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VjHE greatest of English historians, Macaui.ay, and one of tlie most brilliant writers ol 
the present cenlar}^ has said: "The history' of acoiintrj' isbest told inarecord of the ■ 
lives of its people." In conformity with this idea the Foktrait and Biogkapuical 
Album of this county has been prepare<l. Instead of going to must}' records, and 
taking therefrom dry statistical matter tliat can be appreciated by but few, our 
corps of writers have gone to tlic people, the men and women who have, by their 
enterprise and industry, brought the county to a rank second to none among tiiose 
corai)rising this great and noble State, and from their lips have the story of tlieir life 
struggles. No more interesting or instructive matter could be presented to an intelli- 
gent public. In this volume will be found a record of many whose lives are worthy the 
imitation of coming generations. It tells how some, commencing life in poverty-, by 
ndustry and econom}- have accumulated wealth. It tells how others, with limited 
advantages for securing an education, have become learned men and women, with an 
influence extending througliout the length and breadth of the land. It tells of men who 
have risen from the lower walks of life to eminence as statesmen, and wliosc names have 
become famous. It tells of those in every walk in life who have striven to succeed, and 
records how that success has usuallj- crowned their efforts. It tells also of many, very 
manv, who, not seeking the applause of the world, have pursued "the even tenor of their way," content 
to iuive it .said of them as Christ said of the woman performing a deed of mercy — "they have done v/hat 
Xtliey could." It tells how that many in the pride and strengtli of young manhood left the plow and the 
^ anvil, the lawyer's office and the counting-room, left every trade and profession, and at their country'.s 
^ call went forth valiantly "to do or die," and how through their efforts the Union was restored and peace 
i once more reigned in the land. In the life of every man and of everj' woman is a lesson tliat should not 
r be lost upon those who follow after. 

^ Coming genei-ations will appreciate this volume and preserve it as a sacred treasure, from the fact 

■ -^ that it contains so much that would never find its wa^' into public records, .and which would otherwise be 

-^i inaccessible. Great care has been taken in the compilation of the work and every opportunity possible 

J5_given to those represented to insure correctness in what has been written, and the publishers flatter tiiem- 

>0 selves that thej' give to their readers a work with few errors of consequence. In addition tollie biograph- 

"^^ ical sketches, portraits of a number of representative citizens are given. 

The faces of some, and biographical sketches of manj', will be missed in this volume. For this the 

publishers are not to blame. Not having a proper conception of the work, some refused to give the 

information necessary to compile a sketch, while others were indifferent. Occasionally some member of 

4 the family would oppose the enterprise, and on account of such opposition the support of the interested 

'"one would be withheld. In a few instances men could never be found, though re|)eatcd calls were made 

^-'^ their re.siden.ce or place of business. 

Biographicai, Plblisiiixo Co. 
Chicago, November, IS'JO. 


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J HE Father of our Country was 
'^w^born in Westmorland Co., Va., 
;;^ Feb. 22, 1732. His parents 
'a were Augustine and Mary 
-^ (Ball) Washington. The family 
to which he belonged has not 
been satisfactorily traced in 
England. His great-grand- 
father, John Washington, em- 
igrated to Virginia about 1(357, 
and became a [)rosi)erous 
planter. He had two sons, 
Lawrence and John. The 
former married Mildred Warner 
and had tliree children, John, 
Augustine and Mildred. Augus- 
tine, the father of George, fiist 
married Jane Butler, who bore 
him four children, two of whom, 
Lawrence and Augustine, reached 
maturity. Of si.x children by his 
second marriage, George was the 
eldest, the others being Betty, 
Samuel, Joiin Augustine, Charles 
and Mildred. 
.•\ugu-.,line Washijigton, the father of George, died 
in 1743, leaving a large landed property. To his 
eldest son, Lawrence, he bequeathed an estate on 
tlie I'atomac, afterwards known as Mount Vernon, 
and to George he left the parental residence. George 
received only such education as the neighborhood 
schools afforded, save for a short time after he left 
school, when he received private instruction in 
matlnjiuarcs. His spellinsi v/as rather defective. 

Remarkable stories are told of his great physica. 
strength and development at an early age. He wa.s 
an acknowledged leader among his companions, and 
was early noted for that nobleness of character, fair- 
ness and veracity which characterized his whole life. 

NVhen George was 1 4 years old he had a desire to go to 
sea, and a midshipman's warrant was secured for him, 
but through the opposition of his mother the idea was 
abandonsd. Two years later he was appointed 
surveyor to the immense estate of Lord Fairfax. \n 
this business he spent three years in a rough frontier 
life, gaining experience which afterwards proved vt:ry 
essential to him. Pn 175 r, though only ig years of 
age, he was appointed adjutant with the rank of 
major in the Virginia militia, then being trained for 
active service against the French and Indians. Soon 
after this he sailed to the West Lidies with his brother 
Lawrence, who went there to restore his health They 
soon returned, and in the summer of 1752 Lawrence 
died, leaving a large fortune to an infant daughter 
who did not long survive him. On her dennse the 
estate of Mount Vernon was given to George. 

U|)on the arrival of Robert Dinwiddle, as Lieuten- 
ant-Governor of Virginia, in 1752, the militia wa? 
reorganized, and the province divided into four mili- 
tary districts, of which the northern was assignee to 
Washington as adjutant general. Shortly after this 
a very perilous mission was assigned him and ac- 
cepted, which others had refused. This was to pro- 
ceed to the French post near Lake Erie in North- 
western Pennsylvania. The distance to be traversed 
was between 500 and 600 miles. Winter was at hand, 
and the journey was to be made without military 
escort, through a territory occupied by Indians. Tht 


trip was a perilous one, and several limes he came near 
losing his life, yet he returned in safety and furnished 
a full and useful report of his expedition. A regiment 
of 300 men was raised in Virginia and put in com- 
mand of Col. Joshua Fry, and Major Washington was 
commissioned lieutenant-colonel. Active war was 
then begun against the French and Indians, in which 
Washington took a most important part. In the 
memorable event of July 9, 1755, known as Brad- 
dock's defeat, Washington was almost the only officer 
of distinction who escaped from the calamities of the 
day with life and honor. The other aids of Braddock 
ivere disabled early in the action, and W'ashington 
alone was left in that capacity on the field. In a letter 
to his brother he says: "I had four bullets through 
my coat, and two horses shot under me, yet I escaped 
unhurt, though death was levelino niy companions 
on every side." An Indian sharpshooter said he was 
not born to be killed by a bullet, for he had taken 
direct aim at him seventeen times, and failed to hit 

After having been five years in the military service, 
and vainly sought jjromotion in the royal army, he 
took advantage of the fall of Fort Duquesne and the 
expulsion of the French from the valley of the Ohio, 
CO resign his commission. Soon after he entered the 
Legislature, where, although not a leader, he took an 
active and important part. January 17, 1759, he 
married Mrs. Martha (13andridge) Custis, the wealthy 
widow of John Parke Custis. 

When the British Parliament had closed the port 
~i{ Boston, the cry went up throughout the provinces 
that "The cause of Boston is the cause of us all." 
It was then, at the suggestion of Virginia, that a Con- 
gress of all the colonies was called to meet at Phila- 
delphia,Sept. 5, 1774, to secure their common liberties, 
peaceably if possible. To this Congress Col. Wash- 
ington was sent as a delegate. On May 10, 1775, the 
Congress re-assembled, when the hostile intentions of 
England were plainly apparent. The battles of Con- 
cord and Lexington had been fought. Among the 
first acts of this Congress was the election of a com- 
mander-in-chief of the colonial forces. This high and 
responsible office was conferred upon Washington, 
who was still a memberof the Congress. He accepted 
it on June 19, but upon the express condition that he 
receive no salary. He would keep an exact account 
of expenses and expect Congress lo pay them and 
nothing more. It is not the object of this sketch to 
trace the military acts of Washington, to whom the 
fortunes and liberties of the people of this country 
were so long confided. The war was conducted by 
him under every possible disadvantage, and while his 
forces often met with reverses, yet he overcame every 
obstacle, and after seven years of heroic devotion 
and matchless skill he gained liberty for the greatest 
nation of earth. On Dec. 23, 17S3, Washington, in 
a parting address of surpassing beauty, resigned his 

commission as commander-in-chief of the army to 
to the Continental Congress sitting at Annapolis. He 
retired immediately to Mount Vernon and resumed 
his occupation as a farmer and planter, shunning all 
connection with public life. 

In February, 17 89, Washington was unanimously 
elected President. In his presidential career he was 
subject to the peculiar trials incidental to a new 
government ; trials from lack of confidence on the pan 
of other governments ; trials from want of harmony 
between the different sections of our own country; 
trials from the impoverished condition of the country, 
owing to the war and want of credit; trials from the 
beginnings of party strife. He was no partisan. His 
clear judgment could discern the golden mean; and 
while perhaps this alone kept our government from 
sinking at the very outset, it left him exposed to 
attacks from both sides, which were often bitter and 
very annoying. 

At the expiration of his first term he was unani- 
mously re-elected. At the end of this term many 
were anxious that he be re-elected, but he alisolutely 
refused a third nomination. On the fourth of March, 
1797, at the expiraton of his second term as Presi- 
dent, he returned to his home, hoping to pass there 
his few remaining years free from the annoyances of 
public life. Later in the year, however, his repose 
seemed likely to be interrupted by war with France 
At the prospect of such a war he was again urged to 
take command of the armies. He chose his sub- 
ordinate officers and left to them the charge of mat- 
ters in the field, which he superintended from his 
home. In accepting the command he made the 
reservation that he was not to be in the field until 
it was necessary. In the midst of these preparations 
his life was suddenly cut off. December 12, he took 
a severe cold from a ride in the rain, which, settling 
in h's throat, produced inflammation, and terminated 
fatally on the night of the fourteenth. On the eigh- 
teenth his body was borne wi'h military honors to its 
final resting place, and interred in the family vault at 
Mount Vernon. 

Of the character of Washington it is impossible to 
speak but in terms of the highest respect and ad- 
miration. The more we see of the operations of 
our government, and the more deeply we feel the 
difficulty of uniting all opinions in a common interest, 
the more highly we must estimate the force of his tal- 
ent and character, which have been able to challenge 
the reverence of all parties, and principles, and na- 
tions, and to win a fame as extended as the limits 
of the globe, and whidh we cannot but believe will 
be as lasting as the existence of man. 

The jierson of Washington was nnusally tali, erect 
and well proportioned. His muscular strength was 
great. His features were of a beautiful symmetrv. 
He commanded respect without any appearance o* 
haughtiness, and ever serious without Vwing dull. 


'^(^m Jdm^. 





. ^o.'t^^i ^l 

OHN ADAMS, the second 
President and the first Vice- 
' President of the United States, 
was born in Braintree ( now 
Quincy),Mass., and about ten 
'■^ miles from Boston, Oct. 19, 
1735. His great-grandfather, Henry 
Adams, emigrated from England 
about 1 640, with a family of eight 
sons, and settled at Braintree. The 
parents of John were John and 
Susannah (Boylston) Adams. His 
father was a fanner of limited 
means, to which he added the bus- 
iness of shoemaking. He gave his 
eldest son, John, a classical educa- 
tion at Harvard College. John 
graduated in 1755, and at once took charge of the 
school in Worcester, Mass. This he found but a 
'sci-;ool of affliction," from which Iv; endeavored to 
gain lelief by devoting himself, in addition, to the 
study of law. For this purjxjse he placed himself 
under the tuition of the only lawyer in the town. He 
had thought seriously of the clerical profession 
but seems to have been turned from this by what he 
cermed "the frightful engines of ecclesiastical coun- 
cils, cf diabolical malice, and Calvanistic good nature," 
of the operations of which he had been a witness in 
his native town. He was well fitted for the legal 
profession, iwssessing a clear, sonorous voice, being 
ready and fluent of speech, and having quick percep- 
tive powers. He gradually gained practice, and in 
1764 married Abigail Smith, a daughter of a minister, 
and a lady of superior intelligence. Shortly after his 
marriage, (17(^5), the attempt of Parliamentary taxa- 
tion turned him from law to politics. He took inirial 
jteps toward holding, a town meeting, and the resolu- 

tions he offered on the subject became very iwpulai 
throughout the Province, and were adopted word for 
word by over forty different towns. He moved to Bos- 
ton in 1768, and became one of the most courageous 
and prominent advocatesof the popular cause, and 
was chosen a member of the General Court (the Leg- 
lislature) in 1770. 

Mr. Adams was chosen one of the first delegates 
from Massachusetts to the first Continental Congreis, 
which met in 1774. Here he distinguished himselt 
by his capacity for business and for debate, and ad- 
vocated the movement for independence against the 
majority of the members. In May, 1776, he moved 
and carried a resolution in Congress that the Colonies 
should assume the duties of self-government. He 
was a prominent member of the committee of iive 
appointed June 11, to prepare a declaration of inde- 
pendence. This article was drawn by Jefferson, but 
on Adams devolved the task of battling it through 
Congress in a three days debate. 

On the day after the Declaration of Independence 
was passed, while his soul was yet warm with th^ 
glow of excited feeling, he wrote a letter to his wife 
which, as we read it now, seems to have been dictated 
by the spirit of prophecy. "Yesterday," he says, "the 
greatest question was decided that ever was debated 
in America; and greater, perhaps, never was or wil 
be decided among men. A resolution was passed 
without one dissenting colony, ' that these United 
States are, and of right ought to be, free and inde- 
pendent states.' The day is passed. The fourth of 
July, 1776, will be a memorable ejioch in the history 
of America. I am apt to believe it will be celebrated 
by succeeding generations, as the great anniversary 
festival. It ought to be commemorated as the day of 
deliverance by solemn acts of devotion to Almighty 
God. It ought to be solemnized with pomp, shows- 



!;;unes, sports, guns, bells, bonfires, and illuminations 
irom one end of the coniinent to the other, from this 
time forward for ever. Vou will think me transjxjrted 
with enthusiasm, but I am not. I am well aware of 
the toil, and blood and treasure, that it will cost to 
maintain this declaration, and support and defend 
the^e States; yet, tlirough all the gloom, I can see the 
rays of light and glory. I can see that the end is 
Worth more than all the means; and that posterity 
will triumph, although you and I may rue, which I 
hope we shall not." 

In November, 1777, Mr. Adams was appointed a 
delegate to France, and to co-operate with Benijamin 
Franklin and Arthur Lee, who were then in Paris, in 
the endeavor to obtain assistance in arms and money 
from the French Government. This was a severe trial 
to his patriotism, as it separated him from his home, 
compelled him to cross the ocean in winter, and ex- 
posed him to great peril of capture by tlie British cruis- 
ers, who were seeking him. He left France June 17, 
1779. In September of the same year he was again 
ciiosen to go to Paris, and there hold himself in readi- 
ness to negotiate a treaty of peace and of commerce 
with Great Britian, as soon as the British Cabinet 
might be found willing to listen to such pioposels. He 
sailed for France in November, from there he went to 
Holland, where he negotiated important loans and 
formed important commercial treaties 

Finally a treaty of peace with England was signed 
Jan. 21, 1783. The re-action from the excitement, 
toil and anxiety through which Mr. Adams had passed 
threw him into a fever. After suffering from a con- 
tinued fever and becoming feeble and emaciated he 
was advised to go to England to drink the waters of 
Bath. ^Vhile in England, still drooping and desiwnd- 
ing, he received dispatches from his own government 
urging the necessity of his going to Amsterdam to 
negotiate another loan. It was winter, his health was 
delicate, yet he immediately set out, and through 
storm, on sea, on horseback and foot,hemade the trip. 

February 24, 1785, Congress appointed Mr. Adams 
envoy to the Court of St. James. Here he met face 
to face the King of England, who had so long re- 
garded him as a traitor. As England did not 
condescend to appoint a minister to the United 
States, and as Mr. Adams felt that he was accom- 
plishing but little, he sought permission to return to 
his own country, where he arrived in June, 1788. 

When Washington was first chosen President, John 
Adams, rendered illustiious by his signal services at 
home and abroad, was chosen Vice President. Again 
at the second election of Washington as President, 
Adams was chosen Vice President. In 1796, Wash- 
ington retired from public life, and Mr. Adams was 
elected President, though not without much opposition. 
Serving in this office four years,he was succeeded by 
Mr. Jefferson, his opponent in politics. 

T/hile Mr. Adams was Vice President the great 

French Revolution shook the continent of Europe, 
and it was upon this point which he was at issue with 
the majority of his countr\men led by Mr. Jefferson. 
Mr. Adams felt no symjiathy with the French peo])le 
in their struggle, for he had no confidence in theiv 
jx)wer of self-government, and he utterly abhored the 
classof atheist philosophers who-he claimed caused it. 
On the other hand Jefferson's sympathies were strongly 
enlisted in behalf of the French people. Hence or- 
iginated the alienation between these distinguished 
men, and two powerful parties were thus soon organ- 
ized, Adams at the head of the one whose sympathies 
were with England and Jefferson led the other in 
sympathy with France. 

The world has seldom seen a spectacle of more 
moral beauty and grandeur, than was presented by the 
old age of Mr. Adams. The violence of party feeling 
had died away, and he had begun to receive that just 
appreciation which, to most men, is not accorded till 
after death. No one could look upon his venerable 
form, and think of what he had done and suffered, 
and how he had given up all the prime and strength 
of his life to the public good, without the deepest 
emotion of gratitude and respect. It was his peculiar 
good fortune to witness the complete success of the 
institution which he had been so active in creating and 
supporting. In t824, his cup of haijpiness was filled 
to the brim, by seeing his son elevated to the highest . 
station in the gift of the people. 

The fourth of July, 1S26, which completed the half 
century since the signing of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, arrived, and there were but three of the 
signers of that immortal instrument left upon the 
earth to hail its morning light. And, as it is 
well known, on that day two of these finished their 
earthly pilgrimage, a coincidence so remarkable as 
to seem miraculous. For a few days before Mr. 
Adams had been rapidly failing, and on the morning 
of the fourth he found himself too weak to rise from 
his bed. On being requested to name a toast for the 
customar)' celebration of the day, he exclaimed " In- 
dependence FOREVER." When the day was ushered 
in, by the ringing of bells and the firing of cannons, 
he was asked by one of his cttendants if he knew 
what day it was? He replied, "O yes; it is the glor- 
ious fourih of July — God bless it — God bless you all." 
In the course of the day he said, "It is a great and 
glorious day." The last words he uttered were, 
"Jefferson survives." But he had, at one o'clock, re- 
signed his spiiit into the hands of his God. 

The personal apjiearance and manners of Mr. 
Adams were not particularly prepossessing. His face, 
as his portrait manifests.was intellectual ard expres- 
sive, but his figure was low and ungraceful, and his 
manners were frequently abrupt and uncourteous. 
He had neither the lofly dignity of Washington, nor 
the engaging elegance and gracefulness which marked 
the manners and address of Jefferson. 





^ born April 2, 1743, at Shad- 
l|5 well, Albermavle county, Va. 

His parents were Peter and 
Jane ( Randol[)h) Jefferson, 
the former a native of Wales, 
and the latter born in Lon- 
don. To them were born six 
daughters and two sons, of 
whom Thomas was the elder. 
When 14 years of age his 
father died. He received a 
most liberal education, hav- 
been kept diligently at school 
from the lime he was five year* of 
age. In 1760 he entered William 
and Mary College. Williamsburg was then the seat 
of the Colonial Court, and it was the obodeof fashion splendor. Young Jefferson, who was then 17 
years old, lived somewhat expensively, keeping fine 
horses, and much caressed by gay society, yet he 
was earnestly devoted to his studies, and irreproacha- 
al)le in his morals. It is strange, however, under 
such influences,that he was not ruined. In the sec- 
ond year of his college course, moved by some un- 
explained inward impulse, he discarded his horses, 
society, and even his favorite violin, to which he had 
previously given much time. He often devoted fifteen 
hours a day to haid study, allowing 'himself for ex- 
ercise only a run in the evening twilight of a mile out 
of the city and back again. He thus attained very 
high intellectual culture, alike excellence in philoso- 
phy and the languages. The most difficult Latin and 
Greek authors he read with facility. A more finished 
scholar has seldom gone forth from college halls; and 

there wa?not to be found, perhaps, in all Virginia, a 
more pureminded, upright, gentlemanly young man. 

Immediately upon leaving college he began the 
study of law. For the short time he continued in the 
practice of his profession he rose rapidly and distin- 
guished himself by his energy and accuteness as a 
lawyer. But the times called for greater action. 
The policy of England had awakened the spirit of 
resistance of the American Colonies, and the enlarged 
views which Jefferson had ever entertained, soon led 
liim into active political life. In 1769 he was choser 
a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses hi 
1772 he married Mrs. JNIartha Skelton, a very beauti- 
ful, wealthy and highly accomplished young widov.- 

Upon Mr. Jefferson's large estate at Shadwell, tli^re 
was a majestic swell of land, called Monticello, which 
commanded a prospect of wonderful extent and 
beauty. This spot Mr. Jefferson selected for his new 
home; and here he reared a mansion of modest ye' 
elegant architecture, which, next to Mount Vernon 
became the most distinguished resort in our land. 

In 1775 he was sent to the Cclonial Congress 
where, though a silent member, his abilities as a 
writer and a reasoner soon become known, and ho 
was placed upon a number of important committees, 
and was chairman of the one appointed for the draw- 
ing up of a declaration of independence. This com- 
mittee consisted of Tiioinas Jefferson, John Adams, 
Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman and Robert R. 
Livingston. Jefferson, as chairman, was appointed 
to draw up the paper. Franklin and Adams suggested 
a few verbal changes before it was submitted to Con- 
gress. On June 28, a few slight changes were m.ade 
in it by Congress, and it was passed and signed July 
4, 1776, What must have been the feelings of that 



man — what the emotions that swelled his breast — 
who was charged with the preparation of that Dec- 
laration, which, while it made known the wrongs of 
America, was also to publish her to the world, free, 
Boverign and independent. It is one of the most re- 
markable papers ever written ; and did no other effort 
ijf the mind of its author exist, that alone would be 
sufficient to stamp his name with immortality. 

In 1779 Mr. Jefferson was elected successor to 
Patrick Henry, as Governor of Virginia. At one time 
the British officer, Tarleton, sent a secret expedition to 
Moniicello, to capture the Governor. Scarcely five 
minutes elapsed after the hurried escape of Mr. Jef- 
ferson and his family, ere his mansion was in posses- 
sion of the British troops. His wife's health, never 
very good, was much injured by this excitement, and 
in the summer of 1782 she died. 

Mr. Jefferson was elected to Congress in 1783. 
Two yeirs later he was appointed Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary to France. Returning to the United States 
in September, 1789, he became Secretary of State 
in Washington's cabinet. This position he resigned 
Jan. J, 1794. In 1797, he was chosen Vice Presi- 
dent, and four years later was elected President over 
Mr. Adams, with Aaron Burr as Vice President. In 
1804 he was re-elected with wonderful unanimity, 
and George Clinton, Vice President. 

The early part of Mr. Jefferson's second adminstra- 
tion was disturbed by an event which threatened the 
tranquility and peace of the Union; this was the con- 
spiracy of Aaron Burr. Defeated in the late election 
to the Vice Presidency, and led on by an unprincipled 
ambition, this extraordinary man formed the plan of a 
military expedition into the Spanish territories on our 
southwestern frontier, for the purpose of forming there 
a new republic. This has been generally supposed 
was a mere pretext ; and although it has not been 
generally known what his real plans were, there is no 
doubt that they were of a far more dangerous 

In 1809, at the expiration of the second term for 
which Mr. Jefferson had been elected, he determined 
to retire from political life. For a period of nearly 
:orty years, he had been continually before the pub- 
.ic, and all that time had been employed in offices of 
the greatest trust and responsibility. Having thus de- 
voted the best part of his life to the service of his 
country', he now felt desirous of that rest \vhich his 
declining years required, and ui^on the organization of 
the new administration, in March, 1809, he bid fare- 
well forever to public life, and retired to Monticello. 

Mr. Jefferson was profuse in his hospitality. Whole 
families came in their coaches with their horses, — 
fathers and mothers, boys and girls, babies and 
nurses, — and remained three and even six months. 
Life at Monticello, for years, resembled that at a 
fashionable watering-place. 

The fourth of July 1826, being the fiftieth anniver- 

sary of the Declaration of American Independence. 
great prejiarations were made in every part of the 
Union for its celebration, as the nation's jubilee, and 
the citizens of Washington, to add to the solemnity 
of the occasion, invited Mr. Jefferson, as the framer, 
and one of the few surviving signers of the Declara- 
tion, to participate in their festivities. But an ill- 
ness, which had been of several weeks duration, and 
had been continually increasing, compelled him to 
decline the invitation. 

On the second of July, the disease under which 
he was laboring left him, but in such a reduced 
state that his medical _ attendants, entertained nc 
hope of his recovery. From this time he was perfectly 
sensible that his last hour was at hand. On the next 
day, which was Monday, he asked of those around 
him, the day of the month, and on being told it was 
the third of July, he expressed the earnest wish tha; 
he might be permitted to breathe the air of the fiftieth 
anniversary. His prayer was heard — that day, whose 
dawn was hailed with such rapture through our land, 
burst upon his eyes, and then they were closed for- 
ever. And what a noble consummation of a noble 
life ! To die on that day, — the birthday of a nation,- - 
the day v/hich his own name and his own _ act had 
rendered glorious; to die amidst the rejoicings and 
festivities of a whole nation, who looked up to him, 
as the author, under God, of their greatest blessings, 
was all that was wanting to fill up the record his life. 

Almost at the same hour of his death, the kin- 
dred spirit of the venerable Adams, as if to bear 
him company, left the scene of his earthly honors. 
Hand in hand they had stood forth, the champions of 
freedom ; hand in hand, during the dark and desiier- 
ate struggle of the Revolution, they had cheered and 
animated their desponding countr>'nien; for half a 
century they had labored together for the good of 
the country-; and now hand in hand they depart. 
In their lives they had been united in the same great 
cause of liberty, and in their deaths they were not 

In person Mr. Jefferson was tall and thin, rather 
above six feet in height, but well formed; his eyes 
were light, his hair originally red, in after life became 
white and silvery; his complexion was fair, his fore- 
head broad, and his whole countenance intelligent and 
thoughtful. He possessed great fortitude of mind as 
well as personal courage; and his command of tem- 
per was such that his oldest and most intimate friends 
never recollected to have seen him in a passion. 
His manners, though dignified, were simple and un- 
affected, and his hospitality was so unbounded that 
all found at his house a ready welcome. In conver- 
sarion he was fluent, eloquent and enthusiastic; ard 
his language was remarkably pure and correct. He 
was a finished classical scholar, and in his writings is 
discernable the care with which he formed his style 
upon the best models of antiquity. 

/ CZA^'^'-^ ^cyC(_ if-^oc^f t:-''K, 



of the Constitution," and fourth 
J)" President of the United States, 
was born March i6, 1757, and 
died at his home in Virginia, 
'j f^' June 28, 1S36. The name of 
James Madison is inseparably con- 
nected with most of the important 
events in that heroic period of our 
country during which the founda- 
tions of this great repubhc were 
laid. He was the last of the founders 
of the Constitution of the United 
States to lie called to his eternal 

The Madison family were among 
the early emigrants to the New World, 
landing upon the shores of the Chesa- 
peake but 15 years after the settle- 
ment of Jamestown. The father of 
James Madison was an opulent 
planter, residing uix)n a very fine es- 
tate called "Monti)elier," Orange Co., 
Va. The mansion was situated in 
the midst of scenery highly pictur- 
esque and romantic, on the west side 
of South-west Mountain, at the foot of 
Blue Ridge. It was but 25 miles from the home of 
Jefferson at Monticello. The closest personal and 
political attacliment existed between these illustrious 
men, from their early youth until deatii. 

The early education of Mr. Madison was conducted 
mostly at home under a private tutor. At the age of 
tS he was sent to Princeton College, in New Jersey. 
Here lie applied himself to study with the most im- 

prudent zeal; allowing himself, for months, but three 
hours' sleep out of the 24. His health thus became so 
seriously impaired that he never recovered any vigor 
of constitution. He graduated in 177 i, with a feeble 
body, with a character of utmost purity, and with a 
mind higlily disciplined and ricjily stored with learning 
which embellished and gave proficiency to his subsr ' 
quent career. 

Returning to Virginia, he commenced the study of 
law and a course of extensive and systematic reading. 
This educational course, the spirit of the times in 
which he lived, and the society with which he asso- 
ciated, all combined to inspire him with a strong 
love of liberty, and to train him for his life-woik of 
a statesman. Being naturally of a religious turn of 
mind, and his frail health leading him to think that 
his life was not to be long, he directed especial atten- 
tion to theological studies. Endowed with a mmd 
singularly free from passion and prejudice, and with 
almo.";! uneiiualled powers of reasoning, he weighed 
all the arguments for and against revealed religion, 
until his faith became so established as never to 
be shaken. 

In the spring of 1776, when 26 years of age, he 
was elected a member of the Virginia Convention, to 
frame the constitution of the State. The next year 
('777)1 lis was a candidate for the General .Assembly. 
He refused to treat the whisky-loving voters, and 
consequently lost his election ; but those who had 
witnessed the talent, energy and public spirit of the 
modest young man, enlisted themselves in his behalf, 
and he was appointed to tlie Executive Council. 

Both Patrick Henry and Thomas Jefferson were 
Governors of Virginia while Mr. Madison remained 
member of tlie Council ; and their appreciation of his 



intellectual, social and moral worth, contributed not 
a little to his subsequent eminence. In the year 
1780, he was elected a member of the Continental 
Congress. Here he met the most illustrious men in 
our land, and he was immediately assigned to one of 
the most conspicuous positions among them. 

For three years Mr. Madison continued in Con- 
gress, one of its most active and influential members. 
In the year 1784, his term having expired, he was 
elected a member of the Virginia Legislature. 

No man felt more deeply than Mr. Madison the 
utter inefficiency of the old confederacy, with no na- 
tional government, with no power to form treaties 
which would be binding, or to enforce law. There 
was not any State more prominent than Virginia in 
the declaration, that an efficient national government 
must be formed. In January, 1786, Mr. Madison 
carried a resolution through the General Assembly of 
Virginia, inviting the other .States to appoint commis- 
sioners to meet in convention at Annapolis to discuss 
this subject. Five States only were represented. The 
convention, however, issued another call, drawn up 
by Mr. Madison, urging all the States to send their 
delegates to Philadelphia, in May, 17 87, to draft 
a Constitution for the United States, to take the place 
of that Confederate League. The delegates met at 
the time appointed. Every State but Rhode Island 
was represented. George Washington was chosen 
president of the convention; and the present Consti- 
tution of the United States was then and there formed. 
There was, perhaps, no mind and no pen more ac- 
tive in framing this immortal document than the mind 
and the pen of James Madison. 

The Constitution, adopted by a vote Si to 79, was 
to be presented to the several States for acceptance. 
But grave solicitude was felt. Should it be rejected 
we should be left but a conglomeration of independent 
States, with but little ixjwer at home and little respect 
abroad. Mr. Madison was selected by tne conven- 
tion to draw up an address to the people of the United 
States, expounding the principles of the Constitution, 
and urging its adoption. There was great opposition 
to it at first, but it at length triumphed over all, and 
went into effect in 1789. 

Mr. Madison was elected to the House of Repre- 
sentatives in the first Congress, and soon became the 
avowed leader of the Republican party. While in 
New York attending Congress, he met Mrs. Todd, a 
young widow of remarkable power of fascination, 
whom he married. She was in person and character 
queenly, and. probably no lady has thus far occui)ied 
so prominent a position in the very peculiar society 
wliich has constituted our republican court as Mrs. 

Mr. Madison served as Secretai-y of State under 
Jefferson, and at the close of his administration 
was chosen President. At this time the encroach- 
ments of England had brought us to the verge of war. 

British orders in council destioyed our commerce, and 
our flag was ex|)osed to constant insult. Mr. Madison 
was a man of peace. Scholarly in his taste, retiring 
in his disposition, war had no charms for him. But the 
meekest spirit can be roused. It makes one's blood 
boil, even now, to think of an .American ship brouglit 
to, upon the ocean, by the guns of an English cruiser. 
A young lieutenant steps on board and orders the 
crew to be paraded before him. With great nonchal- 
ance he selects any number whom he may please to 
designate as British subjects ; orders them down the 
ship's side into his boat ; and places them on the gun- 
deck of his man-of-war, to fight, by compulsion, the 
battles of England. Tiiis right of search and im- 
pressment, no efforts of our Government could induce 
the British cabinet to relinquish. 

On the iSth of June, 1S12, President Madison gave 
his appioval to an act of Congress dechiring war 
against Great Britain. Notwithstanding the bitter 
hostility of the Federal party to the war, the country 
in general approved; and Mr. Madison, on the 4th 
of March, 1813, was re-elected by a large majority, 
and entered upon his second term of office. Tliis is 
not the place to describe the various adventuras of 
this war on the land and on the water. Our infan. 
navy then laid the foundations of its renown in grap- 
pling with the most formidable power which ever 
swept the seas. The contest commenced in earnest 
by the appearance of a British fleet, early in Februaiy, 
1813, in Cliesapeake Bay, declaring nearly the whole 
coast of the LTnited States under blockade. 

The Emperor of Russia offered his services as me 
ditator. America accepted ; England refused. A Brit- 
ish force of five thousand men landed on the banks 
of the Patuxet River, near its entrance into Chesa- 
peake Bay, and marched rapidly, by way of Bladens- 
burg, upon Washington. 

The straggling little city of Washington was thrown 
into consternation. The cannon of the brief conflict 
at Bladensburg echoed through the streets of tlie 
metropolis. The whole populaticn fled from the city. 
The President, leaving Mrs. Madison in the White 
House, with her carriage drawn up at the door to. 
await his speedy return, hurried to meet the officers 
in a council of war. He met our troops utterly routed, 
and he could not go back without danger of bei^\g 
captured. But few hours elapsed ere the Presidential 
Mansion, the Capitol, and all the public buildings in 
Washington were in flames. 

The war closed after two years of fighting, and on 
Feb. 13, 1815, the treaty of peace was signed at Ghent. 

On the 4th of March, 1S17, his second term of 
ofl^ice expired, and he resigned the Presidential chair 
to his friend, James Monroe. He retired to his beau- 
tiful home at Montpelier, and there passed the re- 
mainder of his days. On June 28, 1836, then at the 
age of 85 years, he fell asleep in death. Mrs. Madi- 
son died July 12, 1849. 











AMES MONROE, the fiftli 
.President of The United States, 
was born in Westmoreland Co., 
Va., April 28, 1758. His early 
life was passed at the place of 
nativity. Hi3 ancestors had for 
many years resided in the prov- 
ince in which he was born. When, 
at 17 years of age, in the process 
of completing his education at 
William and Mary College, the Co- 
lonial C'ongress assertibled at Phila- 
delphia to deliberate upon the un- 
just and manifold oppressions of 
(Ireat Britian, declared the separa- 
tion of the Colonies, and [jromul- 
gated the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence. Had he been l)orn ten years before it is highly 
probable that he would have been one of the signers 
of that celebrated instnimem. At this time he left 
scliool and enlisted among the patriots. 

He joined the army when everything looked hope- 
less and gloomy. The number of deserters increased 
from day to day. The invading armies came pouring 
in ; and the tories not only favored the cause of the 
mother country, but disheartened the new recruits, 
who were sufficiently terrified at the prospect of con- 
tsnding with an enemy whom they had been taught 
to deem invincible. To such brave spirits as James 
Monroe, who went right onward, undismayed through 
difficulty and danger, the United States owe their 
political emancipation. The young cadet joined the 
ranks, and espoused the cause of his injured country, 
with a firm determination to live or die with her strife 

for liberty. Firmly yet sadly he shared in the mel- 
ancholy retreat from Harleam Heights and White 
Plains, and accompanied the dispirited army as it fled 
before its foes through New Jersey. In four months 
after the Declaration of Independence, the patriots 
had been beaten in seven battles. At the battle of 
Trenton he led the vanguard, and, in the act of charg- 
ing upon the enemy he received a wound in the left 

As a reward for his bravery, Mr. Monroe was ]}ro- 
moted a captain of infantry; and, having recovered 
from his wound, he rejoined the army. He, however, 
receded from the line of promotion, by becoming an 
officer in the staff of Lord Sterling. During thecam- 
l)aigns of 1777 and 1778, in the actions of Brandy 
wine, (iermantown and Monmouth, lie continued 
aid-de-canip ; but becoming desirous to regain his' 
position in the army, he exerted himself to collect a 
regiment for the Virginia line. This scheme failed 
owing to the exhausted condition of the State. Upon 
this failure he entered the office of Mr. Jefferson, at 
that period Governor, and pursued, with considerable 
ardor, the study of common law. He did not, however, 
entirely lay aside the knapsack for the green bag; 
but on the invasions of the enemy, served as a volun 
teer, during the two years of his legal pursuits. 

In 1782, he was elected from King George county, 
a member of the Leglislature of Virginia, and by that 
l)ody he was elevated to a seat in the E.xecutive 
Council. He was thus honored with the confidence 
of his fellow citizens at 23 years of age ; and having 
at this early period displayed some of that ability 
and aptitude for legislation, which were afterwards 
employed with unremitting energy for the public good, 



he was in the succeeding year chosen a member of 
the Congress of the Uniud States. 
Deeplyas Mr. Monroefsh the imperfectionsof theold 
Confederacy, he was opposed to the new Constitution, 
ihinking, with many others of 'he Republican parly, 
that it gave too much power to the Central Government, 
and not enough to the individual States. Still he re- 
tained the esteem of his friends who were its warm 
supporters, and who, notwithstanding his opposition 
secured its adoption. In 1789, lie became a member 
of the United States Senate ; which office he held for 
four years. Every month the line of distinction be- 
tween the two great parties which divided the nation, 
the Federal and the Republican, was growing more 
distinct. The two prominent iaeas which now sep- 
arated them were, that the Republican party was in 
sympathy with France, and also in favor of such a 
strict construction of the Constitution as to give the 
Central Government as little power, and the State 
Governments as much iX3wer, as the Constitution would 
warrant. The Fedeialists sympatliized with England, 
and were in favor of a liberal construction of the Con- 
stitution, which would give as much power to the 
Central Government as that document could possibly 

The leading Federalists and Republicans were 
alike noble men, consecrating all their energies to the 
good of the nation. Two more honest men or more 
pure patriots than John Adams the Federalist, and 
James Monroe the Republican, never breathed. In 
building up this majestic nation, which is destined 
to eclipse all Grecian and Assyrian greatness, the com- 
bination of their antagonism was needed to create the 
light equilibrium. And yet each in his day was de- 
nounced as almost a demon. 

Washington was then President. England had es- 
poused the cause of the Bourbons against the princi- 
ples of the French Revolution. All Europe was drawn 
into the conflict. We were feeble and far away. 
Washington issued a proclamation of neutrality be- 
tween these contending jxjwers. France had helped 
us in the struggle for our liberties. All the despotisms 
of Europe were now combined to prevent the French 
from escaping from a tyranny a thousand-fold worse 
than that which we had endured Col. Monroe, more 
magnanimous than prudent, was anxious that, at 
whatever hazard, we should help our old allies in 
their extremity. It was the impulse of a generous 
and noble nature. He violently opposed the Pres- 
ident's proclamation as ungrateful and wanting in 

Washington, who could appreciate such a character, 
developed his calm, serene, almost divine greatness, 
by appointing that very James Monroe, who was de- 
nouncing the policy of the Government, as the minister 
of that Government to the Republic of France. Mr. 
Monroe was welcomed by tlie National Convention 
in France with the most enthusiastic demonstrations. 

Shortly after his return to this countrv, Mr. Mon- 
roe was elected Governor of Virginia, and held the 
office for three yeais. He was again sent to France to 
co-operate with Chancellor Livingston in obtaining 
the vast territor)' then known as the Province of 
Louisiana, which France had but shortly before ob- 
tained from Spain. Their united efforts were suc- 
cessful. For the comparatively small sum of fifteen 
millions of dollars, the entire territorj' of Orleans and 
district of Louisiana were added to the United States. 
This was probably tlie largest transfer of real estate 
which was ever made in all the historj- of the world. 

From France Mr. Monroe went to England to ob- 
tain from that country some recognition of our 
rights as neutrals, and to remonstrate against those 
odious impressments of our seamen. But Eng- 
land was unrelenting. He again returned to Eng- 
land on tlie same mission, but could receive no 
redress. He returned to his home and was again 
chosen Governor of Virginia. This he soon resigned 
to accept the position of Secretary of State imder 
Madison. While in this office war with England was 
declared, the Secretary of War resigned, and during 
these tr)'ing times, the duties of the War Department 
were also put upon him. He was truly the armor- 
bearer of President Madison, and the most efficient 
business man in his cabinet. LTpon the return of 
peace he resigned the Department of War, but con- 
tinued in the office of Secretary of State until the ex- 
|)in)tion of Mr. Madison's adniinstration. At the elec 
tion held the previous autumn Mr. Monroe himself had 
been chosen President with but little opposition, and 
upon March 4, 1817, was inaugurated. Four years 
later he was elected for a second term. 

Among the important measures of his Presidency 
were tYie cession of Florida to the United States; the 
Missouri Compromise, and the '' Monroe doctrine.'- 

This famous doctrine, since known as the " Monroe 
doctrine," was enunciated by him in 1823. At that 
tiaie the United States had recognized the indeper.d- 
ence of the South American states, and did not wish 
to have European (lowers longer attempting to sub- 
due portions of the American Continent. The doctrine 
is as follows: "That we should consider any attempt 
on the part of European jxiwers to extend their sys- 
tem to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous 
to our peace and safety," and "that we could not 
view any interposition for the purjiose of oppressing 
or controlling American governments or provinces in 
any other light than as a manifestation bv European 
liow'ers of an unfriendly disixisition toward the United 
States." This doctrine immediately affected the course 
of foreign governments, and has become the approved 
sentiment of the United States. 

hx the end of his second term Mr Monroe retired 
to his home in Virginia, where he lived until 1830, 
when he went to New York to live with his son-in- 
law. In that city he died,on the 4th of July, 1S31 

j, 5, Ai 




" " JOr^I] QUI1]6Y ^D}?nQg. 

w '/IS 

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sixth President of the United 
i^SStates, was born in the rural 
home of his honored fatiier, 
John Adams, m Quincy, Mass., 
on the I I th cf July, 1767. His 
mother, a woman of exalted 
worth, watched over his childhood 
during the almost constant ab- 
sence of his father. When luit 
eight years of age, he stood with 
"' his mother on an eminence, listen- 
ing to the booming of the great bat- 
tle on Bunker's Hill, and gazing on 
upon the smoke and flames billow- 
ing up from the conflagration of 

When but eleven years old he 
took a tearful adieu of his mother, 
to sail with his father for Europe, 
through a fleet ol hostile British cruisers. The bright, 
animated boy spent a year and a half in Pan's, where 
his father was associated with Franklin and Lee as 
minister plenipotentiary. His intelligence attracted 
the notice of these distinguished men, and he received 
from them flattering marks of attention. 

Mr. John Adams had scarcely returned to this 
cour.try, in 1779, ere he was again sent abroad Again 
(Or.n Quincy accompanied his father. At Paris he 
applied himself with great diligence, for si.\ months, 
to .-.tudy; then accompained his father to Holland, 
where he entered, first a school in .Amsterdam, then 
the University at Leyden. About a year from this 
time, in 178 1, when the manly boy was but fourteen 
yea-s of age, he was selected by Mr. Dana, our min- 
ister to the Russian court, as his private secretary. 

In this school of incessant labor and of enobling 
culture he spent fourteen months, and then returned 
to Holland through Sweden, Denmark, H.iniburg and 
Bremen. This long journey he took alone, in the 
winter, when in his si.xteenth year. Again he resumed 
his studies, under a private tutor, at Hague. Thence, 

in the spring of i7cS2, he accompanied his father ic 
Paris, traveling leisurely, and forming acquaintance 
with the most distinguislied men on the Continent- 
examining arcnitectural remains, galleries of paintings 
and all renowned works of art. At Paris lie again 
became associated with the most illustrious men of 
all lands in the contemplations of the loftiest temporal 
themes which can engross the human mind. Afte" 
a short visit to England he returned to Paris, and 
consecrated all his energies to study until May, 1785, 
when he returned to America. To a brilliant young 
man of eighteen, who had seen much of the world, 
and >vlio was familiar with the etiquette of courts, a 
residence with his father in London, under such cir- 
cumstances, must have been extremely attractive 
but with judgment very rare in one of his age, he ]ire- 
ferred to return to America to complete his education 
in an American college. He wished then to study 
law, that with an honorable profession, he might be 
able to obtain an independent support. 

Upon leaving Harvard College, at the age of twenty, 
he studied law for three years. In June, 1794, be- 
ing then but twenty-seven years of age, he was ap- 
pointed by Washington, resident minister at the 
Netherlands. Sailing from Boston in July, he reached 
London in October, where lie was immediately admit- 
ted to the deliberations of Messrs. Jay and I'inckney, 
assisting fhein in negotiating a commercial treaty with 
Gieat Brilian. After thus s)iending a fortniglit ir, 
London, he proceeded to the Hague. 

In July, 1797, he left the Hague to go to Portugal as 
minister pleniix)tcntiary. On his way to Portugal, 
upon arriving in London, he met with despatches 
directing him to the court of Beiiin, but rc(piesling 
him to remain in London until he should receive his 
instructions. \\'hile w;:iting he was married to an 
American lady to whom he had been previously en- 
gaged, — Miss Louisa Catherine Johnson, daughter 
of Mr. Joshua Johnson, American consul In I ondon ; 
a lady endownd with that beauty and those accom- 
plishment which eminently fitted her to move in t'm 
elevated sphere for which she was destined. 



He reached Berlin with his wife in November, 1797 ; 
where he remained until July, 1799, when, having ful- 
filled all the pur[X)ses of iris mission, lie solicited his 

Soon after his return, in 1802, he was chosen to 
the Senate of Massachusetts, from Boston, and then 
was elected Senator of the United States for six years, 
from the 4th of March, 1804. His reputation, his 
ability and his experience, placed him immediately 
among the most prominent and influential members 
of that body. Especially did he sustain the Govern- 
ment in its measures of resistance to the encroach- 
ments of England, destroying our commerce and in- 
sulting our flag. There was no man in America more 
familiar with the arrogance of the British court upon 
these points, and no one more resolved to present 
a firm resistance. 

In 1809, Madison succeeded Jefferson in the Pres- 
idential chair, and he immediately nominated John 
Quincy .A.dams minister to St. Petersburg. Resign- 
ing his professorship in Harvard College, he embarked 
at Boston, in August, 1809. 

While in Russia, Mr. Adams was an intense stu- 
dent. He devoted his attention to the language and 
history of Russia; to the Chinese trade; to the 
European system of weights, measures, and coins ; to 
the climate and astronomical observations; while he 
Kept up a familiar acquaintance with the Greek and 
Latin classics. In all the universities of Europe, a 
more accomplished scholar could scarcely be found. 
All through life the Bible constituted an importai'.t 
part of his studies. It was his rule to read five 
chapters every day. 

On the 4th of March, 1817, Mr. Monroe took the 
Presidential chair, and immediately appointed Mr. 
-A-dams Secretary of State. Taking leave of his num- 
erous friends in public and private life in Europe, he 
1 sailed in June, 1819, for the United States. On the 
i8th of August, he again crossed the threshold of his 
home in Quincy. During the eight years of Mr. Mon- 
roe's administration, Mr, Adams continued Secretary 
of State. 

Some time before the close of Mr. Monroe's second 
term of office, new candidates began to be presented 
for the Presidency. The friends of Mr. Adams brought 
forward his name. It was an exciting campaign. 
Party spirit was never more bitter. Two hundred and 
sixty electoral votes were cast. Andrew Jackson re- 
ceived ninety-nine; John Quincy Adams, eighty-four; 
William H. Crawford, forty -one; Henry Clay, thirty- 
seven. .As there was no choice by the people, the 
fiuestion went to the House of Representatives. Mr. 
Clay gave the vote of Kentucky to Mr. Adams, and 
he was elected. 

The friends of all the disappointed candidates now 
combined in a venomous and persistent assault upon 
Mr. Adams. There is nothing more disgraceful in 
*i>.S pa.'^t history of our country than the abuse which 

was poured in one uninterrupted stream, upon this 
high-minded, upright, patriotic man. There never was 
an administration more pure in principles, more con- 
scientiously devoted to the best interests of the coun- 
try, than that of John Quincy Adams; and never, per- 
haps, was there an administration more unscrupu. 
lously and outrageously assailed. 

Mr. Adams was, to a very remarkable degree, ab- 
stemious and temperate in his habits; always rising 
early, and taking much exercise. When at his homein 
Quincy, he has been known to walk, before breakfast, 
seven miles to Boston. In Washington, it was said 
that he was the first man up in the city, lighting his 
own fire and applying himself to work in his library 
often long before dawn. 

On the 4th of March, 1829, Mr. Adams retired 
from the Presidency, and was succeeded by Andrew 
Jackson. John C. Calhoun was elected Vice Presi- 
dent. The slavery question now began to assume 
ixjrlentous magnitude. Mr. Adams returned to 
Quincy and to his studies, which he pursued with un- 
abated zeal. But he was not long permitted to re- 
main in retirement. In November, 1830, he was 
elected representative to Congress. For seventeen 
years, until his death, he occupied the post as repre- 
sentative, towering above all his peers, ever ready to 
do brave battle' for freedom, and winning the title of 
"the old man eloquent." Upon taking his seat in 
the House, he announced that he should hold him- 
self bound to no party. Probably there never was a 
member more devoted to his duties. He was usually 
the first in his place in the rnorning, and the last to 
leave his seat in the evening. Not a measure could 
be brought forward and escape his scruuny. '1 he 
battle which Mr. Adams fought, almost singly, against 
the proslavery party in the Government, was sublime 
in Its moral dating and heroism. For persisting in 
presenting petitions for the abolition of slavery, he 
was threatened with indictment by the grand jury, 
with expulsion from the House, with assassination • 
but no threats could intimidate him, and his final 
triumph was complete. 

It has been said of President Adams, that when his 
body was bent and his hair silvered by the lapse of 
fourscore years, yielding to the simple faith of a little 
child, he was accustomed to repeat every night, before 
he slept, the pra)er which his mother taught him in 
his infant years. 

On the 2 1 st of February, 1848, he rose on the floor 
of Congress, with a paper in his hand, to address the 
speaker. Suddenly he fell, again stricken by paraly- 
sis, and was caught in the arms of those around him. 
For a time he was senseless, as he was conveyed to 
the sofa in the rotunda. With reviving conscious- 
ness, he opened his eyes, looked calmly around and 
said " This is the end of earth ;"then after a moment's 
pause he added, '' I am content" These were the 
last words of the grand "Old Man Eloquent." 









ith President of the 
' L'nhed States, was born in 
W'axhaw settlement, N. C, 
March 15, 1767, a few days 
after his father's death. His 
parents were poor emigrants 
from Ireland, and took up 
their abode in \Va.\haw set- 
tlement, where they lived in 
deepest poverty. 
Andrew, or Andy, as he was 
universally called, grew up a very 
rough, rude, turbulent boy. His 
features were coarse, his form un- 
gainly; and there was but very 
little in his character, made visible, which was at- 

Wiien only thirteenyears old he joined the voUin- 
teers of Carolina against the British invasion. In 
1781, he and his brother Robert were captured and 
imprisoned for a time at Camden. A British officer 
ordered him to brush his mud-spattered boots. " I am 
a prisoner of war, not your servant," was the reply of 
the dauntless boy. 

The brute drew his sword, and aimed a desperate 
Dlovv at the head of the helpless young prisoner. 
.\ndrew raised his hand, and thus received two fear- 
ful gashes, — one on the hand and the other upon the 
head. The officer then turned to his brother Robert 
with the same demand. He also refused, and re- 
ceived a blow from the keen-edged sabre, which (mite 
disabled him, and which probably soon after caused 
his death. They suffered much other ill-treatment, and 
were finally stricken with the small-pox. Their 
mother was successful 'i- •>'. ilaining their exchange, 

and took her sick boys home. After a long illnosD 
Andrew recovered, and the death of his mother soon 
left him entirely friendless. 

Andrew supported himself in various ways, s i;h as 
working at the saddler's trade, teaching school and 
clerking in a general store, until 1784, when he 
entered a law office at Salisbury, N. C. He, however, 
gave more attention to the wild amusements of the 
times than to his studies. In 1788, he was appointed 
solicitor for the western district of North Carolina, of 
which Tennessee was then a part. This involved 
many long and tedious journeys amid dangers of 
every kind, but Andrew Jackson never knew fear, 
and the Indians had no desire to repeat a skirmish 
with the Sharp Knife. 

In 1791, Mr. Jackson was married to a woman who 
supposed herself divorced from her former husband. 
Great was the surprise of both parties, two years later, 
to find that the conditionsof the divorce had just been 
definitely settled by the first husband. The marriage 
ceremony was performed a second time, but the occur- 
rence was often used by his enemies to bring Mr. 
Jackson into disfavor. 

During these years he worked hard at his profes- 
sion, and frequently had one or more duels on hand, 
one of which, when he killed Dickenson, was espec- 
ially disgraceful. 

In January, 1796, the Territory of Tennessee then 
containing nearly eighty thousand inhabitants, the 
people met in convention at Knoxville to frame a con- 
stitution. Five were sent from each of the eleven 
counties. Andrew Jackson was one of the delegates. 
The new State was entitled to but one niemlcr in, 
the National House of Representatives. Andre>v Jack-i 
son was chosen that member. Mounting his horse he 
rode to Philedelphia, where Congress then 1 eld its 

ANDRE \V JACKSON., — a distance of about eight hundred miles. 

Jackson was an earnest advocate of the Demo- 
cratic party. Jefferson was his idol. He admired 
iionaparte, loved France and hated England. As Mr. 
Jackson took, his seat, Gjn. Washington, whose 
second term of office was then expiring, delivered his 
last speech to Congress. A couuniltee drew up a 
complimentary address in reply. Andrew Jackson 
did not approve of the address, and was one of the 
twelve who voted against it. He was not willing to 
say that Gen. Washington's adminstration had been 
" wise, firm and patriotic." 

Mr. Jackson was elected to the United .States 
Senate in 1797, but soon resigned and returned home. 
Soon after he was chosen Judge of the Supreme Court 
of his State, which position he held fjr six years. 

When the war of 181 2 with tireat Britian com- 
menced, Madison occupied the Presidential chair. 
Aaron Burr sent word to tlvs President that there was 
an unknown man in the West, Andrew Jackson, who 
would do credit to a commission if one were con- 
ferred u[X)n him. Just at that time Gen. Jackson 
offered his services and those of twenty-five hundred 
volunteers. His offer was accepted, and the troops 
were assembled at Nashville. 

As the British were hourly expected to make an at- 
tack upon New Orleans, where Gen Wilkinson was 
in command, he was ordered to descend the river 
with fifteen hundred troops to aid Wilkinson. The 
expedition reached Natchez; and after a delay of sev- 
eral weeks there, without accomplishing anything, 
the men were ordered back to their homes. But the 
energy Gen. Jackson had displayed, and his entire 
devotion to the comrfort of his soldiers, won him 
golden opinions; and he became the most popular 
man in the State. It was in this expedition that his 
toughness gave him the nickname of "Old Hickory.' 

Soon after this, while attempting to horsewhip Col. 
Thomas H. Benton, for a remark that genlleman 
made about his taking a part as second in a duel, in 
which a younger brother of Benton's was engaged, 
he received two severe pistol wounds. AVhile he was 
lingering njxin a bed of suffering news came that the 
Indians, who had combined under Tecumseh from 
Florida to the Lakes, to exterminate the white set- 
tlers, were committing the most awful ravages. De- 
cisive action became necessary. Gen. Jackson, with 
his fractured bone just beginning to heal, his arm in 
a sling, and unable to mount his horse without assis- 
tance, gave his amazing energies to the raising of an 
army to rendezvous at Fayettesville, .Alabama. 

The Creek Indians had established a strong fort on 
one of the bends of theTallauoosa River, near the cen- 
ter of Alabama, about fifty miles below Fort Strother. 
With an army of two thousand men. Gen. Jackson 
traversed the pathless wilderness in a march of eleven 
days. He reached their fort, called Tohopeka or 
Horse-shoe, on the 27th of March. 1814. The bend 

of the river enclosed nearly one hundred acres of 
tangled forest and wild ravine. Across the narrow 
neck the Indians had constructed a formidable 
work of logs and brush. Here nine hundred warriors, 
with an ami)le suplyof arms were assembled. 

The fort was stormed. The fight was utterly des- 
perate. Not an Indian would accept of quarter. AV'hcn 
bleeding and dying, they would fight those who en- 
deavored to spare their lives. From ten in the morn- 
ing until dark, the battle raged. The carnage was 
awful and revolting. Some threw themselves into the 
river; but the unerring bullet struck their heads as 
they swam. Nearly everyone of the nine hundred war- 
rios were killed A few probably, in the night, swam 
the river and escaped. This ended the war. The 
power of the Creeks was broken forever. This bold 
plunge into the wilderness, with its terriffic slaughter, 
so appalled the savages, that the haggard remnants 
of the bands came to the camp, begging for peace. 

This closing of the Creek war enabled us to con- 
centrate all our militia upon the British, who were the 
allies of the Indians No man of less resolute will 
than Gen. Jackson could have conducted this Indian 
campaign to so successful an issue Immediately he 
was appointed major-general. 

Late in August, with an army of two thousand 
men, on a rushing march, Gen. Jackson came to 
Mobile. A British fleet came from Pensacola, landed 
a force upon the beach, anchored near the little fort, 
and from both ship and shore commenced a furious 
assault The battle was long and doubtful. At length 
one of the ships was blown up and the rest retired. 

Garrisoning Mobile, where he had taken his little 
army, he moved his troops to New Orleans, 
And the battle of New Orleans which soon ensued, 
was in reality a very arduous campaign. This won 
for Gen. Jackson an imperishable name. Here his 
troops, which numbered about four thousand men, 
won a signal victory over the British army of about 
nine thousand. His loss was but thirteen, while the 
loss of the British was two thousand six hundred. 

The name of Gen. Jackson soon began to be men- 
tioned in connection with the Presidency, but, in 1824, 
he was defeated by Mr. Adams. He was, however, 
successful in the election of 1828, and was re-elected 
for a second term in 1832. In 1829, just before he 
assumed the reins of the government, he met with 
the most terrible affliction of his life in the death of 
his wife, whom he had loved with a devotion which has 
perha|)s never been surpassed. From the shock of 
her death he never recovered. 

His administration was one of the most memorable 
in the annals of our country; applauded by one party, 
condemned by the other. No man had more bitter 
enemies or warmer friends. At the expiration of his 
two terms of office he retired to the Hermitage, where 
he died June 8, 1845. The last years of Mr. Jack- 
son's life were that of a devoted Christian man. 

^ 7 ^/Z^^ ^^^Z^? U^L^,.z.^ 


WW^ V^l] MREI]. 


eighth President of the 
United States, was born at 
Kinderhooiv, N. Y., Dec. 5, 
1782. He died at the same 
place, July 24, 1S62. His 
body rests in the cemetery 
at Kinderhook. Above it is 
a plain granite shaft fifteen feet 
high, bearing a simple inscription 
about half way up on one face, 
w The lot is unfenced, unbordered 
or unbounded by shrub or flower. 

There is but little in the life of Martin Van Buren 
of romantic interest. He fought no battles, engaged 
in no wild adventures. Though his life was stormy in 
lX)litical and intellectual conflicts, and he gained many 
signal victories, his days passed uneventful in those 
incidents which give zest to biography. His- an- 
cestors, as his name indicates, were of Dutch origin, 
and were among the earliest emigrants from Holhuid 
to the banks of the Hudson. His father was a farmer, 
residing in the old town of Kinderhook. His mother, 
also of Dutch lineage, was a woman of superior intel- 
ligence and exemplary piety. 

.■fe was decidedly a precocious boy, developing un- 
usual activity, vigor and strength of mind. At the 
age of fourteen, he had finished his academic studies 
in his native village, and commenced the study of 
law. As he had not a collegiate education, seven 
years of study in a law-office were required of liim 
before he could be admitted to the bar. Inspired witii 
J. lofty ambition, and conscious of his powers, he pur- 
sued his studies with indefatig.ible industry. After 
spending six ye:ir< in an office in 'vj native vilbige. 

he went to the city of New York, and prosecuted liis 
studies for the seventh year. 

In 1803, Mr. Van Buren, then twenty-one years of 
age, commenced the practice of law in his native vil- 
lage. The great conflict between the Federal and 
Republican party was then at its height. Mr. Van 
Buren was from the beginning a politician. He had, 
perhaps, imbibed that spirit while listeninig to the 
many discussions which had been carried on in his 
father's hotel. He was in cordial sympathy with 
Jefferson, and earnestly and eloquently espoused the 
cause of State Rights ; though at that time the Fed- 
eral party held the supremacy both in his town 
and State. 

His success and increasing ruputation led him 
after six years of practice, to remove to Hudson, th, 
county seat of his county. Here he spent seven years 
constantly gaining strengtli by contending in the- 
courts with some of the ablest men who have adorned 
the bar of his State. 

Just before leaving Kinderhook for Hudson, Mi. 
Van Buren married a lady alike distinguished for 
beauty and accomplishments. After twelve short 
years she sank into tiie grave, the victim of consump- 
tion, leaving her husband and four sons to weep over 
her loss. For twenty-five years, Mr. Van Buren was 
an earnest, successful, assiduous lawyer. The record 
of those years is barren in items of public interest. 
In 18 1 2, when thirty years of age, he was chosen to 
the State Senate, and gave his strenuous support to 
Mr. Madison's adminstration. In 1815, he was ap- 
pointed Attorney-General, and the next year moved 
to Albany, the capital of tlie State. 

'.V'iiile he was acknowledged as one of the most 
jjominent leaders of the Democratic party, he had 



ihe moral courage to avow that true democracy did 
not reiiuire that " universal suffrage" which admits 
the vile, the degraded, the ignorant, to the right of 
governing the State. In true consistency with his 
democratic principles, he contended that, while the 
path leading to the privilege of voting should be open 
to every man without distinction, no one should be 
invested with that sacred prerogative, unless he were 
in some degree qualified for it by intelligence, virtue 
and some property interests in the welfare of the 

In 182 I he was elected a member of the United 
States Seriate; and in the same year, he took a seat 
in the convention to revise the constitution of his 
native State. His course in this convention secured 
the approval of men of all parties. No one could 
doubt the singleness of his endeavors to promote the 
interests of all classes in the community. In the 
Senate of tlie United States, he rose at once to a 
conspicuous position as an active and useful legislator. 

In 1827, John Quincy Adams being then in the 
Presidential chair, Mr. Van Buren was re-elected to 
ihe Senate. He had been from the beginning a de- 
termined opposer of the Administration, adopting the 
'State Rights" view in opposition to what was 
deemed the Federal proclivities of Mr. Adams. 

Soon after this, in 1828, he was chosen Governorof 
the State of New York, and accordingly resigned his 
seat in the Senate. Probably no one in the United 
States contributed so much towards ejecting John Q. 
Adams from the Presidential chair, and placing in it 
Andrew Jackson, as did Martin Van Buren. Whether 
entitled to the reputation or not, he certainly was re- 
garded throughout the United States as one of the 
most skillful, sagacious and cunning of politicians. 
It was supposed that no one knew so well as he how 
to touch the secret springs of action; how to pull all 
the wires to put his machinery in motion ; and how to 
organize a political army which would, secretly and 
Ete.-'lthily accomplish the most gigantic results. By 
these powers it is said that he outv/itted Mr. Adams, 
Mr. Clay, Mr. Webster, and secured results which 
few thought then could be accomplished. 

When Andrew Jackson was elected President he 
apjxiinted Mr. Van Buren Secretary of State. This 
position he resigned in 1831, and was immediately 
apixjinted Minister to England, where he went the 
same autumn. The Senate, however, when it met, 
refsed to ratify the nomination, and he returned 

home, apparently untroubled; was nominated Vice 
President in the place of Calhoun, at the re-election 
of President Jackson ; and with smiles for all and 
frowns for none, he took his place at tlie head of that 
Senate which had refused to confirm his nomination 
as ambassador. 

His rejection by the Senate roused all the zeal of 
President Jackson in behalf of his repudiated favor- 
ite; and this, probably more than any other cause, 
secured his elevation to the chair of the Chief Execu 
tive. On the 20th of May, 1836, Mr. Van Buren re- 
ceived the Democratic nomination to succeed Gen. 
Jackson as President of the United States. He was 
elected by a handsome majority, to the delight of the 
retiring President. " Leaving New York out of the 
canvass," says Mr. Parton, "the election of Mr. Van 
Buren to the Presidency was as much the act of Gen. 
Jackson as though the Constitution had 'conferred 
upon him the power to appoint a successor." 

His administration was filled with exciting events. 
The insurrection in Canada, which threatened to in • 
volve this country in war with England, the agitation 
of the slavery question, and finally the great commer- 
cial jjanic which spread over the country, all were 
trials to his wisdom. The financial distress was at- 
tributed to the management of the Democratic party, 
and brought the President into such disfavor that he 
failed of re-election. 

With the exception of being nominated for the 
Presidency by the "Free Soil" Democrats, in 1848, 
Mr. Van Buren lived quietly upon his estate until 
his death. 

He had ever been a prudent man, of frugal habits, 
and living within liis income, had now fortunately a 
competence for his declining years. His unblemished 
character, his commanding abilities, his unquestioned 
patriotism, and the distinguished positions which he 
had occupied in the government of our country, se- 
cured to him not only the homage of his party, but 
the respect ot the whole community. It was on the 
4th of March, 1841, that Mr. Van Buren retired from 
the presidency. From his fine estate at Lindenwald^ 
he still exerted a powerful influence upon the politics 
of the country. From this time until his death, on 
the 24th of July, 1862, at the age of eighty years, he 
resided at Lindenwald, a gentleman of leisure, of 
culture and of wealth; enjoyir.g in a healthy old 
age, probably far more happiness than he had before 
experienced amid the stormy scenes of his active life- 

^ ;^/fe-2.^^^K^ 




■■^^ — f^r 


SON, the ninth President of 
the United States, was horn 
at Berkeley, Va., Feb. 9, 1773. 
His father, Benjamin Harri- 
son, was in comparatively op- 
ulent circumstances, and was 
one of the most distinguished 
men of his day. He was an 
intimate friend of George 
Washington, was early elected 
a member of the Continental 
Congress, and was conspicuous 
among the patriots of Virginia in 
resisting the encroachments of the 
British crown. In the celebrated 
Congress of 1775, Benjamin Har- 
rison and John Hancock were 
both candidates for the office of 

Mr Harrison was subsequently 
chosen Governor of Virginia, and 
was twice re-elected. His son, 
William Henry, of course enjoyed 
in childhood all the advantages which wealth and 
intellectual antl cultivated society could give. Hav- 
i.ig received a thorough comuion-school education, he 
entered Hampden Sidney College, wiiere he graduated 
witli honor soon after the deatli of his fatliei. He 
-hen rejiaired to Philadelphia to study medicine under 
the instructions of Dr. Rush and the guardianshii) of 
lObert Morris, both of whom were, with his father, 
ligners of the Declaration of Independence. 

Jpon the outbreak of the Indian troubles, and not- 
withstanding the '■emonstrances of his friends, he 
ai)ar.dored his medical studies and entered the army, 
-(aving obtained a commission of Ensign from Presi- 

dent Washington. He was then but 19 years old. 
From that time he passed gradually upward in rank 
until he became aid to General Wayne, after whose 
death he resigned his commission. He was then ap- 
pointed Secretary of the North-western Territory. This 
Territory .vas then entitled to but one member in 
Congress and Capt. Harrison was chosen to fill that 

In the spring of 1800 the North-western Territory 
was divided by Congress into two portions. The 
eastern portion, comprising the region now embraced 
in the State of Ohio, was called " The Territory 
north-west of the Ohio." The western portion, which 
included what is now called Indiana, Illinois and 
\\'isconsin, was called the "Indiana 'I'erritory." Wil . 
liam Henry Harrison, then 27 years of age, was ap 
pointed by John Adams, Governor of the Indiana 
Territory, and immediately after, also Governor of 
Upper Louisiana. He was thus ruler over almost as 
extensive a realm as any sovereign upon the globe. He 
was Superintendent of Indian Affairs, and was in- 
vested with powers nearly dictatorial over the now 
rapidly increasing white population. The ability and 
fidelity with which he discharged these responsible 
duties may be inferred from the fact that he was four 
times appointed to this office' — first by John Adams, 
twice by Thomas Jefferson and afterwards by Presi- 
dent Madison. 

When he began his adminstration there were but 
three white settlements in that almost boundless region, 
now crowded with cities and resotinding with all the 
tumult of wealth and traffic. One of these settlements 
was on the Ohio, nearly opposite Louisville; one at 
Vincennes, on the Wabash, and the third a French 

The vast wilderness over which Gov. Flarrisoi. 
reigned was filled with many tribes of Indians. Abou' 

U. 0. ILL LIB. 


the year 1806, two extraordinary men, twin brothers, 
of the Shawnese tribe, rose among them. One of 
these was called Tecumseh, or " The Crouching 
Panther;" the other, Olliwacheca, or " The Prophet." 
Tecumseh was not only an Indian warrior, but a man 
of great sagacity, far-reaching foresight and indomit- 
able perseverance in any enterprise ni which he might 
engage. He was inspired with the highest enthusiasm, 
and had long regarded with dread and with hatred 
tlie encroachment of the whites upon the hunting- 
grounds of his fathers. His brother, the Prophet, was 
anorator, who could sway the feelings of the untutored 
Indian as the gale tossed the tree-tops beneath which 
I hey dwelt. 

liut the Prophet was not merely anorator: he was, 
i 1 the superstitious minds of the Indians, invested 
with the superhuman dignity of a medicine-man or a 
ni-igician. With an enthusiasm unsurpassed by Peter 
the Hermit rousing Europe to the crusades, he went 
frum tribe to tribe, assuming that he was specially sent 
by the Great Si)irit. 

Gov. Harrison made many attempts to conciliate 
the Indians, but at last the war came, and at Tippe- 
canoe the Indians were routed with great slaughter. 
October 28, 18 12, his army began its march. When 
near the Prophet's town three Indians of rank made 
their appearance and inquired why Gov. Harrison was 
aporoaching them in so hostile an attitude. After a 
short conference, arrangements were made for a meet- 
ing the next day, to agree upon terms of peace. 

But Gov. Harrison was too well acquainted with 
the Indian character to be deceived by such protes- 
tations Selecting a favorable spot for his night's en- 
campment, he took every precaution against surprise. 
His troops were posted in a hollow square, and slept 
upon their arms. 

The troops threw themselves upon the ground for 
rest; but every man had his accourtrements on, his 
loaded musket by his side, and his bayonet fixed. The 
wakeful Governor, between three and four o'clock in 
the mornint:, had risen, and was sitting in conversa- 
tion with his aids by the embers of a waning fire. It 
was a chill, cloudy morning with a drizzling rain. In 
the darkness, the Indians had creiit as" near as possi- 
ble, and just then, with a savage yell, rushed, with all 
the desperation which superstition and passion most 
liighly inflamed could give, upon the left flank of the 
little army. The savages had been amply provided 
with guns and ammunition by the English. Their 
war-whoop was accompained by a shower of bullets. 

The camp-fires were instantly extinguished, as the 
light aided the Indians in their aim. With hide- 
jus yells, the Indian bands rushed on, not doubting a 
speedy and an entire victory. But Gen. Harrison's 
troops stood as immovable as the rocks around them 
until day dawned ". they then made a simultaneous 
charge with the bayonet, and swept every thing be- 
fore them, and completely routing th^ foe. 

Gov. Harrison now had all his energies tasked 
to the utmost. The British descending from the Can - 
adas, were of themselves a very formidable force ; but 
with their savage allies, rushing like wolves from the 
forest, searching out every remote farm-house, burn- 
ing, plundering, scalping, torturing, the wide frontier 
was plunged into a state of consternation whicli even 
the most vivid imagination can but faintly conceive. 
The war-whoop was resounding everywhere in the 
forest. The horizon was illuminated with the conflagra- 
tion of the cabins of the settlers. Gen Hull had made 
the ignominious surrender of his forces at Detroit. 
Under these despairing circumstances. Gov. Harrison 
was appointed by President Madison commander-in- 
chief of the North-western army, with orders to retake 
D..'troit, and to protect the frontiers. 

It would be difficult to place a man in a situation 
demanding more energy, sagacity and courage; but 
General Harrison was found equal to the position, 
and nobly and triumphantly did he meet all the re- 

He won the love of his soldiers by always sharin? 
with them their fatigue. His whole baggage, while 
, pursuing the foe up the Thames, was carried in a 
valise; and his bedding consisted of a single blanket 
lashed over his saddle. Thirty-five British officers, 
his prisoners of war, supped with him after the battle. 
The only fare he could give them was beef roasted 
before the fire, without bread or salt. 

In 18 1 6, Gen. Harrison was chosen a member ol 
the National House of Representatives, to represent 
the District of Ohio. In Congress he proved an 
active member; and whenever he sjwke, it was with 
force of reason and power of eloquence, wliich arrested 
the attention of all the members. 

In 1S19, Harrison was elected to the Senate of 
Ohio; and in 1824, as one of the presidential electors 
of that State, he gave his vote for Henry Clay. The 
same year he was chosen to the United States Senate. 

In 1S36, the friends of Gen. Harrison brough!: him 
forward as a candidate for the Presidency against 
Van Buren, but he was defeated. At the close of 
Mr. Van Buren's term, he was re-nomii^ated by his 
party, and Mr. Harrison was unanimously nominated 
by the Whigs, with John Tyler for the Vice Presidency. 
The contest was very animated. Gen. Jackson gave 
all his influence to prevent Harrison's election ; but 
his triumph was signal. 

The cabinet which he formed, with Daniel Webstei 
at its head as Secretary of State, vvas one of the most 
brilliant with which any President had ever been 
surrounded. Never were the prospects of an admin- 
istration more flattering, or the hopes of the country 
more sanguine. In the midst of these bright and 
Joyous prospects. Gen. Harrison was seized by a 
pleurisv-fever and after a few days of violent sick- 
, ness, died on the 4th of April ; just one month after 
his inausuration as President of the United States. 




:,,^m JOHM T Y 

OHN TYLER, the tenth 
Presidentof the United States. 
He was born in Charles-city 
Co., Va., March 29, 1790. He 
was the favored child of af- 
fluence and high social po- 
sition. At the early age of 
twelve, John entered William 
and Mary College and grad- 
uated with much honor when 
but seventeen years old. After 
graduating, he devoted him- 
self with great assiduity to the 
study of law, partly with his 
father and p.irtly with Edmund 
\%i Randolph, one of the most distin- 
guished lawyers of Virginia. 

At nineteen years of age, ne 
commenced the practice of law. 
His success was rapid and aston- 
ishing. It is said that three 
months had not elapsed ere there 
was scarcely a case on the dock- 
et of the court in which he was 
fiCt retained. When but twenty-one years of age, he 
was almost unanimoi.sly e'ected to a seat in the State 
Eagislature. He connected himself with the Demo- 
cratic party, and warmly advocated the measures of 
Jefferson and Madison. For five successive years he 
w.!s elected to the I^egislature, receiving nearly the 
unanimous vote or his county. 

When but twenty-six years of age, he was elected 
a member of Congress. Here he acted earnestly and 
ably with the Democratic party, opposing a national 
bank, internal improvements by the General <<)vern- 

ment, a protective tariff, and advocatmg a strict con- 
struction of the Constitution, and the most careful 
vigilance over State rights. His labors in Congress 
were so arduous that before the close of his second 
term he found it necessary to resign and retire to his 
estate in Charles-city Co., to recruit his health. He, 
however, soon after consented to take his seat in the 
State Legislature, where his influence was powerful 
in [iromoting public works of great utility. With a 
reputation thus canstantly increasing, he was chosen 
by a very large majority of votes. Governor of his 
native State. His administration was signally a suc- 
cessful one. His popularity secured his re-election. 

John Randolph, a brilliant, erratic, half-crazed 
man, then represented Virginia in the Senate of the 
United States. A portion of the Democratic party 
was displeased with Mr. Randolph's wayward course, 
and brought forward John Tyler as his opponent, 
considering him the only man in Virginia of sufficient 
popularity to succeed against the renowned orator of 
Roanoke. Mr. T\ler was the victor. 

In accordance with his professions, upon taking his 
seat in the Senate, he joined the ranks of the opposi- 
tion. He opposed the tariff; he spoke against and 
voted against the bank as unconstitutional ; he stren- 
uously opposed all restrictions ui)on slavery, resist- 
ing all projects of internal improvements by tlic Gen- 
eral Government, and avowed his sympathy with Mr. 
Calhoun's view of nullification ; he declared that Gen. 
Jackson, by his opposition to the nullifiers, had 
abandoned the piinciples of the Democratic party. 
Such was Mr. Tyler's record in Congress, — a record 
in perfect accordance with the principles which he 
had always avowed. 

Returning to Virginia, he resumed the practice of 
Iiis profession. There was a cplit in the Democratic 


party. His friends still regarded him as a true Jef- 
lersonian, gave him a dinner, and showered compli- 
ments upon him. He had now attained the age of 
forty-six. His career had been very brilliant. In con- 
sequence of his devotion to public business, his pri- 
vate affairs had fallen into some disorder; and it was 
not without satisfaction that he resumed the practice 
of law, and devoted himself to the culture of his plan- 
tation. Soon after this he removed to Williamsburg, 
for the better education of his children ; and he again 
took his seat in the Legislature of Virginia. 

By the Southern Whigs, he was sent to the national 
convention at Harrisburg to nominate a President in 
'839. The majority of votes were given to Gen. Har- 
rison, a genuine Whig, much to the disappointment of 
the South, who wished for Henry Clay. To concili- 
ate the Southern Whigs and to secure their vote, the 
convention then nominated John Tyler for Vice Pres- 
ident. It was well known that he was not in sympa- 
thy with the Whig party in the Noith : but the Vice 
President has but very little power in the Govern- 
ment, his main and almost only duty being to pre- 
side over the meetings of the Senate. Thus it hap- 
(jened that a Whig President, and, in reality, a 
Democratic Vice President were chosen. 

In 1841, Mr. Tyler was inaugurated Vice Presi- 
dent of the United States. In one short month from 
that time. President Harrison died, and Mr. Tyler 
thuj .cund himself, to his own surprise and that of 
the whole Nation, an occupant of the Presidential 
chair. This was a new test of the stability of our 
institutions, as it was the first time in the history of our 
country that such an event had occured. Mr. Tyler 
was at home in Williamsburg when he received the 
unexpected tidings of the death of President Harri- 
son. He hastened to Washington, and on the 6th of 
April was inaugurated to the high and responsible 
office. He was placed in a ix)sition of exceeding 
delicacy and difficulty. All his longlife he had been 
opjxjsed to the main i)rinciples of the party which had 
brought him into power. He had ever been a con- 
sistent, hone~t man, with an unbleniLshed record. 
Gen. Harrison had selected a Whig cabinet. Should 
he retain them, and thus suiround himself with coun- 
sellors whose views were antagonistic to his own.' or, 
on the other hand, should he turn against the party 
which had elected him and select a cabinet in har- 
mony with himself, and which would oppose all those 
views which the Whigs deemed essential to the pub- 
lic welfare? This was his fearful dilemma. He in- 
vited the cabinet which President Harrison had 
^'elected to retain their seats. He reccommended a 
' day of fasting and prayer, that God would guide and 
bless us. 

The Whigs carried through Congress a bill for the 
incorporation of a fiscal bank of the United States. 
The President, after ten days' delay, returned it with 
his veto. He isuaaested, however, that he ^vould 

approve of a bill drawn up upon such a plan as he 
proposed. Such a bill was accordingly prepared, and 
privately Eubrnitted to him. He gave it his approval. 
It ;vas passed without alteration, and he sent it back 
with his veto. Here commenced the open rupture. 
It is said that Mr. Tyler was provoked to this meas- 
ure by a published letter from the Hon. John M. 
Botts, a distinguished Virginia Whig, who severely 
touched the pride of the President. 

The opposition now exultingly received the Presi- 
dent into their arms. The party which elected him 
denounced him bitterly. All the members of his 
cabinet, excepting Mr. Webster, resigned. The Whigs 
of Congress, both the Senate and the House, held a 
meeting and issued an address to the people of the 
United States, proclaiming that all political alliance 
between the Whigs and President Tyler were at 
an end. 

Still the President attempted to conciliate. He 
appointed a new cabinet of distinguished Whigs and 
Conservatives, carefully leaving out all strong party 
men. Mr. Webster soon found it necessaiy to resign, 
forced out by the pressure of his Whig friends. Thus 
the four years of Mr. Tyler's unfortunate administra- 
tion ])assed sadly away. No one was satisfied. The 
land was filled with murmurs and vitu])eration. Whigs 
and Democrats alike assailed him. More and more, 
however, he brought himself into svmpathy with his 
old friends, the Democrats, until at the close of his term, 
he gave his whole influence to the support of Mr. 
Polk, the Democratic candidate for his successor. 

On the 4th of March, 1845, he retired from the 
harassments of office, tothe regret of neitherparty, and 
probably to his own unspeakable lelief. His first wife, 
Miss Letitia Christian, died in Washington, in 1842; 
and in June, 1844, President Tyler was again married, 
at New York, to Miss Julia Gardiner, a young lady of 
many personal and intellectual accomplishments. 

The remainder of his days Mr. Tyler passed mainly 
in retirement at his beautiful home, — Sherwood For- 
est, Charles city Co., Va. A polished gentleman in 
his manners, richly furnished with information from 
books and experience in the world, and jxissessing 
brilliant powers of conversation, his family circle was 
the scene of unusual attractions. With sufficient 
means for the exercise of a generous hospitality, he 
might have enjoyed a serene old age with the few 
friends who gathered around him, were it not for the 
storms of civil war which his own principles and 
policy had helped to introduce. 

When the great Rebellion rose, which the State- 
rights and nullifying doctrines of Mr. John C. Cal- 
houn had inaugurated, President Tyler renounced his 
allegiance to the United States, and joined the Confed- 
erates. He was chosen a member of their Congress; 
and while engaged in active measures to destroy, b" 
force of arms, the Government over which he had 
once presided, he was taken sick and soon died. 











AMES K. POLK, the eleventh 

resident of the United States, 

was born in Mecklenburg Co., 

N. C.,Nov. 2, 1795. His par- 

,-^. ents were Samuel and Jane 

(Knox) Polk, the former a son 

of Col. Thomas Polk, who located 

at tiie above place, as one of the 

first pioneers, in 1735. 

In the year i3o6, with his wife 
and children, and soon after fol- 
lowed by most of the members of 
the Polk famly, Samuel Polk emi- 
grated some two or three hundred 
miles farther west, to the rich valley 
of the Duck River. Here in the 
midst of the wilderness, in a region 
which was subsequently called Mau- 
ry Co., they reared their log huts, 
and established their homes. In the 
iiard toil of a new farm in the wil- 
derness, James K. Polk spent the 
early years of his childhood end 
youth. His father, adding the pur- 
suit of a surveyor to that of a farmer, 
' gradually increased in wealth until 

he became one of the leading men of the region. His 
mother was a superior woman, of strong common 
sense and earnest piety. 

Very early in life, James developed a taste for 
reading and expressed the strongest desire to obtain 
a liberal education. His mother's training had made 
liiin methodical in his habits, had taught him punct- 
uality and industry, and had inspired iiim with lofty 
principles of morality. His health was frail ; and his 
father, fearing that he might not be able to endure a 



sedentary life, got a situation for him behind the 
counter, hoping to fit him for commercial pursuits. 

This was to James a bitter disappointment. He 
had no taste for these duties, and his daily tasks 
were irksome in the extreme. He remained in this 
uncongenial occupation but a few weeks, when at his 
earnest solicitation his father removed him, and made 
arrangements for him to prosecute his studies. Soon 
after he sent him to Murfreesboro Academy. With 
ardor which could scarcely be surpassed, he pressed 
forward in his studies, and in less than two and a half 
years, in the autumn of 1815, entered the sopliomore 
class in the University of North Carolina, at Chapel 
Hill. Here he was one of the most exemplaiy of 
scholars, punctual in every exercise, never allowing 
himself to be absent from a recitation or a religious 

He graduated in 1818, with the highest honors, be« 
ing deemed the best scholar of his class, both in 
mathematics and the classics. He was then twenty- 
three years of age. Mr. Polk's health was at this 
time much impaired by the assiduity with whicli he 
had prosecuted his studies. After a short season of 
relaxation he went to Nashville, and entered the 
office of Felix Grundy, to study law. Here Mr. Polk 
renewed his acquaintance with Andrew Jackson, who 
resided on his plantation, the Hermitage, but a few 
miles from Nashville. They had probably been 
sligh'.ly acquainted before. . 

Mr. Polkjs father was a Jeffersonian Republican, 
and James K. Polk ever adhered to the same politi- 
cal faith. He was a popular public speaker, and was 
constantly called upon to address the meetings of jiis 
party friends. His skill as a speaker was such that 
he was popularly called the Na|X)leon of the stump. 
He was a man of unblemished morals, genial and 



OTurterus in his bearing, and with that sympathetic 
nature in the jo) s and griefs of others which ever gave 
him troops of friends. In 1823, Mr. Polk was elected 
to the Legislature of Tennessee. Here he gave his 
strong influence towards the election of his friend, 
Mr. Jackson, to the Presidency of the United States. 

In January, 1824, Mr. Polk married Miss Sarah 
Childress, of Rutherford Co., Tenn. His bride was 
altogether worthy of him, — a lady of beauty and cul- 
ture. In the fall of 1825, Mr. Polk was chosen a 
member of Congress. The satisfaction which he gave 
to his constituents may be inferred from the fact, that 
for fourteen successive years, until 1839, he was con- 
tinuec' in that office. He then voluntarily withdrew, 
only that he might accept the Gubernatorial chair 
of Tf^nnessee. In Congress he was a laborious 
meiwber, a frequent and a popular speaker. He was 
always in his seat, always courteous ; and whenever 
he spoke it was always to the point, and without any 
ambitious rhetorical display. 

During five sessions of Congress, Mr. Polk was 
Speaker of the House Strong passions were roused, 
and stormy scenes were witnessed ; but Mr. Polk per- 
formed his arduous duties to a very general satisfac- 
tion, and a unanimous vote of thanks to him was 
|)as3ed by the House as he withdrew on the 4th of 
March, 1839. 

In accordance with Southern usage, Mr. Polk, as a 
candidate for Governor, canvassed the State. He was 
elected by a large majority, and on the 14th of Octo- 
ber, 1839, took the oath of office at Nashville. In 1841, 
his term of office expired, and he was again the can- 
didate of the Democratic party, but was defeated. 

On the 4th of March, iS45,Mr. Polk was inaugur- 
ated President of tlie United States. The verdict of 
the country in favor of the annexation of Texas, exerted 
its influence upon Congress ; and the last act of the 
administration of President Tyler was to affix his sig- 
nature to a joint resolution of Congress, passed on the 
3d of March, approving of the annexation of Texas to 
the American Union. As Mexico still claimed Texas 
as one of her provinces, the Mexican minister, 
Almonte, immediately demanded his passports and 
left tlie country, declaring the act of the annexation 
to be an act hostile to Mexico. 

In his first message, President Polk urged that 
Texas should immediately, by act of Congress, be re- 
ceived into the Union on the same footing with the 
other States. In the nieantime, Gen. Taylor was sent 

with an army into Texas to hold the country. He \>'as 
sent first to Nueces, which the Mexicans said wis the 
western boundary of Texas. Then he was sent nearly 
two hundred miles further west, to the Rio Grande, 
where he erected batteries which commanded the 
Mexican city of Matamoras, which was situated 01: 
the western banks. 

The anticipated collision soon took place, and wa: 
was declared against Mexico by President Polk. The 
war was pushed forward by Mr. Polk's administration 
with great vigor. Gen. Taylor, whose army was first 
called one of "observation," then of "occupation," 
then of " invasion, "was sent forward to Monterey. The 
feeble Mexicans, in every encounter, were hopelessly 
and awfully slaughtered. The day of judgement 
alone can reveal the misery which this war caused. 
It Vv^as by the ingenuity of Mr. Polk's administration 
that the war was brought on. 

' To the victors belong the spoils." Mexico was 
prostrate before us. Her capital was in our hands. 
We now consented to peace upon the condition that 
Mexico should surrender to us, in addition to Texas, 
all of New Mexico, and all of Upper and Lower Cal- 
ifornia. This new demand embraced, exclusive of 
Texas, eight hundred thousand square miles. This 
was an extent of territory equal to nine States of the 
size of New York. Thus slavery was securing eighteen 
majestic States to be added to the Union. There were 
some Americans who thought it all right : there wert; 
others who thought it all wrong. In the prosecution 
of this war, we expended twenty thousand lives and 
more than a hundred million of dollars. Of this 
money fifteen millions were paid to Mexico. 

On the 3d of March, 1849, Mr. Polk retired from 
office, having served one term. The next day was 
Sunday. On the 5th, Gen. Taylor was inaugurated 
as his successor. Mr Polk rode to the Capitol in the 
same carriage with Gen. Taylor; and the same even- 
ing, with Mrs. Polk, he commenced his return to 
Tennessee. He was then but fifty-four years of age. 
He had ever been strictly temperate in all his habits, 
and his health was good. With an ample fortune, 
a choice library, a cultivated mind, and domestic ties 
of the dearest nature, it seemed as though long years 
of tranquility and happiness were before him. But the 
cholera — that fearful scourge— was then sweeping up 
the Valley of the Mississippi. This he contracted, 
and died on the isthofjune, 1S49, in the fifii'-fourth 
year of his age, greatly mourned by his couiurymeu. 






-'^" ^^^ ACHARV TAYLOR, twelfth 

(^ President of the United States, 
'^ was born on the 24th of Nov., 
.j\ 1784, in Orange Co., Va. His 
Jo father. Colonel Taylor, was 
a Virginian of note, and a dis- 
tinguished patriot and soldier of 
the Revolution. When Zachary 
was an infant, his father with liis 
wife and two children, emigrated 
to Kentucky, where he settled in 
the pathless wilderness, a few 
miles from Louisville. In thisfront- 
?i\7 ier home, away from civilization and 
I all its refinements, yjung Zachary 
could enjoy but few social and educational advan- 
tages. When six years of age he attended a common 
school, and was then regarded as a bright, active boy, 
rather remarkable for bluntness and decision of char- 
acter He was strong, feailess and self-reliant, and 
manifested a strong desire to enter the army to fight 
•ho Indians who were ravaging the frontiers. There 
is little to be-recorded of the uneventful years of his 
childhood on his father's large but lonely plantation. 
In 1808, his father succeeded in obtaining for him 
the commission of lieutenant in the United States 
army ; and he joined the troops which were stationed 
at New Orleans under Gen. Wilkinson. Soon after 
this he married Miss Margaret Smith, a young lady 
■roni one of the first families of Maryland. 

Immediately after the declaration of war with Eng- 
land, in 18 1 2, Capt. Taylor (for he had then been 
promoted to that rank) was put in command of Fort 
Harrison, on the Wabash, about fifty miles above 
Vincennes. This' fort had been built in the wilder- 
ness by Gen. Harrison, on his march to Tippecanoe. 
It was one of the first points of attack by the Indians, 
Jcd by Tecumseh. Its garrison consisted of a broken 

company of infantry numbering fifty men, many of 
whom were sick. 

Early in the autumn of i8i?, the Indians, stealthily, 
and in large numbers, moved ujxin the fort. Their 
approach was first indicated by the murder of two 
soldiers just outside of the stockade. Capt. Taylor 
made every possible preparation to meet the antici- 
pated assault. On the 4th of September, a band of 
forty painted and plumed savages came to the fort, 
waving a white flag, and informed Caj)t. Taylor that 
in the morning their chief would come to have a talk 
with him. It was evident that their object was merely 
to ascertain the state of things at the fort, and Capt. 
Taylor, well versed in the wiles of the savages, kept 
them at a distance. 

The sun went down; the savages disappeared, the 
garrison slept upon their arms. One hour before 
midnight the war whoop burst from a thousand lips 
in the forest around, followed by the discharge of 
musketry, and the rush of the foe. Every man, sick 
and well, sprang to his post. Every man knew that 
defeat was not merely death, but in the case of cap- 
ture, death by the most agonizing and prolonged tor- 
ture. No pen can describe, no immagination can 
conceive the scenes which ensued. Tiie savages suc- 
ceeded in setting fire to one of the block-houses- 
Until si.x o'clock in tlie morning, tiiis awful conflict 
continued. The savages tiien, baffled at every point, 
and gnashing their teeth with rage, retired. Capt. 
Taylor, for tliis gallant defence, was promoted to the 
rank of major by brevet. 

Until the close of the war. Major Ta\lur was placed 
in such situations tiiat he saw but little more of active 
service. He was sent far away into the depths of the 
wilderness, to Fort Crawford, on F'ox River, which 
empties into Green Bay. Here there was but little 
to be done but to wear away the tedious hours as one 
best could. There were no books, no society, no in- 



tellectual stimulus. Thus with him the uneventful 
years rolled on Gradually he rose to the rank of 
colonel. In the Black Hawk war, which resulted in 
the capture of that renowned chieftain, Col Taylor 
took a subordinate but a brave and eflicient part. 

For twenty-four years Col. Taylor was engaged in 
the defence of the frontiers, in scenes so remote, and in 
employments so obscure, that his name was unknown 
oeyond the limits of his own immediate acquaintance. 
In the year 1836, he was sent to Florida to compel 
the Seminole Indians to vacate that region and re- 
tire beyond the Mississippi, as their chiefs by treaty, 
iiac promised they should do. The services rendered 
he;e secured for Col. Taylor the high appreciation of 
ihe Government; and as a reward, he was elevated 
tc he rank of brigadier-general by brevet ; and soon 
after, in May, 1838, was appointed to the chief com- 
mand of the United States troops in Florida. 

After two years of sucti wearisome employment 
amidst the everglades of the peninsula, Gen. Taylor 
obtained, at his own request, a change of command, 
r.nd was stationed over the Department of the South- 
west. This field embraced Louisiana, Mississippi, 
Alabama and Georgia. Establishing his headquarters 
ai Fort Jessup, in Louisiana, he removed his family 
to a plantation which he purchased, near Baton Rogue. 
Here he remained for five years, buried, as it were, 
from the world, but faithfully discharging every duty 
imposed upon him. 

In 1846, Gen. Taylor was sent to guard the land 
between the Nueces and Rio Grande, the latter river 
being the boundary of Texas, which was then claimed 
l)y the United States. Soon the war with Me.\ico 
was brought on, and at Palo Alto and Resaca de la 
Palma, Gen. Taylor won brilliant victories over the 
Mexicans. The rank of major-general by brevet 
was then conferred upon Gen. Taylor, and his name 
Was received with enthusiasm almost everjwhere in 
the Nation. Then came the battles of Monterey and 
Buena Vista in which he won signal victories over 
forces much larger than he commanded. 

His careless habits of dress and his unaffected 
f-iniplicity, secured for Gen. Taylor among his troops, 
the sobriquet of " Old Rough and Ready.' 

The tidings of the brilliant victory of Buena Vista 
•pread the wildest enthusiasm over the country. The 
name of Gen. Taylor was on every one's lips. The 
Whig party decided to take advantage of this wonder- 
ful po])ularity in bringing forward the unpolished, un- 
lettered, honest soldier as their candidate for the 
Presidency. Gen. Taylor was astonished at the an- 
nouncement, and for a time would not listen to it; de- 
claring that he was not at all qualified for such an 
office. So little interest had he taken in politics that, 
for forty years, he had not cast a vote. It was not 
without chagrin that several distinguished statesmen 
■who had been long years in the public service found 
•l.iir claims set aside in behalf of one whose name 

had never been heard of, save in connection with Palo 
Alto, Resaca de la Palma, Monterey and Buena 
Vista. It is said that Daniel Webster, in his haste re- 
marked, " It is a nomination not fit to be made." 

Gen. Taylor was not an eloquent speaker nor a fine 
wrfiter His friends took possession of him, and pre- 
pared such few communications as it was needful 
should be presented to the public. The popularity of 
the successful warrior swept the land. He was tri- 
umphantly elected over two opposing candidates, — 
Gen. Cass and E.\-President Martin Van Buren. 
Though he selected an excellent cabinet, the good 
old man found himself in a very uncongenial position, 
and was, at times, sorely perplexed and harassed. 
His mental sufferings were very severe, and probably 
tended to hasten his death. The pro-slavery party 
was pushing its claims with tireless energy , expedi- 
tions were fitting out to capture Cuba; California was 
pleading for admission to the Union, vi'hile slavery 
stood at the door to bar her out. Gen. Taylor found 
the political conflicts in Washington to be far more 
trjdng to the nerves than battles with Mexicans or 

In the midst of all these troubles. Gen. Taylor, 
after he had occupied the Presidential chair but little 
over a year, took cold, and after a brief sickness of 
but little over five days, died on the gih of July, r85o. 
His last words were, " I am not afraid to die. I am 
ready. I have endeavored to do my duty." He died 
universally respected and beloved. An honest, un- 
pretending man, he had been steadily growing in the 
affections of the people ; and the Nation bitterly la- 
mented his death. 

Gen. Scott, who was thoroughly acquainted with 
Gen. Taylor, gave the following graphic and truthful 
description of his character: — " With a good store of 
common sense, Gen. Taylor's mind had not been en- 
larged and refreshed by reading, or much converse 
with the world. Rigidity of ideas was the conse- 
quence. The frontiers and small military posts had 
been his home. Hence he was quite ignorant for his 
rank, and quite bigoted in his ignorance. His sim- 
plicity was child-like, and with innumerable preju- 
dices, amusing and incorrigible, well suited to the 
tender age. Thus, if a man, however respectable, 
chanced to wear a coat of an unusual color, or his hat 
a little on one side of his head; or an officer to leave 
a corner of his handkerchief dangling from an out- 
side pocket, — in any such case, this critic held the 
offender to be a coxcomb (perhaps something worse), 
whom he would not, to use his oft repeated phrase, 
' touch with a pair of tongs.' 

"Any allusion to literature beyond good old Dil- 
worth's spelling-book, on the part of one wearing a 
sword, was evidence, with the same judge, of utter 
unfitness for heavy marchings and combats. In short 
few men have ever had a more comfortaoie, labor- 
saving contempt for learning of every kind." 









"iM- — ^ 



teenth I'residentofthe Lniiteii 
States, was born at Summer 
Hill, Cayuga Co., N. Y ., on 
the 7th of January, 1800. His 
father was a farmer, and ow- 
ing to misfortune, in humlile cir- 
cumstances. Of his mother, the 
daughter of Dr. Abiathar Millard, 
^\ of Pittsfield, Mass., it lias been 
said that she possessed an intellect 
of very high order, united with much 
personal loveliness, sweetness of dis- 
position, graceful manners and ex- 
quisite sensibilities. She died in 
1831 ; having lived to see her son a 
young man of distinguished prom- 
ise, though she was not permitted to witness the high 
dignity which he finally attained. 

In conseiiuence of the secluded home and limited 
means of his father, Millard enjoyed but slender ad- 
vantages for education in his early years. The com- 
mon schools, rt-hi< h he occasionally attended were 
very imperfect institutions; and books were scarce 
snd expensive. There was nothing then in his char- 
acter to indicate the brilliant career u]X)n which he 
was about to enter. He was a plain farmer's boy; 
intelligent, good-looking, kind-hearted. The sacred 
influences of home had taught him to revere the Bible, 
and had laid the foundations of an upright character. 
When fourteen years of age, his father sent him 
some hundred miles from home, to the then wilds of 
Livingston County, to learn the trade of a clothier. 
Near the mill there was a small villiage, where some 

enterprising man had commenced the collection of a 
village library. This proved an inestimable blessing 
to young Fillmore. His evenings were spent in read- 
ing. Soon every leisure moment was occupied with 
books. His thirst fur knowledge became insatiate 
and the selections which he made were continually 
more elevating and instructive. He read history, 
biography, oratory, and thus gradually there was en- 
kindled in his heart a desire to be something more 
than a mere worker with his hands; and he was be- 
coming, almost unknown to himself, a well-informed, 
educated man. 

The young clothier had now attained the age of 
nineteen years, and was of fine personal appearance 
and cf gentlemanly demeanor. It so happened tha'. 
there was a gentleman in the neighborhood of ample 
pecuniary means and of benevolence, — Judge Walter 
Wood, — who was struck with the prepossessing ap- 
pearance of young Fillmore. He made his acquaint- 
ance, and was so much impressed with his ability and 
attainments that he advised him to abandon his 
trade and devote himself to the study of the law. The 
young man replied, that he had no means of his own, 
r.o friends to help him and that his previous educa- 
tion had been very imperfect. But Judge Wood had 
so much confidence in him that he kindly offered to 
take him into his own office, and to loan him sucli 
money as he needed. Most gratefully the generous 
offer was accepted. 

There is in many minds a strange delusion abou'; 
a collegiate education. A young man is supposed to 
be liberally educated if he has graduated at some col- 
lege. But many a boy loiters through university halls 
nnd then enters a law office, who is by no means as 



well prepared to prosecute his legal studies as was 
Millard Fillmore when he graduated at the clothing- 
mill at the end of four years of manual labor, during 
which every leisure moment had been devoted to in- 
tense mental culture. 

In 1823, when twenty-three years of age, he was 
admitted to the Court of Common Pleas. He then 
went to the village of Aurora, and commenced the 
practice of law. In this secluded, peaceful region, 
his practice of course was limited, and there was no 
opportunity for a sudden rise in fortune or in fame. 
Here, in the year 1S26, he married a lady of great 
moral worth, and one capable of adorning any station 
she might be called to fill, — Miss Abigail Powers. 

His elevation of character, his untiring industry-, 
his legal acquirements, and his skill as an advocate, 
gradually attracted attention ; and he was invited to 
enter into partnership under highly advantageous 
circumstances, with an elder member of the bar in 
Buffalo. Just before removing to Buffalo, in 1829, 
he took his seat in the House of Assembly, of the 
State of New York, as a representative from Erie 
County. Though he had never taken a very active 
part in politics, his vote and his sympathies were with 
the Whig party. The State was then Democratic, 
and he found himself in a helpless minority in the 
Legislature , still the testimony comes from all parlies, 
Ihat his courtesy, ability and integrity, won, to a very 
unusual degrt e the respect of his associates. 

In the autumn of 1832, he was elected to a seat in 
the United States Congress. He entered that troubled 
irena in some of the most tumultuous hours of our 
national history. The great conflict respecting the 
national bank and the removal of the deposits, was 
then raging. 

His term of two years closed ; and he returned to 
his profession, which he pursued with increasing rep- 
utation and success. After a lapse of two years 
he again became a candidate for Congress ; was re- 
elected, and took his seat in 1837. His past e.xpe • 
rience as a representative gave hnn stiength and 
confidence. The first term of service in Congress to 
any man can be but little more than an introduction. 
He was now prepared for active duty. All his ener- 
gies were brought to bear uixsn the public good. Every 
measure received his impress. 

Mr. Fillmore was now a man of wide repute, and 
his popularity filled the State, and in the year 1847, 
he was elected Comptroller of the State. 

Mr. Fillmore had attained the age of forty-seven 
years. His labors at the bar, in the Legislature, in 
Congress and as Comptroller, had given him very con- 
siderable fame. The Whigs were casting about to 
find suitable candidates for President and Vice-Presi- 
dent at the approaching election. Far away, on the 
waters of the Rio Grande, there was a rough old 
soldier, who had fought one or two successful battles 
with the Mexicans, which had caused his name to be 
proclaimed in tiumpet-tones all over the land. But 
it was necessary to associate with him on the same 
ticket some man of l-eputation as a statesman. 

Under the influence of these considerations, the 
namesofZachary Taylor and Millard Fillmore became 
the rallying-cry of the Whigs, as their candidates for 
President and Vice-Peesident. The Whig ticket was 
signally triumphant. On the 4th of March, 1849, 
Gen. Taylor was inaugurated President, and Millard 
Filln.ore Vice-President, of the United States. 

On the 9th of July, 1850, President Taylor, but 
about one year and four months after his inaugura- 
tion, was suddenly taken sick and died. By the Con- 
stitution. Vice-President Fillmore thus became Presi- 
dent. He appointed a very able cabinet, of which 
the illustrious Daniel Webster was Secretar)- of State. 

Mr. Fillniore had very serious difficulties to contend 
with, since the opposition had a majority in both 
Houses. He did everything in his power tocontiliate 
the South ; but the pro-slavery party in the South felt 
the inadequacy of all measuresof transient conciliation. 
The population of the free States was so rapidly in- 
creasing over that of the slave States that it was in- 
evitable that the power of the Government should 
soon pass into the hands of the free States. The 
famous compromise measures were adopted under Mr. 
Fillmcre's adminstration, and the Japan Expedition 
was sent out. On the 4th of March, 1853, Mr. Fill- 
more, having served one term, retired. 

In 1856, iSIr. Fillmore was nominated for the Pres- 
idency by the " Know Nothing " party, but was beaten 
by Mr. Buchanan. After that Mr. Fillmore lived in 
retirement. During the terrible conflict of civil war, 
he was mostly silent. It was generally supposed that 
his sympathies were rather with those who were en- 
deavoring to overthrow our institutions. President 
Fillmore kept aloof from the conflict, without any 
cordial words of cheer to the one party or the other. 
He was thus forgotten by both. He lived to a ripe 
old age, and died in Buffalo. N. Y., March S, 1874, 



^k.ij£&aj> ^ ••" 

c-;o^':;r> ^'-FRflNKLIN PIERCE.-^ .^^|:;jpvs^^ 

loLirteenth President of the 
' United States, was born in 
Hillsborough, N. H., Nov. 
23, 1804. His father was a 
Revolutionary soldier, who, 
with his own strong arm, 
hewed out a liome in the 
wilderness. He was a man 
of inflexible integrity; of 
strong, though uncultivated 
mind, and an uncompromis- 
ing Democrat. The mother of 
Franklin Pierce was all that a son 
could desire, — an intelligent, pru- 
dent, affectionate, Christian Wom- 
an. Franklin was the sixth of eight children. 

Franklin was a very bright and handsome boy, gen- 
erous, warm-hearted and brave. He won alike the 
love of old and young. The boys on the play ground 
loved him. His teachers loved him. Theneighljors 
looked upon him with pride and affection. He was 
by instinct a gentleman; always speaking kind words, 
doing kind deeds, with a peculiar unstudied tact 
which taught him what was agreeable. Witiiout de- 
veloping any precocity of genius, or any unnatural 
devotion to books, he was a good scholar; in body, 
in mind, in affections, a finely-developed boy. 

When sixteen years of age, in the year 1820, he 
entered Bovvdoin College, at Brunswick, Me He was 
one of the most popular young men in the college. 
The purity cf his moral character, the unvarying 
courtesy of his demeanor, his rank as a scholar, and 

genial nature, rendered him a universal favorite. 
There was something very peculiarly winning in his 
address, and it was evidently not in the slightest de- 
gree studied: it was the simple outgushing of his 
own magnanimous and loving nature. 

Upon graduating, in the year 1824, Franklin Pierce 
conimenced the study of law in the office of Judge 
Woodbury, one of the most distinguished lawyers of 
the State, and a man of great private worth. The 
eminent social qualities of the young lawyer, his 
father's prominence as a public man, and the brilliant 
political career into which Judge Woodbury was en- 
tering, all tended to entice .Mr. Pierce into the faci- 
nating yet perilous path of political life. With all 
the ardor of his nature he espoused the cause of Gen. 
Jackson for the Presidency. He commenced the 
practice of law in Hillsborough, and was soon elected 
to represent the town in the State Legislature. Here 
he served for four yeais. The last two years he was 
chosen speaker of the house by a very large vote. 

In 1833, at the age of twenty-nine, he was elected 
a member of Congress. Without taking an active 
part in debates, he was faithful and laborious in duty, 
and ever rising in the estimation of those with whom 
he was associatad. 

In 1837, being then but thirty-three years of age, 
he was elected to the Senate of the United States; 
taking his seat just as Mr. Van Buren commenced 
his administration. He was the youngest member in 
the Senate. In the year 1834, he married Miss Jane 
Means Appleton, a lady of rare beauty and accom- 
plishments, and one admirably fitted to adorn every 
station with which her husband was honoied. Of the 



three sons who were bom to them, all now sleep with 
their parents in the grave. 

In tlie year 183S, Mr. Pierce, with growing fame 
and increasing business as a lawyer, took up his 
residence in Concord, the capital of New Hampshire. 
President Polk, upon his accession to office, appointed 
Mr. Pierce attorney-general of the United States; but 
the offer was declined, in consequence of numerous 
professional engagements at home, and the precariuos 
state of Mrs. Pierce's health. He also, about the 
same time declined the nomination for governor by the 
Democratic party. The war with Mexico called Mr. 
Pierce in the army. Receiving the appointment of 
brigadier-general, he embarked, with a portion of his 
troops, at Newport, R. I., on the 27th of May, 1S47. 
He took an important part in this war, proving him- 
self a brave and true soldier. 

When Gen. Pierce reached his home in his native 
State, he was received enthusiastically by the advo- 
cates of the Mexican war, and coldly by his oppo- 
nents. He resumed the practice of his profession, 
very frequently taking an active part in political ques- 
tions, giving his cordial support to the pro-slavery 
wing of the Democratic party. The compromise 
measures met cordially with his approval ; and he 
strenuously advocated the enforcement of the infa- 
ir.ous fugitive-slave law, which so shocked the religious 
sensibilities of the North. He thus became distin- 
guished as a "Northern man with Southern principles.'' 
The strong partisans of slavery in the South conse- 
quently regarded him as a man whom they could 
safely trust in office to carry out their plans. 

On the i2th of June, 1852, the Democratic conven- 
tion met in Baltimore to nominate a candidate for the 
Presidency. For four days they continued in session, 
and in thirty-five ballotings no one had obtained a 
two-thirds vote. Not a vote thus far had been thrown 
for Gen. Pierce. Then the Virginia delegation 
brought forward his name. There were fourteen 
more ballotings, during which Gen. Pierce constantly 
gained strength, until, at the forty-niiith ballot, he 
received two hundred and eighty-two votes, and all 
other candidates eleven. Gen. Winfield Scott was 
the Whig candidate. Gen. Pierce was chosen with 
great unanimity. Only four States — Vermont, Mas- 
sachusetts, Kentucky and Tennessee — cast their 
electoral votes against him Gen. Franklin Pieice 
was therefore inaugurated President of the United 
States on the 4th of March, 1853. 

His administration proved one of the most stormy our 
country had ever e.xperienced. The controversy be- 
tween slavery and freedom was then approaching its 
culminating point Ii became evident that there was 
an "irrepressible conflict " between them, and that 
this Nation could not long exist " half slave and half 
free." President Pierce, during the whole of his ad- 
ministration, did every thing he could to conciliate 
the South ; but it was all in vain. The conflict every 
year grew more violent, and threats of the dissolution 
of the Union were borne to the North on every South- 
ern breeze. 

