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Portrait and biographical record 
of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania 

Portrait and 


j^ RECORD ' 


F*ennsylvaoia . 

Containing Biographical Sketches of 


^ Together with Biographies and Portraits of all the 

Pi^csidcnts of the United States. 



77/ ^0/ 1894. 




|HE greatest of English historians, Macaclay, and one of the most brilliant writers of 
the present century-, has said: "The history of a country is best told in a record of the 
lives of its people." In conformity with this idea the Portrait and Biographical 
Eeloee of this county has been prepared. Instead of going to musty records, and 
taking therefrom dry statistical matter that can be appreciated by but few, oui 
corps of writers have gone to the people, the men and women who have, by then 
enterprise and industrj-, brought the county to rank second to none among those 
comprising this great and noble State, and from their lips have the story of their life 
struggles. No more interesting or instructive matter could be presented to an intelli- 
gent public. In this volume will be found a record of many whose lives are worthy the 
imitation of coming generations. It tells how some, commencing life in poverty, by 
industry and economy have accumulated wealth. It tells how others, with limited 
advantages for securing an education, have become learned men and women, with an 
i-j influence extending throughout the length and breadth of the land. It tells of men who 
have risen from the lower walks of life to eminence as statesmen, and whose names have 
become famous. It tells of those in every walk in life who have striven to succeed, and 
records how that success has usually crowned their efforts. It teUs also of many, very 
many, who, not seeking the applause of the world, have pursued "the even tenor of their way," contend 
to have it said of them as Christ said of the woman performing a deed of mercy — "they have done what 
they could." It tells how that many in the pride and strength of young manhood left the plow and the 
anvil, the lawyer's office and the counting-room, left every trade and profession, and at their country's 
call went forth valiantly "to do or die," and how through their efforts the Union was restored and peace 
once more reigned in the land. In the life of every man and of every woman is a lesson that should not 
be lost upon those who follow after. 

Coming generations will appreciate this volume and preserve it as a sacred treasure, from the fact 
that it contains so much that would never find its way into public records, and which would otherwise be 
inaccessible. Great care has been taken in the compilation of the work and every opportunity possible 
given to those represented to insure correctness in what has been written, and the publishers flatter them- 
selves that they give to their readers a work with few errors of consequence. In addition to the biograph 
ical sketches, portraits of a number of representative citizens are given. 

The faces of some, and biographical sketches of many, will be missed in this volume. For this the 
publishers are not to blame. Not having a proper conception of the work, some refused to give the 
inform.ition necessary to compile a sketch, while others were indifferent. Occasionally some member of 
the family would oppose the enterprise, and on account of such opposition the support of the interested 
one would be withheld. In a few instances men could never be found, though repeated calls were made 
at their residence or place of business. 

November, 18"J4. Chapman Pubushing Co. 








^^ HE I'"ather nf our C(miitr\- \va^ born in West- 
Washington. The family to which he helonged 
has not been satisfactorily traced in Kngland. 
His great-grandfather, Jolui, emi- 
grated to \'irginia about 1^57. ^md liecame a 
prosperous planter. He had two sons, Lawrence 
and John. The former married Mildred Warner, 
and had three children, John, Augustine and 
Mildred. Augustine, the father of George, finst 
married Jane l^uitler, who bore him four chihlreii, 
two of whom, Lawrence and Augustine, reached 
maturity. Of six children by his second mar- 
riage, George was the, the others being 
Bett\-, Samuel, John Augustine, Charles and 

Augustine Washington, the father of George, 
died in 1743, leaving a large landed property. 
To his son, Lawrence, he bequeathed an 
estate on the Potomac, afterwards known as Mt. 
\'ernon, and to George he left the parental resi- 
dence. George received oidy such education as 
the neighborhood schools afforded, save for a 
short time after he left school, when he received 
priwate in.stniction in mathematics. His spelling 
was rather defective. Remarkalile stories are 
told of his great physical strength and develop- 
ment at an early age. He was an acknowledged 
leader among his companions, and was early 
noted for that nobleness of character, fairness and 
.■eracity which characterized his whole life. 

When George was fourteen years old he had a 
desire to go to sea, and a mid.shipman's warrant 
was secured for him, but through the opposition 
of his mother the idea was abandoned. Two 

years later he was appointed sun'eyor to the im- 
mense estate of Lord Fairfax. In this Inisiness 
he spent three years in a rou-h frontier life, 
gaining experience which afterwards pnn-ed very 
essential to him. In 1751, though onh- nineteen 
years of age, he was appointed Adjutant, with the 
rank of ALajor, in the \'irginia militia, tlien being 
trained for active service against the I'rench and 
Indians. Soon after this he sailed to the West 
Indies with his brother Lawrence, who went there 
to restore his health. They soon returned, and 
in the summer of 17.S-: Lawrence died, lea\'ing a 
large fortune to an infant daughter, who did not 
long sun-ive him. On her demise the estate of 
Mt. \'ernon was given to George. 

ITpon the arrival of Robert Dinwiddie as Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of \'irginia, in 1752, the militia 
was reorganized, and the province di\-ided into 
four military districts, of which the northern was 
assigned to Washington as Adjutant-General. 
Shortly after this a veiy perilous mission, which 
others had refused, was assigned him and ac- 
cepted. This was to proceed to the French post 
near Lake Erie, in northwestern Pennsylvania. 
The distance to be traversed was about six hun- 
dred miles. Winter was at hand, and the journey 
was to be made without militar>- escort, through 
a territory occupied by Indians. The trip was a 
perilous one, and several times he nearly lost his 
life, but he returned in .safety and furni.shed a full 
and u.seful report of his expedition. A regiment 
of three hundred men was raised in Mrginia and 
put in conmiand of Col. Joshua F'ry, and Maj. 
Washington was commissioned Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel. Active war was then begun against the 
French and Indians, in which Washington took 


a most important part. In the memorable event 
of July 9, 1755; known as "Braddock's defeat," 
Washington was almost the only officer of dis- 
tinction who escaped from the calamities of the 
day with life and honor. 

Having been for five years in the military ser\'- j 
ice, and having vainly sought promotion in the 
royal arnty, he took advantage of the fall of Et. Du- j 
quesne and the expulsion of the Erench from the 
valley of the Ohio to resign his commission. Soon 
after he entered the Legislature, where, although 
not a leader, he took an active and important 
part. January 17, 1759, he married Mrs. Martha 
(Dandridge) Custis, the wealthy widow of John 
Parke Custis. 

When the British Parliament had closed the 
port of Boston, the cry went up throughout the 
provinces, ' ' The cause ot Boston is the cause of 
us all! " It was then, at the suggestion of Vir- 
ginia, that a congress of all the colonies was 
called to meet at Philadelphia September 5, , 
1774, to secure their common liberties, peaceably 
if possible. To this congress Col. Washington 
was sent as a delegate. On May 10, 1775, the 
congress re-assembled, when the hostile inten- 
tions of England were plainly apparent. The 
battles of Concord and Lexington had been fought, 
and among the first acts of this congress was the 
election of a commander-in-chief of the Colonial 
forces. This high and responsible office was con- 
ferred upon Washington, who was still a member 
of the congress. He accepted it on June 19, but 
upon the express condition that he receive no sal- 
' an,'. He would keep an exact account of ex-, and expect congress to pay them and 
nothing more. It is not the object of this sketch 
to trace the military acts of Washington, to whom 
the fortunes and liberties of the people of this 
country were so long confided. The war was 
conducted by him under every possible disadvan- 
tage; and while his forces often met with reverses, 
yet he overcame ever>- obstacle, and after seven 
years of heroic devotion and matchless skill he 
gained liberty for the greatest nation of earth. 
On December 23, 1783, Washington, in a parting 
address of surpassing beauty, re.signed his com- 
mission as Commander-in-Chief of the army to the 

Continental Congress sitting at Annapolis. He 
retired immediatelj' to Mt. Vernon and resumed 
his occupation as a farmer and planter, shimning 
all connection with public life. 

In Februarj', 1789, Washington was unani- 
mously elected President, and at the expiration 
of his first term he was unanimously re-elected. 
At the end of this term many were anxious that he 
be re-elected, but he absolutely refused a third 
nomination. On March 4, 1797, at the expiration 
of his second term as President, he returned to his 
home, hoping to pass there his few remaining 
years free from the annoyances of public life. 
Later in the year, however, his repose seemed 
likely to be interrupted by war with Erance. At 
the prospect of such a war he was again urged to 
take command of the army, but he chose his sub- 
ordinate officers and left them the charge of mat- 
ters in the field, which he superintended from his 
home. In accepting the command, he made the 
reservation that he was not to be in the field until 
it was necessary. In the midst of these prepara- 
tions his life was suddenly cut off. December 1 2 
he took a severe cold from a ride in the rain, 
which, settling in his throat, produced inflamma- 
tion, and terminated fatalh- on the night of the 
14th. On the 1 8th his body was borne with niili- 
tarj' honors to its final resting-place, and interred 
in the family vault at Mt. Vernon. 

Of the character of Washington it is impossible 
to speak but in terms of the highest respect and 
admiration. The more we see of the operations 
of our government, and the more deeply we feel 
the difficultj' of uniting all opinions in a common 
Interest, the more highly we must estimate the 
force of his talent and character, which have been 
able to challenge the reverence of all parties, 
and principles, and nations, and to win a fame as 
extended as the limits of the globe, and which we 
cannot but believe will be as lasting as the exist- 
ence of man. 

In person, Washington was unusually tall, erect 
and well proportioned, and his muscular strength 
was great. His features were of a beausiful .sym- 
metry. He commanded respect without anj- ap- 
pearance of haughtiness, and was ever serious 
without being dull. 



(lOHX ADAMS, tlie second President and the 
I first \'ice-President of the United States, was 
Q) born in Braintree ( now Quincy ) Mass., and 
about ten miles from Boston, October 19, 1735. 
His great-grandfather, Henry' Adams, emigrated 
from England about 1640, with a family of eight 
sons, and settled at Braintree. The parents of 
John were J<;>hn and Susaimah 1 Boylston) 
Adams. His father, who was a farmer of limited 
means, also engaged in the bu.siness of shoe- 
making. He gave his eldest son, John, a classical 
education at Har\-ard College. John graduated 
in 1755, and at once took charge of the school at 
Worcester, Mass. This he found but a ' ' school 
of afQiction," from which he endeavored to gain 
relief by devoting himself, in addition, tc the 
study of law. For this purpose he placed himself 
under the tuition of the only lawyer in the town. 
He had thought .seriously of the clerical profes- 
sion, but seems to have been turned from this by 
what he termed ' ' the frightful engines of ecclesi- 
astical councils, of diabolical malice, and Calvin- 
istic good nature," of the operations of which he 
had been a witness in his native town. He was 
well fitted for the legal profession, pos.sessiug a 
clear, sonorous voice, being ready and fluent of 
speech, and having quick perceptive powers. He 
gradually gained a practice, and in 1764 married 
Abigail Smith, a daughter of a minister, and a 
lady of superior intelligence. Shortly after his 
marriage, in 1765, the attempt at parliamentary 
taxation turned him from law to politics. He 
took initial steps toward holding a town meeting, 1 
and the resolutions he offered on the .subject be- j 
came \-ery popular throughout the province, and 
were adojated word for word b>- over fort\- differ- 
ent towns. He moved to Boston in 176S, and 
became one of the most courageous and promi- 
nent advocates of the popular cause, and was 
chosen a member of tlie General Court ( the Leg- 
islature) in 1770. I 
Mr. Adauis was chosen one of the first dele- 

gates from Massachusetts to the first Continent- 
al Congress, which met in 1774. Here he dis- 
tinguished himself by his capacity for l)U.siness 
and for debate, and advocated the movement for 
independence against the majority of the mem- 
bers. In May, 1776, he moved and carried a res- 
olution in Congress that the Colonies should 
assume the duties of self-government. He was a 
prominent member of the committee of five ap- 
pointed June II to prepare a declaration of inde- 
pendence. This article was drawn by Jefferson, 
but on Adams devolved the task of battling it 
through Congress in a three-days debate. 

On the day after the Declaration of Independ- 
ence was passed, while his soul was yet warm 
with the glow of excited feeling, he wrote a letter 
to his wife, which, as we read it now, seems to 
have been dictated b}- the spirit of prophecy. 
"Yesterday." he says, "the greatest question 
was decided that ever was debated in America; 
and greater, perhaps, never was or will be de- 
cided among men. A resolution was passed 
without one dissenting colon}', 'that these United 
States are, and of right ought to be, free and in- 
dependent states.' The da\- is passed. The 
Fourth of July, 1776, will be a memorable epoch 
in the historj- of America. I am apt to believe it 
will be celebrated bj- succeeding generations as 
the great anniversary- festival. It ought to be 
commemorated as the day of deliverance b\' 
solemn acts of devotion to Almighty God. It 
ought to be solemnized with pomp, shows, games, 
sports, guns, bells, bonfires and illuminations 
from one end of the continent to the other, from 
this time forward forever. You will think me 
transported with enthusiasm, but I am not. I 
am well aware of the toil and blood and treas- 
ure that it will cost to maintain this declaration 
and support and defend these States; yet, through 
all the gloom, I can see the ra>s of light and 
glory-. I can see that the end is worth more than 
all the means, and that posterity will triumph. 



:illliiiu:^li you ami I may ruc, which I hopu we 
sliall lu.l." 

Ill XovL'Uiljcr, 1777, Mr. Atlains was appointed 
a (k-k-gate to I'Vaiicc, and to co-operate with Ben- 
jamin I'Vanklin and Arthur Lee, who were then 
in I'aris, in llie cndcaNdr to olitain assistance in 
arms and mone_\ Irom the I'lench government. 
This was a .severe trial to his patriotism, as it 
separated him from his honn.', compelled him to 
cross the ocean in winter, and exposeil him to 
great i)cril of capture li> the cruisers, who 
were seeking him. lie leU I'rance June 17, 
1779. In Septendjer of the same year he was 
again chosen to go to Paris, and there hold liini- 
self in readiness to negotiate a treaty of peace and 
of commerce with (heat liritain. as soon as the 
Hritish cabinet might be found willing to li.sten 
to .such proposals. He sailed for I'Vance in No- 
vember, and from there he went to Holland, where 
he negotiated important loans and formed im- 
portant connnercial treaties. 

b'inallN , a treat> of peace with Kngland was 
signed, Januarx- 21, 17.S3. The re-action from the 
excitement, toil and anxiety through which Mr. 
Adams had passed threw him into a fever. After 
suffering from a continueil fe\'er and becoming 
feeble and emaciated, Ik- was ad\ised to go to 
England to drink the waters of lialli. Wliile in 
England, .still drooping and dcsjionding, he re- 
ceived dispatches from his own go\-ernment urg- 
ing the necessity of his going to Amsterdam to 
negfjtiate another loan. It was wiiitei-, his health 
was delicate, yet he innnc-diately set out, and 
through sU.rm, on sea, on hor.seback and foot, he 
made the trip. 

I'"el>ruar_\ 24, 17.^5, Congress apiKiinted Mr. 
Adams envoV to tlie Court of St. James. Here 
he met fice to face the King of England, who 
had so long regarded liim as a traitor. As Eng- 
land did not condescend to appoint a mini.ster to 
the United .States, and as Mr. Adams felt that he 
was accompli.shing but little, he sought j)ermis- 
sion to return to his own countrv, where he ar- 
rived in June, i7S,s. 

When Wa.shingK. 
John Adams, rend, 
services at home a 

President. Again, at the second election of Wash- 
ington as President, Adams was chosen Vice- 
President. In 179(1, Washingtfju retired from 
public life, and Mr. Adams was elected President, 
though not without much opposition. Serving 
in this office lour years, he was succeeded by Mr. 
Jefferson, his opponent in jiolitics. 

While Mr. Adams was \' ice- President the 
great Erench Revohition shook the continent of 
Europe, and it was upon this point that he was 
at issue with the majorit>- of his countrymen, led 
by Mr. Jefferson. Mr. Adams felt no .sympathy 
with the Erench people in their .struggle, for he 
had no confidence in their power of .self-govern- 
ment, and he utterly abhorred the class of atheist 
philosophers who, he claimed, caused it. On the 
other hand, Jefferson's sympathies were strongly 
enlisted in behalf of the French people. Hence 
originated the alienation between these distin- 
tinguished men, and the two powerful parties were 
thus soon organized, with Adams at the liead of 
the one sympathies were with luigland, 
and Jefferson leading the other in sympathy w'ith 

The Fourth of Jul}-, i,S2("<, which completed the 
half-century since the signing of the Declaration 

three of the signers of that immortal instrument 
left u])on the eartli to hail its morning light. 
And, as it is well known, on that da\- two of 
these finished their earthh' pilgrimage, a coinci- 
dence so rem.-irkalile as to seem miraculous. For 
a few days before Mr. Adams had been rapidly 
failing, and on the morning of the Fourth he 
found himself too weak to from his bed. On 
being requested to name a toast for the cus- 
tomar\- celebration of the da}-, he exclaimed 
"Independence forever!" When the day was 
u.shered in by the ringing of bells and the firing 
of cannons, he was asked Ijy one of his attend- 
ants if he knew what da}- it was? He replied, 
"() }-es, it is the glorious Fourth of July — God 
bless it — Cod bless you all!" In the course of 
the da}- he said, "It is a great and glorious 
day." The last words he uttered were, "Jeffer- 
son sun-i\es.' Put he hail, at one o'clock, 
resigned his .-spirit into the hands of his God. 

>K i 


"^ "^ 



'^ .4^^h^X. 



<^HOMAS JEFFERSOX was bora April 2, 
J C 1743. at Shachvell, Albemarle County. \'a. 
Vy His parents were Peter and Jane ( Ran- 
dolph) Jefferson, the former a native of Wales, 
and the latter born in London. To them were 
born six daughters and two sons, of whom Thomas 
was the elder. When fourteen years of age his 
father died. He received a most liberal educa- 
tion, having been kept diligently at school from 
the time he was five years of age. In 1760 he 
entered William and Mary College. Williams- 
burg was then the seat of the Colonial court, and 
it was the abode of fashion and splendor. Young 
Jefferson, who was then seventeen years old. lived 
•Somewhat expensively, keeping fine horses, alid 
going much into gay society; yet he was ear- 
nestly devoted to his .studies, and irreproachable in 
his morals. In the second year of his college 
course, moved by some unexplained impulse, he 
discarded his old companions and pursuits, and 
often devoted fifteen hours a day to hard .study. 
He thus attained very high intellectual culture, 
and a like excellence in philosophy and the lan- 

Immediately upon leaving college he began the 
study of law. For the short time he continued 
in the practice of his profession he rapidly, 
and distinguished himself b\- his energy and 
acuteness as a lawyer. But the times called for 
greater action . The policy of England had awak- 
ened the spirit of resistance in the American Col- 
onies, and the enlarged views which Jefferson had 
ever entertained soon led him into active politi- 
cal life. In I -C^g he was chosen a member of the 
\'irginia House of Burgesses. In 1772 he mar- 

ried Mrs. Martha Skelton, a verj' beautiful, 
wealthy, and highly accomplished young widow. 

In 1775 he was sent to the Colonial Congress, 
where, though a silent member, his abilities as a 
writer and a reasoner soon become known, and he 
was placed upon a number of important com- 
mittees, and was chairman of the one appointed 
for the drawing up of a declaration of independ- 
ence. This committee consisted of Thomas Jef- 
ferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger 
Sheraian and Robert R. Li\"ingston. Jefferson, 
as chairman, was appointed to draw up the paper. 
Franklin and Adams .suggested a few verbal 
changes before it was submitted to Congress. On 
June 2S, a few slight changes were made in it b3' 
Congress, and it was passed and signed July 4, 

In 1779 Mr. Jefferson was elected successor to 
Patrick Henn,- as Governor of \'irginia. At one 
time the British officer Tarleton sent a secret 
expedition to Monticello to capture the Governor. 
Scarcely five minutes elapsed after the hurried 
escape of Mr. Jefferson and his family ere his 
man.sion was in possession of the troops. 
His wife's health, never ver\- good, was much 
injured by this excitement, and in the summer 
of 1 7. '^2 she died. 

Mr. Jefferson was elected to Congress in 17S3. 
Two years later he was appointed Minister Pleni- 
potentian,- to France. Returning to the United 
States in September, 17S9. he became Secretar>- 
of State in Washington's cabinet. This position 
he resigned January i. 1794. In 1797. he was 
chosen \'ice-President. and four years later was 
elected President over Mr. Adams, with Aaron 


Burr as Vice-President. In 1804 he was re- 
elected with wonderful unanimity, George Clin- 
ton being elected Vice-President. 

The earh- part of Mr. Jefferson's second ad- 
ministration was disturbed b}- an event which 
threatened the tranquilhty and peace of the Union; 
this was the conspiracy of Aaron Burr. Defeated 
in the late election to the Vice-Presidency, and 
led on by an unprincipled ambition, this e.Ktraor- 
diiiary man formed the plan of a militarj' ex- 
pedition into the Spanish territories on our south- 
western frontier, for the purpose of forming there 
a new republic. This was generally supposed 
to have been a mere pretext; and although it has 
not been generally known what his real plans 
were, there is no doubt that they were of a far 
more dangerous character. 

In 1809, at the expiration of the second temi 
for which Mr. Jefferson had been elected, he de- 
termined to retire from political life. For a period 
of nearly forty >ears he had been contiinially be- 
fore the public, and all that time had been em- 
ployed in offices of the greatest trust and respon- 
sibility. Having thus devoted the best part of 
his life to the .sen-ice of his country, he now felt 
desirous of that rest which his declining years re- 
quired, and upon the organization of the new ad- 
ministration, in March, 1S09, he bade farewell for- 
■«ver to public life and retired to Monticello, his 
famous country' home, which, next to Mt. Vernon, 
was the di.stinguished residence in the land. 

The Fourth of July, 1826, being the fiftieth an- 
niversary of the Declaration of American Inde- 
pendence, great preparations were made in every 
part of the ITnion for its celebration as the nation's 
jubilee, and the citizens of Washington, to add to 
the solemnity of the occa.sion, invited Mr. Jeffer- 
son, as the framcr and one of the few sun-iving 
signers of the Declar:\tion, to j>articipate in their 
festivities. I'.nt an illness, which had been of 
several weeks' duratinn and had bcencontinnally 
increasing, compelled him to decline the invita- 

On the 2d of July the disease under which he 
was laborin.!.,' left liini, but in such .a reduced 
stale that his medical attendant entertained no 
hope of his recoverj-. From this time he was 

perfectly sensible that his last hour was at hand. 
On the next daj-, which was Monday, he asked 
of those around him the day of the month, and 
oil being told it was the 3d of July, he ex- 
pressed the earnest wish that he might be per- 
mitted to breathe the air of the fiftieth auniver- 
sarj-. His prayer was heard — that day whose 
dawn was hailed with such rapture through our 
land burst upon his ej-es, and then they were 
closed forever. And what a noble consummation 
of a noble life! To die on that day — the birth- 
day of a nation — the day v.-hich his own name 
and his own act had rendered glorious, to die 
amidst the rejoicings and festivities of a whole 
nation, who looked up to hini as the author, un- 
der God, of their greatest blessings, was all that 
was wanting to fill up the record of his life. at the same hour of his death, the kin- 
dred .spirit of the venerable Adams, as if to bear 
him company, left the sceneof his earthly honors. 
Hand in hand they had stood forth, the cham- 
pions of freedom; hand in hand, during the dark 
and desperate struggle of the Revolution, they 
had cheered and animated their desponding coun- 
trymen; for half a centurj' they had labored to- 
gether for the good of the countrj', and now hand 
in hand they departed. In their lives they had 
been united in the same great cause of libert>', 
and in their deaths they were not divided. 

In per.son Mr. Jefferson was tall and thin, rather 
above six feet in height, but well formed; his eyes 
were light, his hair, originally red, in after life be- 
came white and silverj', his complexion was fair, 
his forehead broad, and his whole countenance 
intelligent and thoughtful. He possessed great 
fortitude of mind as well as personal courage, and 
his command of temper was such that his oldest 
and most intimate friends never recollected to 
have .seen him in a passion. His manners, though 
dignified, were simple and unaffected, and his 
he i.spitalitj' was so rnibounded that all found at 
his house a ready welcome. In convensation he 
was fluent, eloquent and enthusiastic, and his 
language was remarkably pure and correct. He 
was a finished cla.s.sical .scholar, and in his writ- 
ings is discernible the care with which lie formed 
his style upon the best models of antiquity. 


,cy6t li^^^^ ^"^ 


3 AMI'S MADIvSON, "Father of the Consti- 
tution," and fourtli President of the United 
States, was born March i6, 1757, and died 
at his home in Virginia June 28, 1S36. The 
name of James Madison is inseparably connected 
with most of the important events in tliat heroic 
])eriod of our country- during which the founda- 
tions of this great repubhc were laid. He was 
the of the founders of the Constitution of the 
United States to be called to his eternal reward. 

The Madison famih' were among the earU- emi- 
grants to the New World, landing up(jn the shores 
of the Chesa]K'ake but fifteen years after the settle- 
ment of Jamestown. The father of James Ma<lis()n 
was an opulent planter, residing upon a very fine 
estate called Montpelier, in Orange Count}', Va. 
It was but twenty-five miles from the home of Jef- 
ferson at Monticello, and the closest personal and 
political attachment exi.sted between illustri- 
ous men from their earl}- youth until death. 

The early education of Mr. Madison was con- 
ducted mostly at home under a private tutor. At 
the age of eighteen he was sent to Princeton Col- 
lege, in New\-. Here he applied liimself to 
study with the most imprudent zeal, allowing him- 
self for months but three hours' sleep out of the 
twenty-four. His health thus became .so .seriously 
impaired that he never recovered an\- vigor of 
constitution. He graduated in 177 i , with a feel)le 
body, but with a character of utmost purity, and 
a mind highly disciplined and richly stored with 
learning, which embelli.shed and gave efficiency 
to his subsequent career. 

Returning to Mrginia, he commenced the study 
of law and a course of exten.sive and sy.stematic 
reading. This educational course, the spirit of 
the times in which he lived, and the society with 
which he as.sociated, all coml)ined U< insjiire him 
with a strong love of libert}-, and to train liini for 
his life-work as a statesman. 

In the spring of 1776, when twenty-six years of 

age, he was elected a member of the Virginia Con- 
vention to frame the constitution of the State. The 
next year (1777), he was a candidate for the Gen- 
eral Assembly. He refused to treat the whisk}-lov- 
ing voters, and consequently lost his election; but 
I those who had witnessed the talent, energ}- and 
i public spirit of the modest young man enli.sted 
themselves in his behalf, and he was appointed to 
the Ivxecutive Cnuncil. 

Hoth Patrick Henr}- andTliomas Jeffer.son were 
Governors of Virginia while Mr. Madison re- 
mained member of the Council, and their apprecia- 
tion of his intellectual, social and moral worth 
contributed not a little U> his sulisequent eminence. 
In the year 1780 he was elected a member of the 
Continental Congress. Here he met the most il- 
lustrious men in our land, and he was immediately 
assigned to one ot the most conspicuous positions 
among them. P'or three }-ears he continued in Con- 
gress, one of its most active and influential mem- 
bers. In 1784, his tenn having expired, he was 
elected a member of the \'irginia Legislature. 

No man felt more deeply than Mr. Madison the 
utter inefficienc}- of the old confederacy, with no 
national government, and no power to form trea- 
ties which would be binding, or to enforce law. 
There was not any State more prominent than 
Virginia in the declaration that an efficient na- 
tional government must be lormed. In January, 
1786, Mr. Madison carried a resolution through 
the General A.s.sembly of \'irginia, inviting the 
other States to appoint connnissioners to meet in 
convention at Annapolis In discuss this .subject. 
P^ve vStates only were rei)rcsente(l. The conven- 
tion, however, issued another call, drawn up by 
Mr. Madison, urging all the vStates to send their 
delegates to Philadeli:>hia in May, 1787, to draft 
a Cnnstitution for the T'nited States, to take the 
]>lace of tlic Confederate League. The delegates 
met at the time appointed. l{\-er}- State but 
Rhode Island was represented. Gcirge Washing- 



ton was chosen president of the convention, and the 
prcsLUt Constitution of the I'nited States was then 
and there formed. There was, i)erhaps, no mind 
and no pen more active in tianiinL; this immortal 
dornment tlian the mind and the pen of James 
The Constitntion, adopted by a voteof ei;_;lity-one 
to .seventy-nine, was to he presented to the several 
States for acceptance. But grave solicitude was 
I'elt. Should it be rejected, we should be left but a 
.•onglonieration of independent States, with but 
little power at home and little respect abroad. Mr. 
Madison was elected by the convention to draw up 
an address to the people of the I'nited States, ex- 
pounding the principles of the Constitution, and 
urging its adoption. There was great opposition 
to it at first, but at length it triumphed over all, 
a'ld went into effect in 1789. 

Mr. Madison was elected to the House of Re])re- 
sentatives in the Congress, and .soon became 
the avowed leader of the Republican party. While 
in New York attending Congress, he met Mrs. 
Todd, a \oung widow of remarkable power of fas- 
cination, whom he married. .She was in per.son 
and character queenly, and probaby no lady has 
thus far occupied .so prominent a position in the 
very pecidiar society which has con.stituted our 
rcpulilican court as did Mrs. Madison. 

Mr. .Madison sensed as Secretary of .State under 
Jefferson, and at the close of his administration 
was chosen President. At this time the encroach- 
ments of England had brought us to the verge of 
war. British orders in council destroyed our com- 
merce, and our flag was exposed tocon.stant insult. 
Mr. Madison was a man of peace. Scholarly in 
his taste, retiring in his disposition, war had no 
charms for him. lint the meekest spirit can be 
roused. It makes one's blood boil, e\-en now, to 
think of an .American >hip liroiigjit to u]>on tlie 
ocean 1)y the guns of an cruiser. A 
yoinig lieutenant .steps on board and orders the 
crew to be paraded before him. With great non- 
chalance he selects any number whom he may 
please to designate as British subjects, orders them 
down the .ship's side into his boat, and places them 
on the gundeck of his man-of-war, to fight, by 
compulsion, the battles of England. This right 

of search and impressment no efforts of our Gov- 
ernment could induce the British cabinet to re- 

Un the isthofjune, 1812, President IMadison 
gave his approval to an act of Congress declaring 
war against Great Britain. Notwithstanding the 
bitter hostility of the Federal party to the war, the 
country in general approved; and Mr. Madison, 
on the 4th (jf March. 1813, was re-elected bj' a 
large majorit}-, and entered upon his second term 
of office. This is not the place to describe the 
various adventures of this war on the land and on 
the water. Our infant navy then laid the found- 
ations of its renown in grappling with the most 
formidable power which ever swept the seas. The 
contest commenced in earnest by the appearance 
of a fleet, early in February, 1813, in 
Chesapeake Bay, declaring nearly the whole coast 
of the United States under blockade. 

The P^mperor of Ru.ssia offered his ser\-ices as 
mediator. America accepted; England refu.sed. 
A British force of five thou.sand men landed on the 
banks of the Patuxet River, near its entrance into 
Chesapeake Bay, and marched rapidly, by way of 
Bladensburg, upon Washington. 

The .straggling little city of Washington was 
thrown into consternation. The camion of the 
brief conflict at Bladensburg echoed through the 
streets of the metropolis. The whole population 
fled from the city. The President, leaving Mrs. 
Madison in the White ll<iuse, with her carriage 
drawn up at the door to await his .speedy return, 
hurried to meet the officers in a council of war. 
He met our troops utterly routed, and he could not 
go back without danger of being captured. But 
few hours elapsed ere the Presidential Mansion, 
the Cajiitol, and all the public buildings in Wash- 
ington were in flames. 

The war closed after two years of fighting, and 
on P'eliruary 13, 1S15, the treaty of peace was 
.signed at Ghent. On the 4th of March, 1817, his 
second term of office expired, and he resigned the 
Presidential chair to his friend, James Monroe. 
He retired to his beautiful home at Montpelier, and 
there passed the remainder of his days. On June 
28, 1836, at the age of eighty-five years, he fell 
asleep in death. Mrs Madison died July 12, 1849. 



3AME;S MONROE, the fifth President of the 
United States, was born in Westmoreland 
County, Va., April 2S, 1758. His early life 
was passed at the place of his nativity. His an- 
cestors had for many years resided in the province 
in which he was born. When he was seventeen 
years old, and in process of completing his educa- 
tion at William and Marj' College, the Colonial 
Congress, assembled at Philadelphia to deliberate 
upon the and manifold oppre.ssions of Great 
Britain, declared the separation of the Colonies, 
and promulgated the Declaration of Independence. 
Had he been born ten years before, it is highly 
probable that he would have been one of the 
signers of that celebrated in.strument. At this 
time he left school and enlisted among the pa- 

He joined the armj- when ever\-thing looked 
hopeless and gloomy. The number of deserters 
increased from day to day. The invading armies 
came pouring in, and the Tories not only favored 
the cause of the mother country, but disheartened 
the new recruits, who were sufficiently terrified 
at the prospect of contending with an enemy 
whom they had been taught to deem invincible. 
To such brave .spirits as James Monroe, who went 
right onward undismayed through difficulty and 
danger, the United States owe their political 
emancipation. The young cadet joined the ranks 
and espoii.sed the cause of his injured country, 
with a firm determination to live or die in her 
strife for liberty. Firmly, yet sadly, he shared in 
the melancholy retreat from Harlem Heights 
and White Plains, and accompanied the dispirited 
army as it fled before its foes through New Jersey. 
In four months after the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, the patriots had been beaten in seven 
battles. At the battle of Trenton he led the van- 
guard, and in the act of charging upon the enemy 
he received a wound in the left shoulder. 


As a reward for his bravery, Mr. Monroe was 
promoted to be captain of infantry-, and, having re- 
covered from his wounds, he rejoined the army. 
He, however, receded from the line of promotion 
b\- becoming an officer on the .staff of Lord Ster- 
ling. During the campaigns of 1777 and 1778, 
in the actions of Brandywine, Germantown and 
Monmouth, he continued aide-de-camp; but be- 
coming desirous to regain his position in the 
army, he exerted himself to collect a regiment for 
the Virginia line. This scheme failed, owing to 
the exhausted condition of the State. Upon this 
failure he entered the office of Mr. Jefferson, at 
that period Governor, and pursued with consid- 
erable ardor the stud}- of common law. He did 
not, however, entireh' lay aside the knapsack for 
the green bag, but on the inva.sion of the enemy 
ser\-ed as a volunteer during the two years of his 
legal pursuits. 

In 1782 he was elected from King George 
County a member of the Legislature of Virginia, 
and by that bod\- he was elevated to a seat in the 
Executive Council. He was thus honored with 
the confidence of his fellow-citizens at twenty- 
three years of age, and having at this early period 
displayed some of that ability and aptitude foi 
legislation which were afterward employed with 
unremitting energy for the public good, he was 
in the succeeding year chosen a member of the 
Congress of the United States. 

Deeply as Mr. Monroe felt the imperfections of 
the old Confederacy, he was opposed to the new 
Con.stitution, thinking, with many others of the 
Republican party, that it gave too much power to 
the Central Government, and not enough to the 
individual States. Still he retained the esteem 
of his friends who were its warm supporters, and 
who, notwith.standing his opposition, secured its 
adoption. In 1789 he became a member of the 
United States Senate, which oflice he held for 



four \-t:ar.s. Everj- month the line of distinction 
between the two great parties which divided the 
nation, the Federal and the Republican, was 
growing more distinct. The differences which 
now separated llR-ni la\- in the fact that the Repub- 
lican party was in ^\ inpathy with France, and 
also in favor of such a strict construction of the 
Constitution as to give the Central Government as 
little power, and the State Governments as much 
power, as the Constitution would warrant; while 
the F'eileralists sympathized with England, and 
were in favor of a liberal con.struction of the Con- 
stitution, which would give as much power to the 
Central Government as that document could pos- 
.sibly authorize. 

Washington was then President. England had 
espou.sed the cause of the Bourbons against the 
principles of the French Revolution. All Europe 
was drawn into the conflict. We were feeble and 
far away. Washington issued a proclamation of 
neutrality between contending powers. 
France had helped us in the struggles for our 
liberties. All the despotisms of Europe were now 
combined to prevent the French from escaping 
from a tyranny a thousand-fold worse than that 
which we had endured. Col. Monroe, more mag- 
nanimous than prudent, was anxious that, at 
whatever hazard, we .should help our old allies in 
their extremity. It was the impulse of a geuer- 
ous and noble nature, and Washington, who could 
appreciate such a character, showed his calm, se- 
rene, almost divine, greatness, by appointing that 
very James Monroe who was denouncing the pol- 
icy of the Government, as the minister of that 
Government to the Republic of France. Mr. 
Monroe was welcomed by the National Conven- 
tion in France with the most enthusiastic dem- 

Shortly after his return to this country, Mr. 
Monroe was elected Go\-ernor of Virginia, and 
held the office for three years. He was again 
sent to France to co-operate with Chancellor Liv- 
ingston in obtaining the vast territory then known 
as the province of Loui.siana, which France had 
but shortly before obtained from Spain. Their 
luiited efforts were successful. For the compara- 
tively .small sum of fifteen millions of dollars, the 

entire territory of Orleans and district of Loui- 
siana were added to the United States. This was 
probably the largest transfer of real estate which 
was ever made in all the history of the world. 

From France Mr. Monroe went to England to 
obtain from that countn,- .some recognition of our 
rights as neutrals, and to remonstrate against 
those odious impressments of our seamen. But 
England was unrelenting. He again returned to 
ICngland on the same mission, l)ut could receive 
no redress. He returned to his home and was 
again chosen Governor of Virginia. This he soon 
resigned to accept the position of Secretary of 
State under Madison. While in this office war 
with England was declared, the vSecretar)- of War 
resigned, and during these trying times the 
duties of the War Department were also put upon 
him. He was truly the armor-bearer of President 
Madison, and the efficient business man in 
his cabinet. Upon the return of peace he re- 
signed the Department of War, but continued in 
the office of Secretary of State until the expira- 
tion of Mr. Madiison's administration. At the 
election held the previous autumn, Mr. Monroe 
himself had been chosen President with but little 
opposition, and upon March 4, 1S17, he was in- 
augurated. Four years later he was elected for 
a second term. 

Among the important measures of his Presi- 
dency were the cession of Florida to the United 
States, the Missouri Compromise, and the famous 
" Monroe doctrine." This doctrine was enun- 
ciated by him in 1823, and was as follows: " That 
we should consider any attempt on the jxirt of 
E;uropean powers to extend their sy.stem to any 
portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our 
peace and safety," and that " we could not view 
any interposition for the purpose of oppressing or 
controlling American govenmients or provinces 
in any other light than as a manifestation by 
European powers of an unfriendly di.sposition 
toward the United vStates." 

At the uud (if his .second term, Mr. Monroe re- 
tired to his home in \'irginia, where he li\-ed un- 
til 1830, when he went to New York U> li\e with 
his son-in-law. In that city he died, on the 4th 
of July, 1 83 1. 

j, S, JLlc^^ 


(JC)IIX QUINCY ADAMS, the sixth rresident 

I ot^ the United States, was born in the rural 
(2/ home of his honored father, John Adams, in 
Quincy, Mass., on the iithof Jnly, i;'';. His 
mother, a woman of exalted worth, watched over 
liis childhood during the almost constant ab- 
sence of his father. When but eight years of 
age, he stood with his mother on an eminence, 
listening to the booming of the great liattle on 
Bunker's Hill, and gazing out upon the smoke 
and flames billowing up from the conflagration of 

When but eleven years old he took a tearful 
adieu of his mother, to sail with his father for Eu- 
rope, through a fleet of hostile British cruisers. 
The bright, animated boy spent a year and a-half 
in Paris, where his father was associated with 
Franklin and Lee as Minister Plenipotentiary. 
His intelligence attracted the notice of these dis- 
tinguished men, and lie received from tliem flat- 
tering marks of attention. 

John Adams had scarcely returned to this 
country, in 1779, ere he was again sent abroad. 
Again John Quincy accompanied his father. At 
Paris he applied himself to study with great dil- 
igence for six months, and then accompanied his 
father to Holland, where he entered first a school 
in Amsterdam, then the University at Ueyden. 
About a year from this time, in 1781, when the 
manly boy was but fourteen years of age, he was 
selected by Mr. Dana, our Minister to the Rus- 
sian court, as his private secretary. 

