of Kansas, and lives 
with his brother William near Ft. Scott; John L., 
born April 19, 1854, is unmarried, and continues 
on the old homestead in Rook's Creek Township. 

The paternal grandfather of Mr. Spence was 
born about 1756, and lived to be eighty-three 
years of age. He served three months in the War 
of 1812, and received from the Government a land 
warrant which his widow afterward sold. The lat- 
ter was born in 1771, and also lived to be eighty- 
three years old. Grandfather Shields was born in 
1776, and died in 1846, being seventy years of age. 
His wife survived him eighteen years, her death 
taking place in 1864, when she was eighty -six years 
of age. 

.Mrs. Spence was the third child in a family of 
six, and was born in Ohio, June 1, 1841. Her 
brothers and sisters, the most of whom are in 
Warren County, Ohio, were named respect! vely, 



Mary, Sarah. Jane M., Samuel B. and Martin, and 
a half-brother, Scott Walker. Her father, James 
Walker, was born March 8, 1809, of Pennsylvania 
parents and ancestry; he died in July, 1879. The 
mother was horn April 16, 1810, and went with her 
parents to Ohio when a child eight years of age. 
They were married Dec. 25, 1834, and the mother 
passed away at her home in Warren County, Ohio, 
in 1857. 

J""j OSEPH A. BROWN, attorney-at-law, is one 
I of the rising young members of the legal 
profession at Pontiac, where he commenced 
' practice July 22, 1884. He has been suc- 
cessful thus far and bids fair to become prominent 
as an attorney and counselor. Mr. Brown was 
born in Warren County, Ind., Oct. 14, 1851, and 
is the son of Joseph A. and Mary J. (Myers) 
Brown, natives respectively of Indiana and Ohio. 
His father was a merchant of many years' standing, 
and departed this life at his home in Indianapolis 
in 1856, leaving a wife and two children, Henry 
F., now a resident of Arizona, where he is engaged 
in mining, and the subject of our sketch. The 
maternal grandparents of our subject were Will- 
iam and Annie (Buckels) Myers, natives of Ohio. 
After their marriage the}' emigrated to Indiana 
during the pioneer days of Warren County, where 
the father opened up a home in the wilderness and 
became a prominent citizen. The father of Annie 
Buckels was Abram Buckels, who served as a 
soldier in the War of 1812, and spent his last years 
in Warren County. 

The subject of this history was reared on a farm 
in Warren and Benton Counties, Ind., and con- 
tinued with his mother until twenty years of age, 
receiving a practical education in the common 
schools. He afterward taught school in his native 
county five months, and the next year operated a 
farm on shares. The following winter was again 
spent in teaching, and in the spring of 1873 he en- 
tered upon a classical course of studies in Wabash 
College, in Montgomery County, Ind., where he re- 
mained for five years, then pursuing the same course 
of studies for one year longer in Butler University 

at Indianapolis, Ind., from which institution he was 
graduated in the classical course in June, 1879; 
then taught school the next three years in Indiana. 
The total expenses of his six years' college course 
were defrayed by our subject with money earned 
by him before commencing the course and during 
college vacations. He came to Illinois in the fall 
of 1882, and was appointed Superintendent of 
Fairbury schools in this county, and acted as such 
for one year. In July, 1883, he crossed the Missis- 
sippi. He had heretofore employed his leisure 
time in reading law, and now entered the law 
school at Iowa City, where he was graduated after 
a year's studj', and thence returned to this county 
and commenced the practice of his profession 
July 22, 1884. Politically he is a decided Repub- 
lican, and took an active part in the Presidential 
campaign of 1884, by stumping nearly every 
township in Livingston County. 

Mr. Brown was united in marriage with Miss 
Laura E. St. John, of this county, Dec. 29, 1881, 
at the home of the bride in Eppard's Point Town- 
ship. Mrs. Brown was born July 18, 1859, and is 
the daughter of John and Emma St. John, natives 
of Ohio, and residents of Illinois since 1851 or 
1852. Mr. and Mrs. Brown have one child, a son, 
St. John Loyd, born Dee. 9, 1883, at Iowa City, 

ERNEST F. PIERCE. In a town the size of 
Graymont, the man who occupies the posi- 
tions of Postmaster, Freight, Ticket and 
Express Agent, and telegraph operator, comes 
very nearly having business transactions with every 
man, woman and child in the territory adjacent to 
the place. This is the case with the subject of this 
sketch, who is now serving in all the capacities 
named. He is the son of James H. and Rachel 
(Reed) Pierce, and was born in LaSalle County, 111. 
At the age of ten years he accompanied his father 
when he moved to Clifton, and engaged in the 
hardware and tinware business, being a tinner by 
trade. While living in Clifton, oar subject learned 
telegraphy in the railroad office at that place, and 
commenced working in the office at the age of 
nineteen. In 1879 and 1880 he was employed in 



the switching yard at Oilman, when in the fall of 
1880 he took charge of the office at Graymont, 
where he has since remained, and was also ap- 
pointed Postmaster in the spring of 1882. 

Mr. Pierce was married, on the 27th of April, 
1882, to Miss Sarah Beardslee, daughter of Smilie 
R. and Ruth (Hebron) Beardslee, of Clifton. 111., 
the ceremony being performed by George F. 
Weekes. To them was born a daughter on the 2d 
of January, 1887, upon whom ]they conferred the ! 
name of Ruth. Mr. Pierce is the oldest child in a 
family of six, the others being: Clara, Mrs. Bluford 
L. Starkey, living in Piano, Tulare Co., Cal. ; Harvey 
C. married Mary Brault, has two children, and 
lives in Alleyton, Mich. ; Albert II., unmarried, 
and lives with his father in Saugatuck, Mich. ; 
Flora and Archie R., unmarried, live at home. Mr. 
Pierce's father was born in Massachusetts on the 
18th of March, 1825; his mother was born near 
Harper's Ferry, but whether in Maryland or Vir- 
ginia, Mr. Pierce does not know, as she lived in 
both those States when a child. She came to Illi- 
nois with her parents when about fifteen years of 
age, and in La Salle County Mr. Pierce's father 
became, acquainted with her, and there they were 
married. The paternal ancestors came over in the 
Mayflower; the maternal ancestors were of German 
descent. Mr. Pierce's wife is the second child in a 
family of eight, the others being: Laura E., Mrs. 
Selva Beebe. has five children and lives in Ells- 
worth County, Kan.; Emma J., Mrs. Edmund A. 
Gardner, lives near Clifton, 111., having one child, 
a boy; Alice C., Mrs. Byron Osborne, has two 
children, and lives in Linn County, Kan.; William 
R., unmarried, lives in Clifton, 111.; Frank S., un- 
married, lives with his parents; Arthur S. married 
Rachel Hall, and lives at Ashkum, 111; George M., 
unmarried, lives at home. 

The father of Mrs. Pierce was born in New York 
on the 4th of November, 1824, and accompanied 
his parents when they moved to Michigan when he 
was ten or twelve years of age. Her mother was 
born in England on the 1st of April, 1829, and 
came with her parents to America when she was 
two years of age. They located in Michigan, 
where in childhood she became acquainted and 
went to school with the boy who afterward became 

her husband, on the 25th of December, 1849. Her 
maternal grandfather, William Hebron, lived to 
be quite old, and died in 1857. 

Mr. and Mrs. Pierce are both members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, to "which they each 
attached themselves at the age of sixteen. Mr. 
Pierce is a Republican in politics, casting his first 
vote for Rutherford B. Hayes in 187G. He was 
appointed to the office of Postmaster under a 
Republican administration, and has conducted the 
office with such complete satisfaction to the people 
that no disposition has been manifested to displace 
him since the advent of a Democratic administra- 

lENJAMIN F. COLEHOWER, dealer in gen- 
eral merchandise at Long Point, is one of 
the most promising young business men of 
the place, and already the possessor of a 
good property. This includes his store building 
and the two lots on which it is located, besides 
three lots elsewhere, and a two-fifths interest in the 
Masonic Hall. He is wide-awake and energetic, 
one of those men who believe that the building up 
of his town is as much a credit to the citizens there- 
of as the building up of their own personal inter- 
ests. He is accordingly interested in whatever per- 
tains to the prosperity of Long Point, and is re- 
garded as one of its most valued citizens. 

Mr. Colehower is a native of this State, being 
born in Peoria County, Sept. 22, 1854. Of his 
parents,"John and Elizabeth Colehower, a sketch 
will be found elsewhere in this Benjamin 
F. received a good education, and at an early age 
gained a good insight into business methods, and 
began to lay his plans for the future. He wa> first 
employed at Long Point, and established his present 
business in 1882. He began in a modest manner, 
and increased his stock by degrees as he became 
known, and there sprang up around him a good 
patronage from the best residents of this section. 
When the time came that he felt justified in taking 
upon himself the responsibilities of a family, he was 
united in marriage with the lady of his choice, Mi-- 
Jennie Phillips, who was born in Marshall Count}', 
111., Feb. 24, 1858, and is the daughter of James B. 






and Sarah (Clifford) Phillips, natives of Ohio, and 
now residents of Nebraska. The little household 
has been brightened by the birth of one child, Leah 
Blanche, born Jan. 30, 1877. They occupy a neat 
residence on Fourth street, and enjoy the society 
and friendship of a large circle of acquaintances. 

^Jl OHN R. CAPES. This country is just now 
passing through a period of transformation. 
The generation of ante-bellum days is pass- 
ing away, and is being replaced by a gener- 
ation of men and women who date their birth dur- 
ing and since the War period. This new'generation 
is one from which much can be expected, for it 
partakes of the new life which received its birth 
and impetus when the nation started on its new era 
of prosperity at the death of slavery. The man 
who was born early in the sixties, and has become 
anchored in the affairs of life is amply able to fill 
the place in the stirring world of to-day left vacant 
by any one of the old generation. Among those 
who have come upon the stage of action with the 
incoming of the new era is the subject of this 
sketch, who is a representative young farmer and 
stock-raiser on section 32 of Pontiac Township, 
and a native of Tazewell County, 111., where he was 
born on the 30th of August, I860, the son of Wil- 
loughby and Elizabeth (Milner) Capes, of Pike 
Township,] Livingston County. His parents are 
natives of England, who came to Livingston 
County in 1863 and settled in Pike Township, 
where they still reside. A large family of children 
was born to them, of whom the following are sur- 
vivors: Charles, of Pontiac; Hannah, Mrs. John 
Crabb, of Pike Township; George, of Livingston 
County ; Jennie, Mrs. J. Mott, of McLean County ; 
David; Louie, Mrs. George Crow, of Pike Town- 
ship; Sarah, Mrs. Herman Baxter, of Pontiac 
Township, and John R. and William, also of Pon- 
tiac. The parents were members of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church and widely known as devoutly 
religious people. 

John R. Capes has lived on a farm all his life, 
and in his youth received a rudimentary education 
in the district schools. For the past ten years, in 

addition to his occupation as a farmer, he has en- 
gaged in threshing, in which business he has been 
quite successful. He was married Nov. 4, 1879, 
to Miss Annie Kirkpa trick, daughter of G. L. Kirk- 
patrick, of Kansas, and they have had three chil- 
dren: George E. ; Olive F., deceased, and Elsie M. 
Mr. Capes owns eighty acres of land, which he suc- 
cessfully cultivates. He takes a lively interest in 
political affairs, and in all such contests casts his 
influence and vote with the Republican party. He 
and his wife are members of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, and take a warm interest, not only in 
church affairs, but in all matters which tend to the 
elevation of the people. 

x^g\\ YRUS G. BARR, grain dealer and farmer, of 
if! Nevada Township, was born in Bethel, Clarke 
^^ Co., Ohio, Sept. 11, 1838. His father, 
Jacob Barr, was born in Lancaster County, Pa., and 
his grandfather, also named Jacob Barr, was a na- 
tive of Germany, who came to America and settled 
in Lancaster County, where he died. The father 
was reared and married in Lancaster County, and 
after marriage went to Clarke County, Ohio, pur- 
chasing a farm in Bethel Township, where he re- 
sided all the last years of his life, and died in 1847. 
The maiden name of his wife, the mother of our 
subject, was Christiana Barr, but no relation of her 
husband, although bearing the same name. She 
died before her husband, on the old homestead. 
To them were born ten children, eight of whom 
grew to man and womanhood. 

The subject of our sketch was the seventh child 
of his parents' family, and was but six years old 
when his mother died, and his father's death took 
place three years later. He then went to live with 
James Lamb, in Clarke County, Ohio, with whom 
he remained until he was fourteen years of age, and 
then engaged in farm work in the same county at 
$6.25 per month. In 1856 he came to Illinois, and 
on the 1st of April of that year he purchased the 
place where he now resides, paying for the land the 
sum of $7.25 per acre. It was a tract of wild, un- 
broken prairie, over which deer and other wild ani- 
mals and game roamed at will. After buying this 




land he went to Ohio, where he spent the winter, 
and in the spring of 1857 returned to Illinois and be- 
gan the improvement of his farm. He first erected 
a house, 12x12 feet, which he occupied, perform- 
ing his own housework up to the date of his mar- 
riage. He devoted his entire time to the improve- 
ment of the farm until 1881, when he went to 
Mansfield and engaged in the grain business one 
year; lie then resumed farming until 1885, in 
which year he returned to Mansfield, and has since 
been engaged in the grain business, leaving the act- 
ive management of the farm to his sons. 

On the llth of September, 18G1, Mr. Barr was 
married to Keziah Morrison, who was born in Phil- 
lips, Me., Jan. 4, 1844. Her father, Stephen Morri- 
son, was a native of the same State, where he was 
reared on a farm, and when a young man went to 
Lowell, Mass., and married there; afterward he re- 
turned to Maine, where he resided for three or four 
years, and then went back to Lowell. In 1848 he 
went to East Livermore, Me., and bought a farm, 
upon which he lived until 185C, in which year he 
moved to Illinois, and settled in DeKalb County, 
where he remained until the spring of 1857, at 
which time he moved to Livingston County, and 
settled in what is now Nevada Township. He pur- 
chased land on section 10, where he resided for a 
number of years, and then moved to Dwight, where 
he lived in retirement from active business during 
the last years of his life. He died in Dwiglit in 
July, 1876. The maiden name of his wife was 
Lydia Hanson, who was born about 1818, and grew 
to womanhood in Vermont. She is still living, and 
resides in Dwight. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Barr have been born six chil- 
dren, whose names are as follows: David E., 
Charles W., Josiah II., Susan A.. Minnie E. and 
Lj'dia E. Mr. and Mrs. Barr are both active mem- 
bers of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and in its 
affairs take much interest. To the necessities of 
the church they are liberal givers, and in all good 
works which may result in the benefit of the pub- 
lic, they participate active^'. In politics Mr. Barr 
is a Republican, and casts his vote and uses his in- 
fluence for pure nominations and a higher standard 
of morals in the contest for preferment. He has 
filled various offices of trust and honor in his town- 

ship, and always to the satisfaction of the people, 
and credit to himself. He is a gentleman of pleas- 
ant and affable manner, and makes friends readily 
wherever he goes He is one of those persons 
whom it is a pleasure to meet upon any and all oc- 

TEPHEN D. EWING. The "middle man" 
sustains an important position between the 
producer and the market, and in the in- 
stance of the subject of this sketch, he bears 
that relation in a dual capacity, buying the prod- 
ucts of the farm, and forwarding them to the 
market, and on the other hand, handling the prod- 
ucts of the manufacturer, and finding a market 
for them among the producers of grain. He is a 
grain buj'er and shipper, and dealer in agricultural 
implements, coal and tile, at Graymont, 111. He is 
the son of John and Elizabeth (Bowers) Ewing, and 
was born on the 22d of September, 1862, on section 
9, Pike Township, Livingston County. The days 
of his boyhood were spent upon a farm, and such 
education as he obtained was in the common schools. 
He remained on the farm with his parents until he 
was about twenty-two years of age. 

On the 3d of July, 1 884, Mr. Ewing was married 
to Nettie L. Crow, daughter of William and Mary 
(Plummer) Crow, whose sketch is given in another 
part of this Ai.Bor. They have one child, born on 
the 2d of June, 1886, upon whom has been con- 
ferred the name of Lester C. Soon after marriage 
Mr. Ewing moved to Graymont, where he engaged 
in buying grain for his father-in-law, William Crow, 
in whose employ he remained about two years, 
when Mr. Crow's lease of the elevator expired, and 
it was leased to Hamlin. Congdon & Co., who re- 
tained Mr. Ewing in their employ, and entrusted 
to him the management of their affairs. On the 
1st of August, 1887, the firm style was changed to 
Middle Division Elevator Company, and he was 
still continued in the employ of that company. 

Mr. Ewing is the seventh in a family of eight 
children, whose names are as follows: Mary E., 
who was born Sept. 17, 1844, married Richard Mc- 
Millan, and they live in Esmen Township; Rosella, 
born Nov. 9, 1847, married Robert Ralston, has 



235 , ,) 

five children, and lives in Thayer County, Neb.; 
Aurelius McCurdy, who was born Dec. 13, 1850. 
married Frances Tracy ; they have five children, 
and live in Chicago. James Loren, born July 2, 
1853, married Mary H. Tracy, has three children, 
and lives in Pike Township; George W., born Oct. 
23, 1856, died March 3, 1874, and is buried in 
Pike Township graveyard; Laura Matilda, born 
March 11, 1859; Stephen, our subject; and Will- 
iam C., born Feb. 12\ 1865. The parents of Mr. 
Ewing were born in Ohio, the father on the 29th of 
September, 1820, and the mother on the 25th of 
April, 1824. They were married on the 1st of 
December, 1842, and came to Illinois in 1862, ar- 
riving on the 1st of March, and locating on section 
9, where they remained until 1863, when they re- 
moved to their present home on section 4, consist- 
ing of a half section, and 240 acres on section 5. 

1SAAC RAMY JOHNSTON. The people who 
have more to do with shaping the destiny of 
the country than any other class are the edu- 
cators of the children. It is they who first mold 
into shape the thoughts of the child when the book 
of life is first opened to it. On these educators 
depends largely the status of the rising generation, 
and great responsibilities rest upon them. No 
matter how humble the teacher may be, nor how 
obscure his locality, wherever it is he is the great 
factor in shaping the new generation for its duties 
in life. To the grand army of educators belongs 
the subject of this sketch. He is the teacher of the 
school at Graymont, 111. 

Mr. Johnston is the son of Adam Mitchell and 
Lydia C. (Teachenor) Johnston, and was born in 
Adams County, Ohio, on the 9th of January, 1851. 
His father was a cooper by occupation, and lived 
in Manchester, Ohio. At a time when Mr. John- 
ston was about ten years of age he came with his 
father to a little village called Fairview. Although 
his educational opportunities were very limited his 
diligence secured him a good common-school edu- 
cation, and at twelve years of age he entered 
his father's shop for the purpose of learning the 
trade of a cooper, at which he worked for about 

four years. His father then moved to Missouri, 
where he engaged in school teaching, and Mr. 
Johnston was enabled to attend school for one 
year, after which he labored on a farm for one 
year in the employ of his father, and for about two 
years he worked by the month, giving to his father 
the money he thus earned. Shortly after he was 
twenty-one years of age he accumulated money 
with which to purchase a horse and wagon, and 
renting a farm commenced business for himself. 

On the 10th of February, 1875, Mr. Johnston 
was married, by Rev. J. H. Polandor, to Miss Laura 
Frances Stretch, daughter of William and Eliza- 
beth (Lupton) Stretch, of Lewis County, Mo., 
formerly of Clinton County, Ohio. After his mar- 
riage Mr. Johnston remained one year in Missouri, 
and then moved to Livingston County by wagon, 
where he arrived in January, 1876, and rented a 
farm south of Pontiac. On account of the exces- 
sive rains of that year his crop was an entire fail- 
ure, but he tried farming one year more and was 
reasonably successful. In the month of Septem- 
ber, that year, he began school teaching, in which 
profession he has been more or less engaged ever 
since. In 1882 he was appointed Treasurer of the 
School Fund, a position which he has held ever 
since. In 1879 he was appointed Town Clerk, to 
fill a vacancy, and was afterward elected five 
times in succession. In 1885 and 1887 he was 
elected Assessor. Mr. Johnston is a Republican, 
and cast his first vote for Gen. U. S. Grant. When 
eleven years of age he became a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, but his actual con- 
version did not occur until his sixteenth year. He 
lived a consistent Christian life for several years, 
but finally became indifferent and lukewarm, and 
was not re-awakened to his condition until 1885, 
at a meeting held by the Free Holiness Evangelists, 
since which time he has been a believer in the 
doctrines taught by that church. 

Mr. Johnston's parents were born in Ohio. His 
father is of Irish descent, and his mother is of 
Scotch origin. They were married in 1 848, and 
now reside in Wilson County, Kan. They had 
a family of seven children, as follows : Sarah 
Ann married William Emerson ; they have three 
children, and live in Red Willow County, Neb. 



Isaac R., the subject of this sketch; Frances E., un- 
married; John Mitchell, unmarried; Mary Agnes 
married Charles Newton, and has one child; George 
Wilbur, unmarried, and Wiley II., all live in Wil- 
son County, Kan. There is an adopted sister named 
Maud, who lives with his parents. 

Mrs. Johnston is the second child in a family of 
nine, one of whom died in infancy, and seven are 
still living: Mary Ann married Zacharias Clifton, 
and died in 1877; Laura Frances, Lewis Albert; 
Mary has three children, and lives in Shelby Countj^, 
Mo.; Marion Alonzo, married, is an evangelist and 
sings at the Holiness meetings; Alice Catherine 
married Brice Holbart, has three children, and lives 
in Lewis County, Mo. ; John William, unmar- 
ried, and lives in Kansas; Cora May, unmarried, 
and lives in Lewis County, Mo.; Mary Emma, un- 
married, and lives in Lewis County, Mo. Mrs. 
Johnston's father was of German descent, and the 
ancestors of her mother were Irish. Mr. and Mrs. 
Johnston have had four children, as follows: Mary 
Emily, born Dec. 6, 1876; Rainy, born March 8, 
1881, and died in infancy; Marion Reno, born 
June 30, 1884; Clarence Wilbur, May 27, 1886. 

In educational matters Mr. Johnston is an en- 
thusiast, and he and his wife both take a very 
ardent interest in everything pertaining to the 
profession. As a teacher he is popular, both with 
pupils and parents, and his school is a model for 
its discipline and perfect system of conduct. 

eHRISTOPH SALZMAN, a thrifty German 
farmer of Rook's Creek Township, owns 
eighty acres of good land which he has cul- 
tivated successfully for the last eighteen years, and 
upon which he has erected a substantial and com- 
fortable residence, a good barn and all the build- 
ings required by the intelligent agriculturist. He 
is held in respect as a useful member of the com- 
munity, and for the last ten years has served as 
School Director, although he would prefer to attend 
strictly to his farming affairs without being the in- 
cumbent of any office. He is a native of the 
Fatherland, and after becoming a naturalized citi- 
zen cast his first Presidential vote for Abraham 

Lincoln, whom he saw and heard speak at Havana 
at the time he was candidate for Senator. 

Our subject was born in the Province of Saxe 
Weimar, Germany, Jan. 23, 1835, and is the son of 
Christopher and Dorothea (Schwinger) Salzman, 
also of German birth and parentage, who spent their 
entire lives in their native land. The mother died 
while a young woman, when our subject was but 
three or four weeks old. He was then taken by 
his maternal grandparents, Johannes and Anna 
Elizabeth (Tuchscha) Schwinger, and when a 
young man accompanied them to the United States. 
His grandfather died at Cape Girardeau while en 
route for St. Louis, while the steamer was blockaded 
by ice. Grandmother Schwinger survived her hus- 
band several years, and came to Mason County, 
111., where her death took place in the spring of 
1856. The father of our subject married a second 
time and reared quite a large family, all of whom 
remained in Germany. 

Mr. Salzman, upon coming to this country in 
1 853, landed in the city of New Orleans, whence 
he at once proceeded to Havana, 111., where he 
worked on a farm about three years, and was after- 
ward employed in the store of Walker & Hancock 
four years. He was married, March 13, 1862, to 
Miss Mary Schmale, and soon afterward rented a 
tract of land in Mason County, where he carried 
on farming four years. Then going to Havana he 
took a clerkship under J. W. Jones, which he held 
two years, when he decided to return to rural pur- 
suits, and in 1869 located upon his present farm. 
To Mr. and Mrs. Salzman there have been born 
nine children, as follows: The eldest son, William 
Henr}', born Dec. 28, 1862, remains at home with 
his parents; Dorothea, born Dec. 18, 1864, is the 
wife of John Attig, a fanner of Rook's Creek Town- 
ship, and the mother of one child; Frederick, born 
Oct. 19, 1866, remains at home with his (parents; 
George Louis, born April 30, 1869; Maria Louisa, 
Jan. 9, 1872; Sophia E., Oct. 20, 1874; Albert, 
April 2, 1877; Anna C., Jan. 15, 1880, and Emma 
L., March 20, 1882. 

Mrs. Salzman is the daughter of William and 
Sophia (Bulks) Schmale. Her father was born 
about 1807 and died Aug. 28, 1855. The mother 
was born May 4, 1805, and died Aug. 28, 1877. 




They were married about 1835-36. Mrs. S. was 
the second child of four children who all lived to 
years of maturity. Her sister Catherine died when 
twenty-one years old. Henry married Mrs. Nancy 
(Schwartz) Bohlander, has two children, and is 
farming in Rook's Creek Township. Louisa, Mrs. 
Louis Zelle, is the mother of eight children, and 
lives in Havana, where her husband is engaged in 
the grocery trade. Mrs. S. has a faint recollection of 
her paternal grandmother, who lived to be quite 

Mr. Salzman is a member in good standing of 
the German Lutheran Church, and has inherited 
the praiseworthy qualities of a long line of substan- 
tial German ancestry. 

H.K NTON G. JACOBS, a prosperous German 
Ol farmer of Rook's Creek Township, owns 

nearly 300 acres of valuable land on sec- 
tion 34, which is thoroughly drained with 
tile and provided with a substantial residence, a 
good barn, ample corn cribs, and a fine assortment 
of live-stock, including cattle, horses and swine. 
Mr. J. has been largely dependent upon his own 
resources since starting out in life, and his posses- 
sions are mainly the result of his own industry. 
His time has been principally employed in attend- 
ing to his own concerns, and the result has been 
very satisfactory. He is independent in politics, 
has never been an office-seeker, and is a member 
in good standing of the Lutheran Church. 

Mr. Jacobs was born in the Province of Hanover, 
Germany, Jan. 10, 1845, and is the son of Anton 
G. and Mary (Rebelf) Jacobs, natives of the same 
country. They emigrated to America in 1855, 
and proceeding directly westward, took up their 
residence first in Peoria, on the 28th of June, 
whence they removed the following month to 
Woodford County, where the father purchased the 
farm on which he still resides. He is a gentleman 
who appreciates the advantages of education, and 
left his native land for the sake of his children, 
who he considered would have better advantages, 
both socially and financially, in the New World. 

He had himself been fairly educated in his native 
tongue, and pursued his studies after coming to 
this country. 

The paternal grandfather of our subject, Jacob 
Harmon Jacobs, died in the Fatherland about 1851. 
The grandmother, who was born about 1783, sur- 
vived her husband several years, and died in her 
native Province when about ninety-four years old. 
Her family is of German ancestry, as far back as 
our subject has any record. Mr. Jacobs was the 
fifth cliild in fi family of seven, who lived to mature 
years: Henrietta was married, and died childless; 
Lamert, married and the father of three girls, lives 
in Woodford County ; Mary, Mrs. Fritz Zachgo, is 
the mother of nine or ten children, and a resident 
of McLean County ; Margaret married John Will- 
iams, of Woodford County, and has five children ; 
Catherine, the wife of Christian Reiner, has four 
children and lives in Ohio. 

Mr. Jacobs remained on his father's homestead 
until twenty-three years of age, when he was mar- 
ried, Jan. 7, 1868, to Miss Mary, daughter of Al- 
bert E. and Mary W. (Eadler) Sathoff, natives of 
Germany, who emigrated to the United States in 
1857, when their daughter Mary was seven years 
of age. Mrs. Jacobs was born Jan. 4, 1850, and 
was the seventh in a family of eight children. 
After their marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Jacobs settled 
down on a farm in Woodruff County, where they 
remained seven years, when they removed to Ben- 
son, and in 1881 took possession of a part of their 
present homestead. Mr. J. first purchased 160 
acres, to which he afterward added 126 more. 
Upon this he has effected fine improvements, build- 
ing up a country home which is the admiration of 
all who pass by it. The household circle includes 
nine children, all at home with their parents. The 
eldest son, Jacob Harmon, named after his pater- 
nal great-grandfather, was born Nov. 7, 1868; 
Mary, Oct. 31, 1870; Albert E., Aug. 16, 1872; 
Anton E., May 12, 1874; Henrietta C., Aug. 18. 
1876; Gesena, Dec. 1, 1878; John M., Nov. 10, 
1880; Hajo E., June 8, 1882; Bennett L., July 13. 

The brothers and sisters of Mrs. Jacobs are re- 
corded as follows : Bena was married in early man- 
hood, and followed the sea, being Captain of a sail- 




ing-vessel; their home was in Germany, where his 
wife died in 1885, leaving four children. John is 
married, has three children, and lives in Kansas; 
Jesina, Mrs. Eddie Woltzen, has four children and 
lives in Woodford County; Bernardino, Mrs. Al- 
bert Woltzen, has thirteen children, and is also a 
resident of Woodford County; Hajo married Miss 
Phebe Franks, has seven children, and lives in Mc- 
Lean County ; Albert E., married, and. the father 
of six children, lives in Woodford County. 


UDOLPH EISELE. Lying on section 17, 
Rook's Creek Township, is one of the most 
valuable farms of that locality, the cultiva- 
tion of which has been in the skillful hands 
of the subject of our sketch. He comes of excel- 
lent German stock, and is a typical representative 
of that reliable element to which the West is so 
largely indebted for its development and progress. 
The fair prairies of Illinois are dotted all over with ! 
the substantial homesteads of the men who left their 
native land to seek their fortunes in the New World, ' 
the great advantages of which they had heard in 
their homes across the water. 

The subject of our sketch was born in Germany 
on the 17th of April, 1828, his parents being Jasper 
Eisele and Catherine (Rosebaum) Eisele, who came ! 
to this country in 1852, landing in New York, i 
where they remained three years, and then removed ' 
to Virginia, residing there for three years. He at- 
tended school for eight years in Germany, as is re- 
quired by the compulsory education law of that 
country. Being of a studious nature, he made rapid 
progress in his studies, in which he became quite 
proficient. From Virginia Mr. Eisele came West, 
locating at Peoria, where he spent a portion of his 
time on a farm, after which he came to Livingston 
County, where he purchased 160 acres of land. 
Mr. Eisele was married in New York, in 1856, to 
Elizabeth Keck, and to them have been born seven 
children: Elizabeth died in infantry; Minnie, Mrs. 
Joseph Webber, lives in Livingston County; John 
married Miss H. S. Fugar, and lives in Rook's Creek 
Township; Elizabeth resides with her parents; Ru- 

dolph and David are twins, born in 1868, and live 
at home; Mary Ann, the youngest, lives at home 
also. During the war of the Rebellion he served 
for six months in the Union army. On account of 
disability incurred in the service, he has asked the 
Government to grant him a pension, but his applica- 
tion has not yet been finally passed upon. 

Mr. Eisele is an enterprising and energetic far- 
mer, and takes considerable pride in the amount and 
quality of live stock that he raises. His farm is 
under a high state of cultivation, and he has erected 
suitable buildings for the care of his crops, and the 
shelter of his domestic animals. He has a comfort- 
able home, with pleasant and agreeable surround- 
ings, and enjoys the esteem and respect of all his 

EORGE K. HOKE, one of the youngest men 
engaged in business upon his own account 
in Union Township, is successfully farming 
and raising stock on section 17. He is a native of 
Livingston County, and Union Township, and was 
born in the house he now lives in on the 17th of 
December, 1862, and was the fifth in a family of 
seven children born to Samuel and Laura (Kenney) 
Hoke, who were natives of Pennsylvania, and a 
history of whom appears in another place in this 

The subject of this sketch was reared wholly to 
farm life, for which he developed considerable apt- 
ness early in youth. The winters of his boyhood 
were devoted to attending the common schools, 
and he received a very fair education. At the age 
of twenty-two years he concluded to try his fort- 
unes in the West, and proceeded to Lincoln, Neb., 
where he engaged on a ranch with the famous Buf- 
falo Bill. He was not well pleased with that coun- 
try, however, and soon returned to Illinois, where 
he concluded to remain permanently. He began 
farming for himself on the home place, where he 
has continued until the present time. 

February 10, 1887, Mr. lloke was married to 
Emma J. Tanquarry, second child in a family of 
seven born to Levi and Sarah R. (Mead) Tanquarry, 
natives of Ohio and Illinois respectively. Mrs. 



Hoke's grandparents were William and Elizabeth 
(Shackleford) Tanquarry, .natives of Ohio, and her 
maternal grandparents were George W. and Lydia 
(Perkins) Mead, natives of Ohio. The parents of 
Mrs. Hoke came to Livingston County in 1867, 
and settled on a farm about ten miles west of Pon- 
tiac, where they resided until the death of the 
father, which occurred June 12, 1874. The mother 
still survives, and lives at Pontiac. Levi Tan- 
quarry, the father of Mrs. Hoke, served in the 
Union army for a time, but his health became so 
badly impaired that he was compelled to accept a 
discharge and return home. He was a member of 
the Methodist Church during his whole life, and 
was a Christian in every sense of the word. He 
was largely identified with all the progressive strides 
made by Livingston County. For very many 
years he was a prominent member of the Masonic 
fraternity, and religiously carried out its principles. 
Mr. and Mrs. Hoke have settled on the farm lo- 
cated on section 17, where they expect to make 
their permanent home, and will expend their best 
energies in surrounding themselves with all the 
comforts and conveniences obtainable. Mr. Hoke 
is not much interested in political matters, and pro- 
poses to leave politics to the care of politicians, 
while he will devote his entire time to the affairs of 
his farm. Mrs. Hoke is a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, in which she takes an active 
part, and they are both earnest workers in the 
cause of temperance. 

iHOMAS C. KIDDER. This gentleman's 
farm, pleasantly located on section 25 in 
Rook's Creek Township, comprises a valua- 
ble tract of eighty acres of land, provided with a 
good residence and all suitable buildings. This to 
him is all the more valuable because it was the 
homestead of his father, who settled here upon his 
arrival in this county about 1856. Mr. K., in ad- 
dition to general farming has given much attention 
of late years to stock-raising, in which he has met 
with success. 

Mr. Kidder is a native of the Prairie State, hav- 
ing been born in La Salle County, Feb. 9, 1850. 

His parents, Abel C. and Nancy (Chamberlain) 
Kidder, were natives respectively of Vermont and 
Massachusetts, the father born in 1800 and the 
mother in 1814. They subsequently became resi- 
dents of Ohio, whence they removed to this State 
at an earl}' day and shared with the pioneers of 
that time the hardships and dangers incident to life 
in a new settlement. Abel Kidder departed this 
life at his home in Rook's Creek Township, in 18G8, 
and the mother Jan. 27, 1882. 

Our subject after the death of his father took 
charge of the homestead, upon which he has since 
remained, effecting many improvements as the 
years have passed by. To this home he brought a 
bride in 1871, namely Miss Alice B. Cook, whom 
he married November 30 of that year. They have 
no children. Mrs. Kidder is-the daughter of Mic.ijah 
and Elizabeth (Lewis) Cook, and the twelfth in a 
family of thirteen children, eight of whom are liv- 
ing. She was born March 4, 1850. Micajah Cook 
was born in Virginia, Feb. 27, 1808, and his wife, 
Elizabeth, in Kentucky, Feb. 16, 1809. They were 
married Nov. 3, 1829, and made their home in 
Fayette County, Ky., until their removal to Illi- 
nois. They located upon a farm in Livingston, 
Pike Township, where the mother departed this 
life April 22, 1871. 

Mr. Cook is still living, and makes his home with 
his daughter Alice. Francis N. Cook, a brother of 
Mrs. Kidder, served as a soldier in the Union army, 
belonging to the 77th Illinois Infantry. He took 
part in two or three important battles, and after- 
ward contracted a disease from which he died the 
day after his arrival home, in 1862. 

The parental family of our subject included five 
children. His sister is now the wife of Wilson 
Breckenridge, of Kansas, and the mother of four 
children. William P. Kidder, the eldest son, was 
born in La Salle County about 1842. Upon the 
outbreak of the Rebellion he enlisted in the 20th 
Illinois Infantry, and after participating in the bat- 
tle at Ft. Donelson was killed in the engagement at 
Shiloh while lighting in the front ranks. Mr. Kid- 
der cast his first Presidential vote for Gen. Grant 
in 1872, and since that time has been a stanch sup- 
porter of the Republican party. Although never 
an oflice-seeker he has maintained a warm interest 





in the general welfare of his fellow-citizens, and 
has served as School Director six years. He i 
ranked among the representative men of his com- 
munity, where he is held in universal esteem. 

REMINGTON, retired merchant 
and grain dealer, is the owner of a pleasant 
home in Fairbury, where he is spending his 
declining years in the ease and quiet justly 
earned by the labors of his earlier manhood. He 
is a native of Suflield, Hartford Co., Conn., where 
lie began life Dec. }4, 1820. His early education 
was conducted in the common schools, and when 
fifteen years of age he pursued the higher brandies 
in an academy five years. The most of his time 
he lived upon his father's farm, and early in life, 
after completing his studies, embarked in business 
as a grain dealer, locating first at Camden, N. C. 
He was a resident of that town two years, and be- 
sides his grain operations engaged in general mer- 
chandising. The two years following he spent in 
Mississippi and Louisiana, and migrated from the 
latter State to Illinois in 1847. 

While a resident of East Granby, Conn., Mr. 
Remington was married, in 1846, to Miss Cliloe H. 
Alderman, the wedding taking place at the home 
of the bride' on the 31st of May. Mrs. R. was bom 
in Chester, Mass., April 13, 1822, and is the daugh- 
ter of Harvey and Sarah (Holcomb) Alderman. 
She came to Illinois with her husband, and they 
first located at Kaneville, Kane County, where they 
resided four years. Mr. Remington engaged in 
farming, and afterward purchased a stock of gen- 
eral merchandise, and continued in trade about 
seven years. He sold out in the fall of 1859, and 
coming to Fairbury established his present business, 
which has been marked with success from the be- 
ginning. Mr. and Mrs. R. have one child only, a 
son, Albert II., who was born Feb. ;">, 1850, and 
after reaching manhood married Miss Elizabeth 
No3 7 ce. He is now engaged in real estate and as 
a grain dealer at Fairbury. 

Besides his village property, which consists of a 
fine dwelling witli ample grounds, Mr. Remington 
owns ten acres of valuable land adjacent, upon 

which he keeps ten fine Jersey cows. He has al- 
ways taken a warm interest in the welfare of his 
adopted town, and is the encourager of those en- 
terprises tending to its advancement. He cast his 
first Presidential vote for Henry Cla.y, and has 
always been a stanch Republican. Socially he is a 
Knight Templar in the Masonic fraternity; he 
became identified with Masonry in 1854, while a 
resident of Kane County. He was reared in the 
doctrines of the Baptist Church. Mrs. Remington 
is a Presbyterian. 

The parents of our subject, Isaac and Abigail 
(Gillette) Remington, were natives of Connecticut, 
and of English ancestry. Their family included 
three children Chauncy. Daniel, and Henry, our 
subject; the latter is the only immediate represent- 
ative living, his brothers and his parents being 

H. GUPPY is one of the successful farmers 
of Pontiac Township, who at the age of 
forty years was the owner of an excellent 
farm of 1 60 acres, which he has been able to 
purchase as the result of hard work. Mr. Guppy 
is a native of Toronto, Canada, where he was born 
on the 21st of July, 1846, his father being Emanuel 
Guppy, a native of England, who emigrated to 
Canada in 1840. The subject of this sketch spent 
his first eight years in Canada, when he removed 
with his father to Waukegan, Lake Co., 111., where 
he remained until the breaking out of the late 
Civil AVar. He was deprived of the care and 
affectionate training of a mother, she having died 
when he was but seven years of age. Being left 
almost entirely upon his own resources, and having 
to shift for himself, he did not have much oppor- 
tunity for securing an education. 

In April, 1862, Mr. Guppy enlisted in Company 
E, 134th Illinois Infantry, which was one of the 
100 days' regiments, and served with the regiment 
until the expiration of his term of enlistment. In 
the following spring he re-enlisted in Company C, 
155th Illinois Infantry, thus participating in army 
service, principally guard duty, for about seven 
months, and was honorably discharged in 1863. 
He came to Livingston County in the spring of 




1864. Since his return from the army he has re- 
sided in this county. 

On the 31st of December, 1874, our subject was 
married to Elizabeth Luke, born Aug. 31, 1851, 
on Staten Island, N. Y., and a daughter of John 
and Esther Luke. Her parents came to Livingston 
about 1862. Mr. Guppy lived in Odell Township 
until 1883, when he purchased a farm of 160 acres 
on section 14, Pontiac Township, where he now 
resides. As was said at the opening of this sketch, 
he is a self-made man. and has obtained the owner- 
ship of a good farm under the most adverse cir- 
cumstances and greatest discouragements. 

Mr. and Mrs. Guppy are the parents of three 
children: William J.. bora Jan. 28, 1876 ; Mary E., 
Sept. 27, 1879, and Harvey J., Dec. 9, 1884. Hav- 
ing overcome all the difficulties which surrounded 
them at the beginning of their married life, Mr. 
and Mrs. Guppy are now living in contentment, 
and are very hopeful for the future. While not 
taking a very active part in political matters Mr. 
Guppy patriotically prides himself on being a mem- 
ber of the Republican party, and freely does what 
he can for the success of that political organization. 


J"?OHN W. MILLS, Supervisor of Reading 
Township, has a fine farm of 320 acres on 
| sections 16 and 21, and is largely engaged 
' in the breeding of Short-horn cattle. He 
has been a resident of the Prairie State since 1854, 
and is numbered among the most enterprising and 
wide-awake men of Livingston County. The farm 
is finely located and embellished with a handsome 
set of frame buildings, including a tasteful dwelling, 
a good barn, and the other structures required by 
the modern agriculturist for the successful prosecu- 
tion of his calling. A view of the place is shown 
on another page of this work. Mr. Mills has built 
up one of the finest homesteads in this section of 
country, and deserves great credit for the manner 
in which he has contributed to the wealth and pros- 
perity of Reading Township. 

Our subject was born near the town of Sabina, 

Clinton Co., Ohio, on the 4th of June, 1835, and is 
the son of Daniel and Mary (Bennett) Mills, na- 
tives respectively of Virginia and Kentucky. Dan- 
iel Mills was born April 17, 1781, and departed this 
life at his home in Reading Township, Feb. 6, 1868. 
His wife, Mary, was born April 16, 1793, and died 
also in this township Nov. 2, 1877. They were 
married in Ohio, Feb. 9, 1815, and became parents 
of the children bearing the following names: 
Thomas, Elizabeth, Louisa, James, Joshua C., Mar- 
tha, Elma, Maria, Mary, Margaret, Melissa, Letitia, 
Elvira and John W. (twins), and Louis Clark. 

Mr. Mills was reared to manhood in the Buckeye 
State, and early in life began to lay his plans for 
the future. When about the age of nineteen he 
started for the West, and finding no place which 
suited him better than this county, located here 
and has since remained, being now a resident for a 
period of thirty-three years. He first took up his 
residence in Reading Township, and in due time 
made the acquaintance of Miss Lucy E. Coe, who 
became his wife March 31, 1864. Mrs. Mills is the 
daughter of John and Nancy (Wilkinson) Coe, na- 
tives respectively of Connecticut and Vermont, and 
was born Feb. 5, 1842, in Geauga County, Ohio. 
John Coe was born Feb. 20, 1811, and departed 
this life Oct. 5. 1862. His wife, Nancy, was born 
Aug. 13, 1813, and passed away at her home Feb. 
16, 1874. 

The children of the parental household of Mrs. 
Mills were, Daniel T., now a resident of Sheridan, 
LaSalle Co., 111. ; Clara E., the wife of A. B. Whit- 
ney, of Peoria, traveling correspondent of the 
Transcript; Lucy E., the wife of our subject; Al- 
bert, who resides in Kansas; Arthur, who died 
when fourteen months old; Amie L., the wife of 
W. T. Clark, a farmer and stock-raiser of Reading 
Township. The parents were devoted members of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. The father served 
one year in the Union army, being assigned to duty 
at Johnston's Island, near Sandusky, Ohio, where 
he contracted a fever which resulted in his death. 
He died at Columbus, Ohio, and his remains were 
taken to his home in Geauga County, Ohio, for 

The four children of Mr. and Mrs. Mills are all 
at home with their parents. The eldest son, Fred- 




die E., was born July 10, 1868, and after complet- 
ing his studies in the common schools, entered the 
business college at Peoria, 111. He, together with 
his sister, Clara E., has developed uncommon musi- 
cal talent, which is often utilized in the social as- 
semblies of their neighborhood and church. Clara 
Eveline was born Aug. 13, 1872; Charles Franklin, 
April 13, 1877, and Albert Roy, April 23, 1881. 

Mr. Mills was first elected Supervisor in 1876. 
He has been quite prominent in the councils of his 
fellow-townsmen, and served as Assessor four years, 
besides being Commissioner, School Treasurer and 
School Trustee. With his estimable wife he is an 
active member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
and politically, affiliates with the Republican party. 

We give in connection with this brief sketch of 
one [of Livingston County's representative citi- 
zens, the portrait of the man of whom we write, 
and as an appropriate companion picture, that of 
his estimable wife. 

J~~| OHN LOAR. "Like father like son" is an 
I old saying, and it is a pretty trite one. The 
man who commences the struggle of life 
without anything but willing hands and a 
brave heart, and fights successfully through until the 
end, generally transmits to his children an indom- 
itable will, and a courage which makes them suc- 
cessful in life. Such can be said of the subject of 
this sketch, who is a farmer and stock-grower on 
section 18, Belle Prairie Township. He was born 
in Greene County, Pa., on the 21st of April, 1826, 
and is the son of John and Hester (Stephens) 
Loar, natives of Mainland and Pennsylvania re- 
spectively. The father was born on the 28th of 
November, 1789, and died on the 5th of May, 
1873, in Pennsylvania. He was all his life a 
farmer by occupation, commencing his career as 
such without a cent of capital, and long before his 
death he had accumulated a competency. He and 
his wife were members of the Protestant Meth- 
odist Church, and in early times the meetings of 
that denomination were held at their residence. 
The mother was born in June, 1794, and died in 

December, 1881, both dying on the same farm in 
Pennsylvania. They were the parents of fourteen 
children, eleven of whom they reared to man and 
womanhood : Sarah ; Jacob, who held the office of 
Justice of the Peace fifteen years; George, who is a 
minister; Appollos, a physician and Christian minis- 
ter in Richmond, Ind.; Adam died in childhood; 
Martha; John ; Henry died at the age of eight years; 
Dr. James Loar, of Bloomington, 111.; Nancy died 
at the age of four years; Levi. Hester J., Lany A. 
and Elizabeth. 

John Loar was married to Miss Maria White on 
the 22d of April, 1847, the Rev. Foredyce, of the 
Protestant Methodist Church, officiating. She was 
born on the 24th of April, 1826, and is the daugh- 
ter of Rev. David and Leah (Straschneider) 
White, who were natives of Pennsylvania. The 
father was born in 1795, and is still living, a hale 
and hearty old man of ninety-two years. On the 
day after his ninetieth birthday he delivered a very 
fine discourse in the same school-house where he 
studied eighty years before, this house standing on 
the same farm where he was born and reared. He 
displays considerable agility, and can run and 
jump with nearly as much ease as he could sixty 
years ago. He indulges considerably in horseback 
riding, and in 1856 he rode from his home in Penn- 
sylvania to Missouri in the month of December. 
He has been preaching since 1820. The mother 
was born in 1801, and died in April, 1865. She 
was also a member of the Christian Church, and 
her husband is credited with being the oldest liv- 
ing minister of that denomination. They were 
the parents of eight children Elizabeth, Israel, 
Sarah, Mariah, Eliza J., Reason, Mary A., and 
Christina, deceased. 

Mr. and Mrs. Loar have had ten children : 
Thomas J., now teaching school in Kansas; Martha 
J., David W., Elizabeth S. ; George, druggist and 
Postmaster in Cropsey, McLean Co., 111.; Emma 
F., a school teacher; James L., a lawyer, and 
graduate of Ann Arbor. Mich.; Fafayette died 
at the age of fifteen months in the year 1868; 
Ida B. and Artie M. Mr. Loar came to Illi- 
nois in 1868 and located on a farm of 160 acres on 
section 18, on which he has continuously resided 
since. In the management of his farm and the T , 

E - 



raising of graded stock, he displays unusual enter- 
prise, and encourages all organizations that are in- 
tended to further the interests of the agricultur- 
ists and stock-raisers. He is a stockholder in the 
Livingston County Fair Association, and also in 
the Belle Prairie Farmers' Mutual Insurance Com- 
pany, chartered Jan. 14, 1874, fora term of twenty 
years. As a sample of the productiveness of his 
farm it may be stated that in 1871 he cut twenty- 
four tons of hay on ten acres of land, and sold 
$600 worth of apples that were raised on the same 
ten acres, and in 1881 the product of the orchard 
was $550 worth of apples. There are 600 rods of 
tile drain on the farm. 

The family of Mr. Loar are members of the 
Christian Church, in which he has held the office 
of Elder for many years. He is a stanch Demo- 
crat, and upon all proper occasions gives evidence 
of the political faith that is in him. 


AMUEL EARP, one of the pioneer farmers 
and stock-raisers of Livingston County, 
resides on section 4 of Rook's Creek Town- 
ship. He is the son of William Earp, and 
was born on the 31st of May, 1829, at New Gar- 
den, Columbiana Co., Ohio. In 1856 he removed 
to Wisconsin, where he staid one summer, and then 
to Livingston County, 111., and settled in the 
neighborhood where he now resides. 

The father of the subject of this sketch was born 
in England about the year 1803, and came to the 
United States when fourteen years of age, landing 
at Philadelphia on his fourteenth birthday. His 
memory serves him so well that he remembers the 
return of soldiers to England after the defeat of 
Napoleon at Waterloo. He witnessed the review 
of the American soldiers by Gen. La Fayette at 
Philadelphia, in 1824. He had traveled over En- 
gland quite extensively in his boyhood days in 
company with an older brother, who was engaged 
in selling pottery, and was present when he sold a 
set of chinaware to Queen Victoria, before she was 
crowned ; while in Philadelphia he learned the trade 
of making boots and shoes. He was married in 

Pittsburgh about 1827, and some time after this 
moved to Ohio and engaged in farming. He was 
the father of four sons: Samuel; James, who is 
single and lives in Livingston County ; Charles W. 
died Dec. 15, 1868; George died in infancy. 

Samuel Earp received more than an ordinary 
education in the common schools, and attended 
the High School in Richmond, Jefferson Co., Ohio. 
He cast his first Presidential vote for Abraham 
Lincoln in 1860, and has been a constant and firm 
supporter of the principles of the Republican party 
ever since. He has filled nearly all the various 
township offices, having served as Commissioner of 
Highways a number of terms, and been three times 
elected as Supervisor, and each of these places of 
trust he has filled with such honesty and ability 
that great satisfaction was given the people. Mr. 
Earp is a man of very generous impulses, and has 
made it a practice throughout life to assist all 
worthy persons who applied to him for aid. Being 
a firm believer in pure Christianity and apostolic 
simplicity, his inclinations are toward the Christian 
Church. Charles Earp, a brother of Samuel, was 
in the Union army during the war, and served 
under Gen. Sherman, taking part in that memora- 
ble march from Atlanta to the sea. In that cam- 
paign he contracted consumption, from which he 
never recovered, and died soon after 'returning 
from the army. 

On the 13th of May, 1858, Mr. Earp was mar- 
ried to Caroline Earp, daughter of Charles Earp, 
of Livingston County. She is a cousin, and was 
born on the 18th of February, 1834, in Norwalk, 
Ohio. Her mother was born on the 26th of Feb- 
ruary, 1811, in England, and during the first five 
years of her life lived in Derbyshire, and at that 
age accompanied her father to the United States, 
landing in Baltimore, and going directly to Co- 
lurnbiana County, Ohio, by wagon. Her mother 
had died shortly before. John Morledge, the 
grandfather of Mrs. Earp, was born in England 
about 1774, and was a blacksmith by trade, but 
after he removed to the United States and settled 
in Ohio he became a farmer, and bought a half- 
section of land, which he cleared and improved, 
and which is now owned by John Morledge, a son 
by his second wife. John Morledge was a member 



of the Church of England, but his daughter Esther 
has never been a member of any church, but be- 
lieves that pure and simple religion consists in vis- 
iting the widow and fatherless in their affliction, 
and keeping unspotted from the world. Mrs. Earp 
is a member of the Episcopal Church. 

J^ AMES W. EISENHOWER, farmer and mer- 
chant clerk, is splendidly situated on sec- 
I tion 20, Rook's Creek Township. He is the 
' eldest son of John F. and Catherine J. (Mil- 
ler) Eisenhower, and was born on the 8th of No- 
vember, 1835. in the State of Pennsylvania. He 
made the most of what common-school advantages 
there were in Newburg, Cumberland County, and 
remained with his father, who was at that time a 
merchant, until he was about twenty years of age, 
when he was married to Caroline Harlin, on the 
13th of December, 1855. For two years after his 
marriage he was engaged as a clerk in his father's 
store. A son was born to him and his wife on the 
29th of October, 1856, and was named Theodore 
B. In February, 1859, his wife died, and he 
moved to McLean County, 111., leaving the child 
in the care of his parents. After locating in Mc- 
Lean County, he rented a farm for one year, at the 
end of which time he sold what property he pos- 
sessed, and engaged to work by the month for nine 
months, but before the contract expired he enlisted 
in August, 1862, in the 1st Marine Artillery of 
New York. 

During its service the regiment was mostly em- 
ployed in the coast defenses, and Mr. Eisenhower 
was actively engaged in three battles; the first at 
Kingston, on the Neuso River, near Newbern, N. 
C., in which the Union side was successful in capt- 
uring 600 prisoners. Mr. Eisenhower thinks one 
incident of the battle is worthy of mention. When 
part of the men who were doing patrol duty began 
to see shot and shell coming near they concluded 
they had better be getting out of there, and so ex- 
pressed themselves. Capt. Smith, of the 17th Mas- 
sachusetts, reassuringly said, "Oh, no; those are 
from our cannon, and they won't hurt us;" but 
when the next one came near, pressing his head 

against the side of a house which stood near, he 
remarked that "we had better be getting out of 
here." The second battle was what is known as 
Dudley Halls, in which the Union forces were suc- 
cessful. Soon after they were in the battle of 
Goldsboro, where they burned a bridge on the 
road leading from Weldon to Richmond, and de- 
stroyed a portion of the track in order to shut 
supplies out of Richmond. Mr. Eisenhower went 
through the service without receiving a scratch, 
and was honorably discharged in April, 1863. 

Upon his discharge from the army, Mr. Eisen- 
hower returned to his home in Pennsylvania, where 
he again married, taking for his wife Miss Susan 
Gunkel (now spelled with a K instead of a G), on 
the 17th of September, 1863. He then came back 
to Illinois and farmed in McLean Count}' until the 
fall of 1865, when he moved to Marshall County, 
where he carried on farming until the fall of 1867. 
In that year they moved to AVoodford County, 
where he purchased eighty acres of land and re- 
mained there two years, sold out, and moved back 
to Marshall County, and from there to Livingston 
County, in the fall of 1 869, where he farmed for 
two and one-half years on land belonging to his 
wife's brother. He then purchased a farm of 120 
acres, which he now owns. His land was unim- 
proved when it came into his possession, but he 
worked upon it industriously, and soon brought it 
to a fine state of cultivation. It is honeycombed 
with tiled ditches, and where trees never grew be- 
fore he has planted them, and they now afford an 
abundance of shade. He has an excellent set of 
farm buildings, and all necessary implements and 
machinery required for the carrying on of agricult- 

ure in a first-class manner. The homestead pre- 
i seuts one of the attractive points in the landscape 

of Rook's Creek Township. 