Such was the condition of affairs when President 
Pierce approached the close of his four-years' term 
of office. The North had become thoroughly alien- 
ated from him. The anti-slavery sentiment, goaded 
by great outrages, had been rapidly increasing; all 
the intellectual ability and social worth of President 
Pierce were forgotten in deep re[)rehension of his ad- 
ministrative acts. The slaveholders of the South, also, 
unmindful of the fidelity with which he had advo- 
cated ti'iose measures of Government which they ap- 
proved, and perhaps, also, feeling that he had 
rendered himself so unpopular as no longer to be • 
able acceptably to serve them, ungratefully dropped 
him, and nominated James Buchanan to succeed him. 

On the 4th of March, 1857, President Pierce re- 
tired to his home in Concord. Of three children, two 
had died, and his only surviving child had been 
killed before his eyes by a railroad accident ; and his 
wife, one of the most estimable and accomplished of 
ladies, was rapidly sinking in consumption. The 
hour of dreadful gloom soon came, and he was left 
alone in the world, without wife or child. 

When the terrible Rebellion burst forth, which di- 
vided our country into two parties, and two only, Mr. 
Pierce remained steadfast in the principles which he 
had always cherished, and gave his sympathies to 
that pro-slavery party with which he had ever been 
allied. He declined to do anything, either by voice 
or pen, to strengthen the hand of the National Gov- 
ernment. He continued to reside- in Concord until 
the time of his death, which occurred in October, 
1869. He was one of the most genial and social of 
men, an honored communicant of the Episcopal 
Church, and one of the kindest of neighbors. Gen- 
erous to a fault, he contributed liberally for the al- 
leviation of suffering and want, and many of his towns- 
people were often gladencd by his material bounty. 


'■^^71^ J adPu^-i^Zy7l€^^?/:P 



\tS — ■ UA 






AMES BUCHANAN, the fif- 
teenth- President of the United 
States, was born in a small 
frontier town, at the foot of the 
eastern ridge of the Allegha- 
nies, in Franlilin Co., Penn., on 
i^ijSi the 23d of April, 1791. The place 
where the humble cabin of his 
father stuod was called Stony 
Batter. It was a wild and 10- 
ijteM mantic spot in a gorge of the moun- 
tains, with towering summits rising 
grandly all around. His fatlier 
was a r^ative of the north of Ireland ; 
a poor man, who had emigrated in 
1 7 S3, with little property save his 
own strong arms. Five years afterwards he married 
Elizabeth Spear, the daughter of a respectable farmer, 
and, with his young bride, plunged into the wilder- 
ness, staked his claim, reared his log-hut, opened a 
clearing with his axe, and settled down there to per- 
form his obscure part in the drama of Hie. In this se- 
cluded home, where James was born, he remained 
for eight years, enjoying but few social or intellectual 
advantagos. When James was eight years of age, his 
father removed to the village of Mercersburg, where 
his son was placed at school, and commenced a 
course of study in English, Latin and Greek. Mis 
progress was rapid, and at the age of fourteen, he 
entered Dickinson College, at Carlisle. Here he de- 
veloped remarkable taler.t, and took liis stand among 
the first scholars in the institution. His application 
to study was intense, and yet his native powers e 1- 

abled him to master the most abstruse subjects with 

In the year 1S09, he graduated with the highest 
honors of his class. He was then eighteen years of 
age; tall and graceful, vigorous in healtli, fond of 
athletic sport, an unerring shot, and enlivened with 
an exuberant flow of animal spirits. He immediately 
commenced the study of law in the city of Lancaster, 
and was admitted to tiie bar in 1812, when he was 
but twenty-one years of age. Very rapidly lie rose 
in his profession, and at once took undisputed stand 
with the ablest lawyers of the State. When but 
twenty-six years of age, unaided by counsel, he suc- 
cessfully defended before the State Senate ore of the 
judges of the State, who was tried upon articles of 
impeachment. At the age of thirty it was generally 
admitted that he stood at the head of the bar; and 
there was no lawyer in the State who had a more lu- 
crative practice. 

In 1820, he reluctantly consented to run as a 
candidate for Congress. He was elected, and for 
icn years he remained a member of the Lower House. 
During the vacations of Congress, he occasionally 
tried some important case. In 1831, he retired 
altogether from the toils of his v>rofession, having ac- 
quired an ample fortune. 

Gen. Jackson, upon his elevation to '.lie Presidency, 
apjwinted Mr. Buchanan minister to Russia. The 
duties of his mission he performed with ability, which 
gave satisfaction to all parties. Upon his return, in 
1833, he was elected to a seat in the United States 
Senate. He there met, as his associates, Webster, 
Clay, Wright and Calhoun. He advocated the meas- 
ures proposed by President Jackson, of ni. king repn- 



sais auaiiist France, to enforce the payment of our 
claims against that country; and defended the course 
of the Presi.dent in his unprecedented and wholesale 
removal from office of those who were not tlie sup- 
porters of his administration. Upon this question he 
was brought into direct collision with Henry Clay. 
He also, with voice and vote, advocated expunging 
from the journal of the Senate tiie vote of censure 
against Gen. Jackson for removing the deposits. 
Earnestly he opposed the abolition of slavery in the 
District of Columbia, and urged the prohibition of the 
circulation of anti-slavery documents by the United 
States mails. 

As to petitions on the subject of slaver)', he advo- 
cated that they should be respectfully received; and 
that the reply should be returned, that Congress had 
no power to legislate upon the subject. " Congress," 
said he, " might as well undertake to interfere with 
slavery under a foreign government as in any of the 
States where it now exists." 

U|X)n Mr. Polk's accession to the Presidency, Mr. 
Buchanan became Secretary of State, and as such, 
took his share of the resix)nsibility in the conduct of 
the Mexican War. Mr. Polk assumed that crossing 
the Nueces by the American troops into the disputed 
territory was not wrong, but for the Mexicans to cross 
the Rio Grande into that territor)' was a declaration 
of war. No candid man can read with pleasure the 
account of the course our Government pursued in that 

Mr. Buchanan identified himself thoroughly with 
the party devoted to the pi^rpetuation and extension 
of slavery, and brought all the energies of his mind 
to bear against the Wilmot Proviso. He gave his 
cordial approval to the compromise measures of 1S50, 
which included the fugiiive-slave law. Mr. Pierce, 
upon his election to the Presidency, honored Mr. 
Buchanan 'with the mission to England. 

In the year 1856, a national Democratic conven- 
tion nominated Mr. Buchanan for the Presidency. The 
political conflict was one of the most severe in which 
our country has ever engaged. All the friends of 
sl.avery were on one side; all the advocates of its re- 
striction and final abolition, on the other. Mr. Fre- 
mont, the candidate of the enemies of slavery, re- 
•eived 114 electoral votes. Mr. Buchanan received 
174, and was elected. The popular vote stood 
r, 340,618, for Fremont, t-,:24,75o for Buchanan. On 
March 4th. 1857, Mr. Buchanan was inaugurated. 

Mr. Buchanan was far advanced in life. Only four 
•'ears were wanting to fill up his threescore years and 
ten. His own friends, those with whom he had been 
allied in jxjlitical principles and action for years, were 
seeking the destruction of the Government, that they 
might rear upon the ruins of our free institutions a 
nation whose corner-stone should be human slavery. 
[n this emergency, Mr. Buchanan was hopelessly be- 
wildered He could not, with his long-avowed prin- 

cii)les, consistently oppose the State-rights party in 
their assumptions. As President of the United States, 
bound by his oath faithfully to administer the laws 
he could not, without perjury of the grossest kind, 
unite with those endeavoring to overthrow the repub- 
lic. He therefore did nothing. 

The opix)nents of Mr. Buchanan's administration 
nominated Abraham Lincoln as their standard bearer 
in the next Presidential canvass. The pro-slavery 
party declared, that if he were elected, and the con- 
trol of the Government were thus taken from their 
hands, they would secede from the Union, taking 
with them, as they retired, the National Capitol at 
Washington, and the lion's share of the territory of 
the United States. 

Mr. Buchanan's sympathy with the pro-slavery 
party was such, that he had been willing to offer them 
far more than they had ventured to claim. All the 
South had professed to ask of the North was non- 
intervention upon the subject of slavery. Mr. Bu- 
chanan had been ready to offer them the active co- 
operation of the Government to defend and extend 
the institution. 

As the storm increased in violence, the slaveholders 
claiming the right to secede, and Mr. Buchanan avow- 
ing that Congress had no power to prevent it, one of 
the most pitiable exhibitions of governmental im- 
becility was exhibited the world has ever seen. He 
declared that Congress had no power to enforce its 
laws in any State which had withdrawn, or which 
was attempting to withdraw from the Union. This 
was not the doctrine of Andrew Jackson, when, with 
his hand uix)n his sword-hilt, he exclaimed. " The 
Union must and shall be preserved!" 

South Carolina seceded in December, i860; nearly 
three months before the inauguration of President 
Lincoln. i\Ir. Buchanan looked on in listless despair. 
The rebel flag was raised in Charleston : Fort Sumpter 
was besieged ; our forts, navy-yards and =irsenals 
were seized ; our depots of military stores were plun- 
dered ; and our custom-houses and post-offices were 
appropriated by the rebels. 

The energj' of the rebels, and the imbecility of our 
Executive, were alike marv'elous. The Nation looked 
on in agony, waiting for the slow weeks to glide away, 
and close the administration, so terrible in its weak- 
ness At length the long-looked-for hour of deliver- 
ance came, when Abraham Lincoln was to receive the 

The administration of President Buchanan was 
certainly the most calamitous our countr)' has ex- 
perienced. His best friends cannot recall it with 
pleasure. And still more de|,lorable it is for his fame, 
that in that dreadful conflict which rolled its billows 
of flame and blood over our whole land, no word came 
from his lips to indicate his wish that our countrv's 
banner should triumph over the flag of the rebellion. 
He died at his Wheatland retreat, June i, 1868. 





m J 

q i ABRAHAM 1> ^i|v- 

>< ► 




LINCOLN. 1> - 


[:■! >^'" 

sixteenth President of tlie 
i# United States, was born in 
Hardin Co., Ky., Feb. 12, 
1809. About the year 1780, a 
_^. man by the name of Abraham 
*^' Lincohi left Virginia with his 
family and moved into the then 
wildsof Kentucky. Only two years 
after this emigration, still a young 
man, while working one day in a 
field, was stealtliily approached by 
an Indian and shot dead. His widow 
was left in extreme poverty with five 
little children, three boys and two 
girls. Thomas, the youngest of the 
boys, was four years of age at liis 
father's death. This Thomas was 
the father of Abraham Lincoln, the 
' President of the United States 

whose name must henceforth fo-^ever be enrolled 
with the most prominent in tiie annals of our world. 
Of course no record has been kept of the life 
of one so lowly as Thomas Lincoln. He was among 
the poorest of the poor. His home was a wretched 
log-cabin; his food the coarsest and the meanest. 
Education he had none; he could never either rend 
or write. As soon as he was able to do anything for 
himself, he was compelled to leave ihe cabin*of his 
starving mother, and push out into the world, a frieiid- 
.ess, wandering boy, seeking work. He hired him- 
self out, and thus spent the whole of his youth as a 
laborer in the fields of others. 

When twenty-eight years of age he buill a log- 
cabin of his own, and married Nancy Hanks, the 
daughter of another family of poor Kentucky emi- 
grants, who had also come from Virginia. Their 
second child was .-Xbraham Lincoln, the subject of 
this sketch. The mother of Abraham was a noble 
woman, gentle, loving, jiensive, created to adorn 
a palace, doomed to toil and pine, and die in a hovel. 
"All that I am, or hope to be," exclaims the grate- 
ful son "I owe to my angel-mother. 

When he was eight years of 3ge, his father sold his 

cabin and small farm, and moved to Indiana Where 
two years later his mother died. 

Abraham soon become the scribe of the uneducated 
couDiuinity aroimd him. He could not liave had u 
better school than this to teach him to put thoughts 
into words. He also became an eager reader, 'i'he 
books he could obtain were few ; but these he read 
and re-read until they were almost committed lo 

As the years rolled on, the lot of this lowly family 
was the usual lot of humanity. Thi're were joys and 
griefs, weddings and funerals. Abraham's sister 
Sarah, to whom he was tenderly attached, was mar- 
ried when a child of but fourteen years of age, and 
soon died. The family was gradually scattered. Mr. 
Thomas Lincoln sold out his squatter's claim in 1830, 
and emigrated to ALacon Co., 111. 

Abraham Lincoln was then twenty-one years of age. 
With vigorous hands he aided his father in rearing 
another log-cabin. Abraham worked diligently at this 
until he saw the family comfortably settled, and their 
small lot of enclosed prairie planted with corn, when 
he announced to his father his intention to leave 
liome, and to go out into the world and seek his for- 
tune. Little did he or his friends imagine how bril- 
liant that fortune was to be. He saw the value of 
education and was intensely earnest to improve his 
mind to the utmost of his power. He saw the ruin 
which ardent spirits were causing, and became 
strictly temperate; refusing to allow a drop of intoxi- 
cating liquor to pass his lips. And he had read in 
God's word, " Thou shalt not take the name of the 
Lord thy God in vain ;" and a i)rofane expression he 
was never heard to utter. Religion he revered. His 
morals were pure, and he was uncontaminated by a 
single vice. 

Young Abraham worked for a time as a hired laborer 
among the farmers. Then he went to Springfield, 
where he was employed in building a large flat-boat. 
In this he took a herd of swine, floated them down 
the Sangamon to the Illinois, and thence l)y the Mis- 
sissi[)pi to New Orleans, ^^'hatever Abraham Lin- 
coln undertook, he performed so faithfully as to give 
great satisfacticn to his employers. In this advc;i- 


tare his employers were so well pleased, that upon 
his return tiiey placed a store and luill under his care. 

1,1 1S32, at the outbreak of the Black Hawk war, he 
enlisted and was chosen captain of a company. He 
returned to Sangamon County, and although only 23 
years of age, was a candidate for the Legislature, but 
was defeated. He soon after received from Andrew 
Jackson the appointment of Postmaster of New Salem, 
His only post-office was his hat. All the letters he 
received he carried there ready to deliver to those 
he chanced to meet. He studied surveying, and soon 
made this his business. In 1834 he again became a 
candidate for the Legislature, and was elected Mr. 
Stuart, of Springfield, advised him to study law. He 
walked from New Salem to Springfield, borrowed of 
j\lr. Stuart a load of books, carried them back and 
began his legal studies. When the Legislature as- 
sembled he trudged on foot with his pack on his back 
one hundred miies to Vandalia, then the capital. In 
1836 he was re-elected to the Legislature. Here it 
was he first met Stephen A. Douglas. In 1839 he re- 
moved to Springfield and began the practice of law. 
His success with the jury was so great that he was 
soon engaged in almost every noted case in the circuit. 

In 1854 the great discussion began between Mr. 
Lincoln and Mr. Douglas, on the slavery question. 
In the organization of the Republican party in Illinois, 
in 1856, he took an active part, and at once became 
one of the leaders in that party. Mr. Lincoln's 
speeches in opposition to Senator Douglas in the con- 
test in 1858 for a seat in the Senate, form a most 
notable part of his history. The issue was on the 
ilavery question, and he took the broad ground of 
.he Declaration of Independence, that all men are 
created equal. Mr. Lincoln was defeated in this con- 
test, but won a far higher prize. 

The great Republican Convention met at Chicago 
on the i6ih of June, i860. The delegates and 
strangers who crowded the city amounted to twenty- 
five thousand. An immense building called "The 
Wigwam," was reared to accommodate the Conven- 
tion. There were eleven candidates for whom votes 
were thrown. William H. Seward, a man whose fame 
as a statesman had long filled the land, was tiie most 
orominent. It was generally supposed he would be 
tlie nominee. Abraham Lincoln, however, received 
the nomination on the third ballot. Little did he then 
dream of the weary years of toil and care, and the 
bloody death, to which that nomination doomed him: 
and aslittle did he dream that he was to render services 
to his country, which would fix upon him the eyes of 
the whole civilized world, and which would give him 
a place in the affections of his countrymen, second 
cnly, if second, to that of Washington. 

Election day came and Mr. Lincoln received 180 
electoral votes out of 203 cast, and was, therefore, 
constitutionally elected President of the United States. 
The tirade of abuse that was poured upon this good 

and merciful man, especially by the slaveholders, was 
greater than upon any other man ever elected to this 
high position. In February, i86i, Mr. Lincoln started 
for Washington, stopping in all the large cities on his 
way making speeches. The whole journey was frought 
with much danger. Many of the Southern States had 
already seceded, and several attempts at assassination 
were afterwards brought to light. .A gang in Balti- 
more had arranged, upon his arrival to "get up a row," 
and in the confusion to make sure of his death with 
revolvers and hand-grenades. A detective unravelled 
the plot. -^ secret and special train was provided to 
take him from HarrisL'urg, through Baltimore, at an 
unexpected hour of the night. The train started at 
half-past ten ; and to prevent any possible communi- 
cation on the part ot the Secessionists with their Con- 
federate gang in Baltimore, as soon as the train had 
started the telegraph-'wires were cut. Mr. Lincoln 
reached Washington in safety and was inaugurated, 
although great anxiety was felt by all loyal people 

In the selection of his cabinet Mr. Lincoln gave 
to Mr Seward the Department of State, and to other 
prominent opponents before the convention he gave 
important positions. 

During no other administration have the duties 
devolving upon the President been so manifold, and 
the responsibilities so great, as those which fell to 
the lot of President Lincoln. Knowing this, and 
feeling his own weakness and inability to meet, and in 
his own strength to cope with, the difficulties, he 
learned early to seek Divine wisdom and guidance in 
determining his plans, and Divine comfort in all his 
trials, bo'h personal and national. Contrary to his 
own estimate of himself, Mr. Lincoln was one of the 
most courageous of men. He went directly into the 
rebel capital just as the retreating foe was leaving, 
with no guard but a few sailors. From the time he 
had left Springfield, in i86i, however, plans had Ijeen 
made for his assassination,and he at last fell a victim 
to oneof thein. April 14, 1865, he, with Gen. Grant, 
was urgently invited to attend Fords' Theater. It 
was announced that they would Le present. Gen. 
Grant, however, left the city. President Lincoln, feel- 
ing, witli his characteristic kindliness of heart, that 
it would be a disappointment if he should fail them, 
very reluctantly consented to go. While listening to 
the play an actor by the name of John Wilkes Booth 
entered the box where the President and family were 
seated, and fired a bullet into his brains. He died the 
next morning at seven o'clock. 

Never before, in the history of the world was a nation 
plunged into such deep grief by the death of its ruler. 
.Strong men met in the streets and wept in speechless 
anguish. It is not too much to say that a nation was 
in tears. His was a life which will fitly become a 
model. His name as the savior of his country will 
live with that of W'ashington's, its father; his co':;ntr)'- 
men being unable to decide whiih is the greater. 




teenth President of the United 
States. The early life of 
Andrew Johnson contains but 
the record of poverty, destitu- 
tion and friendlessness. He 
^r}M was born December 29, 1808, 
pjl^fl in Raleigh, N. C. His parents, 
/^!a«i,J belonging to the class of the 
"poor whites " of the Soutii,Tvere 
in such circumstances, that tlicy 
could not confer even tne slight- 
est advantages of education upon 
tlieir child. When Andrew was five 
years of age, his father accidentally 
lost nis life while heiorically endeavoring to save a 
friend from drowning. Until ten years of age, Andrew 
was a ragged boy about the streets, supported by the 
labor of his mother, who obtained her living with 
her own hands. 

He then, having never attended a school one day, 
and being unable either to read or write, was ap- 
prenticed to a tailor in liis native town. A gentleman 
ivp.s ii-. the habit of going to the tailor's shop occasion- 
ally, and reading to. the boys at work there. He often 
read from tlie speeches of distinguished British states- 
men. Andrew, who was endowed with a mind of more 
than ordinary native abiHty, became much interested 
in these speeches; his amliition was roused, and he 
was inspired with a strong desire to learn to read. 

He accordingly applied himself to tiie alplial)ct, and 
with tlie assistance of some of his fellow-workmen, 
lecirned his letters. He then called upon the gentle- 
man to borrow the book of speeches. The owner, 

pleased with his zeal, not only gave him the book 
but assisted him in learning to combine the letters 
into words. Under such difficulties he pressed oi. 
ward laboriously, spending usually ten or twelve houi-s 
at work in the shop, and then robbing himself of rest 
and recreatio;~ to devote such time vs he could to 

He went to Tennessee in 1826, and located af: 
Greenville, where he married a young lady who p^is 
sessed some education. Under her instructions hf 
learned to write and cipher. He became prominen': 
in the village debating society, and a favorite with 
the students of Greenville College. In 1828, he or- 
ganized a working man's party, which elected him 
alderman, and in 1830 elected him mayor, which 
position he held three years. 

He now began to take a lively interest in political 
affairs ; identifying himself with the working-classes, 
to which he belonged. In 1835, he was elected a 
member of the House of Representatives of Tennes- 
see. He was then just twenty-seven years of age. 
He became a very active member of the legislature 
gave his adhesion to the Democratic party, and in 
1840 "stumped the State," advocating Martin Van 
Buren's claims to the Presidency, in opposition to thos.. 
of Gen. Harrison. In this campaign he acquired mucli 
readiness as a speaker, and extended and increased 
his reputation. 

In 1841, he was elected State Senator; in 1843, he 
was elected a member of Congress, and by successive 
elections, held that imiwrtant post for ten years. In 
1853, he was elected Governor of Tennessee, and 
was re-elected in 1855. In all these resiwnsible posi- 
tions, he discharged his duties with distinguished abi'.- 



ity, and proved himself the warm friend of the work- 
ing classes. In 1S57, Mr. Johnson was elected 
United States Senator. 

Years before, in 1845, he had warmly advocated 
the annexation of Texas, stating however, as his 
reason, that he thought this annexation would prob- 
ably prove " to be the gateway out of which the sable 
sons of Africa are to pass from bondage to freedom, 
and become merged in a population congenial to 
themselves." In 1850, he also supported the com- 
promise measures, the two essential features of which 
were, that the white people of the Territories should 
be permitted to decide for themselves whether they 
would enslave the colored people or not, and that 
the *'ree States of the North should return to the 
Soutli persons who attempted to escape from slavery. 

Mr. Johnson was neverashamedof his lowly origin: 
on the contrary, he often took pride in avowing that 
he owed his distinction to his own exertions. "Sir,'" 
said he on the floor of the Senate, " I do not forget 
that I am a mechanic ; neither do I forget that Adam 
was a tailor and sewed fig-leaves, and that our Sav- 
ior was the son of a carpenter." 

In the Charleston-Baltimore convention of i8l-o, iie 
was the choice of the Tennessee Democrats for the 
Presidency. In 186 1, when the purpose of the South- 
ern Democracy became apparent, he took a decided 
stand in favor of the Union, and held that " slavery 
must be held subordinate to the Union at whatever 
cost." He returned to Tennessee, and repeatedly 
imperiled his own life to protect the Unionists of 
Tennesee. Tennessee having seceded from the 
Union, President Lincoln, on March 4th, 1862, ap- 
pointed him Military Governor of the State, and he 
established the most stringent military rule. His 
numerous proclamations attracted wide attention. In 

1864, he was elected Vice-President of the United 
States, and upon the death of Mr. Lincoln, April 15, 

1865, became President. In a speech two days later 
he said, " The American people must be taught, if 
they do not already feel, that treason is a crime and 
must be punished ; that the Government will not 
always bear with its enemies ; that it is strong not 
only to protect, but to punish. * * The people 
must understand that it (treason) is the blackest of 
crimes, and will surely be punished." Yet his whole 
administration, the history of which is so well known, 
■was in utter itwansistency with, and the most violent 

opposition to, the principles laid down in that speech. 

In his loose policy of reconstruction and general 
amnesty, he was opposed by Congress; and he char- 
acterized Congress as a new rebellion, and lawlessly 
defied it, in everything possible, to the utmost. In 
the beginning of 1868, on account of "high crimes 
and misdemeanors," the principal of which was the 
removal of Secretary Stanton, in violation of the Ten- 
ure of Office Act, articles of impeachment were pre- 
ferred against him, and the trial began March 23. 

It was very tedious, continuing for nearly three 
months. A test article of the impeachment was at 
length submitted to the court for its action. It was 
certain that as the court voted upon that article so 
would it vote upon all. Thirty-four voices pronounced 
the President guilty. As a two-thirds vote was neces- 
sary to his condemnation, he was pronounced ac- 
quitted, notwithstanding the great majority against 
him. The change of one vote from the not guilty 
side would have sustained the impeachment. 

The President, for the remainder of his term, was 
but little regarded. He continued, though impotently, 
his conflict with Congress. His own party did not 
think it expedient to renominate him for the Presi- 
dency. The Nation rallied, with enthusiasm unpar- 
alleled since the days of Washington, around the name 
of Gen. Grant. Andrew Johnson was forgotten. 
The bullet of the assassin introduced him to the 
President's chair. Notwithstanding this, never was 
there presented to a man a better opportunity to im- 
mortalize his name, and to win the gratitude of a 
nation. He failed utterly. He retired to his home 
in Greenville, Tenn., taking no very active part in 
politics until 1875. On Jan. 26, after an exciting 
struggle, he was chosen by the Legislature of Ten- 
nessee, United States Senator in the forty-fourth Con- 
gress, and took his seat in that body, at the special 
session convened by President Grgmt, on the 5th of 
March. On the 27th of July, 1875, the ex-President 
made a visit to his daughter's home, near Carter 
Station, Tenn. When he started on his journey, he was 
apparently in his usual vigorous he.ilth, but on reach- 
ing the residence of his child the following day, was 
stricken with paralysis, rendering him unconscious. 
He rallied occasionally, but finally passed away at 
2 A. M., July 31, aged sixty-seven years. His fun- 
eral was attended at Geenville, on th^3d of August, 
with every demonstration of respect. 






LYSSES S. GR.\NT, the 
^ eighteenth President of the 
I' United States, was born on 
the 29th of April, 1822, of 
Christian parents, in a humble 
home, at Point Pleasant, on the 
banks of the Ohio. Shortly after 
his father moved to George- 
town, Brown Co., O. In this re- 
mote frontier hamlet, Ulysses 
received a common-school edu- 
cation. At the age of seven- 
teen, in the year 1839, he entered 
■ the Military Academy at West 
Point. Here he was regarded as a 
ioiid, sensible )oung man of fair abilities, and of 
sturdy, honest character. He took respectable rank 
as a scholar. In June, 1843, he graduated, about the 
middle in his class, and was sent as lieutenant of in- 
fantry to one of the distant military posts in the Mis- 
souri Territory. Two years he past in these dreary 
solitudes, watching the vagabond and exasperating 

The war with Mexico came. Lieut. Grant was 
:5eiit with his regiment to Corpus Christi. His first 
battle was at Palo Alto. There was no chance here 
for the exhibition of either skill or heroism, nor at 
Resacade la Paluia, iiis second battle. At the battle 
nf Monterey, his third engagement, it is said that 
.ne performed a signal service of daring and skillful 
horsemanship. His i)rigade had exhausted its am- 
munition. A messenger must be sent for more, along 
a route ex[)osed to the bullets of the foe. Lieut. 
Grant, adopting an expedient learned of the Indians, 
-grasped the mane of his horse, and hanging upon one 
side of the anir^l, ran the gauntlet in entire safety. 

From Monterey he was sent, with the fourth infantry, 
to aid Gen. Scott, at the siege of Vera Cruz. In 
preparation for the march to the city of Mexico, he 
was apixjinted quartermaster of his regiment. At the 
battle of Molino del Rcy, he was promoted to a 
first lieutenancy, and was brevetjed captain at Cha- 

At the close of the Mexican War, Capt. Grant re- 
turned with his regiment to New York, and was again 
sent to one of the military posts on the frontier. The 
discovery of gold in California causing an immense 
tide of emigration to flow to the Pacific shores, Capt. 
Grant was sent with a battalion to Fort Dallas, in 
Oregon, for the protection of the interests of the im- 
migrants. Life was wearisome in those wilds. Capt. 
Grant resigned his commission and returned to the 
States; and having married, entered upon the cultiva- 
tion of a small farm near St. Louis, Mo. He had but 
little skill as a farmer. Finding his toil not re- 
munerative, he turned to mercantile life, entering into 
the leather business, with a younger brother, at Ga- 
lena, 111. This was in the year i860. As the tidings 
of the rebels firing on Fort Sumpter reached the ears 
of Capt. Grant in his counting-room, he said, — 
"Uncle Sam has educated me for the army; tliough 
I have served him througli one war, I do not feel that 
I have yet repaid the debt. I am still ready todischarge 
my obligations. I shall therefore buckle on my sword 
and see Uncle Sam through this war too." 

He went into the streets, raised a company of vol- 
unteers, and led them .as their captain to Springfield, 
the capital of the State, where their services were 
offered to Gov. Yates. Tiie Governor, impressed by 
the zeal and straightforward executive ability of Capt. 
Grant, gave him a desk in his office, to assist in the 
volunteer organization that was being formed in the 
State in behalf of the Government. On the 15th of 



June, (86i, Capt. Grant received a commission as 
Colonel of the Twenty-first Regiment of Illinois Vol- 
unteers. His merits as a West Point graduate, who 
had served for 15 years in the regular army, were such 
ihat he was soon promoted to the rank of Brigadier- 
General and was placed in command at Cairo. The 
rebels raised their banner at Paducah, near the mouth 
of the Tennessee River. Scarcely had its folds ap- 
peared in the breeze ere Gen. Grant was there. The 
rebels fled. Their banner fell, and the star and 
stripes were unfurled in its stead. 

He entered the service with great determination 
and immediately began active duty. This was the be- 
ginning, and until the surrender of Lee at Richmond 
he was ever pushing the enemy with great vigor and 
effectiveness. At Belmont, a few days later, he sur- 
prised and routed the rebels, then at Fort Henrj- 
won another victory. Then came the brilliant fight 
at Fort Donelson. The nation was electrified by the 
victor)', and the brave leader of the boys in blue was 
immediately made a M.-ijor-General, and the militarj' 
jistrict of Tennessee was assigned to him. 

Like all great captains, Gen. Grant knew well how 
to secure the results of victory. He immediately 
cashed on to the enemies' lines. Then came the 
terrible battles of Pittsburg Landing, Corinth, and the 
siege of Vicksburg, where Gen. Pemberton made an 
unconditional surrender of the city with over thirty 
thousand men and one-hundred and sevent)'-two can- 
non. The fall of Vicksburg was by far the most 
severe blow which the reliels had thus far encountered, 
and opened up the Mississippi from Cairo to the Gulf. 
Gen. Grant was next ordered to co-operate with 
Gen. Banks in a movement upon Te.xas, and pro- 
ceeded to New Orleans, where he was thrown from 
his horse, and received severe injuries, from which he 
was laid up for months. He then rushed tc the aid 
of Gens. Rosecrans and Tliomas at Chattanooga, and 
by a wonderful series of strategic and technical meas- 
ures put the Union Army in fighting condition. Then 
followed the bloody battles at Chattanooga, Lookout 
Mountain and Missionary Ridge, in which the rebels 
were routed with great loss. This won for him un- 
bounded praise in the North. On the 4th of Febru- 
ary, 1864, Congress revived the grade of lieutenant- 
general, and the rank was conferred on Gen. Grant. 
He repaired to Washington to receive his credentials 
and enter upon \hf duties of his new office. 

Gen. Grant decided as soon as he took charge of 
ihe army to concentrate the \videly-dispersed National 
troops for an attack upon Richmond, the nominal 
capital of the Rebellion, and endeavor there to de- 
stroy the rebel armies which would be promptly as- 
sembled from all quarters for its defence. The whole 
conrinent seemed to tremble under the tramp of these 
majestic armies, rushing to the decisive battle field. 
Steamers were crowded with troops. Railway trains 
were burdened with closely packed thousands. His 
plans were comprehensive and involved a series of 
campaigns, which were executed \vith remarkable en- 
ergy and ability, and were consummated at the sur- 
render of Lee, April g, 1865. 

The war was ended. The Union was saved. The 
almost unanimous voice of the Nation declared Gen. 
Grant to be the most prominent instrument in its sal- 
vation. The eminent services he had thus rendered 
the countr)' brought him conspicuously forward as the 
Republican candidate for the Presidential chair. 

At the Republican Convention held at Chicago. 
May 21, 1 868, he was unanimously nominated for the 
Presidency, and at the autumn election received a 
majority of the popular vote, and 2r4 out of 294 
electoral votes. 

The National Convention of the Republican party 
which met at Philadelphia on the 5th of June, 1872, 
placed Gen. Grant in nomination for a second term 
by a unanimous vote. The selection was emphati- 
cally indorsed by the people five months later, 292 votes being cast for him. 

Soon after the close of his second tenn. Gen. Grant 
started upon his famous trip around the world. He 
visited almost every country of the civilized worid, 
and was everywhere received with such ovations 
and demonstrations of respect and honor, private 
as well as public and ofificial, as were never before 
bestowed upon any citizen of the United States. 

He was the most prominent candidate before the 
Republican National Convention in 1S80 for a re- 
nomination for President. He went to New York and 
embarked in the brokerage business under the firm 
nanieof Grant & Ward. The latter proved a villain, 
wrecked Grant's fortune, and for larcenv was sent to 
the penitentiarj'. The General was attacked with 
cancer in the throat, but suffered in his stoic-like 
manner, never complaining. He was re-instated as 
General of the Army and retired by Congress. The 
cancer soon finished its deadly work, and July 23, 
18S5, the nation went in mourning over the death of 
the illustrious General. 






'^■^tia'^«^'^'^'4^tt&tiSit;ga'^t;gi'»^ui£ia:<tj,>'i,-;^ V^ -. '. ' 

•i '. 'i ■, 'i". ". •. 'i-. '.•.'■■- ' 

the nineteenth President of 
the United States, was born in 
Delaware, O., Oct. 4, 1822, al- 
most three months after the 
death of his father, Rutherford 
Hayes. His ancestry on both 
the paternal and maternal sides, 
was of the most honorable char- 
acter. It can be traced, it is said, 
as far back as 1280, when Hayes and 
Rutherford were two Scottish chief- 
tains, fighting side by side with 
Baliol, William Wallace and Robert 
Bruce. Both families belonged to the 
nobility, owned extensive estates, 
and had a large following. Misfor- 
tane ovt-f caking the family, George Hayes left Scot- 
land in 1680, and settled in Windsor, Conn. His sou 
Cleorge wai born in Windsor, and remained there 
during his li7e. Daniel Hayes, son of the latter, mar- 
ried Sarah Lee, and lived from the time of his mar- 
riage until his death in Simsbury, Conn. Ezekiel, 
son of Daniel, was born in 1724, and was a manufac- 
turer of scythe-j at Bradford, Conn. Rutherford Hayes, 
son of Ezekiel aiid grandfather of President Hayes, was 
l)orn in New Haven, in August, 1756. He was a farmer, 
blacksmith and tavern-keeper. He emigrated to 
Vermont at an utiknown date, settling in Brattleboro, 
where he established a hotel. Here his son Ruth- 
erford Hayes the father of President Hayes, was 

born. He was married, in September, 18 13, to Sophia 
Biichard, of Wilmington, Vt., whose ancestors emi- 
grated thither from Connecticut, they having been 
among the wealthiest and best famlies of Norwich. 
Her ancestry on the male side are traced back to 
1635, to John Birchard, one of the principal founders 
of Norwich. Both of her grandfathers were soldiers 
in the Revolutionary War. 

The father of President Hayes was an industrious 
frugal and opened-hearted man. He was of a me 
chanical turn, and could mend a plow, knit a stock- 
ing, or do almost anything else that he choose to 
undertake. He was a member of the Church, active 
in all the benevolent enterprises of the town, and con- 
ducted his business on Christian principles. After 
the close of the war of 181 2, for reasons inexplicable 
to his neighbors, he res'olved to emigrate to Ohio. 

The journey from Vermont to Ohio in that day 
when there were no canals, steamers, nor railways, 
was a very serious affair. A tour of inspection was 
first made, occupying four months. Mr. Hayes deter 
mined to move to Delaware, where the family arrived 
in 1817. He died July 22, r822, a victim of malarial 
fever, less than three months before the birth of the 
son, of whom we now write. Mrs. Hayes, in her sore be- 
reavement, found the support she so much needed in 
her brother Sardis, who had been a member of the 
household from the day of its departure from Ver- 
mont, and in an orphan girl whom she had adopted 
some time before as an act of charity. 

Mrs. Hayes at this period was very weak, and the 



subject of this sketch was so feeble at birth that he 
was not expected to Uve beyond a month or two at 
most. As the months went by he grew weaker and 
weaker, so that the neighbors were in the habit of in- 
quiring from time to time '" if Mrs. Hayes' baby died 
last night." On one occasion a neighbor, who was on 
familiar terms with the family, after alluding to the 
boy's big head, and the mother's assiduous care of 
nim, said in a bantering way, " That's right ! Stick to 
him. You have got him along so far, and I shouldn't 
wonder if he would really come to something yet." 

" You need not laugh," said Mrs. Hayes. "You 
ivait and see. You can't tell but I shall make him 
President of the United States yet." The boy lived, 
in spite of the universal predictions of his speedy 
death; and when, in 1S25, his older brother was 
drowned, he became, if possible, still dearer to his 

The boy was seven years old before he w^ent to 
school. His education, however, was not neglected. 
He probably learned as much from his mother and 
fister as he would have done at school. His sports 
•were almost wholly within doors, his playmates being 
his sister and her associates. These circumstances 
tended, no doubt, to foster that gentleness of dispo- 
sition, and that delicate consideration for the feelings 
of others, which are marked traits of his character. 

His uncle Sardis Birchard took the deepest interest 
in his education ; and as the boy's health had im- 
proved, and he was making good progress in his 
studies, he proposed to send him to college. His pre- 
paration commenced with a tutor at home; bat he 
was afterwards sent for one year to a professor in the 
Wesleyan University, in Middletown, Conn. He en- 
tered Kenyon College in 1838, at the age of sixteen, 
and was graduated at the head of his class in 1842. 

Immediately after his graduation he began the 
study of law in the office of Thomas Sparrow, Esq., 
in Columbus. Finding his opportunities for study in 
Columbus somewhat limited, he determined to enter 
the Law School at Cambridge, Mass., where he re- 
mained two years. 

In 1845, after graduatmg at the Law School, he was 
admitted to the bar at Marietta, Ohio, and shortly 
afterward went into practice as an attorney-at-law 
with Ralph P. Buckland, of Fremont. Here he re- 
mained three years, acquiring but a limited practice, 
and apparently unambitious of distinction in his pro- 

In 1849 he iridved to ('incmnati, where his ambi- 
tion found a new stimulus. For several years, how- 
ever, his progress was slow. Two events, occurring at 
this period, had a jiowerful influence upon his subse- ' 
quent life. One of these was his marrage with Miss 
Lucy Ware Webb, daughter of Dr. James Webb, of 
Chilicolhe; the other was his introduction to the Cin- 
cinnati Literary Club, a body embracing among its 
iiiembers suck men as'^hief Justice Salmon P. Chase, 

Gen. John Pope, Gov. Edward F. Noyes, and many 
others hardly less distinguished in after life. The 
marriage was a fortunate one in every respect, as 
everybody knows. Not one of all the wives of our 
Presidents was more universally admired, reverenced 
and beloved than was Mrs. Hayes, and no one did 
more than she to reflect honor upon American woman- 
hood. The Literary Cluo brought Mr. Hayes into 
constant association with young men of high char- 
acter and noble aims, and lured him to display the 
qualities so long hidden by his bashfulness and 

In 1856 he was nominated to the office of Judgs of 
the Court of Common Pleas; but he declined to ar- 
cept the nomination. Two years later, the office of 
city solicitor becoming vacant, the City Covincii. 
elected him for the unexpired term. 

In 1861, when the Rebellion broke out, he was ar 
the zenith of his professional I'f ,. His rank at the 
bar was among the the first. But the news of the 
attack on Fort Sumpter found him eager to take -id 
arms for the defense of his country. 

His military record was bright and illustrious. In 
October, 1861, he was made Lieutenant-Colonel, and 
in August, 1862, promoted Colonel of the 79th Ohio 
regiment, but he refused to leave his old comrades 
and go among strangers. Subsequently, however, he 
was made Colonel of his old regiment. At the battle 
of South Mountain he received a wound, and while 
faint and bleeding displayed courage and fortitude 
that won admiration from all. 

Col. Hayes was detached from his regiment, after 
his recovery, to act as Brigadier-General, and placed 
in command of the celebrated Kanawha division, 
and for gallant and meritorious services in the battles 
of Winchester, Fisher's Hill and Cedar Creek, he was 
promoted Brigadier-General. He was also brevetted 
Major-General, "forgallant and distinguished services 
during the campaigns of 1864, in West Virginia." In 
the course of his arduous services, four horses were 
shot from under him, and he was wounded four times 

In 1864, Gen. Hayes was elected to Congress, frcni 
the Second Ohio District, which had long been Dem- 
ocratic. He was not present during the campaign, 
and after his election was importuned to resign his 
commission in the army; but he finally declared, " I 
shall never come to Washington until I can come by 
the way of Richmond." He was re-elected in 1866. 

In 1867, Gen Hayes was elected Governor of Ohio, 
over Hon. Allen G. Thunnan, a populai Democrat. 
In 1869 was re-elected over George H. Pendleton. 
He was elected Governor for the third term in T87i^. 

]n 1876 he was the standard bearer of the Repub- 
lican Party in the Presidential contest, and after a 
hard long contest was cliosen President, and was in 
augurated Monday, March 5, 1875. He served his 
full term, not, hcwever, with satisfaction to his party, 
but his administration was an average o;\ = 




tieth President of the United 
States, was born Nov. 19, 
1S31, in the woods of Orange, 
Cuyahoga Co., O His par- 
ents were Abram and EHza 
'^ (Ballou) Garfield, both of New 
England ancestry and from fami- 
lies well known in the early his- 
tory of that section of our coun- 
try, but had moved to the \Vestern 
Reserve, in Ohio, early in its settle- 

The house in which James A. was 
Ijorn was not unlike the houses of 
poor Ohio farmers of that day. It about 20x30 feet, built of logs, with the spaces be- 
.vi^een the logs filled with clay. His father was a 
.iard working farmer, and he soon had his fields 
cleared, an orchard planted, and a log barn built. 
Die household comprised the father and mother and 
dneir four children — Mehetabel, 'I'liomas, Mary and 
Tames. _ In May, 1823, the father, from a cold con- 
.racted in helping to put out a forest fire, died. At 
this time James was about eighteen months old, and 
Fhomas about ten years old. No one, perhaps, can 
(ell how much James was indcMed to his biother's 
tcil and self sacrifice during the twenty years suc- 
ceeding his father's death, but undoubtedly very 
much. He now lives in Michigan, and the two sis- 
•' itrs live in .Solon, O., near their birtliplace. 

The early educational advantages young Garfield 
enjoyed were very limited, yet he made the most of 
them. He labored at farm work for others, did car- 
penter work, chopped wood, or did anything that 
would bring in a few dollars to aid liis widowed 
mother in he- 'Struggles to keep the little family to- 

gether. Nor was Gen. Garfield ever ashamed of his 
origin, and he never forgot the friends of his strug- 
gling childhood, youtli and manliood, neither did they 
ever forget him. When in the highes,t seats of honor 
the humblest fiiend of his boyhood' was as kindly 
greeted as ever. Tlie poorest laborer was sure of the 
sympathy of one who had known all tlie bitterness 
of want and the sweetness of bread earned by the 
sweat of the brow. He was ever the simple, ijlain, 
modest gentleman. 

The highest ambition of young Garfield until \\i 
was about sixteen years old was to be a captain o.f 
a vessel on Lake Erie. He was anxious to go aboard 
a vessel, which his mother strongly opposed. She 
finally consented to his going to Cleveland, with the 
understanding, however, that he should try to obtair 
some other kind of employment. He walked all the 
way to Cleveland. This was his first visit to the city 
After making many applications for work, and trying 
to get aboard a lake vessel, and not meeting with 
success, he engaged as a driver fftr his cousin, Amos 
Letcher, on the Ohio & Pennsylvania Canal. He re- 
mained at this work but a short time when he wen" 
home, and attended the seminary at Chester for 
about three years, when he entered Hiram and the 
Eclectic Institute, teaching a few terms of school in 
the meantime, and doing other work. Tiiis school 
was started by the Disciples of Christ in 1850, of 
which church he was then a member. He became 
janitor and bell-ringer in order to help pay his wav 
He then became both teacher and jiupil. He soon 
"e-xhausted Hiram "<ind needed more; hence, in the 
fall of 1854, he entered Williams College, from whicli 
he graduated in 1S56, taking one of the highest hon- 
ors of his class. Pie afterwards returned to Hiram 
College as its President. As above slated, he early 
united with the Christian or Diciples Church at 
Hiram.^and was ever .after a devoted, zealous mem- 
ber, often preaching in its pulpit and places where 
he happened to be. Dr. Noah Porter, President of 
Yale College, says of him in reference to his religion : 



" President Garfield was more than a man of 
strong moral and religious convictions. His whole 
history, from boyhood to the last, shows that duty to 
man and to God, and devotion to Christ and life and 
faith and spiritual commission were controlling springs 
of his being, and to a more than usual degree. In 
my judgmeni: there is no more interesting feature of 
Jiis character than his loyal allegiance to the body of 
Christians in which he was trained, and the fervent 
sympathy which he ever showed in their Christian 
communion. Not many of the few 'wise and mighty 
and noble who are called' show a similar loyalty to 
the less stately and cultured Christian comnmnions 
in which they have been reared. Too often it is true 
that as they step upward in social and political sig- 
nificance they step upward from one degree to 
another in some of the many types of fashionable 
Christianity. President Garfield adhered to the 
:;hurch of his mother, the church in which he was 
trained, and in which he served as a pillar and an 
evangelist, and yet with the largest and most unsec- 
Varian charity for all 'who loveourLord in sincerity.'" 

Mr. Garfield was united in marriage with Miss 
Lucretia Rudolph, Nov. 1 1, 1858, who proved herself 
worthy as the wife of one whom all the world loved and 
mourned. To them were born seven children, five of 
whom are still living, four boys and one girl. 

Mr. Garfield made his first political speeches in 1856, 
jn Hiram and the neighboring villages, and three 
years later he began to speak at county mass-meet- 
ings, and became the favorite speaker wherever he 
was. During this year he was elected to the Ohio 
Senate. He also began to study law at Cleveland, 
and in 1 86 1 was admitted to the bar. The great 
Rebellion broke out in the early part ^f this year, 
and Mr. Garfield at once resolved to fight as he had 
talked, and enlisted to defend the old flag. He re- 
ceived his commission as Lieut. -Colonel of the Forty- 
second Regiment of Ohio Volunteer Infantry, Aug. 
14, 1861. He was immediately put into active ser- 
vice, and before he had ever seen a gun fired in action, 
was placed in command of four regiments of infantr)- 
and eight companies of cavalry, charged with the 
work of driving out of his native State the officer 
(Humphrey Marshall) reputed to be the ablest of 
those, not educated to war whom Kentucky had given 
to the Rebellion. This work was bravely and speed- 
ily accomplished, although against great odds. Pres- 
ident Lincoln, on his success commissioned him 
Brigadier-General, Jan. to, 1862; and as "he had 
been the youngest man in the Ohio Senate two years 
before, so now^ he was the youngest General in the 
army." He was with Gen. Buell's army at Shiloh, 
in its operations around Corinth and its march through 
Alabama. He was then detailed as a member of the 
General Court-Martial for the trial of Gen. Fitz-John 
Porter. He was then ordered to report to Gen. Rose- 
crans, and was assigned to the "Chief of Staff." 

The military history of Gen. Garfield closed with 

his brilliant services at Chickamauga, where he won 
the stars of the Major-General. 

Without an effort on his part Gei? Garfield was 
elected to Congress in the fall of 1862 from the 
Nineteenth District of Ohio. This section of Ohio 
had been represented in Congress for si.xty years 
mainly by two men — Elisha Whittlesey and Joshua 
R. Giddings. It was not without a struggle that he 
resigned his place in the army. At the time he en- 
tered Congress he was the youngest member in that 
body. Therms he remained by successive re- 
elections until he was elected President in 1880. 
Of nis labors in Congress Senator Hoar says : " Since 
the year 1864 you cannot think of a question whici. 
has been debated in Congress, or discussed before i, 
tribunel of the American people, in regard to whict 
you will not find, if you wish mstruction, the argu- 
ment on one side stated, in almost every instance 
better than by anybody else, in some speech made in 
the House of Representatives or on the hustings by 
Mr. Garfield." 

Uixsn Jan. 14, 1880, Gen. Garfield was elected to 
the U. S. Senate, and on the eighth of June, of llie 
same year, was nominated as the candidate of his 
party for President at the great Chicago Convention- 
He was elected in the following November, and on 
March 4, i88r, was inaugurated. Probably no ad- 
ministration ever opened its existence under brighter 
auspices than that of President Garfield, and every 
day it grew in favor with the peojjle, and by the first 
of July he had completed all the initiatory and pre- 
liminary work of his administration and was prepar- 
ing to leave the city to meet his friends at Williams 
College. While on his way and at the depot, in com- 
pany with Secretary Blaine, a man stepped behind 
him, drew a revolver, and fired directly at his back. 
The President tottered and fell, luid as he did so the 
assassin fired a second shot, the bullet cutting the 
left coat sleeve of his victim, but inflicting no furthei 
injury. It has been very truthfully said that this was 
" the shot that was heard round the world " Never 
before in the historj' of the Nation had anything oc- 
curred which so nearly froze the blood of the peop'» 
for the moment, as this awful deed. He was smit- 
ten on the brightest, gladdest day of all his life, and 
was at the summit of his power and hope. For eighty 
days, all during the hot months of July and August, 
he lingered and suffered. He, however, remained 
master of himself till the last, and by his magnificent 
bearing was teaching the countrj- and the world tlie 
noblest of human lessons — how to live grandly in the 
very clutch of death. Great in life, he was surpass- 
ingly great in death. He passed serenely away Sept. 
19, 1883, at Elberon, N. J., on the very bank of tlie 
ocean, where he had been taken shortly ])revious. The 
world wept at his death, as it never had done on the 
death of any other man who had ever lived upon it. 
The murderer was duly tried, found guilty and exe- 
cuted, in one year after he committed the foul deed. 



1^ C^iiJl^li^iLMi^J^ ^ 


„. twenty-first Presi-^.^m uf the 

gfUnited States, was born in 

Franklin Courty, Vermont, on 

Tt>T^vJP?4-Mifo the fifthofOdobcr, 1830, andis 

'^^i^^'s^MiK; the oldest of a family of two 

sons and five daughters. His 

father was the Rev. Dr. William 

Arthur, aBaptistc' .rgyman, who 

emigrated to tb'.s counti7 from 

the county Antrim, Ireland, in 

his i8th year, and died in 1875, in 

Newtonville, neai .A.lbany, after a 

long and successful ministr)-- 

Young Arthur was educated at 
Union College, S( henectady, where 
he excelled in all his studies. Af- 
ter his graduation he taught school 
j T in Vermont for two years, and at 
the expiration ef that time came to 
New York, with $500 in his pocket, 
and catered the office of ex-Judge 
E. D. Culver as student. After 
being admitted to the bar he formed 
a partnership with his intimate friend and room-mate, 
Henry D. Gardiner, with the intention of practicing 
in the West, and for three months they roamed about 
in the Western States in search of an eligible site, 
but in the end returned to New York, where they 
hung out their shingle, and entered upon a success- 
ful career almost from the start. General Arthur 
soon afterward niairpd the daughter of Lieutenant 

Herndon, of the United States Navy, who was lost at 
sea. Congress voted a gold medal to his widow in 
recognition of the bravery he displayed on that occa- 
sion. Mrs. .Arthur died shortly before Mr. Arthur's 
nomuiation to the Vice Presidency, leaving two 

Gen. Arthur obtained considerable legal celebrity 
in his first great case, the famous Lemmon suit, 
brought to recover possession of eight slaves who had 
been declared free by Judge Paine, of the Superior 
Court of New York City. It was in 1852 that Jon, 
athan Lemmon, of Virginia, went to New York with 
his slaves, intending to ship them to Texas, when 
they were discovered and freed. The Judge decided 
that they could not be held by the owner under the 
Fugitive Slave Law. A howl of rage went up from 
the South, and the Virginia Legislature authorized the 
Attorney General of that State to assist in an appeal, 
Wni. M. Evarts and Chester A. Arthur were employed 
to represent the People, and they won their case, 
which then went to the Supreme Court of the United 
States. Charles O'Conor here espoused the cause 
of the slave-holders, but he loo was beaten by Messrs 
Evarts and Arthur, and a long step was taken toward 
the emancipation of the black race. 

Another great service was rendered by General 
.\rthur in the same cause in 1856. Lizzie Jennings, 
a respectable colored woman, was put off a Fourth 
.Avenue car with violence after she had paid her fare. 
General Arthur sued on her behalf, and secured a 
verdict of $500 damages. The next day the compa- 
ny issued an order to admit colored persons to ride 
on their cars, and the other car companies quickly 



followed their example. Before that the Sixth Ave- 
nue Company ran a few special cars for colored per- 
sons and the other lines refused to let them ride at all. 

General Arthur was a delegate to the Convention 
at Saratoga that founded the Republican party. 
Previous to the war he was Judge-Advocate of the 
Second Brigade of the State of New York, and Gov- 
ernor Morgan, of that State, appointed him Engineer- 
in-Chief of his staff. In 1861, he was made Inspec- 
tor General, and soon afterward became Quartermas- 
ter-General. In each of these offices he rendered 
great service to the Government during the war. At 
the end of Governor Morgan's term he resumed the 
practice of the law, forming a partnership with Mr. 
Ransom, and then Mr. Phelps, the District Attorney 
of New York, was added to the fimi. The legal prac- 
tice of this well-known firm was very large and lucra- 
tive, each of the gentlemen composing it were able 
lawyers, and possessed a splendid local reputation, if 
not indeed one of national extent. 

He always took a leading part in State and city 
politics. He was appointed Collector of the Port of 
New York by President Grant, Nov. 21 1872, to suc- 
ceed Thomas Murphy, and held the office until July, 
20, 1878, when he was succeeded by Collector Merritt. 

Mr. Arthur was nominated on the Presidential 
ticket, with Gen. James A. Garfield, at the famous 
National Republican Convention held at Chicago in 
June, t88o. This was perhaps the greatest political 
convention that ever assembled on the continent. It 
was composed of the 'wading politicians of the Re- 
publican party, all able men, and each stood firm and 
fought vigorously and with signal tenacity for their 
respective candidates that were before the conven- 
tion for the nomination. Finally Gen. Garfield re- 
ceived the nomination for President and Gen. Arthur 
for Vice-President. The campaign which followed 
was one of the most animated known in the history of 
our countr)'. Gen. Hancock, the standard-bearer of 
the Democratic party, was a popular man, and his 
party made a valiant fight for his election. 

Finally the election came and the country's choice 
.vas Garfield and Arthur. They were inaugurated 
March 4, 1881, as President and Vice-President. 
A few months only had passed ere the newly chosen 
President was the victim of the assassin's bullet. Then 
came terrible weeks of suffering, — those moments of 
anxious suspense, when the hearts of all civilized na- 

tions were throbbing in unison, longing for the re- 
covery of the noble, the good President. The remark- 
able patience that he manifested during those hours 
and weeks, and even months, of the most terrible suf- 
fering man has often been called upon to endure, was 
seemingly more than human. It was certainly God- 
like. During all this period of deepest anxiety Mr, 
Arthur's every move was watched, and be it said to his 
credit that his every action displayed only an earnest 
desire that the suffering Garfield might recover, to 
serve the remainder of the term he had so auspi- 
ciously begun. Not a selfish feeling was manifested 
in deed or look of this man, even though the most 
honored position in the world was at any moment 
likely to fall to him. 

At last God in his mercy relieved President Gar- 
field from further suffering, and the world, as never 
before in its histor}' over the death of any other 
man, wept at his bier. Then it became the duty of 
the Vice President to £:ssume the responsibilities of 
the high office, and he took the oath in New York. 
Sept. 20, 1 88 1. The position was an embarrassing 
one to him, made doubly so from the facts that all 
eyes were on him, anxious to know what he would do, 
what policy he would pursue, and who he would se- 
lect as advisers. The duties of the office had been 
greatly neglected during the President's long illness, 
and many imjxjrtant measures were to be immediately 
decided by him ; and still farther to embarrass him he 
did not fail to realize under what circumstances he 
became President, and knew the feelings of many on 
this point. Under these trying circumstances President 
Arthur took the reins of the Government in his own 
hands ; and, as embarrassing as were the condition of 
affairs, he happily surprised the nation, acting so 
wisely that but few criticised his administration. 
He served the nation well and faithfully, until the 
close of his administration, March 4, 1885, and was 
a popular candidate before his party for a second 
term. His name was ably presented before the con- 
vention at Chicago, and was received with great 
favor, and doubtless but for the personal popularity 
of one of the opposing candidates, he would have 
been selected as the standard-bearer of his party 
for another campaign. He retired to private life car- 
rj'ing with him the best wishes of the American peo- 
ple, whom he had served in a manner satisfactory 
to them and with credit to himself 








LAND, the twenty- second Pres- 
ident of the United States, was 
born in 1837, in the obscure 
town of Caldwell, Essex Co., 
N. J., and in a little two-and-a- 
half-story white house wliich is still 
standing, characteristically to mark 
the humble birth-place of one of 
America's great men in striking con- 
trast with the Old World, where all 
men high in office must be high in 
origin and born m the cradle of 
wealth. When the subject of this 
sketch was three years of age, his 
father, who was a Presbyterian min- 
ister, with a large family and a small salary, moved, 
by way of the Hudson River and Erie Canal, to 
Fayetteville, in search of an increased income and a 
larger field of work. Fayetteville was then the most 
straggling of country villages, about five miles from 
Ponipey Hill, where Governor Seymour was born. 

At the last mentioned place young Grover com- 
menced going to school in the " good, old-fashioned 
way," and presumably distinguished himself after the 
manner of all village boys, in doing the things he 
ought not to do. Such is the distinguishing trait of 
all geniuses and independent thinkers. When he 
arrived at the age of 14 years, he had outgrown the 
capacity of the village school and expressed a most 

emphatic desire to be sent to an academy. To this 
his father decidedly objected. Academies in those 
days cost money; besides, his father wanted him to 
become self-supporting by the quickest possible 
means, and this at that time in Fayetteville seemed 
to be a position in a country store, where his father 
and the large family 011 his hands had considerable 
influence. Grover was to be paid $50 for his services 
the first year, and if he proved trustworthy he was to 
receive $100 the second year. Here the lad com- 
menced his career as salesman, and in two years he 
had earned so good a reputation for trustworthiness 
that his employers desired to retain him for an in- 
definite length of time. Otherwise he did not ex- 
hibit as yet any particular " flashes of genius " or 
eccentricities of talent. He was simply a good boy. 
But instead of remaining with this firur in Fayette- 
ville, he went with the family in their removal to 
Clinton, where he had an opportunity of attending a 
high school. Here he industriously pursued his 
studies until the family removed with him to a point 
on Black River known as the " Holland Patent," a 
village of 500 or 600 people, 15 miles north of Utica, 
N. Y. At this place his father died, after preaching 
but three Sundays. This event broke up the family, 
and Grover set out for New York City to accept, at a 
small salary, the [)osition of " under-teacher " in an 
asylum for the blind. He taught faithfully for two 
years, and although he obtained a good reputation in 
this capacity, he concluded that teaching was not his 



calling for life, and, reversing the traditional order, 
ne left the city to seek his fortune, instead of going 
to a city. He first thought of Cleveland, Ohio, as 
there was some charm in that name for him; but 
before proceeding to that place he went to Buffalo to 
isk the advice of his uncle, Lewis F. Allan, a noted 
stock-breeder of that place. The latter did not 
speak enthusiastically. " What is it you want to do, 
my boy ? " he asked. " Well, sir, I want to study 
law," was the reply. ''Good gracious!" remarked 
ihe old gentleman ; " do you, indeed .'' What ever put 
that into your head ? How much money have you 
got.'" "-Well, sir, to tell the truth, I haven't got 



After a long consultation, his uncle offered him a 
place temporarily as assistant herd-keeper, at §50 a 
year, while he could "look around." One day soon 
afterward he boldly walked into the office of Rogers, 
Bowen & Rogers, of Buffalo, and told Ihem what he 
wanted. A number of young men were already en- 
gaged in the office, but Grover's persistency won, and 
ne was finally permitted to come as an office boy and 
Save the use of the law library, for the nominal sum 
of $3 or S4. a week. Out of this he had to pay for 
his board and washing. The walk to and from his 
uncle's was a long and rugged one ; and, although 
the first ^vinte^ was a memorably severe one, his 
shoes were out of repair and his overcoat — he had 
Done — yet he was nevertheless prompt and regular. 
On the first day of his service here, his senior em- 
ployer threw down a copy of Blackstone before him 
with a bang that made the dust fly, saying "That's 
where they all begin." A titter ran around the little 
circle of cferks and students, as they thought that 
was enough to scare young Grover out of his plans ; 
out indue time he mastered that cumbersome volume. 
Then, as ever after\vard, however, Mr. Cleveland 
exhibited a talent for executiveness rather than for 
chasing principles through all their metaphysical 
possibiUties. " Let us quit talking and go and do 
it," was practically his motto. 

The first public office to which Mr. Cleveland was 
ejected was that of Sheriff of Erie Co., N. Y., in 
which Buffalo is situated; and in such capacity it fell 
to his duty to inflict capital punishment upon two 
criminals. In i88i he was elected Mayor of the 
City of Buffalo, on the Democratic ticket, with es- 
pecial reference to the bringing about certain reforms 

in the administration of the municipal affairs of that 
city. In this office, as well as that of Sheriff, his 
performance of dat)' has generally been considered 
fair, with possibly a few exceptions which were fer- 
reted out and magnified during the last Presidential 
campaign. As a specimen of his plain language in 
a veto message, we quote from one vetoing an iniqui- 
tous street-cleaning contract: "This is a time for 
plain speech, and my objection to your action shall 
be plainly stated. I regard it as the culmination of 
a mos' bare-faced, impudent and shameless scheme 
to betray the interests of the peopls and to worse 
than squander the people's money." The New York 
Sun afterward very highly commended Mr. Cleve- 
land's administration as Mayor of Buffalo, and there- 
upon recommended him for Governor of the Empire 
State. To the latter office he was elected in 1882, 
and his administration of the affairs of State was 
generally satisfactory. The mistakes he made, if 
any, were made verj' public throughout the nation 
after he was nominated for President of the United 
States. For this high office he was nominated July 
II, 18S4, by the National Democratic Convention at 
Chicago, when other competitors were Thomas F. 
Bayard, Roswell P. Flower, Thomas A. Hendricks, 
Benjamin F. Butler, Allen G. Thurman, etc.: and he 
was elected by the people, by a majority of about a 
thousand, over the brilliant and long-tried Repub- 
lican statesman, James G. Blaine. President Cleve- 
land resigned his office as Governor of New York in 
Januar)', 18S5, in order to prepare for his duties as 
the Chief Executive of the United States, in which 
capacity his term commenced at noon on the 4th of 
March, 18S5. For his Cabinet officers he selected 
the following gentlemen: For Secretary of State, 
Thomas F. Bayard, of Delaware ; Secretary of the 
Treasury, Daniel Manning, of New York ; Secretary 
of War, William C. Endicott, of Massachusetts; 
Secretary of the Navy, William C. Whitney, of New 
York ; Secretary of the Interior, L. Q. C. Lamar, of 
Mississippi; Postmaster-General, WilHam F. Vilas, 
of Wisconsin ; Attorney-General, A. H. Garland, of 

The silver question precipitated a controversy be- 
tween those who were in favor of the continuance of 
silver coinage and those who were opposed, Mr. 
Cleveland answering for the latter, even before his 






Iwcnty-third President, is 
tlio descendant of one of the 
historical families of this 
country. The head of the 
family was a Major General 
Harrison, one of Oliver 
Cromwell's trusted follow- 
ers and fighters. In the zenith of Crom- 
well's power it became the duty of this 
Harrison to participate in the trial of 
Charles I, and afterward to sign the 
death warrant of the king. He subse- 
quently paid for this with his life, being 
hung Oct. 13, IGGO. His descendants 
came to America, and the next of the 
family that appears in history is Benja- 
r.:in Harrison, of Virginia, great-grand- 
father of the subject of this sketch, and 
after whom he .was named. Benjamin Harrison 
was a member of the Continental Congress during 
the ye.ars i774-5-C, and was one of the original 
signers of the Declaration of Independence. He 
was three times elected Governor of Virginia. 
Gen AViiliam Iliniy ilnrrison, the son of the 

distinguished patriot of the Revolution, after a suc- 
cessful career as a soldier during the War of 1812, 
and with -a clean record as Governor of the North- 
western Territory, was elected President of the 
United States in 1840. His career was cut short 
by death within one month after liis inauguration. 
President Harrison was born at North Bend, 
Hamilton Co., Ohio, Aug. r>0, 1833. His life up to 
the time of his graduation by the Miami University, 
at O.xford, Ohio, was the uneventful one of a coun- 
try lad of a family of small means. His father was 
able to give him a good education, and nothing 
more. He became engaged while at college to t'a^ 
daughter of Dr. Scott, Principal of a female schoo 
at Oxford. After graduating he determined to en- 
ter upon the study of the law. He went to Cin 
einnali and then read law for two years. At the 
expiration of that time young Harrison receiv-il th" 
only inheritance of his life; his aunt dying left him 
a lot valued at $800. He regarded this legacy as t 
fortune, and decided to get married at once, tak3 
tliis money and go to some Eastern town ancl 'oe- 
gin the practice of law. He sold his lot, and with 
the monej' in his pocket, he started out wita bis 
young wife to fight for a place in the world, lie 



decitled to go to Indianapolis, wliich was even at 
that time a town of promise. He met with slight 
encouragement at first, making scarcely anything 
the first j-ear. He worked diligently, applying him- 
self closely to his calling, built up an extensive 
practice and took a leading rank in the legal pro- 
I'ession. He is the father of two children. 

In 186C Mr. Harrison was nominated for the 
position of Supreme Court Reporter, and then be- 
gan his experience as a stump speuke; He can- 
vassed the State thoroughlj^, and was elected by a 
handsome majority. In 18G2 he raised the 17th 
Indiana Infantry', and was chosen its Colonel. His 
regiment was composed of the rawest of material, 
out Col. Harrison employed all his time at first 
mastering military tactics and drilling his men, 
when he thei'efore came to move toward the East 
with Sherman his regiment was one of the best 
drilled and organized in the army. At Resaca he 
especially distinguished himself, and for his bravery 
at Peachtree Creek he was made a Brigadier Gen- 
eral, Gen. Hooker speaking of him in the most 
complimentary terms. 

During the absence of Gen. Harrison in the field 
lie Supreme Court declared the office of the Su- 
preme Court Reporter vacant, and another person 
was elected to the position. From the time of leav- 
irg Indiana with his regiment until the fall of 18G4 
he had taken no leave of absence, but having been 
nominated that year for the same office, he got a 
thirty-day leave of absence, and during that time 
made a brilliant canvass of the State, and was elected 
for another terra. He then started to rejoin Sher- 
2:an, but on the way was stricken down with scarlet 
:ever, and after a most tr3nng siege made his way 
to the front in time to participate in the closing 
incidents of the war. 

In 1868 Gen. Harrison declined z re-election as 
_-«porter, and resumed the practice of law. In 1876 
£8 was a candidate for Governor. Although de- 
eated, the brilliant campaign hb made won for him 
' a National reputation, and he was much sought, es- 
pecially in the East, to make speeches. In 1880, 
iiS usual, he took an active part in the campaign, 
and was elected to the United States Senate. Here 
be served six years, and Tzas known as one of the 
«blest men, best lawyer-- .aid strongest debaters iu 

that body. With the expiration of his Senatorial 
term he returned to the practice of his profession, 
becoming the head of one of the strongest firms in 
the State. 

The political campaign of 1888 was one of the 
most memorable in the history of our countiy. The 
convention which assembled in Chicago in June and 
named Mr. Harrison as the chief standard bearer 
of the Republican party, w-as great in every partic- 
ular, and on this account, and the attitude it as- 
sumed u^oa the vital questions of the day, chief 
among which was the tariff, awoke a deep interest 
in the campaign throughout the Nation. Shortl3' 
after the nomination delegations began to visit Mr. 
Harrison at Indianapolis, his home. This move- 
ment became popular, and from all sections of the 
country societies, clubs and delegations journeyed 
thither to pay their respects to the distinguished 
statesman. The popularity of these was greatly 
increased on account of the remarkable speeches 
made by Mr. Harrison. He spoke daily all through 
the summer and autumn to these visiting delega- 
tions, and so varied, masterly and eloquent were 
his speeches that they at once placed him in the 
foremost rank of American orators and statesmen. 

On account of his eloquence as a speaker and his 
power as a debater, he was called upon at an un- 
commonlj' earl}' age to take part in the discussion 
of the great questions that then began to agitate 
the country. He was an uncompromising anti 
sla^•erv man, and was matched against some of tl;e 
most eminent Democratic speakers of his State. 
No man who felt the touch of his blade decired to 
be pitted with him again. With all his eloq-'ence 
as an orator he never spoke for oratorical, effect, 
but his words always went like bullets to the mark 
He is purclj' American in his ideas and is a siilcr 
did tj-pe of the American statesman. Gifted wit'i; 
quick perception, a logical mind and a ready tongue, 
he is one of the most distinguished impromptu 
speakers iu the Nation. Manj" of these sjieeches 
sparkled with the rarest of eloquence and contained 
arguments of greatest weight. Maiij' of his terse 
statements liavc already become aphorisms. Origi- 
nal ill tliought, precise iu logic, terse in statement, 
yet withal faultless in eloquence, he is recognized as 
the sound statesman and brill iauj orator o- ta^ day 


|i (^O-- 

\ \ 

'"-(ii U * 

• <5) , [X". 




i?i5i^;?sw5> ^°'' ^:^i A-*^^ 







BOND, the first 
Governor of Illinois after its 
organization as a State, serving 
from 1818 to 1822, was born in 
Frederick County, Maryland, 
in the year 1773, and was 
raised a farmer on his father's 
plantation, receiving only a plain 
English education. He emigrated 
to this State in 1794, when it was a 
part of the "Northwest Territory," 
continuing in the vocation in which 
he had been brought up in his native 
State, in the " New Design," near 
Eagle Creek, in what is now Monroe 
County. He served several terms as 
a member of the General Assembly 
of Indiana Territory, after it was organized as such, 
and in 1812-14 he was a Delegate to the Twelfth 
and Thirteenth Congresses, taking his seat Dec. 3, 
181 2, and serving until Oct. 3, 1814. These were 
the times, the reader will recollect, when this Gov- 
ernment had its last struggle with Great Britain. 
Theyear x8i2 is also noted in the history of this 
State as that in which the first Territorial Legislature 
was held. It convened at Kaskaskia, Nov. 25, and 
adjourned Dec. 26, following. 

While serving as Delegate to Congress, Mr. Bond 
was instrumental in procuring the right of pre-emj)- 
ton on the public domain. On the expiration of his 
lenn at Washington he was appointed Receiver of 
Public Moneys at Kaskaskia, then the capital of the 
Territory. In company with John G. Comyges, 

Thomas H. Harris, Charles Slade, Michael Jones, 
Warren Brown, Edward Humphries and Charles W 
Hunter, he became a proprietor of the site of the 
initial city of Cairo, which they hoped, from its favor- 
able location at the junction of the two great 
rivers near the center of the Great West, would 
rapidly develop into a metropolis. To aid tiie enter- 
prise, they obtained a special charter from the Legis- 
lature, incorporating both the City and the Bank of 

In 1818 Mr. Bond was elected the first Governor 
of the State of Illinois, being inaugurated Oct. 6 
that year, which was several weeks before Illinois 
was actually admitted. The facts are these: In 
January, 18 18, tlie Territorial Legislature sent a peti- 
tion to Congress for the admission of Illinois as a 
State, Nathaniel Pope being then Delegate. The 
petition was granted, fixing the northern line of the 
State on the latitude of the southern extremity of 
Lake Michigan; but the bill was afterward so amend- 
ed as to extend this line to its present latitude. In 
July a convention was called at Kaskaskia to draft a 
constitution, which, however, was not submitted ti 
the people. By its provisions, supreme judges, pros 
ecuting attorneys, county and circuit judges, record- 
ers and justices of the peace were all to be appointed 
by the Governor or elected by the Legislature. This 
constitution was accepted by Congress Dec. 30. At 
that time Illinois comprised but eleven counties, 
namely, Randolph, Madison, Gallatin, Johnson, 
Pope, Jackson, Crawford, Bond, Union, Washington 
and Franklin, the northern portion of the State be- 
ing mainly in Madison County. Thus it appears 
that Mr. Bond was honored by the naming of a 


county before he was elected Governor. The present 
county of Bond is of small Umitations, about 60 to 80 
miles south of Springfield. For Lieutenant Governor 
the people chose Pierre Menard, a prominent and 
worthy Frenchman, after whom a county in this State 
is named. In this election there were no opposition 
candidates, as the popularity of these men had made 
tlieir promotion to the chief offices of the S^ate, even 
before the constitution was drafted, a foregone con- 

The principal points that excited the people in 
reference to political issues at this period were local 
or "internal improvements," as they were called, 
State banks, location of the capital, slavery and the 
personal characteristics of the proposed candidates. 
Mr. Bond represented the "Convention party," for 
introducing slavery into the State, supported by Elias 
Kelt Kane, his Secretary of State, and John Mc- 
Lean, while Nathaniel Pope and John P. Cook led 
the anti-slavery element. The people, however, did 
not become very much excited over this issue until 
1820, when the famous Missouri Compromise was 
adopted by Congress, limiting slavery to the south 
of the parallel of 36° 30' except in Missouri. While 
this nieasure settled the great slavery controversy, 
so far as the average public sentiment was tempor- 
arily concerned, until 1854, when it was repealed 
under the leadership of Stephen A. Douglas, the issue 
as considered locally in this State was not decided 
until 1824, after a most furious campaign. (See 
sketch of Gov. Coles.) The ticket of 18 18 was a 
compromise one. Bond representing (moderately) the 
pro-slavery sentiment and Menard the anti-slavery. 

An awkward element in the State government 
under Gov. Bond's administration, was the imperfec- 
tion of the State constitution. The Convention 
wished to have Elijah C. Berry for the first Auditor 
of Public Accounts, but, as it was believed that the 
new Governor would not appoint him to the office, 
the Convention declared in a schedule that " an 
auditor of public accounts, an attorney general and 
such other officers of the State as may be necessary, 
may be appointed by the General Assembly." The 
Constitution, as it stood, vested a very large appoint- 
ing power in the Governor; but for the purpose of 
getting one man into office, a total change was made, 
and the power vested in the Legislature. Of this 
provision the Legislature took advantage, and de- 

clared that State's attorneys, canal commissioners, 
bank directors, etc., were all " officers of the State " 
and must therefore be appointed by itself independ- 
ently of the Governor. 

During Gov. Bond's administration a general law 
was passed for the incorporation of academies and 
towns, and one authorizing lotteries. The session of 
1822 authorized the Governor to appoint commis- 
sioners, to act in conjunction with like commissioners 
appointed by the State of Indiana, to report on the 
practicability and expediency of improving the navi- 
gation of the Wabash River; also inland navigation 
generally. Many improvements were recommended, 
some of which have been feebly worked at even till 
the present day, those along the Wabash being of no 
value. Also, during Gov. Bond's term of office, the 
capital of the State was removed from Kaskaskia to 
Vandalia. In 1S20 a law was passed by Congress 
authorizing this State to open a canal through the 
public lands. The State appointed commissioners 
lo explore the route and prepare the necessary sur- 
veys and estimates, preparatory to its execution; 
but, being unable out of its own resources to defray 
the expenses of the undertaking, it was abandoned 
until some time after Congress made the grant of 
land for the purpose of its construction. 

On the whole. Gov. Bond's administration was 
fairly good, not being open to severe criticism from 
any party. In 1824, two years after the expiration 
of his term of office, he was brought out as a candi- 
date for Congress against the formidable John P. 
Cook, but received only 4,374 votes to 7,460 for the 
latter. Gov. Bond was no orator, but had made 
many fast friends by a judicious bestowment of liis 
gubernatorial patronage, and these worked zealously 
for him in the campaign. 

In 1827 ex-Gov. Bond was appointed by tiie Leg- 
islature, with Wm. P. McKee and Dr. Gershom 
Jayne, as Commissioners to locate a site for a peni- 
•tentiary on the Mississippi at or near Alton. 

Mr. Bond was of a benevolent and convivial dis- 
position, a man of shrewd observation and clear ap- 
preciation of events. His person was erect, stand- 
ing six feet in height, and after middle life became 
portly, weighing 200 pounds. His features were 
strongly masculine, complexion dark, hair jet and 
eyes hazel ; was a favorite witli tiie ladies. He died 
April II, 1830, in peace and contentment. 

Ld^^<"UA2) CcrtJ^ 



£t)war5 Coles. 



DWARI' COLES, second 
Governor of Illinois, 1823- 
i. 6, was born Dec. 15, 1786, 
in Albemarle Co., Va., on 
the old family estate called 
«>^i,_3 " Enniscorthy," on the 
Green Mountain. His fath- 
er, John Coles, was a Colonel in the 
Revolutionary War. Having been fit- 
ted for college by private tutors, he 
was sent to Hampden Sidney, where 
he remained until the autumn of 1805, 
when he was removed to William and 
(^vhu'SJ Mary College, at Williamsburg, Va. 
^5.^itS^ This college he left in the summer of 
1S07, a short time before the final and graduating 
examination. Among his classmates were Lieut. 
Gen. Scott, President John Tyler, Wm. S. Archer, 
United States Senator from Virginia, and Justice 
Baldwin, of the United States Supreme Court. The 
President of the latter college. Bishop Madison, was 
a cousin of President James Madison, and that cir- 
cumstance was the occasion of Mr. Coles becoming 
personally acquainted with the President and re- 
ceiving a position as his private secretary, 1809-15. 
The family of Coles was a prominent one in Vir- 
ginia, and their mansion was the seat of the old- 
fashioned Virginian hospitality. It was visited by 
such rotables as Patrick Henry, Jefferson, Madison, 
Monroe, the Randolphs, Tazewell, Wirt, etc. At the 
age of 23, young Coles found himself heir to a plant- 
ation and a considerable number of slaves. Ever 
since his earlier college days his attention had been 
drawn to the question of slavery. He read every- 

thing on the subject that came in his way, and 
listened to lectures on the rights of man. The mo'rL; 
he reflected upon the subject, the more impossible 
was it for him to reconcile the immortal declaration 
"that all men are born free and equal " with the 
practice of slave-holding. He resolved, therefore, to 
free his slaves the first opportunity, and even remove 
his residence to a free State, One reason which de- 
termined him to accept the appointment as private 
secretary to Mr. Madison was because he believed 
that through the acquaintances he could make at 
Washington he could better determine in what par; 
of the non-slaveholding portion of the Union he woulc 
prefer to settle. 

The relations between Mr. Coles and President 
Madison, as well as Jefferson and other distinguished 
men, were of a very friendly character, arising from 
the similarity of their views on the question of slavery 
and their sympathy for each other in holding doc- 
trines so much at variance with the prevailing senti- 
ment in their own State. 

In 1857, he resigned his secretaryship and spent a 
portion of the following autumn in exploring the 
Northwest Territory, for the purpose of finding a lo- 
cation and purchasing lands on which to settle his 
negroes. He traveled with a horse and buggy, with 
an extra man and horse for emergencies, through 
many parts of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Missouri, 
determining finally to settle in Illinois. At this time, 
however, a misunderstanding arose between our 
Government and Russia, and Mr. Coles was selected 
to repair to St. Petersburg on a special mission, bear- 
ing important papers concerning the matter at issue. 
The result was a conviction of the Emperor (Alex- 



ander) of the error comiiiitted by his minister at 
Wiishington, and tlie consequent withdrawal of the 
the latter from the post. On his return, Mr. Coles 
visited other \)arts of Europe, especially Paris, where 
he was introduced to Gen. Lafayette. 

In the spring of 1819, he removed with all his 
negroes from Virginia to Edwardsville, III, with the 
intention of giving them their liberty. He did not 
make known to them his intention until one beautiful 
morning in April, as they were descending the Ohio 
River. He lashed all the boats together and called 
all the negroes on deck and made them a short ad- 
dress, concluding his remarks by so expressing him- 
self that by a turn of a sentence he proclaimed in 
the shortest and fullest manner that they were no 
longer slaves, but free as he was and were at liberty 
to proceed with him or go ashore at their pleas- 
ure. A description of the effect upon the negroes is 
best desciibed in his own language : 

"The effect upon them was electrical. They stared 
at n-.e and then at each other, as if doubting the ac- 
curacy or reality of what they heard. In breathless 
silence they stood before me, unable to utter a word, 
but with countenances beaming with expression which 
no words could convey, and which no language 
can describe. As they began to see the truth of 
what they had heard, and realize their situation, there 
came on a kind of hysterical, giggling laugh. After 
a pause of intense and unutterable emotion, bathed 
in tears, and with tremulous voices, they gave vent to 
their gratitude and implored the blessing of God 
on me." 

Before landmg he gave them a general certificate 
of freedom, and afterward conformed more particu- 
larly with the law of this State requiring that each 
individual should have a certificate. This act of 
Mr. Coles, all the more noble and heroic considering 
the overwhelming pro-slavery influences surrounding 
him, has challenged the admiration of every philan- 
thropist of modern times. 

March 5, 1819, President Monroe appointed Mr. 
Coles Registrar of the Land Office at Edwardsvihe, 
at that time one of the principal land offices in the 
State. While acting in this capacity and gaining 
many friends by his ixjliteness and general intelli- 
gence, the greatest struggle that ever occurred in 
Illinois on the slavery question culminated in the 
furious contest characterizing the campaigns and 
elections of 1822-4. ^'i the summer of 1823, when a 
new Governor was to be elected to succeed Mr. 
Bond, the pro-slavery element divided into factions, 
putting forward for the executive office Joseph 
Phillips, Chief Justice of the State, Thomas C. 
IJrowne and Gen. Junes B. Moore, of the State Mil- 
itia. The anti-slavery element united upon Mr. 
Coles, and, after one of the most bitter campaigns, 
succeeded in electing him as Governor. His i)lural- 
ity over Judge PhiUips was only 59 in a total vote of 

over 8,000. The Lieutenant Governor was elected 
by the slavery men. Mr. Coles' inauguration speech 
was marked by calmness, deliberation and such a 
wise expression of appropriate suggestions as to 
elicit the sanction of all judicious politicians. But 
he compromised not with evil. In his message to 
the Legislature, the seat of Government being then 
at Vandalia, he strongly urged the abrogation of the 
modified form of slavery whi';h then existed in this 
State, contrary to the Ordinance of 1787. His posi- 
tion on this subject seems the more remarkable, when 
it is considered that he was a minority Governor, the 
population of Illinois being at that lime almost ex- 
clusively from slave-holding States and by a large 
majority in favor of the perpetuation of that old relic 
of barbarism. The Legislature itself was, of course, 
a reflex of the popular sentiment, and a majority of 
them were led on by fiery men in denunciations of 
the conscientious Governor, and in curses loud and 
deep upon him and all his friends. Some of the 
public men, indeed, went so far as to head a sort of 
mob, or " shiveree " party, who visited the residence 
of the Governor and others at Vandalia and yelled 
and groaned and spat fire. 

The Constitution, not establishing or permitting 
slavery in this State, was thought therefore to be 
defective by the slavery politicians, and they desired 
a State Convention to be elected, to devise and sub- 
mit a new Constitution; and the dominant politics 
of the day was "Convention" and "anti-Conven- 
tion." Both parties issued addresses to the people, 
Gov. Coles himself being the author of the address 
published by the latter party. This address revealed 
the schemes of the conspirators in a masterly man- 
ner. It is difficult for us at this distant day to esti- 
mate the critical and extremely delicate situation in 
which the Governor was placed at that time. 

Our hero maintained himself honorably and with 
supreme dignity throughout his administration, and 
in his honor a county in this State is named. He 
was truly a great man, and tiiose who lived in 
this State during his sojourn here, like those who 
live at the base of the mountain, were too near to see 
and recognize the greatness that overshadowed them. 

Mr. Coles was married Nov. 28, 1833, by Bishop 
De Lancey, to Miss Sally Logan Roberts, a daughter 
of Hugh Roberts, a descendant of Welsh ancestry, 
who cami to this country with Wm. Penn in 1682. 

After the expiration of his term of service. Gov. 
Coles continued his residence in Edwardsville, sup- 
erintending his farm in the vicinity. He was fond 
of agriculture, and was the founder of the first agri- 
cultural society in the State. On account of ill 
health, however, and having no family to tie him 
down, he spent much of his time in Eastern cities. 
About 1832 he changed his residence to Philadel- 
phia, where he died July 7, 1S68, and is buried at 
Woodland, near that city. 

' O <:y^-Ciyi^^^i<^ 


^> • ^■• 

111, 1 a 11, K d w a^f d.K • 


from 1827 to 1830, was a son 
of Benjamin Edwards, and 
was born in Montgomery 
J County, Maryland, in March, 
r^ I77S- His domestic train- 
■''*'' ing was well fitted to give 
his mind strength, firmness and 
honorable principles, and a good 
foundation was laid for the elevated 
character to which he afterwards 
attained. His parents were Bap- 
tists, and very strict in their moral 
piinciples. His education in early 
youth was in company with and 
partly under the tuition of Hon. \Vm . 
Wirt, whom his father patronized 
^^ and who was more than two years 

older. An intimacy was thus 
formed between them which was lasting for life. He 
was farther educated at Dickinson College, at Car- 
lisle, Pa. He ne.xt commenced the study of law, but 
before completing his course he moved to Nelson 
County, Ky., to open a farm for his father and to 
purchase homes and locate lands for his brothers and 
sisters. Here he fell in the company of dissolute 
companions, and for several years led the life of a 
spendthrift. He was, however, elected to the Legis- 
lature of Kentucky as the Representative of Nelson 
ilounty before he was 2 1 years of age, and was re- 
elected by an almost unanimous vote. 


In 1798 he was licensed to practice law, and the 
following year was admitted to the Courts of Tennes- 
see. About this time he left Nelson County for 
Russellville, in Logan County, broke away from his 
dissolute companions, commenced a reformation and 
devoted himself to severe and laborious study. He 
then began to rise rapidly in his profession, and soon 
became an eminent lawyer, and inside of four years 
he filled in succession the offices of Presiding Judge 
of the General Court, Circuit Judge, fourth Judge of 
the Court of Appeals and Chief Justice of the State, 
— all before he was 32 years of age! In addition, in 
1802, he received a commission as Major of a battal- 
ion of Kentucky militia, and in 1804 was chosen a 
Presidential Elector, on the Jefferson and Clinton 
ticket. In 1S06 he was a candidate for Congress, 
but withdrew on being promoted to the Court of 

Illinois was organized as a separate Territory in 
the spring of 1809, when Mr. Edwards, then Chief 
Justice of the Court of Appeals in Kentucky, received 
from President Madison the appointment as Gover- 
nor of the new Territory, his commission bearing date 
April 24, r8o9. Edwards arrived at Kaskaskia in 
June, and on the i itii of that month took the oath of 
office. At the same time he was appointed Superior 
tendent of the United States Saline, this Government 
interest then developing into considerable proportions 
in Southern Illinois. Although during the first three 
years of his administration he had the power to make 
new counties and appoint all the officers, yet he always 
allowed the people of each county, by an informal 


vote, to select their own officers, both civil and mili- 
tary. The noted John J. Crittenden, afterward 
United States Senator from Kentucky, was appointed 
by Gev. Edwards to the office of Attorney General of 
the Territory, which office was accepted for a short 
time only. 

The Indians in iSio committing sundry depreda- 
tions in the Territory, crossing the Mississippi from 
the Territory of Louisiana, a long corresfxjndence fol- 
lowed between the respective Governors concerning 
the remedies, which ended in a council with the sav- 
ages at Peoria in 1S12, and a fresh interpretation of 
ihe treaties. Peoria was depopulated by these de- 
predations, and was not re-settled for many vears 

As Gov. Edwards' term of office expired by law in 
1S12, he was re-appointed for another term of three 
years, and again in 1815 for a third term, serving 
until the organization of the State in the fall of 1818 
t.nd the inauguration of Gov. Bond. At this time 
ex-Gov. Edwards was sent to the United States 
Senate, his colleague being Jesse B. Thomas. As 
•senator, Mr. Edwards took a conspicuous part, and 
acquitted himself honorably in all the measures that 
came up in that body, being well posted, an able de- 
bater and a conscientious statesman. He thought 
seriously of resigning this situation in 182 1, but was 
persuaded by his old friend, Wm. Wirt, and others to 
continue in office, which he did to the end of the 

He was then appointed Minister to Mexico by 
President Monroe. About this time, it appears that 
Mr. Edwards saw suspicious signs in the conduct of 
\Vm. H. Crawford, Secretary of the United States 
Treasury, and an ambitious candidate for the Presi- 
dency, and being implicated by the latter in some of 
his statements, he resigned his Mexican mission in 
order fully to investigate the charges. The result 
was the exculpation of Mr. Edwards. 

Pro-slavery regulations, often termed "Black Laws," 
cisgraced the statute books of both the Territory and 
he State of Illinois during the whole of his career in 
.his commonwealth, and Mr. Edwards always main- 
tained the doctrines of freedom, and was an important 
;xtor in the great struggle which ended in a victory 
for his party in 1824. 

In 18267 the Winnebago and other Indians com- 
mitted sou-e depredations in the northern part of the 

State, and the white settlers, who desired the land=: 
and wished to exasperate the savages into an evacu- 
ation of the country, magnified the misdemeanors of 
the aborigines and thereby produced a hostility be- 
tween the races so great as to precipitate a little war, 
known in history as the "Winnebago War." A few 
chases and skirmishes were had, when Gen. Atkinson 
succeeded in capturing Red Bird, the Indian chief, 
and putting him to death, thus ending the contest, at 
least until the troubles commenced which ended in 
the " Black Hawk War " of 1832. In the interpre- 
tation of treaties and execution of their provisions 
Gov. Edwards had much vexatious work to do. The 
Indians kept themselves generally within the juris- 
diction of Michigan Territory, and its Governor, 
Lewis Cass, was at a point so remote that ready cor- 
respondence with him was difficult or impossible. 
Gov. Edwards' administration, however, in regard to 
the protection of the Illinois frontier, seems to have 
been very efficient and satisfactory. 

For a considerable portion of his time after his re- 
moval to Illinois, Gov. Edwards resided upon his 
farm near Kaskaskia, which he had well stocked with 
horses, cattle and sheep from Kentucky, also with 
fruit-trees, grape-vines and shrubbery. He estab- 
lished saw and grist-mills, and engaged extensively 
in mercantile business, having no less than eight or ten 
stores in this State and Missouri. Notwithstanding 
the arduous duties of his office, he nearly always pur- 
chased the goods himself with which to supply the 
stores. Although not a regular practitioner of medi- 
cine, he studied the healing art to a considerable ex- 
tent, and took great pleasure in prescribing for, and 
taking care of, the sick, generally without charge. 
He also liberal to the poor, several widows and 
ministers of the gospel becoming indebted to hmi 
even for their homes. 

He married Miss Elvira Lane, of Maryland, in 
1803, and they became the affectionate parents of 
several children, one of whom, especially, is weli' 
known to the people of the " Prairie State," namely, 
Ninian Wirt Edwards, once the Superintendent c' 
Public Instruction and still a resident of Springfield 
Gov. Edwards resided at and in the vicinity of Kas- 
kaskia from 1809 to 1S18; in Edwardsville (named 
after him) from that time to 1824; and fro;n the lat- 
ter date at Belleville, St. Clair County, until his 
death, July 20, 1833, of Asiatic ciiolera. Edwards 
County is also named in his honor. 


OHN REYNOLDS, Governor 1831- 
l ^ 4, was born in Montgomery Coun- 
ty, Pennsylvania, Feb. 26, 1788. 
His father, Robert Reynolds and 
his mother, nee Margaret Moore, 
were both natives of Ireland, from 
which country they emigrated to 
the United States in 1785, land- 
ing at Philadelphia. The senior 
Reynolds entertained an undying 
hostility to the British Govern- 
ment. When the subject of this 
sketch was about six months old, 
his parents emigrated with him to 
Tennessee, where many of their 
relatives had already located, at the base of the 
Copper Ridge Mountain, about 14 miles northeast of 
the present city of Knoxville. There they were ex- 
Dosed to Indian depredations, and were much molest- 
ed by them. In 1794 they moved into the interior 
of the State. They were poor, and brought up their 
children to habits of manual industry. 

In 1800 the family removed to Kaskaskia, 111., with 
eight horses and two wagons, encountering many 
' Hardships on the way. Here young Reynolds passed 
the most of his childhood, while his character began 
to develop, the most prominent traits of which were 
ambition and energy. He also adopted the principle 
and practice of total abstinence from intoxicating 
liquors. In 1807 the family made another removal, 

this time to the " Goshen Settlement," at the foot of 
the Mississippi bluffs three or four miles southwest 
of Edwardsville. 

On arriving at his 20th year, Mr. Reynolds, seeing 
that he must look about for his own livelihood and 
not yet having determined what calling to pursue, 
concluded first to attend college, and he accordingly 
went to such an institution of learning, near Knox- 
ville, Tenn., where he had relatives. Imagine his 
diffidence, when, after passing the first 20 years of 
his life without ever having seen a carpet, a papered 
wall or a Windsor chair, and never having lived in a 
shingle-roofed house, he suddenly ushered himself 
into the society of the wealthy in the vicinity of 
Knoxville ! He attended college nearly two years, 
going through the principal Latin authors; but it 
seems that he, like the rest of the world in modern 
times, had but very little use for his Latin in after 
life. He always failed, indeed, to exhibit any good 
degree of literary discipline. He commenced the 
study of law in Knoxville, but a pulmonary trouble 
came on and compelled him to change his mode 
of life. Accordinjjly he returned home and re- 
cuperated, and in 1812 resumed his college and 
law studies at Knoxville. In the fall of 1812 he was 
admitted to the Bar at Kaskaskia. About this time 
he also learned the French language, which he 
practiced with pleasure in conversation with his 
family for many years. He regarded this language 
as being superior to all others for social intercourse 



From his services in the West, in the war oi 1812, 
he obtained the sobriquet of the " Old Ranger." He 
was Orderly Sergeant, then Judge Advocate. 

Mr. Reynolds opened his first law office in the 
winter and spring of 1814, in the French village of 
Cahokia, then the capital of St. Clair County. 

In the fall of 181S he was elected an Associate 
Justice upon the Supreme Bench by the General 
Assembly. In 1825 he entered more earnestly than 
ever into the practice of law, and the very next year 
was elected a member of the Legislature, where he 
acted independently of all cliques and private inter- 
ests. In 1828 the Whigs and Democrats were for 
the first time distinctively organized as such in Illi- 
nois, and the usual party bitterness grew up and 
raged on all sides, while Mr. Reynolds preserved a 
iudicial calmness and moderation. The real animus 
if the campaign was " Jackson " and " anti-Jackson," 
'he former party carrying the State. 

In August, 1830, Mr. Reynolds was elected Gov- 
ernor, amid great e.xcitement. Installed in office, he 
did all within his power to advance the cause of edu- 
cation, internal improvements, the Illinois & Mich- 
igan Canal, the harbor at Chicago, settling the coun- 
try, etc.; also reccmmended the winding up of the 
State Bank, as its affairs had become dangerously 
complicated. In his national politics, he was a 
moderate supporter of General Jackson. But the 
most celebrated event of his gubernatcrial admin- 
istration was the Black Hawk War, which occurred 
in 1832. He called out the militia and prosecuted 
the contest with commendable diligence, appearing 
in ijerson on the battle-grounds during the most 
critical periods. He was recognized by the President 
as Major-General, and authorized by him to make 
treaties with the Indians. By the assistance of the 
genf.ral Government the war was terminated witliout 
much bloodshed, but after many serious fights. This 
war, as well as everything else, was materially re- 
tarded by the occurrence of Asiatic cholera in the 
West. This was its first appearance here, and was 
the next event in prominence during Gov. Reynolds' 

South Carolina nullification corning up at this time, 
t was heartily condemned by both President Jackson 
^.nd Gov. Reynolds, who took precisely the same 
grounds as the Unionists in the last war. 

On the termination of his gubernatorial term in 
.834, Gov. Reynolds was elected a Member of Con- 
gress, still coi:sidering himself a backwoodsman, as 
' e had scarcely been outside of the Slate since he 
became of age, and had spent nearly all his youthful 
iays in the wildest region of the frontier. His first 
move in Congress was to adopt a resolution that in 
all elections made by the House for officers the votes 
should be given viva voce, each member in his place 
naming aloud the person for whom he votes. This 
created considerable heated discussion, but was es- 

sentially adopted, and remained the controlling prin- 
ciple for many years. The ex-Governor was scarcely 
absent from his seat a single day, during eight ses- 
sions of Congress, covering a period of seven year-., 
and he never vacillated in a party vote; but he failed 
to get the Democratic party to foster his " National 
Road" scheme. He says, in "My Own Times" (a 
large autobiography he published), that it was only 
by rigid economy that he avoided insolvency while in 
Washington. During his sojourn in that city he was 
married, to a lidy of the place. 

In 1837, while out of Congress, and in company 
with a few others, he built the first railroad in the 
Mississippi Valley, namely, one about six miles long, 
leading from his coal mine in the Mississippi bluft'to 
the bank of the river opposite St. Louis. Having not 
the means to purchase a locomotive, they operated it 
by horse-power. The next spring, however, the com- 
pany sold out, at great sacrifice. 

In 1839 the ex-Governor was appointed one of the 
Canal Commissioners, and authorized to borrow 
money to prosecute the enterprise. Accord'ngly, he 
repaired to Philadelphia and succeeding in obtaining 
a million dollars, which, however, was only a fourth 
of what was wanted. The same year he and his 
wife made at our of Europe. This year, also, ^Ir. 
Reynolds had the rather awkward little responsibility 
of introducing to President Van Buren the noted 
Mormon Prophet, Joseph Smith, as a " Latter-Day 
Saint ! " 

In 1846 Gov. Reynolds was elected a member of 
the Legislature from St. Clair County, more particu- 
larly for the purpose of obtaining a feasible charter 
for a macadamized road from Belleville to St. Louis, 
a distance of nearly 14 miles. This was immediately 
built, and was the first road of the kind in the State. 
He was again elected to the Legislature in 1852, when 
he was chosen Speaker of the House. In i86o, aged 
and infirm, he attended the National Democratic 
Convention at Chadeston, S. C, as an anti-Douglas 
Delegate, where he received more attention from the 
Southern Delegates than any other member. He 
supiwrted Breckenridge for the Presidency. After 
the October elections foreshadowed the success of 
Lincoln, he published an address urging the Demo- 
crats to rally to the support of Douglas. Immedi- 
ately preceding and during the late war, his corre- 
spondence evinced a clear sympathy for the Southern 
secession, and about the first of March, i86r, he 
urged upon the Buchanan officials tlie seizure of the 
treasure and arms in the custom-house and arsenal 
at St. Louis. Mr. Reynolds was a rather talkative 
man, and apt in all the Western phrases and catch- 
words that ever gained currency, besides many cun- 
ning and odd ones of his own manufacture. 

He was married twice, but had no children. He 
died in Belleville, in May, 1865, just after the close 
of the war. 



/;w~tT''^^^^^ I LLI AM LEE D. EWING, 
("^ Governor of Illinois Nov. 3 
": to 17, 1834, was a native 
uf Kentucky, and probably 
of Scotch ancestry. He had 
a fine education, was a gentle- 
man of polished manners and 
refined sentiment. In 1830 John Rey- 
nolds was elected Governor of the State, 
and Zadok Casey Lieutenant Governor, 
and for the principal events that followed, 
and the characteristics of the times, see 
sketch of Gov. Reynolds. The first we 
see in history concerning Mr. Ewing, in- 
forms us that he was a Receiver of Pul)lic 
Moneys at Vandalia soon after the organization of 
tftib State, and that the public moneys in his hands 
v.-ere deposited in various banks, as they are usually 
.'•'•thv ^Tesent day. In 1823 the State Bank was 
obbed, by which disaster Mr. Ewing lost a thousand- 
dollar deposit. 

The subject of this sketch had a commission as 
(olonel in the Black Hawk War, and in emergencies 
he acted also as Major. In the summer of 1832, 
'■"/hen '.-was rumored among the whites that Black 
Hawk and his men had encamped somewhere on 
Rock Rive;-, Gen. Henry was sent on a tour of 
reconnoisance, and with orders to drive the Indians 
from the State. After some opposition from his 
rubordinate officers, Henry resolved to proceed up 
Rock River in search of the enemy. On the 19th of 
July, early in the morning, five baggage wagons. 

-» ■ ? ■ < - 

camp equipage and all heavy and cumbersome arti- 
cles were piled up and left, so that the army migh; 
make speedy and forced marches. For some miles 
the travel was exceedingly bad, crossing swamjis 
and the worst thickets; but the large, fresh trail 
give life and animation to the Americans. Gen. 
Dodge and Col. Ewing were both actmg as Majors, 
and composed the " spy corps " or vanguard of the 
army. It is supposed the army marched nearly 50 
miles this day, and the Indian trail they followed 
became fresher, and was strewed with much property 
and trinkets of the red-skins that they had lost or 
thrown away to hasten their march. During the 
following night there was a terrific thunder-storm, and 
the soldiery, with all their appurtenances, were thor- 
oughly drenched. 

On approaching nearer the Indians the next day. 
Gen. Dodge and Major Ewing, each commanding a 
battalion of men, were placed in front to bring on the 
l)attle, but the savages were not overtaken this day 
Forced marches were continued until they reached. 
Wisconsin River, where a veritable battle ensued, 
resulting in the death of about 68 of Black Hawk's 
men. The next day they continued the chase, and 
as soon as he discovered the trail of the Indians 
leading toward the Mississippi, Maj. Ewing formed 
liis battalion in order of battle and awaited the order 
of Gen. Henry. The latter soon appeared on the 
ground and ordered a charge, which directly resulted 
in chasing the red warriors across the great riven 
Maj, Ewing and his command proved particularly 
efficient in war, as it seems they were the chief actors 
in driving the main body of the Sacs and Foxes, in- 



eluding Black Hawk himself, across the Mississippi, 
while Gen. Atkinson, commander-in-chief of the ex- 
pedition, with a body of the army, was hunting for 
them in another direction. 

In the above affair Maj. Ewmg is often referred to 
as a "General," wh.ich title he had derived from his 
connection with the militia. 

It was in the latter part of the same year (1832) 
that Lieutenant Governor Casey was elected to Con- 
gress and Gen. Ewing, who had been elected to the 
Senate, was cliosen to preside over that body. At 
the August election of 1S34, Gov. Reynolds was also 
elected to Congress, more than a year ahead of the 
time at which he could actually take his seat, as was 
then the law. His predecessor, Charles Slade, had 
just died of Asiatic cholera, soon after the elec- 
tion, and Gov. Reynolds was chosen to serve out his 
unexpired term. Accordingly he set out for Wash- 
ington in November of that year to take his seat in 
Congress, and Gen. Ewing, by virtue of his office as 
President of the Senate, became Governor of the 
State of Illinois, his term covering only a period of 
15 days, namely, from the 3d to the 17th days, in- 
clusive, of November. On the 17th the Legislature 
met, and Gov. Ewing transmitted to that body his 
message, giving a statement of the condition of the 
affairs of the State at that time, and urging a contin- 
uance of the policy adopted by his predecessor; and 
on the same day Governor elect Joseph Duncan 
was sworn into office, thus relieving Mr. Ewing from 

the responsible situation. This is the only time that 
such a juncture has happened in the history of Illi- 

On the 29th of December, 1835, Gen. Ewing was 
elected a United States Senator to serve out the 
unexpired term of Elias Kent Kane, deceased. The 
latter gentleman was a very prominent figure in the 
eariy politics of Illinois, and a county in this State is 
named in his honor. The election of Gen. Ewing to 
the Senate was a protracted struggle. His competi- 
tors were James Semple, who afterwards held several 
important offices in this State, and Richard M. 
Young, afterward a United States Senator and a 
Supreme Judge and a man of vast influence. On 
the first ballot Mr. Semple had 25 votes. Young 19 
and Ewing 18. On the eighth ballot Young was 
dropped ; the ninth and tenth stood a tie ; but on 
the 1 2th Ewing received 40, to Semple 37, and was 
accordingly declared elected. In 1837 Mr. Ewing 
received some votes for a continuance of his term in 
Congress, when Mr. Young, just referred to, was 
elected. In 1842 Mr. Ewing was elected State 
Audit-^r on the ticket with Gov. Ford. 

Gen. Ewing was a gentleman of culture, a lawyer 
by profession, and was much in public life. In person 
he was above medium height and of heavy build, 
with auburn hair, blue eyes, large-sized head and 
short face. He was genial, social, friendly and 
affable, with fair talent, though of no high degree of 
originality. He died March 25, 1846. 




s^^^ ^^s^m^Sk 

<^i,(li -v£j2££;©^«irw5.o '^«<tDiifi^|gtrH 

1834-8, was born at Paris, 
Ky., Feb. 23, 1794. At the 
tender age of 19 years he en- 
listed in the war against Great 
Britain, and as a soldier he 
acquitted himself with credit. He 
was an Ensign under the daunt- 
less Croghan at Lower Sanduhky, 
or Fort Stephenson. In Illinois 
he first appeared in a public capa- 
city as Major-Geneval of the ]\Iilitia, 
position which his military fame 
had procured him. Subsequently 
he became a State Senator from 
Jackson County, and is honorably 
mentioned for introducing the first bill providing for 
a free-school system. In 1826, when the redoubt- 
able John P. Cook, who had previously beaten such 
men as John McLean, Elias Kent Kane and ex- 
Gov. Bond, came up for the fourth time for Congress, 
Mr. Duncan was brought forward against him by his 
friends, greatly to the surprise of all the politicians. 
As yet he was but little known in the State. He was 
an original Jackson man at that time, being attached 
to his political fortune in admiration of the glory of 
his militaty achievements. His chances of success 
against Cook were generally regarded as hopeless, 
but he entered upon the campaign undaunted. His 
speeches, though short and devoid of ornament, were 
full of good sense. He made a diligent canvass of 
the State, Mr. Cook being hindered by the condition of 
his health. The most that was expected of Mr. 
Duncan, under the circumstances, was that he would 

obtain a respectable vote, but without defeating Mr, 
Cook. The result of the campaign, however, was a 
source of surprise and amazement to both friends 
and foes, as Mr. Duncan came out 641 votes ahead! 
He received 6,321 votes, and Mr. Cook 5,680. Un- 
til this denotiemcnt, the violence of party feeling 
smoldering in the breasts of the people on account 
of the defeat of Jackson, was not duly appreciated. 
Aside from the great convention struggle of 1824, no 
other than mere local and pergonal considerations 
had ever before controlled an election in Illinois. 

From the above date Mr. Duncan retained his 
seat in Congress until his election as Governor in 
.August, 1834. The first and bloodless year of the 
Black Hawk War he was appointed by Gov. Rey- 
nolds to the position of Brigadier-General of the 
volunteers, and he conducted his brigade to Rock 
Island. But he was absent from the State, in Wash- 
ington, during the gubernatorial campaign, and did 
not personally participate in it, but addressed circu- 
lars to his constituents. His election was, indeed, 
attributed to the circumstance of his absence, be- 
cause his estrangement from Jackson, formerly his 
political idol, and also from the Democracy, largely 
in ascendency in the State, was complete ; but while 
his defection was well known to his Whig friends, 
and even to the leading Jackson men of this State, 
the latter were unable to carry conviction of that fact 
to the masses, as mail and newspaper facilities at 
that day were far inferior to those of the present 
time. Of course the Governor was much abused 
afterward by the fossilized Jackson men who re- 
garded party ties and affiliations as above all 
other issues that could arise; but he was doubtless 



Eincere in his opposition to the old hero, as the latter 
iiad vetoed several important western measures 
which were dear to Mr. Duncan. In his inaugural 
message he threw off the mask and took a bold stand 
rgain St the course of the President. The measures 
'.e recommended in his message, however, were so 
desirable that the Legislature, although by a large 
majority consisting of Jackson men, could not refrain 
from endorsing them. These measures related 
ruainly to banks and internal improvements. 

It was while Mr. Duncan was Governor that the 
people of Illinois went whirling on with bank and in- 
ternal improvement schemes that well nigh bank- 
nipted the State. The hard times of 1837 came on, 
and the disasters that attended the inauguration of 
diese plans and the operation of the banks were mu- 
tually charged upon the two political parties. Had 
any cr-e man autocratic power to introduce and 
carry on any one of these measures, he would proba- 
bly have succeeded to the satisfaction of the public ; 
r.ut as many jealous men had hold of the same plow 
nandle, no success followed and each blamed the other 
for the failure. In this great vortex Gov. Duncan 
was carried along, suffering the like derogation of 
character with his fellow citizens. 

At the height of the excitement the Legislature 
" provided for " railroads from Galena to Cairo, Alton 
to Shawneetown, Alton to Mount Carmel, Alton to tlie 
eastern boundary of the State in the direction of 
Terre Haute, Quincy via Springfield to the Wabasli, 
Bloon-.ington to Pekin, and Peoria to Warsaw, — in all 
about r, 300 miles of road. It also provided for the 
improvement of the navigation of the Kaskaskia. 
Illinois, Great and Little Wabash and Rock Rivers ; 
also as a placebo, $200,000 in money were to be dis- 
tributed to the various counties wherein no improve- 
ments were ordered . to be made as above. The 
estimate for the expenses for all these projects was 
;laced at a little over $10,000,000, which was not 
more inan half enough! That would now be equal to 
saddling upon the State a debt of $225,000,000! It 
was sufficient to bankrupt the State several times 
over, even counting all the possible benefits. 

One of the most exciting events that ever occurred 
ba. this fair State was the murder of Elijah P. Love- 
ioy in the fall of r837, at Alton, during Mr. Duncan's 
term as Governor. Lovejoy was an " Abolitionist," 
editing the Observer at that place, and the pro- 
slavery slums there formed themselves into a mob, 

and after destroying successively three presses be- 
longing to Mr. Lovejoy, surrounded the warehouse 
where the fourth press was stored away, endeavoring 
to destroy it, and where Lovejoy and his friends 
were entrenching thernselves, and shot and killed the 
brave reformer! 