In this school of incessant labor and of eimobl- 
ing culture he spent fourteen months, and then 
returned to Holland, through Sweden, Denmark, 
Hamburg and Bremen. This long journey he 
took alone in the winter, when in his .sixteenth 
year. Again he resumed his studies, under a pri- 
vate tutor, at The Hague. Then, in the spring of 
1782, he accompanied his father to Paris, travel- 
ing leisurely, and f(irming acquaintances with the 
most distinguished men on the continent, examin- 

ing architectural remains, galleries of paintings, 
and all renowned works of art. At Paris lit 
again became associated with the most illustrimui 
men of all lands in the contemplation of the 
loftiest temporal themes which can the 
human mind. After a short visit to England he 
returned to Paris, andeonsecrated all his energies 
to study until May, 17.S5. when he returned to 
America to finish his education. 

Upon leaving Harvard College at the age of 
twent>-, he studied law for three years. In Jnne, 
1794, being then but tweiity-se\'en vears of age, 
he was appointed liy Washington Resident Min- 
ister at the Netherlands. Sailing from Boston in 
July, he reached London in October, where he 
was immediately admitted to the delil.)erations ol 
Messrs. Jay & Pinckne>-, assisting them in nego- 
tiating a commercial treaty with Great Britain. 
After thus spending a fortnight in London, he 
proceeded to The Hague. 

In July, 1797, he left The Hague to go to Por- 
tugal as Minister Plenipotentiary. On his way to 
Portugal, upon arri\-ing in London, he met with 
despatches directing him to the court of Berlin, but 
requesting him to remain in London until he 
.should receive his instructions. While waiting 
he was married to an American lad>-, to whom he 
had been previous! _'ngaged — Miss Louisa Cath- 
erine Johnson, a daughter of Joshua Johnson, 
American Consul in London, and a lady en- 
dowed with that beauty and those accomplish- 
ments which eminently fitted her to move in the 
elevated sphere for which she was destineil. He 
reached Berlin with his wife in November, 1797, 
where he remained until July, 1799, when, hav- 
ing fulfilled all the purjsoses of his mission, he so 
licited his recall. 

Soon after his return, in 1S02. he was chosen 
to the .Senate of Ma,ssachn.setts from Boston, and 
then was elected Senator of the United States for 
six years, from the 4tli of March, 1804. His rep- 
utation, his ability and his experience placed 


him ininiediatt-ly aiming the- most prcjininent and 
influential members of that body. 

In 1809, Madison succeeded Jefferson in the 
Presidential chair, and he immediately nominated 
John nuinc>- Adams Minister to St. I'etersburgh. 
Resignin:^ his ,.r<.ress,,rshi,. in Harvard Col- 
lege, he embarked at Hoston in August, 1809. 

While in Ru.ssia. Mr. Adams was an intense 
student. He devoted his attenticm to the lan- 
Ruage and history of Russia; to the trade; 
to tlie I'.uropean system of weights, measures and 
C(jins; to the climate and astronomical observa- 
tions; while he kept up a familiar acquaintance 
with the Greek and Latin classics. In all the 
unixersities n\ I'.urope, a more accomplished 
scholar could scarcely be foun<l. All through 

JOHN yrixcv adams. 

life the Bible constitute.! ai 
.studies. It was his rule 
every da>-. 

On the 4th of March, t 
the I'residenli.d chair, and 
Mr. Adams vSecrelary of S 
his numerous friends in ]n 
Europe, he sailed in Jun 
States. On the iSth of Al 
the threshold of his home i 
eight years of Mr. Monro, 
A<lams (.ontiuned 

Some time before the t 
second term of oflice 
presented for tile Pn 
Adams brought for 
exciting campaign, 
more bitter. Two hundred a 
votes were Andrew Jacks 
nine; John Quincy Adams eiL 
H. Crawford forty-one; and 1 
seven. As there no clio 

lortant part of his 
ead five chapters 

Mr. Monroe took 

ediately appointed 

Taking leave of 

.Sly, for the I'nited 
-t, he again crossed 
hiincy, Dtiring the 
idniinistration, Mr. 

.■ <jf Mr. Monroe's 
'" ' ile> began to be 
cy. The friends of Mr. 
his name. It was an 
])arty spirit was never 
•ed and sixtv electoral 





it to 


the 11 

■ived ninety- 
ighty-fonr; William 
Henry Clay thirty- 
oici- by the jieojile, 
iiise of Representa- 
ote of Keiituckv to 

triotic man. There never was an administration 
more pure in principles, more conscientiously de- 
voted to the best interests of the countn,-, than 
that of John Quincy Adams; and never, perhaps, 
was there an adraini.stration more unscnipulously 
and outrageously assailed. 

On the 4th of March, 1829, Mr. Adams retired 
from the PresideiicN , and was succeeded by An- 
drew Jackson. John C. Calhoun was elected 
Vice-President. The slavery question now be- 
gan to assume portentous magnitude. Mr. Adams 
returned to Quincy and to his studies, which he 
pursued with unabated zeal. But he was not 
long permitted to remain in retirement. In No- 
vember, i8;v', he was elected Representative in 
Congress, h'or se\enteeu \-ears, or until his death, 
he occupied the jiost as Representative, towering 
abo\-c all his ])eers, ewr ready to do brave battle 
for freedom, and winning the title of "the Old 

Is of 


sault upon Mr. Adaii 
disgraceful in tiie p.i-- 
the abuse which was 
stream upon this hi 


us and ]iersi.stent as- 
eie is nothing more 
\ of our country than 
in one uninterrupted 
led, upright and pa- 

lally the fir^ 
e last to k 

Not a 
cape 1 

Upon taking his seat in the 
ced that he should hold liini- 
jiarty. Probably there never 
re devoted to his duties. He 
st in liis i)lace in the iiioniing, 
■ave his seat in the evening, 
ould be brought f irward and es- 
. The battle \\ Inch Mr. Adams 
igaiiisl the pro-slavery 

for peisisting m 
boliti.m of slaven.-, 
lu-nt by the grand 

I louse, with assas- 
intimidate him, and 

fought, almost singl\ , agai 
|>arty in the Goxirnnient 
moral daring and hennsni. 
presenting petitions for the 
he was threatened with indici 
jur\-, with exiinlsioii from th 
sination; Imt no threats could ii 
his final triumph was complete. 

On the 2 I.St of Februarj-, 1S4S, he rose on the 
floor of Congress with a paper in his hand, to 
address the speaker. vSuddenly he fell, again 
stricken by paraKsis, and w:is caught in the arms 
of those around liini. I'or a time he was sense- 
less, as he w.iscoiueyed to tile .sofa in the ro- 
tunda. Willi revi\ ing consciousness, lie opened 
his eyes, looked calmly around and said "This 
is the end of (.-arth;" then after a moment's jiause 
he added, " I am omlrnt." These were the last 
words of llie -rand -'Old Man IClocpient." 


GlXDRKW JACKSON, the seventh President 
[\ ui the L'nited States, was born in Waxhaw 
/I settlement, N. C, March 15, 1767, a few- 
days after his father's death. His parents were 
poor emigrants from Ireland, and took up their 
abode in Waxhaw settlement, where they lived 
in deepest poverty. 

Andrew, or Andy, as he was universally called, 
grew up a ver_\' rough, rude, turbulent boy. His 
features were coarse, his form ungainly, and there 
was but very little in his character made visible 
which was attractive. 

When only thirteen years old he joined the 
volunteers of Carolina against the British invasion. 
In 1 78 1, he and his brother Robert were captured 
and impiisoned for a time at Camden. A British 
officer ordered him to brush his mud-spattered 
boots. "'I am a prisoner of war, not your serv- 
ant," was the reply of the dauntless boy. 

Andrew supported himselfin various ways, such 
as working at the saddler's trade, teaching school, 
and clerking in a general store, luitil 1784, when 
he entered a law^ office at Sali.<bur\-, X. C. He, 
however, gave more attention to the wild amuse- 
ments of the times than to his studies. In 17SS, 
he was appointed solicitor for the Western District 
of North Carolina, of which Tennessee was then 
a part. This involved many long journeys amid 
dangers of every kind, but Andrew Jackson never 
knew fear, and the Indians had no desire to re- 
peat a skirmish with "Sharp Knife." 

In 1791. Mr. Jackson was married to a woman 
who supposed herself divorced from her former 
luLsband. Great was the surprise of both parties, 
two years later, to find that the conditions of the 
di\-orce had just been definitely settled by the 
first hu.sband. The marriage ceremony was per- 
fonned a second time, but the occurrence was 
often used by his enemies to bring Mr. Jackson 
into disfavor. 

In Jaiuiary, 1796, the Territory of Tennessee 
tlieu containing nearl\- eighl\ thousand inhabi- 
tants, the people met in con\-enli(>n at Knoxville 
to frame a constitution. Five were .sent from 
each of the eleven counties. Andrew Jackson 
was one of the delegates. The new State was 
entitled to but one member in the National House 
of Representatives. Andrew Jackson was chosen 
that member. Mounting his hor.-^e, he rode to 
Philadelphia, where Congress then held its ses- 
sions, a distance of about eight hundred miles. 

Jackson was an earnest ad\-ocate of the Demo- 
cratic party, and Jefferson was his idol. He ad- 
mired Bonaparte, loved France, and hated Eng- 
land. As Mr. Jackson took his seat. Gen. Wash- 
ington, whose second term of office was then 
expiring, delivered his speech to Congress. 
A committee drew up a complimentary address in 
reply. Andrew Jack.son did not approve of the 
address, and was one of the twelve who voted 
against it. He was not willing to say that Gen. 
Washington's administration had been "wise, 
firm and patriotic." 

Mr. Jackson was elected to the l'nited States 
Senate in 1797, but soon resigned and returned 
home. Soon after he was chosen Judge of the 
Supreme Court of his State, which position he 
held for six years. 

When the War of 1S12 with Great Britain com- 
menced, Madison occupied the Presidential chair. 
Aaron Burr sent word to the President that there 
was an unknown man in the West, Andrew Jack- 
sou, who would do credit to a commission if one 
were conferred upon him. Just at that time Gen. 
Jackson offered his services and those of twenty- 
five hundred volunteers. His ofier was accepted, 
and the troops were assembled at Nashville. 

As the were hourly expected to make 
an attack upon New Orleans, where Gen. Wil- 
kinson was in command, he was ordered to de- 



sccn-J. the river wUli filtL-eii humirud troops to aid 
Wilkinson. Tlic f xpuditioii rcachud Natchez, 
au.lallL-ra (iilav (.rscXL-ral weeks there without 

l)ack to their homes. But the euer-> (Vu. Jack- 
son had di.spkiyed, and his entire dexotion to the 
comfort of his soldiers, won for him -olden opin- 
ions, and he became tlie most jnipular man in the 
State. It was in this expeilition that his tough- 
ness gave hun the nickname of "Old Hickory." 

Soon after this, while attempting to horsewhip 
Col. Thomas 15enton lor a remark that gentleman 
niaile about his taking jiart as secoml in a duel 
in which a younger brother of ISenlon's was en- 
^;aged. he received two se\ere pistol wcjunds. 
While he was lingering upon a bed of suffering, 
news came that the Indians, wlio had combined 
under Tecumseh from Florida to the Lakes to ex- 
terminate the white settlers, were committing the 
most awful ravages. Decisive action became nec- 
essary. Gen. Jackson, with his fractured bone 
just beginning to Ileal, his arm in a .sling, anil 
unable to mount his horse without assi'^ftance, 
gave his amazing energies to the raising of an 
army to rendezvous at l"a\ ettesxille, Ala. 

The Creek Indians had eslabli.she.l a strong 
fort on one of the bends of the Tallapoosa River, 
near the center of Alabama, about fifty miles be- 
low Ft. Strotlier. With an army of two thousand 
men, Gen. Jackson traversed the pathless wilder- 
ness in a march of eleven days. lie reached their 
fort, called Tohopeka or Horse-shoe, on the jytli 
of March, 1814. The bend of the river enclosed 
nearly one hundred acres of tangled forest and 
wild ravine. Across the narrow neek the Indians 
ha<I constructed a formidable breastwork of logs 
and brush. Here nine hundred \varri(jrs, with 
an ample .supply of arms, were assembled. 

The fort was .stormed. The fight was utterly 
desperate. Not an Indian would accejit quarter. 
When bleeding and dying, tlie\- would fight those 
who endeavored to sjjare their lives, h'rom ten 
in the morning until dark the battle raged. The 
carnage was awful and revolting. Some threw 
themselves into tb.e river: but the unerring bul- 
lets struck their heads as the\- swam. Nearly 
fcvery one of the nine hundred warriors was 

killed. A few, probably, in the night swam 
the river and escaped. This ended the war. 

This closing of the Creek War enabled us U, 
concentrate all our militia upon the Ihitish, who 
were the allies of the Indians. No man of le-s 
resolute will than Gen. Jackson could have c .n- 
ducted this Indian campaign to so successhd an 
issue. Immediately he was appointed Major- 

Late in August, with an army of two thousand 
men on a rushing march, Gen. Jackson went to 
Mobile. A British fieet went In -m I'eiisac.jl.i, 
landed a force upon the beach, anclnired near the 
little fort, and iVom l..,th ship and shore com- 
menced a furious a.ssault. The battle was long 
and doubtful. At length one of the ships was 
blown up and the rest retired. 

Garrisoning Mobile, where he had taken his 
little ann>-, he moved his troops to New Orleans, 
and the battle of New Orleans, which soon ensued, 
was in reality a ^■ery arduous cam]>aign. This 
won for Gen. Jackson an imperishable name. 
Here his troops, which numbered about four 
thousand men, won a signal victory over the 
liritish army of about lune thousand. His loss 
was but thirteen, while the of the British was 
twent\-six hundred. 

The name of Gen. Jackson soon began to be 
mentioned in connection with the Presidency, 
l)Ut in i,S24 he was defeated by Mr. Adams. 
He was, howe\er, successhil in the election ol, and was re-elected fiir a secoiul term in 
1,832. In 1829, just before he assumed the reins 
of government, he met with the most terrible 
alTliVtion ofhis life in the death -.fliiswife, whom 
he had lo\ ed with a devotion which has perhaps 
never been surpas.sed. From the shock of her 
death he never recovered. 

His administration was one of the most mem- 
orable ill the annals of our country— applauded 
by one part}-, condemned l)y the other. No man 
had more bitter enemies or warmer irieuds. At 
the expiration of his two terms of office he retired 
to the Hennitage, where he died June .'^, 1845. The 
last years of Mr. Jackson's life were those of a de- 
voted Christian man. 

O > >^^^ i^Ly^ UC 



ARTIX VAX BUREN, the eighth I'resi- 
(Icut of the I'liitcd States, was born at Kin- 
derhook, N. Y., December 5, 1782. He 
died at tlie same place, Juh" 24, 1862. His body 
rests in the cemeter\- at Kiiiderhook. Above it is 
a plain granite shaft, fifteen feet high, bearing a 
simple inscription about half-way up on one face. 
The lot is unfenced, unbordered or unbounded 
by shrub or flower. 

There is but little in the life of Martin \'an 
Buren of romantic interest. He fought no iiattles, 
engaged in no wild adventures. Though his life 
was stormy in political and intellectual conflicts, 
and he gained many signal victories, his days 
passed uneventful in those incidents which give 
zest to biography. His ancestors, as his nameindi- 
cates, were of Dutch origin, and were among the 
earliest emigrants from Holland to the banks of 
the Hudson. His father was a farmer, residing 
in the old town of Kinderhook. His mother, also 
of Dutch lineage, was a woman of superior intel- 
ligence and exemplary piety. 

He was decidedly a precocious boy, developing 
unusual activity, vigor and strength of mind. At 
tlie age of fourteen, he had finished his academic 
studies in his native village, and commenced the 
stud\ of law. As he had not a collegiate educa- 
tion, seven years of study in a law-office were re- 
quired of him before he could be admitted to the 
Bar. Inspired with a lofty ambition, and con- 
.scious of his powers, he pursued his studies with 
indefatigable industry. After spending six years 
in an oflice in his native village, he 'v'ent tothecity 
of New York, and prosecuted his studies for the 
seventh >-ear. 

In iSoj, Mr. Van Buren, then twenty-one years . 

of age, commenced the practice of law in his na 
tive village. The great conflict between the Federal 
and Republican parties was then at its height. 
Mr. \'an Buren was from the beginning a politi- 
cian. He had, perhaps, imbibed that spirit while 
listening to the many discussions which had been 
carried on in his father's hntel. He was in corclial 
sympathy with Jefferson, and earnesth- and elo- 
quently espoused the cause of State Rights, though 
at that time the Federal party held the supremacy 
both in his town and State. 

His success and increasing reputation led him 
after six years of practice to remove to Hudson, 
the county seat of his county. Here he spent 
seven years, con.stantly gaining strength by con- 
tending in the courts with .some of the ablest men 
whi5 have adorned the Bar of his State. 

Just before leaving Kinderhook for Hudson, Mr. 
Van Buren married a lady alike distinguished for 
beauty and accomplishments. After twelve short 
years she .sank into the gra\e, a victim of con- 
sumption, leaving her husliand and four .sons to 
weep over her loss. For twenty-five years, Mr. 
Van Buren was an earnest, successful, assiduous 
lawyer. The record of years is barren in 
items of public interest. In iSu, when thirty 
years of age, he was cho.sen to the .State Senate, 
and gave his strenuous support to Mr. Madison's 
administration. In 1815, he was appointed At- 
torney-General, and the next year moved to Al- 
bany, the capital of the State. 

While he was acknowledged as one of the most 
prominent leaders of the Democratic part}-, he had 
the moral courage to avow that true democracy did 
not require that ' 'universal suiTrage' ' which admits 
the vile, the degraded, the ignorant, to the right 


(if .uovLTiiiii.L; tlic State. In true o>r 
his (kni<.cratKpiinciiilL-s, 1il- cuiiteiia- 
tliu path Icailin.^ to the priviles^f of ' 
he (ii)cn to c\er> man without distill 
sliouUl lie invested with that sacred prerogative 

intelH-eiR-e, virtue, and some pr< ijiertx interests in 
the welfare of the vState. 

In 182 I he was elected a niendier of the I'nited 
States Senate, and in the same year he took a 
seat in the convention to revi-.e the Constitution of 
his native State. in this convention 
secured the approval of men of all parties. No 
one could doubt the singleness of his endeavors to 
promote the interests of all classes in the com- 
munity. In the Senate of the Tnite.! States, lie 
rose at once to a consjiicuous |)ositioii as an acti\e 
and useful legislator. 

Ill 1S27, John Ouinc_\' Adams being then in the 
Presidential chair, Mr. \'an Bureu was re-elected 
to the Senate. He had been from the beginning 
a determined opi loser of the administration, ailopt- 
iiig the "State Rights" view in opposition to what 
was deemed the Federal proclivities of Mr. Adams. 

Soon after this, in 1S2S, he was cho.sen Governor 
oftlie State of New York, and accordingly resigned 
his seat in the Senate. Probably no one in the 
United States contributed .so much towards eject- 
ing John Q. Adams from the Presidential chair, 
and placing in it Andrew Jackson, as did Martin 
Van Buren. Whether entitled to the reputation 
or not, hecertainlN was regarded throughout the 
United States as one of the m. 1st skillful, sagacious 
and cunning of politicians. It was supposed that 
no one knew ,so well as he how loinuch Uie secret 
.springs of action, how to pull all the wires to 
put his macliiiier\ in motion, and how to organi/e 
a political army which would secietl\ and stealth- 
ily the most gigantic results. P)y these 
powers it is said that he outwitted Mr. Adams, Mr. 
Clay, and Mr. Webster, and secured results which 
'ew then thought could be accomplished. 

When Andrew Jackson was elected PiX'sident 
he appointed Mr. Van Buren Secretar\- of State. 
This position he resigned in iS;;i, and was im- 
mediatelv appointed Minister to bji-laiid. where 
he went the .same autumn. The Senate, Ik iwe\er. 



Msteiic\- with 

when it met, refused to ra 

tif\ them 



d that, while 

he returned home, appare 

itl\ untro 



oting should 

he was nominated \'ice-l' 

esidelit 11 

. the 1 

lace of 

?tioil, no one 

Calhoun, at the re-electio 

1 of Presi 

lent J; 




and with smiles ibr all and frowns U 
took his jilace at the head of that Seiiatt 
refused to conhrm his nomiiuition as a 

His rejection by the vSenate roused ; 
of President Jack.soii in behalf of his 
favorite; and this, probably, more tha 
cause secured his ele\ation to the cl 
Chief P:xecutive. On the 2( -th of M.,n 
Vail Buren recei\-ed the Democratic nomination 
to succeed Gen. Jackson as President of the I 'iiited 
vStates. He was elected by a handsome majorit\-, 
to the delight of the retiring President. "Leaving 
New York out of the canvass." .says Mr. Parton, 
"the election of Mr. Van Buren to the Presidency 
was as much the act of Gen. Jackson as though 
the Constitution had conferred upon him the power 
to appoint a successor." 

His administration was filled with exciting 
events. The insurrection in Canad.i, which 
threatened to iiu-olve this couutr\- in with 
luigland, the agitation of the sla\er> iinesiion, 
and finally the great commercial panic which 
spread t)ver the countr\-, all were trials of his wis- 
dom. The financial distress was attributed to 
the management of the Democratic party, and 
brought the President into such disfavor that he 
failed of re-election, and on the 4th of March, 
1841, he retired from the presitleiicy. 

With the exception of being nominated for the 
Presidency by the "Free Soil" Democrats in 1848, 
Mr. \'an Buren li\'ed quietly upon his estate until 
his death. He had ever been a prmleiit man, of 
frugal habits, and, li\iiig within his income, had 
now fortunately a competence for his declining 
years. From his fine estate at Lindenwald, he 
still exerted a powerful influence upon the politics 
oftlu country. From this time until his death, 
on the 24tli of July, iSiu, at the age of eighty 
>ears, he resitled at Lindenwald, a gentleman of 
leisure, of culture and wealth, enjo3'iiig in a 
health}- old age jirobably far more happiness than 
he had before experienced amiil the storing .scenes 
of his active life. 

^^ /f /f^^yi^^f^"^ 


\ A / Piosident of the United States, was burn 
V V at Berkeley, Ya., February 9, 1773. His 
father, Benjamin Harrison, was in comparatively 
opulent circumstances, and was one of the most 
distinguished men of his day. He was an inti- 
mate friend of George Washington, was early 
elected a member of the Continental Congress, 
and was conspicuous among the patriots of Yir- 
ginia in resisting the encroachments of the British 
crown. In the celebrated Congress of 1775, Ben- 
jamin Harrison and John Hancock were both 
candidates for the oifice of Speaker. 

Mr. Harrison was subsequently chosen Gov- 
ernor of Yirginia, and was twice re-elected. His 
son William Henn-, of course, enjoyed in child- 
hood all the advantages which wealth and intel- 
lectual and cultivated society could give. Hav- 
ing received a thorough common-school educa- 
tion, he entered Hampden Sidney College, where [ 
he graduated with honor soon after the death of 
his father. He then repaired to Philadelphia to 
study medicine under the in.structions of Dr. Rush 
and the guardianship of Robert Morris, both of 
wh<ini were, with his father, signers of the Dec- 
laration of Independence. ] 

Upon the outbreak of the Indian troubles, and 
notwithstanding the remonstrances of his friends, 
he abandoned his medical studies and entered the 
army, having obtained a commission as Ensign 
from President Washington. He was theu but 
nineteen years old. From that time he passed 
i^radually upward in rank until he became aide 
to Gen. Wayne, after death he resigned 
his commission. He was then appointed Secre- 
tary of the Northwestern Territory. This Terri- 
tor>- was then entitled to but one membei- in Con- 

gress, and Harrison was cho.sen to fill that position. 
In the spring of iSoo the Northwestern Terri- 
torj' was di\-ided by Congress into two portions. 
The eastern portion, comprising the region now- 
embraced in the State of Ohio, was called "The 
Territors- northwest of the Ohio." The western 
portion, which included what is now called Indi- 
ana, Illinois and Wisconsin, was called "the Indi- 
ana Territor\'." William Henry Harrison, then 
twenty-seven years of age, was appointed by John 
Adams Governor of the Indiana Territorj-, and 
immediately after also Governor of Upper Loui- 
siana. He w-as thus ruler over almost as exten- 
sive a realm as any sovereign upon the globe. 
He was Superintendent of Indian Affairs, and 
was inve.sted with powers nearly dictatorial over 
the then rapidly increasing white population. The 
ability and fidelity with which he discharged 
these responsible duties may be inferred from the 
fiict that he was four times appointed to this 
office — first by John Adams, twice by Thomas 
JeflTerson, and afterwards by President Madi.son. 

When he began his administration there were 
but three white settlements in that almost bound- 
less region, now crowded with cities and resound- 
ing with all the tumult of wealth and traffic. 
One of these .settlements was on the Ohio, nearly 
opposite Louisville; one at Yincennes, on the; and the third was a French settlement. 

The vast wilderness over which Gov. Harrison 
reigned was filled with many tribes of Indians. 
About the 3'ear 1806, two extraordinary men, 
twin brothers of the Shawnee tribe, rose among 
them. One of was called Tecumseh, or 
"the Crouching Panther;" the other Olliwa- 
checa, or "the Prophet." Tecumseh was not 
only an Indian warrior, Ijut a man of great .sagac- 


ity, far- reaching foresight and indomitable perse- 
\eraiice in any enterprise in which he might en- 
.u;i,>;e. Mis limther, the Prophet, was an orator, 
who cuukl sway the feelinL;s of the untutored In- 
dians as the gale tossed the tree-tops beneatli 
which they dwelt. With an enthusiasm unsur- 
jiassed by Peter the Hermit rousing Europe to tlie 
crusailes, he went from tribe to trifie, assuming 
that he was specially sent by the Great vSpirit. 

Gov. Harrison made many attempts to con- 
ciliate the Indians, but at last war came, and at 
Tippecanoe the Indians were routed with great 
slaughter. October 28, 1812, his army began its 
march. When near the Prophet's town, three 
Indians of rank made their appearance and in- 
quin^d why Gov. Harrison was approaching them 
in sn hostile an attitude. After a short confer- 
ence, arrangements were made for a meeting the 
next day to agree upon terms of peace. 

Ent Gov. Harrisim was too well acquainted 
with the Indian character to be deceived by .such 
jirotestations. Selecting a favorable .spot for his 
night's encampment, he took every precaution 
against surprise. His troops were posted in a 
hollow .scpiare and slept upon their arms. The 
wakeful Governor, between three and four o'clock 
in the morning, had ri.sen, and was sitting 
in conversation with his aides by the embers 
of a waning fire. It was a chill, cloudy ninrning, 
with a drizzling rain. In the darkness, the In- 
dians had crept as near as possible, and then, 
with a savage yell, rushed, with all the despera- 
tion which superstition and jiassion most highly 
inflamed could give, nj.on the left flank of the 
little army. The savages had been amply pro- 
vided with guns and ammunition by the English, 
and their war-wdioop was accompanied by a 
shower of bullets. 

The camp-fires were instantly extingui.shed, as 
the light aided the Indians in their aim, and 
Gen. Harrison's troops .stood as immovable as 
the rocks around them until day dawned, when 
they made a simultaneous charge with the bayo- 
net and swept everything before them, completely 
routing the foe. 

Gov. Harrison now had all his energies tasked 
to the The, descending from the 

Canadas, were of themselves a verj- formidable 
force, but with their savage allies rushing like 
wolves from the forest, burning, plundering, scalp- 
ing, torturing, the wide frontier was plunged into 
a state of con.sternation which even the most vivid 
imagination can but faintly conceive. Gen. Hull 
had made an ignominious surrender of his forces at 
Detroit. Under these despairing circumstances. 
Gov. Harrison was appointed by President Madi- 
son Conunander-in-Chief of the Northwestern 
Army, with orders to retake Detroit; and to protect 
the frontiers. It would be difficult to place a man 
in a situation demanding more energ>-, sagacity 
and courage, but he was found equal to the 
position, and nobly and triumphantly did he meet 
all the responsibilities. 

In 1 8 16, Gen. Harrison was chosen a member 
of the National House of Representatives, to rep- 
resent the District of Ohio. In Congress he proved 
an active member, and whenever he spoke it was 
with a force of reason and power of eloquence 
which arrested the attention of all the members. 

In iSig, Harrison was elected to the Senate of 
Ohio, and in 1S24, as one of the Presidential Elec- 
tors of that State, he gave his vote for Henry 
Clay. The same j'ear he was chosen to the Uni- 
ted States Senate. In 1836 his friends brought 
him forward as a candidate for the Presidency Van Buren, but he was defeated. At the 
close of Mr. Van Buren's term, he was re-nom- 
inated by his party, and Mr. Harrison was unani- 
mously nominated by the Whigs, with John Tyler 
for the Vice-Presidency. The contest was very 
animated. Gen. Jack.son gave all his influence to 
prevent Harrison's election, but his triumph was 

The cabinet which he fonned, with Daniel Web- 
ster at its head as Secretary of State, was one of 
the most brilliant with which any President had 
ever been surrounded. Ne\-er were the prospects 
of an administration more flattering, or the hopes 
of the country' more sanguine. In the midst of 
these bright and joyous prospects. Gen. Harri.son 
was seized by a pleurisy-fe\'er, and after a few- 
days of violent sickness died, on the 4th of April, 
just one month after his inauguration as President 
of the United States. 

Jrfi'TL Mj^SyY 


30HX TYLER, the tenth President of the 
I'niteil States, and wa.s born in Charles 
Cit\- County, \'a., March 29, 1790. lit: was 
tlie favored child of affluence and high social po 
sition. At the early age of twelve, John entered 
William and Mary College, and graduated with 
much honor when but seventeen years old. After 
graduating, he devoted himself with great assi- 
duity to the study of law, parth' with his father 
and partly with Edmund Randdljih. one of the 
most distinguished lawyers of \'irginia. 

At nineteen years of age, he commenced the 
practice of law. His success was rapid and as- 
tonishing. It is said that three months had not 
elapsed ere there was scarcely a case on the 
docket of the court in which he was not retained. 
When but twenty -one years of age, he was almost 
unanimou.sly elected to a seat in the State Legis- 
lature. He connected himself with the Demo- 
cratic party, and wannly advocated the measures 
of Jefferson and Madison. For five successive 
years he was elected to the Legislature, receiving 
nearly the unanimous vote of his county. 

When but twenty-six years of age. he was 
elected a Member of Congress. Here he acted ear- 
nestly and ably with the Democratic party, oppos- 
ing a national bank, internal improvements by 
the General Government, and a protective tariff; 
advocating a strict con.struction of the Constitu- 
tion and the most careful vigilance over State 
rights. His labors in Congress were so arduous 
that before the close of his second term he found 
it nece.ssarj- to resign and retire to his estate in 
Charles City County to recruit his health. He, 
however, soon after con.sented to take his seat in 
the State Legislature, w'here his influence was 
powerful in promoting public works of great 
utility. With a reputation thus constantly in- 
creasing, he was chosen by a very large majority 
of votes Governor of his native State. His ad- 
ministration was a signally successhil one, and his 
popularit>- secured his re-election. 

John Randolph, a brilliant, erratic, half-crazed 
man, then represented Yirginia in the Senate of 
the I'nited States. A portion of the Democratic 
jiarty was di.spleased with Mr. Randolph's way- 
ward course, and brought fonvard John T\ler as 
his opponent, considering him the only man in 
Yirginia of sufficient popularity to succeed 
against the renowned orator of Roanoke. Mr. 
Tyler was the victor. 

In accordance with his professions, upon tak- 
ing his seat in the Senate he joined the rauks of 
the opposition. He opposed the tariff, and spoke 
against and voted against the bank as unconsti- 
tutional; he strenuously opposed all restrictions 
upon slavery, resisting all projects of internal im- 
provements by the General Govennnent, and 
avowed his sympathy with Mr. Calhoun's view 
of nullification: he declared that Gen. Jackson, 
by his opposition to the nullifiers, had abandoned 
the principles of the Democratic party. Such 
was Mr. Tyler's record in Congress — a record in 
perfect accordance with the principles which he 
had always avowed. 

Returning to Mrginia, he resumed the practice 
of his profession. There was a split in the Demo- 
cratic party. His friends still regarded him as a 
true Jeffersonian, gave him a dinner, and show- 
ered compliments upon him. He had now at- 
tained the age of forty-six, and his career had been 
very brilliant. In consequence of his devotion to 
public business, his private affairs had fallen into 
some disorder, and it was not without satisfac- 
tion that he resumed the practice of law, and de- 
voted himself to the cultivation of his plantation. 
Soon after this he removed to Williamsburg, for 
the better education of his children, and he again 
took his seat in the Legislature of Yirginia. 

By the southern Whigs he %vas sent to the 
national convention at Harrislnirg in 1S39 to nom- 
inate a President. The majority of votes were 
given to Gen Harrison, a genuine Whig, much 
to the disappointment of the vSouth, which wished 


for Henry Clay. To conciliate the southern 
W'hiys ami to .secure tlieir vote, the convention 
then iioniinateil J.ihn T> ler for \"ice- President. 
It was well known that he was not in sympathy 
with the Wliig party in the North: but the Vice- 
President has \-ery little power in the Govern- 
ment, his main and almost only duty being to 
preside over the meetings of the vSenate. Thus it 
happened that a Whig President and, in reality, 
a Democratic Vice-President were chosen. 

In 1 84 1, Mr. Tyler was inaugurated Vice- 
Pre.sident of the United States. In one short 
month from that time. President Harrison died, 
and Mr. T.Nler thus found him.self, to his own 
surprise and that of the whole nation, an occu- 
pant of the Presidential chair. Hastening from 
William.sburg to Washington, on the 6th of 
April he was inaugurated to the high and re- 
sj)uusil)le office. He was placed in a position of 
exceeding delicacy and difficult\-. All his long 
life he had been opposed to the main principles of 
the party which had brought him into power. 
He had ever been a consistent, honest man, with 
an unljlemished record. Gen. Harrison had se- 
lected a Whig cabinet. Should he retain them, 
and thus surround him.self with counselors whose 
views were antagonistic to his own ? or, on the 
other hand, sliould he turn against the jiarty 
which had elected him, and select a cabinet in 
harmony with him.self, and which would oppose 
all those views which the Whigs deemed essen- 
tial to the public welfare? This was his fearful 
dilemma. He invited the cabinet which Presi- 
dent Harrison had selected to retain their seats. 
and recommended a day of fasting and prayer, 
that God would guide and bless us. 

The Whigs carried through Congress a bill for 
the incor]Hiration of a fiscal Iiank of :\w United 
States. The President, after ten days' delay, re- 
turned it with his veto. He suggested, however, 
that he would ajiprove of a bill drawn up upon 
such a i)lan as he proposed. Such a bill was ac- 
cordin,L;h- ])re])are(l, and jirix-ately .submitted to 
him. He g;n-e it his approval. It was passed 
without alteration, and he sent it back with his ' 
veto. Here commenced the open rupture. It is 
said that Mr. Tyler was provoked to this meas- 1 

ure by a puijlished letter from the Hon. John M. 
Botts, a distinguished \'irginia Whig, who se- 
verely touched the pride of the President. 

The opposition now e.xultingly received the 
President into their arms. The party which 
elected him denounced him bitterly. All the 
members of his calnnet, excepting Mr. Webster, 
resigned. The Whigs of Congress, both the 
vSenate and the House, held a meeting and issued 
an address to the people of the United States, 
liroclaiming that all political alliance between the 
Whigs and President Tyler was at an end. 

vStill the President attemjJted to conciliate. He 
appointed a new cabinet of distinguished Whigs 
and Conservatives, carefully leaving out all strong 
party men. Mr. Webster soon found it necessary 
to resign, forced out by the pressure of his Whig 
friends. Thus the four years of Mr. Tyler's un- 
fortunate adnunistration i)assed sadly away. No 
one was sati.sfied. The land was filled with mur- 
murs and vituperation. Whigs and Democrats 
alike assailed him. More and more, however, he 
lirought himself into sympathy with his old 
friends, the Democrats, until at the close of his 
term he ga\-e his whole influence to tlie support 
of Mr. Polk, the Democratic candidate for his 

On the 4th of March, 1.S45, President Tyler re- 
tired from the haras.smeuts of office, to the regret 
of neither party, and probably to his own unspeak- 
able relief. The remainder of his days were 
passed mainly in the retirement of his beautiful 
home — Sherwood P'orest, Charles City Count}-, 
Va. His first wife. Miss Letitia Chri.stiau, died 
in Wa.shington in 1S42; and in June, 1S44, 
he was again married, at New York, to Miss Julia 
Gardiner, a young lady of many personal and 
intellectual accomplishments. 

When the great Rebellion rose, which the 
State Rights and nullifying doctrines of John C. 
Calhoun had inaugurated. President Tyler re- 
nounced his allegiance to the United .States, and 
joined the Confederates. He was chosen a mem- 
ber of their Congress, and while engaged in 
active measures to destroy, by force of arms, the 
Government over which he had once presided, he 
was taken sick and soon died. 







(Tames K. polk, the eleventh President of 
I the United States, was born in Mecklenburgh 
G) County, N. C, November 2, 1795. His 
parents were Samuel and Jane (Knox; Polk, the 
former a son of Col. Thomas Polk, who located 
at the above place, as one of the first pioneers, in 
1735. In 1S06, with his wife and children, and 
soon after followed by most of the members of the 
Polk family, Samuel Polk emigrated some two or 
three hundred miles farther west, tn the rich ^-al- 
ley of the I )uck River. Here, in the of the 
wilderness, in a region which was suljseijuently 
called Maur>- County, they erected their log huts 
and established their homes. In the hard toil of 
a new fann in the wilderness, James K. Pi ilk 
spent the early years of his childhood ami \outh. 
His father, adding the pursuit of a surveyor to 
that of a farmer, gradually increased in wealth, 
until he became one of the leading men of the 
region. His mother was a superior woman, of 
strong common and earnest piety. 

Very early in life James developed a taste for 
reading, and expressed the strongest desire to ob- 
tain a liberal education. His mother's training , 
had niadeliini methodical in his habits, had taught 
him punctuality and industry, and had inspired 
him with lofty principles of morality. His health ; 
was frail, and his father, fearing that he might not 
be able to endure a sedentar\- life, got a situation 
for him behind the counter, hoping to fit him for 
connnercial pursuits. 

This was to James a bitter disappointment. He ; 
had no taste for these duties, and bis aaily lasks 1 
were irksome in the extreme. He remained in tliis 
uncongenial occupation but a few w?eks, when, 
at his earnest solicitation, his faT.ner removed 
him and made arrangements for him to pros- 
ecute his studies. Soon after he sent him to Mur- 
freesboro Academy. With ardor which could 
scarcely be surpassed, he pressed forward in his 

studies, and in less than two and a-half years, in 
the autunui of 1S15, entered the sophomore class 
in the Uni\-ersity of North Carolina, at Chapel 
Hill. Here he was one of the most exemplary of 
scholars, punctual in even.- exercise, never allow- 
ing himself to be absent from a recitation or a 
religious service. 

Mr. Polk graduated in iSiS, with the highest 
honors, being deemed the best .scholar of his class, 
b<ith in mathematics and the classics. He was 
then t\vent>--three years of age. His health was 
at this time much impaired by the assiduity with 
which he had pro.secuted his .studies. After a 
short sea.son of relaxation, he went to Nashville, 
and entered the office of Felix Grundy, to study 
law. Here }*Ir. Polk renewed his acquaintance 
with Andrew Jackson, who resided on his planta- 
tion, the '■ Hermitage," but a few miles from 
Nashville. They had probably been slightly ac- 
quainted before. 

Mr. Polk's father was a Jeffersonian Republican 
and James K. adhered to the same political faith. 
He was a popular public speaker, and was con- 
stantly called upon to address the meetings of his 
party friends. His skill as a speaker was such 
that he was popularly called the Napoleon of the 
stump. He was a man of unblemished morals, 
genial and courteous in his bearing, and with that 
sympathetic nature in the joy.*-- and griefs of oth- 
ers which gave him hosts of friends. In 1823, 
he was elected to the Legislature of Tennessee, 
and gave his strong influence toward the election 
of his friend, Mr. Jackson, to the Presidency of 
the United States. 