Mr. Eisenhower's eldest son, Theodore B., is 
married, and lives in Albion, Boone Co., Neb., and 
is a traveling express messenger on a branch of the 
Union Pacific Railway. By the second marriage 
there have been born the following children : 
George A., born Aug. 1, 1864, married Lucy Ben- 
son, and lives in Rook's Creek Township; William 
A., born Aug. 27, 1865, lives in the same township; 
Edwin K., born Nov. 1, 1867, is single and lives at 




home. Mr. Eisenhower's sous are now conducting 
the farming operations, and he devotes his time to 
the management of Dr. J. Allen's general store in 
Graymont, of which he has complete control. 

Mrs. Eisenhower was born on the 15th of Febru- 
ary, 1839, and is the daughter of George and Bar- 
bara (Houser) Kunkel. Her parents were natives 
of Lancaster County, Pa. Her brothers and sis- 
ters were as follows : The eldest, Martin, died in 
infancy; John, William, Elizabeth, Edwin, George, 
Israel, Catherine and Martin. 

yiLLIAM F. COOK. One of the younger 
men and farmers who is destined to make 
his impress upon the history of Livingston 
County is the subject of this sketch, who has a 
farm of 100 acres on section 28, in Pontiac Town- 
ship. He is a native of Butler County, Ohio, 
where his birth took place on the 4th of July, 
1853, and consequently has the rare privilege 
each year of celebrating the anniversary of his 
birth and the birth of the Nation simultaneously. 
He is the son of Eli and Almeda Cook, who were 
both natives of the State of Ohio, and were pio- 
neers of Butler County. The father, during most 
of his life in Butler County, was a grain dealer, 
and from him his son inherited considerable busi- 
ness tact. They had a family of four children 
William F., Charles F., George C. and Frank J. 
The father died in Ohio on the 22d of June, 1885, 
and after his death the mother came to Livingston 
County and resided with her sons un'til the summer 
of 1887, when she went to Pueblo County, Col., 
and there resides. They both were members of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, and were very 
much devoted to the welfare of that organization. 
So far as political matters went the father was an 
ardent supporter of the Republican party, and as 
such was widely and favorably known throughout 
Butler County, while the opposition in that Demo- 
cratic stronghold have cause to remember the blows 
he struck in defense of his party. 

The years intervening between the birth and 
manhood of Mr. Cook of our notice were spent in 
Butler County, where he attended the common 

schools regularly and pursued his studies so assidu- 
ously that he received more than an average edu- 
cation. Having an inclination for the business 
affairs of life he took a thorough course in book- 
keeping at the Hamilton Business College, of 
Hamilton, Ohio, in the year 1 870, and was graduated 
from that institution with great credit to himself. 
For several years afterward he was associated with 
his father in the grain trade, and had entire charge 
of the books of the firm, while he became an ex- 
pert grain buyer. In the fall of 1873 he came to 
Livingston County, where for the first year of his 
residence he engaged in work on a farm in the em- 
ploy of John A. Knapp, of Pontiac. For the next 
three years he rented farms which he managed suc- 
cessfull.y. In 1882 he purchased the farm on which 
he now lives, on section 28, Pontiac Township, 
and his 100 acres are as fertile and productive as 
any similar body of land in Livingston County. 

On the 21st of March, 1878, Mr. Cook was mar- 
ried to Rosalind Knapp, daughter of John A. 
Knapp, the gentleman for whom he worked during 
the first year of his residence in Livingston County. 
They have two children: Emma A., born Dec. 
22, 1879, and Edna B., born May 3, 1881. Mr. 
Cook has made a success in his farming operations 
unusual with men who are not bred to farm life. 
Ever since he became a voter he has cast his ballot 
with the Republican party. He and his wife are 
respected members of society, and are active in all 
things intended to benefit the community. 

UGH D. MACK. This gentleman, who lo- 
cated in Avoca Township eleven years ago, 
purchased a quarter of section 30, where he 
has since been engaged in farming and stock- 
raising, and is accounted one of its most enterpris- 
ing citizens. He has been a resident of the Prairie 
State for a period of thirty-four years, having 
located in McLean County, near Bloomingtou, in 
1853, whence he removed to this county in 1876, 
taking possession of his present farm. 

Mr. Mack is a native of the Buckeye State, and 
was born in Harrison County, June 7, 1827. His 
parents, Samuel and Margaret (Carnes) Mack, were 

1 250 


natives of Ireland, who emigrated to the United 
States early in life. Their household included 
eleven children, of whom the following are living: 
Isabella, Hugh D., John, David, Ellen, Lizzie, 
William, George and Robert. Some of these are 
located in Kansas, others in Ohio, where the parents i 
are now living. 

Our subject remained a member of his father's 
household until considerably past his majority, and 
after passing his thirty-fifth year, was united in 
marriage, on the 10th of May, 1863, to Miss Sarah 
A. Fosset, a native of his own State, who came to 
Illinois in 1853. They have three children Edith, 
Robert and Edna. The youngest is now six years 
of age. Mr. Mack, struggling through the disad- 
vantages of a limited education, has by his own ef- 
forts acquired sufficient knowledge of business mat- 
ters to invest his money in a judicious manner, and 
has attained to a good position, both socially and 
financially. He and his estimable lady are mem- 
bers in good standing of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, and are valued in the community. His 
land has been brought to a good state of cultivation, 
and the farm buildings, neat and substantial, are 
kept in good order, while everything about the 
place wears the air of comfort and plenty. 

~~ AMES L. ROBERTS, the well-known and en- 
terprising dealer in merchandise, and grain 
buyer and shipper, of the town of Graymont, 
Livingston Co., 111., is the son of John and 
Katherine (Henkins) Roberts, and was born in 
Greene County, Pa., on the 31st of August, 1847. 
In 1851 he accompanied his parents to Bureau 
County, 111., where they rented ground and farmed 
four years. In 1855 they moved to a farm in 
Putnam County, where the father bought ten acres 
of land, which he sold in 1858, and then moved to 
Davis County, Mo., where they farmed, rented 
ground until the fall of 1861, when they returned 
to Illinois and located in De Witt County. After 
remaining in this county until 1869 they came to 
Livingston County, where the father bought forty 
acres on section 28, Rook's Creek Township, one 
mile south of where the town of Graymont now 

stands. In 1869 the subject of this sketch bought 
forty acres of land, and in 1874 still another forty 
adjoining on section 28. He continued to make 
his home at his father's and assisted on the farm 
until 1 880. During this period he was elected Com- 
missioner of Highways. 

On the 6th of September, 1880, Mr. Roberts was 
married to Miss Rachel Jane Lillie, daughter of 
John and Mary (Smith) Lillie, at the residence of 
W. F. Brydia, in Saunemin Township, Livingston 
County, Rev. G. W. Gue officiating. On the 23d 
of October, in partnership with Henry Pample & 
Co., he opened a stock of general merchandise un- 
der the firm name of Roberts, Pample & Co., in 
Graymont. This was among the first establish- 
ments for the sale of general merchandise opened 
in that town. This partnership continued until 
June, 1882, when Pample sold out to B. S. Lillie, 
a brother-in-law of Mr. Roberts. The firm then 
became Roberts & Lillie, who continued the busi- 
ness until February, 1884, when Mr. Roberts 
bought out Mr. Lillie's interest, and has since con- 
tinued the business by himself. In the fall of 1885 
he added the buying and shipping of grain to his 
regular business, and was the prime mover in secur- 
ing the location of Graymont at its present site, 
assisting also very materially in obtaining the right 
of way for the Kankakee Line of the Middle Divis- 
ion of the Illinois Central Railroad. Mr. Roberts re- 
ceived a very fair common-school education, and 
in addition to that he has further qualified himself 
for business affairs by learning book-keeping and 
mastering its various complications. He has al- 
ways been a man of public spirit, assisting in the 
building of churches throughout the surrounding 

Mr. Roberts' parents were born in Pennsylvania, 
on or near the line of Greene Township, the father 
Nov. 27, 1811, and the mother on the 13th of July, 
1820. They were married in Pennsylvania about 
the year 1838. The subject of this sketch is the 
fourth in a family of six children: the oldest, Eliza 
May, died in infancy; Lucretia was born July 4, 
1842, is unmarried, and lives with her parents in 
Milford, Montgomery Co., Iowa; Elijah Peter was 
born on the 14th of July, 1844; he enlisted in 
August, 1862, in Company G. 107th Illinois In- 




fantry, and was wounded in a skirmish, dying 
soon after in a hospital at Baltimore, where he was 
buried. James L. ; Margaret Susannah, born Aug. 
20, 1863, and Marion Morris, born April 23, 1859, 
are unmarried and live with their parents. 

Mr. ^Roberts' paternal grandfather, James Rob- 
erts, was born in Pennsylvania on the 30th of July, 
1787, and his grandmother, Lucretia Morris, on the 
30th of April of the same year. They were mar- 
ried on the 15th of May, 1807, and moved to Han- 
cock County, 111., where they died. The great- 
grandfather was born in New Jersey and moved to 
Pennsylvania when a young man ; his father was a 
native of Wales. The maternal grandparents were 
born in or near Greene County, Pa., the grand- 
father, Elijah Henkins, on the 22d of May, 1791, 
and the grandmother, Elizabeth (Brown) Henkins, 
July 1, 1787. They were married about 1814. 
The "grandmother died on the 12th of August, 
1875, and was buried in the Lone Tree Graveyard, 
Bureau County, 111. The grandfather served as a 
soldier in the War of 1812, and died Aug. 6, 1887. 
Mr. Roberts remembers seeing his maternal great- 
grandmother, and says she lived two or three years 
at their home in Illinois, where she died and is 
buried in the Lone Tree Graveyard. He thinks 
her name was Lucretia Brown, and he says he car- 
ries scars which he received by falling on her iron 

The wife of James L. Roberts was born at 
Noblesville, Ind., on the 6th of September, 1851, 
and moved with her parents to Bloomington, 111., 
when about five years of age. They remained 
there but one year when they removed to Living- 
ston County, where the father bought 1 20 acres of 
land on section 22. She attended the district school 
during her girlhood, and received a very fair edu- 
cation. She is the seventh in a family of twelve 
children, all of whom are still living; their names 
are: Margaret, born on the 7th of November, 
1839, married to William T. Brydia Dec. 7, 1863, 
lias two children, and lives in Livingston County; 
Letitia, born Nov. 29, 1841, married R. M. Hop- 
kins, has five children, and lives in McLean County, 
111. ; Joseph, born July 2, 1843, married and has 
three children, lives in Stephenson County, 111.; 
Eliza B., born April 25, 1845, married Robert Shields 

Nov. 4, 1883, has five children, and lives in Liv- 
ingston County; James W., born March 4, 1847, 
has one child and lives in Nebraska; Benjamin S., 
born March 25, 1849, married Sept. 14, 1886, has 
one child and lives in Broken Bow, Neb. ; Rachel 
Jane ; Leonidas L. H., born Oct. 5, 1854, is unmarried 
and lives in Williamsport, Dak.; Elvira, born April 
1, 1857, married Oscar Pickering March 17, 1886, 
and lives in McLean County ; Effle K., born July 23. 
1861, married Charles Hopkins Aug. 6, 1879, has 
three children, and lives in McLean County; Mary 
Eudena, born June 15, 1865, is unmarried and lives 
at Lexington, 111., with her sister; Williamette, 
born May 13, 1869, is unmarried and makes her 
home with her sister in Graymont. 

The father of Mrs. Roberts came from Delaware, 
where he was born on the 30th of May, 1815; the 
mother was born in Ohio on the 22d of February, 
1821. They were married Dec. 9, 1838. The 
father died April 2, 1883, and the mother Feb. 16, 
1885; they are both buried at Pleasant Hill Ceme- 
tery, McLean County, 111. Her maternal grand- 
father, Benjamin Smith, was born Feb. 3, 1782, 
and the grandmother, Rachel Smith, was born in 

COLLINS, an old and respected 
citizen who, besides displaying much enter- 
prise in his business affairs, has been largely 
instrumental in building up the schools and ad- 
vancing educational interests where he has lived, is 
a farmer and stock-raiser on sections 17, 29 and 7, 
Union Township. He was born in County Ros- 
common, Ireland, on the 19th of February, 1819, 
and was the sixth child in a family of seven chil- 
dren born to Patrick and Delia (Eagan) Collins, 
natives of Ireland. The paternal grandparents 
were Mark and Ellen (Dowd) Collins, the former a 
prominent politician connected with the Rebellion. 
The maternal grandparents were Patrick and Julia 
(Regan) Eagan. Mr. Eagan was a soldier in the 
war at the time the French invaded Ireland. The 
father of Mr. Collins was a farmer by occupation, 
and died in Ireland. 

The subject of this sketch was reared a farmer 
lad and was educated in the public schools, where 



such fair opportunities were afforded that he ob- 
tained a good education. At the age of nineteen 
his school life ended, and at the age of twenty-five . 
he was married, on the 30th of June, 1844. to Em- 
ma W. Burke, who was born in County Galway, 
Ireland, in 1825, and was the sixth child in a family 
of eleven born to James and Delia (Barlow) Burke, 
nativeslof Ireland. As soon as they were married, 
Mr. Collins and his wife prepared to come to 
America, and in August of that year sailed from 
Liverpool in the "New Hampshire," an American 
sailing-vessel, when after a stormy voyage of nine 
weeks and three days they landed at New York on 
the 13th of November. They lived in New York 
the first six months after their arrival, where Mr. 
C. was engaged as assistant book-keeper. They 
then moved to Orange County, N. Y., where he 
engaged in farming, and remained for nine years. 
At the end of that time they started for the West, 
where they first located in Kendall County, 111., 
and engaged in farming on rented land for twelve 
years. In 1865 they moved to Livingston County, 
where they had purchased 160 acres of partly im- 
proved land the year before, and they began to 
make for themselves a home. The township was 
not yet divided into districts, and Mr. Collins was 
largely instrumental in the advancement of the 
schools, in which work he entered with enthusiasm. 
During the time which has elapsed since Mr. Col- 
lins' settlement in Union Township he has added 
forty acres to his original purchase, besides im- 
proving the older portion of the farm, and now 
has 200 acres of as fine land as can be found in the 
county, which he has stocked with fine Durham 
cattle and Norman horses. He has a thoroughbred 
Durham registered as Hibernia, and a large stock 
of well-bred Poland-China hogs. Mr. Collins al- 
ways takes an interest in politics and is now 
identified with the Democratic party, although he 
was formerly a Republican. It lias devolved upon 
him to assess the township for seventeen years ; he 
has been Commissioner of Highways for nine years, 
Collector for one year, and School Director for 
eighteen years. 

Mr. and Mrs. Collins are the parents of eight 
children, all of whom are living Patrick B., Ellen, 
Mary A., Margaret, James E., Edward R., Sarah 

J. and John C. Ellen is the widow of George 
W. Bradley, and lives in Emington, this county; 
Patrick married Emma Decker, and lives on a 
farm in Odell Township; Mary, Mrs. John Kemp, 
lives in Kempton, this county; James is unmarried, 
and farming in Odell Township; Sarah is teach- 
ing school in Emington; Mary was also a teacher; 
Edward and John are unmarried and live at home. 
The family are members of the Catholic Church in 
Odell, and are regular worshipers with the congre- 
gation there. 

^*"**~ a, A 

HOMAS TALBOTT, a worthy English far- 
mer of Belle Prairie Township, owns a quar- 
ter of section 1, which constitutes one of 
the finest bodies of land in the county, prolific of 
the best crops of the Prairie. State, and brought to 
a high state of cultivation. He has been promi- 
nent in township and county affairs, is a Deacon in 
the Christian Church, and a Republican who has 
exercised no small influence in his party in this 
section. His industry and energy are proverbial, 
and of which a forcible illustration is presented in 
the handsome home which he has built for himself 
and his family. The residence, with its surround- 
ings, invariably attracts the admiring observation 
of the passing traveler, and the farm with its beauti- 
ful fields and well-kept stock is creditable alike to 
the proprietor and the township which he has 
chosen for his abiding-place. 

Our subject was born in Somersetshire, England, 
April 12, 1836, and is the son of Henry and Ann 
(Stuckey) Talbott, also of English birth and par- 
entage. They emigrated to America with their 
family in 1857, and coming to this State located in 
Cook County, where the father engaged in farming, 
and where the mother died in 1880; the former is 
now living in Newton County, Ind. Their four 
children are all living, and Thomas was the eldest 
of the family. The others were James, Caroline 
and Christopher. Thomas remained with his par- 
ents until twenty-one years of age, then rented a 
tract of land in Cook County, upon which he 
operated five years. He was married in 1865. and 
then coming to Livingston County, purchased 


*:/* it tt 






eighty acres of uncultivated prairie land which is 
now included in his present farm. This amount he 
afterward doubled, and has since devoted his entire 
attention to its cultivation and improvement. He 
received no assistance whatever from his father 
or anyone else, and has the satisfaction of knowing 
that his possessions are the result of his own in- 

The wife of our subject, to whom he was mar- 
ried Feb. 7, 1865, was formerly Miss Mary Stuckey, 
a native of Somersetshire County, England, and 
was born March 18, 1840. She came to America 
with her parents when seventeen years of age, in 
1857, the same year that her husband came, and 
formed his acquaintance in Cook County, where her 
people had settled. Of this union there have been 
born six children Hattie, Nettie, Burt, Edward, 
and two who died in infancy. 

IPENETUS DIXON is quite an extensive 
stock farmer on section 5, Newtowu Town- 
ship, where he owns 200 acres under a good 
state of cultivation, and raises stock- in sufficient 
quantities to consume the entire grain product of 
the farm. Mr. Dixon was born in Marshall County, 
111., Feb. il, 1845. He is the son of Charles and 
Sarah (Hodges) Dixon, natives of England. The 
father was born in 1800 and lived in England, 
where he followed the business of brick-making 
until after marriage. The maiden name of the 
mother was Ann Whitaker, and she was born in 
England, and came to America soon after her son 
Charles emigrated, her husband having died in En- 
gland. Of their children one is buried in England, 
one in Marshall County, 111., James lives in Kansas, 
and Charles, the father of our subject. The mother 
lived to be about ninety years of age, and is buried 
in Phillips Cemetery in Newtown Township. 

Charles Dixon and wife came to America in 
1835, arriving at New Orleans, from which place 
they ascended the Mississippi River to St. Louis, 
and then settled at Magnolia, Marshall Co., 111., 
where they lived until about October, 1847, and 

during the time were engaged in farming. In that 
year they moved to Livingston County, and pur- 
chased land on section 5, in Newtown Township, 
which is a part of the land the subject of this sketch 
now owns. The father died on the 21st of April, 
1879, and is buried by the side of his mother. His 
wife, Sarah, died on the 21st of September, 1871, 
and is buried in the same place. To them were 
born the following-named children : George, born 
in May, 1840, died in 18G8, and is buried in the 
same cemetery as his parents; Richard was still- 
born; Joseph, born on the 14th of September, 
1843, is engaged in farming in Iowa; Epenetus is 
the subject of this sketch; Wilbur, born about 
1847, died when eight years old; William, born on 
the 16th of November, 1850, is a Presbyterian 
minister, and lives in Illinois; Albert, born on the 
18th of May, 1852, is now the owner of the home- 
stead of his father in Newtown Township; Sarah 
Ann, born on the 29th of August, 1860, died in 
January, 1881 ; she was the wife Of William A. 
Mason, who is now living in Nebraska. 

The father and mother of the above-named chil- 
dren were members of the United Brethren Church, 
and during their connection with that denomina- 
tion were active in the duties of membership. 
Epenetus Dixon lived at home until twenty-three 
years of age, and attended the district schools of 
his township. He has been a resident of Newtown 
Township ever since he was two years of age, ex- 
cepting the year 1870, which would give him a resi- 
dence of thirty-nine years in the township. 

Mr. Dixon was married on the 3d of February, 
1870, to Mary M. McCandlish, who was a native 
of Ohio, and was born May 1, 1848; she was the 
daughter of George P. and Catherine McCandlish. 
Robert McCandlish, the grandfather, was born in 
Scotland, and immigrated to America, where he 
spent his last days. His wife, Mary Black, was 
born in Pennsylvania, and died in Ohio in the year 
1855. They were the parents of eleven children, 
three of whom survive : Nancy Sammis was born 
on the 10th of November, 1817, and lives in Wes- 
terville, Ohio; Jane McCandlish, born April 24, 
1814; Sarah Pyle, born Aug. 20, 1830, resides in 
Nevada, Vernon Co., Mo. The names of the de- 
ceased children are as follows: Martha Sammis, 





horn May 1, 1828; Elizabeth Emrich, Sept. 5, 
1823; Mary Ann Lamb, Nov. 20, 1819; Emily, 
born Dec. 9, 1834, died at the age of nineteen 
years; Margaret, born Sept. 25, 1825, died when 
twelve years old; Anthony S., born Aug. 25, 181, 
died in 1860; William, born Oct. 4, 1812, died 
June 4, 1865; George P. was born Jan. 1, 1816, 
and died Aug. 13, 1875, in La Salle County, 111. 

Catherine Deenis, the mother of Mrs. Dixon, was 
the daughter of Henry and Margaret (Rodehafer) 
Deenis, natives of Virginia. To them were born 
seven children, of whom the living are Catherine, 
the mother of Mrs. Dixon; Nancy McGee, in Os- 
borne County, Kan., and Mary A. Heart, in Ge- 
neva, Neb. Catherine, the mother of Mrs. Dixon, 
makes her home with the latter, and is sixty-one 
years of age. The father was born Jan. 11, 1816, 
and died Aug. 13. 1875. George P. and Catherine 
McCandlish were married on the 17th of June, 
1847, in Fairtield County, Ohio, came to Illinois in 
the fall of 1856 and settled in La Salle County. To 
them were born four children: Mary M., the wife 
of our subject; Sarah J., born April 28, 1850, is 
the wife of James II. Mason, and lives near Man- 
ville; Robert II., still-born Aug. 4, 1853; Emily 
Frances, born Oct. 15, 1855, died April 9, 1863. 
Mrs. Dixon's father enlisted in the army Aug. 14, 
1862, in Company F, 104th Illinois Infantry, in 
which he served two years and eleven months. He 
was in the battle of Hartsville, Tenn., Dec. 7, 1862. 
During the latter part of the war he was in charge 
of a boat on the Mississippi River and the Gulf 
coast. Since his death his wife Catherine draws 
a pension of $12 per month from the Government. 
To Mr. and Mrs. Dixon have been born the follow- 
ing-named children: Sarah Catherine, born Nov. 2, 
1872, died March 2, 1874; Nora Louise, born June 
26, 1875; Georgia Idella, born June 3, 1877, died 
May 29, 1879; Nellie Mabel, born Sept. 26, 1880. 

Grandmother Black, the mother of Mary Black, 
was one hundred and four years old when she died 
at the home of Nancy and Smith McCandlish, near 
Rushville, Ohio. She left Ireland during the time 
of the trouble between the Catholics and Orange- 
men, and on leaving entrusted the care of her babe 
to her sister, expecting to return soon. The name 
of this child was William Black, and he grew to 

manhood and was married before coining to this 
country. He located in Ohio, where he died in 

Mrs. Dixon is a member of the United Brethren 
Church. When the Dixon family first came to 
Illinois, Livingston County was a wilderness, and 
to show what straits people were put to we have 
only to mention that buckwheat was ground in a 
coffee-mill with which to make flour for bread, and 
at one time corn was taken to a feed grinder, in 
which it was cracked and then used as food. 

fACOB COX, who is a representative farmer 
and stock-raiser, located on section 19, 
Pontiac Township, is a typical Ohio man, be- 
ing a native of Adams County, that State, 
where he was born on the 9th of May, 1838. He 
is the son of James and Nancy (Summers) Cox, the 
former being a native of Ohio, and the latter of 
Virginia. His paternal ancestors were of Scotch 
descent. The grandfather, Jacob Cox, was a Vir- 
ginian by birth, who settled in the State of Penn- 
sylvania at an early date in its history, and subse- 
quently in Adams County, Ohio, where the father 
of our subject was born and reared. His parents 
had nine children, of whom four survive Jacob; 
James G., Andrew D. and Mary C., of Ft. Scott, 
Kan. Two of Mr. Cox's brothers, John S. and 
Henry C., were soldiers in the Union army, and 
gave their lives that the nation might live. In 
1853, with his parents Mr. Cox came from Ohio to 
Livingston County, and settled in Pontiac Town- 
ship. At that time Livingston County was very 
sparsely settled, and this family was one of the 
first to make their home there. They remained in 
Livingston County until 1869, when the parents 
moved to Ft. Scott, Kan., where the father died on 
the 22d of December, 1884; the mother still sur- 
vives, and resides at Ft. Scott, in the seventy-fifth 
year of her age. 

During almost all his entire life Mr. Cox has 
been accustomed to living on a farm, and during 
bis boyhood he received a very fair English edu- 
cation in the public schools; for a short time he 






attended Eureka College at Eureka, 111. During 
twenty years of his life he devoted the winter 
months to teaching school, being employed both in 
district and graded schools. When the war broke 
out in 1861 he enlisted in the three months' serv- 
ice in Company D, 20th Illinois Infantry, and 
was with that regiment during the preliminary 
skirmishes and incidents at the beginning of the war. 
On the 14th of February, 1868, Mi-. Cox was mar- 
ried to Clara A. Syphers, a native of Pennsylva- 
nia, and daughter of Prof. J. and Sarah (Kent) 
Syphers, of Greene County, that State. By this 
union there are four children Clara N., Beatrice 
C., Clemeth J. and Clifford E. Mr. Cox is now 
the owner of eighty acres of excellent land, to the 
cultivation of which he devotes his entire time, 
displaying unusual ability in farm management and 
the raising of stock. Politically he is a Repub- 
lican. He alone is entitled to all the credit that at- 
taches to his success in life, as what fortune he has 
was carved by his own hands. He is in the fullest 
sense of the word a self-made man. Everything 
which pertains to the good of the community re- 
ceives his liberal and hearty support, and in all 
these things he is cheerfully seconded by his esti- 
mable wife. 


ft -.. 

J~ OHN M. WINCE, of Owego Township, is 
one of the pioneers of the county, and dur- 
ing his long residence here has secured for 
himself the profoundest respect of his fellow- 
citizens. He is a native of Loudoun County, Va., 
and was born on the 15th of March, 1828, being 
the son of Philip and Catherine Wince, the former 
a native of Pennsylvania, and the latter of Vir- 
ginia. The paternal ancestors were of German de- 
scent, some of whom are supposed to have been 
soldiers in the Revolutionary AVar, as they lived in 
America at that time, and a vein of patriotism has 
run through the family since its earliest existence. 
To his parents were born seven children, of whom 
the following are the survivors: Sarah, Catherine, 
Lut-inda, Eliza A., Henry L. and John. 

Mr. Wince grew to manhood in Loudoun County, 
which is located in the northern part of Virginia, 

bordering on Maryland, which in 1870 produced 
more wheat and corn than any other county in the 
State, but which during the boyhood days of our 
subject was neither highly cultivated nor far ad- 
vanced in educational facilities. Under these cir- 
cumstances Mr. Wince received but a limited edu- 
cation, the greater part of his studies being prose- 
cuted by the light of pine knots after night, but 
having obtained the rudiments of an education, he 
has been a constant and diversified reader all his 
life, and keeps posted upon all the general topics of 
the day. 

In 1856 Mr. Wince left Virginia and emigrated 
to Livingston County, where he devoted the next 
ten years of his life to work upon the farm for 
monthly wages. In this manner he succeeded in 
accumulating sufficient money to start him in busi- 
ness, and located on his present farm on section 34 
in Owego Township, in the year 1864, where he has 
resided ever since. This farm consists of eighty 
acres, which was composed entirely of raw prairie 
at the time of his purchase, but by hard work and 
good management he has reduced it to such a state 
of cultivation that it is now considered one of the 
best in the township. Mr. Wince can look back 
upon his past efforts with great satisfaction, for 
when he reached Illinois he was without money 
and among strangers; he now has a good farm, is 
comfortably surrounded, and enjoys the esteem and 
respect of the people among whom he lives. 

On the 13th of December, 1868, our subject was 
married to Mary Keith, a native of Maine, daugh- 
ter of Howard C. Keith, who at the time of the 
marriage resided in the northern part of Living- 
ston County, of which he was one of the original 
settlers. Mr. and Mrs. Wince have had two chil- 
dren : Ida M., born June 9, 1873, and Lillie D., 
Nov. 7, 1875. While Mr. Wince has never identi- 
fied himself with any particular religious denomi- 
nation, he takes an active interest in church matters, 
and was largely instrumental in organizing the first 
church and Sunday-school located in the southern 
part of Owego Township. His political proclivi- 
ties are Democratic, and he is a strong advocate of 
temperance principles. His office-holding experi- 
ence has been somewhat limited, having held the 
office of Justice of the Peace one term, the duties 

- . 258 


of which he discharged with credit to himself and 
satisfaction to his constituents. On account of the 
warm interest which betakes in educational matters 
he was appointed to the position of School Director 
in his district, which position he held four years, 
and that of School Trustee two years. 

i AMES D. SIDLE, hotel-keeper and assistant 
grain buyer at the Graymont Elevator, is the 
son of Daniel and Catherine (Zorn) Sidle 
(formerly spelled Seidle), and was born on the 
3d of May, 1 850, in Somerset County, Pa. When 
he was about five years of age his parents came to 
Illinois, locating in Stephenson County, where his 
father bought a farm in 1857, procuring the money 
to make the first payment from Benjamin Snyder, 
and with the help of his son carried on farming and 
blacksmithing, having learned the latter trade in 

On the 24th of March, 1864, Mr. Sidle, at four- 
teen years of age, ran away from home, and after 
making seven efforts, at length was sworn into the 
service as drummer to the 93d Illinois Regiment. 
He soon threw away his drum and took a gun. 
The regiment to which he was attached was as- 
signed to duty at Camp Fry, Chicago, guarding 
prisoners, and at about the end of four months it 
was sent to Camp Butler, Springfield, 111., where it 
remained in the same duty. About the 18th of 
February, 1865, the regiment was sent to Memphis, 
Tenn., but it was not needed there and returned to 
Springfield. Mr. Sidle received an honorable dis- 
charge, being mustered out on the 26th of March, 
1865. After his return from the army he once 
more joined his father and assisted him in farming 
until he was eighteen years of age, when he worked 
by the month in Livingston County until he was 
twenty -one years of age, at which time he had ac- 
cumulated enough money to buy a team of horses, 
harness and wagon. 

It was in Livingston County that Mr. Sidle be- 
came acquainted with Mary J., daughter of John 
Crow (who is mentioned in the biography of 
William Crow), whom he married on the 6th of 
August, 1871. In the fall of that year they moved 

to Stephenson Count}', and farmed for one year, 
during which time the oldest child, John Henry, 
was born on the 18th of September, 1872. In Feb- 
ruary, 1873, they started for Nebraska, making it 
convenient to visit some friends on the way, and 
arrived at Palmyra, Otoe County, the latter part 
of March. Here he devoted the first summer to 
farming and raised a fine crop, of which, however, 
100 bushels of wheat were stolen. In February of 
the following year he suffered a paralytic stroke 
which disabled him from work for four years. 
They returned to Stephenson County, where his 
father started him with a small stock of confection- 
ery, which business he carried on until he became 
so disabled that he was not in a condition either 
physically or mentally to attend to it, and his 
father closed up the business for him. During this 
time the second child, George Burtin, was born, 
June 9, 1874. In 1875 Mr. Sidle removed his 
family to Livingston County, where they resided 
with his wife's father, John Crow, until April, 1876, 
when they moved into a little log hut on section 
21, where he undertook to earn something by cob- 
bling. The neighbors gave him their work to do, 
and they remained there about one year, when they 
moved to section 32. The people elected him to the 
following offices : Constable, Town Clerk, Collector, 
Pathmaster and Township Treasurer. During this 
time his third child, Harry Watson, was born, on 
the 15th of November, 1878. 

While here a very important incident in the life 
of Mr. Sidle occurred, which was that in answer to 
prayer he was instantaneously cured of his afllic- 
tion, so that he was immediately able to go to 
work. They remained on section 32 until the spring 
of 1880, when they moved to Pontiac, where he 
worked on the railroad about five months, and then 
went to cobbling through the winter, as he was not 
yet able to bear exposure to the inclement weather. 
While in Pontiac his wife look in boarders in order 
to assist in the support of the family. After re- 
maining in Pontiac about one year he returned to 
section 32, where he engaged in farming for about 
two years. At the end of that time he moved to 
Graymont, where he has since resided. In 1885 
he was again elected Township Collector. In po- 
litical matters he always acted with the Republican 



party until two years ago, when he became an ad- 
vocate of prohibition. In 1875 Mr. Sidle was con- 
verted to religion and joined the United Brethren 
Church. While a member of that church he was 
granted a license to preach, and in that capacity he 
served the Master for four years. About this time 
his attention was called to sanctification by the 
preaching of B. F. Goodwin, and under the teach- 
ings of J. S. Allison he accepted that doctrine and 
has since held no membership with any sect. The 
fourth child, Jesse Daniel, was born on the 14th of 
July, 1883. 

Mr. Sidle was the yonngest child in a family of 
nine children, all of whom grew to maturity: Erne- 
line first married Mr. Berkebill, by whom she had 
one son, and is now the wife of William Bon- 
acker, by whom she has six children; Sarah mar- 
ried first Solomon Lohr, by whom she had thirteen 
children, and is now the wife of Joseph Lilly; they 
have three children. Julia Ann married Benjamin 
Snyder; they have four children and live in Ste- 
phenson County. Henry is married and lives in 
Arizona; F. A. is married, has three children, and 
lives in a Otoe County, Neb. ; Charles married, has 
eight children, and also lives in Otoe County ; Mary 
married Jacob Andrew, has four children, and lives 
in Stephenson County; James D. is the subject of 
this sketch, in which the details and events of his 
life are chronicled. 

1LLIAM JONES, who stands as one of the 
leading and representative farmers and 
stock- raisers of Owego Township, located 
on section 14, is a native of Worcestershire, En- 
gland, where he was born on the 21st of February, 
1826. He is the son of Benjamin and Sarah (Bil- 
lingsley) Jones, both of whom were natives of En- 
gland. To his parents were born seven children, as 
follows: William; Benjamin, of England ; John, of 
Saunemin Township, Livingston County; Eliza- 
beth, Mrs. Robert Bolton, of Peoria; Sarah, Mrs. 
Thomas Murphy, of the Island of New Zealand ; 
Esther, Mrs. George Vincent, of San Francisco, 
Cal. ; Frederick, of New Zealand. Mr. Jones re- 
ceived an English education in his native country, 

where he remained until he grew to manhood, 
learning also the boot and shoe business, in which 
his father was then engaged. 

Mr. Jones was married in England, on the 29th 
of July, 1851, to Miss Mary A. Cox, daughter of 
Samuel Cox, of Shropshire, an inland county of 
I England, bounded on the north by Wales, and 
through which the Severn flows. Mr. and Mrs. 
Jones have seven children, six of whom are living: 
Nellie, Mrs. James Roberts, of New Zealand; Orin 
W., a farmer of Owego Township; Benjamin F., 
grain dealer and buyer of Eylar, Livingston 
County; Albert, a grain-buyer of Cullon, this 
county; Edward G., a real-estate dealer in Kansas 
City, Mo.; Laura, at present attending Lincoln 
University, at Lincoln, 111. 

Mr. Jones emigrated to America in 1852, taking 
passage at Liverpool, and landing in New York. 
He spent about three and one-half years in Leroy, 
N. Y., coming to Illinois in 1856. His first ten 
years' residence in this State was in Peoria County, 
when, in 1866, he came to Livingston County, and 
settled on a farm in Owego Township, where he 
now resides. When he acquired this land by pur- 
chase, it was composed of what is known as raw 
prairie, and not a foot of it had ever been culti- 
vated. But nothing daunted he went to work upon 
it with a will, enduring all the hardships incident 
to pioneer life, and in the course of a few years 
had transformed it into a finely cultivated farm. 
As the years went by his successes were most pro- 
nounced, and he has been able to afford all his chil- 
dren ample facilities for procuring a good educa- 
tion. One of his daughters, Nellie, now living in 
New Zealand, was a public school teacher for many 
years. Although he bas frequently been solicited 
to become a candidate for public office, he has in- 
variably declined, excepting in the case of the of- 
fice of School Director, which he has filled for a 
number of years, and which he consented to accept 
simply because it would enable him to labor more 
effectively for the advancement of education, of 
which all his life he has been a friend and promoter. 
As a political thinker, he does not confine himself 
to the narrow rut in which machine politicians run, 
but takes a broad and liberal view upon all ques- 
tions of public policy, and votes for the men who 




suit him best regardless of their party affiliations. 
He is to all intents and purposes, a self-made man, 
so far as his career in this country is concerned, 
and is now enjoying the fruits of his labor, both in 
the substantial comforts of life, and the satisfaction 
of having contributed to society respected and 
honorable members in the persons of his children. 

eHARLES W. ROLLINS. One of the most 
substantial homesteads in Owego Township, 
lying on section 19, is occupied by the sub- 
ject of this sketch, who is a farmer and stock-raiser. 
The family residence, which is splendidly located, 
is one of the neatest and most tasteful in that lo- 
cality, and the barn and other necessary farm 
buildings are handsome and substantial structures 
calculated alike for beauty and utility. The fences 
and farm machinery are kept in good repair, and 
the stock and other accessories of the estate testify 
in a silent and forcible manner to the intelligence, 
industry and enterprise of the proprietor. Mr. 
Rollins is a native of Livingston County, and was 
born on the 23d of January, 1840. He is a son of 
Philip and Martha Rollins, who were among the 
very first settlers of Livingston County, and a 
sketch of whom appears in another portion of this 
work. His early days were spent upon the farm 
assisting in the work, and during the school term 
attending school. 

On the 15th of June, 1862, Mr. Rollins was mar- 
ried to Maria Stiuson, also a native of Livingston 
County, born on the 21st of February, 1844. She 
is a daughter of James L. and Mary Stinson, na- 
tives of Ohio. The parents came to Livingston 
County about 1839, and settled upon the farm 
which is at present occupied by the subject of this 
sketch. James L. Stinson, in connection with a 
brother, pre-empted 200 acres of land, which was 
composed entirely of raw prairie, not a furrow hav- 
ing been turned in it at the time they became pos- 
sessed of it. He resided on this land until his de- 
cease in 1845; his wife survived him, and died in 
1853. They were the parents of four children, 
three of whom are living: Letitia, widow of the 
late Willard Foster, of Livingston County; Mar- 

tha, the wife of G. W. Ferris, of Pontiac, and 
Maria, now Mrs. Rollins. To Mr. and Mrs. Rol- 
lins but one child has been born, a son, Charles A., 
whose birth took place on the 2d of February, 

Mr. and Mrs. Rollins are members of the Method- 
ist Episcopal Church, in which he has served as 
Steward and Trustee. He is exceedingly inde- 
pendent in his political belief, and does not attach 
his faith to either of the old parties, but makes it a 
point to vote for the men whom he believes will 
best discharge the duties of the offices to which 
they are elected. For five years he has served as 
Supervisor of Owego Township, and for a term of 
one year as Road Commissioner. Mr. Rollins has 
been exceptionally successful in his business enter- 
prises, and now owns 250 acres of as good land as 
is contained within the borders of Livingston 

ARTIN M. SPENCE. Illinois is a State 
of largely diversified opportunities for the 
industrious and enterprising citizen. In 
an agricultural sense it is one of the best 
in the Union, and its vast prairies, which produce 
wonderful crops of corn and excel in the raising of 
hay, make the industry of stock-raising one of the 
most important and profitable in which the people 
engage. Very many of the farmers of Livingston 
County engage more or less in stock-raising, and 
instead of depending on uncertain markets for their 
grain, feed their entire crop to horses, cattle and 
hogs, which always find a ready market at any time 
of the year, and they thus have a sure thing in dis- 
posing of the products of the farm. One of the 
men who thus combines farming and stock-raising 
is the subject of this sketch, whose fine stock farm 
is on section 4, Belle Prairie Township. This gen- 
tleman is a native of Livingston County, where he 
was born on the 22d of August, 1844, his parents 
being William and Mary (Darnell) Spence, who 
were natives of Kentucky. When Mr. Spence was 
a boy, he worked on a farm in summer and attended 
the district school in the fall and winter, in which 
he made such progress in his studies, thtit without 




difficulty he was admitted to Eureka College, and 
afterward attended college at Monmouth, Warren 
Co., 111. After passing through these educational 
institutions with great credit to himself, he returned 
home and engaged in work upon the farm. 

September 19, 1881, Mr. Spence was married to 
Miss Jennie Darnell, who was born in Johnson 
County, Mo., on the 26th of July, 1857, and is the 
daughter of William and Eliza (Coffman) Darnell. 
Of this union there are two children, William and 
Hazel May, who are exceptionally bright for their 
age. Mr. Spence is the owner of 300 acres of as 
flue land as the sun shines on, which he has placed 
under a high state of cultivation, and which yields 
crops ample to feed a large number of domestic 
animals. Mr. Spence's stock operations are princi- 
pally confined to horses, and he makes a specialty 
of breeding heavy and light draft, and saddle 
horses. This business he conducts in such an in- 
telligent manner that his profits are certain and 

Mr. Spence is an ardent member of the Masonic 
fraternity, and a member in good standing of Tar- 
bolton Lodge No. 357, and also a member of the 
Chapter. In politics he is an advocate of the prin- 
ciples and measures of the Greenback party, and 
while that party is not numerically strong, he ad- 
heres to its doctrines regardless of the fact of its 
being in the minority. Mr. Spence has been very 
successful in his occupations, and has shown rare 
judgment and good management in his business, 
farm and stock operations. In the various rela- 
tions of life, he sustains the character of an estima- 
ble citizen, neighbor and friend, and enjoys the 
full confidence and regard of those who know him. 
His excellent wife is a member of the Christian 
Church, and takes great interest in the affairs of 
that organization. 

LBERT J. MORRISON is one of the young 
men engaged in agricultural pursuits, who 
can claim Livingston County MS the place 
of his birth, and who has been a witness of 
the wonderful improvements which have been made 
and developments that have taken place during the 

past thirty years. He comes upon the stage of ac- 
tion at a time in the history of the county when the 
work of opening and bringing it to a state of culti- 
vation has all been performed, and the benefits of 
the work of the pioneers are to be gained. He is 
truly one of the representative farmers of Avoca 
Township, and is pleasantly situated on section 9. 

Mr. Morrison was born in Livingston County 
on the 6th of August, 1854, and is the son of Joseph 
C. and Naomi Morrison, the latter of whom is de- 
ceased. His father is a native of the State of New 
York, and his mother was born in Ohio. Joseph 
C. Morrison, the father, is the gentleman who has 
gained such a large reputation as an importer and 
dealer in Norman horses at Pontiac, 111. His im- 
portations of fine horses average about thirty 
animals every trip he makes to Europe, and his 
visits are made several times a year. He hails from 
the State of New York, and came to Illinois about 
the year 1840, settling in Avoca Township when 
the prairie was yet unbroken and no signs of cul- 
tivation were visible. He is one of the early pio- 
neers to whose energy and enterprise can be credited 
the work of developing the county. He had prac- 
tically no means when he arrived here, and his 
splendid stock farm, elegant residence and commo- 
dious farm buildings, are evidences of his industry, 
good management, and close attention to business 
all through an active life. Besides being one of 
the heaviest farmers and largest dealers in expen- 
sive stock, he is a leading citizen in all the affairs 
of the town and county. In political matters he 
acts with the Republican party, and his influence is 
a power in that section of the county. Mr. Morri- 
son is the father of nine children, eight of whom 
are living, as follows: Jasper N., Lotta, Samuel L., 
Addie; Delia, the wife of Ns. T. Green, of Pontiac 
Township; Alta I.; John W. and Albert J., the lat- 
ter the subject of this sketch. 

Albert J. Morrison has been a citizen of Living- 
ston County all his life, and during his boyhood 
days was afforded all the advantages for obtaining 
a good education, of which he availed himself. On 
the 27th of November. 1879, our subject was mar- 
ried to Violetta Augustine, daughter of John Au- 
gustine, of Owego Township, of whom a sketch 
appears in this ALBUM. Mr. and Mrs. Morrison have 





three children: Roy A., born Jan. 14, 1881 ; Stan- 
ley A., Nov. 4, 1882, and Feme I., Aug. 12, 1887. 
The farm of Mr. Morrison consists of 120 acres of 
as good land as can be found in Livingston County, 
and it is all well drained and fenced. The residence 
he and his family occupy is one of the snuggest and 
best appointed in the township. Like his father, 
Mr. Morrison is an enthusiastic Republican, and he 
and his wife are members of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church; he is one of the Trustees of the church 
at McDowell. 

At the time this sketch is written, Mr. and Mrs. 
Morrison are virtually in the first stages of their 
life's work, but their beginning is under the most 
favorable auspices, and the future undoubtedly has 
in store for them great and grand successes. Their 
little family is one of which they may well be proud. 
They take an active interest in all matters for the 
weal and welfare of the society in which they move, 
and to all good works they are liberal contributors, 
both of time and money. 

I favorably known as one of the most success- 
ful farmers and stock-raisers of Rook's 
Creek Township, arrived in Illinois on his 
eighteenth birthday, having journeyed from Wash- 
ington County, Pa., where he was born March 16, 
1848. He consequently became a resident of the 
Prairie State in the spring of 1866, and since that 
time has dwelt within its borders. He had at that 
time no possessions except his resolute will and 
strong hands, and with this excellent capital cour- 
ageously commenced life for himself, determined 
to secure a good home and a good position among 
his fellow-citizens. He began first as a farm la- 
borer, and has gradually climbed up until now he 
is the owner of a good property, and is a man of 
no small importance in his community. 

The parents of our subject, Samuel and Nancy 
Elizabeth (Swagler) Morris, were natives respect- 
ively of New York ancTOhio. Samuel Morris was 
born in 1800, and departed this life in Washington 
County, Pa., Sept. 2, 1857. The mother who was 

born in 1812, is still living upon the old homestead 
in Pennsylvania. Their family included eleven 
children, of whom our subject was the seventh in 
order of birth, and seven are still living, as follows: 
John M., a resident of Washington Count}', Pa., 
married, and the father of several children; Jona- 
than, Sarah M., Mary, Cyrus and Isaac N. Those 
deceased are James L., Samuel, Susan and Nancy E. 

J. H. Morris received a fair education in the 
common schools of his native State, and after he 
found that his prospects would justify him in the 
undertaking, was married, in Pontiac Township, 
Feb. 21, 1878, to Miss Mary A., daughter of Reason 
and Mary (McMillan) Brown. The young people 
located on section 28, where Mr. Morris had pur- 
chased eighty acres of land, and commenced house- 
keeping in unpretending style, suitable to their 
means and station. Four and one-half years later 
Mr. M. sold this property and purchased eighty 
acres on section 12, where he now resides. 

Mrs. Morris was born in Rook's Creek Township, 
March 16, 1860, and is the eldest of five children 
who comprised the parental household. Her 
brother, William Allen, and her sister, Nancy E., 
the wife of John E. Blake, are also residents of 
Rook's Creek Township; Sarah E., Mrs. Brown, 
lives on her father's homestead in Pontiac Town- 
ship, with her brother, Jesse S. Reason Brown, 
her father, was born in Scioto County, Ohio, Sept. 
4, 1838, and the mother in Pontiac Township, this 
county, Dec. 25, 1841; they were married in June, 
1859. The maternal grandfather of Mrs. M. was 
Andrew S. McMillan, who married Miss Maria 
Springer, of Illinois. 

C. BALL. The law has always been con- 
sidered as one of the highest of the profes- 
w sions. The honest and conscientious law- 
yer is one of the necessities of the age, and 
the best friend of the people in the matter of se- 
curing their rights under the law. A. C. Ball, one 
of the leading younger attorneys of the Livingston 
County bar, is a native of Bureau County, where 
he was born on the 24th of June, 1858, and is a 
son of James M. and Hannah M. (Frink) Ball, who 


265 . > 

were natives of New York. The father of James 
M. was John M., a native of New York, who was 
engaged in farming and went to Michigan in the 
early settlement of that State, where he settled at 
Parma, and where he is now living. His family 
consisted of nine children, seven of whom are liv- 
ing. Hannah M. Frink's parents were Hiram and 
Malinda (Ogden) Frink, who were natives of New 

The father of A. C. Ball was reared on a farm 
until he was eighteen years of age, and during that 
time attended the common schools, and then learned 
the trade of a carpenter in Illinois, where he had 
come in 1855. He followed contracting and build- 
ing until he was about thirty years of age, and then 
for a number of years was a traveling man, and 
about the year 1855 engaged in mercantile busi- 
ness in Bureau County, 111. In 1881 he moved to 
Normal, McLean County, where he engaged in the 
business of publishing. His family consisted of 
three children: A. C. ; Ella M., Mrs. Burt, of Nor- 
mal, McLean County, and Minnie H., Mrs. Taylor, 
of McLean County. 

Our subject attended and taught school until he 
was twenty-six years of age. He is a graduate of 
a Normal School, and also of the Bloomington Law 
School, class of 1885. After graduating from the 
law school he came to Pontiac, and began the prac- 
tice of law, in which business he has been success- 
ful, and his practice is continually increasing. He 
is independent in political matters, not having 
identified himself closely with either of the old 
parties, although heretofore acting with the Repub- 
licans. He is more of a lawyer than a politician, 
and will doubtless devote his life to the profession, 
allowing politicians to take care of the offices. He 
has one child, a son, named John D. 


trait is shown on the opposite page, has 
the distinction of being the earliest settler 
of Livingston County, and a full and de- 
tailed history of his life could not be written with- 
out writing that of the county, for one is almost 

identical with the other. He now resides on sec- 
tion 4, in Belle Prairie Township. He was born in 
March, 1798, in Old Virginia, and is the son of 
James and Massey (Martin) Darnall, natives of the 
same State, and both of whom died some years ago. 
Major Darnall was reared on a farm, where he be- 
came accustomed to hard work, and was educated 
in the common schools of those days, which af- 
forded very limited facilities for obtaining an edu- 
cation. He arrived in Illinois on the 27th of Oc- 
tober, 1830, making the journey overland in a 
wagon with the old-fashioned scooped bed, which 
had a wonderful capacity for carrying household 
goods. This wagon was drawn by four horses, 
which were frequently almost inadequate to haul 
it through the deep mud caused by the rains at 
that season of the year. His first year's residence 
in Illinois was in a log cabin which he built him- 
self, the only tool used being an ax, for he had no 
saw. This house was raised on the 1st of Novem- 
ber, 1830, and he occupied it that same winter. 
In 1832, on account of the breaking out of the Black 
Hawk War, he found it necessary to remove his 
family to Mackinaw, McLean County, for safety. 
After peace was declared, he returned to the house 
he had built, where he resumed his residence. A 
tract of 160 acres of Government land which he 
entered at that time, is still in his possession, and 
the title which was vested in him by the Govern- 
ment remains just as it was written at that time. 

Major Darnall has been married twice, the first 
time in 1817, when he took Miss Rachel Steers for 
his wife: She was born in Indiana, in 1793. Her 
parents moved to Kentucky when she was but a 
child, and early in their residence in that State, the 
father was captured by the Indians, and was held 
in captivity for seven years, during which time he 
suffered almost untold hardships, and twice came 
very nearly being killed. Upon three separate oc- 
casions he was compelled to run the gauntlet, and 
upon one occasion was blackened and condemned 
to be burned, but while pinioned, a few moments 
before the fire should have been lighted, there 
stepped forward a man who offered a price for his 
life, and he was released from the stake. He died 
a natural death in Boone County, Ky., in 1848. 
By his first marriage, Major Darnall had six chil- 



dren Jonathan, Mary, Alvira M. ; Malvina F., de- 
ceased ; Nancy Ann and Minerva A. Major Dar- 
nall's second marriage occurred in 1 880, the name 
of his wife being Mrs. Francis Cummings, a native 
of Kentucky, who died at Hutchinson, Kan., while 
on a visit, on the 29th of May, 1883. 

Alvira M., one of the children by the first mar- 
riage, married Benjamin Hieronymus, in 1839, who 
was born in 1818, and died in Illinois on the 31st 
of December, 1885. He was a native of Boone 
County, Ky., emigrated to Illinois in 1829, and 
settled in Tazewell County. He was a farmer by 
occupation, and a cooper by trade. He was a very 
hard-working man, and at the time of his death, 
which occurred in Livingston County, he owned 
500 acres of land. He and his wife were the par- 
ents of eight children, three of whom, William, 
Jasper and Elizabeth, are living, and two, Martin 
and Emma, died after they grew to maturity; three 
died in infancy. 

Major Darnall was the first Township Supervisor, 
in which capacity he served two terms, and in 
early times was a juror for many years; on account 
of there being no jury room in which to meet, the 
jury were obliged to sit on logs in the open air. 
All the early settlers of Livingston County remem- 
ber the deep snow of 1830-31, when the snow fell 
continuously for three daj r s, and became so deep 
that it was impossible to travel, even on horseback. 
The day before this snowfall commenced, Major 
Darnall went to Mackinaw to procure a supply of 
meat for his family, going in a wagon, and although 
the town was but eight miles from his residence, 
on account of this extraordinary snowfall he was 
prevented from returning home for nearly a week, 
and then he did so on horseback. Although ninety 
years of age, Major Darnall is a fine specimen of 
manhood, being five feet ten inches in height, and 
weighing 180 pounds, with health much better than 
could be expected. His first Presidential vote was 
cast for Gen. Jackson, and he has remained a Hick- 
ory Democrat all through his life. Being a man 
of large intelligence, and a close observer of the 
events which have transpired since the first white 
man settled in Livingston County, it is well worth 
any man's time to listen to his reminiscences of the 
settlement and growth of the count}-. 

PR AN CIS D. JOHNSON, of Indian Grove 
Township, is one of the most energetic 
farmers of Livingston County. He has, 
without doubt, done as much, if not more, hard 
work than any other man of his age in the county, 
and being in the prime of manhood, has a bright 
future before him. Mr. Johnson is the son of 
PYanklin I. and Mary A. (Wightmau) Johnson, 
whose biographies may be found in another place 
in this work. 

The subject of our sketch was born in Hastings, 
N. Y., May 2, 1854. When two years of age his 
parents moved to Vermont, Fulton Co., 111., where 
they lived until 1861, when they moved to Peoria, 
and there young Frank received his first schooling, 
working also in his father's stoneware pottery in that 
city. When the family came to this county and 
located on their 160-acre farm, south of Fairbury, 
our subject was of sufficient age to take a full-hand 
share in the work. He took hold with his father 
and brother, and together they worked early and 
late to improve the place and to replenish the pa- 
ternal exchequer. During this time he improved 
what opportunities presented of attending the dis- 
trict school, and remained with his parents until 
after he had reached his majority, giving to their 
service his best energies. 

On Dec. 24, 1874, Mr. Johnson was married to 
Lucena M. Odell, who was born in the State of 
New York on the 26th of August, 1853, and is the 
daughter of James H. and Mary (Straight) Odell. 
To Mr. and Mrs. Johnson have been born five chil- 
dren, whose names are as follows: Birdie R., born 
Feb. 15, 1876, died in infancy Oct. 4, 1876; Carrie 
M., born Aug. 2, 1877; Addie M., born Aug. 2, 
1879; Lottie M., born Aug. 2, 1882, and Vinnie 
L., born March 17, 1884. In the year 1876 Mr. 
Johnson moved upon the farm on which he at ' 
present resides, consisting of 120 acres, and began 
the work of improvement, which he has carried 
forward so energetically and systematical^' that he 
now has one of the best conditioned farms in the 
county. The soil is of a fine quality, and the drain- 
age is perfect, so that productiveness is much en- 
hanced. During most of the time he has resided 
upon this farm Mr. Johnson has made a specialty 
of raising fine horses, meeting with excellent suc- 




cess. During the year 1886 he was so unfortu- 
nate as to lose seventy-three head of fine Chester- 
White hogs. Although it was quite a severe finan- , 
cial loss, his courage was not diminished in the 
least, but he immediately began, with renewed en- 
ergy, to maintain his business up to the standard, 
and at the same time to regain what had been lost. 
Politically, Mr. Johnson is an advocate of the 
principles of the Democratic party, and has been 
called upon to discharge the duties of many of the 
various township offices. He is a member of the 
lodge of Knights of Pythias, in which he has held 
the various offices, and filled them with credit to 
himself and satisfaction to the fraternity of that 


ILTON KELLEY, an intelligent and well- 
educated young bachelor of Indian Grove 
Township, is operating the farm of his 
father, on section 27, and engaged in the 
breeding of fine stock, including Norman horses 
and Chester-White swine. The estate is one of 
the most valuable in the southern portion of Liv- 
ingston County, the farm having been opened up 
mainly by the father of our subject, who migrated 
to Illinois from Pennsylvania in 1864. 