About this time, also, the question of removing the 
State capital again came up, as the 20 years' limit for 
its existence at Vandalia was drawing to a close. 
There was, of course, considerable excitement over 
the matter, the two main points competing for it be- 
ing Springfield and Peoria. The jealousy of the lat- 
ter place is not even yet, 45 years afterward, fully 

Gov. Duncan's term expired in 1838. In 1842 
he was again proposed as a candidate for the Execu- 
tive chair, this time by the Whig party, against Adam 
W. Snyder, of St. Clair County, the nominee of the 
Democrats. Charles W. Hunter was a third candi- 
date for the same position. Mr. Snyder, however, died 
before the campaign had advanced very far, and his 
party substituted Thomas Ford, who was elected, 
receiving 46,9or votes, to 38,584 for Duncan, and 
909 for Hunter. The cause of Democratic success 
at this time is mainly attributed to the temporary 
support of the Mormons which they enjoyed, and the 
want of any knowledge, on the part of the masses, 
that Mr. Ford was opposed to any given [xjlicy en- 
tertained in the respective localities. 

Gov. Duncan was a man of rather limited educa- 
tion, but with naturally fine abilities he profited 
greatly by his various public services, and gathered 
a store of knowledge regarding public affairs which 
served him a ready purpose. He possessed a clear 
judgment, decision, confidence in himself and moral 
courage to carry out his convictions of light. In his 
deportment he was well adapted to gain the admira- 
tion of the people. His intercourse with them was 
both affable and dignified. His portrait at the Gov- 
ernor's mansion, from which the accompanying was 
made, represents him as having a swarthy complex- 
ion, high cheek bones, broad forehead, piercing black 
eyes and straight black hair. 

He was a liberal patron of the Illinois College at 
Jacksonville, a member of its Board of Trustees, and 
died, after a short illness, Jan. 15, 1S44, a devoted 
member of the Presbyterian Ciiurch, leaving a wife 
but no children. Two children, born to them, had 
died in infancy. 







^nHOMAS CARLIN, the sixth 
^ Governor of the State of 
Illinois, serving from 1S38 
to 1S42, was also a Ken- 
tuckian, being born near 
Frankfort, that State, July 
iS, 1789, of Irish paternity. 
The opportunities for an education 
being very meager in his native 
place, he, on approaching years of 
judgment and maturity, applied 
himself to those branches of learn- 
ing that seemed most important, 
and thus became a self-made man ; 
and his taste for reading and 
study remained with hini through 
In 1803 his father removed 
10 Missouri, then a part of " New Spain," where he 
died in iSio. 

In 18 1 2 young Carlin came to Illinois and 'partici- 
pated in all the "ranging" service incident to the 
war of that period, proving himself a soldier of un- 
daunted bravery. In 1814 he married Rebecca 
Huitt, and lived for four years on the bank of the 
Mississippi River, opposite the mouth of the Mis- 
souri, where he followed farming, and then removed 
to Greene County. He located the town site of Car- 
n>'tor.,in that county, and in 1825 made a liberal 
donation of land for county building purposes. He 
was the first Sherifif of that county after its separate 
organization, and afterward was twice elected, as a 
Jackson Democrat, to the Illinois Senate. In the 
Black Hawk War he commanded a spy battalion, a 
post of considerable danger. In 1834 he was ap- 
pointed by President Jackson to the position of 
Receiver of Public Moneys, and to fulfill the office 

more conveniently he removed to the city of Quincy. 

While, in 1838, the unwieldy internal improvement 
system of the State was in full operation, with all its 
expensive machinery, amidst bank suspensions 
throughout the United States, a great stringency in 
the money market everywhere, and Illinois bonds 
forced to sale at a heavy discount, and the " hardest 
times "existing that the people of the Prairie State 
ever saw, the general election of Stale officers was 
approaching. Discreet men who had cherished the 
hope of a speedy subsidence of the public infatua- 
tion, met with disappointment. A Governor and 
Legislature were to be elected, and these were now 
looked forward to for a repeal of the ruinous Stale 
policy. But the grand scheme had not yet lost its 
dazzling influence upon the minds of the people. 
Time and experience had not yet fully demonstrated 
its alter absurdity. Hence the question of arresting 
its career of profligate expenditures did not become 
a leading one with the dominant party during the 
camp.iign, and most of the old members of the Leg- 
islature were returned at this election. 

Under these circumstances the Democrats, in State 
Convention assembled, nominated Mr. Carlin for the 
office of Governor, and S. H. Anderson for Lieuten- 
ant Governor, while the Whigs nominated Cyrus Ed- 
wards, brother of Ninian Edwards, formeriy Governor, 
and W. H. Davidson. Edwards came out strongly 
for a continuance of the State policy, while Carli; 
remained non-committal. This was the first tunc 
that the two main [wliiical parties in this Slate were 
unembarrassed by any third party in ihe field. The 
result of the election was: Carlin, 35,573 ; Ander- 
son, 30,335 ; Edwards, 29,629 ; and Davidson, 28,- 


Upon the meeting of the subsequent Legislature 
(1839), the retiring Governor CDuncan) in his mcs- 



sage spoke in emphatic terms of the impolicy of the 
internal improvement system, presaging the evils 
threatened, and uiged that body to do their utmost 
to correct the great error ; yet, on the contrary, the 
Legislature not only decided to continue the policy 
but also added to its burden by voting more appro- 
priations and ordering more improvements. Although 
the money market was still stringent, a further loan 
of $4,000,000 was ordered for the Illinois & Mich- 
igan Canal alone. Cn'cago at that time began to 
loom up and promise to be an important city, even 
the great emporium of the West, as it has since in- 
deed came to be. Ex-Gov. Reynolds, an incompe- 
tent financier, was commissioned to effect the loan, 
and accordingly hastened to the East on this respons- 
ible errand, and negotiated the loans, at considera- 
ble sacrifice to the State. Besides this embarrassment 
to Carlin's administration, the Legislature also de- 
clared that he had no authority to appoint a Secretary 
of State until a vacancy existed, and A. P. Field, a 
Whig, who had already held the post by appointment 
through three administrations, was determined to 
keep the place a while longer, in spite of Gov. Car- 
lin's preferences. The course of the Legislature in 
this regard, however, was finally sustained by the 
Supreme Court, in a quo warranto case brought up 
before it by John A. McClernand, whom the Gov- 
ernor had nominated for the office. Thereupon that 
dignified body was denounced as a "Whig Court!" 
endeavoring to establish the principle of life-tenure 
of office. 

A new law was adopted re-organizing the Judici- 
ary, and under it five additional Supreme Judges 
were elected by the Legislature, namely, Thomas 
Ford (afterward Governor), Sidney Breese, Walter B. 
Scates, Samuel H. Treat and Stephen A. Douglas — 
all Democrats. 

It was daring Cov. Carlin's administration that the 
noisy campaign of '"Tippecanoe and Tyler too " oc- 
curred, resulting in a Whig victory. This, however, 
did net affect Illinois politics very seriously. 

Another prominent event in the West during Gov. 
Carlin's term of office was the excitement caused by 
the Mcrmons and their removal from Independence, 
Mo., to Nauvoo, 111., in 1840. At the same time 
they began to figure somewhat in State politics. On 
account of tlieir believing — as they thought, accord- 
ing to the New Testament — that they should have 

" all things common," and that consequently " all 
the earth " and all that is upon it were the" Lord's " 
and therefore the property of his " saints," they 
were suspected, and correctly, too, of committing 
many of the deeds of larceny, robbery, etc., that 
were so rife throughout this country in those days. 
Hence a feeling of violence grew up between the 
Mormons and "anti-Mormons." In the State of 
Missouri the Mormons always supported the Dem- 
ocracy until they were driven out by the Democratic 
government, when they turned their support to the 
Whigs. They were becoming numerous, and in the 
Legislature of 1840-r, therefore, it became a matter 
of great interest with both parties to conciliate these 
people. Through the agency of one John C. Ben- 
nett, a scamp, the Mormons succeeded in rushing 
through the Legislature (both parties not daring to 
oppose) a charter for the city of Nauvoo which vir- 
tually erected a hierarchy co-ordinate with the Fed- 
eral Government itself. In the fall of 1841 the 
Governor of Missouri made a demand upon Gov. 
Carlin for the body of Joe Smith, the ^lormon leader, 
as a fugitive from justice. Gov. Carlin issued the 
writ, but for some reason it was returned unserved. 
It was again issued in 1842, and Smith was arrested, 
but was either rescued by his followers or discharged 
by the municipal court on a writ of habeas corpus. 

In December, 1841, the Democratic Convention 
nominated .\dam W. Snyder, of Belleville, for Gov- 
ernor. As he had been, as a member of the Legisla- 
ture, rather friendly to the Mormons, the latter 
naturally turned their support to the Democratic 
party. The next spring the Whigs nominated Ex- 
Gov. Duncan for the same office. In the meantime 
the Mormons began to grow more odious to the 
masses of the people, and the comparative prospects 
of the respective parties for success became very 
problematical. Mr. Snyder died in May, and 
Thomas Ford, a Supreme Judge, was substituted as 
a candidate, and was elected. 

At the close of his gubernatorial term, Mr. Carlin 
removed back to his old home at Carrollton, where 
he spent the remainder of his life, as before his ele- 
vation to office, in agricultural pursuits. In 1S49 
he served out the unexpired term of J. D. Fry in the 
Illinois House of Representatives, and died Feb. 4. 
1852, at his residence at Carrollton, leaving a wife 
and seven children. 





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3H0MAS FORD, Governor 
from 1842 to 1846, and au- 
thor of a very interesting 
history of Illinois, was born 
at Uniontown, Pa., in the 
year 1 800. His mother, after 
the death of her first hus- 
band (Mr. Forquer), married Rob- 
ert Ford, who was killed in 1802, 
by the Indians in the mountains 
of Pennsylvania. She was conse- 
quently left in indigent circum- 
stances, with a large family, mostly 
gids. With a view to better her 
condition, she, in 1804, removed to 
Missouri, where it had been cus- 
tomary by the Spanish Govern- 
ment to give land to actual settlers; but upon her 
arrival at St. Louis she found the country ceded to 
the United States, and the liberal policy toward set- 
tlers changed by the new ownership. After some 
sickness to herself and family, she finally removed to 
Illinois, and settled some three miles south of Water- 
loo, but the following year moved nearer the Missis- 
sippi bluffs. Here young Ford received his first i 

schooling, under the instructions of a Mr. Humphrey, 
for which he had to walk three miles. His mother, 
though lacking a thorough education, was a woman 
of superior mental endowments, joined to energy 
and determination of character. She inculcated in 
her children those high-toned principles which dis- 
tinguished her sons in ^^ublic life. She exercised a 
rigid economy to provide her children an education ; 
but (ieorge Forquer, her oldest son (six years older 
than Thomas Ford), at an early age had to quit 
school to aid by his labor in the support of the family. 
He afterward became an eminent man in Illinois 
affairs, and but for his early death would probably 
have been elected to the United States Senate. 

Young Ford, with somewhat better opportunities, 
received a better education, though limited to the 
curriculum of the common school of those pioneer 
times. His mind gave early promise of superior en- 
dowments, with an inclination fur mathematics. His 
proficiency attracted the attention of Hon. Daniel P. 
Cook, who became his efficient patron and friend. 
The latter gentleman was an eminent Illinois states- 
man who, as a Member of Congress, obtained a grant 
of 300,000 acres of land to aid in completing the 
Illinois & Michigan Canal, and after whom the 
county of Cook was named. Through the advice of 



this j^entleinaii, Mr. Ford turned his attention to the 
study of hxw; but Forquer, then merchandising, re- 
s^-irdini.; liis education defective, sent him to Transyl- 
vania University, wliere, however, he remained but 
one term, owing to Forquer's failure in business. On 
his return he alternated his law reading with teach- 
ing school for support. 

In 1829 Gov. Edwards appointed him Prosecuting 
Attorney, and in 1831 he was re-appointed by Gov. 
Reynolds, and after that he was four times elected a 
Judge by the Legislature, without opposition, twice a 
Circuit Judge, once a Judge of Chicago, and as As- 
sociate Judge of the Supreme Court, when, in 1841, 
the latter tribunal was re-organized by the addition 
of five Judges, all Democrats. Ford was assigned to 
the Ninth Judicial Circuit, and while in this capacity 
he was holding Court in Ogle County he received a 
notice of his nomination by the Democratic Conven- 
tion for the office of Governor. He immediately re- 
signed his place and entered upon the canvass. In 
August, 1842, he was elected, and on the 8th of De- 
cember following he was inaugurated. 

All the offices which he had held were unsolicited 
by him. He received them upon the true Jefferson- 
ian principle, — Never to ask and never to refuse 
office. Both as a lawyer and as a Judge he stood 
deservedly high, but his cast of intellect fitted him 
rather for a writer upon law than a practicing advo- 
cate in the courts. In the latter capacity he was void 
of the moving power of eloquence, so necessary to 
success with juries. As a Judge his opinions were 
"ound, lucid and able expositions of the law. In 
practice, he was a stranger to the tact, skill and in- 
sinuating address of the politician, but he saw through 
ihe arts of demagogues as well as any man. He was 
()lain in his demeanor, so i^iuch so, indeed, that at 
one time after the expiration of his term of office, 
during a session of the Legislature, he was taken by 
a stranger to be a seeker for the position of door- 
keeper, and was waited upon at his hotel near mid- 
night by a knot of small office-seekers with t!ie view 
of effecting a " combination ! " 

Mr. Ford had not the " brass " of the ordinary 
politician, nor that impetuosity which characterizes a 
political leader. He cared little for money, and 
hardly enough for a decent support. In person he 
was of small stature, slender, of dark complexion, 
with black hair, sharp features, deep-set eyes, a 
pointed, aquiline nose having a decided twist to one 
side, and a small mouth. 

The three most important events in Gov. Ford's 
administration were the establishment of the high 
iinancial credit of the State, the " Mormon War "and 
.he Mexican War. 

In the first of these the Governor proved himself 
*.c be en;inentlv wise. On coming into office he found 
►he State iiadly paralyzed by the ruinous efiTects of 
the notorious "internal improvement" schemes of 

the preceding decade, with scarcely anything to 
show by way of "improvement." The enterprise 
that seemed to be getting ahead more than all the 
rest was the Illinois & Michigan Canal. As this 
promised to be the most important thoroughfare, 
feasible to the people, it was well under headway in 
its construction. Therefore the State policy was 
almost concentrated upon it, in order to rush it onto 
completion. The bonded indebtedness of the State 
was growing so large as to frighten the people, and 
they were about ready to entertain a proposition for 
repudiation. But the Governor had the foresight to 
recommend such measures as would maintain the 
public credit, for which every citizen to-day feels 

But perhaps the Governor is remembered more for 
his connection with the Mormon troubles than for 
anything else; for it was during his term of office 
that the " Latter-Day Saints " became so strong at 
Nauvoo, built their temple there, increased their num- 
bers throughout the country, committed misdemean- 
ors, taught dangerous doctrines, suffered the loss of 
theirleader, Jo Smith, by a violent death, were driven 
out of Nauvoo to the far West, etc. Having been a 
Judge for so many years previously, Mr. Ford of 
course was non-committal concerning Mormon affairs, 
and was therefore claimed by both parties and also 
accused by each of sympathizing too greatly with the 
other side. Mormonism claiming to be a system of 
religion, the Governor no doubt was "between two 
fires," and felt compelled to touch the matter rather 
" gingerly," and doubtless felt greatly relieved when 
that pestilential people left the State. Such compli- 
cated matters, especially when religion is mixed up 
with them, expose every person participating in 
them to criticism from all parties. 

The Mexican War was begun in the spring of 
1845, and was continued into the gubernatorial term 
of Mr. Ford's su;cessor. The Governor's connection 
with this war, however, was not conspicuous, as it 
was only administrative, commissioning officers, etc. 

Ford's " History of Illinois " is a very readable and 
entertaining work, of 450 small octavo pages, and is 
destined to increase in value with the lapse of time. 
It exhibits a natural flow of compact and forcible 
thought, never failing to convey the nicest sense. In 
tracing with his trenchant pen the devious operations 
of the professional politician, in which he is inimit- 
able, his account is open, perhaps, to the objection 
that all his contemporaries are treated as mere place- 
seekers, while many of them have since been judged 
by the people to be worthy statesmen. His writings 
seem slightly open to the criticism that they exhibit 
a little splenetic partiality against those of his con- 
temporaries who were prominent during Iiis term of 
office as Governor. 

The death of Gov. Ford took place at Peoria, 111., 
Nov. 2, 1S50. 



j^m^Y />.^y7^^ 

Augustus €. French. 





Augustus c. French, 

Governor of Illinois from 
1S46 to 1852, was born in 
the town of Hill, in the 
State of New Hampshire, 
Aug. 2, 1808. He was a 
descendant in the fourth 
generation of Nathaniel 
French, who emigrated from England 
in 1687 and settled in Saybury, Mass. 
In early life young French lost his 
father, but continued to receive in- 
struction from an exemplary and 
Christian mother until he was 19 years 
old, when she also died, confiding to 
his care and trust four younger broth- 
ers and one sister. He discharged his trust with 
parental devotion. His education in early life was 
such mainly as a common school afforded. For a 
brief period he attended Dartmouth College, but 
from pecuniary causes and the care of his brothers 
and sister, he did not graduate. He subsequently 
read law, and was admitted to the Bar in 1831, and 
shortly afterward removed to Illinois, settling first at 
Albion, Edwards County, where he established him- 
self in the practice of law. The following year he 
removed to Paris, Edgar County. Here he attained 
eminence in his profession, and entered public life 
by representing that county in the Legislature. A 
strong attachment sprang up between him and Ste- 
plien A. Douglas. 

In 1839, Mr. French was appointed Receiver of 
the United States Land Office at Palestine, Craw- 
ford County, at which place he was a resident when 

elevated to the gubernatorial chair. In 1844 he was 
a Presidential Elector, and as such he voted for 
James K. Polk. 

The Democratic State Convention of 1846, meet- 
ing at Springfield Feb. 10, nominated Mr. French 
for Governor. Other Democratic candidates were 
Lyman Trumbull, John Calhoun (subsequently of 
Lecompton Constitution notoriety), V\' alter B. Scates. 
Richard M. Young and A. W. Cavarly,— an array of 
very able and prominent names. Trumbull was per- 
haps defeated in the Convention by the tumor that 
he was opposed to the Illinois and Michigan Canal, 
as he had been a year previously. For Lieutenant 
Governor J. B. Wells was chosen, while other candi- 
dates were Lewis Ross, Wm. McMurtry, Newton 
Cloud, J. B. Hamilton and W. W. Thompson. The 
resolutions declared strongly against the resuscita- 
tion of the old State Banks. 

The Whigs, who were in a hopeless minority, held 
their convention June 8, at Peoria, and selected 
Thomas M. Kilpatrick, of Scott County, for Governor, 
and Gen. Nathaniel G. Wilco.x, of Schuyler, for 
Lieutenant Governor. 

In the campaign the latter exposed Mr. French's 
record and connection with the passage of the in- 
ternal improvement system, urging it against his 
election; l)ut in the me-intime the war with Mexico 
broke out, regarding which the Whig record was un- 
popular in this State. The war was the absorbing 
and dominating question of the period, svveeping 
every other political issue in its course. Tlie elec- 
tion in August gave Mr. French 58,700 votes, and 
Kilpatrick only 36,775. Richard Eells, Abolitionist 
candidate for the same office, received 5,152 vot^s 



By the new Constitution of 184S, a new election for 
State officers was ordered in November of that year, 
before Gov. French's term was half out, and he was 
re-elected for the term of four years. He was there- 
fore the incumbent for six consecutive years, the 
only Governor of this State who has ever served in 
that capacity so long at one time. As there was no 
organized opposition to his election, he received 67,- 
453 votes, to S>639 fo"" Pierre Menard (son of the 
first Lieutenant Governor), 4,748 for Charles V. 
Dyer, 3,834 for W. L. D. Morrison, and 1,361 for 
James L. D. Morrison. But VVm. McMurtry, of 
Knox County, was elected Lieutenant Governor, in 
place of Joseph B. Wells, who was before elected 
and did not run again. 

Governor French was inaugurated into ofiice dur- 
ing the progress of the Mexican War, which closed 
during the summer of 1847, although the treaty of 
Guadalupe Hidalgo was not made until Feb. 2, 
1848. The policy of Gov. French's party was com- 
mitted to that war, but in connection with that affair 
he was, of course, only an administrative officer. 
During his term of office, Feb. 19, 1847. the Legisla- 
ture, by special permission of Congress, declared that 
all Government lands sold to settlers should be im- 
mediately subject to State taxation ; before this they 
were exempt for five years after sale. By this ar- 
rangem.ent the revenue was materially increased. 
About the same time, the distribution of Government 
land warrants among the Me.xican soldiers as bounty 
threw upon the market a great quantity of good 
lands, and this enhanced the settlement of the State. 
The same Legislature authorized, with the recom- 
mendation of the Governor, the sale of the Northern 
Cross Railroad (from Springfield to Meredosia, the 
first in the State and now a section of the Wabash, 
St. Louis & Pacific) It sold for $100,000 in bonds, 
although it had cost the State not less than a million. 
The salt wells and canal lands in the Saline reserve 
in Gallatin County, granted by the general Govern- 
ment to the State, were also authorized by the 
Governor to be sold, to apply on the State debt. In 
1850, for the first time since 1839, the accruing State 
revenue, exclusive of specific appropriations, was 
sufficient to meet the current demands upon the 
treasur)'. The aggregate taxable property of the 
State at this time was over $100,000,000, and the 
population 851,470. 

In 1849 the Legiaiature adopted the township or- 
ganization law, which, however, proved defective, 
and was properly amended in 1 851. At its session 
in the latter year, the General Assembly also passed 
a law to exempt homesteads from sale on executions 
This beneficent measure had been repeatedly atge<3 
upon that body by Gov. French. 

In 1850 some business men in St. Louis con\- 
menced to build a dike opposite the lower part of 
their city on the Illinois side, to keep the Mississippi 
in its channel near St. Louis, instead of breaking 
away from them as it sometimes threatened to do. 
This they undertook without permission from the 
Legislature or Executive authority of this State ; and 
as many of the inhabitants then* complained that 
the scheme would inundate and ruin much valuable 
land, there was a slight conflict of jurisdictions, re- 
sulting in favor of the St. Louis project; and since 
then a good site has existed there for a city (East St. 
Louis), and now a score of railroads center there. 

It was in September, 1850, that Congress granted 
to this State nearly 3,000,000 acres of land in aid of 
the completion of the Illinois Central Railroad, 
which constituted the most important epoch in the 
railroad — we might say, internal improvement — his- 
tory of the State. The road was rushed on to com- 
pletion, which accelerated the settlement of the in- 
terior of the State by a good class of industrious citi- 
zens, and by the charter a good income to the State 
Treasury is paid in from the earnings of the road. 

In 1 85 I the Legislature passed a law authorizing 
free stock banks, v/hich was the source of much leg- 
islative discussion for a number of years. 

But we have not space further to particularize 
concerning legislation. Gov. French's administra- 
tion was not marked by any feature to be criticised, 
while the country was settling up as never before. 

In stature. Gov. French was of medium height, 
squarely built, light complexioned, with ruddy face 
and pleasant countenance. In manners he was 
plain and agreeable. By nature he was somewhat 
diffident, but he was often very outspoken in his con- 
victions of duty. In public speech he was not an 
orator, but was chaste, earnest and persuasive. In 
business he was accurate and methodical, and in his 
administration he kept up the credit of the State. 

He died in 1865, at his home in Lebanon, St 
Glair Co., 111. 

\ u 



^^\ ^. J^Initeson. 

-■«■ :=^ <^-<M>-$s>$ 

'- ^^ V)EL A. MATTESON, Governor 
^j,#** 1853-6, was born Aug. 8, 1808, 
*^' ■■''■'■■ in Jefferson County, New York, 
to which place his father had re- 
moved from Vermont three years 
before. His father was a farmer 
in fair circumstances, but a com- 
mon English education was all 
that his only son received. Young 
Joel first tempted fortune as a 
small tradesman in Prescott, 
Canada, before he was of age. 
He returned from that place to 
his home, entered an academy, 
taught school, visited the prin- 
cipal Eastern cities, improved a farm Iiis father hail 
given him, made a tour in tiie South, worked tlierc 
in building railroads, experienced a storm on the 
Gulf of Mexico, visited the gold diggings of Northern 
Georgia, and returned via Nashville to St. Louis and 
through Illinois to his father's home, when he mar- 
ried. In 1833, having sold his farm, he removed, 
vvith his wife and one child, to Illinois, and entered 
a claim on Government land near the head of An 
Sable River, in what is now Kendall County. At 
ihat time there were not more tlian two neighbors 
within a range of ten miles of his place, and only 
'hree or four houses between Iiim and Chicago. He 
opened a large farm. His family was boarded 12 

miles away while he erected a house on his claim, 
sleeping, during this time, under a rude pole shed. 
Here his life was once placed in imminent peril by 
a huge prairie rattlesnake sharing his bed. 

In 183s he bought largely at the Government land 
sales. During the speculative real-estate mania whicli 
broke out in Chicago in 1836 and spread over the State, 
he sold his lands under the inflation of that period 
and removed to Joliet. In 1S38 he became a heavy 
contractor on the Illinois & Michigan Canal. Upon 
the completion of his job in i84r, when hard limes 
prevailed, business at a stand, contracts paid in State 
scrip; when all the public works except the canal 
were abandoned, the State offered for sale 700 tons 
of railroad iron, which was purchased by Mr. Mat- 
teson at a bargain. This he accepted, shipped and 
sold at Detroit, realizing a very handsome profit, 
enough to pay off all jiis canal debts and leave him a 
surplus of several thousand dollars. His enterprise 
ne.xt prompted him to start a woolen mill at Joliet, 
m which he prospered, and which, after successive 
enlargements, became an enormous establishment. 

In 1S42 he was first elected a State Senator, but, 
by a bungling apiiortionment, John Pearson, a Senator 
holdiiig over, was found to be in the same district, 
and decided to be entitled to represent it. Mat- 
teson's seat was declared vacant. Pearson, however 
with a nobleness difficult to appreciate in this day of 



greed for office, unwilling to represent his district 
under the circumstances, immediately resigned his 
unexpired term of two years. A bill was passed in a 
few hours ordering a new election, and in ten days' 
time Mr. Matteson was returned re-elected and took 
his seat as Senator. From his well-known capacity 
as a business man, he was made Chairman of the 
Committee on Finance, a position he held during 
this half and two full succeeding Senatorial terms, 
discharging its important duties with ability and faith- 
fulness. Besides his extensive woolen-mill interest, 
when work was resumed on the canal under the new 
loan of $[,600,000 he again became a heavy con- 
tractor, and also subsequently operated largely in 
building railroads. Thus he showed himself a most 
energetic and thorough business man. 

He was nominated for Governor by the Demo- 
cratic State Convention which met at Springfield 
April 20, 1852. Other candidates before the Con- 
vention were D. L. Gregg and F. C. Sherman, of 
Cook ; John Dement, of Lee ; Thomas L. Harris, of 
Menard; Lewis W. Ross, of Fulton ; and D. P. Bush, 
of Pike. Gustavus Koerner, of St. Clair, was nom- 
inated for Lieutenant Governor. For the same offices 
the Whigs nominated Edwin B. Webb and Dexter A. 
Kiiowlton. Mr. Matteson received 80,645 votes at 
the election, while Mr. Webb received 64,408. Mat- 
teson's forte was not on the stump; he had not cul- 
tivated the art of oily flattery, or the faculty of being 
all things to all men. His intellectual qualities took 
rather the direction of efficient executive ability. His 
turn consisted not so much in the adroit manage- 
ment of party, or the powerful advocacy of great gov- 
ernmental principles, as in those more solid and 
enduring operations which cause the physical devel- 
opment and advancement of a State, — of commerce 
and business enterprise, into which he labored with 
success to lead the people. As a politician he was 
just and liberal in his views, and both in official and 
private life he then stood untainted and free from 
blemish. As a man, in active benevolence, social 
I'irtues and all the amiable qualities of neighbor or 
citizen, he had few su])eriors. His messages present 
a perspicuous array of facts as to the condition of the 
State, and are often couched in forcible and elegant 

The greatest excitement during his term of office 
was the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, by Con- 

gress, under the leadership of Stephen A. Douglas in 
1854, when the bill was passed organizing the Terri- 
tory of Kansas and Nebraska. A large portion of 
the Whig party of the North, through their bitter op- 
position to the Democratic party, naturally drifted 
into the doctrine of anti-slavery, and thus led to what 
was temporarily called the "Anti-Nebraska" party, 
while the followers of Douglas were known as " Ne- 
braska or Douglas Democrats." It was during this 
embryo stage of the Republican party that Abraham 
Lincoln was brought forward as the "Anti-Nebraska" 
candidate for the United States Senatorship, while 
Gen. James Shields, the incumbent, was re-nom- 
inated by the Democrats. But after a fewballotings 
in the Legislature (1855), these men were dropped, 
and Lyman Trumbull, an Anti-Nebraska Democrat, 
was brought up by the former, and Mr. Matteson, 
then Governor, by the latter. Qn the nth ballot 
Mr. Trumbull obtained one majority, and was ac- 
cordingly declared elected. Before Gov. Matteson's 
term expired, the Republicans were fully organized 
as a national party, and in 1S56 put into the field a 
full national and State ticket, carrying the State, but 
not the nation. 

The Legislature of 1S55 passed two very import- 
ant measures, — the present free-school system and a 
submission of the Maine liquor law to a vote of the 
people. The latter was defeated by a small majority 
of the popular vote. 

During the four years of Gov. Matteson's admin- 
istration the taxable wealth of the State was about 
trebled, from $t37,8t8,o79 to $349,95r,272 ; the pub- 
lic debt was reduced from $17,398,985 to $12,843,- 
144; taxation was at the same time reduced, and llie 
State resumed paying interest on its debt in New 
York as fast as it fell due ; railroads were increased 
in their mileage from something less than 400 to 
about 3,000 ; and the population of Chicago was 
nearly doubled, and its commerce more than quad- 

Before closing this account, we regret that we have 
to say that Mr. Matteson, in all other respects an 
upright man and a good Governor, was implicated 
in a false re-issue of redeemed canal scrio, amount- 
ing to $224,t82.66. By a suit in the Sangamon Cir- 
cuit Court the State recovered the principal and all 
the interest excepting $27,500. 

He died in the winter of 1872-3, at Chicago. 







'^«§§>'^':^'^«ga^'S•^^'^l^if^'^'t.^^^^^'>a'^:^^a»'i^t^a'r'^Jl•^^>'|igi'^^ 1 1 1 

ernor 1857-60, was born 
B(S April 25, iSii, in the 
State of New York, near 
Painted Post, Yates County. 
His parents were obscure, 
honest. God-fearing people, 
uiio reared their children under the daily 
example of industry and frugality, accord- 
ing to the custom of that class of Eastern 
society. Mr. Bissell received a respecta- 
l)le but not thorough academical education. 
By assiduous application he acquired a 
knowledge of medicine, and in his early 
manhood came West and located in Mon- 
roe County, this State, where he engaged in the 
practice of that profession. But he was not enam- 
ored of his calling: he was swayed by a broader 
ambition, to such an extent that the mysteries of the 
healing art and its arduous duties failed to yield him 
further any charms. In a few years he discovered 
his choice of a profession to be a mistake, and when 
lie approached the age of 30 he sought to begin 
anew. Dr. Bissell, no doubt unexpectedly to him- 
self, discovered a singular facility and charm of 
speech, the exercise of which acquired for him a 
ready local notoriety. It soon came to be under- 

stood that he desired to abandon his profession and 
take up that of the law. During terms of Court he 
would spend his time at the county seat among the 
members of the Bar, who extended to him a ready 

It was not strange, therefore, that he should drift 
into public life. In 1840 he was elected as a Dem- 
ocrat to the Legislature from Monroe County, and 
was an efficient member of that body. On his re- 
turn home he qualified himself for admission to the 
Bar and speedily rose to the front rank as an advo- 
cate. His powers of oratory were captivating. With a 
pure diction, charming and inimitable gestures, 
clearness of statement, and a remarkable vein of sly 
humor, his efforts before a jury told with irresistible 
effect. Hfe was chosen by the Legislature Prosecut- 
ing Attorney for tiie Circuit in which he lived, and 
in that position he fully discharged his duty to the 
State, gained the esteem of the Bar, and seldom 
failed to convict the offender of the law. 

In stature he was somewhat tall and slender, and 
with a straight, military bearing, he presented a dis- 
tinguished appearance. His complexion was dark, 
his head well poised, though not large, his address 
pleasant and manner winning. He was exemplary 
in his habits, a devoted husband and kind parent. 
He was twice married, the first time to Miss James, 

'5 = 


of Monroe County, by whom he had two children, 
both daughters. She died soon after the year 1840, 
and Mr. B. married for his second wife a daughter 
of Elias K. Kane, previously a United States Senator 
from this State. She survived him but a short time, 
and died without issue. 

When the war with Mexico was declared in 1846, 
Mr. Bissell enlisted and was elected Colonel of his 
regiment, over Hon. Don Morrison, by an almost 
unanimous vote, — 807 to 6. Considering the limited 
opportunities he had had, he evinced a high order of 
military talent. On the bloody field of Buena Vista 
he acquitted himself with intrepid and distinguished 
ability, contributing with his regiment, the Second 
Illinois, in no small degree toward saving the waver- 
ing fortunes of our arms during that long and fiercely 
contested battle. 

After his return home, at the close of the war, he 
was elected to Congress, his opponents being the 
Hons. P. B. Fouke and Joseph Gillespie. He served 
two terms in Congress. He was an ardent politician. 
During the great contest of 1850 he voted in favor 
of the adjustment measures; but in 1S54 he opposed 
the repeal of the Missouri Compromise act and 
therefore the Kansas-Nebraska bill of Douglas, and 
thus became identified with the nascent Republican 

During his first Congressional term, while the 
Southern members were following their old practice 
of intimidating the North by bullying language, 
and claiming most of the credit for victories in the 
Mexican War, and Jefferson Davis claiming for the 
Mississippi troops all the credit for success at Buena 
Vista, Mr. Bissell bravely defended the Northern 
troops ; whereupon Davis challenged Bissell to a duel, 
which was accepted. This matter was brought ujj 
against Bissell when he was candidate for Governor 
and during his term of office, as the Constitution of 
this State forbade any duelist from holding a State 

In 1856, when the Republican party first put forth 
a candidate, John C. Fremont, for President of the 
United States, the same party nominated Mr. Bissell 
for Governor of Illinois, and John Wood, of Quincy, 
for Lieutenant Governor, while the Democrats nomi- 
nated Hon. W. A. Richardson, of Adams County, 
for Governor, and Col. R. J. Hamilton, of Cook 
County, for Lieutenant Governor. The result of the 

election was a plurality of 4,729 votes over Richard- 
son. The American, or Know-Nothing, party had a 
ticket in the field. The Legislature was nearly bal- 
anced, but was politically opposed to the Governor. 
His message to the Legislature was short and rather 
ordinary, and was criticised for expressing the sup- 
posed obligations of the people to the incorporators 
of the Illinois Central Railroad Company and for re- 
opening the slavery question by allusions to the 
Kansas troubles. Late in the session an apportion- 
ment'bill, based upon the State census of 1855, was 
passed, amid much partisan strife. The Governor 
at first signed the bill and then vetoed it. A furious 
debate followed, and the question whether the Gov- 
ernor had tlie authority to recall a signature was 
referred to the Courts, that of last resort deciding in 
favor of the Governor. Two years afterward another 
outrageous attempt was made for a re-apportionment 
and to gerrymander the State, but the Legislature 
failed to pass the bill over the veto of the Governor. 

It was during Gov. Bissell's administration that 
the notorious canal scrip fraud was brought to light, 
'mplicating ex-Gov. Matteson and other prominent 
State officials. The principal and interest, aggregat- 
ing $255,500, was all recovered by the State except- 
ing ,$27,500. (See sketch of Gov. Matteson.) 

In 1S59 an attempt was discovered to fraudu- 
lently refund the Macalister and Stebbins bonds and 
thus rob the State Treasury of nearly a quarter of a 
million dollars. The State Government was impli- 
cated in this aff"air, and to this day remains unex- 
plained or unaloned for. For the above, and other 
matters previously mentioned. Gov. Bissell has been 
severely criticised, and he has also been most shame- 
fully libelled and slandered. 

On account of exposure in the army, the remote 
cause of a nervous form of disease gained entrance 
into his system and eventually developed paraplegia, 
affecting his lower extremities, which, while it left 
his body in comparative health, deprived him of loco- 
motion except by the aid of crutches. While he was 
generally hopeful of ultimate recovery, this myste- 
rious disease pursued him, without once rela.xing its 
stealthy hold, to the close of his life, March 18, 
i860, over nine months before the expiration of hia 
gubernatorial term, at the early age of 48 years. He 
died in the faith of the Roman Catholic Church. 0/ 
which he harx been a member since 1S54. 



l0lra lil00ll. 


;( )HN WOOD, Governor 1860-1, and 
^^^*» the first settler of Quincy, 111., 
was born in the town of Sempro- 
nius (now Moravia), Cayuga Co., 
N. Y., Dec. 20, 1798. He was 
the second child and only son of 
Dr. Daniel Wood. His mother, 
nee Catherine Craiise, was of 
German parentage, and died 
while he was an infant. Dr. 
Wood was a learned and skillful 
physician, of classical attain- 
ments and proficient in several 
modern lai.guages, who, after 
serving throughout the Revolu- 
tionary War as a Surgeon, settled on the land granted 
him by the Government, and resided there a re- 
spected and leading influence in his section until his 
death, at the ripe age of 92 years. 

The subject of this sketch, impelled by the spirit 
of Western adventure then pervading everywhere, 
left his home, Nov. 2, 181S, and passed the succeed- 
ing winter in Cincinnati, Ohio. The following sum- 
mer he pushed on to Illinois, landing at Shawneetown. 
and spent the fall and following winter in Calhoun 
County. In 1820, in company with Willard Keyes, 
he settled in Pike County, about 30 miles southeast 
of Quincy, where for the next two years he pursued 
farming. In 1S21 he visited "the Bluffs" (as the 
present site of Quincy was called, then uninhabited) 
and, pleased with its prospects, soon after purchased 
a quarter-section of land near by, and in the follow- 
ing fall (1822) erected near the river a small cabin. 

18 X 20 feet, the first building in Quincy, of which 
he then became the first and for some months tiie 
only occupant. 

About this time he visited his old friends in YW". 
County, chief of whom was William Ross, the lead- 
ing man in building up the village of Atlas, of that 
county, which was thought then to be the possible 
commencement of a city. One day they and others 
were traveling together over the country between the 
two points named, making observations on the com- 
parative merits of the respective localities. On ap- 
proaching the Mississippi near i\Ir. Wood's place, 
the latter told his companions to follow him and he 
would show them where he was going to build a city. 
They went about a mile off the main trail, to a high 
point, from which the view in every direction was 
most magnificent, as it had been for ages and as yet 
untouched by the hand of man. Before them swept 
by the majestic Father of Waters, yet unburdened by 
navigation. After Mr. Wood had expatiated at 
length on the advantages of the situation, Mr. Ross 
replied, " But it's too near Atlas ever to amount to 

Atlas is still a cultivated farm, and Quincy is a 
city of over 30,000 population. 

In 1824 Mr. Wood gave a newspaper notice, 
as the law then prescribed, of his intention to apply 
to the General Assembly for the formation of a new 
county. This was done the following winter, result- 
ing m the establishment of the present Adams 
County. During the next summer Quincy was se- 
lected as the county seat, it and the vicinity then 
containing but four adult male residents and halt' 



that number of females. Since that period Mr. 
Wood resided at the place of his early adoption un- 
til his death, and far more than any other man was 
he identified with every measure of its progress and 
history, and almost continuously kept in public jiosi- 

He was one of the early town Trustees, and after 
the place became a city he was often a member of 
the City Council, many times elected Mayor, in the 
face of a constant large opposition political majority. 
In 1850 he was elected to the State Senate. In 1856, 
on the organization of the Republican party, he was 
chosen Lieutenant Governor of the State, on the 
ticket with Wm. H. Bissell for Governor, and on the 
death of the latter, March 18, i860, he succeeded to 
the Chief Executive chair, which he occupied until 
Gov. Yates was inaugurated nearly ten months after- 

Nothing very marked characterized the adminis- 
tration of Gov. Wood. The great anti-slavery cam- 
paign of i860, resulting in the election of the honest 
Illinoisan, Abraham Lincoln, to the Presidency of the 
United States, occurred during the short period 
while Mr. Wood was Governor, and the excitement 
and issues of that struggle dominated over every 
other consideration, — indeed, supplanted them in a 
great measure. The people of Illinois, during all 
that time, were passing the comparatively petty strifes 
under Bissell's administration to the overwhelming 
issue of preserving the whole nation from destruction. 

In 1861 ex-Gov. Wood was one of the five Dele- 
gates from Illinois to the " Peace Convention " at 
VVashingtoii, and in April of the same year, on the 
breaking out of the Rebellion, he was appointed 

Quartermaster-General of the State, which position 
he held tliroughout the war. In 1864 he took com- 
mand as Colonel of the 137th 111. Vol. Inf., with 
whom he served until the period of enlistment ex- 

Politically, Gov. Wood was always actively identi- 
fied witli the Whig and Republican parties. Few 
men have in personal experience comprehended so 
many surprising and advancing local changes as 
vested in the more than half century recollections of 
Gov. Wood. Sixty-four years ago a solitary settler 
on the "Bluffs," with no family, and no neighbor 
within a score of miles, the world of civilization away 
beliind him, and the strolling almost his 
only visitant, he lived to see growing around him, 
and under his auspices and aid, overspreading the 
wild hills and scraggy forest a teaming city, second 
only in size in the State, and surpassed nowhere in 
beauty, prosperity and promise ; whose people recog- 
nize as with a single voice the proverbial honor and 
liberality that attach to the name and lengthened 
life of their pioneer settler, "the old Governor." 

Gov. Wood was twice married, — first in January, 
1826, to Ann M. Streeter, daughter of Joshua Streeter, 
formerly of Salem, Washington Co., N. Y. They had 
eight children. Mrs. W. died Oct. 8, 186;^, and in 
June, 1S65, Gov. Wood married Mrs. Mary A., widow 
of Rev. Joseph T. Holmes. Gov. Wood died June 4, 
1880, at his residence in Quincy. Four of his eight 
children are now living, namely: Ann E., wife of 
Gen. John Tillson; Daniel C, who married Marv J. 
Abernethy ; John, Jr., who married Josephine Skinner, 
and Joshua S., who married Annie Bradley. The 
last mentioned now resides at Atchison, Kansas, and 
all the rest are still at Quincy. 




ESblA;CTPTV^^^^7v:\r-v;. \. v\ .v,\ v A^^-vCv-yf. v^.A,v.<t,.i^YV 

ll^.i©l\ard ITalfef^. 


t^ICHARD YATES, the "War 
^"^ Governor," 1 86 1-4, was born 
i>» Jan. 18, 18 18, on the banks of 
J, the Ohio River, at Warsaw, 
■^ Gallatin Co., Ky. His father 
^ moved in 1831 to Illinois, and 
after stopping for a time in 
Springfield, settled at Island 
Grove, Sangamon County. Here, 
after attending school, Richard joined 
the family. Subsequently he entered 
Illinois College at Jacksonville, 
where, in 1S37, he graduated with 
first honors. He chose for his pro- 
fession the law, the Hon. J. J. Har- 
din being his instructor. After ad- 
mission to the Bar he soon rose to distinction as an 

Gifted witli a fluent and ready oratory, he noon 
appeared in the political hustings, and, being a 
passionate admirer of the great Whig leader of the 
West. Henry Clay, he joined his political fortunes to 
■he party of his idol. In 1840 he engaged with great 
=rdor in the exciting " hard cider " campaign for 
riarrison. Two years later he was elected to the 
Legislature from Morgan County, a Democratic 
stronghold. He served three or four terms in the 
Legislature, and such was the fascination of his ora- 
f^ry that by 1850 his large Congressional District, 
extending from Morgan and Sangamon Counties 
1 orth to include LaSalle, unanimously tendered him 
fne Whig nomination for Congress. His Democratic 
opponent was Maj. Thomas L. Harris, a very pop- 
v,lar man who had won distinction at the battle of 
Cerro Gordo, in the Mexican War, and who had 
ijcaten Hon. Stephen T. Logan for the same position, 

two years before, by a large majority. Yates wa." 
elected. Two years later he was re-elected, over 
John Calhoun. 

It was during Yates second term in Congress tiuit 
the great question of the repeal of the Missouri Coin- 
l)romise was agitated, and the bars laid down for re- 
opening the dreaded anti-slavery question. He toi)lc 
strong grounds against the repeal, and thus became 
identified with the rising Republican party. Conse- 
quently he fell into the minority in his district, which 
was pro-slavery. Even then, in a third contest, lie 
fell behind Major Harris only 200 votes, after the 
district had two years before given Pierce 2,000 
majority for President. 

The Republican State Convention of r86o met at 
Decatur May g, and nominated for the office of Gov- 
ernor Mr. Yates, in preference to Hon. Norman B. 
Judd, of Chicago, and Leonard Swett, of Blooming- 
ton, two of the ablest men of the State, wlio were 
also candidates before the Convention. Francis A. 
Hoffman, of DuPage County, was nominated for 
Lieutenant Governor. This was the year when Mr. 
Lincoln was a candidate for President, a period re- 
meijibered as characterized by the great whidpool 
which precipitated the bloody War of the Rebellion. 
The Douglas Democrats nominated J. C. Allen of 
Crawford County, for Governor, and Lewis W. Ro-s, 
of Fulton County, for Lieutenant Governor. The 
Breckenridge Democrats and the Bell-Everett party 
had also full tickets in the field. After a most fear- 
ful campaign, the result of the election gave Mr. 
Yates 172,196 votes, and Mr. Allen 159,253. Mr. 
Yates received over a thousand more votes than did 
Mr. Lincoln himself. 

Gov. Yates occupied the chair of State during the 



most critical period of our country- 's history. In the 
fate of the nation was involved that of each State. 
The life struggle of the former derived its sustenance 
from the loyalt)' of the latter; and Gov. Yates 
seemed to realize the situation, and proved himself 
both loyal and wise in upholding the Government. 
He had a deep hold upon the affections of the 
people, won by his moving eloquence and genial 
manners. Erect and symmetrical in person, of pre- 
possessing appearance, with a winning address and a 
magnetic power, few men possessed more of the ele- 
ments of jwpularity. His oratory was scholarly and 
captivating, his hearers hardly knowing why they 
were transjxjrted. He was social and convivial. In 
the latter respect he was ultimately carried too far. 

The very creditable military efforts of this State 
during the War of the Rebellion, in putting into the 
field the enormous number of about 200,000 soldiers, 
were ever promptly and ably seconded by his excel- 
lency ; and the was ambitious to deserve the title of 
"the soldier's friend." Immediately after the battle of 
Shiloh he repaired to the field of carnage to look 
after the wounded, and his appeals for aid were 
promptly responded to by the people. His procla- 
mations calling for volunteers were impassionate 
appeals, urging uixju the people the duties and re- 
quirements of patriotism ; and his special message 
in 1863 to the Democratic Legislature of this State 
pleading for material aid for the sick and wounded 
soldiers of Illinois regiments, breathes a deep fervor 
of noble sentiment and feeling rarely equaled i.i 
beauty or felicity of expression. Generally his mes- 
sages on jxjlitical and civil affairs were able and com- 
prehensive. During his administration, however, 
there were no civil events of an engrossing character, 
although two years of his time were replete with 
partisan quarrels of great bitterness. Military ar- 
rests, Knights of the Golden Circle, riot in Fulton 
County, attempted suppression of the Chicago Times 
and the usurping State Constitutional Convention of 
1S62, were the chief local topics that were exciting 
during the Governor's term. This Convention assem- 
bled Jan. 7, and at once took the high iX)sition that 
' he law calling it was no longer binding, and that it 
: ad supreme power; that it represented a virtual 
assemblage of the whole people of the State, and was 
sovereign in the exercise of all power necessary to 
effect a peaceable revolution of the State Government 

and to the re-establishment of one for the "happiness., 
prosperity and freedom of the citizens," limited only 
by the Federal Constitution. Notwithstanding the 
law calling the Convention required its members to 
take an oath to supix)rt the Constitution of the State 
as well as that of the general Government, they 
utterly refused to take such oath. They also as- 
sumed legislative powers and passed several imjx)rt- 
ant "laws!" Interfering with the (then) present 
executive duties, Gov. Yates was provoked to tell 
them plainly that " he did not acknowledge the right 
of the Convention to instruct him in the performance 
of his duty." 

In 1863 the Governor astonished the Democrats 
by " proroguing " their Legislature. This body, after 
a recess, met June 2, that year, and soon began to 
waste time upon various partisan resolutions ; and, 
while the two houses were disagreeing u[X)n the 
question of adjourning ««* die, the Governor, having 
the authority, in such cases, surprised them all by 
adjourning them " to the Saturday next preceding the 
first Monday in January, 1865 ! " This led to great 
excitement and confusion, and to a reference of the 
Governor's act to the Supreme Court, who decided in 
his favor. Then it was the Court's turn to receive 
abuse for weeks and months afterward. 

During the autumn of 1864 a conspiracy was de- 
tected at Chicago which had for its object the liber- 
ation of the prisoners of war at Camp Douglas, the 
burning of the city and the inauguration of rebellion 
in the North. Gen. Sweet, who had charge of the 
camp at the time, first had his suspicions of danger 
aroused by a number of enigmatically worded letters 
which passed through the Camp postoffice. A de- 
tective afterward discovered that the rebel Gen. 
Marmaduke was in the city, under an assumed 
name, and he, with other rebel officers — Grenfell, 
Morgan, Cantrell, Buckner Morris, and Charles 
Walsh — was arrested, most of whom were convicted 
by a court-martial at Cincinnati and sentenced to 
imprisonment, — Grenfell to be hung. The sentence 
of the latter was afterward commuted to imprison- 
ment for life, and all the others, after nine months' 
imprisonment, were pardoned. 

In March, 1873, Gov. Yates was appointed a Gov- 
ernment Director of the Union Pacific Railroad, in 
which office he continued until his decease, at St. 
Louis, Mo., on the 27th of November following. 




Michard J. Oqlesby 



-;rf :'^UCHARD J. OGLESBY, Gov- 
ernor 1865-8, and re-elected 
in 1872 and 1884, was born 
July 25, 1824, in Oldham Co., 
Ky., — the State which might 
f^X""^ be considered the " mother of 
Illinois Governors." Bereft of 
his parents at the tender age 
%> of eight years, his early education 
was neglected. When 12 years of 
age, and after he had worked a year 
and a half at tlie carpenter's trade, 
he removed with an uncle, Willis 
Oglesby, into whose care he had 
been committed, to Decatur, this 
State, where he continued his ap- 
prenticeship as a mechanic, working si.K months for 
Hon. E. O. Smith. 

In 1844 he commenced studying law at .Spring- 
field, with Judge Silas Robbins, aud read with him 
one year. He was admitted to the Bar in 1845, and 
commenced the practice of his chosen profession at 
Sullivan, the county seat of Moultrie (bounty. 

The next year the war with Mexico was com- 
menced, and in June, 1846, Mr. Oglesby volunteered, 
was elected First Lieutenant of Co. C, Fourth Illinois 
Regiment of Volunteers, and participated in the bat- 
tles of Vera Cruz and Cerro Gordo. 

On his return he sought to perfect his law studies 
by attending a course of lectures at Louisville, but 
on the breaking out of the California "gold fever" in 
1849, he crossed the plains and mountains to the 
new Eldorado, driving a six-mule team, with a com- 


pany of eight men, Henry Prather being the leader. 

In 1852 he returned home to Macon County, and 
was placed that year by the Whig party on the ticket 
of Presidential Electors. In r8s6 he visited Europe, 
Asia and Africa, being absent 20 months. On his 
return home he resumed the practice of law, as a 
member of the firm of Gallagher, Wait & Oglesby. 
In 1S58 he was the Republican nominee for the 
Lower House of Congress, but was defeated by the 
Hon. James C. Robinson, Democrat. In i860 he 
was elected to the Illinois State Senate ; and on the 
evening the returns of this election were coming in, 
Mr. Oglesby had a fisticuff encounter with " Cerro 
Gordo Williams," in which he came out victorious, 
and which was regarded as " the first fight of the 
Rebellion." The following spring, when the war 
had commenced in earnest, his ardent nature 
quickly responded to the demands of patriotism and 
he enlisted. The extra session of the Legislature 
elected him Colonel of the Eighth Illinois Infantry, 
the second one in the State raised to suppress the 
great Rebellion. 

He was shortly entrusted with important com- 
mands. For a time he was stationed at Bird's Point 
and Cairo; in April he was promoted Brigadier Gen- 
eral ; at Fort Donelson his brigade was in the van, 
i)eing stationed on the right of General Grant's army 
and the first brigade to be attacked. He lost 500 
men before re-inforcements arrived. Many of these 
men were from Macon County. He was engaged in 
the battle of Corinth, and, in a brave charge at this 
place, was shot in the left lung with an ounce ball, 
and was carried from the field in expectation of im- 

1 64 


mediate death. That rebel ball he carries to this 
day. On his partial recovery he was promoted as 
Major General, for gdlantry, his commission to rank 
from November, 1862. In the spring of 1S63 he 
was assigned to the command of the i6th Army 
Corps, but, owing to inability fron the effects of his 
wound, he relinquished tliis command in July, that 
year. Gen. Grant, however, refused to accept his 
resignation, and he was detailed, in December folio w- 
ing, to court-martial and try the Surgeon General of 
the Army at Washington, where he remained until 
May, 1864, whin he returned home. 

The Republican, or Uiion, State Convention of 

1864 was held at Springfield, May 25, when Mr. 
Oglesby was nominated for the office of Governor, 
while other candidates before the Convention were 
Allen C. Fuller, of Boone, Jesse K. Dubois, of Sanga- 
mon, and John M. Palmer, of Macoupin. VVm. 
Bross, of Chicago, was nominated for Lieutenant 
Governor. On the Democratic State ticket were 
James C. Robinson, of Clark, for Governor, and S. 
Corning Judd, of Fulton, for Lieutenant Governor. 
The general election gave Gen. Oglesby a majority 
of about 31,000 votes. The Republicans had also a 
majority in both thj Legislature and in the repre- 
sentation in Congress. 

Gov. Oglesby was duly inaugurated Jan. i-j, 1865. 
The day before tlie first time set for his installation 
de.ith visited his lu ne at Decatur, and took from it 
his only son, an intelligent and sprightly lad of six 
years, a great favorite of the bereaved parents. This 
caused the inauguration to be po3t|X)ned a week. 

The political events of the Legislative session of 

1865 were the election of ex-Gov. Yates to the 
United .States Senate, and the ratification of the 13th 
amend. nent to the Constitution of the United States, 
abolishing slavery. This session also signalized 
itself by repealing the notorious " black laws," part 
of which, although a dead letter, had held their place 
upon the statute books since 1S19. Also, laws re- 
quiring the registration of voters, and establishing a 
State Board of Equalization, were passed by this Leg- 
islature. But the same body evinced that it was cor- 
ruptly influenced by a mercenary lobby, as it adopted 
some bad legislation, over the Governor's veto, nota- 
bly an amendment to a charter for a Chicago horse 
railway, granted in 1859 for 25 years, and now 
sought to be extended 99 years. As this measure 
was promptly passed ov;r his veto by both branches 
of the Legislature, he deemed it useless further to 
attempt to check their headlong career. At this 
session no law of a general useful character or public 
interest was perfected, unless we count such the 
•urning over of the canal to Chicago to be deepened. 
The session of 1867 was still more productive of 
private and special acts. Many omnibus bills were 
proposed, and some passed. Tiie contests over tiie 
..Dcaiion of the Industrial College, the Cipital, the 

Southern Penitentiary, and the canal enlargement 
and Illinois River improvement, dominated every 
thing else. 

During the year 1872, it became evident that if 
the Republicans could re-elect Mr. Oglesby to ihe 
office of Governor, they could also elect him to the 
United States Senate, which they desired to do. 
-Accordingly they re-nominated him for the Execu- 
tive chair, and placed upon the ticket with him for 
Lieutenant Governor, John L. Beveridge, of Cook 
County. On the other side the Democrats put into 
the field Gustavus Koerner for Governor and John 
C. Black for Lieutenant Governor. The election 
gave the Republican ticket majorities ranging from 
35,334 to 56,174, — the Democratic defection being 
caused mainly by their having an old-time Whig and 
.Abolitionist, Horace Greeley, on the national ticket 
for President. According to the general understand- 
ing had beforehand, as soon as the Legislature met 
it elected Gov. Oglesby to the United States Senate, 
whereupon Mr. Beveridge became Governor. Sena- 
tor Oglesby 's term expired March 4, 1S79, having 
served his party faithfully and exhibited an order of 
statesmanship beyond criticism. 

During the campaign of 1884 Mr. Oglesby was 
nominated for a "third term" as E.xecutive of the 
State of Illinois, against Carter H. Harrison, Mayor 
of Cliicago, nominated by the Democrats. Both 
gentlemen "stumped " the State, and while the peo- 
ple elected a Legislature which was a tie on a joint 
ballot, as between the two parties, they gave the 
jovial " Dick" Oglesby a majority of 15,018 for Gov- 
ernor, and he was inaugurated Jan. 30, 1S85. The 
Legislature did not fully organize until this date, on 
account of its equal division between the two main 
parties and the consequent desperate tactics of each 
party to checkmate the latter in the organization of 
the House. 

• Gov. Oglesby is a fine-appearing, affable man, with 
regular, well defined features and rotund face. In 
stature he is a little above medium height, of a large 
frame and somewhat fleshy. His physical appear- 
ance is striking and prepossessing, while his straight- 
out, not to say bluff, manner and speech are well 
calculated favorably to impress the average masses. 
-Ardent in feeling and strongly committed to the pol- 
icies of his party, he intensifies Republicanism 
among Republicans, while at the same time his jovial 
and liberal manner prevents those of the opposite 
party from hating him. 

He is quite an effective stump orator. With vehe- 
ment, passionate and scornful tone and gestures, 
tremendous physical power, which in speaking he 
exercises to the utmost; with frequent descents to 
the grotesque; and with abundant homely compari- 
sons or frontier figures, expressed in the broadest 
vernacular and enforced with stentorian emphasis, 
he delights a promiscuous audience beyond measure. 




J o HN M. Pa l mer 


ernor 1869-72, was born on 
Eagle Creek, Scott Co., Ky., 
Sept. 13, 1S17. During his in- 
fancy, his father, who had been 
a soldier in the war of 18 12, re- 
moved to Christian Co., Ky., 
where lands were cheap. Here 
the future Governor of the great 
Prairie State spent his childhood 
and received such meager school- 
ing as the new and sparsely set- 
tled country afforded. To this 
he added materially by diligent 
reading, for which he evinced an 
eaily aptitude. His father, an ardent Jackson man, 
was also noted for his anti-slavery sentiments, which 
he thoroughly impressed upon his children. In 1831 
he emigrated to Illinois, settling in Madison County. 
Here tlie labor of improving a farm was pursued for 
about two years, when the death of Mr. Palmer's 
noiher broke up the family. About this time Alton 
College was opened, on tlie "manual labor " system, 
and in the spring of 1834 young Palmer, with his 
elder brother, Elihu, entered this school and remained 
18 months. Next, for over three years, he tried 
variously coopering, peddling and school-teaching. 

Duiing the summer of 1838 he formed the ac- 
quain'Lince of Stephen A. Douglas, then making his 

first canvass for Congress. Young, eloquent and in 
political accord with Mr. Palmer, he won his confi- 
dence, fired his ambition and fixed his purpose. The 
following winter, while teaching near Canton, he be- 
gan to devote his spare time to a desultory reading 
of law, and in the spring entered a law office at Car- 
linville, making his home with his elder brother, 
Elihu. (The latter was a learned clergyman, of con- 
siderable orginality of thought and doctrine.) On 
the next meeting of the Supreme Court he was ad- 
mitted to the Bar, Douglas being one of his examiners. 
He was not immediately successful in his profession, 
and would have located elsewhere than Carlinville 
had he the requisite means. Thus his early poverty 
was a blessing in disguise, for to it he now attributes 
the success of his life. 

From 1839 on, while he diligently pursued his 
profession, he participated more or less in local 
politics. In 1843 he became Probate Judge. Ip 
1847 '^s ^^^s elected to the State Constitutional Con 
vention, where he took a leading part. In 1852 Ik 
was elected to the State Senate, and at the special 
session of February, 1854, true to the anti-slaverj 
sentiments bred in him, he took a firm stand in op 
position to the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, 
and when the Nebraska question became a [lart] 
issue he refused to receive a re-nomination for ths 
Senatorship at the hands of the Democracy, issuinj, 
a circular to that effect. A few weeks afterward 



ho .vever, hesitating to break with his party, he par- 
iliipated in a Congressional Convention which nonii- 
r. L. Harris against Richard Yates, and which 
anqualifiedly approved the principles of the Kansas- 
Nebraska act. But later in the campaign he made 
the plunge, ran for the Senate as an Anti-Nebraska 
Democrat, and was elected. The following winter 
he put in nomination for the .United States Sejiate 
Mr. Trumbull, and was one of the five steadfast men 
who voted for liim until all the Whigs came to their 
support and elected their man. 

In 1856 he was Chairman of the Republican State 
Convention at Bloomington. He ran for Congress in 
1859, but was defeated. In i860 he was Republican 
Presidential Elector for the State at large. In 1861 
he was appointed one of the five Delegates (all Re- 
publicans) sent by Illinois to the peace congress at 

When the civil conflict broke out, he offered his 
services to his country, and was elected Colonel of the 
14th 111. Vol. Inf, and participated in the engagements 
at Island No. 10; at Farir.ington, where he skillfully 
extricated his command from a dangerous position ; 
at Stone River, where his division for several hours, 
Dec. 31, 1862, held the advance and stood like a 
rock, and for his gallantry there he was made Major 
Ceneral; at Chickamauga, where his and Van Cleve's 
divisions for two hours maintained their position 
when they were cut off" by overpowering numbers. 
Under Gen. ShermaUj he was assigned to the i4lh 
.\rniv Corps and participated in the .\tlanta campaign. 
At Peacii-Tree Creek his prudence did much to avert 
disaster. In February, 1865, Gen. Palmer was as- 
Figned to the military administration of Kentucky, 
which was a . delicate post. That State was about 
half rebel and half Union, and those of the latter 
element were daily fretted by the loss of their slaves. 
He, who had been bred to the rules of common law, 
trembled at the contemplation of his extraordinary 
power ovjr the persons and property of his fellow 
men, with which he was vested in his capacity as 
military Governor; and he exhibited great caution in 
the execution of the duties of his post. 

Gen. Palmjr was nominated for Governor of Illi- 
nois by the Republican State Convention which met 
at Pe )ri I M.iy 6, 186S, and his nomination would 
l)robably have been made by acclamation had he not 
oersi^ten^ly declared that he could not accept a can- 

didature for the office. The result of the ensuing 
election gave Mr. Palmer a majority of 44,707 over 
John R. Eden, the Democratic nominee. 

On the meeting of the Legislature in January, 
1869, the first thing to arrest public attention was 
that portion of the Governor's message which took 
broad State's rights ground. This and some minor 
points, which were more in keeping with the Demo- 
cratic sentiment, constituted the entering wedge fir 
the criticisms and reproofs he afterward received 
from the Republican party, and ultimately resulted 
in his entire aleniation from the latter element. The 
Legislature just referred to was noted for the intro- 
duction of numerous bills in the interest of private 
parties, which were embarrassing to the Governor. 
Among the public acts passed was that which limited 
railroad charges for passenger travel to a maximum 
of three cents per mile ; and it was passed over the 
Governor's veto. Also, they passed, over his veto, 
the "tax-grabbing law" to pay r^.ilrosd subscriptions, 
the Chicago Lake Front bill, etc. The new State 
Constitution of 1870, far superior to the old, was a 
peaceful " revolution" which took place during Gov. 
Palmer's term of office. The suffering caused by the 
great Chicago Fire of October, 187 1, was greatly 
alleviated by the prompt responses of his excellency. 

Since the expiration of Gov. Palmers 's term, he has 
been somewhat prominent in Illinois politics, and 
has been talked of by many, especially in the Dem- 
ocratic party, as the best man in the State for a 
United States Senator. His business during life has 
been that of the law. Few excel him in an accurate 
appreciation of the depth and scope of its principles. 
The great number of his able veto messages abun- 
dantly testify not only this but also a rare capacity to 
point them out. He is a logical and cogent reasoner 
and an interesting, forcible and convincing speaker, 
though not fluent or ornate. Without brilliancy, his 
dealings are rather with facts and ideas than with 
appeals to passions and prejudices. He is a patriot 
and a statesman of very high order. Physically he is 
above the medium height, of robust frame, ruddy 
complexion and sanguine-nervous temperament. He 
lias a large cranial development, is vivacious, social 
in disposition, easy of approach, unostentatious in his 
liabits of life, democratic in his habits and manners 
and is a true American in his fundamental princiiilc 
of statesmanship. 





1 l®!H ^ 

'''.•.^'<js>tig:it^'g§it;."i' ; I'^A.' ; 1' ; 1' ; ji ; 1' ^l' /i/ir; ■. ; >. ; '1 ; u ; '. ■. '. ■. '1 ^ 'i\M^^^<^t!^^c&>\'. 





IDGE, (Governor 1S7 -1-6, was 
■■'^ born 111 the town of Green- 
wich, Washington Co., N. Y., 
July 6, 1S24. His parents 
were George and Ann Bever- 
idge. His father's parents, An- 
drew and Isabel Bcveridge, be- 
fore their marriage emigrated 
from Scotland just before the 
Revolutionary War, settling in 
Washington County. His father 
was the eldest of eight brothers, the 
youngest of whom was 60 years of 
age when the first one of the num- 
ber died. His mother's parents, 
James and Agnes Hoy, emigrated 
from Scotland at the close of tlic 
Revolutionary War, settling also in 
Washington Co., N. Y., with their 
first-born, whose " native land " was 
the wild ocean. His parents and 
grandparents lived beyond the time 
allotted to man, their average age 
being over 80 years. They belonged to the " Asso- 
ciate Cliurch," a seceding Presbyterian body of 

America from the old Scotch school ; and so rigid 
was the training of young Beveridge that he never 
heard a sermon from any other minister except that 
of his own denomination until he was in his lytli 
year. Later in life he became a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, wliich relation he still 

Mr. Beveridge received a good common-school ed- 
ucation, but his parents, who could obtain a livelihood 
only by rigid economy and industry, could not send 
him away to college. He was raised upon a farm, 
and was in liis i8th year when the family removed 
to De Kalb County, this State, when that section was 
very sparsely settled. Chicago had less than 7,000 
inhabitants. In this wild West he continued as a 
farm laborer, teaching school during the winter 
months to supply the means of an education. In the 
fill of 1842 he attended one term at the academy at 
Granville, Putnam Co., 111., and subsequently several 
terms at the Rock River Seminary at Mount Morris, 
Ogle Co., 111., completing the academic course. At 
this time, the fall of 1845, ^'^ parents and brothers 
were anxious to have him go to college, even though 
he had not money sufficient; but, njt willing to bur- 
den the family, he packed his trunk and with only 
$40 in money started South to seek his fortune. 


Vvjor, alone, witliout friends and influence, he thus 
entered upon the battle of life. 

First, he taught school in Wilson, Overton and 
Jackson Cos., Tenn., in which experience he under- 
went considerable mental drill, both in book studies 
and in the ways of the world. He read law and was 
admitted to the Bar, in the South, bat did not learn 
to love the institution of slavery, although he ad- 
mired many features of Southern character. In De- 
cember, 1847, he returned North, and Jan. 20, 1S48, 
he married Miss Helen M. Judson, in the old Clark- 
Street M. E. church in Chicago, her father at that 
time being Pastor of the society there. In the spring 
of 1848 he returned with his wife to Tennessee, 
where his two children. Alia May and Philo Judson, 
were born. 

In the fall of 1S49, through the mismanagement 
of an associate, he lost what little he had accumu- 
lated and was left in debt. He soon managed to 
earn means to pay his debts, returned to De Kalb 
Co., 111., and entered upon the practice of his pro- 
fession at Sycamore, the county seat. On arrival 
from the South he had but one-quarter of a dollar in 
money, and scanty clothing and bedding for himself 
and family. He borrowed a little money, practiced 
law, worked in public offices, kept books for some of 
the business men of the town, and some railroad en- 
gineering, till the spring of 1854, when he removed 
to Evanston, 12 miles north of Chicago, a place then 
but recently laid out, under the supervision of the 
Northwestern University, a Methodist institution. 
Of the latter his father-in-law was then financial 
agent and business manager. Here Mr. Beveridge 
prospered, and the next year (1855) opened a law 
office in Chicago, where he found the battle some- 
what hard; but he persevered with encouragement 
and increasing success. 

Aug. 12, 1861, his law partner. Gen. John F. 
Farnsworth, secured authority to raise a regiment of 
cavalry, and authorized Mr. Beveridge to raise a 
company for it. He succeeded in a few days in rais- 
ing the company, of course enlisting himself along 
with it. The regiment rendezvoused at St. Charles, 
m., was mustered in Sept. 18, and on its organiza- 
tion Mr. B. was elected Second Major. It was at- 
tached, Oct. ir, to tiie Eighth Cavalry and to the 
Army of tlie Potomac. He served wit'.i tlie regiment 
until November, 1863, participating in some 40 bat- 

tles and skirmishes : was at Fair Oaks, the seven days 
fight around Richmond, Fredericksburg, Chancellors- 
ville and Gettysburg. He commanded the regiment 
the greater part of the summer of 1S63, and it was while 
lying in camp this year that he originated the policy 
of encouraging recruits as well as the fighting capac- 
ity of the soldiery, by the wholesale furlough system. 
It worked so well that many other officers adopted 
it. In the fall of this year he recruited another com- 
pany, against heavy odds, in January, 1864, was 
commissioned Colonel of the 17th 111. Cav., and 
skirmished around in Missouri, concluding with the 
reception of the surrender of Gen. Kirby Smith's 
army in Arkansas. In 1865 he commanded various 
sub-districts in the Southwest. He was mustered 
out Feb. 6, 1S66, safe from the casualties of war and 
a stouter man than when he first enlisted. His men 
idolized him. 

He then returned to Chicago, to practice law, with 
no library and no clientage, and no political experi- 
ence except to help others into office. In the fall of 
1S66 he was elected Sheriff of Cook County, serving 
one term; next, until November, 1870, he practiced 
law and closed up the unfinished business of his 
office. He was then elected State Senator; in No- 
vember, 187 1, he was elected Congressman at large; 
in November, 1S72, he was elected Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor on the ticket with Gov. Oglesby; the latter be- 
ing elected to the U. S. Senate, Mr. Beveridge became 
Governor, Jan. 2r, 1873. Thus, inside of a few 
weeks, he was Congressman at large. Lieutenant 
Governor and Governor. The principal events oc- 
curring during Gov. Beveridge 's administration were: 
The completion of the revision of the statutes, begun 
in 1869; the partial success of tlie "farmers' move- 
ment;" " Haines' Legislature " and Illinois' exhibit at 
the Centennial. 

Since the close of his gubernatorial term ex-Gov. 
Beveridge has been a member of the firm of Bever- 
idge & Dewey, bankers and dealers in commercial 
paper at 7 1 Dearborn Street (McCormick Block), 
Chicago, and since November, 1 881, he has also been 
Assistant United States Treasurer : office in the 
Government Building. His residence is still at Ev- 

He has a brother and two sisters yet residing in 
De Kalb County — James H. Beveridge, Mrs. Jennet 
Henry and Mrs. Isabel French. 




Seelb- y M. Cullom, 

*:y ■'U^' ■» '-i-i 


' HELBY M. CULLOM, Gover- 
r.or iS77-83,is the sixth child 
of the late Richard N. Cullom, 
and was bora Nov. 22, 1829, in 
Wayne Co., Ky., where his fa- 
ther then resided, and whence 
both the Illinois and Tennessee 
branches of the family originated. In 
the following year the family emi- 
grated to the vicinity of Washington, 
Tazewell Co., 111., when that section 
was very sparsely settled. They lo- 
cated on Deer Creek, in a grove at 
the time occupied by a party of In- 
dians, attracted there by the superior 
hunting and fishing afforded in that 
vicinity. The following winter was 
known as the " hard winter," the snow being very 
deep and lasting and the weather severely cold; and 
the family had to subsist mainly on boiled corn or 
hominy, and some wild game, for several weeks. In 
the course of time Mr. R. N. Cullom became a jjrom- 
inent citizen and was several times elected to the 
Legisl'ature, both before and after the removal of the 
cajiital from Vaudalia to Springfiv^ld. He died about 


Until about 19 years of age young Cullom grew up 
to agricultural pursuits, attendi-.ig school as he had 
opportunity during the winter. Witlitn this time, 
nov/ever, he spent several months teaching' school 

and in the following summer he "broke prairie "with 
an ox team for the neighbors. With the money ob- 
tained by these various ventures, he undertook a 
course of study at the Rock River Seminary, a 
Methodist institution at Mt. Morris, Ogle County; 
but the sudden change to the in-door life of a stu- 
dent told severely upon his health, and he was taken 
home, being considered in a hopeless condition. While 
at Mt. Morris he heard Hon. E. B. Washburne make 
his first speech. 

On recovering health, Mr. Cullom concluded to 
study law, under tlie instruction of Abraham Lincoln, 
at Springfield, who had by this time attained some 
notoriety as an able lawyer; but the latter, being ab- 
sent from his office most of the time, advised Mr. 
Cullom to enter the office of Stuart & Edwards. 
After about a year of study there, however, his health 
failed again, and he was obliged to return once more 
to out-door life. Accordingly he bought hogs for 
packing, for A. G. Tyngj '» I'eoria, and while he re- 
gained his health he gained in purse, netting $400 in 
a few weeks. Having been admitted to the Bar, ho 
went to .Springfield, where he was soon elected City 
.'Vttoruey, on the .\nti-Nebraska ticket. 

In 1856 he ran on the Fillmore ticket as a Presi- 
dential Elector, and, although failing to be elected as 
such, he was at tiie same time elected a Re|)rescnta- 
tive in the Legislature from Sangamon County, by a 
local coalition of the American and Republican par- 
ties. On the organization of the House, he received 
the vote of the Fillmore men for Speaker. Practicing; 



law until 1S60, he was again elected to the Legisla- 
ture, as a Republican, while the county went Demo- 
cratic on the Presidential ticket. In January follow- 
ing he was elected Speaker, probably the youngest 
man who had ever presided over an Illinois Legis- 
lature. After the session of 1861, he was a candidate 
for the State Constitutional Convention called for 
that year, but was defeated, and thus escaped the 
disgrace of being connected with that abortive parly 
scheme to revolutionize the State Government. In 
1862 he was a candidate for the State Senate, but 
was defeated. The same year, however, he was ap- 
pointed by President Lincoln on a Government 
Commission, in company with Gov. Boutwell of 
Massachusetts and Cnarles A. Dana, since of the 
N"ew York Sun, to investigate the affairs of the 
Quartermaster's and Commissary Departments at 
Cairo. He devoted several months to this duty. 

In 1864 he enteted upon a larger political field, 
being nominated as the Republican candidate for 
Congress from the Eighth (Springfield) District, in 
opposition to the incumbent, JohnT. Stuart, who had 
been elected in 1862 by about 1,500 majority over 
Leonard Swett, then of Bloomington, now of Chicago. 
The result was the election of Mr. Cullom in Novem- 
ber following by a majority of 1,785. In 1866 he 
was re-elected to Congress, over Dr. E. S. Fowler, by 
the magnificent majority of 4 103! In 1868 he was 
again a candidate, defeating the Hon. B. S. Edwards, 
another of his old preceptors, by 2,884 votes. 

During his first term in Congress he served on the 
Committee on Foreign Affairs and Expenditures in 
the Treasury Department; in his second term, on 
the Committees on Foreign Affairs and on Territories ; 
and in his third term he succeeded Mr. Ashley, of 
Ohio, to the Chairmanship of the latter. He intro- 
duced a bill in the House, to aid in the execution of 
law in Utah, which caused more consternation among 
the Mormons than any measure had previously, but 
which, though it passed the House, failed to pass tlie 

The Republican Convention which met May 25, 
1876, nominated Mr. Cullom for Governor, while the 
other contestant was Gov. Beveridge. For Lieuten- 
ant-Governor they nominated Andrew Shuman, editor 
of the Chicago Journal. For the same offices the 
Democrats, combining with the Anti-Monopolists, 
placed in nomination Lewis Steward, a wealthy 

farmer and manufacturer, and A. A. Glenn. The 
result of the election was rather close, Mr. Cullom 
obtaining only 6,800 majority. He was inaugurated 
Jan. 8, 1877. 

Great depression prevailed in financial circles at 
this time, as a consequence of the heavy failures of 
1873 and afterward, the effect of which had seemed 
to gather force from that time to the end of Gov. 
Cullom's first administration. This unspeculative 
period was not calculated to call forth any new 
issues, but the Governor's energies were at one time 
put to task to quell a spirit of insubordination that 
had been begun in Pittsburg, Pa., among the laboring 
classes, and transferred to Illinois at Chicago, East 
St. Louis and Braidwood, at which places laboring 
men for a short time refused to work or allow others 
to work. These disturbances were soon quelled and 
the wheels of industry again set in motion. 

In May, i88o, Gov. Cullom was re-nominated by 
the Republicans, against Lyman Trumbull, by the 
Democrats; and although theformer party was some- 
what handicapped in the campaign by a zealous 
faction opposed to Grant for President and to Grant 
men for office generally, Mr. Cullom was re-elected 
by about 314,565, to 277,532 for the Democratic State 
ticket. The Greenback vote at the same tmie was 
about 27,000. Both Houses of the Legislature again 
became Republican, and no representative of the 
Greenback or Socialist parties were elected. Gov. 
Cullom was inaugurated Jan. 10, 1S81. In his mes- 
sage he announced that the last dollar of the State 
debt had been provided for. 

M.irch 4, 1883, the term of David Davis as United 
States Senator from Illinois e.\p:red, and Gov. Cul- 
lom was chosen to succeed him. This promoted 
Lieutenant-Governor John M. Hamilton to the Gov- 
ernorship. Senator Cullom's term in the United 
States Senate will expire March 4, 1889. 

Ai a practitioner oflaw Mr. C. has been a member 
of the firm of Cullom, Scholes & Mather, a! Spring- 
field ; and he has also been President of the State 
National Bank. 

He has been married twice, — the first time Dec. 
12, 1855, to Miss Hannah Fisher, by whom he had 
two daughters; and the second time May 5, 1863, 
to Julia Fisher. Mrs. C is a member of the Method- 
ist Episcopal Church, with which religious body Mr. 
C. is also in sympathy. 






A :^L/>s>s> :^^ 




^j, TON, Governor 1883-5, ^^^ 
born May 28, 1847, in a log 
liouse upon a farm about two 
miles from Richwood, Union 
County, Ohio. His father was 
Samuel Hamilton, the eldest son 
of Rev. VVm. Hamilton, who, to- 
gether with his brother, the Rev. 
\' Samuel Hamilton, was among the 
early pioneer Methodist preachers in 
Ohio. The mother of the subject of 
this sketch was, before her marriage, 
Mrs. Nancy McMoiris, who was 
born and raised in Fauquier or Lou- 
doun County, Va., and related to the 
two large families of Youngs and Marshalls, well 
known in that commonwealth; and from the latter 
family name was derived the middle name of Gov. 

In March, 1854, Mr. Hamilton's father sold out 
his little pioneer forest home in Union County, C, 
and, loading his few household effects and family 
(of six children) into two emigrant covered wagons, 
moved to Roberts Township. Marshall Co., 111., being 
21 days on the route. Swamps, unbridged streams 
and innumerable hardships and privations met them 
on their way. Their new home had been previously 
selected by the father. Here, after many long years 
of toil, they succeeded in payii.g for the land and 
making a coinforfal>le. home. John was, of course, 

brought up to hard manual labor, with no schooling 
except three or four months in the year at a common 
country school. However, he evinced a capacity 
and taste for a high order of self-education, by 
studying or reading what books he could borrow, as 
the family had but very few in the house. Much of 
his study he prosecuted by the light of a log fire in 
the old-fashioned chimney place. The financial 
panic of 1S57 caused the family to come near losing 
their home, to pay debts ; but the father and two 
sons, William and John, "buckled to'' and perse 
vered in hard labor and economy until they redeemed 
their place from the mortgage. 

When the tremendous excitement of the political 
campaign of 1S60 reached the neighborhood of Rob- 
erts Township, young Hamilton, who had been 
brought up in the doctrine of anti-slavery, took a zeal- 
ous [)art in favor of Lincoln's election. Making 
efforts to procure a little money to buy a uniform, he 
joined a company of Lincoln Wide-Awakes at 
nolia, a village not far away. Directly after the 
ensuing election it became evident that trouble 
would ensue with the South, and this Wide-Awake 
company, like many others throughout the country, 
kept up its organization and transformed itself into a 
military company. During the ensuing summer they 
met often for drill and became proficient ; but wheji 
they offered themselves for the war, young Hamilton 
was rejected on account of his youth, he being then 
but .14 years of age. During the winter of 1863-4 lie 
attended an academy at Henry, Marshall County. 



and in the following May he again enlisted, for the 
fourth time, when he was placed in the 141st 111. 
Vol. Inf., a regiment then being raised at Elgin, 111., 
for the 100-day service. He took with him 13 other 
lads from his neighborhood, for enlistment in the 
service. This regiment operated in Soulhwesteni 
Kentucky, for about five months, under Gen. Paine. 
The following winter, 1864-5, •^'■- Hamilton taught 
school, and during the two college years 1865-7, he 
went through three years of tlie curriculum of the 
Ohio Wesleyan University at Delaware, Ohio. Tlie 
third year he graduated, the fourth in a class of 46^ 
in the classical department. In due time he received 
the degree of M. A. For a few months he was the 
Principal of Marshall " College " at Henry, an acad- 
emy under the auspices of the M. E. Church. By 
this time he had commenced the study of law, and 
after earning some money as a temporary Professor 
of Latin at the Illinois Wesleyan University at 
Bloomington, he entered the law office of Weldon, 
Tipton & Benjamin, of that city. Each member of 
this firm has since been distinguished as a Judge. 
.Admitted to the Bar in May, 1870, Mr. Hamilton 
was given an interest in the same firm, Tipton hav- 
ing been elected Judge. In October following he 
formed a partnership with J. H. Rowell, at that time 
Prosecuting Attorney. Their business was then 
small, but they increased it to very large proportions, 
practicing in all grades of courts, including even the 
U. S. Supreme Court, and this partnersliip continued 
unbroken until Feb. 6, 1883, when Mr. Hamilton 
was sworn in as Executive of Illinois. On the 4th 
of March following Mr. Rowell took his seat in Con- 

In July, 187 1, Mr. Hamilton married Miss Helen 
M. Williams, the daughter of Prof. \Vm. G, Williams, 
Professor of Greek in the Ohio Wejleyan University. 
Mr. and Mrs. H. have two daughters and one son. 

In 1876 Mr. Hamilton was nominated by the Re- 
publicans for the State Sen.ite, over other and older 
competitors. He took an active part '■ 0:1 the stump " 
in the campaign, for the success of his party, and was 
sleeted by a majority of 1,640 over his Democratic- 
Greenback opponent. In the Senate he served on 
the Committees on Judiciary, Revenue, State Insti- 
tutions, Appropriations, Education, and on Miscel'- 
lany ; and during the contest for the election of a 
U. S. Senator, the Republicans endeavoring to re- 

elect John A. Logan, he voted for the war chief on 
every ballot, even alone when all the other Republi- 
cans had gone over to the Hon. E. B. Lawrence and 
the Democrats and Independents elected Judge 
David Davis. At this session, also, was passed the 
first Board of Health and Medical Practice act, of 
which Mr. Hamilton was a champion, agair;; , ; 
much opposition that the bill was several times 
" laid on the table." Also, this session authorized 
the location and establishment of a southern peri- 
tentiary, which was fixed at Chester. In the session 
of 1879 Mr. Hamilton was elected Vxt.%\A&xA fro tern. 
of the Senate, and was a zealous supporter of John 
A. Logan for the" U. S. Senate, who war, this time 
elected without any trouble. 

In May, 1880, Mr. Hamilton was nominated on 
the Republican ticket for Lieutenant Governor, his 
principal competitors before the Convention being 
Hon. Wm. A. James, ex- Speaker of the House of 
Representatives, Judge Robert Bell, of Wabash 
County, Hon. T. T. Fountain, of Perry County, and 
Hon. M. M. Saddler, of Marion County. He engaged 
actively in the campaign, and his ticket was elected 
by a majority of 41,200. As Lieutenant Governor, 
he presided almost continuously over the Senate in 
the 32d General .Assembly and during the early days 
of the 33d, until he succeeded to the Governorship. 
When the Legislature of 1883 elected Gov. Cullom 
to the United States Senate, Lieut. Gov. Hamilton 
succeeded him, under the Constitution, taking the 
oath of office Feb. 6, 1883. He bravely met all the 
annoyances and embarrassments incidental upon 
taking up another's administration. The principal 
events with which Gov. Hamilton was connected as 
the Chief Executive of the State were, the mine dis- 
aster at Braidwood, the riots in St. Clair and Madison 
Counties in May, 1883, the appropriations for the 
State militia, the adoption of the Harper high-license 
liquor l.iw, the'vetoof a dangerous railroad bill, etc. 

The Governor was a Delegate at large to the 
National Republican Convention at Chicago in June, 

1884, where his first choice for President was John 
A. Logan, and second choice Chester A. .\rthur; but 
he afterward zealously worked for the election of Mr. 
Blaine, true to his party. 

Mr. Hamilton's term as Governor expired Jan. 30, 

1885, wlien the great favorite "Dick" Oglesby was 


JOSEPH w. fifi-:r. 



.^e.'iS^i Sit 

> •o*o..@>>,A^..o«o. -v 


5: distiiiguisLed gentleman was 

(*^t« elected Governor of Illinois 
,%'•■ November 6, 1888. He was 
[ \. popularly known daring the 
^ X' campaign as "Private Joe." He 
had served with great devotion 
to his country during the Ke- 
bellion. in the Thirty-third 
Illinois Infantry. A native of 
Virginia, he was born in 1840. 
His parents, John and ^larj- 
(Daniels) Fifer, were American 
born, though of (German de- 
scent. His father was a brick 
and stone mason, and an old 
Henry Clay Whig in politics. John and Mary 
Fifer had nine children, of whom Joseph was the 
sixth, and naturally witli so large a family it was 
.all the father could do to keep the wolf from the 
door; to say nothing of giving his children any- 
thing like good educational advantages. 

Young Joseph attended school some in Vir- 
ginia, but it w!us not a good school, and when 
his father removed to the West, iu 1857, Joseph had 
not advanced much further than the "First Reader." 


Our subject was sixteen then and suffered a great 
misfortune iu the loss of his mother. After the deal h 
of Mrs. Fifer, which occurred in Missouri, tlie 
family returned to Virginia, but remained only a 
short time, as during the same year Mr. Fifer 
came to Illinois. He settled in McLean County and 
started a brickyard. Here Joseph and his broth- 
ers were put to work. The elder Fifer soon 
bought a farm near Bloomington and began life as 
an agriculturalist. Here Joe worked and .attended 
the neighboring school. He alternated farm-work, 
brick-la3ing, and going to the district school for 
the succeeding few years. It was all work and no 
play for Joe, j^et it by no means niade a dull buy 
of him. All the time he was thinking of the great 
world outside, of which he had caught a glimpse 
when coming from Virginia, yet he did not know 
just how he was going to get out into it. He 
could not feel that the woods around the new 
farm and the log cabin, in which the family lived, 
were to hold him. 

The opportunity to get out into the world was 
soon offered to young Joe. He traveled a dozen 
miles barefoot, in company' with his brother (ieorge, 
and enlisted in Company C, 33d Illinois Infantry; 
he being then twenty years old. In a few day 



tl'.e regiment was sent to Camp Butler, and then 
over into Missouri, and saw some vigorous service 
tliere. After a second time lielping to cliase Price 
out of Missouri, tlie 33d Kegiment went down 
to Milliken's Bend, and for several weeks ■• Private 
Joe" worked on Grant's famous ditcii. The regi- 
ment then joined the forces operating against Port 
(iibson and Vicksburg. Joe was on guard duty in 
the front ditches when the flag of surrender was 
run \\\) on the 4th of July, and stuck the ba^-onet 
of his gun into the embankment and went into the 
cit}' with the vanguard of I'nion soldiers. 

The next da3% Jul3' 5, the 38d joined the force 
after Johnston, who had been threatening Grant's 
rear; and tinally an assault w;is made on him at 
Jackson, Miss. In this charge -^Private Joe" fell, ter- 
ribly' wounded. He was loading his gun when a 
minie-ball struck him and passed entirel}" through 
ins body. He was regarded as mortally wounded. 
His brother, George, who had Ijeen made a Lieu- 
tenant, proved to be tlie means of saving his life. 
Tlie Surgeon told him unless he had ice liis brotlier 
Joe cf)uld not live. It was fifty miles to the nearest 
point where ice could be obtained, and the roads 
were rough. .\^ comrade, a McLean county man, who 
liad been wounded, offered to make the trip. An 
ambulance was secured and the brother soldier 
started on thejournej-. He returned with the ice. 
but the trii). owing to the roughness of tlie I'oads. 
was very hard on him. After a few months' care- 
ful nursing Mr. Fifer was able to come home. The 
33d came home on a furlough, and when the 
boys were ready to return to the tented field, 
young Fifer was ready to go with them: for he was 
determined to finish liis term of three 3^ears. He 
was mustered out in October, 1864. having been 
in the service three years and two months. 

••Private Joe" came out of the arm}' a tall, 
tanned, and awkward young man of twent\'-four. 
About all he possessed was ambition to be some- 
bod}- — and pluck. Though at an age when most 
men have finished their college course, the 3-oung 
soldier saw that if he was to be anybody- he must 
have an education. Yet he had no means to ena- 
ble him to enter school as most 3'oung men do. 
He was determined to have an education, however, 
and that to him meant success. For the followina: 

four years he struggled with his books. He entered 
Wesleyan University Jan. 1. 1865. He was not a 
brilliant student, being neither at the head nor the 
foot of liis class. He was in great earnest, how- 
ever, studied hard and came forth witii a well- 
stored and disciplined mind. 

Immediately after being graduated he entei-ed 
an ofHce at Bloomington as a law student. He had 
alre.adj' read law some, and as he continued to work 
hard, with the spur of poverty and promptings of 
ambition ever with him, he was ready to hang out 
his professional shingle in 1869. Being triist- 
worthj' he soon gathered about him some influen- 
tial friends. In 1871 he was elected Corporation 
Counsel of Bloomington. In 1872 he was elected 
State's Attorney of McLean Count}-. This office 
he held for eight j'ears, when he took his seat in 
the State Senate. Here he served for four years. 
His ability to perform abundance of hard work 
made him a most valued member of the Legisla- 

^Ir. Fifer was married in 1870 to Gertie, daugh- 
ter of William J. Lewis, of Bloomington. Mr. 
Fifer is six feet in height and is spare, weighing- 
only I.jU pounds. He has a swarth}- complexion, 
keen black ej'es. quick movement, and possesses :v 
frank and sympathetic nature, .and naturally makes 
friends wherever he goes. During the late Guber- 
natorial campaign his visits throughout the State 
proved a great power in his behalf. His liappv 
facult}' of winning the confidence and good wishes 
of those with whom he comes in personal contact is a 
source of great popularit}', especiallv during a polit- 
ical l)attle. As a speaker he is fluent, his hiugu.age 
is good, voice clear and agreeable, and manner 
forcible. His manifest earnestness in what he s.ivs 
as well as his tact as a public speaker, and his elo- 
quent and forceful language, makes him a most 
valuable campaign orator and a powerful pleader 
at the bar. At the Republican State Convention, 
held in May. 188S, ^Ir. Fifer was chosen .as its candi- 
date for (Governor. He proved a popular nominee, 
and the name of •• Private Joe " became familiar 
to everyone throughout the State. He waged a 
vigorous campaign, was elected by a good m.ijority. 
and in due time assumed the duties of the Chief 
Executive of Illinois. 

fa« — • 



mmm & 





"»°,C[-JE time has arrived when it 
becomes the duty of the 
people of this county to per- 
petuate the names of their 
pioneers, to furnish a record 
of their early settlement, 
and relate the story of their 
progress. The civilization of our 
day, the enlightenment of the age 
and the duty that men of the pres- 
ent time owe to their ancestors, to 
'"i.rtr''i'J': y themselves and to their posterity, 
oJ ti^'^r-' p'rs demand that a record of their lives 
-^, Vr^ r\-^ and deeds should be made. In bio- 
graphical history is found a power 
to instruct man by precedent, to 
enliven the mental faculties, and 
to waft down the river of time a 
safe vessel in whicli the names and actions of the 
people who contributed to raise this country from its 
primitive state may be preserved. Surely and ra[)idly 
the great and aged men, who in their j^rinie entered 
the w-ildenjess and claimed the virgin soil as their 
heritage, are passing to tlicir graves. The number re- 
maining wliocan relate the incidents of tlie first days 
jf settlement is becoming small indeed, so that an 
actual necessity exists for the collection and [jreser- 
vation of events without delay, before all the early 
settlers are cut down by the scythe of Time. 

To be forgotten has been the great dread of mankind 
from remotest ages. All will be forgotten soon enough, 
in spite of tiieir best works and the most earnest 
efforts of their friends to perserve the memory of 
their lives. The means employed to prevent oblivion 
and to perpetuate their memory has been in propor- 
tion to the amount of intelligence they possessed. 
Th: pyramids of Egypt were built to perpetuate the 
names and deeds of their great rulers. The exhu- 
mations made by the archeologists of Egypt from 
buried Memphis indicate a desire of those people 

to perpetuate the memory of their achievements. 
The erection of the great obelisks were for the same 
purpose. Coming down to a later period, we find the 
Greeks and Romans erecting mausoleums and monu- 
ments, and carving out statues to chronicle tlieir 
great achievements and carry them down the ages. 
It is also evident that the Mound-builders, in piling 
up their great mounds of earth, had but this idea — 
to leave something to show that they had lived. All 
these works, though many of them costly in the e.x- 
treme, give but a faint idea of the lives and charac- 
ters of those whose memory they were intended to 
perpetuate, and scarcely anything of the masses of 
the people that then lived, the great pyramids and 
some of the obelisks remain objects only of curiosity; 
the mausoleums, monuments and statues are crum- 
bling into dust. 

It was left to modern ages to establish an intelli- 
gent, undecaying, immutable method of perpetuating 
a full history — immutable in that it is almost un- 
limited in e.xtent and perpetual in its action ; and 
this is through the art of printing. 

To the present generation, however, we are in- 
debted for the introduction of the admirable system 
of local biography. By this system every man, though 
he has not achieved what the world calls greatness, 
has the means to perpetuate his life, his history, 
through the coming ages. 

The scythe of Time cuts down all ; nothing of the 
physical man is left. The monument which his chil- 
dren or friends may erect to his memory in the ceme- 
tery will crumble into dust and pass away; but his 
life, his achievements, the work he has accomplished, 
which otherwise would be forgotten, is perpetuated 
by a record of this kind. 

To preserve the lineaments of our companions we 
engrave their jwrtraits, for the same reason we col- 
lect the attainable facts of their history. Nor do we 
think it necessary, as we speak only truth of them, to 
wait until they are dead, or until those who know 
iheni are gone: to do this we are ashamed only to 
pul)lish to the world the history of those whose lives 
are unworthy of public record. 




— >-5-^& — °<sS-<ai!l)>-»e-o — ■» {< - 

' Ba of I>ewistovvn, is one of the 
most eminent members of the 
medical i)rofession in Central 
Uliiiois, and not only has he 
been honored and distinguisliod 
as a physician and surgeon who 
has met with more than usual 
success in his chosen profession, 
but for his excfileut record as 
a civic officer, and for the ]iart 
he has always taken in the cause of 
education and other interests tend- 
ing to advance the material pros- 
perity of the county. Me has also shown himself 
a business man of more than ordinary ability, and 
although he has been very lil)eral and charitable to 
tlu! i)oor, and has given largely of his means 
toward the support of all jirojects tending to alle- 
viute human suffering and promote their happiness, 
lie has acquired a large competency, and is re- 
garded as one of the wealthy and most inHuential citi- 
zens of this county. Among those inseparably 
identified with the advance of this county, is Dr. 
Hull, whose portrait appears on the opposite page, 
and before giving a more extended mention of his 
history, it might be well to give briefly that o! liis 
ancestry. His paternal grandfather. ,Iohn Hull, 
was of Euglisli descent but a native of ^Lar\ land, 
from which place he removed to Virginia, near 
Hari)er's Feny, in 171)8. 'I'lience, in 1807, he. with 
a large family, four sons and seven daughters, re- 
moved to Licking County. Ohio, not in wagons, 
but on pack-horses and on foot, through an un- 
broken wilderness, inhabited mostly by Indians, 
and onl}- now and then a white man to be seen. 

Here he passed the remainder of his life, surrounded 
by most of his children, until the time of his death, 
at the age of eighty-five years. 

His son Philip, the father of our subject, was 
born in Harrison Count\-, Md., in 1795, and was 
twelve years of age when he accompanied his fam- 
ily from \'irginia to Licking County, Ohio. He 
there enlisted in tlie War of 1812, and by re.ison 
of his seiH'iccs drew a pension in his old age. There 
also in 1820 he married Sarah, dalighter of Alex- 
ander iMcCracken who was born in the North of 
Ireland but of Scotch ancestry. During the Revo- 
lutionary War he was brought to this country veiy 
nuich against his will as a soldier in the British 
Army, was taken prisoner by the Americans and 
not released until the close of the war, when he re- 
turneil to his native isle. Butso well pleased was he 
with what he saw of America, that he soon came 
back and settled near lirownsville, Fayette County. 
Pa. Shortly afterward he married a Miss Eaton, 
and they made this their home for many years, aild 
in the meantime reared a largo family of children. 
'While yet in Ireland he was converted to Chris- 
tianity under the influence and preaching of Adam 
Clark, and soon after he united with tlie Methodist 
Clinrrh. and became noted as a minister. In 1817 he 
and family removed from Pennsylvania to Mus- 
kingum County, Ohio, where he resided until his 
lieath at the advanced age of nearly ninety years. 
He performed most C)f the marriage ceremonies and 
preached the greater number of the funeral ser- 
mons within the vicinity of his home for one third 
of a century in the early days of Ohio, as many of 
the older people of this county who knew Liim 
there can attest. 

In the fall of 1838 Philip Hull left Licking 
County, Ohio, to seek a home in the then Far 
West, and accompanied l)y his wife and children 
made ilie trij) overland in wagons to li'ulton 



County arriving in Lewistown on the 10th of De- 
cember. In the spring of 1839 lie bought and 
moved on to a tract of land, one hundred and sixty 
acres, near the present site of .Suiithfield, on which 
was a lo§ cabin and a fen- acres of land fenced and 
broken. After living in the cabin for a short lime 
a comfortable frame house was built, and the farm 
was otherwise improved; but for many }'ears deer 
and wild turke3's were plent3^ in the neighborhood 
and throughout the county. In the fall of 1S45 
he, in company with many of his neighbors, hauled 
wheat in waguns to Chicago, two hundred miles 
distant, taking with them provisions and horse 
feed, camping out, consuming three weeks in mak- 
ing the trip. The}' sold their wheat at forty-seven 
cents per busliel, and bouglit such articles as were 
essential to the family and returned, being well 
jileased with their trip and the speculation. These 
were the days of hard times, hardships and per- 
plexities. There were then no railroads, nor were 
there any for many years afterward. But how 
changed the scenes, circumstances and conditions 
since then. 

The parents of our subject continued to reside 
on the old homestead until 186.5, when they sold it 
to Jacob Zigler, who now occupies it. an(\, regards 
it as the best farm in Cass Township. They how- 
ever soon bought another, within a mile of Lewis- 
town, where the}' resided until the time of their 
death, which occurred in 1881 after long lives — 
sixty-four years having been spent together in 
happy married life. The father died at tlie age of 
eight-nine }-ears, and the mother at the .age of 
eighty-thi'ee, and both are interred in the Lewis- 
tiiwn Cemeterj-. Their children all reside in Lew- 
istown — one, a single daughter, and the other 
is married to James H. Randall, the father of Dr. 
R. A. and Philip Randall, who are engaged in the 
drug business in Lewistown, the former being a 
finely educated phj-sician and a graduate of Rush 
]\Iedical College. 

Capt. W. W. Hull, the only brother of our sub- 
ject, made an overland trip to California in the 
|)ioiieer days of that .Slate, and remained there for 
.•■everal 3'ears. Returning home a short time before 
the Civil War he entered upon a mercantile busi- 
ness in Lewistown, but upon the Ineaking out of 
the conflict he enlisted in Company H.. Seventeenth 
Regiment. Illinois Infantry, and was chosen Cap- ' 
Uiin of his company, continuing as such until the 
close of the war. He merited the praise and high 
esteem in which he was held, as a true patriot and 
brave soldier. .Since the war he has been regarded 
as one of the leaders of the Republican party, and 
has filled nunirrous offices of trust and responsi- 
bihty. In 1866 he was a candidate for Sheriff of 
Fulton County ou the Republican ticket and 

although his party was largelj- in the minority he 
was beaten only two votes by the Democratic can- 
didate, David J. Waggoner. The Captain was ap- 
poinleil Postmaster at Lewistown. serving in this 
as in other positions, with credit to himself, and it 
niaj- be said of him that he was the only Republi- 
can Postmaster in Fulton County who held over 
and retained his ]iosition through the entire Cleve- 
land administration. The Captain has one child, a 
son — Edgar — who is in the revenue department, 
at Peoria. 

Dr. Hull was but a mere boy when he came with 
his ])arents from Ohio to this count}- in 1838. Be- 
ing anxious to obtain an education, and the oppor- 
tunities and means being limited, for only occa- 
sionall}' would a common or district school be taught 
and then only for three months in the year, he la- 
bored on his father's farm in the da3-time and studied 
at night. By dint of hard labor and close applica- 
tion to his studies, he fitted himself for teaching, and 
at the age of seventeen years taught his first school 
in his father's neighborhood with credit to himself 
and to the satisfaction of his patrons. Thus he 
continued working, teaching and studying until he 
acquired a good and liberal education, including to 
some extent, the languages. His attention was 
quite early directed to the study of medicine, and 
as soon as he had earned and laid up a few hundred 
dollars he commenced the study with his cousin. Dr. 
Abram Hull, then of this county. After complet- 
ing the ofHee readings he attended a course of lec- 
tures at St. Louis, and the following year entered 
Rush Medical College, Chicago, from which insti- 
tution he was graduated with honor in 1850, and 
in May, thereafter, he located in Cuba, this count}*, 
virtually commencing his practice where he was 
reared, and in a vev3' short time his practice was 
large, lucrative and quite extended. He has per- 
formed numerous and diflicult surgical operations; 
in fact there is scarcely an operation in the whole 
list but what he has jterformed, and with nniform 
success. In the practice of medicine he has always 
been successful, and always had a large business. 
For three years prior and up to the time he re- 
niove<l to Lewistown, which was in the fall of 1860, 
he had in his employ an excellent phy-sician. Dr. 
LaFayette Gray, uncle to John A. Gray, a promi- 
nent lawyer of the Lewistown Bar. 

In the memorable campaign of 1860 the friends 
of Dr. Hull induced him to accept the nomination 
for the office of Clerk of the Circuit Court and 
Recorder, to which he was elected. That he dis- 
<-liarucd the duties of his office in a satisfactory 
manner was abundantl3' proven b3' his re-election 
to a second term in 1864. The Doctor did not en- 
tirely relinquish his medical pursuits and the prac- 
tice of his ))rofessiou when elected to the office, as 



his official labors were performed very considerably 
bj' (loputics. Yet. he never lost sioht of the various 
details of tlie otiice, ami saw tiiat ^vas 
done in the very best possilile manner, meanwhile 
keeping posted up in the medical literature of the 
day, and occasionally performing some important 
surgical operation. In fad it is said that some of 
the best and raf)sl important operations were per- 
forjned while in olliee. and after he closed his 
connection therewith he entercil again into the 
practice with his usual vigor and entljusiasm. and 
thus he has continued to the present time. Perhaps 
but few men outside of the large cities have per- 
formed more important surgical operations than 
he, and but few have a larger experience in the 
treatment of chronic diseases. His knowledge of 
the profession and his long continued practice have 
given him an extenib^l consultation jiractice. 

Dr. Hull, as President: Dr. .1. V. Harris, Secre- 
tary, of Canton ; and Dr. J. W. Welch, Treasurer, of 
Cuba, com|)ose the Examining Hoard for Pensions 
at Lewistown, and have acted as such for five or 
more years. The fact that they are retained by the 
incoming and adverse administration, is proof that 
their work has been well and impartially done, and 
to the satisfaction of the Government and the sol- 
diers as well. Perhaps but few Boards have been 
more painstaking in their examinaticms, or have 
treated the soldiers more considerately, carefully 
and kindly tlian this Board. 

Politically Dr. Hull has always been identified 
with the Democratic party. He is a member of the 
State and other medical societies, and in reference 
to his views and ideas concerning the practice of 
meilicine he is orthodox, liberal, and yet indepen- 
dent. He is a great reader, a deep thinker, broad 
in views, religions, philosophical and social. He 
h,as attained an enviable position as a man of in- 
fluence in the county, while his course in life has 
been such as to win for him tlie admiration and es- 
teem of a large circle of acquaintances. He has 
written frequently for medical journals, newspa- 
pers, etc., and wields a ready and pointed pen. As 
stated of him, he has always taken great interest in 
educational matters, and especially in his own 
town. He is President of the Board of Education 
in Lewistown, and has been for the last sixteen 
years. Dr. Hull is not only public-s[)iril,ed and en- 
ergetic, hut he is social, cordial, and a man of good 
morals, strictly temperate in his habits, and posses- 
sing the manners of a gentlcinan. He is well cal- 
cnlated to make and retain friends, and is one of 
the best known citizens of Fulton County. 

Dr. Hull was married in November. 18.J7, to 
MissN. Perraelia Heckird,of this county, and they 
have but one child, a daughter Carrie, now twenty- 
three years of age, and singK". And upon her the 

father has doted ami done everything in his power 
to elevate her socially', morally, ajid in educational 
and literary pursuits. I'pon her in these directions 
he has spent thousands of dollars, and she has prof- 
ited largely by it. She has attended the best col- 
leges in Illinois and in ihe East, and isperhapsone 
of the best educated young ladies in this portion of 
the State. She is now taking musical instruction 
in Boston. In the case of Dr. Hull the fact is 
demonstrated that success is attributed to his en- 
ergy and indomitable perseverance, ami those (piali- 
ties which giv(! him 

"The strength to dare, the nerve to meet 
Whatever threatens with defeat 
An all-indomitable will." 

-€-*^ ^ 

Wi 1). .lOHNSON, foreman of the painting 
de|)artment of Parlin & Orendorff's manu- 
factory in Canton, w.'is born in Newark, 
Newcastle C(junty, Del., October 17, 1840. He is 
the son of James C. and JMartha (Caldwell) John- 
son, and his grandparents came respectively from 
Ireland and Scotland. His father was born in New 
York, spent some j'ears in Penn.iylvania and 
removed thence to Delaware while still a young 
man. In 1860 he changed his place of residence to 
New Jersey, where he died in 1882 at the age 
of seventy-five years. His marriage had been solem- 
nized in P(!nnsylvania. which was the native State of 
his wife. The union was blessed by the birth of 
three children, to whom the mother bade adieu 
in 1818 when called from time to eternity, she be- 
ing then but thirt3'-two years of age. 

The father of our subject subsequently married 
Miss Sarah Hickman, and to them was born one 
child, — Lola. After the death of his second wife 
Mr. Johnson married Miss lilary Case, who is still 
living. To this union were born three children, who 
are stdl living. The own brother of our subject, 
James T. Johnson, graduated from Delaware 
College and was for many years I'resident of the 
La Grange (Ga.) Female Seminary. During the 
war he was pressed into the service of the Confed- 
erate Army upon two occasions, but each time was 
released about two weeks after his conscription on 
account of his eminence as an educator. Ho is still 



living in lliL' SouUicni rily, now cashier of a bank. 
Tlie otbfi- child of our subject's tuother is 
waret E.. the wife of J. T. Conover. of Fleininglon, 
N. .1. 

Tlie subject of our sketch remained witli liis 
f.'itiier until after he liad leaclied liis seven iceiilh 
year, receiving a fair education in the common 
schools and at the age of sixteen entering the Del- 
aware College. One of his sclioolmates there was 
Senator Anthonj- M. Higgins. of Delaware, loung 
Johnson had been attending the college but a year 
wlien the institutiou was broken up and be began 
his personal work in life. In 1861 he went to New 
Jersey, which State lie made his home until he 
tofik up his residence in Canton. At Clinton, in 
1862, he enlisted in Conipan3' E, Thirty-first New 
.7erse3' Infantry, and being mustered in at Fleming- 
ton, was sent to the defense of Wastiington. 
remaining in or near that city several months. He 
look an active part in the battle of Chancellorsville 
and also at Fredericksburg. He had enlisted as a 
private, but was elected Fourth Sergeant of his 
coniiianj', and after serving as such for a period of 
three months, advanced to be First Sergeant, 
anil continued in that capacity until discharged. 

The regiment was enlisted for nine months, 
and at the expiration of that time was mustered 
out of the service and disbanded, the last march 
l>eing from Falmouth to Washington — a distance 
of one hundred miles — which they covered in less 
tiian three days' time. Immediatel}' after his dis- 
charge Mr. Johnson came West, and in February 
following his arrival in this State enlisted in Com- 
pany I, Fifty-first Illinois Infantry , and upon the 
organization of the company was elected Orderlj^ 
Sergeant. The troops were first sent to Texas and 
stationed in Port Lavaca on Matagorda BaN", and 
later were at Nashville and New Orleans, doing 
[)ust and camp duty until discharged in September, 

In Boston, in 1869. Mr. Johnson was married to 
Miss Mary Colville, a native of Canada who, after 
ten j-ears of happy wedded life dieil in LaGrange, 
Ga., where she had gone for her health. She left 
two children — Stella and Maggie — both of whom 
live in Canton. Mr. Johnson was again mairied in 
1881, the lady of his choice being Miss Belle Com- 

stoek, a native of Woonsocket, Conn., and the 
ceremony being solemnized at Detroit. This lady 
breathed lier last in 1884, and our subject was once 
more united iu matrimony, this time at Canton. 111., 
in September, 1889. with Miss Kittie Flory, of 
Clear Springs. Md. Mrs. Johnson is a faithful 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and 
both she and her husband have numbers of warm 
personal friends, both in Canton and throughout 
the countj'. 