In January, 1S24, Mr. Polk married MissSarah 
Childress, of Rutherford County, Tenn. His 
bride was altogether worthy of him — a lady of 
beauty and culture. In the fall of 1825 Mr. Polk 
was chosen a member of Congress, and the satis- 
faction he gave his constituents may be inferred 



from the fact, that for r(Hirteen successive years, 
or until 1839, he was continued in that office. He 
then voluntarily withdrew, oidy that he might 
accept the Gul)ernatorial chair of Teiuiessee. In 
Congress he was a lal)(>ri(jus member, a frequent 
aii<l a pdinilar speaker. He was always in liis 
seat, always courteDU-., and whenexer he spoke 


withciut any ambitious 

it was alwa>-s t 
rhetorical displa> . 

Durin.t; fne sessions of Congress Mr. Polk was 
Speaker of the House. vStrong passions were 
roused and stornu- scenes were witnessed, but he 
performed his arduous duties to a very general 
satisfaction, and a uuanimons vote of thanks to 
him was passed by the House as he withdrew on 
the 4th of March, iS^ij. 

In accordance with Southern usage, Mr. Polk, 
as a candidate for Governor, canvassed the State. 
He was elected b\- a large majority, and on Octo- 
ber 14, is.v,, took the oath of office at Na.shville. 
In 1841 his term of office expired, and he was 
again the candidate of the Democratic party, but 
was defeated. 

On the 4lh of March, 1.S45, Mr. Polk was in- 
augurated President of the United States. The 
verdict of the countr\ in favor of the annexation 
of Texas e.xerted its influence upon Congress, 
and tile last act of the administration of President 
T\ler was to affix his signature to a joint resolu- 
tion of Congress, jiassed on the ;,d of March, ap- 
pr(jving of the annexation of Texas to the Union. 
As Mexico .still claimed Texas as one of her 
provinces, the Mexican Minister, Almonte, im- 
mediatel}' demanded his jiassports and left the 
countr>-, declaring the act of the annexation to be 
an act hostile to Mexico. 

In his first message. President Polk urged that 
Texas should immediately, by act of Congress, be 
received into the Union 011 the same footing with 
the other States. In the mean time. Gen. Taylor 
was sent with an army into Te.xas to hold the 
country. He was first sent to Nueces, which the 
Mexicans said was the western boundary of Tex- 
as. Then he was .sent nearly two hundred miles 
further west, to the Rio Grande, where he erected 
batteries which commanded the Mexican cit> of 
Matamoras, which was situated on the western 

banks. The anticipated collision soon took place, 
and war was declared Mexico by President 
Polk. The war was pushed forward bj- his ad- 
ministration with great vigor. Gen. Taylor, army was first called one of ' ' observation, " 
then of "occupation," then of "inva.sion," was 
sent forward to Monterey. The feeble Mexicans 
in every encounter were hopelessly slaughtered. 
The da>' of judgment alone can reveal the mi.sen,' 
which this war caused. It was l)y the ingenuity 
of Mr. Polk's administration that the war was 
brought on. 

"To the victors belong the spoils." Mexico 
was prostrate before us. Her capital was in our 
hands. We now con.sented to peace upon the 
c(.)iidition that Mexico should surrender to us, in 
addition to Texas, all of New Mexico, and all of 
ITpper and Lower California. This new demand 
embraced, exclusive of Texas, eight hundred 
thousand .square miles. This was an extent of 
territory equal to nine States of the size of New 
York. Thus slavery was securing eighteen ma- 
jestic vStates to be added to the Union. There 
were some Americans who thought it all right; 
there were others who thought it all wrong. In 
the prosecution of this war we e.x])eiided twenty 
thousand lives and more than $100,000,000. Of 
this money $15,000,000 were paid to Mexico. 

On the 3d of March, 1X49, Mr. Polk retired 
from office, having served one term. The next 
day was Sunday. On the 5II1, Gen. Taylor was 
inaugurated as his succe.s.sor. Mr. Polk rode to 
the Capitol in the same carriage with Gen. Tay- 
lor, and the same evening, with Mrs. Polk, he 
commenced his return to Tennessee. He was 
then but fiftydonr years of age. He had always 
been strictlv teni])ei-ate in all his habits, and his 
health was good. With an ample fortune, a 
choice liltrarx', a cuitixated mind, and domestic 
ties of the dearest nature, it seemed as though 
long years of tranquillity and haiipiness were be- 
fore him. But the cholera — that fearful scourge 
— was then .sweeping up the Valley of the Missis- 
sijipi, and he contracted the disease, dying on the 
15th of June, 1.S4,,, in the fifty -fourth year of his 
age, greatly mourned by his countrymen. 






^ACHARY TAYLOR, twelfth President of 
I, the United States, was born on the 24th of 
/^ November, 17S4, in Orange County, Ya. 
His father, Col. Ta^'lor, was a Yirginian of 
note, and a distinguished patriot and soldier of 
the Revolution. When Zacharv' was an infant, 
his father, with his wife and two children, emi- 
grated to Kentucky, where he settled in the path- 
less wilderness, a few miles from Louisville. In 
this frontier home, away from civilization and all 
its refinements, young Zachan- could enjo\- but 
few social and educational advantages. When 
six 3-ears of age he attended a common school, 
and was then regarded as a bright, active boy, 
rather remarkable for bluntness and decision of 
character. He was .strong, fearless and self-reli- 
ant, and manifested a strong desire to enter the 
army to fight the Indians, who were ravaging the 
firontiers. There is little to be recorded of the 
uneventful years of his childhood on his father's 
large but lonely plantation. 

In 1808, his father succeeded in obtaining for 
him a commission as Lieutenant in the United 
States army, and he joined the troops which were 
stationed at New Orleans under Gen. Wilkinson. 
Soon after this he married Miss Margaret vSmith, 
a young lady from one of the families of 

Immediately after the declaration of war with 
England, in 1812, Capt. Taylor (for he had then 
been promoted to that rank) was put in command 
of Ft. Harrison, on the Wabash, about fifty miles 
above Yincennes. This fort had been built in the 
wilderness by Gen. HarrLson, on his march to 
Tippecanoe. It was one of the first points of at- 
tack by the Indians, led by Tecumseh. Its garri- 
son consisted of a broken companj- of infantry, 
numbering fifty men, many of whom were sick. 

Early in the autumn of 1S12, the Indians, 
stealthil}-, and in large numbers, moved upon the 

fort. Their approach was first indicated by the 
murder of two soldiers outside of the stockade. 
Capt. Taylor made every possible preparation to 
meet the anticipated assault. On the 4th of Sep- 
tember, a band of forty painted and plumed sav- 
ages to the fort, waving a white flag, and 
informed Capt. Taylor that in the morning their 
chief would come to have a talk with him. It 
was evident that their object was merely to a.scer- 
tain the state of things at the fort, and Capt. 
Taylor, well versed in the wiles of the savages, 
kept them at a distance. 

The sun went down; the savages disappeared; 
the garrison slept upon their arms. One hour 
before midnight the war-whoop burst from a 
thousand lips in the forest around, followed by 
the discharge of nuisketrj- and the rush of the 
foe. Every man, sick and well, sprang to his 
post. Even,- man knew that defeat was not 
merely death, but, in the case of capture, death by 
the most agonizing and prolonged torture. No 
pen can describe, no imagination can conceive, the 
.scenes which ensued. The savages succeeded in 
.setting fire to one of the block-houses. Until six 
o'clock in the morning this awful conflict con- 
tinued, when the savages, baffled at even,- point 
and gnashing their teeth with rage, retired. 
Capt. Taylor, for this gallant defense, was pro- 
moted to the rank of Major by brevet. 

Until the close of the war, Maj. Taylor was 
placed in such situations that he saw but little 
more of active service. He was sent far away 
into the depths of the wilderness to Ft. Craw- 
ford, on Fox River, which empties into Green 
Bay. Here there was little to be done but to 
wear away the tedious hours as one best could. 
There were no books, no society, no intellectual 
stimulus. Thus with him the uneventful years 
rolled on. Gradually he rose to the rank of 
Colonel. In the Black Hawk War, which re- 

64 __^^ 

suited in the capture of that ren(j\viied chieftain, 
Col. Taylor took a subordinate, but a brave and 
efficient, part. 

For twenty-four years Col. Taylor was engai^ed 
in the of the irontiers, in scenes so re- 
mote, and in enipI.ivnKiits so obscure, that his 
name was unknown be>()nd the limits of his own 
inunediate acquaintance. In the >ear iS;/), he- 
was sent to Florida to compel the Seminole Indi- 
ans to vacate that region, and retire beNimd the , as their chiefs by treaty hail prom- 
ised they slinuM do. The services rendered here 
secured fiirCi'l. Ta\ lor the high appreciation of 
the (hix'ernment, and as a reward he was ele- 
vated to the high rank of Brigadier-General by 
brevet, and soon after, in Ma\-, iSfiS, 'was ap- 
pointed to the chief connnand of the United 
States troops in Florida. 

After two years of wearisome emphn nient 
amidst the everglades of the Peninsula, Gen. Tay- 
lor obtained, at his own request, a change of 
connnand, and was stationed over the Department 
of the This field embraced L,onisiana, 
Mississippi, Alabama and Georgia. Establishing 
his headquarters at Ft. Jes.sup, in Louisiana, he 
removed his family to a plantation which he pur- 
chased near Baton Rouge. Here he remained 
for five years, buried, as it were, from the world, 
but faithfully discharging every duty imposed 
upon him. 

In 1846, Gen. Taylor was sent to guard the 
land between the Nueces and Rio Grande, the 
latter river being the boundary of Texas, which 
was then claimed by the United States. Soon 
the war with Mexico was brought on, and at Palo 
Alto and Resaca de la Palma, Gen. Taylor won 
brilliant victories over the Mexicans. The rank 
of Major-General by brevet was then conferred 
upon Gen. Taylor, and his name was received 
with enthusiasm almost everywhere in the na- 
tion. Then came the battles of Monterey and 
Buena Vista, in which he won signal victories 
over forces much larger than he connnanded. 

The tidings of the lirilliant victtn'y of Buena 
Vista s])read the wildest enthusiasm over the 
country. The name of Gen. Taylor was on 
every one's lips. The Whig party decided to 


take ad\'anta;;e of this wonderful popularitN' in 
Ijringing forwanl the unpolished, unlettered, hon- 
est soldier as thtir can.lidate f.jr the Presidency. 
Gen. Ta.Nlor wa^ astonished at the ainiounce- 
ment, and for a time would not listen to it, de- 
claring that he was not at all qualified for such 
an office. ,Su little interest had he taken in poli- 
tics, that for forty years he had not cast a vote. 
It was not without chagrin that several distin- 
guished statesmen, who had been long years in 
the public service, found their claims set aside in 
behalf of one whose name had never been heard 
of, save in connection with Palo Alto, Resaca de 
la Palma, Monterey and Buena Vi.sta. It is said 
that Daniel Web.ster, in his haste, remarked, " It 
is a nomination not fit to be made." 

Gen. Taylor was not an eloquent speaker nor a 
fine writer. His friends took possession of him, 
and prepared such few communications as it was 
needful should be presented to the public. The 
])oindarit\' of the successfiil warrior swept the 
land. He was triumphanll_\- elected o\-er two 
opposing candidates, — Gen. Cass and Ex-Presi- 
dent Martin Van Buren. Though he selected an 
excellent cabinet, the good old man found himself 
in a very uncongenial position, and was at times 
sorely perplexed and harassed. 1 1 is mental suf- 
ferings were ver>' severe, and proljably tended to 
hasten his death. The pro-slavery party was 
pushing its claims with tireless energy; expedi- 
tions were fitting out to capttn-e Cu1)a; Calii'ornia 
was pleading for aihnission to tlie Union, while 
slavery stood at the door to bar her out. Gen. 
Taylor found the jiolitical conflicts in Washington 
to be far more trying to the nerx'es than battles 
with Mexicans or Indians. 

In the midst of all these tronliles, Gen. Ta>-lor, 
after he had occujiied the cliair but 
little o\-er a > ear, took cold, and after a brief 
sickness of but little over five days. died, on the 
9th of July, 1S50. His last words were, " 1 am 
not afraid to die. I am ready. I ha\'e endeav- 
ored to do my duty." He died universally re- 
spected and lieloved. An honest, tnipretending, he had been .steadil\' growing in the affec- 
tions of llie people, and the Nation bitterly la- 
mented his death. 

-^--^-^ f (.C ' ^'^^^>? ' en f 


ILLARD FILLMORE, thirteenth President ' 
uf the United States, was born at Summer 
Hill, Cayuga County, N. V., on the 7th of 
Januarw iSoo. His father was a farmer, and, owing 
to misfortune, in humble circumstances. Of his 
mother, the daughter of Ur. Abiathar Millard, of 
Pittsfield, Mass., it has been said that she pos- 1 
sessed an intellect of a high order, united with 
much personal loveliness, sweetness of disposi- 
tion, graceful maimers and e.xqui,site sensibilities. 
She died in 1S31, having lived to see her son a 
young man of distinguished promise, though she 
was not permitted to witness the high dignity 
which he finall\- attained. 

In consequence of the .secluded home and limited 
means of his father, Millard enjoyed but .slender 
advantages for education in his early years. The 
common schools, which he occasionally attended, 
were very imperfect institutions, and books were 
scarce and expensive. There was nothing then 
in his character to indicate the brilliant career 
upon which he was about to enter. He was a 
plain farmer's boy — intelligent, good-looking, 
kind-hearted. The sacred influences of home 
had taught him to revere the Bible, and had laid 
the foundations of an upright character. When 
fourteen years of age, his father sent him some 
hundred miles from home to the then wilds of 
Livingston County, to learn the trade of a clothier. 
Near the mill there was a .small village, where 
some enterpri.sing man had commenced the col- 
lection of a village lilirary. This proved an in- 
estimable blessing to young Fillmore. His even- 
ings were spent in reading. vSoon evers- leisure 
moment was occupied with books. His thirst for 
knowledge became insatiate, and the selections 
which he made were continually more elevating 
and instructive. He read historj', biography, 
orator}', and thus gradually there was enkindled 

in his heart a desire to be something more than a 
mere worker with his hands. 

The yoiuig clothier had now attained the age 
of nineteen years, and was of hue personal appear- 
ance and of gentlemaidy demeanor. It so hap- 
pened that there was a gentleman in the neigh- 
borhood of ample pecuniary- means and of benev- 
olence, — ^Judge Walter Wood, — who was struck 
with the prepossessing appearance of young Fill- 
mure. He niade his acquaintance, and was so 
much impressed with his ability and attainments 
that he advi.sed him to abandon his trade and de- 
vote himself to the study of the law. The young 
man replied that he had no means of his own, 
no friends to help him, and that his previous edu- 
cation had been very imperfect. But Judge Wood 
had so much confidence in him that he kindly 
offered to take him into his own office, and to 
lend him such money as he needed. Most grate- 
fully the generous offer was accepted. 

There is in many minds a strange delusion 
about a collegiate education. A young man is 
supposed to be liberally educated if he has gradu- 
ated at .some college. But many a boy who loi- 
ters through university halls and then enters a 
law office is by no means as well prepared to 
prosecute his legal .studies as was Millard Fill- 
more when he graduated at the clothing-mill at 
the end of four years of manual labor, during 
which every leisure moment had been devoted to 
intense mental culture. 

In 1823, when twenty-three years of age, he 
was admitted to the Court of Common Pleas. 
He then went to the village of Aurora, and com- 
menced the practice of law. In this .secluded, 
quiet region, his practice, of course, was limited, 
and there was no opportunity for a sudden rise in 
fortune or in fame. Here, in 1826, he married a 
lady of great moral worth, and one capable of 


adorning any station she might be called to fill, — 
Miss Abigail Powers. 

His elevation of character, his untiring industrj-, 
his legal acquirements, and his skill as an advo- 
cate, gradually attracted attention, and he was 
invited to enter into partnership, under highl\- ad- 
vantageous circumstances, with an elder member 
of the Bar in Buffalo. Just before removing to 
Buffalo, in 1829, he took his seat in the House of 
Assembly of the State of New York, as a Repre- 
sentative from Erie County. Though he had 
never taken a ven,' active part in politics, his vote 
and sympathies were with the Whig party. The 
State was then Democratic, and he found himself 
■n a helpless minority in the Legislature; still the 
testimony comes from all parties that his courtesy, 
ability and integrity won, to a verj- unusual de- 
gree, the respect of his associates. 

In the autunni cif 1N3J, lie was elected to a 
seat in the ITiiited States Congress. He entered 
that troubled arena in the most tumultuous hours 
of our national hi.story, when the great couflict 
respecting the national bank and the removal ot 
the deposits was raging. 

His term of two years closed, and he returned 
to his profession, which he pursued with increas- 
ing reputation and succe-ss. After a lapse of two 
years he again became a candidate for Congress; 
was re-elected, and took his seat in 1837. His 
past experience as a Representative gave him 
strength and confidence. The first term of service 
in Congress to any man can be but little more 
than an introduction. He was now prepared for 
active duty. All his energies were brought to 
bear upon the public good. Everj' measure re- 
ceived his impress. 

Mr. Fillmore w;.: now a man of wide repute, 
and his popularity filled the State. In the year 
1847, when he had attained the age of forty- 
seven years, he was elected Comptroller of the 
State. -His labors at the Bar, in the Legisla- 
ture, in Congress and as Comptroller, had given 
him ver>' considerable fame. The Whigs were 
casting about to find suitable candidates for Presi- 
dent and Vice-President at the ap]iroaching elec- 
tion. Far away on the waters of the Rio Grande, 
there was a rough old soldier, who had fought 

one or two successful battles with the Mexicans, 
which had caused his name to be proclaimed in 
trumpet-tones all over the land as a candidate for 
the presidenc}-. But it was necessan,' to associate 
with him on the same ticket some man of repu- 
tation as a statesman. 

Under the influence of these considerations, the 
names of Zacharj- Taylor and Millard Fillmore 
became the rallying-crj- of the Whigs, as their 
candidates for President and \'ice-Presideiit. The 
Whig ticket was signalh- triumphant. On the 
4th of March, 1S49, Gen. Taylor was inaugurated 
President, and Millard Fillmore Vice-President, 
of the United States. 

On the 9th of July, 1850, President Taylor, 
about one year and four months after his inaugura- 
tion, was suddenly taken sick and died. By the 
Constitution, Vice-President Fillmore thus be- 
came President. He appointed a verj' able cabi- 
net, of which the illustrious Daniel Webster was 
Secretary' of State; nevertheless, he had serious 
difficulties to contend with, since the opposition 
had a majority in both He did all in his 
power to conciliate the South; but the pro-slavery 
party in the vSouth felt the inadequacy of all 
measures of transient conciliation. The popula- 
tion of the free States was so rapidly increasing 
over that of the slave States, that it was inevitable 
that the power of the Government should soon 
pass into the hands of the free States. The fa- 
mous compromise measures were adopted under 
Mr. Fillmore's administration, and the Japan ex- 
pedition was sent out. On the 4th of March, 
1853, he, having served one term, retired. 

In 1856, Mr. Fillmore was nominated for the 
Presidency by the "Know-Nothing" party, but 
was Ijeateii by Mr. Buchanan. After that Mr. 
Fillmore lived in retirement. During the terri- 
ble conflict of civil war, he was mostly silent. It 
was generally .supposed that his .sympathies were 
rather with those who were endeavoring to over- 
throw our institutions. President Fillmore kept 
aloof from the conflict, without any cordial words 
of cheer to one party or the other. He was thus 
forgoiteii by both. He lived to n ripe old age, 
and died in Bnff"alo, N. V., March 8, 1874. 



r"RAXKLIN PIERCE, the fourteenth Presi- 
rO dent of the United States, was born in Hills- 
I ^ borough, N. H., November 23, 1804. His ! 
father was a Revolutionary' soldier, who with his ) 
own strong arm hewed out a home in the wilder- 
ness. He was a man of inflexible integrit>-, of 
strong, though uncultivated, mind, and was an un- , 
compromising Democrat. The mother of Frank- | 
lin Pierce was all that a son could desire — an in- ' 
telligent, prudent, affectionate, Christian woman. 
Franklin, who was the sixth of eight children, 
was a remarkably bright and handsome bo^-, | 
generous, warm-hearted and brave. He wou 
alike the love of old and young. The boys on 
the play-ground loved him. His teachers loved 
him. The neighbors looked upon him with pride 
and affection. He was by instinct a gentleman, > 
always speaking kind words, and doing kind ' 
deeds, with a peculiar, unstudied tact which 
taught him what was agreeable. Without de- 
veloping any precocity of genius, or any unnatural 
devotion to books, he was a good scholar, and in 
body and mind a finely developed boy. 

When sixteen \-ears of age, in the 3'ear 1820, 
he entered Bowdoin College, at Brun.swick, Me. 
He was one of the popular young men in 
the college. The purity of his moral character, 
the unvarj'ing courtesy of his demeanor, his rank 
as a .scholar, and genial nature, rendered him a 
universal favorite. There was .something pe- 
culiarly winning in his address, and it was evi- 
dently not in the slightest degree studied — it was 
the simple outgushing of his own magnanimous 
and loving nature. 

Upon graduating, in the year 1S24, Franklin 
Pierce commenced the study of law in the office 
of Judge Woodbury, one of the most distinguished 

lawyers of the State, and a man of great private 
worth. The eminent social qualities of the young 
lawyer, his father's prominence as a public man, 
and the brilliant political career into which Judge 
Woodbur>- was entering, all tended to entice Mr. 
Pierce into the fascinating yet perilous path of 
political life. With all the ardor of his nature he 
espoused the of Gen. Jackson for the Presi- 
dency. He commenced the practice of law in 
Hillsborough, and was soon elected to represent 
the town in the State Legislature. Here he 
served for four years. The last two years he was 
chosen Speaker of the House by a ver>' large 

In 1833, at the age of twenty-nine, he was 
elected a member of Congress. In 1S37, being 
then but thirty-three >-ears old, he was elected to 
the Senate, taking his seat as Mr. \'an Buren 
commenced his administration. He was the 
youngest member in tlie .Senate. In the year 
1834, he married Miss Jane Means Appleton, a 
lady of rare beauty and accomplishments, and one 
admirably' fitted to adorn every station with which 
her husband was iKjnored. Of the three sons who 
were born to them, all now sleep with their par- 
ents in the grave. 

In the year 1838, Mr. Pierce, with growing 
fame and increasing business as a lawyer, took up 
his residence in Concord, the capital of New 
Hampshire. President Polk, upon his accession 
to office, appointed Mr. Pierce Attorney-General 
of the United States; but the offer was declined 
in consequence of numerous professional engage- 
ments at home, and the precarious state of Mrs. 
Pierce's health. He also, about the same time, 
declined the nomination for Governor by the 
Democratic party. The war with Mexico called 


Mr. Pierce into the army. Receiving the appoint- 
ment of Brigadier-General, he embarked with a 
portion of his troops at Newport, R. I., on the 
27th of May, 1847. He took an important part 
in this war, proving himself a brave and true sol- 

When Gen. Pierce reached his home in his na- 
tive vState, he was received enthn.siastically by the 
advocates of the Mexican War, and coldly by his 
o]iponents. He resumed the practice of his pro- 
fl.•s^illn. \i.T\- frL-quently taking an active part in 
])<)litical ([UL-stions, giving his cordial support to 
the pro-slavery wing of the Democratic party. 
The compromise measures met cordialh" with his 
approval, and he strenuously advocated the en- 
forcement of the infamous Fugitive Slave Law, 
which so shocked the religious sensibilities of the 
North. He thus became distinguished as a 
" Northern man with vSouthern princijiles. " The 
strong partisans of .slavery' in the vSouth conse- 
quently regarded him as a man whom the\- could 
safely trust in office to carr>' out their jilans. 

On the 12th of June, 1S52, the Democratic con- 
vention met in Baltimore to nominate a candidate 
for the Presidency. For four days they contin- 
ued in session, and in thirty-five ballotings no one 
had obtained a two-thirds vote. Not a vote thus 
far had been thrown for Gen. Pierce. Then the 
Virginia delegation brought forward his name. 
There were fourteen more ballotings, during which 
Gen. Pierce con.stantly gained strength, until, at 
the forty-ninth ballot, he received two hundred 
and eighty-two votes, and all other candidates 
eleven. Gen. Winfield Scott was the Whig can- 
didate. Gen. Pierce was cho.sen with great una- 
nimity. Only four States — Vermont, Massachu- 
setts, Kentucky and Tennessee — cast their elec- 
toral votes against him. Gen. Franklin Pierce 
was therefore inaugurated President (jf the United 
State.s on the 4th of March, 1853. 

His administration proved one of the most 
stormy our country had ever experienced. The 
controversy between slavery and freedom was 
then approaching its culminating point. It be- 
came e\ident that there was to be an irrepressible 
conflict between them, and that this nation 
could not long e.xisl ' ' half slave and half free. 

President Pierce, during the whole of his admin- 
istration, did everything he could to conciliate the 
South; but it was all in vain. The conflict everj' 
year grew more violent, and threats of the disso- 
lution of the Union were borne to the North on 
ever>' Southern breeze. 

vSuch was the condition of affairs when Presi- 
dent Pierce approached the close of his four- 
years term of office. The North had become 
thoroughl>- alienated from him. The anti-slaver>' 
sentiment, goaded by great outrages, had been 
rapidly increasing; all the intellectual ability and 
.social worth of President Pierce were forgotten in 
deep reprehension of his administrative acts. The 
.slaveholders of the vSouth also, unmindful of the 
fidelity with which he had advocated meas- 
ures of Government which they approved, and 
perhaps feeling that he had rendered himself 
so unpopular as no longer to be able to accepta- 
bly ser\'e them, ungratefully dropped him, and 
nominated James Buchanan to .succeed him. 

On the 4th of March, 1857, President Pierce re- 
turned to his home in Concord. His three chil- 
dren were all dead, his last surviving child hav- 
ing been killed before his eyes in a railroad acci- 
dent; and his wife, one of the most estimable and 
accomplished of ladies, was rapidly .sinking in 
consumptiijn. The hoiir of dreadful gloom soon 
came, and he was left alone in the world without 
wife or child. 

When the terrible Rebellion burst forth which 
divided our conutrv into two parties, and two 
only, Mr. Pierce remained steadfast in the prin- 
ciples which he had always cherished, and gave 
his .sympathies to that pro-slaven,- party with 
which he had ever been allied. He declined to 
do anything, either by voice or pen, to strengthen 
the hand of the National Government. He con- 
tinued to reside in Concord until the time of his 
death, which occurred in October, 1S69. He was 
one of the genial and social of men, an hon- 
ored communicant of the Epi.scopal Church, an<l 
one of the kindest of neighbors. Generous to a 
fault, he contributed liberally toward the allevia- 
tion of suffering and want, and many of his 
towns iieiijile were often gladdened li\- his material 

^^me^ G4y2cC^Ay^ /^^^ 7?/^ 


3AMEvS BUCHANAN, the fifteenth President 
of the United States, was born in a small 
frontier town, at the foot of the eastern ridge 
(if the Alleghanies, in Franklin County, Pa., on 
the 23d of April, 1791. The place where the 
humble cabin home .stood was called Stony Bat- 
ter. His father was a native of the north of Ire- 
land, who had emigrated in 1783, with little prop- 
erty save his own strong arms. Five years after- 
ward he married Elizabeth Spear, the daughter 
of a respectal)!e tarmer, and, with his young bride, 
plunged into the wilderness, staked his claim, 
reared his log hut, opened a clearing with his 
axe, and settled down there to perform his obscure 
part in the drama of life. When James was eight 
years of age, his father removed to the village of 
Mercersburg, where his son was placed at .school, 
and commenced a course of study in English, 
Latin and Greek. His progress was rapid, and 
at the age of fourteen he entered Dickin.son Col- 
lege, at Carlisle. Here he de\-el(iped remarkable 
talent, and took his .stand among the first .scholars 
in the institution. 

In the year i'" -^^ he graduated with the high- 
est honors of his class He was then eighteen 
\-ears of age; tall and graceful, vigorous in health, 
fond of athletic sports, an unerring shot, and en- 
livened with an exuberant flow of animal .spirits, 
lie immediately commenced the study of law in 
tile city of Lanca.ster, and was admitted to the 
Bar in iSi:;, when he was bu, twent3--one years 
of age. 

In 1820, he reluctantly con.sented to run as a 
candidate for Congress. He was elected, and for 
ten years he remained a member of the Lower 
House. During the vacations of Congress, he 

occasionally tried some important case. In 1831 
he retired altogether from the toils of his profes- 
sion, having acquired an ample fortune. 

Gen. Jack.son, upon his elevation to the Presi- 
dency, appointed Mr. Buchanan Minister to Rus- 
sia. The duties of his mission he performed 
with abilit\-, and gave satisfaction to all parties. 
Upon his return, in 1S33, he was elected to a .seat 
in the United States Senate. He there met as 
his a.s.sociates Weljster, Clay, Wright and Cal- 
houn. He advocated the measures proposed by 
President Jackson, of making reprisals against 
France to enforce the payment of our claims 
against that countn,-, and defended the 0/ 
the President in his unprecedented and wholesale 
removal from office of tliose who were not the 
supporters of his administration. Upon this 
question he was brought into direct collision with 
Henry Clay. He also, with voice and vote, ad- 
vocated expunging from the journal of the Senate 
the vote of censure against Gen. Jackson for re- 
moving the depo.sits. Earnestly he opposed the 
abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia, 
and urged the prohibition of the circulation of 
anti-.slaver>- documents by the United States 
mails. As to petitions on the subject of slavery, 
[ he advocated that they should be respectfully re- 
I ceived, and that the reply should be returned 
that Congress had no power to legislate upon the 
I .subject. "," .said he, "might as well 
undertake to interfere with .slavery under a for- 
eign government as in any of the States where it 
now exists." 

Upon Mr. Polk's accession to the Presidency, 
Mr. Buchanan became Secretary of State, and as 
such took his share of the responsibility in the 



coiuluct (if the Mexican War. Mr. T'olk a.ssumed I 
tlial crii-->iiii; ihc- Nueees by the American 
troop.s into the di.sputed territory was not wron.u;, 
but for the Mexicans to cross the Rio Grande 
into Texas was a declaration of war. No candid 
man can read witli pleasure the account of the 
course our (',o\ ernnient ]>ursued in tliat nio\ement. 

Mr. Buchanan identified himself thcjroughlN' 
with the party devoted to the perpetuation and 
extension of .slavery, and brought all the energies 
of his mind to bear against the Wilmot Proviso. 
He gave his cordial appro\al to 
measures of 1S50, which included the Fugitive 
Slave Law. Mr. Pierce, upon his election to the 
Presidency, honored Mr. Buchanan with the mis- 
sion to England. 

In the )'ear 1S56, a national Democratic Con- 
vention nominated Mr. Buchanan for the Presi- 
dency. The political conflict was oue of the most 
.severe in which our country has ever engaged. 
All the friends of sla\'er\- were on one side; all 
the advocates of its restriction and final abolition 
on the other. Mr. P'remont, the candidate of the 
enemies of sla\er\ , received one hundred and 
fourteen electoral \otcs. Mr. Buchanan received 
one hundred and se\enty-four, and was elected. 
The popular vote .stood 1,340.618 for Fremont, 
1,224,750 for Buchanan. On March 4, 1857, 
the latter was inaugurated. 

Mr. Buchanan was far ad\-ance<l in life. Only 
fotir years weix- wanting to fill up his three-score 
years and ten. His own friends, chose with 
whom he had been allied in jwlitical principles 
and action for years, were seeking the destruc- 
tion of the Government, that they might rear 
upon the ruins of our free institutions a nation corner-stone should be human .slaver\-. In 
this emergency, Mr. Buchanan was hopelessly 
bewildered. He could not, with his long-avowed 
principles, con.sistentl\- oppose the vState Rights 
party in their a.ssumptions. As President of the 
United vStates, bound by his oath faithfully to 
administer the laws, he could not, without per- 
jury of the gros.sest kind, unite with those en- 
deavoring to overthrow the Republic. He there- 
fore did nothing. 

The opponents of Mr. Buchanan's administra- 

tion nominated Abraham Lincoln as their stand- 
ard-bearer in the next Presidential 
The pro-slavery party declared that if he were 
elected and the control of the Government were 
thus taken from their hands, they would secede 
from the I'nion, taking with them as thc>- retired 
the National Capitol at Washington and the 
lion's share of the territory of the United States. 

As the .storm increased in violence, the slave- 
holders claiming the right to secede, and Mr. 
Buchanan avowing tliat Congress had no ])ower 
to prevent it, one of the most pitiable exhibitions 
of governmental imbecility was exhibited that the 
world has ever seen. He declared that Congress 
had no power to enforce its laws in any State 
which had withdrawn, or which was attempting 
to withdraw, from the I'nion. This was not the 
doctrine of Andrew Jack.son, when, with his hand 
upon his sword-hilt, he exclaimed; "The L^nion 
nuist and shall be preserved!" 

South Carolina seceded in December, i860, 
nearly three months liefore the inauguration of 
President Lincoln. Mr. Buchanan looked on in 
listless despair. The rebel flag was raised in 
Charleston; Ft. Sumter was besieged; our forts, 
navy-yards and arsenals were seized; our depots 
of military stores were plundered, ;uid our cus- 
tom-houses and post-offices were ajipropriated by 
the rebels. 

The energy of the rebels and the imbecility of 
our Fvxecutive were alike marvelous. The na- 
tion looked on in agony, waiting f>r the slow 
weeks to glide away and close the administration, 
so terrible in its weakness. At length the long- 
looked-for hour of deliverance came, when Abra- 
ham Lincoln was to receive the .scepter. 

The administration of President Buchanan was 
certainly the most calamitous our country has ex- 
perienced. His best friends can not recall it with 
pleasure. And still more deplorable it is for his 
fame, that in that dreadful conflict which rolled 
its billows of flame and blood over our whole 
land, no word came from his lips to indicate his 
wish that our country's banner should triumph 
over the flag of the Rebellion. He died at his 
Wheatland retreat, June i, 1868. 

tP^ fr 

Oy-^ Q^^A-ty^'' 



GllIRAIIAM LINCOLN, the sixteenth Presi- 
M dent of the United States, was born in Hardin 
/ I County, Ky., February 12. 1S09. About 
the year 17S0, a man by the name of Abrahnni 
Lincohi left Virginia with his family and moved 
into the then wilds of Kentucky. Only two years 
after this emigration, and while still a young man, 
he was working one day in a field, when an Indian 
stealthily approached and killed him. His widow 
was left in extreme poverty with five little chil- 
dren, three boys and two girls. Thomas, the 
youngest of the boys, and the father of President 
Abraham Lincoln, was four years of age at his 
father's death. 

When twenty-eight years old, Thomas Lincoln 
built a log cabin, and married Nancy Hanks, the 
daughter of another family of poor Kentucky 
emigrants, who had also come from Virginia. 
Their second child was Abraham Lincoln, the sub- 
ject of this sketch. The mother of Abraham was 
a noble woman, gentle, loving, pensive, created 
to adorn a palace, but doomed to toil and pine, and 
die in a hovel. " All that I am, or hope to be," 
exclaimed the grateful son, " I owe to my angel- 
mother." When he was eight years ot age, his 
father sold his cabin and small farm and moved 
to Indiana, where two years later his mother died. 

As the years rolled on, the lot of this lowly 
family was the usual lot of humanity. There j 
were joys and griefs, weddings and funerals. 
Abraham's sister Sarah, to whom he was tenderly [ 
attached, was married when a child of but four- [ 
teen years of age, and soon died. The famih- I 
was gradually scattered, and Tliomas Lincoln ' 
sojd out his squatter's claim in 1S30, and emi- 
grated to Macon County, 111. 

Abraham Lincoln was then twenty-one >'ears ' 
of age. With vigorous hands he aided his father 
in rearing another log cabin, and worked quite 
diligenth- at this until he saw the family com- j 
for^abl}- settled, and their small lot of enclosed 
prairie planted with corn, when he announced to ' 

his father his intention to leave home, and tr. g( 
out into the world and seek his fortune. Littk 
did he or his friends imagine how lirilliant that 
fortune \\as to be. He saw the value of educa- 
tion and was inten.sely earnest to improve his 
mind to the utmost of his power. Religion he 
revered. His morals were pure, and he was un- 
contaminated by a single vice. 

Young Abraham worked for a time as a hired 
laborer among the farmers. Then he went to 
Springfield, where he was employed in building 
a large flat-boat. In this he took a herd of .swine, 
floated them down the Sangamon to Illinois, and 
thence by the Mississippi to New Orleans. What- 
ever Abraham Lincoln undertook, he performed 
so faithfully as to give great satisfaction to his 
employers. In this adventure the latter were 
so well pleased, that upon his return they placed 
a store and mill under his care. 

In 1832, at the outbreak of the Black Hawk 
War, he enlisted and was chosen Captain of a 
compan}^ He returned to Sangamon County, 
and, although only twenty-three years of age, was 
a candidate for the Legislature, but was defeated. 
He soon after received from Andrew Jackson the 
appointment of Postmaster of New vSalem. His 
only post-office was his hat. All the letters he 
received he carried there, ready to deliver to those 
he chanced to meet. He studied sur\-eying, and 
.soon made this his business. In 1S34 he again 
became a candidate for the Legislature and was 
elected. Mr. Stuart, of Springfield, advised him 
to study law. He walked from New Salem to 
Springfield, borrowed of Mr. Stuart a load oi 
books, carried them back, and began his legal 
studies. When the Legislature assembled, he 
tnidged on foot with his pack on his back one 
hundred miles to Vandalia, then the capital. In 
1836 he was re-elected to the Legislature. Here 
it was he first met Stephen A. Douglas. In 1.839 
lie removed to Springfield and began the practice 
of law. His success with the jury was so great 


thai he was soon c-ngaged in almost every noted 
case in the circnit. 

In is=;4 the great discussion began between Mr. 
Lincohi and Mr. Douglas on the slavery ques- 
tion. In the organization of the Republican part>- 
in Illinois, in 1S56, he took an active part, and at 
once became one of the leaders in that party. 
Mr. Lincoln's speeches in opposition to Senator 
Douglas in the contest in i. s 5, S for a seat in the 
Senate, fonn a most notable part of his history. 
The issue was on the .slavery question, and he 
took the broad ground of the Declaration of In- 
deyieiidence, that all men are created equal. Mr. 
Lincoln was defeated in this contest, but won a 
far higher prize. 

The great Republican Convention met at Chi- 
cago on the l6th of June, 1.S60. The delegates 
and strangers who crowdetl the city amounted to 
twenty-five thousand. An immense building 
called " The Wigwam," was reared to accommo- 
date the convention. There were eleven candi- 
dates for whom votes were thrown. William H. 
Seward, a man wIkjsc fame as a statesman had 
long fdled the land, was the most prominent. It 
was generally supposed he would be the nomi- 
nee. Abraham Lincoln, however, received the 
nomination on the third ballot. 

Election day came, and Mr. Lincoln received 
one hundred and eiglity electoral votes out of two 
hiuidred and three, and was, therefore, con- 
.stitutionally elected President of the L'uited States. 
The tirade of abuse that was poured upon this 
good and merciful man, especialh- by the sla\e- 
holders, was greater than ujion an>- other man 
ever elected to this high position. In February, 
1.S61, Mr. Lincoln .started for Wa.shington, .stop- 
liing in all the large cities on his wa\-, making 
speeches. The whole journey was fraught witli 
much danger. Man>- of the Southern States liad 
already secetled, and several attempts at assassi- 
nation were afterward brought to light. A gang 
in Baltimore had arranged upon his arrival to 
"get u]) a row," and in the confusion to make 
sure of his death with revolvers and hand-gren- 
ades. A detecti\e unra\elled the plot. A secret 
and special train was provided to take him from 
Harrisburg, through Baltimore, at an unexpected 

hour of the night. The train started at half-past 
ten, and to prevent any po.ssible communication 
on the part of the Secessionists with tlieir Con- 
federate gang in Baltimore, as .soon as the train 
had .started the telegraph-wires were cut. Mr. 
Lincoln reached Washington in safety and was 
inaugurated, although great anxiety was felt by 
all loyal ]K-ople. 