Our subject was born in Greene County, Pa., 
May 23, 1854, and was consequently a lad ten 
years of age when he came to this State with his 
parents. The latter were Jacob C. and Martha 
(Gosline) Kelley, the former a native of Virginia 
and the latter of the Keystone State. Jacob Kel- 
ley was born June 20, 1815, and died at his home 
in Indian Grove Township on the 23d of June, 
1881. He located in this township March 10, 
1864, and became one of its most prominent and 
well-beloved citizens. A thorough and progressive 
fanner, he was a man prompt to meet his obliga- 
tions, and took a genuine interest in the welfare of 
the people around him, encouraging and sustaining 
those enterprises calculated for their well-beingand 
improvement. Although never identifying himself 
with any religious organization, he illustrated in 
his life and character the principles of true Chris- 
tianity, and no man enjoyed in a warmer degree 

the confidence and esteem of his fellow-citizens. 
Upon coming here, he at once purchased the land 
upon which our subject now operates, where he 
built up a fine home and reared his children to 
habits of industry and principles of honor. 

Mrs. Martha Kelley, who was born in 1821, was 
a lady in every respect the suitable companion of 
her husband, and the possessor of all womanly vir- 
tues. She looked well to the ways of her house- 
hold, and is yet affectionately regarded as a tender 
.friend and counselor, kindly and charitable, ever 
lending a ready ear to the tale of distress and her 
aid to the unfortunate. She resides with her son 
on the old homestead. The three children of the 
parental household were: Milton, our subject; 
James, who died in February, 1881, aged twenty- 
six years ; and Mary, who resides with her mother 
and brother. The daughter is finely educated, and 
possesses more than ordinary intelligence and re- 
finement, and is in all respects an ornament to the 
home circle. 

Mr. Kelley cast his_ first Presidential vote for 
Peter Cooper, and has always been a stanch sup- 
porter of the Republican party. He identified him- 
self with the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1883, 
and is one of its most valued members. 

x AVID G. LEWIS, a representative young 
farmer and stock-raiser of Owego Town- 
ship, occupying 117 acres on section 10, 
has spent his entire life in the Prairie 
State, having been born in Fulton County April 
25, 1851. He came to this county soon after his 
marriage, which took place in 1874, and located on 
his present farm in 1887. He has been remarkably 
successful thus far 'in his agricultural operations, 
and is keeping pace with the methods of modern 
and progressive farming. 

The parents of our subject were George W. and 
Abigail Lewis, who were of New England birth 
and parentage, and settled in Illinois during the 
pioneer days, more than thirty years ago. George 
Lewis for many years conducted an hotel at 
Fail-view, where his death took place March 16, 
1886. The mother passed to her rest in 1865. 




There had been born to them seven children, four 
of whom are now living, namely, Andrew V., 
John G., Frank, and David G., our subject. The 
parents were widely and favorably known through- 
out Fulton County as representing its most sub- 
stantial and reliable elements. Their children re- 
ceived careful home training and a good common- 
school education, and imbibed those principles of 
morality and sentiments of honor which have ren- 
dered them worthy to bear the name and mantle 
of the authors of their being. 

David G. Lewis was reared and educated in his 
native county, where also he took unto himself a 
wife and helpmeet in the person of Miss Mary 
Vanostrand, of Fulton County. Mrs. L. is the 
daughter of Jacob W. and Phoebe M. Vanostrand, 
and was born in B^ulton County, 111., in 1856. Of 
this union there are two children: George, born 
Aug. 15, 1875, and Carrie, Feb. 13, 1886. The 
family residence is a neat and comfortable structure, 
and the barn and out-buildings are in keeping with 
the general air of thrift and comfort which pre- 
vades the premises. Mr. Lewis is a steady and 
persistent worker, and his labors in due time will 
bring him his just reward. 

~1OHN WHALEN, who has a stock farm on 

Ind. ; Mary and Fannie both attended St. Mary's 
Academy at^Morris, 111., where the former still re- 
mains; the latter has returned home. James died 
May 1, 1877, in Livingston County, at the age of 
seventeen years. 

John Whalen, our subject, was educated in the 
High School in Pontiac, and afterward attended 
the Jacksonville Business College, where he took a 
thorough practical course. Although he is a farm- 
owner and stock-raiser, he devotes most of his 
time to teaching, in which profession he has been 
eminently successful. 

section 30, Amity Township, devotes a 


^_ N ^ I large proportion of his time to school teach- 
(Wgj^/ ing, for which profession he is peculiarly fit- 
ted, not only by education, but by natural inclina- 
tion. Mr. Whalen is a native of Livingston 
County, and was born Feb. 15, 1847. He is the 
son of Patrick and Mary (Foley) Whalen, who 
were natives of Ireland, and emigrated to America 
when they were about twenty years of age. His 
father was the son of Michael and Mary (Doran) 
Whalen. To Patrick Whalen and wife a family 
of five children were born, namely, Jerome M., 
John, James, Mary and Fannie. John Whalen 
now owns 160 acres of fine farm land, all under a 
good state of cultivation, which is ditched and well 
drained; Jerome Whalen was educated in the col- 
lege at Valparaiso, Ind., and at Notre Dame Uni- 
versity, located near South Bend, St. Joseph Co., 

i>ILLIAM W. SKINNER, whose early life 
was characterized by energetic and indus- 
trious farm employments, in which he was 
remarkably successful as an agriculturist and stock- 
dealer, has now wisely retired, and is spending his 
declining years in the ease and comfort of a hand- 
some home in Fairbury. He is a native of Devon- 
shire, England, and was born May 5, 1828. His 
parents, William and Grace (Leeworthy) Skinner, 
were of pure English blood, and emigrated to 
America in 1834, when their son William was but 
a child six years of age. After landing in New 
York City they proceeded to Sangerfleld, Oneida 
County, which remained their residence twelve 
years thereafter, and during which time the father 
was engaged in farming. In 1846 they all came 
to Illinois, and the father purchased land in Ken- 
dall County, where he built up a fine homestead, 
and cultivated the soil until departing from the 
scenes of his earthly labors. He was .born in 1803, 
and died in 1855. The mother, born in 1799, 
passed away three years before her husband, in 
1852. The household included nine children, 
namely : Mary and Jane, now deceased; William, 
our subject; Henry; Elizabeth, deceased; John, 
Eliza, Morgan and Martha. 

Mr. Skinner was educated in the common schools, 
and remained under the parental roof until after 
reaching his majority. lie then purchased eighty 
acres of land in Kendall Count}', and began the ca- 
reer which subsequently proved so prosperous. 
His property includes 480 acres of some of the 
finest land in Forest Township, a handsome and 


269 , ,1 

substantial farm dwelling, with its necessary adja- 
cent buildings, and an acre of land within the limits 
of Fairbury. After reaching his thirty-second year 
he was united in marriage with Miss Hannah F. 
Alford, the wedding taking place at the home of 
the bride, in November, 1860. Mrs. S. was born 
in Clinton County, N. Y., Sept. 9, 1844, and is the 
daughter of Wesley J. and Cornelia B. (Randall) 
Alford, also natives of the Empire State. Her fa- 
ther was born Aug. 17, 1820, and her mother in 
1823. They are both living, and residents of Belle 
Prairie Township, this county, where for many 
years Mr. A. followed farming. The parents were 
married in 1839. and the familj' circle was com- 
pleted by the birth of nine children, namely, Lu- 
cina R., Hannah F., Seth 11., Emeline, Lorenzo 
W., Louisa, George, Allie and Warren L. 

Mr. and Mrs. Skinner have two sons only : Rod- 
ney C. was born May 12, 1863, and married Miss 
Ella Evans, of Chenoa; he is farming in Forest 
Township. William was born Sept. 1, 1870, and 
is reading medicine in the office of Dr. C. G. Lewis, 
of Fairbtiry. Mr. Skinner, politically, uniformly 
votes the Republican ticket, and is greatly inter- 
ested in the success of the temperance movement. 
Mrs. S. is a worthy member of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church. 

E B. FOSTER, one of the oldest living 
pioneers of Livingston County, was born 
in Tioga County, N. Y., Aug. 17, 1825, the 
son of John and Susan (Shephard) Foster, the for- 
mer a native of Vermont, and the latter, who it is 
known was of New England birth, was probably 
reared not far from the birthplace of her husband. 
The Foster family is of English ancestry, and was 
first represented in this country in the Colonial days. 
The mother of our subject was of Scotch descent, 
and her great-grandfather settled in New England 
probably before the commencement of the Revo- 
lutionary War. The Fosters were largely repre- 
sented in New England, and the father of our 
subject was one of a numerous family whose father 
had been married several times. The children now 
living are: Edward, of Denver, Col.; Robert, of 

Kansas ; James, of Kansas City, Mo. ; Frank, Charles, 
and George B. of our sketch. 

In 1837 John Foster, with sixteen others of the 
same patronymic, including the family of the 
maternal grandfather, started West, making their 
way to Cleveland. Ohio, by lake and rail, then 
engaged teams and proceeded overland, locating 
first at Dayton, Ohio, on account of the cold 
weather, which interfered with their comfort while 
camping out at night. They remained there three 
months, when they continued their journey, finallj' 
settling in Pontiac. Here our subject was reared 
to manhood and trained especially to habits of in- 
dustry and economy while receiving a limited edu- 
cation in the pioneer school. He took kindly to 
labor, and at an early age became initiated into the 
secrets of successful farming, which he naturally 
chose as his future vocation. He was married, Dec. 
21, 1852, after reaching his twenty -seventh year, to 
Miss Martha Jones, who was born in Indiana, Feb. 
25, 1834. Mrs. F. was the daughter of Henry and 
Emily (De Moss) Jones, natives of Kentuck} 7 , who 
emigrated to Illinois about 1846, and settled in 
Owego Township. They afterward removed to 
California, where the mother died about 1863, and 
where Mr. Jones is still living. Mr. and Mrs. 
Foster became the parents of six children, of whom 
the record is as follows: Agnes, the first born, died 
when one year old; Henry obtained a fine educa- 
tion and is now Principal of the Pontiac High 
School, and numbered among the efficient popular 
educators of the county; Emily is the wife of 
William Decker, a prosperous merchant of Owego 
Township; Susan married Charles Grandy, who is 
farming in Pontiac Township, where Nathan also 
pursues the same calling; Clarence is a resident of 
Owego Township. 

In 1852 Mr. Foster purchased the land compris- 
ing his present farm, which was then an unculti- 
vated tract of prairie, distant from markets and 
even from the traveled highway. Scarcely a fur- 
row had been turned, while deer and other wild 
game were plentiful in that vicinity. Mr. Foster, 
being quite a marksman, kept his family supplied 
with the finest of wild meats, and if at times they 
lacked flour they were seldom without the impor- 
tant article of meat. He commenced farming with 




an ox-team and a few rude implements which would 
be regarded with ridicule at the present day. He 
set out, however, with the resolution of making the 
best of circumstances, gaining a little each year 
until he had turned the sod upon the greater part 
of his possessions and brought the soil to a good 
state of cultivation. It is now considered one of the 
finest farms of its size in Owego Township, and 
although consisting of but eighty acres is more 
valuable than many occupying a larger area. 

Mr. Foster, while having an abundance of labor 
on hand in connection with his own interests, has 
deported himself unselfish!}' and given whatever of I 
his time and attention that was needful in subserv- 
ing the welfare of his community. He has been 
School Director for many years, and sought by 
his influence, and more substantial methods when 
necessary, to encourage those enterprises tending to 
the welfare of the people. He uniformly votes the 
Democratic ticket, and with his estimable lady is 
numbered among the valued residents of Living- 
ston County, who have assisted in the development 
of its resources, rejoiced in its prosperity, and con- 
tributed their quota toward its moral welfare. 

/NDREW J. BROOKS, of Rook's Creek 
Township, owns a fine farm of 160 acres 
on section 26, of which he has been in pos- 
session since the spring of 1 874. This he 
has brought to a high state of cultivation, using 
considerable tiling, and purposes draining the land 
still further in this manner. His farming opera- 
tions have been conducted with industry and good 
judgment, and he has in all respects performed his 
part as a useful citizen and a skillful agriculturist. 
He has attended principally to his own concerns, 
but has kept himself posted upon current events, 
and is always pleased to note the progress and ad- 
vancement, both morally and financially, of the 
people around him. 

As far back as he has any record, the ancestors 
of Mr. Brooks were of American birth and parent- 
age, and mostly residents of New York State. 
His paternal grandfather, John Brooks, served in 
the Revolutionary War. and spent his last days in 

New York State. The parents, Martin and Han- 
nah (Appleby) Brooks, were natives of the Em- 
pire State; the former was born in Greene County. 
In 1853 they came to Illinois and located in La 
Salle County, where they spent the remainder of 
their days. Their household included twelve chil- 
dren, ten of whom lived to become men and 
women. Andrew J., our subject, was the youngest, 
and was born in Greene County, N. Y., March 12, 
1850. He received a common-school education, 
and when twenty years of age commenced farming 
for himself. A year later he was married to Miss 
Sarah E. Hornbeck, the wedding taking place at 
the home of the bride, Dec. 1, 1870. The young 
people commenced life together on a farm in La 
Salle County, whence they removed three years 
later to Streator, 111., renting land, which they tilled 
one year, when he purchased eighty acres of his 
present farm. He was prospered in his labors, and 
invested his surplus capital in another eighty acres 
on section 35, all of which he has brought to a good 
state of cultivation. 

Mr. and Mrs. Brooks became the parents of six 
children, all living, with one exception, and at 
home with their parents. Viola, who was born 
Jan. 3, 1872, died June 12, 1884, when an inter- 
esting child of twelve years; Howard was born 
May 10, 1874; Bertie, Sept. 26, 1876; Henry, Jan. 
1, 1879; Ina, April 21, 1881, and Ralph, May 16, 
1883. They form a bright family group, <>f which 
the parents have reason to be proud. 

Mrs. Brooks is the daughter of Henry and Deb- 
orah (Kimball) Hornbeck, natives of New York, 
who came to Illinois and located in La Salle 
County in 1855. The household included seven 
children, of whom Mrs. B. was the third. Four 
are now living, namely: Newton J. is married, a 
resident of Kansas, and the father of six children; 
Sarah, wife of our subject; Clara married Albert 
Davis, and became the mother of two children ; she 
is now a widow and lives in Streator. Ida H. is 
the wife of Dr. William Sheppard, of Chicago, and 
is the mother of one child. A. Lincoln died 
June 8, 1886, unmarried, when about twenty-six 
years of age. The parents of these children were 
married June 14, 1843. The father was born July 
10, 1822, and the mother July 20, 1817. 



The brothers and sisters of Mr. Brooks are as 
follows: Lawrence is married and a resident of 
Ford County; he has no children. Harriett is 
married to her third husband, Jackson Whittaker, 
and is the mother of two children by her first mar- 
riage ; her first husband was Peter Alson, and her 
second, John Hogaboom. Burgess, married, is a 
resident of Nebraska, and has five children; Sa- 
rah, Mrs. Peter VanValkenburg, is the mother of 
live children, and a resident of New York State; 
Edwin is married, and has seven children ; he is a 
resident of Adair County, Iowa. Andrew J., of 
our sketch, was the youngest. 

FORDYCE, one of the most exten- 
sive farmers, stock-raisers, and breeders of 
Short-horn cattle and Hambletonian horses, 
as well as general dealer in stock, in Reading Town- 
ship, where he lives on section 21, is a native of 
Pennsylvania, where he was born on the 5th of 
December, 1834. He is the son of Corbley and 
Jane (Bailey) Fordyce, also natives of Pennsylva- 
nia. The father was born June 7, 1807, and died 
Nov. 13, 1862, at the age of fifty-five years- 
The mother was born June 16, 1811, and is now 
seventy-six years of age and residing in Pennsyl- 
vania, in the county in which she was born. 

The father of our subject was a farmer, stock- 
raiser and feeder, and in this business met witli 
good success. His political affiliations were with 
the Whig and Republican parties, and he, as well as 
his wife, was a member of the Methodist Protest- 
ant Church. To them were born the following- 
named children: Kliza Ann, born Feb. 15, 1830, 
and married John Smith, a fanner and merchant; 
they have had a family of seven children, one de- 
ceased, and now reside in Greene County, Pa. 
Elizabeth, born Feb. 28, 1832, married John 
Church, has had three children, one deceased: they 
reside in Greene County, Pa., where the husband is 
engaged as a farmer and stock-breeder. Girard is 
our subject: Mary, born Jan. 17, 1836, married 
Thomas B. Smith, a farmer by occupation, and a 
local minister in the Methodist Protestant Church; 

they have seven children and reside in Ohio. Joab 
B., born March 27, 1838, married Eliza Garrison, 
and has had three children, of whom two are de- 
ceased ; the family reside in Greene County, Pa., 
where Joab is a farmer and stock-dealer. John G., 
born Feb. 14, 1841, is a farmer in Greene County, 
Pa. ; he first married Jennie Huffman, who died after 
the birth of two children, and he afterward married 
Mary Phillips, by whom he has had one child. 
Corbley, born Aug. 30, 1843, died July 10, 1845. 
Hattie, born March 3, 1846, married Joshua Rice, 
a farmer, and has had six children, one of whom is 
dead; Ellen, born Oct. 20, 1850, died in infancy; 
Jennie, born April 9, 1848, married Peter Huffman, 
a farmer, and resides in Greene County, Pa.; Jo- 
seph B., born Feb. 9, 1852, died May 3, 1857; 
Homer C., born July 3, 1855, married Elizabeth 
Huffman, has three children, and resides in Greene 
County, Pa., where he is engaged in farming. 

On the 18th of July, 1853, Mr. Fordyce was 
married to Joanna Coe, a native of Pennsylvania, 
born on the 26th of March, 1839, and the daughter 
of Silas and Ruth (Church) Coe. The marriage 
occurred at the residence of the bride's father, at 
Waynesburg, Pa., the Rev. William C. Leonard 
officiating. To her parents were born the follow- 
ing-named children: William, born Jan. 28, 1837, 
and died Oct. 4, 1864, in Pennsylvania; Joanna, the 
wife of our subject: John, born June 12, 1842, mar- 
ried Jennie Knight, now deceased, and afterward he 
married Annie Keith; they have had six children, 
two of whom are deceased. John is a farmer by 
occupation and resides in Ancona; Henry, born 
Feb. 14, 1845, married Maria Fry on the 13th of 
September, 1864, and died Feb. 7, 1865, in Greene 
County, Pa.; Joseph, born Dec. 25, 1847, married 
Prude Barackman, and resides on a farm in Read- 
ing Township. (At the time of the writing of this 
sketch Joseph and his wife are sojourning in Cali- 
fornia with the hope of restoring the health of the 
latter.) Sarah, born Nov. 2, 1850, and married 
George W. Mathis, a merchant and publisher of 
Ancona, whose biography will be found in another 
part of this book; Cephas, born Nov. 14, 1853 
married Carrie Barackman, and has three children 
living; he is a farmer and resides in Reading Town- 
ship. Lile Ann, born Feb. 31, 1857, married James , , 

t . 272 


P. Mathis, and has had three children, one of whom 
is dead ; her husband is a merchant, and stock and 
grain dealer at Rutland. Robert G. resides in 
California, where he is engaged as a clerk in a 

To Mr. and Mrs. Girard Fordyce eight children 
have been born: Mary L., in Pennsylvania, on the 
25th of May, 1865; she is now a student in Eureka 
College. Joseph C., born Feb. 1, 1867, died April 
1, 1868; Franklin, born June 23, 1869; Charles J., 
March 21, 1872; John G., July 19, 1874; Harry S., 
Ojt. 16, 1876; Nellie R., Dec. 28, 1880, and C. 
Roy, Jan. 27, 1885. Mr. Fordyce now owns 207 
acres of land, located on sections 21, 28 and 33, seven 
and one-half of which are covered with timber, 
while all the remainder is susceptible of high culti- 
vation. A good class of improvements, including 
suitable buildings, has been made by Mr. Fordyce. 

In his youth Mr. Fordyce received an excellent 
common-school education, and afterward graduated 
from the Waynesburg College, located in Greene 
County, Pa., after which he attended medical lec- 
tures in Cleveland, Ohio, and then practiced medi- 
cine for two years. In 1863 he responded to his 
country's call by enlisting and recruiting a com- 
pany of which he was appointed Lieutenant. After 
going into camp he was notified by telegraph that 
his father was fatally ill and could not live long, 
and upon his arrival at home he found the truth of 
the summons verified. His father exacted a prom- 
ise from him to resign his commission in the army 
and return home for the purpose of settling up the 
estate he might leave. He considered that his ob- 
ligations to his father and his family preceded his 
duty to his country, and heeded the call made upon 
him by his father. 

Mr. Fordyce is a member of the Republican 
party, in which he takes an active interest. He 
has been School Director for four terms, 1 and has 
also served to the satisfaction of the people in the 
office of Justice of the Peace. He is a member in 
good standing of the Masonic Lodge at Long 
Point, and cheerfully engages in such works of 
benevolence as the conditions of the case. may war- 
rant. He is a business man of rare ability, and of 
pleasant social address, progressive in his ideas and 
energetic in whatever he undertakes. 

ICHAEL D. PETERS is farming on section 
1, Newtown Tp.. and coal mining in Shaft 
No. 3, of the Vermillion Coal Company, 
and has been a resident of this locality for 
sixteen years, during which time, for about four 
years, he operated a small shaft of his own on his 
farm. Mr. Peters is one of the oldest employes in 
the shaft, and has always been constant and faith- 
ful in his work. When not engaged at the shaft, 
he devotes his time to his farm. 

Mr. Peters was born in Ireland in the year 1841, 
and is the son of Patrick and Mary Peters, natives 
of Ireland, who came to America in 1849, at which 
time they had six children. They left Waterford 
in April, and landed at New York City on the 9th 
of June, after a long and tempestuous voyage. 
From New York City they went to Troy, N. Y., 
where they remained about two months, and then 
moved to Blossburg, Pa., where they remained, 
the boys engaging at work in the coal mines at that 
place. The father was then too old to work, but 
remained there until his death, which occurred in 
1866. Our subject's mother died in 1851, soon af- 
ter settling in Pennsylvania. To the parents were 
born eight children James, Patrick, Dennis, John, 
Michael, Mary, Sarah and Bridget. Of these, three 
are now living: John, married, has three children, 
and is engaged in the coal mines at Houtzdale, Pa. ; 
Bridget, the wife of Michael Eagan, who has been 
engaged as watchman for the New York & Erie Rail- 
road at Corning, N. Y., for twenty-five years. Of 
the others, two died in Ireland, two died in Penn- 
sylvania, and Sarah, Mrs. James Lacey, died in Mor- 
ris, Grundy Co., 111. Michael, our subject, lived at 
home until sixteen or seventeen years of age, when 
he devoted several years to traveling from one 
place to another, nearly all over the United States, 
and has been in most of the principal cities of the 
North and South. He was near Chattanooga at 
the time of the breaking out of the war, and en- 
listed in the 6th Alabama Regiment for one year. 
About the expiration of his term of service he ran 
away and crossed tbe line into McCIelland's camp, 
where he surrendered himself and then returned to 

On the 15th day of January, 1867, Mr. Peters 
was married to Ann Lonergon, of Bellefonte, Pa., 



v '^-.fcMi%N&*^0^ 






where she grew to womanhood. She was the daugh- 
ter of Thomas and Mary (Murphy) Lonergon, na- 
tives of Ireland, who came to this country at an 
early day, and were married in Pennsylvania. 
They reared a large family of children, of whom 
our subject's wife was the third. Soon after mar- 
riage, Mr. Peters came to Pontiac, and engaged in 
coal mining in the Pontiac mines, where he re- 
mained for about one year, and then mined coal in 
La Salle for about the same length of time. From 
La Salle he went to Streator, remaining one year, 
and then to his present location. Ten children have 
been born to Mr. and Mrs. Peters, four of whom 
died in infancy: Sadie was born Jan. 15, 1875; 
Annie, Feb. 8, 1878; Michael and Katie, twins, Jan. 
6, 1881. These four are all living at home, the | 
rest are dead. Mr. Peters and his family are de- 
vout members of the Catholic Church, and attend 
services at Streator. 


j)ILLIAM A. LATHAM, a representative 
farmer and stock-raiser of Owego Town- 
ship, is a native of New Hampshire, and 
was born on the 12th of December. 1837, and is 
the son of William H. and Eliza Latham, both New 
Englanders by birth. When an infant he was 
taken by his parents to Fayette County, Ohio, 
where he was reared. He received a fair English 
education, and after having reached years of ma- 
turity came to Illinois and resided in McLean 
County a number of years. He removed from 
Kankakee to Livingston County in 1885, and has 
resided here ever since. He owns 400 acres of land 
in Livingston County, and also an interest in a 
large stock ranch in Colorado. 

In Blooinington, 111., on the 5th of February, 
1874, his marriage was celebrated, at which time 
Miss Frances J. Wej'and, an accomplished lady of 
Bloomington, 111., became his wife. She is a daugh- 
ter of William and Catherine Weyand, they having 
been among the worthy and esteemed pioneers of 
McLean County, who settled in Bloomington at an 
early day. The mother is deceased. The union 
of Mr. and Mrs. Latham has been blessed with 
seven children, four of whom are living Florence, 

Arthur W., Mary C. and John H. Mrs. L. is a 
member of the Christian Church, and an active and 
influential member of society. 

The subject of this sketch has been successful in 
business affairs, and is a public-spirited man, being 
in favor of all things which tend to elevate society 
and improve the community. He is a Republican 
in politics and a leading citizen in all public affairs. 
None are more worthy of a place in this ALBUM 
than Mr. and Mrs. Latham, who enjoy the esteem 
and confidence of the entire community in which 
they live. 

[} OSEPH R. PLOWMAN. Whatever a man 
may own of this world's goods, it is some 
satisfaction to himself, and certainly a credit 
readily conceded to him, when they are ob- 
tained through his own efforts, as the reward that 
comes of industry and prudence. The greatest ac- 
complishments are those made by men who are 
thrown entirely upon their own resources, and carve 
out the fortunes of which they become possessors, 
and when these men succeed in their efforts, they 
seldom fritter away their holdings, for they know 
under what difficulty they were obtained. The sub- 
ject of this sketch is a self-made man, and his ex- 
cellent farm in Pontiac Township, with all its be- 
longings, stands as the evidence of hard work 
through life. 

Mr. Plowman was born in Huntingdon County, 
Pa., on the 4th of July, 1838, and is the son of 
Edward L. and Sarah L. Plowman, the father a na- 
tive of Maryland, and the mother of Mifflin County, 
Pa. His paternal ancestors are of German descent, 
and the maternal of English descent. His fore- 
fathers were among the pioneers of Huntingdon 
County, Pa. His parents settled in La Salle County, 
111., in the year 1854, and were among the pioneers 
of that county, where they spent the remainder of 
their lives, the father dying on the 29th of March, 
1884, and the mother on the llth of September, 
1876; they had two children, named Joseph R. and 
Apollos F. 

Mr. Plowman married on the 3d of April, 1868, 
Martha E. Cays, daughter of Conrad Cays, of La 
Salle County, 111. They have four children : Dora, 




wife of H. F. Davis, of this count}'; Arthur, Elmer 
and Minnie. Mr. Plowman removed to Living- 
ston County in the fall of 1880, and thence upon 
his present farm in the spring of 1887. He owns 
120 acres of land, which is known for its fertility 
and fine location. On the 1 4th of August, 1 862, 
he enlisted in Company D, 104th Illinois Infantry, 
under Capt. W. II. Collins, and was attached to the 
14th Army Corps, Arm}' of the Cumberland, and 
participated in many engagements and skirmishes 
in Kentucky and Tennessee, the principal field of 
operation of that army corps. After serving nearly 
three years, he was honorably discharged on the 
5th of July, 1 865, when he returned to peaceful pur- 
suits in Illinois. 

Mr. Plowman is a Republican in politics, a mem- 
ber of the Masonic fraternity, and a comrade of 
the G. A. R. In each of these organizations he 
takes an active interest, and occupies a prominent 
position. While a citizen of La Salle County, he 
served as Collector and Assessor of Reading Town- 
ship. Although comparatively a new citizen of 
Livingston County, he has already formed very 
pleasant social relations with the older citizens, and 
it is very probable that his conditions and sur- 
roundings will prove very pleasant and profitable 
in the future. 

AMUEL M. PRICER, Supervisor of Avoca 
Township, and the representative of a fine 
old Pennsylvania family, is one of the most 
prosperous farmers and stock-raisers of this 
township, to which he came in 1873 and settled on 
his present farm, which embraces 460 acres on sec- 
tion 1, and to the management of which he gives 
his attention. The land was then in an unculti- 
vated state, but by the exerci>e of continuous in- 
dustry and good judgment, has become one of the 
most tiucly cultivated and fertile tracts in the south- 
ern part of Living.-ton County. Mr. Pricer. of late 
years, has taken life easier, but still extends the 
r-anie supervision as of old over hi- farm operation-, 
which are conducted after the most modern and ap- 
proved method^ 

Our Mib.ect wa> born in Ross County. Ohio, Feb. 
16, 1824, and is the >on of Jacob and Elizabeth 

(Benner) Pricer. whose birth took place near the 
city of Philadelphia. Pa. I'pon both sides the par- 
ents were of German ancestry, and their lioii-eliold 
included seven children, of whom the following sur- 
vive: Elizabeth. Mrs. Alexander Brown; Louisa. 
Mrs. David Brown: Frances L.. the wife of John 
M. Dwire: and Samuel M., our subject. With the 
exception of the last they are all iv-iilents of Ross 
County. Ohio. The parents located in that county 
during the pioneer days, where the father carried on 
farming successfully., and where his death took place 
in the spring of 1852. The mother is still a resi- 
dent there, continuing on the old homestead, near 
the town of Comstock, and has now passed her 
eightieth birthday. 

Mr. Pricer spent his boyhood and youth among 
his native hills, 'receiving a good education in a 
State renowned for its school facilities, even in the 
country districts. He was fond of his books, mak- 
ing good use of his time, and after leaving school 
was engaged for a time as a teacher. Subsequently, 
when but a youth of eighteen, he engaged as clerk 
and book-keeper in the mercantile establishment of 
Elijah Rockhold, with whom he continued four 
years. At the expiration of this time he had ac- 
cumulated sufficient capital to go into business for 
himself, and established a store of general merchan- 
dise in company with Jacob Benner, with whom he 
continued five years. He then purchased the in- 
terest of his partner, and continued there in busi- 
ness several years longer, after which he came to 
this State. 

Mr. Pricer, upon his arrival in Illinois, in 1862, 
established himself in the hotel business at Salem, 
Marion County, and thence removed to East St. 
Louis. After a year's residence at that point, he 
established himself as a general merchant at Qaincy t 
111., where he was thus occupied three years, and 
then engaged as a traveling salesman for a St. Louis 
house. In 1873 he came to this county, settled 
down upon a farm, and has since continued a resi- 
dent of the rural districts. To this latter life he 
seems more especially adapted, and nothing could 
suit him better than its employments and pleasures. 
He has been blessed with good health, the result of 
good habits, and besides his farm duties has found 
time to interest himself in the welfare of his com- 




munity. He first served as Commissioner of High- 
ways three years, and in the spring of 1 886 was 
elected to his present office of Supervisor, the du- 
ties of which he is discharging with credit to him- 
self and satisfaction to all concerned. He takes a 
keen interest in the success of Sunday-school work, 
as well as in that of the temperance movement, 
and is Chairman of the Blue Eibbon Society of 
Owego Township, the meetings of which are held 
regularly in the Methodist EpiscopaljClmrch. 

The marriage of Samuel M. Pricer and Miss 
Mary E. Latham was celebrated at the home of the 
bride, in Washington, Fayettc Co., Ohio, in May, 
1856. Mrs. Pricer was born in Grafton County, 
N. II., in 1835, and is the daughter of Will- 
iam H. and Eliza (Comers) Latham, the latter 
now deceased. Her father is living, and a resident 
of Tennessee. Mr. and Mrs. P. have no children. 

RANK RAISBECK, one of the enterprising 
young farmers of Esmen Township, is lo- 
cated near the homestead of his father-in- 
law, Amariah Bemis, on section 2, where in addi- 
tion to general agriculture he is engaged in the 
raising of fine stock, including horses, cattle and 
hogs. He is a native of a far county, having been 
born near Laxey Beach, on the Isle of Man in the 
Irish Sea, July 4, 1852. He was the eldest in a 
family of seven children, the offspring of Robert 
and Jane (Gelling) Raisbeck, the former a native 
of England, and the latter of the original Manx 
blood, and born on the Island where her son was 
given birth. The paternal grandparents of our 
subject, Frank and Betsey Raisbeck, natives of 
Yorkshire, England, emigrated to the Isle of Man 
about 1839. The mother's parents were John and 
Jane Gelling, natives of the Isle of Man. 

Robert Raisbeck, the father of our subject, was 
a silver miner in his native land and emigrated to 
America about 1856, going directly westward 
to Benton, La Fayette Co., Wis., where he en- 
gaged in farming and lead mining. About 1861, 
leaving his family in Benton. he went to Pike's Peak 
and thence, after a short stay, to Idaho, returning 
in 1865. He then removed his family to Grundy 

County, 111., where he engaged in coal mining, at 
which he still employs himself, though now a resi- 
dent of Braceville. 

Our subject was reared partly on a farm, but 
spent much of his time in the mines where his father 
was employed. He remained a member of the par- 
ental household until reaching his majority, and 
then coming to this count)' engaged as clerk in a 
general store at Odell. He remained with his first 
employer four years, and then desiring a change 
to outdoor life he went up into the lumber regions 
of Michigan, where he spent one year. He was 
married, March 23, 1876, to Miss Sarah A., daugh- 
ter of Amariah N. and Lucinda (Backus) Bemis 
(a sketch of whom appears elsewhere in this work). 
The young people located at Odell, where they lived 
six months, when Mr. Raisbeck made his trip to 
Michigan. Upon his return he took possession of 
a farm, but soon after resumed clerking in Odell. 
A year later he returned to farm life, and in 1881 
purchased a tract of land near the limits of Odell, 
where he combined the occupations of clerk and 
farmer. In 1883 he sold this property, and with 
his family took up his residence on the Bemis 
homestead, where he has since resided. The chil- 
dren of Mr. and Mrs. Raisbeck, six in number, 
are named respectively, Edith May; Maxwell, 
deceased ; Robert Bemis, Nellie Viola, Lila and 

/p^EORGE GOSHORN, proprietor of 100 acres 
(If <=? of fine farming land on section 21, Indian 
^^4! Grove Township, is regarded as one of the 
successful stock-growers of the southern part of 
Livingston County, to which he came in February, 
1866. He is an Ohio man, and was born in Butler 
County, Sept. 25, 1835, remaining a resident of his 
native State until the outbreak of the late war, 
when he proffered his services to assist in the pres- 
ervation of the Union. 

The parents of our subject, Leonard and Ellen 
(Dorman) Goshorn, were natives respectively of 
Pennsylvania and Maryland, and neither lived to 
be aged, the mother dying in 1849. and the father 
two years later. They spent their last years in 
Ohio, where the father followed blacksmithing. 

' ' 



. , 278 


1 ' 

The household circle included the following chil- 
dren: Mathew, John, Sarah J., George, William 
and Smith. They received a common-school edu- 
cation and careful home training. George remained 
on a farm until the outbreak of the Rebellion called 
for Union troops, and then laid aside his personal 
interests and enlisted in Company I, 39th Ohio In- 
fantry, as a private. In 1863 lie was promoted 
Corporal, and served in the army four years, partic- 
ipating in some of the most important battles of 
the war. He first met the enemy at New Madrid, 
after having been detailed to the northern portion 
of Missouri, and was afterward at the siege of Cor- 
inth and the battle of luka, Miss. In October, 
after a second engagement at Corinth, his regiment 
was assigned to quarters near Memphis, Tenn., and 
subsequently went to Chattanooga and joined Sher- 
man's army in its march from Atlanta to the sea. 

While at Atlanta our subject, on the 22d of July, 
1864, received a bad flesh wound in the right arm, 
and was confined in the hospital forty days. lie 
was granted a short furlough, upon which he re- 
turned home to Ohio, but rejoined his regiment at 
Atlanta, whence they went to Savannah and took 
steamer for Buford, S. C. Thence they marched 
across the State, and afterward engaged in the 
hard-fought battle at Bcntonville, N. C. About 
this time the war practically ended by the sur- 
render of Gen. Lee at Appomattox. Our subject and 
his comrades not long afterward entered the Na- 
tional capital for the grand review, and were mus- 
tered out at Louisville, Ky. Mr. G. received his 
final and honorable discharge at Camp Dennison, 
Ohio, about the 25th of July, 1865. Concerning 
the hardships, privations and fatigues which were 
the common lot of all who participated in that 
memorable struggle, those who were the most in- 
terested have remained for the most part admira- 
bly silent. Mr. Goshorn, likewise, bore with 
fortitude the difficulties and dangers which he en- 
countered, and is entitled to equal consideration. 

After retiring from army life Mr. Goshorn spent 
a brief time in his native State, and then set out 
for the West. After selecting his future abiding- 
place he was united in marriage with Miss Rebecca 
J. Crouch, the wedding taking place at the home 
of the bride in Indian Grove Township on New 

Year's Day, 1867. The young people commenced 
life together in a modest dwelling, and in due time 
became the parents of one child, a daughter, Nellie, 
born Nov. 15, 1872. She is now an interesting 
young lady of fifteen years. Mis. Goshorn is the 
daughter of Richard G. Crouch, and was born in 
New Hampshire, of which State her parents were 
also natives. Her mother is deceased. 

Both our subject and wife are members in good 
standing of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and 
politically Mr. Goshorn is a decided Republican. 
Socially he belongs to the Masonic fraternity. 

IMON F. SLYDER, an aged and highly re- 
spected citizen of Owego Township, has 
been identified with its farming interests 
for over twenty years, being one of the 
earliest settlers of this section, and coming here 
when but a small portion of the Prairie soil had 
been turned upward to the sun. He was born and 
reared in the Keystone State, imbibing with his na- 
tive air those substantial qualities of character 
which were so much needed in the West at that 
period, and came here in the prime of life. With 
his strong hands and resolute will, he set himself to 
work to establish a permanent home, and has built 
up a record of which his descendants should be 
proud. He was then the possessor of but modest 
means, and the fact that he now owns 400 broad 
acres of the most valuable land in Central Illinois, is 
sufficient indication of the success which has 
crowned his efforts. The main points in a history 
of more than ordinary interest are substantially as 

Mr. Slyder was born in Cumberland County, Pa., 
Nov. 27, 1816. His parents, Jacob and Elizabeth 
(Borah) Slyder, were natives of the same State, 
and possessed all the substantial elements of their 
excellent German ancestry, the first representatives 
of whom in this country, crossed the water prior to 
the Revolutionary War. Several of them served as 
soldiers on the side of the Colonists during their 
struggle for liberty, and afterward located in Penn- 
sylvania, where the family has been largely repre- 
sented for the last century. 

The parental family of our subject included seven 



children, of whom but two are now living, namely, 
Lyclia, the wife of Joseph L. Near, of Warren 
County, this State, and Simon, our subject. The 
latter was reared to manhood near the place of his 
birth, receiving a good common-school education, 
and becoming familiar with all the employments of 
farm life. He remained under the home roof until 
his thirty -fifth year, when in April, 1851, he was 
united in marriage with Miss Mary E. Beam, a na- 
tive of Franklin County, Pa., and born Aug. 7, 
1833. Mrs. Slyder, who is several years younger 
than her husband, was a daughter of A bra in and 
Margaret (Bowermaster) Beam, natives of Penn- 
sylvania, and of German descent. They located in 
Franklin County soon after their marriage, and 
during its early settlement, where they remained 
until 1855, when they came to Illinois and located 
in Fulton, where they were finally laid to their long 

Mr. and Mrs. Slyder commenced housekeeping 
in a modest dwelling at Clay Lick Hall, Pa., where 
they remained until after the birth of one child, 
and then, not quite satisfied with the results of their 
labors, decided to emigrate to the then far West. 
They came to this State in the fall of 1854, locating 
first in Fulton County, whence, in 1869, they re- 
moved to this county with the results which we 
have already indicated. In the meantime the 
household circle had been gradually enlarged until 
it included ten children. These were named re- 
spectively, William 1C. : Elizabeth M., Mrs. Charles 
Schnurr, of Owego Township; Simon F., Samuel 
D., Luther B. ; Louisa C., Mrs. D. S. Myers; Annie 
M., Jesse C., Susie A. and Delia L. All the chil- 
dren are still living, and are located in different 
parts of Illinois and Nebraska. Mr. and Mrs. Sly- 
der are members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, in which the former has served as Deacon 
for many years, and was one of the number who 
first assisted in the organization of the society in 
Owego Township. He also contributed liberally 
to the building of their edifice, which is located on 
section 2. He has labored fifteen years as teacher 
and Superintendent of the Sunday-school, and no 
man takes more interest in the intellectual and re- 
ligious education of the people. 

Mr. Slyder has watched with unabated interest 

the growth and development of Livingston County, 
and has at all times done what he could toward sus- 
taining its reputation as one of the most desirable 
localities for the residence of an intelligent people. 
Politically, he was identified with the Whig party, 
casting his first Presidential vote for W. H. Harri- 
son, and upon the abandonment of that platform, 
he associated himself with the Democratic party, 
with which he still affiliates. He has held the 
various township offices, serving as Assessor and a 
member of the Board of Supervisors, and for the 
last nine years has officiated as Justice of the Peace. 
He is the favorite of young and old in his com- 
munity, and is held up by the elder members as a 
worthy example for imitation by the younger 

torney for the county of Livingston, has 
been a resident of Fairbury since 1 883, tak- 
ing up his residence here soon after being gradu- 
ated from the law department of the Iowa State 
University. He has already become one of the 
prominent young members of the legal profession 
in this county, and possesses in a large measure 
those elements of character which insure success. . 
Mr. Carrithers was born in Marshall County, 111., 
Dec. 6, 1854, and is the son of William P. and 
Marj r E. (Barnes) Carrithers, natives respectively 
of Indiana and Ohio. The father of our subject 
was born June 6, 1829, and during a period of 
twenty years, has officiated as a minister of the 
Christian Church. His labors have been eminently 
successful, and he has particularly distinguished 
himself in the organization of churches, and by his 
zeal in upholding the cause of Christ. He now 
preaches at Anchor, McLean County, and Kemp- 
ton, Ford County, this State, and resides with his 
family at Saunemin, 111. The mother was born in 
Januarv, 1832. Her parents were Henry B. and 
Esther (Dickinson) Barnes. They went to Mar- 
shall County at an early day, and the father served 
as a Captain in the Black Hawk War. On his jour- 
ney to Illinois he was accompanied by his brothers 
and sisters, Robert, William, Nancy and Mary, who 


' ' 280 



are all married and living in this State, having ar- 
rived at a good old age. 

Our subject was the eldest of ten children born 
to his parents, namely, Charles; Jennie died in 
childhood; Fred, in the insurance business at Fair- 
bury; William died when a youth of eighteen 
years; Belle, Mrs. John AVatkins; Edmund, a far- 
mer of Saunemin Township; Barnes, Lizzie, Nellie 
and Eugene. Charles F. was reared on the farm 
with his brothers and sisters, and attended the com- 
mon school until seventeen years old. He then 
entered upon a higher course of study at Eureka 
College, Eureka, 111., and three years later com- 
menced teaching, which he followed in this and 
Marshall Counties for a period of nine years, and 
in the meantime employed his leisure hours in 
reading law. He prepared himself for the univer- 
sity course, and upon the completion of this, lo- 
cated at Fairbury and formed a partnership with 
G. W. Patton, now of Pontiac. He was afterward 
re-examined and admitted to the bar of this State, 
in June, 1884. The following August he was 
elected to the office of State's Attorney on the Re- 
publican ticket, and is discharging his responsible 
duties in a praiseworthy manner. While in school 
he distinguished himself by his close application to 
his studies, and for a long period he was President 
of his class. He has a good practice outside of his 
office, in the courts of this mid other counties of 
the State. Socially, he belongs to the Masonic 
fraternity, has attained to the Commandery degree, 
and served as Master of his lodge two years. 

Mr. Carrithers, while a resident of Saunetnin, 111., 
was united in marriage with Miss Lucy M. Brydia, 
on the 1st of October, 1879. Mrs. C. was born in 
Kane, 111., Aug. 23, 1855, and is the daughter of 
Truman W. and Laura (Day) Brydia, natives of 
Vermont, who came to the West in 1854, settling 
in Saunemin Township, where with his estimable 
wife, he spent the remainder of his days. The 
mother departed this life in 1871, and the father 
surviving her sixteen years, passed away on the 
15th of February, 1887. Mr. Brydia followed 
farming all his life, and was a prominent and use- 
ful member of his community, where he held the 
various township offices, and represented the peo- 
ple in the County Board of Supervisors for many 

years. He uniformly voted the straight Demo- 
cratic ticket, and by his industry and good judg- 
ment, accumulated a fair competency. 

Mr. and Mrs. Carrithers have three children: 
Truman, born July 28, 1882; Mary, Oct. 9, 1884, 
and Fred, May 30, 1887. They occupy one of the 
best homes on Oak street, and enjoy the friendship 
of the cultivated and refined people around them. 

J. HANDLEY is a retired farmer of Pon- 
tiac. If there is any man who is entitled 
to ease, quiet and comfort in the twilight 
of life, it is he who sought a home in a 
new country and became a pioneer in its develop- 
ment and in the opening up of its resources. To 
this class of men belongs the subject of this sketch. 
who was born on the 7th of February, 1826, in 
Loudoun County, Va. He is the son of John and 
Hannah (Cravin) Handley, natives of Virginia. 
The father was engaged in fanning for a short time 
in Virginia, and about 1831 removed to Ohio, and 
settled in Licking County, where he purchased a 
farm of 270 acres, and subsequently another 270 
acres, which latter tract he afterward sold and di- 
vided the monej' among his children. He held 
several of the local offices of the township in which 
he lived, and with his wife was a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church for many years, most 
of which time he was a Trustee. He belonged to 
the Democratic part}' until during the administra- 
tion of Martin Van Buren, when he joined the 
Know-Nothing party, which was but a step of tran- 
sition to the Republican party later. He had a 
family of ten children, eight of whom are now liv- 
ing: D. J., Lydia A., James W., Amos C., John S., 
Sarah E., George W. and Esther J. John Handley 
died in 1870, and his wife in 1882. 

D. J. Handley was brought up on a farm, avail- 
ing himself of such facilities for education as were 
presented by the common schools of those days, 
and lived at home with his parents until he was 
twenty-five years of age. For three years he en- 
gaged in sheep-raising in his native county, and 
then went to Adams County, Ohio, where he con- 
tinued the same business, having at one time a fold 





of sheep numbering as high as 300. In 1855 
he removed to Macon County, 111., where he re- 
mained one year, and in the fall of 1856 came to 
Livingston County, and settled in Eppard's Point 
Township, on Rook's Creek, where he purchased 
110 acres of land. He lived on this farm until 
1884, when he moved to Pontiac. When he pur- 
chased this land not a foot of it was under cultiva- 
tion. He has transformed it into a model farm, 
and has erected thereon an excellent house, as well 
as barns and stables, while the greater portion of 
it is enclosed by a hedge feiiQe. When he first 
settled here there was an abundance of wild game, 
including deer, wolves and prairie chickens. He 
found a market for his products at Pontiac. 

Mr. H. married, Sept. 11, 1851, Miss Rebecca M. 
Griffith, a native of Licking County, Ohio, and the 
daughter of George and Margaret (Woodard) Grif- 
fith, also natives of Licking County. They have a 
family of five children Charles B., Arabelle R., 
Mattie E., George C. and Elma. Charles B. mar- 
ried Sarah E. Leedon ; they have two children, 
named Albert W. and Joanna, and are engaged in 
farming in Nebraska. Arabelle R. married John 
Leedon, a farmer, and resides in Nebraska; they 
have one child named Nettie. George C. married 
Ella Brown, and they reside at Pontiac; they have 
one child named Lulu M. 

Mr. Handley is a Republican, and takes consider- 
able interest in the welfare of that organization. 
He has held the offices of Assessor, School Director, 
Collector, and for four years the office of Town- 
ship Clerk. He takes great pride in fine stock, and 
at the present time is the owner of two imported 
Cleveland Bays, magnificent horses of the English 
coach breed, and adapted for all purposes. 

W. APPLEGATE, an intelligent 
and enterprising farmer and stock-raiser, 
located on section 24 in Newtown Town- 
ship, was born in Hamilton County, Ohio, on the 
llth of January, 1832, but grew to manhood in 
Miami Count}'. He is the son of George M. and 
Margaret (La Rue) Applegate. The father was 
born in Warren County, Ky., and the grandfather, 

whose name was George Miller Applegate, was 
born and reared in the same State, where he lived 
until he was a very old man. He moved to Ohio, 
and died in that State at the age of one hundred 
years. He had been married twice, his first wife 
dying in Kentucky, and by his second marriage 
there were no children. He was the owner of a 
plantation, a steamboat and about 200 slaves. 

George M. Applegate, the father of our subject, 
was born in Kentucky Feb. 16, 1797, where he 
lived until he grew to manhood, and then moved 
to Ohio. On the 28th of February, 1820, he was 
married, and resided in Ohio until 1851, in which 
year he came to Illinois and settled on section 14, 
Newtown Township. He lived on this homestead 
for twenty years, and then removed to Blackstone, 
remaining there until his death, which occurred 
May 21, 1876. He was a fanner and blacksmith 
by occupation, following blacksmithing in the ear- 
lier days of his life, and farming until his removal 
to Blackstone, when he retired from active labor. 
During his life he was a very active man, and of 
good business habits. He was a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, in which he was al- 
ways a leader. Margaret A. La Rue, his wife and 
the mother of our subject, was born in Clay County, 
N. J., Sept. 15, 1800, and died Sept. 8, 1881. She 
was a daughter of Amos La Rue, a native of New 
Jersey, who, with some of his sons, participated in 
the earlier wars. In his later life he came to Ohio 
and followed farming in Hamilton County, al- 
though he was a weaver by trade. He was the 
father of five children, whose names were Moses, 
Samuel, Frank, Margaret and Lydia. Moses was 
wounded in the French and Indian War, and died 
soon after he came home; the others settled in 
Ohio, where they reared families and died. 

To George M. and Margaret Applegate were 
born the following children : Eliza Jane, born Feb. 
17, 1822, was the wife of Henry Morter, and died 
Dec. 16, 1844; she was the mother of one child, 
named Mary J. James, born Nov. 28, 1823, is 
now a retired farmer living in Blackstone; he has 
been married twice, and by his first wife had one 
child, Albert A., and by his second the following: 
Theodore, Mary, John, Amos, Jane, Anna, Susie 
and Carrie. William, born Dec. 24, 1825, is a re- 



tired farmer, and lives in Streator; he became the 
father of six children, named Flora A., George T., 
Lewis (deceased), Milton, Lizzie and AVilliam. 
Mary A., born Dec. 27, 1827, has been married 
three times, and is now the widow of AVilliam 
Pence; by her first marriage she had five children 
Lewis, Hannah, Jane, George, and Ellie (de- 
ceased) and by her last husband one child, Emma ; 
she now resides in Indianapolis, Ind. Lydia, born 
Jan. 11, 1830, is the wife of James Swartz, and 
lives in Streator; she has three children living, 
named Jane, Ettie and Nora. Margaret, born May 
10, 1836, married James Swartz, became the 
mother of one child, and died May 7, 1855. Amos, 
born May 28, 1840, is married, and lives in Esmen 
Township, and has four boys, named Irving, El- 
mer, Frank and Earnest. Amanda, born June 17, 
1843, died in February, 1869. 

George W. Applegate, our subject, lived at home 
until he was twenty-five years of age, and then be-, 
gan work for himself. On the 27th of October 
1857, he was married to Nancy C. Yale, who was 
born at Saratoga Springs, N. Y., on the 5th of Jan- 
uary, 1841. She is the daughter of Reuben and 
Elizabeth (Gleen) Yale, who were natives of En- 
gland and France respectively. The grandfather 
was Reuben Yale, who was born in England, and 
came to America at an early day. To the parents 
of Mrs. Applegate were born the following-named 
children: Nancy A., the wife of our subject; 
Amos died in childhood; Sarah, born in 1844, now 
lives in Washington Territory, and is the widow of 
Samuel Olmstead, to whom she was married near 
Ottawa, this State; she has three children living, 
named Sheridan, Clara and Jackson. Eliza, born 
in 1846, died in 1866 in Streator; Laura, born in 
1851, is the wife of Alonzo Applegate, and lives in 
Blackstone; they have two children living, Charles 
ind Ira, and three dead, May and two who died in 
infancy Mrs. Applegate's father died March 31, 
1857, and her mother April 14, 1887; the latter 
was a member of the Baptist Church in early life, 
but her later years were spent as a member of the 
Methodist Church. 

The union of Mr. and Mrs. Applegate has been 
, blessed with four children: Addie, born Aug. 13, 
1860, is the wife of Merrit R. Swarner, and lives in 

Newtown Township; they were married on the 21st 
of Januar}', 1880, by Rev. O. M. Dunlevey, of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and have one child, 
named Elma, born April 11, 1883. Minnie, born 
Dec. 26, 1867, lola, Aug. 29, 1872, and Deamie, 
Sept. 4, 1883, live at home with their parents. Mr. 
and Mrs. Applegate are members of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church at Blackstone, with which they 
have been connected for more than thirty years. 
He is one of the Stewai'ds and Trustees of the 
church. In politics, he acts with the Democratic 
party, to which he has always been loyal. Mr. 
Applegate is an excellent citizen, and one who 
takes an active interest in everything that is calcu- 
lated to advance his township and benefit the 


ENRY G. GREENEBAUM, deceased, was a 
prominent merchant and banker of Pontiac, 
who died on the 24th of April, 1887. He was 
a native of Gelnhausen, Germany, born on 
the 6th of May, 1837, and was the son of Moses 
Greenebauni, also a native of Germany. Henry G. 
(ireenebaum came to America when fifteen years 
of age, and first settled in Lexington, McLean 
Co., 111., where he engaged in the clothing business. 
He removed to Pontiac in 1856, and with his 
brother, J. M. Greenebaum, engaged in the same 
business under the firm style of Greenebauni Broth- 
ers, which they continued until 1874. Inl871 they 
established the Livingston County National Bank, 
of which J. M. (Jreenebaum was President. Henry 
('.. was Cashier, in which capacity he continued un- 
til his death. In 1882 he built a magnificent resi- 
dence east of the court-house, where "his widow and 
children now reside. 

On the 14th of August, 1864, Mr. G. was married I" 
Miss Carrie Hart, of Chicago. She was the daugh- 
ter of Jacob and Minnie (Straus) Hart, who were 
natives of Germany, and came from near the River 
Rhine. Jacob Hart came to America in 1858. and 
with liis family settled in Chicago, where he and his 
sons engaged in the clothing biisincs- and continued 
until his death in 1881. His wife died in 1887. 
They were the parents of the following-named chil- 
dren: Mary, Mrs,. Schoenberg, who died in New 





Orleans, in 1870; she was the matron of the Jew- 
ish orphan asylum. Henrietta, Mrs. Abt, of Chi- 
cago: Carrie.-, widow of our subject; Rose, Mrs. 
Frank, of Chicago'; Harry, of Chicago; Janie, 
Mrs. Marx, of Chicago; Max, Lehart and Jacob, of 
Chicago; Sarah, Mrs. Meyer, of New York City. 