At the beginning of his business career in this 
Slate ilr. Johnson worked for Mr. Parlin in the 
capacity of a common hand, but in three years' 
time was promoted to his present position — that of 
foreman of the painting dei)artment. He had 
a share in the municipal offices, having been City 
Clerk in 1880, and in 1890 he received the ap- 
pointment of Census Enumerator for this place. 
He is interested in the social orders, being a charter 
member of the Masonic Lodge in Canton, a Knight 
of Pythias and a United >A'orkman. He has been an 
active political worker, and was for many j-ears 
manager of the Canton Opera House. 


F. KOBBINS, manufacturer of and dealer 
in marble and granite, both imported and 
domestic, is one of the most reliable busi- 
ness men of Canton. He carries a large line 
of goods, varying from the common grades to that 
which is fit for the sculpter's chisel, and is there- 
fore able to supply the needs of various classes, 
from those in humble financial circumstances _to 
the capitalist. He is deserving of the patronage of 
the jieople and secures a large proportion of the 
trade in his line of business. He comes of English 
ancestry and his kinsmen in both maternal and 
p.aternal lines have for several generations held im- 
portant social and commercial positions in the 
United States. 

Our subject is a son of John and Edee S. (Cum 
mings) Robbins, natives of New Hampshire and- 
Maine respectively. They removed with their fam- 
ily to St. Clair. Mich., in 18.52, and there for two 
years the father carried on a farming and milling 



business. At the expiration of lliat time he ro- 
moverl to Quincj-, Kj'., at wiiicli iioiiil he was en- 
Sageil in the himber business. lUil after a few 
years he quitted tlie Blue Grass State and journe}'- 
ing northwest located in Canton in the year 1856. 
lie purchased a good farm in Buckheart Township, 
but retired from agricultural life some years since. 
The mother passed away to her final resting' place, 
May 18, 1880, and the father died in September. 
1890. The latter iiad re.iclied an advanced age, his 
natal day having been June 26, 1801. The paren- 
tal family included .1. J., born March 23, 1837; 
Edee Klizabcth. born September 9, 1838, and now 
deceased and J. F.. of whom we write. 

The subject of tliis biographical sketch was born 
in Newport, Me., August 22, 1843, and remained 
at home until he ha<l reached his eighteenth j'ear, 
at which age he enlisted in Company A, Fifty- fifth 
Illinois Infantry. They were mustered in at Chi- 
cago, and then sent to St. Louis where they were in 
l)arracks awhile, and then went to Paducah, Ry., 
drilling and |)eiforming the various camp duties. 
They next went up the Tennessee River to Pitts- 
burg Landing, where they took part in the battle, 
and where Mr. Kobbins was severely injured by 
some flying missile. After the fight he was placed in 
the Held hospital, and from there sent to Hamburg, 
Tenn., where he remained a week or so, after- 
wards going to Benton Barracks, St. Louis. He 
was finally discharged by order of the surgeon as 
unable to resume service. Mr. Kobbins suffered 
greatly even after reaching home, and it was quite 
a while before he was able to attend to business of 
any kind. 

Our subject having in a measure regained his 
health, commenced to learn the marble cutting 
trade with .Sanford A- Barrows at Canton. Finish- 
ing his apprenticeship in a year's time, he was em- 
ployed by this firm for a long time, and traveled 
for them in ditferent directions. Finally, in 1879, 
Mr. Robbins bought out the business, and has con- 
tinued to run it most successfully up to the present 
writing. He carries a lar<re sujiply of marble, and 
is the oldest man in his line of business in the city. 
Mr. Robbins married Miss Jennie Watson, of 
Canton, on M.ay 28, 1871. She was a native of Ohio 
and a daughter of Stanley and Celia ( Woodhouse) 

Watson.' Of this union have been born three chil- 
dren, viz: Walter, Fcbruarj' 29, 1872; Leona, Au- 
gust 5, 1873, and Clifford, October 3, 1877. The 
subject of our sketch is a highly respected gen- 
tleman, and one who possesses a great amount 
of information. Being a constant reader and in- 
terested in ancient matters, he has collected a num- 
ber of i)reliistoric relics, and those of our Indians 
and Mound Builders. 

'• » ^- 



S. STETSON. Of the citizens of Farming- 
ton, few are so well and none more favor 
abl}' known than the subject of this sketch, 
who has resided in this city since the 
spring of 1856. During this long period he 
has made many warm friends, who hold him in 
the highest esteem for his integrity of charac- 
ter and genial disposition. After a prosperous 
career in the commercial world he now rests 
from active labor and is passing his last days 
in peace and quietude. He is pre-eminentl}- a self- 
made man, meriting great praise for the noble 
manner in whicli he has at all times overcome ob- 
stacles placed in his way. He eighty-five years 
of age on January 10, 1890, and is now unable to 
care for himself, but receives the best of care from 
his devoted wife. 

Before giving the principal facts in the life of 
Mr. Stetson, a few words with reference to his lin- 
eage will not be amiss. His father, Oliver Stetson, 
was a carpenter and joiner by trade, and with his 
parents, three brothers and two sisters emigrated 
from Connecticut in 1800 and located in Otsego 
County, N. Y. In the spring of 1804 he was united 
in marriage with Mar}' Stewart, the daughter of 
John Stewart, and they immediately commenced 
housekeeping. A few months later he look his 
wife and household goods to her father's liouse, 
while he went South to seek employment for the 
winter season. He proceeded as far as St. Francis- 
ville. Mo., and there died. 

In the home of liis grandfather Stewart, the sub- 
ject of this sketch was horn January 10, 1S05, and 
under the tender care of these loving relatives 



passed liis ycmth iinlil he was able to care for him- 
self. His mother suhsequenth- married Aldrich 
Baicora, by whom she had seven children, all de- 
eensed. She passed away in 1852 at the age of six- 
ty-five years. Nothing of special interest occurred 
in the life of our subject until the fall of 1820, when 
he became interested in the subject of religion and 
related his experience to the First Baptist Church 
at Butternuts, Otsego CounDy, N. Y., and was re- 
ceived into its fellowship and baptized by Elder 
Adams, their pastor, January 7. 1821. Since that 
time he has lived a consistent Christian life. In 
1840 he was elected a Deacon to fill a vacancy- 
caused by the death of Deacon Lull. 

In his youth our subject attended the district 
schools and was eng.iged in various kinds of work. 
In the spring of 1820 he and Mr. Chapin engaged 
as partners in the wheelwright trade under the 
firm name of Chapin & Stetson. They were thus 
employed in Noble vi lie for two years. Mr. Stet- 
son was united in marriage April 27, 1826, with 
Miss Eliza Robinson, and began their wedded life 
in a house rented of Mr. Chapin. In 1828. Mr. 
Stetson moved to what is now known as Stetson- 
ville, and buying a house and fifteen acres of land, 
built, the following year, a shop where he manu- 
factured wagons, sleighs and coffins. Finding his 
house too small for his family and help, in 1836 he 
purchased a more commodious residence and sixty- 
three acres of land. 

Early in the year 1838, Mr. Stetson sold his 
fifteen-acre tract, and fitting one room of his house 
for a store, purchased a small stock of dry-goods, 
etc., and commenced in the mercantile business, 
which he carried on in connection with farming 
and the manufacture of potash. He subsequently 
built a good store and dwelling house at a cost 
of $2,500 and later [)urchased two hundred and 
fourteen acres of adjoining land, and erected 
house and b.irn, and other buildings suitable 
for dairying. In the fall of 185-1 he resolved 
to locate in the West, and upon his arrival in 
Farmington, 111., was so well pleased with the land 
and the prospects that he purchased of A. D. Reed 
a store for $2,000 cash. Here he commenced mer- 
chandising in partnership with his son, in the fall 
of 1 855 the firm being J. S. Stetson <fe Son. They 

were prosperous, doing a good business until 1860, 
when the partnership was dissolved and the stock 
and store sold to George Stetson for «8,500. 

Upon the arrival of the family in Farmington in 
the spring of 1856, Mr. Stetson purchased a house 
and two acres of land of Mr. Underbill for 12.000; 
this residence he still occupies. Mrs. Stetson died 
of consumption February 9,1863, aged sixty years. 
She was the mother of seven children, namelv 
Mary Jane, born August 23. 1827 and died at the 
age of tweuty-two years; George, born November 
30, 1829; David R., December 5. 1831; Fannie 
M.. March 8, 1834; Sally Ann. May 6, 1836; 
Charles A.. May 4. 1840 and John Lee, January 7, 

On June 14. 1864, Mr Stetson was united in the 
holy bonds of wedlock "iih Mrs. Elvira McColiuni. 
with whom he had been formerly acquainted 
in Morris, Otsego County, N. Y. She was feeble, 
and lived but a short time after their union, dying 
of consumption June 23, 1854, aged fifty-two years. 
Mr. Stetson afterward contracted a matrimonial al- 
liance with Mrs. Mary Maxfield. a resident of 
Springfield. Otsego County, N. Y. They were mar- 
ried May 16, 1866 and came immediately to Farm- 
ington. accompanied by the aged mother of Mrs. 
Stetson, to whom they gave the most devoted care 
until her death, February 28, 1883, at the great age 
of ninety-two years. 

During the many years of their happy wedded 
life, Mrs. Stetson has been a true companion of our 
subject and an untiring worker in his behalf. She 
is a member of the Baptist Church at Farmington, 
and has contributed liberally to its support, at one 
time giving 8230 to pay the balance due on the 
parson.age. She was born in Warren County. N. 
Y. and received a common-school- education. .She 
became the mother of two childreu^Orlando and 
Minnie, both of whom died in youth. She is the 
friend of temperance and everything calculated to 
advance the interests of the county. 

Mr. Stetson is highly respected as a man of 
probity and honor. When he came to Farmington 
he found the Baptist Church weak and unable to 
support a pastor, but he and his wife and daughter 
joined the feeble band and be has sine e served as 
Deacon and has been one of the main supporters of 



the L'liurcli in supply preafhing anil in builtlinfr the 
house of worshii) at a cost of xo.OOO. He is well- 
known in the Otsego (New Yorii) Association, and 
in the Peoria Associalion, having served the latter 
as Treasurer for about eiglit venrs. He was orig- 
inally a Democrat anil voted that ticket until 1840 
since whicli time he has su|)ported the Hepulilican 
party and its principles. He served four years as 
Police Magistrate and in oilier ways aided the 
thriving town of Farmingloii. 

NDREW TIMMONS is the owner and oc- 
cupant of one of the most valuable farms 
I'i in the county, its location being on sec- 
tions 2, 11 and 12. Young Hickory Town- 
ship. His entire landed proiiorty consists of four 
iiundred and sixtv-one acres which is divided into 
three improved places and cost from ^."5') to $70 
per acre. It is fertilized by never-failing water 
from springs, every acre being tillable. One hun- 
dred and sixty-six acres are rented and the balance 
is operate! by Mr. Timmons himself. He raises 
full-blooded and graded .Shorthorn cattle, Berk- 
shire and Poland-China swine, and also feeds stock 
for shipment. year he sold one hundred and 
cightj- hogs. On the home farm there are two sub- 
stantial residences and two commodious barns, each 
40.\G0 feet. Farm scales, modern machinery and 
every convenience for the domestic and farm econ- 
omy will be found there. 

Our subject who is the oldest child of his par- 
ents, was born near Circleville. Ohio, July 10,1838. 
He was seven years old when he accompanied his 
parents West, the journey being made in a "prairie 
schooner." He was reared on a farm in Knox 
Count}', where he began driving oxen to a plow 
when not more than eight ^ears old. He aided as 
his strength would permit in the improvement of 
the raw land, taking advantage first of the subscrip- 
tion and afterward of the free schools, wherein his 
educational privileges were very fair. He was a 
young man of eighteen years when bis father re- 
moved to this county and he continued to assist his 

parent until he was of age. He then went to Henry 
County, locating near Bishops Hill, where he rented 
a farm for a year. Corn was but eight cents a 
bushel and other farm products brought so low a 
price that he found existence a hard struggle. 
Sir. Timmons therefore went into Knox County, 
! bought twenty .acres and after oi)erating it two 
: years sold it and rented his f.ather's jjlaee a year. 
In the spring of 1805 he went to Kansas by rail, 
sending a team overland, and rented a farm in 
Douglas County, near Baldwin City. He lost his 
crop and in six months returned to this .State over- 
land to begin a new career here. He bought sixty 
.acres on Swigle Creek to which he subsequently 
added twenty acres, still later trading sixty for an 
adjoining farm of one hundred and lwenty-(ive 
acres. On his estate, which then consisted of one 
Imndred and forty-five acres on sections 11 and 12, 
he made his home for some time. He was burnt 
out but rebuilt and after a time l)ought the 
Roberts place, an improved farm of one hundred 
and sixty-six acres on section 12. In 1887 he bar- 
gained for one hundred and fifty acres on section 2, 
known as the old Fisher [ilace, for which he to 
pa}' $10,500. His failure to pay for this place was 
prophesied, but contrary to the expectations of his 
neighbors, he was clear of debt in less than three 
j'ears, and that after paying the highest price tliat 
had been given for land here. 

In his endeavors to advance his fortunes .Mr. 
Timmons has been assistad by a faithful companion, 
whose prudent management of household affairs 
and words of counsel and encouragement are highly 
valued. This ladj' who was formerly known .as Miss 
Sarah Campbell, was born near Attica. Ind.. in 
Warren County, and became the wife of our sub- 
ject in Maquon, Knox County, III., in 1860. The 
iiapp}' union has been blest b}' the birth of four 
children — l-'anny, Johnson, Arthur and Mina. The 
eldest child w<is formerly a school teacher, but is 
now the wife of Charles Ulm who lives on tiic farm 
of our suliject. Johnson makes his home also here; 
Arthur and Mina still reside under the parental 

Mr. Timmons was elected Commissioner of 
Highwaj'S but resigned the place after a year's ser- 
vice. He has served efficiently in the position of 



Sc-hool Director, has contributed to tiie building of 
churches and to other enterprises which promise to 
benelil tlie community, and exercises generous 
hospitality. He is a Democrat and during recent 
}-ears has been stronger in the faith than ever before. 
Our subject is a son of Stephen S. and Lucinda 
(Emery) Timraons. tlie former bc^rn in Higliland 
and the latter in Picliavvay County. C)l)io. Mrs. 
Timmons was a daugliter of the Rev. Stephen 
Emery, a local minister of tlie Jletiiodist Episcopal 
Churcli, wlio finallj' came to Knox County, 111., 
and after farming there ten years bought a home- 
steader's claim in Linn County, Kaii., removed 
thither and made that his home during the rem- 
nant of his days. Stephen Timmons followed farm- 
ing in Pickaway County. Ohio, for somej'ears. then 
sold his property and came to Illinois. He hart but 
•^5 when he reached this county, but with the same 
eiitei'prisiiig spirit which characterizes his son, lie 
set to work undismayed to secure a good home. 
After having rented land in Fairview Townshii) a 
few years, he bought in Knox County and dirt well 
there financially. When hereturnert to this county 
he bought property in Young Hickory Township 
where he now lives retired on a farm of some three 
hundred acres. He has reached the age of seventy- 
seven years. Like his son, he votes the Democratic 
ticket. His worthy companion died in Young 
Hickory Township, December 23, 1863. The chil- 
dren younger than our subject are, Peter who lives 
on section 1, Young Hickory Township; Mrs. Sarah 
Combs, of Knox County; Mrs. Margaret Johnson, 
fif Sliermau County. Kan.; and Joseph, of London 


AMUEL WILLCOXEN, a wealthy citi- 
zen of Buckheart Township, has for nian^' 
years been identified with its farming inter- 
ests as one of its most practical, wide-awake 
and business-like farmers and stock-raisers. He is 
a native of Ashe County, N. C, born October 12, 
1813. His father, the Rev. Squire Willcoxen, was 
• for many years a Baptist preacher. He was also a 
North C.irolinian bj' birth and was married in the 
State of his nativity to Sarah Tatrira, a daughter 

of James Tatrim and a native of North Carolina. 
The Rev. Mr. Willcoxen w-as a son of Samuel Will- 
coxen and he served in th.e War of 1812. 

When our subject was about three years old the 
faiiiil}' removed from North Carolina to Kentucky, 
where they remained twelve j'ears, and then carae 
to this county about 1828. Thus his parents were 
among the first settlers of this part of HIinois, lo- 
cating in a place called Slabtown. Five years later 
they moved into what is now Buckheart Township, 
west of the present home of our subject on section 
5, and were among the pioneers of the township. 
Here the father's death occurred on his farm in 
1837 at the age of fifty-nine years. They were tiie 
parents of nine children, six girls and three boys, 
and Samuel, of whom we write, was the seventh of 
the family. 

Our subject was reared among the pioneer scenes 
in Kentucky and experienced also all the hardships 
and privations of pioneer life in Fulton County. 
After coming here he attended the old Tatrim school, 
which was conducted on the subscription plan, and 
tliere he learned to read, write and cipher. He 
remained with his parents until he was twenty- 
seven years of age, when he married and established 
a home of his own. taking as his wife Miss Lucinda 
Carner, of this township. She was born in Ken- 
tuckj' and was brought to this State when she was 
quite young by lier parents, who were [)ioneer set- 
tlers here. She has been a very useful assistant to 
her husband in the acquirement of his property 
and has been a devoted mother to their children, of 
whom they have had three: Ellen, wife of Elijah 
Johnson; George W.. wlio resides on the old home- 
stead, and one who died in infancj'. 

B\' wise thrift and pnidrnce, by tlie dint of liaid 
and unremitting labor, by careful manageincnl, 
shrewdness and foresight in the transaction of 
business, Mr. Willcoxen has placed himself among 
the most well to-do members of the farming popu- 
lation of Buckheart Township. He is very skillful 
as a farmer and has his farm well-stocked with cat- 
tle, horses and hogs of high grades. Before he 
divided his land w'itli his children lie had nine 
hundred acres of choice farming land. He still 
retains possession of two hundred acres which is 
under a high state of cultivation and finely itn- 



proved. After marriage he first settled on the old 
homestead that belonged to his father, and besides 
carrying that on managed one of his mother's and 
he lived on it forty-six years, when he bought his 
present farm on section 11, Hiiekheart Township, 
comprising one hundred and lifty-foiir acres, and 
is considered one of the most valuable in the local- 
ity. It is supplied with substantial buildings, in- 
cluding a large and comfortably furnished I'esidenee 
and one of the best brick barns in the neighbor- 

As an early settler of Buckheart Township and as 
one of its most able farmeis. who has done much 
for its development, our subject occupies a [ironii- 
nenl place among the pioneers of this locality and 
of the county. lie and his wife are devoted mem- 
bers of the Baptist Cliurch, contributing tlicir 
quota to its support and helping along its every 
good work. 

APT. WILLIAM BOYD, Deputy County 
, Clerk and Assistant Treasurer of Fulton 

^^' County, has long been connected with the 
civic life of this part of Illinois, and no public olli- 
cial is held in higher estimation for pr.actical aliil- 
ity and iine personal character than he. lie was a 
brave C)fncer in the I'nion ranks during the late 
war, and did noble service for his adopted country. 
Capt. Boyd was born August 1. 1830. in the prov- 
ince of Ulster, County Antrim, Irel.and. His fa- 
ther. John Boyd, was a native of the same county 
as was his father, Hugh Boyd, who was of early 
Scotch ancestry. He was a farmer, and so far as 
known, S|)ent his entire life in County Antrim. 
The father of our subject was well-educated, and 
when a j'OUTig man taught school, and was also en- 
gaged as a music teacher, and as a civil engineer. 
He spent his entire life in the county of his birth, 
dying in 1840, when sixty years of age. The 
maiden name of his wife was Ann Taggart, and she 
was born in the North of Iieland. She was twice 
married, the name of her tirst husband having been 

After the death of the father of our subject, his 

mother came to America with live of her eight chil- 
dren, .letting sail from Port Rush, early in April, 
proceeding from there to Liverpool, and thence to 
New York, landing in that city earl\- in June. She 
Went directly to Wooster, Ohio, and there her re- 
maining days were passed, her death occurring in 
18r)l. The names of her children were: Hannah 
(daughter of her first marriage); Hugh, Ann, Jen- 
nie, John, Robert, William .'uid James. John died 
in County Antrim, and the others came to Amer- 
ica. Hannah died a few years after her arrival 
here; Ann married Hugh Price, and settled near 
Columbus, Ohio; Jennie married Joseph Woods, 
and settled near Gallion, Ohio; Hugh located in 
Wooster, and died there; Robert also died in Woos- 
ter; James located in Columbus. 

The subject of this biographical sketch was but 
twelve 3'ears old when he came to America with his 
mother. As she was in limited circumstances, the 
brave, manly little lad had to set about earning his 
own living at an early age. When he was thirteen 
years old, he commenced to learn the trade of a 
shoemaker, and followed that until 1849. In that 
jear he went to Columbus, and in 1857 came from 
that city to Lewistown, where he was engaged at 
his trade until 18C2. 

Capt. Boyd was mostly reared and educated un- 
der the institutions of this country-, and early im- 
bibed a love for it and became thoroughly Ameri- 
canized. During the first months of the great 
struggle between the North and South, he watched 
the course of events with intense interest, and as 
soon as practicable. Laid aside his work to take u|) 
arms in defense of the country that had given him 
a home. In the month of August. 18G2, he enlisted 
in Company II, One Hundred and Third Illinois 
Infantr}-, and was mustered in as First Lieutenant, 
at Peoria, August 2. In November, he was sent 
with his regiment to Bolivar, Tenn., and thence to 
La Grange. In December he started for Vicksburg 
with Gen. Grant. Commuidcation being cut off 
Grant's army went to J.ackson, and there the regi- 
ment of our subject was quartered for the winter. 
On the return of spring, he and his comrades re- 
turned to La Grange, anil there spent a short time, 
and were dispatched to Vicksburg from that place 
to guard the rear of the Federal army, and aided 



in defeat in uf Jolinston's atlempt to reinforce tliat 
city. After tlie fall of Vicksbuig, our subject 
went to Jackson and fought gallantly in llie battle 
witli tlie enemy at that place. From there his regi- 
ment pushed on to Black River, and rested until 
fall, and then marched. to Clialtanooga, and did 
good service in the battle of Missionary Ridge. 
The men were next sent to the relief of Burnside 
at Knoxville, and then retired to Scottsboro, Ala. 
A few weeks later our gallant young officer accom- 
panied by his men, started for Georgia, having been 
sent there to attract, the attention of the rebels and 
draw them away from Sherman, who had gone on 
his Meridian raid. Returning to Scottsboro, the 
One Hundred and Third Illinois, nftcr a short rest, 
went on another reconnoitering expedition, n>arch- 
ing to Cleveland, Tenn., and back to Scottsboro. 
May 1, 1864, it joined Sherman's forces, accom- 
panied him on the Atlanta campaign. dt)ing noble 
service in the principal battles on that long and 
ever memorable march. Capt. Boyd and the sol- 
diers under him aided in the siege and capture of 
Atlanta, fought in the battle of Atlanta Pass, and 
after that went witii the army to the Chattahoocliie 
River. Our subject received an injur}- that re- 
sulted in the loss of one eye, and he was obliged to 
resign his commission and give up military life for 
which he vvas so eminently litled. His course 
througliout his service had marked him as a soldier 
who was prompt in obeying orders, was cool and 
courageous in any emergency, and as an officer in- 
spired his men to brave deeds. His superiors, ap- 
preciating these fine qualities, had promoted him to 
the rank of captain before his retirement. 

After he left the army, Capt. Boyd returned to 
Lewistown, and in 1865 established hinjself in the 
hardware business, and continued it until 1873, 
when he was appointed to his present position as 
Deputy County Clerk, and he then sold out his 
business interests. As before mentioned, he is As- 
sistant Treasurer, and has made a good record in 
both offices. His political aililiations are with the 
Republicans. Religiously, he is a sound Presby- 
terian, and both he and Mrs. Boyd are church mem- 
bers. He is identified with the Independent Order 
of Mutual Aid. 

Our subject has been twice married. In 1852 

Sarah S. Miner became his wife. She was a native 
of Gratiot, Licking County, Ohio, and a daughter 
of Francis and Myra (.Jordan) Miner. Her death 
occurretl in 1860. Of the three children born of 
her wedded life, tivo are now living: Carrie mar- 
ried Alexander Wetherell, and lives near Lima, 
Ohio; Ida married Dr. II. P. Stipp, of Sonora. Cal. 
The Captain's second marriage, which was solemn- 
ized in 1861, was with Miss Lucy J. Foote. a na- 
tive of Iowa. There are two children living of the 
second marriage: Mrs. Grace Lillie, of Lewistown; 
and Wilhird. 

Nt„4\ A.RTIN M. WAUGHTEL. Among the 
young farmers of this county are many 
li" who are pursuing their course in life with 
great energy and much skill, and thereliy 
attaining satisfactory results. One of this num- 
ber is the gentlem;ui above named, who is located 
on section 26, Cass Township, occupying the farm 
on which his birth took place August 23, 18,i9. His 
est.ate consists of one hundred acres, nearly all of 
wliicli is improved, and he carries on general agri- 
cultural work, raising both grain an<l slock. Cattle 
and hogs are the domestic animals which he raises 
in the greatest numbers, but he has some fine speci- 
mens of horseflesh, among them a team of three- 
vear old Normans, weighing three thousand and 
thirty-live pounds. 

Henry Waughtel, the father of our subject, was 
born in Ohio in 1812, but former generations of 
the family -had lived in Virginia. He mirrried Mar- 
garet Markley, a native of the same State as him- 
self, their marriage taking place in this State, to 
which both had come in childhood. Mr. Waughtel 
belonged to a family which was one of the first to 
make a settlement in this part of the Mississippi 
Valley. He the first Supervisor of Cass Town- 
ship, taking the olHce in 1850. He fought during 
the Black Hawk War. He breathed his last in 
1885, but his widow still lives and nine of their 
twelve children survive. 

Our subject received a good common-school edu- 
cation and from earl}- boyhood was accustomed to 



take part in farm work, to wliicli he lias (•oiitiiuietl 
to give his attention, lie began life for himself 
when twenty years old, marrying Philena Orwig, 
a (laughter of John and Amanda (Hancock) Orwig, 
who were ol<l settlers in this ('onuty. The young 
couple took possession of forty acres of land 
owned by the husband, wliich he operated suc- 
cessfully. His wife, who was born in IHCi:?, died 
in August, 1884, leaving two sons — John and 
IMilton. Mr. Waughtel was again married in Sep- 
tember, 1885, his bride being iSarali M. Hinder- 
liter, a daughter of Julius Hinderliter. wlio was 
one of the old settlers of Cass Township. This 
lady was born in 1862, received a good educa- 
tion in the common schools, and the home train- 
ing which fitted her for the duties of a horae- 
kcei)er. She has borne hor husband two children, 
one of whom is now living, a son, William. 

Mr. Wanghtel has from hi§ early manhood been 
more or less closely connected with the |)ub- 
lic affairs of the section in which lie lives. He be- 
came Sciiool Director in Di.slrict No. 6 as soon as 
he was old enough to hold the oUice and is still 
its incumbent. At the age of twenty-three years 
he was elected Township Collector and served in 
that cap.aeity until elected Supervisor, in which he 
is now serving his fourth term. He has always 
taken an active interest in politics and is one of 
the principal workers in the township; he has been 
a delegate to county conventions and is now a 

. ^— , - ''*-^^=n::^^ ^-,i — ' , . — ;■ 

^^^ . — ' S:^3i=^», *— » ^— ^ — ' 

of the late war and a well-known farmer 
of Canton Townshi[), was born in Joshua 
Township, this countj', Januaiy 11, 1812. the 
youngest child of John F. and Nancy (Rawalt) 
Randolph. He was reared to manhood on his fa- 
ther's farm in the place of his birth and made his 
home with his parents until his marriage. After 
that he settled in Canton Township, where he has 
since lived. Ho has always been engaged in farm- 
ing with the exception of the two years tiiat he 
spent in the army during the war, and he has a 

choice f;uiii of eighty acres on section 8, which is 

Our subject was one of the bravo volunteers 
during the late (JIvil War. He enlisted in the 
month of August, 18()2. the year that he attained 
his majority, in Company C, One Hundred and 
Third Hlinois Infantry and served with credit two 

Mr. Randolph was married in Canton Township 
to Miss Mar}-, a daughtei' of Homer and Susan 
Moore, early pioneers of Fidton County. The 
mother, a daughtei- (if John llugen. is living at a 
venerable age and is one of the oldest settlers re- 
maining in Fulton County. Mrs. Randolph is a 
native of Canton Townsliii). Her marriage with 
our subject has brougiit them these three chil- 
dren: Minnie F.. Lola F.. and Homer F. 

Mr. Randolph is a devoted advocate of the 
I'roliibition party in politics. H(! has been School 
Director and has .served his township well in that 
capacity. He is a man of exemplary habits, and 
is classed among our most worthy citizens. Mrs. 
Randolph, who is held in like respect, is a mem- 
ber of the Uaptisl Church. 

-^ ^#-^ ■ -— 

^RED 0. I'lTI 

f(jrnier manager of tlie ex- 
tensive livery business founded in Canton 
b}' Morrell lligbie, was born in 18.^(). He 
is the son of Norris and Elizabeth (Granger) Pitt, 
who reside in Peoria and have made that city their 
home during the jiast twenty-five years. The 
father is the proprietor of a merchant tailoring 
establishment, but does none of the actual work 
himself, having other inteiests which occupy his 
time, except tliat portion which 'ho devotes to the 
oversight of the business. He deals quite exten- 
sively in Western hinds, and has a prominent pLace 
among the Aldermen of the city. He has always 
been actively eng.aged in politics, and is generally 
known and esteemed throughout the community. 
He has five sons, two of whom are in Chicago and 
two in Peoria. 

The subject of this biographical sketch passed 
his childhood and ^outli in Peoria, and there ob- 



tained a good education in the High School. Upon 
first entering the business world he learned his 
father's trade, and was connected with him until 
1879, wlien he opened a merchant tailoring estab- 
lishiiient in Canton. This he carried on success- 
fully until his marriage, which occurred during the 
ensuing jear. He tlien made his home in Peoria 
for a twelvemonth, but at the expiration of that 
time returned to Canton, where he pursued his 
chosen business until 1885. At that time the fail- 
ing health of his father-in-law, Morrell Higbie, 
forced him to abandon hard work and Mr. Pitt was 
called upon to assume the management of his 
liverj- business. He is an eminently successful 
business man. and has gained wide popularity by 
his genial, happy disposition and strict integrity'. 
Mr. Pitt was fortunate in liis choice of a wife, 
Miss Frank Higbie being a 30ung lad3' possessed 
of a good education, pleasing manners and the 
character and disposition calculated to make a 
happy home. Tiie congenial couple are the pf.r- 
ents of two cliildren — Lucy and Bessie. Mr. Pitt 
is a member of the social order of tiie Knights of 

i,OAH R. KNOWLES, who is engaged in 
farming and stock-raising on section 15, 

^ Pleasant Township, where he owns a good 
farm, is a veteran of the late war. He was born 
in Sussex County. Del., April 19, 1841, to William 
W. and Elizabetli (Phillips) Knowles, natives re- 
spective]\' of Delaware and Maryland. 

Mr. and 5lrs. Knowles removed to Somerset 
Count}^ Md. when their son, Noah, of whom we 
write, was ten or twelve j'cars old, and there the}* 
lived a number of" years. Thej' subsequently re- 
moved to Dorchester County, that State and re- 
mained there till the fail of 1860, when they came 
to Illinois and took up their residence in Fulton 
County. In 1865 the parents removed to Nebraska, 
where they are living at the present time. Their 
wedded life has been blessed to them b^- the birth 
of seven children, of whom five survive, namely: 
Noah R.; George W., a resident of Johnson County, 
Neb. ; Angeline, wife of John Turner of Nebraska; 

S. T. T. who makes his home in Missouri; and Sena, 
wife of James Turner, of Nebraska. 

Our subject had but limited educational advanta- 
ges in the common schools of Maryland and Dela- 
ware, but he made the best of them. After coming 
to Fultim County he worked on a farm b^- the 
month for G. C. Cooper, receiving in payment for 
his labor $10 a month and his board, continuing 
thus employed for about three years. In March, 
1864 he enlisted in Company H., Twentj'-eighth 
Illinois Infantry, and bore an honorable part in the 
war. He was with his regiment at the siege of 
Spanish Fort, and he fought in many minor skir- 
mishes, besides doing much scouting and provost 
duty. He served principally in Tennessee, Missis- 
sippi, Louisiana and Alabama and gave proof of 
excellent soldierl}' qualities. While in the array 
his e)'esight was much injured owing to exposure 
and he suffered all the hardships and privations 
incidental to life on the l)attlefleld. He was hon- 
orably discharged in March, 1866 in Texas, where 
he was doing guard duty, and he was mustered out 
at Springfield the following April. The value of 
his services during the time he was in the array 
have been recognized by the Government which 
grants him a pension of iS16 a month. 

Since the war our subject has given his attention 
to farming, and in the spring of 1879 settled on 
liis present farm on section 15, Pleasant Township. 
Here he has eighty acres of land which is fenced 
into convenient fields, is admirably tilled and is 
provided with all the necessary buildings and good 
farming machinery. Mr. Knoules enjoys the es- 
teem and confidence of his fellow-citizens, as his 
conduct in all the affairs of life has ever been hon- 
orable and upright. In his political views he is a 
sound Republican. Socially, he is connected with 
the Grand Army, being a member of the Post at 
Ipava. Though he docs not belong to any church 
he contributes liberally to the support of religious 

The marriage of our subject to I\Iiss Irena 
Cooper was celebrated in Januar}', 1867, and has 
been productive of much happiness to both. To 
them have been born two cliildren, Cora, wife of 
Elmer Porter, of this place, and one child who 
died in infancj'. Mrs. Knowles is a daughter of 
Levin Cooper, whose biography appears elsewhere 
in this volume. 



J, /^/Y/v^^ 



'^f' AMES H. McCALL. This gentleman was a 
conspicuous figure in tiie history of Central 
Illinois for nearly forty years. He was :i resi- 
'fi^!/' 'lent of Peoria, and later of Canton, the lat- 
ter city being his home when his career was cut 
short by death. In addition to a brief outline of 
his life, wc append some notices from the press, 
and fraternal resolutions which sufliciently indicate 
the place which he held in the mind of the i)ublic. 
We also present to the reader portraits of Mr. and 
Mrs. McCall. 

Jar.u'S Harvey McCall was born in 1809, in the 
city of ISallimore, .Md.. of Scotch parents. In 1814, 
he removed with his parents to York County, Pa., 
and lived on a farm until he was sixteen years of 
age. In 1825 he went into Lancaster County, of 
the same State, and was tliere engaged in farming 
and sawniillino; until the spring of 1S;5,5, when iie 
with his eldest sister, emigrated to I'eoria, 111. hi 
tlie fall of tliat same year he rented a grist and saw- 
mill on Kickapoo Creek, and after working there 
for six months, returned to town, and followed car- 
pentering for a year, then alternating that with 
farming until 1839, when he, with John Monroe, 
built and loaded a tlatboat witli produce, which 
they took to Xew Orleans. After returning he en- 
gaged in feeding cattle and hogs, and built the first 
j)ens in Peoria, feeding with the slop fi-oui Capt. A. 
S. Cole's distillery, which was the first distillery 
erected in I'eoria. 

Mr. McCall, in .\piil, 1846, received injuries, and 
was unable to work for several months. In the 
spring of 1847, he entered into a partnership in the 
sawmill business, and continued there for two years, 
then they built an addition of a gristmill, and just 
as It was completed it burned to the ground. In 
the fall of 1800, he had rebuilt on the old site, and 
was running a custom mill, and in the spring of 
1852, the first copartnership of Moss, Bradley ife 
Co., (the company being McCall, ami afterward 
MeCall ik Frazer) was formed. Here he was iJiter- 
ested until the fall of 1862, when he removed to 
Canton, 111., to take personal supervision of a dis- 
tillery, which he had previously bought. Here he 
helped to establish tlie First National Bank of Can- 
ton, of which he was Presideiil from the time of 
its establishment to tlie day of his death. 

On June 10. 1845. :Mr. McCall was married to 
.Miss Louisa Raj-mond, and to them were born four 
children, dangliters, whose record is as follows: 
iM.aggie L., wife of Dr. James Entwistle, of C!ii- 
cago; Carrie O., who married Georg(> A. Black, 
and resides in Omaha, Ncib. ; Josie K., wife of Will- 
iam Babcock, Jr.. of Canton, and Agnes M., who 
became the wife of Charles Levings, of Chicago. 
Mr. McCall cast his first vote for Andrew Jackson, 
and was during his entire life a stanch Democrat. 
He was always an active politician, and as such 
was influential in the councils of his party. 

During the fall of 1872 Mr. McCall went to Cali- 
fornia on business, and on his way back home met 
men whose acquaintance gave him the desire to in- 
vestigate part of the mining interests of the Western 
country, and on June 16, 1873. he started to do 
so. From that time he was among the mountains, 
and alll'.ougli it was a disagreeable task to him. he 
w'rote more often than usual to his .family, always 
sayinn; he was enjoying good health and spirits, and 
the day before he was taken sick, wrote home the 
same good news, w'liich letter was not received un- 
til the day after tin; telegram announcing his death. 
The following extracts from the different p;ipers 
will partially show the high regard in which he 
held in the community, anil also give many items 
of interest, for tritles assume an importance not 
their own when ct)nneeted with those who have 
been loved and lost: 

From the Canton Jiegistcr, September 5, 1873: Ai'i'LiCTiON — Sudden Dkatii of 
J. II. McCm.i.. 

On Tuesday last the citizens of Canton were 
startled and pained by a report tluit Mr. .lames H. 
McCall was dead. An inquiry developed the fact 
that tlie rejiort was in all probability^ true, although 
the dispatch announcing the fact was very unsatis- 
factorj', not to say mysterious. It as follows: 
Elko, Nevada, September 1st, 1873. 

Geokok a. Br-ACK Canton, III.: 

I leave here on the 5 v. ji. train with the remains 
of J. H. McCall. Meet me at Bureau Junction. 
[.Signed] A. B. Ciiai'.man, 

Nothing more vvas learned by, or known to the 
family concerning the matter. A letter was re- 
ceived from Mr. McCall on Tuesday evening, dated 
August 27. in which he writes concerning some 
business, and this letter was written by Mr. McCall 



in llie clear and concise manner peculiar to him in 
business matters. 

Mr. Chapman, who sends the dispatch, formerly 
lived in Joliot. 111., and Mr. MuCall became ac- 
quainted with hira when in the \Vest a year ago. 
Tlie family knew nothing of him. only that lie is 
engaged in business at Mountain City, near Elko, 

Mr.. George A. Black, a son-in-law of Mr. Mc- 
Call, started for Omaha, Tuesday, to meet tlie re- 
mains, and bring them home; and Col. A. C. Bab- 
cock. Mr. McCall's partner, will also meet them 
tiiere. They are expected to arrive in the city to- 
day, Friday. 

Up to noon of Thur.sday, tliere liad been nothing 
further in relation to Jlr. McCall's death received, 
and there is a hope yet indulged that there may be 
a mistake. 

Mr. McCail has been one of tlie most enterpris- 
ing and public-spirited citizens of Canton, and all 
have felt that not his family alone, but the whole 
community have sustained an irreiiarable loss. His 
remains will be interred in the Canton cemelerj'. 

From the Canton Register, September 12, 1873: 

De.\th of J. H. McCall. 


Tiie reported death of Mr. J. H. McCall. men- 
tioned by us last week, proved to be onl\- too true, 
dispatches from G. A. Black confiiniing the sad news 
being received on Thursday evening, just after our 
paper was primed. 

A. B. Chapman, Esq., a merchant of .Mountain 
City. Nev.. who was with Mr. McCall, the greater 
portion of the time since tlie latter has been in the 
West, has furnished us the following particulars: 

Jlr. MoCall had been in liis usual good health up 
to the morninir of the 29th ult.. when he was taken 
at Mountain City with what appeared to be a con- 
gestive chill, from the effects of which he was un- 
conscious for sonie time. After coming out of 
the chill, consciousness returned, and he at once 
announced to Mr. Chapman and his attendants that 
lie would not recover, and that it would be uselesiS 
to send for a pliysician. A team and driver had 
been procured by Mr. Chapman, and was just read^- 
to start, when Mr. McCall told lliem to stop, as he 
would not live long enough for a physician to 
reach him. Jlountain City is only a mining town, 
and to obtain a physician it was necessary to send 
to Elko, ou the Union Pacific, distant 
eighty-six miles from Mountain City. The stage 
time between the two points is two days. 

After giving directions to Mr. Cliapmau concern- 
ing some business matters, sending messages to 
loved ones at home, and requesting that Mr. Chap- 

man accompany his remains to Canton, at 3:.S0 
p. M., on the 30th, he died. 

It was impossible to get a coffin, or even himlier 
to make one, at Mountain City, and j\lr. Chapman 
was compelled to put the body in a rough box, 
packed in ice, and haul it over a rough mountain 
road in an oi>en wagon to Elko. He started at 1 1 
o'clock p. M.. on the 30lh. arriving at Elko at 1 p. 
M., on the first of .September. Xot being able to 
obtain a casket there, a cofBn was procured, sealed 
in zinc, and then enclosed in a box, and at 5 p. m.. 
on the 1st inst., he started for Omaha. At Omaha 
he was met by Mr. and Mrs. G. A. Black, and Col. 

A. C. Babcock, who accompanied the remains 
home, arriving here at 10:45 a. m , Friday, the 5th. 

The remains were met at the depot, and taken 
in charge by a committee, consisting of Mes^rs. 
William Babcock, J. W. Ingersoll, C. T. Heald, A. 

B. Hulil, and H. L. Wright, on the part of the citi- 
zens, and W. B. Gleason, .S. Y. Thornton, J. H. 
Stipp, W. H. Craig and .1. C. Brinkerlioff. on the 
part of the Masonic fraternity. The remains were 
taken into the depot building, the colHii opened, 
and the bod\' identified. An examiualion was also 
made, at the request of friends, by Drs. .Swisher 
and Wright, to ascertain if death had ensued from 
natural causes. 

The remains were then conveyed to his late resi- 
dence where they were cared for until Saturday, at 
two o'clock, when the funeral took place. 

The Masonic fraternity met at their hall at half- 
past one o'clock, and formed in procession under 
direction of W. B. Gleason. as Marshal, with C. N. 
llenkle and \V. H. Craig as assistants. Preceded 
by the Cornet Band, they marched to the late resi- 
dence of the deceased, where the^' were met b}' the 
committee of citizens above mentioned. The re- 
mains were taken in charge, and conveyed to the 
Congregational Churcli. J. H. Stipp, J. jM. Fox. G. 
S. McConnell, S. P. Slocum, W. H. Smith, and J. 
R. McQuiad. acting as pall bearers. 

The funeral services at the church were con- 
ducted by the Rev. H. B. Smith, of Peoria, who 
delivered an impressive and feeling address, basing 
his remarks on the second and third verses of the 
seventh chapter of EcclesLastes: 

"It is better to go to the house of mourninfc, 
than to go to the house of feasting: for that is the 
end of all men; ami the living will lay it to his 

"Sorrow is better than laughter, for by the 
ness of the countenance the heart is made better." 

At the close of the services the h} mn "Scotland," 
a favorite tune of Mr. McCall's was sung by the 
choir, and a procession was again formed, the band 
and Miisonic fraternity- in the front, followed h^- 



the hearse and family then a long line of citizens 
on foot and upwards of fifty vehicles in the rear. 
The procession proceeded to the cemetery, where 
the lemains were interred with the beautiful funeral 
service of tlie Masonic fraternitv, conducted by Dr. 
Sylvester Stevens, of Knoxville, an old and es- 
teemed friend of Mr. McCail's. 

During the funeral services the banks were closed, 
and business to a great extent suspended. A num- 
ber of the Masonic fraternity from Lewistown 
Fairview, and other places, besides many others, 
came to pay the last tribute of respect to their de- 
parted friend. 

And thus was laid to re«t one of nature's noble- 
men. It is but seldom that one is called upon to 
record tlie decease of a man who will be as greatly 
missed, in all the walks of life, as James II. McCall. 
Althougli a resident of Canton only some ten or 
twelve years, lie had so identified himself with all the 
best interests and material advancement of tiiecity 
and of the county, that he was perhai)s more widely 
known than many of our older citizens; and where 
known, his name was synonymous with integrity, 
justice, honor, and business cai)acity. I'o.ssessed of 
ample means, he was ever ready to use them in 
public enterptises, and for general good. 

In his private life he was known far and wide 
for his, unostentatious hospitality, his ex- 
tensive cliarities, and benevolent nature. In his 
domestic life he was noted for the almost idolatrous 
love for his family. Of a happy and joyous na- 
ture himself, he impressed himself so upon all who 
came in contact with him in the family circle, and 
never was too much occupied, or ever loo much 
troubled in spirit to endeavor to make all about 
him happy. And never did he appear more lov- 
able than in his last days at home, when sur- 
rounded by the young friends of his affection.ate 
children, he showed that his heart was as young as 
any there, and that he could and did enjoy the 
sports and esteem the friendship of the youngest 
present. Ilis was a heart that never would grow 
old, and a warm loving nature that nothing could 
over chill so long as the life current coursed through 
his veins, lie was a good man. Peace to his ashes. 
From the Fulton County Ledger, September 12, 


James H. McCall. 
We last week informed our readers of the death of 
James H. McCall. Esq. of this city, but could give 
none of the particulars, as nothing known ex- 
cept the dispatch from Mr. A. B. Chapman, of 
Mountain City, Nev., one of the men interested 
with him ill mining operations in that vicinity. 
The body of Mr. McCall arrived here on Friday 

morning, accompanied through by Mr. Chapman, 
and met at Omaha by his son-in-law, Mr. George 
A. Black, and Col. A. C. Babcock. A committee 
from the Masonic Loilge, and also of citizens, and 
a large number of our people, were at tlie depot 
when the train arrived. The remains were taken 
to tlie house, where they remained until Saturday 
afternoon, when they were interred in the Canton 

At one o'clock v. m., on Saturday, Morning Star 
Lodge A. F. & A. M. met in their rooms and 
formed in procession and marched to the Imuse, 
preceded by the Canton band, which had volun- 
teered for the occasion, and escorted the remains to 
the Congregational Church, where services were 
held, the Rev. Mr. Smith of the rniversalist Church, 
Peoria, preaching the sermon. The church 

The attendance at the cemetery was the largest 
wo have ever seen at a funeral in this city. The en- 
tire city seemed to turn out to pa>- this last tribute 
to him who was one of our best, most liberal and 
enterprising citizens. A number tif M.asons >Tere 
here from Lewistown and Fairview Lodge. 

James H. JlcCall was sixty-four years of age in 
June last. lie was born in Baltimore, Md.; came 
West in 1835, soon after settling in Peoria. In 
1845 he married Jliss L. Raymond, of Peoria, who 
with their four children, daughters, survive him. 
In the fall of 18C2 he removed his family to Can- 
ton, and has since resided here. He has been one 
of our most active business men, and by economy, 
industry and uprightness had amassed a large 
amount of pro|)erty. At the time of his death lie 
was President of the First National Bank of this 
cilv'. and the owner of a large amount of stock. 
Early last sp'-ing Mr. McCall iiad a severe attack 
of congestion of the liver, and his attending phy- 
sician. Dr. Fleming, then informed him that if he 
should ever have another attack of the disease, it 
w^ould cause his death. About the last of iMay or 
the first of June, he went West to prospect as to 
the value of certain silver mines, in which the Mr. 
Chapman mentioned above and others were inter- 
ested, and which were n presented to liira as very 
valuable hist fall, while he was returning from a 
trip to California, by some of the parties, whom he 
met on the cars, and who were anxious to get some 
parties with capital to take an interest in them. He 
liad assured himself that there was a fortune in the 
enterprise. He had himself selected specimens of 
an average yield of quartz, and had them assayed, 
and they produced ^449.32 to the ton, which was 
considered veiy rich; and having satisfied himself 
of the value of the mines, he had made arrange- 
ments to invest in the enterprise. 



On Friday morning, 29lh ult., lie was taiven sicic 
wilh congestion of the liver, and fell llial liis time 
was sliorl in tliis world, lie sent for Mr. Cliap- 
nian, told Inni about liis affairs and what disposi- 
tion was to be made of what he had witli him. That 
a day or two before he had refeived a draft for 
§1,000, and of this he wanted S600 used to pay 
some bills he had contractt-d, and the remainder to 
be used in takino; his body home to Canton. There j 
was no physician nearer tlian Elko, in Kevada, a 
town eiiihty-six miles north of Mountain City, and 
about six lumdred miles by rail from San Francisco. 
Mr. Chapman proposeil to send for a physician, but 
Mr. McCall said it no use — a physician couhi 
do him no good if there, and he would be dead be- 
fore one could reach him. And in a little more 
than twenty-four hours from the lime he was taken, 
he was a corpse. His remains were taken to Elko, 
where they were placed in a zinc case, soldered 
tight, and thus brought home. 

His death will be a great loss, not only to his 
family ami friends, but to our little city also. As 
we said last week, he was ever ready to lend a help- 
ing hand to the needy, and was one of the foremost 
in anything which pertained to the growth and in- 
terest of our little city. But death is no respecter 
of persons. The rich and the poor, the high" and 
the low, must all bow before him, and in a day and 
an hour that we know not of, are we called upon to 
yield to bis cold embrace. 

We learn from the Peoria Democrat that ^Ir. Mc- 
Call served for several j-ears .as a member of the 
City Council of Peoria, commencing in 18.5.5. The 
Democrat very truthfully says: 

"As a man, .as a neighbor, and as a citizen, we 
can only speak of Mr. McCall in terms of commen- 
dation; sociable, cheerful, amiable, and generous, 
his society was sough i, by all classes, and by the 
young and the old. Those who have i)artaken of 
"his hos()itality in the years that are gone, will not 
soon forget the pleasant family circle of which he 
was the head. It is within the bounds of truth to 
say that few men were more greatly blessed in the 
home which their own exclions have endowed, 
than James H. McCall. A spirit of affectioli and 
Irusl prevailed the whole circle, and those who en- 
tered it were compelled to drink of its influence." 

From the Peoria National Democrat, September 
6, 1873: 

Anothek oi' TiiK Old Men Gone. 

The friends of .Tames II. McCall, formerly a resi- 
dent of this city, but latterly a resident of Canton, 
in Fulton County, were sadly surprised on Thnrs- 
d:i\' last, bv a telegram published in the Democrat 

of that day, of the death of that gentleman in Ne- 
vada, the previous d.ay. The ))ainfulness of the 
circumstances was intensified by the vagueness of 
the report. None of the attending fads were given, 
onl\' the bare mention that he was dead, leaving 
the imagination to supply the cause and incidents 
of de.itli, and these, as the deceased was known to 
have in his possession a considerable amount of 
money, naturally led to the conclusion that violence 
had been used, and that murder had been commit- 

Later dispatches, however, relieved the minds of 
the friends of that mistake, and state that he died 
of congestive chills. His death was sudden and un- 
ex|)ected. On the 27th ult. he wrote to his family 
a letter which they received on the day of his ileath. 
and gave directions relative to some business mat- 
ters, and in it there is no indication of ill-health. 
He was taken sick on the morning of the 29th, and 
died the afternoon of the following day. 

We have no information at hand relative to the 
nativity or age of the deceased. He first became 
known to the writer of this sketch while in the 
City Council of Peoria, where he served some four 
or five years, commencing in 1855. He was then 
engaged in business with Capt. W. .S. Moss, now 
of California, and was considered one of our best 
and most respected business men. Soon after that 
time he removed to Canton, where he has since re- 
sided, and there, as here, his interest in business 
affairs was reached. Several months ago his atten- 
tion was called to a mining operation in the new 
State of Nevada, and after due consideration, he 
concluded to embark in it. and it was while carry- 
ing out that determination that he met his death. 
As soon as the f.act of his death was announced, his 
son-in-law, Mr. George A. Black, started to meet 
the train on which the body was to be brought, and 
it was expected that the sad cortege would arrive 
in Canton yesterday, and that there the obsequies 
would be celebrated. We may receive intelligence 
from that place before this number of our pajier 
goes to press. 

Few men have exhibited a greater show of pub- 
lic spirit than the deceased. He was always ready 
to assist, wilh his purse and his hands as well as his 
advice, anv feasilde project for public improve- 
ments, the friend of education, and a leader in many 
benevolent an<l generous enter|)rises. We might 
cite hundreds of cases where he has proven these 
assertions true, but it is unnecessary to do so, for 
his works in this regard were known to all his 
neighbors and acquaintances. He was one whom 
his adopted city can illy spare. 

Mr. JNIcCall was a devotefl member of the Ma- 
sonic fraternity, and until increasing years led him 



to oftener seek tlie delights of the home circle, was I 
a regultir attendant of the order, and we have licard 
him expre>;.s the belief that it was one of tlie licst 
means yet devised to awaken the hearts of nuMi lo 
the too often neglected virtues of benevolence luxl 
charilj-. The society of which he wns a menilier 
ver}' properly take charge of the remains, follow 
tliem in their last journey, and deposit them in the 
place appointed for all living. 

The t)low is a severe one upon Ihe family so sud- 
denly bereaved, but they have the infinite cimsola 
tion that the deceased neglected no duty, shirked : 
no responsii)ility. nor wronged any iixlividnal; that j 
he goes home with a clear record and the prayers 
of the needy as his demit from the earthly lodge. 
.Seldom are we called upon to chronicle the death j 
of a man in all respects so commendable as .lames 
H. McCall. 


Members of Peoria Lodge No. 15, are requested 
to meet at the Toledo. Peoria & Western depot, at 
11:30 A. M., this (Saturday) morning, for the pur- 
jiose of attending the funeral of onr late brother, J. 
11. McCall, of Canton. 

,1. F. Hazzaku, W. M. 

From the Peoria Daily Transcript, September 8, 


FuNiiUAL OF James H. McCaij.. 

The funeral of James IL McCall which took place 
in Canton on Saturday, was the largest ever held 
in that city. The Masonic fraternity, of which the 
deceased was an honored member, did all iu their 
power to add by their rites lo the solemnity of the 
occasion. Rev. II. B. Smith, pastor of the I'niver- 
Sftlist Churcli in this city, olliciated as clergyman. 
The cemetery was crowded with those anxious to 
do honor lo the memory of a man well known and 
respected in the country at lartre. and revered and 
loved in his own more immediate circle of friends 
and relatives. 

From the Klko, (Nev.) Independent, September 


In Mountain City, Nev., August ;30, 1S7M. J. II. 
McCall, a native of Canton, 1!!,, aged sixty-two 

Deceased was President of the Peoria Nevada 
Smelling and Relining Company, operaling in 
Bruno, and was temporarily sojourning in XorLli- 
ern Nevada attending to the interests of the com- 
pany. As it wiU be at least some satisfaction to 
his bereaved family and his numerous friends to 
know that in his last moments nothing was left un- 
done to alleviate his suffciings. wc will rncnlion 
that Messrs. Chapman, Fisk and llazeltinc, and iMes- 

dames Fisk and Walsh, and others did all in their 
power to smooth his pathway '-to tliat undircovered 
country from whose bourne no travrler returns,'' 
Being loth to leave him in the land of tlie stranger, 
far from family an<l friends, Col. A. B. Chapman 
at once started with the remains to Canton, 111.. 
Mr. McCall's former liorne. While a large circle 
of friends vvill miss his accuslome<I cheering pres- 
ence, let us console oui'selves with the triought that 
our loss is his gain, and tliat he has only gone be- 
fore across mystic river. 

Resolutions of the 3fusunfs. 
To the Worshipful Master, Warden, and Breth- 
ren of Morning Star Lodge, No. 31), A. F. cl' A. M. 
Masons. Canton, 111. : 

We your committee appointed to di-aft resolu- 
tions upon the death of our worthy brother, James 
H. McCall, would i-espectfully submil th'.' follow- 

WiiEUEAS. It has pl(>aseil the (Jrand Master of 
the uiriverse, in the dispensation of His providence, 
to remove from this world to the (irand Lodge 
above, and to rest from his labors here, our worthy 
anil esteemed brother-, .lames II. McCall: 

Resolred, That in the death of br-other McCall, 
the fraternity has lost a farthfirl member; the com- 
munity au enterprising and upright crtizen; the 
wife a devoted husband, and the children an affec- 
tionate parent. 

Resolved. That while we jjlace a record of our 
brother's decease among the archives of this lodge 
and huinbly bow to the will of our divine Master, 
we woirld express our deep regret that we have 
been called upon to mourn the loss of onr deceased 
bi-other, cut down in the nselulrress of his life. 

Resolved. That we deeply symi)alhize with the 
f.amily of our late brother in their sudden bereave- 
ment! an<l direct the Secretary to send them a copy 
of these resolutions, under the seal of tlie lodge. 

Resolcedfiirlher. That these resolutions be spread 
upon the records of the lodge, and the Secretary 
certify a copy to Peoria Lodge, No. 1'), of which 
brother McCall was a member. 

All of which is resiiectfully submitted. 
[Signed] James II. Stiim', 


S. Y. Thornton, 

Iv II. ClJllTIS, 

\V. B. Gleason. 

^SAIAH PRICKPyrr. Tins countv is the home 

I of a goodly number of men who began LIreir 

'it, life-work without capital other than lliat 

afforded by their native abilities, the education 



which was obtainerl in pioneer scliools and the in- 
dustrious haliits whieli the3- were taught in boy- 
hood. Tailing up the battle of life with a deter- 
mined spirit, they have succeeded in surrounding 
themselves with comfort, bestowing upon their 
offspring good advantages in the wa3' of home care 
and educational privileges, and while accumulating 
property have won the thorough respect of their 
fellow-men. One of this number is Isaiah Prick- 
ett, a resident of Lewistown Township, where he 
owns two hundred and twenty acres of land, also 
having the title to eighteen hundred acres of swamp 
land in Waterford To'-vnship. 

Tradition states that three brothers bv the name 
of Prickett emigrated from England to America 
during the early Colonial days, one locating in 
Virginia and the others farther south. From tlie 
former is descended ?)ur subject, whose grandfather 
was killed b3- Indians, having his career cut short 
before he had reached the prime of life. His son, 
Nicholas, the father of our subject, grew to man- 
hood in his native State, and there married Cath- 
erine Knapp, an estimable woman of German 
ancestry who was born in Pennsylvania. After 
their marriage the young couple removed to Oliio, 
making their home iu Clermont Count}- for a time 
and then removing to Clarke County, where the 
wife breathed her last in 1847. 

The father of our subject bought a mill site on 
Buck Creek at the landing known as Lagonda, now 
included in the city of Springfield and occupied by 
the Champion Agricultural Implement Works. In 
company with his brother he built a mill which 
was one of the first put up in that count}'. About 
1826 he visited Vermilion County, III., with the in- 
tention of buying laud and locating, but was taken 
sick and died at the liome of his friend, Aek Mor- 
gan. Our subject was thus left fatherless when 
ten years old, his birth having taken place in 
Clarke County, Ohio, March 7, 181 P. During his 
youth he attended the pioneer schools, the temple 
of learning in which he pursued his studies being 
built of logs, heated by a fireplace, and hav- 
ing the light admitted through greased paper which 
covered the opening cut from the logs. It was 
supplied with home-made furniture, the benches 
being of slabs with wooden pins for legs, and desks 

being unknown except one around the sides of the 
room where the advanced scholars stood to write, 
this being a board laid on wooden pins projecting 
from the walls. 

Young Prickett began his life's labors as a farm 
hand, receiving §6.25 per month when seventeen 
years old, and the following year driving a team 
from Lagonda at §13 per month. In 1836 he emi- 
grated to Indiana, making the removal willi a 
team and took his place among the early settlers 
in Noble County, where there were more Indians 
than white men at the date of his arrival. He 
bought a tract of Government land and built a 
log house, but a few months later sold the place 
and entered another tract upon which he also built. 
Before moving into his new house, however, he 
sold the land and entered still another tract, where 
he cleared a considerable acreage. There he made 
his home until 1852 when, on account of the un- 
healthfulness of the region, he started with his 
family for the Prairie State. They left the home 
which he had rented on the 1st of September and 
eleven days later arrived in Lewistown, since 
which time they have made this county their 

Mr. Prickett lived on his brother's farm until 
February, 1 854, then bought a tract where he now 
resides. A clearing of eight acres and a hewed 
log house constituted the improvements. The 
farm now contains one hundred and thirty acres, 
has been suj.plied with well-built, commodious and 
conveniently-located frame buildings and the other 
improvements which might be expected of an ener- 
getic man. Eighty acres of section 10, of the same 
township, together with the swamp land before 
mentioned, have been purchased by our subject, 
who has shown himself a thorough farmer, a wor- 
thy citizen and a good neighbor. i 

The home of our subject is -presided over by an 
estimable woman who, prior to November 20, 
1834, was known .as Miss Eliza Laughridge. She 
is a daughter of Abraham and Su.«an (Nelson) 
Laughridge, natives of the Old Dominion, who are 
numbered among the pioneers of Ohio, to which 
State they removed in 1817. In Greene County, 
thai State. Mrs. Prickett was born September 13, 
1818. She received the education usual to the 



sons and (iaiigliters of pioneers in a section where 
sciiools were early inslituteii, together with the 
training In useful (ionicstie knowledge wliich lias 
qualifii'd her lo thoroughly discharge her duties as 
housekeeper, wife and mother. 

Of the children born to IMr. and Mrs. Prickett 
four are now living — John is settled on his own 
home in Lewistown Township; Nicholas A. still 
remains under the parental roof; Susan C. is the 
wife of Orville M. Macomber; Eliza J. is the wife 
of John Rlaconiber. A son, Harrison, died in Lew- 
ist(jwn in 18B7. lie devoted four years of his life 
lo the service of his country, being Captain of 
Company A, Fifty-fifth Illinois Infiintr}'. Mr. 
I'lickctt was a Whig- until 18.')G. when the Repub- 
lican party was organized and he. like niost of his 
associates, took his stand in the ranks of the new 
organization, to wiiose principles he has stanchly 
adhered from that dav to this. 


lU^OX. WILLIAM N. CLINE, M. 1). Success 
y in any profession can oidy be attained 
^ tlirough industry and study, and the good 
physician must necessarily be the hardest of 
workers and best of students. Fulton County is 
proud to number among her physicians the one with 
whose name we will introduce this sketch. His career 
presents a remarkable example of may b(> ac- 
complished by assiduous application and unremit- 
ting toil. A most conscientious man, whatever he 
undertakes is done llioroughly. In one respect he 
differs from tlic majority of the human race, in that 
age mellows and softens his nature, instead of the 
reverse, as is often the case. With every onward 
movement made in the science to which he has de- 
yoted his life, he is familiar, and time lias served 
only to enlarge his vic«"s and broaden his ideas. 

In Rockingham County, \'a.. Dr. born 
December 20, 18-20, to Joseph and Isabella (Pence) 
('line, botli of whom were natives of the Old Do- 
minion. The father was of German, and the mother 
of Scotch-Irish descent. They were marrie<i in 
Virginia, where for many years .afterward they con- 
tinued to reside, removing thence to Ohio, where 

the mother died. The father removed to Illinois 
in 185.5, and died in 18()8. To them were born 
seven children, four of whom are living at this 
writing, namely: Mrs. Albright, of Rockford, 111.; 
Josci)h C, George W., ani William N. The father 
and mother were worthy people who gave to their 
children all the advantages [)ossiljle, and reared 
them to worthy manhood and womanhood. Their 
honorable and upright lives were not the least of 
the heritage which they transmitted to tiicir chil- 

In the parental family, our subject was the eld- 
est child, and until lifteen years of age, resided at 
the old honu'slead in Virginia. The father was a 
man of great prominence, having represented his 
district in the Legislalnie of N'irijinia for a long 
period .of years, and being besides connected with 
public works of the State, and a magistrate of the 
County Court. William N. accompanied his frither 
to Ohio, and in 1840, having determined upon a 
professional career, became a student in the Jeft'er- 
son Meilical College. I'liiladelphia; he had previ- 
ously received a thorough training in a private 
school in Virginia, as well as in the schools of 
Ohio. Thus, by thorough application and close 
study, he laid the foundation f(jrhis future success. 

In 1842 the Doctor came West, locating in what 
was then Centerville, but now Cuba, III., aii'l be- 
ginning the practice of medicine at once. His 
thorough training and previous experience in Ohio 
inaile it comparatively e.asy for him to win the con- 
lidence of the people, and his success was assured 
from the start. His practice increased rapidly eac^h 
year, and his long experience now reinlers his opin- 
ions and decisions valuable. Hy means of his en- 
ergy, tact, and liberality, he is able to materially 
advance the interests of the community where he 

Dr. Cline has been twice married, his first wife 
being Miss Lois, daughter of .Martin and Susan 
Webster, the father a wealthy agriculturalist of 
Lewistown Township, this county. Mrs. Cline was 
born in the State of New York, near Chautauqua, 
and received an excellent education, of which, prior 
to her marriage, she made use in ISeaching. Her 
union with our subject took place May 30, 1844, 
and tiiey had a family of five children, two of 



•whom are decensed. Tlie three now living, are: 
Mrs. F. E. Kiiiirsbury, of Des Moines, Iowa; Clara 
L., (Mrs. Merrill). who lives in Rialto, Cal., and Ross 
C -who is City Ticket Agent for the Wabash Rail- 
road at Toledo, Ohio. Mrs. Cline died in 18G6. 

The second union of our subject was celebrated 
December 21, 1869, when Mrs. Jane S. Talcott, of 
East Hartford, Conn., became liis bride. She was a 
native of Connecticut, where she_received a good 
education, and was at one time a teacher in the 
seminary at IMancliosler. She is a most intellectual 
and cultivated lady, and wins friends wherever she 
f,'oes. She comes of illustrious ancestrj', being a 
member of one of the most highly respected fami- 
lies in Connecticut, and who vvere of aristocratic 
Puritan origin. Her parents, Solomon and Pliebe 
Spencer, were natives of Connecticut, and are now 

In whatever community Dr. Cline has resided, he 
has alwa\ s held impditant offices, and has taken a 
a prominent [)nrt in the management of public af- 
fairs. Poliiically. he is a stanch Democrat, and a 
strong advocate of temiierance. On the adoption 
of township organization he was for a number of 
years a member of the Board of Suiiervisors from 
Putnian Township, later was for one terra School 
Commissioner of Fulton County. He represented 
the county in the Statu Legislature in 1855-56, and 
in 1857 was elected President of the Mississippi &" 
Wabash Railway (now lliat [jortion of tlie Toledo, 
Peoria & Western, between Peoria, 111., and Keo- 
kuk, Iowa) then in process of construction. 

At the commencement of the war, railroad build- 
ing ceased, and Dr. Cline accepted the Presidency 
of the Farmers' and ilerchants' Insurance Com- 
pany, Quincy, III., which position he held six years; 
iie then resigned as I'resident of that company to 
accept the same position with the Fulton County 
Coal ('ompany at Cuba. In 1877 he again resumed 
the practice of his profession, which he still con- 
tinues. He is now, and has been since its organ- 
ization. President of the Cuba Library Association, 
:in iustitutidu of which he is very proud. He is 
now, and has for several years been President of 
the Cuba Improvement Association, and of the 
Cuba Building and Loan Association, the latter or- 
ganization being one of great benefit to the county. 

It will thus be seen that for forty years he has held 
positions of trust, responsibility and honor, con- 
ferred upon him by iiis fellow-citizens or associates 
in business. Gifted by nature with high endow- 
ments, he lias cultivated these to the utmost, and 
his indefatigable labor has brought to him the es- 
teem of his fellow-men. 

ilLs^, UGH F. HILLPOT. There is always a vast 
amount of interest felt in the private life of 
those brave men who gave up home, famil}' 
and friends to tiglit for their country, and 
there undergo all the privations and hardships 
chaiacteristic of a soldier's life. Such bravery is 
highly appreciated am9ng all the civilized nations 
upon the earth and everybody feels an interest in 
hearing of the private life of a soldier, and es- 
pecially of one who won such an enviable reputa- 
tion as did the subject of our sketch, and who was 
numbered' among "the boys" delegated to guard 
the corpse of Abraham Lincoln when he was 

Mr. Ilillpot is the veteran dry-goods merchant 
of Fairview, having been engaged in business there 
ever since he came out of tlie army. His father, 
Jacob F. Hillpot, was a native of Bucks County, 
Pa., and followed the occupation of an agriculturist. 
lie died at, the age of fifty-five years. The mother 
of our subject bore the maiden name of Julia Frank- 
enfield, was also a native of Bucks County and 
was descended from an old Penns3'lvania family. 
Her ancestors came in a very early day fiom 
Holland. She died at the age of thirty-three years, 
after having become the mother of six children, 
viz: Reed, who is a blacksmith and residing in 
Fairview; Hugh F., our subject; Jonas who was in 
the War of 1812, was a farmer and met his death 
accidentally by falling off a iiaymow; George is a 
painter and lives in Fairview; Lovina who died 
at the age of eighteen, and an infant. After the 
death of our subject's mother, Mr. Hillpot married 
Mary Most who bore him six children, four of 
whom lived to the age of manhood and woman- 
hood; Mary Ellen, now Mrs. Fratz and residing in 



Pliiladelpliia; Eilizabetli wlio is manierl also resifles 
in that city, as does also Jacob and Grier. 

Our subject was born in Bucks County, Pa., 
September 1"2, 1833, where he [lassed his youtliful 
days on a farm until reaching his twenty-first 
birthday. lie then commenced to learn the trade 
of a bl.acksmith and worked faithfully at it for 
three years in New .lersey. His brother, who was 
living in Fairview, wrote for our subject to join him 
an<l accepting the invitation, he reached Fairview 
November 22, ISfjT. He then engaged in the 
blacksmith business in partnership with his brother 
and a Mr. A3-ers, and continued thus until 1861 
when the partnership was dissolved and the year 
following our subject enlisted in the army. He 
joined Company D, One Hundred and Third In- 
fanlr}-. Thej- drilled at Fairview and Peoria and 
from the latter city in the fall of 1862, went 
through Blooraington and Cairo to Bolivar, Tenn., 
where they at once commenced skirniishiug. They 
were next sent to La Grange, Tenn., and from that 
point to Holly Springs, thence to Waterford and 
reached Jackson, in the same State, where they 

Mr. Ilillpiit received a severe sunstroke wliile 
engaged in the siege of Vicksburg and was entirely 
unconscious for several weeks. His company was 
ordered to Corinth and luka, at which latter place 
Mr. Hillpot was again the victim of a sunstroke 
while building a fortification and was in the hospi- 
tal at Memphis, Tenn., for some time but upon 
reaching St. Louis, I\lo., was discharged from the 
regular service and assigned to the reserve corps — 
Company V. With his company he went to Wash- 
ington. I). C and upon the evening when Presi- 
dent Lincoln was assassinated, they were called to 
assist the police in controlling the crowd. A few 
of the soldiers — our subject among the number — 
were selected to guard the body of our martyred 
President for three days and nights. At the close 
of the war he received his honorable discharge at 
Washington, July 18, 1805. 

February 28, 1866, Mr. Hillpot was united in 
marriage with Miss Sarah Wan Liew, daughter of 
Cornelius and Mary (Suydara) Van Liew. Mrs. 
Hillpot came to Fairview with her two brothers 
who are prosperous farmers in this county. Of her 

union with our su'ijcct there have been born two 
children — Jchn \'. L. who is a graduate of the 
(ialesburg Business College, has th(^ entire charge 
of his father's store, and Eli/nbeth C, who is a 
charming young laily of eighteen jcars, makes her 
home with her parents. 

The Kepublicau part}' numbers Mr. Hillpot as 
one of its stanch adherents, although previous to 
the war he was a Democrat. He is a charter mem- 
ber of Blair Post, G. A. R., at Fairview. Owing 
to ill-health brought aljout by the sunstroke re- 
ceived during tlu' war, Mr. Hillpot is unable to 
take charge of his business, but finds a competent 
sulistitute in his son. He is an exceedingly popular 
man in the cummunity and has accumulated a 
goodly amount of the " almighty dollar." 

APT. JOHN S. SMITH. No one is more 
, universally esteemed in Farmiugton than 

i^y the old soldier whose name appears at the 
head of this sketch. Whenever Farmiugton cele- 
lirates, Capt. Smith aids with money and work; 
wlienever she liecorates Capt. Smith is there; when- 
ever any great political or other publico event oc- 
curs Capt. Smith is promptly on hand to .act as 
master of ceremonies. His military experience gives 
him a special litncss for organizing and conducting 
such affairs, and his comrades of the Grand Army, 
among whom he is a great favorite, are certain to 
desire his leadership in an^^thing in which they bear 
a part. Notwithstanding the prominent position 
which our subject thus occupies so frequentlj' he 
is one of the most unostentatious of men, always 
preferring an inconspicuous position and never fail- 
ing to withdraw from the public gaze as soon as his 
duties will |)erinit. 

The father of our subject was another .lohn 
Smith, a native of Kentucky, whither his parents 
had emigrated from Germany. For twenty j-ears 
he was Justice of the Peace in Harrison County, 
Tnd. He was au intimate friend of the father of 
Judge Gresham, who while he was Sheriff in that 
county was shot by a man whom he was trying to 
arrest. The prisoner was biought before Justice 



Smith for examination and bound over for trial. 
Mr. Smitii was a w heel w right and manufacturer of 
caniif^es. He married Nancy Grant who was dis- 
tantly related to tho famous general of that name. 

The parents of our subject removed to Fulton 
County. 111., many years ago. locating on a tract of 
land Ave miles west of Canton. Mr. Smitli soon 
sold his farm and about 1840 established in Farm- 
ington the first enterprise of a manufactuiing na- 
ture in the city. It was a carding and cloth-dressing 
factory. The projjrietor subsequently removed to 
West Jersey, Stark County, where he engaged in 
his olden occupation of the manufacture ot wagons. 
He died in ISGG at the age of seventy-two years. 
He was quite prominent in church circles. His 
eldest brotiier. a leading scientist and electrician of 
this State, is the inventor of the electrical apparatus 
by means of which teelli may ba extracted without 

The mother of our subject died at the age of 
forty-tvco years, leaving seven children named re- 
spectively, Theresa A., Elias, George L.. John 
Springle, iMartha C, Mary and Adeline. The fa- 
ther married a second time, having- by liis last union 
one son — Abner. 

Capt. Smith was born at Corydon, Harrison 
County, Ind., March 28, 1833. His first recollec- 
tions are of farm life in Fulton County, 111. He 
atti-nded the early schools, receiving an ordinary 
education, in addition to which he was carding boy 
in the mill, worked with his father in the wagon- 
making trade and on the farm in the summer time. 
At the age of eighteen years he began a regular 
two j'ears' apprenticeship as a house, carriage and 
sign painter, continuing to work at his trade until 
the needs of his country determined him to take up 
arms in her defense. He enlisted August 16, 1862,at 
Farmington in the One Hundred and Third Illinois 
Infantry. He assisted in recruiting a company and 
was elected by the boys Second Lieutenant of Com- 
pany C. The troops were drilled at Camp Peoria. 
mustered into service tlicre and sent to the front, 
Lieut. Smith was retained as Post Commander at 
Peoria while the rest of the regiment were in Ten- 
nessee, but in December joined them at Waterford, 

Resuming his position as Second Lieutenant, tiie 

first heavy engagement in which our subject took 
part was the battle at Vicksburg. this being fol- 
lowed by that at Black River where he was detailed 
to act as Captain of another company. At Jackson 
hard fighting and close quarters were the fate of 
the boys, who not long afterward again met the 
enemy at Buzzards Roost. Tenn.. whither our subject 
had been sent in February, 186 I, to support Gen. 
John M. Palmer. At Resaea Lieut. Smith had a 
narrow escape from a piece of a shell, but there, as 
on other battlefields, he escaped unhurt. The 
man3' skirmishes in which he and his company were 
engaged are beyond the limits of mention in a 
sketch like this. The prominent battles in which 
he took part after those mentioned were Dallas, 
New Hope Cliurch, Noonday Creek, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Roswell Mills and the battle of Atlanta. 
Prior to the, last he had charge of a detachment 
scouting through Alabama under orders from Gen. 
Sherman, their object being to secure horses for 
recruiting the artillery and anjbulance supply and 
finding out the position and strength of the guer- 
rillas. During the month of January', 1864, he was 
aid-de-camp on the brigade staff of Col. Dickerman. 

After having participated in the engagement at 
Atlanta July 22, 1864, Lieut. Smith was elected 
Captain of Company I, One Hundred and Third 
Illinois Infantrj', and a few days later appointed 
Assistant Quartermaster, guarding stores in that 
city about a month. He was then permanently de- 
tailed under Col. Garber and served as Assistant 
Quartermaster, having charge of the hospital stores 
of the Fifteenth Armj- Corps. As such, he acted 
at Atlanta, Chattanooga, Nashville, New York Cit^-, 
Hilton Head, S. C, Charleston, Moorehead City, 
N. C, and Newbern, being at the latter place when 
Johnston surrendered. There he was discharged by 
reason of the close of the war about June 1, 1865. 
He had fought in the whole Atlanta cani|:aign 
which was rated by Gen. Sherman as one hundred 
days of solid fighting. He was never wounded but 
at Kenesaw had fojir bullet holes through his hlouse. 

Returning to his home our subject settled down 
to his trade, at which he continued to work until 
1870 when, on account of ill-health caused by 
painting, he embarked in the general merchandise 
business. In the crisis of 1873 he suffered the loss 


of about $3,000 which iicniiy niiiu'il him fiiinn- 
eially and oblis^ed him t(i practically begin anew. 
He turned his attention to the business of lire in- 
surancfe and collections, and is at present Secretar}' 
of the Farmers' JIutnal Insurance Companj'. He 
is a Notary Public and Justice of the Peace, hav- 
ing been elected to the latter position six years 
since and re-clocled in 188'.). He has been Notary 
for an equal length of time. 

In 1877 our subject enlisted in llio State service, 
becoming a member of the Fourth Illinois National 
Guards and being elected by ever}- vote of Com- 
pany E to the Captainc}', which he held two and a 
half years. He is a steadfast Republican, well 
acquainted with many of tlie leading politicians of 
the .State and very popular in political circles. He 
has never sought political honors, but has done 
good service for the party, having been a member 
of the County Central Committee twelve years and 
of the Executive Committee five years; he is still 
serving on the latter. Capt. Smith voted for Gen. 
Fremont in 1856 and from that day has never failed 
to cast a straight Rei)ublican ballot at every Pres- 
idential election except during the year 1864, when 
he was absent from the polls by reason of his pres- 
ence amid scenes of conflict. 

On three different occasioni C'ai)t. Smith hasl)een 
solicited to accept the office of Sheriff, but persist- 
ently declined. He was one of the prime movers 
in organizing the Grand Army Post in Farming- 
ton, and served efficiently as its Commander for 
two years. He is a Deacon in the Congregational 
Church and has been Trustee and Superintendent 
of the Sunday-school several years. He is the owner 
of the Mason House Block in which he is domiciled 
and he likewise owns a line residence on Fort 
.Street. He carries on a stock farm, making a spe- 
cially of sheep, he and his wife owning a tract of 
one hundred and forty acres of land. 

In the fall of 1861 Mr. Smith ^yas united in mar- 
riage with Miss Harriet, daughter of Jacob Hand, 
formerly Supervisor of Farniington Township and 
a well-known capitalist therein. Mrs. Smith was a 
good, true woman who faithfuU}' discharged the 
duties which she saw before her as long as her 
strength would permit. She was called hence in 
1886. and two years later our subject was marrie i 

a second time, his compnuiou on (his occasion be- 
ing Mrs. Caroline Wilcox. The present Mrs. Smith 
is a daughter of Luther and Nancy (Wilson) 
Birge. Deacon Birge is well-known as one of the 
original Abolitionists of this .section, who with the 
assistance of our subject conducted several loads 
of slaves away at various times on the underground 


lALTHASER JACOBS. For varied reasons 
^ numbers of foreigners come each year from 
Euiopean countries to make for themselves 
homes in the United States and here i)ursue 
the tr.ade or profession which they learned in their 
native land. To this class belongs the subject of 
our present sketch, he having been born in one of 
the Rhine Provinces, in Germany, November 25, 
1827. His parents, Peter and Mary (Rechner) 
Jacobs, never came to America, the father dying 
previous to the time of our sul)ject's journey hither 
and the mother passing away from earthly scenes 
in the year 1864. The parental family consisted 
of eight children, all living except John, the first- 
born. The survivors are: George. Joseph, Jacob, 
Balthaser, Anloiie, I'llizabeth and Mary, and all 
but our subject reside in l!ieir native land. 

Mr. Jacobs spent his early years on his father's 
f:irm and obtained a fair common-school education, 
also learning the trade of a wagon-maker. He 
started for America in 1850, and upon reaching 
the New World spent three weeks in New York 
City, and then went to Buffalo, where he worked at 
his trade. At a later date he was a carpenter in 
the country around Buffalo and Niagara Falls, 
and in 1855 came to this State, settling in Polo, 
where for a year he remained doing carpenter's 

The young man then pnrciiased eighty acres of 
Land which he cultivated until the year 1865, from 
which time until 1869 he traveled throughout the 
State. Finally locating in Canton he began gar- 
dening on a sm.'dl scale and has continued the occu- 
pation up to the present time, and gradually 
increased his business until he is now one of the 



leading nurserymen of the place. lie began with 
three lots, a quarter of an acre, on which he laiseii 
the earliest and best potatoes in the market, and 
now owns eleven lots on Ehn Street, with one anc 
a half on WLite Street, in the heart of the city, anc 
has three greenhouses 'unl two duelling houses. 
He does a large gardening business and has the 
leading trade as a florist; he is also engaged in 
berry culture. 

Jn May, 1877, Mr. .Tacobs was united in mar- 
riage with Miss Maria Walter, daughter of Conrad 
Walter, and a native of (iermany. !Mrs. Jacobs is 
an excellent housewife and is devoted to the inter- 
ests of her family, the circle including four sous — 
George, Carl, Lewis and John, and a babe un- 

Our subject is a Catholic, and his wife belongs to 
the Unitarian Church. The}' are religions people, 
and embrace every passing opportunity to .'advance 
the interests and welfare of their neighbors and 
friends. JMr. Jacobs is well and favorably known 
in business circles as a thrifty, industrious and 
honest man who manages his affairs in a most svs- 
tematic way. As a citizen he is law-abiding, sober 
and quiet, attending strictly to his own atfairs. and 
for over twenty years he has been regarded as one 
of the best of the German born citizens of the 

(i^T'OSTER G. SMUrH operates three hundred 
iN© ^""^ twent}' acres, of which he owns eighty 
/!}> ~~ acres, situated in Fairview Township. His 
entire time and attention is devoted to farming 
and stock-raising; he breeds thoroughbred Short- 
horn cattle and .Shropshire sheep, and has a herd of 
thoroughbreds and fort}' graded Siiort horns. He 
is justl}' proud of his fine horses, and has met with 
success in this line also. Both in business and so- 
cial circles he is extensively known, and though 
not a member of any church is active in advancing 
the inte:ests of all religious matters. He is Chair- 
man of the Executive committee of the Methodist 
Cemetery Association, known as the Foster Ceme- 

Socially, Mr, Smith is a jjrominent member of 

the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, having 
attained the highest degree in that order. He is a 
member of Patriarchs Militant, and represented 
Fairview Lodge, No. 120, at the State Grand Lodge 
of Springfield and Cairo, and also visited the Sover- 
eign Grand Lodge at Columbus, Ohio, in 1889. 
He first belonged to Morning Star Lodge, No. "20, 
I. O. O. F., at Piaeerville, Cal. His interest in his 
lodge been at all times great and he is well and 
favorably kno«n to fraternity circles. He belongs 
to tlie Fulton Encampment. No. .il, at Farmington, 
and the Canton Oriental of the Patriarchs Militant, 
No. 33. 

With the pioneer historj- of Fulton County the 
father of our subject was very closely identified. 
He was born in Madison County, Ohio, his family 
having emigrated there from Virginia. He bore 
the name of Jonathan Smith, and the date of liis 
birth was September 11, 1808. He was united in 
marriage in the Buckeye State with Ann Foster, 
who was also born there, and they came to Illinois 
in 1837, buying two eighty-acre tracts of land at 
the Government land sales in ( jiiiney. Tlie father 
had visited this county in 1833, and was favoralily 
impressed with the outlook here. Two years later 
he came and raised a crop, and in 1837 located on 
section 35, where he lived until called home. 

The father became the owner of five hundred 
and forty acres in Fairview Township and four 
hundred and eight}' acres in Iowa. He began life 
without means, having been left an orphan at the 
early age of ten years. So well did he succeed in 
his efforts that, as stateil above, before his death he 
became the owner of one thousand and twenty 
acres of land in Illinois and Iowa. When quite 
young he was compelled to hire out, receiving for 
his services from ^7 to ><10 per month, and thus was 
his beginning matle. He died February 25, 1886, 
after attaining to the age of seventy -seven years, 
fi\ e months and fourteen days. The mother's 
death occurred Feliruary 17, 1888. at the age of 
seventy-one years, five months and eighteen days. 

To Jonnthan and Ann (Foster) Smith were born 
nine children, as follows: Sarah Jane, Foster G,, 
Mary E., Ellen A., .lohn H., America A., Alice M., 
Martha F. aiul one who died in iiifancy unnamed. 
Sarah is the wife of A. J. McCombs, and lives in 



Fail-view Township; Mary E. is the wife of .John 
Bi-oiulCiolil, a fiuit "jrower of California; Ellen A. 
married Di'. S. B. Beer, of Fnirview ; Julm II. mar- 
ried Mary A. Wyckoff, and is a farnuT in Marsiiall 
County, Iowa; America .\. is the wife of W. T. (icii- 
tle. a farmer of Fairvit'w Township; Alice M. autl 
Martha V. are living' witli tlieir brother on the old 

He of whom we write was born April 21. 1.S40. 
on the Smith liomestead. and passed his life in the 
usual manner of fanners' lads in frontier countries. 
AVhen he had reacheil maturity lie made an extended 
trip to California, in 18G1, and engaged in the 
lumber business and niiniuL; operations. He passed 
nine years there, and finally reluctantly returned 
East and has since engaged as a farmer and stock- 
raiser. He is highly esteemed in this communit}' 
as a man of probity and honor, and his life of in- 
dustry and enterprise has brought him success 
from a financial point ofview and a high position 
in the county which is his native liome. 

ylLLlAM PARLl^'. There is probably no 
resident of this county whose work is so 
widely known as that of the gentleman 
above named, who is the pioneer nianufsicturer of 
the noted Canton Clipper Plow. Since the day 
when he landed in this place, then a small village, 
he has instituted and carried to successful operation 
a mammoth business enterprise, has materially- as- 
sisted in the ujibuilding of the flourishing city, and 
won for liimself a comfortable fortune. These 
results have left him the same unostentatious and 
kindly man he was before Fortune had smiled 
upon him. To the men employed in the establish- 
ment lie is a sympathizing friend, possessing their 
confidence in a rcmarkal>le degree. He is the old- 
est continuous plow manufacturer in the entire 

Mr. Parliii was born in Acton. Mass., Januai-3' 
21, 1817, being the fouith of five children born to 
Wainer and Lydia (Davis) Parlin. His parents 
were natives of the same count\- as himself and the 

fathers of each were Revolutionary soldiers. A 
cousin of (jrandfatlier Davis, one Capt. Davis, was 
the first officer killed at Concord. The Parlins are 
of English descent. Warner Parlin was a farmer 
by occu|)aUon and of considerable prominence in 
the vicinity of his home. He passed his days in tlie 
old Bay State, dying about the year 1838 in tlie 
sixty-seventh year of his age. His wife also breathed 
her last in her native State. Of their children he 
of wliom \vc write and an elder brother are all 
that survive. 

Our subject passed his boyhood on the farm, 
pursuing the advantages open to him in the com- 
mon schools. Having no taste for agriculture, he 
determined to learn the trade of a blacksmith aiul 
in his seventeenth year entered upon an a|)prentice- 
ship. By the time he became of age he had 
mastered all departments of the business and was 
ready to begin work as a journeyman. He traveled 
throughout his own Slate and tlien drifted west to 
St. Louis, Mo., stopping for a lime and working at 
his trade. After settling his bills he started North 
on a steamboat, arriving at Copperas Creek Land- 
ing on the Illinois River on llie Eourth of .Tul^', 
1840. After paying his passage his finances were 
reduced to twenty-five cents which he expended in 
reaching Canton. He little dreamed of what awaited 
him in the village that he entered with a kit con- 
sisting of three hammers tied up in a leathern 

Mr. Parlin at once applied for work and was em- 
ployed by R. C. Cultoii. His first work was done 
on Monday morning, July 6. Mr. F'.mry went 
to the shop to get a froe made for splitting lath to 
plaster on, wishing it to be about half the size of a 
cooper's froe. Mr. Culton had a job on hand and 
as Mr. Emr3' was in a luirr}-, asked his new journey- 
man if he could make the utensil. Tlie prompt 
reiily was, •• I will try, sir." Selecting a suitable 
piece of iron and getting his fire in shape he drew 
and turned the e^e, with the next heat shaped the 
froe nearly half way. and with the third finished it. 
Mr. Eniry, who was himself a blacksmith, always 
declareil that it was the quickest and most mechani- 
cal piece of work he had ever seen done. He then 
and tliere predicted a successful future for the 
young stranger. Tlie iiiipleiiienl then made by 



onr subject was presented to him by a son of its 
original owner on July 4, 1890, wlien friends 
galliererl to celebrate tlie fiftieth aiiiuvcrsar3' of iiis 
arrival in Canton. 

After workino for Mr. Culton a year, young 
Parlin was taken into partnership by him. the 
connection continuing two years and being then 
dissolved by mutual consent. Mr. Parlin then 
started in business on his own account, his first 
shop being a very cheap one, scarcely more than a 
shed, but under its humble roof he laid the founda- 
tion of the preseDt]magnificent Canton Plow Works. 
At first he devoted himself to general blacksmith- 
ing during the summer and to making a few plows 
in the winter, hammering the moldboard l)y hand 
out of wrought iron. He also made other tools 
needed by the farmers, proving himself quite a 
benefactor to the community in those earl}' da3-s. 
As his business increased he built a brick shop 
which is still standing and in use as a part of his 
present works. In 1873 the large three-story brick 
building, 2G0x300 feet in dimensions, was erected, 
furnished with an engine of 125-horse power and 
various kinds of machinery adapted for the busi- 

The establishment at present furnishes employ- 
ment for three hundred and twenty-five to three 
hundred and fifty men. The Canton Clipper Plow 
has been sold in every part of the civilized world 
and has been ship|)ed in quite a number to the 
British possessions, also to Mexico and South Amer- 
ica. Although this implement is the most noted 
of the manufacUires of tlie company-, their cultiva- 
tors and harrows also bear a good reputation. Five 
traveling salesmen are kept on the road obtaining 
orders. In 1853 Mr. Parlin took W. J. Orendoiff 
in as a partner and in 1867 the firm was merged 
into an incorporated company under the State laws. 
Upon tlie reorganization William Parlin became 
President, W. J. Orendorff Vice President and 
Treasurer, and W. H. Parlin Secretary. 

At the home of the bride in Orion Township 
January 7, 1845. Mr. Parlin was united in marriage 
with Miss Caroline Orendortl. daughter of John 
Orendorff, Esq., wlio came to this county in 1825, 
from Sduih Carolina. She is a sister of W. J. 
Orendorff of the P16w Company. During the 

many j'ears in which she has been the honored 
companion of our subject she has been worthily 
carrying out her obligations as a wife and mother 
and fulfilling the duties she owes to society. She 
and her husband have had four children, two sons 
and two daughters. Artemus F., the first-born, 
has been removed from them by death. The only 
son now living is the Secretary and Manager of 
the compan}'. Clara E., the third child, is j'et with 
her parents; Alice C, is the wife of Charles E. 
Ingersoll, a dealer in lumber in Canton. 

Mr. Parlin has filled several offices of trust, hav- 
ing been Supervisor of Canton Township, a mem- 
ber of the City Council one term, and of the 
School Board for a much more extended period. 
In politics he is a stanch Republican. He is proud 
of the fact that his first Presidential vote was cast 
for the Whig candidate, William Henry Harrison, 
and that he has lived to see a grandson of that 
official filling the same exalted station. He is a 
member of Morning Star Lodge, Xo. 734, A. F. & 
A. M., and was President of thel]\Lasonic Mutual 
Benefit Society for twelve years. His attractive 
residence with its beautiful grounds is pointed out 
to every visitor of the city "as the home of]a man 
whom all delight to honor, joining in the wish ex- 
pressed on the anniversarv of his advent intoQthe 
count}' — that man}' more may[|be allotted]^him be- 
fore his life's work is complete. 


ILLIAM T. GENTLE. There is not a 
%r\//i' more successful resident of Fairviow 

\^^ Township than is the subject of our sketch 
who is widely known as the successful owner of 
fine Shropshire sheep. His estate is peculiarly 
well adapted to stock-raising, and he has been in 
that business during the years intervening between 
boyiiood and the present date. At this writing he 
has on hand about three hundred thoroughbreds 
and high grades. He received his start from 
George Allen, of AUerton. 111. 

Mr. Gentle was born in Hamilton County, Ohio, 
about four miles from Cincinnati. His jiarents 
came to this State in 1855. settling in Farmington 



Township. Tin' father died in 1S79. at the age of 
fifty-five; the mother is still living and makes her 
home with our sulijeet, being now sixty-three years 
of age. To Iheiii were born four i-liihlren, viz: 
William T.; .John W .. who resides in Iowa, mar- 
rie<l .Miss Lou Terwilliger of London Mills, 111.; 
Hester A., who married L. C". .lolmson, die(i at her 
home in Iowa, leaving three child;eu; Thomas E. 
makes his liome in Prescott, Iowa. 

Our subject's parents and all the ehildren with the 
exceiition of William T. moved to Creston, Iowa 
in ISTtiand there the father died in 1879. Tlie 
the mother returne<i to live with our subject. The 
birth of Mr. Gentle took plaee September 24, 184C, 
and he was only nine j'cars of age when he came 
to Illinois. His education was received partly in 
lliis State and partly in Ohio, and he reached 
man's estate on his father's farm in Farmington 
Township. In 1869 Mr. Gentle married Miss 
America A. .Smith, the si.vth child of Jonathan 
Smith, deceased, one of the wealthiest citizens who 
ever resided in Faii-view Town8hi|i. Her brother, 
Foster G. Smith, is re|>resented in another part of 
this Alium. Her birth occurred in Fairview 
Township where the most of her birlli was passed. 
She attended school at Yates City. Of their union 
have been born three children, viz: Lacie O., Min- 
nie A. and Matlie F. Misses Lacie and Minnie A. 
are students at the State Normal at Bloomington, 
thus fitting themselves to enjoy the wealth and 
comforts of their beaulifvd home in the highest 
possible manner, and to add sunsliine to an already 
happy home. 

The subject of this sketch is the owner of t)ne 
hundred and luiiety acres of valuabh; land on sec- 
tion 26. He is a member of the Independent Or- 
der Odd of Fellows lodge at Fairview and has been 
through the chairs in same, and is also a member of 
the Modern \A'oodmen lodge. Mrs. (ientle and 
her two eldest daughters are members of the 
l-)augliters of Rebecca lodge in Fairview Town- 
ship, and Mrs. Oentle is holding tlie Noble Grand 
Chair for the secoml term. Both our subject and 
his wife are members of the Providence Chapel, 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and the former is 
Trustee. The entire family are active workers for 
the Sunday-school and other worthy causes that 

benefit anil adxtince the interests of hiimanity. He 
believes in protection to Americar, industries. Mr. 
(Jentle has possession of his] present farm for 
three years and it is one of the finest in the;sur- 
rounding country. His fame and |)opularity have 
extended much beyond the limits of the township 
and his genial, cordial manners^have gainedOhim 
the friendship of all wlio'have beenfassocialed with 
him either in commercial or social circles. 

||RENUS T. SCl'DDER. There is in the de- 
ll velopment of every successful life a lesson to 
tL ever3- one; for if a man is industriously ambi- 
tious and honorable in his ambition, he will un- 
doubtedly rise to a position of i)romiiu'nce. whether 
having the |)restige of family and wealth, or the 
obscurity of poverty. We are led to these reflec- 
tions in reviewing the life of Mr. .Scudder, who is 
a dealer in drugs and toilet articles in Farmington. 
He has attained his present enviable position as a 
competent and popular druggist b)- indomitable 
energy and a laudable desire to reach the top round 
of the ladder of fortune. 

At present Mr. Scud<ler is engaged in a nourish- 
ing business, and owns in addition to his elegant 
store, a residence on East Street, in the northern 
part of the city. He is a gentlemrui of excellent 
taste and fine personal appearance, and has many 
warm friends in the coinmunitj' where he makes his 
home. He has engaged in his present business 
since September, 1889, and is doing a flourishing 
tiade. In addition to his drug business Mr. 
Scudder is well posted in the inaiiageraent of tele- 
phone lines and fixtures, having charge of the 
telei)lu)ne olDce, which is located in the back [lart 
of his large store. 

The birth of our subject occurred in New York 
State, August 8, 18.51, and his |)arents were John 
T. and Sarah A. (Taft) Scu<lder, natives of New 
York. He received a good education in the com- 
mon schools, and his father being a physician of 
considerable talent, our subject had an inherited 
tendency toward the study of medicine, and was 
thus prepared to become an excellent [jharmacist. 



In 1881 be opened a dnio-store in Fannington, 
and for seven years continued to do a first-elass 
business. Selling out his interest in 1888, he 
worked for two years in the Nebraska Telephone 

As before stated the father of our subject was an 
exi)prt in the "healing art," and after settling in 
Prairie City, 111., in 1853, continued to practice his 
chosen profession and enjoyed a large and lucrative 
practice. His death occurred there in August, 
1867, after he had attained his fort3--fiflh year. 
The mother is still living, and is over sixty 
years of age. She bore her husband ten children, 
of whom six survive, viz.: Irenus T., our subject; 
Albert 1).. Miner R.. Ida M.. John L. and Clem- 
ent V. 

A very important event in the life of our sub- 
ject was his marriage, which was celebrated 
February 4. 18S.5, with ISIrs. Caroline Negly, of 
Farniington. Mrs. Scudder is a most estimable 
woman, a devoted wife and a good neighbor. She 
was born December 20, 1846, and was the daughter 
of M. A. and C. Brown, both of wlioni are de- 
ceased. Mr. Scudder is a strong Democrat in his 
political opinions; socially, he is a member of the 
Masonic fraternity, and is universally conceded to 
bea business man of unusual ability. 

^=^EORGE BURNETT is noted for his indus- 
'11 (--, trious habits and enterprising spirit, and is 
^^^^ the oldest settler of Fairview Township who 
is engaged in- any active pursuit. When only five 
years of age he was brought to this count}' by his 
parents, William and Sarah(Poland)Burnett, but his 
birth occurred in Harrison Count}', W. Ya., April 
19. 1830. The trip from Virginia to this State was 
made in 1835, in a wagon pulled b}' three horses. 
The parents sought a new home and found it in Ful- 
ton County. 111., where the father bought a claim 
with a cabin on it for SIOO. He entered the land 
from the Government and at once started to work 
to improve it. They went to Ellisville to mill and 
the coinitry around was in a purely primeval state. 
The lirst school our subject attended was where 

Lyons graveyard is now located, and he can give a 
most interesting description of this country in its 
pioneer daj's when game abounded on ever}' side 
having seen fourteen or fifteen deer in a herd many 
a time. Breaking up and clearing land and farm- 
ing engaged his time and attention from an early 
period in life. He has turned acres of the virgin 
sod of the State of Illinois, and has had a long and 
prosperous career as an agriculturist. 

INIr. Burnett was married in 1854 to Miss Abigail 
Barbee, daughter of Franklin and Lucinda (Mer- 
ris) Barbee, natives of Virginia and Canada re- 
spectively. Her parents were married in' Ohio, 
where she was born, and later moved to Illinois, 
settling in Scott County and in 1853 coming to 
Fulton County. Mrs. Burnett was only seven- 
teen years of age wiien she was married and to 
her and our subject have been born four chil- 
dren: John F. married Miss Eliza Pratt, who died 
in 1888 leaving four chililren; he is now in charge 
of the home farm; Eliza E., married Henry Rist 
and lived in Fremont County, Iowa, where she 
died in 1880 at the age of twenty-two years; Mary 
C. died when seventeen years cf age; Clymena R. 
is the wife of Joseph T. Gourley. and has one child, 
Blanche R. Mr. Burnett has noted with great sat- 
isfaction all the improvements in the way of farm 
machinery and the general progress throughout his 
county. He is opposed to secret societies and 
gives strict attention to his business in which he 
has met with marked success. He is also giving 
much attention to stock-raising and is very proud 
of his horses. The principal part of his wealth has 
been accumulated in the pork producing industry. 
He is a member of the Rei)ublican party, and re- 
ligiously, he and his estimable wife belong to the 
United Brethren Church. 

Our subject's father was a native of County 
Tyrone, Ireland, and left that country when only 
eighteen years of age. coming to the Uniteil States 
and settling in ^'irginia where he married the 
mother of our subject. They came to Illinois from 
Virginia in 1835 and were numbered among the pio- 
neers of Fairview Township, locating on section 18. 
The motberdied in 1859 when fifty seven years of 
age and the father in 1862 when sixty-one years 
old. To them wore born twelve children: viz: 


'o-\^\yy^ iy\n.ZAj(iJ, 




Rachel, who married John Roberts, died at Ipava 
leaving five children; Elizabeth, who married John 
Ilubunks, lived in Iowa. She died at the home of 
her fiillier leaving six children; John, wlio resides 
in Davis County, Iowa, married Charlotte Johnson 
and has had thirteen children; George is the sub- 
ject of our sketch; Martin died in infanc_y; Mary, 
wlio married Reuben Hungerford, lives in Metrop- 
olis, III.; James lives in Fairvicw Townsliii), of 
wliich he is one of the well-to-do farmers. He was 
twice married; Margaret died when twenty-tliree 
years of age; Sarah A., the wife of Benjamin 
Sampson, lives in Warren Count}', HI., and is the 
mother of seven children; Martha, was tlie wife of 
Alex. Pliillippi, and at her death left two children; 
Anettie is the wife of Wm. Boden, of Sacramento, 
Cal.. and lias two children; William, who married 
Neosha Davis, died in 1888 when forty years of 

city of Canton is not without her share of 
members of tiie learned professions, who are 
a credit to the pursuit they have chosen and 
to the town itself. Among ihose who have taken 
up the calling of a medical practitioner is Dr. 
Harris vvho devotes himself assiduously to his prac- 
tice and tiie scientific investigations which will en- 
hance his professional knowledge and skill. He is 
well citalilished in reiuitalion as a pliysician and is 
recognized as among Ihe able practitioners of Cen- 
tral Illinois. 

Before outlining tlie life history of our subject it 
maj' be well to make a brief record regarding liis 
parents. His fathfr, Coll)crt Harris, was born in 
Prince George's County, Md., July 30, 1798. In 
182G he located in Belmont County, Ohio, on a 
tract of land which lie leaserl for ten years. He 
cleared and cultivated it until tiie expiration of his 
lease, when he bought one hundred and sixty acres 
in Monroe County and removing tiiillicr resided 
tiiere until his death, which occiu'red March 2-1, 
18.T.'i. He left a widuw and eleven cliildren. Of 
the latter si.\ only are now living. The mother 

died in March, 1853. She bore the maiden name 
of Catherine E. Crupijei-, and was born in Leesburg, 
Loudoun County, V.a. July 8, 1808. 

The subject of this biographical notice was the 
sixth son of his parents and was born in Jlonroe 
County, Ohio, October 22, 1839. He entered the 
common schools and further advanced his knowl- 
edge by an attendance at Fairview (Ohio) Acad- 
emy. He then turned to teaching as a temporary 
expedient, continuing to make his home in Fair- 
view and pursuing his peaceful pedagogical labors 
in the country. In 1860 he took up the study of 
medicine in the ollice of Dr. .1. T. McPherson of 
Cambridge, Ohio, and in due time took his first 
course of lectures al llie medical college in Cleve- 

Upon the breaking out of the Civil War the 
Doctor enlisted ii: the Union Army November 7, 
18G1, as he considered his duty to his country par- 
amount to his desire to become a physician. He 
was enrolled in Comjjany H, Sixty-fifth Ohio In- 
fantry', Col. Charles G. Harkcr commanding. The 
regiment was assigned to the Army of the Cumber- 
land, under command of Gen. Buell, and became a 
part of the Fourth Armj' Corps. His regiment 
took part in a number of the most noted conflicts 
of the war, among them being Sliiloh, Holly 
Springs. Stone River, Chickamauga, Kenesaw 
Mount.-un, Franklin and Nashville. The interven- 
ing time was spent in skirmishing, marching and 
the various important, although monotonous, (bfties 
of cani|)aigu life. 

At Decatur, Alii., in the fall of 1864, Dr. Harris 
was shot in the hip. and from the effects of the 
wound he was kept at Howard Hospital in Nash- 
ville for three months. He then rejoined his reg- 
iment, serving until the close of the war and was 
mustered out JNIay 12, 186.5. lie had been pro- 
moted from the ranks to the position of Hospital 
Steward and Acting Assistant Surgeon, in w hich po- 
sitions he was enabled to relieve suffering and aid 
in restoring his comrades to health, while at the 
same time he gained an experience which has been 
of great value to him in hili'r years. 

After his discharge Dr. Harris returned to Ohio, 
but the same fall removed to Canton where he pur- 
sued his practice about five 3'ears. He then I'ntered 



Rush Medical College in Chicago and after com- 
pleting his second course of lectures was graduated 
in 187L He resumed his professional labors in 
Canton and has long been considered a permanent 
member of the fraternity here. 

October 19, I860, the rites of wedlock were cele- 
brated between Dr. Harris and Miss Ellen S. Platt- 
enburg. at that time a resident of this city. She 
is a daughter of Perry and Ellon S. (Doddridge) 
Plattenburg. and was born in Wellsburg, Va., her 
mother also being a native of the Old Dominion. 
She came to this State with her parents when quite 
young and grew to maturity here, receiving a good 
education and a careful home training. Her union 
with our subject has been blest by the birth of 
two children — Ellen E. and Joseph Perr3-. 

Dr. Harris belongs to the State Medical Society 
and is a member of the Lewistown Board of Exam- 
ining Surgeons for pensions. He belongs to Morn- 
ing Star Lodge, No. 734, A. F. and A. M., and has 
attained the Thirt3'-secoud degree of the Ancient 
Scottish Rite Masonry. Politically, he is, and 
always has been, an earnest and stanch Republican. 
His pleasant home in the midst of agreeable sur- 
roundings is one of the notable centers of the 
social life of the cultured society of the cit\-. 

In connection with this biographical review we 
are pleased to present, elsewhere in this volume, a 
lithographic portrait of Dr. Harris. 


^^-^- HARLES C. EHRENHART is prosperously 
conducting in Lewistown an extensive ag- 
^J ricultural implement business. He owns the 
handsome brick block, a large building 42x80 feet 
in dimensions, on South Main Street, where he is 
established, and he is one of the solid men of the 

Our subject is a Bavarian 1)3- birth, born in the 
German Fatherland in the month of November, 
1850. His father, Michael Ehrenhart, w,as a native 
of the same locality as himself, and a son of one 
Mathew Ehrenhart, the latter having been born in 
Austria and going from there to Bavaria during 
llie lime of the Austrian Revolution, spending the 

remainder of his life there. The father of our sub- 
ject was reared to agricultural pursuits, and when 
a 3'oung man entered the army in accordance with 
the laws of (iermany, and for nine or ten years 
served as a soldier. In 1866 he came to America 
with his eight children, setting sail from Rotterdam 
in the month of October, and landing at New York 
the following January-. He came to Illinois, and 
for a time lived in Rio Township, Knox Counl3'. 
At the expiration of three j'ears he removed from 
there to Galesburg, and was in the emplo3' of the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quinc3- Railroad the en- 
suing seven j'ears. He still resides in that city. 

The maiden name of the mother of our subject 
was Susannah Lantz, and she was also of Bavarian 
birth. She died in Bavaria in 1863 or 1864, and 
her death was a serious loss to her fauiilv. She 
and her husband reared eight children, named 
Phillip, Charles, Amelia, Mathew, Frank. Martha, 
Fred and Mary. 

The son of whom this sketch is written 
carefully trained l)3- his worthy' parents in all that 
goes to make an honest man and a good citizen ; and 
in the public schools of his native place, which he 
attended most of the time quite steadil3- till he came 
to America in 1866, he received an excellent edu- 
cation. The first two or three 3'ears after his 
arrival in this country he employed on the farm 
with his father in Knox Count3'. We next hear of 
him as a clerk in a grocery store in Galesburg, and 
his six 3'ears experience in that capacity in that 
place proved of invaluable service to him, and there 
he laid the foundation of his career as a business 
man. His next eniploymenl was as agent for sew- 
ing machines in Iowa. He spent three seasons there 
verj' profitahl3', and then located permanentlj- in 
Lewistown in the month of September, 1877. Here 
he engaged in the butchering business, continuing 
in that some six years. After that he turned his 
attention to the lumber trade, and one year later 
added the sale of agricultural implements, and is 
still conducting the implement business, which he 
has extended greatlj', and is in receipt of a good 
income from that source. 

Mr. Ehrenhart and Miss Eliza Brookmeier united 
their lives and fortunes Januar3' 5, 1877, and their 
marriage has been productive of much domestic 



felicity. Four eliildien. Lillie. Amelia, Annie and 
Clifton, complete their pleasant lionie ciicle. Mrs. 
Kbrenhart is a native of Iowa, .and .1 dausi;liter of 
Jacob Biooknieicr. a native of Wuvtembuis;, Ger- 
many, and a pioneer of Iowa. She is a sincere 
Christian and an esteemed member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. 

Mr. Ehrenhart is an ambitious, wide-awake man, 
whose capabilities, industry and methodical business 
habits have been the making of ium.a'id given him 
good financial standing in this comnuinily. He 
belongs to Lewistown Lodge, No. 33.0, 1. G. 0. F., 
and to Commonwealth Lodge, No. Gl, M. A. 

'^ AMES GRIGGS is one of the oldest settlers 
of Fulton County, to which he came as earl^- 
as the yeru- 1829. Long years of raerito- 
f(®/' rious conduct in private and public life have 
won for him a r(:pntation which is the choicest 
heritage he can leave to bis posterity when called 
from time to eternity. He is the owner and occu- 
pant of one hundred and sixty acres of finely 
imi)roved land on section 1, Orion Township, and 
is cl.assed among those who make of agriculture 
both an art and a science. He combines qualities 
of two prominent nationalities, being of German an- 
cestry in the paternal line and French in the ma- 

The parents of our subject, George and Sarah 
(Harker) Griggs, removed from the Empire State 
to Peoria County, 111., in 1829. The country to 
which they had come was full of Indians and they 
endured raanj' trials from the savages, particularly 
after the outbreak of the Black Hawk War in 1830. 
The father was a soldier during the War of 1812. 
The parents were rewarded for all their trials and 
privations by seeing their family grow to honored 
raanhood and womanhood. The circle comprised 
eight children, whose record is as follows: Harvey 
married Elizabeth Long, now deceased, and makes 
his home in Peoria County ; Pruella married Will- 
iam Thurston, their home being in Elmwood, Peo- 
ria County; Mary is unmarried and lives with her 
brother James of this notice; Franklin I), married 

Deborah Largent and lives in Farmington; Asen- 
eth, who is now deceased, was the wife of (George 
Champ; Susan, also deceased, was the wife of 
William Bown; Jeremiah married Eunice Yaw 
and lives at Oak Hill, Peoria ('ount3'. 