In the selection of his cabinet Mr. Lincoln gave 
to Mr. Seward the Department of State, and to 
other prominent opponents before the convention 
he gave important positions; but during no other 
administration had the duties devolving upon the 
President been so manifold, and the responsibilities 
so great, as those which fell to his lot. Knowing 
this, and feeling his own weakness and inability 
to meet, and in his own strength to cope with, 
the difficulties, he learned early to seek Divine 
wisdom and guidance in determining his plans, 
and Divine comfort in all his trials, both personal 
and national. Contrary to his own estimate of 
himself, Mr. Liucolu was one of the most cour- 
ageous of men. He went directly into the rebel 
capital just as the retreating foe was leaving, with 
no guard but a few sailors. From the time he 
had left Springfield, in 1S61, however, plans had 
been made for his assassination, and he at last 
fell a victim to one of them. April 14, 1S65, he, 
with Gen. Grant, was urgently in\iled to attend 
Ford's Theatre. It was announced that they 
would be present. Gen. Grant, however, left the 
city. President Lincoln, feeling, with his char- 
acttristic kindliness of heart, that it would be a 
disajipointment if he shcjuld fail them, very re- 
luctantly consented to go. While li.stening to 
the play, an actor by the name of John Wilkes 
Booth entered the Ijox where the President and 
family were seated, and fired a bullet into his 
brain. He died the next morning at seven 

Never before in the history of the world was 
a nation plunged into such deep grief by the death 
of its ruler Strong men met in the streets and 
wept in .speechless anguish. His was a life which 
will fitly become a model. His name as the 
Savior of his countr\- will live with that of Wash- 
ington's, its Father. 


GINDREW JOHNvSON, seveuteenth President 
Lj of the United States. The early life of An- 
I I drew Johnson contains but the record of pov- 
erty, destitution and friendlessness. He was born 
December 29, 1808, in Raleigh, N. C. His par- 
ents, belonging to the class of "poor whites" 
of the South, were in such circum.stances that they 
could not confer even the slightest advantages of 
education upon their child. When Andrew was 
five years of age, his father accidentally lost his 
life, while heroically endeavoring to save a friend 
from drowning. Until ten years of age, Andrew 
was a ragged boy about the streets, supported b}- 
the labor of his mother, who obtained her living 
with her own hands. 

He then, having never attended a school one 
day, and being unable either to read or write, was 
apprenticed to a tailor in his native town. A gen- 
tleman was in the habit of going to the tailor's 
shop occasionally, and reading to the boys at 
work there. He often read from the speeches of 
distinguished British statesmen. Andrew, who 
was endowed with a mind of more than ordinary 
ability, became much interested in these .speeches; 
his ambition was roused, and he was inspired with 
a .strong desire to learn to read. 

He accordingly applied himself to the alphabet, 
and with the assistance of some of his fellow- 
workmen learned his letters. He then called upon 
tlie gentleman to borrow the book of speeches. 
The owner, pleased with his zeal, not only gave 
him the book, but assisted him in learning to com- 
bine the letters into words. ITnder such difficul- 
ties he pressed onward laboriously, spending usu- 
ally ten or twelve hours at work in the shop, and 
then robbing him.self of rest and recreation to de- 
vote such time as he could to reading. 

He went to Tennessee in 1826, and located at 

Greenville, where he married a young lady who 
possessed some education. Under her instructions 
he learned to write and cipher. He became 
prominent in the village debating society, and a 
favorite with the students of Greenville College. 
In 1828, he organized a working man's party, 
which elected him Alderman, and in 1830 elected 
him Mayor, which position he held three years. 

He now began to take a lively interest in 
political affairs, identifying himself with the work- 
ing-class, to which he belonged. In 1835, he 
was elected a member of the House of Represent- 
atives of Tennessee. He w'as then just twenty - 
seven years of age. He became a very active 
member of the Legislature, gave his support to 
the Democratic party, and in 1S40 "stumped the 
State," advocating Martin Van Buren's claims to 
the Presidency, in opposition to those of Gen. 
Harrison. In this campaign he acquired much 
readiness as a speaker, and extended and increased 
his reputation. 

In 1 84 1, he was elected State Senator; in 1843, 
he was elected a Member of Congress, and bj- suc- 
cessive elections held that important post for ten 
years. In 1 853, he was elected Governor of Tenn- 
essee, and was re-elected in 1855. In all these 
responsible positions, he chscharged his duties 
with distinguished ability, and proved himself the 
warm friend of the working classes. In 1857, Mr. 
Johnson was elected United States Senator. 

Years before, in 1845, he had warmly advocated 
the annexation of Texas, stating, however, as his 
reason, that he thought this annexation would 
probably prove "to be the gateway out of which 
the sable sons of Africa are to pass from bondage 
to freedom, and become merged in a population 
congenial to themselves." In 1850, he ahso sup- 
ported the compromise measures, the two e.ssen- 



lial features of whiih \' 
of the Territories shmi 
for themselves whethe; 
colored people or not, : 
the North should relur 


the white people 
niiUed to decide 

the\' '.vould enslave the 
id that the free States of 

to the vSouth persons who 

atteni]itetl to escape from slaverj-. 

Mr. Jnlinsou was never ashamed of his lowly 
oriifin: on the contrary, he often took i)ride in 
avowing that he oWL-d his distinction to his own 
exertions, ".^ir," said he on the lloor of llie 
Senate, "I ilo not forget that I am a mechanic; 
neither do I fiir;^et that Ad.iin was a tailor and 
sewed fig-leaves, antl that our Savior was the son 
of a carpenter. " 

In the Charleston-Baltimore convention of i860, 
he was the choice of the Tenne.s.see Democrats for 
the Presidency. In 1861, when the of 
the Southern Democracy- became apparent, he took 
a decided stand in favor of the Union, and held 
that ".slavery must be held subordinate to the 
Union at whatever cost." He returned to Tenn- 
essee, and repeateilly imperiled his own life to 
protect the Unionists of that vState. Tennessee 
havin- seceded irom the Union, I'resiilent Uincoln, 
on March 4, 1862, appointed him Militar\' Oov- 
ernor of the State, and he established the most 
stringent military rule. His numerous proclama- 
tions attracted wide attention. In 18(14, he was 
elected Vice-President of the United States, and 
upon the death of Mr. Lincoln, April 15, 1865, 
became President. In a speech two days later he 
said, "The American people be taught, if 
they do not already feel, that treason is n crime 
and nmstbe imnished; that the Government will 
not ahva\s bear with its enemies; that it is stron,>; 
not only to jsrotect, but to punish. * '■''■ The 
people must understand that it (treason) is the 
blackest of crimes, and will surely be ptmished." 
Vet his whole .administration, the hi.story of which 
is ,so well known, was in utter incon.sistency with, 
and in the UKjst violent opposition to, the princi- 
ples laid down in that speech. 

In his ]iolicy of reconstruction and general 
amnesty, he was opposed l)y Congress, and he 
characterized Con.ijress as a new rebellion, and 
lawle.s.sly defied it in everything possible to the ut- In the beginning of 1868, on account of 

"High crimes and mi.sdenieanors, " the principal 
of which was the removal of Secretary Stanton in 
violation of the Tenure of Office Act, articles of 
impeachment were jireferred against him, and the 
trial began March 2.v 

It was very tedious, continuing for nearly three 
months. A article of the impeachment was 
at length submitted to the court for its action. It 
was certain that as the court voted upon that ar- 
ticle so would it vote upon all. Thirty-four voices 
pronounced the President guilty. As a two-thirds 
vote was necessary to his condemnation, he was 
pronounced acquitted, notwithstanding the great 
majority against him. The change of one vote 
from the )iot giiilly side would have sustained the 

The President, for the remainder of his term, 
was but little regarded. He continued, though 
impotently, his conflict with Congress. His own 
part>- did not think it expedient to renominate 
him for the Presidency. The Nation rallied with 
enthusiasm, unparalleled since the days of Wash- 
ington, around the name of Gen. Grant. Andrew 
John.son was forgotten. The bullet of the assa.ssin 
introduced him to the President's chair. Not- 
withstanding this, never was there presented to a 
man a better opportunity to immortalize his name, 
and to win the gratitude of a nation. He failed 
utterly. He retired to his home in Greenville, 
Tenn., taking no very active part in jjolitics until 
1875. On January 26, after an exciting struggle, 
he was chosen by the Legislature of Tennessee 
United vStates vSenator in the Forty-fourth Congess, 
and took his seat in that body, at the special .ses- 
sion conxened by President Grant, on the 5th of 
March. On the 27th of July, 1875, the ex-Presi- 
dent made a visit to his daughter's home, near 
Carter vStation, Tenn. When he .started on his 
journey, he was apparently in his usual vigorous 
health, but on reaching the residence of his child 
the following day, he was stricken with paralysis, 
which rendered him unconscious. He rallied oc- 
casionally, but finally passed away at 2 .\. m.. 
July 31 , aged sixty-seven years. His funeral was 
held at Greenville, on the 3d of August, with 
every demonstration of respect. 



HLYSSES S. GRANT, the eighteenth Presi- 1 
dent of the United States, was born on the 
29th of April, 1822, of Christian parents, in 
a humble home at Point Pleasant, on the banks ! 
of the Ohio. Shortly after, his father moved to 
Georgetown, Brown County, Ohio. In this re- I 
mote frontier hamlet, Ulysses received a common- 
school education. At the age of seventeen, in j 
the year 1S39, he entered the Military Academy I 
at West Point. Here he was regarded as a solid, 
sensible young man, of fair ability, and of sturdy, character. He took respectable rank as a 
.■scholar. In June, 1843, he graduated about the 
middle in his class, and was sent as Lieutenant of 
Infantry- to one of the distant military posts in the 
Missouri Territorj-. Two years he passed in these 
drean,' solitudes, watching the vagabond Indians. 

The war ^-ith Mexico came. Lieut. Grant was 
sent with his regiment to Corpus Christi. His 
first battle was at Palo Alto. There was no ! 
chance here for the exhibition of either skill or 
heroism, nor at Resaca de la Palnia, his second 
battle. At the battle of Monterey, his third en- 
gagement, it is said that he performed a signal 
service of daring and skillful horsemanship. 

At the close of the Mexican War, Capt. Grant 
returned with his regiment to New York, and 
was again sent to one of the militan- posts on the 
frontier. The discover^' of gold in California 
causing an immense tide of emigration to flow to 
the Pacific .shores, Capt. Grant was sent with a 
battalion to Ft. Dallas, in Oregon, for the ])rotec- 
tion of the interests of the immigrants. But life 
was weari.some in those wilds, and he resigned 
his commission and returned to the States. Hav- 
ing married, he entered tipon the cnltivatifin of a 
small farm near St. Louis, Mo., but having little 

skill as a fanner, and finding his toil not re- 
munerative, he turned to mercantile life, entering 
into the leather business, with a younger brother 
at Galena, 111. This was in the year i860. As 
the tidings of the rebels firing on Ft. Sumter 
reached the ears of Capt. Grant in his counting- 
room, he said: "Uncle Sam has educated me 
for the army; though I have .ser\-ed him through 
one war, I do not feel that I have yet repaid the 
debt. I am still ready to discharge my obliga- 
tions. I .shall therefore buckle on my sword and 
see Uncle Sam through this war too. ' ' 

He went into the streets, rai.sed a company of 
volunteers, and led them as their Captain to 
Springfield, the capital of the State, where their 
sen-ices were offered to Gov. Yates. The Gov- 
ernor, impressed by the zeal and straightforward 
executive ability of Capt. Grant, gave him a desk 
in his oflice to a.ssist in the volunteer organiza- 
tion that was being fonned in the State in behalf 
of the Government. On the r 5th of June, 1861, 
Capt. Grant received a connni.ssion as Colonel of 
the Twenty-first Regiment of Illinois Volunteers. 
His merits as a West Point graduate, who had 
ser\-ed for fifteen years in the regular army, were 
such that he was soon promoted to the rank of 
Brigadier-General, and was placed in connnand at 
Cairo. The rebels raised their banner at Padu- 
cah, near the mouth of the Tennes.see River. 
Scarcely had its folds appeared in the breeze ere 
Gen. Grant was there. The rebels fled, their 
banner fell, and the vStars and .Stripes were un- 
furled in its stead. 

He entered the sen-ice with great determina- 
tion and immediately began acti^•e duty. This 
was the beginning, and until the surrender of 
Lee at Richmond he was e\-er pu.shing the enemy 


with great vigor :uid effectiveness. At Belmont, 
a few days later, lie surprised and routed the 
reljcls, then at Ft. Henry won another victory. 
Then came the brilliant fight at Ft. Donelson. 
The nation was electrified by the victory, and the 
brave leader of the boys in blue was immediately 
made a Major-General, and the military district 
of Tennessee was assigned to him. 

Like all great captains, Gen. Grant knew well 
how to secure the results of victory. He imme- 
diately pushed on to the enemies' lines. Then 
came the terrible battles of Pittsburg Landing, 
Corinth, and the siege of Vicksburg, where Gen. 
Pemlierton made an unconditional .surrender of 
the city with over thirty thousand men and one 
hundred and seventy-two cannon. The fall of 
Vicksburg was by far the most severe blow which 
the rebels had thus far encountered, and opened 
up the Mississippi from Cairo to the Gulf. 

Gen. Grant was next ordered to co-operate with 
Gen. Banks in a movement upon Texas, and pro- 
ceeded to New Orleans, where he was thrown 
from his, and received severe injuries, from 
which he was laid up fir months. He then 
rushed to the aid of Gens. Rosecrans and Thomas 
at Chattanooga, and by a wonderful series of 
strategic and technical measures put the Union 
army in fighting condition. Then followed the 
bloody battles at Chattanooga, Lookout Moun- 
tain and Mi.ssionar)' Ridge, in which the rebels 
were routed with great loss. This won for him 
unbounded praise in the North. On the 4th of 
February, 1S64, Congress revived the grade of 
lieutenant-general, and the rank was conferred 
on Gen. Grant. He repaired to W'asliington to 
receive his credentials and enter upon the duties 
of his new office. 

Gen. Grant decided as .soon as he took charge 
of the arm>- to concentrate the widely-dispersed 
National troops for an attack upon Richmond, 
the nominal capital of the rebellion, and endeavor 
there to destroy the rebel armies which would be 
promptly assemliled from all quarters for its de- The whole continent seemed to tremble 
under the tramp of these majestic armies, rushing 
to the decisive battle-field. Steamers were crowd- 
ed with troops. Railway trains were burdened 

with closely -packed thousands. His plans were 
comprehensive, and involved a .series of cam- 
paigns, which were executed with remarkable 
energy and ability, and were consummated at the 
surrender of Lee, April 9, 1865. 

The war was ended. The Union was saved. 
The almost unanimous voice of the nation de- 
clared Gen. Grant to be the most prominent in- 
strument in its salvation. The eminent services 
he had thus rendered the country brought him 
con.spicuously forward as the Republican candi- 
date for the Presidential chair. 

At the Republican Convention held at Chicago, 
May 21, 1868, he was unanimously nominated 
for the Presidency, and at the autumn election 
received a majority of the popular vote, and two 
hundred and fourteen out of two hundred and 
ninety-four electoral votes. 

The National Convention of the Republican 
party, which met at Philadelphia on the 5th 01 
June, 1872, placed Gen. Grant in nomination for 
a second term by a unanimous vote. The selec- 
tion was emphatically indorsed by the people five 
months later, two hundred and ninety-two elect- 
oral votes being for him. 

Soon after the close of his second term. Gen. 
Grant started upon his famous trip around the 
world. He vi.sited almost every country of the 
civilized world, and was everywhere received 
with such ovations and demonstrations of respect 
and honor, private as well as iniblic and official, 
as were never before bestowed upon any citizen 
of the United States. 

He was the most prominent candidate liefore 
the Republican National Convention in 1880 for 
a renomination for President. He went to New 
York and emttarked in the brokerage business 
under the firm name of Grant & Ward. The 
latter proved a villain, wrecked Grant's fortune, 
and for larceny was sent to the penitentiar)-. 
The General was attacked with cancer in the 
throat, but suffered in his stoic-like manner, never 
complaining. He was re-instated as General of 
the Army, and retired by Congress. The cancer 
soon finished its deadly work, and Jul>- 23. 1S85, 
the nation went in mourning over the death 01 
the illustrious General. 



QUTHERFORD B. HAYES, the nineteenth 
1^ President of the United States, was born in 
n\ Delaware, Ohio, October 4, 1822, ahnost 
three months after the death of his father, Ruther- 
ford Ha}'es. His ancestrj' on both the paternal and 
maternal sides was of the most honorable char- 
acter. It can be traced, it is said, as far back as 
1280, when Hayes and Rutherford were two 
Scottish chieftains, fighting side by side with 
Baliol, William Wallace and Robert Bruce. Both 
families belonged to the nobility, owned extensive 
estates, and had a large following. Misfortune 
overtaking the family, George Hayes left Scotland 
in 1680, and settled in Windsor, Conn. His son 
George was born in Windsor, and remained there 
during his life. Daniel Hayes, son of the latter, 
married Sarah L,ee, and lived from the time of 
his marriage until his death in Simsbur>-, Conn. 
Ezekiel, son of Daniel, was bom in 1724, and was 
a manufacturer of scythes at Bradford, Conn. 
Rutherford Hayes, son of Ezekiel and grandfather 
of President Hayes, was born in New Haven, in 
August, 1756. He was a farmer, blacksmith and 
tavern-keeper. He emigrated to Vermont at an 
unknown date, settling in Brattleboro, where he 
established a hotel. Here his son, Rutherford 
Hayes, the father of President Hayes, was born. 
He was married, in September, 1813, to Sophia 
Birchard, of Wilmington, Vt., whose ancestors 
emigrated thither from Connecticut, they having 
been among the wealthiest and best families of 
Norwich. Her ancestrj- on the male side is 
traced back to 1635, to John Birchard, one of the 
principal founders of Norwich. Both of her grand- 
fathers were soldiers in the Revolutionary War. 

The father of President Hayes was an industri- 
ous, frugal, yet open-hearted man. He was of a 

mechanical turn of mind, and could mend a plow, 
knit a stocking, or do almost anything else that 
he chose to undertake. He was a member of the 
church, active in all the benevolent enterprises 
of the town, and conducted his bu.sinesson Chris- 
tian principles. After the close of the War of 
1812, for reasons inexplicable to his neighbors, he 
resolved to emigrate to Ohio. 

The journey from Vermont to Ohio in that day, 
when there were no canals, steamers, or rail- 
ways, was a ver>- serious affair. A tour of in- 
spection was first made, occupying four months. 
Mr. Hayes decided to move to Delaware, where 
the family arrived in 1S17. He died July 22, 
1S22, a victim of malarial fever, less than three 
months before the birth of the son of whom we 
write. Mrs. Hayes, in her sore bereavement, 
found the support she so much needed in her 
brother Sardis, who had been a member of the 
househokl from the day of its departure from 
Vermont, and in an orphan girl, whom she had 
adopted some time before as an act of charity. 

Rutherford was seven years old before he went 
to .school. His education, however, was not neg- 
lected. He }irobal)ly learned as much from his 
mother and sister as he would have done at 
school. His .sports were almost wholly within 
doors, his playmates being his sister and her asso- 
ciates. These circumstances tended, no doubt, to 
foster that gentleness of disposition and that del- 
icate con.sideration for the feelings of others which 
were marked traits of his character. 

His uncle, Sardis Birchard, took the deepest 
interest in his education; and as the boy's health 
had improved, and he was making good progress 
in his studies, he propo.sed to send him to college. 
Plis preparation commenced with a tutor at home; 



but he was aften\-ards sent for one year to a pro- 
fessor in the Wesleyan University in Middletown, 
Conn. He entered Kenyon College in 1838, at 
the age of sixteen, and was graduated at the head j 
of his class in 1S42. 

Immediately after his graduation he began the 
study of law in the office of Thomas Sparrow, 
Esq.. in Columbus. Finding his opportunities 
for study in Columbus .somewhat limited, he de- 
termined to enter the Law School at Cambridge,, where he remained two years. 

In 1S45, after graduating at the Law School, he 
was admitted to the Bar at Marietta, Ohio, and 
shortly afterward went into practice as an at- 
torney-at-law with Ralph P. Buckland, of Fre- 
mont. Here he remained three years, acquiring 
but a limited practice, and apparently unambitious 
of distinction in his profession. 

In 1849 he moved to Cinciiniati, where his am- 
bition found a new .stimulus. Fur se\-eral years, 
however, his progress was slow. Two events 
occurring at this period had a powerful influence 
upon his subserpR-nt life. One of these was his 
marriage with .Miss Lucy Ware Webb, daughter 
of Dr. James Welib, of Chillicothe; the other was 
his introduction to the Cincinnati Literary Club, 
a body embracing among its niembers such men 
as Chief Justice .Salmon P. Chase, Gen. John 
Pope, Gov. Edward F. Noyes, and many others 
hardly less distniguished in after life. The mar- 
riage was a fortunate one in e\'er\- re.spect, as 
everybodx- kiKiws. Not one of all the wives of 
our Presidents was more universally admired, 
reverenced and beloved than was Mrs. Hayes, and 
no one did more than she to reflect honor upon 
American womanhood. The LiteraryClub brought 
Mr. Ha\es intt) constant a.ssociation with young 
men of high character and noble aims, and lured 
him to display the qualities so long hidden by his 
bashfulness and modesty. 

In 1856 he was nominuled to tlie office of Judge 
of the Court of Common I'lcaN, but he declined to 
accept the nomination. Two years later, the of- 
fice of City Solicitor becoming vacant, the Cit\- 
Council elected him for the unexpired term. 

In 1861, when the Rebellion broke out, he was 
at the zenith of his professional life. His rank at 

the Bar was among the first. But the news of 
the attack on Ft. Sumter found him eager to 
take up arms for the defense of his country. 

His military record was bright and illustrious. 
In October, 1861, he was made Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel, and in August, 1862, promoted Colonel of 
the Sevent\--ninth Ohio Regiment, but he refused 
to leave his old comrades and go among strangers. 
vSubseqtiently, however, he was made Colonel of 
his old regiment. At the battle of South Moun- 
tain he received a wound, and while faint and 
lileeding displayed courage and fortitude that 
won admiration from all. 

Col. Hayes was detached from his regiment, 
after his recovery, to act as Brigadier- General, 
and placed in command of the celebrated Kanawha 
division, and for gallant and meritorious services 
in the battles of Winchester, Fisher's Hill and 
Cedar Creek, he was promoted Brigadier- General. 
He was also breveted Major-General, "for gallant 
and di.stingni.shed services during the campaigns 
of 1864, in West Virginia." In the of his 
arduous ser\-ices, four horses were .shot from un- 
der him, and he was wounded four times. 

In [864, Gen. Hayes was elected to Congress 
from the Second Ohio District, which had long 
been Democratic. He was not present during the 
campaign, and after the election was importuned 
to resign his commission in the army; but he fi- 
nally declared, " I shall never come to Wa.shing- 
ton until I can come by wa>' of Richmond." He 
was re-elected in i8<i6. 

In 1867, Gen. Hayes was elected Governor of 
Ohio, over H(in. Allen G. Thurman, a popular 
Democrat, and in iSfig was re-elected over George 
H. Pendleton. He was elected Governor for the 
third term in 1873. 

In 1876 he was the standard-bearer of the Re- 
publican party in the Presidential, and 
after a hard, long contest was chosen President, 
and was inaugurated Monday, March 5, 1877. 
He served his full tenn, not, however, with satis- 
faction to his party, but his administration was an 
average one. The remaining years of his life 
were passed (piietly in his Ohio home, where he 
jiassed awa\- January 17, 1893. 



(Tames a. GARFIELD, twentieth Presick-nt 
I of the United States, was born Novenihcr 19, 
(2/ 1831, in the woods of Orange, Cu\ahiii;a 
Countx-, Ohio. His parents were Abrani and 
Eliza (Ballon) Garfield, both of New England 
ancestry, and from families well known in the 
early history of that section of onr countn,-, bnt 
who had moved to the Western Reserve, in Ohio, 
early in its settlement. 

The house in which James A. was born was 
not unlike the houses of poor Ohio farmers of 
that day. It was about 20 x 30 feet, built of logs, 
with the spaces between the logs filled with clay. 
His father was a hard-working farmer, and he 
soon had his fields cleared, an orchard planted, 
and a log barn built. The household comprised 
the father and mother and their four children, 
Mehetabel, Thomas, Mary and James. In May, 
1823, the father died from a cold contracted in 
helping to put out a forest fire. At this time 
James was about eighteen months old, and 
Thomas about ten years old. No one, perhaps, 
can tell how much James was indebted to lus 
brother's toil and self-sacrifice during the twenty 
years succeeding his father's death. He now 
lives in Michigan, and the two sisters live in Solon, 
Ohio, near their birthplace. 

The early educational advantages 3'oung Gar- 
field enjoyed were very limited, yet he made the 
most of them. He labored at farm work for 
others, did carpenter work, chopped wood, or did 
anything that would bring in a few dollars to aid 
his widowed mother in her struggles to keep the 
little family together. Nor was Gen. Garfield 
ever a.shamed of his origin, and he never forgot 
the friends of his struggling childhood, j-outh and 
manhood; neither did they ever forget him. 
When in the highest seats of honor, the humblest 
friend of his boyhood was as kindly greeted as 
ever. The poorest laborer was sure of the sym- 
pathy of one who had known all the bitterness of 

want and the sweetness of bread earned l)y the 
sweat of the brow. He was ever the simple, 
l>lain, gentleman. 

The highest ambition of yoiuig Garfield until 
he was about sixteen years old was to be cap- 
tain of a vessel on Lake Erie. He was anxious 
to go aboard a vessel, but this his mother strongly 
opposed. Slie finall\- consented to his going to 
Cle\eland, with the understanding, however, that 
he sIkjuIiI try to obtain some other kind of em- 
l)lo\nient. He walked all the way to Cleveland. 
This was his first visit to the city. After making 
many applications for work, and trying to get 
aboard a lake vessel and not meeting with suc- 
cess, he engaged as a driver for his cousin, Amos 
Eetcher, on the Ohio & Pennsylvania Canal. 
He remained at this work Init a short time, when 
lie went home, and attended the seminary at 
Chester for about three >ears. He then entered 
Hiram and the Eclectic In,stitute, teaching a few 
terms of school in the mean time, and doing other 
work. This school was started by the Disciples 
of Christ in 1.S50, of which body he was then a 
mendjer. He became janitor and bell-ringer in 
order to help pay his way. He then became both 
teacher and pupil. Soon " exhausting Hiram," 
and needing a higher education, in the fall of 1854 
he entered Williams College, from which he grad- 
uated in 1856, taking one of the highest honors of 
his class. He afterwards returned to Hiram Col- 
lege as its President. As above stated, he early 
united with the Christian, or Disciples, Church at 
Hiram, and was ever after a devoted, zealous 
member, often jireaching in its pulpit and places 
where he happened to be. 

Mr. Garfield was united in marriage, Novem- 
ber II, 1 858, with Miss Lucretia Rudolph, who 
proved herself worthy as the wife of one whom 
all the world loved. To them were Ijorn seven 
children, five of whom are still living, four boj-s 
and one girl. 



Mr. Garfield made his first political speeches in 
1856, in Hiram and the neighboring villages, and 
three years later he began to speak at county 
mass-meetings, and became the favorite speaker 
wherever he was. During this year he was 
elected to the Ohio vSenate. He also began to 
study law at Cleveland, and in 1S61 was admitted 
to the Bar. The great Rebellion broke out in the 
early part of this year, and Mr. Garfield at once 
resolved to fight as he had talked, and enlisted to 
defend the Old Flag. He received his commission 
as Lieutenant-Colonel of the Forty-second Regi- 
nient of Ohio Infantry August 14, 1861. He 
was innnediately put into active service, and be- 
fore he had ever seen a gun fired in action, was 
placed in command of four regiments of infantn,- 
and eight companies of cavalrj-, charged with the 
work of driving out of his native State the able 
rebel officer, Humphrey Marshall, of Kentucky. 
This work was bravely and speedily accomplished, 
although great odds, and President Lin- 
coln commissioned him Brigadier-General, Janu- 
ary- 10, 1862; and "as he had bee.i the 
man in the Ohio Senate two years before, so now 
he was the youngest General in the army." He 
was with Gen. Buell's army at Shiloh, in its 
operations around Corinth and its march through 
Alabama. He was then detailed as a member of 
the general court martial for the trial of Gen. 
Fitz-John Porter. He was next ordered to re- 
port to Gen. Rosecrans, and was assigned to the 
" Chief of vStaff. " The military history of Gen. 
Garfield closed with his brilliant services at Chick- 
ainanga, where he won the rank of Major-General. 

Without an effort on his part. Gen. Garfield 
was elected to Congress in the fall of 1862, from 
the Nineteenth District of Ohio. This .section of 
Ohio had been represented in Congress for .sixty 
years mainly by two men — Elisha Whittlesey and 
Joshua R. Giddings. It was not without a strug- 
gle that he resigned his place in the army. At 
the time he entered Congress he was the youngest 
mend)er in that body. There he remained by 
successive re-elections until he was elected Presi- 
dent, in iRSo. Of his labors in Congress, Senator 
Hoar says: "Since the year 1864 >-(>u cannut 
think of a question which has been debated in 

Congress, or discussed before a tribunal of the 
American people, in regard to which you will not 
find, if you wish histruction, the argument on 
one side stated, in almost every in.stance better 
than by anybody else, in some .speech made in 
the House of Representatives or on the hustings 
by Mr. Garfield." 

Upon January 14, 1880, Gen. Garfield was elect- 
ed to the United States Senate, and on the 8th of 
June, of the same year, was nominated as the 
candidate of his party for President at the great 
Chicago Convention. He was elected in the fol- 
lowing November, and on March 4, 18S1, was 
inaugurated. Probably no administration ever 
opened its exi.stence under brighter auspices than 
that of President Garfield, and every day it grew 
in favor with the people. By the ist of Jul>- 
he had completed all the initiatory and prelimi- 
nary wofk of his administration, and was prepar- 
ing to leave the cit\- to meet his friends at Will- 
iams College. While on his way and at the 
depot, in company with Secretary Blaine, a man 
stepped behind him, drew a revolver, and fired 
directly at his back. The President tottered and 
fell, and as he did so the assassin fired a .second 
shot, the bullet cutting the left coat sleeve of his 
victim, but inflicting no further injury. It has 
been very truthfully said that this was " the shot 
that was heard around the world. ' ' Never before 
in the history of the nation had anything occur- 
red which so nearly froze the l:)lood of the people 
for the moment as this awful deed. He was 
smitten on the brightest, gladdest day of all his 
life, at the summit of his power and hope. For 
eighty days, all during the hot months of July 
and August, he lingered and suffered. He, how- 
ever, remained master of himself till the last, and 
b}' his magnificent bearing taught the country 
and the world one of the noblest of human les- 
sons — how to live grandly in the very clutch of 
death. Great in life, he was surpassingly great 
in death. He passed serenely away September 
19, 1S83, at Elberon, N. J., on the very bank of 
the ocean, where he had been taken shortly be- 
fore. The world wept nt his death, as it rarely 
ever had done on the death of any other great 
and noble man. 


E HESTER A. ARTHUR, twenty-first Presi- 
dent of the United States, was born in Frank- 
lin County, Vt., on the 5th day of October, 
1830, and was the eldest of a family of two sons [ 
and five daughters. His father was the Rev. Dr. 
William Arthur, a Baptist clergyman, who emi- [ 
grated to this country from County Antrim, Ire- j 
land, in his eighteenth year, and died in 1875, in I 
Newtonville, near Albany, after a long and sue- ' 
cessful ministry. i 

Young Arthur was educated at Union College, 
Schenectady, where he excelled in all his .studies. 
After his graduation he taught school in Ver- 
mont for two years, and at the expiration of that I 
time came to New York, with $500 in his pocket, i 
and entered the office of ex-Judge E. D. Culver 
as a .student. After being admitted to the Bar, he 
formed a partnership with his intimate friend and I 
room-mate, Henry D. Gardiner, with the inten- 
tion of practicing in the West, and for three | 
months they roamed about in the Western States 
in search of an eligible site, but in the end re- 
turned to New York, where they hung out their 
shingle, and entered upon a successful career al- 
most from the start. Gen. Arthur soon after mar- 
ried the daughter of Lieut. Herndon, of the 
United States Navy, who was lost at sea. Con 
gress voted a gold medal to his widow in recog 
nition of the bravery he displayed on that occa- 
sion. Mrs. Arthur died shortly before Mr. 
Arthur's nomination to the Vice-Presidency, leav- 
ing two children. 

Gen. Arthur obtained considerable legal celeb- 
rit\- in his first great case, the famous Leramon 
suit, brought to recover possession of eight slaves ; 
who had been declared free by Judge Paine, of 1 
the Superior Court of New York City. It was in | 

1852 that Jonathan Eemmon, of Virginia, went to 
New York with his slaves, intending to ship them 
to Texas, when they were discovered and freed. 
The Judge decided that they could not be held by 
the owner under the Fugitive Slave Law. A howl 
of rage went up from the South, and the Virginia 
Legislature authorized the Attorney-General of 
that State to assist in an appeal. William M. 
Evarts and Chester A. Arthur were employed to 
represent the people, and they won their, 
which then went to the Supreme Court of the 
United States. Charles O'Conor here espoused 
the cause of the .slaveholders, but he, too, w^is 
beaten by Messrs. Evarts and Arthur, and a long 
step was taken toward the emancipation of the 
black race. 

Another great .senice was rendered by Gen. 
Arthur in the same in 1856. Lizzie Jen- 
nings, a respectable colored woman, was put ofiF 
a Fourth Avenue car with violence after she had 
paid her fare. Gen. Arthur sued on her behalf, 
and secured a verdict of $500 damages. The next 
day the company i.ssued an order to admit colored 
pensons to ride on their cars, and the other car 
companies quickly followed their example. Be- 
fore that the Sixth Avenue Company ran a few 
special cars for colored persons, and the other lines 
refused to let them ride at all. 

Gen. Arthur was a delegate to the convention 
at Saratoga that founded the Republican party. 
Pre\-ious to the war he was Judge- Advocate of 
the Second Brigade of the State of New York, 
and Gov. Morgan, of that vState, appointed him 
Engineer-in-Chief of his staff. In 1861, he was 
made Inspector-General, and .soon aftenvard be- 
came Quartermaster-General. In each of these 
offices he rende.-ed great ser\-ice to the Govern- 


ment during the war. At the end of Gov. Mor- 
gan's term he resumed the practice of law, form- 
ing a partnership with Mr. Ransom, and then 
Mr. Phelps, the District Attorney of New York, 
ivas added to the firm. Tlie legal practice of this 
rt-ell-known firm was very large and lucrative, 
as each of the gentlemen composing it was an able 
lawyer, and po.s.sessed a splendid local reputa- 
tion, if not, indeed, one of iiational extent. 

Mr. Arthur alwa>-s took a leading part in vState 
and city politics. He was appointed Collector of 
the Port of New York by President Grant, No- 
vember 21, 1S72, to succeed Thomas Murphy, 
and he held the office until July 20, 1878, when 
he was succeeded by Collector Merritt. 

Mr. Arthur was nominated on the Presidential 
ticket, with Gen. James A. Garfield, at the 
famous National Republican Convention helil at 
Chicago in June, 1S80. This was perhaps the 
greatest political convention that ever assembled 
on the continent. It was composed of the lead- 
ing politicians of the Republican party, all able 
men, and each .stood firm and fought vigorously 
luid with signal tenacit\- for his respective can- 
iidate that was before the convention for the 
nomination. Finally Gen. Garfield received the 
'lomination for President, and Gen. Arthur for 
V'ice-President. The campaign which followed 
was one of the most animated known in the his- 
torj' of our country. Gen. Hancock, the stand- 
ard-bearer of the Democratic ]iart>-, was a ]iopular 
man, and his party made a valiant fight for his 

Filially the election came, and the country's 
choice was Garfield and Arthur. The\- were in- 
augurated March 4, 18S1, as President and Vice- 
President. A few months only had passed ere 
the newly-chasen President was the victim of the 
assassin's bullet. Then came terrible weeks of 
suffering — those moments of anxious, 
when the hearts of all civilized nations were 
throbbing in unison, longing for the recover}- of 
the noble, the good President. The remarkable 
patience that he manifested during those hours 
and weeks, and even months, of the most terrible 
-iuffering man has ever been called upon to en- I 
dure, was seemingly more than human. It was | 

certainly godlike. During all this period of 
deepest anxiety Mr. Arthur's every move was 
watched, and, be it said to his credit, that his every 
action displayed only an earnest desire that the 
suffering Garfield might recover to serve the re- 
mainder of the term he had so au.spiciou.sly be- 
gun. Not a selfish feeling was manifested in 
deed or look of this man, even though the most 
honored position in the world was at any moment 
likely to fall to him. 

At last God in his mercy relieved President 
Garfield from further suffering, and the world, as 
never before in its history over the death of any 
other man, wept at his bier. Then it became the 
duty of the Vice-President to assume the respon- 
.sibilities of the high office, and he took the oath 
in New York, September 20, 1881. The position 
was an embarra.ssing one to him, made doubly so 
from the fact that all e\es were on him, anxious 
to know what he would do, what policy he would 
pur.sue, and whom he would .select as advisers. 
The duties of the office had been greatly neglected 
during the President's long, and many im- 
portant measures were tti be immediately decided 
by him; and to still further embarass him he did 
not fail to realize under what circum.stances he 
became President, and knew the feelings of many 
on this point. Under trying circumstances, 
President Arthur took the reins of the Govern- 
ment in his own hands, and, as embarrassing as 
was the condition of affairs, he happily surpri.sed 
the nation, acting so wisely that but few criticized 
his administration. He .served the nation well 
and faithfully until the close of his administra- 
tion, March 4, 1885, and was a popular candidate 
before his party for a second term. His name 
was abh' presented before the convention at Chi- 
cago, and was received with great favor, and 
doubtless but for the personal popularity of one 
of the oppo.sing candidates, he would have been 
selected as the standard-bearer of his party for 
another campaign. He retired to private life, car- 
r\-ing with him the best wishes of the American 
people, whom he had .served in a manner .satisfac- 
tory to them and with credit to himself. One 
vear later he was called to his final 





Nw twentN-secoiul President of the United States, 
V|y was born in 1837. in the obscure town of 
Laldwell, Essex County, N. J., and in a Httle 
two-and-a-half-story white house, which is still 
standing to characteristically mark the humble 
Ijirthplace of one of America's great men, in 
striking contrast with the Old World, where all 
men high in office must be high in origin and 
born in the cradle of wealth. When the subject I 
of this sketch was three years of age, his father, 
who was a Presbyterian minister with a large 
family and a small salary, moved, by way of the 
Hudson River and Erie Canal, to Fayetteville, N. 
v., in search of an increased income and a larger | 
field of work. Fayetteville was then the most ! 
straggling of countr>- villages, about five miles 
from Pompey Hill, where Governor Seymour 
was born. 

At the last-mentioned place young Grover com- 
menced going to school in the good, old-fashioned 
way, and presumably distinguished himself after 
the manner of all village boys — in doing the 
things he ought not to do. Such is the dis- 
tinguishing trait of all geniuses and independent 
thinkers. When he arrived at the age of four- 
teen years, he had outgrown the capacity of the 
village school, and expressed a most emphatic de- 
sire to be sent to an academy. To this his fa- 
ther decidedly objected. Academies in those 
days cost money; besides, his father wanted him 
to become self-supporting by the quickest pos- 
sible means, and this at that time in E'ayetteville 
seemed to be a position in a country store, where 
his father and the large family on his hands had 

considerable intluence. Grover was to be paid 
$50 for his ser\-ices the first year, and if he proved 
trustworthy he was to receive $100 the second 
year. Here the lad commenced his career as 
salesman, and in two years he had earned so good 
a reputation for trustworthiness that his employ- 
ers desired to retain him for an indefinite length 
of time. 