Henry Greenebaum left a wife and six children : 
Moses H., who is clerking in the bank; Harry, Rosa, 
Mary, Jacob and Willie. Mr. Greenebaum was a 
stockholder in the Metropolitan, and the American 
Exchange Bank, of Chicago, also in the Pontiac 
Coal Company. He was a self-made man, the archi- 
tect of his own fortune, which was quite considera- 
ble at the time of his death. He had the reputation 
of being one of the best business men of Living- 
ston County. 

IIILIP ROLLINS, the oldest living pio- 
neer in or about Pontiac Township, was 
born in Coshocton County, Ohio, Sept. 24, 
1813, and lias consequently'" passed more 
than the allotted threescore years and ten. His life 
has been marked by honest}" and uprightness, and 
he consequently enjoys the friendship and respect of 
a large circle of acquaintances, some of whom, like 
himself, came to this section at an early day, and 
shared in the hardships and vicissitudes common to 
life in a new settlement. 

Our subject is the son of William K. and Su-an 
Rollins, natives of Virginia, and of French and Ger- 
man ancestry respectively. Mr. Rollins served in 
the War of 1812. In their youth they removed 
from their native State to Coshocton County. Ohio, 
and became the parents of six children, of whom 
only three survive, namely: Nancy, Mrs. John Stur- 
ni.-m. of Wood ford County, 111.; Hannah, wife of 
William Xeal. a prominent attorney of Hamilton 
County, lud., and Philip, of our sketch. Philip 
was reared to manhood in his native State, receiv- 
ing a rudimentary education in the log-cabin r-chool- 
honse. and spent most of his youth in farming pur- 
suits, employing his leisure time at carpenter work. 
In the latter he became e.-pecially skillful, and dur- 
ing the present year (1887) he has superintended 
the erection of the residence of his son, William II., 

located on the old homestead. In addition to farm- 
ing and carpentering, he also developed talent as a 
natural machinist, and without effort became fully 
acquainted with the duties of a millwright, in which 
he became an expert. His energy and industry met 
with ample reward, and he was at one time the 
owner of nearly 500 acres of land, which he divided 
among his children. He has always taken a lively 
interest in the welfare of his community, being an 
active supporter of those measures that tend to ben- 
efit society at large. He has served as Justice of 
the Peace eight years, represented Pontiac Town- 
ship in the County Board of Supervisors several 
terms, and was School Director in his district a num- 
ber of years. Politically, he votes the straight 
Democratic ticket. 

Mr. Rollins was married in Indiana, March 8, 
1 839, the lady of his choice being Miss Martha De- 
Moss, a native of his own State, and born in Hamil- 
ton County Jan. 23, 1812. Her parents, James and 
Nancy DeMoss, were natives respectively of Vir- 
ginia and Kentucky. In 1841 they removed from 
Indiana to Livingston County, and settled in Avoca 
Township, where they spent their last years. The 
father had served as a soldier in the War of 1812, 
and upon coming to Illinois they endured, in com- 
mon with the settlers of that period, the hardships 
and privations which were the distinctive features 
of pioneer life. 

Mr. and Mrs. Rollins became the parents of eight 
children, six of whom are now living, namely : Pe- 
ter, Charles, William II. ; Nancy, widow of the late 
George Hamstreet, who was killed in the late Civil 
War; Matilda, Mrs. Reuben Liddel, and Emeline, 
widow of Harry Hill, late of this county. In mak- 
ing the journey from Indiana to this county Mr. R., 
with his family, spent one week upon the road, 
sometimes sleeping at night in the open air. Upon 
arriving here he had the sum of $1.25 in his pocket, 
besides his team and household goods. He took up 
a tract of 160 acres in Pontiac Township, for which 
lie contracted to pay $3 per acre, and after liquidat- 
ing this indebtedness he pre-empted forty addi- 
tional acres. The first dwelling of the family was 
a rude log cabin, which they occupied a few years 
until it could be replaced In' a more convenient and 
commodious dwelling. Deer and wolves wereplen- 



tiful, and Mr. Rollins has killed as many as seven 
deer in one day. He prided himself upon his 
marksmanship, and seldom failed to bring down his 
game. The change from that time to the present 
IIMS been remarkable, and Mr. Rollins lias watched 
the growth and development of his adopted State 
with more than ordinary interest. He has also con- 
tributed his full share toward its prosperity, having 
characterized himself as a valuable citizen, liberal- 
minded and generous, and the encourager of tho-e 
enterprises that tend to the best welfare of the com- 
munity. He and his good wife an- regarded with 
that reverence and respect accorded those who 
braved the dangers and difficulties of the early 
times, and the publishers have much pleasure in be- 
ing enabled to place their portraits on another page 
of this ALBUM. 

J~j OHN H. COLEHOWER, favorably known 
throughout Long Point Township, owns 
I forty acres of land on section 27, and the 
' same amount on section 34, the whole of 
which has been carefully cultivated, and yields 
each year to the hand of industry an abundance of 
the best products of Central Illinois. Aside from 
his importance as a skillful fanner, Mr. C. has been 
School Director in his district, Commissioner of 
Highways, and has occupied other positions of trust 
among his fellow-townsmen. He is a stanch Dem- 
ocrat, and a member in good standing of the 
I. O. O. F. 

Like many of the early settlers in Livingston 
County Mr. Colehower was born in Pennsylvania, 
June 22, 1830, and is of German descent. His 
parents were Conrad and Rachel (Garner) Cole- 
hower, the former of whom was born in Germany 
and emigrated to this country while a young man. 
His death was the result of an accident, which oc- 
curred at the corner of Third and Chestnut streets 
in the city of Philadelphia, where in alighting from 
a street-car upon the icy ground, he slipped and 
fell under the car, which ran over him, producing 
instant death. The mother continued with her 
young family in Pennsylvania, where she died in 
the city of Harrisburg, Oct. 23. 1887, at eighty 

years of age. The parents joined the Presbyterian 
Church in their youth, and the father, politically, 
was decidedly Democratic. He possessed more 
than ordinary ability, and had he lived would have 
become prominent in the affairs of his township, 
where he had already held the position of Super- 
visor and was held in universal esteem. 

Our subject remained with his mothef in Penn- 
sylvania until twenty-two years of age and then 
started for the West, which at that time was at- 
tracting so many young and enterprising men 
within its borders. He located first in Peoria 
County, where he resided for a period of thirteen 
years, and then took up his abode in Livingston. 
He was married, Dec. 1, 1853, to Miss Elizabeth 
A. Ramsey, who was born Oct. 15, 1831, and who 
by her union with our subject became the mother 
of six children, of whom the record is as follows : 
Benjamin F., born Sept. 23, 1854, developed into 
a promising young business man, and is now carry- 
ing on merchandising in Long Point; his biography 
appears elsewhere in this volume. Martha R., born 
Aug. 4, 1858, became the wife of J. H. Reed, 
whose biography will be found elsewhere; Thomas 
C., born Feb. 5, 1863, officiates as clerk for his 
brother in a store at Long Point; Henry R. was 
born Feb. 28, 1865, and died Feb. 16, 1870, when 
a bright little lad less than five years old ; Lydia F. 
was born May 9, 1867, and died Feb. 8, 1870; 
Emma was born Nov. 26, 1869, and lives at home, 
pursuing her studies in the district school. 

The parental family of our subject included 
twelve children, namely, Henry, Mary Ann, John 
H. (our subject), Washington, Harris, Conrad, 
Martha, Rebecca, Samuel, Hannah, besides two 
who died unnamed in infancy. Henry was killed 
by being run over by a railroad train, and left a 
wife and four children ; Mary Ann is the wife of 
Joseph Free, of Philadelphia, and is the mother of 
three children; Washington died in Philadelphia, 
leaving a wife but no children; Harris, also a resi- 
dent of the (Quaker City, is married and has three 
children: Conrad, who resides in Marshall County, 
this State, is married and has four children ; Martha 
died when about four years of age; Rebecca is 
married, a resident of Harrisburg, Pa., and the 
mother of four children; William died of consump- 



tiou about 1877, leaving a wife and one child; 
Samuel was married, but his wife died leaving one 
child ; Hannah is married and has four children. 
These three last were residents of Philadelphia, 
where the two living now reside. 

The parents of Mrs. Colehower, Thomas B. and 
Rebecca (Carnog) Ramsey, were natives of Penn- 
sylvania, and their household included nine chil- 
dren. The mother died in June, 1884. The father 
is living and is a resident of Long Point Township. 
Her brothers and sisters were John, Walter S., Sa- 
rah B., all deceased ; Isaac T., who has a family and 
lives in this county, is one of its prosperous farmers 
and stock-raisers; William B., deceased; Charles A., 
who is farming in Missouri, and has a wife and six 
children ; Mary J., the wife of F. L. Saxton and 
the mother of five children, and Walter S., Post- 
master of Long Point, where he is also carrying on 
a hardware store; he has a wife and three children. 

TEPHEN JOHNSON. There is something 
about the place of one's birth which acts 
like a mag-net during life, and it is as nat- 
ural to be drawn back to the old home- 
stead after years of absence as it is for the needle 
to seek the pole. The bard sang, "Be it ever so 
humble there is no place like home," and around 
the parental hearth cling a multitude of pleasant 

The subject of this sketch is a native of Living- 
ston County, a man to the manor born, who after 
years of residence in other localities made up his 
mind that there was no place like Livingston 
County, and no other township that possessed so 
many endearing memories as Rook's Creek. Mr. 
Johnson is a farmer and stock-raiser on section 10, 
Rook's Creek Township, the son of John and Nancy 
(Bloyd) Johnson, and was born on the home farm 
on the 14th of September, 1843. His father was 
born in New York on the 14th of February, 1804, 
and died on the 9th of April, 1887. The mother was 
a native of Maryland. The paternal grandparents 
came from Ireland shortly after the great Irish 
Patriots' war, in which the great-great-grandfather 

lost his life. The grandfather, who was the only 
representative of the family, settled in New York, 
and about 1821 moved to Sangamon County, 111., 
where he purchased a farm on which he lived and 
died. He was born Sept. 16, 1774, and his wife, 
Miss Betsy Sacket, was born May 19, 1777. They 
were married on the 17th of June, 1796, and to 
them were born nine children, as follows: Eliza- 
beth, born April 28, 1797; Maria, Feb. 24, 1799; 
Lydia, Oct. 13, 1801; John, Feb. 14, 1804; Na- 
thaniel P., July 30, 1806; Royal S., Oct. 28, 1808; 
Oliver P., Oct. 21, 1813; Lucretia, Oct. 11, 1816; 
Melvine A., April 30, 1820. Oliver Johnson, the 
grandfather, died on the 6th of August, 1835. 

Mr. Johnson's father came to Livingston County 
about 1823, and was the second man to settle in 
Rook's Creek Township. He at first bought 160 
acres of land, and afterward added to it until he 
had 240 acres. He was married, on the 17th of 
March, 1825, to Nancy Bloyd, born Oct. 25, 1806. 
They were the parents of ten children, all of whom 
grew to maturity except two: William, born Jan. 
2, 1826; John, born Sept. 1, 1827, died Jan. 30, 
1855; Lydia, born Oct. 6, 1829; Elizabeth, Dec. 
19, 1831 ; Henry, Jan. 5, 1834; Eleanor, born Sept. 

9, 1836, died Nov. 14, 1837; Oliver, born Aug. 30, 
1838; Amanda, April 5, 1841; Stephen, our sub- 
ject; Lucinda, born March 4, 1846, died Aug. 25, 

Stephen Johnson was married, on the 17th of 
June, 1866, to Miss India Ann Sellman, and they 
are the parents of the following-named children : 
Oliver E., born Feb. 9, 1868, on the Little Sioux 
River, Cherokee Co., Iowa; John Henry, born Oct. 

10, 1869, in Cherokee County, Iowa; Stephen, born 
Nov. 15, 1871, in Lawrence, Kan.; Sherman, born 
Nov. 2, 1875, in Rook's Creek Township; Sharon 
Perry, born June 8, 1885, in Esmen Township. Mr. 
Johnson lived on the home farm while a bo3 - , and 
divided his time between work on the farm and 
learning the trade of a carpenter from his father. 
Shortly after his marriage he moved to Cherokee 
County, Iowa, where he followed both farming and 
carpentering. He lived in that State for three 
years, when he moved to Lawrence, Kan., where he 
worked on the Kansas Pacific Railroad as a bridge 
carpenter, and served two years as foreman. He 



then returned to Livingston County, and now lives 
on the old homestead where he was born, and where 
his father died. 


UKE JORDAN. There 'are no people on 
earth who have a greater love and af- 
fection for their native land than the Irish. 
No matter what their condition is or may have 
been in the land of their nativity, they look upon 
it as the most favored spt on earth, and the 
oppressions and abuses which have been heaped 
upon them by English landlords have only served 
to intensify their love for the old sod. This 
oppression and proscription in years became so in- 
tolerable that thousands upon thousands have emi- 
grated to other countries, the largest proportion of 
whom have sought homes in this country, where 
they have become useful and prosperous citizens. 
The laws and customs of this country permit the 
largest liberty and freedom, which is especially en- 
joyed by a people who have been trampled upon 
for centuries. 

Among those who came to this country at an 
early date is the subject of this sketch, a represent- 
ative farmer and stock-raiser in Pontiac Town- 
ship, who was born in Ireland in the year 1823, be- 
ing the son of James and Catherine Jordan, also 
natives of Ireland. They were the parents of seven 
children, four of whom are now living; Michael, 
James, Luke and Catherine. Luke spent the days 
of his boyhood in his native country, securing a 
very fair education in spite of the fact that at that 
time the schools were of very inferior quality and 
widely separated, and in order to obtain an educa- 
tion at all it was necessary for him to walk miles 
each day to and from the nearest school. In the 
year 1851 he made up his mind that he would emi- 
grate to that country of which he had heard so 
much, and took passage on a ship at Liverpool, 
when after spending seven weeks upon the Atlan- 
tic Ocean, he landed in the city of New York. 
where he remained for about four years, and then 
came to Livingston County, where he resided at 
Pontiac for two years. 

Mr. Jordan was married to Miss A. Nevalle, 

with whom he lived happily until her death on the 
18th of September, 1872. She was a woman of many 
estimable qualities, and her death caused a gloom 
not only within the household but throughout 
her entire circle of acquaintances. She was the 
mother of six children, four of whom are now liv- 
ing Thomas, John, James and Anna. Mr. Jor- 
dan's farm is located on section 1 8, Pontiac Town- 
ship, and contains 232 acres of well-drained land, 
which under the intelligent manipulation of Mr. 
Jordan produces excellent crops. He is consider- 
ably interested in the raising of stock, and in this 
line of business has been very successful. He 
deserves a very large measure of credit for his 
success in life, as he began without means and has 
succeeded in accumulating property sufficient to 
make him independent, and have no fear of want 
during the remainder of his days. Having been 
one of the early settlers of this county, he has 
long since established himself in the affection and 
esteem of his fellow-citizens, whose confidence he 
enjoys to a large degree. 

ILLIAM RUTZ bears the reputation of be- 
ing one of the most thorough and skillful 
farmers of Eppard's Point Township. He 
deals largely in live stock, fattening each year from 
fifty to 100 head of cattle, and fully the same num- 
ber of swine. He owns 400 acres of finely culti- 
vated land, and for the last six years has bent his 
energies to the establishment of a good home, while 
at the same time keeping in view those matters per- 
taining to the general welfare of the community, in 
whose advancement he takes a lively interest. 

The early years of Mr. Rutz were spent in the 
Empire of Germany, where his birth took place 
March 31, 185C. His parents, John and Minnie 
(Bung) Rutz, were natives of the same Province, of 
pure German ancestry, the father born in 1836, and 
the mother a year later. They emigrated to the 
United States after their marriage, and subsequent 
to the close of the late war, in 1865, and after set- 
ting foot upon American soil, proceeded directly 
to the West, locating in Peoria County, 111. Three 
or four years later they came to this county, and 



the father purchased a tract of land in Pike Town- 
ship, where he engaged in farming, and now re- 
sides. He has been a hard- working and industrious 
man, commencing here with little means, but is now 
the owner of a comfortable home. The parental 
household included three sons only, namely, Charles, 
who was born in Germany and died about 1876, in 
this county; John, a resident of York Count}', Neb., 
and William of our sketch. 

Mr. Rutz continued with his parents until reach- 
ing manhood. He was but a lad of eleven years 
when he crossed the ocean, and remembers that the 
voyage consumed nine weeks and three days, be- 
sides being stormy and dangerous. They set out 
on the 26th of November, 1865, and landed in New 
York City on the 1st of January following. In the 
meantime the father had been taken ill with small- 
pox on shipboard, and was confined in the hospital 
in New York City six weeks after landing. The 
mother was afterward stricken with the same terri- 
ble disease, and died on the farm in Peoria County. 
The memory of that time still brings to Mr. Rutz 
the shadow of the affliction with which he was then 
visited. The father subsequently married Mrs. 
Rynsta Chanabeck, a native of his own country. 
She came to America in 1867, and by her first mar- 
riage had become the mother of two sons and a 

William Rutz continued with his father and step- 
mother until twenty years of age, and then started 
out for himself. He had little capital to commence 
with, but by living economically, and saving his 
earnings, found himself in due time enabled to pur- 
chase eighty acres of land north of Chenoa, in the 
cultivation of which he was engaged fora time, but 
which he afterward sold in order to remove to 
Wood ford County. After a residence there of one 
year, during which time he was married, he came 
to this county and first purchased a quarter section 
in Eppard's Point Township. His industry and 
perseverance met with their legitimate reward, and 
he wisely invested his surplus capital in additional 
land. He is now the proprietor of 400 acres, finety 
stocked with excellent grades of cattle and swine, 
and supplied with good buildings. 

The wife of our subject was formerly Miss Katie 
J. Altaian, of Woodford County at the time of 

their marriage, but who was born in Tazewell 
County, July 21, 1862, and became the wife of our 
subject Dec.. 29, 1881. They have two children: 
I Minnie, born Nov. 18, 1882, and Freddie, March 4, 
1884. Mr. Rutz meddles very little with political 
affairs, but performs his duties as a good citizen at 
times of general elections, and votes the straight 
Republican ticket. He and his estimable lady are 
members in good standing of the Brethren Church 
at Ocoya. 

MANUEL SWYGERT, who is numbered 
among the representative farmers of Owego 
Township, is pleasantly located on section 
9, where he owns 156 acres of improved laud, of 
which he took possession iu 1869. During his resi- 
dence here of nearly twenty years he has fully 
established himself as a reliable and valued citizen, 
and has attended strictly to the farming pursuits which 
he commenced in his boyhood. He was c< miparati very 
without means when he started out for himself in 
life, but is now enjoying the ample rewards of in- 
dustry and frugality. He is public-spirited and 
liberal, and nothing pleases him better than to note 
the prosperity and advancement of the people 
a i ( mud him, both morally and financially. He is now, 
with his aged and estimable wife, passing quietly 
down the sunset hill of life, comforted with a good 
conscience and the satisfaction of feeling that they 
have done what they could in exerting a good in- 
fluence around them, and setting an example worthy 
of imitation by the rising generation. 

Mr. Swygert forms an important member of the 
colony which, in the early days, emigrated in small 
detachments from Penns3 T lvauia, he having been a 
native of that State, and born in Franklin County, 
Jul}- 14, 1814. His parents were John and Susan 
Swygert, natives of the same State, where his pater- 
nal grandfather. George Swygert, had located at an 
early day. after serving as a soldier in the Revolu- 
tionary War. When the struggle ended he took up 
bi- abode in Franklin County, where he was married, 
and reared his family, whose descendants are largely 
represented in that section of country. His SOU 
John, the father of our subject, was there reared to 
farming pursuits, which he followed all his life, and 




when 1 ho was married and became the father of 
seven children. Of these four survive, namely, 
William. Henry, John and Emannel. In middle life 
John Swygert came to the West with his family, lo- 
cating in Fulton County. 111., aliont 1842. where In- 
resided with his estimable wife until called from the 
scenes of earth. 

Our subject spent several years in Fulton County 
with his parents, and was there married, in 1844, to 
Miss Catherine Hawker, who has remained his elo>i- 
friend and companion for over forty years. Mrs. 
S. is a native of the same State as her husband, and 
they became the parents of two children : Charles, 
now deceased, and Matilda, the wife of James Lowe, a 
prosperous farmer of Owego Township. They re- 
moved from Fulton to Livingston County in 1869, 
where Mr. S. had purchased the land which he has since 
transformed into a valuable farm. It had then but a 
small frame dwelling upon it, with a poor excuse for 
a barn, which the family took pos>cion of until 
they could afford something better. In due time 
the first humble residence was replaced by a more 
modern and convenient structure, and a good barn 
stands in the rear. Adjacent is a fine orchard of 
apple and other choice fruit trees, and the live stock 
and farm machinery combine to give the premises 
a substantial and homelike appearance which is 
pleasant to the eye. Mr. and Mi's. Swygert number 
their friends by the score in Livingston County, and 
enjoy the distinction of lie ing numbered not only 
among its first, but among its best residents. 

J~j OSEPH BRADSHA W. When one has per- 
formed all the duties devolving upon him 
I in rearing a family of children to manhood 
' and womanhood, he deserves the ecomium, 
"Well done, thou good and faithful," and is enti- 
tled to pass the sunset days of his life in rest and 
quiet. The subject of this sketch, now a retired 
farmer living in Fairbury, was born in Washington 
County, Pa., on the 9th of July, 1821, and is the 
son of Edward and Nancy (Patterson) Bradshaw, 
natives of County Tyrone, Ireland, where they 
were married. [Before emigrating to this country 
they had one child, Anna, now Mrs. William Brock. 

They came to America in the year 1811, landing 
at New York, and proceeded at once to Washing- 
ton County, Pa., where he followed the occupation 
of a weaver, a trade which he had learned in his 
native country, and in which he had become very 
proficient. From Pennsylvania he removed into 
Ohio, where he died on the 31st of December, 1875, 
aged eighty-three years; his wife died on the 22d 
of November, 1803. They were the parents of ten 
children Ann, Sarah, David, Mary, Joseph, John 
W., Margaret, William, George and Catherine. 

At the age of sixteen years, the subject of this 
notice was apprenticed to a millwright, which trade 
he learned and followed for about fifteen years, 
when he concluded to engage in the occupation of 
a farmer. In 1859 he moved to Buchanan County, 
Mo., but not being favorably impressed with the 
country there, he remained but five months, when 
he went to Pike County, 111., and rented a farm on 
which he lived for six years. At the end of that 
time he came to Livingston County and purchased 
eight}' acres of land, which he successfully managed 
until 188b, when he discontinued farming, and re- 
moved to Fairbury, where he will reside in the 
future, enjoying the fruits of a long life of success- 
ful labor. 

On the 23d of December, 1842, Mr. Bradshaw 
was married to Miss Dorcas Arnold, a native of 
Jefferson County, Ohio, who was born Sept. 13, 
1823, and was the daughter of Solomon and Bar- 
bara (Stonebrook) Arnold. The father was born 
in Pennsylvania, in 1791, and died on the 15th of 
May, 1846. He was a farmer by occupation, and 
by trade a cabinet-maker. The mother was a na- 
tive of North Carolina. To them eleven children 
were born Hickman, Dorcas, Rebecca. Prue, Bar- 
bara E., Mary A., Sarah Jane, David, Eli, Drusilla 
and Jacob S. 

Mr. and Mrs. Bradshaw have had seven children: 
Barbara, now Mrs. William Rutledge, living in 
Linn County, Kan.; Edward IL, born Oct. 22, 
1846, died Dec. 31, 1875; Nancy J., now Mrs. 
Michael Morris, living in this county; Mary, Mrs. 
Darius Vail, living in Joplin, Mo.; William T. niar- 
I ried Miss Sarah E. Cox: David W. died in infancy; 
Harriet E., Mrs. Barklcy Connor, living in Wichita, 
Kan. Mr. and Mrs. Bradshaw are active and inllu- 



ential members of the Christian Church, of which 
lie lias been an Elder for the past seven years, and 
a member for nine years. The wife has been a 
member of that church for over fifty years; they 
are botli much devoted to their chinch. Mr. Brad- 
shavv has been a great observer of political events 
all his life, and very early in the career of the Re- 
publican party became one of its enthusiastic adher- 
ents, remaining so up to the present time. 


fifi OSIAH M. FETZER. Many of the earlier 
settlers of Virginia came from Germany, 
and they were among the most thrifty far- 
mer.s and tradesmen of the Old Dominion, 
although for a great length of time they labored 
under many disadvantages unless they were well 
enough off to own slaves, which few of them de- 
sired to, even had they been able. Many Virgin- 
ians of German ancestry are now scattered 
throughout the West, and among her best citizens 
Illinois can claim a multitude of them. In Liv- 
ingston County there are quite a number of fami- 
lies who are natives of Virginia, and they are all 
thrifty and prosperous people. The subject of 
this sketch, who is a representative farmer and 
stock-raiser on section 28, Avoca Township, is a 
native of Shenandoah County, Va., and was born 
on the 17th of January, 1848. 

Mr. Fetzer is the son of George and Catherine 
Fetzer, the latter deceased, who were Virginians by 
birth, and the father was of German descent. To 
them were born eight children, five of whom are 
living: John W. ; Eliza, wife of L. T. Courtney; 
James B., George and Josiah M. When our sub- 
ject was about four years of age his parents emi- 
grated to Illinois and settled in Vermilion Town- 
ship, Ln Salle County, where the mother died in 
the month of June, 1881. The father, who is 
nearly seventy years of age, resides in that county, 
an honored and respected citizen. He has always 
been identified with moral reforms and movements 
for the betterment of the people. For a consid- 
erable time he served as School Director in La 
Salle County, and during his administration the 

affairs of the schools were well and judiciously 

Mr. Fetzer was reared to manhood on a farm in 
La Salle County, where he received a good educa- 
tion in the district schools. On the 18th of March, 
1874, he was married to Mary F. Scott, a native of 
La Salle County, and a daughter of John Scott, a 
pioneer of that county. Of this union there are 
three children : Cora E., born on the 2d of May, 
1875; Charles R., May 4, 1879; Pearl, Sept. 30, 
1884. Mr. Fetzer came to Livingston County in 
the year 1886, and settled upon the farm which he 
now occupies in Avoca Township. This farm con- 
sists of 100 acres of well-improved land, which has 
been thoroughly drained and made exceedingly 
productive. lu connection with his farming oper- 
ations he devotes considerable attention to the 
raising of stock of all kinds, and in this has been 
quite successful. He is a Democrat in his political 
affiliations, but does not engage in politics for the 
purpose of securing office. He has served for 
several years as School Director, to the duties of 
which position he has given close and careful at- 
tention. He is a'friend of education and pro- 
gressive in his ideas of the management of schools. 
He and his wife occupy an enviable position in the 
society of Avoca Township, and are highly re- 
spected and esteemed for their many good qualities. 

ERMAN GIRARD, one of Long Point's 
thorough-going and progressive farmers and 
stock- raisers, located on section 13, was 
born in Prussia, Germany, Dec. 23, 1836. 
He is the son of Frederick and Dorothea Girard, 
who are natives of the same country, and came to 
America in July, 1856, landing at Castle Garden, 
N. Y. From New York they proceeded to Chi- 
cago, where they remained two weeks; thence they 
went to Ottawa, and from there to Livingston 
County, where Frederick purchased ninety acres of 
land, twenty of which were heavily timbered. 

On the 16th of February, 1868, Herman Girard 
was married to Mary Zeilman, daughter of Corne- 
lius and Betsy (Hall) Zeilman. To Mr. and Mrs. 
Girard have been born eight children, seven of i 



whom are now living. Olive was born Dec. C, 
1868; Dorothea, Sept. 4, 1870; Adolph, Nov. 25, 
1872 ; Philo Wesley, Nov. 5, 1874 ; Marian Blanche, 
born Feb. 20, 1877, died July G> 1880; Mabel Lu- 
cinda, born Jan. 11, 1880; Mamie Bell, April 5, 
1882, and Hilda Melvina, Dec. 31, 1884. 

Mr. Girard enlisted in Company C, 39th Illinois 
Infantry, which was organized at Poutiac, but his 
enlistment was at Chicago in August, 18(51. The 
regiment went to St. Louis and from there to Will- 
iamsburg, Md., arriving there Nov. 2, 1861, at 
which time and place they received their first guns. 
Mr. Girard received a flesh wound on the knee at 
Morris Island, S. C., on the 9th of October, 1863, 
while he was on duty rebuilding the old fort. He 
was discharged from the hospital Jan. 1, 1864, and 
was afterward wounded at Drewry's Bluff, Va., 
May 1 6 of that year. At the battle of Petersburg, 
Va., he was again wounded in the left leg in the 
charge on Craig, April 2, 1865. He is now receiv- 
ing a pension of $10 per month on account of these 
last two wounds. Mr. Girard was promoted Cor- 
poral, and Sept. 1, 1863, was promoted to the rank 
of Sergeant. He was in the battle of Petersburg, 
and on the 20th of March, 1862, was in the engage- 
ment at Winchester, and afterward was continu- 
ously under fire while on guard duty along the 
river. At Ft. Waggoner he helped to dig up to 
the fort, and the night the fort was taken he was 
one of the twenty men who first entered it as vol- 
unteers. After the Union troops had taken pos- 
session the Johnnies tried to blow it up by setting 
fire to a fuse leading to the magazine; this was first 
noticed by Mr. Girard. He was in the engagement 
at Folly Island, after which he was engaged in 
scouting and skirmishing until his discharge from 
the army. 

After his return from the army Mr. Girard en- 
gaged in agricultural pursuits, although lie was a 
cooper by trade. He now owns 120 acres of fine 
farming land under a high state of cultivation, 
which is well improved, fenced, and drained by 400 
rods of tiling. Politically, Mr. Girard is a Repub- 
lican, having grown up in that faith. His service 
in the army strengthened it, and his mature judg- 
ment, formed by close observation of men, and the 
course of political parties, has given a still more 

stalwart character to his political belief. He does 
not, of course, carry his politics into his business, 
nor, on the other hand, does he allow his business 
to enter into his politics. He is a Comrade of Post 
No. 223, G. A. R., at Cornell, in which he takes a 
leading and active part. He was brought up in 
the faith of the Lutheran. Church. He is one of 
Long Point's most progressive citizens, and enjoys 
the confidence anil esteem of all who know him. 
His family occupies an enviable position in that 
section of the county, and deservedly so. 

J~ OHN HARRIS. Some of the best citizens 
now residents of the United States were con- 
tributed by England, not only in Colonial 
days but in later years. They arc nearly all 
men of intelligence, because of the advanced jxisi- 
tion of Kngland in educational advantages and also 
of the innate aptness of the English ]>eoplc for getting 
on in the world. A large j>er cent of the English- 
men now in the United States are skilled mechanics, 
and they have been indispensable aids in assisting 
American manufacturers to occupy the leading posi- 
tion they do in the markets of the world. The En- 
glish farmer displays as much tact and aptness in his 
special calling as does his brother in the manufact- 
uring world. The subject of this sketch, who is 
one of the wealthy and respected fanners of Living- 
ston County, residing in Belle Prairie Town>hip. 
\\.-i~ horn in North Devonshire, England, on the 30th 
of March, 1832, and is the son of William and Mary 
(Bennett) Harris, both of whom are of pure Engli.-h 
blood. The father was by occupation a gentlemanV 
footman. His death occurred in 1881. and the 
mother's in 1848. They were the parents of seven 
children Jeremiah. William. Elizabeth, John, Sn>an. 
Thomas and Mary J. 

John Harris came to America in 1855, landing at 
(Juebee, Canada, from which place he proceeded to 
Genesee County, >". Y. There he remained for 
live years engaged at work by the month. He then 
came to Illinois and located at Shirley, a place 
south of Bloomiiigton. where he worked by the 
month for the same man. a Mr. Uaird. for the next five 
years. At the end of that time he purchased a piece 









of laud hi Forest Township, Livingston County, 
where he remained onefyear, and sohHhis and rented 
land for two, years Jof Dr. Bartlett. He then came 
to Belle Prairie Township and purchased 130 acres 
of unimproved prairie land, which he immediately 
set to work to transform into a productive farm, 
in which enterprise he succeeded so well that he now 
owns 380 acres of as good land as can be found 
anywhere. During hisj-esidence in this township lie 
has devoted considerable attention to the raising of 
hogs, and_also in this particular branch has been 
eminently successful, and now is looked upon as one 
of the wealthiest men of the township. 

In May, 1852, Mr. Harris^ was married to Miss 
Mary Cooper, who was born in Devonshire. En- 
gland, 011 the 27th of October, 1830, and to them 
have been born eight children : John C., who mar- 
ried Miss Mary A. Weeks, Nov. 9, 1881, and they 
have two children, Blanche and Mabel; Frank ,1., 
who married Hattie K. Knight, and they have one 
child named Roy;-, Walter W., William, Emanuel, 
Mary J., Lydia A.\and James A. Mr. Harris is a 
leading and prominent member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, to which he contributes liberally 
of both time and money. He is a straight Repub- 
lican in politics, and takes an active part in the cam- 
paigns of his party. In business affairs he is prompt 
and reliable, and faithfully keeps all his obligations. 

Among the numerous farm homesteads shown in 
this volume as specimens of what Livingston County 
affords may be found Mr. Harris' place. 

JOSEPH S. FINLEY, an^extensjve farmer 
and stock-dealer of Esmen Township, is the 
owner of 600 acres of land on section 34, 
which comprises one of the finest estates in 
Livingston County. His land is under good cul- 
tivation, and the farm buildings are of a handsome 
and substantial style of architecture, and admira- 
bly adapted to the purposes for which they were 
intended. The live stock includes some fine spec- 
imens of Norman and Cleveland Bay horses, 
Short-horn cattle and Poland-China hogs. Mr. 
Finley has attained a fine reputation as a breeder, 
and in his business has been remarkably successful, 

and exhibits some of the finest animals in this part 
of the State. 

Our subject was born in Delaware County, Ohio, 
Oct. 1C, 1830, and was the eldest of a family of 
nine children, the offspring of Robert and Eliza- 
beth (Riley) Finley, natives respectively of Vir- 
ginia and Pennsylvania. The paternal grand- 
parents were John and Nancy (Moore) Finley, of 
the same States. Grandfather Finley was a farmer 
by occupation, and served as a soldier in the Rev- 
olutionary War. He possessed a fine constitution 
and was of excellent habits, and rounded up the 
good old age of ninet}' years before he was gath- 
ered to his fathers. The parents of the mother of 
[ our subject were Joseph and Mary (Smith) Riley, 
of Pennsylvania, where Joseph Riley followed farm- 
ing all his life. His father was a native of Ger- 
many, and emigrated to America at an early period 
in its history, starting with his parents from his na- 
tive land. They, however, did not- live to behold 
the shores of the New World, as both died on the 
voyage and received an ocean burial. Their son 
Joseph was then a mere babe, and was adopted by 
an Irish gentleman named Riley. He was too 
young to tell his own name, and consequently never 
knew it, and was never able to communicate with 
friends or relatives of his parents. 

Robert Finley, the father of our subject, was 
reared in Delaware County, Ohio, and followed 
farming there until 1839. He then sold out and, 
migrating westward, purchased a tract of land in 
Kane County, this State, where he established a 
comfortable home and spent the remainder of his 
days. He was a man of more than ordinary intelli- 
gence, became active in political affairs, and during 
the time of the slavery agitation was one of the 
most active Abolitionists of the country. All the 
strength of his manhood was thrown into the bal- 
ance on the side of freedom and humanity. His 
name is familiarly known throughout the central 
part of this State, and he was a strong foe of his op- 
ponents, the most of whom were his inferiors in in- 
telligence and general information. lie is remem- 
bered as a gentleman of kind impulses, and was an 
active member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
After a useful life, during which lie had endeavored 
to build up a worth}' record for his children to re- 

, > 296 


fleet upon in after years, he folded his hands for his 
finnl rest in 1877. The mother departed this life in 
1875, at the homestead in Kane County. 

Our subject was edueated in the snl)seri])tion 
schools of Central Illinois, and trained exclusively 
to fanning pursuits. After reaching his majority 
he commenced cultivating a tract of land on his 
own account, and on the 18th of April, 1855. took 
to himself a wife and helpmeet in the person of Miss 
Mary J. Campbell, who was the second child of 
James and Sarah (Graham) Campbell, native.- of 
Ireland and of Scotch-Irish descent. They emi- 
grated to America early in life, and eventually 
drifted west to Marion County. Ohio, where their 
daughter Mary was born Oct. 16, 1833. That same 
year the family came to this county, locating in 
Esmeii Township, where there were at the time 
but three or four families. Mr. Campbell. h<>\ve\ er. 
only lived a short time thereafter, but many of his 
descendants are still residents of this section. 

After their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Finley came to 
this county and located u]K>n the land which is now 
included in their present homestead, taking po.-.-es- 
sion on the l()th of May, 1853. His tirst purchase 
was a quarter section, and the dwelling which he 
afterward erected was the first frame house built 
along the creek in this part of Livingston County. 
That structure, in 18G4. was replaced by the hand- 
some and commodious dwelling which they now oc- 
cupy, and which, with its adjacent buildings and 
surroundings, forms one of the most attractive fea- 
tures of the landseai>e in Ksmen Township. They 
have labored hard, hand [in hand, to build up a 
home, and it needs but a glance at this pro]>crty to 
convince the beholder that they have succeeded in 
an admirable manner, and it is with pleasure that We 
present in connection with this sketch a view of the 

Mr. Finley. in the fall of 1864. was drafted for 
the Union service and taken to Springfield for ex- 
amination, lie was rejected on account of physical 
disability, and consequently was not permitted to 
see any service. His influence, however, like that 
of his father, was exerted in favor of the honorable 
prosecution of the war and the preservation of the 

The six children of Mr. and Mrs. Finley were 

named res[K'ctiveIy. Robert V. : George R.. now de- 
c-eased; Sarah H. : Mary ('.. deceased : Jennie 1'.. and 
Alice, deceased. Sarah became the wife of Ed- 
ward Whalen. and lives at home with her parent-. 
her husband assisting in the management of the 
farm: they have had three children Roy. who is 
deceased. Lulu B. and Frank F. Robert and Jen- 
nie make their home with their parents. The latter 
has been pursuing her studies in the 1'ontiac schools 
and expects to be graduated soon. Mr. Finley has 
served a> School Director in his district most of the 
time since lie first settled here, and has been School 
Trustee for the last seven or eight years, lie has 
also served as Road Commissioner. He meddles 
little with jiolitics otherwise than casting a straight 
Republican vote upon occasions of important elec- 

J"?OHN BUFFHAM, who after many struggles 
| and much contending with adversity, is now 
I one of the leading farmers of Nevada Town- 
' ship, where he owns 1 60 acres on section 1 1 , 
was born in Lincolnshire, England, on the 21st of 
January, 1842. He is the son of John Buffham, 
also a native of P^ngland, who was engaged in farm- 
ing all his life, and died in England in 1850. The 
maiden name of the mother of our subject was 
Mary A. Green, who was born in Lincolnshire, and 
lived there until 1856. In that year she was mar- 
ried to George Essington, and shortly afterward 
with him, accompanied by her three children and 
his eight by a former marriage, came to America. 
They settled in Plainfield, Will County, where they 
have since resided. Mr. Buffham has a brother and 
sister living: Joseph lives in C'alhoun County, 
Iowa, and Mary married John Stafford, who died 
at Pontiac , where his widow now lives. 

Mr. Buffham was eight years old when his father 
died, and before that occurrence he attended school 
for a short time ; afterward he had to work in order 
to procure his own living. He worked for three 
years for his board and clothes, and after that for 
eightpence per day, and boarded himself. He 
came to America with his mother and found em- 
ployment by the month during the first two years 



297 , 

of his residence in this country in Will County. 
He then went to Kendall County, and worked by 
the month until soon after the breaking- out of the 
War. On the 16th of August, 1862, he enlisted in 
Company H, 89th Illinois Infantry, in which he 
served until the close of the war. On the llth of 
September, 1864, he was taken prisoner at Atlanta, 
after which he was confined in the prisons at Ma- 
con, Ga., Milan, and Savannah, Ga., and from the 
latter place was taken several miles into the for- 
ests, where he and his fellow-prisoners were under 
guard for two weeks. On the 24th of December, 
1864, he was taken to Andersonville, where he was 
confined until the close of the war, after which he 
was taken to Baldwin, Fla., and liberated, and with 
others made his way to the Federal lines at Jack- 
sonville, where he arrived more dead than alive. 
During his confinement at Andersonville he suf- 
fered all its tortures and horrors, and has never re- 
covered from the effects of the starvation and 
brutal and inhuman treatment there received. He 
was mustered out of the service at Springfield, 111., 
on the 29th of June, 1865, and then returned to Will 
County, where he remained until the spring of 
1866, when he went to Kendall County and bought 
eighty acres of land, which he engaged in farming 
until 1875. In that year he sold out and came to 
Livingston County, and purchased the farm which he 
now owns and occupies. This farm consists of 160 
acres, all of which are improved, and contains good 
pasture laud. 

On the 12th of September, 1865, Mr. Buffham 
was married to Sarah Ann Kirton, who was born in 
Lincolnshire. England, on the 16th of May, 1843. 
Her father, Thomas Kirton, was born in the same 
shire, where he was reared and lived until 1853, 
when he came to America with his wife and two 
children, and located in Cleveland, Ohio. They 
resided in that city for three years, and the mother 
of Mrs. Buffham died there. In 1855 her father 
moved to Illinois, and lived in Mt. Carroll until 
1856, then moved to Will County. He died at the 
residence of Mrs. Buffham in 1 879. Mrs. Buffham 
had one brother named William, who was a soldier 
in the 17th Illinois Cavalry. He died in the serv- 
ice at Glasgow, Mo. 

Mr. and Mrs. Buffham are the parents of five 

children living Joseph K., Mary E., John T., 
Willie and Fred S. They had two children who 
died in infancy, Eddie and Sadie. Our subject 
and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, of which they are regular attendants and 
to which they contribute liberally of their means. 
Mr. Buffham is in every sense of the word a self- 
made man. Through all trials and adversities he 
has bravely contended, and with his own hands, 
assisted by his excellent wife, has carved out a 
comfortable competency, at the same time making 
and maintaining for himself a name for strict honor 
and integrity, which after all is the best heritage to 
leave to posterity. In politics Mr. Buffham has 
always been a Republican, and though not a politi- 
cian he can invariably be relied upon to further 
the best interests of the party. As a citizen he 
stands well with all the people, and discharges faith- 
fully every obligation imposed by the law and the 
customs of his neighborhood. 

ACOB SPILLMAN, Postmaster at Swygert, 
where he is engaged in general merchandis- 
ing, is widely and favorablj' known through- 
out Owego Township as having been one of 
its most successful farmers, and who was fortunate 
in accumulating a fine property. He retired from 
active labor in 1886, and investing a portion of his 
capital in general merchandise, established himself 
in trade at Swygert, where lie takes life compara- 
tively easy, and is numbered among its most sub- 
stantial residents. He carries a good stock of 
everything required in a village or country house- 
hold, including the smaller implements of the farm. 
His straightforward business methods have com- 
mended him to the people of his community, and he 
enjoys a large patronage among its best residents. 
The early home of Mr. Spillman was in Switzer- 
land, where he was born March 15, 1825. His 
parents, John and Phrona Spillman, were also of 
Swiss parentage, and spent their entire lives on 
their native soil. Young Jacob was placed in 
school at an early age, where he pursued his studies 
from the time he was six until he was fourteen 
years old, and was afterward engaged at general 


1 298 


work, making his home with his father. He had 
been an ambitious boy, and was desirous of some- 
thing better than the prospect held out to him in 
the Fatherland. He remained under the parental 
roof until after reaching his majority, and in the 
spring of 1848 made his preparations for a voyage 
to the New World. Taking passage on a sailing- 
vessel at Havre he bade adieu to the friends and 
associates of his childhood, and after a voyage of 
twelve weeks, set foot upon American soil, landing 
first in the city of New Orleans, lie remained in 
the Crescent City but a short time, and thence pro- 
ceeded up the Mississippi to this State, not long 
afterward locating in this county, where he began 
the career which has since been marked with such 

The first marriage of our subject took place in 
Bureau County, 111., in 1853, the maiden of his 
choice being Miss Fredricka Dietz. They passed 
the first years of their wedded life in Bureau County, 
and became the parents of two children Albert 
and Barbara. The mother of these passed away in 
1880. The present wife of our subject, to whom 
he was married in 1882, was formerly Mrs. Rosa 
Johnson, and they began life together in a modest 
dwelling in Owego Township. Of this union there 
were born two sons and one daughter Julius, Ag- 
gie, and a babe unnamed. 

Mr. Spillman is Democratic in politics, and a 
prominent member of the Presbyterian Church. 
He has made good use of his opportunities since 
becoming a naturalized citizen, and the occasion of 
his seeking a permanent home in the New World 
has proved fortunate to himself as well as to the 
people with whom he has been associated. 

pILLIAM TAVENER is a prominent farmer 
and stock-raiser on section 17, Avoca 
Township, who has been a resident of this 
country for fifteen years. He was born July 14, 
1848, in Somersetshire, a county of England, lying 
south of the Bristol Channel. The coast line and 
surface of this county are very much diversified, 
and hi ghl}' picturesque. It is watered by the Parrot, 
Axe, Avon, and Yeo Rivers, all of which flow into 

the Bristol Channel. Along the rivers are many 
marshes and tracts of high fertility, but in other 
parts are extensive wastes, as Exmoor at the west- 
ern extremity. Cheddar and other cheeses, wool 
and cider are the principal products. Coal, stone, 
calamine and fuller's earth are obtained. Woolen 
goods, silks, gloves, linens, stockings, paper, glass, 
ironwares, woolcards, shoes, leather and malt are 
manufactured. The county contains the cities of 
Bath, Wells and a part of Bristol. Antiquities of 
almost every period of British history are met 
with in this county. This is the county from which 
Mr. Tavener hails, and where he was born, the son 
of Thomas and Elizabeth Taveuer, the former de- 
ceased, and the latter still residing in England. He 
was reared to manhood in his native country, where 
he received an excellent English education. He 
has all his life been engaged in the occupation of 

Mr. Tavener was married on the 9lh of May, 
1872, iu England, to Miss Sarah Ann Masters, 
daughter of William and Fanny (White) Masters, 
of Somersetshire, England. Her parents are both 
dead. Directly after his marriage, Mr. Tavener 
and his wife emigrated to America, and soon after 
their arrival at New York proceeded to Livingston 
County, where for nine years he engaged in farm- 
ing upon a rented farm. In the spring of 1 882 he 
settled upon the farm which he now occupies in 
Avoca Township, where he has 175 acres of excel- 
lent land, as a reward for his industry, economy 
and good management since becoming a citizen of 
this country. His surroundings attest truthfully 
the measure of success he has attained, and he is 
now considered one of the most prosperous farmers 
of Avoca Township. He and his wife are both mem- 
bers of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and their 
devotion to the church is manifested in many 

Mrs. Tavener was born on the 4th of November, 
184C, and is the mother of seven children: Min- 
nie L., born June 20, 1875; Fannie E., Aug. 10, 
1877; Walter S., Dec. 25, 1879; Albert E., Dec. 
25, 1881; Charles E., Jan. 13, 1885; Jessie M.. 
March 13, 1880, and Nellie M., May 13, 1887. 
These children are all strong and healthy, and bid 
fair to grow to man and womanhood in vigorous 



health. Mr. and Mrs. Tavener have become 
thoroughly identified with American life and cus- 
toms, and have no cause of regret for having left 
the land of their nativity to make their homes and 
fortunes in the New World, where every man is a 
peer, and there is no caste caused by landed estates 
or immense wealth, which precludes the humblest 
man in the country from becoming its chief ruler. 

>ILLIAM SMITH, who has been a resident 
farmer of Livingston County since 1859, 
and now resides on section 32, Avoca 
Township, was born in Berkshire, which is an in- 
land county in the southern part of England, on 
the 3d of November, 1834. He is the son of 
Henry and Mary Smith, botli ofjwhom were natives 
of England, and is the sixth child of the family. 
He grew to manhood in his native country, where 
he received a good English education and learned 
the rudiments of farming. He emigrated to Amer- 
ica in 1859, taking passage at Liverpool in a 
steamer, and after an ocean voyage of fifteen days* 
in which the usual dangers of storm and wave were 
encountered, landed in New York City. He did 
not tarry there, but came direct to Livingston 
County, and after arriving here, for five months 
he worked by the month at $13, and afterward 
farmed as a renter for five years, and in this time 
he not only acquainted himself with all matters 
pertaining to American fanning, but by industry 
and economy accumulated enough to purchase a 
farm. He settled on his present farm in 1873, and 
has resided there since. It consists of 160 acres of 
good land, which he has improved both with good 
buildings and under-draining until it is one of the 
best in the county. ' In draining the farm he 
has consumed about 15,000 feet of various sized 
tile. All the money he has expended in draining 
is being returned to him now with tenfold profit in 
the way of increased crops. He generally keeps 
about twenty-five or thirty head of cattle of vari- 
ous kinds, and has from five to six horses available 
for any kind of work. When he made his start as 
an Illinois farmer he had a yoke of cattle, which he 
traded for a horse, and with which he tended thirty 

acres of corn. This corn when marketed only 
brought him fourteen cents per bushel, which left 
him a very small margin after deducting the cost 
of producing it, without considering his time at all. 
Mr. Smith was married, on the 1st .of March, 
1805, to Annie Rumbold, a native of Hampshire, 
England. They commenced life together on the 
east eighty of Mr. Smith's present farm, and they 
have had eight children, six of whom are living 
Mary E., Henry J., Thomas C., William E., Martha 
S. and Alfred E. Mr. Smith is a Republican in 
politics, and while he is not a politician he is loyal 
to that party to the extent of voting its tickets at 
all elections. His sympathies are with the Episco- 
pal Church, and his wife's with the Presbyterian 
Church. He has served as School Trustee for one 
term, and the people of Avoca Township remem- 
ber that the administration of school affairs during 
that term was such as to give almost universal sat- 
isfaction. Mr. Smith enjoys the esteem and confi- 
dence of his friends and neighbors, and he and his 
wife arc both active and influential members of the 
society of which they are a part. 

ENJAMIN E. HADLEY. Among the ac- 
cessions to the ranks of its citizens during 
the last eight years none have been more 
welcomed to Livingston County than the 
subject of this sketch, who is engaged in farming 
and stock-raising on section 21, Sunbury Town- 
ship. He is a native of the State of Ohio, where 
he was born in Clermont County, thirty miles east 
of Cincinnati, on the 6th of May, 1824. He is the 
youngest child in a family of nine born to Ebene- 
zer and Elizabeth (Patton) Hadley. Mr. Hadley 
was reared upon the farm and obtained a fair com- 
mon-school education under disadvantageous cir- 
cumstances. At the age of nineteen he began life 
for himself as a farmer, and followed that occupa- 
tion in Ohio until twenty-four years of age. when 
he accompanied his father to Kane County, 111. 
On the 8th of February, 184C, before coming to 
Illinois he was married to Barbara Whitmore, who 
was the fourth in a famity of eight children born 
to Conrad and Mary (Hensel) Whitmore, natives 






of Kentucky. Her father was a farmer and came 
to Illinois in 1868, where he died in the fall of 
that year at the residence of Mr. Hadley. In 1851 
our subject went to La Salle County, and purchased 
eighty acres of wild land, upon which he lived un- 
til 1880. At that time land in La Salle County 
was very valuable, and Mr. Hadley sold his farm, 
and with the proceeds of the sale came to Liv- 
ingston County, and purchased 150 acres of im- 
proved land, which he moved upon and has since 
been successfully cultivating. Besides his agricult- 
ural business he is largely engaged in raising stock 
of excellent quality. . 

Mr. and Mrs. Hadley are the parents of eight 
children, six of whom are living, as follows: t Han- 
nah M., Ezra L., John W., Amanda M., Charles 
W. and Jennie E. Two died in infancy. Han- 
nah, Mrs. William Greenlees, lives eight miles 
north of Ottawa; Ezra L. married Clara Totnpkins, 
and lives on a farm in Sunbury Township; John 
married Ella Davis, and lives on a farm in Iroquois 
County; Amanda, Mrs. B. F. Piester, lives in 
Nebraska; Charles married Flora Cornell, and lives 
near Cornell in this county ; Jennie married 
Henry L. Davis, and lives with his parents on the 
home farm, which he assists in conducting. Dur- 
ing the time Mr. Hadley has owned this farm he 
has materially improved it in every respect. It is 
completely under-drained, and well fenced, while 
the farm buildings are models of their kind. In 
his business affairs Mr. Hadley is energetic and 

Ever since the dissolution of the Whig party 
Mr. Iladley has been a Republican, and has all his 
life taken an active part in political matters, though 
he has never had any selfish motive in doing so, 
for he has never sought office, and the only ones 
he ever accepted at the hands of the people were 
those of Constable aivl Justice of the Peace seven 
years. He has been a Notary Public by appoint- 
ment of the Governor. He is a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, a very ardent Sunday- 
school worker, and is at the present time Superin- 
tendent of the Sunday-school, and President of the 
Township Sunday-School Organization. Mr. Had- 
ley is a great lover of good literature, and devotes 
considerable time to reading. His library is large 

and varied, including works upon almost all topics. 
He is a great reader of current literature and a 
large patron of the publications of the day. 

MARIAH N. BEMIS, formerly a leading 
farmer and stock -raiser of Esmen Town- 
ship, has retired from the labors and cares 
Q-JJ incident to the supervision of a large area 
of land and now occupies an elegant and comforta- 
ble home, surrounded by the friends whom he has 
made in by-gone years and enjoying the comforts 
which he has justly earned. He is of New England 
parentage, and was born in the town of Stafford, 
Tolland Co., Conn., March 16, 1814. His parents, 
Amariahand Sally (Shurnway) Bemis, were natives 
of Massachusetts, and settled in Connecticut about 
1812, soon after their marriage. They became the 
parents of eight children, namely, Clarissa, Mi- 
randa, Araariah N., Mary, Charles, Isaac, Judis and 

The paternal grandparents of our subject were 
Abijah and Mary Bemis, also natives of the Bay 
State. His mother was the daughter of Ebenezer 
and Comfort (White) Shumway, natives of Massa- 
chusetts, and of French descent. The grandmothers 
both lived to be more than ninety years of age, 
and Grandmother Shumway died at the age of 
ninety-five. The Bemis family was originally from 
England, the first representatives in this country 
being two brothers, the great-grandfather and the 
great-uncle of our subject. The uncle never mar- 
ried, and consequently the later descendants sprang 
from one brother. The latter was the father of 
thirteen children, as follows: Alpheus, Amariah, 
Aaron, Amos, Abigail, Alice, Amos (2d), Lydia, 
Willard, Abijah, Hephzibah, Tylor and Mary. The 
second son, Amariah, married, and became the 
father of eight children, namety, Clarissa, Miranda, 
Amariah N., Mary, Charles S., Judith, Isaac and 
Abijah. The third child of this family was the 
subject of our sketch. 