The birthplace of our subject was Cayuga 
County, N. Y.. and his natal day June 10, 1819. 
After reaching in.".turity he was united in marriage 
to Miss Mary Ann Bown who died within a year 
after their mairiage. He was joined in wedlock 
with his present wife, formerly Duleena E. Mc- 
Mains, in 1856 and the union has been blessed by 
the birth of live childien. The first-born, (George 
W., married Belle Gruniger and lives in Peorif 
Countj-; Edwin E. married Maude Frank, tliei: 
home being in this township; Mary Ann became 
llie wife of Frank .lacobs a resident of Peiu'ia 
County; Susan, is unm.arricd and is still making 
her home under the |i;ircntal roof and engaged in 
the profession of teacliing. All the children have 
been given good educations and three have been 
engaged in teaching. 

Mr. Griggs and the various members of his 
family take a great interest in educational matters 
which he has assisted .as a School Director for over 
twenty-five years. His first Presidential vole was 
cast for Martin ^'an Buren and f(jr years he has ad- 
hered to the doctrines of Democracy as firmly as 
when he first adaijtcd them. He is a Baptist in his 
religious faith. 

^ ESSE HEYLIN, editor of the Lewistown 
Lance, a weekly paper devoted to the inter- 
ests of the Republican party and the people, 
;' is a native of this county and is one of whom 
it may well be proud, for, though he is a young 
tiian, he has already won his way to distinction as a 
journalist of signal ability. 

Fanners Township is the place of the birth of 
our subject and December 15, 18G5, the date of 
that important event in his life. His father. Henry 
Ileylin, was of English birth and antecedents, the 
city of London the place of his nativity. His 
father, whose name was Joseiih Ilo^liu, was also 



bdiTi in that great metropolis. Me was a silk man- 
ufacturer and carried on tliat business in London 
some years. He came to America before tiie war, 
located at first in Fulton County, where he resided 
for a time, and then took up his residence in New 
York City, where his remaining days were p.assed. 
lie reared four ciiildren, who weie named, Joseph 
(r.. Mary, William and Henry. Mary died in Lon- 
don when quite young, and Joseph still resides 
there. William and llenr}' came to this countrj', 
and William engaged in the silk and tassel business 
in New York City and there died. 

The father of our suliject was reared and edu- 
cated in Lon<lon, and came to the Ihiiled States 
aliout 1840. He located in New York City, and soon 
became a sailor, followed the sea some years in a 
whaling vessel, and during the Mexican War was 
in the marine service. After that he came to Illi- 
nois and followed the trade of a carpenter in Ber- 
nadolte Township, .\fter a few years he removed 
to Farmers Township where he dwelt until death 
rounded out his life April 29, 1886. The maiden 
name of his wife was Eliza L. McQueen. She was 
born in Syracuse, N. Y.;her father, John McQueen 
was also a native of that State, and a farmer of 
tliat place. He remove<l from New York to Mis- 
souri and settled near Jefferson City where he 
bought land and improved a good farm, which re- 
mained his home until his death The maiden 
name of his wife, the grandmother of our subject, 
was Mary Scott. She was born in New York City 
and spent her last years at the home of her son-in- 
law in Missouri. The mother of our subject resides 
in Farmers Township. She reared four children, 
John, Ellen, Joseph and Jesse. Joseph died at the 
age of twenty -six years ; John lives in Frontier 
County. Neb.; Ellen married George Carrison, 
since deceased and lives in Farmers Township. 

Jesse Heylln, of whom we write, was given iiis 
first schooling in the home district and his learn- 
ing was further advanced 1)3- his attendance at the 
Normal School at Macomb, and later he pursued a 
course of study at Jennings Seminary at Aurora. 
He thus obtained a sound basis for his future pro- 
fessional career. At the age of eighteen he com- 
menced teaching, and was thus quite steadily 
engaged for the three ensuing years. In 1887 he 

went to Garden City, Kan. as a proof reader and 
night reporter on the Garden City Daily Sentinel. 
Five months later, so well appreciated were his ser- 
vices, he was appointed city editor of that sheet, 
which position he held until he resigned it in 1888. 
He then returned home and commenced teaching, 
continuing thus emiiioyed one year. August 2, 
1889, Mr. Heylin established the Lewistown Lance, 
a carefully edited paper issued weeklj', having its 
full share of patronage from the reading public. 

Finergj', patience and perseverance have accom- 
plished their good work in the efforts of our subject 
to establish a newspaper that shall be readable and 
justif}' its claim as a, public-spirited 
journal of sound literary merit, and a pure family 
paper, one of the best of its kind luiblished in this 
part of Illinois. 

HESTER B. CHURCHILL, a well-known 
farmer of Joshua Township, is classed 
among the pioneers of this county who 
lave dtnie good service in advancing its agricultu- 
ral development. He is a native of the .State of 
New York, and was born in 1824. He came to 
Fulton County in 1837, and cast in his lot with the 
pioneers whom he found woi'king zealously to i)ro- 
mole the growth of this section of the country. 
He entered at that lime his present homestead 
on wiiich he has resided for more than foity years. 
He has evolved a fine farm from the wild tract of 
land that he purchased from the Goverment. has 
it under excellent improvement, and provided with 
good buildings. 

Prior to coming to this State, Mr. Churchill was 
married in 1847 to Miss Catherine M. Turkic, who 
has been a devoted helpmate an<l an active assist- 
ant in the pioneer labors of her husband. Nine 
children have been born to them, as follows: Har- 
riett, Mildon, Chester, Leonard, Washington, 
George, William, Stephen and Kate. Of these the 
following are deceased: Mildon, Chester, Leonard, 
AVashington, George and William. Stephen is a 
resident of .loshua Township; Kate married Homer 
Randolph, and lives in Canton Township. Mrs. 



Churchill is a zealous and active worker in the 
Christian Church, of which slie is a devoted 

In pioneer limes -Mr. Ciiurcliill was widely known 
as one of the best musicians in this i)nrt of the 
countrj'. His services were in constant demand to 
])]ay llie violin for countiy dances, as the young 
people would rather have "old Church,"' as they 
called liiiu. than any one else, and he would be 
called to go even as far as Peoria to furnish music 
for j)arties. Ills children have inherited his musical 
gifts and are well-trained musicians. Our subject 
cast his llrst Ijallot in this county, and has alw.ays 
voted the Democratic ticket, lie taken an 
active part in educational matters and has been Di- 
rector of schools in his own town-ihip for over 
twenty years. At oiu> time he was a prominent 
member of the Grange when that t)rder was Bour- 

^ AMKS K. WELCH, iM. IJ., is one of the most 
eminent physicians practicing his i)rofession 
within the limits of this count}', and he is 
((®l/ also closely connected with its business in- 
terests as a druggist in Cuba, his place of residence, 
and with its public life as Chairman of the County 
Ik)ard of Su[)ervisors. 

The Doctor is a native of Nelson County, K\'., 
born September 4, 184.5. His father, .lames W., was 
also a native of Kentucky .as was his mother, whose 
maiden name was Mary Swaze)'. They married and 
lived in that State until 1818, and then touk up 
their residence among the pioneers of McDouough 
Ciiunty, this Slate, where they remained until their 
death; the mother dieil in 185() and the father in 
187S. At one lime he engaged in business at 

Our sutjject was one of eighteen children of whom 
eight are now living. When four years old lie ac- 
comi)anied his parents to Illinois and received his 
eleinenlary education in the district schools of 
McDouough County. During his >-outh he received 
a severe wound which prevented his entering the 
army when the Rebellion broke out. He had a de- 
cided talent for medicine, and entered upon his 

stuilies for that profession with enthusiasm, was 
graduated with honor from the Kei)kuk Mediial 
College in the class of '65 and is a line cxponenl <>( 
the Allopathic school of medicine. 

After leaving college. Dr. Welch established him- 
self as a physician in Cuba, and for twenty-four 
3ears has been in active practice. He has a laii;e 
patronage that extends far beyond the limits of the 
village and township, having an experience of 
ivventy-live years in Ibis locality and being im- 
mensely popular with all cLasses. Seven j'ears ago 
he opened a drug store here on the northwest corner 
of the Square, a year and a half ago removed to the 
northeast corner where he is now located, his office 
being in the store. He is carrying on a fine busi- 
ness and has here a well-stocked, commodious 
store, replete with all the appointments of the best 
establishments in the county. 

The energy of our subject has by no me;ins 
been confined to the management of h;s practice 
and his drug business, but he has engaged in var- 
ifuis enterprises. In 1878 he opened a livery stable 
and for some time managed an extensive business. 
In 1868 he bought a farm of one hundred and 
twenty acres in Putman Township and carried it on 
by proxy for several years but he now rents both 
the livery barn and the farm. 

Dr. Welch and Miss iSIalinda Clayberg were mar- 
ried in 1808. Their wedded life was happy but was 
too soon brought to a close by the early death of 
Mrs. Welch in 1874. She left two children — Lucy 
B. and Maggie IM. — the latter of whom lives with 
her uncle Dr. P. C. Clayberg, now of St Louis. 
Our subject was married again in 1878 to Elizabeth 
E. Wilson, daughter of William H. and Margaret 
(Laswell) Wilson, who were among the oldest pio- 
neer families of this county. Iler mother died in 
1884. Her father still survives at the age of sev- 
enty years. Mrs. Welch was born in this county in 
18.i6 and received her education in the public 
schools. She is a fine woman in every respect, de- 
voted to the interests of her husband and children 
and knows well how to care for her household. 
The following four children have been born of this 
marriage, Roy, Mamie, James W., and F^thel Fay. 
Prominent- in the medical world and in the busi- 
ness circles of this part of Illinois, Dr. Welch is 



also |ire-eniiiient in its public life, as a man of his 
progressive mind, executive and tiuancial ability 
is needed to aid in the guidance of civic affairs and 
he has held many offices of responsibility with dis- 
tinction. He has been a member of the Town 
Council and President of that honorable body for 
years. He is serving his sixth term as one of the 
County Board of Suitervisors, representing Puttnan 
Township, and is now acting for a second time as 
Chairman of the Board, he having served in that 
capacity in 1888. He has always been a Demo- 
crat and stands high in the councils of his party. 

In 1886 our subject was appointed United States 
Examiner of Pensions and still retains that posi- 
tion b}' request of the old soldiers of this county, 
although a Republican administration is at the head 
of national affairs. He is a member of the Ma- 
sonic Order at Cuba and has been Secretary of the 
same. He also belongs to the Indei)endent Order 
of Odd F"ellowsof Cuba, is identified with the An- 
cient Order of United Workmen and is JNIedical 
Examiner and a member of the Modern Woodmen 
and also of the Mutual Aid Suciety. He and his 
wife are among the leading members of the Chris- 
tian Church of wliich he has been a Trustee, and she 
has been acti kfely identified with the Sunday-school. 

•^fV '^K^ 

il (^— , a cursory view of the Inisiuess establish- 
'^J4^ ments of Canton will reveal the fact that 

the\' are in charge of men of tact, push and 
good judgment. In the goods upon their shelves, 
llie order which characterizes them, and the honor- 
able, courteous way in which patrons are treated, 
they vie with those of much larger cities. One of 
these flourishing establishments is the grocery store 
of our subject, who carries a large and well-select- 
ed stock, and occupies a favorable location on the 
east side of the square. 

The grandfather of our subject, John Seaton, was 
a native of Germany, whose home after emigra- 
tion was in Tennessee. There James Seaton, the 
father of our subject, was born and roared. He 

icnioved to Indiana about 1817, there marrying 
Winifred Roberts. This Uuly was a native of Ken- 
tucky, but in her girlhood had accompanied her 
father, Thomas Roberts, to the Iloosier Stale. 
James Seaton was engaged in tilling the soil, and 
made the Iloosier State his home during all of his 
later ye.irs. His widow died on the same place in 
1882. full of jears and honors. She was the mother 
of four sons and two daughters, one son and one 
daughter being now deceased. 

The birth of our subject took i)lace in Crawford 
County, Ind., near Leavenwortii, May 9. 1833. 
Ilis carh' boyhood was spent in attendance at the 
common schools near his home, and he subsequently 
continued his studies in a private school in Ken- 
tucky, having relatives there with whom he could 
make his home. When about eighteen years old 
he began his mercantile experience as a clerk in 
the dry goods store of IT. F. <k J. W. Ingersoll, in 
Canton, ren'aiuing in the establisinnent five years. 
He then formed a partnership with R. B. L'nder- 
wood, and under the firm name of Seaton & Un- 
derwood embarked in the dry-goods business. The 
connection continued until 18G2 when the business 
was disposed of. and Mr. Seaton became a partner 
with A. C. Bahcock, the nevv firm doing an exten- 
sive business during the war, and continuing some 
j'ears longer, when they were swei)t out In' fire. 
sustaining a heavy loss. The firm was dissolved 
b3' mutual consent, and Mr. Seaton connected him- 
self witli W. r>. Gleason it Co., in the dry -goods 
l).usiness. He remained an attache of that firm 
until 1885 when he opened a grocery store on the 
south side of the square. January I, 1S90, he re- 
moved to his present site with increased facilities 
to accommodate his growing trade. 

Mr. Seaton was fortunate in his choice of a life 
comi*anion, winning Miss Louisa Culton, daughter 
of Robert Culton of this city. The marriage rites 
were celebrated at the home of the bride in 1858, 
and the congenial union has lieen blessed by the 
birth of six children. They are named respect- 
ively, William P.. Anna, Charles A., Kate, Fred- 
erick and George Washington. Anna is the wife 
of Fred Patec, of Peoria; Kate ma'-ried W. E. 
Gill, of Canton; the eldest son and Charles are 
traveling salesmen, and Frederick is clerk in a dry- 




goods store. Tlic joungest son is still altenrliiig 
school. Mrs. Sc.ilon ilicil Lii 1879, .nnil our suliji'ct 
was ngaiii married September 6, 1^91), to Miss .M. 
V. Downing, of Canton. 

Mr. Scatiin was liii' lirst cigar insi)('ctor of Can- 
ton, and acted in tliat capacity two years, lie has 
served as Ahh'rnian from the First Ward five 
terms, .and is still discharging the duties of that 
jjositinn, working faithfully to advance the inter- 
ests of his constituents and the cit>' at large. lie 
is a mcinher of Morning Star Lodge, No. 734, F. 
& A. M. He belongs to the Re|)ublican party, and 
is steadfast in the support of the princii)les in which 
he tinnly believes. 

Vf/ ACOB PERRY MAUS is one of the success- 
ful farmers in Liverpool Township, to whom 
fortune has been exceedingly generous in 
her gifts. He is a native-born citizen of 
Fulton County, Liverpool Township, the place of 
his birth and December 26, 1850, the date thereof. 
He is ,1 son of .lacob Mans, who was a well-known 
pioneer of this county and was prominent in its 
early development. 

The father of our subject was born in Carroll 
County, Md., Octoljcr 12. 1814. His father. who.«e 
name was the same as his ovvn. was a native of 
Adams County. Pa., and a son of George Mans, 
who was born in Holland an<l came to America 
about the time of the Revolution, settling in Penn- 
sylvania. The grandfather of our subject moved 
to Marylanil in early life and there carried on busi- 
ness as a farmer and miller, he being the proprie- 
tor of a good farm on which stood a mill. He was 
killed at the age of seventy-four j-ears by the fall- 
ing of a wall of his mill. 

The father of our subject was reared on a farm 
in Maryland and learned the trade of a miller. He 
was married in that Stale to Mary Forniwalt who 
was born there Septemlier (J, 1818. Immediately 
after marriage the young couple came to Fult<Mi 
County in the spring of 1810, making the journej' 
by wagon to Pittsburg, Pa., thence by boat by llie 
w.ay of the Ohio, Mississippi anil Illinois Rivers, 

anil landing at Liverpool. Mr, Maus bought one 
hundred and sixty acres of laud on s^•ction 13, Liv- 
erpool Townshii), and at once entered upon its im- 
provement. He fou:i<l the surrounding country in 
a wild, sp.'ir.-ely settled condition and deer, wild 
turkeys and other game abounded in the woods. 
Only about tvveiity .acres of his entire land were 
cleared and as there was much v.-duable timber 
standing there, he soon erected a sawmill on Buck- 
heart Creek which he had in operation for about 
(ifteen years, also having a gristmill in connection 
with it. "While carrying on his milling business he 
devoted himself at the same time to farming and 
at dilliercnt periods bought land until his estate 
embraced four hundred and eighty acres at the 
lime of his death. He placed upon it many valu- 
aiile improvements, including a fine brick residence 
which he built in 18G1 and a large barn, 

Mr, Maus deparled this life August 29, 1888, 
and it is doubtful if in this whole coiiuty the death 
of any man has been more sincerely mourned. He 
was beloved in the family circle, by his neighbors, 
and by r.ll who met him in a business way. An ar- 
dent Christian and a member of the Methodist 
Church he was instrumgntal in advancing all re- 
ligious Causes. He was a member tif the Demf)cratic 
party and was well known in political circles and 
in public life. For a period of ten or twelve years 
he represented Liverpool Tt)wnshi[), as a member 
of the County Board of Supervisors and he was also 
School Treasurer. His good wife preceded him in 
death, dying May 19, 1878. She was a consistent 
Christian woman and a member of the Methodist 
Church for a great many years. The following is 
recorded of their three children: .losephus II. born 
November 2."). 1 81 1, died .lanuaiy 23, 184.5; John 
William, born February 12, 1848, died March 11, 
18()1; .lacol) Perry, their youngest son, is the sub- 
ject of this biographical review. 

Our suijject passed his youth on the home farm, 
attending the primitive pioneer scdiools duiing the 
winter season and hidpiiig his father during the 
summer months. Since the death of the latter he 
has managed the farm ahnie with excellent success. 
He has two hundred and fifty acres of choice land 
under his care, and his land lying on 
the Illinois River bottom, is of exceptional feriil- 



ity and is quite productive. He resides in the 
house liiat his father Ijuilt, which is one of tlie 
largest Iiricli residences in the county, and the other 
farm buildings are of a substantial order and the 
large red frame barn is one of the most commodious 
in this section. 

Mr. Mans was married September 21, 1876, to 
Lottie E. Morton, a native of Fulton County. She 
was born May 12, 1859, and is a daughter of Rich- 
ard W. Morion. Her father was born in Estill 
County, Ky., April 15, 1819. "When he was eleven 
years old he came to Fulton County in 1830, with 
his uncle, Elijah Wilcoxen. He is slill living on a 
small farm on section 2, Liverpool Township. He 
has been three times married. Hiebard Morton, 
the paternal grandfather of Mrs. Maus, was captain 
of a boat on tlie Ohio River. He married JNlary 
Wilcosen, who wa.< born in Ashe County, N. C, 
and was a grand-niece of Daniel Boone, the noted 
Kentucky pioneer. Capt. Morton died in 1820. 

The marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Maus has resulted 
in the birth of these four children: Marv L., born 
April 29, 1881; Clara G., June 15. 1883; Myrtle 
M., June 28, 1885; and Frank M.. September 28, 

Mr. Maus is an active, intelligent fai-raer.who 
a good understanding of his calling. He is kind 
and generous in his relations with others and is 
generally [jopular among his fellow citizens. He 
is an ardent Democrat in politics. He has served 
one term as Road Commissioner of his township, 
and ever manifests an interest in its welfare. 

^OHN W. GRAHAM. The principal feature 
of interest in the history of a Kation. State 
or count}- is necessarily the people, who by 
their own success and enterprise have added 
to the renown of the place in which they live. In 
view of this fact a history of this county would be 
decidedly incomplete without a description of the 
life, surroundings and successes of John W. Gra- 
ham, a prosperous and well-known resident of Can- 
ton. His birth occurred at this i)lace June 16. 
1850, he being the son of John G. and Lvdia 
(Wills) Graham. 

The father of our subject was born in Saratoga 
County. N. Y.. November 17, 1817. and was the 
son of John Graham, a native of the Green Moun- 
tain State. He became a teacher in one of the 
leading colleges in his native State, and later as a 
civil engineer surveyed the roadbed for the Chi- 
cago, Burlington & Quinc}- Railroad. For his 
services he was paid in State script which he ex- 
changed in Ciiicago for the merchandise with which 
he first stocked his store in tiiis county. He was 
a wide-awake, enterprising merchant and real-estate 
dealer, was also engaged in speculating and to a 
considerable extent interested in agriculture. He 
was a man of unusual prominence and served as 
Legislator through several terms and was Chair- 
man of the Constitutional Convention of tlie .State. 
He died at his home in this count}' in JanuaiT, 

The mother of our subject was born in Cumber- 
land County, Pa., February 10, 1815. and died in 
Canton, March 30, 1886. Siic was a daughter of 
McKinnej- Wills and was highly connected, being 
close!}' related to some of the most prominent men 
the country has ever known. Mnj. Charles W. 
Wills, a gallant soldier who achieved fame in the 
Illinois troops, is a nephew of hers, and her brother 
James Wills, an early pioneer of this county, is 
well remembered by the old citizens. She also 
connected with several residents of Chicago, amonof 
whom are James and Washington AA^ills. who fioure 
[irominently in mercantile circles and are members 
of the Board of Trade in that city. She was a mem- 
ber of one of the oldest and most aristocratic fam- 
ilies in the State of Pennsylvania, her ancestors 
having resided there for over one hundred years. 
The Wills family came originally from Scotland; 
on the maternal side she was of Irish descent. 

The gentleman whose name introduces these 
paragraphs received his educational training in his 
native place, where he has continued to make his 
home. In the early years he received most excel- 
lent atttnlion frr-m his mother, who was universall}' 
recognized as a woman of singularly noble charac- 
ter. His education has been very thorough and 
indeed the family, one and all, have devoted an 
unusual anuiunt of attention to belles-lettres and 
educational matters and are cultured and refined. 




y '^ 

<^^^^- ^5P 




Mr. ' inherited ti large fortune from his 

father and has addeil to it until at the present writ- 
ing he is a very wealth}' man. His father had en- 
tered ten thousand acres of land in Illinois and 
about fifteen thons'ind in Iciwa and six or eigiit 
thousand acres are now in possession of the son. He 
has retired from active business, simpi}' attending to 
the letting out of his money and the supervision 
of his estates an<l those of his sisters. He and his 
sisters rank very liigh in the esteem of their numer- 
ous acciuainlauces and friends. 


^^OL. THOMAS HAMER. On the opposite 
iff _ page is presented a lithographic portrait of 
^^T this gentleman, who is one of the represen- 
tative citizens and prominent residents of Fulton 
Count}-. He has distinguished himself in various 
walks of life, both as a brave .otticer in the late 
war, a promiiiciit civilian, an able statesman, ami a 
successful man of business. He is an old settler of 
this section, and has long been influential in its 
])olitical and scicial life, and has been a potent 
factor in advancing its commerce and agriculture, 
and its material interests generally. For many 
years a resident of \'ermont, the Colonel is living 
in one of the most attractive homes of this beauti- 
ful village. He has retired from business, but is 
active in public life as State Senator, reiiresenting 
Fulton and Knox Counties in the General Assem- 
bly of Illinois. 

Our subject is derived from line Revolutionary 
stock, both his paternal and maternal grandparents 
having done good service in the struggle of Amer- 
ican Colonists for freedom from the motlier couri- 
try. He was born in White Deer Township, Union 
County, Pa., June 1, 1818. His parents were James 
and Elizabeth (Seibert) Ilamer, who were natives 
of Northumberland and Lancaster Counties, Pa., 
respectively, his father having been born in March, 
1784, and his iiiolher in Fcl)ruary, 178(). The 
paternal grandparents. Thomas and Ellen (Lyon) 
Hamer. came from Scotland lo this country ])rior 
to tlic Revolution and settled in Northumberland 

County, Pa., taking up their .abode in Chillisquaque 
Township oil a large tract of land. 

Thomas Hamer became a prominent man in 
those parts. He was the first Sheriff of Xorthum- 
berland County, and served in the Revolution as 
Caiitain under Gen. Greene, and filled various 
ofliccs. He was the father of the following chil- 
dren — James, Thomas, William, Joseph, Jesse, 
Abraham, John, Elizabeth, Nancy and Wyllie, all 
of whom married and reared families, having set- 
tled in various States. VVilliam moved to lirowii 
County, Ohio. He had a son, Thomas L. Hamer. 
who became a prominent attorney, and commanded 
an Ohio Brigade as Brigadier-General in the Mexi- 
can AVar. He represented his district in Congress, 
and appointed Gen. (irant to West Point. His 
brilliant career was cut short at the close of the 
Mexican by his untimely death at the age of 
forty-five, at Ft. Ihown, Tex. 

The maternal grand|)arents of our sul)jcct were 
Joseph and l^lizabeth ((Jilbert) Seibert, who came 
to this country from Prussia in Colonial times, and 
located in Union County, Pa. He a farmer by 
occupation. In the struggle of the Colonists for 
indei)eiidcnce he gave his services to his adopted 
country and was a good soldier iluriiigthe Revolu- 
tion. Mis children were: John, Josci)h, Elizabeth, 
Sarah and Christina. 

The fatl'.er of our sulijcct served in the War of 
1812 in the company of his brother. Capt. Thomas 
Ilamer, and was afterward Ca[)tain of a militia 
regiment, lie was married in I'nion County, Pa., 
and in the fall of 184G with his family emigrated 
to Illinois, traveling from Pittsl)urg by boat to St. 
Louis, whence they made their w.a}' with a wagon 
to Vermont. The father located in this township 
on eighty acres of land on section 19. and resided 
there until within Ihice years of his di-alli. in the 
summer of 1871. IJis wife |)recoded him to the 
otlier shore, dying in the winter of 1870 in Ver- 
nnjut N'illage. They were devoted Christians, and 
while they lived in Pi'nn.sylvania vvere members of 
the P.aptist Church, but after coming to Illinois 
they united with the Christi;iii Church, and re- 
mained true to that faith. Mr. and Mrs, Ilamer 
were the parents of the following nine children: 
James who came to Ogle County, 111., in 1844; 



Margaret: Ellen, who died in Pennsylvniiiu ; 
Thomas, Joseph, John; Elizabulh. ihe wife of Sam- 
uel Doebler; Sarah, the wife of Benjamin Swartz, 
and Samuel, who died in 1851. Margaret is the 
wife of the Rev. Adnah A. Hecox. a prominent 
Methodist minister of California. She keeps the 
light-house at Santa Cruz, Cal.. having been ap- 
pointed to that position by Abraham Lincoln. 

Col. Thomas Ilanier i)asscd the early years of 
his life on his father's farm, and was given the ad- 
vantap'es of a substantial education in the English 
branches at Wilton Academy. At the age of six- 
teen he entered upon a practical training for a 
mercantile career by becoming clerk in a store, and 
he was thus engaged in his native State until he 
came to Illinois, when he acted in a like capacity 
for Joab Mershon. of Vermont, remaining with 
him two years. He established himself in business 
in 1S.50. and carried it on successfully until 1861, 
when he sold it to his cousins. Edward and Patter- 
son Hamer. He subs« quently devoted liimself to 
his country and [latriotically gave his services for 
the defense of the dear old flag. 

With characteristic energy, and a military fervor 
inherited from his ancestors, our subject set about 
the ^ork of aiding to raise a regiment for the ser- 
vice, and was prominent in enlisting and equipping 
the Eighty-fourth Illinois Infantry, commanded by 
Col. Lewis II. Walters, and was himself appointed 
Lieutenant-Colonel of the regiment by Gov. Yates. 
He proved to be a most courageous and efficient 
officer; his military career was brought to a close, 
however, at the battle of Stone River, as he was 
there so wounded and disabled thai he was ren- 
dered unfit for further service. He had three horses 
shot under him while leading his men to charge 
the enemy, and in the thickest of the fight he was 
wounded in his left breast, had his left shoulder 
broken and his right knee injured. Notwithstand- 
ing the serious injuries he sustained that day, the 
gallant and determined Colonel appeared on the 
field the next day and assumed the command of 
his men. They were so delighted at the heroism 
and fortitude displayed by their valiant leader 
that they gave him a gold watch as a testimonial 
of their a<liniration of his conduct. He was 
obliged to resign his commission after that on ac- 

count of his physical condition, and after the bat- 
tle of Chickamaiiga he was honorably discharged 
from the army. 

In connection with the military life of our sub- 
ject we will add the following incident, gleaned 
from an article in the Chicago Inter Ocean, of his 
(^arl}' career, relating "How ami Why Fulton 
County's Industrious Legislator Failed to Become 
a West Pointer." Young Hamer entered the office 
of his cousin. Congressman Thomr^s L. Hamer, 
in Ohio, after he left his home in the Keystone 
State, and while there a vacancj' occurred at West 
Point, which it was his cousin's i)rivilege to (ill, 
and he suggested to his young relative that he be- 
come a cadet at the famous military school. Our 
subject gladly availed himself of the opportunity 
thus offered to gain a military education, and laid 
aside his law books and went to Washington. His 
commission was made out and he was waiting to 
go where he was to receive several months pre- 
liminary training, when his cousin came to him one 
day and said: "Tom, this arrang='ment I made 
for \o\\ to go to West Point is all spoiled. Here's 
a letter I just got from Jesse Grant asking me to 
j appoint his son. Now Grant is an influential man 
] in ra\' district out in Ohio. The district is very 
j close. I want his influence, but I don't want any 
charge of nepotism brought against me. I want to 
have Grant's influence, so. Tom. I'll have to with- 
draw your name and get Grant's son appointed in 
your place." Our subject could do nothing better 
than to gracefully yield the point and withdriiw. 
which he did. Gen. Grant never forgot the Hamers, 
and during his Presidenc}' wIumi his influence was 
asked to have the Colonel's son Le Ray appointed 
to West Point, he promptly an<l cheerfully pre- 
ferred the request for the appointment, which was 
concurred in by .Secretar}' Lincoln. Much to our 
subject's disappointment his S((n finally decided 
not to accept the appointment, but the General's 
kindly offices in the matter have never been for- 

After his return from the South our subject was 
unable to get out for six months, liut as soon as he 
recovered sufficiently he resumed business, built a 
line store and carried on a large and profitable 
Ir.ade until 1878, when he leased bis building, sold 



bis business, and retired. He also managed a farm 
of eight}' acres besides attending to liis otiierafifairs. 
Cdl. llamer lias been a conspicuous figure in the 
pujjlic and political life of town and county from 
early days. He lias represented Vermont as a nicin- 
ber of the County Board of Supervisors four terms, 
and lias held vnrious local offices. lie has i)eeii a 
delegate to nearly every State Convention since he 
came to Illinois, first as a Whig, and after the for- 
mation of the Republican part\- as its representative. 
In lb48 the Whigs nominated him for the Lower 
House of the Legislature, and although he had a 
Democratic majorit}' of nine hundred to overcome, 
he came within three votes of being elected. In 
1852 ho was again nominated, and this time was 
elected, but was counted out. He was prominei tly 
mentioned as a candidate for Congress, and was 
urged b}- his friends to accept the nomination, but 
declined anil used his influence for Gen. Post. In 
the fall of 188fi the Colonel was elected to the 
Lower House of the State Legislature, and so ac- 
ceptably did he serve in that capacity, that he was 
elected to the State Senate in 1888 to represent 
Pulton and Knox Counties in that honoralile body, 
of which" he is still a member. His long experience 
as a business man and as a politician has been of 
value to him in his legislative career, and his course 
as a statesman has justified bis selection as Repre- 
sentative and as State Senator by bis constituents. 

As a member of various important committees 
while in the Lower House, he was instrumental in 
bringing about much needed legislation to protect 
and ailvance the interests of the State and people. 
He was Chairman of the Committee on Enrolling 
and Engrossing bills, served as a member of the 
House and Finance Committee, and was a meml)er 
of the Committee for Appropriations, State Insti- 
tutions, Canal and River Improvements, Sanitary 
Affairs and State and Municipal Indebtedness. In 
the Sen.ate the Colonel has been Chairman of the 
Committee on Finance and Claims, has been one of 
the Committee on State Charitable Institutions, 
Canals .and Rivers, Federal Relations, Roads, High- 
w.ays and Bridges, and Exacntive Department. 

Col. Hamer has been a prominent member of the 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows for forty eight 
years, and originated the Vermont lodge, and he 

has been connected with the Ancient, Free and 
Accepted Masons for thirty years. Religiously, he 
is a member of tlie Methodist Episcopal Churcli, 
while his wife lielongs to the Universalist Church, 
lie is po|)ular with all with wlioiii he associats. lie 
is gifted with a frank, generous nature, is a lover 
of fun, and is a witty and entertaining conversa- 
tionalist, lie has gathered a never ending fund of 
anecdotes, and it never more interesting than when 
he is relating some story of his experiences of the 
war, of life in camp and on the battlefield. 

Our suliject has Ijcen twice married. March 25, 
1850, his union with Miss Harriet E. Johnson was 
solemnized. She was a daughter of Franklin and 
Hopy (King) .lolinson, who came to this State 
from Herkimer County, N. Y., and were early set- 
tlers of Vermont, where jNIr. Johnson a pioneer 
druggist. Seven children were horn to our subject 
by that marriage, of whom four boys died when 
from two to four years of age, and one daughter at 
the age of six years. The children living are: 
Wyllie, wife of Ansel Ainrine; and Le Ray. The 
latter is States Attorney at Oklahoma. He is well 
educated, a graduate of Abingdon College and 
Bloominglon Law School. He stands high in busi- 
ness and political circles, and is an orator of ability. 
Mrs. Hamer departed this life April 1.3, 1871, at 
the age of forty years, leaving behind her a good 
record as wife, motlicr and friend. She was a sin- 
cere Christian. In early life, with her husband she 
was a member of the Congregational Church, but 
the exigencies of the war broke up that church, so 
many of its members were removed, and she after- 
ward connected herself with the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church. The marriage of our suliject to his 
present wife, formerly Miss Maryette Johnson, a 
sister of his first wife, was coi summated August 
10, 1876, and has been productive of mutual happi- 

- orx> . 

ESSE W. STRONG is the editor and pro- 
prietor of the Canton liepublican, one of tljo 
numerous papers of this county which lays 
just claim to a liberal share of public pat- 
ronage and enjoys it. The sheet is a six column, 




eioriii-paj^e paper, neatly printed upon a ()Ower press 
find issued on Tliiirsday of eacli week. It is de- 
voted to tlie a<l viuiceraent of Independent i)rinci- 
ples and the political issues of the daj' are well 
handled by its editor. Its local columns are well 
arranged, its items of news are well selected, and 
in ever}' respect it is a creditable sheet. The plant 
is owned by Mr. Strong, who purchased it about 
September 1.5, 1890. The journal was established 
in June, 1877, under the name of the Advertiser 
and c(jnducte(l independently of political partisan- 
ship. The name was afterward changed to the 
Ti'/ncs and again to the Fulton liejniblk-an, the last 
change being made in 1880 when the present name 
was adopted. It is now the leading Independent 
paper of the county. 

The gentleman with whose name this sketch is 
introduced is a native of the city in which he is 
in'u- carrying on his journalistic labors, having been 
l)orn April 9, 1859. He is the 30ungest son of Dr. 
O. G. and Bethina (Pavey) Strong, of whom a 
more extended notice will be found elsewhere in 
this volume. After receiving a fundamental edu- 
cation in the public schools he spent some time in 
study at Columbus. Ohio, and upon his return to 
ills home took up the newspaper business. (Toing 
to St. Louis, Mo., he was em[)loyed on the I'ost- 
Dispatch and Journal and then having returned to 
Canton for a time was a member of the force on 
the Register. 

In July, 1880, Mr. Strong went to Buffalo, N. 
Y., where he liebl a position on the Courier until 
December, 1881, when he returned to Canton with 
his health much impaired. For a few months ids 
chief endoavoi' was to restore bis ph3'sical forces to 
their ronnal condition, and after regaining his 
strength he began work on the Canton Register in 
July, 1882. He held a position in that office prac- 
tically until July, 1889, wiien he resigned to take 
charge of the journal he is now ably conducting. 

Hy reason of his general intelligence, his good 
breeding and upright character. 'Sir. Strong is re- 
spected by those who enjoy the pleasure of his 
acquaintance. He is looked upon as one of the 
rising members of the journalistic profession and 
one whose power is likely to be felt still more 
strongly in years to come. He is a member of the 

social order of Red Men. Februarys, 1886, our 
subject led to the hymeneal altar. Miss Carrie .Strong 
of Union City, Ohio. This cultured young lady 
is the second daughter of Augustus and Lucina 
Strong. Of the above union two children have 
been born; Olive and Belhina. 

/p^ILBERT HATHAWAY. No name is more 
III (— , honored or more worthy of reverence among 
^^^(5j those of the noble pioneers of Peoria 
County, by whose labors it was established on a 
firm foundation of emhuing prosperity, than that 
of this gentleman, who has played an important 
part in the agricultural, political and religious de- 
velopment of Jubilee Townshi|), and so of the 
county. In his work he was much pr(^)spere(l, ac- 
cumulating a goodly amount of property, and is 
now living retired in Farmington, Fulton Count}-, 
where he is quietly and pleasantly passing the de- 
clining years of a life well spent in all that goes 
to make a true man and a good citizen. 

Our subject was born July 27, 1818, about sixty 
miles from the Canada line in the wilds ^A Somer- 
set (now Franklin) County, Me., the place of his 
birth KingsQeld Tov/nship, which was named in 
honor of .Maine's first Goveriior, King, who bought 
a very large tract of land in the northern part of 
the State, which divided u}) into three towns — 
Concord, Lexington and Kingstield. The Ilatha- 
ways came from England, and Deacon Hathaway 
is a direct descemlant of one Col. Kbenezer Hatha- 
way, who was sent to this country by the English 
Government in charge of one of the English trooiis 
in one of the Colonial wars. He settled at Assonet, 
Mass., and there reared a family. He did good 
service as an officer in the French and Indian War. 
His son Gilbert was born at Assonet, and as a 
middle-aged man removed to Oxford Connly, Me., 
anil was among the pioneer settlers of Livermore. 
He was accompanied hither by his wife and thirteen 
children, of whom our subject's father is the eighth 
in order of birth. 

Luther Hathaway, the father of our suliject, 
married, in Oxford County, Miss Clarissa W. Hinds, 



a native of Massacliiisctts, who was taken to Maine 
by lior paieiils. wIid were of Soutoli (lesceiit. Tlio 
falliui- of our subject followed fariniiiij in Maine for 
scveial 3'cars, Init linally removed to I'coria Count}- 
with his family and was a pioneer settler of iJi'im- 
tield Township. In after years he and his wife 
lived retifed in Brinilield \'illage, where she died in 
1 iS7o^ nt the age of eighty years. She had always 
been a consistent Christian, as had her husband. 
After her death he lived at times with our subject 
and al limes with the twin sister of ouv subject, 
.Mrs. Preston, of Fulton County, in whose home he 
died August 14, 187G, rounding out a long life of 
eighty-six years, seven months and fourteen days. 

Deacon Hathaway was reared in the woods of 
Maine, amid pleasant scenes, and one of bis first 
recollections is of the beautiful golden sunsets over 
Mt. Ahram. lie was one of a familj- of eight chil- 
dren, named as follows: IJoadicea, Edwin I!., Gil- 
bert and Tryphena (twins) Christopher Coluiid)us, 
Hannah, Salome K.. and (4eorge W. He was edu- 
cated in the common schools of his native State 
and was brougiit up to habits of industry on a farm 
by bis worthy parents. In his youth be was greatlv 
interested in reading an account of the Black Hawk 
^^■ar. and from its description obtained a good idea 
of the State of Illinois and was fired with the am- 
bitious desire to try life on its wild prairies. His 
mother dul not wish him to leave home, thinking 
iiim loo 3'oung, and then, too, his eldest brother, 
Kdwin, had gone from them, sailing away on the 
ocean, and had settleil in South Carolina some years 
before, and bis family had lost all trace of him. 
Gilbert's parents seeing that he was still very de- 
sirous togo westward,decided that his father should 
visit Illinois to see tlu^ country and liud out whether 
the Indians had left tiie State and whether it w:is 
iKdiitable. Conse(|uenl 1\ he for the Far 
West in 1837, and after his ai-rival in Illinois wrote 
to his famil}' stating that everjthing was all right. 

INIr. Hathaway says, with reference to bis father's 
coming here, "AVe were poor as poverty-, and father 
had to go to Massachusetts to borrow money to 
come out with." Our suliject started for his des- 
tination May 10, 1S;3.S. with but $11 in his pocket. 
He traveled with two families, who were going to 
Jackson County, Mich., and he drove one team to 

help pay his way. When he arrived in Jackson 

County, Mich., his uuiney was all gone and he was 
in debt besidi's. With characteristic honesty he 
stayed there until he had earned money to repay 
his indebtedness, working on a farm for three 
months, it taking two months to obtain the re- 
fpiired sum. He then started on his way and went 
as far as his money woukl cai-ry him, whii'li was 
iu)t a great distance, as in his igiu)raiu'e he had ac- 
cepted in payment for his work paper money which 
was called in Icical pfirlance," '•shinplastcrs," which 
was not lawful currency oidy in the immeiliate 
neighborhood of where it was manufactured. So 
when he had traveled some distance he found his 
money was useless, and when he arrived at St. Jo- 
se|)h he was obliged to go to work again. For ten 
days he was employed in a stable as hostler. A 
boat was just then being re|)aired at St. Joseph, 
which i)lied between that place and Chicago, and 
J\Ir. Hathaway engaged as fireman on board to save 
the expense of his passage, and received besides 
sixty-two and one-half cents \>ov day for his work. 
Arriving at Chicago he found a dii'ty village built 
among the sloughs and s^^amps, with no indication 
of its present size and importance as the second 
city in populalion in this country. He paid for 
having his trunk or chest taken to Peoria from 
there, and he started on foot for this county. He 
subsequently took passage on a river boat to Peo- 
ria, and when he landed there had just eiglitcen and 
three-fourth cents in his pocket. From there he 
walked out to a friend who lived in Trivoli Town- 
ship, Peoria County. 

Mr. Hathaway and his father worked hard, earning 
money enough to send home for the mother and I he 
rest of the children the next year. Our subject 
l)ep;an work at 810 a month to buy a farm for his 
father and mulher. He performed much pioneer 
labor, and by unceasing industry finally established 
a home of his own and became well-to-do. For 
many years he owned a valuable and highly im- 
proved farm f)f one hnndred and forty acres in 
Jubilee Township. He was an able and practical 
business man and dealt a good deal in real estate, 
and in that way became quite wealthy. In the 
month of September, 1883, he gave up active busi- 
ness as a farmer and removed to his present com- 



luiiiililiMDiiimodioiis home in Fartnington. of whifh 
lio is still a highly respected citizen. 

Ill 18.50 Deacon Hathaway was married to Mrs. 
Maria AVillard, daughter of Levi and Barbara 
(Stearns) Sabin. natives of Vermont. At the time 
of her marriage with our subject she was the 
widow of A'pheus Willard, to whom she had been 
married in Vermont in 1825. They were pioneer 
settlers of Brimlield, Peoria County, coming here 
in 1838. By that marriage she became the mother 
of the following children: Isaac, who died in in- 
fancy; William A., Frances M., Cynthia A., Henry 
C. Lot S., and Abbie R. William died in 1865, 
leaving a wife and two children — Frank A. and 
Mary B. ; Frances is the wife of George P. Burt, a 
retired carpenter of Galva, and they have four 
children — Frank H., Theresa AV., Flora M., Sophia 
S.; Cynthia died at the age of fifteen years; Henry, 
a prominent citizen and meicliant of Pittsburg, 
Kan., married Miss Ellen Moore, and thej' have two 
children — Lavon and Alice; Lot. a real-estate dealer 
at Seattle, Wash., married Ellen Davidson, and they 
have two children — Maj' G. and Lee A. Lot S. 
Willard was a Major on McPherson's staff during 
the Civil War. Abbie is the wife of Albert Mar- 
shall, a well-to-do farmer of Jubilee Township, and 
they have eight children — Birdie A., Cora, Ernest 
W., William A. Harry E.. Janie M., Nellie M. and 
Stella R. 

Deacon Hathaway's life career has been directed 
by energy, perseverance, stabilit}- of character and 
good business habits, combined \rith honorable and 
conscientious dealings, and his course furnishes an 
excellent example to the young men who are just 
starting out in the world to seek fortune's favors. 
He enjoys a higii personal standing throughout the 
count}', where the most busy 3-ears of his life w-ere 
passed, and is held in consideration wherever 
known. While a resident of Jubilee To^wnship he revy prominent in its public affairs and was 
for a long time one of its most valued officials. He 
represented the township as a memljer of the 
County Board of Supervisors two 3- cars. He was 
Assessor five years, Collector four years, and School 
Treasurer for twentj'-seven consecutive years. No 
man has done more to forward the religious inter- 
ests of his community than the Deacon. He helped 

ItuiM e\eiy cliuich in Brimfield, except the Catho- 
lic, and officiated .is Deacon in tlie Bapt'sl Church 
of that place several years. He has also acted in 
that capacity in the church of thiit denomination 
in Farmington. He has a creditable record as a 
Republican, he being a firm ally of that party. Be- 
fore its organization he was a Whig, and he has 
voted for the following for President: Gen. AV. H. 
Harrison in 1840, well remembering the log-cabin 
craze; Fremont, in 1856; Lincoln, in 1860 and 
1864; Grant, in 1868 and 1872; Hayes, in 1876: 
Garfield, in 1880; Blaine, in 1884; Harrison, in 
1888. Though Mr. Hathawa}- is stronglj- in favor 
of temperance he is not a third part\' man. 

(Im^^ something about the life of a i)rosperous 
^^^ and popular j^oung man very pleasant to 
contemplate; something that gives encouragement 
to those seeking to make for themselves desirable 
positions in life. Such an example is given in the 
person of Theodore Whitenack, who is generally 
conceded to deserve unlimited praise for the suc- 
cess he has attained and for the strict integrity of 
his business transactions. He is a native-born citi- 
zen of this county, and is now numbered among 
the intelligent farmers of Liverpool Township. In 
the fall of 1882 he bought his present farm of one 
hundred and three acres on section 9. Under our 
subject's careful management the farm has been 
placed under excellent cultivation and is now a 
neat and well-ordered piece of property, comparing 
favorably with any other farm in the neighborhood 
in point of tillage and improvement. Here Mr. 
AA'hitenack is engaged in cultivating his land and 
in raising stock to a considerable extent with a very 
good profit. 

Peter AVhitcnack, the father of our subject, was 
born in the State of New York in 1820. His fa- 
ther, who bore the same name as himself was a na- 
tive of Pennsylvania. The Whitenack famil}' are 
of German antecedents and its representatives in 
America are descended from two brothers who 
came to America from Holland in Colonial times 



in the early part of the eighteenth eeutiuj'. The 
grandfather of our subject was a farmer in Penn- 
sylvania, and finally removed from that State to 
J\ew York, where he passed his last days on a farm. 

Tlie father of our suliject was born and reared 
on a farm in Western New York, and in early life 
he became [)roprielor of a farm of eight}' acres in 
that part of the country u[)on wliich he lived until 
1850. In that year he settled up his affairs in that 
State and took up his residence in Canton, this 
count}', making tlie journey from his old home by 
rail and boat. lie and his family resided in Canton 
two years and tlien settled on a farm in Canton 
Township. Later Mr. Whitenack moved to Union 
Township, and farmed there about six years. At 
the expiration of that time he took up his resi- 
dence at EUisville. In ISC') he removed to Bryant 
in Buckheart 'I'ownship. and for twenty years was 
engaged in business as a blacksmith at that point. 
Since tliat time he has made his home witli our sub- 
ject. The wife who lias journ(!yed witli him so far 
on life's road, lives with him and devotes herself to 
his comfort. Her maiden name was Sarah S. El- 
wood, and she born in the State of New York 
in 1825. Both the parents of our subject are de- 
voted Christians and members of tlie Methodist 
Church. Mr. Whitenack is a firm Republican in 
his political sentiments. He held tlie office of Jus- 
tice of the Peace in this townsliip four years. 

Our subject is one of four children of whom he 
and his sister Iletlie are the only survivors. Tlie 
names of those deceased are, Isadore and Jennie. 
Theodore Whitenack was born in Canton, January 
23. 1855. He was but an infant when his parents 
moved to the country where he was reared (ui a 
farm. He attended school some in the country but 
g'lined his education mainly in the villages of EUis- 
ville anil Bryant. When he was twenty-one years 
of age he began his independent career as a farmer 
on a rented farm of si.xty acres in Buckheart Town- 
ship. He rented land for about six years and then 
purchased his present farm as before mentioned. 

Our subject by his marriage with Lavina Hum- 
mell, April 2, 1876, secured a wife who has 
greatly aided hiin in making their pleasant home. 
Mrs. Whiten.ack was born in Bryant this county, 
August 11, 1854. She is a daughter of William 

Huniiiiell a native of Licking County, Ohio, who 
came to this county in 1831, and was one of its 
early settlers. He was a farmer and continued to 
carry on that occupation until the time of his death 
at the age of seventy-two years. The maiden name 
of Mrs. Whitenack's mother was Nancy M. Wil- 
coxen, and she belonged to a noted family whose 
history appears elsewhere in this Album. She died 
at the age of sixty-nine years and thus closed 
a well-spent life. Our subject and his wife had 
three chiblren, namely : Grace T.. Anna Blanche 
(deceased) and Leota C. Mrs. Whitenack is a de- 
voted member of the Christian Church and is well 
thought of by all about her. 

Our subject is a member of the Republican party. 
He is active in public life and in the spring of 1889 
was elected to the important office of Supervisor to 
represent Liverpool Township on the County 
Board of Supervisors, to which position he was re- 
elected in 1890. He has served as School Director 
for nine years and does all that he can to advance 
educational interests in his township. He possesses 
many ple.asant social qu.alities and has a host of 
warm friends who delight in his success. 

AVID BEESON, President of the Canton 
National Bank, has gained an enviable repu- 
tation in the financial world for honesty, 
uprightness and liberality. He began the labors 
of life when quite young, undertaking his own 
support at the early age of thirteen 3'ears, and has 
in all positions proved himself to be the soul of 
honor, a friend of the iioor and distressed and a 
perfect gentleman. He has never been ambitious. 
in fact is of a retiring disposition, but his qualifi- 
cations are such that he has been pushed forward 
by .admiring friends to the high position which he 
holds at present. 

The family of which our subject is a member 
has been represented in this country for at least two 
centuries, Jacob Beeson being the founder of the 
American branch. He three sons, one of whom 
settled in N'irginia. The great-grandfather of our 
subject was Henry Bce.ion, whu lived and died in 



Martinsburg, W. Va.. breathing his last in 1S17, 
when in his seventj--eigUtb \-ear. The grandfather 
of our subject was Jesse Beeson, who was born in 
Unionton-n. Pa., July 8, 1768, anfl returned to his 
birthplace during the latter years of his life, dying 
there June 8, 1842. Much of his active life was 
spent in Martinsburg, W. Va., in tlie occup.ition of 
a miller. He married Julia Ann Swcaringen, a na- 
tive of Maryland, whose natal day was Februar\' 
11. 1773. and whose death occurred December 23, 
1797. They reared a familj* of two children — 
Edward S. and Samuel, the latter of whom was born 
April 8. 1794, and died October 17, 1818. 

Edward S. Beeson was born December 12, 1795, 
and dieil Januarj' 14, 1852. He followed the busi- 
ness of a miller in Virginia until about 1830, when 
he removed to Indiana, in which Slate he continued 
the same business some five years. He then went 
to Ohio and engaged in the sale of merchandise at 
Beeson's Cross Roads, now known as Samautha. 
At one time he was Sheriff of Highland County 
and later resumed his trade, running what was then 
known as Reece's, but now as Foraker's Mill. In 
the spring of 1850 he came to Canton, 111., and en- 
gaged in the milling business, but the next jear 
removed to Farmington, where he died not long 
after, his death being caused by inhaling steam 
from a boiler explosion while engaged in a search 
for his son, our subject. 

The mother of our subject bore the maiden name 
of Julianna Ridgeway and was born in Frederick 
County, Va., August 31, 1802. Her parents were 
David and Martha Ridgeway. After the death of 
her husband she removed again to Canton where 
she breathed her last August 2, 1863. She was the 
mother of eight children, two of whom died in in- 
fancy. Of the living the subject of this sketch is 
the third in order of birth. The others are Martha, 
who was born August 29, 1826, and is now living 
in Healdsburg. Cal., being the widow of Joe S. 
Jlillsap, a prominent minister of the Methodist 
Church; Edward R., born April 2, 1833, a mer- 
chant and stockman in Franklin County. Kan.; 
Jesse A., born February- 10, 1841, and now a 
prominent business man in Bloomington, this State. 
The last named was a soldier in Companj' II, Sev- 
euteenth Illinois Infantry, going promptly at the 

first call, was discharged for disability in 1803. but 
re-enlisted the following j-ear and received his final 
discharge in 18G5. He received an injury at Ft. 
Donelson from the effects of which he has never 
recovered. Two daughters have died within the 
last decade — Virginia A. who was born August 27, 
1836. and died August 13, 1882, and Julia, whose 
natal day occurred November 27, 1844, and whose 
death occurred August 12, 1886. 

The birth of David Beeson. the subject of this 
notice, occurred at Hillsboro, Highland County, 
Ohio. October 12. 1838. Having been left father- 
less soon after he entered his teens, he became -i 
clerk for SuUej' & Trace^', general merchants and 
buyers of produce, and was subsequently connected 
with H. C. Adams in the mercantile business tw^o 
3ears. The establishment was then closed out and 
Mr. Beeson engaged with Hulitt & Atwater, with 
whom he remained nine years. He afterward 
clerked for a Mr. Mills in a dry-goods house and 
also for a yiv. Huisley. He next went into the 
private bank of C. T. Ilealds, and the First Na- 
tional Bank being started a short time afterward 
he was retained in the new institution ,is book- 
keeper for sixteen years, during which time he also 
acted as Assistant Cashier and Teller and held a 
position as Director. 

In 1882 Mr. Beeson severed his connection 
with this bank, having the previous year com- 
menced the clothing business in a firm known as 
"Dave it Dick." he being the senior member and 
Richard Dirilbiss the junior member. After three 
jears Mr. Beeson withdrew from the firm on ac- 
count of his health and for some time not en- 
gaged in active business pursuits. At the annual 
meeting of the National Bank Directors he, in 
companj- with others, withdrew and organized a 
private banking institution known as C. T. Heald 
<fe Co.. and in 1887 they organized under the name 
of Canton National Bank, at which time Mr. Beeson 
was elected President. 

The subject of this sketch never married and 
passes the most of his time in reading and travel- 
ing. He has an excellent library in which he 
spends many hapjiy hours, eiojoying the best 
thoughts of great men and thoughtfully studying 
their utterances. In recent years he has visited his 


O-i^c^i^ J^t.^^ 





birthplace and localities in which his ancestors 
lived anil died, finding mnch to interest him in the 
scenery and associations. lie is a worth\' repre- 
sentative of a family upon whose name there is no 
blemish, generation after generation having lived 
quiet and useful lives and been highly esteemed 
citizens in their respective communities. He has 
in his possession an Irish iiazel cane which has been 
in tlie family for more tiian two centuries and was 
brouoht to thi<i country by tlie original ancestor of 
the American branch of tlie family. 

<il IklLLIAM T. DAVIDSON, the well-known 
\/^/// editor and prtiprietor of the Fulton Demo- 
V^w crat, the leading paper, of this count\-, has 
exercised a marked inlluence on the affairs of this 
section of Illinois, and even of the entire State, not 
only professionally, but as a iirogressive, public- 
spirited citizen, and lias aided in guiding its 
political destiny, as well as in guarding and advanc- 
ing its dearest intcre,«ts materiall3', social!}- and 

Mr. Davidson is a native of this State, a member 
of a distingnisiied family, and a descendant of 
sterling pioneer stock. He was born in the town 
of Petersburg, Menard t'ounly, February 8, 1837. 
His father, Isham G. Davidson, was born in Soutii 
Carolina, Novemlier 11, 1802, and was a son of 
William Coke Davidson, a native of the same 
State. The latter was reared and married in South 
Carolina, and resided there till 1809. In 
year he emigrated with his family to that part of 
the Northwestern Territory now included in the 
State of Illinois, the removal thither being maile 
in rude carts entirely of wood, the wheels having 
been sawed from the end of a log. The journey 
was entirel}^ b_v land, and the greater part of the 
waj- led through a trackless forest inhabited by 
hostile Indians. The family finally arrived in 
safety at its destination, located three miles south 
of the present site of Jvl wards ville, Madison County, 
and was one of the earliest to settle there. 

The grandfather of our subject made a claim to 
a tract of Government land, on wliich he erected a 
log cabin, and then entered upon the hard pioneer 
task of im[)ri)ving a farm from the wilderness. At 
that time there were but fevv settlements in the 
whole territory now embracing this .State; there 
were no markets for produce, St. Louis being then 
but a trading post, and .as there were likewise no 
mills the pioneers were home livers, maintaining 
life from the products of the soil and from wild 
game, which was plenty. There were many Indians 
in the territory, and the few settlers were obliged 
to gather together and Ijuild forts and stockades, 
in which thej^ resided several 3'ears after Mr. 
Davidson's removal thither. He was a resident of 
that part of the countr.y till his death from milk 
sickness in 1820. The maiden name of his wife 
was Hannah Bankhead. After his death she mar- 
ried a second time, becoming the wife of Joshua 
Delaplain, and her death occurred iu INIadison 
Countj- in lvS31. She reared six children, the fruit 
of her first marriage, namely: James, Isham G., 
George, Jackson, Klizabeth .'uid Millotson, the two 
hitter of whom are still living. 

Isham I)avids(jn, the father of our subject, was 
seven years oki when the f;imily moved from their 
distant South Carolina home to the wilds of Illinois. 
He was reared on the frontier in Madison County, 
to agricultural pursuits. In the year IS.'U), in the 
vigor of a stalwart manhood he became a pioneer 
of Petersburg, where he built and operated a flour- 
mill, and also engaged in a mercantile business. 
He was pros|)ering. when he met with serious 
financial losses, his mill being burned in 1837, and 
all his other possessions w^ere swept away in the 
monetary crisis of that year. In 18r)8 he came to 
Lewistown and look a contract to run a stage line 
between this city and Springfield. He made his 
home here till his death at a ripe old age in 1878. 

The maiden name of the mother of our subject 
was .Sarah Ann Springer. .She was born near 
Springfield, Mercer County, Ivy., June 2, 1810, 
and was the eldest child of John and Susanna 
Springer. Her father was a direct descendant of 
Charles Christopher 8|)ringcr, who was born in 
Sweden, his father being Don to the King of 
Sweden, and minister to various countries. Charles 



Christopher, or Carl, as he was called, was educated 
in London, and at tiie as^e of twent_v, while out late 
one night, was kidnapped and brought to Virginia, 
wiiere he was sold as a slave, and was in bond;ige 
for five years. At the expiration of that period 
about the j'ear 1092, he went to Wilmington, 
Del., to a Swedish settlement. He soon became 
prominent among his compatriots, who made him 
Justice of the Peace. He also read sermons for 
them and conducted their religious services till he 
wrote to the King of Sweden, and secured a minister 
for them, and also Swedish books, etc. He assisted 
in building the famous old Swedish Church that is 
still standing, and was Church Warden and Clerk 
during the rest of his life. lie married in Dela- 
ware and reared a large family, his son Charles suc- 
ceeding him as Church Warden and Clerk. He 
died in 1738 and was buried in frt)nt of the church 
where a subsequent enlargement of the building 
enclosed his tomb, and an arch in the church shows 
where he lies. 

The grandson of this noted gentleman, Charles 
Springer, was married in 1756 to Susanna Seeds, 
settling near Fredericksburg, Md., where he reared 
a family and died. Robert Fulton was one of his 
wife's bondsmen. She moved to Kentucky in 1 780, 
with her son .Tohn, who had married in Maryland. 
He was in the Indian War in Kentuckj' in 1784. 
His son John, the father of Sarah Ann, was born 
in Harrod's Fort, now Harrodsburg, Ky., in Janu- 
ary, 1784. but when quite young his family moved 
to Danville, and thence to a farm near Springfield, 
where he was principally reared. lie was there 
married and there his first child, Sarah Ann, was 
born. The mother, Susanna Sage was of English 
extraction, her parents, John and Frances Sage, 
having emigrated to Virginia before her birth, and 
subsequently to Kentucky, where she was married 
to John Springer in 1 809. 

After the birth of their first child in June, 1810, 
Mr. Springer, not wishing to rear a cliild in a slave 
state, decided to remove to Illinois, and in the 
nutunin of that year, started with three otiier 
families, moving their effects together with their 
families in tlie famous old Kentucky wagons. They 
arrived at their destination late in that same year 
and pre-empted land in what is now Bond County, 

and began life in a primitive way in their new 
home. But alas! for their hopes of a peacefu and 
prosperous life in the far West. In June of the 
following year, 1811, the Indians began their 
horrible butchering of the helpless settlers, and 
they were forced to leave their peaceful occupations 
and erect a fort for their defense. 

It will be interesting to know how liiese early 
settlers constructed the fort which was their sole 
refuge from the blood thirsty savages, who gathered 
in large forces for their utter desiruction. They 
selected a suitable place about a half a mile from 
Shoal Creek, on the edge of the prairie, and then 
proceeded to cut logs fifteen feet mi length and 
split them into slabs four inches in thickness, and 
from one to two feet in width. These they sharp- 
ened !it the upper end like a picket fence, and dig- 
ging a trench two feet deep, proceeded to set the 
slabs, each overlapping another half its width, thus 
giving them a wall or stockade as it was called 
eight inches in thickness and thirteen feet high on 
the inside. Outside the stockade the settlers dug 
a trench several feet deep and four or five feet in 
width, making it seventeen or eighteen feet in 
height from the bottom of the trench outside. 
Tills was to prevent the Indians from scaling the 
walls. The only ope. ing in the wall was a double 
gate fastened to a movable post in the centre. This 
was secured by four heav3r bars of wood crossing 
the gate and fastening into a post on either side. 

Inside the walls, and some distance from them, 
eight block hou,ses were erected, their inside corners 
being so close together that only one person could 
pass between. Tliey were built of logs, and con- 
structed after the following fashion: The lower 
rooms were sixteen feet square, with no windows, 
and but one door which opened into the circular 
court in the middle of the fort. The ceiling of 
these rooms was just high enough for a man to 
stand erect, and was made of hewn logs closely 
fitted together, which also formed the floor of the 
room above, and extended two feet be3-6nd lli(> walls 
of the lower room on each side,the upper room being * 
four feet larger in the square than the room btlow. 
Tl e walls were then built up about seven feet on 
the outer side, being made to slope a foot or eight- 
een inches toward the inner side of the circle. 



The clapboard coverings were held in |)l:ice by 
weigbt-poles, as tUey were called, logs several 
inclios ill diameter. On tiicse sloping roofs the 
sentries could lie protected as behind an embank- 
ment and see what was going on outside the 
stockade. The only entrance to the upper room of 
the house was through a trap door, !)>• means of a 
ladder, which in case of attack could be drawn up 
and the door securely fastened down. In the floor- 
ing of this room where it jutted beyond the room 
below and also in the walls of the lower room were 
port-holes near together, so that if the people 
within were besieged they could fire on the Indians. 

As soon as the walls of the fort were done, the 
settlers moved in, living in rail pens till the houses 
could be erected. And here Sarah Ann spent four 
years of her earl^' life, and from within these walls 
date her first recollections of home and passing 
events. After spending four years at Fort Jones, 
as it was c died, their situation became so desperate, 
that the little company decided to make the attempt 
to reach Camp Russell, the garrison, distant forty 
miles from Fort Jones, and six miles from the 
jiresent site of Kdwardsville. Accordingly carts 
were made wholly of wood, each large enough to 
contain one family, and the small amount of house- 
hold goods that could be taken on so perilous a 
journey, and each drawn by one horse. The little 
parly started by daylight, and traveled all day and 
far into the night without being molested, and 
reached the g.irrison in safety. 

Soon afterward Mr. Springer and others of the 
refugees from Fort Jones concluded it would be 
safer and more convenient to take up land in tbe 
vicinity of tlie garrison, which they accordingly 
did. Mr. Springer pre-empting a quarter-section five 
miles southwest of Edwardsville. And there, hav- 
ing boug t the lanfl of the G'lvernment as soon an 
it care into the market, he spent the remainder of 
his life, d3Mng of cholera in the epidemic of 1849. 
In tiiat pioneer home his ilaughler Sarah grew to 
womanhood, and at the age of sixteen years mar- 
ried Isham Davidson. Her vivid recollections of 
fort life, its perils and privations; its miraculous 
escapes from death; and her life of toil and hard- 
ship such as women of that day had to endure, 
would form a chapter of unusual interest in the 

history of the pioneer women of the State, of whom 
she is a noble representative. 

After her marriage with Mr. Davidson in October, 
Ifi'iO, this remarkable lady lived for several years 
near Edwardsville, and one year in Upper Alton, 
where almost daily for weeks she fed volunteers 
returning from the Black Hawk War. In 1836 
they removed to Petersburg, Menard Counly, Illi- 
nois, where her husband engaged in merchandising 
and milling. Petersburg was tlien a small hamlet, 
which had never had a religious service of any 
kind within its borders. Instead, a "groggery," as 
it was called, was set up on a vacant lot directly 
opposite their dwelling, and here, quite soon after 
she and her husband removed to the place, and 
during his absence, on the occasion of a horse 
race, Mrs. Davidson was forced to endure the 
scene of perhaps two hundred men in all stages of 
intoxication, swearing, fighting, etc. During the 
day, and nearly the entire night the sounds of 
unholy revelry polluted the air. To a woman of 
her refinement and spirit this was revolting, and 
she felt she could not live amid such scenes w'ith 
no Cliristian |)rivileges. Accord ir.gly wlicii the 
Methodist Episcopal Conference met in Spiingdeld, 
twentv-two miles distant from Petersburg, but a 
short time subsequently, she attended it in person 
and requested that a missionary might be sent to 
tlicin. Her appeal was listened to and granted in 
the person of her uncle, the Rev. Levi Springer, 
who held regular services at Petersburg during 
the ensuing two years, followed b}- Rev. Michael 
Sliunck, w-lio was an inmate of llic home of the 
Davidsons while they staid in lliat part of tlie 
State. The services were held in llicir dwelling 
till Mr. Davidson built a schoolliouse for the 
double purpose of holding school and divine ser- 
vices within its walls. But the opposition to 
Christianity was so strong that the schoolliouse 
was soon burned, and the devoted band of worship- 
pers were again obliged to have their meetings in 
the Davidson home. Before the end of their three 
years' stay in Petersburg, Mr. and Mrs. Davidson 
had the happiness of seeing the little church of 
which they and two or three others formed the 
nucleus, grown into a goodly company of Christian 
people. During those years and subsequent ones 



Mrs. Davidson often entertained in her house those 
veteran pioneer preachers, Peter Cartwright, Peter 
Akers, George and William Riilledge, Henry Sum- 
mers, and many others prominent in the annals of 
Methodism. She has also entertained Stephen A. 
Douglas, .\braliam Lincoln, and other notalile men 
of their day. 

After the panic of '37 had swept aw.ay his entire 
wealth Mr. Daviilson became contractor of the 
stage route from Lewistown to Springfield, and re- 
moved his family to Lewistown in the autumn of 
1S38. In 1840 he purchased a little home on the 
outskirts of the city, and he and his wife began life 
anew in a log cabin. Here Mrs. Davidson was 
happy and contented because it was home, and her 
friends were as welcome as in more prosperous 
daj-s. And when a few years later the cabin gave 
place to a more commodious cottage it was and 
ever has been a home for all who claim its hos- 
pitality. This venerable lady is still living, honored 
and cherished by her children, and regarded with 
feelings of respect and affection far beyond her 
home circle, as in a long and useful life she has 
made many warm friends, who have been indebted 
to her for wise counsel and helpfulness. 

]\Iother Davidson has been the mother of eight 
children, four of whom were born in ^Madison 
County, where two died infancy. One, William 
T., was born in Petersburg, and three were born in 
Lewistown. Two of her sons, James M. (editor of 
the Carthage Republican) and William T., are 
editors of prominent county papers. Mary F., 
Luc}' E., and Eliliu S. are dead. Her youngest 
daughter, Sarah M. B., inherits in a full degree the 
strength of character and literary talent of her 
brothers, and is a lady of marked culture. She is 
an able writer, possessing fine descriptive powers, 
and it is to her graceful pen that we are indebted 
for the foregoing vivid account of her mother's 
early life and of pioneer times. Mrs. Davidson's 
daughter Sarah and an orphan grandson reside with 
her and cheer her declining years in the cottage 
which has 'oeen her home for half a century. .She 
has endured with fortitude and resignation the 
sorrows that have fallen to her lot in the death of 
those nearest and dearest to her. Her husband, 
witli whom she traveled life's road for more than 

fifty years, has been removed from her presence, 
and a son, two daughters and several grandchildren 
have also gone to their last resting place since she 
came to Lewistown. Her descendants now living 
in 18i)0 number three children and nineteen grand- 
children and great-grandchildren. 

William T. Davidson, th(^ subject of this bio- 
graphical review, was but a small child when his 
parents brought him to Lewistown, and here he 
was reared amid pioneer influences. His early 
education was secured in the disti-ict school, wliicii 
was conducted on the subscription plan. At the 
youthful age of twelve 3'ears he was compelled to 
leave school to earn his own living. His first em- 
ployment was teaming produce from Lewistown to 
the Liverpool and Peoria markets, and on the re- 
turn trip he loaded his wagon with merchandise, 
or with stone and sand which was used in building 
many of the early stores and other buildings of 
Lewistown. He was thus engaged till he was 
seventeen years old, and then, as an apprentice in 
the printing office of the Lewistown liepublicnn^ 
he entered upon that career that eventuplly led 
him to the editorial chair of the Fulton Democrat, 
which he has so abl}' filled for more than thirty 

He worked nine months in the llejmbUcan ottice, 
and then as the paper was discontinued, he went to 
Peoria as compositor In 1854 the Daily Herald, 
the first daily paper ever published in Peoria, was 
established by George W. Ranney, editor and 
jiroprietor. Our subject secured a'position to set 
type in that office when it was first opened, and 
the following eighteen months was engaged on that 
and other |)apers in that city and at Tiskilwa and 
Macomb. In June. 1855 he was called to Lewis- 
town to assist his brother James in founding the 
F'ulton Democrat. In 1856 he returned to Peoria 
and helped to found the Peoria Transcript, now 
the most prominent paper in Central Illinois. Re- 
turning to Lewistown, our subject becnme half- 
owner and assistant editor of the Fultoii Democrat 
in July, 1858, and the 11th of the following No- 
vember he bought his brother's interest in the 
paper, and from that time to the present has been 
sole editor and proprietor of the Democrat, 

Mr. Davidson has devoted his best energies to 



his work of niaUing a newspaper that slionkl educate 
its conslitiii'iicy and be a iiolcnt factor in the np- 
liiiildiii!)- of city and connty. This he has acconi- 
|iiislicd, and the journal which owes its strength 
and high position to his genius is read far and 
wide, perhaps having a larger circulation than any 
similar provincial newspaper, and has iiclped to 
mold public opinion on many of the im[)ortant 
questions of the day. The Deinocrat is a sound 
family paper, well supplied with solid and useful 
information, as well as with lighter matter, keeping 
its readers wcll-infornud on current topics and the 
affairs of this anti other countries, and one of its 
interesting features is the correspondence from 
various localities in the county. 

Mr. l^avidson is a man of strong convictions 
and does not hesitate to express tiiem freely and 
frankly, and with all the vigor he can command. 
Man^- a time his sharp, caustic pen has done good 
service in spurring on his party to victory, or in 
exi)osing fraud and corruption, whether found in 
the ranks of the Republicans or Democrats, among 
civic otiicials or private citizens. Through his 
columns he has usually supported the Democratic 
party, but holds himself independent, and has 
never been moved by mone^- considerations or 
personal preferences. His readers know that whom- 
soever or whatsoever he sup|)orts or disapproves, 
his course is actuated by conscientious motives and 
after careful consideration. The usual amount of 
praise and fault-linding has been measured out to 
him as an editor, but his character as a man of 
honor, integrity and public spirit has never been 
questioned. His manly attitude in regard to the 
temperance question is well-known, as he is a radi- 
cal prohibitionist, his influence being felt through- 
out this section of the country, which is attested by 
the fact that Lewistown, his home, is the center of 
one of the largest prohibition districts in the Stale. 

Our sul)ject is connected with the following 
social organizations: Lewistown Lodge. No. 104, 
A. F. & A. j\L; Havana Chapter, R. A. M.; and 
Damascus Commandory, No. 42, K. T. He is a 
lover of home and is eminently happ3^ in his do- 
mestic relations. He was married January 24, 
18G0, to Miss Lucinda M. Miner, a native of Co- 
lumbus, Ohio, and a daughter of Francis and Myra 

(Jordan) Miner. Seven children have been born 
to J\Ir. and Mrs. Davidson. — Harold L.. Mabel 
(who died in infancy). Bertha, Frances. Lulu I\L. 
Nell c (who died in infancy), and JLaude. 

The readers of this volume will be pleased to 
notice elsewhere on its pages a lilhograi)hic i)or- 
trait of Mr. Davidson. 


lEORGE H. HETRICK. proprietor of the 
Transfer Line at Canton, is a man who has 
always met with success in worldly' affairs, 
and one who ranks high in commercial circles. 
Being an old settler in this county he is well known, 
and that he is highly respected it needs but a men- 
tion of his name to prove. Fortune having smiled 
u|)on his efforts, he is numbered among t,he wealthy 
citizens of the place, having a good business and 
owning a fine residence, where he and his family 
enjoy all the comforts that heart can desire and 
money purchase. 

William Hetrick, the great-grandfather of our 
subject, the founder of the family in America, 
coming to this country when quite a young man 
and settling in Pennsylvania. He was a farmer by 
occupation and continued to make his home in the 
Keystone State. The next in the direct line of de- 
scent was Robert Hetrick, who was born in Penn- 
sylvania, lived in Virginia for some years, but re- 
turned to his n.ative State to die. He married a 
Miss Smith, and to them were born three children, 
the youngest of whom was the father of our sub- 
ject. Ui)on him the name of Robert bestowed. 
After reaching manhood he married Catherine 
Bellman, daughter of George and Mary Bellman, 
whose ancestors came from Germany many years 
ago. She was born about a mile from Gettysburg, 

Robert Hetrick i)ursued the calling of a farmer, 
and for 3'ears served his fellow-citizens in the ca- 
pacity of Constable, and was also Sheriff of Cum- 
berland County for some time. He was a well ed- 
ucated man, much interested in the progress of civ- 
ilization, and his home was a great resort for min- 
isters of the German Baptist, Methodist Episcopnl 



and otiier denominations. To himself and his 
good wife ten childi'en were burn, of whom those 
now deceased are: Caroline, Eliza Jane, Kate, Car- 
oline 2d, Mary Ellen and Jennie. 'J'he living 
are: Joiui, now a stock-raiser and farmer in Linn 
County, Mo.; Ann, wife of Augustus Stoner, a 
boot and shoe dealer in Ilarrisburg, Pa.; the sub- 
ject of our sketch, and Mary Ellen, wife of Will- 
iam Jacobi, a machinist of Ilarrisburg. 

The birth of George B. Hetrick occurred in 
Cumberland Countj-, Pa., near Harrisburg, Janu- 
ary 29, lb27. Repassed his youth in his native 
State, starting for himself in the business world at 
the early age of fourteen, and vvorking for his un- 
cle, George Bellman, at stage-driving and teaming. 
In a short time he saved enough money to pur- 
chase a team of his own, and drove a stage in Pitts- 
burg, and later in Northumberland. In 1852 he 
came West, and for several years made his home 
in Rushville, this State, still earning his living by 
teaming. In comi)any with his brother he took con- 
tracts for carrying the mail, one route being be- 
tween Burlington, Iowa, and Springfield, 111., an- 
other from Rushville to Jacksonville, and the con- 
tracts covering five routes. 

Selling out his mail contracts Mr. Iletrick re- 
turned to liis former occupation for a time, then be- 
gan farming near Iluntsville, Schuyler County, 
where he resided two years. In the fall of 1860 he 
came to Canton, where he has continued to make 
his home. Immediately after locating here he took 
a contract to carry the mail between Elmwood and 
Livingston, but after faithfully discharging tiie 
duties of a carrier twoj'ears, sold out and returned 
to his favorite occupation, teaming. He was the 
first to haul goods from the dc[)ot to the merchants 
and now has four teams and some very fine wagons, 
his entire outfit being kept up in first-class style. 
There is scarcely an hour in the day when at least 
three of his teams are not in use. 

In 1818 Mr. Helrick was united in marriage 
with Miss Amanda Pollinger. a native of Cumber- 
land County, Pa., and a friend and schoolmate of 
his early years. She is a daughter of George and 
Matilda (Ettcr) Pollinger, natives of the Keystone 
State. She is a woman of fine character and has 
been a devoted member of the Presbyterian Church 

since her early girlhood. She has borne her hus- 
band ten cliildren, of whom the living are: Robert, 
a commercial traveler who makes his home in Can- 
ton; Kale, wife of R. M. Truax, of Morgan Park. 
Cliicago; William, a resident of Canton; Anna 
and (J race, who are with their parents; Jessie, wife 
of John M«ore, of Buckheart Township, this 
county. The deceased are : Ellen, George, James 
and Dot. Mr. Hetrick and his family are regular 
attendants at the Presbyterian Church, and al- 
though none but his wife hold membership, all aid 
in vaiious phases of church work, and are classed 
among the moral members of societj'. 


SCAR J. BOYER. There are few professions 
which require the amount of diligent study 
and general information that is essential to 
the knowledge of law. To master legal terras un- 
derslandingly, one must first possess a good edu- 
cation, and must in addition to this have great 
concentration of thought. What could call forth 
more admiration than a forcible speech well deliv- 
ered; or appeal more earnestly to the human heart 
than an enthusiastic defense of some poor man, 
whose chances for living depend entirely upon his 
attorney's eloquence.' Among the gentlemen wlio 
realize the full importance of this calling, and add 
dignity to the profession, ranks Oscar J. Bo\'er, 
attorney at law. Canton. 

William Boj'er, the great-grandfather of our sub- 
ject, escaped from France during the revolution in 
that country, and coming to America participated 
in the Revolutionary War. He settled in Delaware, 
where his son John, grandfather of our subject, 
was born. This gentleman went to Ohio, locating 
near Zanesville, whence he came to Fulton Countj-, 
III., in the \'ear 1842, dying here about 1860. His 
family consisted of five children — Caleb, the father 
of our subject; John, who is now deceased; Robert, 
who lives in Warren County; Rachel, wife of 
Henry Byers. of Lewistown Township; and Sarah, 
wife of James Frederick, of Lee Township. 

Caleb Pioyer was born near Zanesville, Ohio, 
September 3, 1821. He is now living in Cass 



T()wii>hi|), tliis ooiinty, at the nge of sixlj'-six ; luiil 
his wife, who is tlie same age, is still alive and well. 
He has been a farmer and local preaeher of tiie 
liiiled Ilielliren faitli and enjoys an envialile rep- 
utalion. He has four chihlren. the subject of this 
notice being the (irst-ljorn. The otiiers are.Iohn W.. 
Norris ('., and Dellie. wife of Zenie Morey, of 
Downer County. The mother bore the maiden 
name of .'^:irah Baughman. Her ancestors came to 
America before the devolution, settling irj Virginia, 
wlience the faii)il_\- moved to Ohio at an early d.ay. 
In tlte i'.uci<eye Slate Mrs. Buyer opened her eyes 
to tlie light. .Somewhere in the '40s the Baughmans 
came to Illinois, locating on Tottens Prairie, Cass 
Township, this eount\'. 

The subject of this sketch was born .Inly 4, 18C1, 
in Cass Township, this county. He remained with 
his parents until he liad reached his sixteenth year, 
having in the meantime received a common-school 
education. lie then took a course in the Gem City 
Business College in Quincy, after wliich lie liegan 
reading law with Barrere i^' Grant. While master- 
ing the legal profession he taught school several 
terms, and when twenty -one years of age passed a 
very creditable examination at Springfield, and al- 
th()UL;h so young, was licensed by the Supreme 
Court to practice law. In the fall of 1882 he came 
to Canton and opened an office, practicing alone 
until late in the year 1888, when he became one of 
tlie firm of Gallagher & Boyer. 

Wr. Boyev was married in August, 1885, to Miss 
l\Iinerva A. Snider, of Buckheart Township, who 
was born January 7, 186(3. and is a dauglitcr of John 
II. and .lemima (Bowman) Snider. Mrs. Boyer's 
family are of Southern descent, her parents coming 
from East Tennessee and Kentucky respectively. 
Her marriage rites were celebrated at Canton, and 
the happy union has been blessed by the birth of 
one child — Bessie B. By her intelligen.ce, good 
breeding and fine character, Mrs. Boyer is fitted 
for the station she occupies as the wife of a rising 
member of the bar, and the guiding power in 
a happy home. 

Mr. Boyer is a young man of ability, 
who has gained several important cases by moans 
of his unmistakable intelligence and el-.Tpiencc. 
He has always taken great interest in political 

matters, being a strong Republican, but has no 
personal .aspirations for jiidilic ollice, choosing to 
devote himself to his profession. Bowdng to the 
wishes of tlie people, however, he rc|iresented the 
township in the Bfiard of Supervisors in 1886-87, 
and is again serving in that capacity. The delegates 
to the County Convenlion have been instrucled to 
nominate him as the choice of their constituency for 
the Legislature. He is a member of the M.asonic; 
fraternity, the Knights of Pythias, and the Modern 
Woodmen of America, Mr. Boyer is a lover 
of line horses and is interested in the breeding 
of standard-bred Ilambletonian and Mambrino- 
I'atchen horses; at the head of his stud being 
Clipper Sprague Pilot, dam Mambrino Patchen. 

ACOB BRIMMER lias a well-ordered and 
finely appointed farm on section 6, Farm- 
ington Township, and he is considered one of 
the first farmers of the township in regard 
to his skill and practical knowledge of agriculture. 
He was born in Rensselaer County, N. Y., December 
11, 1832, to Jacob and Matilda (.Saunders) Brim- 
mer. The Brimmers arc of mingled .Scotch and 
German ancestry. 

In the fall of 1854, our subject came to this State 
in company with John S. Green. They put their 
teams and all their worldly effects aboard a boat at 
Sacketts Ilarljor, and came by water to Chicago, 
and from there made their way to their destination 
in this county, following the Illinois Ki ver the most 
of the way. After his arrival here Mr. Brimmer 
began to till a [larlof the large tract of seren hun- 
dred and sixt}' acres of land had been entered 
in this township by his father and John S. Green 
together the previous spring. Coming here in the 
prime of a strong, manly, vigorous maiUiood, Mr. 
Brimmer has accomplished iniicii and has placed 
liimscif among the substantial c'ilizens of Farming- 
ton Townshii). He owns here and is operating one 
of the finest cultivated and best managed farms in 
this part of the county. Its two hundred acres are 
amply supplied with commodious buildings and 
all appliances for prosecuting agriculture ad van- 



tageou?l\'. His stock presents a sleek, well-kept 
appearance, and is of standard grades. 

One of the most important events in the life of 
our subject was his marriage in the month of 
February, 1858, to Miss Sarah A. Saunders, a 
daughter of Lyman and Sirrilla Saunders. Their 
wedded life has been as felicitous as usually falls 
to the lot of mortals, and has been blessed to them 
by the birth of three children: Ambrose, who died 
at the age of three years; Sirrilla; and AdajM., who 
married William Purvianco, agent of the Iowa 
Central Railway, at Abingdon, III. 

Mr. Brimmer is a stalwart among the Democrats 
of this section. He is a man of good calibre, of ex- 
cellent habits, and of a keen, intelligent mind. He 
has served on tiie jury, and is at all times prompt 
in fulfilling his obligations as a citizen. 


"^AMES STOCKDALE. A simple narration 
of facts regarding the life of an individual 
is undoubtedly the best biographical history 
that can be written of him. Therefore we 
shall not endeavor to elaborate upon the incidents 
In the career of the gentleman whose name heads 
this sketch. His present home is in Canton, in or 
near which place he has been living about forty 
years. He has now partially retired from business 
affairs, deriving his principal income from loaning 
money and tlie rents on his real estate. 

Mr. Stockdale is a native of Yorkshire, England, 
having been horn April 29, 1814. His father, 
William Stockdale, was of Scotch descent and born 
at Kirkbourti, near Driffield. He emigrated to 
America in May, 1830, and died the following fall, 
a widow and six children surviving him. The 
mother of our subject was Mary, daughter of Roger 
Cook, who died in Cicero, N. Y. 

Our subject, who was the eldest child, learned 
the butcher's trade in Hull, England, and after 
coming to America worked at it in Syracuse and 
Buffalo, N. Y. He also spent two years on the 
lakes as mate of a schooner. He was married in 
Goodrich, LTpper Canada, to Miss Harriot Cutting, 
a native of Sussex, England. Her father, Sidney 

Cutting, was in the employ of the Canada Company, 
building up a town and also laboring as a boat 
builder. Soon after his marriage Mr. Stockdale 
went to Columbus, Ohio, securing employment in 
jMitchell's pork house. After a time he opened a 
meat market on the Ohio canal at the junction of 
the Columbus Feeder, keeping the stand two 3'ears 
and furnishing the boats with meat. He next went 
to St. Louis, JIo., in 1839. remaining in that city 
nearly ten years. 

The next removal of Mr. Stockdale was to Can- 
ton, III., where, in 1850, he opened the first regular 
meat market in the place; although he had been 
there in the fall of 1848-49 slaughtering hogs. This 
he carried on until the fall of 1854, when he 
formed a partnership with James H. Stipp and 
Thompson Maple. During the winter of 1854 the 
company packed about fifteea thousand hogs, the 
proceeds of the sale amounting to nearly $200,000. 
Mr. Stockdale was eng.aged in this enterprise during 
the winters until 1859 when he bought the interest 
of his partners. He carried it on alone about ten 
years: then sold the establishment. It was some 
years afterwards burned. He then carried on a 
meat shop a few years, and farmed. 

Having invested in a tract of land not far from 
the town, Mr. Stockdale removed his family thither 
in 1865, giving his attention to agriculture until the 
fall of 1877. He then sold the farm, returned to Can- 
ton and built a cider mill, which he runs for custom 
business, making as mucli as three thousand barrels 
in a season. He has two large presses with a 
capacity of one hundred barrels per day and does 
the grinding and pressing b}' steam. Except dur- 
ing the season when the mill is in operation he is 
practically retired from business. 

Mr. Stockdale has been twice married, his first 
companion having born him six children. Of this 
circle three are now living. Amelia P. is Assistant 
Superintendent in the Home of the Friendless in 
Chicago; Fhebe H. is the wife of John Hollings- 
worth whose home is near Monroe City, Mo., 
eighteen miles west of Hannibal; Albert J. is a 
telegraph operator on the Chicago, Burlington & 
(■iuincy Railroad. The present wife of our subject 
bore the maiden of Rachael Penny. She was 
born ill England and came to this country in child- 

_M.^ iV 



V, ^*- 




hood, her home at the time of her marriage being 
in Canton. This union has resulted in the birth of 
six ciiiidren. as follows: Ilattie E., a bookkeeper for 
P. P. Mast & Co., in Peoria; Grace M., wife of 
Wilton Vandevonder; Laura, deceased; Maud, 
.lames E., and Mattie, at home. 

Mr. Stockdale served as Assistant Township 
Supervisor two years and was afterward elected 
Supervisor, serving in that unpacity an equal length 
of time. For several years he was a member of 
the Odd Fellows order. In political matters he 
afliiiates with the Republican party, being one of 
the most stanch supporters of the jsrinciples laid 
down in its platform. In the first campaign of 
Lincoln he organized nearly twenty Union Leagues 
in Fulton County. (Juietly pursuing his course 
in life, honorably discharging all his obligations, 
and manifesting an intelligent interest in the affairs 
of the community', State and nation, he is numbered 
among the respectable citizens and successful men in 
this vicinity. 

Three of Mr. Stockdale's sons participated in 
the late war. \\illi;un ('., enlisted in Company H, 
Seventeenth Illinois Infantry, and received the 
commission of First Lieutenant; Sidney A., was a 
member of tlie Eighth Illinois Infantry, afterward 
transferred to Gen. Kellogg's corps and appointed 
Provost Marshal in Tennessee, having his head- 
quarters at Nashville. He was for some time on 
the staff of Gen. Grant, and was appointed Col- 
lector of Internal Revenue for sixteen parishes in 
Loul.siana, which was among the first a|)pointments 
made by Grant after he became President. When 
Senator Kellogg was appointed Collector of Cus- 
toms at New Orleans, Sidney became his Deputy. 
Albert J., was a drummer boy in the One Hundred 
and Third Illinois Infantry anfi served in this ca- 
pacity until discharged. 


\f SAAC HARRIS. The name of Harris is known 
and respected throughout Fulton Count}^ as 
belonging to one of the earliest pioneers of this 
section of the countrv, in wliose honor the town- 
ship of Harris was named. The present represent- 


ative of the family is a son of the old pioneer, and 
was himself a pioneer. For many years he has 
been an important factor in the agricultural life of 
the township of Bernadotte and is one of its most 
venerated and highly esteemed citizens. 

Our subject was born In Licking County, Ohio, 
February 21, 1813. His parents were of Pennsyl- 
vania birth. They came to Fulton Count}- in 1827, 
and in 1834 removed to what is now Harris Town- 
ship, which was named in honor of John Harris, 
the father. He was a prominent settler here for 
many years, dying at the venerable age of ninety- 
five years. His wife was eighty-six j'ears old at 
the time of her death. In the history of Fulton 
County, wc find the following concerning Mr. Har- 
ris' settlement here: "Harris Township, which 
borders upon the western boundary of the county 
was named in honor of John Harris, its first settler. 
He removed here from Bernadotte Township, and 
located on section 18, as early as 1827." It is said 
that for several years he followed the occupation of 
hunting, finding abundance of game in the native 
forc)(^ and upon the broad, beautiful, unculiivaled 
prairies. It is said that when he first visited this 
region he made the journey to and from Ohio on 

The subject of this sketch remained with his par- 
ents until he was within twenty-two d.ays of being 
twenty -one years old. At that youthful age he 
married and established a home of his own, taking 
as his bride Margaret, daughter, of John and 
Rachael Sinnetl, to vrhom ha was married January 
30. 1834. Their pleasant wedded life was brought 
to an end after nine years by the premature death 
of the wife March 11, 1813. Their union resuUccl 
in the birth of five children, four daughters and 
one son, of whom the following is recorded: Em- 
ily born November 17, 1834. married J. L. Clif- 
ford, and died February 14. 1880; Mary, born 
August 11, 1836, married AV'illiam DeFord in 
October, 1855; he is a butcher by trade, and 
they live in Smithfield, Cass Township; William 
H. was born on the 13th of Febru.ary. 1831), 
enlisted in 1862 in Company H, One Hundred and 
Third Illinois Infantry, and was killed at the battle 
of Lookout ]\rountain in 1863; Rhoda. born Febru- 
ary 24, 1811, married Edivard Fennel in July, 



1858, and they live on their own farm of two hun- 
dred acres in Wa^-ne County, Iowa; Margaret, born 
March 1 1, 1843, married Jolin Wheeler. October 
30. 1S64, and they live on a leased farm of three 
hundrod ami twenty acres in Putnian Township. 

Mr. Harris was married to his present estimable 
wife June 22, 1843. She was formerly JlargaretJ. 
Littlejohn, and is a daughter of Abraham and Sa- 
rah Litllejohn. The union of our subject and his 
wife h:!S been blessed to them by the birth of ten 
children, of whom the following is recorded: Perr}-, 
born August 10. 1844, is married and lives on 
a homestead in the State of 2sebraska; Sarah, 
born April 27, 1846, married Samuel Chambers 
and they live on a farm in Bern.ado'tte Township; 
Xaucy, born February 20, 1847, married John Cru- 
sen, who is a butcher, and thej' live in Cuba, Put- 
man Township: John L. born February S, 1850, 
lives on his farm of one hundred and sixty acres 
in Cass Towushi|); Michael R.. born March 15, 
1852. owns a farm of one hundred and sixty acres 
in the .State of Nebraska; Lana, born Januarj- 
8, 1855, married Jesse Nate, a dairyman, and the}' 
live in Lewistowu; Emma Jane, born September 7, 
1858, married George Stockhara, and thej' live on 
tlieir farm of one hundred and ten acres in Lewis- 
town Township; Julia E.. born December 16, 1860, 
married William Freeman, whose biograjjhy will be 
found elsewhere in this book; Elmira M., born Feb- 
ruary 28, 1 865, married William Johnson, and lives 
on part of her father's farm; Amanda E., born 
Januar}' 19. 1857, died at the age of nine months. 

.Soon after our subject's first marriage he en- 
tered one hundred and twenty-eight acres of 
land in Harris Township. After living on it two 
years he bought one hundred and sixty acres on 
section 13, Bernadotte Township, where he has re- 
sided ever since. It is in ever}- respect a good 
farm, supplied wilii ample buildings, under the 
best of cultivation and highly productive. Our sub- 
ject has been a hard working man. In his3-oungcr 
days he usetl to walk from Lewislown to where he 
now lives, cut two cords of wood and walk back 
again the same day, which feat no one but a ver}- 
strong, active man could have perforn)cd. He has 
worked for tifty cents a d.'iy in the harvest-field. 

Mr. Han is ha,s been a witness of the many 


changes that have made this a well-developed 
country and which have been brought about in a 
great measure by the introduction of modern m.a- 
chinery that has so greatly facilitated the work of 
harvesting. He is a man of strong constitution 
and comes of a hardy, long-lived race, havingaboift 
one hundred relatives now living. He has fi ve wid- 
owed sisters and three brothes, the youngest of whom 
is sixty years old, and among his descendants he can 
count seventy-five grand children and great graml- 
chihlren. His mother-in-law, Mrs. Littlejohn. is liv- 
ing with him and has attained the remarkable old 
age of ninetj-two years. Mr. Harris is a consist- 
ent member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
and in politics is a sturdy Republican. His por- 
trait is presented on another page of this volume. 

vOHN POLHEMUS. The name that heads 
this sketch is one long and worthily identi- 
fied with Joshua Township, and no history 
of this immediate vicinity would be com. 
plete without a biograjthical review of the life of 
Mr. Polhcmus. From a perusal of this necessarily' 
brief and incomplete life record, it will be seen that 
from earliest jouth to tiie present time his days 
have not been uselessly or idly spent. He is a man 
of more than ordinaiT energy and force of ciiar- 
acter and one much respected in business circles. 

Our subject was boru in the State of New Jer- 
sey, M.ay 4, 1830, a son of Daniel G. and .Maria 
Polhemus, who were also natives of that State, both 
being descendants of Holland ancestry. In the 
springof 1838, the parents with their entire family 
left the State of their nativity and coming to Illi- 
nois, settled in Fairview. The father bought four 
hundred acres of land near the present site of the 
town of that name and the Polhemus family have 
since contributed largely to the growth and pros- 
jierity of this enterprising town which is only twc 
miles from their residence. The father became one 
of the most useful pioneers of this section and here 
passed his remaining da^-s. dying in the month ' of 
January, 1883, at a ripe old age. His wife died 
April 1, 1879, and thej' are both sleeping their last 




slee[) in the cemetery at Fairvicw. They were the 
parents of seven children — John, Ralph, Emily, 
Henry, Garrett. Matilda and Mary, of whom tlie 
first three are deceased and the others are living in 
Fulton County. 

John Polhenuis received his education in tlie 
common school and remained with his parents at 
the old homestead until he had attained the age of 
twenty-tiiree years. On February 4, 1S62, he was 
wedded to Miss Anna Stout, whqse parents were of 
New Jersey birth. Shortly after his marrianc Mr. 
Polhemus enlisted as a private in the One Hundred 
and Third Illinois Infantry, Company I), under 
command of Capt. Wicas, and went into camp at 
Peoria. After one month spent there he marched 
with his regiment to Bolivar, Tenn., and took part 
in the battles of Tallahatcliee, Vicksburg, Lookout 
Mountain and Kenesaw Mountain. Mr. Polhemus 
and his comrades accompanied Sherman to the sea 
and bore an honorable part in all the engagements 
of that famous campaign. He was in the army 
three years and during all that time never lost .a 
day on account of ill health, but was always 
prompt in reporting for duty. He showed many 
valiant, soldierly qualities, was cool and courage- 
ous in battle, and was always faithful and efficient 
at all times and in all phces. At Dalton, Ga., Mr. 
Polhemus was captured on the skirmish line by the 
rebels, but he overpowered the guard in a personal 
encounter, succeeded in taking his gun and gaining 
his libert\% by this exploit escaping the hoi'rors of 
the rebel prison at Andersonvillc. He was cap- 
tured a second time and a second time he managed 
to escape, though shot at twice while fleeing. At 
Lookout Mountain he was wounded and at Atlanta 
a rifle ball struck the brass plate of his belt, his life 
being saved bj' the plate. Mr. Polhemus still pre- 
serves the ball and belt which he cherishes highly 
as a relic of his soldier days. 

At the close of the war Mr. Polhemus was hon 
orabl}^ discharged from the service and returned 
home with an excellent railitnrj' record. He has 
since devoted himself to fi'rming, having pur- 
chased a good farm on section 5, Joshua Township, 
after he left the army. He has greatlj' increased 
the value of his land since it came into his posses- 
sion and has upon it many neat and well ari'anged 

improvements. He]pays close attention to his du- 
ties, is skillful in carrying on;liis "operations and is 
meeting with well deserved success. He and his 
wife have here a cozy, eomfoi'table home. Their 
married life has been productive to them of much 
hapijiness and has brought to them eight children, 
and the following is .the record of the four living: 
Daniel, born April 13, 1855; Charles. October 20, 
185fi ; Emily, February 23, 1 860, and Harry, Febru- 
ary 14, 1861. The children 'have been carefully 
trained to useful lives, and are all residents of Ful- 
ton County. 

The subject of our sketch was a giilhmt and brave 
soldier and one who must always be remembered in 
recounting the famous victories and numerous dan- 
gers of the great Civil War. He is a member of 
the L. P. Blair Post, G. A. R., at Fairview. He is 
a citizen who^is most highly respected and well- 
liked by the entire community and in all the affair.s 
of life he has conducted himself creditably and 


enterprising editor of the Fairview Bee, is 
. ' a young gentleman possessed of those happy 

traits of character that enable him to keep up the 
liveliness of the Bee with all ease, and talent that 
is much admired throughout this community. 
There is certainly no position in life that requires 
more energy, good judgment and education than 
does editorial work. Mr. Whitehead was ushered 
into this world at Canton, July 10. 1861, and is 
the son of Savill and Anna (Ogden) Whitehead. 

Savill Whitehead was born in Oldham, Lancashire, 
England, as was also his wife. He was a machinist by 
trade and upon leaving his native shores located in 
Canton, where he is still living -and following his 
trade in hi.s own shops. He rendered his country 
good service by joining the ranks of the Fnion 
Army during the late Civil War. The parental 
family of our subject included nine children, 
namely: two who died in infancy in iMigland, 
Joseph, born in England, and who is foreman on 
the Canton Lerlc/er. at Canton; Mary, who resides 
in Chicago; John J., who died at the early age of 


roirrii.viT and 15I()(;rai'11jcal album. 

(1111^ :uul (iiK'-luill' 3'wus; oiii' subjuoL w;is next, in 
orcJer u( liirtli; l<hi M., a resident of Canton; Vved 
G., who (lied when two years old and AUiert. who 
makes his home in Canton. 

Our subject passed liis chiltUiood in. Iiis niitive 
place, attending tlie public and liigli schools in 
Canton, and completing liis education at Toland's 
College in that city. When seventeen years of 
age he entered the Ledger office as type-setter and 
"printer's devil," (be it understood that he was by 
no means possessed of satanic nature except in 
newspaper phraseolog}', kind reader). After filling 
his laborious and far from congenial position for 
about two years, and in the meantime developing 
liis talent for journalistic work, he next connected 
liimself with the Vermont Chronicle, but after 
chronicling news foi- about six months, he 
workeil on the Burlington Haivkeye — that most 
amufing of all ])apers. His next venture was with 
the Canton Register, after wliieh he was with the 
]>cwistown Democrat and the Havana Republican. 
Isatnrally this varied experience admirablj' fitted 
him to take charge of a ])aper, and since coming to 
Fairview he has been busy, not as a bee, buton the 
Bee. This paper was established Jann.iry 3, 1883, 
by V. B.Phillips. 

Mr. Whitelicad bought out the owners of the 
Bee the same j'ear in whicli it was estalilished and 
lias continued to make it a breezy and interesting 
sheet up to the present t,ime. His is not a "bee" 
that stings, but one that "buzzes" in a most musi- 
cal manner, and flies regularly into about three 
hundred and lifty homes that would be lost with 
out their spicy little visitor. 

In June, 188G, our subject was united in mar- 
riage with Miss Lillian M. Odie, of Havana, and 
daughter of William Odle. Her father is a retired 
merchant and slie is tlie third in order of birth of 
till' four chihlriMi liorn to her paients. Mrs. White- 
head is a graduate of the Havana High School and 
a most estimable woman. Her union with our sub- 
ject lias been blest by the liirth of two children — 
Violet and Hoyd Nelson. 

Mr. and Mrs. Whitehead have a comfortable 
iiome in the central |iart of the village, and lure 
thej^ entertain many a brilliant visitor and in their 
cozy parlor numerous "bon-raots" tly about. Our 


subject is a member of the Fairview Lodge, No. 120, 
I. O. O. F., of which he is Secretary. IIis wife is a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. In 
politics our subject is an Indepen<lent. In addition 
to his editorial duties, he has a nice business in job 
work and is gaining ground so rapidly in this 
work that the older printing houses through the 
county should look to their laurels. He is a veiy 
popular man and especially so in his own town- 
ship, having served as Township Clerk through 
1880 and 188'J. 

OHN G. ACKERSON, a veteran of the late 
war who is now connected with the agri- 
cultural interests of Liverpool Township, is 
a native of this county. He born Feb- 
ruary 15, 1831, in the i)ioneer home of his parents, 
Abram and Eleanor (Kent) Ackerson, in Lewistown 
Township. His father was one of the very earliest 
settlers of this county, coming here from Ohio, his 
native State. He was a son of Garrett Ackerson, 
who was a native of New York. The Ackersons 
are supposed to have originated in Holland. The 
grandfather of our subject was a faimer and also 
engaged iu carpentering. In the early days of the 
settlement of Ohio he removed from New York to 
that State and became one of its pioneers. He 
cleared a farm which he owned and operated un- 
till 1827, when he came by wagon to Fulton 
County and was among the first to locate in Lew- 
istown Township, settling on a tract of timber 
land three miles northeast from the present site 
of the city, for which he paid -^^1.20 ac acre. The 
Indians had not then left the country which was in 
a very sparsely settled condition, and deer, wild 
hogs and turkeys abounded. The grandfather de- 
veloped a farm and remained a resident of tliis 
county until his ileatli at a venerable age in 1862. 
The father of our subject came to this county in 
1828, about a j-ear later than his father's removal 
to this section. His father gave him forty acres of 
land, and Iu; actively entered upon the pioneer task 
of preparing it for farming jiurposes. His work 
was intermitted for a time by the Black Hawk War, 



in wliicli lie served as a soldier. Tie lived in lliis 
Cdiiiity milil Ills death with llu; exei!|il on of two 
years icsideiice in Jlasoii County. He died on our 
subjeel's farm in J>iverpool T(j\vnsliip, in 18(58. at 
the age of tifty-six ^ears. He was a man of exem- 
plary habits and was a member of the chnreh 
nearly all his life, belorginij lii\st to the church of 
the I'nited Brethren and later to the Methodist 
Chnreh. His wife, who was u native of Ohio, 
lived to the age of sixty-seven years and then gave 
up her life with the cabTiness and sereidty that at- 
tends the death of faithful believers. She was iden 
tified with the Southern Methodist Church for 
many 3'ears. Five children were horn to the par- 
ents of our subject, of whom four grew to matu- 
rity, namelj': Almarinda (deceased), John (J., 
Abram W., C'atheiine (deceased), and Klizabeih, 
(Mrs. Wheadon). 

Our subject passed his youth on a farm in this, 
his native count}-, and in the common schools ob- 
taine(i a limited education. Tlie schoolhouse 
which he attended was a rude log structure with 
slab seats and fnrnisliings quite in keeping with 
the day. He remained at home and assisted in 
the management of tlie farm until lie was twen- 
ty-nine years old. In .July, 1862, he determined to 
tlirow aside his work and take part in the great 
war that was then being waged, and he enlisted in 
Company B, Eighty-fifth Illinois Regiment, for a 
term of three 3ears. His company was drilled for 
two weeks at Peoria .and then sent to Louis- 
ville, K_v. From there our subji^'t and his com- 
rades went to Crab Orchard, the pride of the Blue 
Grass State in the way of watering [jlaces, and 
thiMc Ihey took jjart in a bnttle •■uid skirmi.sli that 
lasted a whole day. At this place, Mr. Ackcu'son 
was taken sick with a bilious attack, and was re- 
moved to the regimental hospital at Nashville, 
Teiiii., where he remained until February, 18G3, 
and was then discharged on account of physical 
disability. So greatly did his he.iltii snflfer from 
the hardships that he had to endure while in the 
army that he felt the effects of his illness for a 3'ear 
after his return home. 

In 1872 our subject removed to Cowley 
County, Kan., where he bought a quarter section 
of land, lie broke but si.\ty-live acres and raised 

a good croi) of corn during his two years residence 
there. At the end of that time he sold oul.and com- 
ing back to Fulton County, bcmght one hundred 
and fifty-eight acres that he now owns, ,a part of 
which is on the Illinois River bottoms, where the 
Soil is very rich and productive. He has ever since 
been a resident of Liverpool Township, and de- 
voted himself to tilling the soil and raising stock. 
He has jiut many good inii)roveinents vipon his 
pl.ace, has everything necessary for conducting 
agricullure. and from his well tilled (ields reaps 
good harvests. 

In the month of June, 1872. Mr. Aekerson and 
Miss May Wallwoi Ih were united in marriage. Mrs. 
Aekerson is a native of the State of New York, 
and came to this .State with her parents who settled 
near Fairbury. Mr. and IMrs. Aekerson have made 
for themselves a pleasant hom<! and they enjoy the 
friendship of many in their community. Politically 
Mr. Aekerson is identified wiili the Democratic 
part}'. He has held the oflices of Road Commis- 
sioner, Constable and School Director at different 
times and no one is more willing than he to help in 
forwarding the best interests of l-ivcrpool Town- 

r->^ A T H A N 1 F L \ ITTUM. While Fulton 
County has much in the way of natural re- 
iL\ sources and commercial transaction.s to com- 
mend it to the public at large, the chief interest 
centers upon the lives of those citizens who have 
achieved success for themselves and at the same 
time benefited the community in which they re- 
side. Prominent among these men is he whose 
name heads this sketch. Ire having been one of the 
early pioneers and taken an active part in laying 
the fouiulation for the present prosperity of the 

Grandfather \ittum was one of the first settlers 
in New Hampshire, cutting his way into the forest, 
and receiving the deed to a large tract of Land for 
his settlement. His son Tuftine was the first boy 
born in the town of .Sandwich. On growing to 
manhood he married Dolly Weed, who was the 
first girl born in .Moilonboro, N. H., and whose 



parents, Moses and Dolly (Mugget) Weed, were 
vciy early settlers in the Granite State and had 
been warm friends of the Vittums for many j-ears. 
Tuftine Vittum and his wife resided in their na- 
tive State throughout the entire course of their 
lives. To them were born three children — Na- 
thaniel, Daniel and Sallj-. An uncle of our sub- 
ject fought in the Revolutionar3- War and many 
relatives participated in the War of 1812. 

Nathaniel Vittum was born in Sandwich, N. H., 
March 30, 1804, and grew to manhood in his na- 
tive State, following farming as an occupation. 
He at one time owned an hotel and was also in- 
terested in the stage business. In 1825 he was 
married to Miss Clara Palmer, a daughter of John 
and Sallie (Cannistcr) Palmer, who was from earl}' 
infancy a near neighbor of Mr. "N'ittum and is but 
four months his junior, having been born August 
17. 1804. Her ancestors in both the paternal and 
maternal lines were from Holland. Mr. and Mrs. 
Vittum are the parents of three children — .Sarah, 
who married Joseph Drake, both being now de- 
ceased; Daniel W., a prosperous farmer and wide- 
awake business man of this countA'; and Martin, 
who died at an early age. 

Mr. and Mrs. \'ittum came to this county- from 
their native State in the year 1847. pui'chasing 
large tracts of land which embraced about five 
hilndred acres. Their son had previously visited 
this section in company with au uncle, and con- 
sidering it a most desirable place of residence, had 
located here, and the father coming to visit him. 
was equally well pleased. Mr. Vittum continued 
his agricultural o|ierations until his advancing 
jears impaired his health and he retired from 
business. He been an active, hard-working 
man. ilevoting much time to financial matters, 
but having achieved success, is now enjoying life 
in a most comfortable waj-. He and his wife, 
who been his faithful companion for sixt}'- 
Bve years, occupj' a cozy home in Canton, where 
they are surrounded bj' admiring friends. 

Mr. Vittum taken great interest in polities, 
both in his native State and Illinois, and on 
man}- occasions been urgefl to become a candi- 
date for office, an honor which he kindly but 
firmly declined. He was an old acquaintance of 

"Long John" Wnntworlh, and man}' times while 
hoys together in New Hampshire, they hauled 
wood to boil maple .syrup. Indeed, the Went- 
worths. Vittums and Weeds were upon very inti- 
mate terms and the subject of our sketch frequently 
visited Mr. Wentworth iu Chicago. Both Mr. 
and Mrs. Vittum have been connected with the 
Congregational Church for half a century. 




EZEKIAH CATTRON who is well known 
J and honored in this section of the county, 
is distinguished as being one of the oldest 
'i^' residents of Hickory Township, where he 
has a large and valuable farm. He is (me of the 
most extensive landholders of Fulton Count}-, and 
as a prominent farmer has been a i)0tont agent in 
advancing the growth of this portion of Illinois. 