But instead of remaining with this firm in 
Fayetteville, he went with the family in their re- 
moval to Clinton, where he had an opportunity 
of attending a High vSchool. Here he industri- 
ously pursued his studies until the family re- 
moved with him to a point on Black River known 
as tlie "Holland Patent," a village of five or six 
hundred people, fifteen miles north of Utica, N. Y. 
At this place his father died, after preaching but 
three Sundays. This event broke up the family, 
and Grover set out for New York City tD accept, 
at a small salarj-, the position of under-teacher 
in an asylum for the blind. He taught faithfully 
for two years, and although he obtained a good 
reputation in this capacity, he concluded that 
teaching was not his calling in life, and, revers- 
ing the traditional order, he left the city to seek 
his fortune, instead of going to the city. He first 
thought of Cleveland, Ohio, as there was some 
charm in that name for him; but before proceed- 
ing to that place he went to Buffalo to ask advice 
of his uncle, Eewis F. Allan, a noted stock- 
breeder of that place. The latter did not speak 
enthusiastically. "What is it \dU want to do, 
my boy?" he asked. "Well, sir, I want to study 
law," was the reply "Good gracious!" remarked 
the old gentleman; " do you, indeed? Whatever 


put that into your head ? How much moiic}- 
have you got?" "Well, sir, to tell the truth, I 
haven't got any." 

After a long consultation, his uncle offered him 
a place temporarily as assistant herd-keeper, at 
$50 a year, while he could look around. One 
day soon afterward he boldly walked into the of- 
fice of Rogers, Bowen & Rogers, of Buffalo, and 
told them what he wanted. A number of young 
men were already engaged in the office, but Gro- 
ver's persi.steucy won, and he was finally per- 
mitted to come as an office boy and have the use 
of the law library, receiving as wages the sum of 
$3 or $4 a week . Out < if this he had to pay for his 
board and washing. The walk to and from his 
uncle's was a long and rugged one; and although 
the first winter was a memorably severe one, his 
shoes were out of repair, and as for his overcoat he 
had none; yet he was,, . prompt and 
regular. On the first day of his service there, his 
senior employer threw down a copy of Black- 
stone before him, with a bang that made the dust 
fly, saying "That's where they all begin." A 
titter ran around the little circle of clerks and 
students, as they thought that was enough to 
scare young Grover out of his plans; but in due 
time he mastered that cumbersome volume. 
Then, as ever afterward, however, Mr. Cleve- 
land exhibited a talent for executiveness rather 
than for chasing principles through all their 
metaphysical possibilities. "Let us quit talking 
and go and do it, ' ' was practically his motto. 

The first public office to which Mr. Cleveland 
was elected was that of Sheriff of Erie County, 
N. Y., in which Buffalo is situated; and in such 
capacity it fell to his duty to iiiflict capital punish- 
ment upon two criminals. In 1881 he was 
elected Mayor of the City of Buffalo, on the 
Democratic ticket, with especial reference to bring- 
ing about certain reforms in the administration 
of the municipal affairs of that city. In this of- 
fice, as well as in that of Sheriff, his performance 
of duty has generally been considered fair, with 
possil)ly a few exceptions, which were ferreted 
out and magnified during his Presidential cam- 
paign. As a specimen of his plain language in 
a veto message, we quote from one vetoing an 

iniquitous street-cleaning contract: "This is a 
time for plain .speech, and my objection to your 
action shall be plainly stated. I regard it as the 
culmination of a most bare-faced, ini] indent and 
.shameless scheme to betray the interests of the 
people and to than squander the people's 
money." The New York Su/i afterward very 
highly commended Mr. Cleveland's admini.stra- 
tion as Mayor of Buffalo, and thereupon recom- 
mended him for Governor of the Empire State. 
To the latter office he was elected in 1882, and 
his administration of the affairs of State was 
generally satisfactory. The mi.stakes he made, 
if any, were made \-ery public throughout the na- 
tion after he was nominated for President of the 
United States. For this high office he was 
nominated July 11, 1884, by the National Demo- 
cratic Convention at Chicago, when other com- 
petitors were Thomas F. Bayard, Roswell P. 
Flower, Thomas A. Hendricks, Benjamin F. 
Butler, Allen G. Thunnan, etc. ; and he was 
elected by the people, by a majority of about a 
thousand, over the brilliant and long-tried Re- 
publican statesman, James G. Blaine. President 
Cleveland resigned his office as Governor of New 
York in January, 1885, in order to prepare for 
his duties as the Chief Executive of the ITnited 
States, in which capacity his tenn commenced at 
noon on the 4th of March, 1S85. 

The silver question precipitated a controversy 
between those who were in favor of the continu- 
ance of silver coinage and those who were op- 
posed, Mr. Cleveland answering for the latter, 
even before his inauguration. 

On June 2, 1886, President Cleveland married 
Frances, daughter of his deceased friend and part* 
ner, Oscar Fol.som, of the Buffalo Bar. Their 
union has been blessed by the birth of two daugh- 
ters. In the campaign of 1888, President Cleve- 
land was renominated by his party, but the 
Republican candidate. Gen. Benjamin Harrison, 
was victorious. In the nominations of 1892 
these two candidates for the highest po.sition in 
the gift of the people were again pitted against 
each other, and in the ensuing election President 
Cleveland was victorious by an overwhelming 

^(^OOy/ . (L-^^^^/^'A i i^<^' 


gENJAMIN HARRISON, the twenty-third 
President, is the descendant of one of the 
historical families of this country. The first 
known head of the family was Maj.-Geii. Harrison, 
one of Oliver Cromwell's trusted followers and 
fighters. In the zenith of Cromwell's power it be- 
came the duty of this Harrison to participate in 
the trial of Charles I., and aftenvard to sign the 
death warrant of the king. He .subsequently 
paid for this with his life, being hung October 13, 
1 660. His descendants came to America, and 
the next of the family that appears in history is 
Benjamin Harrison, of Virginia, great-grandfa- 
ther of the subject of this sketch, and after whom 
he was named. Benjamin Harrison was a mem- 
ber of the Continental Congress during the years 
17741 1775 ^^^ 1776, and was one of the original 
signers of the Declaration of Independence. He 
was three times elected Governor of Virginia. 

Gen. William Henrj- Harrison, the son of the 
distinguished patriot of the Revolution, after a 
succe-ssftil career as a soldier during the War of 
1 8 1 2 , and with a clean record as Governor of the 
Northwestern Territory, was elected President of 1 
the United vStates in 1840. His career was cut 
short by death within one month after his in- | 

President Harrison was born at North Bend, 

Hamilton County, Ohio, August 20, 1833. Hi.s 
life up to the time of his graduation from Miami 
University, at Oxford, Ohio, was the uneventful 
one of a country lad of a family of small means. 
His father was able to give him a good education, 
and nothing more. He became engaged while at 
college to the daughter of Dr. Scott, Principal of 
a female school at Oxford. After graduating, he 
determined to enter upon the study of law. He 
went to Cincinnati and there read law for two 
years. At the expiration of that time young Har- 
rison received the only inheritance of his life — his 
aunt, dying, left him a lot valued at $800. He 
regarded this legacy as a fortune, and decided to 
get married at once, take this money and go to 
some Eastern town and begin the practice of law. 
He sold his lot, and, with the money in his pocket, 
he started out with his young wife to fight for a 
place in the world. He decided to go to Indian- 
apolis, which was even at that time a town of 
promise. He met with slight encouragement at 
first, making scarcely anything the first year. 
He worked diligently, applying himself closely to 
his calling, built up an extensive practice and 
took a leading rank in the legal profession. 

In i860, Mr. Harrison was nominated for the 
position of Supreme Court Reporter, and then be- 
gan his experience as a stump speaker. He can- 



vassed the State thoroughly, and was elected by 
a handsome majority. In 1.S62 he raised the 
Seventeenth Indiana Infantry, and was chosen its 
Colonel. His regiment was coniimsed of the raw- 
est mat^ial, but Col. Harrison employed all his 
time at first in mastering military tactics and drill- 
ing his men, and when he came to move toward 
the East with Sherman, his regiment was one of 
the best drilled and organized in the armw At 
Resaca he especially distinguished himself, and 
("or his bravery at Peachtree Creek he was made 
a Brigadier-General, Gen. Hooker speaking of 
him in the most complimentary terms. 

During the absence of Gen. Harrison in the 
field, the Supreme Court declared the office of \ 
Supreme Court Reporter vacant, and another 
person was elected to the position. From the ■ 
time of leaving Indiana with his regiment until 
the fall of 1864 he had taken no leave of absence, 
but having been nominated that year for the same 
office, he got a thirty-day leave of absence, and j 
during that time made a brilliant of the 
State, and was electeil for another term. He then 
started to rejoin Sherman, but on the wa>' was 
Stricken down with scarlet fever, and after a most 
trying attack made his way to the front in time to 
participate in the closing incidents of the war. 

In 1868 Gen. Harri.son declined a re-election 
as Reporter, and resumed the practice of law. In 
1876 he was a candidate for Governor. Although 
defeated, the brilliant campaign he made won for 
him a national reputation, and he was much sought 
after, especially in the East, to make speeches. 
In 18S0, as usual, he took an active part in the 
campaign, and was elected to the United vStates 
Senate. Here he ser\-ed for six years, and was 
known as one of the ablest men, best lawyers and 
strongest debaters in that body. With the ex- 
piration of his .senatorial term he returned to the 
practice of his profession, becoming the head of 
one of the .strongest firms in the State. 

The political campaign of 18S8 was one of the 
most memorable in the history of our countrj-. 
The convention which assembled in Chicago in 
June and named Mr. Harrison as tlie chief stand- 
ard-bearer of the Republican party was great in 
every particular, and on t'lis account, and the at- 

titude it assumed upon the vital cjuestions of the 
day, chief among wdiich was the tariff, awoke a 
deep interest in the campaign throughout the 
nation. Shortly after the nomination, delegations 
began to \isit Mr. Harrison at Indianapolis, his 
home. This movement became popular, and from 
all .sections of the country societies, clubs and 
delegations journeyed thither to pay their re- 
spects to the distinguished statesman. 

Mr. Harrison spoke daily all through the sum- 
mer and autumn to visiting delegations, 
and .so varied, masterly, and eloquent were his 
speeches that they at once placed him in the fore- 
most rank of American orators and statesmen. 
Elected b\- a handsome majority-, he sen.-ed his 
country faithfully and well, and in 1.S92 was nom- 
inated for re-election: but the people demanded a 
change and he was defeated by his predecessor 
in office, Grover Cleveland. 

On account of his elotjuence as a speaker and 
his power as a debater. Gen. Harrison was called 
upon at an early age to take part in the dis- 
cussion of the great questions that then began to 
agitate the country. He was an inicompromising 
anti-slavery man, and was matched against some 
of the eminent Democratic speakers of his 
State. No man who felt the touch of his blade 
desired to be pitted with him again. With all 
his eloquence as an orator he never spoke for ora- 
torical effect, but his words alwa>s went like bul- 
lets to the mark. He is purely American in his 
ideas, and is a splendid type of the American 
statesman. Gifted with quick perception, a logi- 
cal mind and a ready tongue, he is one of the 
most distinguished impromptu .speakers in the 
nation. Many of these .speeches sparkled with the 
rarest eloquence and contained arguments of great 
weight, and many of his terse statements have 
already become aphorisms. Original in thought, 
precise in logic, terse in statement, j-et withal 
faultless in eloquence, he is recognized as the 
sound statesman and brilliant orator of the day. 
During the last days of his administration Presi- 
dent Harri.son .suffered an irreparable loss in the 
death of his devoted wife. Caroline ( Scott > Har- 
rison, a lady of many womanly charms and vir- 
tues. They were the parents of two children. 



r^^r:^r "'" 





5HE time has arrived when it 
becomes the duty of the 
people of this county to per- 
petuate the names of their 
pioneers, to furnish a record 
of their early settlement, 
and relate the story of their 
progress. The civilization of our 
day, the enlightenment of the age 
and the duty that men of the pres- 
ent time owe to their ancestors, to 
themselves and to their posterity, 
demand that a record of their lives 
and deeds should be made. In bio- 
_ ^, ,j. graphical history is found a power 

(AT^y-*;^ '° instruct man by precedent, to 
*.^^*:''V_i? enliven the mental faculties, and 
to waft down the river of time a 
safe vessel in which the names and actions of the , 
people who contributed to raise this country from its 
primitive state may be preserved. Surely and rapidly 
the great and aged men, who in their ]irime entered 
the wilderness and claimed the virgin soil as their 
heritage, are passing to their graves. The number re- 
maining who can relate the incidents of the first days 
3f settlement is becoming small indeed, so that an 
actual necessity exists for tlie collection and preser- 
vation of events without delay, before all the early 
settlers are cut down by the scythe of Time 

To be forgotten has been the great dread of mankind 
from remotest ages. All will be forgotten soon enough, 
in spite of their best works and the most earnest 
efforts of their friends to perserve the memory of 
their lives. The means employed to prevent oblivion 
and to perpetuate their memory has been in propor- 
tion *o the amount of intelligence they possessed. 
ThT pyramids of Egypt were built to perpetuate the 
names and deeds of their great rulers. The exhu- 
mations m.ade by the archeologists of Egypt from 
buried Meirphis indicate a desire of those people 

to perpetuate the memory of their achievements 
The erection of the great obelisks were for the same 
purpose. Coming down to a later period, we find the 
Greeks and Romans erecting mausoleums and monu- 
ments, and carving out statues to chronicle theii 
great achievements and carry them down the ages. 
It is also evident that the Mound-builders, in piling 
up their great mounds of earth, had but this idea — 
to leave something to show that they had lived. All 
these works, though many of them costly in the ex- 
treme, give but a faint idea of the lives and charac- 
ters of those whose memory they were intended to 
perpetuate, and scarcely anything of the masses of 
the people that then lived. The great pyramids and 
some of the obelisks remain objects only of curiosity ; 
the mausoleums, monuments and statues are crum- 
bling into dust. 

It was left to modern ages to establish an intelli- 
gent, undecaying, immutable method of perpetuating 
a full history — immutable in that it is almost un- 
limited in extent and perpetual in its action ; and 
this is through the art of printing. 

To the present generation, however, we are in- 
debted for the introduction of the admirable system 
of local biography. By this system every man, thougl 
he has not achieved what the world calls greatness, 
has the means to perpetuate his life, his history, 
through the coming ages. 

The scythe of Time cuts down all ; nothing of the 
physical man is left. The monument which his chil- 
dren or friends may erect to his memory in the ceme, 
tery will crumble into dust and pass away; but his 
life, his achievements, the work he has accomplished, 
which otherwise would be forgotten, is perpetuated 
by a record of this kind. 

To preserve the lineaments of our companions we 
engrave their portraits, for the same reason we col- 
lect the actaniable facts of their history. Nor do we 
thiiik it necessary, as we s|>eak only trutli of them, to 
wait until they are dead, or until those who know 
them are gone: to do this we are ashamed only to 
publish to the world the history of those whose live= 
are unworthy of oublic record. 





JACOB BAUSMAX was a representative of a 
large family whlcli lias taken deep root in 
the olfl ;\Ianor, and the founders of which 
belong to the famous Palatinate emigration, 
which has given to the social life of Lancaster 
County so man\- features, and so vastU' added to 
its pre-eminence and prosjjerity. More than sixty 
years ago he attended John Beck's famous Lititz 
School. The Bausmans of Kreuznach, (lermany, 
were farmers and vine-dressers, and the first of 
them to come hitlier was Andreas, the lirother of 
Henry. Ills nephew, Andreas, who remained in 
the Fatherland, died as recentlj' as 1868, aged 
ninety years. The elder Andreas paid the equiv- 
olent of ?680 for three hundred and seventeen 
acres of land on the ]Millersville turnpike, from 
which a single acre has since been sold for nearly 
as much. 

John Bausman. another son of Henry, and a 
nephew of the elder Andreas, fled from a French 
draft, which would have compelled him to fight 
against his own countr.ymen, and was welcomed 
here by his uncle in 1802. He became executor 
and chief heir of the local estates, and founder of 
the famous family of his name, which, though hav- 
ing distinguished members in professional and 
mercantile life, has been foremost in the agricul- 
tural concerns of the county, and now holds under 
cultivation over seven hundred acres of land in 
^lanor and Lancaster Townships, nearly adjoining 
the city, and the richest and most populous section 
of this state. 

To the traveler going out the Millersville turn- 
pike on one hand appears a beautiful private res- 
idence, and to the left a commodious and comfort- 

able one-story and a-half farm house with a sub- 
stantial stone spring house near by. These build- 
ings illustrate fitly the progress of the best type 
of the Lancaster County farmer. The sining 
house was built by Andreas Bausman in 177o,and 
there he made whiskey, shipping it to Pittsburg in 
casks, two of which were strapped on the back of 
a horse. Upon this site he established the home- 
stead, which bids fair to remain in the family for 
generations. Here resided John, after he had 
reared his family and retired from farming, and 
here his son Philip built the mansion, one of the 
most elegant countiy seats in the county. The 
sister of the late Abraham Peters became the wife 
of John Bausman and the mother of his nine chil- 
dren, of whom the eldest two, Andrew and John, 
are deceased, and those surviving are Abraham, 
Samuel, Henry and Philip, farmers of the I\Lanor; 
Elizabeth, wife of Henry Haverstick, of ilanheim 
Township; Rev. Dr. Benjamin, the famous reformed 
preacher, author, editor and oriental traveler, and 
Jacob, the fourth son of the family, born October 
18. 1812, who was one of the most conspicuous, in- 
tlufntial and busy citizens of Lancaster. 

The farmers' boys of this county- sixt\- vears 
ago left school and went to work when quite 
young. When our subject was about nineteen 
years of age he commenced learning the millino- 
business at Wabank, then one of the most exten- 
sive local industries, and for a year and a-lialf he 
worked for $4 per month, the following two vears 
receiving $11 per month. He soon developed a 
marked aptitude for business, and by sagacity in 
business ventures managed to lay the foundation 
of his future success. In 1835, when conducting 


llic mill U>v the (iwiuT. .lacol, Iliibei-, f.n shares. 
Iheiv uas a lailmv in the wheat ci'Dp. and lie early 
saw tlie demaii.l tliat would tollow for -rain, and 
bejran huyin.u ufi lar-e ((uantiUe-. Wheat eoni- 
nianded ><l.l(laiid ^^ l/io at limes, and dniiimthe 
oiilire winter he ediitinned niakinj^ hiri;-e invest- 
ments. On cue oeeasiciii when an ark luail (jf live 
hundred barrels of Hour was detained on a eaiial 
for a short time to reniove the heads of barrels, as 
they had beeorae wet, Hour advanced in price and 
Mr. I'.auMnan made ^f.OO by the acei<lent. In that 
vear wheat was brought to this country fnuii Eu- 
rope, but only a low grade of tlour could be made 
from it, and the entire product of Mr. Bausman's 
operations was needed for the local demand, it 
readily bringing ¥11 per barrel in this city. 

After seven years" experience in the mill, our 
subject, accompanied by John Lintner, concluded 
to try his fortune in the west and proceeded to 
Ohio. At a point between Springfield and Dayton 
they engaged in distilling and farming, but in tlie 
fall their fathers came out to view the situatiem, 
and not being satisfied with the pros|iect, induced 
the young men to return to Pennsylvania. The 
Wabank mill being tlien for sale, it was bought by 
Mr. Bausman and Col. William 15. Fordney. (Jn 
engaging in business for himself, our subject rap- 
idly extended his operations in grain, which for 
fifteen years were of a very extensive character, 
and he became known all through eastern Penn- 
sylvania as a large dealer in grain, lumber. Ihjur 
and cattle. During the Irish famine in 18 17, he 
dealt largely in corn, making frequent purchases 
and often engaging to deliver as much as ten thou- 
sand bushels at one transaction in the Philadelphia 
Corn Exchange. 

Mr. Bausinan finally sold his mill [)roperty to a 
hotel company, which made a failure of the enter- 
prise. For years he was an almost daily visitor to 
Lancaster, and was constantly associated with its 
active business men and commercial concerns. He 
was one of the original members of the Lancaster 
Gas Company, and was early interested in the cot- 
ton mills, being one of the joint owners of Mill 
No. 3 at one time. During the existence of the 
Lancaster Fire Insurance Company he was fme of 
its managers, and was extensively interested in the 

Enteriiiise Coal Company. A great jiortion of his 
time was devoted to the man.agement of the Far- 
mers' National BaiiK, of wliich he was made Pres- 
ident in 1868, and which has a history of over 
eighty-four years, having been cstalilished in 1810, 
with a capital of >;;i(ll),(l(l(). This has since then 
increased to >: l.'jO.OOO and is the only bank remain- 
ing out of forty chartered by the Legislature in 
1810. ;\Ir. Bausman was one of the first stock- 
holders and directors m the ^Millersville turnpike, 
was for many years identified with tlie Millersville 
State Normal School, and n Trustee of Franklin 
and Marshall College, being Treasurer of its Board 
for twenty-eight years. To this position he was suc- 
ceeded by his son, .1. W. B. Bausman. in .lune, 1893. 
Until he was over forty years of age .Taeob Baus- 
man made his home with his father. In .laniiary, 
18.t4, he marricfl Mrs. Mary Baer, who died in 
February, 1862, leaving one son, J. W. B., who is 
now President of the Farmers' National Bank of 
this city. For j-ears his home was on the Colum- 
l)ia Turnpike, about three miles west of the city, 
but some 3'ears ago he removed to Lancaster, mak- 
ing his home with his son on West Chestnut Street, 
and there his death occurred February !1. 1894. 
He was widely known as a business man of rare 
sagacity and unquestioned integrity. He justly 
took pride in his native countiy, and in the wealth 
and high cultivation of the lands of the Manor, on 
which his ancestors settled so many decades ago, 
and where their descendants remain among the 
lirst citizens of the community. Times have 
changed since those early days, and the miller of 
this generation has to watch more closely the fluc- 
tuations of the grain market, the farmer no longer 
has a distillery on his premises, but in the main, 
the agricultural methods are not radically different 
from those of half a century ago in Lancaster 
County, and in its history no name is more hon- 
ored than that of Bausman. 

JOHN W. B. BAl'SMAN is the only child of 
.lacob and Mary (Baer) Bausman, and is a 
leading lawyer and banker, who has been 
prominently connected with all public enter- 
prises and improvements in this locality. He is 



the capable ami well known President of the 
Faiiner>' National lianii and seems to have a s|ie- 
cial fitness for iinanciering. Ilis apprenticeship 
was served in tlie same institution, and from liis 
youth he has been familiar with all tlie details of 
the large business transacted b\' this bank. 

The birtli of Mr. Bausman occurred in East 
Hempfleld Township, of this county, March 12. 
1855, and his. early school days were passed at the 
common schools in the vicinity. Afterward he 
attended the Millersvilie State Normal School, then 
entering the Freshman Class at Lafa3-ette College 
at Easton in September. 1870, from which he was 
graduated four years later with the degree of Bach- 
elor of Arts. Immediately afterward he began the 
stud^- of law in the office of S. II. Reybolds. now 
deceased. Subsequently he accepted a clerkship in 
the Farmers' National Bank, which position he 
held a year and a-half, becoming familiar with the 
practical banking business. Resuming his studies, 
he was admitted to the Bar in December, 1877, and 
is still engaged in practice. 

In 1878, and again in 1880, Mr. Bausman spent 
some months in traveling in Europe, and on his 
return gave for the benefit of charitable objects a 
number of lectures on his European observations, 
which were of a high character. He is one of the 
few attorneys in the city who are members of the 
American Bar Association, which holds its annual 
meeting at Saratoga, He holds an enviable place 
among the brethren of the legal profession in this 
cit}'. Since 1880 he has been a Director of the 
Farmers' National Bank and Secretary of tlie Pioard 
for most of this period. He is Treasurer of Frank- 
lin and Marshall College, Secretary and Treasurer 
of the Manor Turnpike Road Company, Secretary 
and Treasurer of the Lancaster. Oxford it vSouthern 
Railroad Company; a Director of the Pennsyl- 
vania Investment Company of Reading, and a Di- 
rector of the Electric Street Railway Company of 
Lancaster. In a number of other organizations in 
this city he is Treasurer, and his manifold duties 
fully occupy his time. In addition to all this he 
has executed a number of large trusts as executor, 
administrator and assignee. 

In April, 1880, Mr. Bausman marned Miss An- 
nette, daughter of Hon. Thomas E. Franklin, 

formeily Altoriu'y-( ieneral of Pennsylvania. Mrs. 
liausniaii died in .lune. 1882, leaving one son, 
named for her father, Thomas Franklin. Mr. Baus- 
man was again married, in May, 1802, being united 
with Miss Blanche Franklin, to whom has been 
born one son, .1. W. B., .Ir. 

.January 18, 1892, our subject succeeded his fa- 
ther as President of the Farmers' National Bank, 
which position he has since held. He was one of 
the originators of the Pennsylvania German So- 
ciety. In politics he is a stanch Republican and 
has several times been a delegate to state conven- 
tions. In benevolent work he has ever taken a 
leading and interested part, being one of the Trus- 
tees and manager of Bethany Orphans' Home, of 
which his uncle. Rev. Dr. Benjaman Bausman, of 
Reading, is President. Religioush', he holds mem- 
bership with St. Paul's Reformed Church, of wliich 
he is a Trustee, and is a man whom tn know is to 
respect most highly. 


ROBERT FULTON. Wherever the English 
language is spoken or steam navigation 
used, the name of Fulton is a familiar 
household word. Robert Fulton, whose inventive 
ability rendered possible the successful introduc- 
tion of steam navigation, was born of Irish par- 
ents, at Little Britain (now Fulton Township), 
Lancaster County, Pa., in 1765. At the age of 
three ^-ears he was orphaned by his father's death, 
and being therefore thrown upon his own resources 
at an early age he developed the traits of self-re- 
liance that distinguished his career in later life. 

At the age of seventeen Mr. Fulton went to 
Philadelphia, where he was engaged .as a miniature 
painter, and also followed mechanical pursuits. 
Before attaining his majority, with money saved 
from his earnings he purchashed a farm in Wash- 
ington County, to which he brought his mother. 
Acting upon the advice of gentlemen who had 
been attracted by his talent, he went to England 
and placed himself under the tuition of Benjamin 



fur so veral 

West, in home he wa- an 

"try. he met the Dnke of Ihid-ewat. .. fuun.h^r of 

viee he ahandoned the inofession nf an aili-t f..r 
the trade of a civil engineer. For eighteen nmntlis 
be was emplo^-ed at Birmingham, and during tliat 
time met Watt, who had just, succeeded in his great 
imi.riivenient vf the steam engine. 

In IT'.tT Mr. Fulton t<.iok up his residence in 
Franco, and remained with Joel Bartow for seven 
years. In September, 1793, he had addressed a let- 
ter to Earl Stanhoi)e, proposing to communicate 
to him the priiici|ile tA' an invention respecting 
tlie navigation of ships liy steam. At Paris he 
met Chancolh.r Living^t<:n. tlu-n Fniled Stales 
minister to Franco, who. ontoring ii]t<i his views, 
proposed to furni.sii the neci'ssary funds for an ex- 
periment and contract for the introduction of tlie 
new method, if successful, into the Iniled States. 

Late in \X*y3 .Air. Fulton constructed a w(jrking 
model of his intended boat, and at the same time 
commenced buildiuga vessel 66x8. When linished 
it did not move with the speed expected. In the 
same year he sent an order to Watt A- P.oulton for 
a steam engine to propel a lioat of largo si/.e. which 
was completed and readied Now York in 18(11',. 
In 1807 the '•Clormonf wa- liiii>hod. and its pro- 
gress through tlio water- of tlio llud>on was live 
miles an h(nn-. So oompletoly was the utility of 
the invention established that the legislature con- 
tracted to extend the exclusive privilege of Mv. 
Livingston and Mr. Fulton five years for every 
additional boat, provided the time did not exceed 
thirty years. 

In 18ii;) :Mr. Fulton obtained his tirst patent 
fr(.im the liiited Statps. Some litigation arose from 
what was termed the steamboat monopoly, but tlie 
exclusive right to navigate tlie water,-, (jf the state 
remained in the possession of Mv. Fulton and his 
partner during the lifetime of the former. Attend- 
ing as a witness before the New Jersey Legislature 
in January, 1815, on an attempt liy Livingston to 
obtain a repeal of the Retaliatory Act of tliat state, 
leveled at the steamboat monopoly, Mv. Fulton on 

in an open boat and contracted a severe illness, 
wiiich resulted in his deatii February 24, 1815. 

Congress passed an act in 1846 appropriating 
.s7(;.:liio in full of the claims of Mr. Fulton 
against the United States, for the invention of 
fh.iating steam-balteries, sui)erintending the con- 
struction of the steam frigate "'Fulton," and for 
the great benefit conferred on the country by his 
im|M-ovements in the a|)plication of steam to navi- 

' ^# P • ■ 

THADDKLS STEVENS was born in Dan- 
ville. Caledonia County. Vt.. April 4. 1792. 
His father, who was a noted wrestler and a 
man of dissipated habits, enlisted in the War of 
1812, and at the battle of Oswego received a wound 
from which he died a few days afterward. Under 
the training of his mother, a woman of noble char- 
acter, he was prepared for the honorable position 
which he filled in later life. While a student in 
Burlington College he witnessed, with the aid of a 
spy glass, September 11, 1814. the fight lietween 
McDonough and the British tleet on Fake Cham- 
l)lain. In IHl."^ he was graduated from l)artmi_)Uth 

During the latter jiart of 181.3 Mr. Stevcnscame 
to Pennsylvania, whore for a time he taught in an 
academy. Later he was admitted to the Bar and 
opened an office for the practice of his profession. 
Like the majority of young lawyers, he found the 
path to success a slow and tedious one. When 
almost discouraged, he was retained for a murder 
case when none of the prominent attorneys seemed 
willing to undertake the defense. His fee was 
•^1.5f)n. but he was unsuccessful in the case, for his 
client was convicted and executed. Many years 
later he stated that he had been counsel for the 
defense in more than fifty murder eases, in all of 
which but one he had been successful; adding that 
every one of them deserved to be hanged but the 
man who met with fate and who was certainly 

In is-il .Mr. Stevens became a member of the 
.Assembly from Adams County, and for twenty 



years was one of the most influential ])ul)lic mon of 
the state. His services in the Pennsylvania Legis- 
lature closed with the session of 1841. In August, 
1842, he removed to Lancaster, where he afterward 
acquired prominence on account of his efforts to 
carrj' out his principles of freedom. lie hatccl op- 
pression in every form, and it was his fortune to 
survive until after the close of the Rebellion, and 
to witness the freedom of the slaves, whose cause 
he had ever warmly espoused. In 1858 he was 
elected to Congress by a large majority, and his 
reputation there was that of a sagacious, eloquent 
and wise legislator. Hedied August 11, 1868, and 
was buried in Schreincr's Cemetery, Lancaster. 
Above his tomb, in accordance with his request, was 
placed this inscription: "I repose in this quiet and 
secluded spot, not from any natural jjreference for 
solitude; but finding other cemeteries limited by 
charter rules to race, I have chosen it that I might 
be enabled to illustrate in my death the principles 
that I have advocated tlii-ougli a long life — equal- 
ity of man before the Cre;itor." The cliarlei-.s of 
the principal cemeteries of Lancaster stipulated 
that no person of color should be interred within 
their limits. He had bought lots in both cemeter- 
ies, when on receiving the deeds sent tliem liack, 
refusing to be buried in either, and selected as his 
last resting place the smalle.-'t cemetery in the city, 
which alone free fromtliis oljiection. 

■OC^- ^4"i"»-i"i"{-»^-}"S- ^ »-i"i"i">'-»-5"i"{"f^-» X> 

JACOB II. IlKIDLKn.VCII. wh.w well culti- 
vated homestead is situated in Pequea Town- 
ship, Lancaster County, has been for over 
half a century identified with tlie welfare 
and development of this iieigliliorhood, having 
passed his entire life within its limits. He was 
born February 2.5, 1838, on the farm he now 
owns and upon which he makes his home. He re- 
ceived common school advantages, being in regular 
attendance at the district schools until attaining 
his eighteenth year, and has always made good use 

of his educational privileges. From his earliest 
years he worked at vaiious farm lalior ami he- 
came [iractically iuforined in eveiytliiiig pertniiiing 
thereto. He continued as his fatlier"s assislnut on 
the homestead until lie liad reached hi- twenty- 
fourth year, when he took the entire charge of the 
farm and hassincebeen active in its operation. 

Tlie |iaternal grandfather of our subjei-t \\nve 
the same Christian name and he too followed the 
vocation of farming, making that his [)rinci|>al 
business in life. He was formerly a Whig and sub- 
sequently a Kepublican in politics, and was one of 
the leading and influential men of this township in 
his day. He married Sarah Slautzenberger and had 
seven children. 

Henry lleidleliach. the father of .uir subject, was 

years was engaged in cultivating the old home- 
stead, which has descended to his son, Jacob H. 
In his young manhood he became a member of the 
Lutheran Chuich, to which he adhered during his 
entire life. First a Whig, he afterwards became a 
Kei)ublican and was freiiuently chosen by his 
neighbors to serve in official capacities of trust 
and honor. I'\)r several terms he was School Di- 
rector ill l'e<|nea Township, otlicialed for several 
terms as Township Supervisor, ami was a most 
acceptable and efficient Auditor of the township 
for one term. In every relation in life, whether 
public or private, he was honorable and conscien- 
tious, realizing in the fullest extent his duties to 
his fellows. On arriving at a suitable .age he was 
united in marriage with Annie Hess, and of their 
union were born the following children: l''aiiny. 
S:uali, Annie, .Jacob, one unnamed, Henry, and one 
other who die.l in infancy. 

Returning to the life history of .hicob IL lleidle- 
bacli, we find that on December 12, 18((0, he 
ni:uried .Miss Barbara Hoover, a native of .Martic 
Township, and a daugliter of a prosperous ;ind 
worthy citizen of tliat locality. Four sons and 
three daughters came to bless the home of this 
worthy couple, and of the family circle only two 
are left to cherish and comfort the parents in their 
declining years, the others having preceded them 
j to the better laud. Those deceased are the four 
1 eldest members of the family, Martha, Emeline 




Milton, Charles II., and Jacob E. Those surviv- 
ing are Ida A., who became the wife of Eli Eshle- 
man, and .lolin K.. who arc living; n(>ar their i)ar- 
ents on Uu' nld h<.iiif>U':Hl. In I'lvsiilcnlial elec- 
tions .Air. lleiaU-bacli u.^es hi.- ballot in the .sup- 
port of the Republican party and can be safely re- 
lied on to use his influence in everything relating 
to the best interests of his fellow-citizens and the 
couununitv in which he dwells. 

JOSHl'II llAHNISll. whose postolhce is New 
Danville, is one of the inlluential farmers of 
PequeaTownshii), Lancaster Countj'. For two 
terms he has served as School Director, and in 
his political relations uses his ballot in the support 
of the Republican party. His grandfather, Joseph 
llaruish, was also a farmer, and the property which 
he owned in this county was handed down to the 
father of our subject. The latter is one of live 
children, the others being Michael, John, .Samuel 
and Barbara. He bears the Christian name of 
Jonas and his birth occurred in Martic Township 
about 1813. He married Susan llaruish, February 
3, 1840, and had one son and three daughters, 
namely: Joseph; IMary, Mrs. JNIcAUister; Susan, 
Mrs. Foutz; and Ijarbara. The father has always 
been devoted to farming, operating and owning a 
valuable piece of property. In his early manhood 
he was a Federalist, subseiiuently became a Whig, 
and still later a Re|iul)lican. Religiously he was a 
member of the old Mennonite Church, and person- 
ally his life was most exemplary in ever3' respect. 
In Martickville, in the township of Martic, the 
birth of our subject occurred on the 25th of Jan- 
uary. 1811. and his li.iyhdod was passed under the 
[larental roof (m the ulil hc.)nie farm. As the only 
son, he was early jilaced at work an the farm, and 
his father spared no pains in giving him a good 
education and in otherwise equipping him for the 
battles of life. He attended the district schools of 
Conestoga Township until about seventeen years 

of age, when he became actively eraploj-ed at farm 
labor. For some time he worked on his father's 
farm at Safe Harbor, and later returned to the old 
iK.micslead. which friiiii that time until the (jresent 
has taken liis whole energies. The farm comprises 
ninety-two acres of fertile and arable land, on 
which good harvests are grown, yielding to the 
owner ample returns for the care he bestows upon 
his lnoad acres. The buildings on the place are 
commodious and substantial, and are kepi up in a 
very neat and thrifty fashion. 

(Jn the 17th of December, 1867, Mr. Ilarnish 
was married in Lancaster, to Miss Susan Myers, 
by whom he has had eight children, three sous 
and five daughters. Their names are as follows: 
Jonas M., Annie M., Susan M., Amelia (Mrs. 
Forny), Mary, Lizzie, Samuel and Abram. The 
family are members of the old Mennonite Church, 
to which their ancestors have belonged for several 
generations. In everything relating to works of 
improvement and measures tending to advance 
the best interests of the county, Mr. Harnish can 
always be relied upon in their promotion. He is 
a true and patriotic citizen, and in the line of his 
convictions uses his right of franchise for the pro- 
tection of American industries. 


JOHN 1!. MVEliS. Aiixing the respected old 
settlers of reipiea 'I'owiiship, Lancaster Coun- 
ty, is he whose name heads this sketch, whose 
home has been in this community for con- 
siderablj- more than half a century, during which 
time he has put forth his endeavors in aid of pro- 
gressive movements, and has been actively con- 
cerned in the development of the county. 

The paternal grandfather of John B. was David 
Myers, who followed farming, as have many gen- 
erations of the family. He was a member of the 
old Mennonite Church, and politically was a Feder- 
alist and afterward a Whig. He was the father of 
seven children, Jacob, Martin, David, Henry, Liz- 



zie (Mrs. Ilerr), Fannie (wife of Dnvid Landis, 
and now deceased), and Marv. who became the 
wife of Adam Ureneman. 

David Mayers, our subject's fatlier, was born in 
Manheim Township, and on arriving at man's es- 
tate settled in Pequea Township, where he devoted 
his energies to agricultural pursuits during llie re- 
mainder of his life. For one term he served as a 
School Director, and was an active Republican. In 
the old Mennonite Churcii of which he was a mem- 
ber, he acted in an otiicial capacit}- at times. For 
liis wife lie eliose ]\Iiss Barbara Burkholder, and 
they had two sons and a daughter. John !>.. Annie 
and Amos. 

The birth of .bjhn B. Myers occurred on the old 
homestead in Peijuea Township, on which he now 
resides, and the date of the event was September 
20, 1836., His boyhood [lassed without event of 
special moment, his time being occupied twixt 
work and play, as is common with farmer lads. 
His educational privileges were limited to such as 
were afforded by the common schools of the neigh- 
borhood, in whicii he was a student during a large 
share of the year until he had reached his eigh- 
teenth year. Under his father's instruction he 
obtained an actual knowledge of farm labor and 
the best methods of carr^-ing on agriculture, and 
on arriving at his maturity adopted this as his life 
vocation. The farm which he now owns and to 
the cultivation of wiiicli he has for j'cars given his 
honest labor and careful supervision is one of the 
best in the townsliip, and numbers about one hun- 
dred and forty-tivo acres. Good improvements are 
upon the jjlace in tlie shape of barns and necessary 
farm buildings, as well as a commodious and i)leas- 
ant home. 

Mr. Mj-ers is one of the Directors of tiie Lancas- 
ter County Bank, and has often supported in one 
way or anotlier local industries and enterprises. I n 
politics lie lias been a Republican since the forma- 
tion of the party, prior to which time he was a 
Whig. In his religious convictions he is a Menno- 
nite, in the faitli of whicli denomination he was 
reared, and is one of the pillars in the old Menno- 
nite Congregation. 

In the year 1862, Mr. Myers wedded Miss Mar- 
tha Herr, who was born and grew to womanhood 

ill this towiisliip, whcj-c she received iier educa- 
tion. Siie is a .l.-iu-hUT of Martin Herr. one of llie 
wealtliy and retired citizens of this township, who 
has now reached tlie extreme old age of ninety- 
four years. Mr. and .Mrs. Myers have had a family 
comprising three sons and tlaee dauu-liters. wliosc 
names are respectively: David. Ada, Annie. Mar- 
tin. Elam and Henry. The parents have carried 
out their ideas of giving ciiildren good educations 
and training in practical branches, with the re- 
sult that tlieir offspring are numiiered among tlie 
best citizens and memliers of society in the places 
where their abode is made. Mr. Myers is an up- 
right and honorable man and has a reputation for 
veracity and high princii)le wliich is second to 
none in tlie neigh!iorliood wliere lie has lived as a 
bo\- and man. 