Young Bemis was reared to farm pursuits and in 
the meantime was employed considerably in a 
sawmill. lie received a limited education in the 
common schools, and after reaching his majority 


301 ' . 

left the parental roof to seek his fortune in the 
West, which was then beckoning eagerly to young 
and enterprising men. On the way, however, Mr. 
Bemis stopped for a time at Oxford, in Chenango 
County, N. Y., where he followed painting, which 
he had learned in his youth. He remained in this 
locality a number of years, and in the meantime, 
on the 9th of September, 1839, was united in mar- 
ringc with Miss Lucinda Backus, who was born in 
Oxford, N. Y., June 18, 1818. Her parents, Capt. 
John and Lucinda (Johnson) Backus, were natives 
respectively of Norwich and Canterbury, Conn. 
Her paternal grandparents were Ezra and Rhoda 
(Dodge) Backus, of Norwich, and her mother was 
the daughter of Obediah, Jr., and Lucinda (Dodge) 
Johnson, also of Connecticut. Col. Obediah John- 
son and his wife, Lucy, were the parents of Dr. 
Rufus, Obediah, Jr., mentioned above, Ebenezer, 
Nathan, John and Olive. Capt. John Backus was 
the father of four children by his first wife and five 
by his second. The first four were named respect- 
ively, Lucinda and Ezra, both now deceased; Will- 
iam and Lucinda (2d). His second wife, Abigail, 
was the daughter of Nathan and Desire (Crary) 
Glover. She became the mother of Henry, now in 
Massachusetts; John and Harriet, deceased ; Nathan 
in Dakota; and Guerdon. 

After his marriage Mr. Bemis remained a resi- 
dent of Oxford for a period of thirty-five years, the 
first fifteen of which he was employed as a me- 
chanic. A serious spell of sickness, however, 
weakened him so that he was obliged to give up 
his trade, and he then engaged in lumbering and 
freighting, carrying this on quite extensively for 
twenty years. In 1868 he came to Illinois, and 
purchased 160 acres of land on section 2, in Esrnen 
Township, which he placed in charge of his son. He 
also purchased the adjoining quarter of the same 
section which his son now lives on; he took posses- 
sion of it with his family in 1870, and built the resi- 
dence which he now occupies. He has superin- 
tended the cultivation of the land until now, with 
the aid of his son; it is all in fine condition and pro- 
ductive of the choicest crops. The residence and 
other buildings are among the best in the township, 
and the whole premises indicates the supervision of 
the thrifty and progressive modern agriculturist. 

Mr. and Mrs. Bemis, since coming West, have 
twice returned to their old home in New York to 
visit among the friends whom they had made dur- 
ing their long residence there. Two of their chil- 
dren are settled in the East, one in Connecticut and 
one in New York. They became the parents of 
five, of whom John died in 1848. when two and 
a half years old. The others are, Nelson Amariah, 
Mary Eliza, Harriet and Sarah. Nelson married 
Miss Sarah L. Shelden, and lives on a farm adjoin- 
ing that of his father; Maiy is the wife of Albert 
C. Green, and lives in Canterbury, Conn.: Harriet, 
Mrs. DeWitt A. Gleason, is a resident of Oxford, 
N. Y. Mr. Beniis has been uniformly successful 
in the cultivation of Illinois soil and is ranked 
among the representative men of this section of 
country. He votes the straight Republican ticket, 
| and has served twice as Assessor of his township. 
He is a prominent member of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, and was instrumental in the erection 
of their building, which is located not far from his 
home. Mrs. Bemis is connected with the Congre- 
gational Church in Odell. 

<jw)OHN D. REESE is an important factor in 
| the mining interests of Newtown Township, 
where he is engaged at Shaft No. 3, of the 
Vermilion Coal Company. He occupies 
the official position of Constable for this township, 
and is also a Deputy of the County Sheriff. He 
located in this township in 1878, and was appointed 
Mining Inspector by the Board of Supervisors of 
Livingston County. He devotes his time to min- 
ing in Shaft No. 3, except when discharging his 
official duties in one of the three capacities named. 
He is a property owner, and one of the leading and 
influential men among the miners of this section. 
He is of very industrious habits and possesses all 
the qualities of a good citizen. 

Mr. Reese was born in Pottsville, Pa., on the 
22d of February, 1837, and is the son of Daniel 
and Mary (Thomas) Reese, both of whom were 
born in Wales, the father in the year 1 804. The 
latter came to this country when a young man, but 
remained here but a few years, and then returned 



to his native country ^ where he married. He then 
remained in Wales until 1830, during which time 
several children were born, and then he returned 
to America. Of the twelve children born to them, 
four are now living: Mary is the wife of Henry 
Meadows, and they live at Streator, 111., engaged in 
the hotel business; John D. is our subject: David 
D. was engaged in the railroad business in Denver, 
Col ; Sarah married John T. Jones, who is a paper 
manufacturer in Lucas, Iowa. The mother of 
these children died in Peru, 111., on the 15th of 
March, 1880. The father is now living a retired 
life in Streator. 

Both parents were members of the Congregational 
Church, and the father was a local preacher and 
very active in church work. Many of his earlier 
sermons were preached in the Welsh language. In 
his early life he was a miner in Pennsylvania, in 
which State ^they settled when they came to this 
country. He acted in the capacity of Superintend- 
ent of Mines until he came West. After he be- 
came a citizen of Illinois he engaged in farming. 
Politically he is a stanch Republican, and was one 
of the earliest supporters of the Whig party during 
its existence; he has always been enthusiastic on 
the subject of politics, and his extensive reading of 
political literature has caused him to be one of the 
best posted men in Livingston County on political 
matters. He is now enjoying good health in all 
respects, excepting that impairment of eyesight 
consequent upon old age. 

John D. Reese was married in Swatara, Pa., on 
the 28th of March, 1861, to Mary Anderson, who 
was born in 1845, in Llewellyn, Pa. Her parents 
were natives of England, and came to this country 
in 1830. Both are now deceased, the father's 
death taking place in Peru, 111., in September, 1861. 
To them were born seven children, one in England 
and six in this country; of the five now living, all 
reside in Kansas, excepting the wife of our subject. 
To Mr. and Mrs. Reese have been born the follow- 
ing children: Lemuel, born June 5, 1862, resides 
at home, and is employed in Shaft No. 3; Sarah, 
born Sept. 3, 1864, married Thomas Pritchard, who 
died Jan. 9, 1887, and she and her two children 
reside witli her parents: Thomas, born Feb. 13, 
1866; John L., Aug. 29, 1867; Daniel B.. May 18, 

1868; Joseph, Aug. 21, 1869; Charles and Alexan- 
der, Nov. 3, 1870; the last five named all work in 
Shaft No. 3; Charles (2d). born Jan. 28, 1874; 
Mary E., April 26, 1878; Carrie, Feb. 15, 1880, all 
reside at home. During his residence five miles 
north of Peru, Mr. Reese's house was destroyed by 
fire and all his personal and household property 
was lost. At the time of the conflagration his wife 
was lying sick and helpless in bed, and within a 
moment or two after she was removed the walls 
fell in. Since that time Mr. Reese has thoroughly 
recovered from his loss, and is now very comfort- 
ably situated. 

J" 1 OHN W. SCHULZ, a properous German far- 
mer of Owego Township, became a resident 
here in 1867, locating on section 23, where 
he has since carried on general farming and 
built up a comfortable homestead. This is mainly 
the property of his estimable wife, and under his 
excellent management has become quite valuable. 
The farm buildings are substantial and comfortable 
and in every respect adapted to the requirements 
of country life. 

Mr. Schulz was born in the Province of Kur- 
Hessen, Germany, March 22, 1833, and is the .son 
of Adam and Annie P. Schulz, who were also of 
German birth and parentage, and spent their entire 
lives in their native laud. Our subject was there 
reared to manhood and received a good education, 
and after passing his twenty-second birthday was 
married, Dec. 25, 1856, to Miss Anna Elizabeth 
Holsower, a native of his own country, and born 
May 1, 1830. Mrs. S. is the daughter of Daniel 
and Ann M. Holsower, and by her union with our 
subject became the mother of eight children, seven 
living, namely, George, Katharine, William, Eliza- 
beth, Annie, Minnie and Michael. These are mar- 
ried and settled in comfortable homes of their own, 
most of them being residents of this county and 

Mr. and Mrs. Schulz continued in their native 
Germany for ten years after their marriage and 
then decided to emigrate to the New World. Bid- 
ding adieu to their friends and the associates of 




their childhood they took passage on a steamer at 
Bremen, and after a voyage of seventeen days, 
landed in New York City with their three children. 
Thence they proceeded directly westward, and it 
was not long before Mr. Schnlz decided to take up 
his abode in this county. He has proved a valued 
addition to the community, both socially and 
financially, and with his wife is a member in good 
standing of the German Evangelical Association. 
Politically he votes the Democratic ticket. 

AMUEL HERBERT. During the last few 
years there has been remarkable improve- 
ment in the manner of gathering and hous- 
ing the winter's crop of ice, and the sys- 
tem is now so perfect that the percentage of loss by 
shrinkage is largely reduced. One of the most 
enterprising ice-packers and dealers is Mr. Herbert, 
a citizen of Pontiac, who began that business in 

Mr. Herbert is a native of Rockland County, 
N. Y., where he was born on the 19th of March, 
1824. He is the son of Jacob and Frances (Keas- 
lor) Herbert, natives of the same county, who were 
engaged in the lumber business. The grandfather 
was Robert Herbert, a native of Nova Scotia, who 
during his life was engaged in the manufacture of 
wagons and carriages. Jacob had a family of ten 
children, eight of whom are now living, as follows : 
Samuel, Hannah J., Charles, Elizabeth, Phoebe, Cath- 
arine, Adelia and Theodore. Daniel died in 1854. 

Samuel Herbert was reared on a farm until he was 
fourteen years of age, and then for seven years as 
engaged in boating on the Hudson River. He after- 
ward worked in a gristmill in Dutches* County, N. 
Y., for six years, when in 1857 he concluded to try 
his fortunes in the West. In that year he arrived in 
Pontiac, and engaged in the business of plastering 
until 1875. In 1859 he built his first home, which 
gave place in 1872 to the fine residence which he at 
present occupies. His house, with the land on 
which it stands and other improvements, cost him 
18,000. Mr. Herbert engaged in his present business 
in 1 874, building his first ice-house on. the south 
side and near to the Vermilion River, and in 1884 

he bought his second ice-house in the eastern part of 
the city, which gives him a total capacity for 6,000 
tons. For the delivery of his crop, during the season 
he hires two wagons and four men besides himself. 

In 1848, Mr. Herbert was married to Miss Ann 
J. Lewis, of Dutchess County, N. Y. She was the 
daughter of John and Esther (Hudson) Lewis, na- 
tives of England. Her father came to America with 
his family in 1831, and settled in the city of New 
York, where he engaged in the manufacture of boots 
and shoes, afterward removing to Poughkeepsie, 
Dutchess County, and engaging in the same business, 
which [occupation he followed until he died. The 
wife died in 1881. They had a family of three 
children : Sarah, Mrs. Ward, of Pontiac, and Ann J., 
Mrs. Herbert. The children of Mr. and Mrs. Her- 
bert are recorded as follows : Daniel married Mary 
Hart, of Pontiac, and has three sons Harry, Ward 
and Hart ; Esther, Mrs. E. Wiggins, of Chicago, who 
is the mother of two children Charles and Harry ; 
Sarah J., Mrs. H. R. Davis, of Pontiac, who is the 
mother of five children William, Mary, Henry, 
Mearl and Pearl; John J. and Eunice A., at home. 
Mr. Herbert is a member of the Independent Order 
of Odd Fellows. He gives his political adhesion to 
the Democratic party. He has in times past been a 
member of the City Board. 

We are pleased to present the portrait of Mr. 
Herbert on the accompanying page, together with 
that of his estimable wife. 

eLAYTON HOSKINS. One of the most 
beautiful homes in Rook's Creek Township 
belongs to the subject of this sketch, and is 
located on section 19. It comprises eighty acres 
of good land, which yields abuadantly the choice 
products of the Prairie State, with a handsome 
dwelling, a good barn, and all other out-buildings 
required by the modern farmer and stock-raiser. 
His family includes his wife and five children, the 
latter born as follows: Wesley D., May 22, 1874; 
Henry F., Nov. 1, 1875; Clarence L., March 22, 
1878; Peter N., March 22, 1881; Flora May, Oct. 
21, 1882. The head of this interesting family is 
about forty years of age, having been born Feb. 29, 





1848. His birthplace and early home was in Mar- 
shall County, where he was reared on a farm and 
remained until manhood with his parents, Henry 
and Mary Ann (Bonhain) Hoskins, natives of Pick- 
away County, Ohio, the former born May 12, 1822, 
and the latter about 1825. 

The father of our subject came to Illinois when 
a young man about twenty-one years of age, in 
1843, and the mother came with her parents when 
a child. The grandparents on both sides of the 
house, it is supposed, were natives of Virginia. 
Grandfather Hoskins was born about 1793, and 
spent his last years in Marshall County, 111. To 
the parents of our subject there were born seven 
children besides Clayton, all living and located 
as follows; Eveline 0., born in September, 1850, 
remains at home with her parents; Clarissa is the 
wife of Henry Tarbell, of Greene County, Iowa, 
and the mother of five children; Eliza, Mrs. Clar- 
ence Jarrnin, has two children, and is a resident of 
Marshall County, 111. ; William married Miss Ida 
May Tanquarry, and is farming in Rook's Creek 
Township; they have three children. Lois is the 
wife of William Connor, a resident of Clay County, 
Neb. ; Thomas and Elmer, the youngest [sons, re- 
main at home with their father. 

Mr. Hoskins, when twenty-one years of age re- 
ceived from his father a team of horses and a por- 
tion of land, for which he was to pay a moderate 
annual rental. Upon this he remained until past 
twenty-four years of age, and in the meantime was 
married, Feb. 25, 1872, to Miss Amanda F. Ni.yhs- 
wonger. He afterward continued one year on the 
home place, and purchased forty acres of his pres- 
ent homestead. He put up his house in 1871, and 
added eighty acres to his first purchase, so that he 
now has a fine tract of 120 acres, which makes a 
good start in life, and holds out a fair prospect for 
the future. He is held in high esteem as a promis- 
ing young citizen, and is serving his first term as 
School Director in his district. Politically he is a 
stanch supporter of the Democratic party, and is a 
member in good standing of the Christian Church 
at Flanagan. The parents of Mrs. Hoskins, Peter 
and Nancy (Baringer) Nighswonger, were natives 
respectively of Virginia and Ohio. Her father 
came to Illinois with his parents when a child two 

years of age, and the mother came with a married 
sister, when a young lady, their mother having died 
some years before. The parents were married in 
Pike County, 111., and removed to Marshall County 
in 1856, where they reared their family, and 
whence, in 1876, they removed to Missouri, where 
they now reside. Charles R. Nighswonger, the 
paternal grandfather of Mrs. H., died in Pike 
County, at an advanced age. Her brothers and 
sisters, of whom there are seven, are living mostly 
in Davis County, Mo. Her sister Angeline is a 
resident of Northern Nebraska. 

ORENZO F. PRATT, a gentleman on the 
sunny side of fifty, is industriously en- 
gaged in farming and stock-raising on sec- 
tion 9, Belle Prairie Township, on the southern 
line of this county. He is a New Englander by 
birth, having first opened his eyes to the light in 
Franklin County, Vt., Dec. 19, 1840. His child- 
hood and j'outh were spent in his native Stats. 
During the late Civil War he enlisted in Company 
I, 1st Vermont Infantry, but after serving four 
months contracted a disease which compelled him 
to abandon army life, receiving an honorable dis- 
charge. He remained in the Green Mountain 
State a short time afterward, and in 1864 set out 
for Illinois, in which State he has since resided. 

The parents of our subject were Allen and Ase- 
nath (Wait) Pratt, natives also of Vermont, where 
they spent their entire lives, the father passing 
away in 1854, and the mother, who survived her 
husband twenty -eight years, in 1882. They were 
most excellent people, highly respected in their 
community, and the mother a devoted member of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. Allen Pratt was 
a skilled mechanic, and also engaged in lumbering 
and farming. Although never becoming wealthy, 
he always provided suitably and generously for his 
family, which included twelve children, some of 
whom died in infancy. They were named as fol- 
lows: Curtis P., Lorenzo F., Sophia E., Ira A., 
Lucina W., Betsey M., Ira C. (2d), Charles J., Lu- 
cina W. (2d), Mary- J., Lorenzo F. (2d) and 
George R. Those who survived were reared on the 



307 t , 

farm, and most of them remained in New England. 
The subject of this biography received but lim- 
ited school advantages during his childhood and 
youth, but by the kindly assistance of his wife since 
their marriage, has become quite well informed, 
and by a course of general reading keeps pace with 
the events of the day. He is regarded as a gentle- 
man of considerable ability in his township, where 
he has served as Clerk, Road Commissioner and 
School Director. Upon coming to 'Illinois he lo- 
cated in Tazewell County, where he was employed 
as a laborer four years, near the town of Morton. 
He then went into the country and engaged on a 
farm two years, in the meantime living economic- 
ally and saving what he could of his earnings. In 
1874 he invested the little sum thus accumu- 
lated in 120 acres of land, which constitutes his 
present homestead, and which he has carefully cul- 
tivated and supplied with all necessary buildings 
and improvements, so that it is considered an es- 
tate quite valuable. For the last two years, in ad- 
dition to farming, he has been engaged in the man- 
ufacture of tile in company with a partner, the firm 
being Cook & Pratt Bros. He is also engaged in 
the manufacture of sorghum syrup and cider, for 
which he has some extra fine machinery, and turns 
out large quantities each year, realizing there- 
from a handsome sum of money. His cider press 
has been constructed mainly from his own plans, 
and is quite different from those in common use. 
In the fall of 1886 he turned out from this 3,500 
gallons, which commanded a ready sale in his own 
locality. Besides his other talents Mr. Pratt is a 
natural mechanic, closely superintending the erec- 
tion of all his farm buildings, and doing much of 
the work with his own hands. While all these are 
models of convenience, the corn-crib, from its pe- 
culiar arrangement, attracts the especial attention 
of the farmers of that vicinity on account of its 
system of ventilation, which prevents the corn 
from heating. 

The wife of our subject, who has proved to him 
such a valued companion and helpmeet, was for- 
merly Miss Caroline Lambkin, born in the Province 
of Quebec, Canada, Sept. 24, 1838. They were 
married Jan. 5, 1869, at the home of the bride in 
Stanbridge, Quebec. Her parents, like those of 

Mr. Pratt, were natives of Vermont. The father 
still lives in Quebec ; the mother passed from earth 
in 1 843. The result of this union was the birth of 
four bright children, namely, Clarissa, Flora, 
Charles and Howard. The children are being 
carefully trained and educated, Mr. Pratt deter- 
mining that they shall not labor under the disad- 
vantages which harassed him in his younger j r ears. 
Our subject cast his first Presidential vote for 
Abraham Lincoln, and since that time has been a 
cordial supporter of Republican principles. 


ETER JASPERSON, one of the most peace- 
able and law-abiding citizens of Rook's 
Creek Township, owns a snug little farm of 
sixty-three acres, supplied with comfort- 
able buildings, which property he has acquired by 
his own industry. His early years were spent on 
the other side of the Atlantic, on the Island of 
Bornholin, Denmark, where his birth took place 
May 29, 1837. In 1859, when twenty-two years of 
age, he came to this country, and worked by the 
month for farmers in Putnam and La Salle Coun- 
ties, this State, about five years. During this time 
he saved what he could of his earnings, and at 
length was enabled to purchase forty acres of 
land located in this county. After some little 
time he sold out and purchased eighty acres in 
Rook's Creek Township, which he afterward dis- 
posed of, and in 1883 purchased his present home- 

The parents of our subject were Morris Coffod 
and Christenia (Jansen) Jasperson, also natives of 
the Island of Bornholm, where the father was born 
May 29, 1818. Their family included five chil- 
dren, namely, Hans (or John) ; Peter, our subject; 
Christian, Jans (or James) and Larse. Only two 
of these came to the United States, Peter and Chris- 
tian. The latter, during the late war, enlisted in 
the 85th Illinois Infantry. He was taken ill and 
died in the hospital at Nashville, Tenn. Peter re- 
ceived a good education in his native tongue, and 
after becoming a naturalized American citizen, 
identified himself with the Republican party. He 
has carefully avoided politics, however, preferring 


to give his time and attention to his own concerns. 
He is a member in good standing of the Baptist 
Church, and has officiated as Deacon six years. 

The marriage of Peter Jasperson and Miss Jo- 
hanna S. Hendrickson took place Feb. 14, 1865, at 
the home of the bride in La Salle County.- The 
young people commenced life together on the farm 
which Mr. J. first purchased, nine miles east of 
Pontiac. They remained there until the spring of 
1869, and their subsequent changes we have already 
indicated. The household circle includes three 
bright children, namely : Hannah L., born May 5. 
1868; Henrietta, Aug. 30, 1869, and Henry, Dec. 
15, 1870. 

Mrs. Jasperson was the fifth in a family of 
seven children born to Marse and Signe (Kellar) 
Hendrickson, and her brothers and sisters are re- 
corded as follows: Charlotte is a resident of La 
Salle County, this State; Henrietta died in infancy; 
Christina lives in La Salle County; Christian fol- 
lowed the sea, and was drowned when about forty- 
nine 3'ears of age ; Henrietta (2d) is deceased. The 
parents of Mrs. Jasperson spent their entire lives in 
their native county, and died some years ago. The 
paternal grandfather of our subject, Hans Jasper- 
son by name, lived to be an old man, and died on 
his native island. 

( Sf% v ETER JACOBSON, a prominent farmer 
and stock-raiser of Rook's Creek Town- 
ship, has a fine farm on section 13, where 
he is largely engaged in stock-raising, and 
has been one of the important factors in the agri- 
cultural interests of Livingston County. His 
early childhood was spent on the other side of the 
Atlantic, where his birth took place in Denmark, 
Feb. 22, 1836. He came with his parents, Jacob 
and Cathrena Jacobson, to this country in 1848, 
and after a brief stay in New York City, pro- 
ceeded directly westward to La Salic County, this 

Early in life our subject left tin- parental roof, be- 
ing engaged soon lifter coining to this State by a 
farmer, one William Harper, south of Peru, with 
whom he remained l\\<> years, receiving $10 pur month 

the lirst yc:iraiid$15 the second. He continued as a 
laborer another year, and then rented a tract of land 
upon which he farmed two years for himself. The 
outbreak of the Rebellion then furnished employ- 
ment for many idle hands. Our subject, however. 
me by no means of this class, but he laid aside his 
personal interests to assist in the preservation of the 
Union, and in perpetuating the institutions of his 
adopted country. lie enlisted in the 104th Illinois 
Infantry, and marched with his regiment afterward 
to Tennessee, where he was taken prisoner by Mor- 
gan, and with his comrades was marched 100 miles 
in three days without food. They were then re- 
leased on parole, when, as a natural consequence of 
this terrible experience, our subject was taken ill, 
and for three months was an inmate of the hospital 
at Cincinnati. His constitution now being under- 
mined he was discharged on account of disability. 
and returned to La Salle County. A few months 
later he purchased eighty acres of land in Sauneniin 
Township, and set himself industriously about its 
cultivation. Not long afterward he was united in 
marriage with Miss Annie Catherina llolman. the 
wedding taking place at the home of the bride in 
La Salle County, 111., in 18(53. Subsequently he re- 
moved to Rook's Creek Township, where he has 
since resided and built up one of the finest country 
homes in the western part of Livingston County. 
He has labored industriously when able, and has 
superintended his farm operations with excellent 
judgment, and invested his capital in a judicious 
manner. In common with otheis he has had much 
to contend with. Upon coming to this county after 
the war he possessed a cash capital of $5. He has 
now a quarter section of valuable land, underlaid 
with 30,000 feet of tile, and the buildings are at 
once elegant and substantial, the admiration of the 
country around. 

The children of Mr. and Mrs. Jacobson arc as 
follows: Ktheline, Mrs. Chapman, is a resident of 
Pontiac, III., and has two children: Henry, unmar- 
ried, is at home with his parents, as are also Lewis. 
William. Nannie. Emeline. ( 'ora, Annie. Bertie and 
Willie, the latter, twins, born March 3, 1880. Mr. 
Jacobson after becoming a Voter espoused the cause 
of the Republican party. lie identified himself 
with the Baptist Church in which he has olliciated 



as Trustee, and been one of its chief pillars. Mr. 
Jacobson was the fifth in a family of six children 
born to his parents. Five of these are .still living;, 
including our subject, and the other four having 
their home in Denmark. The mother died when 
Peter was a lad fourteen years of age. The father 
lived to be eight}' years old. 

J~ OHN W. A. LILLY has been a resident of 
the village of Cornell since the spring of 
1875, and is serving his second term as Jus- 
' tice of the Peace. He was born at Fair- 
mont, W. Va., May 25, 1834, and is the seventh 
son of John W. and Irene C. (Patterson) Lilly, na- 
tives respectively of West Virginia and Connecti- 
cut. In 1845, John W. Lilly, Sr., removed with 
his family from his native State to Sharon, Beaver 
Co., Pa., where, in March of the year following, he 
was stricken down with smallpox, and died at the 
age of fifty-seven years. Mrs. Irene C. Lilly was 
the daughter of Thomas Patterson, of Connecticut, 
and by her union with the father of our subject be- 
came the mother of nine children, seven sons and 
two daughters. She survived her husband many 
years, and died at the ripe old age of ninety-four, 
in Grafton, W. Va. 

Our subject remained with his mother until reach- 
ing manhood, and in the meantime served a thor- 
ough apprenticeship at the boot and shoe business, 
which he followed until the breaking out of the war. 
In the meantime he was united in marriage with 
Miss Rebecca A. McVay, of Greene County, Pa., 
on the 1st of January, 1859. Upon the first call 
for 75,000 troops, Mr. Lilly was among those who 
yielded a ready and cheerful response, and after 
serving three months, re-enlisted for three years, or 
until the close of the war. His company was a part 
of the 2d West Virginia Infantry, which afterward 
became the 5th Cavalry, and he served with it un- 
til being mustered out June 1C, 1864. He con- 
tinued, however, in the army, being thereafter in the 
recruiting service, until the surrender of Lee prac- 
tically ended the conflict. 

Upon retiring from the army, Mr. Lilly rejoined 
Ins family in West Virginia, where he engaged in 

merchandising until February, 1872, then started 
for the West. He tarried a few days at Cornell, 
this county, but subsequently took up his abode in 
Elm wood, returning, however, to the former place 
in 1875, of which he has since remained a resident. 
Here he is quite a prominent citizen. While in 
West Virginia he filled the office of Alderman in 
the little city of Cameron, and was afterward elec- 
ted Mayor. 

Mr. Lilly cast his first Presidential vote for John 
C. Fremont, in 1856, and has since clung with un- 
abated fidelity to the Republican party. There is 
no doubt but that he will continue to share its 
triumphs, likewise its reverses, as he is a gentleman 
of decided opinions, and it will be a remarkable 
event that will cause him to forsake his early love. 

AMUEL ALGEO, a self-made man, is to- 
day a prosperous and highly respected 
farmer and stock-raiser on section 8, Rook's 
Creek Township. He came to Illinois 
with his parents, poor in pocket and without in- 
fluential friends, but by the exercise of his native 
energy and resolution he has secured for himself a 
comfortable home and a competency, and has es- 
tablished himself in the esteem of his fellow-citi- 
zens. Mr. Algeo is the son of Robert and Martha 
(Hughes) Algeo, and was born in May, 1836, near 
Dooballa, Donegal County, Ireland. He has no 
recollection of his paternal grandparents, but can 
remember his maternal grandfather, who lived to 
be an old man. 

Mr. Algeo is the youngest of eight children, as 
follows: Eliza married Francis McDeavitt in 
Ireland, and moved to Illinois in April, 1886; they 
have seven children. John, married, and living in 
Marshall County, 111., has two children ; William, 
born in Ireland, married in the United States, lived 
in Livingston County over thirty years, when he 
moved to Iowa in 1886; he has six children. Alex- 
ander, born in Ireland, came to Illinois where he 
married and has ten children ; James, married in 
Ireland, came to Illinois thirty years ago, and has 
eight children living; Robert, unmarried, lives in 




Livingston County; Joseph, married and living in 
Ireland on the old homestead as a tenant under 
Sir Samuel Hayes, has six children^and Samuel is 
the subject of this sketch. 

The subject of this biography was married to 
Miss Fannie Margaret Algeo on the 5th of June, 
1865, and on the 16th of July of that year they 
came from Ireland to the United States, making the 
voyage on the steamer Iowa, which required two 
weeks, and landing at New York, where they staid 
about three weeks. From New York they went to 
Oswego, where they remained till spring with an 
elder brother, when they came to Rook's Creek 
Township, Livingston County, where they bought 
eighty acres of land on section 14, and have since 
purchased 120 acres on section 8, on which farm 
they now live. The parents of Mr. and Mrs. 
Algeo were second cousins. There have been born 
to Mr. and Mrs. Algeo six children, whose names 
are as follows: Alexander, born on the 24th of 
March, 1866; Robert, born Dec. 3, 1868;Cassie, 
born Nov. 4, 1870; John James, born Feb. 
27, 1872; Fannie May, born Nov. 1, 1875; 
Sarah M., born July 13. 1879. The parents of 
Mrs. Algeo were Alexander and Fannie (Ralston) 
Algeo, both born in the year 1797 in Ireland, and 
married on the 1st of January, 1818. They were 
the parents of the following named children : 
James, born in November, 1818, married, and died 
April 24, 1887, leaving three children; John, born in 
1820, is unmarried ; William, born in 1822, married, 
and lives on the homestead in Ireland ; Alexander, 
born in 1824, married, and has two children, and 
lives in New York; Samuel, born in 1826, married, 
and has four children, and lives in Indianapolis; 
Robert, born in 1828, died and left four children 
who live in New York ; Thomas, born in 1833, 
married, has four children, and lives in Pennsyl- 
vania; Fannie Margaret was born June 25, 1836; 
Catherine, Mrs. William Ray, lives in Battle Creek, 
Mich, and has five children. 

Mr. Algeo is an intelligent member of the Pres- 
byterian Church, and has very decided opinions 
upon matters both religious and political, while he 
is especially well informed on the Home Rule and 
other questions which are agitating England and 
Ireland. He is independent in politics and is very 

decided in his opposition to the question of 
Woman Suffrage. Mrs. Algeo received a very 
fair common-school education in Ireland, and both 
she and her husband are very extensive readers. 
keeping thoroughly posted on all the current topics 
of the day. 

^ LIVER JOLLY, whose forty-acre stock farm 
is located on section 32, Waldo Township, 
was born Aug. 7, 183"), near Martinsburg, 
Knox Co., Ohio. He is the fourth in a family of 
eight children, whose names are, Sarah Jane, Mrs. 
Hiram Cawl, who died leaving one child, Sarah, 
since married; John, born Aug. 27, 1830, married, 
has one child, and lives in California; Daniel, born 
Feb. 28, 1832, lives in Nebraska Township; Oliver, 
our "subject; Mary Ann, born Oct. 15, 1837, mar- 
ried Elijah Wade, has four children, and lives in 
Ohio; Emma Eliza, born in 1840, married Charles 
Walker, and died leaving six children; Robert, 
born Aug. 15, 1842, is married, has several chil- 
dren, and lives in Ohio; Eliza E., born in October, 
1845, married James McMann, has six children and 
lives in Ohio. Our subject's parents were natives 
of Pennsylvania; the mother departed this life 
March 18, 1886; the father was born in March, 
1809, and still resides in Ohio. Daniel, a brother 
of our subject, was a soldier in the Union army in 
the war of the Rebellion, where he served for three 
years. His brother was also a soldier in the Union 

Mr. Jolly remained with his parents on a farm, 
and as opportunities presented, attended the com- 
mon schools until he was twenty-one 3 r ears of age, 
when he began to do for himself. When about 
twenty-two years old, he came to Illinois and lo- 
cated at Farm Ridge, where he worked by the 
month for several years, when he rented ground 
and began farming on his own account, and in 
about two years, in 18G7, he purchased his present 
farm of forty acres in Waldo Township. 

On the 2d of September, 1869, the subject of 
this sketch was married to Miss Susan Yaryes, 
daughter of Paul and Melinda Yaryes, natives of 
Pennsylvania. To Mr. and Mrs. Jolly have been 


born two children, as follows: Estella, on the 
26th of August, 1872, and Matilda, April 18, 1875. 
Mr. Jolly has always been a Democrat, and cast his 
first Presidential vote for James Buchanan. He is 
a member of the Christian Church, holding mem- 
bership at Gridley. While Mr. Jolly's farm does 
not comprise so many acres as some other farms in 
the township, it is equally as well cultivated. The 
improvements about the place are good and ample, 
and the buildings are both substantial and com- 
fortable. His family identify themselves with all 
matters which are calculated to benefit the com- 
munity in which they live. 

/p^EORGE H. SHERMAN. In order that a 
jl| -, community may prosper, there must be men 

<^4l competent as leaders, enterprising as citi- 
zens, and industrious as workers. \Vhile the lower 
strata are as useful in their place as the upper, just 
as the mortar is as essential as the bricks in rearing 
a building, still there must be master minds to su- 
perintend and bring each division to its proper 
place. The subject of our sketch in his community 
has acted largely as a leader, has been judicious in 
his investments, and has added greatly to the gen- 
eral prosperity of this section. Although in 
younger days he was something of a mechanic, and 
possessed naturally considerable skill in this line, 
he later determined to enter upon the more con- 
genial pursuits of farm life. The consequence is 
that he has now one of the finest country estates in 
Union Township, where of late years he has largely 
engaged in stock-raising, and has been uniformly 

The interesting points in the life history of Mr. 
Sherman are substantially as follows: He is the 
eighth in a family of fourteen children born to 
Samuel and Azubah (Greene) Sherman, natives re- 
spectively of New York and Vermont. The 
youngest of the family died in infancy, but the re- 
maining thirteen lived to mature years, married, 

and had families of their own, before a death oc- 
curred among them. Eight of these are now liv- 
ing, making their homes principally in Illinois. 
The maternal grandparents of our subject, Alpheus 
and Rhoda (Pratt,) Greene, were natives of Ver- 
mont, in which State they spent most of their lives. 
Mr. Greene died in Illinois in 1861. Mrs. Greene 
died in New York State. 

Samuel Sherman was a cooper by trade, but was 
fond of country life, and purchased a farm where 
he passed his last years. Although but a youth, he 
served as a soldier during the War of 1812, and 
took part in the memorable battle of Plattsburg. 
ID early manhood he had identified himself with 
the Whig party, but after its abandonment cor- 
dially endorsed Republican principles, and later 
was quite active in public affairs. He came into 
the West in about 1850, locating in Knox County, 
and spent his last years at Galesburg, where his 
death took place in 1875. The mother, whose 
name is held in the most affectionate remembrance 
by her children, survived her husband until 1886, 
and then passed to her final rest. Both parents 
were universally esteemed in their community, as 
those whose places when they passed away it would 
be most difficult to fill. 

Our subject passed his early years after the man- 
ner of most farmers' boys, assisting in the sowing 
and reaping, and during the winter season gaining 
a knowledge of the common English branches in 
the district school. At the age of eighteen, after 
the family came to Illinois, he left home and en- 
gaged in farming at various places in Knox County, 
finally renting a tract of land and carrying on ag- 
riculture for himself. A few weeks before reach- 
ing his twenty-third year, there happened one of 
the most important events of his life, namely, his 
marriage, which occurred Nov. 27, 1855. His 
bride was Miss Charlotte M. Sherwood, who was 
born July 9, 1831, in Coeymans, Albany Co., N. 
Y., and was the second child of Stephen and Phebe 
(Ostrom) Sherwood. Her parents were also na- 
tives of the Empire State, and of Dutch and En- 
glish descent. Their family included six children. 
They came to Illinois in about 1853, settling first 
in Knox County, aad afterward became inmates of 
the home of Mr. Sherman for a period of fourteen 




years. Subsequently they removed to Chicago, 
where they both passed away in 1884. 

Mr. and Mrs. Sherman commenced housekeeping 
on a farm in Knox ^County, where they resided 
nine years. Mr. S. had in the meantime purchased 
a tract of land in Clover Township, which he after- 
ward sold, however, and in the spring of 1866, 
started out to hunt for a permanent location, think- 
ing probably he would go beyond the Mississippi. 
Upon his arrival in Livingston County, however, 
he found he could purchase good land at a reason- 
able price, and consequently, in company with his 
brother-in-law, secured a section in Union Town- 
ship. It was totally uncultivated, but he put up a 
small house and began the improvement of his pur- 
chase. He was prospered in his operations, and 
each year grew more attached to the place, so that 
it has become a permanent home, and has been his 
residence now for the last twenty-two years. The 
change which has been effected in this tract of land 
as well as the country around it, is ample evidence 
thai master hands have been at work. Mr. Sher- 
man has bent his energies to the building up of a 
homestead which is creditable to him as a farmer 
and a citizen, and its appearance to-day indicates 
how well he has succeeded. The soil is the most 
productive in the township, and the farm buildings 
are of the best description. The fields each year 
produce the finest corn and wheat, and his live- 
stock includes the best specimens of thoroughbred 
Short-horn cattle and Norman horses. He also 
raises a goodly number of Poland-China swine, 
and the income from these sources nets him a hand- 
some sum annually. 

Of the six children born to Mr. and Mrs. Sher- 
man, but three survive : Sarah, the eldest, is the 
wife of Adolph Peterson, agent of the Milwaukee 
& St. Paul Railroad Co., at Adeline, Ogle County; 
Cora, who possesses more than ordinary ability and 
is fond of study, is attending school at Greencastle, 
Ind.; Mary remains at home with her parents. 
Mr. Sherman votes the straight Republican ticket, 
and although no office seeker, has served as Justice 
of the Peace three terms. He is one of the most 
active workers in the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
with which he has been connected many years, and 
served as. Steward and Trustee. It will thus be 

seen that he has had little time for idleness, and 
looking back over a life which is yet in its prime, 
he may feel satisfied with the results attained, and 
hope for still better things in the future. 

AVID L. MURDOCK, attorney-at-law, 
Fairbury, 111., is among the prominent cit- 
izens of Livingston County. People al- 
ways delight to honor a self-made man, 
not alone for his success in life, but because he is 
generally a man of unselfish disposition. Lincoln, 
perhaps, is the most lofty example of the reverence 
of the people for those who have been the archi- 
tects of their own fortunes. Nearly every com- 
munity affords an example of what a humble in- 
dividual may accomplish by properly directed en- 
ergy. In the subject of this sketch an instance is 
furnished where a man began without a dollar, 
and while yet young in years has gained a compe- 
tency which will serve him through life. 

Mr. Mnrdock was born in Butler County, Ohio, 
on the 19th of November, 1836, and is the son of 
Ezekiel P. and Rachel (Taylor) Murdock, natives 
of Pennsylvania and Tennessee respectively. His 
father was born on the 10th of March, 1809, and 
is still living at his home in Chicago. The mother 
was born on the 29th of January, 1814, daughter 
of Isaac and Elizabeth (Cross) Taylor, and died in 
August, 1885. They were married in Indiana on 
the 29th of June, 1835. Mr. Murdock was mar- 
ried, on the 22d of November, 1860, to Miss Mary 
E. Pillsbury, a sister of Judge Pillsbury, of Pontiac. 
She was born on the 20th of September, 1839, in 
the town of Shapleigh, York Co., Me., and came 
to Illinois in 1855. Mr. Murdock came to Illi- 
nois in 1854 and located in Hennepin, Putnam 
County, where he engaged in farming and school 
teaching. In 1859 he came to Livingston County, 
where he farmed until Aug. 9, 1862, when he en- 
listed in the 77th Illinois Infantry and became a 
private in Company II, and was subsequently pro- 
moted to the rank of Sergeant. The service of 
the 77th Regiment was principally in the 13th 
Army Corps and the Army of the Tennessee. 






Among the most prominent engagements he par- 
ticipated in were the siege of Vicksburg and the 
battles preceding the investment of the city, the 
siege of Mobile and the capture of Spanish Fort, 
and the siege and capture of Jackson, Miss. He 
served full three years, and was mustered out of 
the service on the 10th of July, 1865, at Mobile, 
Ala. After his return home he went to Pontiac 
and engaged in mercantile business with Mr. Pills- 
bury, in which he continued until 1869, when he 
began to read law under the instructions of Judge 
Pillsbury, of that place, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1870. At that time he took up permanent 
residence in Fairbury, and has since assiduously 
devoted his time to the practice of law and the 
prosecution of the insurance and real-estate busi- 
ness, in all of which he has been successful, and 
now owns 300 acres of good farm land, several 
pieces of town property, and his beautiful resi- 
dence, which cost $5,000. 

In 1876 Mr. Murdock was elected to the office 
of State's Attorney, in which position he served 
four years with much credit to himself and honor 
to the State. He was a member of the State Board 
of Agriculture for two years. The children who 
have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Murdock are : Ste- 
phen D., who married Miss EmmaSpence; Clarence 
J. and Charles B., twins, the latter dying in in- 
fancy; Rachel I. and Nellie E. Mr. Murdock is a 
member of the order of Odd Fellows, and is Grand 
Patriarch in the State organization; he is also a 
member of the G. A. R., and was the first Com- 
mander of Post No. 75, at Fairbury. He is one of the 
stanch and reliable Republicans of Livingston 
County, and has frequently served as a delegate to 
State conventions. He can always be depended 
upon for active and energetic work in behalf of his 

L. FRISBIE, of Pontiac, is the Division 
Superintendent of the Illinois Central Rail- 
road. He is a native of Branford, Conn., 
where he was born on the 1st of September, 
1835, and is the son of Hervey and Betsy (Shel- 
don) Frisbie, who were also natives of Branford. 
His father was in early days a sailor, and later in 

life a ship-builder. He became a citizen of Illinois 
in 1857, and settled in Onarga, Iroqnois County, 
where he engaged in contracting' and building, and 
in which place he yet retains his residence. The 
grandfather was Noah Frisbie, also a native of Con- 
necticut, who was a fisherman, and was drowned in 
18*35. The Frisbies were of English descent. 

The parents of Betsy Sheldon were Jere and Katy 
(Lamphere) Sheldon, natives of Connecticut. The 
father was of English descent, and engaged during 
his life in farming. The grandparents lived and 
died in the State of Connecticut. The father of 
the subject of this sketch had a family of five chil- 
dren, three of whom are yet living: H. L., our sub- 
ject; Carrie, Mrs. J. M. Bates, of Gardner, Me.; 
Sara, Mrs. John Frith, wife of the Circuit Court 
Clerk, of Iroqnois County, 111. The father is a very 
ardent Republican. His sou John R. enlisted as a 
soldier in the 25th Illinois Infantry, a member of 
Company F, in 1861, and at Missionary Ridge re- 
ceived a severe wound from which he died one year 
later at his home. 

Mr. H. L. Frisbie attended the schools of Bran- 
ford, New Haven Co., Conn., until he w r as twelve 
years of age, when from that time until he was 
twenty-one he was engaged with his father in ship- 
building. He then followed the sea for two years, 
and in 1858 came to Illinois and settled in Iroquois 
County, where he engaged with his father in contract- 
ing and building until January, 1860. He engaged 
for two years as a brakeman on the Illinois Central 
Railroad, when he enlisted in Company D, 113th Illi- 
nois Infantry, and remained in the service about 
three years. He was appointed Second Lieutenant, 
and was, for the most of that time, on detached 
duty, as Adjutant Quartermaster, and Acting Assist- 
ant Adjutant General, and participated in the bat- 
tles of Chickasaw Bluff, Arkansas Post, Vicksburg, 
and numerous skirmishes. After the war he re- 
turned to Onarga, Iroquois County, and engaged in 
business, dealing in lumber and coal, which he fol- 
lowed for five years, when in 1870 he resumed 
brc.-iking on the Illinois Central, following that oc- 
cupation one year. In 1878 he again engaged as 
freight and passenger conductor. He afterward 
went to Kankakee, and had charge of the trans- 
portation connected with the building of the Middle 



Division, or the Kankakee <fe Southwestern Branch 
of the Illinois Central. Upon the completion of 
the road, he took charge of the traffic and ran :i 
train, which he exchanged in April, 1880, for a pas- 
-enger train, and held the po.-ition for one year. 
lie then went to Clinton. 111., where he was Train- 
master until the 22d of June, 1881, when he ac- 
cepted the position of Division Superintendent, 
which position he holds at the time this sketch is 

Mr. Frisliie was married in 1805 to Miss Sarah 
F. Hart, daughter of Nelson Hart, of West Cornell, 
Conn., and three children were horn to them: Ida- 
lene M., Bessie C. and Amelia T. Mrs. Frisl>ie 
died in 1870. In 1871 he married for his second 
wife Miss Charlotte M. Hart, the sister of his first 
wife. They have had three children : Charlotte F., 
Carrie L., and Lynde II., born in 1870 and died in 
1877. Mr. Frisbie is much interested in literature, 
and during his life has written a great deal, includ- 
ing many Christmas and war songs. Among these 
are "Oh, Bury the Brave Where They Fall," which is 
appropriately sung on Decoration Day; ''The Songs 
We Sang on the Old Camp Ground," "Out Wot." 
and many others. He has been a contributor to the 
Railway Gazelle and the Railroader. He occupies 
an elegant residence on Main street, and lias sin-- 
rounded himself and family with all the comforts of 
life. He and his family are attendants of the Pres- 
byterian Church. lie [occupies a prominent posi- 
tion among the citizens of Livingston County, and 
is considered by railroad men as one of the nnt 
ellicient Superintendents in the West. He has by 
his own efforts and attention to business succeeded 
in attaining a position in railroad affairs which is the 
envy of all his as.-oeiates. 

J "JOHN POWELL, of Pontiac Township, and 
who is now pa-sing down the sunset hill of 
I earthly existence, has had little to complain 
1 of in the distribution of this world'- g 1-. 

as he has been quite successful in life and is now in 
the enjoyment of its creature comforts. The prop- 
erty which he has accumulated i- the result of his 
own industry and intelligent efforts put forth in 

earlier years. He has battled bravely witli what- 
ever hardships he has had to contend, and has built 
up for himself a good record as a man and a citizen. 

Mr. Powell was born in Fayette County. Ohio. 
Feb. 21, 1814, and is the son of Philip and Isabelle 
Powell, natives of Kentucky. The Powells are of 
Knglish descent, but the mother of onr subject was 
of French-Irish ancestry. Her parents emigrated 
from Virginia to Kentucky, settling at Boone's Sta- 
tion in the pioneer days while the Indians were still 
troublesome and aggressive. Andrew Kelso, a ma- 
ternal uncle of our subject, was one of the brave 
characters Of those days, and distinguished himself 
by shooting down many a treacherous savage in am- 
bush and during the skirmishes which continued to 
prevail between the settlers and their natural enemies. 
He was a cotcmporary of Daniel Boonc and possessed 
much of the bnwery which distinguished that 
famous old Kentuckian. About 1808. the parents 
of our subject removed to Fayette County. Ohio, 
and were also among the earliest pioneers of that 
region. They remained in the Buckeye State until 
1835, then made one more removal, to Randolph 
County. Ind., where they spent the remainder of 
their days, the mother dying five years later, in 
1840, and the father in 1859. Of their children, 
eleven in number, .only two survive. These are 
John, our subject, and Harper, of McLean County. 

John Powell was reared principally to farm life 
and pursued his early studies in the pioneer log 
cabin of sixty years ago. He was united in mar- 
riage, on the 25th of December, 1848. with Mi 
Mary Miller, who was born in Montgomery County. 
Ohio, April 25, 1814. and was the daughter of 
Christian and Susannah Miller, natives of Pennsyl- 
vania and of German descent. Of this union there 
were born .-even children, six now living and located 
as follows: Franklin A. is a resident of Thayer 
County. Neb.; Newman J., of Pontiac; John K., of 
( >regon : Sarah J., the wife of Samuel B. Tnrman, of 
Colorado, an engineer on the Kan-as Pacific Rail- 
road: Lamvnc is Mrs. J. D. Honeywell, of Monroe 
Conntv. Wis.. and Susannah I,., the wife of Uriah 
Springer, of Pontiac Town-hip, this county. Mr. 
Powell became a resident of Livingston County in 
1851. locating first two and one-half miles northeast 
of Cheiioa. In the spring of 1855 he removed to 


Pontiac Village, where lie resided eight years, and 
then took possession of the farm which he now oc- 
cupies on section 24. This comprises eighty acres 
of valuable land, and he also owns a half interest in 
a brickyard located thereon. The residence and 
adjacent buildings are models of convenience and 
comfort, and the resort of the many friends whom 
Mr. and Mrs. Powell have gathered about them dur- 
ing a residence here of more than thirty years. 

Mr. Powell, politically, is a stanch Prohibitionist, 
and with his estimable lady, a member in good 
standing of the Christian Church. Me has served 
several years as School Director in his district and 
was formerly a member of the Town Council of 
Pontiac. In early manhood, while a resident of 
Ohio, he served as Mayor of Ilollansburg, Darkc 
County, and has always kept himself well posted 
upon current events. 

jfelLLIAM ASKEW, who is a prominent far- 
mer living on section 34, Owego Township. 
is a native of Northamptonshire, one of the 
central counties of England, which is largely de- 
voted to agriculture and the propagation of heavy 
black horses, Short-horn cattle and sheep. He was 
born ou the 28th of October, 1828, and is the son 
of John and Charlotte Askew, who were natives of 
England. Eleven children were born to his parents : 
Fannie, wife of Thomas Southworth. of Noble 
County, Ind. : Thomas, of Oregon; John, of England; 
William: Samuel, deceased; Ketnrah. widow of 
Thomas Knight, of England ; Ann. of England ; Jona- 
than, of Livingston County; Robert, of Noble 
County, Ind. ; Ezra, of Livingston County ; Charlotte, 
wife of Mr. Wilson, in England. 

Mr. Askew remained in England until he reached 
manhood, where he received a fair education. He 
emigrated to America in 1856, taking passage at 
Liverpool on a >ailing-\cssel, and after an ocean 
voyage of thirty days landed at New York City, 
from whence he went direct to Noble County, Ind., 
where he resided for about eleven years. During 
the first eight months of his residence in Indiana he 
engaged as a farm hand at f 12 per month, and sub- 
.-cqucnUy for two years, accepted employment for 

$136 per year, at the end of which time he began 
fanning for himself in Indiana, in which he engaged 
until the spring of 1867. when he came to Illinois, 
where he remained in McLean County until 1868, 
in which year he came to Livingston County, and 
resided in Rook's Creek Township until the spring 
of 1886. In that year he settled on his present 

On the 4th of February, 1864, while residing in 
Indiana, Mr. Askew was married to Miss Lucy 
Perks, who was horn in England in June, 1829. 
She is a daughter of George and Maria Perks, and 
in, 1861 emigrated to America with a party of 
friends and landed at Portland, Me., from which 
place she went directly to Canada, and there re- 
mained two years. To Mr. and Mrs. Askew have 
been born three children: Emma E., the wife of 
John M. Miller, of Owego Township; William P. 
and Leason M. Mr. and Mrs. Askew both hold act- 
ive relations with the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
in which he has served as Steward and Trustee. By 
assiduously attending to business, good management 
and close economy, Mr. Askew has become the 
owner of an excellent farm of 120 acres, which 
each succeeding year he makes better than it was 
the year before. So far as public position is con- 
cerned he has served as Justice of the Peace eight 
years in Rook's Creek Township, two terms in the 
same township as School Trustee, and also as School 
Director for many years. He is a public-spirited 
man and encourages all enterprises having for their 
object the improvement of the condition of the peo- 
ple among whom he lives. Among his neighbors 
his word is considered as good as his bond. In 
business matters he adheres strictly to the Golden 

L. STRATTON is the possessor of one-half 
of a section in Long Point Township, lo- 
cated on sections 5 and 8, which, from little 
better than its primitive condition, he has trans- 
formed into a valuable and well-regulated home- 
stead. The fine residence is pleasantly located and 
surrounded with handsome grounds, while the barn 
and other oat-buildings, neat and substantial struct- 
ures, are highly creditable to the taste and industry 



of the proprietor. Many of the fields are laid off 
with beautiful hedge, which assists greatly in em- 
bellishing the landscape of that section, and re- 
ceives due admiration from the passing traveler. 
The owner of this property is at once recognized 
as a inan of good education, agreeable and well- 
bred, and eminently fitted to move among the in- 
telligent and enterprising people who have given to 
Central Illinois its enviable reputation. 

Mr. Stratton was born near the northern bound- 
ary of Pennsylvania, in Tioga County, Jan. 12, 
1826, and is the son of Seymour and Susan (Lowns- 
berry) Stratton, the former a native of Connecticut 
and the latter of New York. Seymour Stratton 
was born in 1794, and departed this life at his home 
in Pennsylvania in 1873, after having reached the 
advanced age of seventy-nine years. The mother 
was born in 1803, and passed away several years 
previous to the death of her husband, in 1865. 
Their eleven children were named respectively, 
Lydia, Lafayette, E. L., Harriet, Dithton, Martin, 
Julia, Ruth, Josephine, Amelia and William. Six 
are living, and located in Pennsylvania, Iowa, Illi- 
nois and California. 

Our subject first pursued his studies in the com- 
mon schools of Tioga County, Pa., and subsequently 
attended the academy at Wellsboro nine months, 
lie was afterward for several years employed in con- 
nection with a sawmill, and gained a good insight 
into the lumber business. In May, 1849, after pass- 
ing his twenty-third birthday, he migrated westward 
into La Salic County, this State, and later came to 
Livingston County, where he began setting about 
the establishment of a future home. One of the 
first important steps in connection with this was his 
marriage with Miss Sarah A. Miller, which took 
place Jan. 17, 1856. Mrs. S. was born in Bradford, 
Pa., Aug. 1, 1836, and is the daughter of John 
Wesley and Eliza (Kingsley) Miller, the latter of 
whom died when a young woman at her home in 
Pennsylvania. The father subsequently married 
Miss Jane Clark, of Bradford County, Pa., and they 
became residents of Illinois, where he died about 

Mr. and Mrs. Stratton became the parents of the 
( i children whose record is as follows: Lauretta was 
born Oct. 7, 1858, and died Oct. 5, 1860; Ilattie 

was born April '1, 1862, and remains at home with 
her parents; John, born April 29, 1864, died Nov. 
15, 1877; Burt, born May 31, 1868, with the 
younger children remains at home with his parents; 
Carl was born June 10, 1872, and Kay June 24, 
1874. Mr. Stratton in politics votes independently, 
and is a Senior Warden in the Masonic fraternity, 
belonging to Chapter No. 112, and Lodge No. 552, 
at Rutland, while also being connected with the fra- 
ternity at Long Point. 


AMUEL SIMPSON, one of the old war 
veterans, and now engaged in Nebraska 
Township, on section 2, in farming and 
stock-raising, is a native of Muskingum 
County, Ohio, where his birth took place March 
29, 1824. His parents were Philip Alex and Polly 
(Inmer) Simpson, natives of Virginia, whence they 
removed to Ohio during their youth, and were mar- 
ried in the Buckeye State. Philip Simpson was a 
farmer by occupation, and continued tilling the 
soil in Mnskingum County, Ohio, until called from 
his earthly labors about 1863. 

The mother of our subject passed to her long 
home while the latter was a mere child and the 
father was married a second time. Samuel con- 
tinued in his native State until about twenty-three 
years of age, then came to Illinois with his brother, 
and locating in Tazewell County, was there em- 
ployed as a farm laborer three years. He then 
changed his residence to McLean County, where 
he worked seven years and until after the outbreak 
of the late war. In August, 1861, he enlisted in 
the 88th Illinois Infantry, and took part in the bat- 
tles of Missionary Ridge, Chickamauga, Dalton 
and Resaca. In the last named engagement he was 
wounded in the left side by a piece of shell. He 
was rendered insensible for a time, but after re- 
gaining consciousness, got upon his feet and with 
difficulty made his way to the hospital. He re- 
mained there about two months and although only 
partially recovered, rejoined his regiment in time 
to participate in the battles of Stone River, Nash- 
ville, and several other important engagements. He 



fortunately escaped further injury, and continued 
with the army until after the surrender of Lee at 
Appomattox. He received his honorable discharge 
in May, 1865, and returning to his old haunts in 
McLean County, entered the employ of the same 
man for whom he had worked the seven years be- 
fore. Here he remained two years, when he re- 
moved to his present home. 