Mr. Cattron was born in .Sullivan County, East 
Tennessee, May 26, 1813, to Valentine and Frances 
(Bohannon) Cattron, natives respectively of Vir- 
ginia and North Carolina. At an early day the 
father of our subject left Tennessee with his family 
and started on an exploring tour in search of a 
pleasant location and iu 1820 arrived in Washington 
County. Ind. They settled three miles south of Salem 
and engaged in farming there four years. In 1825 
the family moved to Bartholemew County the same 
State, four miles north of the city of Columbus, 
where Mr. Cattron obtained a lease of a school 
section. In a short time he sold his It.ase and we 
next hear of him in Fountain County. Ind., where 
he took possession of eighty acres of land, which 
he continued to occupy for a period of ten years. 
He then traded that land for a tract of land in La 
Porte County, and afler the death of his wife which 
took place April 15, 1832, he sent his son, our sub- 
ject, to improve his last purchase. In 1834 he re- 
moved to that place and while be was residing 
there bought a quarter section of land in Ple.asant 
Township, t'ulton County. On the 30th of April, 
1837, the family came to this county and settled on 
said land, and the father and our subject made an 
additional purcliase of a half section of land in 
Decrfield and Young Hickory Townships. 



The fatlier of our siibjt^cl died February 4, 1840. 
He had been verj' much prospered and at the time 
of his deUh owned land in the followiu<r four towu- 
sliip;:: Hickory-, Fairview, Josiija and Deorlield, 
whieh property is now in possession of our subject. 
He remained with liis father durinii tlie life of the 
latter, afforded him material assistance in the ac- 
quisition of his fortune, and to-da}' is one of the 
wealthy men of his county. He has further in- 
cieased the acreage of his estate by various i)ur- 
chases and now owns twelve huudrcil acres of 
choice and valuable land in Fultt>u County. The 
farm on which he resides is [ileasrintly located on 
section G, Hickory Township, and the improve- 
ments on it are of the best class. Mr. Cattron, al- 
though on the shad}' side of life is yet vigorous, 
and man.ages his affairs with the old time abilitj' 
and sound judgment. Tlie work that he has done 
to advance the welfare of the county and to help 
build up its schools and churches, and so elevate 
its social, moral and religious status, entitles him 
to a high place among the pioneers of Fulton 

.Mr. Cattron was married July 4, 1839, to 
Rachael Alcott, their marriage taking place in Fair- 
view Township. Her parents came from New 
Jersey and were of Scotch-Irish descent, while he 
s|)rings from German ancestry. Four children 
have blessed the wedded life of our subject and his 
wife, all of whom are living in Fulton County, and 
their record is as follows: Mary Eliza, born July 
20, 1840^; Josiah A., January 8, 1842; .lohn Milton, 
April 4, 1844; and Israel Valentine, September 
I."), 184fi. 

.Mr. Cattron and his good wife joined the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, December 4, 1850. and 
have been connected with it ever since as two of 
its most consistent and valued members, wdio are 
deeply interested in all religious matters and will- 
ingly contribute to all worth}' causes. Mr. Cattron 
has been a true Republican since the formation of 
tlie iiarty. He has borne a prominent part in the 
public life of this section, and has served in various 
important offices. For three years he was a School 
Commissioner, for two j'ears a Road Commissioner, 
a Justice of the Peace for the same length of time, 
was a member of the County Board of Supervisors 

one year, and he sat on the first grand jury that 
was ever convened in this county. He has also 
interested himself in educational matters as a 
teacher. He obtained his education in Washington 
and Fountain Counties, Ind. under jlifBculties, as 
ho had to walk a distance of three miles over a 
rough, dreary read in order to get to the primitive 
pioneer school which he attended. After coming 
to tliis State he utilized his education liy leaching 
school one year (1838) two miles west of Canton. 
He is a generous, open-hearted gentleman, and is 
re.ady at all times to do what wealth and good 
feeling can accomplish both in liusiness and social 
circles. His genial nature, as well as his unusual 
liberality, has made numerous friends for him in 
the community with which he has been identiOed 
for more than half a century. 

M\ ARTIN RUSSELL, General Insurance 

Iji y^ Agent, Canton. Nothing more full}' illus- 
y A trates the rapid strides the world has made 
in civilization during the last few centur- 
ies, than the manifold and varied occupations found 
to exist in large and small cities; and the immense 
amount of insurance carried both on individual life 
and property, is indeed surprising when we see the 
estimate In plain figures. With every succeeding 
year business is becoming more and more brisk, 
and bread-winners must work faithfully and well 
to attend properly to the duties found in each line 
of work. But tact and industry combined always 
bring about a happy result, as is seen in the case of 
Martin. Russell, whose sketch now claims attention. 
I\Ir. Russell is an Englishman by birth, having 
first seen the light of day in that country, March 2, 
1823, and had reached his second year when his 
parents, John and Hannah (Ray) Russell, left their 
English liome to seek a new one in the United 
States. The father was an agriculturist, and settled 
in the State of Vermont, at Barnard, and there 
continued to live through the greater part of his 
time up to his death. The mother died in that 
State about 1834, leaving three children, viz: Cyn- 



tliia. wife of Ceber Sniitb, of Pittsford, Vt. ; John, 
resident of Barnard, Vt.; and the subject of our 

According to the custom of those days, Mr. 
Russell's father bound him out when he was four 
years old and he continued to serve until he had 
reached his seventeenth year. The remembrance 
of those years is not attended with any great 
amount of pleasure, although Mr. Russell recalls 
the lady of the house with gratitude, she having 
always been kind and considerate and doing all in 
her power to make life more endurable to him. He 
received no literary instruction, although his father 
had arranged for him to attend school two months 
each 3-ear. He had been ambitious to acquire an 
education and had obtained a certain amount of 
knowledge b^' studying at night after a hard day's 
work, dreading the penalty of a whippihg if the 
light of his tallow dip was discovered by the 
man to whom he was bound. After leaving this 
place he worked for a few raoutlis on a farm in the 
same neighborhood, then attended a select sciiool 
three months, after which he came West to Mans- 
field, Ohio. 

This was in 184i, and Mr. Russell taught for a 
short time but in the ensuing year came to Illinois, 
settling first at Shabbona and continuing to make 
that his home until 1850. While there he took up 
the insurance business and is now about the oldest 
man in his line of work in the entire State. He went 
to California by the overland route in 1850 and his 
experience throughout the trip wasexceedingl3- in- 
teresting. He had tiie misfortune to lose the diary 
which he had been keeping, but an excellent mem- 
orj- enables him to recount the most interesting in- 
cidents as well as the most trying experiences in 
which he bore a part. He learnod what hunger is, 
as the last mouthful of food was eaten when the 
pai-ty was yet five iiundre<l miles from San Fran- 
cisco. The grass on the plains had not started as 
early as usual that j-ear and it was necessary' to put 
the horses on short allowance and give to ihcm 
some of the provision that had been made for the 
human beings. 

After a short experience as a miner on the Yuba 
River Mr. Russell returned home, crossing Central 
America and continuing his journey to New York 

bj' water. The coach and four with which t!io 
journey across Central America was made was pic- 
turesque, if not modern. The vehicle consisted of 
two large wheels cut from the redwood tree, set on 
a sapling for an axle, while the bed of the coach was 
of rawhides and the top a canopy of leaves sup- 
ported by saplings. This rude conveyance was 
drawn by Mexican oxen. Mr. Russell saw many 
wonderful sights, but was not averse to making his 
home in the Prairie State when his tour was com- 
pleted. He settled in DeKalb Countj^ after having 
passed some time in the East, and continued his in- 
surance business, investing some money in a valu- 
able farm. This he sold in 1866 at which time he 
located in Galesburg, whence he removed to Can- 
ton in the summer of 1872. As general insurance 
agent, liis duties have extended over the greater 
part of the United States and it is a distinct com- 
pliment to Illinois that after so much wandering he 
invariablj' returned here. 

Mr. Russell represents some of the best compan- 
ies in America, among them being the Ohio Farm 
ers. Glens Falls, Jersey Citj', State Investment, of 
Calif(>rnia. Denver, of Colorado and the ^Etna Life 
Insurance, of Hartford, Conn. He is still as actively 
engaged in business as ever, employing office help 
in the carrying on of his labors. His home is a 
happy one, presided over by a native of Water- 
town, N. Y., who bore the maiden name of Cath- 
erine Hall. She became his wife in 1845, the 
marriage rites being celebrated in DeKalb County, 
this State. Mr. and Mrs. Russell have four chil- 
dren, named respectively, Viola. Emma, Frank and 

Mr. Russell is a Royal Arch JIason, and has 
taken the council degrees. He does not belong to 
an\- church, but is a very moral man and lives re- 
ligion in his dail^' habits as nearlj- as possible. 
Being a self-marle man he is well prepared to un- 
derstand the trials and hardships of which life is 
too often composed, and loses no opportunity to 
help those less fortunate than himself. Once at 
the bottom round of the ladder of fame and for- 
tune, Mr. Russell has climbed round by round, un- 
til he stands to day upon the topmost one. and 
merits additional praise for having climbed with- 
out assistance of anv kind. 



•m /. 


a^^^^W^ (^j^jiA^^ 


2 Of) 

ARTIN BEEBE. This untciprising and 
progressive farmer, whose portrait is shown 
* on the opposite page, is the owner of what 
is known as the Ducl< Island Farm, con- 
sisting of lifleen hundred and ninety- acres of 
land on sections 33, 34 and 35, Banner Township. 
Nine luindred acres are under ciiltivaiion, pro- 
ducing from forty to fifty bushels of wheat and 
from seventy to one hundred bushels of corn per 
acre. Mr. Beebe is extensivel}' engaged in rais- 
ing corn and iiogs, although other products are not 
neglected. His residence on section 33, presents 
an ai)[)earauce of comfort and homelikeness, and is 
accompanied by the numerous buildings needful 
to the prosecution of the work of the place. 

Our subject was born in Chemung County, 
N.Y.,April 6, 1819, toHezekiah and Sarah (Boyer) 
Beebe. He was reared on a farm, removing with 
his parents to LaGrange County, Ind., in 1837, 
and remaining there until 1839. In December of 
that year he came to this count}-, employing him- 
self at work by the month for two years. He 
next learned the trade of a cooper, at which he 
worked about fifteen years. In 1849 Mr. Beebe 
bought a smsiU farm in Banner Township, near 
Utica. and in 1860 purchased the Island Farm 
from John N. AVillard, of St. Louis, Mo. Here 
he has mada his home since tiiat time, devoting 
himself assiduously to the pursuit of his chosen 
calling and reaping a satisfactory reward for his 
perseverance, intelligence and prudence. 

Mr. Beebe has been twice married, the first union 
having been C(ins\immated in 1847. His bride 
was Miss Diana Sayles, an efficient and affectionate 
lady, with whom he lived happil}' until her death, 
January 8, 18()2. She left five children, whose 
record is as follows: Henry C!aj-, born April 12, 
1851, married Clara Rosecarap; Clara A., born 
January 28, 1853, died at the age of eighteen 
}'ears; Marcus T., born F'ebruary I, 1856, married 
Polly Harris and lives in Missouri; Josephine, 
born March 28, 1858, married William Ringliouse 
in October, 1886, and now lives in Mason County; 
Orrin. born February' 29, 1861, married Miss Min- 
nie Riloy and lives in Bucklieart Township, this 

The second marriage of our subject was cele- 

brated November 24. 1870, the bride being Miss 
Kinma l^lem. who, while devoted to her family and 
their interests, finds time and op[)orluiiily for 
kindly intercourse with her many friends. This 
marriage has resulted in the liirlh of the following 
sons and daughter: John, born .luly 27, 1873; 
Amos, January 1, 1875; Hector, .lune 24, 1877; 
Frederick, July 28, 1879; Carrol. January 14, 
1882: Sheldon, September 5, 1884; Mary Belle, 
December 22, 1887. 

When he became old enough to vote. Mr. Beebe 
was an old-line Whig, and on the formation of the 
Republican party identified himself with it, but 
is now a member of the Greenback party. lie is 
not an active participant in political affairs, pre- 
ferring to give his attenti':)n to his personal pur- 
suits and the joys of domestic and social life. He 
is respected, as his merits deserve, by all who are 
acquainted with his character and attainments. 

■ — -5- 


^^ W. HOBBS, now living in Mound Town- 
- ship, McDonough County, was one of the 
JK earl}' pioneers of this county, who was for 
many years closely identified with its industrial in- 
terests, as one of its most successful farmers and 
skillful mechanics, and is eminently worthy of a 
place among its representative men in this I'.io- 

Mr. Hobbs was born in Maryland, not far from 
the city of Baltimore, in 1817. When he was a 
child his parents took him to the pioneer wilds of 
Jefferson County, Ohio, of which they were early 
settlers. In his youth he was apprenticed to a 
blacksmith by the name of James Simeral, and 
during the term of his apprenticeship received his 
board and clothes. At the expiration of that time 
he went to work with a noted mechanic, Joseph 
Fields, and toiled hard for the meagre sum of 82 
a month, from which he had to clothe himself, 
and his board. He followed his trade for two 
years, and then made a trip to New Orleans on 
the river. He afterward worked in Washington, 
Pa., the year of the cholera, until all emplo3ment 
was suspended on account of the dreaded disease. 



In 1834 he came North from New Orleans, whither 
lie had been sojourning, and norlied in George- 
town, Oliio, until 1835, when he came to Illinois. 
He landed at the mouth of the Spoon River, in 
company with two blacksmiths and two clothiers 
who had come from Philadelphia. 

Mr. Hobbs and Joseph McCoy, who came with 
liira. worked at the blacksmith's business that 
year in Monmouth. We may mention in this con- 
nection that our subject still has the old anvil 
with which he worked in that place over Qfty-fire 
years ago. It iiad been bought by his father-in- 
law from a person in the East, and when it was 
sold with the other effects of the old gentleman, 
Mr Ilobbs bought it at the rate of twenty cents a 
pound. It is of English manufacture and is of the 
best make. Our subject and his partner pursued 
their calling very profitablj- at Jlonmouth, and at 
the end of the first six months had ^106 each. The 
former very judiciously invested his when ho 
came to Harris Township from Monmouth in the 
spring of 1836, in a tract of eighty acres of land. 
He still worked at his calling, however, in tiie vil- 
lage of Marietta, where he lived, with the excep- 
tion of the time of his residence in Lewistown during 
the war, until aliout nine years ago, when he sold 
out and removed to his present place of residence 
in McDonough County. He had three hundred 
acres of land in Fulton County, and a full section 
in McDonough Count}', which he had purchased 
wiien it cheap. He engaged extensively in 
raising stock and carried on the business in part- 
nership with Mr. Wilson. At the breaking out of 
the war they had five hundred head of cattle, and 
as pasture was plentiful and cheap, they made 
money fast. This count}- is greatly indebted to 
our subject for what he did toward improving 
stock in the early days bj' the introduction of 
horses, cattle and hogs of a high grade. He be- 
lieved in raising none but good stock, and when- 
ever he made a purchase alw.ays bought the best in 
the market. 

When Mr. Hobbs came here he had an idea 
that if he should be able to get forty acres of land 
he would be well off, and when he obtained 
eighty acres he considered himself quite rich. 
With characteristic enteri)risc he decided that he 

would have an orchard, and he senf'to 'an old 
Quaker friend to have him send him a lot of fruit 
trees such as he thought he would want. His friend 
sent him one hundred apple trees and a variety of 
pears, which he planted, and they afterward be- 
came famous for their fine fruit. From one of his 
trees our subject often sold as much as $50 worth 
of fruit each year, and his orchard was regarded as 
one of the finest in all the country around. 

Our subject was married April 20, 1837, to Miss 
Eliza Humphrey, and their wedded life of more 
than fift}' years duration luas been one of great 
felicity. Mrs. Hobbs is a most excellent woman, 
of many Christian virtues, and is a true member of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. She is a daugh- 
ter of William Humphrey, of Ohio. His brother, 
John Humphrey, of Warren County, 111., was a 
Colonel in the Black Hawk War. Mr. and Mrs. 
Hobbs are fine people, and are in every way worthy 
of the high regard in which they are held by the 
people among whom thej- have settled. They have 
had six children, four sons and two daughters, of 
whom the following is recorded : George F. was a 
young married man of thirty-six 3'ears when he died, 
his wife having died before him; John, who is 
married, owns and occupies a large tract of land 
which his father purchased in Cass County, Mo.; 
Jane married James Walhice, a druggist at Lewis- 
town, and they have one daughter; Addison, who 
bought of his father the old home place of two 
hundred acres of land l\'ing near Marietta, is mar- 
ried and has two sons and four daughters; Martha 
married A. J. Franklin, a merchant of Los Angeles. 
Cal., and the}' have three children; William, at 
home, living on the farm near his father, is mar- 
ried and has three children. 


ENRY I. WEAVER is numbered among 
I) the enterprising stock farmers of Deerfield 
Township. He sells but a portion of grain 
but devotes the entire produce of his faira 
to the stock which he raises and buys. His home 
is on the old homestead, which consists of eighty 
acres on section 3, all under good cultivation, well 



improved and abundantly supplied with whatever 
is needful in order to successfully prdseiule the 
owner's occiii):ition. Mr. "Weaver is a representa- 
tive of a family long known and highly honored in 
this eoiuity. where settlement was made by his 
grandparents in the spring of 1835. During the 
period of mure than half a century that has elapsed 
since then, the record of the family and tlH>se who 
have married into it has been one of exceptional 
morality. Not only have they been free from 
haliitnal profanity, drunkenness and other vices, bnt 
they have also escaped arrest for any cause how- 
ever slight, and have lived in peace and harmony 
with those about them. 

William Weaver, grandfather of our subject, was 
born in Lancaster County, Pa., in 1791. His wife, 
Mary Cornwell, was born in Washington County, 
Mav 14, 1797, and their marriage rites were cele- 
brated at Cannonsbury. In April, 1H35, the couple 
located on section 2, Deerfield Township, this 
county, where the wife died April 19, 1855, and the 
husband April 1 1, 1879. In the family of this good 
couple was a son Joshua, whose birth took place in 
Green County, Pa., December 30, 1820. After 
reaching years of maturity he won for his wife 
Eliza A. Martin, who was born in Muhlenburg 
County, Ky., May 19, 1826, but at ihe time of her 
marriage was living in this county. The wedding 
took place in Deerfield Township October 21, 1^51, 
and the union has resulted in the birth of three sons 
and one daughter. Mr. and Mrs. Joshua Weaver 
are now living in Ellisville. 

The gentleman whose name introduces this 
sketch is the third son born to thecou|)le just men- 
tioned, and opened his eyes to the light of day 
March G, 1859. He has spent his entire life in the 
township among whose citizens he has high rank, 
and to her public schools owes his educational train- 
in". He remained an inmate of his parents' home 
until his marriage, when he established himself on 
the homestead, buying the land from his father. 
The lady whom he won for his helpmate and com- 
panion and with whom he was united in marriage 
December 20, 1882, bore the maiden name of 
Marmry K. Mitchell. She is a daughter of Mathew 
H.and Calphurnia (Wheeler) Mitchell, and like her 
husband, was born in Deerfield Township, her natal 

day having been May 24, 1863. Her father was 
born in Montgomery County, this Slate, and her 
mother in New York. 

Mr. and Mrs. ^\'eaver of this sketch are the par- 
ents of three bright boys — IIari-y Dale, born Au- 
gust 12, 1883; Joshua Clare, born April 13, 1885; 
Ross, born September 26, 1889. Mr. Weaver is a 
Republican and takes suflicient interest in politics 
to be at the jioUs every election daj- and cast a 
straight ballot. lie has served in the capacity of 
Township Supervisor and School Director. He and 
his wife belong to Ellisville Lodge, No. 401, I. O. 
G. T., and are members of the Methodist flpisco- 
pal Church. Mr. Weaver is Recording Secretary of 
the congregation at the Sharon Church and ."super- 
intendent of the Sunday-sehool, and lakes a deep 
interest in church work. He and his wife are highly 
regarded by the members of the community, per- 
petuating as they are the excellent record of the 
Weaver familj-. 

ILLIAM MELLOR, a well-known member 
of the bar, practicing his profession in A'er- 
^y/ mont. was a brave olllcer in the late war in 
which he did noble service for his adopted eountr\\ 
He has long taken a prominent part in Ihe civic 
and political life of county and town, and has 
filled with abilit}', many olllccs of trust and re- 

Royton, a place near Manchester, England, was 
where our sul)ject born May 23, 1830. His 
father, William ]Mellor,was a native' of ibe same 
town and was a son of another William Mellor, 
who was also a native of that town and his father 
and great-grandfather were born in the villnyo of 
Mellor, three miles from Royton. The grcai-great- 
grandfather of our subject was a miller and man- 
aged a mill on the River Irk, and spent his entire 
life there. The great-grandfather of our subject 
seems to have inherited his father's trade and made 
his living by it in his native village of Melloi-, of 
which he was a life-long resident. The grandfatlier 
of our subject reared to agriciilluial [)uisuits, 



and after marriage removed to Raj'ton, en ojaged iu 
farming near there,and there made liis Lome until lie 
was gathered to his fathers. 

The father of our subject was reared and edu- 
cated in Royton. He removed to Manchester in 
1833 and engaged in the cotton brokerage business 
until his death in 1812. He married Susannah Kaye. 
She was born near Royton and was a daughter of 
James J. Kaye, a native of the same place, as were 
his ancestors for many generations. He was a far- 
mer and spent his entire life in the town of his 
birth. Mrs. Mellor died in Manchester in 1851. 
8he and her husband reared a family of six chil- 
dren as follows : Susannali, Betsey, Hannah. Travis, 
William and James. Travis and William were the 
only members of the family who ever came to 
America. Travis settled at Bushnell. this State, 
and still resides there. 

William Mellor. of this sketch, attended school 
near iliddleton and received an excellent educa- 
tion. In 1847, he carae to America, accompanied 
bj' his bride, setting sail from Liveipool in the 
good ship "Enterprise" of the Black Ball line, and 
landing at New York, in the month of August. 
They came directly to Illinois to join his brolhei. 
coming bj- the Hudson River and Erie Canal to 
Buffalo, and thence bj' Lake Erie to Pennsj'lvania, 
where the}' traveled on the canal to Beaver, that 
State, and from there to Alleghany, Ohio, and 
thence to the Mississippi and uji that river and 
the Illinois to Sharp's landing in Schuyler Count}-, 
and from there by team to McDonough County. 
Mr. Mellor was employed in farming there until 
the fall of 1848,and in the spring of 1849,caine from 
there to Vermont, and began life here as a clerk 
for Stephens it Wynans. He was with them three 
and one-half years and then engaged in the mer- 
cantile business as a member in the 6rm of Heizer 
<fe Co. In 1857 the firm was dissolved and onr 
subject after that traveled in the Southern States, 
selling nursery stock until 1859. He then re- 
turned to Vermont and was engaged in clerking 
forllenr}- Mershon until the war broke out. 

During his travels in the South. ^Ir. Mellor had 
noted its attitude toward the North, and on his re- 
turn in a public speech he had warned the people 
of coming hostilities, and after the rebellion broke 

out, watched its course with interest. In April, 
1862, he offered his services to defend the Stars 
and Stripes, enlisting in Company F. One Hundred 
and Third Illinois Infantry. He was mustered in 
as a private at Peoria, October 2, and a few days 
later was elected Second Lieutenant of his company 
and before leaving that cit}' was recommended as 
Quartermaster. He went to Tennessee with his 
regiment and spent the winter there. He was then 
detailed a member of Gen. Steele's staff at La 
Grange, Tenn., and was with him until he was suc- 
ceeded by Gen. Corse, who appointed him as a mem- 
ber of his staff. He occupied that position'until the 
General was wounded at Missionary' Ridge,and after 
that was one of Gen. Woolcot's staff until April 7, 
1864. On that day while with a foraging expedi- 
tion at ilud Creek, near Stevenson. Ala., Lieut. 
Mellor was taken prisoner bj' the rebels, who took 
him to Libb}', from there to Atlanta, and thence to 
Andersonville, where he was confined six weeks. 
From that prison he was sent to Marion.where he was 
incarcerated until August, 1864. Savannah, Ga., 
was his next destination, and after that he was taken 
to Charleston. S. C where he was exchanged with 
other sick soldiers, and on his arrival at Annapolis, 
Md., was given a furlough. 

In Februar}-, 1865, Lieut. Mellor was ordered to 
Camp Chase, Ohio, to report for duty, and was 
made Adjutant of the parole camp there, which po- 
sition he held until March, 1865. In tliat month 
he was appointed Quartermaster at the parole 
camp, Benton Barracks, Mo. and acted in that ca- 
pacity there until May. 1865, where he was honor- 
abl}' discharged from further military service. 

Our subject returned to Vermont, and gave his 
attention to the study of law, was admitted to the 
bar, and had a good general practice until 1886. 
Since that time his business has been in connection 
with railroads, securing right of way etc. 

In June, 1847. Mr. Mellor married Charlotte 
Cowan, a native of Manchester, England, and a 
daughter of William and ^largaret Cowan, who 
were also of English birth. He and his wife are 
very pleasantly situated, and of their marriage three 
children have come — George, Robert and Luella. 
George married Belle Argo, and the\- have one 
child — Pearl; Robert, married Maggie Ringland, 



and lln'V have three children — MabeL Marj" and 
William; LuoUa, married George McCnbe, and tliey 
have one son — William B. 

Mr. Mellor was formerlj' a Democrat, but has 
been a Repultliean since the war. He has served 
as Town Clerk. Collector and Cornmissioncr of 
of Highways and lias represented Vermont on the 
County Board of Sui)ervisors. He served eight 
years as :i member of the State Board of Kquiliza- 
tion. has heeii delegate to numerous county and 
district conventions, and has been Chairman of the 
County Central Committee. 


lEORGE K. LINDZEY. How frequently is 
(— -, it the case that natural ability and energj' 
combined accomplish truly wonderful re- 
sults, raising a man from the obscurity of povert3- 
to the importance and publicity that great wealth 
brings. Truly, what is commonly called '-self- 
made men," are nsuall.y those that occupy the high- 
est positions both in National and .State affairs, and 
reach higher positions in the commercial world 
than those wliose childhood was surrounded by 
every opportunity. 

The subject of the present sketch commenced 
life with virtually nothing, so far as finances go; 
and has b}- dint of good judgment, pleasing ad- 
dress and energy, amassed quite a comfortable for- 
tune. At this writing he has retired from active 
business, and passes his d.ays at his handsome resi- 
dence on Main Street in Farmington. His health 
is poor indeed, and it was partially for this reason 
that he concluded to settle in this cit}-, hoping the 
pDre atmosphere and pleasant society found here 
would benefit him. 

Mr. IJndzoy was born in Worcester County, m 
the State of Massachusetts, being the son of Will- 
iam Lindzey, and his natal day fell upon the 12th 
of February, 1843. His earliest recollections are 
of Greenville, a little cotton manufacturing vil- 
lage about ten miles from Providence, where he 
attended school for a time. However, the greater 
part of his education was received, in the common 

schools of Fairview Township, and much of his 
youth was spent on a farm. 

December 2, 18.S0, our subject was united in 
marriage with Martha Williams, of Hillsbo- 
rough, Ohio, daughter of Addison and Margaret 
(Noble) Williams. Her graudfallier, Daniel Will- 
iams, was a native of North Carolina, but emi- 
grated to Ohio at an early date. He was of Scotch- 
Irish descent. Her father was born in Highland 
County, Ohio, and in that State marrieil. The 
mother died in ISoO. at the age of thirty-two, leav- 
ing five children, only two of whom reached ma- 
turity, viz.: INIartha (Mrs. Lindzey), and .lohn N., 
who is a carpenter and lives in Decatur, 111. He 
married Miss Martha Lynn, of Sullivan, 111. Soon 
after sustaining the sad loss of his beloved com- 
panion, Mr. Williams moved to Iowa, but in a 
short time removed to the State of Indiana, where 
he married. His daughter was brought up by her 
paternal grandparents, and when they died she 
went to live with an aunt, Mrs. Ca"oline Rogers, 
ne:ir llillsboro, Ohio. Jhs. Liudzey's father served 
through the late war. He severely wounded at 
Richmond, where he was taken prisoner and allowed 
to languish aw.a}- in Andersonville Prison, in the 
spring of the year that witnessed the restoration of 
peace throughout the country. 

Our subject and his wife have never been blessed 
with children. They are both exceedingly popu- 
lar in the community in which they reside, and 
possessing all the comforts of life, watch the 3ears 
glide swiftlj- by. They settled here in 181)0, tak- 
ing possessing of the residence they had built dur- 
ing the preceding year. Mr. Lindzey cast his first 
Presidential vote for Abraham Lincoln, and is still 
a strong supporter of the Republican party, j He is 
generally respected for bis strict integrity and high 
sense of honor, both in the great and small affairs 
of life. He owns a considerable amount of real 
estate in Farmington and other places. He is besides, 
interested in stock- raising,' owning some extra fine 
horses and cattle. 

Our subject's father, W^illiam Lindzey, was an 
Englishman b}' birth and education, and for many 
years after reaching manhood worked in the cotton 
and woolen manufactories of that country. After 
coming to the United States he continued his work 



in these maiiuf:Kloiies through the Eastern cities, 
moving from place to place in the States of Con- 
necticut and Rhode Island; and in the fall of 1850 
removed from the latter State to Illinois, making 
the trip bj- boat and rail to New York Cit3', and 
then up the Hudson, and finally bj- waj' of the 
Great Lakes, Illinois Canal and Illinois River to 
the mouth of Copperas 'Creek. After reaching 
this State he purchased one hundred and sixty 
acres of land in Fairview Township. He next re- 
moved to Yates City, where he owned real estate. 
His death occurred in the year 1876, after he had 
.Tttained his seventy -second birthday. AVilliam 
L'lidzey was married in England to ]Miss Hannah 
Dix. and after the birth of three children came to 
America, as above stated. Thej^ were the parents 
of ten children, named as follows: John, Caroline, 
Emma, Matilda, Hai-riet, Hannah. James, George, 
and two who died while j'oung. 

To such men as our subject the United Slates 
owes her present enviable reputation in commer- 
cial circles — men who, not afraid of personal hard 
ship and the trials that in an active career without 
financial assistance only too naturally come to each 
life, are strong and brave enough to carry out 
Hamlet's advice, an'l ••by opposing troubles, end 

RANCIS R. BRO'SYN is one of those worthy 
citizens who have won a comfortable fortune 
b}' the exercise of unflagging industrj', wise 
ecouomj- and good judgment in the conduct of the 
business to which the\- have devoted themselves. 
Ilis home in Lewistown Township is one of the most 
attractive of the farm residences within its bounds, 
and everywhere upon the estate one sees evidences 
of the qualities which have won for its owner his 
worldly success and good standing in the com- 

Mr. Brown is of P'rench stock, his grandfather, 
John Brown, having been a native of France, where 
he grew to manhood. Accompanied by two brothers 
he came to America, making his first location in 
Maryland, where he resided a number of years. At 
the time of the early settlement of Kentucky, he 

bought a tract consisting of one hundred and sixt}' 
acres of timber land between Flemingsburg and 
Maysville and made that his home during the re- 
mainder of his life. There was a cabin on the 
place and he erected a large hewed log house where 
he kept an inn. He was a slave-owner in Maryland 
and having taken his chattels with him to Kentucky, 
they cleared the land. He himself practiced his 
profession of a ph3-sioian. His wife, a native of 
Wales, bore the maiden name of Lurania Rollins. 
She also died on the homestead, her remains being 
deposited beside those of her husband in Fitch's 
Churchyard, two and a half miles north of Flem- 

Among the eight children reared b}' the couple 
above mentioned was a son, Joshua, whose birth 
occurred ten miles below Baltimore, Md. He re- 
ceived a fine education in his native State but did 
not adopt professional life. He was a young man 
when his parents removed to Keutuck}', where, in 
1819, he was married to Rhoda Hughes. This lady 
w.TS born in Virginia, being a daugliter of John and 
Fannie llughf s. who were numbered among the ear- 
liest settlers of Fleming County. Ky.. their location 
being four and a li.alf miles from Flemingsburg. 
Mr. Hughes bought a tract of timber land which 
he cleared and improved as fast as possible, making 
it his home 'mtil death. For many years after his 
arrival the Indians were much more numerous than 
the whites, and the settlers were obliged on numer- 
ous occasions to repair to the stoek.ades to avoid 
death at the hands of the sav.ages. AVild game of 
all kinds was, of course, abundant. 

The father of our subject built a cabin on his 
father's homestead, where he resided four j-ears 
after his marriage, then bought a quarter section of 
timber land on the Horseshoe Bend in Mason 
County. He cleared quite a tract of land and was 
doing well financiall}' when called upon to pav a 
security debt which ruined him. causing the loss of 
his farm. Going to Mt. Carmel he built a double 
hewed log house and shop, and engaging in the 
shoemaker's trade continued there four 3'ears. In 
Fleming County he met with the loss of his de- 
voted companion who died when her son. our 
subject, was eighteen months old. The bereaved 
husband and father after atime removed loClermont 



County. Oliio, where he was manieil the secoml 
time, to Miss Catherine Nocsiiiger. and after some 
years to Fiiltou County, 111., thence lo Jackson 
County, Iowa, where he entered into rest. 

Tiic gentleman of whom we write was born in 
Fleming County, Ky., July 7, 1821. and was live 
years old when his fatlicr removed to Ohio. In 
that State he remained until the fall of 1814, when 
he took up his residence in this State, coming 
tliithcr by means of tlie Ohio, Mississippi and Illi- 
noisKivers and disembarking at Liverpool Landing 
on the 12tli of October, with ¥2.37^} cents in his 
pocket. He had visited this section the preceding- 
spring and traded liis horse, saddle, biidle and gun 
for a tract of Government land upon which a cabin 
stood. Here he took up his residence with his 
sister, who made him a comfortable home until he 
took a wife. It was necessary for liiui to find em- 
pl03'ment and he was soon at work, splitting rails 
at twenty-tive cents per hundred. At this he em- 
ployed the hours of daylight, clearing his land at 
night; when there was no moon he would work bv 
the light afforded by a burning brush heap. 

In 181(3 Mr. I'.rown sold his claim for $100 and 
rented a farm in I'utnam Township. At tliat lime 
there was no railroad communicalion in this vicin- 
ity and the river towns were the markets to which 
all produce was hauleil. frequently over veiy hard 
roads. Wheat sold as low as twenty-five cents per 
bushel and other produce at proportionate rates, 
and yet. by dint of pi'udence and unflagging in- 
dustry, men prospered. Mr. Brown after operating 
as a renter twelve years, purcliased one hundred 
and thirty-three acres of bind included in his 
present farm which now consists of one hundred 
and seventy-three acres. 

The capable .and devoted companion lo whose 
wistlom in the management of hou.sehold affairs and 
good counsel, Mr. Brown owed much during his 
struggling years, was Nanc}' Laws, a native of Cul- 
peper County, Va., and daughter of .Samuel and 
Polly (Rector) Laws. Their mairiage rites were 
celebrated in the spring of 18l.i, and for a jxM-iod 
of nearly half a century they shared each other's 
joys and sorrows. Mrs. Brown wiis called hence 
June 17, 1890, at the age of sixty-eight years, seven 
months and seventeen days. She was the mother 

of live cliilili-eii. four of whom are now living, 
namely: Martin, who lives in Kansas; Rhoda A., 
wife of Ijorenzo I). Boyer; (ieorge W., whose home 
is in l>ewisl(.iwn Township; Martha K., wife of 
Eugene Churchill, who resides ii; Buckhearl Town- 

ORRISON DARLAND is one of the old- 
est settlers in the county and ranks with 
the leading farmers, allhough he is now 
' retired from active labor, tlic manage- 

ment of the estate being in the hands of his sons, 
lie lias been a very hard-working man and well de- 
serves the rest he is enjo3'ing and the competence 
he has secured. He owns a valuable tract of land 
in Young Hickory Township, comprising three 
hundred and twenty acres on sections 1 o and 25, 
and another tract of forty acres on section 11. 

Our subject is the fourth child of Isaac and 
•lane (Morrison) Darland. His father was Ijorn in 
Kentucky, grew to manhood there and then made 
his way to Ohio, locating in Preble County. There 
he married the good who shared his joys 
and sorrows for many years. Like liimself, she 
was a native of the Blue (irass Stale. After iiis 
marriage Jlr. Darland cleared a farm, which was 
his home until the death of his wife, when he be- 
came an inmate of the households of his c hildren. 
He spent two years in this county, but returned lo 
Ohio prior to his demise. 

Politicall3-, he was an old-line Whig. Tln' mem- 
l)ers of the parental family arc: John, who died 
in Ohio; Benjamin, now living in Marble Rock, 
Iowa; Harrison, who died in Ohio; our subject; 
Xan Lew, who (lied in Iowa; Nathan, a resident 
of Kansas; Isaac, who died in that State; Hannah 
and Catherine, who died in Ohio. Van Lew be- 
longed to an Iowa regiment in the Civil AVar and 
contracted a disease from which he dicrl soon alter 
his return lo his home. 

Our subject was born near Paris, Preble County, 
Ohio, November 8, 1812. His school privileges 
were limited, consisting of attendance in the win- 
ter in the old-fashioned log schoolhouse, where 
instruction was su|)|)lied under the subscription 



system. He was eavly set to work on the farm, 
and being unusu.illy large and strong for his 
years, had to put his slioulder to the wheel in 
quite heavy labor. Being obliged to chop, burn 
and clear timber, he early became an adept at 
using the ax. He remained with his father long 
after he was of age and was the last of the boys to 
leave the home fireside. The idea finally grew 
upon him of visiting the broad prairies of Illinois, 
of which he had heard so much, and of selecting a 
location in which to make himself a home. He. 
therefore, in 1835, came on horseback through the 
Indiana and Illinois mud to this county, where he 
soon purchased land. 

Mr. Darland located near Fairview on a quar- 
ter section, and bu3'ing another horse, set to work 
to improve his estate. He built a rude log house 
and other necessary buildings, and when the land 
was somewhat improved had an opportunity to sell 
it to advantage. He, therefore, disposed of it and 
bought an equal amount east of Fairview, this 
also being raw land. Here he used cattle in break- 
ing the sod and cultivating the soil. In those 
early days the market was Copperas Creek Laud- 
ing, to and from which all produce and goods must 
be hauled. The principal crops at that time were 
wheat and rye, whereas at present the fields are 
mostly covered with corn. Mr. Darland split hun- 
dreds of rails with which to fence his farm, and 
otherwise exerted his powerful physical forces, 
which were far above the average. 

About 1845 Mr. Darland sold his property in 
Fairview Township and bought one hundred and 
sixty acres of his present estate, already somewhat 
improved. He added to the permanent work which 
had been done. He now has a growing orchard of 
five acres of apple and peach trees, which he set 
out on land grubbed by himself at noons, when, as 
he says, he was resting. Energj- and perseverance 
secured the meed of success, and year by year the 
circumstances of our subject improved. In 1870 
he bought an additional quarter section adjoining 
his first purchase in the township, paying §40 per 
acre. This he has also improved, making two 
farms with the necessary- buildings. His forty-acre 
tract is timber land. He has always raised a good 
grade of cattle and hogs, and has also bred some 

very line drafi anil diiving horses. He is an ex- 
cellent judge of horse tlesli, and his farm has been 
well supplied with equines. About a decade since 
he retired from active life, and his sons are car- 
rying on the work which he so well instituted. 

The first marriage of Mr. Darland took place in 
Fairview Township, June 2, 1838. His bride was 
Miss Ann Shreeves, who was born in Franklin 
Count}', December 19, 1809. Her father, Thomas 
Shreeves, is numbered among the early settlers of 
this county. The death of Mrs. Ann Darland oc- 
curred October 26, 1850. .She left &ve children — 
Milton I., Mar}' J., Benjamin M., Marion Foster 
and Thomas S. Mary J. is now the wife of Asa 
White, of Young Hickory Township; Benjamin M. 
enlisted in Company B., One Hundred and Third 
Illinois Infantry, during the first year of the war, 
was taken sick, sent home on a furlough and died 
about a year after his eni-ollment. The other chil- 
dren died here. 

January 26, 1851, Mr. Darland was united in 
marriage with Mrs. Jane ( Rest) Henry, the cere- 
mony taking place in Young Hickory Township. 
The bride was a daughter of Jacob Rest, was born 
near Connellsville, Pa., February 24. 1820, and 
lived in her native place until nineteen years old. 
She had no school advantages and is self-educated, 
and has likewise acquired a good knowledge of the 
domestic arts. Her manners are those of a friendly, 
gracious woman, who meets with due respect from 
her acquaintances. In 1838 she accompanied her 
parents to this county, coming overland and being 
four weeks on the way. She remained at home 
until her marriage to Jacob Henry, July 2, 1841. 
The husband was born in >iew Jersey, came to this 
county with his uncle in the early days, and engaged 
in farming. He often hauled wheat to Chicago,wlien 
two weeks were consumed in the trip. After mar- 
riage Mr. and Mrs. Henry located on Spoon River, 
in Young Hickory Township, where the husband 
died in 1846. He owned a good farm, but the 
administrator took such advantage of the widow 
that she lost the little estate. She had two children, 
a son and a daughter. John enlisted in Company 
B, One Hundred and Third Illinois Infantry, in 
1862. At Chattanooga he was shot in the leg. ne- 
cessitating the amputation of that nienilicr. A 





seconrl amputation became necessary, and this 
caused his ih'ath. Tlie daugliter, Hiuinah. raairied 
J. S. McFailand and lives in London Mills. 

Tlie present Mrs. Darland is the mother of four 
cluldren bj- her last union. The first-born, .lo- 
sopli, a prominent farmer in Fairview Township, is 
represented elsewhere in this work; Eliza and Ellen 
are deceased; Morrison W., an enterprising _vouth, 
is in charge of the home farm. Mrs. Dorland is 
a member of the Christian (liurch. Some facts 
regarding her ancestry may be found in the biog- 
iai)liy of Mrs. Lewis Shofers, wiiich is included 
in this Album. 

Mr. Darland has been Commissioner of High- 
ways, School Director and Trustee at various 
limes. He has served on grand and petit jnries. 
In politics he stanehly supports Democracj', never 
failing to east his vote for the candidates who are 
pledged to uphold its principles. 

^ ACOr. BROWN. The life of this gentleman, 
whose portrait is represented on the oppo- 
site page, and who is one of the wealtiiiest 
farmers of the county, furr^ishes a good les- 
son to youths who must begin their careers as he 
did, with no means. A perusal of the following 
paragraphs will indicate by what means he has con- 
quered adverse circumstances, and gained his pre- 
sent proud position among his fellow-men. He is 
l)roliably of Irish ancestry in the paternal line, as 
his grandfather Brown, wiio is known to iiave been 
a Revolutionary soldier, is believed to have been a 
native of the Emerald Isle. From Ills maternal an- 
cestors Mr. Brown derives a capacity for iiard work, 
rigid economy, and persistence which almost in- 
variably eiiaracterize those of lineage. 

Grandfather Brown is numbered among the early 
settlers of Ohio, wiiere he followed farming until 
his death. There his son, George, tiie father of 
our subject, was born and reared, following in the 
father's footsteps sis a tiller of the soil. He held 
various local offices in the township in which he 
lived, was Democratic in politics, and quite radical 
in his views. At the time of his dealii, which oc- 

curred in Licking County, he was a member of the 
Presbyterian Church. He lived to the advanced 
age of four-score and ten years. His wife was 
Nancy Lamb, a native of Germany, who came to 
America with her parents when eighteen years old. 
She was living in Harrison County, Ohio, when 
married to Mr. Brown. She was a consistent mem- 
ber of the Methodist Church until her death, which 
occurred when she was seventy-one years old. She 
bore him twelve children, and reared eleven to ma- 
turity, namely: Raciiel, Jane, Jackson, William, 
Susan, Jacob, Mar}- Ann, Nancy, Joseph, Sarah and 

The maternal grandfather of our subject was 
John Lamb, a (Tcrman who emigrated to America 
when in middle life. He was almost penniless when 
he reached this country, but settled in Ohio, and 
industriously following a farmer's life, accumulated 
considerable property. He lived to a ripe old age, 
honored and respected as a worthy citizen, and con- 
sistent church member. He and his wife were 
buried at Moorefield, Harrison County, Ohio. 

The subject of this biographical notice, born 
February 24, 1826, in Harrison County, Ohio, 
reared on a farm, and spent his boyhood in home 
duties, and attending school. The building in which 
he pursued his studies, was a rude log schoolhouse 
with a large open firepl.ace, puncheon .seats, a log 
out out for a window, and no desk, but a slab fast- 
ened to, the wall, and extending around the room 
for a writing table. Mr. Brown began life on his 
own account when of age, his first emijloyment be- 
ing farm work at ^4 per month. After receiving 
those wages eight months, he was able to obtain -^7 
per month. In IMarch, 1848, he came to this county 
via the rivers, landing at Havana with but §5 in his 
pocket. His capital was industry, and he soon 
found use for it with Nathan Strode, for whom he 
worked nine months at ^13 per month. 

For three years after his arrival here 5Ir. Br<;wn 
worked on farms by the day or month, saving $2.50 
of his earnings, and becoming the possessor of a 
good horse besides. With the money he made the 
first payment on eighty acres of land on section 21 , 
Isabel Township, getting seven years' time on the 
balance of the ><700, at which the place was valued. 
Long before this time had expired he was able to 



pay off his indebtedness, and buy other property. 
He has purchased land from time to time until he 
now owns nearly twelve hundred acres, the greater 
part of which is under a higli state of cultivation. 
His first residence was an 18x20 foot, one story 
frame, in which he lived until I860, when he built 
his present mansion, one of the finest in the countj'. 
It also is a frame, well designed and finely built, 
the cost having been 64,010 in cash, besides the 
owner's own labor. Mr. Brown built his main barn 
In 1860, and at a later date erected two others and 
two granaries. He has farmed verj- extensively, 
and raised a great deal of stock, winning his great- 
est success in grain, wool, and hogs. 

51 r. Brown secured for his life companion. Miss 
Priscilla Cornell, between whom and himself mar- 
riage rites were celebrated August 23, 1853. Mrs. 
Brown was born in Meigs County, Ohio, October 
26, 1834, and is a daughter of William and Mary 
(Westfall) Cornell. Both parents were born in 
Virginia, whence the mother went to Ohio with her 
parents in an early day. Mr. Cornell removed to 
the Buckeye State upon attaining his majoi'ity, and 
was one of the early settlers and farmers in Meigs 
County. He was a member of the Methodist 
Church, and a Republican in politics. Mrs. Cor- 
nell was also a Methodist. She died at the early 
age of twent3'-four years, leaving three children — 
Priscilla, Lj'dia.T., and Richard. 

Tlie family of Mr. and Mrs. Brown consists of 
ten children living, and one deceased: Thomas A. 
was born June 19, 1854; Marj' E., June 17, 1856; 
Nancy E., March 11, 1858; George N.. December 
10, 1860; William R., November 27, 1862; Robert 
E., December 24. 1864; Rosetta J., April 21, 1867; 
Harvey R. July 3, 1869; Calvin J., September 20, 
1871; Harry M., June 7, 1874; Frederick A., April 
19, 1880. Harry died May 25, 1888, in his four- 
teenth year. The mother of this interesting famil}' 
is a member of the Methodist Church, has manj' 
friends throughout the community, and in home 
and social life has been useful in her day and gen- 
eration. The father, honest in his dealings, intel- 
ligent, reliable and kindl}', maj- well be considered 
one of the most worthy citizens of the county. He 
has held various local offices in his township, is in- 
terested in divers good works, and ready to bear 

such a part as he can in the progress of the coun- 
try. Prior to the Rebellion, he was a Democrat, 
but since that time has been a Re|)ubliean. 

|>;ILLIAM' ATEN was a pioneer of this 
county, and is one of the most highly es- 
fj teemed residents of Woodland Township, 
with whose agricultural growth he has been closely 
connected for more tiian forty years. In the mean- 
time he has developed a choice farm, pleasantly 
located on section 7, from the wilderness that he 
found when he came here, and has placed it under 
substantial improvement. 

Our subject was born in that section of West 
Virginia known as the Pan Handle, October 8, 
1821. His father, William Aten, was a native of 
New Jersej', while his grandfather, Aaron Aten, is 
supposed to have been a native of Delaware. 
Richard Aten, the great-grandfather of our sub- 
ject, was probably a native of Long Island. The 
first representative of the Aten family to come to 
America came from Belgium, and landed on these 
shores in 1741. The great-grandfather of our sub- 
ject ran a ferrj' on the Delaware River, and lived 
to be quite an old man. Aaron Aten served in the 
Revolutionary War six months, and took part in 
the battles of Braudywine and Germantown. He 
was once wounded in the leg. He farmed in Dela- 
ware until 1792, and then moved to Western Penn- 
sylvania, and settled at the point where Beaver, 
Washington and Alleghen}^ Counties come together. 
He made the trip over the mountains with a team 
and wagon, and was one of the very first settlers 
in that part of the State. He erected a log cabin 
and cleared a farm, on which he spent the remnant 
of his life, d^'ing at the age of eighty-two years. 
He was a very religious man, and was first a mem- 
ber of the Dutch Reformed Church and later of 
the Presbyterian. 

The father of our subject passed his early life on 
a farm in Pennsylvania, and after marriage moved 
across the line into West Virginia. He bought two 
hundred acres of land there, and cleared half of it. 
He was a man of persevering industr3% and by thrift 



and euoiiom}- became quite well-to-do. He was a 
faithful raemher of the Presbyterian Church. His 
death occurred on his homestead in West Virginia 
at the age of eighty-four years. .Jane (Anderson) 
Aten, his wife, was, so far as known, a native of 
Virginia. She was a kind motherly woman, and a 
member of the Seceders* Church. She died at the 
age of flfly-two years. Seven of the eight children 
wliom she bore grew to maturity: Aaron II., John 
('.. Richard, Koliert. William, Mary (Mis. Mc- 
CliHg) and Nancy. William Anderson, the maternal 
grandfather of our subject, was a native of Ire- 
land, and when a young man cane to this country 
and settled in Pennsylvania, where he engaged in 
his occupation as a farmer. He was a member of 
the Seceders' Church. He died in Pennsylvania, 
just as he had attained tiie meridian of life. 

William Aten, of this sketch, was reared on his 
father's farm in Hancock County, Ya., and at- 
tended the pioneer schools of the period, taught in 
log schoolhouses, with slab benches, open fire- 
places and greased paper windows. When a young 
man he served two years at the tailor's bench, and 
so injured his health that he made atrip South to 
recuperate. He spent two years in that region, 
and then returned Northward. At the age of 
twenty-one he began life for himself, and after that 
spent one year on the old home place, and then 
came Westward. He landed in this county in the 
month of March. 1844, and entered three forty- 
acre tracts, walking to (^uincy, 111., a distance of 
ninety miles, to make the entry at the land-oflice. 
Two of these forty -acre tracts were in \'ermont 
Township, and one in Astoria. He erected a 
hewed log house on his land in the former place, 
and cleared several acres of his hoiliestead. I'our 
3'ears later he sold out, and bought the one hun- 
dred and sixtj' acres on section 7. in Woodland 
Township on which he now resides. A log cabin, 
a log barn, and a few acres cleared, constituted all 
the improvements, and all else that has been done 
to make it what it is to-d.ay, one of the neatest and 
most attractive farms in the localit}', is the work 
of his own hand. He lived in the old logcal)in four 
years, and then replaced it by another more commo- 
dious, in which he dwelt until 1873, when he 
erected his present substantial, roomy brick resi- 

dence. He has been an indefatigable worker, and 
has prospered abundantly. He has always kept a 
book account of his sales of produce, stock, etc., 
and in the forty years he has lived on this place 
has sold over $40,000 worth of produce. 

Maj' 14, 1846, was the date of the marriage of 
our subject with Eli/.id)eth Pittenger, who born 
in \'irginia in 1824. They have had ten children, 
namely: Melissa J., Sarah C, Elizabeth, Emma, 
.Tohn P., William N., Frank, Henry M., Ida JI. and 
Mary E. Mr. Aten and his wife have been con- 
nected with the Presbyterian Church since 1841, 
and he has been an Elder since 1854. The sin- 
cerity of their Christian faith is exemplified in their 
daily lives, which are guided by the highest princi- 
ples of right. Politically, Mr. Aten was reared a 
Democrat, and was a follower of that part\- imtil 
18(50. He then changed to Republicanism on ac- 
count of his hatied of slavery, and remained 
with the Republican part}' until six years ago, when 
he identified himself with the Prohibitionists. He 
is a thoroughly upright, moral m;m, and is zeal- 
ous in all good works to promote the religions and 
social welfare of his township. Mr. Aten has a wide 
acquaintance on account of his man_y years resi- 
dence in this county, and occupies a warm (jl.ace in 
the hearts of the entire community, by whom he is 
affectionately known as "Uncle Billy." 

ORSEN BEARCE, the owner and occu|)ant 
of a well-improved farm in Lewistown 
Township, is numbered among the intelli- 
gent, industrious and prosperous .agriculturists 
of this productive count}'. His home farm com- 
prises one hundred and tweni}' acres upon which a 
line brick house has been erected, together with a 
full line of frame barns, granaries, sheds, etc. iAIr. 
Bearcc owns another Irjict of improved land, con- 
sisting of eighty acres on section 10, and a forty- 
acre tract on section 4. 

Eli A. Bearce. the father of our subject, was born 
in Connecticut, his father, .losiah Bearce, being 
|)resumably a native of the same State. The latter 
spent his last 3'ears in New York of which his son 



lia'i become a resideut. Eli Benree remained in his 
native State until sixteen years ok), when heaccom- 
paniel Dr. Beecher to New York, intending to 
stud}' medicine with that gentleman. On the death 
of the Doctor, which occurred soon after, the j'oung 
uian abandoned his intention and turned his talents 
to account in teaching school during the winter and 
farming during the remainder of the year. He was 
married in the Empire State iu 1816, and continued 
to reside there until 1821. when he determined to 
emigrate to the West. He built a flatboat at Olean 
Point, loaded his goods, and with his wife and two 
children floated down the Alleghany and Ohio 
Rivers to Sliawnectown, 111. 

A forty-acre tract of land in New York had been 
traded by Mr. Bearce for a cjuarter section now in- 
cluded in Fulton County. His means were very 
limited, however, and he did not think best to un- 
dertake life in tlie wilderness, therefore renting a 
tract near Shan'neetown he remained there three 
years. In April. 1S21, he made his way to Fulton 
County with a team, but even then did not locate 
on the land for which he had traded. He rented a 
fariu near Lewist^wn which at that time contained 
one store, a log jail, log courthouse, its few inhabi- 
tants living in log houses. 

At the close of the season Mr. Bearce traded a 
yoke of oxen and a wagon, for one hundred acres of 
land two and one-half miles north of the village 
.ind in 1825 built a log house thereon to which he 
removed his family. Indians were still more num- 
erous than whites throughout this section, and for 
a number of years deer, wild turkeys and other 
game was abundant. There were no railroads for 
many years, the river towns being the nearest 
markets. The pioneer labors of 'Sir. Bearce were 
brought to a close by his death, February 18, 1857. 
He was a soldier in the \Var of 1812. 

The maiden name of the mother of our subject Sarah Austin. She was a native of the Emjjire 
Stateand spent her last years with her children. She 
reared seven children, the second of whom is the 
subject of this biographical notice. Hannah mar- 
rit'd Jacob Shaw ver and now lives in Lewistown; Lu- 
cinda is the wife of Jonathan Bordner,of Lewistown 
township; Maria, who is now deceased, the wife 
of Moses Bordner, who died in Lee Township in 

1889; Franklin is now living near Clarinda, Iowa; 
Mary is the wife of James U'interbottom, their 
home being in Kansas. 

Orsen Bearce was born in Monroe County, N. Y., 
April 1, 1819, and therefore two years old 
when he became a resident of Illinois. He was 
reared on the farm in the development of which he 
early liegan to bear such a part as his strength 
would permit. His studies were carried on in the 
pioneer schools first taught in the log house with 
its homemade furniture, the only desk being a board 
around the side of the building, at which the larger 
scholars did their writing. The facts noted in re- 
gard to his parents' home and surroundings are 
sufficient to indicate the manner of life under which 
he became persevering, industrious and vigorous. 
He remained with his parents until he was twenty- 
three years old, although he had previously begun 
the improvement of a portion of the farm which 
he now occupies. His first purchase was of eighty 
.icres, to which he soon added forty acres, the whole 
being heavily timbered when bought by him. Its 
present beautiful appearance and good value is a 
standing monument to the qualities which he has 
exhibited since boyhood. 

March 23, 1842, Mr. Bearce was united in mar- 
riage with Betsy Brown,a native of Licking County% 
Ohio, who p.assed away September 9, 1852. after a 
comparatively brief wedded life. She was the 
mother of five children whose record is as follows: 
Icy Ann married Jonas Evans and now lives in Ne- 
braska; Catherine, who is now dead, was the wife of 
John Hunter; Sarah L. married Aaron Orrindale, 
their home being near Bradford, Stark County: 
Frances married Henry Ryan and lives iu Lewis- 
town Township; Leonard died in infancy. Mr. 
Bearce was again married. April 3, 1853, his com- 
panion on this occasion being Miss Jane Mc- 
Neil, a native of Lewistown and daughter of one 
of the hardy pioneers of this county. Her father 
was John McNeil, a native of Hillsboro, N, H.,who 
removed with his parents to Indiana, where he was 
married when about twenty-one years old to .Sarah, 
daughter of Jacob and Margaret (Smith) Young- 
man, pioneers of the Hoosier State. Mr. McNeil 
after locating in this county followed his trade of 
a carpenter in Lewistown. finally opening a cabinet 



shop which he operated some j'ears. but eveiilually 
biiyiiiij; a farm north of town and turning: his at- 
tention to agriculture, lie died on liis estate in Fel)- 
ruary, l.SfJT. lie was originally a Whig and later a 
Re|)ublican in politics, and he and his wife lielonged 
to the Methodist Kpiscojial Church. 

The parents of Jolui McNeil were Daniel aud 
Martha (Parker) McNeil, the father being a farmer 
in his native New England many years. After 
spending some time in Indiana he finally became a 
pioneer of this count}', locating near Astoria where 
he continued his agricultural labors for a long 
period. His death took place at the home of his 
son in Lewistown. His wife was born in London- 
derry, N. H., being a daughter of Alexander and 
Nancy (Dickey) Parker,the latter of whom was the 
daughter of William and Elizabeth Dickey, who 
settled in Londonderry immediately after their 
emigration in 1725. Mrs. Daniel McNeil died on the 
farm near Astoria when full of years. 

Our subject and his present wife have ten chil- 
dren: Reuben now lives in Ltwistown Township, 
established in a home of his own ; Eliza is the wife 
of Frank Lee, her home being in the same town- 
ship; Annie, John, Charlie, Jacob, Nellie, Frank, 
and tvvo who died in infancy complete the family 
circle. Mr. Bearce was formerly a Whig but has 
been a Republican since the formation of the party. 
He is a member of Lewistown Lodge, No. 104, F. 
& A. M. lie is a believer in the doctrine of univer- 
sal salvation. 



^f^RANCIS M. WILLIAMS. Prominent 
TsSi' among the citizens of Fulton County wiio 
\ have materially contributed to its prosper- 

ity, is the subject of this sketch. He is one of its 
ablest and most brainy farmers and stock-raisers, 
and has been a conspicuous figure in its civic life 
for many years. He is the proprietor of one of 
the largest and best equipped farms in Harris 
Township, and here he and his family have one of 
the best appointed and most attractive homes in 
this part of the State. 

Our subject is the representative of an old pio- 

neer family of Illinois, and many incidents of Lis 
early life here are of interest and are incorporated 
in this biography. He was born in Adams 
County, Ohio, December 1, 1833. His parents, 
John and Nancy (Smullcv) Williams, were natives 
of the same place. The Williams family originated 
in Wales, and the Smalley family was of mingled 
Irish and Dutch extraction. His mother was the 
daughter of Isaac and Nancy Smalley, who came 
from the East, crossing the Alleghanys with pack 
horses. David Smalley, the father of Isaac, who 
was the descendant of an old American family, 
served in the Revolutionary War. He was a per- 
sonal actpiaintance of Gen. W^asliington, and it is 
said that in early life he had many a bout with him 
in wrestling, but it is not stated which was the 
best man. John WMUiams was the son of John and 
Mary "Williams, who went from Maryland to Ohio 
in a very early day. John Williams, Sr., had two 
sons in the War of 1812. 

In 1836 John Williams, Jr., the father of our 
subject came to this State with his family, and lo- 
cated in Winnebago County, near where the city 
of Rockford now stands, there being then but one 
house on the present site. He had come from 
Ohio with three yoke of oxen and a prairie schooner, 
and making good time, was but six weeks on 
the road. He squatted on a piece of land, and 
when he first settled there was surrounded by In- 
dians who came to his house to beg. All the fam- 
ily had to eat, except some wild meat, which was 
very scarce, was cornuical made by pounding corn 
in an old iron kettle with a wooden pestle. Mr. 
Williams made a little addition to their fare by 
raising some buckwheat on the sod, which was 
ground in an old-fashioned coffee mill. After he 
had lived there three years, a man came along with 
a load of hogs which he was taking to Galena, and 
l\Ir. Williams bought one. This was the first ani- 
mal of the kind introduced into the county, and 
our subject, then a child of five or six years, made 
of it a great pet, and would stay with it for hours 
at a time. His sole playmates in his early youth 
were the little Indians of the Pottawattomie tribe, 
and in pl.aying with them he became familiar with 
their language, ami could speak it quite well. He 
can remember the ccreinunics at that time of the 



death of a chief of the tribe, whom his men placed on 
a log, which they chipped off with their tomahawks, 
with his gun, tomahawk, pipe and tobacco around 
him. The3" built a fence around this novel 
bier, on which the Sachem lav until his skeleton 
fell to pieces. Ills last resting place was right on 
the ground where the city of Bclvidere now stands. 
Mr. Williams' first trip to mill was with an ox- 
team and cart loaded with corn, and he journeyed 
to where the city of Joliet now stands. He was 
gone from home three weeks, as he iiad to go into 
camp and wait his turn, so many had preceded 
him. His wife was much worried about his long 
absence and almost gave him up as dead, as she 
heard nothing of hira from the time he started out 
until his return. Their place was only about four 
miles from the battle ground of Stillnian's defeat, 
which occurred in the Black Hawk War. They 
left there in 1844. and removed to McLean County 
near where the town of Lexington now is and eigh- 
teen miles from Bloomington. In the fall of 1847 
the family came to the faim where our subject now 
lives and here his parents passed their remaining 
years, he dying in 1868 and she in 1873. They 
'had six children, all of whom survive except one, 
John Jefferson, who died when young. The others 
are: Sarah Jane, our subject, Elizabeth, Isaac N., 
and Andrew Allen. 

F. M. Williams, of this biographical review, 
gained his early education as best he could. He 
being the eldest child, much depended on him in 
helping his father carry on his farming. But he 
wiis ambitious to train his mind, he being studious 
and scholarly, and he attended one term at the 
Farroington Academy, then entered Hedding Col- 
lege, at Abingdon, where he pursued a fine course 
of studj-. He was thus well equipped for his chosen 
calling, that of farming, and he returned to the 
homestead and resumed the pursuit of agriculture. 
In 1862 he married Miss Sarah Foster, a native of 
this county, born near Fairview, and a daughter of 
William and Hannah Foster. Her parents came 
here from near Columbus, Ohio, and were very 
early settlers of this section of the State. Of this 
marriage ten children have been born to our sub- 
ject and his amiable wife, of whom eight are now 
living and are with their parents. They are named 

as follows: Florence D., who has been well edu- 
cated and carefully trained for a teacher, to which 
profession she has devoted herself for three j'ears, 
and is regarded as one of the best in the county; 
Odus C, an enterprising young man; Harry L., 
Charles C, Idola A., Adda V., George Emerson, 
and Chalmers C, the youngest member of the fam- 
ily. Mary May, the third child, died at the age of 
sixteen years; Luella died in infancj*. 

After marriage Mr. Williams moved to Lee 
Township, and bought seventj- acres of land in its 
native wildness. which he brought under the plow 
in the course of a few years, and he ad<led thereto 
one hundred and sixty-six acres, the most of which 
he developed. In 1866 he bought his father's 
place, after disposing of his Lee Township prop- 
ert}'. This homestead then comprised two hundred 
and twenty-eight acres, and he has since added two 
hundred and fort^' to it, a good share of which he 
has under a fine state of cultivation, and Tie has 
here one of the finest places to be found in the 
township. He has greatly increased its value since 
it came into his possession bj- the man3' substantial 
improvements that he has made, including the 
commodious residence that he erected in 1884, 
which is one of the handsomest dwellings in this 
locality. It is neatly and tastefuUv furnished, 
marking the presence of an intelligent and cultured 
household, and among its choicest adornments is 
the well-selected library of the best authors of 
modern times and many of the past. Mr. Williams 
owes his present prosperous circumstances solely 
to his own persistent labors. He began life as a 
teacher after leaving college, and in that way 
earned his first $400, which he judiciously invested 
in land, on which he located at the time of his 
marriage. He thinks that his first thousand dollars 
was the hardest to acquire. 

In his career our suliject has shown himself to be 
possessed in a marked degree of those faculties 
are lequisite to success — sagacity, far-reaching 
forethought and practical tenacity of purpose. 
Underlying all these traits are those high principles 
that have gained him the confidence of his fellow- 
citizens, and have caused them to elect him to im- 
portant offices of trust and responsibility. He is 
Democratic in his political aflSliations, and while in 



Lee Township was Collector two terms, and Supir- 
visor for .1 like leiiijlli of time. Since lie has been a 
resident of Harris he has represented tlie towiisliip 
on the County Board of Supervisors four terms. 
During his official career lie was instrumental in 
making appropriations for l)uilding iron bridges 
across Spoon River, Shaw's Creek and Pearsol's 
Branch. He was a member of the Board at the 
time of the Chicago fire, wiien the railway sinking 
fund was appropriated for the use of food and 
clothing for the suflerers. As there was no money 
in the treasury which they could legally use to meet 
the demand, our subject made a motion to restore 
the -original fund to the county treasury, wliich 
was done. He was one of the committee that pur- 
chased a portion of the land for the County Poor 
Farm. Mr. Williams has been a life-long Ciiristian, 
and a consistent member of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church since he was twelve years old, and he 
has taken an active part in the Sunday-school and 
in all religious matters. He has been School Di- 
rector, of wliich office he is still an incumbent, and 
has been a School Trustee for man}' j-ears. 

"itSi^ AVID B. THOMPSON. It affords us pleas- 
ure to place before our readers an outline 
of the iiistory of this young geiillenian 
wlio is one of the enterprising dealers of 
London Mills. His grandfather Thompson was 
burn in P>nglaiid and emigrated to New Jersey. He 
married a Scotch lady who bore a family among 
whom was a son, Robert 1). The latter was bom in 
Warren County. N. .1., and until thirteen years old 
lived in his native State. He then went to Clermont 
County, Ohio, with his parents, traveling in the 
oldlirae fashion with a wagon and team. He hel|)ed 
clear a farm and soon began dealing in horses. 
While still but a youth he would buy horses and 
drive them to New Jersey for sale. After his mar- 
riage he ran an hotel at Ivlcnton some fifteen years 
and also carried <jn a farm. 

In December. 1855, Robert Thompson came to 
Central Illinois accompanied by his wife and nine 
children. The family and household goods were 

brought in three wagons. Mr. 'i'hoinpson settled in 
Chesiiut Townsiiip,'] Knox County, ^buying', land 
wliich he improved and addetl to from time to time 
until he owned five hundred and thirty-five acres in 
one body. He dealt in slock, feeding and shipping 
in quite large numbers. He still owns three hun- 
dred and thirty-five acres of farm land which is 
furnished with good buildings and other improve- 
ments. In 1888 he bought a residence at Maquon 
and retired to that town to spend his days in leisurely 
enjoyment. He hasjUwaj-sjbecn interested in" the 
educational advancement of the country and has 
liberally 'supported [schools and churches. His 
suffrage is given to Democratic principles and cau- 

Mr. Thompson has been twice married, his first 
wife having been Sarah Sloan, who was born and 
died in Ohio. His second wife was Amy J. Bear- 
more who was born in Warren County, N. J., and 
reared and educated there. Her father was born in 
England but died in New Jersey. Mrs. Am}- 
Thompson died in Maquon, May 13, 1889. She was 
the mother of seven children, four of whom grew to 
maturity. Of these our subject is the first-born. 
The others are, Charles, now a farmer in Oklahoma; 
Mrs. Ella Gibson, died in Audubon Count}', Iowa, 
June 29, 1890, and Lillie M., who is still with her 
father. The first marriage of Mr. Thompson re- 
sulted in the birth of eleven children, eight of 
whom lived to mature years. The oldest, James, 
lives in Butler County, Kan., is a Methodist Episco- 
pal minister and a merchant; Elizabeth is now Mrs. 
Applcgaie, of Johnson County, Iowa; William went 
to Iowa many years ago, was a prominent stockman 
there, became wealthy and in 1883 removed to 
Butler City, Kan., and engaged in mercantile pur- 
suits; Thomas B. is a farmer in Lucas County, Iowa; 
Mrs. Alice Hogan lives in Warren County, this 
State; Mrs. Melvinia Freemole lives in Butler 
County, Kan.; Robert resides in Davis County," 
Iowa; Mrs. Jane Dillie lives in Brown, Dak. 

The gentleman of whom we write was born Jan- 
uary 14, 1855, near Edenton, Clermont County, 
Ohio. The following December he came with his 
parents to this State and was reared in Chestnut 
Townsliii), Kno.K County. Like many farmers' 
sons he was early set to work and when ten years 



old began to plow corn and bei>r a pai-t in other la- 
bors, being able to fill the place of a full hand in 
the harvest field when fourteen ^ears old. He has 
helped break ))rairie with oxen, and has a consider- 
able knowledge of the labors necessary in develop- 
ing a new country. His school privileges were 
somewhat limited, but he has always endeavored to 
keep posted regarding general topics of interest, 
and fit himself for accurate calculations in business 

Young Tliompsou remained with his fatiier until 
he was of age, then rented a farm belonging to his 
Ijareuts for five years. At ihe expiration of that 
period he made Warren Count}' his home one year, 
still pursuingthe calling of a farmer. In February, 
1882, he came to London Mills, bought an old 
building, converted it into a store and put in a 
stock of hardware. The following Ma\- he built a 
frame store,the first large one in the town, which was 
20x40 feet. Into this he put his goods but in Jul}' 
sold out and rented the store. He then engaged in 
the sale of agricultural implements and finding 
his new enterprise a success, put his goods into his 
own building in 1884. There he carried on his busi- 
ness until 1 886, when he sold the building and opened 
an establishment on his present site. He bought an 
eighth of a block, put up a building with sheds for 
machinery, and now sells all kinds of agricultural 
implements, including windmills and pumps, has a 
good trade in buggies, and also carries harness. 
Having begun at the bottom of the ladder, he has 
worked his waj' upward step b}' step until he has 
reached a position of prominence among business 
men. He owns several town lots upon which he 
has built residences, one being occupied by himself. 

Mr. Tliompson was united in marriage with Miss 
Clara A. Nichols, in Knoxville, March 26, 1879. 
His wife was born in Galesburg, received an ex- 
cellent education there and was engaged in teach- 
ing for eight years. She is the daughter of John 
and Mary Nichols, formerly of Sweden. She is not 
only well educated, but possesses a noble Christian 
character and bears a prominent part in the various 
progressive and elevating movements of society. 
Mr. and Mrs. Thompson have one child, a bright 
boj' named Robert D. 

Mr. Thompson is now Justice of the Peace and 

serving his second term as Commissioner of High- 
ways. He was a member of the fii'st Village Board 
of Trustees, of which he was President one year, 
and has been Treasurer of the village. He belongs 
to London Lodge, No. 734. I. O. O. F., is Past 
Grand and has twice been a deleg.ate to the Grand 
Lodge. He firmly believes that the principles of 
Demo(;racy are best adapted to the welfare of the 
Nation and therefore supports them with his vote 
and personal influence. He has won a prominent 
position in social circles, as well as in and 
business affairs. Mrs. Thompson is Secretary of the 
Women's Christian Temperance Union, of London 
Mills and belongs to the Methodist Episcopal 

\|]OHN C. MOORE came to Fulton County as 
early as 1843, and as one of its pioneers has 
' done his share of the hard labor necessary 
to develoj) its agricultural resources. His 
work has been blessed to him. and he is now passing 
his declining years in honorable retirement, enjoy- 
ing the competence tjat he has gathered together. 
Mr. Moore was born in Washington County, Pa., 
December 17, 1817. He was reared and received 
his schooling in his native place, and in the early 
years of a stalwart manhood made his way to Ful- 
ton County, and cast in his lot with its early settlers. 
He first located on section 27, Bernadotte Town- 
ship, where he bought ninety acres of land which 
he improved into a good farm and there reared his 
children. After his last wife died he took up his 
residence with his j'oungest son and is still a wel- 
come inmate of his home. He still owns the old 
homestead, his son-in-law, Anthony C. Ernst, rent- 
ing the place. It is provided with the necessarj' 
buildings and the soil is admirably tilled, making 
it a verj' productive and valuable piece of propertj'. 
AVhen he first came here he was extensively engaged 
in raising sheep and in 1843-44 herded eleven hun- 
dred on the branch of the Spoon River. 

Mr. Moore was not married until after he came 
to this county. In 1845, he married Elizabeth J. 



Walters, ami their iiiiinn brought to them four 
children, two sons ami two daughters, of whom the 
following is recorded: Mary Ann, tlie oldest, born 
November 16, 1845, died and was buried in the 
Walters Cemetery, in Hernadotte Township; Walter 
T., tlie next in order of birth, was born April C, 

1847, married Mary L. St. Clair, and tiiey live in 
McDonongh County, 11!.; Martlia L., born in March, 

1848, married Anderson Clark, and they lire on a 
farm of one hundred and sixty acres belonging to 
them in McDonougli County; William II., born 
October 6, 1851, married ^larllia, daughter of 
Joseph and Lucy J. McMillan, and they reside on 
their own farm of one liundred and sixty acres in 
Bernadotte Township. Mrs. Moore, tlie motiier of 
tliese children, departed this life June 28. 1852, and 
was buried in the Walters Cemetery. 

Our subject married for his second wife Miss 
Mary Jane Scott. They had four children born 
to them, two sons and two daughters, as follows: 
John I., born August 5, 1853, deceased ; Nancy A., 
born November 10, 1855, married Anthony C. 
Ernst, and they live on the old homestead on section 
27; .Samuel R., born June 2, 1858, married Lucinda, 
daughter of Dr. J. M. and Mary E. Steel, and they 
reside on their own farm of ninety-six acres on 
section 27, of Bernadotte Township; Alice, born in 
January, 1862, died in the month of Jiilj-, the same 
year. Mrs. Moore's death occurred in August, 
1862, and her mortal remains were placed in Wal- 
ters Cemetery. Tlie maiden name of Mr. Moore's 
third wife was Ellen C. McCullough. She lived 
until March 2, 1880, and then passed away, and is 
now sleeping her last sleep in Walters Cemetery. 

Our subject has led a peaceful, quiet life. He 
has never been on but one jury and that was Itefore 
a justice of the peace, and he never had a lawsuit in 
this country and has never testified as a witness. 
He has aimed to deal justly by his fellow-men and 
has been honorable in his dealings. He was for 
several years a School Director and Road master. 
The first vote he ever cast was for Gen. Harrison 
in 1840. He now gives his support to the man and 
not to the pai ty, and has not taken a very active 
part in ])olitics of late years. He is a worthy 
member of the Presbyterian Church and contributes 
liberally to thesu[)porl of the (iospel. Our subject 

comes of a long-lived and hardy race and has a 
I sister living at an advanced age. He has eighteen 
I grandchildren and one great-grandchild to perpetu- 
ate his name. 

)HOMAS BERRY. Among the residents of 
Fulton Cotmty who have prosecuted their 
life work successfully and are now enjoying 
the/ruits of their prudence and encrg3-,surrouiided 
with comforts, able to journey through scenes of 
beauty and grandeur and indulge in other recrea- 
tions suited to their years an<l according with their 
tastes, is tlie gentleman above named, whose por- 
trait a|)pears on the opposite page and who is 
well and favorabl}- known to many of our read- 
ers. He is now occupying a pleasant home in 
Table Grove, having disposed (_)f his large estate to 
his children for a sullicient consideration to affoi'd 
himself and familj' a maintainancc during the re- 
mainder of their lives. The residence which he 
built in 1882 is an ornament to the village, and is 
the center of social and domestic joys, being pre- 
sided over by an estimable woman and brigliteiicd 
b^- the presence of two daughters. 

Mr. Berry is a native of England, Ijorn at Stan- 
ford, Berkshire, July 12, 182G. He was seven 
years of age when iiis parents, Joseph and Elizabeth 
Berr}', emigrated to Canada, where they made their 
home seven 3'ears, thence removing to McDonough 
County, III. After a short time they bought a farm 
five mdes north of Table Grove and while they 
were living upon it our subject received six months' 
schooling. Being the youngest of tlie family, he 
was indulged when he desired to remain away from 
school and so received but a meagiv education. At 
the age of twenty years he began working at Ver- 
mont, in a mill which his brother and himself had 
bought and repaired so that they were able to 
grind wheat and corn, and saw lumber. This es- 
tablishment was operated by our subject some four 

During this time .Mr. lierr^' led to the Inmeneal 
Miss Nellora II. Harris, their marriage rites being 
celebrated in the spring of 1851. The cajjable and 



affectionate wife survived until January 20, 1879, 
six chiklreii being born to lier, four of wlioin now 
survive. Tliese are: Prudence E., who still re- 
sides with lier father; James J., who with liis wife 
and two children — Archie and Alice— occupies the 
old liomestead; Clara C, wife of Jolin L. Powell, 
Assistant Cashier in the State National Bank, of 
Wichita, Kan., and the mother of two children — 
Clarence B. and Herbert L.; Nellora A., who oc- 
cupies lier wonted place at the home fireside. 

When Mr. Berry disposed of his interest in the 
mill he purchased a farm in McDonough Count}', 
within a half mile of the Fulton County line and 
three miles from his present residence. Tliere was 
a log house on the place, about forty acres of which 
were surrounded by a very poor fence, but ere 
longtiie entire quarter section was in a fine state of 
cultivation, and improved with tlie buildings, 
fences, etc., which an energetic man always ))laces 
about liim. The estate was added to until, when 
he retired to town life, Mr. .Berry owned five luin- 
dred acres of most excellent land. 

A second matrimonial alliance was contracted by 
Mr. Berry. November 6, 1870, his bride being Miss 
Hannah C, daughter of Samuel and Phebe A. 
(Allen) Beers. Mr. Beers was a native of Oliio in 
which State he also breathed his last. Jlrs. Berrj- 
was born in Knox Count}-, that State, and grew to 
womanhood in possession of much useful knowl- 
edge, excellent principles, and great kindliness of 
heart. She is a graud-daugliter of John and Cliar- 
ity Allen, of New Jersey, her grandfather having 
been a Revolutioiiarj- soldier. 

In 1885 i\Ir. Berry with liis entire family, inckid- 
ing a son-in-law, a daughter-inlaw and two grand- 
cliildren, visited the exposition at New Orleans and 
tlien journeyed by the Southern Pacific Railroad to 
California,passing afongthe Rio Grande River and 
slopping at various places of interest, among which 
were the city ofMonlerey, the Yosemite ^'alley,and 
the Big Tree groves .at Mariposa County, Cal. 
They camped three weeks at the hot spring at San 
Juan, and continued to Oregon overland, staging it 
one hundred and twenty miles over the roughest 
road in America, and returning to their honie over 
the Northern Pacific Railroad. The stage in wliich 
they journeyed drawn by six horses, but in 

going up hill could not make as good time as a man 
could In' walking. This slowness was more than 
com|)cnsated for.however, by the rush with which 
they came down the slopes, the speed and danger- 
ous surroundings of rocks and precipices being suf- 
ficient to make the hair of the passengers rise. The 
six months and ten ilays spent in travel and recre- 
ation is a period upon which the family can look 
back with unmixed delight, as no accidents marred 
their pleasure. 

During the days of slaverj- as an American in- 
stitution, our subject and his brother Henrj- were 
ardent abolitionists and many a poor refugee did 
they assist over the Quiney route of the under- 
ground railroad. The general plan was to take 
the refugees from Quincy in the daj'-time in a close 
covered carriage, stopping the first night be^youd 
Ellison's .Station. Thence they would journey on 
horseback by night, halts being made at Henrj' 
Berry "s, Lavinus Sperry's and Bernadotte. They 
would cross the river by fording, continuing their 
journey on foot by easy stages, whence tliey would 
be shipped to Canada on board any lake craft which 
could be secured. 

On one occasion our subject had piloted two 
fine looking mulattocs who told him their master 
had failed and that they were mortgaged to St. 
Louis firms. The da>- after they had passed Henry 
Berry's, two sheriffs from St. Louis came thither 
looking for such "property." The motlier of our 
subject was blind and the sheriffs pretended to her 
that tliey were abolitionists desirous of buying 
land near the Berrys, whom they knew to be of 
that stripe. They questioned her regarding runa- 
ways but having been satisfied from whisperings 
that she liad heard that all was not right, she gave 
them no satisfactory answers. They finally asked 
if any consideration would induce hir to tell tliem 
where the fugitives were. She replied that if she 
had the whole world she would give it for her eye- 
sight, but slic would not betray a slave or assist in 
restoring him to bondage. After watching the 
bridge over Sjjoon River two days and nights the 
sheriffs departed, their expected prey being by this 
time many miles away on their to freedom. 

A somewhat amusing incident connected with 
the underground railroad was the remark of a very 



black but intelligent man who was brought to Mr. 
Horry's very late one ni!;lit. Wliilo the horses 
were being pri'ii.ired mother Rerry gave him food, 
and when doing so remarked thai it was raliier 
late at night to be traveling. The fugitive quietly 
responded "it suits my complexion better." Henry 
Berry was once arrested for helping fugitive slaves, 
the laws being very stringent, but the only thing 
that could be proven against liim was that he 
had said he saw the "nigger" kick a dog. As at 
the time he was lieli)iug a negro to Missouri in or- 
der tliat he might rescue his wife, it was thought a 
queer w.iy in helping to rescue a man to take him 
directly toward bondage. This man mack' three 
different trips before he managed to get liis wife 
away from slaver^-, coming on foot from Canada 
and undergoing man}' perils. Hewas very light and 
could easily pass for a white man under ordinary 

For years Mr. Berry worked for tiie good of tlie 
Uepul)lican party, but lie is now laboring ar- 
dently for prohibition, standing high in the coun- 
cils of that political party and being a member of 
tlie rroliibition Club. 

SAAC B. WITCHELL, Postmaster of Vermont, 
is well known as an old settler of this place 
ili and is greatly respected for those qualities of 
head and heart that have won hiiu the esteem and 
confidence of all with whom he associates. He is 
popular in his otiicial capacity and is discharging 
the duties of his position witli eharacleristic (idelity 
and greatly to the satisfaction of all concerned. 

A native of Ohio. .Mr. Witchell was born in Bel- 
luont'County, June 12, 1818. He is a son of .lolin 
Witchell, who wr.s a native of Scotland. The fatlier 
of the latter, bearing the same name .as himself, was 
likewise of Scottish birth. He was reared and mar- 
ried in the land of the heather and removed from 
there to England. He established himself in the 
banking business in Leeds, ami in 1 806, emigrated 
to America and was an earlj' settler of Belmont 
County, Ohio. He bought an improved farm and 
resided there some years. He then sold his place 

and invested his money in a stock companj' and 

so lost all he He returned to England and 
died in liecds. His wife, whose maiden name was 
Mary Tatehau, was also a native of Scotland, and 
she too died in Leeds. Thev reared three children 
— Mary, Ann and John. 

The latter was eleven ^ears old when he accom- 
panied his parents to America. He was bred on a 
farm, and lived with his parents until fifteen years 
old. He was then sent to the Weston school, a t^»ua- 
ker educational institution, and when not devoting 
his time to his books was engaged in working on 
a farm. He lived there three or four years, ac- 
quiring a substantial education, and then re- 
turned home. He engaged in farming in Belmont 
Count3\ and resided there with the exception of 
three jears spent in Guernsey County, until 1836. 
In that year he started with a three horse team for 
Indiana, taking his wife and children with him,and 
after his arrival located at Richmond. Two 3'ears 
were spent there, and then he removed to Henry 
County, where he bought an improved farm on 
which lie made his home until 181.'3. when he sold 
out and went to Jay Count}-. Three years later 
he came to ^'ermont, settled in the village and re- 
sided there some years. Kansas was his next des- 
tination and going there in 1859, he passed nearly 
four years in that State. Returning to this place, 
he died here about 1870. Prior tonu)ving to Kan- 
sas he and his wife went to England where they 
spent one year. 

The maiden name of the mother of our subject 
was Bathsheba Foulk. Her native place was in 
Bucks County. Pa. Her father, Iska Foulk, is 
thought to have been born in Scotland. He was 
marrieil in Pennsylvania, to .lane Barton, a native 
of that State. He was a farmer and weaver, de- 
voting a part of his time to each em|)loyuient. He 
died in Belmont County, Ohio. The mother of our 
subject departed this life in ^■ernlont in 1880. She 
reared three children, Jane, Mary and Isaac. 

Isaac M'itchell was about seventeen years old 
when he went to Indiana with his jiarents. and he 
continued to live with them until 18)0. In that 
year he came to ^'ermont and found here a small 
hamlet, and the surrcuiuding country sparsely set- 
tled and covered with liml)ei in wlilcli deer, wild 



turkeys and other game roamed at will. Mr. 
Witc'liell began life here as an engineer in a steam 
gristmill, which position he held, four j'ears. After 
that he operated an engine at his father-in-law's 
mill three years. He then built a sawmill in con- 
nection with his fatherin-law and managed it suc- 
cessfully some years. He subsequently gave his 
attention to selling and repairing boilers through- 
out the country. He was thus profitably engaged 
ten years, and since then has carried on various 
kinds of business. 

In the year 1843, our subject secured a good and 
faithful wife in the person of Sarah A. Burr. She 
was a native of Harrison County, Ohio, and :i 
daughter of Jesse and Martha Burr. Her death 
July 11, 1865, was a severe blow to her family, 
for she was a true, womanly woman, possessing 
many excellent traits of character, that gained her 
the respect and consideration of all with whom she 
came in contact. The following six of the nine 
children born of her marriage with our subject were 
reared to maturity: Adeline, Burr, Eva, John, 
Martha and Walter. 

Mr. Witchell was in early life a Whig, and in 
in 1840, cast his vote for Gen. Harrison. He was 
in full sympathy with the organizers of the Repub- 
lican party, and as soon as it was formed fell into 
the ranks and has remained true to it ever since 
He was appointed Postmaster in March, 1889. His 
selection for the imp(jrtant office was a wise one 
and received the hearty api)roval of all his fellow- 
citizens. For fifty years he has been a strong 
Temperance man and has used his influence in 
forwarding the cause. He has taken an important 
part in the government of the village, and for 
three years was President of the Village Board. He 
is prominent in local politics and was Chairman of 
the township Republican Committee thirty years. 

In an account of the Asiatic cholera epidemic 
that raged in Fulton County in 1851, the unremit- 
ting and arduous services of our subject in caring 
for the sick and dying received honorable mention. 
While many fled from the scene of affliction, lie was 
one of the faithful few, who heroically stood at 
the post of duty to the bitter end. Night and 
d.ay from June until September, with character- 
istic self-sacrilicc, and pitying kindness, he admin- 

istered to the afflicted, doing all that he could to 
allay their distress, and he tenderly assisted in the 
burial of the dead. He witnessed many sad scenes 
with an aching heart. Men who assisted in bury- 
ing a victim of the dread disease in the morning, 
were often stricken with the cholera and would he 
dead before night. About seventy died in this 
neighborhood in a few weeks time, our subject be- 
ing one of the small number who escaped. 

EWIS LLOYD JONES, a prosperous far- 
)) mer and mine owner of Orion Township, 
having a fine farm, underlying which is a 
valuable strata of coal, is one of the prominent citi- 
zens of Fulton County and is active in its public 
life. He is of Welsh origin and antecedents, born 
in Mertli3r-T3'dfil, Glamorganshire, Wales, March 
16, 1827. His parents, Thomas and Hannah (Lloyd) 
Jones, were natives of the same town, and there 
they spent their entire life, dying at an advanced 
age. The father was a miner by occupation. They 
had a family of twelve children, of whom the fol- 
lowing is the record: Thomas, born October 31, 
1820, now lives at Dutch Gap, Luzerne County, 
Pa.; Benjamin, born September 11, 1822, is now a 
resident of Australia; William, born January 16, 
1825, was killed by one of his subordinates while 
in English Government employ; Lewis L., our 
subject; Catherine, born January 31, 1829, died at 
home unmarried; Noah, born Februaiy 1, 1830, 
went to California and engaged in gold mining, 
and was there murdered in 1853 or 1854; Ruth, 
born January 1, 1833, married Thomas Jenkins, and 
died near Scranton, Pa.; Ebenezer, born December 
10, 1834, now resides in Mason County, Mo.; Na- 
honii, born November 30, 1836, married John 
Blamey, and lives in Scranton, Pa.; Myriam, born 
September 1, 1838, is married and lives in Scran- 
ton, Ps.; Joseph, born March 20, 1841, now lives 
in Canton; Hannah, born September 26, 1843, mar- 
ried William Jones, and lives in Russia. 

The subject of this biography received a limited 
education in his native town, where he subsequently 
followed the occupation of a miner until 1849. 


28 'J 

Ambitious to see more of life and to better his 
tinaiicial cMUnlition. in the opening years of a vigor- 
ous manlioud, he left liis old home on the ifith of 
February, in the year just mentioned, and em- 
barking on a sailinji-vessel at Liver|iool, Kngland, 
crossed the Atlantic to this country, landing at 
New Orleans about the ICtli of the following 
Ai)ril. From there he proceeded up the Mississip])! 
and JMissouri Rivers to Council liluffs, and thence 
went by ox-team to I'tah, where he engaged in 
farming the succeeding eight years. He was, how- 
ever, not satisfied with the country and his pros- 
pects there, and he then came eastward as far as 
St. Louis, Mo., and for five or six years was en- 
gaged in mining in that vicinity. He next came 
to Canton, in this State, and followed the same call- 
ing there until 1870. In that j^ear he bought the 
place where he now resides on section .SO, Orion 
Township. It comprises one hundred and sixty 
.acres of excellent farming land, whicli is well 
cultivated and is amply supplied with neatand sub- 
stantial buildings, and is in all respects a well- 
ordered farm. After locating on this place Mr. 
Jones soon began to prospect for coal, and finallj' 
developed a five foot vein of excellent quality, 
which he has continued to work up to the present 
time, and derives from that source a good income. 
Some years he has employed as many as thirty 
miners, but at present is working only five or six 
men in the winter season. 

While in Utah Mr. Jones was married, in No- 
vember, 1849, to Elizabeth (Morgan) Davis, widow 
of .lames Davis, who is a native of the same town 
as himself, and came to America in the same ves- 
sel on which he crossed the Atlantic. She has 
been to him a true wife, and is thoroughly devoted 
to his interests. Of their family the following is 
noted: Lewis M., now a farmer in Sheridan 
Count}', Neb.; Elizabeth, wife of Ephraim Grim, 
of Canton; Catherine, deceased;, of Can- 
ton ; Margaret, wife of George Gilmore, of Canton; 
David, who died in infancy; and Hannah, who 
married Albert Kiser, and lives near the homestead. 
Hannah was adopted when a babe of a year old. 
William Davis Jones, a son of Mrs. Jones by her 
first marriage, lives at home and assists our sub- 
ject in the management of the farm. 

Since Mr. Jones has resided here he has been 

prominently identified with its public and political 
lite, and is a sound and consistent Democrat. He 
is a man of much energy, tact and businesis capac- 
ity, and his fellow-townsincn have not failed to 
recognize his superior merits and (pialitications. and 
have caHed him to responsible oltices. He has 
lilk'd the i)Osition of .Supervisor for four years, and 
is now prominently mentioned b}' his party for 
County Treasurer. Mr. .lones is a member of the 
Josephite, or anti-))olygamist branch of the Mormon 
Church, and is consideri^d one of the most substan- 
stantial as well as one of the best-respected citi- 

— im^ — 

EMERSON CLARK, senior jmrtner in the 
firm of E. Clark cfe Hro., proprietors of Clark 
-J) Bros. Meat Market, Farmington. is undoubt- 
edly the most successful nnin in his lino in this town 
if not in the county, and he is tlic oldest butcher 
here. He is regarded as a man of exceptional in- 
tegrity and standing in the world, and he 
is [trominent in Masonic circles and in the public 
life of his community. 

Mr. Clark was born in Randolph, Mass., June 8, 
1817. He is the son of Elislia V. Clark, a native 
of the same town as himself. His mother, Mehita- 
ble N. Thayer, was born in CJuincy, Mass. When 
he was a young man the father was a shoemaker for 
some years, and then went to (Juincy, where he was 
engaged .as a butcher from 1S14 to 1846. In the 
latter year he returned to Randolph, and was em- 
ployed in the same tr.ade there. In 1866 he de- 
cided to act on the suggestions and solicitations of 
his old-time friend, Alvin Kidder, (of whom see 
sketch on another page of this work) to come to 
Farmington and embark in the meat business here. 
Accordingly he removed with his entire family 
from bis Eastern home to this State. He was then 
in very ordinary' circumstances, but he acquired a 
competence from his business as proprietor of a 
meat market, and in 1877 sold out to his son of 
whom we write. 

The earl}' boyhootl and manhood of our subject 
were passed in his natire Massachusetts town, and 



lie icceived his educalion in its public schools. He 
began to work at llie butcher business while 3-et a 
young man. and accumulated sufficient capital to 
buy his father out, as before mentioned. The first 
three years after he purchased the business he 
operated it alone, but in 1880 he formed a partner- 
sliip with his brother, and since that time it has 
been carried on under the firm name of E. Clark & 
Bro. In 1887 the brothers built their present tine 
brick store, which is 20x60 feet in dimensions, is 
fitted with all modern improvements, having ample 
conveniences for the preservation of fresh meats, 
etc. In no business does Farniington assume such 
a metropolitan air as in the meat market line, and 
certainly the establishment of E. Clark tt Bro., with 
its neat fixtures, would do justice to cities of far 
greater pretensions. 

The firm entered into the poultry and egg 
business in 1880 in connection with their meat 
trade, and they operate in Chicago and various 
other points in this State and in Iowa, buying and 
dressing poultry at four different places. Mr. Clark 
is rapidl}" becoming a wealth}' man. for besides his 
meat business, he has mone}' invested in real estate 
at Sioux Citj", Iowa, and at various other places in 
the AVest. 

Our subject is very liappy in his domestic rela- 
tions, having married in 1872. Sliss Emma Waite, 
who is to him all that a loving and devoted wife 
can be, and to their two children, Bessie W. and 
Eugene A'., is a tender and wise mother. Their 
pleasant residence is a commodious, two-story frame 
dwelling, finely located on the south side of Xer- 
non Street. Farmington. 

Mr. Clark is one of the most important factors 
in promoting the growth and prosperity of the 
village of Farmington. he being a progressive, lib- 
eral, public-spirited man, and in social and educa- 
tional matters he is pre-eminent. He joined the 
Masonic fraternitj' in the winter of 1868-69. He 
took the chapter degree at Yates Cit}- in 1870- 
71. He took the order of Knighthood at Gales- 
burg in 1880 and has taken nine degrees in all and 
is one of the State lecturers of the order. In poli- 
tics he gives his allegiance to the Democratic party. 
He has never sought office but at the solicitation of 
his fellow-citizens he has at three or four different 

times within the past twelve years taken the posi- 
tion of Township Clerk, of which office lie is at 
present an incumbent; and he is also serving as 
City Clerk of Farmington, whicli position he has 
held six 3ears. from 187.j to 1880, and was chosen 
a second time in 1889. 



It is a well-known fact that circumstances in 
may make or the prospects of a 
man to a certain extent, but a determined spirit 
will bend even the force of circumstances to its 
will. The career of Lieut. Cone since his arrival 
upon the stage of human action is abundant [iroof 
of this trite saying. 

The subject of our sketch is the fifth son of Jo- 
seph Cone, founder of Farmington, and a man of 
extensive fame. He was born in Harrington, 
Conn., July 10. 1821. and received an excellent 
education, attending the common sciiools, and 
afterward the academj- of his native place. He 
was onl\' a bo}' of tliirtcen summers when he came 
with his father to Illinois, and continued to live at 
home up to the time of his marriage. After his 
arrival in tliis State lie attended school at the Peo- 
ria Academy, which was at that time under the 
charge of the Rev. David Page. Possessing great 
natural ability and a fondness for study, our sub- 
ject found no difliculty in mastering the depths of 
•■hidden lore." 

Lieut. Cone twice married. In 1850 he was 
united in hymeneal bonds with Miss Harriet Berge. 
daughter of Deacon Luther Berge. a famous Abol- 
itionist and temperance man. and well known to 
the pioneers of Illinois. To our subject and wife 
have been born four children, viz.: Cordelia, who 
died while in infancy; Frank, who died when six 
j'ears old; Everett Luther, who resides at home; 
and George C, who is a student at the I'niversity 
of Illinois, at Champaign. 

Our subject owns much real estate, and has lived 
in several different places, and carried on a [iros- 
perous dry-goods business at Elmwood for about 
seven years. But while he was enjoying life at 



timt lime the war lnoke mil. and he eiilisteil in Com ■ 
panj' I, of tiie Scvent\-seveiilh Illinois Infantry, in 
tlie fall of 1862. Fie was under command of Col. 
Grier, who afterward became a (Jener.-il. The 
coinpany was mustered in at Peoria, and after a 
brief time spent there in drilling they left for the 
frontier, and our subj"et was elected Sergeant by 
the company. Their |)rospcctive point was Lex- 
ington, K}-.. and th"\- marched from Covington to 
Lexington, from there to Louisville, and from tliat 
citj- took a boat for Jlemphis and ^'ieks")urg■. and 
were present at the battle of \ieksburg. Thej- 
were eng.aged at Port Gibson, Haines Bluff, Arkan- 
sas Post, where they took six thousand prisoners. 
Champion Hill and Black Kiver Bridge. For val- 
iant service ou'- subject was promoted to be Lieuten- 
ant. In the battle of Vickshurg he was shot 
tbrought his left ankle, and was on crutches for 
eight months, and was honorably discharged on 
account of physical disal)ility at New Orleans in 
November, 1863. He returned home scarcely more 
than ,1 physical wreck, but with a war record of 
which an\' man may be justl\' proud. In politics 
he is in sympathy with the Republican part}-, but 
is no office-seeker. In 1863 he went to Memphis 
and bought mill property there, but sold same and 
never received pay for it, and this transaction 
pract'cally ruine<l him financially. He is noted 
for integrity, and is a man of great moral force, 
and is slightly inclined towards the Swcdenborgian 

- oo? - 

^|7 EWIS SCHAFER. This gentleman may 
I (@ truly be called a self-made man, as will be 
/1L^^ seen by the perusal of his history. He oc- 
cupies a finelj'-improved farm in Young Hickory 
Township and ranks among the highly-respected 
citizens of the county by reason of his intelli- 
gence, his sterling character and reliable citizen- 
ship. He is an enterprising farmer, prudently 
changing his crops in order to keep up the fertility 
of the soil, and devoting the greater amount of his 
land to grain without neglecting other articles of 
produce. He raises graded hogs, cattle and Nor- 
man horses, and has his estate well supplied with 

orchards and groves. Neat fences enclose and sub- 
divide tiie one hundred and thirty acres which he 
owns, and good buildings are f.avorably located 
upon it. The land is well supplied with springs, 
has been tiled wherever necessary and improveil in 
cvevy \mvt. 

Jacob Schafer, the father of our sulijcct. was 
born in Ilesse-Darmstadt, (lermany, and reared on 
a farm. When seventeen 3 ears old he was drafted 
into the army of Napoleon Bonaparte, who at that 
time invaded Hesse Darmstadt. He marched to 
JNloscow. Russia, suffering much en route, as he be- 
came footsore and otherwise practically unfit for 
the journey. After three 3-ears of army life he 
became one of Napoleon's bod^'-guard. In the 
fifth year he was wounded in the heel and his horse 
killed. He Lay b}' the side of the dead animal 
twelve hours, when a loose horse passed and he 
m.inaged to secure the animal. He had his foot in 
the stirrup ready to mount when a shell took off 
the horse's head. Mr. Schafer thought it wise to 
'•l.ay low" until assistance arrived, when he was 
taken to the hospital. He partially recovered from 
his wound, and was then honorably discharged, 
lie drew a pension of §78 a year. He was a per- 
sonal friend of Louis Napoleon, and never could 
bear to hear an^' one speak ill of him. 

In the town of Naunheim, where he made his 
home, Mr. Schafer held oflice and was in prosper- 
ous circumstances. As the time approached when 
his oldest son would be obliged to enter the army 
according to the German laws, he sold his property 
and in 1832 bade adieu to his native land. He left 
Bremen on an English sailing-vessel, and thirty- 
six days later landed in Baltimore with his wife 
and four children. He went to Bedford County, 
Pa., bought an unbroken tract of land and settled 
down in the woods. He built a log house, cleared 
his farm, .and had it nicely- improved when stricken 
with paralj'sis. He breathed his last in 1834, at 
the age of forty-four years. He was a member of 
the Lutheran Church. His wife, formerly Eliza- 
beth Conrad, was the (hiughter of a farmer in 
Hesse Darmstadt. .She remained with her older 
daughter until 1849, then came to this State and 
died in Fairview Township in the fall of 1851. 
She then sixt3--six j-ears old. The parental 



family consisted of Mrs. Margeret Schaff, who 
died in Cooper Countj\ Mo., in 1872; Jacob, who 
died in Fair view Township, this county, in 1852; 
Elizabetii, wife of Dr. Smith, of Medway: and our 

In Naunheim, Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany, the 
eyes of our subject opened to the light July 18, 
1825. At the usual age he began attending school, 
continuing his studies until the family emigrated. 
While on the way to America he narrowly es- 
caped drowning, being on deck when a huge wave 
liroke over the vessel, sweeping him away from 
his mother. lie clutched at the ropes and so es- 
caped a waterjf grave. He saw icebergs and whales 
and experienced an ocean storm of three daj-s 
duration. After three n-eeks spent in Baltimore 
he became an inmate of the log house in the 
forests of Bedford County, Pa., where he remained 
until the death of the father broke up the family. 
When he was ten years old he went to live with a 
Lutheran preacher, the Rev. Mr. Yeager, with 
whom he made his home for some years. He 
worked hard on the farm and in the winter would 
spend a day in school and then remain out two 
days ti) tramp out grain with a iiorse, or do other 
work. When fourteen years old he was apprenticed 
to his brother to learn the trade of a tailor, and at 
tlie age of twenty was set free. 

Prior to tliis lime young Schafer had but a few 
months' schooling, and he at once entered school. 

After close application for two mouths his health 
compelled him to leave school, and he secured a 
clerkship in Jlartinsburg, remaining there until 
1848. He then started West with his brother, 
intending to go to Booneville, Mo. They came 
down the Ohio River to St. Louis, when the Mis- 
souri was found to be very low, and they came 
n|i to Copi)eras Creek Landing, 111. Our subject 
liked the appearance of the countrj", determined 
to remain, and the da}' after his landing hired out 
to John W. Sliinn, merchant and druggist in 
Canton. He remained in the employ of that gen- 
tleman a year, and then, in partnership with his 
brother, began farming in Fairview Township. 
The connection continued until the brother's death. 

For some time our subject continued to clerk, 
being employed by Majile <V Piper, but the illness 

of his brother took him to the farm, where he 
afterward remained. Wild game was then plenti- 
ful, deer abounding in great numbers. In 1854 
he rented a farm in Young Hickory Township, but 
two j'ears later removed to McDonough Count}', 
buying eighty acres of raw land not far from (Jood 
Hope. His nearest neighbor on the west was five 
five miles awa}'. He improved the land with 
good buildings, making it his home until 1863, 
when he sold out and returned to this county. 
He then bought sixty acres of his present estate, 
which was partly improved, and upon which he 
continued the work which had [^been begun. His 
labors included grubbing from the timber and 
the breaking of uncultivated portions. In 1878 
he bought seventy acres, also parti}' improved, 
and now has both tracts in excellent condition. 
The estate is four miles from London Mills, ly- 
ing partly on section 23, and partly on section 22. 

In Young Hickory jTownship, September 1. 1853: 
marriage rites were solemnized between 31. Schafer 
and Jliss Susan Rest. This estimable lady was 
born near Connellsville, Pa., July 5, 1832, and in 
1838 accompanied her parents to this county. 
The removal was made with two wagons drawn 
by horses, and consumed a considerable period of 
time. INIrs. Schafer was reared and educated 
here, attending the common schools, where her 
writing exercises were done with a quill pen and 
her text books were by authors now unknown 
to pupils. She learned to hackle flax, si)in, weave 
and perform other household duties, which were 
then considered necessary parts of a girl's educa- 

Mrs. Schafer is a lineal descendant of John and 
Barbara (Striker) Rest, natives of Germany, who, 
after coming to America, located in Fayette County, 
Pa. There their son Jacob was born February 15. 
1795. AVhen of a suitable age he learned the 
trade of a clock-maker, but later engaged in mill- 
ing. He remained in his native State until Octo- 
ber, 1838, when he came West with his family, 
settling in Fairview Township, this county. He 
remained in his native State until October, 1838, 
when he came West with his family, settling in 
Fairview Township, this county. After a few 
years he bought one hundred and sixty acres on 



section 23, Young Hickory Townsliip, lechiimed 
the land from its raw condition and placed it 
under good improvements. He prospered finan- 
ciall}-, becoming quite well-to-do. He was quite a 
famous hunter and fisherman. He killed many 
deer, frequently bringing down two in a day. 
lie was originally a member of the Whig party, 
but in later years was a Democrat. He was act- 
ive in religious work, being a Class-Leader and 
chorister in the New Light Christian Chnvch. He 
helped to build the first sclioolhouse in the neigh- 
borhood and a house of worship. He died in 
1872, at the age of seventy-seven years. 

'rhf> wife of Jacob Rest and mother of Mrs. 
^Schafer was Mary Orban, who was born in Vny- 
elte County, Pa., and died in Kllisville in 1874, 
when nearlj' four-score years old. She had twelve 
children, of whom we note the following: John is 
now living in Fairview Township; Mrs. Barbara 
Hamilton died in Liveriiool Township; IMrs. Jane 
Dorland lives in Young Hickory Township; Henry 
makes his home in Iowa; Mrs. Elizabeth White 
died in Y'oung Hickory Township; Mrs. Nancy 
Hendricks lives in Texas; Mrs. ^lary Hendricks 
lives in the same State; Mrs. Caroline Irons lives 
in Young Ilickor}' Township; the next on the 
family roll is the wife of our subject; Mrs. Julia 
A. Beer died in Deerfield Township; Jacob died 
in Young Hickory Township; Mrs. Rowena Palmer 
died in Iowa. Jacob served his country during the 
Civil War in the One Hundred and Third Illinois 

The family of our subject and his good wife 
consists of three children — Mary E., Frank P. and 
Webster L.; Jacob B. died January 26, 1860. They 
also have as inmates of their household two 
orphan children of a sister of i\lr. Schafcr, the 
younger of whom was three years old when 
their father dietl. Other members of the family did 
not seem to concern themselves about the chil- 
dren, and our subject, who had known what it 
was to be left fatherless, sent his younger son for 
them. They now have a good home and are as 
lovingly cared for as were the children who are 
Mr. and Mrs. Schafer's by ties of blood. Their 
daughter was married to Anderson Matler, who died 
in the year 1889. and has one daughter — Phebe 

B. ; she follows the profession of school-teaching 
and is self-su|iporting. Frank Shafer married Lib 
Shoemaker and lives on a part of his father's 
farm; Webster, who has attended the college at 
Bushnell, is still a member of the home circle. 

In 1849 Mr. Schafer taught a rate bill school 
in Young Hickory Township, in 1853 taught again, 
and in 1864 held his third and last school. He has 
been School Director and Trustee for yeais, was 
Collector one jear and has been Township Clerk 
ten years. He is a member of the Odd Fellow's 
lodge, at EUisville, in which he has passed through 
the Chairs. His son Frank is also identified with 
it. Politically, he is a Democrat, and he has fre- 
quently served as a delegate to county conven- 
tions and as a member of the Central Committee. 
Mrs. Schafer belongs to the Christian Church. 



^^ HARLES S. PHELPS, a highly respected 
j|( ^1, resident of Lewistown, is extensively iden- 
^^' tilled with the agricidtural interests of this 
county. He is a fine representative of an honored 
pioneer family and is a native-born citizen of this 
State who has materially contributed to its wel- 

Mr. Phelps was born at Oquawka, July 17,1836. 
His father, Cupl. William Phelps, was born No- 
vember 1, 1809, in Cattaraugus County, N. Y., 
of which his father, Ste[)hen I'helps, a native of 
New England, was an early settler. The grand- 
father of our subject continued in his [)ioneer 
home a few years and then again took up the 
westward march and came to Illinois, locating in the 
Sangomoo Country, as Sangamon County was then 
called. That was long before the Capital was lo- 
cated at Springfield, and settlements were few and 
far between in that wild region. Mr. Phelps' 
stay in that region was only for a short time and 
he then came to Lewistown and was a pioneer mer- 
chant here, opening a store with a small stock of 
goods which he had brought from .St. Louis. The 
Indians were numerous in this section of the 
country, and a great deal of his trading was done 
with them. He was a man of much enterprise, and 



became quite prospered, and as the town and 
country settled up, his business was extended, and 
he carried it on successrull\- until his dcatii about 
1840, when a prominent and valued citizen was 
removed from the community-. He was quite eon- 
spicious in i)olitical and public affairs, being a 
Whig in part3' affiliations, and at an early daj' 
he served as one of the Board of County Com- 

The father of our subject was about ten years 
old when he came with his parents to Illinois. 
Some time before he attained his majority his father 
give him his time in the winter season, and he in- 
heriting a commercial spirit, engaged in trade with 
the Indians, and thus early became acquainted with 
their modes of living, customs and characters. 
Later when the Indians were removed from here 
he went vvith them to that portion of Dakota now 
in( luded in the State of Iowa, and remained among 
them several years. By kind treatment he gained 
their confidence, learned their language, and be- 
came good friends with Keokuk, Black Hawk and 
other noted chiefs. In 18.30, President Jackson 
jjresented Keokuk's wife with a handsome pres- 
ent, consisting of an elegant cabinet. She after- 
wards gave it to Mrs. Phelps,raother of our subject, 
who gave it to him and lie treasures it as a valued 

During those early times, for awhile Mr. Phelps 
commanded a boat on the Mississippi River, and 
was at one time Captain of the steamer "Pavillion." 
He was one of the early explorers of the lead re- 
gions around Galena. lu 1846 he returned to 
Lewistown and bought quite large tracts of farm 
lands in the vicinity and engaged extensively in 
agricultural pursuits. He remained a resident here 
until 1885, then went to Hastings, Neb., and with 
the exception of a few visits here, spent his last 
years there, his death occurring October 16. 1889. 
The maiden name of his wife was Caroline Kelse}' 
and she was also a native of Cattaraugus County, 
N. V. Her father Simeon Kelsey, is supposed to 
been have a native of the same State. He came 
to Illinois in an earl}- day and was a prominent 
pioneer of Lewistown. He dealt in stock, and 
was quite prospered. He made several trips to the 
lead mines near Galena, for the purpose of inves- 

tigating their merits, and invested money in them. 
He made his home in Lewistown until death closed 
his mortal career. 