FRANK P. COIIO. The subject of this 
sketch resides in Lancaster, where he is en- 
gaged in the wholesale coal business, and 
is also Treasurer of the Hamilton Watch Com- 
pany. Born in Schuylkill County, this state. 
.lanuary 0, 1844, he is the son of .John L. CoIri, 
a native of Columbia County, and the grandson 
of Asa Coho, whose birth occurred in Bucks 
County, and who was a soldier in the Revolution- 
ary War. The great-grandfather of our suliject 
bore the name of Ambrose CoIki and was born in 
Pennsylvania, of French descent. The entire fam- 
ily were (Quakers in religion, and the father of 
our subject was a trader in lands. He was also 
.lustice of the Peace in his community for over 
thirty years, in that early day occupying the [Posi- 
tion of what now would be .Judge. He departed 
this life in 1881 in Schuylkill County, when 
seventy-nine years of age. 

The mother of our subject, known in her maid- 
enhood as Elizabeth Ivutz, was born in the above 
county and was the daughter of Peter Kutz, a na- 
tive of this stale, and of German descent. Mrs. 
Coho died in 1880, firm in the faith of the Re- 



formed Cliurcli. Slio renred ;i family of leu chil- 
dren, only sevfii of whimi uvr unw liviiiL;. Frank 
r. attended the juihlic .schools wf his native place 
nntil attaining his seventeenth year. In l.sTl he 
came tn l>aneaster, where he has since licen en- 
gaged in the wholesale coal trade. In .Inly, 1.S!I2, 
the Hamilton Watcli Company was organized, of 
which he was chosen Treasurer. 

In Schuylkill County in ISCT ,.(vuned the mar- 
riage of Frank F. (oho and jMiss Kiiima A. Will- 
iams, a native of Danville, this state. To them 
have been Ixn'n live children. Herbert, a grad- 
uate of the Lancaster High School, is residing in 
Kew Y<u-k City, where he is engaged in the Elec- 
trical business; Fiigene is Receiving Teller in the 
Lancaster County I'.ank; Ralph will c.implele his 
studies in the high school with Ihe Class of '94; 
Nellie and Mabel are at home. In politics Mr. 
Colio is an acti\-e Kepuhlican. lie was one of the 
organizers ami directors of the Western :\Iarket 
Comijany, and also held the same iK.isition in llie 
Edison Electric Illuraiiiating Coni|iaiiy, of which 
be was Vice-President until resigning. 

AMUEL G. GRAY, M. D., a prominent 
physician of Landisville, is in the enjoy- 
ment of an extensive and lucrative prac- 
tice. He is the son of .luslus and llariiara (Getz) 
Gray, and was boni in Kphrata, this county, :May 
19,1838. On bis [laternal side our subject is of 
German descent, while his mother's family came 
originallv from Switzerland. 

an agriculturist of K|ihiata Township, owning 
two valuable estates. He was aclive in the af- 
fairs of the German Keformed Church, with which 
he was connected for many years. 'l"he lady whom 
he mai-ried bore the maiden name of Catherine 
Wolf, and to them were born two sous and two 
daughters. 'Flie elder son, Henry, served in the 
Legislature from 1852 to 1851 on the Whig ticket; 

the fathei- of our subject was the next in order of 
birth: Fli/abeth berame the wife of Philip Bu- 
shong, a wealthy distiller of Ueading, this state; 
and Anna is :\Ls. Daniel llowman. of Ephrala. 
The graiidfalhei- departed this life in lH:]7,althe 
age of seventy years. 

Justus Gray received a fair education in the 

j schools near his home, and when choosing an oc- 
cupation in life became a fanner anil miller, uwn- 
ing one hundred acres of well tilled land in West 
Hempfield Township. In financial matters ho was 
more than ordinarily successful, and became one 
of the |)rosperous and enteriirising citizens of his 

' community. He was lirst a Whig and later a Re- 

the Presbyterian Church. December 2, 1828, he 
married .Miss llarbara, daughter of George Getz, a 
native of Pending, this state, who later removed 
to West Hemiilield Townshiii. and turned his at- 

( )ur subject was one in a family of four sons 
and two daughters. Henry W., President of the 
j Schomacker Piano Company, of Philadelphia, is 
very prominent in political alfairs, and was elected 
Stale Senator on the Republican ticket; Albert, 
the second son, is deceased; Elizabeth is the wife 
of Dr. 11. P.. Parry, of Lancaster; Samuel (i. was 
the next in ,n-der of birth; and Alice, Mrs. Will- 
iam Elmer, of Trenton. N. .1., is deceased. The 
husband and father died Marcli 7, 1887. His good 
wife is still living, and is now in the eighty-fifth 
year of her age. She is a most estimable lady, 
and a devoted memherof the Presbyterian Church. 
The subject of this sketch received his ))rimary 
education in the common scluiols, after which he 
attended th.' State Normal. In 1860, when deter- 
mining to follow a professional career, he began 
the study of medicine in the office of Dr. A. K. 
Uoxoer. of .■\Iounlainville. Lancaster County, and 
in the fall of the f,,llowing year entered the Jled- 
ical Department of the F Diversity of Pennsylvania, 
at Philadelpliia. Soon thereafter he was appointed 
Medical Cadet of the Fnited States army for one 
_year, and on the expiration of his term returned 
to college, from which he was graduated with the 
degree of Doctor of Medicine in 18(i;i. Dr. (ir.ay 
was then aiijKiinled Assistant Surgeon in different 



regiments, serving from March of tlie above year 
until February, 1865. During that time lie was 
Examining Surgeon at Camp Curtain, Surgeon of 
Cavalry in the Department of the Monongahelai 
Assistant Surgeon to the Twenty-nintli Pennsyl- 
vania Emergency Corps, and Surgeon of the Twen- 
tieth Pennsylvania Cavalry. lie was present with 
a regiment during the raid thrmigh the Shenan- 
doah Valley, and was with Sheridan V cummnud at 

On the close of the war Dr. Oray lofated in 
"West llempfield. where he was engaged in ]>ractiee 
until 1875, when he received the appointment of 
surgeon of the ship "'Pennsylvania," sailing be- 
tween Philadelphia and Liverpool. After being 
thus employed for two years, he located in Landis- 
ville, where he ranks among the leading physicians 
in the county. He is a member of the County 
and State Medical Societies, and is "\'ice-President 
of the former. He likewise belongs to IVist No. 
118, G. A. R., at Columbia. 

July 5, 1885, our subject was united in marriage 
with Miss Lila P)., daughter of .Tohn II. Speese, of 
Shippensburg, and to them have been granted 
three children: Henry W., Walter PL, and Warren, 
the latter of whom died in infancy. In politics 
tlie Doctor is a true blue Republican. 


i^~^ AVID S. HESS is one of the old settlers of 

I I Conestoga Township, where nearly his en- 
tire life has been passed, and in every way 
he has been identified with the upbuilding of this 
community. About 1876 he became the owner of 
the farm on whicii he now resides and to its cultiva- 
tion has given his entire time and attention for 
several years. He comes from one of tlie oUl and 
honored families of this region, where several gen- 
erations have made their home. His paternal 
grandfather, David Hess, was born in Conestoga 

Township and followed agrioiltural pursuits dur- 
ing his active life. lie was a member of the old 
Mennonite Church and was highly esteemed by all 
who knew him. For his wife he married Miss 
Byers. and to them were born six children, as fol- 
lows: David, .Tohn, Cliristian, Abraham, Maria and 

John Hess, the second child in the familv just 
mentioned, was born in this township and here 
grew to manhood. On arriving at maturity he 
continued in the calling to whicli he had been 
roared, that of farming, and became the owner of 
a valuable and well improved tract of land which 
he operated for m.any years. Like his father be- 
fore him he was identified with the old Mennonite 

j Church and politically he was a Democrat. Being 
interested in the cause of education, he served as 
School Director, and was a firm believer in this 
great institution of the United States, the educa- 
tion f)f the young. On choosing his life compan- 
ion he married Miss Harriet Shank, and of their 
union two sons and two daughters were born, their 
names heiiiL; a> follows: Martha, who became the 
wife of J. M. llf": Dnvid S.. the subject of this 
narrative; Jacoli L.. aiid Fannie, the wife of ]Micli- 
ael Good. 

Tlie birth of David S. Hess occurred in Con- 
estoga Township, Slay 7, 1842, and his earlj' j-ears 
were passed uneventfully upon his father's farm, 
his time being divided between work and play. 
For a number of years he was a student in the dis- 
trict school, which he left when nineteen years of 
age to embark in the active business of life. He 
remained on the old homestead and was employed 
by his father in its operation until he had .attained 
his twenty-ninth year. In the meantime he had 
married and was now induced by his father-in-law, 
Henry AVorfel, to cany on his farm in West Lam- 
peter Township. After some time had elapsed the 
young man by strict economy and industry had 
managed to lay by a certain sum which he invested 

1 in a small tract of land in this townsliij), and from 
that lime forward he has madr lii> dwelling pl.ace 
on this property. From time U, time as he could 
afford it he bought other land and his farm now con- 
tains forty-seven acres. The land is very fertile 

I and yields abundant crops in return for the care 



anrl cultivation licstowed iipdii il by the industri- 
ous owner. 

In the year 1.H71 Mr. Hess m.Trrird .Aliss Elvina 
Worfel, wiio was born and grew to womanhood in 
Conestoga Township. A family of eight children 
lias come to bless the lieartlistone of this worthy 
couple and they are named as follows: Ida, .Susan, 
John II., Harriet, Elvina, Barliara, David, Jr., and 

Uv. Hess in his political faith is. like his father 
before him, a Democrat, and is a strong believer 
in the measures adopted by his party. In local af- 
fairs he has ever shown himself deeply interested 
in the maintenance of the public good and has en- 
deavored to promote the welfare of his fellow- 
citizens in every i>ossible manner. 

(.j^^.VVID P.ACHMA^ LAXDIS, of Lancas- 
I J ter, has one of the linest and most artistic 
job printing establishments in the state, 
and IS a successful and enterprising young business 
man. Ho comes from a very old family, its his- 
tory being traced to the latter part of the sixteenth 
century, and a brief synopsis of the same may not 
be uninteresting to the many friends of Mr. Landis 
and other members of his family. 

The Landis faniil}' were prominent in the latter 
part of the sixteenth century in Switzerland, being 
noted for their piety, and one of the first individ- 
uals of the name mentioned in historj' was one 
Hans Landis, a "i)ious witness of the Divine truth." 
He was a Mennonite preacher, who removed to the 
Rhine in a portion of his native land, and there 
instructed many who weie seeking after righteous- 
ness, 'i'he Council of Zurich of the Reformed 
Church oidered the arrest of the good man, but 
he was not daunted, and "he was taken prisoner 
1)3' his enemies and sent in irons from Zurich to 
the Papists at Zolothmn." r|)on being liberated 
by the aid of friends, he was again taken and sent 
to Zurich, where he was rigorously examined as to 

adoption, and the result was that in September, 
1614, he was beheaded with the sword. It is in- 
teresting to know that he was the last person to 
be thus treated for religious convictions in that 
locality, but i)ersecution did not cease with his 
death, for it is recorded that in Blay, 1637, among 
three other brethren, "Hans Landis, the Second, 
a steadfast minister of the church in Horgerberg, 
and his daughter, Margaretha, were confined for 
j sixty weeks at Othenbach." "Meantime the au- 
thorities sold their property for seven thousand 
florins and apiiliod it to their own use." In 1640 
Oswald Landis, his wife, and two daughters-in- 
law were incarcerated in Othenbach, and Jacob 
Landis. his son, and all of his family were ban- 
ished. In time the prisoners managed to escajje, 
though their property was confiscated and they 
were in poverty. Felix Landis (son of Hans, who 
was beheaded at Zurich in 1614), after having 
been shamefully treated, often for a long time re- 
ceiving no food, and being in a weak condition, 
was carried by his persecutors to church, being 
brutally "thrown under a bench," where he imme- 
diately expireil. His wife, Adelheyd Egli, was 
also kept in prison for nearly four 3'ears, and dur- 
ing this period was treated unmercifully and dis- 
gracefully, and meantime the authorities dispersed 
her family, difive the children away from home 
and confiscated the house and furniture, which 
were sold for live th<_)usand florins. One night in 
1643 the beadles attacked the house of Varena 
Landis, who was ill and could not go with the 
authorities, whereupon she was compelled to "prom- 
ise that she would remain a prisoner in her own 
house, which promise she accordingl3- fulfilled, and 
as she was harshly treated and poorly supplied 
with food, death soon resulted. 

About 1660 the Landis families were driven to 
the Palatinate Country in the neighborhood of 
Strasburgand Manheim,on the Rhine, and though 
their properties were generally confiscated they 
became farmers for the CTCrman nobilit3' and re- 
ceived fair usage from the Hollanders. For nearly 
two generations history is silent on the subject of 
the individuals of the Landis name, namely from 
164;? to 1717. but members of the Mennonite belief 
early took advantage of William Penn's liberal 



policy to settle in America, and members of this 
family in 1683, and later in 1709 and 1712, emi- 
grated to Chester County, Pa., including what is 
now the county of Lancaster. At the latter dale 
three brothers, the Rev. Benjamin, Felix and .John 
Landis, Swiss Mennonites, bought land from Penn 
and the Conestogoe Indians, preparing to make a 
home in the wilderness. They skillfully tilled the 
soil and improved the land, which has made this 
portion of the state known tlie world over as a 
garden spot, and here these pioneers worshiped 
their God iu perfect peace. One of the three, the 
Rev. Benjamin Landis. was accompanied by his 
onl}' son, Benjamin,.Tr.. aged eighteen. They took 
up a tract of two hundred and forty acres, receiv- 
ing the patent for the same in 1718, liaving pur- 
chased it from tlie Indians. He was a IMcnnonite 
preacher and engaged activel\' in farming. His 
son married and had four sons, their names in 
order of liirtli lioing as follows: Benjamin. Abra- 
ham, -lacdli and Ilciiiy. finm wlxim have sprung 
the numeriius (Ii'scrn<!;uils who were afterward 
born in this state. The last-named Benjamin re- 
moved to iNIanheim Township in 18.51, after buy- 
ing out the land of his wife's only brother, and 
thus becoming the owner of nearly one thousand 
acres situated aljoul tliree miles from Lancastei-. 
He was married in 1749 to Anna, daughter of 
John Snavely, and they had three sons: John, born 
March 15, 1755; Benjamin, in 1756; and Henry, 
in 1760. Tlie elder Benjamin's home was a refuge 
to many Swiss emigrants, who enjoyed his hospi- 
talitj' until they were enabled to secure homes for 

John Landis, who was named "Sozusauga" from 
his frequent use of the words "So to say," resided 
in East Lampeter TowDs!iip,and to him were born 
three sous, John, Benjamin and Henry, and his 
death occurred in Maj', 1837, at the advanced age 
of eight^'-two years. His eldest son, John, was 
born September 11, 1782, and married Anna Bach- 
man, by whom he had three children who reached 
maturity: John C, Michael B. and Elizalioth. He 
started keeping a store at Centerville, iiow known 
as Landisville, in the spring of 1829, and was tlie 
first Postmaster of that place, where he resided 
until his demise, April 16, 1863, aged over eighty 

years. His wife, who was born February 3, 1785, 
died Ma3' 23, 1846, when in her sixty-second year. 
The eldest son of this worthy couple born in 
East Ilemplield Township, August 31, 1807, and 
about 1823 he entered John Beck's famous .acad- 
emy for boys in Litilz. where he obtained a thor- 
ough knowledge of mathematics, astronomy and 
surveying, being also well versed in both the Eng- 
lish and German languages. Subsequently, in com- 
Ijany with his father, he laid out the village of 
Landisville, about 1828, at which time he was a 
salesman in his father's store. His marriage was 
celebrated January 5, 1832, with Veronica (com- 
monly called Fanny) Shelly, and four children re- 
sulted from their union: Ann Eliza, born May 14, 
1833; Israel Christian; Jacob, born April 23, 1841, 
and Albert Shelly, the two latter dying in early 
childhood. The father of these children was one 
of the originators of the Bethel Church at Landis- 
ville, and was a ct)nsistent member thereof. About 
1833 he kept a sturo in his native village, where 
he resided until March 2."). 1854, when his death 
resulted fnun an apoplectic stroke at the age of 
forty-six ye.irs. Ills wife resided until her death, 
January 13, 1879, when she had reached the age of 
sixty-nine years, at a pmnt west of where the 
Svcamore Hotel is now located. The daughter, 
Ann Eliza, became the wife of Joseph G. (ireider, 
a farmer of East Hem|)fleld Townshii), and their 
children are all living, their names being .lohn, 
Joseph L. and Benjamin. Mrs. Greider died a few 
days previous to her mother, in 1879. 

Israel Christian, born .September 24, 1835, re- 
ceived a common-school education, after which 
he attended the academy kept by James P. Wick- 
ersham at Marietta, and on account of his father's 
sudden death was thrown upon his own resources. 
He was married by the Rev. Mr. Gerhard, Janu- 
ary 17, 1861, to Mary Musselman. Subsequently 
he engaged in keeping an oyster house in Landis- 
ville for live years, after wliich he removed to 
Centerville, in East Ilempfield Township, where 
for two years his attention was occupied at farm- 
ing. Next he went to Holirerstown, whore he kept 
a confectionery store, and resided for three years. 
He built a house a mile and a-half west of that 
place, where he lived for one year, and then, hear- 



ing of a good oiiportunity to engage in business 
at Saliinga, sold liis home, and for three years fol- 
U)wing did a tiiiiving trade in general merchan- 
dising at ttiat point. Iicsides being l^.stma^ter of 
the village. Intliefall of l.sT 1 he liuilt a new store 
near the Baniford Brc>s.' zinc mines, and since then 
has been snccessfuUy engaged in business there. 
In politics he has always Ijeen a Republican, and 
in business is a careful and methodical manager. 

David Baehnian Landis is the only son of Israel 
('., his birlli liaving occurred in Landisville, Feb- 
ruary 12. I.sfi2. His sister, Florence Shelly, was 
l)(iiii April (i. ISli.T. and these two comprise their 
p.aicnis' family. Our suliject received a common- 
scliiHil education, anil for some years was a clerk 
in his fTlher's stoie. lii March, 1877, during his 
school days, lie ,-tartcd in as an amateur printer, 
running a small bnys' paper named the Keystone 
Amateur, awl in .\pril >,[ the following year, it 
was printed under the title of the Amateur Junior. 
Kre four months had passed the sheet was en- 
larged to a sixteen-page magazine, including cover, 
under the original name, but the ambitious effort 
was doomed to short existence, as its pulilication 
was discontinued in October. 

The young man had received a t.aste of journal- 
ism which in time obtained a leading place in his 
thoughts, and October 7, 1878, he commenced an 
apprenticeship in the otlice of the Inquirer, of Lan- 
caster, and after serving four years opened a job 
printing office at his birthplace, in April, 1883. 
May 1 he issued the initial number of the Village 
Vigil, a tri-monthly paper, which was printed 
weekly at the end of a year. In 1885 this jour- 
nal was enlarged to eight pages, being known 
thereafter a-^ the Landisville Vigil, and the young 
editor has laiiidly risen in his management of the 
same, lie has been a frequent contributor to the 
liiijiiirrr and the Sm- Kro, of Lanca.ster, and to the 
"Wheel." of New ^ork. the magazine of cyclists. 
As the pioneer wheelniMn. he was tliriee appointed 
Counsel of Landisville hy the I'eiiiisy Ivania divi- 
sion of the League of Aniereiaii Wheelmen. 

Mr. Landis was mai lied, Se|)ten)ber 29, 1885, to 
Nora K.. daiighler of David Baker, deceased, for- 
merly of Last lleniplield Township. To them was 
born a daugliter, Katie iMusselman, September I'J, 

1886, and her death occurred October 5, 1891. 
Her little brother, Allen B., who was born May 
29, 1889, died Octolier 6. 1891, within twenty-four 
Ikuii's of his sister's demise. Irene Janet was born 
.luiic 18, 1893, and is their only living child. 

When the Vigil was discontinued IMr. Landis 
became connected with the Inquire^' Publishing 
Company, of Lancaster, now the Wickersham Print- 
ing and Publishing Company, being in charge of 
the printing department until May, 1888, when 
he started in business alone at No. 320 Fast Ches- 
nut Street, with the name of the Pluck Art Print- 
ery. The business received its name from the fact 
that for the first three years the projirietor pub- 
lished a small jiaper called Pluck, which he dis- 
tributed free. Since then he gets out only one, 
known as Pluck's Annual, showing specimens of 
printing and being remarkable for neatness and 
general work. A few years later the office was i-e- 
moved to the corner of Nortii Queen and Walnut 
Streets, and at i)resent is situated at Nos. 38 and 
38* Fast Chestnut Street. The office is fitted up 
in first-class shape, and Mr. Landis is doing a large 
and successful business. Electric power is used, 
and the study of the owner has been to use the 
most improved modern methods in every depart- 
ment of his work. Freiiuently he has contributed 
to the "American Art Printer," and is very much 
interested in his vocation. Religiously, he is a 
member of Grace Lutheran Church, and in politics 
he is a Republican. 

ISAAC STlRlv, who has been in the leaf to- 
bacco business since 1874, and is now one of 
the honored residents of Lancaster, will form 
the suljject of this biography. He was born in 
Conestoga Valley, March 11, 1825, being the son 
of lletzel Stirk, a native of the same place. Grand- 
father .Stirk, who was a wagon-maker by trade, 
came from (Germany and located in East Earl 
Township. Our subject's father engaged in farm 
work in Fast Farl Township and there died aged 
seventy-one years. He belonged to the Evangel- 




ical Association. Ilis wife, the motiier of our sub- 
ject, wlio before her maniage was Ann Overliolser, 
was born in P^ast Earl Townsliip, tlie daughter of 
Mr. and Mrs. Maitin Overliolser, of German de- 
scent, who were members of the Mennonite C'hiircli 
and large land holders. Our subject's mother died 
at the advanced age of eighty-eight 3'ears. 

In the parental family there were two sons .ind 
two daughters, our subject being the eldest. He 
was reared upon the farm and attended the district 
schools, obtaining what knowledge he could in 
that waj'. At the age of nineteen years he en- 
gaged as clerk in a general mercantile store of 
Reading, remaining two years, and in 1847 started 
in business for himself at Belleville with his uncle, 
Daniel Overholser, the style of the firm being Over- 
liolser A' Stirk. This partnershii) continued for 
four years, then our subject sold and removed to 
Philadelphia, where he engaged in the crockery 

In 18.j1 Mr. Stirk located at No. 2.i6 North 
Third Street in the crockery business, and in 185(5 
removed to No. 4.5 North Third Street, the style 
of the tirm then being Stirk, Eield &: Co. In 18G4 
he severed his connection with Stirk, Field & Co. 
and engaged extensively in importing crockery 
with a special partner from Boston. After the 
close of the Civil War he and a Jlr. Hoar engaged 
in the wholesale and juliliing of crockery in Phil- 
adelphia. In 1869 he sold out and located in 
Lancaster, where he embarked in the lumber busi- 
ness, and operated u sawmill about one year. ^SVe 
next find him engaged in the retail crockery busi- 
ness at Nos. 8 and 10 p]ast King Street, but in 
1874 he embarked in the leaf tobacco business, in 
which he is still operating. His present location 
is No. 212 North Queen Street, the style of this 
firm being Isaac Stirk A' Co. They do an exten- 
sive business both in the east and west, and have 
a capacity of twenty-five hundred cases. They 
make a specialty of the finest goods, and no man 
is a better judge of leaf tobacco and the manufac- 
tured goods than Mr. Stirk. 

Our subject was married in Lancaster County, 

.luly 23, 1853, to Miss Sallie C. Shirk, a native of 

the same county and the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. 

Jacob Shirk. By this marriage six children were 


born, four of whom are living, as follows: Anna, 
Mrs. T. R. Martin, of Wilkes Barre; William, who 
is associated with our subject; Edwin, residing at 
Wilkes Barre, engaged in the clothing business, 
and Isaac, Jr., 11 hardware merchant of Wilkes 
Barre. Virginia died in Philadelphia in Decem- 
ber, 1866, and P^niilie also died in the same month 
and year. Mr. Stirk is a member of the Method- 
ist Episcopal Church and is a member of the Board 
of Stewards. Politically- he is a Republican. 

<X: ^V•^^^i^•i••5^•^••^•^{^•i^^^^3^•5^ ^ ^{^^^•^•S^•^•^-^^^^i^•^•^^^^^ :?0 

HON. A. HERR SMITH was born in Manor 
Township. Lancaster County, near Mill- 
ersville. Pa., March 7, 1815. He was the 
only son of Jacob and Elizabeth (Herr) Smith, 
and had the misfortune very early in life to lose 
both his parents, his father when he was under 
three, and his mother when he was twelve 3'ears of 
age. His father died in Februaiy, 1818, .and his 
mother in June, 1827. His ancestors came from 
Germany, and settled in Lancaster County, about 
the year 1723, those on the paternal in Pequea, 
and those on the maternal line in Manor Town- 
ship.' Both sides soon after their arrival purchased 
large tracts of land, and in addition to cultivating 
the same, the father and paternal grandfather of 
Mr. Smith followed the niillwriglit and milling 
business, and the scientific drafts and (jlans made 
by the former of mills erected liy him are still 
among the family relics. 

The land on the mother's side came through 
John Penn, and remained for three generations in 
the Herr fainil>'. The maternal grandmother, Bar- 
bara (Eshleman) Herr, died September 16, 1839, 
in her eighty-second year, in the old family man- 
sion, where Mr. Smith was born, and his maternal 
grandfather, Abraham Herr, died November 26, 
1823, at the age of seventy-two. The old stone 
building erected in 1764 b\' Mr. Smith's maternal 
great-grandparents, David and Barbara Herr, is 
still occupied, and while the wood work has been 



in fi 

replaced, the fort-like walls and a 

mented cellars are as good as new. :i 

capable of resisting tlie ravages of liine (ny uenci- 

ations to come. 

In Pri.f. John Reek's Aeadeiii.v. al l.itit/.. and 
tiie Franklin Institute, riiiladi-lpliin, Mr. Sniitli 
obtained his preparatory edueatiuii. lie >tiidiid 
engineering and surveying with .bi^hua .Srotl. 
Esq., ei\il engineer in Lancaster, .-uid a>^i-1ed to 
survey the Pennsylvania Uailronil throu-h Lancas- 
ter, from llie Big to the Little Conestoga Hiver. 
lie .-)HMit two years in Henry P. Carson's store in 
Lanra>ter. and then went to Haddington College, 
near Phihidel|ihia. an<l afterward tu Dickinson Col- 
lege, Cal■h^le. whnv Uv wa^ giaduated in 1840. 
Among his classmates were D. (L K?hleipan. a prom- 
inent member of tiie Lancaster Bar; Congressman 
Charles O'Neil. of Philadelijhia; Spencer Baird, 
now deceased, of the Smithsdiiian In^titiiti-: and 
George R. Crook-, I ). 1).. LL. I)....f Drew • 
cal Seminary. His vacations, when not tia\eling. 
were spent with his uncle, .\liiaham Smith, of 
Strasburg. whose kindly interest in hi> wulfare he never forgotten. 

Immediately after lii> graduation. Mr. Smith 
commenced the study of law in the otiice (jf .lohn 
R. Montgomer}', a distinguished member of the 
Lancaster Bar. October 20, 1842. he wa* admit- 
ted to practice in the varit)us courts of Lancaster 
County. He brought ti.> the practice of his pro- 
fession a mind well stored with general knowl- 
edge, as well as legal lore, strong common sense, a 
well balanced judgment, a ready pen and a rhet- 
oric precise, clean and forcible. With these ac- 
complishments, added to atti'active manners and 
address, he soon rose to the highest rank in his 
profession. From early life he gave much atten- 
tion to politics. The Whig party was organized 
while he was a boy. and its principles and men had 
for hiiii a magnetic attraction, and he esi)0used its 
cau.-ie in his youth with his pen, and in his riper 
years both as a writer and an orator. While he 
was yet too young even to be a member of his 
party, he was far in advance of it; for he was an 
Abolitionist before the abolition of slavery became 
a political tenet. During his collegiate course at 
Haddington, he wrote an address for an exhibi- 

tion exercise, so strongly anti-slavery in its views 
that the faculty refused to [jermit its delivery. On 
the breaking up of the Whig party in 1850, he 
therefore very naturally be<'ami- an ardent sup- 
porter of the Hepubliean party. 

From bo_\ hood Mr. Smith a close student 
and a great reader, and even in his youth became 
distinguished both as an essayist and as a ready, 
tlueiit and forcible speaker. Many of Ins school 
essays found their way into the newspapers of that 
day, and attracted much attention on account of 
their originality of thought and strength and ele- 
gance of diction. Being regarded as a young man 
of probity and ability, he was induced to enter the 
(lolitical arena, and in 184.3 he was elected a mem- 
ber of the Legislature of Penn.sylvania, and re- 
elected the following year. In 1845 he was elected 
to the State Senate for one term, three years, dur- 
ing the latter part of which he was the candidate 
of his party in caucus for Speaker of the Senate, 
and failed only because he refused to vote for 
himself. His career in the Legislature was one of 
marked ability and usefulness, very gratifying to 
his constituents, and valuable to them and the 
state at large. He was the author of the law im- 
[losing a tax for the payment of the interest on 
tlie state debt, a measure by no means popular at 
the time, and bitterly opposed, but necessary to 
save the state from lepudiation. Prior to that 
time the interest on the state debt had been paid 
ill scrip, and the state bonds were sold at about 
one-third of their par value. Inimediatel}' after 
the passage of the bill the interest was promptly 
paid in money and the bonds rose to par. He ad- 
vocated the sale of the Public Works, which were 
a great expense to the state. He abolished the 
Maj'or's Court of the city of Lancaster, which had 
been a useless and expensive piece of judicial ma- 
chinery, but having existed for many years, had a 
fixed alMicle in the customs of the people. He also 
refused to sanction the renewal of the District 
Court of Laucasler County, when it expired by 
limitation. He was an earnest advocate of the 
Married Women's Act. which became a law in 
I IS IS. He also advocated and voted for the pas- 
\ .sage <if the law which made the common school 
I system obligat(u-y u[M)n the districts of the state, 



thus doing awaj' willi the triennial election, whicli 
permitted the voters of every district to accept or 
reject the S3Steni. Tliis necessary change perfected 
the school system in Pennsylvania. He was ever 
stronglj- devoted to rigid economy and (tovciui- 
niental reforms, and watchful of the details of 

Returning to the iiraetice of his profession, Mr. 
Smith uninterruptedly folh;)wed it until the fall 
of 1872, when he was elected on the Republican 
ticket to the Forty-third Congress, and by re-elec- 
tion served in the Forty-fourth, Forty-lifth, Forty- 
sixth, Forty-seventh and Forty-eighth Congresses, 
a high compliment, and one never before paid to 
a Congressional Representative from Lancaster 
County. In this District, the unwritten rule has 
limited the period of the Representative in Con- 
gress to two terms. To this rule there have been 
the following exceptions: John W. Kittera, 1791 
to 1801, five terms, ten years; James Buchanan, 
1821 to 1831, five terms, ten years; Thaddeus 
.Stevens, 1859 to 1868, four and one-half terms, 
nine years; and Mr. Smith from 1873 to 1885, six 
terms, twelve years. Mr. Smith did efficient serv- 
ice on the Committee on War Claims for six years, 
and served on the Committees on Appropriations, 
Agriculture, Pensions and other important com- 
mittees. As a member of the Committee on War 
Claims, a committee first raised in 1873 on the 
suggestion of President Grant, he rendered valu- 
able services in the rejection of fraudulent claims, 
running up to many millions of dollars. The re- 
ports made by him are refened to constantly by 
the present Committee, and greatly aid to settle 
definitely the law and the facts whenever tlie 
claims are renewed. 

Against the seductive free pass system. Mr. 
Smith, by word and example, entered the stern 
protest, promptly returning to the liberal donors 
their paste-board annuals. When asked the rea- 
son for his conduct by a Director, he answered: 
"You do not give the pass to the mendicant ? Why 
give it to the salaried Judge and Legislator? They 
pay their toll on the turnpike, their discount in the 
bank, and ought ais.i pay their fare on railroads.'' 
Tliis colbxpiy occmred in 1M7;1, at Mr. Smitli's 
lirst Congressional Session, and put a stop to free 

tickets on the street railroads in Washington. He 
took a bold stand against the constructive mileage 
allowed nu'inlieis of Coiiuress, showing its abuses, 
and which, tlirouiili his exposure, were to some ex- 
tent corrected. He favored tiie payment of pen- 
sions directly by the Treasurer of the Lnited 
States instead of Pension Agents, thereby saving 
mone3- to the i)cnsi<)ner and protecting the Gov- 
ernment against loss. lie ably opixised, on legal 
grounds, the creation of the Electoral Commission, 
holding that the Vice-President, under the Con- 
stitution, was the custodian of the returns, who 
must present the same to the twi) Houses when 
they meet in convention, and have thmi oi)ened 
in their presence and counted, neither house hav- 
ing any right to control the result, their presence 
only being necessary as witnesses of the result. 

Mr. Smith favored the resumption of specie 
payments by the Governincnt. and the coining of 
silver for fractional currency onl_v, and oi>i)osed 
the coinage of the needless silver dollars. He ad- 
vocated and voted for the liill to restrict Chinese 
emigration. He alxi Mippoiti'd and vote<l for the 
civil service bill; ami in the di-tributioii of Con- 
gressional iiatronage favoi-cd promotion, and other 
things being equal, gave the soldier a pieference. 
He has always been an earnest advocate of a pro- 
tective taritT, as best ada|)ted to raise revenue, to 
lirolect labor and make the nation independent in 
peace and war. His spcei.'hes made in Cimgress 
were able and cxliau- ti ve, indicating great research 
and ihorouuh knoulcdiie of the subject discussed. 
These, with lii> U'ttcis and ai tides on the political 
issues of the i\:\\ . wcie liiiililv coiiiiiiended bv the 



in state oi Nalional affairs he was cousi'ientiously 
honest, and never sutfered a political caucus to 
dictate his legislative action. After full and care- 
ful investigation he followed his convictions, 
whether in liannony with his party or not. The 
Fitz Jolm Porter case is in point. It had sub- 
stantially assumed a party aspect — tlie Democrats 
being tor, the Republicans against, the bill. Mr. 
Smith, having with great care read the evidence 
on both sides, reached the conclusion that the (ien- 
eral had lieen wronged, and therefore, with nine- 
teen other Peiiuhiicans, voted for the bill, although 



IS lirard 



a.-surefl in adviiiicc tlinl llic 
aizniiist him in an M|iiir<i:icliiiiL! 

at Ilani-laii'u and Wa-hiniilnn 
votf; and Ihf writer ..f lliis >1, 
say thai n|inn a cai't-l'ul review nf his Vdtes, lor 

he could, in a single instance reverse his judgment. 
Mr. Smith died at his home in Lancaster on the 
IGth of Feliriiary, 1«'J4. after a Itrief illness. Al- 
though nut lahoiiuusly ensiaued in the duties of 
his prot\-,-ion after liis relirenieut fn>m ((.ngress, 
he had enjo.yed excellent health, and lould lie 
found almost daily at his office, sunoumlid liy liis 
books and friends, among whom were niiiny life- 
Ion- clients, wImi ,-lill sought his [.mfe-sional or 
friendly advice. His lo.s was sincerelv and dee|.ly 
muurned liy In.- many friend.-. especially l.y his co- 
workers in ),rofesMoual and iH.litical life. The lo- 

who died as he had lived, a nolile Cliiislian gen- 

Soon after his graduation. Mr. .Smith was elected 
a Trustee of Dickinson College, Carlisle, and later 
of Franklin and Marshall College. Lancaster. He 
was a Director and the >olieitor of the First Na- 


fold position from the organization of the institu- 
tion in 1864 until his death. He wa> one ,,f the 
original investors in the first cotton mill erected 
in Lancaster, aud although attended with loss, he 
never regretted the experiment, as it liecame the 
nucleus of the present mills, which yield the more 
fortunate investors a handsome income, and give 
their employes, men, women and children, con- 
stant work and liberal p.ay. He was a warm and 
substantial friend of all worthy industrial enter- 
prises and charitable and literary institutions. 

Mr. Smith never married, and he and his only sis- 
ter, Eliza E. Smith, also unmarried, lived in their 
unpretentious home on North Lime Sfeet. wheie 
she still resides, dispensing ho>pitality and charily 
without ostentation. Plain and unostentatious in 
all things, Mr. Smith was es|)ecially so in charit3- 
and benevolence. Possessing large wealth, recog- 
nizing his obligations to God, clothed with humil- 
ity in a manner and to a degree seldom witnessed. 

he sougiit out those who were in need, or seconded 
the offices of his devoted sister in this direction, 
and in such a way that the words addressed to 
.Cornelius might be appropriately addressed to 
him, "Thy iirayers and thine alms are come up for 
a memorial iiofore God." Tlie churches of Lan- 
castei- County, especially the Methodist P^piscopal 
Churciies, have reason to remember him, for al- 
most all of them had received his benefactions. 
The First Church, Lancaster, which he attended 
with great leguhiiity, contains a magnilicent win- 
dow erected by hiui and his sister, jointly, as a 
memorial to their sainted [jarents, and nearly one- 
tenth of the entire cost of over *8.3.OO0, was given 
by him. 

Miss Smith was educated at Linden Hall Semi- 
nary, Lititz, and at Miss Edmund's School, Phila- 
del|)hia, spending the best years of her life, and 
much of her own and brother's means, in relieving 
the necessities of and educating the worthy poor 
of both sexes, many of whom gratefully trace their 
success in life to the opportune aid which came 
from their unselfish benefactors. Her lirother, of 
whose benefactions she had been the almoner dur- 
ing his life, reposing the utmost confidence in her 
discretion and Chri-tinn sym|)athy, left his large 
estate solely for her Ijciielit and use. Ivnowing 
his wishes, she lias since become the benefactor of 
the Young Men's and the Young Women's Chris- 
tian Associations, and has made arrangements to 
aid other charities in memory of her brotiier and 
in recognition of the words of the Lord .Tesus, how 
he said. "It is more blessed to give than to re- 


C^ E()R(;E K. REED is one of the most wor- 
^ X tl'.v and honored old settlers of Lancaster, 
who is now living letired from business 
cares, but in former years was always in the front 
ranks of works of improvement and local indus- 
try. In his many and varied dealings in the fi- 
nancial world his career has been always perfectly 
straightforward, honest and marked with good 
judgment. Few men, indeed, iu this city have 



been more tliorouglily identified witli its welfare 
and upbuilding, and the iiistory of Lancaster 
would be incomplete without his life record. 

John Delloff, the great-great-gran dfathei- of our 
subject, was born in December, 1704, and died at 
the age of fort_v-seven years. lie was nf Hugue- 
not descent and probably left France witli man\- 
others after the revocation of the edict of Nantes. 
His name appears as one of the incorporators 
of the borough of Lancaster in the year 1742, 
wlien he served as Assistant Burgess and two years 
later was elected Chief Burgess. At one time he 
lived on the eastern shore of Jlaryland near the 
head of Elk River, where his son Abraham was 
born, February 13, 1735. The military career of 
the latter was most creditable and lie was com- 
missioned Captain March 15. 177t!, Iiis company 
being under tlie command of Lord Sterling. They 
suffered severely at the battle of Long Island, and 
when Ft. Washington was captured Captain Delloff 
fell into the hands of the enemy and remained a 
prisoner until Ai)ril 20. 1778, when he was ex- 
changed. He was one of the founders of the Lan- 
caster Library Company in 1759, tlie third circu- 
lating library founded in the United States, and in 
1763 it was merged into the Juliana Library. In 
1762 Captain Delloff was Assistant Burgess of the 
borougli, and his death ocmirrcd when in liiseighty- 
seventh year, March 11.1S21. lli^ daughter, JMary, 
married Robert Reed April 18, 1785, and their 
only son, Henry R., our subject's father, was born 
October 27, 1793. The grandfather's death oc- 
curred in Lancaster in March, 1795. 

Henry R. Reed was born and reared in Lancas- 
ter and became a dry-goods merchant. Afterward 
he embarked in the banking business and was 
elected Cashier of the bank at Chambersburg, 
through the influence of President Buchanan, wliicli 
position he declined to accept. 8ubse(iuerilly lie 
was a clerk and Cashier in the Farmers' National 
Bank until he resigned his position, about 1857. 
After that he lived a retired life until his death, 
which occurred two years later, on tlie 10th of Janu- 
ary, 1859. He was an old line Whig and a member 
of the Moravian Church. By his marriage with Ann 
Catherine Hoff he had two children, a son and 
daughter, Maria C, wife of Charles A. Heinitsh, a 

druggist, and our suliject. The father married a 
second time and had one child. J. Lane, who is a 
manufacturer in Dayton, Ohio. 