On the 8th of August, 1867, Mr. Simpson took 
one of the most important steps toward the estab- 
lishment of a home of his own, this being bis mar- 
riage with the lady of his choice, Miss Almedia, 
daughter of Joseph and Lydia (Reese) Butler. Not 
long afterward he purchased the forty acres of land 
which he has now brought to a good state of cultiva- 
tion and upon which stands a neat farm dwelling, a 
good barn, and the various other buildings required 
for the successful prosecution of his labors. Mr. and 
Mrs. Simpson have one child only, a son, George 
Wesley, who was born Dec. 25, 1871. Mr. S. as 
part compensation for the injuries received in the 
army receives monthly a small pension. 

^ATHAN TALBOT, a highly respected far- 
mer of Rook's Creek Township, is a fine 
illustration of the self-made man. He was 
thrown upon his own resources very early in life, 
and has attained to his present position socially 
and financially solely through his own industry and 
good judgment. He is the proprietor of a com- 
fortable homestead on section 5, and has been a 
resident of this county since a boy nine years of 
age, receiving a fair education at the common 
school, and is quite an extensive reader, keeping 
himself well posted upon current events. 

Mr. Talbot was born in Woodford County, 111., 
April 15, 1858. After coming to this county with 
the family of his father, the latter was removed by 
death in 1871, and thereafter Nathan, as far as pos- 
sible, took his place in supporting his mother and 
the younger children. The family included nine 
children, and our subject worked by the month for 
a period of ten years, discharging his filial duties 
in a manner reflecting great credit upon himself as 
a son and brother. In due time his labors were 

rewarded, and he found himself gaining a foothold, 
and is now canning on farming with his two 
younger brothers. 

The father of our subject was of English birth 
and parentage, and emigrated to America with his 
parents when a child four years of age. They 
lived for a number of years in Baltimore, Md., and 
then emigrated to 'Illinois, locating in Woodford 
County, as we have stated. The mother was a 
native of Ohio, and carne to Illinois with her par- 
ents when a child eight years of age. They located 
in Marshall County, where she became acquainted 
with Nathan Talbot, and they were married in 
1 849. They resided in Marshall County nine years 
and then removed to Woodford County, where 
they located at Scattering Point. The father died 
in Woodford County. 

J'lEREMIAH TRAVIS. The ranks of the 
I men who settled in Illinois in the thirties 
1 are becoming perceptibly thinned, and like 
' the Old Guard of Napoleon it will not be 
many years before they will have passed to the 
unknown beyond. They will be gone but not for- 
gotten, for the deeds they have done in the body 
will live after them, and perpetuate their memories 
without the necessity of " storied urn or animated 
bust." In the sisterhood of States, Illinois stands 
peerless, and her position could not have been at- 
tained had not willing hands and stout hearts per- 
formed their duties when she was in her infancy, 
No grander duty can be performed by the histor- 
ian and biographer than to put into imperishable 
print the deeds of the pioneers who have devoted 
their lives to the development and upbuilding of 
these grand Western States. No matter how hum- 
ble the factor in these accomplishments may be he 
is entitled to a niche, and it is with such feelings 
that we record the events in the life of a pioneer, 
the subject of this sketch, who is one of the repre- 
sentative farmers of section 5, Belle Prairie Town- 

Mr. Travis was born in Middle Tennessee on the 
24th of August, 1821, and is the son of Jeremiah 
and Margaret (Peak) Travis, who were both na- 




tives of Old Virginia, and have long since passed 
to their reward. Mr. Travis came to Illinois in 
the year 1834, with his parents, who located in 
Belle Prairie Township. He is the owner of 245 
acres of No. 1 land, which he entered, securing his 
title direct from the Government. In his farm- 
ing operations he has displayed great enterprise 
and has erected a splendid residence and commo- 
dious barns and out-buildings. For very many 
years he has made a specialty of fine cattle, horses 
and hogs. In 1882 he established a drain tile fac- 
tory, which has been operated with much success, 
there being a great demand for the tile of his 

In 1847 Mr. Travis was married to Miss Eunice 
Moore, who was born in 1826. They have had ten 
children: Mary M. died at the age of four years; 
Jonathan died at the age of nineteen years ; Mary M., 
the second child of that name, is married to Mark 
Widowfield ; Nicholas married Miss Eliza Deford ; 
Joan, deceased, was married to Robert Widowfield ; 
Melinda, deceased, was married to John Master- 
son; Lemuel L. married Miss Emma Hanks; 
Richard lives at home, and two children died 
in infancy. Mr. and Mrs. Travis are members of 
the Christian Church, she having united with that 
body twelve years ago. Mr. Travis is a believer 
in the Greenback doctrine, and on the subject of 
finance is diametrically opposed to the doctrines 
taught by the two old parties. 

Mr. Travis' early career in Illinois was begun 
under many difficulties. In 1847 he drove hogs to 
Chicago, requiring eighteen dnys to make the trip, 
most of the distance being in slush and mud up to 
the top of his boots. On these trips he frequently 
had to cut brush and lay it down for a foundation 
for a bed to keep him out of the water and mud. 
On this pile he would place his blankets, and despite 
rain and storm, slept soundly. On reaching his 
destination the hogs were slaughtered, and after 
hanging for twenty-four hours they were weighed 
and he was paid the sum of 81.50 per hundred- 
weight. In early times he also engaged in driving 
cattle and hauling wheat and oats to the Chicago 
markets, and the prices received for these products 
were in about the same proportion as that obtained 
for his hogs. Mr. Travis has lived to see a complete 

transformation of the condition of things. The 
distance which required eighteen days to traverse 
then with a drove of hogs can be made now in 
four or five hours by rail, and the city which fur- 
nished so scant a market in 1847 now virtually 
controls the markets of the world. 

UGUST _FREUDE, who owns a 160-acre 
farm on section 20, Pontiac Township, is 
a native of Prussia, Germany, where he 
was born on the 1st of April, 1854. He is 
the son of George and Mary M. Freude, both of 
whom "were born in Germany, but emigrated to 
America in the year 1859, taking passage on the 
steamer at Hamburg, and after an ocean voyage of 
two weeks landed in New York City. Hearing of 
the great advantages possessed by Livingston 
Count}' they bade good-bye to New York and came 
direct to and settled in Pontiac Township, where 
the family has since resided. The parents had two 
children, August, the subject of this sketch, and 
Otto. The father died on the 23d of September, 
1881. He was a devout member of the Lutheran 
Church, as was also the mother, and during his 
life gave that church and its ministry a hearty sup- 
port. The mother still survives, and takes great 
interest in church affairs. She resides on the home 
farm with her son. The father was a man who was 
much respected by all who knew him and lived an 
honorable and upright life, conscientious in all his 

The subject of this sketch received a liberal edu- 
cation in his native language, and since coming to 
this country and learning to speak English fluently 
has been a constant reader of publications in the 
English language. He was married, on the 1 4th of 
February, 1880, to Augusta Oelke, also born in 
Germany, and the daughter of Julius and Minnie 
Oelke. "Her father is a resident of Nebraska Town- 
ship. Livingston County. To Mr. and Mrs. Freude 
one child has been born, a bright little girl named 
Emma, whose birth occurred on the 31st of Janu- 
ary, 1881. 

In connection with farming Mr. Freude also en- 
gages in threshing grain for the neighboring far- 



rners. He is a Democrat in politics, although not 
excessively active in political matters. He and 
Ids family are much attached to the Lutheran 
Church. Mr. Freude's fine farm is in a high state 
of cultivation, and under his intelligent manipula- 
tion, produces excellent crops. Both in his farm- 
ing operations and the business of grain threshing 
he is meeting with the success he so much deserves. 

J"l OHN R. PORTER. There is a class of men 
and women who sustain a peculiar as well as 
important relation to society, and have much 
' to do in molding the destiny of future gen- 
erations. These are the men and women who teach 
in the schools of the city and country. They follow 
a profession peculiar in its requirements. To become 
a successful teacher, it is not only essential to have 
:i good education, but a teacher should be charac- 
terized by a fine sense of distinction hot ween right 
and wrong, a good judgment of human nature, and 
a large amount of tact and an evenly balanced tem- 
perament. The subject of this sketch, although now- 
engaged in agricultural pursuits, has devoted a large 
share of his time and attention to the school-room, 
and it has come to the knowledge of the writer that 
in the capacity of a teacher he has displayed all the 
vital requirements of a successful and popular in- 
structor, gaining the highest esteem of both pupils 
and parents. 

Mr. Porter is now a representative fanner of 
Avoca Township, and resides on section 6. He is a 
native of Ohio, and was born on the 3d of Julv, 
1834. He is the son of David and Elizabeth 
Porter, and was practically reared to manhood in the 
State of Ohio, where, by hard study, he received a 
good education and qualified himself for the profes- 
sion of school teaching. For many years he taught 
school iii Ohio and Illinois, and in that profession 
was eminently successful. His first settlement in 
Livingston County, 111., was in the year 1863, and 
he first occupied the farm on which he now resides 
in 1883. This farm consists of 107 acres of good 
land, which under the intelligent manipulation of 
Mr. Porter is made to yield very remunerative crops. 

Mr. Porter was married in Livingston County, on 

the 27th of June, 1869. to Rachel S. Scott, who was 
born on the 26th of July. 1849. She is the daugh- 
ter of John II. Scott, formerly of Muskinguni 
County, Ohio, and of whom a sketch appears in this 
ALBUM. To Mr. and Mrs. Porter have been born 
seven children, five of whom are living: Cora A., 
born July 2, 1870; Lillian M., born March 1, 1877; 
Iva M.. liorn Feb. 17, 1880; Claudy R., born May 
14, 1882; Estella M., born Oct. 8, 1884. The 
names of the deceased children are: Otto R., born 
April 16, 1872, and died Aug. 1, 1873; and Ar- 
thur J., bom Sept. 7, 1874, and died March 18, 
1879. Mrs. Porter had four brothers in the Union 
army, as follows : Winfield, Walter M., Wesley and 

Mr. Porter is a member of the Democratic party, 
but he is not an active politician, preferring to de- 
vote the time which politics would require to such 
matters as would better the condition of the com- 
munity in which he lives. Mrs. Porter is a member 
of the Methodist Church, as is also the daughter, 
Cora A. The family are the center of a large circle 
of warm friends and acquaintances, and they all 
take an active interest in whatever may effect the 
society which surrounds them. Mr. Porter has de- 
voted his life to the profession of teaching, and farm- 
ing, and will probably in the future confine himself 
to the latter occupation. 

ANIEL BLAKE. One of the men who 
have given Livingston County its great 
reputation as a stock-raising county, and as 
a community of the best farmers of Illinois, 
is the subject of this sketch, whose stock farm lies 
on section 1. Rook's Creek Township. Mr. Blake 
is the son of Joseph and Drusilla (Carpenter) 
Blake, and was born in Monroe County, Ohio, on 
the 16th of December, 1838. He received a com- 
mon-school education in the States of Ohioand Illi- 
nois. In company with his parents Mr. Blake left 
Ohio at the age of fourteen, and located in Ottawa, 
La Salle Co., 111., where he assisted his father in car- 
rying on the farm until about his twenty-fourth 
year, at which age he was married to Desaline Earp, 
of Amity Township, Livingston County, on the 





28th of May, 1862. He had purchased eighty acres 
of land, the west half of the southeast quarter of 
section 34 in Amity Township, in 1862, locating on it 
immediately after his marriage. During the next 
eleven years he sold the first eighty, and bought 
245 acres on sections 1 and 12, Rook's Creek Town- 
ship, to which he has since added until his present 
possessions comprise 315 acres. His land is all 
well drained with tile, and the farm buildings are 
creditable and pleasantly situated. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Blake have been born thirteen 
children, eight of whom are living, as follows: 
Charles W., born Jan. 18, 1863; John Ellsworth, born 
Sept. 23, 1864, married Nancy E. Brown, of Pon- 
tiac Township; Francis G., born Oct. 25, 1869; 
Theron, March 31, 1871 ; Sarah E., March 18, 1873; 
Ida Pearl, Jan. 6, 1877; Isis F., Dec. 16, 1878; 
Carrie B., Aug. 12, 1881. The father of Mr. Blake 
was born in Maine in 1811, and moved to Ohio 
when a mere lad with his parents, who were natives 
of Maine, but with their large family moved from 
that State to Monroe County, Ohio, in covered 
wagons in 1816. They began the making of a farm 
in the wilderness, constructing their house of hewn 
logs. The shoes worn by the family were made by 
the father, while the spinning and weaving of the 
goods, and the cutting and making of the garments 
were the work of the mother's hands. Mr. Blake's 
grandfather was Daniel Blake, who died in 1842, at 
the age of ninety years. The maternal grandfather 
was Robert Carpenter, who settled in Monroe 
County at a time when the Indians were very nu- 
merous. On one occasion at least, he was taken 
prisoner and wounded by these inhuman savages. 

The parents of Mr. Blake had ten children : Rob- 
ert married, and lives in Kansas ; the second brother 
died at the age of twenty-eight; Daniel married, 
and lives in Rook's Creek Township; Mary Jane, 
Mrs. Homer Earp, has two children, and lives at 
Lawrence, Kan. ; Margaret A. is Mrs. D. C. Mc- 
Clelland, has one child, and resides in Labette 
County, Kan.; Elizabeth A., Mrs. Samuel Wertz, 
has five children, and lives in Amity Township; 
AV infield S. married, and lives in Pontiac; James 
E. has three children, and lives in Amit3 r Town- 
ship; John C. married, has three children, and lives 
in Amity Township; Caroline J. married Samuel 

Reynolds and moved to Missouri, where her hus- 
band was murdered, after which she returned to 
Livingston County, and died in 1887, leaving two 

Mr. Blake was reared a Republican, casting his 
first vote for Abraham Lincoln, and voting with 
that party until 1872, when he began to advocate 
the principles of the Greenback party, to which he 
has since adhered. He has been a settler of this 
township, and has also held the office of School 
Director for eleven years, which position he occu- 
pied when this sketch was written. He is not a 
member of any church, but believes that every man 
should try to do right, living up to the Golden Rule. 
He is a man of libei'al impulses, and has donated 
lands on which to erect a school-house and a 
church, contributing freely to the support of the 
minister and for all charitable purposes. 

ATHER II. W. FINCH, the regular Catholic 
clergyman of Pontiac, is a native of New 
Orleans, where he was born on the 21st of 
November, 1853. He is the son of Michael and 
Mary (Phelan) Finch, natives of Queens County, 
Ireland, who came to America in 1831, and settled 
in New Orleans, where they remained until their 
death in 1879 and 1877. They had a family of 
twelve children. Rev. Father Finch was educated at 
the University of Louisiana, and studied theology in 
Cape Girardean, Mo., and Milwaukee. AVis. He 
was ordained on the 14th of July, 1876, by Bishop 
Foley, and served in the capacity of priest in St. 
Mary's Church, at the corner of Eldridge court and 
Wabash avenue, Chicago. He afterward went to 
( li.-inipaign, where he remained eleven months and 
then came to Pontiac. His ministrations here have 
been pleasant and exceedingly successful. Since 
August, 1883, he has constructed a large brick 
church that cost $12,000, and has also bought the 
parochial residence, and paid for it since 1877. lie 
i- the fir-t Catholic priest to reside permanently in 
Pontiac. His Congregation now numbers between 
400 and 500 members, and besides his regular serv- 
ice in tills church lie preaches every two weeks at 
St. Joseph's Church, at Flanagan, 111., which has 




about 300 members. This church was first built 
two and one-half miles in tlie country, but he has 
had it moved into the village of Flanagan. In ad- 
dition to all these labors he also preaches to the 
Cornell Church every four or six weeks. This 
church lias a membership of from fifty to seventy- 
five. Occasionally he delivers a sermon at the Re- 
form School. 

Father Finch is a man of great enterprise and fine 
executive ability, and is building up a large mem- 
bership in Pontiac and vicinity. He is thoroughly 
devoted to his work, and greatly beloved by his 
parishioners. His influence is felt very largely 
throughout the community. He stands high in the 
t 'Mi-em of his superiors, and will no doubt reach 
great eminence in the church. 

Z^ENAS R. JONES, Postmaster, Station Agent, 
Justice of the Peace, and a large grain dealer 
at Smithdale, is one of the self-made men of 
Livingston County, who from a humble beginning 
in life have fought their way up to an enviable 
position, socially and financially. Besides his trade 
transactions which yield him a handsome income, 
he is the owner of 108 acres of good land, twenty- 
eight of which form a part of his homestead, while 
the remainder is farmed by his son. 

The town in which our subject resides received 
its name from John Smith, a farmer of large means 
who came here in the pioneer days. Mr. Jones 
located here in April, 1870, in which year he was 
appointed Postmaster and Station Agent. He was 
born in Champaign County, Ohio, in 1831, and was 
brought by his parents that same year to Marshall 
County, this State. They made the journey over- 
land with teams, camping and cooking hy the way- 
side, and after their settlement in Illinois experi- 
enced the hardships and privations incident to 
pioneer life. Zenas R. received a limited educa- 
tion, and at an early age was made acquainted with 
the various employments connected with farm life, 
and continued with his parents until they passed 
away. In the meantime he had been married in 
Marshall County, and carried on farming on the 
homestead until after the division of the estate. 

The father of our subject, Justice Jones, was a 
very prominent man in his day, and the son of 
Daniel Jones, who owned a fine property in the 
Buckeye State, but died when his son was a small 
child. The latter upon coming to the West served 
as the first magistrate of Evans Township, in Mar- 
shall County, which position he occupied twelve 
years, and was very popular, both in business and 
social circles. He had come to Marshall County 
before township organization was effected, and 
aided greatly in its settlement by an enterprising 
and intelligent class of people. He assisted in the 
establishment of schools and churches and was the 
first Methodist Class-Leader in Evans Township, 
which office he held until his death. He departed 
this life at his home in Marshall County, at the age 
of fifty-one years. 

The mother of our subject was in her girlhood 
Miss Sarah Warner, a native of Virginia, whence 
her parents removed in her childhood to Madison 
County, Ohio, locating near Mt. Vernon. Her father, 
Joseph Warner, was a soldier of the Revolutionary 
War, and lived to the age of one hundred and four 
years. He spent his last days with his daughter 
Sarah, in Marshall County, retaining in a remarka- 
ble degree his health and activity. A short time 
before his death he walked twelve miles across the 
prairie to Long Point, and when the final summons 
came, passed away in a short time, apparently with- 
out pain. To Justice and Sarah (Warner) Jones 
there were born eight children, namely : Daniel W., 
Epinetus; Zenas R., our subject; Louisa, Mrs. Wal- 
ter Cornell, of Amity Township; Matilda, Mrs. J. 
A. Blondin, of Sedalia, Mo., and Drusilla M. The 
mother was a true Christian woman of many excel- 
lent qualities, and spent her last days at the old 

Our subject continued under the parental roof 
until his marriage, which took place in July, 1854, 
his chosen bride being Miss Julia E., daughter of 
Andrew and Rhoda A. Stitt, natives of New York, 
who afterward removed to Michigan, where their 
daughter, Mrs. J., was born in 1828. Upon reach- 
ing womanhood she came to this county to visit a 
friend, and formed the acquaintance of her future 
husband. Their union has resulted in the birth of 
six children: John, after reaching manhood, was 



married, and continued on the farm with his father 
until his death, which occurred Sept. 8,1886; he 
left a wife and one child. Ira and Dove died in 
infancy; Frances M. obtained a good education 
and for some years has been employed as a teacher, 
in which profession she is highly successful and 
popular; Edwin B. is at home, as is also Lewis L. 

Mr. Jones has been an ordained minister of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church for a period of twenty- 
five years, and was connected with the Illinois Con- 
ference six years, four years of this time being en- 
tirely devoted to ministerial labors. After the 
outbreak of the late war he enlisted in the 104th 
Illinois Infantry, in August, 1862, and met the 
enemy in many of the important battles which en- 
sued. At Hartsville, Tenn., he was captured by 
the rebels and taken to Murfreesboro, but was soon 
afterward paroled and rejoined his regiment. The 
hardships to which he was subjected, and the 
wretched fare a large part of the time, brought 
upon him a disease from which he suffered seven 
years thereafter and was unable to do any manual 
labor. He has not yet recovered from the effects, 
and hardly expects to. 

Mr. Jones, after his return from the army, en- 
gaged in general merchandising at Wenona two 
years, then selling out purchased his present home. 
In his grain transactions he handles from 25,000 to 
40,000 bushels per year. He is a man greatly re- 
spected by his neighbors, and with his family still 
remains connected with the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, of which he is now Deacon and Class- 
Leader at Manville. 

J~~] O1IN C. ANTRIM, a prominent and influen- 
I tial farmer and stock-raiser, who is well and 
favorably known as a worthy resident on 
1 section 30, Owego Township, is a native 
of Clinton County, Ohio, where he was born on 
the 14th of October, 1836. He is the son of 
Thomas and Elizabeth Antrim, the former a native 
of Ohio and the latter of Pennsylvania. The 
mother at present resides in Nebraska; the father is 
deceased. The parents were among the earl}- set- 
tlers of Clinton County, Ohio, where they under- 

went all the trials and hardships of pioneer life. 
There were born to them ten children, five of 
whom are living: John C., William, Philip II., 
George; Catherine, who is the wife of Edward Cook, 
of Nebraska. 

Mr. Antrim was reared to manhood in his native 
State, where he engaged in work upon the farm, 
cutting and clearing timber and preparing the soil 
for the growing of crops until he reached his ma- 
jority. On the 22d of February, 1857, while yet 
residing in Ohio, he was married to Annie Hallam. 
daughter of John and Jane Hallam, of Clinton 
County, Ohio. They have had born to them nine 
children, whose names are as follows: Mary E., 
Mrs. T. H. Wheeler, of Chicago; Rachel A., Mrs. 
M. T. Hyer, of Fayette County, Ohio: William J. 
married Miss Sue Carroll, of Oskaloosa, Iowa ; Rox- 
ana K., John L., Harriet E., Edward M., Carrie A. 
and Imo. In 1863 Mr. Antrim, with his family, 
removed from Ohio to Livingston County, and re- 
sided in Amity Township until 1886, in which year 
he settled on his present farm on section 30, Owego 
Township, where he owns 123 acres of well-im- 
proved land, in the cultivation of which he is meet- 
ing with excellent success. 

In the fall of 1864 Mr. Antrim enlisted in the 
Union army from Livingston County and attached 
himself to Company H, 44th Illinois Infantry, which 
regiment was a part of the Army of the Cumber- 
land. During the time of his service in the army 
Mr. Antrim participated in the battles of Spring 
Hill, Franklin, Nashville, and numerous lesser en- 
gagements. After about a year of faithful and 
conscientious service he was honorably discharged 
from the army on the 16th of June, 1865. Upon 
his discharge he returned to Livingston County, 
where he resumed his agricultural pursuits, which 
he has since industriously followed, and by work- 
ing early .and late and husbanding his resources he 
has succeeded to such an extent that he owns 240 
acres of excellent land in Amity Township, besides 
his farm in Owego Township. Both of these farms 
are very valuable, and under the intelligent man- 
agement of Mr. Antrim are very productive. He 
takes considerable interest in all matters relating 
to Jive-stock, and in this line of his business has 
accomplished much. 



Our subject devotes but little attention to po- 
litical matters, 'so far as the stereotyped doctrines 
of the old parties are concerned, and is independ- 
ent enough to cast his ballot for the men who will 
faithfully discharge the duties of the office con- 
ferred upon them regardless of the name of the 
party to which they belong. He is upright in his 
business transactions, meriting and receiving the 
esteem of his neighbors. 

(!fpS>HOMAS McCASHLAND, a worthy agricult- 
urist of Livingston County, which calling 
he has followed the most of his life, may be 
found on section 7, Avoca Township, where he is 
pleasantly situated. He belongs to that class of 
men who have devoted their lives to beautifying 
and turning to the use of man what Nature has so 
bountifully provided. In all respects he is a rep- 
resentative citizen, and a model of that class of 
enterprising farmers who have accomplished so 
much for Livingston County. Mr. McCashland is 
a native of Montgomery County, Va., where he was 
born Nov. 30, 1827. He is the son of Benjamin 
and Elizabeth McCashland, the father a native of 
Ireland, while the mother was born in Virginia. 
At about three years of age he accompanied his 
parents when they left his native State and emi- 
grated to the West, settling in Wayne County, 
Ind., where they were early pioneers in the White- 
water Valley. The father has been married twice, 
and of the children born, twelve in number, five 
are still living, whose names are as follows : Benja- 
min, Henry ; Mary A., Mrs. Robert Pilcher; Namon 
and Thomas. 

Thomas McCashland, the subject of our sketch, 
was reared to manhood in Wayne County, Ind., 
where he received a limited education, and was 
united in marriage, on the 30th of January, 1850, 
with Miss Rachel Thomas, who was born in Union 
County, Ind., on the 29th of August, 1827. She 
is the daughter of John and Margaret Thomas. 
natives of Kentucky and Indiana respectively. 
They were early settlers in Union County, where 
they lived many years. Mr. and Mrs. McCashland 
are the parents of five living children, as follows: 

Henry M. ; Mary A., Mrs. John Morrison, of Pon- 
tiac ; Cora A., Mrs. George Tate, of Avoca Town- 
ship, and Lillie, who is now attending the High 
School at Pontiac, where she will graduate next 
June, and is an accomplished teacher of music. The 
names of the deceased children were: Roxy R., 
Florence R., Delia O. and Etta I. 

In I860 Mr. McCashland, with his family, moved 
from Indiana to Livingston County, and for a short 
time resided about four miles northwest of Pon- 
tiac. Thence he removed to Avoca Township in 
1875, and settled on the farm which he at present 
occupies. This farm consists of forty acres of 
well-improved land, on which he has erected suita- 
ble and substantial buildings. Mr. McCashland is 
in the fullest sense of the term a self-made man, 
what he has being earned by hard and persistent 
work, and retained unincumbered through economy 
and good management. In his political affiliations he 
votes with the Democratic party, although he is 
not an active politician. In consequence of the 
interest he takes in matters pertaining to educa- 
tion he has been chosen to fill the responsible posi- 
tion of School Director during the^last fifteen years. 
Mrs. McCashland is an ardent member of the Lode- 
rnia Methodist Episcopal Church, and in the affairs 
of the congregation performs her part well. The 
family occupy an enviable position in the society 
of Avoca Township, and are active participants in 
its affairs. 

C. STUDLEY, who is engaged as a merchant 
and real-estate and collecting agent at the 
village of Flanagan, in Nebraska Township, 
is the son of William and Eunice (Timberman) 
Studley, and was born in Neponset Township, Bu- 
reau Co., 111., on the 19th of December, 1855. 
His father died when he was but eight years of age, 
leaving a family of several children, who earl}' had 
to assist their mother in making a living. 

Our subject was reared on a farm until the age of 
thirteen, when he engaged with Austin Barnum, a 
cousin of P. T. Barnum, the great showman, in a 
liver}' stable, on the condition that his work should 
pay for his board while he attended school. This 
arrangement continued through three winters, and 


' ' 326 


during that time he worked one summer in a brick- 
yard, and two on Ins. uncle's farm. At the age of 
seventeen he began attending the graded school, 
where he remained for about two years, in the mean- 
time taking private instructions in order to fit him- 
self for entering college. When he was eighteen 
years of age upon a first examination he obtained a 
first grade certificate, and taught school one year. 
He then entered the University of Illinois at Cham- 
paign, where he remained one year, and then en- 
gaged in school teaching another year in order to 
provide himself with means for the purchase of the 
necessary books and clothing to continue his col- 
lege studies. After one more year in college, he 
again taught school one year in Livingston County, 
and the following summer began the study of 
law. In the fall of that year he went to Ann Arbor, 
Mich., and entered the law department, where he 
remained about one year, when, on account of ill- 
health, lie was compelled to retire from school. He 
then began studying law in the office of S. S. 
Lawrence, but his health continuing poor he was 
obliged to abandon the study. 

On the 7th of October. 1879, our subject was mar- 
ried at Bloomington, III., to Cora A. Herold, daugh- 
ter of Amos (Jobs) Herold. During the following 
winter he taught school, and in the spring went to 
Iowa, where he and his brother, C. M. Studley, pur- 
chased 160 acres of wild laud and made some im- 
provements on it. In the following fall he sold out 
to his brother, and went to Wright County, Iowa, 
where he purchased eighty acres of land, and taught 
school that winter. In the meantime his wife had 
returned to Illinois on account of ill-health to re- 
main during the winter. In the spring of 1881 Mr. 
Studley returned to Illinois, where he taught school 
three months. In August, 1881, he moved into 
Flanagan, where he taught the village school five 
days in the week, worked in the lumber-yard on 
Saturdays, and kept books during the evenings. 
In the following spring he worked at carpentering, 
but soon discontinued business and began clerk- 
ing for Murphy Brothers, driving their wagon a 
portion of the time. At the end of the year the 
Murphy Brothers closed out their business, and 
Mr. Studley was temporarily thrown out of employ- 
ment. At the suggestion of a friend he invested in 

a stock of flour and feed, and from this start he has 
gradually worked up a good trade. In politics Mr. 
Studley is a Democrat. He has held the offices of 
Village Trustee and School Director. When he 
was elected to the latter office, the school-house 
stood about one mile from the village, and two 
Directors were opposed to removing it, but within 
six months the location was changed, and before his 
term expired, the new house, costing about $3,000, 
was paid for. In 1885 he was elected Justice of 
the Peace with only seven opposing votes out of 
167 cast. He has been Treasurer of the village for 
two years, and holds that place at the time this 
sketch is written. 

Mr. Studley is the fourth in a family of six chil- 
dren: Clarence M. is married, is a farmer at Web- 
ster City, Iowa, and has four children ; George M., 
married, is a farmer at Webster City, Iowa, and has 
one child ; Charles M. is an Iowa farmer, and has 
no children; Maria, Mrs. Hiram Thompson, has five 
children, and lives in Iowa; William T. is unmar- 
ried and lives with his mother in Iowa. 

William Studley, Sr., the father of our subject, 
was born in Yorkshire, England, in the month of 
October, 1824, and came to America with his 
parents, William, Sr., and Ann (Chapman) Stud- 
ley, when he was about seven years of age. The 
father located near Jacksonville, III., where he 
followed farming, and at which place he enjoyed an 
intimate acquaintance with Abraham Lincoln. 
Leaving Jacksonville they moved to Stark Count}', 
which was then a wilderness, and "squatted" in 
Osceola Grove at about the close of the Black Hawk 
War. In about one year they sold their property, 
and moved into Bureau County, and were the first 
settlers in the township, their nearest neighbors be- 
ing eight or ten miles distant. The farm on which 
they M'tiled in Bureau County is still owned in the 
Studley family. The father of our subject was 
married in 1848. In August, 1862, he enlisted in 
Company H, 93d Illinois Infantry, and was under 
(Irani at Vieksburg, where he contracted a disease, 
and after returning home, was discharged and died 
on the 2d of May, 1864. Our subject's paternal 
grandfather, William Studley, Sr., was born in York- 
shire, England, Dec. 1, 1788. He was in the Brit- 
ish service fourteen years, and was a member of the 



327 ' ! 

Home Guards at the time of the war with Napo- 
leon. He was married about 1820, came to this 
country in 1831, and died in October, 1878. Our 
subject's great-grandfather, George Studley, mar- 
ried a Miss Coultis, during the war of the Revo- 

To Mr. and Mrs. Studley have been born two 
children : Leora Ethel, at Webster City, Iowa, Aug. 
17, 1880; and Claude Melville, in Flanagan, Aug. 
2, 1883. So far as home surroundings are con- 
cerned, Mr. and Mrs. Studley are very pleasantly 
situated. His business affairs are in such a pros- 
perous condition that the}' are enabled to live com- 
fortably, and provide liberally for those dependent 
upon them. Besides merchandising, Mr. Studley is 
largely engaged in buying and selling real estate, 
and acting as collecting agent, in all which lines of 
business he has been successful. 

H. JENKINS, Supervisor of Pontiac Town- 
ship, Deputy County Clerk, Notary Pub- 
lic, and Insurance Agent, it will readily be 
surmised is one of the wide-awake and enterprising 
citizens to whom Livingston County is indebted for 
its present status in one of the most prosperous 
commonwealths of the West. He is a native of 
Ohio, and came to Illinois in 1859. He was born 
in Miami County, Ohio, Jan. 11, 1846, and is the 
son of Samuel R. and Mary (Frederick) Jenkins, 
also natives of the Buckeye State, where they 
ranked among the most desirable members of the 
farming community. The father of our subject, in 
September, 1859, left his native State and migrat- 
ing westward settled in Esmen Township, this 
county, where he purchased eighty acres of land, 
and remained upon it until 1869. He then re- 
moved to Iroquois County, where he still resides. 

The Jenkins family is of Welsh ancestry, and 
came with William Penn to America, settling- in 
Pennsylvania. On the mother's side the Fredericks 
were of German descent. The paternal grandfather 
of our subject, David Jenkins, was born in South 
Carolina, whence he removed to Ohio at an early 
day, where he became a prominent citizen, and be- 
sides the duties of looking after an extensive farm, 

also officiated as Justice of the Peace for many 

years. He died in Miami County about 1856. His 

son Samuel, already mentioned as the father of our 

- subject, in middle life identified himself with the 

Republican party, and belonged, with his estimable 

wife, to the Methodist Episcopal Church. The 

household circle embraced eleven children, seven 

I now living, namely, Rebecca A., Isaac R., William 

i H., Nancy E., Olive A., Samuel K. and Daniel W. 

They are considerably scattered, two living in St. 

Paul, Minn., one in Dakota and the others in this 


Our subject was reared on his father's homestead 
among the Ohio hills, and after the manner of 
most farmers' boys attended school in winter, and 
assisted on the farm in summer. He thus ap- 
proached manhood, and in the meantime occurred 
the outbreak of the late Rebellion. He came with 
his father to Illinois, and on the 30th of December, 
1863, enlisted in Company C, 39th Illinois In- 
fantry, and for eighteen months experienced the 
vicissitudes of a soldier's life. He met the enemy in 
many important engagements, namely, Drewry's 
Bluff, Strawberry Plains, Darby Town Cross Roads, 
and in various minor engagements and skir- 
mishes. At the first mentioned place he was shot 
through the neck and shoulder, and after two 
months' confinement in the hospital received a thirty 
days' furlough. Oct. 13, 1864, at Darby Town 
Cross Roads he was shot through the leg above the 
knee. He received his honorable discharge May 
18, 1865, and after spending a season on the farm, 
repaired to Chicago and took a six months' course 
in Bryant & Stratton's Business College. His leg 
by reason of the wound had continued troublesome, 
although he hoped to save it. He suffered with it 
until the 18th of May, 1868, when he gave up all 
hope of recovering from the wound, and ampu- 
tation was accordingly performed by Dr. Charles 
M. Clark, of the Soldier's Home, in Chicago. 

In December following, Mr. Jenkins was ap- 
pointed Deputy County Clerk, and remained in the 
discharge of his duties at Pontiac until 1874. For 
two years afterward he was engaged in keeping 
hotel, and then in T876 was elected Circuit Clerk, 
which position he held four years, and was then 
appointed Deputy Circuit Clerk, serving until Jan. 



1, 1885, when he was appointed Deputy County 
Clerk, and the following year elected Supervisor of 
Pontiac Township. He received his commission 
as Notary Public from Gov. Oglesby in 1883. 

The wife of our subject was formerly Miss Bessie 
Van Scoy, and their wedding took place at the home 
of the bride's parents, Dec. 21, 1880. Mrs. Jen- 
kins is a native of Ohio, and the daughter of James 
W. and Margaret (Wiles) Van Scoy, natives re- 
spectively of Ohio and Virginia. They came to 
Illinois in 1868, and are now residents of Pontiac. 
Mr. and Mrs. Jenkins have one child only, a son, 
Charles L. They occupy a comfortable and taste- 
ful residence at the intersection of Mill and Liv- 
ingston streets, and number their friends among the 
most cultivated people of the city. 

ED DEN M. JOHNSON is a member of the 
firm of Johnson & Renoe, publishers and 
proprietors of the Free Trader- and Observer, 
at Pontiac. Our subject was born in Monroe 
County, W. Va., May 11, 1845, and is the son of 
Morris and Minerva (Ellis) Johnson, natives of the 
same county, where the father, during his early 
manhood, was engaged in mercantile pursuits. In 
1856 he disposed of his property in the Old 
Dominion, and coming to Pontiac followed mer- 
chandising, and also engaged as. a farmer and stock 
dealer. He was successful in business, and retired 
upon a competency. His death occurred May 7, 

The father of our subject was largely connected 
with the business interests of Northern and Central 
Illinois, and a prominent stockholder in the bank 
at Bloomington, 111. He put up two store build- 
ings in Pontiac and a fine residence on the south 
side of the Vermilion River. He watched with 
unalloyed interest the growth and prosperity of his 
adopted State, and did much toward encouraging 
the various worthy enterprises which at that time 
were being instituted in connection with the build- 
ing up of Pontiac. He was Democratic politically, 
and socially w:i> a member of the Masonic frater- 
nity. The parental family included two children 
only, our subject and his sister, Eunice J. The 

latter married E. A. McGregor, of Pontiac, and 
died in 1886, leaving three children Bernice, Ellis 
and Lewis. 

The paternal grandfather of our subject, Jacob 
Johnson by name, was. like his son and grandson, a 
native of Monroe County, W. Va.. whence he re- 
moved to McLean County, 111., with his family in 
1856. He continued farming, and died in McLean 
County in 1873. The maternal grandfather, Will- 
iam Ellis, was also a native of Monroe County, W. 
Ya., and a farmer by occupation. He spent his 
entire life in his native State, his death taking place 
about 1875. 

Our subject pursued his early studies in the 
schools of Pontiac after the removal of his parents 
to this State, and when eighteen years old entered 
Wesleyan University at Bloomington, from which 
he was graduated in 1867. Afterward he repaired 
to Ann Arbor, and entered the law department of 
Michigan University, where he took a full course 
and was admitted to the bar in 1869. He, how- 
ever, had had his attention called to newspaper work, 
and as it seemed to coincide with his tastes and 
inclinations, he purchased the Free Trader, and has 
since conducted it in a manner creditable to him- 
self and satisfactory to all concerned. He is of a 
practical turn of mind, and usually succeeds in 
whatever undertaking his judgment approves. 

Mr. Johnson has wisely invested his capital in 
real estate, which embraces farms in this county 
and property in the town, besides his office material. 
His land is cultivated by lessees. He was instru- 
mental in the organization of the Pontiac Union 
Coal Company, of which he became President, and 
which gives employment usually to sixty or eighty 
men. He is a stockholder in the National Bank, 
and has been identified with many important move- 
ments contributing to the best interests of the city. 
He was twice elected Mayor, has served as Super- 
visor of Pontiac Township, and was a member of 
the Board of Education. Politically he affiliates 
with the Democratic party, and socially is a member 
of the Masonic fraternity. 

Mr. Johnson was married, Dec. 8, 1809, to Miss 
Carrie M. Saxton. Mrs. Johnson was born in 
Huntingdon, Pa., Oct. 9, 1847, and is the daughter 
of James and Elizabeth Saxton, natives of Penn- 




sylvania. Of her union with our subject there 
have been born two children Mary E. and Beulah 
J. Their home, located on the South Side, is the 
resort of the intelligent people of the city, and its 
inmates are surrounded by all the comforts and 
many of the luxuries of life. 

UDOLPII WARNER. It is said that life 
is a lottery, and that all cannot draw prizes. 
Be that as it may, the man who was born 
in a foreign land and crosses the ocean 
to this country in his youth, knowing nothing of 
the language or customs of the people of America, 
casts his lot as he would invest in a lottery ticket, 
with the odds against him. And yet it is a notable 
fact that those sturdy people who emigrate from 
Germany to this country nearly always succeed in 
their undertakings. If they engage in trade and 
traffic they prosper, and if they till the soil they 
make it produce and blossom as the rose. Of this 
class of men is the subject of our sketch, a farmer 
and stock-raiser on section 3G, Rook's Creek Town- 
ship, who was born in Germany on the 18th of No- 
vember, 1844, and is the son of John and Minnie 
(Peters) Warner, who came to this country in 
1853, first locating in New York, where they re- 
mained about five years, and then moved to Chi- 
cago. From Chicago they moved to Will County, 
where they remained until 1848, and then settled 
in Rook's Creek Township. 

The subject of this notice was the sixth in a fam- 
ily of thirteen children, five of whom are now liv- 
ing: William, the eldest, is living in Germany; 
Rudolph; Albert, married, has one child, and lives 
in Livingston County; Lecetta, Mrs. George Howe, 
has two children, and lives in Livingston County; 
Emma is unmarried. The father of Mr. Warner was 
born on the 14th of March, 1811, and his mother 
\va> born on the 25th of December, 1813. They 
were married in 1836, and he died on the 28th of 
March, 1879. The early education of Mr. Warner 
was rather limited, on account of the lack of edu- 
cational facilities during his boyhood. His first 
Presidential vote was cast for Gen. U. S. Grant in 
2, and he has continued to support the Repub- 

lican ticket since. He is a member of the United 
Brethren Church, having been a leader in the class 
meetings of that denomination, and has held the 
-office of School Trustee for six years, and School 
Director for several years. 

Mr. Warner was married to Miss Caroline Fugar, 
on the 19th of February, 1874, and they are the 
parents of two children: Henry, born on the 15th 
of May, 1878, and George, born on the 16th of 
February, 1880. Mrs. Warner was born in New 
Jersey Sept. 26, 1857, and was brought to Will 
County by her parents in 1858. Her father was a 
native of Germany, born on the 18th of February, 
1829, and came to this country with his mother in 
1852, his father having died in Germany in 1832. 
The mother, Margaret Zibbet. was a native of New 

Mr. Warner has been successful as a farmer and 
stock-raiser, and besides bringing his farm up to a 
high state of cultivation, has been able to construct 
commodious buildings for the accommodation and 
comfort of his family. His barns and out-build- 
ings are ample for the shelter and protection of his 
live stock. 

S DWIN V. JOHNSON, one of the pioneers 
of thirty years ago, is now the owner of 
/JL^ one-quarter of section 20, in Owego Town- 
ship, upon which he settled in 1883, having for- 
merly resided on section 16. He may properly be 
classed among the self-made men of Livingston 
County, as he commenced in life comparatively 
without means, and has by his own energy and per- 
severance, become the owner of a good property. 
He also struggled with the disadvantages of a lim- 
ited education, but he availed himself of such op- 
portunities as were afforded, to keep himself in- 
formed upon matters of general interest, and is 
numbered among those who encouraged the estab- 
lishment of schools and the other enterprises cal- 
culated for the advancement and welfare of the 
people. He was Director in his district for many 
years, and served as Road Commissioner, besides 
occupying other local offices. 

Our subject was born in Herkimer County. N. 
Y., July 28, 1824, and is the son of Dorastus and 

\ ' 





Bethsheba Johnson, who were of New England 
birth and parentage, and reared a large family of 
children, of whom only the following now survive, 
viz., William, Edwin V., Dorus, Samuel and Ce- 
linn. This branch of the Johnson family is of 
Scotch ancestry, the first representatives of whom 
in this country settled in New England during the 
Colonial days. Dorastus Johnson, in 1834, re- 
moved from Herkimer to Cattaraugus County, and 
thence six 3'ears later to Warren County, Pa. Here 
our subject reached his majority, but he subse- 
quently returned to his native State and was mar- 
ried in Chautauqua County, in 1852, to Miss Susan 
Holtnan. Of this union there were born seven 
children, namely, Laura, Mrs. Burt Nichols, of 
Minnesota; Emma, Mrs. John Derry; Huldah, 
Mrs. John Brown, and Mary, Mrs. Kenry Finhold, 
all of this county; George E. married Miss Laura 
Phillips; Calvin and Effie are at home with their 

Mr. Johnson came to this county in 1857, and 
since that time has been a resident of Owego 
Township. Considering the fact that he com- 
menced at the foot of the ladder, dependent upon 
his own resources alone, and that he is now the 
owner of valuable property, it is hardly necessary 
to say that he labored persistently for many years, 
and always made it a rule to live within his income. 
He possessed those qualities which at once com- 
mended him to the people around him, whose es- 
teem and confidence he has enjoyed since the time 
of his arrival on prairie soil. His children have 
been carefully reared and well educated. Those 
married are settled in comfortable homes, and the 
younger ones remaining with the parents are being 
carefully trained for their future position as mem- 
bers of an unusually intelligent community. Mr. 
Johnson generally votes the straight Republican 
ticket, but when there is a Greenback candidate in 
the field, he gives to the latter his preference. 
Socially, he belongs to the I. O. O. F., being a 
member of the Poutiac Lodge. 

George E. Johnson, the eldest son of our sub- 
ject, occupies the old homestead on section 16, 
which comprises ninety acres of fertile land, and 
upon which his father first settled on coming to 
Livingston County. He was born Sept. 28, 1802, 

and was reared after the manner of most farmers' 
sons, becoming useful upon the farm at an early 
age, and during the winter seasons pursuing his 
studies at the district school. Not long after pass- 
ing his twenty-first birthday, he was united in mar- 
riage with Miss Laura Phillips, who is the daugh- 
ter of William R. Phillip*, a pioneer of Livingston 
County. Her mother was formerly Miss Mary 
Rusk; both are now deceased. George Johnson 
bids fair to follow in the footsteps of his father, 
possessing the same qualities of thrift and industry, 
and is carrying on his agricultural operations after 
the most approved modern methods. He has al- 
ready attracted considerable notice as one of the 
most promising young men of his community. 
He affiliates with the Republican party, and is 
School Director in his district. 

eHARLES YOUNGER. Among the younger 
farmers and newer citizens of Livingston 
County, none have made a fairer start than 
the subject of this sketch, and his prospects for the 
future are bright indeed. An eighty-acre farm, 
well managed, and cultivated with method and sys- 
tem, is as profitable as one of double that size that 
is conducted in a haphazard manner, and it is need- 
less to say that Mr. Younger's farm is one of the 
most productive in the county. Everything about 
the place denotes system and regulation, there be- 
ing a place for everything, and everything in its 
place. Since his advent in the county the subject 
of this sketch has popularized himself with its citi- 
zens, and is rated among the enterprising men of 
the county. His farm is located on section 33 of 
Avoca Township. 

Mr. Younger is a native of Woodford County, 
111., and was born on the 8th of February, 1848. 
He is the sou of Benjamin and Lodemia Younger, 
the latter of whom is deceased. His father was a 
native of Pennsylvania, and when ten years of age 
accompanied his parents when they moved to Ohio 
and settled near Salina, where they remained until 
he grew to manhood. They then came to Illinois 
and settled near Washington, Tazewell County, and 
after remaining there for several years removed to 







Woodfonl County, and there lived for about thirty 
years. The father now resides with his sons, in 
Belle Prairie Township. He has been married 
twice, and became the father of seven children, four 
of whom survive William, John, Franklin, and 
Charles, the subject of this sketch. The latter was 
reared to man's estate in his native county, where 
he received a fair common-school education, and 
learned the rudiments of farming, which occupation 
he has followed all his life with the exception of 
about five years, when he conducted a meat-market 
in Ainsworth, Iowa. In the fall of 1882 he came 
to Livingston Count}', purchasing eighty acres of 
land on section 33, Avoca Township. 

On the 1st of January, 1873, Mr. Younger was 
married to Phoebe Combes, a native of Woodford 
County, 111., and daughter of 'Alfred and Betsey 
Combes, of that county. To them have been born 
four children Alfred, Cora (deceased), Benjamin 
and Herbert. Early in life Mr. Younger took no- 
tice of the political events which were occurring 
throughout the country, and when he arrived at 
his majority cast his lot with the Republican party, 
with which he has affiliated ever since. He has 
never been a seeker after office, and the only one 
which he would consent to accept was that of 
School Director, for which he is peculiarly fitted on 
account of the interest he takes in educational mat- 
ters. Mrs. Younger is an active member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and both identify 
themselves with all social and moral matters. 

This lady is the widow of the late James 
McDowell, a well-known business man of 
Livingston County, who was the possessor 
of a fine propert}', which he accumulated partially 
in mercantile pursuits, and for maiy years was occu- 
pied as an extensive farmer and stock-raiser. The 
valuable estate left to his family embraces 1,700 
acres of land, embellished with fine buildings, besides 
the residence which Mrs. McDowell occupies in the 
village of Fairbury. 

Mr. McDowell was a native of Wayne County, 
lncl., and was born Jan. 28, 1824. He was reared 

to farm life, and pursued his early studies in the 
district schools. lie came to Illinois with his fa- 
ther's family in 1832, and his home for several years 
afterward was in Avoca Township, this county. 
His marriage to Miss Frances Wilson took place 
Dec. 11, 1845. Mr. and Mrs. McDowell lived in 
Avoca Township until June, 1873, during which 
time he held the position of Postmaster nine years. 
After locating in Fairbury he officiated as School 
Treasurer many years, and represented Indian 
Grove Township on the County Board of Super- 
visors. He had identified himself with the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church during his early manhood, 
and was prominent in its councils for thirty-five 
years. He officiated as Steward most of this time, 
and contributed largely to the maintenance and 
advancement of the society. Politically, he was 
strongly Republican. In his family he was kind, 
generous and indulgent, and in the community no 
man was held in higher esteem. 

The death of Mr. McDowell occurred under very 
painful circumstances. In December, 1879, he was 
greatly injured by a runaway team, and suffered a 
fracture of one of his limbs, which resulted in his 
death five weeks later, Jan. 12, 1880. The be- 
raved family included his widow and five children. 
Of the latter the eldest son, Jason L., married Miss 
Florence Wilson, and is a resident of Kansas; John 
W. married Miss Luella Tanner; Sarah J. is the 
wife of Hiel Ramsey ; Grant Yates and Lillie E. are 
unmarried and at home with their mother. 

Mrs. McDowell's parents, John and Mary (Will- 
iams) Wilson, were natives of North Carolina, the 
father of English and the mother of German ances- 
try. John Wilson followed farming all his life, and 
died in Carroll County, Ind., in 1843, aged fifty- 
two years. The mother had died in 1829, leaving 
seven children, namely, Isaac, Sarah, Rachel, 
Thomas, Jacob, Frances and William. After the 
death of Mr. McDowell, his sou assisted in the ad- 
justment of the estate and the carrying on of the 
farm; this included a tile manufactory, from 
which each year is derived a fine revenue. The 
hind is mostly devoted to pasture, and the raising 
of grain and hay for the consumption of the flne 
stock which is raised upon it. This includes En- 
glish and Norman horses, which are held for sale at 

i ' 




Avoca. Grant McDowell has inherited largely the 
business capacities of his father, and will keep up 
the reputation of the estate in the same admirable 
manner as he who projected and established it. He 
is a strong Republican, politically, and bids fail- 
to become prominent in the local affairs of his 

ENRY' J. DEMOSS, who ranks among the 


pioneers of Avoca Township, began life 
among the hills of Highland County, Ohio, 
on the 28th of June, 1830. His parents, 
James and Margaret (Nace) DeMoss, were also na- 
tives of tho Buckeye State, the father of French 
ancestry and the mother of German. His paternal 
grandfather, James DeMoss, Jr., was born in France, 
and when a child two years of age was brought by 
his parents to the United States, where they settled 
near the town of Cicero, Ind. Ten years later 
they came to this county, arriving in the spring of 
1840. They located about six miles southeast of 
Pontiac, and from there, a few 3 r ears later, removed 
to a point one mile north of the old town site of 
Avoca, where the father of our subject passed his 
last years on the farm now owned by Daniel Street. 
The death of James DeMoss took place in the 
spring of 1852, and that of his wife eleven year> 
later. Their household included eleven children, 
of whom the. following survive, namety. Henry J., 
of our sketch; John, a resident of Highland 
County, Ohio; Alexander, who is farming in In- 
dian Grove Township, this county; Eleander, of 
Sunnier County, Kan.; Maria, the wife of Daniel 
Street, of Avoca Township, and Emma, Mrs. Wile3 r 
Sparks, also of Avoca Township. 

The father of our subject was a millwright, a 
trade which he followed all his life, allowing his 
boys to do most of the farming. He put up the 
machine^ 7 in the first mill built at Pontiac, and 
built the seats^of the first court-house there. He 
possessed great energy, and was a man of integrity 
and one in whom the people had entire confidence. 
In his death Livingston County lost one of her 
most worthy pioneers and public-spirited citizens. 

The subject of our sketch was reared to man- 
hood in this county, receiving the meager advan- 

tages of its common schools. He remained under 
the parental roof until his marriage, which took 
place in the spring of 1851, his bride being Miss 
Mary J. Popejoy, who was born in Tippecanoe 
County, Ind., Sept. 27, 1832. Mrs. DeMoss is the 
daughter of Nathan and Mary (Gregory) Popejoy, 
natives respectively of Kentucky and Ohio. When 
six weeks old she was brought by her parents 
to this county during its early settlement. They 
resided for two years on the farm now owned by 
Philip Rollins east of Pontiac, and thence removed 
to section 25, in Avoca Township, where the 
mother died in 1846, and the father the year fol- 

The children of Mr. and Mrs. DeMoss, six in 
number, were named respectively, Levi L., Theo- 
dore M., Edward W.. Henry B. ; Margaret M., the 
wife of Lewis Carter, of Pleasant Ridge Township, 
and Isadora, Mrs. Edward Skinner, of the same 
township. Mrs. DeMoss was the fourth of ten 
children, of whom four are living, namely, John 
W., Theodore M., Hiram G. and Mary J. 

The property of our subject includes 106 acres 
of good land with a comfortable residence and all 
other suitable farm buildings. He has been prin- 
cipally employed in attending to his own concerns, 
and has, therefore, uniformly met with success in 
his farming and business affairs. He supports the 
principles of the Democratic party, and has served 
us School Director in his district several years. 
He also occupied the same position while in Pleas- 
ant Ridge Township. 

BRAHAM H. STATES, a resident of this 
county for the past nine years, is carrying 
on the manufacture of tile at Long Point, 
where he has all the buildings and machinery 
necessary for the successful prosecution of this in- 
dustry. He probably operates on a larger scale 
than any other gentleman in this section, and turns 
out an excellent product which obtains ready sale 
throughout the county and elsewhere. His factory 
buildings and his residence, with its surroundings, 
occupy nearly six acres of ground. The dwelling 
is a neat and substantial structure, and with its out- 



335 , , 

buildings forms a complete home, which in all its 
appointments suggests the outlay of ample means 
and the exercise of refined tastes. 

Our subject, who is the son of Daniel and Ann 
(Krews) States, was horn in Bucks County, Pa., 
Jan. 19, 1833. His parents were also natives of 
the Keystone State. The father was a farmer by 
occupation; the mother died early in life, in 1839, 
when our subject was a lad but six years of age. 
He was afterward taken to Maryland to live with 
an uncle, with whom he made his home five years, 
and then, on account of ill-usage, ran away and 
went to sea. He was a sailor for twelve years 
thereafter; has twice crossed the ocean, and been 
the witness of strange sights and strange peoples, 
thereby gaining a rich experience and a close in- 
sight into the manners and customs of people in 
various portions of the globe. 

After Mr. States had resolved to settle down on 
terra firma, he first located in Ohio, where, in 1856, 
he became a resident of Clinton County. He there 
made the acquaintance of Miss Louisa Johnston, 
the result of which was his marriage, Oct. 27, 
1857. Mrs. States is the daughter of Stephen 
and Jemima Johnston, and was born in January, 
1838. The young people began life together in 
Libert}', where they remained until the outbreak of 
the late war. Soon after the first call for volun- 
teer troops, our subject enlisted in Company B, 
149th Ohio National Guards, being stationed for a 
time at Ft.^McHenry, Baltimore, and thereafter go- 
ing to the front. He was at the battle of Fred- 
erick, Md., and at Charleston, and in the engage- 
ment at Frederick, Aug. 17, 1864, was captured by 
the rebels. Four days later, ^owever, he made 
his escape by crawling into a ditch, and secreting 
himself until they took their departure from that 
region. He was ten da}'s in reaching his regiment 
which was quartered at Snickers' Gap, and in the 
meantime was kept alive by the kindness of negroes 
who supplied him with food. The leaden bullets 
afterward whizzed by his ears at Strasburg, Va., 
but he escaped unharmed and received his honor- 
able discharge at the close of the war. 