Much of the first ten years of the life of our sub- 
ject was passed among the Indians in Iowa, 
which was at tliat time principally inhabited b}' 
the aboriginies, tliere being but few white settlers 
excepting along the streams. During his childhood 
his motlier was sick, so he was reared b\- a squaw. 
He learned to talk in the Indian language and be- 
came expert with the bow and arrow, and often 
shot deer, antelope and other wild game that was 
then plentiful in that region. When lie was ten 
years old his parents returned to Fulton Count}', 
and he attended the city schools at Lewistown 
where he laid the basis of a solid education. He 
subsequently pursued a two j'ears' course of study 
at the Catholic College at St. Louis. After leav- 
ing that institution he went to Fannin County, 
Tex., for a visit, and was induced to utilize his 
learning b}- teaching a term of school, which was 
conducted on the subscription plan, there being no 
free schools there, and was taught in a log cabin. 
In the spring he went to New Orleans and thence 
came by way of the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers 
as far as Havana, this State. He theu established 
himself in business as a grain dealer at Point Isa- 
bella, and carried it on there with good financial 
success until 18G9. 

In that year Mr. Phelps returned to this county 
and has since given his attention to agriculture on 
this fertile soil. He is the proprietor of a valuable 
farm, finely located one and one-half miles from 
the city, and containing three hundred and twenty 
acres of land highly cultivated and capable' of 
yielding large harvests. It isampl}^ supplied with 
well-ordered buildings, with good modern machin- 
ery and eveiy appliance for conducting farming 
operations after the best methods. In 1886, Mr. 
Phelps removed to Lewistown and has lived there 
ever since in one of the attractive residences in 
the city. 

To the lady who presides over his pleasant home, 
and renders it one of coziness and happiness, onr 
subject was united in marriage in 1858. Mrs. 
Phelps' maiden name was Louisa Pickering, and 
she was born in Ohio. Her parents, Dillon and 



Ann Pickering wore natives of Ohio and Marj'Iand 
respectively. IMr. :uk1 Mis. Pliilps have two ciiil- 
(hcn, Mary L. anil Fiank. Mary L., married James 
T. Kwan. and lives in Lewislown Township; Frank, 
wild lives on the homo farm married Florence 
Smith, and llioy have four children, viz: Captain 
Charles, Merlon. Bernard, and a babe as yet un- 

Mr. Phelps is n man of excellent business liabits 
and stands well in financial circles. He takes an 
intelligent interest in politics and is a faithful ad- 
herent to the Republican party. He was enroll- 
ing; oilicer during the war and was twice wounded 
while faithfully discharging his duties. He is .at 
the present time .Tustice of the Peace, aud is fill- 
ing that ofiice with characteristic ability. He and 
his wife are people of social importance and Mrs. 
Phelps is an esteemed member of the Presbyterian 

OHX FOUTCH. It is impossible for those 
who are reared amid the comforts of our 
present civilization, to fully realize the strug- 
gle through which the pioneers passed in 
opening up the countr}' which is now considered a 
vast garden spot, capable of supplying the wants of 
its numerous inhaliitants and thousands of dwellers 
in other parts of the world. The picture presented 
by our imagination, vivid as it seems to us, bears 
but a faint resemblance to the reality, yet even this 
suflices to thrill our hearts with gratitude to all 
those who bore a part in work on the frontier. The 
subject of this sketcli is one of the early settlers of 
the county and lias just reason to be proud of his 
labors and tlic success be lias achieved. His home 
is in Isabel Township, tiic estate comprising four 
hundred and forty acres of improved land and the 
residence being a beautiful brick structure as at- 
tractive and well built as any in the town.f,hip. 

Our subject is a lineal descendaiit of Abram 
Foutch, a native of the Jsew England States, who 
served from the beginning to the of the Revo- 
lution and laid down his arms, covered with scars. 
He then settled in Virginia, resuming his former 

occupation of farming, but after a considerable 
time removed to Indiana tosjieiid his last days with 
his son John, n"ar Connersville. He breathed his 
last at the advanced age of ninet3'-six years. 

The above-mentioned John Foutch was born and 
reared on a farm in Virginia .and shortly after his 
marriage crossed the mountains on pack horses to 
Bourbon County, Ky. There he was one of the 
first settlers, taking up Government land upon 
which he built a small log cabin, making it his 
home about ten years. He next located in Western 
Ohio near the Indiana line, but after a short time 
changed his abode to the other -side, in Franklin 
County, Ind. Here again he was one of the lirst 
settlers. Various wild animals roamed through the 
country, deer being [ilentiful and bears frequently 
.seen. On leased land Mr. Foutch built a cabin 
from buckeye logs and in the course of time be- 
came the owner of a large farm, on which he pur- 
sued extensive operations. In the summer of 182.'! 
he sold it and became a resident of Sangamon 
County, 111. The journey to the new home was 
made with an ox-team and consumed twenty-one 
days. The route la^' through a wilderness with 
here and tliere a section that had been opened up 
to settlement, and the family slept in the wagon or 
under a tent at nigiit. 

Jlr. Foutch purch.ased Government land, erected 
a log cabin which was afterward supplanted by a 
commodious brick house, and carried on farm work 
until he had passed the age of four-score, when he 
closed his eyes in death. He had seived under 
Gen. Harrison in Indiana during the Indian War. 
He was a member of the Baptist Church as was his 
wife, whose consistent Christian character made her 
highly respected. Mis. I<"out<'h, formerly Nancy 
Whirril, was born in .Maryland and died in Sanga- 
mon County, when about three-score and ten years 
old. She was the mother of ten children. 

In the famil}' of the couple just mentioned our 
subject is numbered. He was horn in Bourbon 
County, Ky., October 2.5, 1806, and spent the 
greater part of his boyhood in Indiana, working on 
the farm as his strength would permit and attending 
the pioneer schools. The schoolhouscs were con- 
structed of round logs and had rough slab benches 
with wooden pin legs for scats. The windows were 

2 .10 


made bj' cutting unfa log on each side of the build- 
ing and pasting greased pajjcr over the liole. The 
writing desks were slabs resting on pins driven in 
the wall and extended around the sides of the 
rooms. The schools were supported by tuition p?id 
by each pupil, and the teacher boarded round. 
Young Foutch was seventeen years old when he 
came with bis parents to this State driving a team 
on the wa}'. After reaching Sangamon County lie 
spent four or five years in breaking prairie with a 
huge plow drawn by three or four j'oke of oxen. 
As he was the oldest child at home the brunt of the 
work fell upon him. During the first years of his 
residence here he frequenll}' saw sixt}' and seventy 
head of deer in a herd. 

When he had attained his majority young Foutch 
began working for himself and took to himself a 
companion in life. His marriage was solemnized 
in Sangamon County and there he farmed until the 
spring of 1832, when he came to this count}- and 
settled on one hundred and sixty acres still occu- 
pied by him ou section 22, Isabel Township. He 
had purchased this land with a soldier's warrant 
tnid settled upon it with virtuallj- nothing in the 
way of capital. He was one of the earliest settlers 
and says that the other pioneers were as poor as 
himself. Indians still roamed in considerable num- 
bers over this section of the State and various wild 
animals were plentiful. Mr. Foutch killed many a 
deer and wild turkey, and also brought down coons, 
his great recreation being hunting, in which he took 

The original dwelling on the homestead was a 
little hewed log hut put up by Mr. Foutch, having 
a hole for a wind(jw but no glass, a board being 
used for a shutter. During the first few years our 
siil>ject did teaming and any other work he could 
liiid by which to earn an honest dollar, while en- 
deavoring to cultivate the land he had obtained 
and bring it to a condition that would supply his 
wants. The farm was all prairie and the large 
timber which now covers a portion of it has been 
grown since he took possession. Other important 
changes have taken place since the days when he 
was obliged to go to Springfield to get his grist 
ground, among them being -the nearness of good 
mills, markets and neighbors. Mr. Foutch has been 

an unusually hardworking man and has carried on 
extensive agricultural operations, but of late years 
he has retired from the toils of life. He has added 
to his original purchase from time to time until he 
has a(;quired his present large acreage. 

The first marriage of our subject was solemnized 
in the fall of 1826, his bride being Miss Johoda 
Ka}'. That worthy woman died in middle life after 
having borne four children, two of whom, James 
and Francis M., grew to maturity. Mr. Foutch 
was again married May 8. 1817, to Miss Letitia 
Ferris, who still lives to share in all his joys as 
she has previously done in his struggles. She is 
the mother of nine children, eight of whom grew 
to maturity and six are still living. The survivors 
are John, Thomas, Mrs. Louisa Lacost, Charles, 
Edward and Mrs. Anna Loarsh. Those who died 
in maturit}^ were William ; Abraham L. ; and David, 
who died March 31, 1890, aged thirt3--four years. 

Mrs. Foutch was born in Franklin County, this 
State, Jul}^ 17, 1817, and is one of nine children 
comprising the family of David and Louisa (Little) 
Ferris. Her parents were born in Tennessee and 
are numbered among the early settlers of Franklin 
County, this State, where the father died at the .age 
of fifty j-enrs and the mother at the age of four- 

Both Mr. and Mrs. Foutch have been members 
of the New Light Church for manj- 3ears and are 
regarded as efficient and consistent members. M.--. 
Foutch is a Republican and ha? held some of the 
minor offices in the township. 


'qiOHEFH KRISCIIKE. proprietor of a meat 
market in Canton, is one of the prosperous 
business men of the city, and is prominent 
is^j/' in its public life. He was born in Austria, 
January 20, 1828, in the village of Gropolbusdorf. 
He was second in a family of three children of 
Ignatz and Regina Krischke. In 1833. by the 
death of his father, Joseph was left an orphan. He 
lived among strangers eleven j-ears. and from the 
age of six years until he was eleven years old he 
attended the village school. At that time he began 



working out fof a butcher, serving witli him an 
apprenticesliip of tlirec years. After that lie trav- 
eled as a journeyuian from 184C until 1854, work- 
ing in various places. In the month of September, 
the latter year, he ambitiou-^ly resolved to try bis 
fortunes in a fc'^eign country, and coming to the 
United States, lauded in New York City, and from 
there made bis way to Chicago, where be spent 
two weeks. When he landed in this country lie 
was quite ignorant of the English language, but he 
finally acquired a substantial knowledge of it and 
uses it with lluenc)'. From Ciiicago he went to 
LaSalle, where he spent two j'cars, and then we 
hear of him at Ft. Madison, Iowa, where nine 
months of his life were passed. In the month of 
October, 1857, he retraced his steps eastward as 
far as Canton, and here ho entered the employ of 
Frank Moyer, the proprietor of a meat market. 
He was with him ten months, and acquired the 
knack of liandling meat to tiie best advantage and 
a thorough knowedge of the trade in all its details. 

Thus well equipped, Mr. Ivrischke embarked in 
the butchering business on his own account, Octo- 
ber 15, 1858. in a shop on the west side of the 
square. He subsequent!}' built his large brick store, 
and occupies the rear of it, and has here a neat and 
well fitted up establishment, and carries an exten- 
sive line of good meats of all kinds. He is well 
patronized by the citizens of Canton, and has built 
up a lucrative business. His building is two sto- 
ries in height, fronting south, and he rents all that 
part which he does not occupy. It is in a good 
location, and his market is one of the princii)al 
ones of the place. 

Mr. Krischke was married in Jul}-, 1858, to Miss 
Mary Johnson, of Canton. She is a native of 
Kentucky, born in Lewis County. Her father, 
Shepherd Johnson, was an early settler of Fulton 
County, coming here in 1854. Mr. and Mrs. 
Krischke have eight children living, three boys and 
five girls, whom they have named Frank, Charley, 
Edward, Alice. Maj', Elizabeth, Stella and Jlaudc. 

Our subject's business capacitj', energy and 
sound sense have been duly recognized b}- his fel- 
low-citizens .as valuable traits in a civic official, 
and they have often called him to oflices of trust 
and rcsponsibilit)'. In 1887 ho was elected M.ij'or 

of Canton, and while in that ollico he guarded the 
intorosls of the city with vigilance. He served as 
Alderman several terms, and is a member of the 
present City Council, representing the Third Ward. 
Ho belongs to Morning .Star Lodge, No. 734, A. F. iV 
A. M., also to Canton Chapter, No. fi8, R. A. M., and 
to Canton Council, No. 23. In politics, he is rather 
conservative as to National and .State matters, giving 
hi.s support, however, to the Democratic party, and 
he has often served as delegate to county- con- 
ventions. He began life with limited means, but 
by industry, thrift and tact has acquired a hand- 
some property. His residence at No. 208, Lewis- 
town Street, is one of the pleasant homes of Can- 

THEODORE C. ENGLE is classed among the 
intelligent, keen, and thoroughly wide- 
VV^=s!^ awake farmers and stock raisers of this 
county who are contributing so much to its material 
prosperity. He is the son of one of the pioneers of 
this section, and is the proprietor of the fine old 
homestead that his father developed in Bernadotte 
Township. It is located on section 1, and is one of 
the model farms in this vicinitj" as it is kept up to 
the highest point in every respect, is supplied with 
neat and well-ordered buildings and evuvy variet}' 
of the most approved mo;lern niachincrv and is 
well stocked. 

The parents of our subject, Jesse and Mary B., 
(llelllngs) Engle, were natives of Philadelphia 
Count)', Pa. The father was born in If^OS, and 
died in this county in 1868, and all that is mortal 
of him is now lying in Lewistown cemeterj". The 
mother was born in the cits' of Philadel|)hia in 1 806, 
died in this county and is lying besiile her husband. 
They were pioneers of Fulton County, coming 
here as early as 1838, and did their share of the 
work of its development. They were greatly re- 
spected for their sterling worth and manj' excellent 
qualities of head and heart. 

He of whom we write was born in the city of 
Philadelphia, September 26, 1835. He obtained 
the most of his scliooling in the district schools of 
Bernadotte and Lewistown Township, and spent one 



3'ear at the Farmington Academy, where he pursued 
a good practical course of stud}'. He was scarce!}' 
more than two j'ears of age wlien his parents came 
to this county, and he remained with them until he 
•married in Februar}', 1856, and established a home 
of his own. He was at that time wedded to Miss 
Harriet F.. daughter of Ira and Frances Hill. Of 
tiiat marriage four daughters were born: Mary F., 
Alice E.. Emma C. and Carrie. The first wife of 
our subject died February 12, 18G1, and all that 
was mortal was deposited in Lewislown cemetery. 

The second marriage of our subject was witii 
Temperance L., a d.aughter of Jacob and Marj- Har- 
wich. Ten children resulted from that marriage, 
two girls and eight boys, of whom there are three 
boys and one girl now living, namely: Robert E.. 
Henr}- P., Everett .and DoUic. Our subject and his 
wife sustained great sorrow in the death of their 
remaining children who were named Frank N., 
Harry, Ada, Charley. Oliver P. and John L. The 
mother of these children died January 19, 1881. 
December 17, 1884, Mr. Engle was married to bis 
present wife, Caudace Barrett, who presides well 
over his home and looks carefully after the com- 
forts of the inmates of the household. 

After his first marriage our subject resided a part 
of the time in Bernadotte Township, and a part of 
the time in Lewistown, and whs engaged in various 
kinds of business, principally farming. After his 
second marriage he settled on the old homestead 
where he now resides. This is a beautiful and well- 
kept farm of two hundred and fort^'-four acres.and 
the substantial improvements that he has made 
upon it add greatly to its attractiveness and value. 
He has erected a commodious and well-built two- 
stor}' frame house, 26x16 feet in dimensions, with 
an L, 20x24 feet; also a roomj' frame barn, oGx 10 
feet in dimensions, besides granaries, corn cribs 
and all other necessary improvements to make it a 
first-class farm. Mr. Engle has a steam thresher, a 
clover huller, feed mill, a self binding mower, a 
pulverizer and manv other pieces of fine farming 
machinery. About one hundred yards from his 
house Mr. Engle has a steam brick and tile factorj' 
and he also owns a sawmill and is conducting the 
manufacture of brick, tile and lumber with char- 
acteristic energj- and with the success that had at- 

tended all his enterprises. He pays some attention 

to stock-raising and has eleven fine horses, for one 
of which, a three-fourths Percheron stallion, he 
once refused *400. 

As will be seen by the perusal of this sketch,our 
subject is one of the most active and enterprising 
business men and agriculturists in this part of the 
count}' and he has already accumulated a com- 
fortable competence. He is not connected with any 
church organization, but his life is one of upright- 
ness and morality, and is guided by high principles. 
In politics he is a Republican and has been since 


f OHX G. PORTER was a pioneer of this 
count}', and for more than forty years has 
been an important factor in promoting its 
agricultural and industrial interests, and in 
advancing its upbuilding. He is a skillful farmer 
and is managing a large, finely improved farm, 
and at the same time is conducting a good busi- 
ness as a stonemason, bricklayer and plasterer. His 
interests are centered in Woodland Township, where 
he has made his home ever since he came to the 

Mr. Porter was born in County Tyrone, in the 
Xorth of Ireland. August 12. 1812. His father, 
John G. Porter, was also a native of that of 
Ireland. He was the boss mason for Bishop Porter, 
who occupied next to the highest bishopric in Ire- 
land for thirty-three ye.ars. The father of our sub- 
ject had charge of the men who took care of the 
parks and pleasure grounds, and in one park there 
were two thousand deer. Mr. Porter was a mem- 
ber of the Church of England and died true to the 
faith at the age of sixty-six years. Early in life 
he had married Mary Hanna, who was born in 
County Tyrone, Ireland, and was also a member of 
the Church of England. She lived to be fifty-five 
years old. Her father lived to the venerable age 
of ninety years. 

Our subject was one of eight children. He was 
given excellent educational advantages in his boy- 
hood as he attended school very steadily during 



the week, and Siinflay-school every Sunday. Wlioii 
lie fourteen years of age his uncle, John 
Ilanna, a rosidcnt of Quebec, Canada, urged liim 
to couiu to Aniciica and make his home with him. 
The bright, adventurous lad eagerly accepted his 
uncle's invitation, but on the first day of the voy- 
age he was so sea-sick that he heartily wished him- 
self back on terra firina and offered the captain of 
the vessel $250 to land him. at which the cai)tiiin 
laughed. He was, however, kindlj' cared for by the 
lady passengers on board the ship, and his misery 
was brought to a close at tin; end of six weeks, 
when the vessel arrived in harbor at Quebec. Mr. 
Porter staid with his uncle in that city one year, 
and lielped him in his store. His next venture 
was to go to New York Citj-. where he bound him- 
self for a period of five years for his board and 
clothes to learn the four trades of bricklaying, stone- 
masonry, stonccutting and plastering. He served 
throughout the entire length of his ai)prenticefihip 
and thoroughly mastered each calling. He worked 
at thcui in New York City, Harlem, Brooklyn, 
and many other places, and received very high 
wages. He sagaciously judged that in a newly -set- 
led country like the State of Hlinois, a young man 
of calibre and ability woidd find a fine opening for 
the exercise of his various callings, and in the 
spring of 1846 he emigrated to this county. He 
traveled the first four hundred miles of his jour- 
nc}' in a stage over the mountains, and while at a 
way station sipping a cup fif tea his hand satcliel 
and ii200 were stolen. From Pittsburg he trav- 
eled by water to St. Louis, and thence up the Mis- 
sissippi and Illinois Rivers to this jiart of tlic 

Our subject had previously traded some land in 
Genesee County, N. Y., for land here, and on his 
arrival he bought more land, making in all four 
hundred and eight}' acres. The two first years that 
he lived here were spent partly at his trades in 
St. Louis and partly in developiiig his land here. 
Three hundred and thirty acres of his estate la\' 
in Warren County, and one hundred and sixty 
acres in Woodland Township. He settled on the 
latter quarter, which was all lieavily timbered, and 
he built a small frame house and a log stable. He 
cleared about forty acres of that place, and then 

disposed of it iit an [advance on the original price, 
and bought one hundred and sixty acres on section 
11, the same township. He^has worked at improv- 
ing his farm and at his various callings ever since, 
and has prospered well. He now has three hun- 
dred acres of land finely cultivated, supplied with 
ample buildings and every] convenience for carry- 
ing on agriculture. 

Mr. I'orler was first married, in 1837, to Miss 
Eliza Guyan. She died childless in middle life. 
His second marriage, which wassolemnizeTl in 1842, 
was with Kliza A. Snodgrass, who was born in Har- 
rison County, Jnd.. .July 24. 1824. Of this mar- 
riage ten children have been born, eight of whom 
grew to maturity: Sarah J. (IVIrs. Shields), Julia 
(Mrs. Atkins), John W., William A., Emory D., 
Alexander (deceased), Catherine A. (Mrs. Martin), 
and Addison G. Blr. and Sirs. I'orter have been 
members of the Christian Church for thirtj'-Qve 
j'ears. In politics he has given an unswerving alle- 
giance to the Democratic party. He is an honest, 
intelligent man, has true Irish wit, and is a favor- 
ite with all. 

NDREW J. HORTON, who represents 
Woodland Township on the County Board 
of Supervisors, is a farmer by occu|)atioii. 
(§/' He was an ofiicer in the late war and won 

a military record that reflects honor on the soldiery 
of this, his adoi)ted .State. He was born in New 
Castle Township, Coshocton County. Ohio, October 
28, 1835. His father, AVilliam Horton, was a na 
live of the same county and was born in 1811. He 
was a son of Thomas Horton, who was a Virginian 
by birth. Ezra Horton, the great-grandfather of 
our subject, was also a native of \'irginia. The 
Hortons came originally from Ireland. 

Ezra Horton was a farmer and he emigrated from 
his old A'irginia home to Ohio, in a very early day 
and settled on the present site of Mohawk village, 
he being one of the first settlers there. There his 
remaining years were passed and he died at a ripe 
old age. The grandfather of our subject accom- 
panicil his l);uents Iv Ohio when a boy. He was 



there reared and became a very extensive farmer 
in Cosliocton County, and owned considerable land 
there. His farm was well improved, had a fine 
large brick house and two large liarns, and was well 
supplied witli fruit troes of all kinds. Mr. Horton 
sold his place there and came to this county in the 
month of October, 18o3, and purchased a farm of 
two hundred and twenty acres just south of Sum- 
mum, Woodland Township, where he resided until 
death roundi'd out his carrer in 1801. at upwards of 
eighty years old. lie was a stanch Democrat in 

The father of our subject was reared on his 
father's farm in Coshocton County, and learned 
the trade of a carpenter. When a young man he 
came to Fulton County, arriving here October 22, 
1853, making the trip with four teams ani a wagon, 
having left his old home October 1. He had pur- 
chased the northwest quarter of section 20, Wood- 
land Township, before coming here, and he then 
settled on it. He also entered forty acres of Gov- 
ernment land across the road and bought fort}' 
acres joining it. He farmed extensively and 
greatly prosi)ered. He sold a part of his original 
purchase to our subject and his brother, and bought 
out the heirs to his father's estate near Summum, 
which he subsequently sold a few years later for $70 
an acre. He then invested in lands in Hancock 
County, 111., and as land greatlj' depreciated during 
the panic of 1873 he lost heavily. He afterwards 
bought property in Astoria and lived there five 
years. He then made his home with his son Jeffer- 
son until his death, which occurred very suddenly. 
He was a Democrat in his political views and was 
active in the pulilic life of the township, holding 
various local oflices. He married Sarah Dennis, a 
native of Knox County, Ohio, who is still living. 
She is the mother of thirteen children, nine of whom 
are living: .lane, Sabina, Polh^ Louisa, Alwilda, 
Andrew J., Washington, Thomas J., and Abram. 
Four are deceased. 

Andrew .T. Horton was reared in Coshocton 
County, Ohio, until he was eighteen years of age. 
He attended school some but as soon as large 
enough to work, he lived out. The first summer 
that he worked for others his only p.a3'ment was his 
board and clothes. The second summer he received 

$8 per month. After coming here he worked on 
his father's farm until the war broke out. He was 
then in the prime and vigor of early manhood, and 
on August 22, 1862, he enlisted in Company H, 
Eighty-fifth Illinois Infantry, and was mustered in 
as Third Sergeant. He fought bravely in the bat- 
tles of Perry ville and Stone River and at the latter 
place was taken prisoner by Gen. Wheeler's men, 
and was held from December, 1862, until the latter of March, 1863, when he was exchanged at St. 
Louis. He joined his regiment in time to take an 
.active part in the battle of Chickamauga, and he 
was engaged in several lively skirmishes following 
that battle and then came the battles of Kenesaw, 
Peach Tree Creek, and the taking of Atlanta. Our 
subject did good service in several skirmishes that 
were fought with the enemy on the way from At- 
lanta to Savannah. His courageous, self-reliant 
spirit, his devotion to his duty, and the ability with 
which he executed all orders won the approval of 
his superiors and gained him deserved promotion 
to the position of First Lieutenant. He was mus- 
tered out June 15, 1865, having won honors as a 
soldier and an ollicer of which he and his may well 
be proud. During his service he was never in a 
hospital or in a wagon or on horseback, except for 
about three hours ride in a wagon. 

After his return from the seat of war, our subject 
purchased the eighty acres of land, on which he 
now resides, of his father. He has given his atten- 
tion exclusivel}' to farming ever since, and besides 
raising grain is rearing stock with good profit. He 
is pr.actical and wide-awake in the management of 
his agricultural affairs and the neat and finely im- 
proved appearance of his farm betokens thrift and 
good care on the pait of tlie owner. 

June 25, 1857, Mr. Horton's marriage with Miss 
Polly Horn was duly celebrated. Mrs. Horton was 
born in Knox Count}^ Ohio, May 14, 1837, and 
came to this county with her parents in the early 
days of its settlement. Five of the six children 
born to her and our svibject are living: Thomas .T., 
Julia, Mrs. Hare; Charles, deceased; Sallie, Will- 
iam and Dolly. Mrs. Horton is a very capable 
woman and during her husband's absence at the 
time of the war, she and her two oldest children 
were left at home and she very ably managed af- 

<?— ^-'^-0^ U^''y<-^-t.-'<--''i.yU/ 




fairs and siip[iortefl them comfortably. She is a 
member of the Christian Churrii and an earnest 
worker in the fold. 

Mr. Ilorton is one of onr best citizens, and is de- 
servedly i)0|)nlar with all who know him. His fel- 
low-citizens, aiipreciating the fact that a man of 
his calibre and understanding, would make a good 
civic ollicial, have elected him to represent AVood- 
land Township ou the County Board of Supervisors 
and he is now serving his third terra in that im- 
portant office. He has also held the position of 
Road Commissioner for twelve years and has done 
good service for his township in the minor oflices. 
Politically he is a sound Democrat and uses his in- 
tluence for the interest of the party. 


^^>ZIAS G. STRONG, M. D. This honored 
member of the medical profession, whose 
reputation has been established in Canton 
for many years, is a native of the Buckeye State. 
His father, Ozias Strong, Sr., was a farmer and 
likewise a prominent attorney, serving as a magis- 
trate at Wilkcsville forty years. There he breathed 
his last when in the eighty-fifth year of his age. 
His father, Horatio Strong, was of English and Irish 
descent, and a native of Massachusetts, and his 
mother was of Scotch descent. His wife boie the 
maiden name of Annis Gregory, and was a native 
of Connecticut, of Scotch ancestry. 

Our subject was born on the parental acres, in 
Meigs County, Ohio, August 12, 1818. He was 
reared on the farm, (irst attending the common 
schools and then entering Athens Academy, at 
Athens, Ohio. He began studying medicine with Dr. 
J. H. Smith, of Meigs County, and after taking a 
course of lectures at Starling Medical College, Co- 
lumbus, began his practice in his native county. 
After three years residence there he removed to 
St. Louis, Mo., where he continued his professional 
labors for a short time, subsequently removing to 
Hannibal to engage in mercantile pursuits. He en- 
tered into partnershi[) with Messrs. Smith & Dick, 
and under the firm name of Smith, Dick & Co. a 
large business was (■unducte<l for three years. Dr. 

Strong went to LaGrange to engage in the tobacco 
business, his partners having sold out and left him 
to sustain a heavy loss. During his residence in 
Hannibal he was Marshal and also Collector of 
City Revenue, having been elected to those offices 
in 1853. 

After his removal to LaGrange Dr. Strong was 
elected Recorder and Police Magistrate. During 
these years he had changed his views in relation 
to the practice of medicine, abandoning the theo- 
ries of the Allopathic school and becoming a con- 
vert to those of Homeopathy. After private prepar- 
ation he entered the Homeopathic Medical College, 
at St. Louis, from which he was graduated in 
1858, Immediately opening an office in Canton, 
where he has since resided. He devoted himself 
assiduously to the duties of his profession, build- 
ing up a large practice and proving unusually suc- 
cessful in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases 
His practice has amounted to more than $80,000' 
and near •?! 00,000, a large sum for a place of this 
size. His labor is, of course, not confined to the 
town itself, but includes a large extent of the sur- 
rounding country. 

Dr. Strong luas been twice married, his first com- 
panion having been Miss Bethena E. Pavey, of 
Hannibal, Mo., whose death took place in this city. 
She left five children — Jared D., George W., Charles 
H., Jesse W. and Lizzie L. George W. is now 
manager of a large book concern in Buffalo, N.Y.; 
Charles H. is a graduate of the Homeopathic Col- 
lege in New York, and is now practicing medicine 
in Providence, R. 1.; Jesse W., proprietor and edi- 
tor of the Canton Republican, having ])urchased 
the paper September 18, 1890, is mentioned at 
greater length elsewhere in this volume; Lizzie is 
the wife of C. H. Atwater, of (Juincy, III. 

The present wife of Dr. Strong bore the maiden 
name of Maggie Linabery. She was born in Mor- 
ris County, N. J., and came West with her parents 
in childhood, growing to maturity in this county. 
The qualities of her mind and heart fit her for a 
useful career, and she has as many calls upon her 
attention as suffice to keep her hands and brain 
employed. First of all are her home duties, and 
beyond this her influence extends throughout a 
Wv'd circle. 



Dr. Strong is a member of the American Institute 
of Homeopathy, and has been identifier! witii the 
Masonic fraternity for many years. He is rather 
conservative in prilities, affiliating- witii Lhe Demo- 
cratic party. Not only is' his professional reputa- 
tion one of the btst, but by reason of his faithful 
discharge of his duties as a private citizen his ex- 
cellent charaeter^'and great intelligence, he is looked 
upon with great respect by his professional associ- 
ates and his fellow-citizens in general. 

The attention of the reader[^iSj directed to the 
lithographic portrait of/Mr. Strong, which may ^"be 
found on another page. 

^,EV. WILLIAM BURGESS. Pastor of the 
Congregational Cliurch, Canton. While 
there are many avenues by which mental 
ability leads to distinction, there is scarcely 
one of more benefit to humanity as a family, than 
that of caring for the immortal soul. A pastor's 
dutv entails upon him a great deal of responsibility', 
fur not only must he guide people safel3' through 
the shoals of this world, but prepare them for a 
safe passage into the unknown world. Among the 
men who have labored early and late to accomplish 
this purpose, and to be of inestimable benefit to 
frail humanity, ranks the Rev. William Burgess. 

Our subject was ushered into life at Norwich, 
England, on May 26. 1843, being the son of Will- 
iam and Elizabeth (Taylor) Burgess. The father 
died when our subject was only nine years of age, 
and thus he is a self-made man in the true sense 
of that term. Being very desirous of entering the 
ministry, he was aided in the accomplishment of 
this ambition by a philanthropic gentleman of his 
native place. Dr. Burgess, after completing his 
education and being fully prepared to preach the 
Gospel as a Methodist minister,suddenly discovered 
when in his twentieth year, that he could not en- 
tirely agree with this denomination in their doc- 
trines, and so renounced for a time the idea of 

Our subject upon reaching his twenty-first year 
began a lecturing lour thiough the United King- 

dom, preaching social reform and temperance, and 
also giving extensive lectures upon historical sub- 
jects. For a period of seventeen years he continued 
to lecture, in the meantime contributing to several 
journals in England, and in 1875, became the 
founder and editor of the Medical Enquirer, at 
Liverpool. The chief object was to resist the 
thought of nece;sary vice, and he was unusuallj' 
well qualified to discuss this great question in all 
its manifold aspects. When the end was accom- 
plished the publication ceased after a three year's 
run. It had a free distribution and supported 
bj' several wealthy men. Its effect was to repeal 
the law which it antagonized, the late disclosures in 
the Pall Mall Gazelle being brought .about by the 
agit.ation and by the efforts of the Medical En- 
quirer. A leading paper in speaking of the Rev. 
Burgess as a lecturer, says, "He has a pleasnnt and 
attractive appearance, is a bright, ready and lively 
speaker, has a clear ringing voice and commands 
the attention of his audience at the beginning. His 
delivery is good, his manner earnest, and he handles 
his subject as one perfectly at home." 

The subject of our sketch moved with his family 
to America in September, 1880, locating at Toronto. 
His first act was to found the Canada Citizen, a 
social reform paper which is slill running. After 
taking cljarge of said paper for aliout two years, he 
sold out his interest in same and accepted a call to 
the ministry. After being ordained pastor of the 
Congregational Church at Listowel, Ontario, he 
published a book called '-Land. Labor and Liquor." 
Our subject remained in charge of that church un- 
til January ls88, and in 1890, he came to Canton, 
111,, and is pastor of the First Congregational 
Church in this city. He is editing a paper, The 
Church Bells. 

Rev. Mr. Burgess's mother died in Liverpool at 
an advanced age, the father having died raanj' years 
before as above stated. They were the parents of 
five children, of whom our subject is the eldest. The 
otiiers are, Edward, editor of a paper called Day- 
light, a radical sheet published in Norwich, Eng- 
land; Amelia, Lydia and Emma, the latter of whom 
is deceased. 

Mr. Burgess was married in Norwich in 1865, to 
Miss Frances A. Miles, a native of that town. To 



them have been born;eighl;ehil(hTn. viz: William 
Edw.'inl, pailianientai'V corresponilenl of the Mon- 
treal Herald; Emma, Arthur, Frank, Roscoe, 
Queenie, Lillie and Wilfred. Our subject is a mem- 
ber of the Royal Temple of Temperance, and 
has a linejmedal which was presented to him on his 
coming to the States from Canada. He is at worjc 
on a new book, Ciie^title^of which will probably be, 
"The Wreck of Wealth." He is an indefatigable 
worker, and almost brilliant orator. 

IRAM PRESTON. There is in the business 
world onlj- one kind of man who can success- 
fully combat the many disadvantages and 
trials and come boldly to the front, and 
that is the man of superior intelligence and force 
of character, and one who also is the happy pos- 
sessor of that energy that seems somehow to be the 
magic wand that transforms a poor beginning into 
a flattering ending. And to tliis class belongs 
Preston, a man who by strict integrity', shrewdness 
of judgment and good management has risen to the 
top round of the ladder of fortune. 

Mr. Preston was born in Franklin County, Me., 
■January 23, 1817, being the son of Peter and Mary 
(Winslow) Preston, natives of Massachusetts. His 
parents were married in the State of Maine. The 
father was reared on a farm near Martha's Vine- 
yard, but when a young man went to Maine and 
|)urchased one hundred acres of land in F'ranklin 
County, where he devoted his whole time and at- 
tention to farming up to the time of his death, 
which occurred after he had reached his eighty- 
savenlh year. He was a member of the Methodist 
Cluuch, and in politics was first a Whig and after- 
ward a Democrat. The mother died in the same 
place when eighty -six years old and was also a 
faithful member of the Methodist Church. To 
tlieir union were born eight children, all of whom 
reached matiuity, viz., Sally, Ezekial, Mary Ann, 
Lucinda, Hiram, Jane, Percilla, and Hannah. Only 
three of this number are living at the present time. 
Mr. Preston attended school in his native 
county during tlie winter months and worked on 

the farm in the sunmu'r. The schoolhouses of 
those times were exceedingly rustic in appearance, 
but turned out many pupils who in after life prof- 
ited by the rudiments of knowledge planted there 
and became famous. When twenty years of age he 
commenced a business career for himself and at 
first worked out for others, receiving §10 each 
month for his services, and continiifd this means 
of livelihood until he cine to this county. He 
owned one hundred acres of land, which was cov- 
ered with heavy timber, aiul in the fall of 1839 he 
sold this property in Maine, having cleared it, and 
came to the State of Illinois. He came to Chicago 
b3' water, rail and stage, and walked from that 
point to Brimfield, Peoria County. He settled near 
Brimfield, where he bought one hundred and sixty 
acres of land. He at once built a frame house and 
commenced to clear up his property, which was in 
a very wild state. The following year he sold out 
and came to F\dton County, and bought forty acres 
of land in Buckheart Township that had a saw and 
grist mill on it. He lived there twelve years and 
made a great success both of the farm and of the 
mill, but after selling that place he came to Liver- 
pool Township and bought eighty acres of laud on 
section 11, where he now lives. He built bis pres- 
ent handsome frame house in 1 SGI, and has both 
farmed and raised stock ,on an extensive scale. 
Lately he retired from labor and rents most of his 

The subject of our sketch married Miss Tryphena 
Ilathawaj' in 1841. She was a native of Maine and 
lived to be sixty-five years old, A faithful mem- 
ber of the Methodist Church and a devout Chris- 
tian, her death was a very peaceful one, she pass- 
ing away in her home here and being laid to rest 
in a private burial ground In this township. To 
our subject and his wife vvere born seven children, 
viz: Lydia, F^dwin, Charles, Winslow, Frank and 

Mr. Preston was again married in 1881 to Han- 
nah Ilathawaj', sister of his lirst wife, who was born 
on the 9th of May, 1828. Mrs. Preston is a mem- 
ber of the Baptist Church. Our subject is a prom- 
inent man in this community and has held many 
public offices of trust. For the pasi twenty six 
years he has been School Treasurer, and for a period 



of twenty-two years had charge of the postofflce at 
Maple's Mill, an oflSce which lie resigned in 1880, 
and besidesyHiis he was Town Clerk for sixteen 
j'ears. facts that convej- some idea of the high es- 
teem in which he is held and tell something of the 
popularity ho has always enjoyed. In political be- 
lief he is a Democrat. 

*, I^ILLIAM BRI:BNER has lived in the vi- 
\/\Jl' cinity of Farmington for tlie past thirty- 
V5^ live years, and is one of the most active 
and stirring men to be met with in this vicinity. 
lie began life as a stonemason and has progressed 
from the position of a wage-worker to that of a 
contractor and builder, the owner of a good prop- 
erty, and has finail}- turned his attention to farm- 
ing. Mr. Brebner is one of nine children born to 
John and Ann (.Smith) Brebner, whose home was in 
Scotland. He is the oul^- one of the family that 
has come to America. His living brothers and sis- 
ters bear the names of Ann, Alexander. Margaret, 
John, Adam, Elizabeth and Marj-, one having died 
in earlj' life. The mother died at the age of forty- 
six and the father lived to be scventj'-seven years 
old. They were in comfortable circumslaucts, the 
occupants of a good farm. 

Our subject was born in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, 
March 29, 1828, and although brought up on a 
farm, received excellent educational advantages. 
When sixteen years old he was apprenticed to a 
stonecutter and after serving three years began 
work as a journeyman in the country about thirty 
miles from Aberdeen. Having heard much regard- 
ing the gold fields of California, he made up his 
mind to go thither and seek his fortune. In the 
month of April, 1853, he sailed from Glasgow on 
the "Marchioness of Clydesdale," arriving in New 
York after a voj'age of thirtj'-flve days. He con- 
tinued his journe_y as far as Canada, where he had 
friends, and finding wages good there abandoned 
his intention of visiting California. 

Mr. Brebner worked at his trade in the Dominion 
until the 1st of April, 1854, when he came into the 
States and made his wav to Peoria where not a rail- 

road had yet been built. Not being able to find 
work to suit him he went to the northern part of 
the State and worked at Dixon. Rockford and Ga- 
lena for various periods. In the spring of 1855, 
he returned to the central part of the State and lo- 
cating at Farmington became a contractor of ma- 
sonry. He was thus engaged until e.irly in the 
'70s when he turned his attention to agriculture. 
He owns ninety acres of land in Trivoli Township. 
Peoria County, which he has successfully operated. 

Mr. Brebner was married in 1857, to Miss Caro- 
line Nelson who bore him three children — William, 
John and Frank. The firstborn died in iufanty. 
John married Tenny Cole, and has two children — 
Caroline and James F. ; their home is at Liberty 
Center, Iowa, and the husband is engaged in farm- 
ing. Frank resides in East Portland, Ore. Our sub- 
ject was married a second time, March 1, 1865, his 
bride being Miss Susan Potter. This union has 
been blest by the birth of three children — Fanny 
E., May and Walter S. Fanny E. is now in a Chi- 
cago hospital, pursuing the work which will fit her 
for the duties of a professional nurse. She has al- 
read}' demonstrated her S3'mpathetic nature and 
aptitude for the care of the sick and suffering, by 
work done at tlie time of the Chats worth disaster. 
She was on board the ill-fated excursion train, and 
having escaped serious injury, spent some time in 
care of those who were less fortunate than herself. 
Her heroism and devotion to the injured ones was 
noted in the columns of. the newspapers in flattering 
terms. The second child of the present Mrs. Breb- 
ner died young. Walter S. is now learning the car- 
penter's trade at Galesburg. 

Mrs. Susan Brebner is the j'oungest child horn 
to William and Rachel (Wells) Potter. Her pa- 
ternal grandfather was an Englishman and both her 
parents were born in New Jersey. They came to 
the Prairie State in 1837, and settled in this county 
six miles east of Canton where thej' purchased about 
ninety acres of land. Mrs. Potter died when her 
daughter Susan was an infant. Mr. Potter subse- 
quently married a lady from New York City, and 
in 1847, purchased a farm in Trivoli Township, 
Peoria County, three miles east of Farmington. He 
died there in May, 1877, at the age of eight3--one 
years. He had served in the War of 1812. The 



brothers and sisters of Mrs. Brebner are, Hamilton, 
whose homo is in Canton; Harriet, wife of Cahin 
Brcrd who died in Canton; Alice, wife of Jacob 
.Siivernail of tlie .same town;, wiio died nn- 
mari'ied ; llannali. widow of .lacob Wiliiison. who 
lives in Toulon; Plieho A„ who wasilrowned in tlie 
Ohio River by falling overboard from a boat; 
Jenny, wife of Edward Emmons wluise home is in 

Mrs. Brebner is a native of this .State. She 
attended the i)ulilic schools, completing her 
education at Farmington. She kee|>s herself well in- 
formeil regarding topics of general interest, faith- 
fully discharges the duties which lie before her,and 
wins many friends by her good qualities. 

Mr. Brebner cast his first Presidential vole for 
Abraham Lincoln, having taken out his natinaliza- 
tion papers soon after he came to the State. He is 
a stanch member of the Republican party, under- 
stands well the political issues of the day and firmly 
believes that he is right in his judgment regarding 
them. For six years he did efficient service as a 
school officer, and on onj occasion was a candidate 
for Supervisor of Trivoli Township, but was beaten 
in the race by three votes. 

|AXDOLPII HALL. In recalling the labors 
which have made of this count}' a region 
ii \V noted for its agricultural resources, we 
*^p) feel a glow of admiration for all who bore 
a part in the scenes of the early days, and take great 
pleasure in noting prominent incidents in their 
lives. One of the oaily settlers of Farmers Town- 
ship is the worthy gentleman above named, who 
has abundanll}- shown his industry and good judg- 
ment by the accumulation of an excellent estate, 
well supplied with the imi)rovements which make 
life in the country enjoyable, and add to the value 
of property. He possesses the hospitable spirit and 
cordial manners which belong to all natives of tlie 
Blue Grass State, and which are also distinguishing 
characteristics of the pioneers in any sections of 
the country. Honorable in his (healings, well-in- 
formed regarding topics of general interest, and 

able to relate many an interesting event in connec- 
tion with the early setlleniunt of the township, his 
companionship is desinible and hi.s reputation ex- 

The birth i>f Mr. ibill Look place in Wnsliiiigton 
County, Ky., September 4, lb2;5, and his residence 
in Illinois began when he was a youlli of fifteen 
years. At that period in his lil'c he accompanied 
his parents, Joel and Mary (Clark) Hall, to Mc- 
Donough County, iheir home for a few 3'ears being 
in the vicinity of Macomb. In 1843 they removed 
to Pennington's Point. Three years later our sub- 
ject was united in marriage with ]\Iiss Alraeda L. 
Woods, a capable and efficient woman who has 
nobly borne her |)art in building up the prosiierity 
of the family and fitting its younger members for 
usefulness and honor. The happy union has been 
blessed bj' the birlh of five children. 

The eldest son, Platte, stricken down within 
a few days of his majority, and the bright promise 
of his future swallowed up by death. The older 
daughter, Mary Cornelia, is the wife of Josiah 
Hammer, of McDonough County : she has one 
daughter, Delia, who married Frank Harlan, and 
also has one child. As the mother of Mrs. Hall is 
yet living, baby Mabel is the fifth generation of 
females in the family now living. Three of these 
were born in McDonough Count}', Mrs. Hall in 
Erie Count}', Pa., and Mrs. Woods in the Empire 
State. A picture representing the five — INIrs. Cor- 
nelia Woods, Mrs. Alincda Ilall, Mrs. Mary Ham- 
mer, Mrs. Delia Harlan and little Mabel — is of 
great interest, not only to the family but to all 
visitors whom they receive. The second son of our 
subject and his good wife is Millard DeWitt, who 
with his wife, son and daugliter. resides in Table 
Grove. In McDonough County lives the youngest 
son, Leonard Grow, with his wife and one child. 
The second daughter and fourth child of Mr. and 
Mrs. Hall is Genevra, wife of F'raiik Ward, of 
Table Grove, their family including several chil- 

Our subject bought the first improved farm of 
eighty acres in McDonough County. His house 
was built bj' himself, he hewing the logs and split- 
ting the shingles, which were of black walnut 
from his own land, forty acres of which was timber. 



The house was 16x22 feet in dimensions. A few 
years after it was constructed Mr. Hall covered it 
with boards, wliich were sawed bi" liis brother-in- 
law in a portable mill on the place. To the origi- 
nal eight}- acres he added until his estate amounted 
to two hundred acres, all of which had been re- 
claimed by himself from its primitive condition, 
except about thirty acres which was plowed when 
he purchased it. He resided upon the farm until 
1882, when he left it to lake possession of a com- 
fortable home in Table Grove. In the early days 
Mr. Hall hauled wheat to Beardstown, about twenty- 
five miles distant, and thought himself fortunate 
when he could get fifty cents per bushel, nearly 
half of which was consumed by the expenses of re- 
maining overnight. The first hogs driven to that 
place sold for §2 per hundred, which was considered 
a high price, good dressed pork having previously 
been disposed of in Macomb for $1.25 per hun- 

The early settlers generally owed all they raised 
to the neighboring storekecper.thcir sole trouble be- 
ino-to turn the products of their farms over to their 
creditor, the 1st of January being the usual time 
of settlement. By a special arrangement they 
sometimes obtained a little money with which to 
pay taxes. All grain was cut with a cradle, and it 
was generally tramped out with horses. Mi-s. Hall 
vividly remembers seeing the wheat thrown in a 
pile, and horses driven around it until the thresh- 
ing was completed. The first chimneys were of 
sod built on the outside of the log houses, and all 
cooking was done at an open fire, except in rare 

Mr. Hall is one of four sons and seven daughters 
born to his parents, all of whom are now living in 
this section of the Stale in convenient visiting dis- 
tance. He is the only Republican in his father's 
family, but his own sons and sons-in-law belong to 
the same party as himself. 

Salem Woods, the father of Mrs. Hall, emigrated 
from the Keystone State to JIcDonough County in 
1831, prior to the Black Hawk War, in which 
father Hall took part. Mr. Woods was a harness- 
maker in Erie, Pa., and having traded for a piece 
of land somewhere in the Vv'est, started on foot to 
look uj) his new estate. He made his way over the 

mountains and through the wilderness to the vicin- 
ity in which he supposed his land to be, but was 
then at a loss to locate it. He heard a rooster crow, 
and going whence the sound came, found the home 
of Stewart Pennington, who helped him to locate 
the land, of which he had a plat and description. 
He then returned to the East and brought his wife 
and family, the journey being made in a wagon. 
The boards from the roof of his wagon were used 
as a door to the first house he built on his farm. 
This home was of logs, notched and fastened to the 
sleepers with wooden pins, no nails being used in 
its construction. The floor was of split logs. Mr. 
Woods had the first cook stove in the county, it 
being shipped from the East to Chicago, whither it 
was brought in a wagon by the owner and Harvey 
Harris. An old fashioned chest with a lid, which 
was made to ship goods in, is still preserved in the 

Mrs. Hall is the only daughter of her parents, 
but they have likewise four sons. One of these, 
Edward, was born in this State, and still lives on 
the farm on which he first saw the light. Mr. 
Woods was an Abolitionist of the deepest dye, and 
he and his children naturally became Republicans. 
They are of the Universalist faith. 

lif^^HOMAS DEEMS, a native-born citizen of 
this count}', is now one of its foremost busi- 

^^' ness men, he being one of the leading gro- 
cers of Lewistown, a member of the firm of Deems 
& Slack. He was born on a farm in Lewistown 
Township, July 21, 1841, and come of a respected 
pioneer family of this section of the Slate. 

John Deems, the father of our subject, was a 
native of Washington County, Pa., born on a farm 
five miles north of Brownsville, November 18, 
1809. He was a son of Adam Deems, who is su|)- 
posed to have been a native of the same locality. 
The father of the tatter, Martin Deems, is thought 
to have been born in Germany, and was one of 
the earliest settlers of Washington County. He 
secured a title to quite a tract of land, the bounda- 
ries being defined by blazed trees. He made his 



home there until desith closed his mortal career. 
He reared a family of six sons and two daughters. 
His son Adam grew to'man's estate on the old 
homestead in his native county amid its primitive 
pioneer scenes. There were no railways there for 
many years aft.^r his birth. Alany of tlie farmors 
were distillers and used to ship their liquor and 
produce on flatboats to New Orleans, and theie 
disposed of the boat and its contents and walivcd 
back to their homes, many weeks being consumed 
in the journey. All communication with the East 
was by teams. The grandfather of our subject al- 
ways lived in the place of his birth and engaged 
in farming there until his demise. The maiden 
name of his wife was Sarah Rolland, who was born 
in the same county as himself. Her parents, Henry 
and Mary Rolland, were pioneers of that section of 
the country, making their removal thither from 
Eastern Pennsj'lvania with pack-horses. The grand- 
mother of our subject survived her husband many 
years and died in Fulton County, at the age of 

John Deems was nineteen j'ears old when he 
left his native county to join his brother Thomas 
in JIuskingura County, Ohio, where he served an 
apprenticeship of three years to learn the trade of 
a blacksmith. After he had acquired a thorough 
knowledge of his calling he worked for Ids brother 
three J'ears, and then formed a partnership with him 
which continued two years. At the expiration of 
that time he went to Sidney. Shelby County, and 
was one of the early settlers of that place and es- 
tablished himself there as a blacksmith on his own 
account. All the iron, which was procured at Pitts- 
burg, was brought to that place by the waj' of the 
Ohio River and Cincinnati, and thence by canal to 
Pickaway, twelve miles distant. Mr. Deems wrought 
all the horse shoes and the nails that he used,and the 
charcoal that he burned in his furnace was also of 
his own manufacture. He continued in business 
there until tlie fall of 1810. 

In 1839 the father visited Fulton County on 
horseback and bought one hundred and sixty 
acres of timber land, three-fourths of a mile east 
of the village of Lewistown. After making his 
purchase he sold his horse and returned by stage 
to his home in Ohio. In tlie fall of 1840 he started. 

with his wife and three children, with two horses 
and a wagon for their future dwelling-place in the 
Prairie State. They spent the first winter in Lewis- 
town, and during that time he built a house on 
his land and at once began the improvement of 
the latter. For some years Liverpool, a point on 
the Illinois River, was the most flourishing town of 
the county, and was the market for all the grain 
raised. Mr. Deems improved the greater part of 
his land, bought eighty acres adjoining and re 
sided there until 1884, and then moved to town to 
his present home, where he now lives in honorable 

Mr. Deems was married in October, 1841, to 
Plirebe Brown. She was born in Virginia, in Au- 
gust, 1809, and was but an infant when her parents 
removed to the primeval wilds of Muskingum 
County, Ohio, where she was reared. She died 
January 1, 1887, at a venerable age. She was the 
mother of eight children, whose names are Amanda, 
Joseph, Eliza, Thomas, Lorena. Mary, George, 
and Cornelia. Joseph served in the late war in 
Company A, Fifty-fifth Illinois Infantr\', three 
years and was twice severely wounded. He now 
lives in Lewistown. 

The gentleman whose life is recorded in these 
lines received the preliminaries of his education in 
the pioneer schools of this his native county. The 
first one that he attended was taught in a log 
scboolhouse, and the seats were rude benches 
made of slabs with wooden pins for legs. There 
were no desks, but holes were bored in the logs, 
wooden pins were inserted and boards laid on top 
of them, extending the length of each side of the 
house, which were used by the larger scholars on 
which to write. Our subject's education was further 
extended by the excellent course of study that he 
pursued in Fulton Seminary in 1860 and 1861. 
and in 1865 he was a student at Hedding College, 
at Abingdon. 

Mr. Deems took part in the great war that was 
waged between the North and the South in the 
opening years of his manhood, and is a fine repre- 
sentative of those noble citizen-soldiers who sacri- 
ficed much and risked their all in their devotion 
to their countr3\ August 8, 1862, he threw aside 
all personal aims and ambitions and enlisted in 



Company H, One Hundred and Third Illinois In- 
fantry, was mustered into service at Peoria Octo- 
ber 2, and in November of that year went with the 
regiment to Tennessee, where lie and his comrades 
were quartered for the winter. From there they 
were sent to Vicksburg, Miss., and guarded the 
rear of the Federal army, preventing Johnston from 
reinforcing the rebels during the memorable siege 
of that city. After the fall of Vicksburg our sub- 
ject's regiment went to Jackson, Miss., and en- 
gaged in battle with Johnston's troops at that 
place; went thence to Black River, where the sol- 
diers rested until the fall, when they inarched to 
Chattanooga to take part in the battle of Missiou- 
arv Ridge, where Mr. Deems was transferred to Com- 
pany H, Twenty-third Regiment Veteran Reserve 
Corps. He was sent to Benton Barracks, they 
being on detached dut^', and remained until he was 
mustered out, June 20, 18G5. 

At the close of his service our subject came 
back to Lewistown and quietly resumed bis studies 
at Heading College, remaining in that institution 
during the fall and winter terms. In the spring 
of 1866 he engaged in the mercantile busi- 
ness in Lewistown, and was thus eniplo3'ed until 
1869, when on account of ill-health he was obliged 
to relinquish it. The ensuing two j^ears he re- 
mained on his father's farm and spent one j'ear in 
Kansas. Returning to Lewistown, he became a 
(;lerk for Ross & Hinds, remaining with them one 
year, and then acting in the same capacity for 
Phelps & Proctor for a period of eight years. At 
the expiration of that time he once more resumed 
business on his own account and has continued it 
with marked success. In 1886 he formed a part- 
nersliip with his present partner, J. S. Slack, under 
the tirm name of Deems & Slack. They have hero a 
commodious, finely-appointed store, and carry a 
full line of groceries, china, glass, woodenware, 
etc., and deal to some extent in fruits and produce, 
besides having a bakery in connection with their 
grocery. By strict attention tt) their business in 
all its details, by promptness and method, and by 
courteous treatment and fair dealings with their 
customers, the}- have built up a large trade and 
are well patronized liy the best people of the citv. 

Mr. and Mrs. Deems have here a very cliarrn- 

ing home, and of their happy wedded life have 
come two children— Jessie and Mary. Mrs. Deems' 
maiden name was Laura Benton, and her mar- 
riage with our subject was contracted in Septem- 
ber, 1880. She is a native of this county, born in 
Bernadotte Township, and is a daughter of Harsha 
J. and Marian (Lee) Benton, natives of Phila- 
delphia, Pa., and Springfield, 111., respectiveh-. and 
pioneers of this section of the country. 

Mr. Deems thoroughly • identifies himself with 
whatever will best promote the highest interests f)f 
this, his native county, his liberalit}' helping for- 
ward man}' schemes for its improvement, and he 
is numbered among its most loyal citizens. His 
record as a soldier is kept in remembrance by his 
connection with Thomas Lay ton Post, No. 121, 
G. A. R.. He belongs to the Independent Order 
of Odd Fellows, being a member of Fulton Lodge, 
No. 51. In politics he is a decided Republican. 



•^.^HOMAS COOK has lived in Fulton County 
'''^^ since 1858 and during that lime has ac- 
quired a solid reputation as a straightfor- 
ward, honorable man, and as a thrifty, hard working, 
capable farmer. Since 1874 he has been a factor 
in the agricultural life iu this section of the country, 
and has managed his well-equipped farm on sections 
20 and 22, with skill and profit since it came into 
his possession at that time. 

He is a native of Kilmena Parish, County Mayo, 
Ireland, where he was born in 1823. His parents 
were also natives of that place and he resided with 
them until 1849. In that year he married Bridget, 
daughter of Hubert and N'ancy (Moran) Golden, 
who was born in the same year and the same place 
as himself. 

Our subject soon left his 3'oung bride in their 
native village, that he might cross the waters and 
make a more comfortable home for her in Amer- 
ica. After landing on these shores he made his 
way to Pittsburg, Pa.,whence he went a short time 
afterwards to St. Louis, Mo., where he remained 
about five years engaged in steamboating. When 
he had been there two years and was comfortably 



^^^-^^-2^ ^O 






fixeil his wife juinocl liim. and in 1858, they came to 
this county and hicnted in Lewislown, which was 
tlien a very small place. While llieie Mr. Cook 
engaged in various kinds of business and flnallj^ 
bought, in the year 1874, one hundred and four 
acres of land on sections 20 and 22. Heinadotte 
Townshi(). where he now resides. He has seventy- 
live acres of his land under fine cultivation, has a 
good iiouse, liarn and otiier necessary buildings 
that go to make up a good and well-improved 
farm. He has a self-binder, a mower, and all other 
modern machinery that is in use on a first-class 
farm. His farm is well-stocke I with cattle, horses 
and hogs of standard gr.'ides. 

Jlr. and Jlrs. Cook have had six children boTn to 
thc-n of whom three died young and tliree are liv- 
ing — Thomas, Mary and Bridget. Mr. Cook has 
worked hard in the accumulation of his properly 
and has received valuable aid from his wife who is 
a cheerful, ca|)ableand willing helpmate. He is of a 
peaceable, kind and obliging disposition and has 
never had a law suit in his life or was he ever on 
a jurv. He has always attended strictly to his own 
affairs, letting other people's business alone and al- 
ways gets along well with his neighbors. He be- 
grudges happiness to no one, is no man's enemy 
and has no enemies of his own, but on the contrary 
has ni.iny friends. In politics he is a Democrat; in 
religion a Catholic. 

ENRY CONE. To show the mettle of the 
111 man it is not necessary to enter the marts 
of a crowded cit^', take a place among the 
dwellers on the tented field, or journey far 
from home and friends in order to make wonderful 
discoveries. Opportunities are not lacking even 
amid the peaceful surroundings of pastoral life, to 
teach high living, high thinking, and sliovv ener- 
getic action for individual and public good. The 
subject of this biogra|ihical notice is one who has 
prospered by steady industry, and l)y ever keeping 
in view the great i>rinciple of doing to others as he 
would be done bj'. He has found abundant oppor- 
tunities during the course of his long life, to |iro- 

mote the welf:ire of his fellow-men by assisting in 
their wortliy umlertakings and by suggesting or in- 
stituting movements which ten<i to mental or moral 

'J'he gentleman of whom we write is tiie eldest 
of six I)rolhers, whose father, .loseph Cone, was the 
founder of Farmington, naming it in iionor of a 
Connecticut town in which he was reared. Their 
mother, Elizabeth Candee, was, like her husband,. a 
native of Connecticut. The parental history is 
noted at some length in the biographical sketch of 
Spencer Cone, a brother of our subject, which is 
included in this volume. A sketch of another 
brother, George W. Cone, a farmer near Farming- 
inglon, will also be found in this volume. Besides 
these the fraternal band included Joseph, David C. 
and Charles. Joseph, a farmer, now lives at Ash- 
land, Neb.; his wife, former!}' Mary Ann Miles, 
died in 1888. David married Harriet Cutler and 
had four children — Eddie, George, Joseph and 
Hattie; his homo was in Kansas at the time of his 
death, in 1885. Charles is a gold miner at Shasta, 

The subject of this notice opened his eyes to the 
light in Oxford, Conn., September 17, 1801). While 
he was still an infant his parents removed to Har- 
winton, where he was reared on a farm and where 
d.ay after daj' he followed the old wooden mould- 
board plow on his father's large estate of three 
hundred acres. Among the stones of the Connecticut 
hillsides the barefooted lad learned the lessons of 
industry-, perseverance and self-reliance, which fitted 
him for life upon the frontier to which he accom- 
panied the other members of the parental family in 
the spring of 1834. The previous j'car. in com • 
pany with his father and his brother Joseph, lie visited the Prairie Slate, prospecting, a site in 
Fullon County being ileterminod upon. 

Our subject courted and married Miss Sophia 
D. Hoadley, the wedding ceremony taking place 
March 19, 1834, and the young couple coming 
Westward as soon as they could pack their house- 
hold effects for the journey. The Erie Canal, Lake 
Erie and the Ohio Canal were traversed to Ports- 
mouth, Ohio, where the party took boats for St. 
Louis and Peoiia. There they hired teams to bring 
them to what was known as the Mercli.ant Settle- 



ment, which they reached in June. Mr. Cone says 
'•A more fertile tract or one supporting a more 
luxuriant vegetation, no man's e3'es ever viewed." 
The father of our subject bad paid $300 ai)ieee for 
three squatter's claims, upon which log cabins had 
been built, and in these rude edifices the various 
members of the family were housed upon reaching 
their destination. Our subject at once set about 
breaking, fencing, and otherwise preparing the land 
for crops, swinging a maul from morning until 
night, like many another Illinois rail-splitter. Many 
hardships were endured by the new settlers, but 
Mr. Cone says "I liked this country, for I was glad 
and contented." 

The first great sorrow of Mr. Cone's life was the 
death of his first-born, Elizabeth C, who died at 
the age of ten years. A still greater blow befell 
him in September 184G when his companion crossed 
to the other shore. She left four children — Sophia, 
H. Jennie H., ]S^ellie M. and Luther Hoadley. The 
eldest of these married ■\Villiam Field, of Boston, at 
one time a dr^'-goods merchant in Farmington and 
now a real-estate dealer in Los Angeles, Cal.; the 
second daughter married Silas H.ays. of Blooming- 
ton, 111., and the}' also are now living in the Golden 
State; Nellie M. married Daniel James, of Burling- 
ton, Iowa, their home now being on a farm near 
Grinnell; Luther II. remains at Farmington, of 
which he is one of the most popular residents. 

Mr. Cone was married a second time, in Septem- 
ber, 1847, his bride being Miss Mary Eggleston, a 
natire of Oneida Count}-, N. Y. This union has 
been blessed by the birth of three children, of 
whom the first-born, a son, Henr3-,died when three 
j'ears old. Merritt H., a farmer near Farmington, 
married Miss Mary Jack and has three children ; 
Maggie E. married Morrison M. Alsbury, formcrlj' 
of Springfield, their home now being in Boston, 
where both are acquiring fame in the musical 
world, the one as a violinist and the other as a 
vocal teacher. 

Mr. Cone has alwaj-s been a farmer an(! has 
raised thousands of bushels of wheat, corn and 
other cereals, as well as hundreds of dollars worth 
of cattle, hogs and horses. Although now eighty- 
one j-ears old, he is hale and heart}', in full posses- 
sion of all his faculties, and as interested in the 

work going on about him as when he was looking 
forward in early youth. He attributes his remark- 
able health and mental preservation to the fact that 
he has always been a temperate man and of regular 
habits. His description of early pioneer experien- 
ces is given with historical accuracy and a fascina- 
tion equal to that of a romance. His wealth is the 
product of industry and economy, as he has never 
engaged in speculations of any kind. He is known 
as one of the most responsitile men and most 
prompt to meet his obligations, of the State. He 
and his son Luther own in common an estate of 
about three hundred acres adjoining Farmington 
on the northeast, which is well improved, with 
three residences, one the old Joseph Cone home, 
which is now occupiedby our subject. Besides his 
interest in this estate Mr. Cone owns four hundred 
and eighty acres in Thayer County. Xeb. 

Mr. Cone took a very active part with his father 
in bringing the Chicago, Burlington <fe Quincy 
Railroad through to Farmington. They subscribed 
83,000 in stock, which practically amounted to a 
donation, and a few years later subscribed liberally 
to tlie Elmwood branch of the same road. Our 
subject got out timber from his own woods, hewed 
it. and built nearly all the bridges between Farm- 
ington and Elmwood. All this work and donation 
proved a loss, as the road, although graded, was 
never completed. Mr. Cone has always done all he 
could toward supporting the religious and educa- 
tional institutions of this country. He has served 
as School Director and prides himself upon the fact 
that Farmington has an excellent High School. He 
is of a rather quiet, retiring nature, never craving 
office or putting himself forward in public affairs. 
Recognizing his impartiality, his fellow-citizens 
while he was living in Knox County were pleased 
to elect him Justice of the Peace, which position 
he held four years. 

The virgin vote of Mr. Cone was given to Gen. 
Jackson. He supported the Whig party and their 
leaders, Williiim Henry Harrison and Henry Clay, 
for the latter of whom he twice deposited his bal- 
lot. When the Republican p.arty was organized he 
identified himself with it. voting for Gen. F"remont 
and afterward helping to elect Lincoln in 1860-64. 
He has supported Grant, Hayes, Garfield, Blaine, 



and Hariison willi all the ardor of a firm Repub- 
liciiii. lie bas bonu' a laroje part of the expense 
connected with the Iniilding and support of the 
Congregational Cluirch in Fariuington. Taking a 
retrospective view of his life he recalls mistakes, as 
who can not? but rejoices in the fact that his aim 
bas been the -prize of the high calling" and that 
he has^grown gray in the service of the Lord. 
That his declining years may be like the golden 
rays of the setting sun, bright with promise, and 
like the autumn filled with sheaves, Is the wish of 
his many sincere friends, who will be pleased to 
notice his portrait on another page. 


1^=^ AMUEL FACKLER comes of sterling pio- 
^^^ neer stock, his parents, Franklin and Caro- 
"^/t))) ''"® (I'C!>''.y) Fackler, having been early 
^==^ settlers of this county and his father a pio- 
neer blacksmith of Astoria, the birthplace and 
present residence of our subject. The latter is now 
numbered among the euterjirising, progressive, sub- 
stantial business men of his native county, and is 
no unimportant factor in advancing its material 
interests. He has a large, well-appointed hardware 
store in Astoria, and commands an (extensive trade 
not only in tlie village but among the citizens of 
the outlying country. 

Mr. Fackler was born in this town, December 3, 
1842. He is a son of the late well-known Franklin 
Fackler, who was born in Augusta County-, Ya., 
December 3. 1807. His father, .Samuel Fackler, 
was, it is thought, born in Pennsylvania. lie was 
a tanner by trade, and carried on that business in 
Stanton, Augusta County, ^'a., wliere lie spent his 
last years. 

The father of our subject went to live with an 
uncle in Loudoun County when he was a boy and 
he learned the trade of a blacksmith. He subse- 
quently returned to Augusta County, and there 
took unto himself a wife and followed his trade 
there until 1835. In the ftill of that year, willi his 
wife and one child, he started with a pair of horses 
and a wagon for the wilds of the Prairie .State, 
taking cooking utensils along and cooking and 

camping by the waj' at noon and night. The little 
party finally arrived at its destination in Fulton 
{/'ounty after thirty days' traveling. Mr. Fackler 
first located near the present site of Table Grove. 
The country around was very thinly inhabited, and 
where Vermont now stands, a thriving and nour- 
ishing village, there was but one house. Mr. Fack- 
ler built a log cabin, in which his family found 
shelter the ensuing winter, and in the spring of 
183G removed from there to the village of Wash- 
ington, which was the first name given to Astoria. 
There were at that time only two log houses and 
one store where now a busy and prosperous town is 
located. The father of our subject erected a black- 
smith shop in the village, which was the first one 
built there, and he actively engaged at his calling 
there until the new village was laid out half a mile 
distant and named Astoria. He then removed his 
business to the new village and was the first black- 
smith in that place. He bought property and built 
a substantial dwelling and sliop, and continued to 
carry on his trade, with the exception of two years 
when he was engaged in farming near Summura, 
until his death, which occurred December 15. 1887. 
The mother of our subject was born in Shenan- 
doah County, Ya. Her father, John Deary, was a 
native of Pennsylvania. He was left an orphan at 
an early age, and after he had attained manhood he 
went to Augusta County, Ya., and there married. 
He was a shoemaker and followed his trade in Vir- 
ginia until 1835. In that 3'car he became a pioneer 
of Fulton Count3-, buying a tract of Government 
land near Table Grove. It consisted of wild prai- 
rie and there was a double log house on the 
place when he purchased it, in which he lived with 
his family five 3'ears. His wife dying, he then re- 
moved from there to Astoria and bought a home in 
which he lived retired until his death. The maiden 
name of his wife was Jane jNIcMullen. She was 
born in Penns3dvania. The mother of our subject 
lived witii her parents until her marriage, and was 
earl3' taught to spin and weave. In the first years 
of her married life she cooked by the fireplace and 
clad her children in homespun garments of her own 
manufacture. This venerable lady now makes her 
home with her daughter, Jlrs. Nelson. .She has 
witnessed almost the entire development of this part 



of Illinois from a]|wilderness to a well settled and 
\vealth}- county'. The early part of her life was 
passed amid pioneer scenes and she did not see a 
railroad uniil she was uearlj' fifty years of age. 
Mrs. Fackler reared the following six cliildren to 
useful lives: James F., who resides in Astoria; J. 
Thomas, of Astoria; J. A.; Mrs. Nelson, of Astoria; 
Samuel, our subject; Lizzie, Mrs. Anderson, who 
lives in Henr3' County, Iowa; and Fannie, Mrs. 
Jones, who resides in Astoria. Mr. and Mrs. Fack- 
ler were greatly respected b}- the people among 
wiiom tiiev lived for so many years. The}' were 
true Christians, and both joined the Methodist 
Episcopal Church in llieir j-ounger days, though 
ihe mother had been reared to the Lutheran faith. 

Samuel Fackler, of whom we write, gleaned his 
early education in the pioneer schools of Astoria, 
anil when large enough commenced to help his fa- 
ther in the shop. At the age of nineteen he entered 
upon his mercantile career, engaging as a clerk in 
the general store of W. H. Scripps. He continued 
in that capacitj"^ twenty j-ears and in 1883 resigned 
in Older to engage in the hardware business. He 
has since devoted his entire attention to it, and has 
Diiilt up one of the most extensive and profitable 
trades in this line in this part of the county. He 
lias a iiandsome. commodious, and convenientlj- ar- 
ranged store, and carries a full stock of hardware, 
stoves, tins, etc. 

The marriage of Mr. Fackler with Miss Belle 
Piice, a native of Fayette County, Pa., and a daugh- 
ter of Benjamin Price, was solemnized in 1868. 
Five children were born of that union — George, 
Lillie, Nellie, Grace, and Bessie. In the month of 
April, 1884, the pleasant home of our subject was 
invaded by death and the loving wife and devoted 
mother was taken from the place in the household 
lliat she had so nobly filled. She was a true, wo- 
manly woman, possessing a fine disposition and 
olh'jr pleasant qualities that endeared her to man^- 
be3"ond the home circle. She joined the Methodist 
Episcopal Church before her marriage, and was al- 
ways a consistent member thereof. 

ftlr. Fackler is a sagacious, practical man of 
business, possessing the necessary foresight, finan- 
cial ability and tenacity' of purpose, requisite to 
success in any walk, and his affairs are managed 

with scrupulous honesty and with a conscientious 
regard for the rights of others. His honorable 
course in business, his frank and courteous bearing, 
his warm-hearted nature that makes his friendship 
so desirable, have won him the confidence of the 
entire community and have given him a high place 
in the regard of all with whom he associates, either 
in a business or social way. In him the Methodist 
Episcojial Church, which he joined before marriage, 
finds one of its most earnest anti valued members, 
who is prominent in its affairs and who carries his 
religion into his every day life. In politics he is a 
Republican. He has taken an important part in the 
local Government, has served one j^ear as a mem- 
ber of the Town Council, and is a member of the 
School Board. He is identified with Astoria Camp 
of M. AV. A., and Astoria Lodge, A. O. U. W. 

J?I| LBERTK. TATE, editor and proprietor of 
/Uli the Astoria Argus, is a wide-awake young 
journalist and is successfully conducting 
>j^ an excellent family newpapei'. He is also 

an enterprising man of business, dealing in real es- 
tate and representing five different insurance com- 

Mr. Tate is a native of this State, born in Ma- 
comb, McDonough Count}', February 28, 1861. 
He is a son of the well known Richard Tate, who 
was born in what is now Carter County, Ky.. July 
5, 183L His father, David Tate, was a native of 
the same countj' and a son of one of the pioneers 
of Kentucky, who early located in Green County, 
and there spent his last j'ears. The grandfather 
of our subject was reared and married in the 
count}- of his nativity, taking for his wife Miss 
Nancy AVilson. He learned the trade of a tanner 
and engaged in that in connection with farming 
during his residence in Green County. In 1845, 
he came from Kentucky to Illinois, bringing with 
him his wife and six children. He stopped a short 
time in Henderson Count}-, and then located in 
McDonough County, buying a tract of land about 
two miles south of Macomb. That town was then 
but a hamlet and the surrounding country was 



thinly iiiliiibited. Mr. Tate lived on his t';irin in vicinity several j'ears, and then bought prop- 
erty in the village of Macomb, and resided there 
until 1871. In that year he sold his properly there 
iinil moved to Arkansas, lie lived a short time in 
lliro, and there shortly alter his arrival his wife 
died at the age of sixty-eight years. Mr. Tate 
subsequently removed to Washington County, and 
still resides on the farm he then purchased, he be- 
ing now quite an old man. 

Richard Tate was fourteen years old when 
his i)arcnt8 came to Illinois. He was bred to a 
farmer's life on the old homestead, and continued 
to lire with his father and mother until he estab- 
lislied a home of his own. He learned the trade of 
a tanner and brick moulder, and after he assumed 
the cares of married life he settled in Macomb and 
was occupied at his trades some years. lie finally en- 
tered the employ of the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy Railroad Company in the contractor's de- 
partment, and has remained with that company most 
of the time .since. He married Kmeline Hall, who 
was born in ^laxwell, Washington County, Ky., 
October 17, 1837, and is a daughter of Joel and 
Mary (Clark) Hall. Two children have tilessed the 
marriage of .Mr. and Mrs. Tate, Eflie and our sub- 
ject. Their (laughter resides with them. 

The gentleman of whom this sketch is written 
was reared in Macomb, and received excellent ed- 
ucational advantages in its public schools. When 
he fourteen years old he commenced to work 
on a farm at $Io per month. He was thus em- 
ployed for a few months in the fall and then 
clerked in a fruit store a few weeks. August 10, 
1875, he <'ntered the oUice of tlse Macomb Eagle 
and for four years thereafter, served an appren- 
ticeship to learn the printer's trade. After that 
he went to Chicago and was employed in the oflice 
of the Tiiitcs four months and then worked on the 
Prairie Farmer a few months and subsequently was 
engaged in a job office on Dearborn Street. He re- 
mained in Chicago about a year and we next hear 
of him in a printing office in Warsaw, where he was 
emplo3'ed six months. At the expiration of that 
time he returned to IMacomb and studied dentistry 
awhile. He abandoned that, hf)wever, and resumed 
the printer's trade in the oflice of the daily liejMbli- 

can-Eef/ister at Galesburg. From there he went to 
Bushuell and worked in the oflice of the Gleaner. 
On account of ill health he gave up oflice work for 
awhile and went to Iowa, whither he was sent by 
the l^nion Publishing Compan}', of Springfield, to 
assist in compiling county histories. A j'ear later 
he entered the employ of the Illi)wis State Journal, 
and six months after that went back to Macomb as 
foreman in the oflice of the Macomb Eagle. 

He retained that position one year, and then 
bought the Astoria Argus, and has edited and 
published this paper ever since. His experience 
in various printing offices and on various papers, 
was invaluable to him in his new work, and laid a 
solid foundation for his career as a journalist. His 
paper is well managed, and is published in a neat 
and attractive form, is bright and interesting and 
keeps aptice with the times. For a young man of 
his energ}' and capacity for work, his labors as an 
editor are not sufficient to take up his time, so our 
subject has branched out in other directions, and, 
as before mentioned, is engaged in the insurance 
business, .as agent for five different companies, and 
he also makes money by his dealings in realty. 

Mr. Tate was wedded to Miss Bertha Farr, .Sep- 
tember 25, 1884. Mrs. Tate is a native of Astoria 
Township, and a daughter of John and Nina Farr. 
The names of the children that have been born to 
our subject and his wife in their pleasant hotne are : 
Mildred F. and Albert Dean. Mr. and Mrs. Tate 
are people of high personal character, and are 
greatly esteemed by the entire community. They 
are members of the Christian Church. Mr. Tate 
belongs to Astoria Lodge No. 100, A. F. & A. 
M. and Astoria Camp, M. W. A. No. 381. 

^*. ..,-.'.,^,.**..'^".V.i . A- 

ENOCH THOJIPSON is one of those pro- 
gressive wide-aw.ake farmers, who find both 
■ pleasure and ijrofit in cidtivating the soil, 

and by means of dignity and abilitj' tend to raise 
the standard of their chosen occupation. Beside 
agricultural pursuits, he is also interested in stock- 
raisini;, and owns a valuable estate on section 2(), 



Pleasant Township. He is a native of Coshocton 
County, Ohio, being born there on the 1 7th of Maj-, 

His parents,Joshua and Emily (Williams) Thomp- 
son, were natives of New Jersey' and Maryland re- 
spectivelj', the former being of Scotcli descent. A 
kinsman on the maternal side figured prominently 
in tiie Revolutionar}' War, and his Grandfather 
Williams was one of the earliest settlers in Coshoc- 
ton Count}', building one of the first houses in that 
section of the State of Ohio. His father was twice 
married and had ten children, of whom the follow- 
ing .ire living at this date: Margery-, wife of W. 
Richards of Iowa; Permeiia, wife of John Potter, 
of Putnam County, Mo.; Elizabeth, now Mrs. 
Foster and living in Coshocton Count}-, Ohio; 
George, who resides in Warsaw, Ohio; Lydia, wife 
of William Bourel of Richland Count}-, III., and 
Enoch, whose sketch now claims attention. 

Mr. Thompson reached manhood's estate in his 
native place, and at an early age commenced to do 
work of various kinds. His education was some- 
what limited, and his knowledge has been gained 
chiefly by reading. In the winter of 1857, he 
moved to McDonough County, this State, and for 
more than a year engaged in farm work. He then 
went to Putnam County, Mo., then in a few months 
back to JlcDonough County, and later to Schuyler 
County, 111., but after six months in the latter place 
came to Fulton County, and has since continued to 
reside here. 

Our subject enlisted in the late war on the 19th 
of August in the year 1861, in Company H, Third 
Illinois Cavalry, and became part of the Western 
Army, first under Gen. Fremont, then Gen. Hal- 
leck, and later under Gen. Curtiss. He performed 
the duties of the ordinary cavalryman, and took 
part in many skirmishes. He served until Septem- 
ber 25, 1862, at which time he returned to his pres- 
ent place of residence. 

Mr. Thompson was married September 15, 1864, 
to Miss Mary E. Thompson, native of Woodland 
Township, and daughter of Anthony and Lucy 
(Shields) Thompson, natives of Coshocton County, 
Ohio and Harrison County, Ind. Her father moved 
to Fulton County some time in the '40s, having 
ridden the entire distance from his native State on 

horseback, and one of the first settlers of Wood- 
land Township. Her gr.ind parents came to Fulton 
County in the fall of 1830, settling in Woodland 
Township. To her parents were born nine chil- 
dren, of whom six are living, viz: Mary (wife of 
our subject); Benjamin F.; Nancy, wife of John W. 
Hagan; Sarah C, wife of W. H. Smith; Minerva J. 
wife of Harvey Shelley; Martha, wife of Thornton 
A. Bourel. Her father was a member of the Baptist 
Church, and was a most succcssful^agricullurist. 

To our subject and [wife has been born one 
daughter, Julia C. He settled on his present farm 
in 1865, continuing to reside here since" that"_date. 
He has cleared the land and cultivated the soil un- 
til his farm is very valuable. Mr. Thompson is a 
very popular man and has held public offices from 
time to time. At present he is serving as Highway 
Commissioner. He is a member of the Democratic 
party and true in all respects to his party princi- 
ples. He is a member of the Grand Army Post at 
Summum,and is well known and much respected by 
all who have the pleasure of his acquaintance. Mrs. 
Thompson is a faithful member of the Baptist 
Church, and both she and her husband endeavor at 
all times to advance the interests of the commun- 

Americans will agree that the old soldiers 
who sacrificed home comforts, endured 
(^' hardships, and braved dangers during the 

days of the Nation's peril, are deserving of remem- 
brance. The historian cannot detail the lives spent 
on the tented field, but he can mention the chief 
evtnts by which the gallant soldier secured victory, 
too often, alas, at the price of manly vigor and 
missing limbs. AVerc there no other reasons than 
his army life, we should be glad to present to our 
readers an outline of the history of Aaron Lingen- 
felter. a worthy farmer of Banner Township, liv- 
ing on section 19. 

Mr. Lingenfelter was born in Blair County, Pa., 
November 8, 1841, being a son of Jacob and Sarah 
(CKaar) Lingenfelter. The parents removed to this 
county in the spring of 1848, locating on section 



18, Bueklieart Township, where our subject grew 
to his twentieth j'ear, spending his dajs in llie man- 
ner usual to farmers' sons, and studying in the dis- 
trict school. On August 9, 1861, he responded to 
his eountrj-'s call, and enlisted in Compan}' A., 
Fifth-fiflh Illinois Infantr)', Capt. Presson and Col. 
Stewart being his commanding officers. The regi- 
ment formed a part of the Seventh Division of the 
Array of the Tennessee until November, when the 
Fifteenth Army Corps was organized, and it was 
incori)orated therein. It took part in thirty-two 
battles, and was under Are one hundred and twenty- 
five days. 

The first engagement in which our subject par- 
ticipated was Shiloh, where the battle was opened 
by the Fifty-fifth, .Sunday morning, April 6, 1862, 
on the extreme right. The regimental loss in 
killed, wounded, and missing, wastwo hundred and 
seventyrcight men. The next contest was Russell 
Mouse, in June, followed by the siege of Corinth, 
lasting twenty days, after which a march was made 
to Memphis, and camp life enjoyed while the re- 
organization was taking place. We next find the 
Fifty-fifth moving down the Mississippi and taking 
part in tlie battle of Chickasaw Bayou, whence it 
was compelled to withdraw after a four-days en- 
gagement, during which Capt. Shleieh was killed. 

Going up the Arkansas, Ft. Heinman was cap- 
tured after a contest of two days, January 10 and 
11, 1863, and the regiment then took transports to 
Milliken's Bend, in front of Vicksburg. On April 
27, the boys went to Haines Bluff to draw the at- 
tention of the confederate forces while Gen. Grant 
crossed at ( irand (iulf, sixty -five miles below the 
city. On May IJ thej' followed at the same cross- 
ing, and fought in the battle of Champion Hill, 
then went on to take part in the siege of Jackson. 
Miss., returning to participute in the siege of Vicks- 
burg. After the fall of that city, the corps went to 
the relief of Gen. Thomas j\,t Chattanooga, crossing 
the Tennessee on pontoons, and floating down 
stream at midnight. The battle was fi^ught, then 
Burnside re-inforced at Knoxville, and Larkins- 
ville, Ala., visited, when the term for whicli Mr. 
Lingenfelter had enlisted expired. 

In April, 18C4, Mr. Lingcrfeltcr re-enlisted for 
three jears or during the war. He received a fur- 

lough of thirty days, and visited his father and 
friends in the North, rejoining his comrades at 
Kenesaw Mountain, June 20. Up to this time he 
had escaped injury, and had been present at ever}' 
roll-call, except when on furlough. At Kenesaw. 
June 27, he received two wounds, one in the leg 
and one in the side, but as -they were only flesh 
wounds, be remained with his company. July 22, 
he had his left forefinger shot ofi" while the company 
was retaking a batterj', and the gallant captain, 
J. M. Augustin, lost his life. 

Mr. Lingenfelter subsequently took part in all 
the engagements on the march to the sea, begin- 
ning in November, 1864. At Statesboro, Ga., he 
was one of five men sent on a foraging expedition, 
and was captured by the confederates. When An- 
dersonville stared him in the face he made his es- 
cape to the Union lines, being shot at b}' the guard, 
the ball hitting a handkerchief in his pocket, and 
making twenty-two holes in it. 

After the capture of Savannali the reginient 
marched north through the Carolinas, and on 
March 21, 1865, Mr. Lingenfelter received the gun- 
shot wound that disabled him for life. He was 
shot through the right shoulder, by reason of 
which the right arm is now four inches shorter than 
the left. The wound prevented our subject from 
any further active participation in armj' service, 
and after remaining in different hospitals until July 
22, he was discharged, when his time lacked but 
eighteen days of four years. Mr. Lingenfelter 
never drank a drop of liquor until after he was 
wouiKlcd. He draws a pension of $3G pei monlli. 

Mr. Lingenfelter returned to this county July 
•29. and resumed the arts of peace, hampered in his 
efft)rts by his crippled condition, but full of en- 
ergy, determination and grit. He has been able to 
live comfortablj', to school his children well, to im- 
prove his place, and, better than all else,.has gained 
tli(> confidence and esteem of those about him. He 
owns eighty acres of fine land, that in the qualit}- 
and quantit}- per acre of its crops will compare 
favorably with any in the vicinity. Mr. Lingen- 
felter always votes the Republican ticket. He has 
been School Director three years, and discharges 
his duty in a satis factorj' manner. The family 
worshii> in the ^Iclhodist Kpiscoinil Church. 



In charge of the household economy of the Lin- 
g(!nfelter estate is a capable and loving woman, 
formerly known as Miss Charity Hedge. She be- 
came tiie wife of our subject, Marcli 17, 1870, and 
is tiie mother of tiiree children: Lizzie C, born 
.Sei>tember 22, 1S72; Ernest, November 24, 1874; 
and Minerva M., September 19, 1881. 

/^ ONRAD MARKLEY. Among llie early set- 
jl( ^^ tiers of this county was tlie Marlvle^' familj', 
^^^ and its present representative, the subject of 
tliis biography, is now one of its wealtiiy and most 
prost)erous farmers. He was an important factor 
in the })ioneci' labors that laid tlie solid foundation 
of tlie present prosperity of tliis section of the 
countrj',and having accumulated a liandsome prop- 
erly is enabled to spend liis declining years free 
from the hard work and cares of his early life, in 
one of the most comfortable homes of DeerBeld 
Township, of wliich lie has been a lu'omincnt resi- 
dent many ye.irs. 

Tlie paternal great-grandfather of our subject 
was born in German}', while liis maternal great- 
grandfather was a native of Fruace. His grand- 
father on his fatlier's side was born in Somerset 
County, Pa., and his grandfather on his mother's 
side was born in the Mohawk River Valley, in New 
York. Tlie parents of our subject, Jonathan and 
Elizabeth (Cline) Markley, were natives of Penn- 
sylvania. The}' migrated to this county in 1834, 
arriving at Canton on the 1st of October. They 
located on section 31, Fairview Township, and re- 
mained until the fall of 1841. They then removed 
to Eliisville, where the father died in 1842. After 
her husband's death the mother of our subject re- 
turned to the old homestead in Fairview Township 
RiKi thence went to Kansas, where her death oc- 
curred in 1874. 

Conrad Markley was born October 10, 1817, in 
an humble pioneer home in Ashland County, Ohio. 
His education was conducted in a primitive log 
schoolhouse of the early times. He was a stalwart 
youth of seventeen years when he accompanied his 
parents to their new home in this county. He re- 

mained with them until he married, March 31, 1842, 
Ruth, daughter of Benjamin and Amanda (Cone) 
Foster, becoming his wife on that date. Mrs. 
Markley is also a native of Ohio and was born in 
Madison County, ,lnly 15, 1823. Her marriage 
with our subject has been blessed by ten children, 
of whom the first two were twins and died very 
young. The others are as follows: Amanda, wife 
of John Walick, of Montgomery County, Kan., 
Louie, wife of George W. Lippy, also of Montgom- 
ery County, Kan.; Lewis Cass, vvho married Lauia 
Aldiidge and lives in Sumner County, Kan.; Mar- 
garet A. is the wife of Josiah Cattron, of Hickory 
Township; John A., who is a bachelor residing on 
a farm in Kansas and does his own housework; 
Tliomas F., who married Josephine Turner and 
lives in Hickory Township; Andrew Jackson, a 
bachelor living in Kansas; Josiah V.. who lives with 
his parents. Mr. and Mrs. Markley reared their 
children carefully, giving them good educational 
advantages, and he has given them a good start in 
life. He gave each of his boys, at the age of twenty- 
two, eighty acres of land in Kansas, a goud team, 
wagon and harness and $100, and did equally well 
by his daughters. One boy sold his eighty acres to 
his brother for iB3,000. The younger son, who re- 
sides at home, receives a good income from the 
rental of his eighty acres of land. 

Mr. iSIarkley resided on his mother's farm for four 
years after he was married. When he first began 
his career as a.i independent farmer he had nothing 
but his wife, to whose capable and devoted assist- 
ance he owed much of his after prosfierity, and nil 
his personal property was vested in a cow. He had 
besides about $600 security debt to ixay. In the 
Sjjring of 1848, having worked hard and accom- 
plished much, he came out even with the world 
and with a team, wagon and harness, the latter be- 
ing a contrivance made by himself, with chain tugs 
and an old strap for back- band. The wagon was also 
a [irimitive affair, manufactured partly in Canton 
and partly by himself and his friends. "With this 
outfit he started to build up a home, locating on 
section 2, Deerfleld Township, where he now resides. 
He has met with more than ordinary success in the 
prosecution of his calling, and has now a finely im- 
proved homestead of two hundred acres, eighty 




acres on section 2, and one hundred and twenty 
acres on section 31, Fairview Township. He is 
now taking the world eas)'. mailing oiccasionai 
visits to his children in Kansas. He still lias iiis 
farm under his management, though he does hut 
little work himself, lie and his good wife living in 
peace and contentment and enjoying the fruits of 
tlu'ir united labors. 

Mr. Marklcy is one of the old settlers here, and 
the only man now living in this township who w.'is 
here when he came, is Charles B. Edmonson, wiiose 
sketch will be found on another jiage of this work. 
He has so conducted himself both in pulilic and in 
private life as to honor the citizenship of this place 
and has borne an important part in its civic life. He 
has held the oth'ce of Supervisor for many years, 
was Assessor for a number of years, and Road Com- 
missioner and School Director. He cast his first 
vote for Martin Van Huren. ami has alwaj's stood 
stanchly by the Democratic I'arty. 

, UDLEY M. SIIIPP is one of the shrewdest 
and most intelligent agriculturists of Isa- 
bel Township, as is shown b}- the success 
which has crowned his efforts. His home 
is on section 27, and his real estate comprises over 
six hundred acres of the very best land. He oi)er- 
ates about five hundred acres, wiiicli furnishes him 
a field for very extensive operations in the crops 
best suited to the situation and the soil on which 
he works. ^Inch of the laml is in the Spoon River 
bottom and ^Ir. Sliipp was the first to begin the 
construction of a levee to protect the land against 
overflow. The levee has now been extended by 
other farmers until it is five miles in length. Mr. 
Shiiip's portion of it cost him liHtOO. Tl-.e enter- 
prise was begun by him in l.sG7. and he was the 
first man in this vicinity to raise cro[)S on the bot- 

The grandfather of our subject was John Shipp, 
jirobiibly born in \'irginia, whence he removed to 
Kentucky in a very early day, when panthers and 
bears were numerous there. He was verj- fond of 
hunting and in the luirsuit of that pleasuie had 

several narrow escapes from being killed by pan- 
thers. On one occasion he was resting on a log in 
the woods when he heard a crackling in the brush 
behind hira and turned just in time to raise his 
trusty rifle and shoot a panther which was spring- 
ing n[)ou him. He was a farmer and a distiller of 
peach brandy and apple jack. He lived to be more 
than fourscore years old, breathing his last in Hart 
County, Ky. 

Walker Shipp, the father of our subject, was born 
in Taylor County, Ky., reared on a farm there and 
continued to make the county his home until 1835. 
He then located in Hart County in a section where 
deer were plentiful, and the memory of our subject 
includes the sight of his father shooting those ani- 
mals. Mr. Shipp came to Central Illinois in the 
winter of 18(>4, and lived with our subject from 
that time until his death, which took place when he 
was (ift3'-eight years old. He was a. Democrat un- 
til the outbreak of the Civil War, after which he 
gave Ills allegiance to the Republican part}'. He 
was an earnest Christian, identified with the Ba()- 
tist Church. 

The mother of our subject was known in her 
girlhood as Rebecca Mardis. Like her husband she 
was born in Taylor County, Ky., and was a con- 
sistent member of the Baptist Church. She passed 
away at the age of sixtj'-fivc years, in the Indian 
Territory, where she was living with a daughter. 
She was the mother of eight children, all of whom 
wrew to maturity although three have now crossed 
the river of death. The subject of this notice is the 
first-born. The others are, Marion F., .Tohn R., Ma- 
linda, Sally, James M., JMrs. Ellen Jackson and 
Mrs. Harriet Seaj'. Malinda, Sally and Harriet are 

The gentleman whose name introduces this life 
history was born in Taylor County, Ky., October 1 1 , 
1832, and accompanied his parents to Hart County 
when he was two years old. He attended school in the 
primitive log cabin with its slab benches, greased 
paper windows and writing desks around the walls, 
where each scholar jiaid a quarterly fee for tuition 
and the teacher boarded round. His school attend- 
ance was mainly during the winter months and the 
summers were devoted to work on the farm in 
which he. as the oldest of the familw bore a promi- 



nent part. Young Shipp was but twenty jears old 
when he married and began life for himself. He 
purchased over one hundred acres of land in La 
Rue County and began housekeeping in a hewed 
log dwelling. A year later he sold the property 
and moved on his father's place in Hart County 
where he farmed until 1855. 

In October of that year Mr. Shipp started for 
this count}-, making the trip with a team and wagon, 
but wlien he reached Richland Count}', this State, 
the roads were so bad that he remained there dur- 
ing the winter, coming o.i here in the spring. He 
settled near Petersburg and began working in a 
sawmill in which be subsequently bought an inter- 
est. The venture proved a poor investment and he 
finall}' sold out his interest and removed to Havana, 
remaining there a short time and then hiring out 
on a farm at 120 per month. The next j'ear he 
raised a crop on shares and continued so to do 
about five years. 

In 1864, Mr. Shipp bought one hundred and 
sixty-four acres on section 24, Isabel Township, 
where twenty-five acres had been broken and a log 
cabin built. He replaced the rude dwelling by a 
somewhat better one made of hewed logs, which 
was his home twelve years. Four years after his 
first purchase he bought one hundred and sixty 
acres adjoining on the same section, and in 1872 
purchased the land be now lives upon on section 27. 
Still later he added eighty acres, having prospered 
greatly in his undertakings as a tiller of the soil 
and in raising large numbers of animals. The fine 
frame dwelling now occupied by his family was 
put up by him in 1881. In construction, design 
and situation it ranks among the very best in the 
township. It stands on a high hill overlooking 
the valley, thus giving it* occupants a beautiful 
view over hill and dale, valley and plain, where 
fields of yellow grain, orchards, groves and tasteful 
farm buildings present a charming picture to the 

Mr. Shipp has been twice married. The first 
union was consummated December 15, 1850, the 
bride being Miss Mary E. Seay who was born in 
Kentucky in 1834. She became the mother of three 
children upon svhom were bestowed the names of 
Charles J., George W. and John VC. The youngest 

of the group is the onl}- one now living. The 
mother died March 21, 1883, strong in the faith of 
the Baptist Church of which she had long been a 

Mr. Shipp contracted a second matrimonial alli- 
ance October 31. 1883, when he was united to 
Sarah E. Landis. a native of this count}', born in 
Bernadotte Township, October 9, 1852. The pres- 
ent Mrs. Shipp is a daughter of John and Phebe 
(Littlejohn) Landis, the former of whom was a na- 
tive of Pennsylvania and the latter of Ohio. Mr. 
and Mrs. Landis were early settlers in this county 
and the husband died on their farm in Bernadotte 
Township,at the age of fifty-two years. Mrs. Landis 
is still living. She is a member of the Free Meth- 
odist Church. The second marriage of^ our subject 
has been blest to himself and wife in the birth of 
three children — Dudley L., Bruce and Flossy D. 

Mr. Shipp brings. tojthe consideration of all sub- 
jects presented to his mind, the shrewdness and 
cautious judgment that have characterized his agri- 
cultural c3reer.~[^He is a firm believer in the po- 
litical doctrines of the Republican party and there- 
fore casts his vote with that element. He has helil 
the offices of Road Commissioner and School Trus- 
tee for fourteen years, and has also been the incum- 
bent of other minor offices. He belongs to Lewis- 
town Lodge, Xo. 51. I. 0. O. F. He is identified 
with the Baptist, and Mrs. Shipp with the Metho- 
dist Church. 

Elsewhere in this volume will be noticed a litho- 
graphic portrait of Mr. Shipp. 

— #-#- 


1/ ceased, was for many years one of the 
'5^^ most prominent physicians of Fulton 
County, and at his death his profession de- 
prived of one of its noblest representatives, and 
the citizenship of the community suffered a sad 
loss. He was a resident of Astoria during nearly 
the whole of his professional life, and had built up 
in this village one of its most beautiful and at- 
tractive homes. 

Dr. Toler was a native of Virginia, born near 


5-2 •) 

the city of Richmond, November 27, 1827. For 
the history of his parents, Thomas and Mary (Hun- 
ton) Toler, sec biography of Dr. 15. C. Toler, wliich 
may be found on anotlier page of this volume. 
Our subject laid a. solid foundation for his medical 
education under the tuition of his father, who 
trained him carefullj- in the English branches and 
in the classics. He commenced to study for his 
profession under the instruction of Dr. O'Neal, of 
liath. III., and subsequently entered the Louis- 
ville, Jvy.. Medical College, from which he was 
graduated in 1851. He began his career as a 
physician at Otto, tiiis county, wlience he came 
three years later to Astoria. For nearly thirty 
j-pars he activel}- pursued his high calling here, 
having a large practice, extending even beyond 
the limits of the county. He became noted for 
his rare skill in the treatment of difficult cases, 
and was considered the finest physician in this sec- 
tion of tiie country, standing at the head of his 

In the month of September, 1882, Dr. Toler's 
great, warm heart was stilled forever, and bis 
weary brain and over-taxed body found rest in 
death. He was mourned by many far be\ond his 
sorrowing home circle, as he was the beloved 
physician and cherished friend in many a house- 
hold where his presence had brought healing, or 
had soothed the last hours of the dying. He was 
rarely adapted to his profession by nature and 
temperament, possessing, as he did, refined, sym- 
pathetic feelings, a high sense of honor, a clear 
brain, stcnily nerve, and other essentials of the 
true physeian. His daily intercourse with others 
was marked by a genial, courteous temper and 
considerate kindness. Though he was a quiet and 
unassuming man, he an influence for much 
wood in the conununity where so much of his life 
was passed, as his every deed and act were guided 
by the liigiiesl principles of truth, integrity and 
morality. He a Christian man in every sense 
of the term, and his place in the Christian Church 
of Astoria, where his name was the synonym of 
love and charity, can never be filled. He was one 
of its leading incuil)ers, was foremost in its every 
good work, and for years was an Elder of the 
cliuich. We (■.'uinot tliink tliat such a life can come 

to naught, but we reverently believe that he has 
now entered -'upon broader fields of action and 
duty, where nobler struggles shall task the strength 
and more precious crowns award the victor, where 
the hopes and dreams of earth shall be turned to 
sight, and the broken circles of life be rounded to 
the perfect orb." 

Dr. Toler and Miss Sarah A. Morrow were mar- 
ried in the month of April, 1857. Mrs. Toler was 
born in North Carolina May M, 1831. Her father, 
Arthur Morrow, was a native of either Nortli Caro- 
lina or Virginia. He married Jani^ Campbell, who 
was born in the former State. They lived in 
North Carolina until about 1832, and then came to 
Illinois, making the removal thither with teams, 
cooking and camping by the waj' at night. The3' 
first settled in Greene County, and subsequently 
took up their residence in Mason County, of which 
they were pioneers. In 1851 Mr. Morrow came to 
Fnlton County with his family, and after living a 
number of years in Waterford Township he came 
to Astoria and spent the remainder of his life here. 
His wife died in Mason County. They reared 
eight children, two sons and six daughters. 

Mrs. Toler was ver}' young when her parents 
brought lier to Illinois, and she remained with 
them until her marriage, receiving a careful train- 
ing in household duties that eminently- fitted her 
to preside over a home of her own. She is a true, 
generous-hearted, womanly woman, and holds a 
warm place in the affections of those about her. 
She is one of the valued members of the same 
church with which her husband's name is indissol- 
nbly connected. Three of the children born of her 
marriage with our subject are now living — Temple 
E., Alice E. and John C. Temple, a merchant of 
Astoria, married Miss Emma McHue. and they 
have two children — Mabel and William; Alice 
married George Rice, a merchant of Astoria, and 
tiiey have two children — Bessie and Ilattic. John 
C, a druggist at Galesburg, 111., has been twice 
muried. He was first wedded to Miss Dolla Kost, 
who died, leaving one child, Mildred. He was 
subsequently married to Mrs. Eva (Kost) Merrill. 
a sister of his former wife. 

Dr. and Mrs. Toler in the kindness of their he.uts 
adopted liieir niece. Miss Lizzie Morrow, when she 



was an infant, and reared her as tenderly as if she 
were their own daughter. She married Charles 
Home, a resident of San Diego. 

Dr. Toler was a man of much practical business 
talent and financial ability, and by the judicious 
investment of his money acquired a valuable prop- 
perty. and became one of the wealth}' men of As- 
toria. He was prominent in social circles as a 
member of Astoria Lodge, No. 100, A. F. A- A. M. 



JOHN F. RANDOLPH. This county is pre- 
eminently the home of the agriculturist, and 
ever3-where Ihrougliout its expanse the ej-es 
of the traveler rest upon thoroughly culti- 
vated fields, fine orchards, substantial buildings and 
all the appurtenances which indicate well-directed 
and successful efforts. The estates which are held 
bj' its many farmers are not, as a general thing, so 
wide in extent as those of the dwellers in the prai- 
rie Stales beyond the Mississippi, but are more val- 
uable on account of their exceeding fertility and 
fine improvements. One of the largest landowners 
in this countj- is John F. Randolph, who is the 
fortunate possessor of eiglit hundred and sixty 
acres in Joshua and Canton Townships. His dwell- 
ing stands on section 19, Canton Township, and is 
a commodious and well-built structure, accompan- 
ied by the various outbuildings which are neces- 
sar}- to carr}- on the work in which the owner is 
eng.aged. Besi<le8 this fine property. Mr. Randolph 
owns other real estate in Canton, where he has 
erected a brick building known as Randolph's 

The fatiier of our subject also bore the name of 
John F., and was born in Yates Countj-,N. Y. He 
married Nancy Rawalt, a native of the Keystone 
State, and their first home was made in Utica, Ind. 
They remained there a few years, the husband be- 
ing engaged in teacliing and running a flatboat 
down the river to New Orleans. In September, 
1835, the}- came to this county, settling in Joshua 
Township, where tiie}- continued to live until called 
hence. Mr. Randolph became the owner of a large 
tract of land, and was one of tiie most extensive 

agriculturists of those early days. As a pioneer la- 
borer in the development of the county, and an 
active participant in all matters of public import- 
ance, he proved a benefactor to the community in 
which he lived. For many years he was one of the 
throe County Commissioners. He and his wife 
were of a religious turn of mind, and Mr. Randolph 
was an enthusiast regarding the doctrines of Swe- 

Our subject was the fourth in a family of ten 
children, five sons and five daughters. He was 
born in Utica. Ind.. M.iy 26, 1833. and was there- 
fore a child of two ^-ears when brought to this 
count3^ His earliest recollections are of the pio- 
neer surroundings and his earliest labors were those 
of a frontiersman's son. He grew to manhood in 
Joshua Township, and after the death of his father, 
which occurred in Aprd, 1845, virtually had charge 
of the farm. He continued to reside thereon with 
his mother until his marriage, when he settled on 
the location he still occupies in Canton Township. 

The wife of Mr. Randolph bore the maiden name 
of Louisa Havermale. She was born in the Buck- 
e3'e State INIarch 3, 1836, and accompanied her par- 
ents, Peter .and Maria (Gardenhour) Havermale, to 
this count}' about 1845. Her parents lived for a 
short time in Farmington Township, then settled iu 
Joshua Township, where the balance of their lives 
was spent. After having passed many years in 
wedded bliss, in death they wee not long divided, 
the wife passing away March 24, and the husband 
March 27, 1888. The ceremony which united the 
lives and fortunes of Mr. Randolph and Miss Hav- 
ermale took place February 14, 1856. They have 
five living children — Flora, Thurston, Viola, Artie, 
and Johnie. The oldest of these is now the wife of 
Alba Page, and lives in the State of ^Vashinglon; 
Viola is the wife of George Miller, of Uanton 
Township. Mr. and Mrs. Randolph have lost one 
child, Orpha, wlio died when a year and a half old; 
Artie and John are at home, while Thurston is en- 
gaged in business in Wallace. Idaiio. 

Mr. Randolph is undoubtedly the leading mem- 
ber of the Patrons of Husbandry in this county, 
taking great interest in the work of the order, and 
ready at all times to assist in its affairs. He form- 
erly acted with the Republican party, but is now 



identified with the Union Labor p.iily, and in sym- 
palliy with the lefonn movements in the I'nilcd 
States. He is liberal in his religious views, while his 
wife is a member of the JMethodist Cliiireh. His 
ability and interest in the good of those about bim, 
was long sinee recognized by his neighboi's, wlio 
called upon lum to serve as Sehool Director, in 
■whicli ofHce he has laliored for some twenty years. 
The line property belonging to our subject is a 
standing mor.ument to the energy whieli he has put 
forth in the labors of life, and the good judgment 
which has characterized his efforts, while his iiigh 
Standing among his fellow-men, is an equally sat- 
isfactory proof of his worth as a neighbor and citi- 

!<) LISHA K. SAUNDERS, commonly known 
as Squire Saunders, is a very popular and 
highly respected citizen of Liverpool Town- 
sliip, where his marked ability', honest and indus- 
trious habits have won him numerous friends. Our 
subject was born in Niagara County, N. Y.. Jan- 
uary 19, 1827, being the son of Hiram and Pame- 
lia (Maynard) Saunders, natives of Yates County, 
N. Y. The father was born in 1797, and died in 
Canton, August 9, 1873; the mother was born in 
1804, and died at the age of twenty-two in Niagara 
Count}', N. Y. The Saunders family were of 
Scotch descent, and our subject's fatiier was reared 
on a farm in Yates County, but when twenty-one 
years of age took a contract on the Erie Canal, 
where he worked for three years. At a later date 
he removed to Niagara County, where he engaged 
in farming for two years, and then came to Illinois, 
making the trip on a raft down the AUegiiany to 
Pittsburg, and the rest of tlie way by steamboat on 
the Ohio, Mississippi and Illinois Rivers, finally 
landing at Galena, this State. He came to Fulton 
County in 1832, and established a ferry across the 
Rock River at Dixon; but when the Black Hawk 
War broke out, he gave up the ferry, and enlisted in 
the army under Capt. Nelson Ball, and served three 
months, during which time he participated in sev- 
eral skirmishes, at New Boston , Little York, and 
other places. After the war he settled down in 

Henderson County, this State, and bought one hun- 
dred and sixty acres of land, hi 18.^2 he sold his 
farm and came to Fulton County with his children. 
The JMaynard family so far as is known were of 
Irish descent. 

Mr. Saunders came to Illinois with his father in 
1832, and settled in what was then known as War- 
ren County, but is now Henderson C'ounty. His 
youth was spent on a farm, and he attended school 
tlu'ough the winter, and worked at farming through 
the summer. After reaching his twentieth year, he 
commenced working for himself in a brickyard, 
where he received in compensation for his ser- 
vices S12 per month. He remained there three 
months, and then for one year worked in a sawmill 
and continued in this way until after his marriage, 
at which time he settled in Putnam Township on a 
rented farm. But after two 3'ears he bought his 
present place on section 1, Liverpool Township, and 
on this estate he resides at the present time. When 
he bought this land it was covered with heavy tim- 
ber, but now it is pretty well cleared, and much of 
it is well cultivated. Besides farming, he is largely 
interested in stock-raising. 

The subject of our sketch was married February 
4, 1855, to Miss Sarah Beckstead, who was born 
June 3, 1 834, and was a daughter of George Beck- 
stead, who was a native of Canada. The Beckstead 
family is of German descent. To Mr. and Mrs. 
Saunders have been born ten children, eight cf 
whom are living, viz.: G. Edgar. John L., Hiram 
D., Henry F., Leonard E., Caroline P. (Mrs. War- 
field), Orelia (Mrs. Kendall), and Glafa. Mrs. 
Saunder's father, George Beckstead, was born in 
Williamsburgh, Canada, was married there and re- 
mained in the Dominion until 1834, at which time he 
came to tliis country, and settled in Canton, from 
which place he moved to Buckheart Townshii), and 
from there he moved to the west half of section 1, 
which he i)urchased and improved. He built a saw- 
mill there about 1848. and continued to run it for 
five or six years. At the end of that time he re- 
moved to Putnam Township, where he remained 
for four years, and then returned here and purchased 
one hundred and sixty acres of land. He was a 
member of the Mormon Church, and in politics af- 
filiated with the Democratic party. He married 



3Iiss DinaL Meddab, who was also a Canadian by 
iiirth, and to whom were born eight children, seven 
of whom grew to maturity, viz.; Mary E. (Mrs. 
Pollitt), Sarah A. (Mrs. Saunders), John A., Eliza 
J. (Mrs. Edwards), Orelia A. (Mrs. Pollitt), Martha 
S. (Mrs. Uarker), and Caroline (Mrs Ests). 