The birth of George K. Reed occurred Deccinber 
22, I82G. in Lancaster, and his mother having died 
wlieii he was only fourteen months i_>Id, his father's 
sister tf.iok him to Iniiig uii. He was educated in 
the private scliools of the city and in January, 
1844, entered the store of C. Hager, one of the 
leading merchants of that day and founder of the 
dry-goods house wliich still perpetuates his name. 
September 6, 1848, Mr. Reed entered the office of 
the County Treasurer, which was then in a small 
two-stoiy frame building in the rear of East King 
Street, on the site now occupied by the courthouse. 
As his time was not entirel\- taken up he sold lime 
and rooliug slate, for which he had the agency. 
In 1850, the term of the Treasurer having ex|)ired, 
he determined to open a ))rivate l)ank, as there was 
no institution of the kind in the city. P'rom his 
grandfather and father, who had both [losjessed 
financial ability and had been bankers, he inherited 
a taste for commercial pursuits and from the start 
met with success. His bank was situated where 
the court iiouse now stands and afterwards was re- 
moved to the present location of the Examiner 
building. In 1857 the Lancaster Bank Building 
was purchased by Mr. Reed, who carried on his 
banking business there until 1891. During the 
forty-one years of his experience in this pursuit he 
witnessed many changes in the banking systems 
and went through several panics. When the crash, 
of 1857 came following the failure of the Lancas- 
ter Savings Institute and the Lancaster Bank, his 
partner went to the wall November 17, and the 
next day being Tlianksgiving, an opportunity was 
afforded young Reed to look around for some float- 
ing spar whereby he might escape from the wreck. 
Trusting to his past record and that confidence in 
him had not been lost, lie determined to open his 
doors the next day as usual and did so. Many 
withilitw their deposits but he was able to weather 
the gale, and after six months formed a iiartner- 
sliip under the name of Reed, INIcGrann, Kellev >& 
Co. In 1861 Mr. Keliey died and his name was 
drop[>ed from the title. 

In 1849 gas was introduced into the city and 


Mr. Reed was niaDager and Ticasuicr of the cora- 
|)aiiy. He also took an activi' |)art in organizing 
the New Ilollaiid National Hank, the Chestnut 
Street National I'.ank of l'hila(lel|ihia, the Lancas- 
ter Fire Insurance Couipany, th<> Kastcrn Market 
Company, the Stevens House, the Lancaster Man- 
ufacturing Company, the First National Bank of 
Strasburg, in which he has been a Director for a 
number of years; also in the Conestoga National 
Bank and several other institutions. Being inter- 
ested in transportation facilities and good roads in 
this county he has been coucerned in the following 
organizations: the Lancaster Street Railroad, the 
Manheim and Lancaster, and Millport and Stras- 
burg Turnpike Companies, the Willow Street Turn- 
pike, the Central Transportation Company, and 
was one of the contractors which built the ,] unc- 
tion and Breakwater Railroad Company of Dela- 
ware from Georgetown to Lewis, Del., and the 
pier extending sixteen hundred feet into the bay. 

•June 8, 1853, Mr. Reed married Miss Mary A. 
Fetter, a native of this place. Her father. John 
G., was born in Bethlehem, and was once Cashier 
of the Lancaster Bank. Mr. and Mrs. I!eed have 
two children living, .John F., who is a cigar man- 
ufacturer and packer of leaf tobacco, his place of 
business being on Prince Street, and George H., 
who is in the insurance business. Both the sons 
are married and have families. 

In benevolent and church work Mr. Reed has 
not been inactive, but has used his influence in the 
most effectual way. He is President of the Board 
of Trustees of the Children's Home, which is now 
supported by the county and which he assisted to 
organize as a corporation; also the Fulton Hall 
Association, the City Bible Society, the Conestoga 
Beneficial Association, the Young Men's Christian 
Association, the Woodward Hill Cemetery Asso- 
ciation and is a Trustee of tlie Millersville Normal 
School and occupies a like position with the Lin- 
den Hall .Seminary of Lititz. In former years he 
erected several residences in this vicinity and now 
owns a number in addition to a warehouse on 
Prince Street and other property. 

For sixty-seven years Mr. Reed has been identi- 
fied with the Moravian Chui'ch. having been Treas- 
urer and Trustee in his congregation for many 

years and having often represented it in the syn- 
ods. He is an active Republican and fraternally 
belongs to Lancaster Lodge No. 43, F. &_ A. M., of 
which he is Past Master, is a Royal Arch M.ason 
and Knight Templar. For several terms he sei'ved 
as President of the Coinmon Council of the city 
and has discharged liis public duties with fidelity. 


HENRY BArMtiARDNKR, one of the most 
highly respected citizens of Lancaster, is 
President of the Gas, Light & Fue' Com- 
pany and is a successful coal merchant. In all 
public cntei'piiscs lie has been very liberal, and ac- 
tive ill cvoivtliiiig relating to the general welfare. 
He was one of the organizers of the First National 
Bank, of which he is still a Director, and assisted 
111 the formation of the Lancaster Trust Company, 
lieiiig elected its \'ice-President, a position he has 
held from the start. For several years he has been 
a member of the School Board, for a long [leriod 
served as a member of the City Council and was 
Chairman of the Finance Committee. 

The paternal giandfather of our subject was 
Leonard Baunigardner, a Hessian soldier, who 
came with the English army to America during 
the Revolution. He deserted from the ranks, en- 
listed under Washingt<>n and fought for freedom. 
After hostilities had ceased he settled in York. Pa., 
where he followed his trade as a dyer, and there 
hisdeatli occurred when he was seventy-nine .years 
of age. His son, Thomas, who was born in Y'ork, 
was a hatter and furrier by trade. He established a 
Im^iiiess in his native village, which was tlie largest 
of the kind in that section, and which afforded 
constant emiiloyment to upwards of sixteen men. 
In his later years he invested his extensive means 
in proi)erty both in and near York, where lie en- 
gaged in gardening and larining until he retired. 
His last days were passed at the home of (Jiir sub- 
was ill his ninetieth \ear. Like his father he was 



a devoted Lutheran. His wife, whose maiden 
name was Elizabeth Gartman, was also born in 
York, where she died when nuarly fourscore years 
of age. Of her children the fciui elder. Abraham, 
Isaac, Jacob and Joseph, died in Yoik. Thomas is 
a resident of Lancaster; Henry is next in order 
of birth; Eiiza, deceased, was the wife of Jacob 
Upp; and Catherine, Mrs. Cochran, died in this 

Henry liaumgardner, of this biograiiliy. was 
born in York, Pa.. February 9. 1)521, and after tin- 
ishing the common schools was for two years a 
student at the Pennsylvania College, at Gettys- 
burg. September 30, 183'J, he 6rst set foot in 
Lancaster, being engaged as a clerk with the firm 
of liaumgardner A- Carson until 1842, when the 
junior partner died and he became a member of 
the firm, of which his brother Thomas was the 
senior partner. The dry goods store which they 
carried on was located on the northwest corner 
of North King Street and Penn Square. They 
occupied a large store and had a tine trade until 
1870, when they sold out and engiiged in the 
coal business, in wiiicli they have continued since. 
The location of their yards is on North Prince 
Street, at the Phiiadelphia A- Reading Rail- 
road. The coal yards cover two acres and their 
bins have a capacity of iour thousand tons. These 
bins are raised high enough to screen the coal di- 
rectly into wagons. The linn have the largest trade 
in coal in the cit\' and have a down town office. 
From 1853 to 1858 our subject operated a mine 
which he opened at Schomoken, Pa. 

In 1846 Mt. Baiimgardner was married in Lan- 
caster to Anna Kurtz, who was a native <>{ this 
city, and whose death occurred here. She was the 
mother of four children: Clara, Mis. Hufford, of 
Reading; Anna M., Mrs. Cross, of East Orange, 
N. Y.; Henry K., who is in the coal and lumber 
business here; and William K., who died at the age 
of two years. The present wife of our sul)ject was 
formerly Mrs. Mary S. Cadwell, whose birth oc- 
curred in Hartford, Conn. 

Mr. Baumgardner is President of tlie Lancaster 
Gas Company, which purchased the old company, 
and has a capital stock of >!200,000, and is now 
the on\j gas company in this place. One of the 

organizers and prime movers in the Consumers' 
Gas Company of Reading, which has a capi- 
tal stock of ^400, 00(.), our subject was also made 
President. In company with Mr. Hubley he 
is engaged in the manufacture of novelties in 
the northern part of Lancaster, the plant being 
known as the Hubley Manufacturing Company. 
This concern has been two years supplying the 
markets, has a capital stock of -^200,000, for which 
amount it was incorporated in January, 1894, with 
our subject as its President. The trade of the 
company extends to various parts of the I'nited 
States and Canada, and even in portions of F>urope. 
In addition to the other enterprises in which he is 
interested is the Strasburg Railroad, running be- 
tween Lemon Place and Strasburg, of which he is 
Presidentand proprietor. For years he was a mem- 
ber of the Old Lamberton Lodge No. 42. of which 
he was the first Master, and at one time was District 
Deputy Grand Master of the state. A Republican 
of the truest stripe, he has been a moinber i>f the 
City Council. A member of St. John's Lutheran 
Church, in the building of which he has been veiy 
active, he is also known for his benevolent quali- 
ties, and on his last birthd.ay found great pleasure 
in giving to the deserving poor of this city some 
four hundred sacks of corn meal. 


PHILIP CRAYRILL. whose sketch now 
claims attention, is one of the most popu- 
lar and higlily esteemed gentlemen in 
Lancaster, and after a long life, well and pleasant- 
ly spent, looks back upon the years with great sat- 
isfaction, remembering how faithfully he has 
I)erformed every duty falling upon him. He is 
also favorably known f(ir the valiant part which 
he pliiyed during tlie late war, participating in 
some of the hardest-fought battles of that period. 
Our suliject was born in the city of Y'ork, this 
state, April 21, 1819, and is the son of Mich,ael 
Graybill, also a native of that place. The first 
representative of the family in America came 



from Saxon_v, Germany, and locatert in the Key- ! 
stone Stale, where they after ward became jironii- 
nent in its hi.slorv. The father of our subject was 
a blacksiiiilli in York :ind also served as a sohlier 
ill tlie War (if I.S12. lie lived to the advanced , 
age of ninety-nine years, dying at the home of 
Philip in the year 1853. The grandfather of our 
subject lived to be one hundred and Ave years old. 

Mrs. Nancy (King) Graybill was born in east- 
ern Ireland, and when quite young was brought ' 
to America by an uncle, with whom she lived until 
her marriage. She also is deceased, d^'ing in 1829. 
With her husband she was a consistent member of 
the Episcopal Church and lived an honest, upright 
life. Philip, of this sketch, was the only member 
of the parental fanidy, and after attaining his 
thirteenth year apprenticed himself to learn the 
trade of a cabinet-maker, working under Colonel 
Hay of York for seven years, four months and ten 
daj'S, receiving during that lime only his board 
and clothes. After mastering the business young 
Graybill remained in the employ of that gentle- 
man until March 17, 1847, when he located in 
this city. 

After coming here our subject engaged to work 
for Jacob Bear, remaining with him four years, 
when he entered the shop of John May. He 
worked for different parlies in the city until the 
outbreak of the late war,and in the fall of 1861 
enlisted in Company H, Sevent^'-ninth Pennsyl- 
vania Infantry, commanded by Capt. Michael 
Luclier, and was mustered into service at Pitts- 
burg and sent to join the Army of the Cum- 
berland. He participated in the following well- 
known and hard-fought battles: Green River, Ky., 
Sweden's Cove, Tenn., Chattanooga, Chapman 
Hill, Ky., Stone River, Hoover's Gap, Chickamau- 
ga. Buzzard's Roost, and in fact in all the engage- 
ments in which his regiment took part up to 1864. 
He went with Sherman on his memorable march 
to the sea, then on to Savannah, Ga., up to Rich- 
mond, Bentonville and Goldsboro. From the 
latter place the regiment went to Washington, 
D. C, and witnessed the (irand Review, after 
which they were mustered out at Alexandria, Va., 
in June, 1865. i:)iiring his period of enlistment 
our subject was never wounded, taken prisoner or 

on the sick list, with the exception of the thirty 
days' furlough, wiien he returned home. 

After the close of the war Mr. (.;r.a> bill reliirned 
to Lancaster and began working in a sash factory. 
In the fall of I.S7C. howerer, lie started in business 
for himself on a small scale, making models and 
doing all kinds of light wood work. His place of 
business is located at No. 232 South Water Street 
and the machineiy is operated by water power. 

Our subject was married in Columbia, this state, 
in 1852, to Miss Elizabeth Spindler, a native of this 
city. Their union was blessed by the birth of six 
children, only two of whom (Philip and (rcorge) 
are living. The former is engaged in business 
with our subject, while the elder son is employed 
in the Cliamiiion Blower Works. 

As a matter of course Mr. (!rayl>ill belongs to 
the Grand Army of the Republic, holding mem- 
bership with (leorgo H. Thomas Post No. 84, and 
is also connected with the Inioii Veterans' Legion. 
In politics he is a strong Kepulilican and cast his 
first vote in 1840 for William Henry Harrison. 
The Trinity Lutheran Church finds in him a val- 
ued member and he is active in all good works. 



"'y- EORGE W. ANNE is senior member of 
T the firm of Anne iC' Thomas, manufac- 
turers of tire escajies, iron fences and orna- 
mental iron work. He is cnter|)rising and popu- 
lar, and occupies a high place in the esteem of 
his fellow-townsmen for the valiant part which he 
took in the late war. 

Conrad Anne, the fatliei' of our subject, was 
born in Lancaster, while his father, who also bore 
the name of Conrad, was a native of German3', 
and after emigrating to the United States made 
his home in this city, where he followed the trade 
of a cabinet-maker. He was a true Christian and 
a member in good standing of the Lutheran Church. 
During the later years of his life he was the pro- 
prietor of a fine furniture and undertaking estab- 
lishment, maniifactuiing all of his i.iwii goods. He 
deiiarted this life in 18(1(1, wlieii only foity-seven 




:n;irnage was 
)anville, tliis 
lier lidiiu' in 


years of age. His wife prior to hei 
known as Jane K. Rigg, a nativf ()f 
state. She is still living, and inakf 

The parental family (>( unv sul 
eight children, of whom we make 
mention: William was a niaeliinist 
deceased. Alonzo served as a sold 
late war, serving his c-ountry faithfully and well 
for three years and three months; he is also de- 
ceased. Our subject was the next in order of 
birth; Marry is engaged in business with (ieorge, 
of this sketch; Mary E. is the wife of Frank R. 
Finney, of Altoona; Annie, Alice and Cordelia are 

The subject of this sketch was born in Lancas- 
ter, February 22, 1847, and after acquiring a good 
education in the public schools learned the cabi- 
net-maker's trade under the instruction of his fa- 
ther. In May, 1862, during the progress of the 
Civil War, he enlisted in Comiiany I), One Hun- 
dred and Twenty-second Pennsylvania Infantry, 
under Capt. J. M. R.-.ub, and was mustered into 
the nine months' service at Harrisburg. His regi- 
ment was sent to join the Army of the Potomac, 
and young Anne participated in the battles of 
Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, besides nu- 
merous skirmishes. His term of enlistment expir- 
ing, he was mustered out, but soon thereafter re- 
enlisted, this time becoming a member of the Twen- 
ty-first Pennsylvania Cavalry, also in the nine 
months' service. At the end of that time he 
joined the One Hundred and Ninety -seventh In- 
fantry, and remaining with them for three or 
four months, entered the Second Construction 
Corps, under Colonel Wright, and was on duty 
in South Carolina until the close of the war, and 
in Ma}', 1865, received his honorable discharge. 

After the establishment of peace, our subject 
returned home and found employment in the ma- 
chine shops of Lancaster, of which he had charge 
until establishing in business for iiimself in the 
year 1878. His first enterprise the manu- 
facture of portable fan blowers, used by lilack- 
smiths, wiiicii was the first article of the kind 
ever made. He also obtained the patent on a 
portable forge and drill presser, which he also man- 

ufactured. In 1884 he added to his already large 
estalilishment the manufacture of lire escapes and 
all kinds of fanc}' iron work, of which lie makes a 
specialty, and has a large and rapidly iucrea.-ing 
business among builders and contractors. 

Mr. Anne gives emi)loyment in the different de- 
partments of his factory to one lumdred men. 
His brass foundry is 55x37 feet in dimensions, the 
blacksmith shop of the same [iroportions, and the 
machine shop lOOx.^G feet in size and two stories 
in height. He originates his own designs in orna- 
mental work. In 1884 our subject formed a part- 
nership with Abraham L. Thomas, and the linn 
is widely and favorably known throughout this 
portion of the state. 

The marriage of Oeorge W. Anne occurred in 
this city in 1866, at which time Miss Mary A. 
McCutchen became his wife. She was a native of 
Lancaster and is now deceased, leaving a family 
of three children: .John W.. engaged in the ma- 
chine shdps of uuv Mibject; Ceorge W.. .Ir., also a 
woi-kiiuin in the iiiai-hiiie .^hiip^: and Amanda K., 
now tlie wife of Louis Sliii)man,of Altonna. The 
second union of Mr. Anne occurred April 19. 
1893, when Miss Louisa Shlagel, a native of Ydik, 
this state, became his wife. In social affairs our 
subject belongs to Lodge No. 68, K. of I'. He is 
a true-blue Republican in i)olitics, and in religion 
isa devoted member of St. .John's Lutheran Church. 

progress of I.ancaster County has been 
promoted and its fame enhanced by its 
many noble sons, who, entering the arena of pub- 
lic life, have through the exercise of native abili- 
ties gained a national reputation. Such an one is 
the subject of this biographical review, a man of 
extended information, liberal culture, with clear 
and concise opinions on all important questions, 
and one whose eloquence, integrity and superior 
intellectual gifts entitle him t<> rank amcmg tlie 
eminent statesmen of the country. 

It is a fact of which Mr. Bmsius may well be 
proud, that both his paternal and maternal ances- 



tors were of stiird\' Quaker stock. The first repre- 
sentative of the Brosius family in America was liis 
great-grandfatlier. Henry, wlio, emi.o;ratiug from 
Kngland in the year 17so, settled near Philadel- 
phia, (irandfather Mahhui Brosius, who was born 
in Chester County, there engaged in the oecupa- 
tion of a potter. He was a worthy man and a 
prominent member of the Society of Friends. Our 
sul)jecfs father. Clark>(ni Brosius, also a native of 
Chester County, fi.illowed farming pursuits until 
his death in 1842. His mother, Bachael, who died 
in 1850, was a daughter of Samuel Hambleton, a 
farmer of Chester County. 

There were five children in the family, and three 
are now living, of whom Marriott is the eldest. 
In 1840 the family removed from Chester County 
to Colerain Township, Lancaster County, and 
there his birth occurred March 7, 1843. His boy- 
ho<id years were bu>ily l)ut uneventfully i)assed 
upon the Imme farm, and in tlie uifie(juent inter- 
vals from agricultural work he attended the neigh- 
boring schools. His broad information, however, 
has been gained mainly through self-culture and 
his own unaided exertions. Shortly Ix'fi.ire the 
war he entered the Chestnut Hill Academy, in Co- 
lerain Township, where for a brief [leriod he con- 
tinued his studies. 

The opening of the Rebellion aroused the pa- 
triotic spirit of the young student, and laying 
aside his books, he enlisted in the service of the 
Union. In November, 1861, when only eighteen 
years of age, his name was enrolled as a member 
of Company K. Ninety-seventh Pennsylvania In- 
fantrw Captain Wayne cdmmanding the company, 
and Cul. Henry AV. (uiss the regiment. He was 
mustered in as First Coi'poral, and served for thir- 
ty-eight mcmths, meantime being promoted to Ser- 
geant, and later to Lieutenant. Possessing the 
dauntless courage of a veteran, with the euthu- 
si.asm of youth, he was ever conspicuous for gal- 
lantry in the field. On the 20tli of May, 1804, 
during the terrible charge at Bermuda Hundred, 
\'a., he was as usual in the thickest of the fight, 
when, studpiiig to raise a wdundcil (.•unirade, a ball 
from the rille of a Cunfederatr .■.liarp-houler iiierced 
his shuuld.'r. He was taken from the field into 
the hospital, where it was found that the bone of 

the arm had been destroyed at the shoulder-joint. 
He was obliged to undergo a severe operation; a 
section of the bone from the shoulder-joint toward 
the elbow was removed. For a long time the re- 
sult of the operation seemed doubtful. For three 
months he lay in one position, hovering between 
life and death, and for eight months he was con- 
fined in the hospital. Finally he recovered his 
health, but his arm has been disabled from that day 
to this. In December, 18G4, he was hon(.)rabl3- dis- 
charged from the service. 

Years after the war, one of the field officers of 
the regiment, writing of Mr. Brosius as a soldier, 
paid liim this tribute: "His record is linked and 
written with the Ninety-seventh Regiment, in 
whose rolls his name was subscribed in 1861. Its 
history is his history, and its fame is his fame, and 
its glorious deeds are the sum of the faithful brave 
deeds of the men who with him went forth at the 
call of this country to battle for the preservation 
of the life of the nation. Among the most ear- 
nest, and yet quiet and unobtrusive in all his ac- 
tions, was JMarriott Brosius. From the day of his 
enlistment in the service until stricken down by 
the bullet of the enemy, he was ever at his post of 
duty, active and vigilant as a sentinel, brave and 
courageous in the line of battle. He was regarded 
as a model soldier, as well from the force of culture 
that indicated the perfect gentleman, as from the 
exact fulfillment of duty that indicated the trained 
veteran soldier." 

Returning to his home and resuming the duties 
of civic life, Mr. Brosius soon entered the Normal 
School at Millersviile, where he remained until 
1867. He commenced the study of law with Hon. 
Thomas E. Franklin, ex-Attorney-General of Penn- 
sylvania, and a prominent attorney of Lancaster. 
Later entering the law department of the Univer- 
sity of Michigan at Ann Arbor, he was graduated 
with honors from that institution in 1868. Dur- 
ing the same year he was admitted to the Bar, and 
opening an office at Lancaster, soon became known 
as a skillful, accurate and judicious lawyer. 

A talent for oratory is one of the native gifts 
of Jlr. Brosius. In the early days of the temper- 
ance movement, before it had taken the Prohib- 
itory turn, he received fiom the Order of Good 



Templars an offer of the position of State Lecturer 
for tlieir organization. For this position he had 
been recominended bj' the poet, George W. Bun- 
gay, who had heard him speali and was convinced 
that he would be of the greatest service in that 
capacity. It was by no means an easy position. 
He was in constant demand, and once made thirty- 
four speeches in thirty- days. While, however, it 
was not an easy place, yet it proved of the great- 
est benefit to him, developing in him a fluency of 
expression, tact and versatility that have since 
contributed largely to his success. His fame as an 
orator is as widely known as his name. In 1876 
he was chosen to deliver the Centennial Oration 
at Lancaster. September 18, 1880, on the eigh- 
teenth anniversar}- of the battle of Antietam, he 
delivered the oration on tlie occasion of the un- 
veiling of the statue in the National Cemetery at 

In political matters Mr. Brosius has always been 
independent, placing principle above party in liis 
thoughts and actions. .June 24, 1882, lie was 
nominated for Congressman-at-large by the Re- 
publican State Convention, but failed of election, 
though running seventy-six hundred votes ahead 
of his ticket. On the 14th of April, 1888, lie was 
nominated for Congress by the Republican party 
in Lancaster County, and was elected to the Fifty- 
first Congress by a plurality of one thousand and 
two votes, there being four candidates in the field. 
Two years later he was again chosen for that hon- 
orable position, was re-elected in 1892, and in 
1894 was elected to the Fifty-fourth Congress. In 
the House of Representatives his career has been 
that of an able, talented statesman, one who places 
the interests of his constituents above his personal 
welfare, and who advances their interests in every 
waj' possible. 

Sociall_y, Mr. Brosius belongs to the Independ- 
ent Order of Odd Fellows, and also holds member- 
ship in the George H. Thomas Post No. 84, G. A. | 
R. He adheres to the Quaker faith, and is devoted i 
to the religion of his ancestors. His marriage, oc- 
curring in Chester County, March 18, 1869, united 
him with Miss Elizabeth .1. Coates, a native of this i 
county, and a daughter of Simmons Coates, whose 
family was long prominent in the Quaker Church. I 

Mrs. Brosius was educated in the Millersville Nor- 
mal School, and is a cultured, refined ladj', whose 
talents enable her to assist her husband by active 
co-operation and counsel. Four children blessed 
their union, two of whom, Gertrude C. and Grace 
Anna, survive. 

In 1893 the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws 
was conferred upon Mr. Brosius by Ursanus Col- 
lege. Other deserved honors have been bestowed 
upon him from time to time, and these he has ac- 
cepted modestly and unostentatiously. Poverty 
in youth did not humiliate, nor does power and suc- 
cess undul}' exalt him. He retains to an unusual 
degree the unpretentious manner and simple hab- 
its that characterized his years of private life. To 
sum up the princii)al points in his character, we 
c:in do no lietter tlian quote from liis home paper, 
the Lancaster Examiner, as follows: "Mr. Brosius is 
known because he deserves recognition, won by 
his brains, his integrity and the force of his cliar- 
acter. .\ plain, unpretentious man, never seeking 
ottice, or asking any one's political support, he is 
to-day tlie embodiment of political independence. 
Conscience has always been his guide, not the am- 
bition of selfishness. Duty called him to the front 
in the country's battle with treason. He asked 
but a private's rank. Courage and scars, not favor 
or beseeching, gave him the officer's epaulettes. 
In civil life he made himself. He came from the 
plow, and industry, perseverance and self-reliance 
placed him in the upper seats of the forum." 

HON. J. L. STEINMETZ is one of the most 
promising and enterprising citizens of 
Lancaster, being identified with many of 
her leading industries and interests. For nearly 
a quarter of a century he has been a leading attor- 
ney-at-law, having built up a fine reputation as a 
member of the legal profession. He is President 
of the People's National Bank and President of 
the Trust, Savings and Deposit Company, wiiich 
two institutions do a business of over ^1,000,000 



per annum and enjoy tlie universal confidence of 
tiie public. Moreovei- he is President of the Citi- 
zens' Electric Li.ij;lit, Heat and Power Company 
and serves in a like caiiarily willi the Clay S: Ilin- 
kletown Turnpilu' ('i)nipany. lit- is a man of wide 
information, having traveled extensively liolii in 
this country and on the continent of Europe, ant! 
is a most interesting conversationalist. 

A native of South Annville, Lebanon County, 
tbisstate, Mr. Slciniiictz was li.irn August 22,1845. 
llis grandfather, Cliarles, was born and reared in 
Germany, and coming to this country, settled near 
E|)hrata, of which he was one of the founders, and 
there his death occuired when lie had reached tiie 
age of seventy-seven years. IIis wife, wiiose 
maiden name was Beaver, lived to the age of 
ninety-three years, and of their eight children two 
died at the age of ninety-two .years, two at the age 
of eighty-eight, and one lived until his eighty- 
seventh year. The youngest, Mrs. Coover, is still 
living at a ripe old age, and one of lier brothers 
died in his sixty-eightli year, while the remaining 
members of the family departed this life when 
nearly lifty-two years of age. This is a remarkalile 
rec(jrd of longevity and it is [irobably on the ma- 
ternal side that this inheritance of long life has 
come down to her descendants. 

.lacob Steinmetz, Sr., father of our subject, was 
born near Ephrata, this county, where on arriving 
at man's estate he engaged in farming and later 
purchased the Secrest property in South Annville, 
Lebanon County, where he engaged extensively 
in farming until his death, which occurred when 
he was in the prime of life, in 1851. In religious 
faith he was a member of the Lutheran denomina- 
tion and in politics was a Democrat. His wife, 
formerly Catherine Gross, was a daughter of John 
Gross, of Ephrata. who was a large dealer in real 
estate and also engaged in merchandising and 
hotel keeiiing. .Mr. (iross was a prominent man, 
having served as Postmaster and was one of the or- 
ganizers of the Lancaster County National Bank, 
in which he had seventy-two shares of the original 
stock at thr linic of his death, llis property, which 
was very valuubl.' and extensive, fell to his six 
children on his demise, lie was one of the slock- 


of the Horse Shoe Tin 


Corapany, it being organized in 1803. He was 
actively identilied in its upbuilding, and the stone 
bridges and roads were largely constructed by 
special state appropriations, wiiich he was active 
in securing. His wife, Mary A., was a daughter of 
Col. John Wright, a Colonel in the Revolutionary 
War. Ephrata is also noted where the Seventh 
D.ay Baptists established their first church, and 
there was the first printing press with wooden 
type used in America. John Gross was one often 
children and his father settled near Manheim in 
1737. The family originated in Germany, where 
the father was a wealtiiy agriculturist, and to each 
of his children he gave *10,()00. Mrs. Steinmetz 
died at the age of eighty-one, in 188G. 

In a family of eleven chihlren our subject is the 
youngest, and seven of the number are living. He 
was reared to manhood at ins birtliplace, receiving 
a good education in tlie common schools and after- 
ward attending Annville Academy and Dickenson 
Seminary at Williainsport, being graduated with 
the degree of Bachelor of Arts. Subsequently he 
entered the Oniversity of Michigan at Ann Arbor 
and was graduated from the literary department 
with the degree of ^Master of Arts and from the 
law department with the degree of Bachelor of 
Laws. At his Alma Mater he was a member, and 
at one time President of the Webster Literary So- 
ciety. During the vacations of the Michigan 
University he a law student of Hon. Isaac E. 

In 1870 our subject began the practice of his 
profession at Lancaster, Pa., in partnership with 
Chailes E. Gast, now of Pueblo, Colo., and this 
partnership existed until 1873, when Mr. (iast re- 
moved to the west. Our subject continued liis large 
and lucrative practice alone until 1890, when John 
E. Blalone became his partner. Mr. Malone was 
a|)pointed Postmaster January 1, 1894. and then 
William H. Keller, who was graduated with the 
highest honors in the law college at Washington, 
D. C, became the partner of Mr. Steinmetz. In 
the year 1876 our subject was a delegate to the 
convention at St. Louis which nominated Tilden 
for the Presidenc_y, and the same fall was elected to 
the State Legislature from Lancaster on the Dem- 
ocratic ticket, overcoming a large Reiiulilicaii ma- 



jorit3'. During his two years' service lie was a 
member of a niimbor of important committees, but 
since that lime has abandoned politics, devoting 
his attention to law and banking. 

February 5, 1890, our subject married :\liss 
Mar^' Virginia Ilawtiiorn, whose birth occurred in 
the Old Dominion. Her fatiier, James Clemson 
Hawthorn, a native of this county, went to ^'ir- 
ginia prior to the war, wliere be carried on a plan- 
tation. His wife, Mary L., is a daughter of John 
Eberman, who for twenty-tive years was cashier of 
the Farmers' National Bank of this city. To our 
subject and his wife has been born one child, who 
is called in honor of his maternal grandfather 

In January, 1890, Blr. Steinraetz was electL-d 
President of the People's Bank, and in January, 
1892. he was instrumental in the organization of 
the People's Trust, Savings and Deposit Com- 
pany chartered under the laws of the state, by 
reason of which it is enabled to transact business 
relating to trusts, settlement of estates and simihxr 
transactions. The business of these two banks is 
kept entirely separate, though tliey are located in 
the same building, one of the finest of the kind in 
the state. Tlie capital stock of the Peo[)le's Na- 
tional Bank is §200,000, while that of the Trust 
Company is 8250,000. The latter has made over 
ten per cent, on the capital invested and has been a 
success from the start. The National Bank has been 
correspondingly successful, and both concerns have 
and merit the entire trust of the people. The Cit- 
izens' Electric Light, Heat and Power Company is 
a new organization incorporated in 1893 and hav- 
ing a capital stock of $100,000. The plant is a 
fine one, on the most modern plan, and the West- 
inghouse system is here found in all its perfection, 
all the latest electric machinerv and appliances 
being used. The plant is located near Conestoga 
Creek, outside the city limits, by reason of which 
it can use the condenser with greatest economy, 
and is one of the finest concerns of the kind in the 

The Clay and llinkletown Turnpike Com|)any, 
of which Mr. Steinmelz is President, has rebuilt 
and abandoned ix'rlioiis of the old Hoise-shoe 
Turnpike, a distance of eight and a-lialf miles, 

through a densely i)opulatod region, and this is a 
most imjjortant enterprise. Our subject hasalw.-iys 
enjoyed a very paying and large practice as a law- 
yer and has been associated with many of the most 
prominent in both local and federal courts. 
In 1889 he attended the Paris Exposition and 
spent some time [ileasantly in travel in different 
parts of Europe. He also sojourned in Europe 
during the summer of 1894. His beautiful home 
is situated in the midst of large grounds pleasantly 
located on North Duke Street and is considered 
one of the iiio>t liHudsouie places in the city. 

It is the interior furnishing and decorations 
wliich attest the elegant and cultured taste of 
both Mr. and Mrs. Steinmetz. Their home is also 
adorned with several, pieces of fine statuary and 
many rare and ex(iuiMte paintings from the liands 
of the old ma>tei-s. It is lu-re in their superb home 
that they extend a graceful hospitality to their 


'\~^ ANIEL M. MooiiE, proprietor of the Fre- 

J } nnuit llotrl at Columbia, is one of the 

mo-it p.ipui:ir hoti'l iiKMi in this portion of 
tlie state. Mr. Mooiv lu'canie the owner of his 
present house in .laiiiiary. 1892. It is the largest 
and best equipped hotel in the city, and is well 
patronized by the ti-avcling pul>lie. 

Our subject is the .son of .'-'aiiiuel and Mary ( Mc- 
Falls) Moore, and was born March 8, 1838, in 
Providence Township. Lancaster County. The 
first representative of the family in America was 
(Grandfather Antlionv Mooi-e, who came hither 
from Ireland in I Too. He at once located in 
Bucks County, wlieic lie worked at his trade of 
ironmolder and reuiained until his removal to this 
county, where his last days were spent. He was a 
Whig in politics and fought as a soldier in the 
Warof 1.S12. lie was a devoted member of tlie 
Lutheran Church, and by liis marriage with Miss 
Elizabeth Wertz there were born six children: 
Samuel, David, Daniel, Sarah, Mary and Hannah. 

Samuel Moore was born in Berks County, this 



state. l)ut later removed to Bueks County, where 
he owned a good tract of one hundred and sixty 
acres of land, which he cultivated with fair suc- 
cess. Prior to this, iiowever, and when twenty- 
two years of age, he owned a farm and followed 
cliarcoaling. furnishing the farmers in the vicinity 
witli that !)rod\R-t. He was a Whig in politics 
until the organization of the Republican party, 
when he joined its ranks. 

The parental family of our suliject included 
eleven children, of whom Daniel was the third 
eldest. His brothers and sister^ Lore the respect- 
ive names of John, David, Samuel, Sarah, Mary, 
Elizabeth and Harriet. The father of these chil- 
dren departed this life July 3, 1889, when in the 
eighty-eighth year of his age. 

The original of this sketch received his educa- 
tion in the district schools of his native township, 
and on the outbreak of the late war volunteered 
his services to the Union Army, becoming a mem- 
ber of Company I, Eleventh Pennsylvania Cav- 
alry, and took part in many of the hard-fought 
battles of that period. He served daring the en- 
tire period, and was mustered tuit Seittember 13, 

Wlien peace was declared our subject returned 
home, and soon thereafter removed to Rawlinsville. 
where he opened up a hotel, which he conducted 
for five and one-half years. In 1877 he removed 
to Lancaster, still continuing in the hotel bus- 
iness, and became the proprietor of the Lamb 
Hotel, and later of the AVhite Swan Hotel, the lat- 
ter of which lie operated for eight years. We 
next find him in York, wliere he opened up the 
Washington Hotel, and two years later made his 
way to Chicago. His stay in the World's Fair 
City was very short, however, and returning to 
Lancaster, he made that city his home until the 
6th of January, 1892, the date of his advent into 
Columbia. Here he established the Fremont Hotel, 
which he is conducting at the i)resent time. As 
before stated, it is the largest in the city, is con- 
veniently located, linely furnished, and .Mr. Moore 
as "mine host" is making a success <.)f the busi- 

served in the City Council on the Republican 
ticket. He has lieen the recipient of various mi- 
nor ofBces and is an honest and intelligent man 
and a favorite with all. In social affairs he stands 
high in Masonic circles, belonging to Washington 
Lodge No. .56; Kosciusko Lodge No. 374, I. 0. 
O. F., and Pliny Lodge No. 473, K. of P. He 
is a prominent (xrand Army man and takes an act- 
ive interest m Reynolds Post No. 405. 

The marriage of our subject was celelirated De- 
cember 22, 1866, at which time Miss Rose Galen 
became his wife. Mrs. Moore died in August, 
1874. and the lady whom our subject chose as his 
second companion was Miss Olivia, daughter of 
Francis B. Graflf, of this county. 

( )ur suliject 
welfare of his i 

vays lieen interested in the 
id for a term of three 3'ears 

-TT BR AM B. BAUSMAN, D. V. S., makes his 

/ — \ home in Millersville and owns a good farm 
which he superintends himself, it being 
located in Manor Townshi|i. It is well improved, 
and the Doctor keeps a number of fine grades of 
cattle and horses. In the line of his profession he 
has acquired a large and lucrative practice and 
has studied for years the best works on the subject. 
His parents were Abram and Anna (Brenaraan) 
Bausman. and his birth occurred August 31, 1851, 
on his father's old homestead. 

In tracing the family history we find that the 
great-grandfather of the Doctor. John Bausman, 
emigrated from Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany, to the 
United States at a veiy early da}', and his son, 
our subject's grandfather, who was born in the 
same province, left the Fatherland jn order to es- 
cape military service, going across the Rhone to 
France. He was an excellent farmer and a distiller, 
and when about twenty years of age he came alone 
to the United Stales, settling near the city of Lan- 
caster. Here he purchased a tract of land on which 
Bausman Postoflice is now located, and owned 
two adjoining farms, aggregating some two hun- 
dred acres, on which he resided the remainder of 



his life and carried on a distillery, sellinrr the prod- 
ucts of the same in Pittsburg, after they had lieen 
transported over the old slate road. When death 
claimed him he was a man of considerable wealth 
and influence, and held a number of township of- 
fices; he was a School Director and a strong advo- 
cate of the public school sj'Stera. In politics he was 
first a "Whig .and later a Republican, and religiously 
was a member of the old Reformed Church of Lan- 
caster, serving in official capacities. He became the 
father of the following named children: John, 
Andrew, Abram, J.acob, Samuel, Elizabeth, Henry, 
Philip and Benjamin. 

Abram Bausraan, our sul)jecfs father, was born 
in Lancaster Township, near the present Postoflice 
of Bausman and attended the early pav schools of 
the township. He remained with his father until 
attaining his majority, when he purchased the 
farm which our subject now owns in Manor Town- 
ship, a place of one hundred and eighty-three acres, 
where he made many improvements and continued 
to make his home until 1878. He then retired 
and Iniilt ;i handsome brick residence on the corner 
of the farm, where he p.assed his remaining years. 
A Republican, he was greatly interested in the 
cause of education, for years was a School Director 
and was one of the founders of the MillersviUe 
State Normal, in which he remained a Trustee until 
1874, when he resigned. He was a member of the 
Reformed Church at MillersviUe, and in company 
witli Samuel Bausman, Abram Peters, and his son 
Abram, with others, built the Zion's Reformed 
Cluirch. in which he was an Elder for a long period. 
He married Anna, daughter of .Tacob and Elizabeth 
Brenaman, by whom he had nine ciiildren, as fol- 
lows: .Jacob, a resident of Hagerstown, Md.; .John; 
Abram, who died in his tliird year; Ileury; our 
subject, the second bearing the name of Abram; 
Andrew, a jiracticing physician of Chicago; Anna, 
Barbara, and Benjamin, who died at the .age of >even 
months. The father's death occurred Deceiiilier 
29, 1891, and his wife, who is yet living, resides in 

Dr. Bausman received his elementary eilucalion 
in the district schools of Manor Township, and 
afterwards attended for three years the Millers- 
viUe Normal School. When eighteen years of age 

he tiidk much of the care of his father's fai'in iqion 
his own shoulders and in 189o puivliased the home- 
stead, part of which had been sold off. This com- 
prises one hundred and twenty-two acres, and the 
Doctor has given agreatdeal of laborand attention 
to its [iroper management. In 1880 he took up 
the study of veterinary surgery, being under the 
instruction of several noted doctors in this profes- 
sion, and p.assed an examination before the Re- 
corder of this county, who pronounced iiini pro- 
ficient and granted him a certificate to practice. 
Tlie Doctor is a Director in the Manor Turnpike 
Company, and occupies a similar i)osition in the 
Eastern INIarket of Lancaster. Eor eight years lie 
has been a Deacon in the Mt. Ziou Keformed 
Church and an active worker in the denomination. 
Politically he is a Republican and is a loyal patri- 
otic citizen. 