Upon his return from the army Mr. States lo- 
cated in Clinton County, Ohio, and engaged for a 
time in the manufacture of tile and brick, when 

he came to this county in 1878. To himself and 
his estimable lady have been born the following- 
named children: Stephen E., a stenographer and 
type- writer in the office of the S. F. 11. R. at Strea- 
tor; Amie L., wife of Daniel Mills, formerly of 
Long Point, and the mother of two children Roy 
and Glenn; they are now residents of Barton 
County, Mo. Louis A., an engineer and machinist, 
makes his home with his parents. The younger ones 
are Mary A., George E., Maude S. and Aerl H. 

Mr. States with his wife and their two eldest 
daughters and one son, are members in good 
standing of the Christian Church at Long Point. 
Mr. S., politically, is one of the most reliable mem- 
bers of the Republican party, and greatly inter- 
ested in the success of the prohibition movement. 
He possesses all the elements of good citizenship, 
and has contributed no little toward building up 
the business interests of his community. 

AMUEL SCHLOSSER. Illinois is indebted 
for her grand and rapid development very 
much to natives of Pennsylvania, who had 
the courage to settle here while it was a 
wilderness inhabited by Indians. Wherever a nu- 
cleus of Pennsylvanians were gathered the country 
has been made to approach very near to perfection, 
so far as improvement of the land and its cultivation 
is concerned. 

Although the subject of this sketch did not be- 
come a citizen of Illinois while yet the Indians 
held possession of a large part of the State, he be- 
came a citizen early enough to be a pioneer in 
every sense of the word. He was born on the 6th 
of September, 1820, in Adams Count}', Pa., and 
is the son of John and Mary Schlosser, also na- 
tives of that State. The grandfather, Conrad 
Schlosser, was a soldier in the American Revolu- 
tionary army and fought under Gen. Washington. 
The grandfather was the progenitor of the Schlos- 
ser family in America, and after the close of the 
Revolutionary War he settled in Adams County, 
Pa., and afterward in his declining years removed 
to Preble County, Ohio, where he died. There 
were born to John and Mary Schlosser seven chil- 

< * 



dren, four of whom are living Moses, Jonas, Sam- 
uel and John. The parents were pioneers of Preble 
County, Ohio, where they both died. 

Mr. Schlosser spent his boyhood days in Preble 
County, attending the district schools as opportu- 
nity permitted, and succeeded in securing an 
average education. lie was married, on the 16th 
of May, 1839, to Eliza Ebersult, who was a native 
of Ohio. To them eight children have been born, 
five of whom are living, as follows: Elijah; Sarah, 
wife of James McCoy; Thomas; Mary, Mrs. Eben- 
eztT Colkins, and Emeline, Mrs. Wilber Tallman. 

Mr. Schlosser came to Livingston County in 
1854 and settled in Pontiac Township, where lie 
still resides on section 6. His excellent farm con- 
sists of 126 acres, and is cultivated in such a man- 
ner as to produce very remunerative crops. What- 
ever Mr. Schlosser can call his own has been 
secured through his own unaided efforts. His polit- 
ical proclivities are Republican, and he gives the 
men and measures of that party a cordial support. 
He is liberal in his views on all questions of local 
concern, and takes an active interest in everything 
that will benefit and elevate the members of the 


who resides on a farm on section 31, 
Rook's Creek Township, was born near 
Bern, Switzerland, on the 14th of Novem- 
1824. The canton of Bern, in which she 
was born, is the most populous in the Confedera- 
tion, and the city of Bern, near which her birth- 
place lies, is the finest in all Switzerland, and one 
of the most handsome cities in Europe. It is built 
entirely of freestone, and is remarkable for the ar- 
cades formed by the houses in all its principal 
streets, and for its numerous fountains, many of 
which are ornamented with curious sculpture. !t 
has a Gothic cathedral, a university, an observa- 
tory, a public library, a musfiim, an arsenal and a 
mint. In all its aspects it is one of the most inter- 
esting of European cities. 

Mrs. Frobisch is the daughter of John Koim-r 
and Elizabeth (Matthias) Komer, the youngest 

of their five children; her sisters and brothers 
are Barbara, John, Farina (now called Fannie) and 
Mary. Barbara was married twice, her first hus- 
band being George Cook, and her second John G. 
Frobisch; she lives in Monroe County, Ohio. John 
married Susan (Josser, and lives in Belmont County, 
Ohio; they are the parents of four children. Fan- 
nie married Jacob Steiner, and lives in Butler 
County, Pa. ; she has nine children. Mary married 
John G. Frobisch, and had one child, William, 
who has been twice married and lives in Monroe 
County, Ohio; she died in Ohio in 1862. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Frobisch carneto this country with 
her parents in 1831, and settled in Belmont County, 
Ohio. She was married, at Steubenville, Ohio, to 
John M. Frobisch on the 1st of February, 1849, the 
Rev. Dr. Holmes, officiating. There they farmed 
until 1863, when they moved to Marshall County, 
111., where they lived about five years and then 
moved to Livingston County, and bought a half 
section of land on which she now lives, with 
those of her children who are not married. Her 
father was born in 1776; her mother in 1786. Both 
died in 1861. John M. Frobisch, the husband of 
our subject, was born in November, 1823, and died 
Oct. 24, 1869. He was born in Saxony, and 
came to the United States when he was about 
twenty-one years of age. His father was John G. 
Frobisch, who made two visits to this country, but 
died in Saxony. 

Mrs. Frobisch is the mother of a large family, as 
follows: Mary R., born Nov. 5, 1849, in Monroe 
County, Ohio, is unmarried and lives with her 
mother; James, born Jan. 16, 1851, in Monroe 
County, Ohio, was united in marriage with Caro- 
line Pampel, April 1, 1874, lives in Livingston 
County, and has six children living: George, 
born Aug. 8, 1853, in Monroe County, Ohio, is 
unmarried and lives in Colorado: Michael, born on 
the 5th of April, 185"), died on the 20lh of Novem- 
ber, 1881, in Adair County, Iowa; Fannie, born 
Feb. 4, 1857, married George W. Anderson, Feb. 
10, 1878, lives in Pike Township, Livingston 
County, and has three children; Louis, born March 
25, 1859, is single and lives at home; Charlotte, 
born April 2, I860, married Lucas H. Brown on 
the 29th of September, 1882, lives in Rook's Creek 



Township, and has two children ; Jacob, born Feb. 
10,1862; John, born March 10, 1864, in Marshall 
County. 111.; Edward, born Oct. 24, 1866, in Mar- 
shall County, 111. The last three mentioned arc 
living at home. 

The religious belief of the ancestors of Mrs. 
Frobisch was according to' the doctrines of the 
Lutheran Church, but in later life her brother was a 
Presbyterian and her mother became a Methodist. 
The children differ in their religious belief, and all 
the political parties are represented among the 

^^. EORGE B. KOONTZ, a most thorough and 
skillful young farmer of Reading Township, 
owns one of the best conducted farms in 
that locality, consisting of eighty acres on section 7. 
This he has brought to a high state of cultivation, 
and has a beautiful residence, flanked by a good 
barn and other convenient out-buildings. He keeps 
a choice assortment of live stock, and his farm 
machinery comprises implements of the latest im- 
proved pattern. In connection with his farming 
operations he runs a threshing-machine, and is a 
wide-awake business man, always willing to add to 
his income either by downright hard labor or any 
other honest means. He is unmarried. 

Mr. Koontz is a native of Westmoreland County, 
Pa., and was born March 3, 1862; he is the son of J. 
C. and Martha (Weaver) Koontz, who were also na- 
tives of the Keystone State. The father was born 
in 1830, and came to the West in 1866. His death 
took place in La Salle County in 1881, in a most 
distressing manner, he being run over by a train 
of cars. The mother of our subject is the daugh- 
ter of David and Mary Jane (Dougherty) Weaver, 
and became the wife of J. C. Koontz June 23, 

The parental household included the following 
children: Margaret, now the wife of A. Cossel, is 
the mother of nine children, and now a resident of 
Reading Township ? Susan, who has been twice 
married, is now the wife of William McGraw, 
of Pennsylvania, who is a machinist and foreman 
in a car manufactory; Martha is the mother of our 
subject; Sarah married Jacob Chain, a stock dealer 

of Collinsville, Pa., who is now deceased; Albert 
died in Ottawa, La Salle Co., 111., Nov. 18, 1866, 
when a young man twenty-three years of age; 
Nicholas, a resident of Cloud County, Kan., is mar- 
ried and the father of five children ; Rebecca, the 
twin sister of Nicholas, lives in Pennsylvania. Mrs. 
Mary Jane Weaver died in 1852, and Mr. W. was 
married again and became the father of two more 
children. To J. C. and Martha Koontz there 
were born seven children: William, born July 24, 
1859, died in this county Nov. 7, 1875; George B. 
is our subject: A. Weaver, born Aug. 30, 1866, is 
farming in Buena Vista County, Iowa; Charles was 
born Nov. 10, 1868; Lura, Sept. 6, 1871; Harry, 
Dec. 20, 1874, and Grace, June 23, 1880. These 
remain at horiie with their mother. 

Our subject, although a public-spirited citizen, 
takes very little part in politics, further than to at- 
tend the general elections and cast his vote in sup- 
port of Democratic principles. 

ERRITT R. SWARNER, an energetic and 
enterprising stock farmer, who operates 
eighty acres of land on section 25, New- 
town Township, is a native of Indiana, 
and was born in Warren County on the llth of 
December, 1855. He is the son of William and 
Rebecca (Spinning) Swarner, the former of whom 
was born in Perry County, Pa., Oct. 13, 1826, and 
went to Indiana in 1847. He is the son of Henry 
Swarner, who was born in the year 1793. The 
mother of our subject is the daughter of Isaac and 
Elizabeth Spinning, and was born in Fountain 
County, Ind., on the 7th of October, 1827. They 
were married in the latter-named State on the Gth 
of December, 1849. In 1851 the father took a 
trip to California, and was gone about one year. 
He went by the overland route across the plains, 
and returned on a vessel by the way of New York 

To William and Rebecca Swarner were born nine 
children : Mary E., born Aug. 30, 1850, married 
E. C. Campbell, and lives in Iowa; Charles H.. 
born April 15, 1853, lives in Holt County, Neb. ; 
Bfcines, born Jan. 20, 1854, died in infancy; Mer- 



ritt R. i* the subject of our sketch; Sarah A., born 
Sept. 1, 1857, is the wife of Virgil Waldron, and 
lives in Blackstone, this county; William E., born 
Sept. 18, 1859, resides in Colorado; Milton F.. 
born Oct. 20, 1861, lives in Livingston County; 
John L., born Nov. 29, 1863, lives in Nebraska; 
Frank, born May 18, 1866, died in infancy. The 
father and mother now reside on the home place 
with our subject; both belong to the Christian 
Church, and are sincere and earnest in their re- 
ligious professions. The father came to Illinois 
from Indiana in 1868, and located in this township, 
where the subject of this sketch has resided all his 
life and where he received his education. 

On the 2d of January, 1881, Merritt R. Swarner 
was married to Miss Addie Applegate, the cere- 
mony being performed by Rev. R. Dunlevey. 
They have had one child, named Elma M., who 
was born April 11, 1883. Although Mr. Swarner 
is yet a young man he has made excellent progress 
in his business, and stands to-day as one of the 
most enterprising farmers and stock-raisers of 
Newtown Township. The farm is under a good 
state of cultivation, is well fenced and drained, 
and is above the average in productiveness. 

E WITT C. STOCKHAM. "Peace hath its 
victories no less renowned than war," 
and the subject of this sketch has achieved 
victories both as a private citizen in peace 
and as the valiant soldier in war. One of the por- 
tions of this sketch of which our subject can justly 
feel proud, is that which records the part he took 
in the war for the preservation of the Union, and 
which resulted, not only in maintaining the Union 
intact, but in destroying the curse of human slav- 
ery in this Republic. 

The subject of this sketch, a model farmer and 
stock- raiser on section 30, Avoca Township, is a 
native of LaSalle County, 111., and was born on the 
5th of June, 1842, and is a son of Joseph Stock- 
ham, a native of Lake County, Ohio. His mother 
died when he was but eighteen months old. Ills 
great-grandfather was of Welsh descent, and lived 
to the extraordinary age of one hundred and six 

years. The father of our subject settled in LaSalle 
County in 1826, being one of the early pioneers of 
that county, and there resided until 1861, when he 
removed to Nebraska, and soon after died. 

DeWitt C. Stockham spent the days of his bo3'-' 
hood in LaSalle County, and in the common schools 
obtained what education he could. When about 
twenty years of age the war between the States of 
the Union was inaugurated by the secession of 
nearly all the Southern States. On the 29th of 
August, 1861, when the people began to realize 
that the war would be a long one, and the struggle 
between the North and the South a desperate one, 
young Stockham saw that his duty lay in the 
direction of the army. He enlisted in Company 
K, 8th Illinois Cavalry, and served faithfully and 
honorably until every soldier of the Confederate 
army was either killed or surrendered as a prisoner 
of war. During his term of service he was mostly 
in the Army of the Potomac, and participated in 
all those campaigns which have become as world 
famous as the campaigns of Napoleon. The list of 
engagements in which his regiment participated 
shows at once the proud position it occupies in the 
history of the grand Army of the Potomac. The 
list is as follows: Malvern Hill, Gettysburg (which 
battle was opened by his regiment, the subject of 
this sketch being one of the front line of skirmish- 
ers in the beginning of the battle), Antietam, 
Sharpsburg, the noted cavalry fight at Fredericks- 
burg, and many others of equal magnitude in the 
number of men engaged and lives lost. He was 
honorably discharged July 18, 1865, and imme- 
diately after returned to Illinois, when in the win- 
ter following he came to Livingston County, and 
settled in Avoca Township shortly after. He now 
owns a good farm of 120 acres of well-improved 

Mr. Stockham was married in Fairbury, on the 
12th of March, 1868, to Sarah J. Zook, a native of 
Montgomery County, Ind., born May 28, 1840. 
She is the daughter of Solomon and Clarissa 
Xook, natives of Pennsylvania and New Jersey re- 
spectively, both of whom are dead. They have 
two children: Thomas E., born Dec. 31, 1S72. and 
Edward. Dec. 21, 1877. Mr. Stockham is a Re- 
publican in politics, and through the respect of his 



fellow members of that party, and the citizens 
generally, he was elected for a term of two years 
as Road Supervisor of his district, and is now 
serving his second term as School Director, for 
which position he is peculiarly fitted, on account 
of his interest in the welfare of the schools. He 
is a self-made man, and whatever he possesses of 
this world's goods has come to him as the result 
of industry, perseverance and good management. 
He is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
and engages actively in church work, having 
served as Sunday-school Superintendent and Class- 
Leader for a considerable time. Whatever has 
a tendency to better the condition of the com- 
munity or forward the progress of the county and 
township, meets with his warmest approval and 

\ERNHARD STROBEL. Among the many 
citizens of Livingston County who have 
been contributed by Germany, none stands 
fairer in reputation, nor has been more suc- 
cessful for the opportunities enjoyed than the sub- 
ject of this sketch, who is a farmer on section 19, 
in Avoca Township. He is a native of Wurtem- 
berg, Germany, born on the 20th of August, 1820, 
and is the son of Jacob and Laura Strobel, who 
were also natives of Germany. Of the five chil- 
dren born to his parents the following named are 
now living: George, in Germany; Clara and Bern- 
hard. The last was reared to manhood in his na- 
tive country, and received, as do most of the chil- 
dren of that country, a good education in his na- 
tive language. In 1850, at the age of thirty, he 
concluded to emigrate to America, and after land- 
ing in New York, proceeded to the State of Penn- 
sylvania, where, for nearly eight years, he was em- 
ployed in the iron-ore mines, in which occupation 
he earned the money' which gave him his start in 
this country. 

On the 10th of April, 1855, our subject was 
married to Theresa Miller, who was born in Ger- 
many on the 25th of February, 1825. She was the 
daughter of Sebastian and Victoria Miller, both of 
whom were German by birth. Her parents hud 

seven children, six of whom are living: Anthony, 
in Baltimore, Md.; Theresa; Pauline, a teacher 
in the public schools of Livingston County; Min- 
nie, wife of W. W. Wagner, of Eppard's Point 
Township, also a teacher; Maggie, a public-school 
teacher; Emma, at present attending the Normal 
School at Valparaiso, Ind. 

In the spring of 1857, with his family, Mr. Stro- 
bel came to Livingston County and settled on his 
present farm, which consists of ninety acres, eighty 
of which are under a high state of cultivation, and 
on which he has erected appropriate buildings for 
the comfort of his family, the protection of the 
products of the farm and shelter of domestic ani- 
mals. He is eminently a self-made man, as what- 
ever he has accumulated has been through his own 
industry, perseverance and economy. He is a Re- 
publican in politics, and does what he can in a 
humble way to further the interests of his party. 
For the past fifteen years he has served in the ca- 
pacity of Director of Schools, and in that position 
has done much to elevate the educational standard 
of his district. He has always been a friend of 
educational interests, and believes in the most lib- 
eral management of the schools. He and his wife 
are both members of the Catholic Church, and are 
constant in their devotion. They are honored 
members of society, and enjoy the confidence and 
esteem of the entire community in which they re- 

terprising young farmer of Union Town- 
ship is starting out in life under the most 
favorable auspices. He is the only son 
of a prosperous citizen, and the owner of a fine 
tract of land given him by his father. This is 
located on section 14, and is embellished with a 
neat residence, a good barn and other out-build- 
ings. Mr. F. was reared to habits of industry, 
and is looked upon as one of the future agricultur- 
ists of this section, who is bound to make his mark. 
Our subject was born in LaSalle County, this 
State, Dec. 6, 1857, and is the eldest of two 
children, the offspring of David and Alice (Scott) 
Fotheringham, natives of Scotland. They emi- 




grated to America in 1851, settling at once on a 
tract of land in La Salle County, where the father 
opened up a good farm, and where they still re- 
side. The paternal grandparents of our subject 
were Peter and Marion (Anderson) Fotheringham, 
also of Scotch birth and parentage, who spent .their 
entire lives upon their native soil. On the 
mother's sfde his grandparents were James and 
Mary (Atchison) Scott, of the same country, where 
they lived and died, and the male members of 
which family were for generations back tillers of 
the soil. David Fotheringham is largely engaged 
in farming and stock-raising, and possesses all the 
substantial and reliable traits of his ancestors. 

Our subject spent his boyhood and youth after 
the manner of most farmers' sons, becoming famil- 
iar with the various employments of rural life and 
receiving his education in the district school. He 
continued under the home roof until twenty-seven 
years of age, and then, as a first step toward the 
establishment of a home of liis own, was united in 
marriage with Miss Jane Wyllie, the wedding tak- 
ing place at the home of the bride in Union 
Township, March 7, 1884. 

Mrs. Fotheringham was born in La Salle County, 
Sept. 3, 1864, and is the fourth in a family of 
six children belonging to John and Margaret 
(Hamilton) Wyllie. Her parents were also natives of 
Scotland, and are numbered among the well-to-do 
and reliable citizens of this county. Their names 
will be found as subjects of a biography pre- 
sented elsewhere in this ALIII M. 

Our subject and wife began life together upon 
the farm where they now live, and in addition to 
the quarter section here, Mr. Fotheringham oper- 
ates eighty acres belonging to his wife. Their 
union has been blessed by the birth of one child, 
a son, David H., who came to the household Sept. 1 8, 
1887. Mr. F. votes with the Republican party 
although not particularly interested in political 
matters. He is willing, however, to give his at- 
tention to important matters respecting the welfare 
of his community, and lias consented to serve as 
School Trustee in his district. He takes pride in 
his farm and stock, and his homestead forms one 
of the most attractive spots in the landscape of 
Union Township. 

JnOHN N. WOLF. Following is given a 
j brief sketch of a representative of a class of 
i foreign-born citizens who brought the thrift 
1 and energy, which were their only heritage 
in their native land, to this country of great possi- 
bilities, and have accomplished so much under the 
influence of the institutions of America. This 
gentleman, besides coming to a country where the 
language and customs were wholly different from 
those of his native land, was deprived of the ten- 
der attentions and care of parents in his youth. 
Thus early left dependent upon his own resources, 
he has made a gallant struggle, and it is a pleasure 
to record in this ALBUM, which contains the biog- 
raphies of so many of the good people of Living- 
ston County, the events which have led up to his 

Mr. Wolf is a farmer and stock-raiser on section 
16, Owego Township, and is a native of Germany, 
where he was born on the 28th of March, 1829. 
When eight years of age he became an orphan, and 
was early thrown upon his own resources. His ed- 
ucation was obtained in his native country, and in 
his native language, and included all the ordinary 
branches taught. In his younger days he followed 
the occupation of a cooper for a time. At the 
age of twenty-seven, in the year 1856, he emi- 
grated to America, taking passage at Bremen in a 
sailing-vessel, and after an exceedingly rough voy- 
age of forty-two days, landed in New York City. 
He did not linger there, but proceeded at once to 
the West and located near Peru, La Salle Co., 
111., where he engaged in farming until 1864, in 
which year he settled in Livingston County, locat- 
ing on the farm he at present occupies on section 
16, Owego Township. He first bought eighty 
acres of land, which he improved, and which is now 
one of the model farms of the township. 

In October, 1856, Mr. Wolf was married to Mar- 
garet Apel. a native of Germany, who was born on 
the 20th of January, 1839, and is the daughter of 
Henry and Christina Apel, with whom she came to 
America in 1857. To them have been born eleven 
children, ten of whom are living: Henry; William; 
Charlotte, Mrs. W. Ellis; Minnie, Mrs. Robert Al- 
geo; John; Gustena; Christopher; Mar}' ; Eliza- 
beth and Clara. The name of the deceased child 




was Michael. Mr. and Mrs. Wolf are both mem- 
bers of the Lutheran Church, in which he has served 
as an Elder. They both take an active interest in 
church matters, and are generous in their contri- 
butions to aid and encourage all moral and relig- 
ious agencies. Mr. Wolf acts with the Democratic 
party, but is not an active politician. For several 
years he served as a School Director, and whether 
as an officer or a citizen, takes great interest in ed- 
ucational matters. He is a progressive man in his 
ideas, and a citizen of which any township may 
well be proud. 

EORGE W. PATTON, attorney at law, of 
the firm of Strawn it Patton. located at Pon- 
tiac, in 1883 moved from Fail-bury to Pon- 
tiac, and at once became associated with his pres- 
ent partner. The partnership has proved a MTV sat- 
isfactory one. and almost inimediati'ly the firm took 
a front rank in the profession, us represented in this 
rounty. Mr. Patton possesses those qualities of 
mind which eminently fit him for the business he has 
so aptly chosen for a life calling, and within the 
comparatively short time since he was admitted to 
the bar has secured for clients some of the most 
prominent citizens of this county, and largest corpo- 
rations of the State. He is a close student, care- 
fully looks up his cases, and works conscientiously 
and with all his ability in the interest of his client. 
Being an excellent judge of human nature he is sel- 
dom placed at a disadvantage in any legal couU->t in 
this essential particular. He is likewise an enter- 
prising and valued citizen of Poutiac, and has the 
interest of the public at heart. Such men are in- 
valuable to any community. 

Our subject is a native of Greene Count}'. Pa.. 
and is a sou of Samuel R. and Jane Patton, nee 
Haines, also natives of the Keystone state. Samuel 

R. located in Green Township. W Iford Co., 

111., in 1S/S4. where he carried on farming success- 
fully for many years and then retired from active 
labor. The paternal grandfather of our subject, 
Rev. James Patton. was a native of Maryland and 
the son of Rev. John Patton of the xnne State, a 
dived descendant of Scotch-Irish ancestry. Mr. 

Patton's great-grandparents on the maternal side 
were from the Emerald Isle, and settled in Pennsyl- 
vania in the Colonial days, the great-grandfather 
serving six years as a soldier under Gen. Washing- 

The subject of this sketch has five sisters living 
Elizabeth Moms, Lueinda Cams, Margaret Edwards, 
Catharine Barnard and Martha E. Taylor and one 
brother, John L., a successful farmer and stockman 
residing on the old homestead in Woodford County. 
Mr. Patton was reared on the farm until he attained 
to his majority, receiving a good common-school 
education, and subsequently attending the State 
Normal University at Bloomington for three years. 
Afterward he engaged in teaching school at Secor 
and El Paso. 111. He read law with Hay. Greene & 
Littler, at Springfield, 111., and was there admitted to 
the bar b_y the Supreme Court. 

Mr. Patton was married, Sept. 20, 1877, to Miss 
Flora E. Cook, a native of Wayne County, Ind., and 
a daughter of James and Lueinda Cook. They 
have one child, Marie Patton, born July 7, 1883. 
Mr. Patton is a strong Republican in politics, and 
belongs to the Masonic fraternity, in which he is a 
Knight Templar. He is attorney for the C. & A., 
the I. C., and the C., S. F. & C. R. Rds., the Pontiac 
Union Coal Company, and also for the Board of 
Supervisors of Livingston County. Among his rel- 
atives now living and bearing his patronymic, there 
are three ministers, two physicians and three lawyers, 
one of the latter being now a Republican Member 
of Congress from Pennsylvania. 

It is with pleasure we present the portrait of Mr. 
Patton in this work, knowing that it will be highly 
appreciated by his many friends. 

Q- TANQUARY, attorney-at-law, Pontiac. 
In Mr. Tanquary we find an excellent ex- 
ample for young men just embarking in the 
field of active life, of what may be accomplished by 
energy, prudence and industry. He relied almost 
entirely upon his own efforts for an education, and 
up to his seventeenth year had only such ad- 
vantages as were offered by the common schools of 
the neighborhood in which he lived. He com- 
menced teaching when eighteen years of age, tcaeh- 





ing in the winter terms, and attending school and 
working on the farm the remainder of the year. 

The subject of our sketch is a native of Mar- 
shall County, 111., and the only child of James and 
Lucinda C. (Watkins) Tanquary, natives of Ohio, 
who were married in Marshall County in 1853, 
where N. CJ. was born in 1854. He has two half- 
brothers, William R., and David R., children of his 
mother by a former marriage. James' parents were 
William and Elizabeth (Shackeford) Tanquaiy, na- 
tives of Ohio. The Tanquarys are of French de- 
scent; his great-grandfather came from France in 
the early settlement of Maryland and took a grant 
of land, partially surrounded by the Chesapeake 
Bay. This land is still known as Tanquary's Neck. 
The father of Lucinda C. Watkins was David, a 
native of Ohio, and of Scotch-Irish descent, who was 
engaged in farming. James came to Illinois in 1853, 
settling near Lacon, Marshall County, and is one of 
the extensive farmers and substantial men of the 
county. He and his wife are members of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, and he has been a Class- 
Leader for many years. In politics Mr. Tanquary 
has always affiliated with the Republican party. 

The subject of this sketch lived upon the farm 
with his parents until he was twenty-three years of 
age, attending the common schools in his early 
youth when not engaged in working on the farm. 
He commenced teaching at a very early age, at the 
same time studying law, beginning when in his 
eighteenth year. In 1881 he took one year's course 
in the law school of Iowa City, and was graduated 
in the spring of 1882. In the fall of the following 
year he located at Pontiac, Livingston County, and 
has since been engaged in the practice of law. Like 
his father he is a Republican, and in 1885 he was 
elected City Attorney, and is now serving his sec- 
ond term, the last time being elected on the Tem- 
perance ticket. 

Mr. Tanquary was married in 1878 to Miss Lil- 
lian Neal, daughter of Samuel and Asenith (Malh- 
ews) Neal, natives of New Hampshire. Her an- 
cestors were Scotch and came from the mother 
country early in the settlement of New Hampshire, 
bringing with them a grant to land, on which land 
they settled. Her great-grandfather was born on 
the ocean while his parents were en route for 

America, and was called Moses. Moses Neal gave 
his attention to the study and practice of the law 
and took an active part in politics; he was for 
thirty years Speaker of the House in the State of 
New Hampshire. The parents of Mrs. Tanquary 
settled in Peoria County in 1830. 

Mr. Tanquary has three children Gracie, Ru- 
berta and Neal. He and his wife are members of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. Aside from be- 
ing one of the most successful attorneys of the 
Livingston County bar, our subject has accumu- 
lated considerable property, being mostly real estate 
located in Livingston and Marshall Counties. 

Jl ACOB DOWHOWER, who occupies a prom- 
| inent position among the agriculturists of 
j Livingston County, is comfortably located 
I on section 24, in Owego Township, where he 
took up his abode in the spring of 1884. Here he 
has eighty acres of good land, and is numbered 
among the skillful and progressive farmers of Cen- 
tral Illinois. 

Our subject was born in Sandusky County, Ohio, 
May 8, 1838, and is the son of Jacob and Mary 
(Shire) Dowhower, natives of Pennsylvania. The 
paternal ancestors were of German descent. To 
the parents of our subject there was born a large 
family of children, of whom but two are now liv- 
ing, namely, Jacob and David. Jacob was a youth 
of sixteen years when his parents removed from the 
Buckeye State to Wisconsin, where they resided 
until about six years ago, when they returned to 
Ohio, where the mother departed this life in 1880 ( 
and the father in 1881. Our subject upon coming 
to Illinois located first in Bureau County, where he 
resided until 1867. Thence he removed to a point 
near D wight in this county, where he engaged in 
farming a year, and after a short sojourn in Saune- 
min Township, where he owned eighty acres, came 
to Owego, which he purposes making his permanent 

Mr. Dowhower, while a resident of Bureau 
County, was united in marriage with Miss Eliza 
Rider, their wedding taking place at the home of 
the bride, in September, 1861. Mrs. Dowhower was 



born in New York State, July 3, 1844, and is the 
daughter of John and Kate Rider, who came to 
Bureau County, this State, when their daughter 
Eliza was a child eight years of age. They were 
among the earliest settlers of that region and ex- 
perienced all the vicissitudes of pioneer life ; they 
are now deceased. Mr. and Mrs. Dowhower are 
the parents of one child only, a daughter, Hattie, 
who was born Feb. 17, 1877. Our subject is Re- 
publican in politics and has served as Director 
in School District No. 6 for a period of three 
years. Socially he belongs to the I. O. O. F. 
Although receiving but a limited education himself, 
he stoutly maintains that the establishment of schools 
is a matter which should receive the first attention 
of any community. To this end he has been will- 
ing to give his time and attention, and has in other 
directions indicated the bent of his mind in regard 
to the general welfare of society. He and his estim- 
able lady number their friends by the score in 
Owego Township, of which he is destined to become 
one of the leading men. Mr. Dowhower since com- 
ing to Livingston has been very successful in all 
his undertakings, and promises to be one of Living- 
ston County's solid men in the near future. In 
religion he is liberal in his views, attending and as- 
sisting all the -Evangelical Churches. 

(7 INCOLN HAMLIN TUTTLE, farmer and 
I (fjt school teacher of Rook's Creek Township, 


owns and occupies a good farm on section 
20, and is numbered among the wide-awake and 
representative men of that locality. He is a native 
of this State, having been born in Sparland, Mar- 
shall County, Sept. 6, I860. Seven years later his 
parents removed from town to the farm but he 
pursued his education in the Sparland High School, 
lacking one year of finishing the full course. 

Mr. Tuttle when fourteen years of age removed 
to Livingston County with his parents, who lo- 
cated on a farm in Rook's Creek Township, where 
he was employed in rural pursuits until 1878. He 
then entered the State Normal University, spending 
several terms in study, and upon returning home 
prepared to follow the profession of a teacher. His 

first experience was in Pike Township, District No. 
3, and he was thus occupied until 1883, in different 
places in this county. He then took up the study 
of law in the office of H. H. McDowell, and in due 
time was fully qualified for admission to the bar. 
His inclinations, however, lay in other channels, and 
he consequently did not apply for permission to 
practice as an attorney. Mr. Tuttle when a boy 
nine years of age met with an accident which nearly 
proved fatal. While riding on horseback he was 
practicing on a peculiar halter knot which his father 
had taught him, and had fastened the strap about 
his leg. The horse became frightened and starting 
suddenly threw him, and dragged him through the 
timber until the strap was broken by the horse go- 
ing on one side of the tree and throwing the boy the 
other side. He was considered beyond recovery 
when picked up, but under good care he survived. 
Subsequently, on the 21st of June, 1887, while 
endeavoring to board a moving train,, he fell and 
his right femur bone was broken in two places. 
From this he has recovered very slowly. 

. Our subject is the eldest of a family of four 
children. The names of the other three are : Lois 
S., born Feb. 2, 1868; William A., Aug. 5, 1872; 
Carrie E., Aug. 20, 1875; the three eldest were 
born in Sparland and the youngest in this county. 
The father. Samuel B. Tuttle, a native of Steuben 
County, N. Y., was born Feb. 25, 1832, and was 
the youngest of his parents' family. When he was 
a mere child they left the Empire State and located 
on a farm in Monroe County, Mich. He received 
a good education, completing his studies in Hills- 
dale College, and for ten years thereafter followed 
the profession of a teacher in Michigan, Ohio, Indi- 
ana and Illinois. In 1856 he went to Kansas, and 
was associated with John Brown in the troubles 
brought on by the agitation of the slavery ques- 
tion. This over, he returned to Illinois, locating 
first in Peoria, whence he removed to Sparland, 
Marshall County. In the latter place he was united 
in marriage with Miss Emma Swift, Dec. 25, 1859. 
Mrs. Tuttle was born Jan. 20, 1839, and like her 
husband was also a native of New York State. Her 
father, Philander Smith, was born Feb. 7, 1800, and 
married Miss Arzilla Agbert, born July 11, 1802. 
They emigrated from New York to Illinois in 1844, 



and located in Marshall County, where they spent 
the remainder of their lives. 

The paternal grandfather of our subject, John 
Martin Tuttle, was born near New Haven, Conn., 
in 1788, and when quite young removed with his 
parents to New York State, where he afterward en- 
gaged in Itiraberipg, and participated in the War 
of 1812. He was first assigned as a scout to the 
Middle Division, and was afterward transferred to 
the Western Division which was under the com- 
mand of Gen. Harrison. At the battle of the 
Thames he was appointed messenger to carry 
orders from Gen. Harrison to Col. Johnson, or- 
dering the charge upon Tecumseh. Grandfather 
Tuttle was present at the charge and witnessed the 
death of the great chieftain. He married Miss 
Rhoda Palmer, daughter of Gideon Palmer, of 
Greene County, N. Y., whose family was largely 
represented in that part of the State. John Tuttle 
subsequently removed West to Michigan and served 
as Sheriff of Monroe County two terms. Our sub- 
ject took possession of his present homestead in 

SULLIVAN, since the spring of 1876, 
has been a resident of Cornell, where he 
owns a snug home and an acre of land. He 
is spoken of as an honest, energetic, hard- 
working and highly respected citizen, and ranks 
among the representative business men of the 
town. He possesses inventive genius, and has a 
patent on a novel wagon-box catch, for which he 
has refused the sum of $7,000 from an Eastern 
capitalist. Aside- from perfecting his invention he 
has been principally engaged in blacksinithing. 

Our subject was -born in Lucas County. Ohio, in 
1839, and is the son of Daniel and Mary (Dugan) 
Sullivan, who were natives of Ireland. When 
he was quite a boy, John came to Michigan with 
his parents, and served a thorough apprenticeship 
at blacksmithing. He is an expert workman and a 
natural mechanic, and has. worked at his trade in 
Illinois, Ohio, Indiana and New York. The wife 
of our subject was formerly Miss Phebe, daughter 
of Dennis and Wilis Heath. She was born Oct. 
14, 1844. They were married in Oil City, Pa., 

July 2, 1865. After marriage they located in 
Venango County, Pa., where Mr. Sullivan followed 
his trade until becoming a resident of Cornell. 

Our subject and his wife have become the parents 
of five children living, named respectively, Burton 
C.. Winnifred C., Kate, Franc and Edward. Two 
little ones were laid away in early graves, namely, 
Mary Alberta, who was born Sept. 26, 1867, and 
died April '.), 1868, and Nellie, who died when two 
years and eleven months old. 

-><>C^ iiS~ *- 

I AMES P. MORGAN, one of the most hon- 
ored pioneers of Livingston County, came 
to Illinois in the spring of 1854, and for a 
period of more than thirty years has tilled 
the soil and watched with intense satisfaction the 
development of Central Illinois. He comes from a 
race of people renowned for their courage and en- 
terprise, being the son of James and Elizabeth (Rob- 
erts) Morgan, natives of Carlisle, Pa., the former 
the first white settler who crossed the Allegheny 
Mountains to the West. He located at a point not 
far from where now stands Morgan town, in Virginia, 
and which was named after the family. James 
Morgan first purchased a tract of land near Olli- 
pliant's Iron Works, where he resided for a time, 
then removed to Greene County, Pa., of which 
he was a resident many years. He subsequently 
settled across the line in Virginia, six miles below 
Wheeling, where the death of both parents took 
place, the mother passing away in December, 1856. 
James Morgan survived his wife nearly thirty years, 
and died in 1885. . The father of our subject was 
one of a family of six children, three boys and three 
girls, who were named respectively, Nathan, James, 
William, Polly, Ruth and Sarah. He became fa- 
miliar with farm pursuits early in life, which he was 
content to follow until its close. 

The parental family of our subject included eight 
children, only three of whom are now living. 
James P. was born in Fayctte County, Pa., Sept. 
30, 1802. He spent his early life amid the quiet 
scenes of farm life in Pennsylvania. Branching out 
somewhat from the regular routine, and having a 
taste for books and newspapers, he in 1827 became 



connected with the printing business at Waynes- 
burg, Pa, and continued a printer thereafter for 
a period of about twenty years. He understands the 
business of conducting' a first-class country newspa- 
per, having officiated as both compositor and editor, 
and still retains his interest in the "'art preserva- 
tive." He cast his first Presidential vote for Gen. 
Jackson, and voted for the old hero for President 
three times afterward. When Mr. Morgan came to 
this section of country in 1854 wild game of all 
kinds was plentiful, and he has seen as many as 100 
deer in a herd. The pioneers usually set aside 
Saturday as a general hunting daj r , when they went 
out and secured their game for the week. These 
occasions were the source of considerable hilarity, 
and the hunters uniformly met with success and 
kept their families supplied with the finest of wild 

.lames P. Morgan was married in 1834 to Miss 
Nancy Bradley, daughter of William and Mary 
(Gorman) Bradley, natives of Ireland. Of this 
union there were the following children: William 
was born July 5, 1835; Elizabeth, Sept. 80, 1837; 
James P., Jr., Oct. 30, 1838; Ann Eliza, Nov. 28, 
1840: Charles, Jan. 5, 1843; Thomas, Sept. 21, 1844; 
Nathan, July 26, 1846; Margaret, Oct. 19, 1847; 
Rebecca, Dec. 27, 1848, and John, Nov. 10, 1850. 
William is married and has a family of twelve 
children; he is farming in Cowley County, Kan. 
Elizabeth died when young; James P. is married, 
and a resident of Crawford County, Kan., where 
he is engaged in mercantile business; Ann Eliza is 
the wife of Charles Lonsberry, of Long Point Town- 
ship; Charles resides in Independence, Montgom- 
ery Co., Kan., is Marshal of the city, and one of the 
respected business men of the place; he is married 
and has three children. Thomas died when about 
four years old. Nathan located in Stonewall, Col., 
where he engaged as a merchant, and was shot 
on the 2('ith of December, 188(!. The assassin was 
a young man who went into the store where he 
was and ordered him to hold up his hands. Al- 
though the destined victim had a revolver, the 
young man fired before he could use it. The thief 
and murderer was afterward captured, but had re- 
ceived a fatal wound and died in a short time. 
Nathan Morgan left a widow and two children to 

mourn their loss. Margaret became the wife of 
Jerome Blair, of Michigan, and they located in 
Cowley County, Kan, where they are farming, and 
are the parents of two children; Rebecca died 
when an infant; John is farming in Long Point 
Township; he married a Miss Wheeler, of Long 
Point Township. 

James P. Morgan, our subject, is the owner of 
eighty-two acres of fine farming land, besides town 
property at Long Point, which includes thirteen 
lots, in the midst of which he resides in a handsome 
and comfortable home. The residence is not far 
from the Chicago, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad 
depot. It is supplied with all the modern conven- 
iences, and both within and without gives evidence 
of cultivated tastes and an ample supply of this 
world's goods. Mr. Morgan has been quite promi- 
nent in local affairs, and was one of the first County 
Supervisors, which position he occupied six years. 
He was County Judge from 1857 to and including 
1858, and has been Justice of the Peace for twenty 
years or more. In early life lie identified himself 
with the Democratic party and has stoutly main- 
tained its principles since that time. Socially he 
belongs to the Masonic fraternity. As a citizen he 
has contributed his full quota toward the building 
ui> of Long Point Township. He is held in the 
highest regard, and is particularly noted for his 
kindly disposition, while his ample fund of inform- 
ation constitutes him a most intelligent gentleman 
with whom to converse. 

i ICHARD STBATTON has been a resident 
of Avoca Township for the past twelve 
years. He is in possession of 179 acres of 
Jland on section 29, and besides general 
farming, is largely engaged in stock-raising, in 
which he has met with more than ordinary success. 
He has been a resident of the Prairie State for nearly 
a half century, having been brought here by his 
parents when a child three years of age. 

Our subject was born in New York City, Dec. 
30, 1835, and is the son of William and Sarah (Clay- 
ton) Stratton. natives respectively of Ireland and 




New Jersey. The mother was of excellent German 
ancestry, her grandparents who emigrated to the 
United States, being among the prominent and 
substantial settlers of New England. William 
Stratton departed this life at his home in Peoria 
County about 1877. The mother is still living on 
the old homestead there. 

Richard Stratton was the third son of his parents, 
whose household included eleven children. lie was 
reared to manhood on the farm in Peoria County, 
and received his education in its pioneer schools. 
Upon coming to this county in 1870, he resided 
about five years in Eppard's Point Township, and 
thence removed to his present farm. The improve- 
ments which we see around him to-day, the finely 
cultivated fields and substantial buildings, are the 
result of his own industry and perseverance. He 
has labored early and late in the effort to construct 
a desirable homestead, and the passer-by will con- 
cede that he has succeeded in a manner which should 
be entirely satisfactory to all interested. He was 
thrown upon his own resources early in life, and 
may consequently be termed a self-made man, 
while he is certainly a member of his community 
of whom his fellow-townsmen have the best opinion. 

The lady who has been the close companion of 
our subject for a period of fifteen years, was for- 
merly Mrs. Mary Wagenseller, of Juniata County, 
Pa., whom he married Feb. 7, 1873. They have 
no children. By her first husband Mrs. Stratton be- 
came the mother of two children Harry W. and 
Juniata W. Our subject, politically, is a reliable 
Democrat, and in the pleasant home which he and 
his wife have together labored to build up, they dis- 
pense a generous hospitality to a large number of 

ORGAN THOMAS owns 160 acres of land 
on section 17, Newtown Township, but, af- 
ter a long and busy life, he has retired from 
active work, and is now enjoying the fruits 
of his labor. He was born in Wales Sept. 13, 
1812, and is the son of Jenkins and Mary (Williams) 
Thomas, also natives of Wales. The father lived 
until he was eighty-four years of age, and the 

mother died when she was eighty-seven. They 
were the parents of four children, whose names are 
as follows : Thomas, Eleanor, Rees and Morgan. 

Morgan Thomas lived in Wales with his parents 
until 1840, receiving such education as the ordinary 
schools of that country afforded, and also learning 
the rudiments of farming, and the practical details 
of coal mining. In the year 1840 he came to 
America, landing at New York City, -from which 
lie proceeded to Pennsylvania, where he engaged 
in sinking and superintending coal shafts. He 
remained in Pennsylvania engaged in that busi- 
ness, excepting while on a trip to St. Louis, Mo., 
and to Leavenworth, Kan., for about ten years. 
Upon his return from the West, he remained but a 
short time in Pennsylvania, and then came to Illi- 
nois, where he settled in La Salle County, near the 
town of Streator. Removing thence in 1868, he 
came to Livingston County, and settled upon the 
160-acre farm which he now owns. In March, 
1850, Mr. Thomas returned to Pennsylvania, where 
he was married to Mrs. Margaret Cozad, formerly 
Miss Margaret Moore. She was the daughter of 
James and Jane (Johnson) Moore, natives of Scot- 
land and England respectively, who came to Amer- 
ica after their marriage, and were early settlers in 
Pennsylvania. They were the parents of five chil- 
dren, named Hugh, Margaret, James, Sarah and 
Matilda; they are all living. James is residing in 
West Virginia, and the others in Pennsylvania, ex- 
cepting Margaret, the wife of our subject. Margaret 
first was married to Jacob Cozad, and by this union 
were born three children Mary Ann, Thomas and 
Leonard. Mary Ann lives in Minnesota, Leonard 
in West Virginia, and Thomas in Streator, 111. Af- 
ter the death of Mr. Cozad, Margaret became the 
wife of our subject. Of the marriage of Mr. 
Thomas and Mrs. Cozad have been born two chil- 
dren Ellen and Elmer. Ellen is the wife of Sam- 
uel Tidabeck, a native of New York State; they 
have four children John, William, Margaret and a 
baby unnamed. Elmer resides at home with his 
parents, and is crippled in one knee, caused by a 
cut with an ax when he was a child. 

Mr. Thomas has retired from active life, and his 
! :i nn is managed by his son-in-law and son. Dur- 
ing his entire life Mr. T. has been an active man, 


319 , J 

and has been measurably successful in all his un- 
dertakings. He has been a citizen of Livingston 
County for about twenty years, and during that 
time has firmly established himself in the confidence 
and esteem of his fellow-citizens. 


REX. Ten years is a tender age at 
which to commence buffeting one's way 
through life, and where one succeeds who be- 
gins at that nge hundreds fail and fall by the 
wavside. The boy who is then thrown upon his 
own resources and reaches anything like independ- 
ence bv the time he arrives at the prime of man- 
hood, is deserving of much commendation for his 
pluck and perseverance. While the writer does not. 
desire to be fulsome in any sense he can commend 
to boys and young men the career of the subject of 
this sketch, who was left an orphan at the age of ten 

Mr. Rex, who was a farmer for many years, but 
now a resident of Fairbury, was born on the 6th of 
April, 1844, in Greene County, Pa., and is the son 
of Charles and Mary (Hickman) Rex, natives of 
Pennsylvania. The father was a farmer by occu- 
pation, a member of the Presbyterian Church, and 
an old-line Whig. During his life he accumulated 
considerable property, which included about 600 
acres of land. He was "born in Pennsylvania in the 
year 1800. and died in that State in 1854. There is 
a remarkable coincidence of dates in the birth, life 
and death of the parents of Mr. Rex. The mother 
was born in the same year as the father, and they 
both died in the same minute and hour, of the same 
disease, and are botli buried in the same grave. At 
their death they left five children Margaret, Eliza- 
beth, Peria, George, and John, who was the young- 
est of the family. 

Mr. Rex was married on the 31st of December, 
1865, to Miss Mary A. McMinn. the daughter of 
Thomas R. and Elizabeth (Pollock) McMinn, who 
were natives of Pennsylvania. The father died in 
1886, and during his life was a saddler by trade; 
the mother is Still living. Mr. Rex received a tol- 
erably fair education in the common schools, but at 

the age of ten years began to support himself, and 
for a considerable time earned what money he could 
at working by the month on the farm. In 1862, 
when eighteen years old, he enlisted in the loth 
Pennsylvania Cavalry, in which he was assigned as 
a private to Company C, and with which he served 
for three years, participating in the battles of An- 
tietam, Md., Stone River, Tenn., on the march from 
Nashville to Atlanta, was with Gen. Stoneman in 
his raid through Virginia, Tennessee and North 
Carolina, and marched through Alabama to Nash- 
ville. His discharge from the army bears date July 
3, 1865. Upon his discharge from the army Mr. 
Rex returned to Pennsylvania on a visit. In 1880 he 
came to Livingston County, and moved upon the 
farm which he now owns, consisting of 1GO acres on 
section 17. 

Mr. and Mrs. Rex have five children Lizzie M., 
Willie M., Annie M., Maggie and Tressa. In 1886 
Mr. Rex moved to the town of Fairbury, where he 
has been engaged in the dairy and creamery busi- 
ness in connection with his farm operations. He is 
a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and 
the only interest he takes in politics is in the cause 
of prohibition, of which he is an earnest and ener- 
getic advocate. In his business affairs he has been 
eminently successful, and in his later venture, in 
Fairbury, especially so. There have been wonder- 
ful improvements in the dairy and creamery busi- 
ness within the' past few years, and Mr. Rex has 
kept abreast of the times in all of them. His farm 
furnishes him ample facilities for feeding and car- 
ing for cattle, and the products of his dairy can be 
relied upon as coming from healthful sources. 

[?AMES TAPPER, a thrifty English farmer 
of Owego Township, owns a fine property 
on section 22, including 280 acres of valu- 
able land, a substantial residence with a 
good barn and other suitable out-buildings, a goodly 
assortment of live stock, and the extensive mod- 
ern machinery required by the progressive agri- 
culturist of this day and age. Mr. T. has willingly 
availed himself of whatever would tend to beau- 
tify and increase the value of his country home. 



which has now become one of the most attractive 
spots in the landscape of Livingston County. 

Our subject, a native of Devonshire, England, 
was born March 10, 1835, and is the son of John 
and Sarah (Casey) Tapper, also of English birth 
and parentage. He had three elder brothers, and 
was reared with them in his native country until 
nineteen years of age, when he set out alone on a 
voyage to the New World, where he hoped to bet- 
ter his condition in life. After landing in New 
York City he made his way to Albany, where he 
was employed as a laborer one year, then came to 
Illinois, and for two years afterward was a resident 
of Grundy County. His next abode was in Peoria 
County, where he resided several years and thence, 
in 1867, migrated to Livingston, which has been his 
home now for a period of twenty years. He had, 
during these years, lived economically, and landed 
here with a snug little sum of money which he in- 
vested in a quarter section of uncultivated land, 
from which he at once proceeded to build up a 
permanent homestead. The dwelling which first 
constituted a shelter for his family was a small 
frame structure, which they occupied for a few 
years, and which then gave place to their present 
more modern residence. He afterward added 120 
acres of land to his first purchase, which he has 
brought to a fine state of cultivation, and which 
produces in abundance the choicest crops of the 
Prairie State. He can look around upon his pos- 
sessions with the satisfaction that he owes no man 
anything, and that he has received few favors and 
no assistance financially. 

Mr. Tapper's early education was extremely lim- 
ited, but he has kept himself well posted upon mat- 
ters of general interest, and is in all respects an in- 
teresting man to converse with. He believes in 
the establishment and maintenance of schools, and 
all the institutions which will give to the young 
those advantages which will enable them to become 
useful and intelligent members of the community. 
Upon becoming a voter he identified himself with 
the Republican party, whose principles he has uni- 
formly sustained since that time. He is a member 
of the Presbyterian Church and recognizes the im- 
portant influence of Christianity upon a people 
and a community. 

Mr. Tapper, after reaching his twenty-fifth birth- 
day was united in marriage with Miss Jane Ander- 
son, in 1860, at the home of the bride in Akron, 
111. Mrs. T. is a native of this State, and the 
daughter of William and Jane (Hull) Anderson, 
the latter of whom is deceased, and the former re- 
sides in Peoria County, 111. Of this union there 
have been born four children, three living, namely, 
Sarah, who married Byron Ocean, and resides in 
Owego Township; Charlotte and Susan, who re- 
main at home with their parents. 

LBERT FRANCIS, a highly respected 
member of the farming community of 
Forest Township, and located on section 
10, has been a resident of Livingston 
County since a boy twelve years of age. He is 
now a gentleman in the prime of life, of excellent 
habits and good business education, and is the 
owner of a good homestead comprising 1 47 acres 
of land, with neat, suitable and convenient build- 
ings. He keeps good horses and cattle, and avails 
himself of all the modern methods of agriculture, 
in order to preserve his record as an enterprising 
and valued factor in a community of more tliau 
ordinary progress and intelligence. 

Our subject is the youngest son of John and 
Margaret (Ross) Francis, natives of Ireland and 
Ohio respectively, who located after their marriage 
in Brown County, Ohio, where Albert, 'our sub- 
ject, was born Aug. 1, 1848. The elder Francis 
operated a farm in that county until 18<>0, when he 
determined to try his fortunes in the West. He 
came directly to this county and took up a tract 
of land on section 10 in Forest Township, where 
he built up a comfortable home. Young Francis 
continued with his parents, becoming thoroughly 
familiar with the intricacies of farming, which he 
chose for his vocation in life. 

After passing his thirtieth year, July 11,1 883, Mr. 
Francis was united in marriage with Miss Cynthia, 
daughter of James F. and Eda (Moore) Earnheart. 
Mrs. F. was born in Avoca, this county. Dec. 25, 
1 sf)U. Her parents, who were respectively natives of 







Ohio and Tennessee, came to Illinois in the pioneer 
days, and located in Indian Grove Township, where 
they were married and lived a number of years; 
they are now living in retirement in Fairbury, 111. 

After their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Francis re- 
paired to their present home, where they have since 
remained, and where their two children, Irma 
Mildred and Howard Milton, were born. They are 
members in good standing of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church at Forest, with which they have 
been connected for several years, and are among 
its most liberal and cheerful supporters. Mr. Fran- 
cis is a strong Republican, and has held the local 
offices of his township. His wife is a most esti- 
mable and amiable lady, highly intelligent and 
well educated. She taught school for a period of 
eight years in Fairbury, and one year at Forest. 

Mr. Francis, in partnership with his brother 
Joseph, from 1876 to 1886, engaged quite exten- 
sively in the manufacture of brick and tile, their 
factory being the first of its kind established in 
Livingston County, Much of the land in this sec- 
tion having now been drained and fitted for the 
raising of crops, the demand for this product has 
decreased in a proportionate degree, and they 
have, during the past year, done but little in this 
direction. A handsome lithographic view of Mr. 
Francis' residence is shown on another page of this 

tRUMAN M. KELLOGG, of the firm of Kel- 
logg Bros., prominent stock-traders of Pon- 
tiac Township, who have a fine tract of land 
on section 8, where he has been operating suc- 
cessfully for about nineteen years, is recognized at 
once as a gentleman of good business capacities 
and excellent education, and with his brother, is 
the proprietor of 320 acres of land, well stocked 
with good grades of cattle, horses and hogs, prin- 
cipally, however, of the former. 

Our subject is a native of Oneida County, N. Y., 
and was born Oct. 7, 1835. His parents, Truman 
and Melinda (Marsh) Kellogg, were natives of the 
same county, of which his paternal grandfather, Tru- 
man Kellogg, was a pioneer settler. The family is 

of English origin, the first representatives in this 
country being three brothers who crossed the ocean 
about 200 years ago, and located in New England. 
Their descendants have mostly lived there, a few of 
them, however, going into the Middle States and to 
the South. Truman, our subject, was the fourth in 
a famil3' of four children, three of whom survive, 
namely, himself, his brother, Nathan N., and a sis- 
ter, Cornelia, the wife of D. C. Mason, of Joliet, 

Mr. Kellogg was reared in his native county, 
where he remained until a youth of seventeen years, 
in the meantime receiving his education under care- 
ful instructors. Upon leaving the parental roof, 
he migrated to Chicago, 111., and was a resident of 
that city for about twenty years, following the pro- 
fession of a civil engineer. He was assistant civil 
engineer of the Illinois Central Railroad Company, 
located at Chicago as division engineer, and super- 
intended the construction of the Lake Shore Harbor, 
which is connected with the road, and was one of 
the important enterprises of that day. In the spring 
of 1872, determined upon a change of location and 
occupation, he came to this county, and invested a 
part of his capital in a stock farm in Pontiac Town- 
ship, which he and his brother Nathan have man- 
aged very successfully for the last fifteen years. 
Their stables include Hambletonian and Kentucky 
horses, and some of the finest specimens of the kind 
sold in this county have passed from their hands to 
purchasers from all points of the compass. 