Our subject is in sympathy with the Democratic 
party in politics. He has held the office of Justice 
of the Peace for fourteen years; was Constable for 
one term in Putnam Count3'; was Assessor for one 
term; and is at the present writing, School Di- 


n SAAC F. RANDOLl'H. What presents a pleas- 
anter picture than old age gracefully reached 
\ fitter a well-spent and prosperous life? There 
is something very pleasant in looking back upon 
the j-ears that intervene between childhood and age, 
and living in memory all the triumpiis and joys of 
years spent in an effort to l)enctjt self and neigh- 
bors at the same time. And such is the case with 
Mr. and Mrs. Randolph, who at the age of seventy- 
nine and seventy-six respectively, are both strong 
and active, and comfortably fixed in a financial 
waj'. True, they have experienced the usual 
amount of "ups and downs" that come almost in- 
variably in a career, but on the whole they 
have known much of success and happiness. This 
is in a great measure due to the fact that they have 
passed their days in peace, free from the dissipa- 
tions and vexations of the gay world. 

Mr. Randolph has made his home in this State 
for more than fifty years, devoting his attention 
mostl}' to agricultural pursuits. His birth occur- 
red near Rahway. N. J., being the son of Benjamin 
and Phoebe (Tucker) Randoljih, natives of that 
State. His grandfather, Jeremiah Randolph, was 
also born in New Jersey, and his father came from 
Scotland before the Revolutionary' War. The lat- 
ter was a carpenter b}' trade, and an extensive land- 
owner, and at an early age trained his son to habits 
of strict temperance and industry. 

Our subject remained at home up to the date of 
his naarriage, which took place in 1831. The lady 
of his choice was Miss .lulia Holt(:>n, native of New- 

market, N. J., and daughter of Martin and Eunice 
(Bartow) Holton. The Holtons were of English 
blood, while the Bartows were of German extrac- 
tion. Mrs. Randolph's fatlier was a blacksmith by 
trade, and died in the year 18.51, at the age of 
eighty-one, while on a visit in Illinois. Her mother 
died when seventy-seven years of age, and to her 
marriage were born eleven children, seven of whom 
reached maturity, viz: Elizalieth, Ephraim, Sarah, 
Precilla, Julia, Eunice, and Joseph. 

The subject of our sketch was born March 29, 
1 811, being one of the Qve children born to his 
parents who grew to mature years, the others be- 
ing: Sarah, Charlotte, Louisa, and Phcebe. After 
their marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Randolph made their 
home on farms in Elizabeth and New Market, N. 
J., until 1839, at which time they removed to Illi- 
nois, making the journey in a wagon. This trip, 
though long and tiresome, was quite enjoyable ow- 
ing to the fact that three other wagons filled with 
relatives of Mr. Randolph came with them. They 
started from New Jersey in November, and did not 
reach Farmington until Januarj- 3, 1840. Mr. 
Randolph bought land in Trivoli Township, Peo- 
ria County, the estate embracing thirty acres, and 
built a nice house. However, he traded property 
several times, and Snally became the owner of one 
hundred and sixty acres, and naturally had the 
trouble common to pioneers who must break up 
and cultivate the soil on new land. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Randolph have been born three 
children, viz: j\Iary A., Louisa C, and Margaret 
E. Mary A. married Jacob Berdine, a farmer of 
Hancock County, 111., and has four children — Ran- 
dolph, Anna L., Flora, and Charles. Of these Anna 
L. married Millord McFarland, a blacksmith at 
Powelton, and has one child, Robert; Flora, who 
is now Mrs. John Thornbur, resides in Hancock 
County, and has three children — Grace, Harry, and 
one unuamed; Charles is man led and lives in Ne- 
braska, and has one child. Louisa married Thomas 
Dunlap, resides in Wyoming, and has four chil- 
dren — Anna, Julia R., William, and James. Mag- 
gie marrieil Crcorge W. Smith, and makes her home 
in Farmington. 

Mr. Randoli)h is in sj'mpathy with the l\opub- 
lican party, and a strong sui)portcr of his party 



principles. lie was at one time a Democi'at, but 
cliangeil from that party because he could not agree 
with them on the slavery question. He lived at 
Canton twelve or fourteen years, and lias been 
popular and highlj' respected in all communities 
where he has resided. Both Mr. and Mrs. Ran- 
dolph are members of the Baptist Church, and con- 
tributed liberally to building this church at Farra- 

"'v^#^ — 1 < « ^ 

=^i=t:^ '-i~- 

ILLIAM S. COOPER. Among the rising 
young men of Fulton County, native and 
to the manor born, none is more worthy of 
representation in this Bioghai'iiical Alhuji, than 
this gentleman. He comes of good old New Eng- 
land Mood, and of Revolutionar}' stock. His fa- 
ther, Francis A. Cooper, was born in Pennsylvania, 
December 4, 1834. He removed with bis parents 
to Coshocton County, Ohio, when he was about 
eight years old, and there he was reared on a 
farm. In 1854, he emigrated to tliis county, and 
being a man of considerable education, and of a 
fine, well-balanced mind, his services were gladly 
accepted as a teacher by the pioneers whom he 
found here. He also gave his attention to farm- 
ing, renting land for about three years, when he 
purchased eighty acres on section 22, Woodland 
Township. There were but little improvements on 
the place at the time he purchased it, but in the 
years of hard labor that followed he cleared and 
improved the greater part of it, and thus greatly 
increased its original value. 

Mr. Cooper was married to Miss Angeline Pot- 
ter, December 9, 1862. She was born in Luzerne 
County, Pa., August 26, 1842. Her father was 
born in Pennsylvania in 1810. He was a farmer 
and came to this county with his family in 1854. 
He purchased a tract of land in Woodland Town 
ship, where he lived until his death at a ripe old 
age in 1865. He was a man of sincere Christian 
principles, and a member of the Missionary Baptist 
Church nearly all his life. He was decidedly a Re- 
publican, in his political views. The maternal 
great-grandfather of our subject was a native of 
New J^ngland, wiiere he carried on farming. He 

served in the Revolution. The Potter family came 
from England in early Colonial times. 

The father of our subject was a Democrat in poli- 
tics, and was active in local affairs. He held the 
olKce of Clerk of the township, and other minor 
ofiices. His death, April 21, 1866. called hence 
one of our most stable and respected citizen. The 
mother of our subject is still living, and makes her 
home on the old homestead. She is a woman of 
true Christian piety, and a valued member of the 
Ba[itist Church. She has two children, William S., 
!ind Francis A. 

William S. Cooper was born December 2, 1863. 
He has farmed the home place for ten years, and is 
raising some stock of good grades. He has just 
completed a fine frame house, which has cost him 
*1,000. He is decidedly with the Democratic party 
in polities, and is now serving his third year as 
Clerk of Woodland Township. His clear, intelli- 
gent mind, his tact and business qualifications, emi- 
nently fit him forthisofflce. He is finely educated, 
having been a close student of books since he 
gleaned his early education in the district schools. 
He is a fine penman, and this gift was assiduously 
cultivated while he was in attendance at the Val- 
paraiso Business College during the winter of 
1889-90. He is still a student in that college, and 
will complete his course and be graduated the com- 
ing winter. 

EREMIAH P. WOLF. A prominent place 
among the agriculturists of this county is 
the just meed of the efforts of the gentleman 
above named, who is located on section I, 
Canton Township. His farm, which consists of two 
hundred and twenty-five acres, is a highly produc- 
tive tract, the fertility of which has been kept above 
par by^ a wise rotation of crops and the use of the 
best fertilizing agents. A first-class set of Duildings 
has been erected upon it and the other improve- 
ments made which stamp it as the home of one who 
believes in progress and enterprise. Mr. Wolf 
lives surrounded with all the comforts of life and 
may well be gratified with his financial standing. 
Our subject is a son of Thomas F. and Joanna 



(Coleman) Wolf, the former a native of Virginia 
and llie latter of New Jersey. Their marriage was 
the first celebrated in this county and they were 
the first settlers in Orion Township, to which they 
removed after having lived for a time in Canton 
Township. Mr. Wolf toolc an active part in the 
political affairs of the vicinity and held numerous 
tfiwnship offices. For many years he was a Justice 
of the Peace. He breathed liis last February 3, 
1863, in Orion Township, where the widow died 
July 27, 1881. Both had been active members of 
the Methodist -Church and for many years religious 
services were held at their home. Thej' had a large 
family, nine of their children living to maturity 
and five dying in early life. 

Jeremiali P. Wolf was tlie fifth child in the pa- 
rental family and born in Orion Township Decem- 
ber 3, 1841. His studies were pursued in the log- 
school house of his native township, and in com- 
mon with the sons of other farmers he early learned 
the details of an agricultur,al career. He resided 
under the parental roof until his marriage, first as 
an inmate of his father's household, and after the 
death of that parent, as his mother's helper and 
comfort. After his marriage he i)urchased the old 
homestead on which he continued to reside until 
December, 1881. At that time he sold the propert}' 
and removed to Canton Township where he had 
bought property some time before. 

The ceremony which transformed Miss Emma 
Wise into Mrs. J. P. Wolf, took place on the farm 
they now occupy, September 25, 1870. The estate 
was then owned by the bride's parents, Samuel and 
Susan (Keller) Wise, who were very early settlers 
in this count}^ Both Mr. and Mrs. Wise were born 
in Pennsjdvania and died on their faim in this 
township. Upon coming to this section Mr. Wise 
had engaged in milling in Canton, but after resid- 
ing there several years turned his attention to agri- 
culture. He and liis wife belonged to the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church and constantly endeavored 
to carry out the principles of their faith in their 
daily walk and conversation. Their family con- 
sisted of thirteen children, of whom Mrs. Wolf was 
the youngest. 

The wife of our subject was born in tliis town- 
ship January 4, 1850, and educated in the county 

schools. She possesses one of those noble char- 
acters which make the name of woman revered 
wherever it is uttered, and is conscientious in the 
discharge of every duty which she owes to her be- 
loved companion and children. She has borne her 
husband seven children— Luella, George W., Bertha 
M., William C, Harry, Alta E. and Jeremiah P. 
William C. and Harry died in their infancy. 

Mr. Wolf is a representative Democrat, has taken 
an active part in local atTairs and has been called 
upon to serve his fellow-citizens in various public 
capacities. He was Supervisor of Orion Township 
twelve years, htis held the same office iri Canton 
Township three years, and has been School Director 
for a quarter of a century. In 1 882, he was elected 
County Treasurer and honorably: discharged the 
duties of the office four years. He and his wife are 
active and efficient members of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church and are highly esteemed by those 
wlio know them, for their consistent and. useful 

NOCII RAWALT. This gentleman belongs 
to the number of honorable, industrious 
men, formerly living in Fulton County, who 
have joined the silent majority and rest from their 
earthly labors. He was born in Indiana, November 
IG. 1827, and died in this county October 2, 1885, 
leaving a widow and seven children together with 
many friends, to mourn his loss. 

The life of Mr. Rawalt was marked with no 
event of unusual importance until after he had 
grown to manhood. His early days were spent in 
the usual manner, pursuing such studies as the 
schools of the time .and section gave command of, 
and in learning lessons of industry and energj- on a 
farm. His marriage was solemnized in 1848 in this 
county and the same j'ear he and his bride removed 
to Iowa. A home was made in Warren Count3', 
but after a sojourn of two years the family became 
residents of Jefferson County, whence they returned 
iiither in a few 3-ears. 

Mr. Rawalt bought one hundred and three acres 
of land in Lee Township on section 6, built thereon 
and im[)roved the place. He afterward added one 



hundred and nine acres, making up a beautiful 
farm of two hundred and twelve acres, all of wiiieh 
was placed under cultivation and brought to a fine 
condition. He was a very hard-working man and 
in connection with his farming operated a thresher 
and clover-huller during the season. 

In 1863, Mr. Rawalt enlisted in Company F, 
Eighth Illinois Cavahy, and after serving as a 
valiant soldier about two years received an honor- 
able discharge at Wasliington and returned to his 
Lome in 1865. He resumed his peaceful occupation 
of agriculture and continued to pursue it zealously 
and intelligently until called hence. He discharged 
the duties of various local offices, among them 
being that of School Director, Commissioner of 
Highways and Justice of the Peace. He was a 
liberal contributor to every good cause and won 
the respect of those sbout him by his manly life 
and cliaracter. He was a Republican in politics. 
He belonged to the Masonic fraternity and was in- 
terred with the rites of the order at Prairie City. 

Tlie widow of Enoch Rawalt now has full control 
of the farm and business, and still makes her home 
on the estate where she spent so many j-ears witli 
her loved companion. She bore the maiden name 
of Caroline Miller and was born in Alaryiand, on 
the hanks of the Potomac River, March 30, 1828. 
She received her education in''Ohio where she was 
reared to the age of eighteen years, when she ac- 
companied her parents to this State, where about 
two years later she became the wife of our subject. 
She is the oldest cliild born to her i)arents, John and 
Sus.annah (Hovermill) Miller, her brothers and sis- 
ter bearing the names of John L, Benjamin F., 
Daniel L. and Sarah. Mr. and Mrs. Miller were 
born in Maryland, married there and after a few 
years of wedded life removed to Ohio. Some time 
later tiiey came to tliis State, locating near Canton 
where Mr. Miller breathed his last in 1864, and his 
widow in 1886. 

There were born to Mr. and Mrs. Rawalt the fol- 
lowing sons and dauglitcrs: Warren married Effie 
Chayney and lives in Lee townsliip; John M. still 
lives at the old home; Jones F. married Carrie 
Snider and lives in Lee Township; Bonnie married 
George Hopes who died January 2, 1890; Delia 
and Charles still remain with their mother; James 

is at home. In the possession and under the con- 
trol of the family there are six hundred and thirty 
acres of good land, all in Lee Township, and all 
except eighty acres accumulated since the war. It 
has been done by strict attention to business and 
hard work, the sons following in their father's 
footsteps and Mrs. Rawalt herself having proved a 
valuable assistant to her husband and counselor to 
her children. She is deserving of the respect con- 
ferred upon her as one of the most useful raemlters 
of the community. 



OICHOLAS McCREARY lives in honorable 
/ retirement in one of the many substantial 
1 homes in Canton, his residence l)eing pleas- 

antlj' located on the corner of Oak and Fourth 
Streets. He was one of the pioneers of this county, 
was active in its agricultural developments and ac- 
quired a handsome competence that enables him 
to pass his declining years in comfort, and free 
from the necessity of hard labor and care which 
was his portion in earlier life. 

Mr. McCreary is a native of Maryland, born in 
Hartford County, April 9, 1816. His parents were 
Archie and Rachel McCreary, the former of whom 
was also a native of that State, and there passed 
his entire life in pursuit of his calling as a farmer. 
Nicholas was but three 3'ears old when his father 
died. His education was obtained in private schools 
as there were no public schools in his boyhood. In 
liis fifteenth year he was sent to learn the trade of 
manufacturing fine wire cloth and all kinds of wire 
goods. He followed that calling in the city of 
Wheeling, Va., about a month, then returned to 
Baltimore and worked in a wire cloth mill until 

After that Mr. McCreary returned to Mar3'land 
and "in the city of Baltimore was married, January 
16, 1838, to Miss Frances A. Hughs, of that city, 
and a daughter of James Hughs, Esq. The fol- 
lowing June Mr. McCreaiy packed all his posses- 
sions in a one-horse wagon and started for this 
part of the country, which was then known as a 
part of the Great West, Canton being the oliject- 



ivi; point of bis journey. For nine weeks he and 
his wife were on the way, the roads being so 
bad that some days they could not travel more 
than eight miles. Arriving at Canton, he pur- 
chased eighty acres of scliool land in what is now 
Buekheart Township. He settled on it and after- 
ward cleared his title from the Government by the 
payment of §1.25 per acre. Three years later he 
sold that tract of land and bought in its place one 
hundred and sixty acres in Putnam Township. He 
moved with his family to his new farm Februar3- 
22. 1842, and actively entered upon its improve- 
ment. He developed it into a choice farm, and 
for man}- 3ears was actively engaged in general 
farming and was an extensive feeder of hogs and 
cattle, from the sale of winch he niade money 
rapidly. He continued to live there until 1887, 
when he retired to Canton to enjoy more at his 
leisure the comfortable property that he had accu- 
mulated, and since then he has made his home 

The first wife of our subject died November 27, 
1846, leaving four cliildreu — J. H. lives in Joshua 
'Sbwnship; .John L.. a resident of Missouri; Pa- 
melia J., wife of .John S. IMyers; and William H. 
March 18, 1847, Mr. McCrcary was married to his 
present wife, who was then Mrs. Martha Ashworth. 
She was a widow at the time she was wedded to 
our subject and her maiden name was Moran. She 
was horn in the city of Baltimore, Md., in 1818. 
Her father wss Richard L. Moran. and the maiden 
name of her mother was Hannah Hayden. Her 
m:iiriage with our subject has brought them nine 
children: P' ranees A., deceased ; Sarah M., wife of 
Mark Saunders; Susannah, wife of S. L. Gorham; 
Martha, widow of John A. Jameson; Elizabeth 
Ann; Julia E.. now Mrs. Lew R. Emory; Kate L., 
wife of M. L. Emor}'; Alice, wife of George Mor- 
row; and George A., who died at the age of seven 

Mr. McCreary served as School Director con- 
tinuousl}' for a period of twent3--Lwo years. He 
and his wife are devoted members of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church. ]SIr. McCrearj' holds one 
of the offices of the Church Board, and has taken 
an active part in Sundaj'-school work, and was Su- 
perintendent of the Sundaj'-school a number of 

years. While he was a resident of his farm he es- 
tablished the Pleasant Grove Sunda^'-school. In 
politics he is a sturdy Republican. He first voted 
for William Henry Harrison for President, and 
the last vote he cist was in favor of that gentle- 
man's grandson. 

XDREW ROCK. Tn every State of the 
Union the (lerman-American citizens are 
to be found, making their way steadih" on- 
ward in the accumulation of property and 
securing their moans bv honest industry, prudent 
economy' and untiring zeal. In this county a 
prominent position among agriculturists and land- 
owners is held by the gentleman above named, 
who is a native of Hesse-Darmstadt, born Feb- 
ruary 15, 1841. His parents, Simon and Elizabeth 
(Shnur) Rock, were born in the same province and 
came to this county in 1855. They made their first 
home here in Fairview Township, but in October, 
of the same year, located on section 14, Deerfield 
Township, where they subsequenth* died, the fa- 
ther July 12, 1889, and the mother January 17, 

Our subject gained a considerable part of his edu- 
cation in his native laud, but continued his studies 
in this country. He remained with his parents until 
twentv-oue 3'ears old, then worked by the month 
on a farm until his marriage, February 3, 1863, to 
Anna, daughter of Philip and Catherina Erb. Soon 
afterward he rented a farm of his father-in-law. 
upon which he made his home five 3'ears, at the 
same time operating other lands which he rented. 
At the expiration of that time he bought one hun- 
dred and sixt3' acres on section 36, Deerfield 
Township, where he now resides. He has since 
purchased eights' acres on section 35, and eighty- 
two acres on section 4, of the same township, and 
one hundred and fort}- acres on section 1. Cass 
Township. This makes a fine estate of four hun- 
dred and sixt3'-two acres of good land, the acquisi- 
tion of which is almost entirely' due to the personal 
efforts of the owner. 

The home farm of our subject is furnished with 



an excellent frame house, substantial barns and all 
necessary improvements, botli it and tbe one in 
Cass Townsliip are well stocked. Tiie latter is also 
supplied witli a frame house, a good barn and oUier 
improvements. When iMr. Hock first started to 
work he received but $5 per month and he never 
got more than §15. From this sti|)end be saved 
money and made his lirst outlay for real estate, 
continuing' to economize and labor hard in order 
to build up a good home for his family and bestow 
upon- tiiem the man^' comforts and privileges which 
be desired. He has always been liberal toward 
those about him, never turning from his door a 
man that was in need if it was possible to assist 
him. He is endeavoring to rear his children in 
such a manner that they may also be useful in the 
world, and they are already assisting him in his 

The family of Mr. and Mrs. Rock consists of one 
daughter and seven sons, named respectively : 
Lewis W., .John P., Simon E., CUiarles A., William 
A., Clara E., Franklin U. and George M. All are 
at home except the eldest, who is married and lives 
on section 4, of the same townsbii). The 3-onnger 
boys are so thoroughly "chips of the old block" 
that Mr. Rock finds it unneccessary to hire help, as 
they are able to give him all that he needs. Mr. 
Rock, altliough ostensibly a Democrat, is not so 
radical but that he will vote for the man who is 
best fitted to discliarge tlie duties of office, even if 
he is numbered in other part3- ranks. He has been 
Collector two years and .Supervisor two years. His 
religious membership is in the Lutheran Church, 
where he has held the offices of Deacon and 

ENJAMIN TAYLOR, M. D., a retired 
physician, practiced his profession in Ver- 
'!^}))\1I mont several years. In 1882 he begun to 
give his attention to the culture of fruit, 
and has a fine fruit farm of forty-seven and one- 
tliird acres a half mile from the citj', which he is 
managing ver}- successfully. He has here a val- 
uable orchard of four hundred apple trees, two 
hundred pear trees, and a few of peach, plum, etc., 

besides eleven acres devoted to small fruils. He 
finds a ready sale for his fruit, which is of a superior 
quality and comprises many clioice varieties. 

The Doctor is a Pennsylvanian by birth, born in 
Chester County, April 5, 1821). He springs from 
the same family from which came the lafe Bayard 
Taylor, traveler, poet and author, and at the time 
of his death United States Minister to tlie German 
Court. Tlie father of our subject, whose given 
name was like his own, is thought to have been 
born in the same county as his son, while his fa- 
ther, Abraham Taylor, was either born in England 
or was a native of this country and born of Eng- 
lish parents. He was a resident of Chester County 
during his last years. 

Benjamin Taylor, Sr., was reared to 
pursuits, and followed farming all her days. He 
married Hannah Richardson, who spent her entire 
life in Chester Count3', surviving her husband 
many years. Mr. Taylor bought a farm in Penns- 
bury Township, Chester County, and there he died 
in 1832. He and bis wife were the parents of 
tliirteen children, of whom seven were reared, 
namely: Benjamin, Eliza, Xewton, Clarissa, Caleb, 
Sarah and Hannah. Newton served in the Mexi- 
can War, and died two or three days after his re- 
turn from disease contracted in tbe army. Hannah 
married Emmor Way, and lives in Chester County. 
Caleb lives in Wilmington, Del. 

The subject of this sketch was next to the young- 
est child in the parental famil3'. He attended 
school quite steadily in his youth, and later only 
in the winter seasons, as he had to work on his fa- 
ther's farm the rest of the year. He remained in 
Chester County until 18.50, and in the fall of that 
year emigrated westward, coming by rail to Johns- 
town, Pa., thence by canal to Pittsburg, from there 
by the Ohio, Mississippi and Illinois Rivers to 
Sharp's Landing, in Schuyler County, this State, 
whence he made bis way to McDonough County. 
He there bought a tract of wild land, located in 
Eldorado Township. At that time the prairie was 
sparsely settled, as the early pioneers had selected 
the timber land, thinking the open prairie worth- 
less for agricultural purposes. Deer were abund- 
ant and furnished good fare for the table of the 
settlers. The Doctor's first work was to erect a 



log cabin on his tract of praiiie, and he then brolie 
forty acres of land and sowed it to wheat. The 
next year he traded that place for a tract of im- 
proved land adjoining. About that time he de- 
ci(led to turn his attention to medicine, and 
immediatelj' entered upon his studies with Dr. 
Ebenezer Clark, a pioneer ph3'sician of Industry 

In 1855, our subject started upon his career as a 
pb3sician. In 1857, he sold his McDonough 
Count}' farm, and removing to Sheridan County, 
Mo., purchased a farm joining Keatville, the 
county seat. He resided there until the spring of 
18G0, when he sold his place to an advantage and 
returning to Illinois, established himself in his pro- 
fession in Vermont, and was activel}* engaged in 
his vocation here several }'ears. Though he has now 
nliandoned his professional life, his old friends 
and patients often call upon him to administer to 
their ills, preferring his services to those of the 
younger doctors who have taken his place. 

In 1853, Dr. Taylor contracted a matrimonial 
alliance with Miss Mary Clark, a native of the 
S'ate of New York, and a daughter of Ebenezer 
and Julia Clark. Of the children of that marriage 
tlie following five are living — Annie, Marietta, 
Clara, Elmer and Howard. Our subject's union 
with his present wife was consummated in 1870. 
Mrs. Taylor was formerly Miss Gabriella Gibson, a 
native of McDonough County, and a daughter of 
William and Mary Gibson. The Doctor and his 
wife have six children living, as follows: William,, Jesse, Lillie, Maude and Blanche. 

F. HUFFORD, Attorney-at-Law, Canton. 
A life time spent in pursuing one calling- 
will almost certainly result in substantial 
success, especiallj^ jf energy' and persever- 
ance are applied, and such is undoubtedly the case 
with Mr. Ilufford, who, frorn early boyhood has 
given the stud}' of law his chief time and attention. 
IMr. Hufford is a son of Francis M. and Hannah 
(Bull) Ilufford, and was born in Buckheart Town- 
ship, on the 6tli of March, 1858. While an in- 

fant he sustained the sad loss of his mother; and 
was but four 3'ears old when his father was killed 
in the army. Left tlius, in the tender years of 
childhood, without either of his natural protec- 
tors his fate would indeed have been sad, but 
for the fact that an aunt took charge of him, 
kindl}' giving him tlie same loving care and atten- 
tion that his parents would have bestowed upon 
him. He attended the district school of his neigh- 
borhood, and even there evinced a natural aptitude 
for stud}', and when older took an academic course 
in Bushnell and Dixon at the Normal Schools. 
After graduating with honors from these institutes, 
he entered the Bloomington law school, where he 
graduated with a diploma in June, 1887. Previous 
to entering the latter-named school he had read 
law with Daniel Abbott, of Canton. 

Onr subject first located in Quincy and there 
practiced his profession most successfully for a pe- 
riod of two 3ears, in partnership with Gen. M. M. 
Bane. Returning to Canton, he practiced alone 
until 1890, at that time entering into a partner- 
ship with R. J. Millard, the Brm name being, Huf- 
ford ife Millard. The}' do a general law business, 
and are besides agents for several good Fire Insu- 
rance Companies. The}' are fast making a reputa- 
tion in the legal world, and are recognized as one 
of the best firms in Canton. Our subject is a gen- 
tleman of superior moral worth, having gained the 
confidence of all who knew him from boyhood to 
manhood. He is a member of Morning Star Lodge 
No. 116, A. F. <fe A. M. at this place and also be- 
longs to Gem City Lodge No. 357, at Quinc3-. 

Mr. Hufford 's grandfather, George Hufford, was 
of German descent. He lived first in Virginia, af- 
terwards in the Blue Grass State, and came to 
Illinois settling in Fulton County. He had seven 
children, viz: Eliza, James, Nancy, Mary, Francis 
M., Levi and Wesley. Our subject's father was 
born in Kentucky, but came with his parents to 
Illinois while yet an infant. The father was an ag- 
riculturist until the breaking out of the w^r, when 
he .enlisted in Compan}' A, Fifty-fifth Illinois 
Infantry. He continued to serve with this reg- 
iment up to the time of the battle of Shiloh, 
when he was cajjtured with Gen. B. M. Prentiss' 
command. He died from disease contracted in 



the service in the hospital at IMetnphis, Tenn., on 
the November 19, 1863. To his nmiriage two chil- 
dreu had been born, viz: Margery, and M. F. 
Mr. Hufford's mother was a daughter of William 
Bull, who was of English descent. 

The subject of our sketch fully understands the 
true meaning of the word success, and though 
quite a young man lias achieved a reputation that 
many an older and more experienced man might 
envy iiim. Realizing that -'life is earnest," he has 
at all times and under all circumstances endeavored 
to make the most of his talents. 

RA .7. GRAHAM, one of the younger farmers 
of the county, owns and occupies a portion of 
the parental homestead in Isabel Township. 
He was horn thereon August 24, 1850, reared amid 
the surroundings of farm life and attended school in 
the logschoolhouse of that period. The temple of 
learning was furnished with scats made of slabs, with 
wooden pins for legs, and the other primitive con- 
veniences which our forefathers so well knew. The 
advantages for acquiring an education were very 
poor and our subject learned much more at home 
than at school. As might be expected, he began assist- 
ing in farm work as soon as he was large enough 
and became proficient in its various departments at 
an early age. 

At the age of twenty-two years our subject began 
working for himself, laboring by the month for 
several years. After the death of his father in the 
summer of 187.j, he and his brother, Jesse P., 
bought the homestead of three hundred and twenty 
acres. They farmed it together for thirteen years, 
sold off fifty-six acres and tiien divided the remain- 
der, our subject taking possession of the south half 
of the propcrt}-. It is supplied with comfortable 
quarters for man and beast and shelter for the 
crops produced by the industrious efforts of the 
owner. Mr. Graham possesses considerable mechan- 
ical genius and is able to supply himself with con- 
veniences that he might otherwise be denied. 

Although his sciiool advantages were not equal 

to those cnjo3'ed by the j'outh of this day, Mr. 
Graiiam has improved the opportunities afforded 
him to acquire information on various topics, and 
is classed among the intelligent, as well as the hon- 
est, hard-working citizens. He has held some of 
the minor ofiices in the township and casts his vote 
with the Democrats. His congenial home-life is 
secured through the companionship of an estimable 
lad}' who became his wife December 24, 1886. She 
was born in this county, near Smithfleld, is a daugh- 
ter of Gedion and Matilda Graham, and bears the 
given name of Rachel M. .Siic is a eousin of her 
husband, therefore of equally good blood, and was 
reared to habits of usefulness, developing her ex- 
cellent traits of character. 

John and William Graham, father and grand- 
father of our subject, were born in Maryland, 
whither the preceding generation had come from 
Ireland. William Graham served in the War of 
1812 under Gen. Harrison. When about in middle 
life he crossed the mountains with a team and 
wagon and settled in Piqua Countv, Ohio. Six 
years later he removed to Ross County, in which 
he' sj^ient the remnant of his days, dying at the age 
of sixty-seven years, and being interred in tiie 
cemetery at Brown's Chapel. His occupation was 
that of a farmer and his character a reputable one. 

John Graham was born October 1, 1804, and 
was the eldest of six children, the others bearing 
the names of George W., Jefferson, William, Eliza- 
beth (Mrs. DeV^air),nnd Ira J. He was about four 
years old when his pa.rents removed to Ohio, where 
he was reared on the farm and attended the pioneer 
schools in Piqua and Ross Counties. He was mar- 
ried in Faj-ette County and settled on a rented 
farm, occupying it until 1842, when he removed to 
this State and count}-. He made the journey with 
team and wagon, and upon his arrival here had but 
fifty cents in money. Finding a neighbor who 
seemed to be in poorer circumstances than himself, 
he loaned his small amount of casii to that gen- 

The first settlement made by Mr. Graham was in 
the Spoon River Bottom, but a year later he pur- 
chased three hundred and twenty acres on section 
21, Isabel Township. Deer and wolves were nu- 
merous in this vicinit}- at that tiriie and he did 



considerable hunting. His land was covered with 
a heav^- growth of timber, which he cut down, 
gradually bringing the acreage under thorough 
cultivation. His first dwelling thereon was a log 
house which was occupied eigiiteen j-ears. after 
which a fine, commodious frame residence became 
the family home. Excellent improvements of va- 
rious kinds were mpde, aud Mr. Graham reaped 
the result of his eflforts in abundant crops; his 
death occurred July 31, 1873. 

Tlie mother of our subject bore the maiden 
name of Malinda Thomas, and was born in Fayette 
County. Ohio. March 23. 1818. She is still living 
on the homestead. Her father. John Thomas, was 
of Scot.cb-Irish descent, and her mother, Elizabeth 
(Emberline) Thomas, was the daughter of a lad3- 
and gentleman, who had emigrated from Germany 
to this country. The record of the children of 
John and ^lalinda (Thomas) Graham is as follows: 
Maliala, born February 6, 1837; William A. Janu- 
ary 22, 1839; Elizabeth J., November 3, 1840; 
Thomas J.. October 26, 1842; Mary E., February 
18. 1845; Francis M., June 22, 1848; Ira J.. Au- 
gust 24, 1850; George W., December 30, 1852; 
Jesse P., ^larch 13, 1855 ; Jasper R.. September 23, 
1857; and James O., August 18, 1860. 


-5- — ■ 

j^ARRISON AZBELL. It is a' well estab- 
lished fact that a man of natural ability, if 
possessed of integrity- and energy, can ac- 
complish almost anj- given purpose in life. 
Ever}- daj' furnishes examples of men who com- 
menced a business career empty handed, and in a 
brief period of time accumulated considerable for- 

Our subject was one of the early pioneers of Ful- 
ton County, and resides on section 13, Pleasant 
Township. His birth occurred in Belmont County, 
Ohio, February 22, 1836, he being a sou of William 
and Sarah (Southers) Azbell. His paternal ances- 
tors were from the Emerald Isle, and those on the 
maternal side were of E'.iglish descent. When only 
ten years of age, he removed with his |)arents from 
Ohio to this county, and the father settled upon 

the farm where our subject now makes his home. 
The place at that lime embraced onh' thirt}' acres 
of broken laud, and the only dwelling place was a 
small log cabin, but by means of perseverance and 
energy the father soon had this land under cultiva- 

Our subject's parents had twelve children, of 
whom the following arc living, viz: William, who 
lives in Pleasant Township; Eliza, who is now 
Mrs. .Smith, and lives in Havana, 111.; Alexander, 
who lives here; Lorenzo, who resides in Isabel 
Township; Benjamin in Pleasant Township; Har- 
rison, our subject; Julia O.. wife of J. H. Smith, 
who lives in Isabel Township; and Maria, wife of 
Thomas G. Linderman, of Pleasant Township. The 
father died some time in the '50s, and in his death the 
communit\- lost a man who had long been engaged 
in advancing both his own interests and those of his 
neighbors. He was a Democrat in politics. He widelv known throughout this looalit}-, and en- 
jojed the esteem and confidence of all who knew 
him. Our subject's mother died several years .ago. 

Mr. Azboll grew to manhood in this county, sur- 
rounded on every side liy nature clothed in her 
primitive dress, and naturallv passed through the 
privations and hardships common to pioneer life. 
But this is a busy work-a-d.ay world, aud energy 
soon counts in the race of life. At an early age he 
turned his attention to agricultural pursuits, and 
has always found farm life very agreeable. True, 
his education was not very extensive, since the ad- 
vantages offered young people in those days were 
few, but b}- reading and careful attention to the 
events of the day he has educated himself very 

The subject of our sketch was married October 
17, 1876, to Nancj- .T. .Smith, born in Missouri, and 
daughter of Daniel Smith. This union was blessed 
with one daughter, who is now deceased. Mr. Az- 
bell owns one hundred and twenty acres of land 
that is splendidly cultivated. He also has a fine 
barn and a handsome residence. The barn is espe- 
cially attractive, being 36x54 feet in dimension, 
and one of the best in the township. His sjmpp- 
thies are with the Democratic party, and he is al- 
ways a strong advocate of those political measures 
that promise to benefit his count}- and .State. He 



is a public-spirited man, and one who bas met with 
success in liis journey througii life. As a success- 
ful agriculturist he has won an enviable reputation 
in commercial circles, and is accorded higb esteem 
and confidence. His life furnishes an example that 
busy "bread-winners" would do well to imitate. 

/^ HARLES HOWARD is well known tlirough- 
flf^L out this section, as he has been a resident 
^^^ of this county as boy and man for nearly 
sixty years. He has witnessed with patriotic pridf 
the greater part of its growth and has assisted its 
development in various ways, and at one time was 
prominent in its political and civic life. His home 
is now in Harris Township, where' he has a well- 
improved and well-appointed farm. 

Mr. Howard was born June 26, 1822, in^Morgan 
County Ohio. In 1831 he came to this State with 
liis parents, Samuel and Anna (Alderman) Howard. 
Thej' locatc^d in Farmers Townsliip and sold tliat 
claim before the land came into]market, his father 
then buying a piece of wild land on the Lewis- 
town and Bernadotte road, not far from the village 
of Bernadotte, Bernadotte Township. Our sub- 
ject can well remember hearing tlie wolves iiowl 
in Table Grove, when they lived in their pioneer 
home there. His parents were verj' poor and their 
only wealth consisted in a team of oxen. The first 
summer of their residence here, the crops failed 
and in the following winter provisions were high 
and tlie family had a hard time to get along. The 
wolves killed two of the oxen, so Mr. Howard iiad 
to abandon his land the next summer, ten acres of 
which he had broken, and he sold his claim to 
Robert Iluglies. He then rented a piece of land 
near Isaac Cadwalleder. He and his family win- 
tered there one season and the next winter he 
bouglit a tract of land. He was an honest, hard- 
working man, and in time became better ofif. 

Our subject was reared amid pioneer scenes, and 
the life of self-sacrifice and hard toil early made 
him self-reliant and resourceful. After he attained 
manhood he married and established himself in 
life, taking as his wife Miss Susan Clemm, a davigh- 

ter of Samuel Clemm. They had two children — 
Samuel B. and Nancy E. Samuel lives at liome 
with his parents. He married Miss Ruth Hollister 
and they have seven children. Nancy E. is the 
wife of Sylvester E. Mead, a farmer of Marietta, 
his farm adjoining tlie town; they have one child. 

Tlie marriage of our subject had taken place 
February 13, 1844, and lie had takey up his resi- 
dence in Cass Township. In 1855 he removed to 
Marietta, selling his place on the Spoon River, and 
in that town he entered into the mercantile busi- 
ness. From that he went into politics, and wag 
elected Countj' Treasurer. Thereupon he went tc 
live at Lewistown, the county seat. 

Mr. Howard held that important office four years 
and in the management of its affairs showed gooc 
financial ability, clear discernment and sound in- 
tegrity. At the expiration of his term he removed 
back to the village of Marietta and bought a farm 
of one hundred and twenty acres near by, and has 
since given his attention wholly to agriculture, never 
caring to mingle further in public life. In politi- 
cal views he is a Democrat, and has always stood 
firmly by his part}'. In religion, he is a strong Meth- 
odist, and has been a faithful member of the church 
ever since he identified himself with it. 

-4»E> — 

'Yl EWIS C. BREEDEN is prominent in the 
I (@ social, literary and political life of this 
j ^V", county as editor of the Lcwiston N'ews, a 
journal ably conducted in the interests of the 
Democratic parly; and as Secretar3' of the County 
Central Democratic Committee. He is a native of 
the county, born in Woodland Township, October 
14, 1861. His paternal grandfather, Lewis Bree- 
den, was a native of Virginia, and from there dur- 
ing some period of his life he went to Indiana, and 
thence came to Illinois in 1848, and located among 
the pioneers of Pike County. He now resides in 
the village of Summum, in this county, and is sev- 
enty-eight years old. His life-record has been such 
as to secure him respect and esteem from all who 
know him. Ilis wife, who is the stay and comfort of 



his ilecliuiug years, was a native of the State of 
New York, and her maiden name was Anna Handee. 

.Toliii II. Breedeu, the father of our subject, was 
born in the pioneer home of his parents in Indiana. 
He was young when he accompanied them to Pilte 
County, this Slate, and tliere he was reared on a 
farm. Heiwas a studious lad, eagerlj^ taking ad- 
vantage of jever3' opportunity for securing an edu- 
cation, and while yet in his teens tauglit school. 
He was ambitious to become a doctor, and at the 
age of twenty-two commenced the study of raedi 
cine and became a student of Rush Medical Col- 
lege, of Chicago. At the close of his medical 
education he established himself in Summum, and 
has been in active practice there since, and is one 
of the leading pliysicians of the county, standing 
deservedly higli in his profession. 

The maiden name of the mother of our subject 
was Sarah Stoner. .She was born in Ohio, and is a 
daughter of Joseph Stoner. The wedded life of 
iierself and Dr. Breeden has been one of mutual 
happiness and contentment, and has been blessed 
to them b}' the birth of three children, whom they 
have carefully educated and trained to useful and 
honorable lives, whose names arc as follows: Har- 
vey O., Lewis C. and DoUie. Harvey' is pastor of 
the Central Christian Church at Des Moines, Iowa. 

The subject of this brief biographical review is 
liberally educated. He pursued a course of stud}' 
at Abingdon College, and then entered Butler Dni- 
versit}'^ at Irvington. Ind., one of the finest insti- 
tutions of learning in the West, and was a student 
there for four years. He inherited scholarly^ estates 
and applied himself closely to his books, and was 
graduated with honor in the class of 1884. He was 
well equipped for any career that he might choose 
to follow, and as he had a decided inclination to- 
wards journalism, he bought the office and appur- 
tenances of the Lewistown News, and has since de- 
voted himself to the management of the pajier in 
connection with job printing. The paper is well 
conducted, is a bright, newsy, original sheet, au<l 
has a good circulation that is by no means confined 
to party lines, for though our subject is true to the 
principles of the Democratic party, he is by no 
means unrestrietingiy aggressive, and is not offen- 
sive in his defense of party issues. He is one of 

the rising j'oung men of the county, with a promis- 
ing future before him. He possesses pleasant social 
qualities and is popular among his associates. He 
is a prominent member of the Kenneth Lodge, No. 
140, Knights of Pythias. 

February 2, 1888, Mr. Breeden and Miss Susie 
Wertman, a native of Lewistown Township, and a 
daughter of John and Sarah Wertman, were united 
in marriage. The home that the}' have established 
in Lewistown is pleasant and attractive, and is the 
center of a charming hospitality. 

, AVID A. PHILLIPS. Everybody in Orion 
))) Township knows David Phillips, who re- 
sides on section 1 , where he has a fine farm 
of two hundred acres, which his son man- 
ages while lie is activeh' engaged in wagon-making, 
painting, etc. He is a whole-souled, liberal-spirited 
citizen, and his man}' genial, pleasant qualities make 
him poi)ular with the entire community. 

Our subject comes of fine old Revolutionary 
stock, his paternal grandf.ather, Luke Phillips' serv- 
ing in the Continental Army, seven years and three 
months during the Revolution. Mr. Phillips' par- 
ents. Neliemiah and Rhoba Phillips were natives of 
Rhode Island. His mother's maiden name was 
Hopkins, and she was a daughter of Stephen Hop- 
kins, the grandson of Benoni Hopkins. John Brown, 
an uncle of Mrs. Phillips was one of the leaders 
engaged in throwing the tea overboard in Boston 
Harbor. The parents of our subject had nine chil- 
dren, of whom the following six are still living: 
Nancy, wife of lleman Ilolcomb; Morgan, who 
married Miss Houghtalen ,and resides in Peoria 
County; David A., the subject of this sketch; Rhoba, 
wife of Jacob Bevierof Stockbridge, Mich.; Henry 
"\V., who married .Susan Irons and lives in Ne- 
braska; Achsah, wife of Lorenzo Brunson of 
Wayne County, Mich. 

The subject of this biographical review was 
born in the .State of New York, October 18, 1820. 
In early manhood he came westward as far as Ft. 
Wayne, Ind., and in that place it was his good 
fortune to meet with Miss Rebecca I. Knox, whom 





lie persuaded to share with him his life and fortunes, 
and to her he is greatly indebted for his present 
prosperous circumstances. Their union has been 
blessed with seven children, viz: Albina, married 
William Milam of Lincoln, Neh.; Anetta, wife of 
John Bown of Lane County, Ore.; Orlando, who 
married Emma Tindall and lives in Farmington; 
Ira Melvin, who married Belle Loman and lives in 
Peoria County; Edgar A., who married Ida Opie 
and lives with his father; Sewanl Lincoln,who mar- 
ried Cora Gamble and lives in Peoria County, and 
Mary E., who resides at home. 

When a bo}- Mr. Phillips learned the trade of a 
tanner, and afterward acquired that of a carpenter 
and also wagon-making and painting. He came to 
Orion Township in 1874, and opened a shop for 
the manufacture of wagons and also identified him- 
self with the agricultural interests of the place and 
has a well-improved farm. Mr. Phillips is skillful 
in his calling and h3' well directed and incessant 
labor, has accumulated a comfortable property, and 
is conducting a good business which brings iiim in 
an excellent income. He is a man of stead3' habits, 
is a kind and helpful neighbor and is in ever}- way 
to be relied on. He is a loyal and law abiding citi- 
zen, interested in the welfare of his country, and 
has always attiliated with the Republican party 
which finds in him a true supporter. 

-S^^- — 

\Y| AMES M. WHITE. On the opposite page 
is presented a portrait of this gentleman, 
who is one of the heroes of the late war, in 
which he fought bravely and sacrificed 
much for the sake of his country. He is the son of 
a pioneer of this county, and now resides with his 
l)rother on tlie old liomestead that his father im- 
proved from the wilderness on section 11, Berna- 
dotte Township. 

The parents of our subject, William and Malinda 
(Januarj-) White, were natives respectively of 
Greenbrier County, W. Ya., and Adams County, 
Ohio. They passed the early years of their mar- 
ried life in Ohio, and caaio from there to Cuba, 
this county, in 18-i'J. They lived there one year, 

and then located on the farm of eight}' acres, where 
our subject now lives, and here their declining 
years were passed in peace and comfort. 

The subject of this biographical review was born 
in Greene County, Ohio, August 25, 1836. He re- 
ceived his schooling in the district schools of his 
native State and of Illinois. He was here reared to 
the life of a farmer. When the war broke out, he 
was among the first to lay aside his work and vol- 
unteer to aid in defending the stars and stripes. He 
enlisted in the Fifty fifth Illinois Infantry, and 
bore a gallant part in the following battles: Pitts- 
burg Landing, Corinth, Arkansas Post, and in the 
siege and capture of Vicksburg, where he was ac- 
tive in the two charges; he also fought at Jackson, 
Miss., and in many other engagements and skirm- 
ishes. The battle of Kenesaw Mountain, in which 
he engaged June 26, 1864, will ever be memorable 
to him, as it was there he was wounded and crip- 
pled for life. He was struck on the right knee with 
a musket ball which shattered his leg, rendering 
amputation necessary on the same day. He pa- 
tiently endured the severe sufferings caused by the 
operation, and was removed to Resaca, Ga., whence 
he was taken to Rome, in the same .State, and thence 
to Springfield, 111. He remained in the hospital in 
that city until he was honorably discharged from 
the service June 1, 1865. 

After his bitter experiences of life on Southern 
battlefields and in the hospitals, our subject re- 
turned to his old home. lie had won a military 
record that placed him high among the brave sol- 
diers who so nobly fought for the Union, and to 
whose unflinching courage and steadfast adherence 
to the cause we owe it to-day that our glorious flag 
is waving over a free and undivided country. He 
served long and faithfully, and showed on every 
occasion that he possessed the true soldierly quali- 
ties valued by a leader, and proving to him that 
his men will fatie every danger without question 
and perform every duty with conscientious fidel- 
ity. In two years after he enlisted, he veteranized 
with his regiment, and was with it until he was in- 
capacitated for further service by his wound. 

Since tlie close of the war, Mr. White has lived 
quietly on the old homestead with his brother. He 
is so crippled that he is unable to do much hard la- 



bor, but his sister-in-law Buds him of great assist- 
ance in caring for the children, and in doing the 
tlioiisand and one nameless little acts that are so 
helpful. He is partly indeianifled for what he has 
suffered for the sake of his country, Ity a pension 
from the (Government. He received $24 per month 
until 1888, when the sum was increased to §36 a 
month. He cast his first vote for President, for 
liuehanan, the only Democrat he ever voted for, 
and is sorr^- he did so. He has ever been a loyal 
citizen, both in time of peace and in time of war, 
and is well known throughout the community as an 
honest, upright and warm hearted man. 


-,R^ ^ =^ 

' LEXANDER SLACK is one of the most 
EM intelligent and practical members of the 
farming community, that is building up 
and carrying on the extensive agricultural 
interests of Farmington Township. He is a son of 
.lobn Slack, a native of Derbj"sliire, England, where 
he carried on business as a shuttle-maker for many 
years. He died in the land of his birth when sixty- 
six years old. His wife was Ann Gardshideand she 
was also a native of Derbyshire. She was his sec- 
ond wife and the mother of eight children, of whom 
tlie following seven grew to maturity: Alexander, 
Deborah, Moses, Josiah, Nathaniel G., Robert, 
Francis and Margaret. Aaron, who died in in- 
fancy, and ISIoses were twins; Deborah is now 
Mrs. Hilton and resides in Abilene, Kan.; Moses 
lives in California; Josiah, a graduate of Rusli 
jMedical College, Chicago, practiced medicine at 
Cuba for several years after the late war in which 
he was Captain of a company in the Nineteenth 
Illinois Infantry. Nathaniel was also a doctor and 
practiced in Rushville, 111. some twenty-five years. 
He died there in August, 1887; Robert enlisted in 
the One Hundred and Third Illinois Infantry, and 
gave up his life for the country of his adoption; 
Frances married .Toab Shinn, and died in 1878; 
Margaret is the wife of Wallace Shryock. 

Alexander Slack was born in a small vill.age by 
the name of Mellor in Derbyshire, F^ngland, April 
21, 1822. He began to work in the cotton mills 

at the early age of eight years. This deprived 
him of his schooling, and as he was a bright boy, 
his old schoolmaster, Mr. Blackshaw, who took a 
liking to him, expressed regrets at the; idea of his 
having to leave school at so tender an age, but his 
father's limited circumstances forced him to with- 
draw the child that he might help in supporting 
the family. At the age of twenty-two, our subject 
married February 14, 1844, Miss Esther Cross, a 
native of Manchester. Her father, Thomas Cross, 
was at one time a soldier in the English army, and 
took part in the battle of Waterloo. His eyes were 
injured and he was a pensioner from the Royal 
Treasury. In later life he became a twister in a 
factory. The maiden name of his wife was Esther 
Jackson. They were the parents of the following 
twelve children: John, George, Charlotte, James, 
Mary Ann, Ann, Mary, Esther. Thomas, Elizabeth, 
Alice andSarah. 

Mr. and Mrs. Slack have had two children: John 
who died in England at the age of one Syear; and 
William H. The latter is a resident of Farmington 
Township. He married Nettie Leeper and they 
have four children — Stella May, Albert Lee, Lora 
Alexander and Arthur Ray. 

Our subject and his estimable wife came to 
America in 1846, landing in New York, October 
12. Their destination was Woonsocket, R. I. There 
Mr. and Mrs. Slack engaged as weavers in a cot- 
ton-mill, and were thus employed three j-ears. He 
did not like the confinement necessitated by his 
work, and wishing to become more independent and 
have more freedom of action, he came to Illinois 
in 1849 by the way of the Erie Canal and the 
Great Lakes. 

After he arrived in this State he embarked on the 
La Salle Canal and journej-ed on that until he ar- 
rived at the Illinois River, and on that stream con- 
tinued on his way to Copperas Creek landing. 
When he came to his destination he had x450 in 
his pocket, with which he purchased forty acres of 
land in Farmington Township. He ha.s done well 
at his calling and now owns a well-improved farm 
of eighty' acres on which he has a substantial home 
where he and his family- enjoy the comforts of life. 
He possesses a keen intellect, is broad and progres- 
sive in his views. He is a close observer and a 



careful reader, and is lhoroiiglil\- in sympathy v.itii 
movements of a political, social and religious or- 
der. In regard to the latter po'nt he is a free 
thinker, having been brought around to this state 
of mind l)y long and careful stud}'. lie became a 
voter in 1856. and voted for John C. Fremont for 
President. He is at present identified with the 
Democratic party and is an advocate of tariflf re- 


<« IVILLIAM G. SWARTZ. Among the goodly 
\rJ// number of farmers of Fulton County, who 
V^^ have won a competence from the product- 
ive soil and have retired to enjoy tlie fruits of their 
industr3', is the gentleman above named. He has 
long been a prominent citizen of Young Hickory 
Township, in which he has acted as Justice of the 
Peace for twenty four years. His fine farm consists 
of two hundred and forty acres on sectionl2, and 
with its beautiful groves, orcliard, well-tilled fields 
and comfortable buildings, is an attractive feature 
in the landscajje. The acreage has been devoted 
principally to raising corn and feeding cattle and 
hogs, which Jlr. Swartz has both raised and bought 
in considerable numbers. The cattle are of high 
grade and some fine horses are also bred on the 

Mr. Swartz is of German ancestry in the paternal 
line and comes of old Pennsylvania families. His 
grandfather .Swartz was a farmer in tliat State and 
iiis father, Henry Swartz, learned the trade of a 
tanner and currier. He removed from his native 
county of "Washington to Pleasant L'nity, West- 
moreland County, wiiere he successfully carried on 
a tanyard and later engaged in farming. He was 
successful in worldl}' affairs and a useful member 
of the community. At various times he served as 
Assessor and Collector and was also a member of 
the Board of County Commissioners for years. As 
Class-Leader in the Methodist Episcopal Church he 
assisted in religious work for years. 

The mother of our subject bore the maiden 
name of Margaret Gardner, and was a native of 
Westmoreland County, Pa. Her father, Christo- 
pher Gardner, was born in Adams County, but 

spent many years of his life at Pleasant Unity. He 
was a miller and followed his trade and farming. 
After the death of her husband Mrs. Swartz came 
West, bought a farm in tiiis locality and lived 
thereon until her death, in 1873. She was a con- 
sistent member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
Her children are William G., of whom we write; 
Mrs. Caroline Phillippi, who lives in Young Hick- 
ory Township; Mrs. Elizabeth Reamer, in Prairie 
City; Catherine, who died in Galesburg in 1873; 
Mrs. Marj' Phillippi, in Hancock Count}'; Mrs. 
lAicia Welty, in Young Hickory Township; John, 
of London Mills; Christopher, who died in 1865; 
Henry, in London Mills; Alexander, a civil en- 
gineer in California. John, Christopher and Henry 
t)elonged to Company B, One Hundred and Third 
Illinois Infantrj-, serving their country from 
1862 until the close of the war. Christopher was 
Wounded at the battle of Missionar}- Ridge and 
died from the effects of tlie wound soon after the 
war. Jolin held the rank of First Lieutenant. 

Our subject was born in Pleasant Unity, Pa., 
October 7, 1825. When old enough to do so he 
learned the trade of a tanner and currier and became 
a partner with his father. He did not like the 
business, the work being too heavy for his health, 
which was not the best, and after the connection 
iiad continued three years it was dissolved. Tlie 
young man then began teaching school, but this 
occupation proved no more agreeable to him and 
in the spring of 1851 lie came West. Reaching tliis 
county and the home of his grandfather Gardner, 
tie taught school one summer, then returned to his 
native State, spent the winter and again came to 

Mr. Swartz then bought eighty acres of the land 
he now owns, which was devoid of any improve- 
ments except a log cabin. The new owner taught 
a term, after which he gave his entire attention to 
the improvement of his farm and its thorough cul- 
tivation. He has added to his original acreage and 
placed the estate in the fine condition before noted. 
The log house in which he first resided was replaced 
in 1859-60 by a brick dwelling, the material for 
which was made by himself. 

The marriage of Mr. Swartz and Miss Elizabeth 
Welty took place in the Ke3stone State, January 



15, 1857. The bride was born in Pleasant Unity 
and exhibited the sterling traits of character which 
■won the respect of those who knew her and are held 
in reverent rememhrance by her family. She entered 
into rest May 22. 1890. The family of Mr. and 
Mrs. Swartz includes two living children and a son, 
John, who died when sixteen jears old. Anna V. 
is the wife of John B. Hagaman, their home being 
in Fairview Township; Harry is married and lives 
in the old home with his father. 

Mr. Swartz filled the office of Supervisor one term. 
He isademitted member of the Masonic Lodge at 
Fairview,and has a letter from the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church at Midway, which is now extinct. 
He belongs to the Democratic party, has frequently 
been a delegate to count}' conventions and was 
Central Committeeman two years. Ilis fellow-men 
hold him in good repute as a man of honorable 
character, intelligence and usefulness. 

^^^EORGE W. CURFMAN is a fine represen- 
III (— ., tativp of the brave soldiers who fought so 
^^jjj nobly in the late war, and to whose un- 
flinching courage and unswerving loyalty it is due 
that our glorious banner waves over a free and 
undivided countr}-. He is a highly respected resi- 
dent of Harris Township, where he is acting as the 
efficient agent of the Toledo, Peoria and Warsaw 
Railway Company, at the station at the village of 

Our subject is a son of one of the early pioneer 
families of this count}', of which he is a native, 
born at Barker's Grove, jVIarch 2, 1843. His par- 
ents, Adam and Elizabeth Curfman, were natives 
respectively of Frederick County, Md. and Vir- 
ginia, the former born in 1791, and the latter in 
1806. They were married in Franklin County, 
Ohio, in 1831, and came immediately to this county, 
and began their wedded life in a primitive pioneer 
home at Lewistown. They located on the banks of 
Big Creek, on what is now known as the Ike Harris 
place, and there Mr. Curfman made his first clear- 
ing. He and his wife lived there the ensuing year, 
but during the year of the Black Hawk War he took 

his wife and the one child that had been l)orn to 
them in the meantime, to ]Mason City for safety, and 
while there stayed in the blockhouse and watched 
the Indians. After the close of hostilities with the 
savages in 1833, the family removed to where the 
village of Marietta now stands, and there Mr. Curf- 
man built t'ae first house that was ever erected in 
thai town. He lived there two years and then en- 
tered a piece of land at Barker's Grove, where he 
remained nnlil about 1845. when he came to Harris 
Township, and settled on section 12. He opened 
up a farm here on which he dwelt until 1855, when 
he sold it, having traded for it in the first pl.ace. 
To the last place he purchased he had been given a 
forged deed, and the rightful owner subsequently 
took possession of the land and in his old age the 
father of our subject was left without a home, when 
George was a lad of twelve years. After that mis- 
fortune Mr. Curfman went to Cass Township in 
1858 and rented a farm and there made his home 
until death closed his mortal career February 7, 
1882, at the venerable age of ninety-one years, he 
having arrived at that age the September previous. 
He was a soldier in the War of 1812, and was in all 
respects an honest, upright man. 

George Curfman, of whom we write, was reared 
in this his native county and gleaned his education 
in its district schools. When the war broke out he 
was a youth of eighteen years, and with enthusias- 
tic ardor and patriotism he resolved to give his 
services to his country, and if need be sacrifice his 
life for the old flag. October 19, 18G1, he enlisted 
at Canton in Company D, Fifty-fifth Illinois In- 
fantrj'. From Chicago his regiment was dispatched 
to the South and our subject had the honor of tak- 
ing an active part in thirty-three different bat- 
tles, among which were those fought at Shiloh, 
Corinth, Champion Hills. Jackson (Miss.), Black 
River and Vicksburg. He was present at the as- 
saults on that city and he fought at Missionary 
Ridge, Kenesaw Mountains, did good service at 
Atlanta, at Ezra Church and at Jonesboro. Mr. 
Curfman was one of the brave men who attacked Ft. 
McCallister and engaged with the enemy at Benton- 
ville, N. C, which was the last of the many big 
battles in which he fought. He was an actor in 
many skirmishes, took part with his regiment in 



all its fights and was under fire one hundred days. 
He was with Sherman in his march to the sea and 
througli tlie Carolinas to Washington where he 
tooli part in the Grand Review. 

Mr. Curfman had a long and honorable eareer as 
a soldier, lacking but a few da>s of four years' con- 
tinnous service. During tliat time he liad veteran- 
ized after three years for anotlier tliree years, or 
during tlie war. He was twice wounded; once at 
tlie battle of Keuesaw by a piece of shell, but he 
pluckily remained with his regiment, and vvas again 
hit by a musket ball the 10th of August, l.S(J4. in 
front of Atlanta. The latter wound laid him up 
for about two weeks, but he sturdily refused to go 
to the hosi)ital. He still bears the scars so bravely 
won by him while defending his country's honor. 
After the Grand Review the rest of the army was 
mustered out, but the Second Division of the Fif- 
teenth Corps,which included our subject's regiment, 
was sent to Little Rock, Ark., where he and his 
comrades continued in service two months, and 
were then honorably discharged and sent liome. 

After his long and hard experience of life in the 
army our subject returned to Fulton County, and 
quietly resumed farming, the occupation to which 
he had been bred. In 1872 he obtained the com- 
panionship and help of a good wife in his labors, by 
his marriage to Miss Phrebe J. Watson, of Smith- 
field, the daughter of A. S. Watson, a well-known 
man of this county. Since their marriage Mr. and 
Mrs. Curfman have lived in Harris Township, where 
he has held the position of agent for the past five 
years, at the Seville station on the Toledo, Peoria 
(k Warsaw Railway. He also operates the engine 
for the pumping works in connection with his other 
duties. He is prompt and faithful in^the discharge 
of his duties, devoting his best energies to looking 
after the interests of the (company that employs 
him, and is regarded bj^ the officials of the road 
as one of their most useful men. 

Five children have blessed their marriage to our 
subject and his amiable wife, whom they have 
named: Charles C, Mary Ellen, Joseph Martin, 
John L., and Lula May. Mr. Curfman is a Re- 
publican in politics, but does not care to take a very 
active part in the political life of the town, though 
the value of his citizenship is never questioned. 

He proved his loyalty by his conduct during the 
war. He was then often in the midst of verv hotly 
contested battles, and of one of these the history 
of his regiment states that five hundred and twelve 
men went into the light, and in two hours and 
twenty minutes, two hundred and forty-eight of 
them had been slain by the eneui^' or severely 
wounded, and twenty-six were taken prisoners. 

•"S=§ ' "^ I— I— I 

] M. WATSON. It is imjiossible in a brief 
biographical sketch to render full justice to 
prominent men, and yet there are some who 
are so intimately and clearly identified with 
the county's welfare, and whose names are so fa- 
miliar to all that it is only justice to dwell upon 
what the}' have done and the influence of their ca- 
reer u])on others, not as empty words of praise, but 
the plain statement of a plain truth. To this class 
belongs J. M. Watson, commonlj' called "Roe" 
Watson, Assessor of Cass Township, who is a young 
man of indisputable abilit}', and good business 
habits, and one alike popular in social and mercan- 
tile circles. He is an active, wide-awake farmer, 
and has won great success in pursuing this, his fa- 
vorite occupation. 

Our subject's birth occurred on section 29, this 
township on the 19th of Jul}-, 1852, he being 
the son of John D. and Catharine (Cameron) Wat- 
son, natives of Indiana and Illinois, respectively. 
His fatiier is numbered among the pioneer settlers 
in this State, and experienced all the hardships and 
privations incidental to a residence in an unde- 
veloped country. He was called upon to mourn 
the loss of his beloved wife in 1856. To them had 
been born three children, all of whom reached rna- 
turit}', but of whom our subject is the only one liv- 
ing at the present writing. His father was married 
again and now makes his home in Oregon. 

The subject of our sketch was the recipient of a 
common-school education, but at an early age man- 
ifested a lively interest in educational matters, and 
an amount of industry and integrity of purpose 
that could but result in success. Following the 
footsteps of his father he has always devoted his 



attenliou to farming, with the exception of a few 
years during which time he tried railroading. At 
the early age of twenty-one he commenced to make 
a business record for himself, and is now the owner 
of a valuable estate near Smithfield, and also of an 
elegant residence. 

Mr. Watson was married April 3, 1873, to ^liss 
M-ry C. Cable, daughter of Solomon Cable, and 
immediately after his marriage settled upon his 
present farm, which comprises one hundred and 
forty acres of excellent land all in a body, one hun- 
dred acres of which are in a sfate of perfect culti- 
vation. Besides agiiculture, he is also largely in- 
terested in stock-raising, buying and selling all the 

To Mr. and Mrs. Watson have been born six chil- 
dren, viz: Carrie B., Sadie C, Josie M., James H., 
John H., and William E. all of whom are living at 
the present date. Our subject is a member of 
SmithCeld Lodge No. 103, I. O. O. F., and 
has held the office of Treasurer, and others of 
equal importance. He takes an active interest in 
political issues, voting the Democratic ticket, and 
has at various times been a delegate to conventions. 
His interest in school matters is very pronounced, 
and his children are all receiving excellent instruc- 
tion. Mr. Watson is classed among the pre-eminenllj^ 
successful agriculturists of Cass Township, and has 
lost no opportunity for improving his estate, or 
contributing to the general welfare of the com- 
munity who hold him in such high esteem. 

^^EORGE FOUTS. This gentleman is the 
ll (=, owner and occupant of a productive tract 
^^/^ of land on section 12, Lee Township, which 
he purchased and took possession of in the spring 
of 1870. The farm consists of one hundred and 
thirty-five and a quarter acres, bears the usual im- 
provements, and is so managed as to bring forth 
abundant crops of good qualitj'. 

Our subject comes of a good familj', being a son 
of Michael and Elizabeth (Kuhn) Fonts, who were 
natives of the Keystone State. From that common- 

wealth they came to Ellisville, this county, in 1852. 
The mother passed away in 1871, and the father 
breathed his last in Iowa ten years later. Jlr. 
Fonts was an o\vn cousin of the well-known Simon 
Cameron. Our subject is a twin of John Fonts, 
now living in Ellisville, their natal day having 
been February 18, 182G. Their native place was 
Huntingdon County, Pa., and iu the district schools 
they were educated. In the fall of 1850, he of 
whom wc write was married, and immediately af- 
terward engaged in digging iron ore at SIG per 
month. The man who could obtain that remunera- 
tion was considered an extra hand. 

Our subject accompanied his parents to this 
county in 1852, and locating at Ellisville, worked 
at the carpenter's trade and wagon-making until 
1870. During that period he made three trips 
across the plains, spending one winter in Salt Lake 
City. He next located on the estate which he still 
occupies, from the operation of which he has been 
gaining a good maintenance, and laj'ing up some- 
thing against a rainy day. 

The good wife of Mr. Fonts was born in Penn- 
sylvania, Januar}' 19, 1828, and was known in her 
maidenhood as Miss Eliza M.- Shaffer. She is a 
daughter of Adam and Elizabeth (Lowe) Shaffer, 
who were natives of Pennsylvania, and are now de- 
ceased, the mother having died in 1852, and the 
father in 1875. Mrs. Fonts is the third child and 
eldest daughter in a group consisting of four boj's 
and four girls. She became the wife of our subject. 
November 11, 1850. and has striven hard to be a 
capable helpmate and a wise mother. She is a con- 
sistent member of the Lutheran Church, an excel- 
lent housekeeper, and is well liked by all who know 

Mr. and Mrs. Fonts have had fourteen children. 
Three sons and three daughters died when young. 
The living are Frank F., born March 3, 1856, and 
still living with his parents; FAla. M., born M.ay 11, 
1858, now the wife of Charles Staton, living at 
Lewistown; Agnes S., born December 13, 1859. 
still at home; Clara A., born October 27, 1861, and 
living in Colorado; George W., born August 28, 
1864, who married Amanda Lathbury, and lives at 
Lewistown; Robert Sherman, born September 9, 
1866, now living iu Shelby City, Iowa; Emma La 



Rue. born December 2. 1869, a teacher in this 
county-; Flora Belle, born February 17, 1873. at- 
tending the Normal School at Lewistown with llie 
expectation of being graduated in the spring. 

Mr. Fonts was a Whig nnlil after the organiza- 
tion of the Republican party, when he gave his 
support to the new inslitulion. but he takes no ac- 
tive part in politics of late. He belongs to the 
Odd Fellows fraternity, has held all the offices in 
the lodge, and has been a representative to the 
Grand Lodge of the State; is a member of Ijodge 
No. 78. He has had his full share of local oflices, 
having been Koad Commissioner of the township 
three years. School Director nine years. and I'athmas- 
ter during a long period. He was also elected to the 
office of Justice of the Peace, but would not .ac- 
cept. Mr. Fonts is not identified with any relig- 
ious body, but is a liberal contributor to the sup- 
port of the church, and manifests a deep interest in 
other good works. 


"JOSEPH C. MYERS, has met with more than 
ordinary success as one of the most skillful 
and wide-awake farmers and stock-raisers of 
this county, and, while yet in the prime of 
life, has been enabled to retire practically from 
business. He has a beautiful home in Canton, oc- 
cupying one of the finest residence properties of 
the city, pleasantly located on North Main Strset. 
Mr. Myers was born September 3, 1 844, in F'rank- 
lin County, Pa., He was the fifth child in a family 
of thirteen children born to Henry and Maria 
(Eshelraan) Myers, natives of the Keystone State. 
In 1848 they settled among the pioneers of this 
county ou a farm in Canton. They resided tliere 
one year, then settled permanently in Farming- 
ton, where the father gave his attention to agricul- 
tural pursuits. He is still living on his homestead 
there, and is now in his seventy-eighth year, hav- 
ing been born November 2, 1813. His wife was 
born September 11, 1817, a daughter of John Esh- 
elman, who was a native of Germany. The Myers 
family was also of German descent. 

Joseph C. Myers of whom this sketch is written. 

nas about four years old when his parents brought 
him to this county. He gleaned a good education 
in the Farmington schools, and as early as nine 
years of .age, began to help his father on the farm. 
When he was sixteen years old, he began to assist 
in operating a tlu-cshing machine, which was hired 
by the farmers in the township. This too hanl 
work for a youth of his 3-ears, and it impaired his 
health, which has never been as good as it was be- 
fore. He remained with his parents until he reached 
his twentj'-first year, when he began farming on 
his own account. He bought stock, which he fed 
and sold, and occasionally he sent hogs to the Chi- 
cago market. lie continued thus actively engaged 
in the stock business for seventeen years, and dur- 
ing the past four years of that period, dealt exten- 
sively in fine horses, matching and selling them and 
he won the highest |)rizes of any man in Ful- 
ton Count}' for well-matched and well-bred teams, 
and has sold a span of horses for ^62.5. 

Mr. Mj-ers still owns his farm of two hundred 
and seventy .acres of choice land, situated on the 
line, part of which lies in Canton, and part in 
Farmington Township, which he rents on shares. 
It is amply supi)lied with neat and well-ordered 
buildings, .and with the finest of farming machin- 
ery. He still p.a3S mucli attention to the breeding 
of fine Poland-China hogs, though he has retired 
from general farming. In 1888 he left his home- 
stead, and coming to Canton, purchased a large 
and fine residence, with its beautiful surroundings, 
known as the Harry Balton place, where he is en- 
jo3'ing all the luxuries and comforts that make life 
worth living. In his career .as a farmer and stock- 
raiser, he has displayed more than ordinary capa- 
city, as he began life with but little means, and 
even had to go in debt for his first plow, but he 
has conquered all the difficulties that lay in his 
path, has risen above adversitj', and is one of the 
moneyed men of the city of Canton to-day. He is 
generous and public-spirited as a citizen, is upright 
as a man, and in his domestic relations is all that a 
kind husband and good father should be, while his 
neighbors ever find him friendly and obliging. In 
politics he is rather conservative, voting in Na- 
tional and State matters with the Democrats. 

Mr. and Mrs. Myers began their pleasant wedded 



life in the month of January, 1871, and to them 
have come two daughters, Blanche L., and Mabel 
lone, vvho is attending school in Canton. Prior to 
her marriage, Mrs. IMyers was Mary J. Swilzer, of 
Farmington Township. She was born and reared 
in this county, and is a daughter of Jesse and Aba- 
rilla Switzer, who were early pioneers of the 
county, coming here in 1836. 

^ EVY McVeigh DONNELLY, who is ably 
I /?§) managing tlie large Leaman estate in Har- 
jjL^^ ris Township, is a prominent citizen of this 
part of the countj-, and is widely known as one of 
Its leading politicians. 5Ir. Donnelly is a native of 
Ohio, the place of liis birth in Licking County, and 
the date thereof August 27, 1841. His parents 
were James and Evaline (Jenkins) Donnelly. His 
mother was a daughter of Levy and Mary Jenkins, 
of Ohio. .She died when he was tiiree weeks old. 
and he was reared by his uncle John McVeigli. 
He lived in Ohio until he was thirteen years old, 
when, in 1854, his uncle moved to Fulton County. 
I!!., and settled six miles west of Canton, where 
now is the station of Civer. In 1856, he removed 
to Lee Township, where lie resided until 1858, wiien 
he bought a farm tiiree miles from Marietta. 

Mr. Donnelly grew to manhood on that farm, 
.and wlien his uncle and aunt became so feeble from 
old age that they could not care for themselves, he 
cared for them until tliey died, his aunt dying Feb- 
ruary 10, 1862. and his uncle August 4. 1864. 
The}- were very kind to him, and he never knew 
what it was to lack a mother's love, or a father's 
care. Indeed, he knew no other father than his 
uncle, as his own had remarried after his mother's 
death, and moving to Kansas, had died there. Our 
subject chose to follow the occupation to which ho 
hail been reared, and has become one of the most 
practical and substantial citizens of Harris Town- 
ship. After marriage he lived in Marietta from 
the fall of 1868 until the fall of 1883. During that 
time he started a store there, which he soon sold 
out, and for eleven years was Constable of the 
town. He was first elected Justice of the Peace in 

1879, and has held that ofBce continuously since 
that time. In 1883 he removed to his present place 
of residence on the R. F. Leaman estate, which com- 
prises some seven hundred acres of land, on whicli 
is a valuable stone quarry of fine sandstone for 
building purposes. Mr. Donnelly, is managing this 
quarry for tlie widow of Mr. Leaman, who resides 
in Cincinnati, Ohio, and to whom he makes 
monthly reports. Under his able and energetic 
management, the quarry is turning out a great 
quantitj' of sandstone that is bringing in a hand- 
some income to its owner, who gives our subject a 
fine salary in repaj-ment for his services which she 

At tlie age of twenty, Mr. Donnelly was married 
to Miss Ann Maria More\-, a daughter of Zenas J. 
and Anna Jlorey. Her father came from New 
York, and her mother from her l)irth|)lace in Ohio, 
and they were married herein pioneer times. Mrs. 
Donnellj' is a native of Fulton Count}-, and is in 
every respect worthy of the regard with which she 
inspires her neighbors and friends. Her marriage 
with our subject, has been blessed by the birth of 
six daughters and one son. and one daughter and 
the son ai-e now deceased, both dying in infancy, 
Anna P^veiine at the age of eighteen months. Those 
living are Ida Allealha.who lives at home, and is one 
of the finest educated, and best teachers in the 
township, and now presides over the school in her 
father's district; Tillie B., who is the wife of Jo- 
seph M. Jackson, of Peoria, who is an employe on 
the Toledo, Peoria & Western Railroad, and they 
have one boy. Earl D.; Carrie Ma\-, who is the wife 
of Leroj' Beers, a farmer of Webster City, Iowa, 
and they have one boy, Ezra D. ; Nora Maria is a 
miss at home attending school; and Nellie Luella. 
the youngest of tlie family, also at home. ^liss Ida 
and her two .sisters next to her are very fine pen- 

Mr. Donnell}- is gifted with the shrewdness, keen- 
ness, tact and decisive energy, that amply fit him 
for the important office of Sheriff, for which his 
fellow Democrats have nominated him, and there 
is no doubt that if he is elected he will discharge 
the duties devolving upon him w-ith masterly abil- 
ity, promptness and impartiality. In his nomina- 
tion for this office, although there were five other 



prominent candidates, he received a majority over 
all at tiie primary meeting held by his party Au- 
gust 2, whifh shows his good standing with his fel- 
low Democrats. He lias been up before for this 
office, hut having failed of nomination in the cau- 
cus, with hearty good will, he would give his sup- 
port to ihe fortunate candidate. He is a man of 
agreeable and affable manners, and is popular with 
his associates. In his political views lie is a de- 
cided Democrat. He is one of the most active 
politi<!ians, and has always voted for the good of 
Ills party. He has been a delegate to almost every 
county convention for the last twenty years. Mr. 
Donnelly was reared in the Christian Church, and 
has never departed from its faith, its high princi- 
liles early instilled into his mind, having always 
guided his life work. Our subject is a member of 
the I. 0. O. F. of Good Faith Lodge No. 752, 
Cuba, 111. 

W^ of tliis 

j>ILLIAM W. BROWN. On the opposite 
is presented a lithographic portrait of 
old settler of Fulton County, who 
has been a farmer of Lewistown Townsiiip for 
forty-two years, in the meantime clearing and de- 
veloiiing a fine farm, where he has a comfortable 
home. His enviable position in life is due to his 
own unaided efforts, as he was early compelled to 
commence the battle of life on his own account. 
Adversity developed the sterling traits of his char- 
acter, and while acquiring for himself a compe- 
tency he has at the same time assisted in the 
development of the resources of his township and 
county, her present proud position among other 
States being due in no small measure to his pioneer 
labors. He is a native of tiie Buckeye State, and born in Hopewell Township, Licking County, 
July 9, 1822. 

The fatiier of Mr. Brown, who bore the same 
name as himself, was a native of Washington 
County, Pa., and a son of James Brown, who was 
born near Dublin, Ireland. The latter was reared 
in the land of his nativity, and coining to America 
when a young man. located in Pennsylvania and 
there engaged in farming during the remainder of 

his days. The father of our subject was bred to 
the life of a farmer and in early manhood became 
a pioneer of Licking County, Ohio. He bought 
a tract of Government land and built a log house, 
in which humble home his son, of whom we write, 
was born. Thej' lived the primitive life necessi- 
tated by their pioneer surroundings, and the mother 
used to spin end weave, dressed her family in 
homespun and cooked their food before the rude 
fireplace. The country was sparsely inhabited, and 
deer, wolves, panthers and otiier wild beasts roamed 
at will through the forests. Mr. Brown cleared a 
farm, erected a substantial set of hewed-log build- 
ings, and there his life was rounded out when 
eighty-three 3rears of age. 

The mother of our subject, who was Isabella 
Wills prior to her marriage, was a native of New 
Jersey. She was a daugliter of William Wills, who 
was of Irish birth. He came to America with two 
brothers, David and Robert, and first settled in 
New Jersej'. From there lie removed to Licking 
County, Ohio, and was one of the earliest pioneers 
of Hopewell Township. He cleared a farm and 
made it his home until death called him hence. His 
daughter, Mrs. Brown, died on the home farm in 
Licking County, and now lies buried beside her 
husband in the Hanover churchyard. Both were 
devoted members of the Church. 
They reared a family of nine children, and five of 
them still live. 

William Brown, of this sketch, passed his early 
life in his native county, and was educated in its 
pioneer schools, that were taught in a rude log 
house with home-made furniture, split logs with 
pins inserted for legs serving for seats, and boards 
laid on wooden pegs that were inserted in holes in 
the wall, took the place of desks on which the larger 
scholars wrote. He lived with his parents until 
1818 and then came to Illinois, accom[)anied by his 
bride, and after seventeen days' travel by team 
arrived in Fulton County. His first purchase here 
was of a tract of forty acres of land in Lewistown 
Township, of which two acres cleared and a log 
cabin constituted the only improvements. 

After living there two years Mr. Brown bought 
two hundred and sixteen acres of timber land, in- 
cluding his present farm, located on section 36, of 



Lewistown Township, and section 31, of Liverpool 
Township. Having no mone3% he was oblige'! to 
go in debt for it. His first work was to cut away 
the brush to make room for the log house which he 
built at once. He has been a resident here ever 
since, and hy steady and downright hard pioneer 
labor has cleared the greater part of his land and 
developed it into a very desirable farm with all the 
necessary improvements. His agricultural vent- 
ures have brougbt him in money, and he has added 
forty acres to his homestead and no^s- has two 
hundred and fifty-six acres of well cultivated and 
pasture land. So many j'ears spent in this locality 
have given him an extensive acquaintance, and all 
who know him respect him not only as a worthy 
pioneer, but in his character as a good citizen and 
a man of many excellent traits. In his politics he 
is a sturdy Democrat. 

Mr. Brow-n's marriage with Miss Angeline Eord- 
ner was solemnized Januarj- 26, 1848. She was 
born in Dauphin County, and was a daughter of 
Peter and Christina Bordner. For her parental 
history see sketch of Moses Bordner. on another 
page of this Biogr.vphical Album. For more than 
thirty years the wife of our subject walked by 
Ids side, faithfully shared the toils and sacrifices of 
their pioneer life, and heliied him to become pros- 
perous, and her iu 1884 was a sad loss to him. 
Three of their six children are now living. Sarali 
M. married William Heikes; Christina Isabelle 
married Franklin Woods; James H. is the name of 
the son. 

JV.^Oir- : 


< — -«■• >»<: • < ■ 

fcHOMAS W. WILSON, a man universally 
f,'/sv. popular, and one who has achieved great 
success in life, furnishes the subject for the 
present sketch, and we are pleased to represent such 
a public-spirited and courteous gentleman in our 
Album. Many years ago David Wilson was born 
in the State of Tennessee, and after a prosperous 
period of farming in his native place, moved to the 
Blue Grass State, settling in Knox County, after- 
ward removing to Harrison County, Ind., where he 

died. He was the grandfather of our subject, and 
a man well calculated to give noble principles to 
the younger members of his household. At the 
time he removed to Kentucky, his son, Joseph, fa- 
ther of our subject, was a lad of ten summers, and 
there he continued to reside up to the time he 
reached his twentieth year. He then went with the 
family to Harrison County. Ind., making the trip 
b\- wagon through a wild country, and being num- 
bered among the pioneers at that i>laoe. He pur- 
chased land in the woods, where he built a rude 
log cabin, and commenced to clear the land pre- 
paratory to cultivating the soil. He soon had his 
one hundred and sixty acres under good cultiva- 
tion, and continued lo make that his home until 
1855, at which date be sold bis estate and removed 
to Fulton County, making this trip by w.ay of the 
Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, and in this county he 
died after attaining his eight}--third year. He was 
married in 1833. to Miss Mary Rogers, a native of 
Virginia, and to them were born two children, viz: 
Thomas, our subject, and Margaret, who is now 
Mrs. Amos Kinzer, and resides in Sedgwick. Kan. 

Mr. Wilson at an early age attended school, and 
received all the educational advantages possible in 
those days when the schoolhouses were rude, and 
the information imparted in them was meagre in- 
deed. Indiana at that time possessed none of the 
advanced ideas that at the present time make it a 
popular place for educational matters. He worked 
on a farm through the summer, thus becoming f.a- 
miliar with the duties of agricultural life, and when 
twenty years of age. he moved to Fulton County, 
where he bought one hundred and twenty acres of 
land on section 6, Kerton Township. The land was 
not cultivated, and nature riot, so he had a 
great deal of hard work to clear the ground, and 
bring his property to its present value. He built 
a log cabin 18x20 feet in dimensions, and con- 
tinued from time to time, both to improve and add 
to his farm. He purchased fifty-eight acres of 
river-bottom land on section 4. in 1888. Besides 
farming he is interested in stock-raising, and is re- 
garded as a most progressive and energetic farmer. 

Our subject on the loth of February, 1855. mar- 
ried Miss JIartha A. Deweese, of Harrison County, 
Ind., whose birth occurred December 11, 1839, and 



who is a daughter of John Deweese. Her father 
was a native of Kentucky, removed to Indiana at 
an early date, and at the present writing is imking 
his liome in Ivansas witli his son. Mr. and Mrs. 
Wilson are the happy parents of eighteen children, 
viz.: .Sarah P., Joseph W., John W., Mary S., Mar- 
garet E., Charles S., Amos L.. Lafayette. Nandora, 
Emmett C. Laura B., Louis E., Mattie, Hayes, 
Thomas J., Gertrude. Abbie G., and Roseoe C. 

Mrs. WilbOn has been a faithful member of the 
Methodist Church since girlhood, and is a lovely 
Christian woman, and one very popular with all 
who know- her. M'. Wilson is a member of the Re- 
publican party. He has held many otBces of pub- 
lic trust, having served as Road Commissioner, 
School Trustee, and Collector for this township. 
Indeed, his popularity is great, and extends through- 
out the count)'. 


OHN S. LEP], The agricultural regions of 
America have given a foothold to many a 
poor 30ung man, who bj^ reason of his de- 
termination to succeed, his industrious habits 
and his quick appreciation of favorable circumstan- 
ces. has overtaken Dame Fortune and won his crown . 
One of this class, residing ic Lewistown Township, 
is the gentleman above named, who is now num- 
bered amoDg the solid men of the township, in 
which he virtually commenced his career as a 
farm laborer. His home farm consists of one hun- 
dred and twenty acies of well improved cultivated 
and pasture land, upon which stands a complete 
line of good buildings. In addition to this he is 
the owner of a tract comprising one hundred and 
fifty acres on sections 9 and 16. and a quarter of 
section 12. 

In order to appreciate the efforts and qualities 
which have led to the success of our subject, it may 
be well to say a few words regarding his parents 
and his earl)' home. His father, Barton Lee, was 
born thirteen miles from Baltimore, Md., and there 
reared to manhood. During the early settlement 
of the Blue Grass State he went thither, locating in 
Lewis County, where he purchased a tract of heav- 

ily timbered land. There he began a clearing, 
building in the wilderness a hewed log house in 
which our subject opened his e3-es to the light 
November 12, 1823. The father cleared and im- 
proved his estate, continuing to reside upon it un- 
til 1842, when he passed through the valley of the 
shadow of death. His good wife, formerly Ruth 
Smith, a native of Lewis County, died in 1825. 
Eight of her children were reared to malurity. but 
the only one now living is oui subject, the young- 
est member of the family. 

Mr. Lee was reared in his native county, pursu- 
ing his education in the subscription schools, which 
were carried on in a primitive log schoolhouse. As 
soon as he was large enough to do so, he began to 
bear his share in the farm work, continuing to take 
a greater and greater part therein as his years and 
strength increased. He worked with his father until 
the death of the latter, and then continued on the 
home farm until 1 846. At that time he accompanied 
a neighbor to the Prairie .State, their journej' beino- 
made with a four-horse team. Here Mr. Lee souo-ht 
employment in the occupation to which he had been 
reared and was soon engaged by the month as a 
farm hand. 

In 1849 Mr. Lee was enaliled to purchase eighty 
acres of heavily-timbered lamL of which twelve 
acres had been cleared and upon which a log cabin 
stood. There he began housekeeping in 1850, in a 
few years being able to purchase the eighty acres 
adjoining, making a good farm upon which he re- 
sided thirty-three years. He cleared the greater 
part of the first eighty, built good frame buildings 
and surrounded himself with the comforts which 
his energy had won and his industry deserved. In 
1883 he rented this land on section 12, and bought 
that upon which he now resides. In the meantime 
he had purchased the other property mentioned 
and placed his financial affairs on a sound basis. 

November 14, 1850, the interesting ceremony 
occurred which gave Mr. Lee a faithful and effi- 
cient companion. His bride, formerly Miss Emily 
Walker, was born in Lewis Count}', K3'., to Will- 
iam and Nancy Walker. The happy union has been 
blessed by the birth of three children, but one of 
whom was reared to mature years. This was Will- 
iam F., who was born in 1851 and died in 1888. 



He was educated in this county, becoming well 
informed, and following in his father's footsteps as 
a man of industrious habits and good principles. 
October 3, 1877, he was united in marriage with 
Eliza Bearce, daughter of Orsen and Jane Bearce, 
whose sketch appears in this volume. She is a na- 
tive of Lewistown Township, and is an intelligent, 
whole-souled woman. She and her four children, 
Ralph, Jennie, Mary E., and John Orsen, live with 
our subject, whose home is made cheerful and pleas- 
ant by her efforts. Mr. Lee is a firm believer in 
the principles of Democracy. 


f ACOB SH AWVER. One by one the old set- 
tlers of the county are departing to the 
bourne whence no traveler returns, leaving 
behind them records more or less worthy of 
study, and examples more or less worthy of emula- 
tion. One of this number is the late Jacob Shaw- 
ver. who is well remembered bj- all who knew him, 
ns n man of great industry, good judgment, and 
the personal character which won a high degree of 
respect from those with whom he associated. Finan- 
cially speaking, he was a self-made man, having 
begun his career in life with no other capital than 
that erabrnced in his brain, his will power, and his 
physical ability. When removed bj- death, June 
22, 1874, he was the owner of a fine estate of nearly 
three hundred acres in Lewistown Township, which 
is still held in the famil3\ 

Mr. Shawver was of German ancestr\-. a son of 
John Shawver, who, so far as is known, was a na- 
tive of Pennsylvania, and was himself born in 
L'nion Countv- November 4, 1804. His father 
being a farmer, he was reared with a knowledge of 
agricultural pursuits, and with the educational ad- 
vantages which at that period of the century were 
possible in the country. He learned the trade of 
a cf)rab-maker, and finally engaged in the business 
for a time, later turning his attention to agricul- 

Our subject removed from his native State to 
Ohio, residing in Clarke County until 1836, when, 
in company with his brother, he started for Illi- 

nois, their mode of convej-ance being a wagon 
drawn b^- four horses. He located near Lewistown, 
and with his brother engaged at the blacksmith's 
trade, but ere long bought a tract of timber land. 
He began at once to clear a farm, building a log 
house in which he lived for some years. He then 
sold his property and bought a tract on section 10, 
Lewistown Township, from his father-in-law, mak- 
ing that his home during the remainder of his life. 

The marriage of Mr. Shawver occurred Septem- 
ber 20, 1838, his bride being Miss Hannah Bearce. 
This worthy woman was born in Monroe County, 
N. Y., April 3, 1817, being a daughter of Eli H. 
and Sarah (Austin) Bearce. (See sketch of Orsen 
Bearce on another page in this Album). She was 
five years old when she came to Illinois with her 
parents, and she has lived to witness the wonderful 
development of this county, of which she is one of 
the ver}' oldest living settlers. During her early 
years her mother had no stove, doing her cooking 
and performing other household duties at the open 
fireplace. She also spun and wove, and in the 
knowledge of those useful arts instructed her daugh- 
ter, who became proficient with the wheel and shut- 
tle. In 1889, Mrs. Shawver removed to the count}' 
seat, where she is ^-et living. She is the mother 
of ten children, viz: Sarah J., Elizabeth, John, 
Araanda.Jacoh, Wesle}', Franklin deceased in child- 
hood, Sophia, George, and Ilarvej'. 

John Austin, the maternal grandfather of Mrs. 
Shawver, was a native of the Empire State, and a 
farmer by occupation. After residing in New York 
many years, he started to move to Illinois, coming 
via the rivers. He had been in poor health for 
some time, and died at St. Louis, Mo., while en- 
route to his new home. His wife, formerly Miss 
Hannah Frost, came on to this .State, and spent her 
last years in this county. 

The farm formerly operated by the subject of 
this sketch is now occu|)ied and carried on by his 
son George, who is engaged in fanning and stock- 
raising. He was born on the homestead. October 
3. 1860. and was but fourteen 3ears old when his 
father de|)arted this life. Four years later the man- 
ngement of the estate devolved upon him, and he 
has since been carrying on his labors there. He is 
numbered among the enterprising, progressive and 



intelligent young fanners of the township, and is 
looked upon with respect as a worthy follower in 
the footsteps of his progenitor. At the residence 
of George W. and Elizabeth Ford, iu this town- 
ship, on New Year's day, 1889, he was united in 
marriage with Miss Ad^lie, daughter of the host 
and hostess, a young lady who has many frieuds in 
this section where she is well known. 

StjSAAC N. WILLIAMS. The visitor in Lee 
Township would not long be in ignorance of 
^ the name and character of the gentleman above 
named, who is numbered among her agriculturists, 
his home being on section 27. He is one of six chil- 
dren born to John and Nancy (Smallev) AVilliams, 
hor parents having been natives of Adams County, 
Ohio. Thence they removed to Winnebago County, 
this State, residing thei'e for a decade and then lo- 
cating in Harris Towushii), this count}'. Here the 
father passed away in 1870, the mother surviving 
until 1872. All their cluhtren are living except the 
youngest son. 

The gentleman whose name introduces this 
sketch was born in Winnebago County, July 12, 
1840. He pursued his studies in the district schools, 
supplementing the knowledge there obtained by 
one term at the Bushnell High School. The at- 
tempts made against the Union aroused in him a de- 
sire to battle for his country, and in 1862, he en- 
listed in Company C, Fifty-fifth Illinois Infantr}'. 
His brother Andrew was one of the gallant sixty 
thousand who marched with Sherman to the sea 
and bore his part in the principal battles of that 
world-famed event. He remained with his com- 
rades until the close of the war, receiving his dis- 
charge in May, 1865, and returning to his father's 
home with an honorable record. 

Mr. Williams continued to make his home with 
his parents until his marriage, in the fall of 1870, 
when he established himself on the farm he still oc- 
cupies. His estate now consists of two hundred and 
eighty -seven acres of excellent land, all under cul- 
tivation and well improved. Its present condition 
is due to the efforts of our subject, who has had a 

two-story frame house of convenient arrangement 
and homelike appearance erected, together with a 
barn and other outbuildings such as he finds useful. 
The place is well stocked with domestic animals and 
machinery, and general farmwork is carried on 

On September 25, 1870, the riles of wedlock were 
celebrated between our subject and Sarah, daugh- 
ter of Daniel and Orilla (Wells) Gantz. Mrs. Wil- 
liams was born in Brown County, this State, April 
2, 1850, and is the youngest and only living child 
of her parents. She had two sisters and one 
brother. Her parents were born in Ohio and re- 
moved thence to Brown County where both died 
about 1869. Mrs. Williams is a lady of intelli- 
gence, domestic acquirements and excellent char- 
acter, having many warm friends and being deeply 
loved by the members of her family. She has 
borne her husband two sons and two daughters — 
Budgie, Mary, Grace and Floyd. 

Mr. and Mrs. Williams and their two oldest chil- 
dren belong to the Good Tenijdars Order and Mr. 
Williams is Lodge Deputy. The particular society 
with which they are identified is Clieck Row Lodge 
of Lee Townshi|), which numbers about one hun- 
dred and fifteen members and occupies a pleasant 
hall, 30x40 feet, which is the only hall known to 
have been built in the country' by and especially 
for a lodge. Mr. Williams was reared as a Demo- 
crat but now votes the temperance ticket on all oc- 
casions and works earnestly for the advancement of 
the Prohibition part}'. He has held the township 
offices of Supervisor, Collector and Assessor. He 
belongs to the Methodist Episcopal Church, is 
Steward thereof and Superintendent of the Sunday- 


SAIAH C. WORLEY, Master in Chancery, of 
Fulton County, an honored citizen of Lewis- 
, town, and a distinguished veteran officer of 
the late war, has been for man\' years identified 
with the civic life of this county and is classed 
among the ablest men who are at the bead of the 
judicial department of its government. 

Mr. Worlev was born on a farm near Carlisle, 



Cumberland County, Pa., and is a son of Daniel and 
Mary Worley. He was but two 3'ears old when 
his parents moved to Ohio and settled in Richland 
County, and lie was only seven yeais old, when he 
had the misfortune to lose his father. His boyhood 
was still further saddened by the death of his mother 
at a Liter period, and he went to live with his 
brother Nathan for a time. At the youthful age of 
fourteen years, the manly, self-reliant lad com- 
menced the battle of life on his own account. A 
venturesome, enterprising spirit brought him from 
Ohio, to this State in 1849, and from that time he 
has made his home in Lewistown, with the exception 
of the time he passed in the South during the war. 
He was engaged at various kinds of occupation un- 
til twenty years of age, wiien he accepted the posi- 
tion of assistant in the office of the Circuit Clerk, 
remaining there until 1862. 

The patriotism of our subject was roused by the 
great struggle that was carried on between the North 
and South during the late conflict, and August 1, 
1862 he volunteered in defense of the honor of his 
country ,enlisting in Company A, One Hundred and 
Third Illinois Infantiy. His superior qualifications 
gave him the position of Second Lieutenant of his 
company, he being mustered into service in that ca. 
pacity. Later he was promoted to be First Lieu- 
tenant, and fought bravel}* with his regiment in the 
battles of Vicksburg, Jackson, Memphis and Mis- 
sionar3- Ridge, and did valuable service while with 
Sherman in his march to Atlanta and the sea, 
fighting with the enemy in many an important en- 
gagement of that campaign. From Savannah, 
Lieut. Worley accompanied the victorious army to 
South Carolina. He was taken sick at Beaufort and 
bis gallant militar3' career was tliere brought to a 
close, as on consultation with Gen. Howard, that 
officer perceiving the bad condition of his health, 
advised him to resign his commission, and he did so. 

After leaving the arm3-, our subject returned to 
Lewistown. and as soon as able resumed his position 
as Deput}- Count3' Clerk, retaining it until 1873. 
His long and valued services in that capacit3' earned 
him merited promotion to the office of Clerk of the 
County Court, to which he was elected in the year 
mentioned. He held that office b3' re-election nine 
years until he was appointed in 1883, Master in 

Chancery and has been in this position ever since. 
Our subject has been twice married. Ilis first mar- 
riage which was consumaled in 1 862. was to Amanda 
L. Clark. She was a native of Lewistown, and a 
daughter of Charles and Am3- Clark, natives re- 
spectively of Pennsylvania and Ohio. Mrs. Wor- 
ley departed this life ilay 14. 1888. Mr. Worley 
was married a second time, June 4, 1890, taking as 
his wife Emma Alice Dyckes. She is a native of 
this county, born in the town of Bernadotte, and a 
daughter of Joseph and Lucinda D3-ckes, of whom 
see sketch on another page of this volume. B\' his 
first marriage, Mr. AVorle3' became the father of 
two children, Am3' Mabel and William Clark. 

Mr. Worle3" possesses thoughtful, clear mind, an 
intellect well balanced, and executive talent of a 
high order, and his constant re-appointment to the 
important office of which he is an incumbent.shows 
the high estimate placed upon his services as Mas- 
ter in Chanceiy. He is a true Christian gentleman, 
I and in him and his amiable wife the Presbyterian 
Church finds two of its leading members. Politicall3- 
he is a Democrat, one of the most intelligent sup- 
porters of his part3' in this vicinity. He has aided 
in the management of civic affairs, as a member of 
the City Council and of the local School Board. 
He belongs to Lewistown Lodge, No. 104, A. F. i 
A. M. 

<*, I^ILLIAM AVILSON, M.D., the oldest physi- 
\/iJl/ '^^^^ '" London IMills, has been of great 
W^ assistance to the communit3' in building 
up the town. He has been interested in real estate, 
has built a score of houses and still owns village 
propert3-. He has filled nearly ever3' office in the 
township, taken a part in the workings of the social 
orders, and in addition to all this, has had a large 
practice in his profession. His mind has been well 
developed, his inemor3' stored with facts and prin- 
ciples pertaining to the science of medicine, and 
with all the strength of an energetic nature he has 
made use of his knowledge. 

Dr. Wilson is the eldest of the four children born 
to Dr. Samuel and Mahala (McFarland) Wilson. 



The parental history will be founrl in the slietch of 
his brother, Dr. H. L. Wilson, in this Album. Our 
subject was reared in the village of Hermon, Knox 
County, where his eyes had opened to the light 
July 8, 1848. During his youth he attended the 
common schools and Abingdon College and in 1864, 
enlisted in Company K, Seventh Illinois Cavalry, 
was mustered in at Peoria and served until July, 
1865. Soon after the war he began studying medi- 
cine, his father being his preceptor. He removed 
with his parents to Iowa and entered the medical 
department of the University of Iowa City, and 
was graduated from that institution in 1875, as 
physician and surgeon. He at once located at Lon- 
don IMills, being the first physician to open an 
office here. He worked up a fine practice and has 
been ver}' successful in his efforts to ameliorate suf- 
fering and preserve life. 

The lady whom Dr. Wilson won for his wife and 
with whom he was united in marriage in Iowa, in 
1872, bore the maiden name of Jennie A. Hall. She 
was born in Oskaloosa, Iowa, in 1852; she i.s a lady 
of culture and stands side by side with her husband 
in her knowledge of medicine. She studied that 
profession in the University at Iowa City, taking a 
special course the same year as her husband. She 
was Postmistress in London Mills from 1887 to 
1889, and is a popular member of the societ}- here. 
Doctor and Mrs. Wilson have one child, a son, 
Samuel A. 

Dr. Wilson belongs to the Independent Order of 
Odd-Fellows in this place and to Joe Mower Post, 
No. 107, G. A. R. ; he is also identified with the 
Masonic fraternity at Abingdon. In politics he is a 
Democrat of the Jackson ian order. 


— f- 

ATTHEW MITCHELL owns and occupies 
a favorably-located estate on section 27, 
DeerBeld Townsliip. The land is carefully 
and intelligently tilled, and the place is 
well stocked, there being fourteen of cattle, 
six of horses and sixty of hogs upon it at this 
writing. The usual farm implements and various 
machines, including reapers, mowers, etc., are also 

to be found there, and the improvements which 
have been made bear evidence to the enterprise 
and good judgment of the owner. The dwelling 
is a well-built, two-story frame house, 16x26 feet 
with an L 18x20. A large barn, 2Gx40 feet, filled 
with hay, and various outbuildings, occupy con- 
venient positions and afford ample shelter for stock 
and crops. 

The subject of this sketch is the second son born 
to Ebenezer and Mary (Shofer) Mitchell, whose 
entire family- consisted of five sons and one daugh- 
ter. The parents emigrated to this county, in 1849, 
from the Buckeye State, locating on section 16, 
Deerfield Township. The father breathed his last 
December 13, 1849, while still quite a 3'oung man, 
having been born February 28, 1804. The mother, 
whose natal day was March 25, 1814, survived un- 
til September 17, 1868. 

Matthew Mitchell opened his eyes to the liglit 
August 28, 1839, in Franklin County, Ohio, and 
received bis education in the district schools of 
that county and the township in which his parents 
located after removal. He worked by the month 
on a farm until the war broke out, when he was one 
of the first to respond to the call made by Presi- 
dent Lincoln for seventy-five thousand volunteers. 
August 13, 1861, he was enrolled in Companj^ A, 
Fifty-fifth Illinois Infantry, and, following the for- 
tunes of his regiment, he took part in many of the 
most important engagements of the war. The list 
of battles in which he bore a valiant part includes 
Shiloh, Russell House, Corinth, Chickasaw Bayou, 
Arkansas Post, Snyder Bluff, Vicksburg, the siege 
of Vicksburg, Keuesaw Mountain, Atlanta, Ezra 
Chapel, Jonesboro, Clinton, Statesboro, Ft. McAl- 
ister. Savannah, Duck Branch. North and South 
Edisto, Columliia and Bcntonville. 

At the battle of Vicksburg, May 19, 1863, Mr. 
Mitchell received a wound in the thigh from a 
niinie ball, which laid him up until the following 
March. He then returned to his regiment with 
which he was able to continue until the close of 
the war, receiving his discharge on the 24th of 
August, 1865. He returned to this county and 
resumed the peaceful occupation of a farmer, some- 
times operating a farm, and again working by the 
month until after his marri.'xge, when he located 



upon the land he still occupies. The farm consists 
of eigiity acres, and although not so large as many 
in the count}' is capable of affording a good main- 
tenance to our subject and his faniil}-. 

For nearly twent}' years an efflcieut and sympa- 
thizing heljimale sliared in the various fortunes of 
our subject. This lady, whose maiden name was 
Deborah C. Glass, became his wife October 16, 
1870. She was born in Deerfleld Township, Octo- 
ber 7, 1843, being a daughter of Samuel and Mar- 
garet (Myers) Glass. Her death took place .January 
31, 1890, and her remains w^ere followed to their 
resting place in Fiatt Cemetery by many friends 
who sympathized in the grief of the afHicted fam- 
il\-. The home of Mr. Mitchell is brightened by 
the presence of six children, named respectivelj", 
John W., Minnie J., Mary M., Rosa M., Bertha E. 
and Franklin M. The eldest daughter was born in 
the spring of 1874 and is therefore able to fill her 
mother's place as housekeeper and look after the 
welfare of the younger children. 

Mr. Mitchell is a Republican but takes no active 
part in political work, except to deposit his ballot. 
He is an honest, upright man, a consistent member 
of the Free Will Baptist Church, is well known in 
the county and well liked by his acquaintances. 

^' ILO HARLAN is a well-known and influ- 
ential citizen of Young Hickor}' Township 
and bears a prominent part in the various 
affairs of the township. He is social, be- 
nevolent and energetic, has a good war record and 
an established reputation as a farmer. He is now 
filling the office of Township Collector, and in 
previous years has held school offices. To what- 
ever position he is called he brings a determina- 
tion to faithfidly serve bis fellow-men and deal 
honorably in every particular. 

The ancestral history of Mr. Harlan may be read 
in the sketch of A. J. Harlan, which occupies 
another page in this volume. He is -the third in a 
family of nine children and was born near Wil- 
mington, Clinton County, Ohio, March 13, 1840. 
He had three miles to go to school, but the insti- 

tutions of learning were good and he laid a fair 
foundation before the age of ten years. At that 
time his parents, with seven children, started for 
Polk County, Iowa, their method of travel being 
a team and wagon. They were three weeks in 
reacliing this county, which the father liked so well 
that he remained. He was of a mechanical turn, 
able to take up almost any trade, and had on his 
farm in the Buckeye State been engaged in brick- 
making. After concluding to remain here, he en- 
gaged in that work for David Cowman. In the 
spring of 1852 he continued on to his previous 
destination with two wagons drawn by oxen, cross- 
ing the Mississippi on a ferry at Burlington, and 
spending two or three months in breaking Iowa 
prairie. In July he returned to Central Illinois, 
took up his abode in Abingdon and pursued vari- 
ous occupations until 1853. He then farmed near 
London Mills, and in the spring of 1854 settled 
on one hundred and sixty acres in the township 
which is still the home of his son. 

Mllo Harlan attended the subscription schools in 
the winter, sitting on a slab bench in a log house 
heated by a fire-place, and in the summer drove 
oxen and otherwise helped on the farm. When the 
war broke out two of his brothers enlisted, and 
when, in August, 1862, a call was issued for six 
hundred thousand men, he volunteered, becoming 
a member of Company G, Eighty-third Illinois 
Infantr\-. He was mustered into the service at 
Galesburg. being first sent to Cairo, then to Fts. 
Henry and Donelson. The regiment was kept on 
detached service much of the time, doing guard 
duty and raiding the country in Kentucky, Ten- 
nessee and Alabama. The}' had many skirmishes 
with the enemy and took part in the second battle at 
Ft. Donelson and the second fight at Nashville. 
After the former our subject was promoted to the 
rank of Corporal. He served until the close of the 
war, took part in the review at Nashville June 20, 
1865, was then mustered out, and going to Chi- 
cago, received an honorable discharge. Although 
minie balls had pierced his hat he escaped bodily 

When ready to resume the arts of peace, Mr. 
Harlan took charge of his father's farm and after 
a time bought out the other heirs. He has made 






many iiiiprovements upon tbe place, among them 
being a comfortable dwelling; and two barns, one 
.30x46 feet and the other 30x18 feet in dimensions. 
Tbe latter is usedjis a shelter for the cattle, which 
are yrailed Shorthorns. Formerly Mr. Harlan kept 
full-blooded Short-horns and raised sheep of the 
best wool-producing breeds. lie also, in connection 
with his brother A. J., bought sheep, cattle and 
bogs quite extensively for two or three years, and 
then abandoned that business as it was overdone. 
He raises quite large numbers of cattle and hogs, 
and fecdSjdroves ofjthe latter. He likewise raises 
Clydesdale and Norman horses of high grade. His 
estate comprises one hundred and sixty acres on 
section 3, situated about one mile from London 
Mills. It is fenced into convenient fields and cul- 
tivated by means of the latest farm machinery. It 
is supplied with natural groves, evergreens have 
also been sot out and some raised from seed. 

Mr. Hailan formerly belonged to the Odd Fel- 
low's' Lodge, at London Mills. He is now identi- 
fied with the Masonic fraternity at Fairview. He is 
a member of Joe Mower Post, No. 107. G. A. R., 
in which he has held every office but Commander. 
He was Quartermaster of the Encampment in 1888. 
It would be hard to find a stanoher Repulilican 
than he, or one better able to give a reason for 
his political faith. He has represented his associ- 
ates in count}' and Congressional conventions. He 
discharges the duties of citizenship in a reliable 
manner, and the only fault his neighbors have to 
find with him is, that he has never married. His 
home is not, however, devoid of woman's presence, 
as he has his beloved mother with him. 

• — •>. -o^o. ■$«^v>■v1S••'>♦«• — 

^/OHN S. GREEN.. There is always more or 
less curiosity to know the true and inner 
historj' of men who have been long and 
favorably identified with the social and 
business interests of an}' community, and undoubt- 
edly the biograph}' of Mr. Green will prove inter- 
esting alike to old and joung. Brought up to a 
knowledge of farm duties, he naturally chose the 
avocation of a farmer, when it became necessary 

for him to select a calling in life. His experience 
has been wide and varied, and although advanced 
in 3ears he is well preserved an<l quite active. 

The subject of this sketch is the son of .John and 
Sarah Green, natives of Berlin, N. Y. The parental 
family comprised ten children, ns follows: Martin, 
Horace, Maxom, Steven, John, Hampton, Rob- 
ert, Burton, Nathaniel, and I.,ewis, all of whom 
reached years of maturity. He of whom we write 
was born in the State of New York, June 19, 18-21, 
and passed his childhood upon a farm, wlure he 
was taught habits of industry and self-denial. He 
received excellent educational advantages, prepar- 
atory to business life, but did not of course receive 
any special literary training in the common schools. 
He was capable of taking the finest collegiate 
course, and had a natural inclination for study, but 
belonging to a large family and that being a time 
when the education of children was not so thorough 
as at present, he was forced to content himself with 
a moderate amount of learning. 

When read}' to establish a home of his own, Mr. 
Green was united in marriage \yith Miss Caroline 
Saunders, their union being solemnized (Jctdber 31, 
1847. Mrs. Green is the daughter of Peleg and 
Hannah (Saunders) Saunders, both natives of New 
York. Mrs. Green was born in lierlin. New Yoik, 
in 18:!1, and was reared to womanhood under the 
[)arental roof. She earl}' became proficient in those 
housewifely qualities which add so much to the at- 
tractiveness of a home, and has proved a devoted 
wife and wise mother. Of their six children the 
following is recorded: Peleg, a farmer in Fulton 
County, 111., married Miss Jane Burbridge and 
has five children. Ida resides in Knox County and 
is the wife of Menzo Rapalee. They have one 
child. Lenora was first united in marriage with 
Ste|)hen Greggs, by whom she had two children. 
After the death of Mr. Greggs she married John 
Fink, of Knox County. Burton married Miss Sarah 
Wilcox and lives in Fulton County. Herbert mar- 
ried Flora Daikeman, and the}' have two children. 
John resides on the old homestead. His wife bore 
the maiden name of Ida Thurman, and the}- have 
two children. Mr. Green gave all his children a 
good start in life and they settled within three • 
miles of the parental homo. In l\Lay, 1851, Mr. 



Green and bis wife, in company witli Jacob Brim- 
mer, came to Fulton County to visit some relatives 
of Mrs. Green, who had located here. Mr. Green 
and Mr. Brimmer were so delighted with the soil 
that they immediately purchased seven hundred 
acres of fine land in Ivnox and Fulton Counties. 
Mr. Green then returned to bis home in Jefferson 
Countj-, N. Y.. and disposed of his property there, 
prior to removing to Illinois. In the fall of 1854 
he returned to Fulton Coiiuty, accompanied by bis 
family. The following spring he planted his first 
crop, which brought to him such a fine harvest that 
be became fully satisfied with the richness of the 
soil. His history since coming to this place has been 
that of a thoroughly progressive man and what- 
ever he has undertaken has proved successful. 

Mr. Green is a man of vast experience, whose 
wealth and enterprise have given him social pres- 
tige in this community and have enabled him to 
give to his children a thorough education. Al-