Nathan M. Kellogg, a brother of our subject, was 
also born in Oneida County, N. Y'., June 24, 1829. 
He was there reared to manhood, and received a 
good education. From his early boyhood he 
seemed content with the employments of the farm, 
lie came West in 1868, and in 1871 settled per- 
manently on the farm which is now the property of 
Kellogg Brothers. He has for many years been an 
excellent judge of live stock. He has been quite 
prominent in local affairs, serving as Commissioner 
of Highways, and voting the straight Democratic 
ticket at general elections. The farm is supplied 
with a comfortable residence and other good build- 
ings, and the brothers dwell together, their house- 
keeping being done by hired help. 

We have pleasure in presenting on another page 

' 354 


of this ALBUM, a view of their residence, as repre- 
sentative of the buildings of this section of the 

AMUEL L. MORRISON. The subject of 
this sketch is an illustration of the wide 
difference between the beginning in the 
lives of the fathers who were the pioneers 
in the early settlement of Illinois, and that of the 
sons who are now taking their places. The father 
of Mr. Morrison came to Illinois ata time when the 
wild prairie grass grew everywhere, and when the 
rude cabins of the inhabitants were few and far be- 
tween. With his own hand he helped to break the 
prairie and make corn grow where grass had held 
sway for centuries. In this work he persevered, ss 
did others, until Illinois has become a great agri- 
cultural State. His sons, who are now all settled in 
life, know nothing by actual experience of the hard- 
ships of the pioneers, but they have inherited the 
energy and enterprise of the pioneer fathers, which 
they display in the prosecution of their farming 
operations. Although the young farmers find farms 
already improved for them, they do not relinquish 
their efforts to further improve and utilize the re- 
sources so bountifully bestowed by nature. Fol- 
lowing in the footsteps of a father who became 
famous in the same vocation, the subject of this 
sketch is a progressive farmer and stock-raiser of 
Avoca Township. 

Mr. Morrison is a native of Livingston County, 
where he was boru on the 1 8th of December, 1 860, 
and is the son of Joseph C. and Naomi Morrison. 
Further mention of the father is made in the biog- 
raphy of Albert J. Morrison, of Avoca ^.Township, 
and the mother is deceased. The subject of this 
sketch has always lived in Avoca Township, where 
he attended the schools until he became of age, and 
received a good education. With the exception of 
being engaged with his father in importing and 
dealing in Norman horses at Pontiac, he has always 
been occupied in agricultural pursuits, in which he 
has displayed considerable enterprise, and avails 
himself of modern and progressive methods. His 
farm consists of eight}' acres of well-improved land, 

on section 5. Avoca Township, on which he has 
erected an excellent class of buildings. 

On the 4th of September, 1884, Mr. Morrison was 
married to Miss Jessie E. Ferris, daughter of Prof. 
G. W. Ferris, the present efficient Superintendent of 
Public Schools of Livingston County, a sketch of 
whom appears in this Auiru. Mr. and Mrs. Mor- 
rison have been blessed with one child, a bright- 
eyed baby named Claude H., born July 10, 1887. 
Mrs. Morrison is a lady of excellent education, and 
much culture and refinement. During a consider- 
able time she attended the Normal School located at 
Morris, 111., and for six years was engaged in teach- 

Mr. Morrison is an enthusiastic 3 - oung Repub- 
lican, to which party he contributes both of his time 
and means, when they are necessary to secure its 
success. He is a member of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, and he and his wife are active members 
of society, in which they are general favorites. Mr. 
Morrison identifies himself with the material affairs 
of his township, and encourages and supports every 
measure calculated to advance its prosperity. 

E KERR, a prominent and influential 
member of the farming community of Pon- 
tiac Township, has in a great measure re- 
tired from active labor, and is enjoying the compe- 
tency which he has accumulated and the comforts 
of a beautiful homestead on section 2. His prop- 
erty includes 330 acres of good land, with suitable 
farm buildings, a choice assortment of live stock, 
and all the necessary implements for the successful 
prosecution of agriculture. 

Mr. Kerr was born in Miami County, Ohio, Dec. 
2,0, 1824, and is the son of James and Sarah 
(Thompson) Kerr, natives respectively of Virginia 
and Pennsylvania. The Kerr family is of Scotch 
ancestry, and on the mother's side our subject is of 
English descent. His grandfather, George Kerr, 
fought during the early troubles with the Indians, 
and James, the father, participated in the struggle 
of 1812, and was one of those who were surren- 
dered under Gen. Hull at Detroit, Mich. The par- 
ental household included twelve children, five now 





surviving, namely: Hanford N., of Wyandotte, 
Kan.; George, our subject; Rebecca A., the wife 
of Harry Houston ; John and Perry ; the latter 
three are residents of Miami County. The parents 
of our subject were early pioneers of this region, 
where they spent the remainder of their lives. They 
built up a home in the wilderness, and endured all 
tin- hardships and privations incident to settlement 
in a new country. 

Our subject was reared to manhood in his native 
county, and received a limited education, but being 
fond of his books he pursued his studies during his 
leisure hours after leaving school, and has always 
kept himself posted upon all matters of general in- 
terest. He is one of the best natural mathematic- 
ians to be found, which talent has been of great 
service to him in his busy career, and in which he 
has been obliged to depend upon his own sound 
sense and good judgment. 

Mr. Kerr was married in Miami County, Ohio, 
Nov. 26, 1844, the lady of his choice being Miss 
Susanna Kessler, who was also a native of that 
county, and born March 1, 1825. Her parents 
were John B. and Susanna (Fiece) Kessler, the for- 
mer a native of Virginia, and the latter of Pennsyl- 
vania. Her maternal grandfather was of Holland 
descent, and after emigrating to this country, 
served as a soldier in the War of 1812, being under 
tin- command of Gen. Jackson. Mr. and Mrs. 
Kessler settled in Miami County at an early period 
in its history, and there became the parents of 
twelve children. 

Our subject and his wife became the parents of 
eight children, three now living, namety: Eliza- 
beth, the wife of C. D. Withrow, of Kansas City, 
Mo.; Heni'3' M. and John B., who are located on 
the homestead. Mr. Kerr came to this county in 
the spring of 1856, but eight months later returned 
to Ohio and remained six years. In the mean- 
time, however, lie had not abandoned his original 
intention of locating in Illinois, and now came back 
and secured possession of his present farm, where 
he has resided the greater portion of the time since. 
In the meantime his children surviving him have 
grown up around him, and he has given each a 
good education and a fair start in life. He has 
always been a hard worker, and owes his present 

position, socially and financially, to his own efforts. 
Politically, he votes the Democratic ticket, and has 
always been the encourager and supporter of those 
measures calculated for the advancement of his 

Both Mr. and Mrs. K. are members of the Pres- 
byterian Church, in which our subject has officiated 
as Elder for more than thirty-five years. He has 
been frequently solicited to accept official positions, 
but has invariably declined, preferring to confine 
his attention to his family and farm. 

RIN W. JONES. If the character of the 
country which has attained so high a standard 
during the past few decades is to be main- 
tained, a great responsibility devolves upon the 
young men who must take the place of those whose 
hands have shaped and molded affairs. Owing to 
the intelligent and advanced education of the par- 
ents of to-day, a generation of worthy successors 
to them has been raised up and is ready to take 
their places. In the hands of the young men of to- 
day the future of the country will be safe, and par- 
ticularly will this be so because of those who are 
natives and to the manor born, for they are more 
intimately acquainted with the requirements of the 
times. When the exercise of citizenship is coupled 
with intelligence, there is no mistake' in predicting 
that the future of the country's welfare is assured. 

One of the young men on whose shoulders is be- 
ginning to rest the responsibility of the present is 
the subject of this sketch, a farmer and stock-raiser 
on section 14, Owego Township, and who is a native 
of Le Roy, State of New York, where he was born on 
the 29th of March, 1855. lie is the son of William 
and Mary Jones (of whom a sketch appears in this 
work), who were early settlers of Owego Township. 
When quite young he accompanied his parents when 
they came to Illinois, and thi> State has been his 
home ever since, where his younger days were spent 
in work upon the farm, during the fanning seasons, 
and attending school during the winter months, in 
which he obtained a good education. 

On the 5th of March, 1884, Mr. Jones was mar- 
ried to Miss Jennie Kerr, of Bloomington, 111. 


is a native of Scotland, and daughter of James II. 
and Sarah J. Kerr, of Hoomington, 111., who were 
also natives of Scotland. Mrs. Jones and lier mother 
eanic to America in 1872. Mr. Kerr having preceded 
them several years. This young couple have made 
an excellent start in life, Mr. Jones having purchased 
eight}' acres of land with the proceeds of his labor 
and good management, a considerable portion of 
which was accumulated before marriage. He and 
his wife are intelligent and educated people, and for 
years he has taken an active interest in associations 
for the advancement of good literature and the cul- 
tivation of literary tastes. lie is not a political par- 
tisan, and indeed politics have never interested him 
to the extent of causing him to become attached to 
either of the old parties. 

ANIKL STRKKT. If one could obtain a 
bird's eye view of Illinois before it was in- 
habited by white people and then suddenly 
look upona picture of the State, showing its 
present magnificent improvement, dotted all over 
with cities and towns, crossed and recrossed by rail- 
roads. all the land intervening between the towns 
covered with farm houses and barns, lie would real- 
ize a change in scene before which would pale into 
insignificance any transformation ever witnessed. The 
subject of this sketch has been a witness of such a 
transformation in that section of the county in which 
lie has lived, lie has seen improvements grow up 
where wild wastes of prairie existed, and spjendid 
farms made of land which from the beginning of 
time had been given over to the rank growth of 
nature, and within his experience the whole State 
has attained its splendid state of perfection. 

Mr. Street is a farmer of Avoca Township, and 
resides on section 10. He is a native of Mnskin- 
gum Comity. Ohio, where lie was born on the 13th 
of March. 1831, and is the .-on of Jacob and Tacey 
Street, both of whom are natives of Pennsylvania. 
Hi- paternal ancestors were of English, and his ma- 
ternal ance-tors of (ieniian descent. In his twenti- 
eth year he accompanied his parents when Ihey re- 
moved to Putnam County, 111., and resided there 

about two years. Hoth of his parents died in Mar- 
shall County. 111. To them were born eight chil- 
dren, live of whom are living: Daniel: Robert M.. 
in Iowa: Ann. Mix Aaron Axline. of Wenona, 111.; 
Ile.-ter. Mrs. Chauncy Claylord. of Missouri County. 
Kan.: Amanda. Mrs. (leorge Dean, of Maryland. 
When a boy Mr. Street learned the trade of a potter. 
which occupation he followed for about live years, 
and has devoted the remainder of his time to farm- 
ing. He came to Livingston County in the spring 
of 1857, where he has resided ever since. lie owns 
a farm of fifty acres, which was in its primitive con- 
dition when he became possessed of it, but within a 
few years afterward he had reduced it to a condition 
of splendid cultivation. 

On the 23d of December, 1860, Mr. Street was 
married to Maria DeMoss, daughter of James and 
Margaret DeMoss, who were pioneer settlers of 
Livingston County. They have had but one child, 
a daughter named Luella, who was born on the 3d 
of August, 1863. Mr. Street has always acted with 
the Republican party, from a sense of conscious- 
ness of duty, without the expectation of ollice or 
other reward. In an otlicial capacity he has served 
the people for three years as School Director, and 

his administration gave g 1 satisfaction. He 

heartily seconds and endorses all movements for the 
betterment of society, and in such matters has been 
generally a leader. 

ARTIN M. TRAVIS. Some men there are 
whose lives cannot be written without in- 
terweaving into the storj- of their incom- 
ings and their outgoings the history of 
another life that of the wife. This is peculiarly 
and beautifully so in the instance under considera- 
tion. Here is a man nearly seventy-seven years of age 
who has been married to the woman of his choice 
nearly half a century half a century within itself 
an average lifetime. What he has accomplished 
within that time has been with and by the aid of 
her who has been the sharer of his joys and sor- 


When men and women married fifty years ago , 
the surroundings were entirely different from the 




weddings of to-day. There were no railroads nor 
any of the inventions that have revolutionized 
commercial as well as social affairs. Marriage 
meant hardships, denials, troubles, slow progress in 
the accumulation of wealth in an undeveloped 
country where luxury and many of the ordinary 
comforts of life were unknown. To the wife 
it meant much labor, great sacrifice of personal 
comfort, the exercise of unshrinking courage, and 
in addition it devolved upon her in the adjustment 
of the laws of nature to be a staff of inspiration on 
which the husband might lean when the clouds of 
adversity hovered over him the darkest. Mr. and 
Mrs. Travis, in the battle of life, stood shoulder to 
shoulder, and ever clasped hands in the mutual en- 
deavor to improve and elevate their condition. Mr. 
Travis met with a great bereavement in the death 
nf liis beloved wife, who passed to her reward Oct. 
27, 1887, after an illness of about four weeks. 

Mr. Travis is a pioneer of Livingston County, 
whose farm is located on section 5, Belle Prairie 
Township. He was born on the 4th of July, 1811, 
in Overtoil County. Tenn., and his parents were 
Jeremiah and Margaret (Peek) Travis, natives of 
Georgia and Virginia respectively. The father 
was born in 1788, married in 1807, came to Illinois 
in 1834, and died in 1871. The mother was two 
years his senior and died in 1872. The father was a 
chair and spinning-wheel maker by trade, but de- 
voted considerable of his life to the occupation of 
a farmer. When they removed to Illinois their 
mode of transportation was by a wagon drawn by 
oxen, which made their travel necessarily slow. 
They were the parents of eight children Susanna, 
Annie, Martin, John, Pollie, David, Jeremiah and 
Nancy. Four of these are now living. 

The subject of this sketch was married, on the 
14th of December, 1837, to Miss Eliza Thompson, 
who was born on the 31st of March, 1814, and was 
the daughter of John B. and Mary (Steers) Thomp- 
son, natives of Kentucky. The father was boni in 
1788, and died in 1882; the mother was born 
about the same date and died in 1873. They came 
to Illinois and located in McLean County in the 
year 1829, where they remained until the occurrence 
of his death. They were the parents of ten chil- 
dren Eli/.a, Johnson, William, Simpson E., James, 

Lilliard, Serena, Elizabeth, Washington and Mary. 

Mr. Travis came to Illinois in 134, accompany- 
ing his parents. His boyhood days and early man- 
hood were so thoroughly devoted to the service of 
his parents on the farm that he never had an op- 
portunity to attend school for even a single day. 
At the age of twenty-three he began the struggle 
of life for himself, and entered forty acres of tim- 
ber land, subsequently purchasing forty acres and 
then 160 more. His farm now consists of 195 
acres of well-improved land, on which is a com- 
fortable and commodious residence. Although he 
is now in his seventy-seventh year, the latest 
demonstration of his astonishing vitality was re- 
covering his two-story house with shingles, entirely 
unaided. Beginning life without any means what- 
ever, through his own industry and the unflag- 
ging aid and devotion of his wife, he accumulated 
lands and means enough to make him thoroughly 
independent during the balance of his days. 
Mr. and Mrs. T. had born to them the following 
children : Mary A., Rachel, John D., Adeline and 
Francis; besides three deceased, viz: Elizabeth, at 
the age of eighteen ; Serena, at twelve, and Minerva, 
at thirty-three. 

Mrs. Travis for very many years was a de- 
voted and consistent member of the Baptist Church. 
Our subject has twenty-five grandchildren, and 
two great-grandchildren. Mr. Travis has been a 
life-long Democrat and refers with great satis- 
faction to the fact that he cast his first Presi- 
dential vote for Gen. Andrew Jackson. 

r *OSEPH J. TRULLINGER. The histories 
of Indiana and Illinois so far as they relate 
to the hardships'and privations of the early 
pioneers are so nearly identical, that a man 
born in Indiana at the beginninguf the thirties, ex- 
perienced as bard a beginning as the man who was 
born or first settled in Illinois at that time. In 
both States the conditions fifty or sixty years ago 
were such as to test the mettle and make-up of the 
men and women who cast their lot either by birth or 
settlement in either State. At that time transporta- 
tion was by wagons drawn by horses or oxen over 





roads which ran through a wilderness or vast ex- 
panse of prairie, and for half the year were utterly 
impassable. Steam had not yet been utilized to 
facilitate overland travel, and the mails were few 
and far between in their arrivals and departures. 
Compared with the present era those were truly slow 
coach days, but the people were perhaps as content 
and as happy as they are to-day. 

The subject of this sketch is a representative pio- 
neer of Avoca Township, and a native of Fountain 
County, Ind. He was born on the 19th of October, 
1831, and is the son of Jacob and Mary Trullinger. 
The father was a native of Pennsylvania, and the 
mother was born in the State of Maryland. He re- 
ceived a rudimentary education in the early schools 
of Fountain County, which at that time afforded 
very limited advantages. Mr. Trullinger was first 
married, on the 5th of, December, 1852, to Mary- 
Foster, a native of Ohio, who shared the joys and 
sorrows of her husband until the 4th of August, 
1886, when she passed to her reward. On the 17th 
. of March, 1887, Mr. Trullinger was united in mar- 
riage to Mrs. Sarah C. Spencer, a native of Ten- 

Mr. Trullinger has always been engaged in the 
vocation of a farmer, and largely depended upon 
his own resources. His father died when he was an 
infant, and his mother in 1872. In 1856 he came 
from Indiana to Livingston County, and purchased 
forty acres of land, to which he has added forty 
acres more, making an excellent eighty-acre farm, 
which is well improved. On one of the forty-acre 
tracts there are 747 rods of tile, and the entire farm 
is enclosed with a good hedge fence. When Mr. 
Trullinger came to this county, he practically had 
nothing to begin on, and his success, which has 
been measurably good, is wholly' attributable to his 
industry and good management. 

Being Republican in politics, and one who takes 
an active part in local political affairs, Mr. Trullin- 
ger has been chosen as School Trustee of the town- 
ship for three years, and also served as School 
Director for several years. lie takes great interest 
in the affairs of the Methodist Episcopal Church, in 
which he has for eight years been Recording Steward 
and for a considerable time a Class-Leader. Sun- 
day-school Superintendent and Church Trustee. 

He was one of the first to inaugurate the movement 
which culminated in building the Lodcnia Method- 
ist Church and parsonage, and to that enterprise 
his contribution was quite liberal. His course in 
this matter fully illustrates his public spirit and 
liberal mind. He is a representative citizen of the 
township, and enjoys the esteem and respect of the 
citizens thereof. His life has been a busy one, and 
its results are such as to be satisfactory to him in 
his declining years. 

eilRISTOPHER C. LEONARD is largely en- 
gaged in farming and stock-raising on sec- 
tion 34 in Newtown Township, where he owns 
100 acres of good and well-improved land, besides 
forty acres in Amity Township. He was born in 
Bradford County, Pa., on the 26th of April, 1836, 
and is the son of Edmund D. and Elizabeth (Rem- 
ington) Leonard. lie lived in Pennsylvania with 
his parents until about eleven years of age, at which 
time they moved to Du Page County, 111., going 
by water to Chicago, and thence by teams. Mr. 
Leonard began to attend subscription schools at the 
age of three years, and continued until his parents 
moved to Illinois, after which he only attended dur- 
ing the winter months. The parents remained in 
Du Page County about seven years, and then came 
to Livingston County, transporting their effects in 
wagons drawn by oxen. They located on section 
33, Newtown Township, where the father entered 
land from the Government, and resided until his 
death (see sketch of Mrs. Leonard). After coming 
to this county the subject of our sketch attended 
school for three winters, when he left home at 
twenty-one years of age and lived in Amity Town- 
ship for a time, working on the land where the vil- 
lage of Cornell now stands. After living in the 
various portions of the county he permanently lo- 
cated in Newtown, in 1873. 

Mr. Leonard was married, Feb. 4, 1858, to Mary 
Mason, daughter of Enoch and Kli/.alieth (Shinn) 
Mason, native's of New Jersey. The great-grand- 
father Mason was of Irish de-cent, and Elizabeth 
Shinn's parents were German. Enoch was born in 
Galloway Township, Gloucester Co., N. J.. July 25, 



1*04, mid was there man-led, Aug. 28, 1825, to 
Elizabeth Shinn, who \v.-is born June 18, 1805. To 
thi'in were born eight children, three of whom are 
living: Mary, the wife of our subject; Martha and 
George. .Martha was born March 7, 1847, and was 
married, Sept. 20, 1866, to Orlando E. Hart; he 
died in 1869, and she was married to William S. 
Brown in June, 1871, and they live in Nebraska. 
George W. was born July 11, 1845, and resides in 
Western Iowa. The deceased members of the fam- 
ily are: Hannah, bom June 29, 1829, died Sept. 4, 
1832; Naomi, born June 10, 1831, died Aug. 14, 
1832; Henry, born June 6, 1833, died Sept. 6, 
1838; Elizabeth, born Oct. 10, 1836, died Aug. 26, 
1858; Charles W., born April 5, 1843, died July 

20, 1873; he was married to Emily M. Wilbur 
March 7, 1869, and enlisted in Company A, 129th 
Illinois Infantry, Aug. 2, 1862. His health becom- 
ing impaired he was discharged at the end of the 
first year, and lived at home one year, when he was 
drafted and taken to New Orleans, where he served 
until the close of the war. After his return home 
he was married and became the father of two chil- 
dren, named Idele May, born Dec. 16, 1869. and 
Chester Allen, May 13, 1872. lie died suddenly 
at his home while walking from the pump in the 
dooryard to the house. Emily, his widow, was 
again married, Nov. 5, 1885, to Joshua A. Mus- 
grove, and lives in Kansas. The mother of these 
childreirdied Jan. 4, 1868, and Enoch Mason was 
again married Feb. 21, 1869, the woman of his 
choice being Sophia Wilbur. She died June 30 
1873, and her husband followed her Sept. 12, 1874. 
Mary, the wife of our subject, was born Aug. 6, 
1838, in Monroe Count}', Mich., and her parents 
came to Illinois in 1850, and located in Newtown 
Township, where they resided at the time of their 
death. Mr. and Mrs. Leonard were married in the 
house in which they now live, and are the parents of 
the following-named children: Olivia, born Oct. 22, 
1858: Lawrence, born Nov. 20, 1859, died Aug. 

21, 18(30; Emily A., born May 31, 1861, married 
John Weideman, of Newtown Township, and has 
three children ; Edwin, born June 18, 1866; Clora 
A., Feb. 26, 1868: Ira G., Nov. 16, 1869; Andrew, 
Jan. :, 1872: Franklin ('., Oct. 18, 187:!, and Fred- 
erick G., Dec. 12, 1875. 

Christopher C. Leonard enlisted in Company A, 
12'.lth Illinois Infantry, Aug. 2, 1862, under C'apt. 
John A. Hoskins, at Pontiac, and during his term 
of service participated in several of the larger en- 
gagements, receiving his baptism of fire at the bat- 
tle of Buzzard's Roost, in Georgia. At the battle of 
Peach tree Creek he received a slight injury, from 
which he soon recovered. He was with Sherman 
during his Atlanta campaign ami in the march to 
the sea, participating in the capture of Savannah, 
and the battle of Bentonville. He was mustered 
out in Washington City June 8, 1865, and received 
his discharge papers in Chicago June 1 7 of that 
year. He immediately returned to his home in this 
county, and resumed the occupation of farm work. 

Mr. and Mrs. Leonard are honored members of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, and devote con- 
siderable of their time to matters intended to ad- 
vance the best interests of the congregation. In 
politics Mr. Leonard is a stanch Republican, and 
can always be depended upon to watch over and 
care for the interests of that party. 

LE PETERSON, of Sunbury Township, is 
one of the most enterprising representatives 
of his nationality in Livingston County. 
He bears the reputation of a praiseworthy and in- 
dustrious citizen, one who attends strictly to his 
own concerns, and has thereby made a success both 
as a farmer and business man. He has been a res- 
ident of Illinois for over twenty years, and located 
upon a tract of land which had only been partially 
cultivated, and which he has transformed into one 
of the finest homesteads in Sunbury Township. 

Mr. Peterson was born in Stavanger, Norway, 
July 4, 1830, and is the son of Peter and Anna 
Peterson, natives of the same country, who there 
spent their entire lives. He attended school dur- 
ing his childhood until fourteen years old, and at 
the same time assisted his father on the farm. The 
agricultural operations of the Norwegian farmer in 
his own country are very different from those of 
the present agriculturists of the Prairie State. The 
implements are of rude construction, and the tiller 
of the soil in a country not exceedingly fertile has 




to contend with many disadvantages. The parents 
of our subject were people of modest means, and 
Ole, when a youth of sixteen, left the parental roof 
and started out in life for himself. He received, 
for hard work, rather poor fare, the munificent sal- 
ary of $10 per year, and a piece of cloth for a suit 
of clothes. 

Young Peterson had always been a serious and 
reflective youth, and not being satisfied with his 
prospects and condition in his own country, de- 
termined to set sail for the New World, stories of 
which frequently reached him from across the wa- 
ter. Accordingly, on the loth of May, 1860, he 
set sail from the port of Stavanger accompanied by 
his wife and child, he having been married in 1859. 
After a voyage of six weeks they landed in the 
city of Quebec, Canada, whence they came directly 
to the States and at once set out for Illinois. Mr. 
Peterson landed in Ottawa with $15 in his pocket, 
but soon found employment upon a farm at $18 a 
month a vast improvement upon the sum he re- 
ceived for the same labor on his native soil. He 
lived economically, and with the help of his excel- 
lent wife, in the course of two years bought a little 
herd of cattle, and hiring a cheap man to look after 
them, continued working as before until enabled 
to secure a tract of land. 

Mr. Peterson decided to locate in the northern 
part of Livingston County, which at that time was 
mostly open prairie, especially the districts including 
the townships of Nevada and Sunbury. This 
made a good range for stock, and Mr. P., bringing 
his cattle hither, still continued hiring them herded, 
and rented a tract of land upon which to raise corn 
and wheat. He operated upon rented land three 
years with excellent results, and then purchased 
eighty acres, which forms a part of his present 
homestead. For this he was to pay $1,280. He 
paid $320 cash, and gave his notes for the balance. 
One of his first duties was to put up a shelter for 
his family, and upon the completion of tin* he en- 
tered at once upon the cultivation of the land. 
He was successful from the beginning, the seasons 
proving favorable and the soil yielding plentifully 
to his worthy efforts. He invested his surplus cap- 
ital in additional land, buying eighty acres adjoin- 
ing, so that he now has a quarter section, and all 

in a fine state of cultivation. It is enclosed with 
neat and substantial fences, and the farm buildings 
will bear comparison with anything of the kind in 
this part of the county. In 1803 Mr. P. pur- 
chased a pair of colts which he has worked upon 
his farm ever since, and now, although twenty- 
seven years old, they retain many of the skittish 
ways of their 3'outh, giving evidence of the care 
and kindness with which they have been treated 
since coming into the possession of their present 
owner. It is hardly necessary to say that Mr. Pe- 
terson will never part with these old friends who 
have served him so long and so faithfulty. 

The wife of our subject was, in her girlhood, 
Miss Bertha Johnson, and became the mother of 
six children : Annie was born in 1861 ; Tillie, in 1863; 
Peter, in 1 865 ; Bertha, in 1 868 ; Lena, in 1 87 1 ; John, 
in 1879. The mother, after remaining the faithful 
and affectionate companion of her husband for a 
period of over twenty years, departed this life at 
her home in Sunbury Township in September, 
1881, and her remains were laid to rest in Sunbury 
Cemetery. Mr. Peterson was subsequently mar- 
ried to Miss Inger Rasmusson, of Esmen Township, 
their wedding taking place at the home of the 
bride. The present wife of our subject was born 
in August, 1835. 

Mr. Peterson was reared in the doctrines of the 
Lutheran Church, to which he still loyally adheres, 
and although interesting himself comparatively 
little in politics, uniformly supports Republican 
principles, and votes upon occasions of general 

EMERY WESTEHVKLT, accountant, and at 
present book-keeper and assistant cashier for 
j, - Beach <fe Dominy. bankers at Fairbury, is a 

native of Franklin County, Ohio, having been born 
twelve miles northeast of the city of Columbus, 
Oct. 7, 1824. He is a gentleman of more than or- 
dinary intelligence, and forms one of the important 
f. -ic tors of a cultivated community. lie was reared 
to farming purdtiits, in which he engaged success- 
fully for a number of 3'ears. afterward obtaining 
a collegiate education, and was for two years Pro- 
fessor in Otterbein I'niversity, at AVesterville, Ohio. 








The parents of our subject, Mathew and Abiah 
(Leonard) Westervelt, were natives respectively of 
Dutchess County, N. Y., and Springfield, Mass. 
Matlicvv Westervelt was born June 15, 1788, and 
departed this life in Columbus, Ohio, Jan. 4, 1865. 
He followed farming his entire life, and with his ex- 
cellent wife, was a devoted member of the Method- 
ist Episcopal Church. The mother of our subject 
was born Aug. 24, 1792, and survived her husband 
twenty-two years, her deatli taking place Jan. 14. 
1887, at the advanced age of ninety-four years. 
The family included ten children. 

Our subject spent his boyhood on the parental 
homestead, pursuing his early studies at the district 
school, and after his connection with the university 
had ended, engaged in farming fivej'ears. He was 
subsequently married, April 24, 1850, to Miss Caro- 
line R. Connelly, and a few months later removed 
to Columbus, Ohio, and thence to Pittsburgh, Pa., 
where he became Superintendent of Duff's famous 
commercial college, and was thus engaged for two 
years. Afterward he was associated with the Colum- 
bia Oil Company, a wealthy and highly successful 
corporation in that city, with a capital of $2,500,- 
000, as Secretary and Treasurer, which positions he 
retained until 1868. Then, on account of failing 
health he removed, first to Philadelphia, and thence 
to New York City, finally journeying West with 
the Greeley Colony to Colorado. UIKJII his return 
eastward in 1870, he resided in Fairbury, this 
county, four months, when he returned to Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., and took a position with the firm of A. 
French & Co., extensive manufacturers of railway 
car and locomotive springs. He remained with 
this firm three years, and in 1875 returned to Fair- 
bury, where he has since resided. Besides his duties 
in the bank, he is Secretary of the Fairbury Build- 
ing and Loan Association, and is rated among the 
representative businessmen of the town. 

Mrs. Westervelt was born near Lancaster, Pa., 
Jan. 7, 1829, and is the daughter of Edward and 
Mary (Grnham) Connelly, natives respectively of 
Ireland and Scotland. They resided in Franklin 
County, Ohio, at the time of their death, which oc- 
curred many years ago. The household circle of 
our subject and his wife includes three interesting 
children, named Emery E., Carrie and George P. 

They occupy a snug home on Elm and Webster 
streets, and enjoy the esteem and confidence of a 
large circle of acquaintances. Mr. Westervelt, 
politically, is a decided Republican. 

<fl fifclLLIAM L. TATE, widely known through- 
\j\/// out Pontiac Township as one of its repre- 
J/xy sentative farmers and stock-growers, owns a 
good property of 240 acres on section 35, where 
for the last twenty years he has been engaged suc- 
cessfully in the tilling of the soil, and making a 
specialty of raising grain and hay with which to 
feed the stock, large numbers of which pass 
through his hands annually. His course has been 
"marked by- industry and good judgment, and more 
than ordinary success. He has distinguished him- 
self as a liberal-minded and public-spirited citi- 
zen, wide-awake to those measures tending to the 
welfare of the community and the elevation of 

Mr. Tate, a native of Yorkshire, England, was 
born June 6, 1837, and is the son of Henry and 
Elizabeth Tate, the former deceased and the latter 
a resident of Lee County, this State. Our sub- 
ject when a child three years of age crossed the 
ocean with his parents to America. After a brief 
stay in New York City they proceeded to Franklin, 
Mass., where they located, and where the father 
followed his trade as a shoemaker. In the spring 
of 1853 they started for the West, and located in 
Peru, 111., where the father died the following year. 
The family included nine children, all living, and 
as follows: William L., our subject, was the eldest; 
Hannah H. is the wife of F. M. Tilden, of Boston, 
Mass.; Samuel L.. a graduate of Ann Arbor Uni- 
versity, and who for some time officiated as a 
Judge of the Circuit Court at Grand Haven, Mich., 
is now a resident of Sioux Falls, Dak. ; Martha A. 
is the wife of Tracey F. Marshall, of Marshall 
Count}', Iowa; Eliza married Charles Gratz, of 
Winteriiet, Iowa; Sarah E., Mrs. E. M. Lewis, is re- 
siding in Lee Coiint3% this State; Henry W., a 
graduate of Shurtleff College, and of the Newton 
(Mass.) Theological Seminary, is now a minister 
of the Baptist Church, and located in Tiverton, R. 




1. ; John F. is a resident of Winterset, Iowa, and 
Eva is the wife of T. G. Smith, of Lincoln, Kan. 

Mr. Tate was reared to farming pursuits from 
his boyhood, and after passing his twenty-seventh 
birthday was united in marriage with Miss Eliza- 
beth Cade, the wedding taking place at the home 
of the bride, Nov. 21, 1864. Mrs. Tate is a na- 
tive of the same country as her husband, and was 
born April 5, 1840. Her parents, Lewis and Jane 
Cade, emigrated to America when she was a young 
girl fifteen j'ears of age, and settled first near 
Philadelphia, Pa. A few years later the father died, 
and the mother with her children came to Lee 
County, this State, where her death took place in 
1867. The household included nine children, three 
living, namely, George C.; Jane, the wife of Isaac 
Mclver, a resident of Reno County, Kan. ; and 
Elizabeth, who is the wife of our subject. Mr. and 
Mrs. Tate became the parents of six children, 
namely, Alfred L., Henry A., Samuel W., Nettie 
E., William G. and Everette L. 

As stated above, the farm of Mr. Tate embraces 
240 acres of finely .[cultivated land with substan- 
tial and convenient buildings. His accumulations 
have been solely the result of his own industry, as 
he commenced at the foot of the ladder and has 
been dependent upon his own resources. He has 
been quite prominent in local affairs, serving as Road 
Commissioner and School Trustee, which latter po- 
sition he now holds. He has been distinguished 
principally by his strict attention to his own af- 
fairs, and by assisting his neighbors and fellow- 
townsmen whenever there was need. In politics 
he is an uncompromising Republican. Mr. and 
Mrs. Tate are members of the Baptist Church at 

w. STOKER. Among the weii-u>- 

do and successful farmers of Waldo Town- 
ship, and a gentleman who has attained suc- 
cess in life through industry and economy, is the 
subject of this sketch. He is at present engaged in 
the calling which he has followed the greater por- 
tion of his life, and in addition to the cultivation 
of the cereals is devoting considerable time to 

stock-raising on his farm, which is located on sec- 
tion 32. He is the son of Jehu C. and Anna 
(Nibbs) Stoker, and was born in Mason County, 
Ky., on the llth of March, 1827. His parents 
were natives of Kentucky, and of good English de- 
scent. They had six children, of whom our sub- 
ject was the second: Mary, born Jan. 26, 1824, 
married Eli Stephenson,and died leaving one child ; 
Martha E., born April 13, 1830, married Eli Ste- 
phenson, the husband of her deceased sister; they 
live in Kentucky and have several children. Cyn- 
thia A., born Feb. 19, 1833, married James M. 
Mitchel, has seven children, and lives in Gridley; 
Sarah B., born Jan. 3, 1836, married Rev. J. A. 
Windsor, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and 
has two children; John P., born Feb. 28, 1840, en- 
listed in the army in 1861, and lived but a few 
months, dying of measles in Bowling Green, Ky. 

Mr. Stoker was reared on a farm, during which 
time he received a fair common-school education. 
He remained under the parental roof, assisting his 
father in the management of the farm until he was 
twenty-five years of age, when he concluded to try 
his fortunes in California, and made the journey to 
that State by way of the Isthmus of Darien, which 
required about one month's time. While he was 
on board the vessel, he had an attack of measles, 
from which he recovered very slowly, and which 
left him in impaired health for about one year. 
He remained in California for about three years, 
and during that time was engaged in mining. Al- 
though he did not amass a fortune in his mining 
operations, he accumulated more-money there then 
he could have done by labor in the same length of 
time in Kentucky. In 1856 he returned to the 
latter-named State, where he remained until the 
spring of 1857, when he came to Illinois and set- 
tled in Livingston County, where he purchased 160 
acres of land, on which he lived for about three 

On the 2d of May, 1860, our subject was mar- 
ried to Miss Mary E. Jewett, daughter of Parker 
and Mary (Cochran) Jewett, of Livingston County. 
In 18U1 he sold his farm to the man of whom he 
formerly purchased it, and lived upon a rented 
farm for one year. The following year he pur- 
chased eighty acres upon which his present home 





stands, and since then has purchased forty acres 
upon section 33. Mr. and Mrs. Stoker became the 
parents of two children George P., born Aug. 21, 
1861, and May B., May 1, 1863; both live at 
home. Mrs. Stoker was born near Belfast, Me., on 
the llth of November, 1832, and died on the 17th 
of May, 1887. The father of Mrs. Stoker was born 
at Thetford, Yt., May 28, 1807, and the mother 
June 16, 1805, in Belfast, Me.; they were both of 
English descent. Their marriage occurred on the 
27th of December, 1831, at Belfast, at which Rev. 
Ferris Fitch was the officiating clergyman. 

Mr. Stoker cast his first political vote for Frank- 
lin Pierce for President, but since the war of the 
Rebellion he has constantly voted the Republican 
ticket. Since 1863, which is now nearly a quarter 
of a century, he has been custodian of the school 
fund, and it is worthy of mention that there has 
never been a dollar of the funds gone astray. He 
is a member of the Congregational Church in Grid- 
ley, and has for man}' years served as its Trustee. 
He is a man about six feet in height, weighs about 
180 pounds, has grey eyes, and his hair was auburn 
before it turned grey. He is a man of generous 
and social disposition, and readily makes friends 
who never desert him. 

ffiOHN A. CAVANAUGH, Nevada's merchant 
prince, belongs to the nationality which has 
contributed largely to the advancement of 
the business interests of this section. He 
was born in County Galway, Ireland, Sept. 25, 1845, 
and is the son of Patrick Cavanaugh, a native of 
the same county. His paternal grandfather, John 
Cavanaugh, was born in County Wexford, whence 
he moved to Galway early in life, taking up his 
abode at his beautiful rural home, afterward known 
as Knava, near the village of Eyrcourt, where his 
death took place in 1850. 

Patrick Cavanaugh grew to manhood in his na- 
tive count} r , and in 1844 married Miss Mary, daugh- 
ter of John C'oyle, a fanner and magistrate for- 
merly of County Clare. The latter died in 1848 
at the age of sixty-eight years. In the spring of 
1852, when our subject was but a lad of seven 

years, his parents decided to seek their fortunes on 
this side of the Atlantic. They embarked on a 
sailing-vessel at Liverpool, and after a voyage of 
five weeks landed in the city of New Orleans. 
Eighteen months later they removed to this State, 
and located in LaSalle County. The father pur- 
chased a tract of wild prairie land in Eagle Town- 
ship, put up a dwelling, and entered industriously 
upon the improvement and cultivation of his pur- 
chase. As the result of industry and perseverance, 
he in due time found himself the owner of a beautiful 
farm of 400 acres, with all the appurtenances of a 
first-class country home. This he sold in 1874, 
and retiring from active labor, took up his residence 
with his son, our subject, in Nevada, where, with 
his estimable wife, he is spending his declining 
years in the ease and comfort to which he is justly 

Our subject, being the elder child, and only son 
of his parents, the family consisting of but two 
children, himself and one sister, now the wife of 
Thomas Scaulan, Esq., a real-estate agent and loan- 
broker of Rock Valley, Iowa, his duties in the 
building up of a new home were necessarily press- 
ing and laborious ; and hence it was that at the age 
of eighteen his education consistd of but a moder- 
ate knowledge of the rudiments acquired at the dis- 
trict schools of Eagle Township. Circumstances 
being now favorable to his aspirations, he was per- 
mitted to attend the Christian Brothers' School at 
LaSalle during a portion of the years 1864-65, still 
continuing to assist his father in the cultivation of 
the farm. In the fall of 1868, he resolved to 
abandon farming and become a merchant, and pre- 
paratory to doing so, he repaired to Chicago and 
entered Bryant & Stratton's Business College, for 
a business training, from which he was graduated 
in the spring of 1869. For nearly a year thereafter 
he was engaged in book-keeping for a wholesale 
grocery house. He then returned to the farm. 

On the 4th of October, 1870, Mr. Cavanaugh 
married Miss Kate O'Leary, the youngest daughter 
of a wealthy and respected farmer of Grundy 
County. With his bride he staid on the old home- 
stead until the fall of 1872, when he came to Ne- 
vada and engaged in the grain business, building a 
large and substantial elevator, and a handsome and 




commodious ofBce. Two years later he purchased 
a general stock of merchandise, to which he has 
been adding until he has now an immense and well- 
selected stock, that would do credit to any town in 
the county. Mr. and Mrs. Cavanaugh are the par- 
ents of nine children, namely, Clarence Emmet, Ed- 
mund S., Clement J., Constance L., John A., Flor- 
ence Emily, Celesta A., Irene M. and Gertrude A. 
Clarence, though but sixteen years of age, is Prin- 
cipal of the town school, while the others, except 
the two youngest, are among his pupils. 

That Mr. C. is a man of but ordinary calibre, 
must not be inferred from the fact that Nevada is 
b;;t a small village, on the contrary, he is possessed 
of superior abilities, such as befit a man for the 
front rank in any community. He is considered 
an authority in educational matters, having written 
many able articles on the subject of education. 

J" OHN AUGUSTINE, Justice of the Peace, 
farmer and stock-raiser, located on section 
17, Owego Township, is the owner of eighty 
acres of finely improved and cultivated land, 
provided with a substantial residence, from which 
may be obtained a fine view of the surrounding 
country. Our subject is one of the enterprising 
and progressive farmers of Livingston County, who 
has made the most of his opportunities, and taken 
advantage of modern progress. His barn and out- 
buildings are of good description, and finely Mr- 
ranged for the shelter of stock and storing of grain. 
He has a fine lot of high-grade cattle and horses, 
and everything about the premises indicates the 
supervision of an enterprising and intelligent man. 
Mr. Augustine is a native of Lancaster County, 
Pa., the date of his birth being Jan. 27, 1833, and 
he is a son of John A. and Ann (Miller) Augustine, 
natives of Germany and Pennsylvania respectively. 
The father emigrated to America when he was fif- 
teen 'years old, and settled in Pennsylvania, where 
he married and reared a family. lie was the father 
of twelve children, nine of whom are living at the 
time this sketch is written : Martin, Andrew, Sam- 
uel, John, Henry. Susan : Mary, the wife of John 
Carson: Christie A., the wife of B. W. Benedict, 

and Mattie. Those deceased are Elizabeth, Jacob 
and Michael, the two latter having lost their lives 
in the late C'ivil War, in which they were engaged 
as I'nion soldiers. Jacob enlisted in Fulton County, 
111., went out as a C-aplain, and was killed at Ken- 
nesaw Mountain while acting in the capacity of 
Colonel, not having at that time received a com- 
mission for that rank, which had been issued by the 
Governor. The other son, Michael, also enlisted 
in Fulton County, and was killed at Mission Ridge. 
Another son, Henry Augustine, of Normal, 111., 
also enlisted in Fulton County as a private, rose to 
the rank of Captain, and served four years, contin- 
uing in the service until the close of the war. 

The subject of this sketch was reared to man- 
hood in his native county, and was given a liberal 
education, reaping the benefit of the advantages 
afforded in the admirable schools of Lancaster 
County. When nineteen years of age he began the 
trade of a blacksmith, which occupation he followed 
about eleven years. On the 14th of August, 1856, 
in Pennsylvania, he was married to Susan Duke, 
who was born in Lancaster County, that State, on 
the 19th of October, 1837; she is a daughter of 
Adam and Catherine Duke. The former is de- 
ceased; he was a soldier in the War of 1812; her 
mother at present resides in Missouri. The pater- 
nal grandfather, John Duke, was an Englishman by 
birth, and settled in Pennsylvania. To Mr. and 
Mrs. Augustine six children have been born: 
Charles F., deceased; Violetta, the wife of Albert 
Morrison ; Emma L. ; Lewis E., deceased ; Alvaretta 
and John A. 

In 1856 Mr. Augustine emigrated to Illinois, 
where he resided in Fulton County until he came 
to Livingston County in the spring of 1869, and 
located on section 18, Owego Township, where he 
remained until 1875, in which year he settled on 
section 17, where he now resides: his farm consists 
of eighty acres of land, upon which lie has intro- 
duced all modern conveniences. At present he is 
Assessor of Owego Township, in which capacity he 
has served for thirteen consecutive years. In 1880 
he was the Census Enumerator for the township. 
For many years he has been serving as Justice 
of the Peace in that township. In political matters 
I he acts with the Republican party, and is also a 





strong advocate of temperance, which he enthusi- 
astically advocates. In religious matters he knows 
no creed, nor does he belong to any church ; he is a 
Free-thinker in all that the title implies, but en- 
deavors to act up to the precepts of the Golden 
Rule, lie and his family enjoy the respect and con- 
fidence of all by whom they are surrounded, and 
their friends number all who know them. 

TSSELL BROS. "Behold how pleasant it is 
for brethren to dwell together in unity." It 
is both pleasant and beautiful to see broth- 
ers dwelling together in unity, not only in 
social but business matters. The Russell brothers, 
Fra nk T. and George W., finely illustrate the amicable 
way in which brothers should stand together in the 
affairs of life when they have opportunity. 

George W. Russell, the younger brother, and a 
farmer of Pontiac Township, is a native of Greene 
County, Ohio, and was born on the 26th of Septem- 
ber, 1847. He is a son of William R. and Harriet 
Russell, both of whom are natives of Virginia. 
Adam Russell, a grandfather of George, was a sol- 
dier in the War of 1812. The Russell family is of 
Scotch descent; their grandfather settled in Greene 
County in 1810. George Russell came with his 
parents to Livingston County in 1869, and settled 
in Pontiac Township on >ection 30, on which the 
parents lived until the father's death, which took 
place in 1871, and the mother's in 1875. They had 
seven children: Jane is the wife of Harvey Strain. 
of Greene County, Ohio; Mary : Adam, of Shelby 
County, Ohio; Frank T., George W., William E.. 
of Shelby County, Ohio, and Ada. The father was 
an Elder in the Presbyterian Church for forty years. 
always taking an active part in the affairs of that 
church. He was Republican in politics, and a man 
who wa> universally respected. 

George W. Russell, one of the linn of Russell 
Bros., who are now owner> and managers of a farm 
of eighty aero in Pontiac Township, was reared to 
manhood in Greene County, Ohio, where he re- 
ceived a common-school education, and then came 
to Livingston County in 186. On the llth of 
October. 1877, he was married to Jennie Living- 

ston, daughter of Isaac Livingston, of McLean 
County. They have had one child. William R., 
born July 8, 1878, and on the 17th of July, the 
same year, his wife died. Frank T. Russell, the 
older brother of the firm of Russell Bros., is also 
a native of Greene County, Ohio, and was born on 
the 7th of October, 1844. He has followed the oc- 
cupation of a farmer all his life, in which he has 
been engaged in Livingston County since 1868. 
Both of the brothers are Republican, and vie with 
each other in their devotion to that party. They 
are both public-spirited, and in favor of everything 
that will improve the county and elevate society. 

rr^5)DWARD WHALEN, successfully engaged in 
farming and stock-raising on section 7, in 
Rook's Creek Township, has been a resident 

of this county since a child not two years of age. 
He is a native of Ireland, born in County Carlo w, 
Oct. 12, 1847, and two years later his parents emi- 
grated to the United States, locating first in Ottawa, 
LaSalle County, where they remained until the boy 
was nine years old. In 1854, during the Know- 
Nothing excitement, when he was about seven years 
of age, some of his schoolmates who had heard 
their parents talk about the "hateful foreigners" 
took a rope and hung him to a stake-ancl-rider 
fence, and but for the timely interference of an 
elder brother the result would have been fatal. 

Young Whalen pursued his studies in the com- 
mon school, and after reaching his majority crossed 
the Mississippi to view the country, but staid only 
two months. In 1872 he went to Minnesota on ac- 
count of his health, remaining in the North six 
months and being greatly benefited. After his re- 
turn to Illinois he was married, April 11, 1875, to 
Miss Ellen, daughter of Felix and Ellen (Hughes) 
Sherry, the mother a distant relative of Bishop 
Hughes, of New York. The wedding took place at 
the home of the bride in Nebraska Township, the 
Rev. Mr. Handley officiating. Of this union there 
have been born three children, namely, Felix E., 
April 24, 1876; Edward J., Oct. 27, 1877, and Mary 
E.. Jan. 30, 1870. Mr. Whalen has served as 
School Director six years, and usually votes the 




straight Democratic ticket, although he reserves the 
right of a free American citizen to vote otherwise 
if he considers it best. He is an active member of 
the Catholic Church, and in all respects a highly 
respected citizen. 

Mrs. Whalen was the sixth in a family of nine 
children born to her parents. The latter are both 
dead; the mother died Nov. 2, 1867, the father 
Nov. 18, 1859. Her eldest sister, Mary, was first 
married to Peter Conly, and became the mother of 
one child, a son, James, now a resident of Flana- 
gan. After the death of Mr. Conly she married 
John Flanagan, and of this union there were born 
four children. The mother died in 1872, and is 
buried at El Paso. Arthur Sherry is married and 
has six children : James is single and a resident of 
Livingston County; John remains in his native Ire- 
land, and is the father of a family; Patrick is un- 
married and a resident of this county ; and Annie, 
also unmarried, is housekeeper for her brother 
James in Nebraska Township. 

OHN J. TAYLOR, who is largely engaged 
in the real-estate, banking and milling busi- 
ness in Fairbury, was born on the 1 7th of 
July, 1818, in Melton, Saratoga Co.. N. Y., 
and comes of Scotch stock, his grandfather being- 
John Taylor, who emigrated from near Edinburgh, 
Scotland, to this country in 1785. His first loca- 
tion was at Boston. He was a ship captain and 
followed the sea for many years, eventually losing 
his life on the ocean. His widow settled near Sara- 
toga Springs, N. Y. 

The name of the father of our subject was George 
AV. Taylor, who was born in Boston, Mass., and 
was the third son of the family. He obtained an 
excellent education in his youth, and became so 
proficient in mathematics and nautical studies that 
he was able to command a vessel, and followed the 
ocean for fifteen years, but gave up that vocation 
at the earnest request of his wife, Harriet L. Du- 
persoy, and adopted farming as his occupation, 
which he made a success. He resided in the State 
of New York during his life, and died in 1881. 
Having been economical he succeeded in accumu- 

lating about $20,000. His wife was of French- 
English descent, and was born in 1795, and died in 
1837. She was the mother of three children: 
George C., who married Uretta Bentley ; John J., 
our subject, and Mary L., who married O. II. P. 

After obtaining a liberal education in the com- 
mon schools of his native town Mr. Taylor came to 
Illinois in 1851, and entered Lennox Academy, 
where he remained two and one-half years. He is 
a pioneer in the real-estate business, and during his 
early residence in Illinois entered about 11,000 
acres of land, and ultimately disposed of it at ft 
good profit. He has pursued this business to a 
greater or less extent ever since. In 1866 he en- 
gaged in the banking business by opening a private 
banking institution. In 1871-72 he assisted in 
establishing the First National Bank in Fairbury, 
and became one of its Directors. The capital of 
this bank is $50,000, and it has the entire confi- 
dence of the community. At the time this sketch 
is written Mr. Taylor is the possessor of 800 acres 
of the best land, which is divided into five differ- 
ent farms of 1 60 acres each, and every one is being 
placed under a high state of cultivation. Mr. Tay- 
lor has twelve acres of land in Fairbury, on which he 
has erected one of the finest dwelling-houses in the 
town. He is what might be called well-to-do, as 
his assets of real and personal property probably 
foot up to $200,000. He is very largely interested 
in the milling business at Quincy. His mills were 
destroyed by fire, but he has rebuilt them at a cost 
of about $100,000; they contain all the modern 
roller improvements, and have a c.-ipacity of 1,200 
barrels per day. 

John J. Taylor was married, on the 15th of Feb- 
ruary, 1855, to Hannah E. Cary,a native of Bruns- 
wick, Me., who was born Jan. 19, 1828, and is 
the daughter of James and Mary (Oakman) Gary. 
lies father was a manufacturer of clocks and was a 
very tine mechanic. A Mr. Dennison, an appren- 
tice of his, was the first man to make a watch by 
machinery, and during their lives they were fast 
friends. Mr. and Mrs. Taylor are the parents of 
three children: Mary L. married Lester H. Strong, 
and lives in Ottawa, 111.; Alice E. and James C. 

Our subject and wife attend the Presbyterian 




Church. He is a thorough-going Republican, and 
puts forth his best efforts in political matters for 
the success of that party, although he never neg- 
lects his business affairs for polities. Mr. Taylor 
is handling his affairs successfully and profitably. 
In his business relations he is always found to be a 
man of strict integrity, honorable and fair in all 
his dealings, doing unto others as he would they 
should do unto him, and thus merits and receives 
the approval of his friends and acquaintances. 

)// proportion of Avoca Township is under 
Z&) cultivation by the thrifty and industrious 
German fanner. This nationality has had much to 
do with the building up of the great West, and the 
subject of this sketch is performing his part as an 
enterprising citizen on a snng farm on section 25 
of the township mentioned. The early part of 
his life was spent in the Province of Bavaria, 
Germany, where he was born May 4. 1856, and 
from which he emigrated to the United States in 
the spring of 1872. 

The parents of our subject, George and Maggie 
(Heinline) Weihermiller, were natives of the same 
Province as their son, and of German ancestry for 
generations back. Nicholas was the fourth of the 
family, and commenced his education when a little 
lad six years of age. At the age of fourteen he 
had completed his studies, and two years later with 
the enterprise for which he has always been dis- 
tinguished, started out by himself to seek his fort- 
unes on another continent. He embarked in a 
sailing-vessel at Bremen, and after a voyage of 
two weeks, set foot on American soil, proceeding 
at once from New York City directly for the West. 
For several years thereafter he was a resident of 
LaSalle County, this State, whence he came to 
Livingston County in 1877. 

Mr.' Weihermiller commenced life in this county 
as a farm laborer, working two years in Pleasant 
Ridge Township, after which he farmed there on 
rented land two years longer. lie took up his resi- 
dence in Avoca Township about 1880, locating on 
his present farm where he has since resided. His 

property includes eighty acres of good land, and 
the improvements which the passing traveler be- 
holds are the result of the industry and enterprise 
of the proprietor. Besides his home farm he owns 
eighty acres in Iroquois County, which is operated 
by a tenant. This also has good buildings, and 
upon his homestead is a creditable assortment of 
live stock, and all the necessary machinery for 
lessening labor in producing and garnering the 
chojcest crops of the Prairie State. Considering 
the fact that Mr. Weihermiller came to Illinois 
with a cash capital of sixty-three cents in his 
pocket, the progress which he made should be en- 
tirely satisfactory to himself and those interested. 

The lady who presides over the domestic affairs 
of our subject, and takes the warmest interest in 
his success, was in her girlhood Miss Louisa Metz, 
and she became his wife on the 2d of January, 
1878. Mrs. W. was born in Woodforrl County, 
Aug. 28, 1858, and is the daughter of Frederick 
Metz, one of the most thorough farmers and highly 
resp?ct<jd citizens of Pleasant Ridge Township. 
To our subject and his wife there were born five 
children, namely, Ida, born March 24, 1879; 
George F., Oct. 3, 1881 ; Matilda, March 14, 1883; 
Bertha, Jan. 17, 1885, and Delia, Oct. 30, 1886. 
The parents of Mrs. Weihermiller, Frederick and 
Barbara (Somer) Metz, are natives of Germany, 
whence they emigrated to the United States, and 
located in this county about twenty years ago. Of 
the large family of children born to them, the fol- 
lowing survive, namely, Frederick; Barbara, the 
wife of William Voelpel, of Tazewell County; John, 
Mary, Louisa, Samuel, Lewis, Lena, William and 

Mr. Weihermiller is an intelligent citizen who 
keeps himself informed upon matters of general in- 
terest, and politically, votes the straight Democratic 

LHANAN MORRIS, a wealthy and influen- 
tial farmer of Belle Prairie Township, is 
finely located on section 3, where he has 
eighty acres of valuable land, upon which he has ef- 
fected some of the finest improvements in the 
county. The residence is a model of