.lanuary 15, 1.S78, occurred the marriage of our 
subject and Laura F. Bard. Her father, Samuel 
Bard, was one of the extensive and most prosper- 
ous farmers of Le,«icock Township. By his neigh- 
bors he was considered to be a man of unusual 
business ability, industrious, economical and with- 
al kind, sympathetic, and one who stood high in 
the county. At the present time he retired 
from his active business cai-eer, enjoying a well 
earned competence at liis liome in Tpper Leacock 
Township. lie is the father of the following 
children: Harry, Laura. James. Justice, Aggie, 
Samuel, Ida, and Willis, wlio is deceased. Dr. and 
Mrs. Bausman have had two children, iMinnie, who 
is now attending the Xcu'iiial School, and Abram 
Bard, who died on Christmas night. ISy^. 

:u$-gi:$-g-g^!S-g-^^ig ^ -^^e^§-g;:$^!e-;^ 

IOIIN p. SCHAUM. a dealer in house furnish- 
ing goods, and manufacturer of tinware and 
the famous old-fashioned copper kettles, 

which business been in the family for 
over one hundred years, will form the subject of 
this notice. He was born on South Queen Street, 
Lancaster, December 19, 1833. the son of Philip 
Schauin, who was also born there, and in thai 



place tlie gi-audfather, Pliilip II.. i-esifled. The 
gieat-jJ land father. Rev. Ileinricli Schaiim, was a 
n:ilive of (Termany. and a oradiiate of the col- 
lege of Holla; he was the third l.uthcran minis- 
tei- to emigrate to lhi^ ecuintry. and landed in 
Philadelphia in 1715. He ordained in the old 
Trinity Church of Lancaster, and iireached at 
York, (iermantown. Railway (N. .1.), White Flail 
and other point-. Aftrr a l-.n-. .■vnitfiil and use- 
ful life, he was liuried at Wiiitc llnll, in Lehigh 
County. Pa. 

The grandfather .if <uir -uhjcet. who was a cop- 
per-smith, was estalili-!ied a liusmess at Lancaster, 
and the same has been l^i'pt in the family for over a 
century. He died in 1S12. Our sul.jecfs fatlier. 
who conducted the copi)er-smith business at the old 
place, No. 27 South Queen .Street, died in 1863. 
aged sixty-four years. Originally he was a Whig, 
liut later in life was idcntilied with the llepubliean 
party. His wife's maiih-n name was Catherine llelt; 
she was a native of Wurteniberg, (iermany, and 
the daughter of Philip Helt, who was a brewer and 
distiller; he worked at that business all of his life, 
and died at Lancaster. Our subject's mother died 
at the age of sixty years. She was the mother of 
three children: Henry, a retired fanner living in 
Minnesota; .lohii P.. our subject; and George B., 
who followed the fiuiiiturc business and died at 

Our subject was I'eared in his native city, ob- 
taining a good education at the common :ind high 
schools. When seventeen years of age, he was ap- 
prenticed as a tinsmith under ex-Mayor Keeper, 
on Last King Street, with whom he remained for 
three years. Afterward he was made foreman, 
remaining one year in that position, and then 
went to Philadelphia. There he worked a year 
at his trade, and in the year 1854 established 
himself in business or, South (»u.-<mi Street. It was 
in tlie year 185'J that he puivhuMMi .Mr. Keeper's 
business and formed the company of Deaiier &. 
Scliaum; lie continued the business eight years, 
adding the plumbing business. In 18()8 he sold his 
interest, and later conducted the same business un 
his own account, and is an extensive manufacturer 
of copper kettles, which arc known all over this 
countrv, and upon which medals have been awarded 

at the Centennial, Franklin Institute and Pennsyl- 
vania State Fair. His trade extends over the mid- 
dle southern and western states. 

November 18, isc-j. at Lancaster, he was united 
in marriage to Miss .\ima M. Fordney, a native of 
Lancaster, as was her father, Jacob Fordnev, and 
her grandfather, .lacob; the latter was a tanner of 
buckskin and a manufacturer of buckskin cloth- 
ing. His old tannery stood near No. 33 South Queen 
Street. Three brothers came from the line between 
France and Switzerland, and located in Lancaster; 
they were Huguenots. The Fordney family were 
large land owners in Pennsylvania at an early 
day. The original family name was Forlhenieux, 
and was changed from that to Fortenee. and tiiiall}' 
to Fordney. Mrs. Fordne\'s father was a gun- 
smith, and conducted a shop at the corner of 
Orange and Prince Streets. He was a Henry Clay 
Whig, and had a log caliin in his yard. He manu- 
factured guns and sold them to the Government, 
as well as to the dealers. He died at the age of 
seventy years, a respected citizen and a consistent 
member of the German Reformed Church. Mrs. 
Schaum's mother, whose maiden name was Rebecca 
Ackermaii, was a native of Lancaster, and died 
young. Jlrs. Schaum was her only cliild. .She 
was reared by her (Grandfather Fordney. 

Our subject and his wife are the parents of three 
children: .lohii C. a pluuit.erof Lancaster: Philip 
H.. a member .if the linn of Dean A- Sdiaum, elec- 
tricians; and Albeit L.. a clerk in Lancaster. The 
two ohlesl .if these chil.lren are married. 

< '\ i^ILLIAM GOOD is Superintendent of 
\/\ the Lancaster County Asylum, Hos- 
pital and Almshouse, a very responsi- 
lilc position, the duties i.if which he discharges 
with conscientious and commendable ability. Tlie 
Almshouse is very commodious and can accommo- 
date over four hundred persons. The Insane 
Asylum can give shelter to one hun.lred and ten 
patients, and the Hospital in c.uinection with these 
has a capacity of one hun.lred The Imil.l- 
ings are situated the Pliiladelphia Pike and are 




built on approved modern jilans. Thej- are kept 
in most immaculate order, and the general manage- 
ment of affairs reflects groat honor upon the Super- 

William Good was born in I'ppor Leacock 
Township, Lancaster Couut\', September 18, 1835, 
and is of German descent. His paternal grand- 
father, Michael Good, operated a small farm in 
West Earl Township, and manufactured cradles 
on a small scale. Our subject's father, Cyrus 
Good, was born on the old homestead carried on 
by his father and learned the cooper's trade. He 
farmed on a tract of land comprising forty-five 
acres in Upper Leacock Township, near Bareville, 
and he also had a small cooperage. He died on 
his farm at the age of sixty-eight years, a man who 
was much respected b3' his fellows and one who 
was of an industrious and honorable character. 
His wife, Leviua, a native of the same township, 
was a daughter of George Bear, who was a farmer 
of Earl Township and of German ancestry. The 
mother died when about seventy-nine years of age, 
leaving four children to mourn her loss, two of 
her children having previously passed away. 

Reared to agricultural pursuits, William Good 
passed his earl}' daj'S in the usual manner cif 
farmer lads, attending the district school. He at- 
tended the primar\' schools conducted on the 
subscription plan, but later was a student in the 
public schools. The youth learned the cooper's 
trade, which he followed until he was about twen- 
ty-three years of age. He then married and be- 
gan farming, renting a place until 1883, when he 
purchased a property comprising fifty-two acres 
in East Earl Township, some three miles east of 
New Holland. To its cultivation and improve- 
ment he devoted himself for the succeeding ten 
years, and since that time has rented his farm. 

In April, 1893, Mr. Good was appointed by tiie 
Board of Trustees as Steward of the Lancaster 
County Asylum, Hospital and Almshouse, having 
previously served for about six years as a Director 
on the Board. He was elected to serve in that 
capacity in 1887 and was re-elected in 1890. The 
Poor Farm, which is well improved, consists of 
one hundred and ninety-six acres, part of which is 
in, and the remainder adjoining, the city limits. In 

such a position as Mr. Good occupies the utmost 
good judgment, firmness and patience are required 
to deal with all classes of people, and especially 
those who are not noted for being veiy ap|)reciative. 
When Mr. Good resided in Earl Township, he held 
a number of public offices, having been Supervisor, 
Assessor, Auditor, etc. In politics, he is a stanch 
Republican, having always given his warm and 
zealous support to that party. He owns two 
good farms, one of fifty-two acres and the other 
having seventy acres within its bounds. As one 
of the Directors in the Lancaster County Mutual 
Live-stock Insurance Company, he is interested 
and in many public improvements he has borne 
an interested part. 

When twenty-three years of age our subject 
was married in r|)[)cr Leacock Township to Miss 
.Savilla Sweigert, whose birth occurred there, and 
whose father, Charles Sweigert, followed farming 
in tliat locality. Seven children have graced the 
union of our sul.iject and wife, and the family cir- 
cle is \'et unbroken by death. Emma is the wife 
of Reuben Sensing, a farmer of E.ast Lampeter 
Township. Alice became the wife of John Zinsser, 
who 0[)erates a farm in Fjiper Leacock Township. 
Laura. Mrs. A. G. Rutter. lives on the old home- 
stead. Rdland carries on the oilier farm owned 
by our sul)ject. Charles and William have their 
home in Earl Township, and Annie resides with her 


JOHN I). SKILLS is a prominent and worthy 
old settler of Lancaster, having been actively 
identified with its upbuilding, and during 
the years that he has passed within its limits 
has seen it increase from a town of about eight 
thousand inhabitants up to its present number of 
thirty-live to forty thousand citizens. For years 
he has been engaged in packing and wholesale 
dealing in leaf tobacco. He was one of the organ- 
izers, and since that time has been a Director in 
the Lancaster Trust Company. With the Penn- 
sylvania Traction Company he is similarly con- 
nected, and at various times has assisted materially 



in the organization of local industries and con- 

Since tlie Fulton National Bank was organized 
Mr. .Skiles has been one of the Directors, and for 
twenty years has been Treasurer of the Mechanics' 
Building & Loan Association. For a long time 
he has been a Trustee of the Lancaster Cemetery 
Association, and in many other enterprises has 
lent his support. Being interested in educational 
affairs, he is a Trustee of the Franklin and Mar- 
shall College, and of the Theological Seminary of 
the Reformed Church. Religiously he is a mem- 
ber of St. Paul's German Reformed Church, of 
which he is a Trustee. 

The birth of our subject took place April 29, 
1829, in Leacock Township, where his bo3'hood 
was passed. At the age of ten years he entered 
the general store of Moses Eb3' at Intercourse, 
where he clerked for three years. For the suc- 
ceeding three years he was employed in Wingers 
store in West Earl Township, and in 1845 secured 
employment with Michael Peiper, a grocer in Lan- 
caster. At the end of five years he entered the 
dry-goods store of Fondersmith & Ilerr, where he 
continued for about two years. On the expiration 
of that time he embarked in Inisiness for iiimself 
as a grocer at the corner of East King and Duke 
Streets, which -was his headquarters until Im;:.. 
Then buying out a dry-goods busine?? on Ka>t 
King Street, he devoted his attention to that 
branch of trade until 1878, when he sold out. He 
owns a store building on East King Street, and 
considerable other propert}' in this city, which he 
has acquired by means of industry and attention 
to his business affairs. In 1861 he had invested in 
a leaf tobacco business in company with his 
brother-in-law, Mr. Frey, under the firm name of 
Skiles & Frej', who are now the oldest in this 
trade in Lancaster. Since 1878 Mr. Skiles has de- 
voted all of his time to the tobacco interest, and 
tlie firm handles from five to six thousand cases a 
year, which are packed in their warehouse, located 
on North Duke .Street. This store room and 
building are as large as any in Lancaster, having a 
capacity of five thousand cases, and the business 
has grown to extensive proi)ortions. 

December 1, 1851, Mr. Skiles married Emil\- M. 

Frey, and their onlj' child, William P., died at the 
age of nineteen years. Mrs. Skiles is the daughter 
of Jacob Frey, one of the early settlers and for- 
merly a merchant of Lancaster. The residence of 
our subject and his wife is at No. 438 North Duke 

Socially, Mr. Skiles belongs to Lodge No. 43, 
F. & A. yi.; Chapter No. 43, R. A. M.; Com- 
mandeiy No. 13, K. T., and to Perfection Lodge. 
For several years he was a member of the Common 
Council from the Second Ward, and was President 
for one year. He is active in the ranks of the Re- 
publican party, and has frequentl3- been a delegate 
to State Conventions. In 1884 he was elected 
prothonotaiy of the county on the Republican 
ticket, and served acceptablv in that capacity for 
a term of three years. 

y. v., is the founder and present pastor of 
St. Anthony's Catholic Church, of Lan- 
caster, and is also Dean of York and Lancaster 
Counties. His title of Dean was conferred upon 
hira by the Bishop of the diocese in -July, 1893. 
.lune 13, 1S94, the patron feast of the church his 
silver jubilee, commemorating the quarter of a 
century that elapsed since he was ordained to 
the priesthood, was celelirated and was a memorial 

The birth of Father Kaul occurred in Sinsheim, 
Baden, Germany, June 8, 1846, and his father, 
Pirmin, was born in the same locality, being a son 
of John Kaul, of French descent. The trade of 
Pirmin Kaul was that of tailor, and he also en- 
gaged in the manufacture of epaulets and military 
regalia. He was married November 28, 1830, to 
Miss Magdelene, daughter of George Philip Dick, 
Burgomaster of Grnmb.ach, Baden, in which [)lace 
occurred the birth of Blrs. Kaul. In the spring of 
184 7 the parents set out for America, leaving 
Antwerp in an English sailing-vessel, and after a 



stormy voyage of forty-seven days landed in New 
York City, July 7. Going to Philadelphia they 
were there for a short time, and then for six 
months were residents of Reading. On the 1st of 
April, 1848, the father located on a farm two miles 
from Adamstown, this count3% where he engaged 
in agricultural pursuits until October 15, 1852. 
From that year until 1862 he was engaged in the 
hotel business in Reading and then retired to pri- 
vate life. In 1877 he came to make his home in 
this city, where his death occurred June 5, 1883, at 
the age of seventy-live _vears, as the date of his 
birth was May 20. 1808. Politically, he was a 
Democrat, and in religious belief was a Catholic. 
His wife, who was born February 20, 1804, is still 
living, and is making her home with our suliject. 
Of her seven children, all but one grew to maturity 
and are still living. Annette became the wife of 
Christian liurger, of Reading Pa.; John H., a re- 
tired merchant, lives in tiie city; Joseph, now 
known as Brother Leopold, is Professor of music 
in Notre Dame University of South Bend, lud.; 
Mary W., who is housekeeper for Father Kaul, 
also teaches painting and kindred branches at the 
Sacred Heart Academy; Elizabeth, now Sister M. 
Stanislaus, a sister of the Holy Cross and an adept 
in music, is Superior of the Sacred Heart Academy 
of Lancaster. Father Autiiony Kaul is the j'oung- 
est of the family. 

The early years of our subject were passed in the 
usual way, he attending the public and parochial 
schools at Reading, Pa. In 1862 he became a stu- 
dent at St. Charles' Preparatory Seminary at Glen 
Riddle, Pa. This school was then under the direc- 
tion of the late Bishop Shanahan, and after com- 
pleting the classical course Father Kaul entered 
St. Charles' Theological Seminary on P^ighteenth 
and Race Streets, Philadelphia, where he pursued 
his philosophical and theological course, and was 
ordained August 22, 1869, at tiarrisburg b}' 
Bishop Jeremiah F. Shanahan, first bishop of that 
diocese. The young priest was sent to Lancaster 
as assistant to the late Father F. L. Neufeld, of 
St. Joseph's Church, arriving here September 24, 
1869. In tlie spring of the following year it was 
decided to form a new parish from St. Josejih's 
Congregation, the boundary lines being set by the 

bishop. This comprised all east of North Water, 
South Queen and Strawberry Streets. The church, 
which is located at the corner of Ann and (.)i-ange 
Streets, was founded in April, 1870, by Father 
Kaul, who worked indefatigably to achieve this 
end. The lot on which the structure stands is 
245x340 feet, was purchased for $3,500, and at 
that tune was only used as a cornfield. The cor- 
ner stone was laid August 14, 1870, in the pres- 
ence of a large concourse. Rev. Father McGin- 
nis, of Danville, Pa., being deputed by the Very 
Rev. Bernard Kceuan, Administrator of the dio- 
cese during the aljsence of the Bishop at the Vati- 
can Cduueil at Rome, to take charge of the cere- 
mony. For the first four years the basement was 
used for church services, this portion being dedi- 
cated April 9, 1871, by Rt.-Rev. Bishop Shanahan. 
The upper and audience room was completed and 
dedicated May 17. 1875. 

The church is built of brick and ornamented 
with brown stone. The buttresses are capped 
with the same kind of stone. The entire length 
of the building is one hundred and forty-two 
feet and is sixty-five feet wide. The height of 
the walls above the foundation is thirty-eight 
feet; the height to the cone of the roof being 
about eight_v feet. In the front center of the church 
is a tower of brick alM.ut cme hundred and fifteen 
feet in height, which will make the steeple the 
highest in the city. 

The church, which stands back some distance 
from Orange Street, is entered by three massive 
doors of solid walnut, which lead into a roomy and 
well arranged vestibule. From the vestibule are 
doors that lead into the church and a stairw.ay 
that leads iuto the galler}'. The audience room is 
decidedly the handsomest in the city. It is about 
one hundred feet long, sixty-three feet wide and 
fifty feet high from the floor to the top of the arched 
ceiling. The wainscoting, pews and other wood 
work are finished in walnut and ash. The chancel, 
which is raised four steps, is enclosed withaheavj' 
walnut railing and carpeted with fine brussels. 

Tiie ceiling is formed by a Gothic arch spring- 
ing from the side walls and flattened at the top. 
Between the windows are heavy Gothic rilis rest- 
ing on brackets and reaching to the flattened 



part of the ceiling-. From eacli end of these rnas- 
siye ribs, wliicli arc beautifully frescoed, depend 
large drops, two feet or more in length, of hand- 
some pattern and finished in gold. 

The gas tixtures comprise ten pedestal lights, 
being of bronze and gold of new and beautiful de- 
sign, and placed in two rows, equally distant from 
the middle and side aisles. On either side of the 
altar are scroll brackets with five burners each, and 
suspended from the ceiling in front of the altar 
liaiigs a large sanctuary lamii, wliich is kept con- 
stantly l.iurning. This is surmounted by a beauti- 
ful glass globe, rose red in color. 

Immediately behind the principal altar is a life- 
size and very excellent picture of the crucifixion 
painted by Ueingrubcr, the well known artist of 
this city. (Jn either side are paintings of equal ' 
size representing the nativity of Christ and the 
adoration of the Magi. On the east and west 
slopes of the ceiling are portraits of all the apos- , 

The fourteen large oil paintings representing 
the stations and framed in walnut are copies of 
De Schwanden. the famous INIuuich artist. On I 
either side of the sanctuary arch is an angel with 
out spread wings and folded hands, and above the i 
arch is an angel holding a scroll bearing the words 
"Ecce tabernaculum Dei." The shading of the I 
ground work is stone color, but this is so hand- j 
somely intermingled with brighter shades and 
hues as to be impossible to describe. Jsearly every 
panel contains the picture or portrait of a saint, 
and around these are twined a j^erfect wilderness 
of arches, columns, ribs, scrcjlls, etc. 

Besides the main altar there are two other altars 
in the main audience room. The main altar stands 
within a large arched recess, at the extreme end of 
the church, and it is painted pure white, tipped 
■with gold. It is eighteen feet in height from the 
top of the "exposition "to the base. The figure of 
an adoring angel rests on a pedestal at either side 
of the altar, while upon the top of the altar are 
placed six candlesticks, each nine feet and three 
inches in lieight. On both sides of the mam altar, 
and a little further to the front, are two smaller 
altars, also placed within handsomely frescoed 
arches. One is St. Mary's and the other St. Jo- i 

seph's. They are of handsome design, and on 
them are placed respectively statues of the Blessed 
Virgin and St. Joseph. 

The lofty windows of the church are of beauti- 
ful design and filled with stained glass of many 
brilliant colors. The upper sash of each window 
contains two figures of saints wrought in the glass. 
All the windows and paintings have been pre- 
sented bj' members or friends of the parish. The 
three small windows above the sanctuary contain 
pictures of the blessed sacrament and adoring 
angels are represented on either side. 

The gallery is in the south end of the audience 
room and extends entirely across it. It is sup- 
ported by handsome columns and is reached by a 
stairw.ay built in the vestibule of the church. The 
stairwav and the gallery are wainscoted in solid 

The church has a seating capacity of twelve hun- 
dred people, and cost over -$G0,000. The grand 
pipe organ, valued at $5,000, and the gold-em- 
broidered vestments were purchased at a cost of 

In the fall of 1S71 a parochial school was 
opened in the basement of the church with two 
la}- teachers, and two years later the present 
teachers. Sisters of the Holy Cross of Notre Dame, 
Ind., took charge, and also opened an academy 
and boarding school for young ladies known as 
tlie Sacred Heart Academy. In the spring of 1876 
Father Kaul purchased a lot opposite the church, 
on the southeast corner of Ann and Orange 
Streets, for $4 ,.300, on which was erected the acad- 
emy, a three-story and basement brick building, 
fitted out with all modern improvements, such as 
steam heat. etc. 

Every facility is afforded in this excellent and 
highly known institution for the education of 
3'oung ladies, the course of studies embracing not 
onl_v the various branches of elementary training, 
but everthing that goes to make up a finished and 
accomplished lady. Special attention is given to 
music and art. and every attention is paid to 
the comfort and training of pu))ils. 

In the year 1872 a temporary parochial resi- 
dence was built to the east of the church, and in 
1873 five acres of land for cemetery purposes was 


purchased on the extension of East Orange Street. 
In 18'J2 a like number of acres adjoining the old 
cemetery was bought and is now known as St. 
Anthony's Cemetery. For the benefit of the young 
men of the parish a fine building known as St. 
Anthony's Institute, is to be erected of brick, three 
stories and basement, the first floor to be used as a 
school the second for library purposes and the 
third for a hall, while the basement will be devoted 
to a gymnasium. There is also to be erected a 
handsome parochial residence on the lot west of 
the church and connected with the same. The 
various societies of the church are in a very flour- 
ishing condition, the most prominent of these be- 
ing St. Anthony's Beneficial Society and Sodality 
of the Blessed Virgin and of the Guardian Angel. 
The congregation now numbers about two hun- 
dred and forty families. Father Kaul is a mem- 
ber of the Bishops' Council and Chairman of the 
Diocesan School Board. In general conversation 
he is very entertaining and agreeable and is pop- 
ular with all who have the pleasure of his ac- 
quaintance. In 1881 it was his privilege to take 
a trip to Europe and at that time he traveled ex- 
tensively in Ireland, Scotland, England, France, 
Germany and Italy. While in Rome he had an 
interview with Pope Leo XIII, from whom he re- 
ceived the papal blessing and upon his return to 
his congregation conferred it upon them. In 1886 
he made a second trip to Europe, passing most of 
the time in Germanv. 

•^?.C !vitC ^^:£^ yf ^^/^ 3i^ \fly "^R^ 3i€ ^^^•y:Tw ^^ -^^ 

JUDGE D. MrMULLEN. of Lancaster, bears a 
fine reiiutation as a lawyer of marked ability-, 
and while serving as Judge was noted for 
his impartiality and fidelity to his well 
founded convictions of right, truth and justice. 
One of the native sons of Lancaster County, he 
comes of a good old family, and was reared by his 
worthy father in a most exemplary manner, and 
has never forgotten the teachings he received in 

his early years. In the various public capacities 
in which the .hulge has officiated he has acquitted 
himself greatly to his owu credit and has confirmed 
his fellow-citizens in the wisdom of their choice. 
For a period of three years he was a member of 
the City Common Council, being elected from the 
Second Ward, and for two years of that time was 
Chairman of the Street Committee. In October, 
1889, he was elected one of the School Directors, 
and a year later was made President of the Board, 
which post he is still abl_v filling, and during this 
time several modern and substantial school build- 
ings have been erected and many imiirovements 
made in the educational system. 

Born in Penn Township, October 20. 18-14, the 
.ludge is a son of James McMuUen, whose birtli 
took place in the same locality. He was a carpen- 
ter and builder by occuijation. and in his later 
years engaged in carrying on his farm in Penn 
Township, which comprised one hundred and four 
acres. After an industrious and successful life, he 
was called to his final rest in 1886, when about 
seventy years of age. Pohlicalh' he was a Demo- 
crat and held local positions, such as School Di- 
rector, etc. His wife, Elizabeth (Scheetz) McMul- 
len, was born in Warwick Township, of the same 
county, her father, Jacol), a native of Lancaster 
County, having been one of the pioneer black- 
smiths. He ftiUowed his trade industi'iously until 
he arrived at a good old age, his death occurring 
when he was nearly eighty. The Scheetz familj- 
is of German descent, and old and respected in- 
habitants of the county. William McJIullen, the 
grandfather of our subject, was born in Belfast, 
Ireland, where he learned the weaver's trade, and 
when he came to America, which he did during 
the last century, he brought his loom with him and 
continued to work at weaving in addition to cann- 
ing on a small farm. He was a member of the 
German Reformed Church, in the faith of which 
he died while a resident of Penn Township. Mrs. 
James McJMullen became the mother of four chil- 
dren, three of whom are living, namely: Edward, 
who is engaged in carrying on the old homestead; 
Susannah, Mrs. Yeagley, of Le'oanou County, Pa., 
and David, who is next to the youngest. The 
, daughter, who is now deceased, was formerly a 



resident of Penn Township, and was the wife of 
Ahram Kauffinan. The mother departed tliis life 
when about seventy-three years of age, and both 
she and iier husband were at the time of their j 
deallis devoted members of the Reformed Church. 

The boyhood days of .Judge McMullen passed | 
quite uneventfully on his father's farm, and to | 
him he gave his assistance in its cultivation and in 
his general carpenter work. His education was re- j 
ceived in the public schools and later he entered 
Yeates Institute, where he pursued his studies for a i 
year, teaching school during the summer season. 
For three years he was tiien a pu])il in Millersville 
Normal, making his own way through college by 
means of the money earned from teaching during 
the summer terms. In 18G8 he was graduated 
from the Normal School, and by tiiis time had ac- 
quired so much experience as a teacher that he 
was called upon to be Principal of the Oil City 
public schools, in which capacity he acted for two 
j'ears. As he was possessed of great ambition and 
had given some thought to legal work, he next de- 
cided to take up the profession, and in 1870 came 
to this city to pursue his studies with Samuel H. 
Reynolds, with the result that in December, 1872, he 
was admitted to the Bar. At once he began prac- 
tice in his present olliee at No. 122 East King 
Street, being an assistant and partner of his former 
tutor until his death, which occurred in 1889. 
Since that event the Judge has continued business 
and settled up the estate of his former partner and 
succeeded to his large practice, which has been 
further supplemented by the many clients he has 
acquired through his own unassisted efforts. 

March 2, 1892, .Judge McMullen was appointed 
to succeed Judge Patterson, vvho had recently died. 
He acted in that olliee until the next general 
election, being appointed by Governor Pattison, 
and was Judge of the Court of Common Fleas un- 
til January, 1893. An active partisan and sup- 
porter of the Democracy, he has taken a leading 
sliare in its local work, and was at one time can- 
didate for District Attorney' on the ticket, and 
though not elected, reduced tlie Republican major- 
ity from nearly nine thousand to three tliousand 
votes. In tiie fall of 1892 he came within twenty- 
five hundred votes of being elected Judge, and is 

undoubtedly one of the most popular men of his 
party in Lancaster. In educational work our sub- 
ject has always been decidedly active, and to his 
zeal was due in a large measure the erection of the 
fine new buildings for school purposes, one at the 
corner of Duke and German Streets, and the other 
at the corner of Mulberry' and Vine Streets. In 
many local enterprises he is interested, being an 
attorney for the Electric Light Company, in which 
he is a Director, and has lent his substantial influ- 
ence to the development of everything pertaining 
to the betterment of the city. Fraternally he is a 
member of the Royal Arcanum and of the Ancient 
Order of Un ited Workmen. Of the latter he is Past 
Master, and has served as representative to the 
Grand Lodge. He was appointed by the State Su- 
perintendent in 1893 to serve as a member of the 
Board of Trustees of the Millersville Normal, his 
Alma Mater. 

On the 6th of January, 1874, Judge McMullen 
was united in marriage with Miss Sue E. Lightner, 
who was born in Lancaster County. Mrs. McMul- 
len 's father, Peter E. Lightner, was a well-to-do 
farmer of Lancaster Township, and died in 1868. 
Two children have come to bless the home of the 
Judge and his estimable wife, their names in order 
of birth being Mary and Emily. They are mem- 
bers of St. James' Episcopal Church, in which 
Judge McMullen has been Treasurer for fifteen 
years, and Vestiyman for four years. 

-5— =4=d:^F^.>^'>fe^<lri'?^=-=-_:^ 

^^ AMUEL EVANS, one of 
(L/S of Lancaster County, whi 

if the old settlers 
•hose home is in the 
borough of Columbia, was a valiant soldier 
during the late war. He is a very well read and 
educated man, and has served in various official 
capacities to the satisfaction of all concerned. Dur- 
ing the Greeley campaign he editor of the 
Columbia Democrat, and has at various times con- 
tributed interesting articles to the daily and weekly 
papers of the county and state. When the history 



of Lancaster County was published in 1881, his 
services were brougiit into requisition in the his- 
torical department, and altogether he has accom- 
plished a great deal in a literary way. 

The birth of Samuel Evans occurred January 
20, 1823, at the "Mansion Farm "in Donegal Town- 
ship, his parents being Alexander Lowrey and 
Hannah (Slaymaker) Evans, the latter a daughter 
of the late Hon. Amos Slaymaker. In tracing the 
ancestry of the Evans family, we find that one 
John came with his parents from Wales to Phila- 
delphia about 1695, and located in a Welsh settle- 
ment in Newcastle County, Del., near Wilming- 
ton. Later he removed to Ciiester County, and in 
London Britain Township, took up a large tract 
of land comprising about one thousand acres, which 
was survej'ed to ex-Governor Evans, of Pennsyl 
vania. Here he located and built a Hour and saw- 
mill. In 1700 his son John was born, who on ar- 
riving at maturity married a neighbor's daughter. 
Miss Jane Howell, in 1722. In 1716 his father pur- 
chased a farm of four hundred acres on While Clay 
Creek, where he opened up a mill, and afterward 
bought land at Newark, where he died. 

Evan Evans, the great-grandfather of our sub- 
ject, was a son of John and Jane Evans, born in 
1732, and a brother of John Evans, third Judge 
of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. Evan 
Evans, the great-grandfather, married Margaret 
Nivan; they liad ten children. He died in 1794, 
having previously been a counselor of Chester 
County, a member of the Legislature, and a mem- 
ber of the Convention at Carpenter's Hall, Phila- 
delphia, in June, 1776. At the opening of the 
War for Independence he organized the Second 
Battalion, whicli he commanded at the battle of 
Brandy- wine, and in the same battle the great- 
grandfather of our subject on the maternal side, 
Colonel Lowrey, commanded the Third Battalion 
from Lancaster County. His Grandfather Sam- 
uel Evans was born in 1758, and during the 
Revolutionary War was Captain in his father's 
battalion, afterwards served in the Legislature and 
was appointed by Governor Mifflin as Associate 
Judge of Chester County. He was a very promi- 
nent and wealthy man, active in politics, and had 
a collegiate education. He belonged first to the 

Baptist Church and later became a Presbyterian. In 
April, 1793, he married Frances Lowrey, who was 

; born February 1, 1775. Of their seven children, 
Jane mariied Hon. Jasper Slaymaker, a prominent 
citizen of Lancaster; Evan R. wedded a daughter 
of Mr. Collins, whose daughter became the wife of 

' Assistant Attorney-General Alfred McCalmont, 
under President Buchanan in Washington, D. C. 

Alexander L. Evans, the father of our subject, 
was born in March, 1793, had college advantages 

i and was a strong Federalist. He gave a great deal 
of attention to legal work, and at one time was in 

I the volunteer service as a member of the militia. 
He was mariied, but only had one cliild, the sub- 
ject of this biograph.y. The deatli of the father 
occurred July 1, 1839, when lie was yet in the 
prime of life. Ann married Mr. McElderry, of 
Baltimore. Margaret married Jacob Zell, and 
Elizabeth married Mr. Doogewerff, of Baltimore. 
Our subject attended the public schools and 

I academy at Marietta until the spring of 1838, when 
he commenced learning the carpenter's trade, and 
became a master builder. Later he conducted a 
lumber trade in Columbia, and was also a contrac- 
tor for many years. In 1853 he was elected Jus- 
tice of the Peace, and four years later was elected 
Clerk of the Quarter Sessions of Lancaster County. 
In the spring of 1861 he enlisted in Company K, 
Fifth Pennsylvania Reserves, as a private, but was 
soon promoted to the position of First Lieutenant 
and Quartermaster of his regiment. Afterwards 
he was Acting Quartermaster and Assistant Com- 
missary of the brigade, serving as sucii for a year 
and a-lialf, and during a portion of the time hav- 

! ing charge of that department in the entire divis- 
ion. In the spring of 1864 he was First Lieuten- 
ant and Commissary, having charge of one thou- 
sand head of cattle, and issuing supplies to de- 
tachments of troops at General Grant's and Gen- 
eral Warren's headquarters, and to destitute citi- 

i zens in Virginia. 

At the end of his three years' term our subject 
was mustered out and returned to his home in Col- 
umbia. He had taken part in the battles in which 

] the Pennsylvania Reserves were engaged from 
Dranesville, Va., to Bethsada Church, Va., June 30, 

I 1864, and after his return to Pennsylvania sent a 



substitute, and also one for his wife, to serve dur- 
ing tlie remainder of the conflict, and paid these 
men out of his own pocket voluntarily. He then 
took up his duties as .Tuslice of the Peace, and has 
served ever since as such, for a period of about 
thirty-sis years altogether. In addition to this he 
has been Clerk of Quarter (Session Court, and has 
served in other offices, doing good work for the 
Republican party, with which he has been identi- 
fied since its organization. 

Mr. P^vans has traveled to a considerable extent 
and especially in the west. He belongs to the His- 
torical Society of Philadelphia, to the Sous of the 
Revolution and to the Society of Scotch-Irish 
Americans. December 26, 1867, Mr. Evans wed- 
ded Mary, daughter of Benjamin W. Shoch, who 
resided in York, and was a successful teacher. 
Of this marriage were born three children: Fan- 
nie, deceased; Samuel, who died at the age of 
three years, and Lilian S.. who was Regent of the 
Daughters of the American Revolution, belonging 
to Donegal Chapter. She is much interested in 
the work of the society, and represented the chap- 
ter to winch she belongs in the convention which 
convened at Altoona, Pa., in 1894, and at the Na- 
tional Congress of the society which met in Wash- 
ington, D. C, in 1893 and 1894. Mrs. Evans is 
a lady of superior education, and is the author 
of several articles and writings, both prose and 
poetry, possessing considerable merit. 


\ \ '^ ILLIAM D. SNYDER, manager of the 
\/ V/ Keely Stove Company in Columbia, 
was born February 13, 1843, in Chil- 
lisquaque, Northumberland County, this state. His 
parents were John Frederick and Maiy (Dehart) 
Snyder, also born in the Keystone State. The pa- 
ternal grandfather of our subject, .loiin B. Snyder, 
was born in Montgomeiy County, where he spent 
the greater part of his life follov\iiig the trade of 
shoemaker. He was a Democrat in politics and 

understood well the political issues of his day, and 
took an active part in local affairs. For three years 
he was a member of the Town Council, for eight 
yenrs sciNi-d us Overseer of the Poor of Milton, 
and in luiincicius other positions aided in the up- 
building of ills community. He was a true Chris- 
tian gentleman and was greatly interested in the 
progress of the Reformed Church, of which he 
was a member. He participated in the Black Hawk 
War, serving as Captain of a company which was 
sent to the front. 

The paternal grandmother of our suliject was 
prior to her marriage Sarah Elizabeth Rumer, a 
native of Northampton County, this state. She 
became the mother of three sons and one daughter, 
of whom J. Frederick, the father of our subject, 
was the eldest. The other members of the family 
were Peter; Albert, who was killed during the war, 
and Sarah. The grandfather died in 1875, when 
sixty-seven years of age. 

J. Frederick Snyder was born in Montgomery 
County, where he made his home until his mar- 
riage, prior to vvhich event he was given a good 
education in the public schools. When reaching 
mature years he began clerking in a store and con- 
tinued to act as salesman from 1842 to 1860. Af- 
ter that he followed boating on the Pennsylvania 
Canal, which occupation he abandoned in order to 
accept work offered him in a sawmill, for which 
he received better pay. He departed this life while 
residing in Milton, in 1887, when in the sixty-fifth 
year of his age. He was a devout member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 

The father of our subject was twice married. By 
his first union there were born live children, of 
whom William D. was the eldest. Ilis sister Sarah, 
who was the nest in order of birth, is deceased; 
Mary is the wife of Jeremiah Dalesman and resides 
in Milton; and the tivo remaining members of the 
family, twins, are deceased. The wife and mother 
passed to the land beyond in 18.30, at the age of 

William D. Sn3der received his priin.Try educa- 
tion in the common schools of Milton, after which 
hu took a course in the high school. He further 
received instruction from Rev. A. G. Don, pastor 
of the Reformed Church of Milton, studying Eng- 



lish grammar, rhetoric and geometry. Having com- 
pleted his education at the age of eighteen, young 
Snyder engaged in boating until apprenticing him- 
self to learn the trade of a tinf^mith a short time 
thereafter. Mastering the business in three years, 
he followed it with fair success until 1872, when he 
formed a partnership with a Mr. Overpeck. the funi 
name being Overpeck tk Snyder. They carried on 
a good trade in tinsmithing and sheet iron work 
until the death of the senior partner in 187G. 
when the style was changed to ^V. D. Snyder iV 
Co., and continued as such for the following 
three years. At tlie end of that time our suli- 
ject disposed of his interest in the business, re- 
maining with the new firm, however, until 1881. 
when he went to Jliddleton and became Superin- 
tendent of Raymond & Campbell's mounting es- 
tablishment, in that place. Remaining tiiere only 
a short time, however, we lind him located in this 
city in the employ of the Keeh' Stove Company. 
On Thanksgiving Da^', 1891, Mr. Snyder was 
elected to the position of Manager of the concern by 
the board of Directors, and is now working in that 
capacity to the satisfaction of all concerned, lie 
is a thorough business man, and whatever he un- 
dertakes is bound to succeed. The factory is a 
large structure, two stories in height, and is lo- 
cated on Maple and Second Streets. They have 
also a salesroom on the corner of Second and Race 
Streets, Philadelphia, and at No. 21 South Charles 
Street, Baltimore. The firm are doing a paying 
business, trans.aeting ■$220,000 of business each 
year, and give emph:)ymeut in all departments to 
about two hundred men. 

In his political views Mr. Snyder is a Prohibi- 
tionist, and believes that the time will soon come 
when that party will elect a President. He has 
been very active in church work for the past thir- 
ty-five years, and has served fur twelve years 
as Superintendent of the Sunday-school and eight 
years as Deacon. In social affairs he is a promi- 
nent Odd P'ellow, belonging to Mutual Lodge No. 
84, at Milton; and 3Iilton Lodge No. 2.5G, F. A- 
A. M. 

William D. Snyder was married in February, 
1865, to Miss Sarah E., daughter of Peter Smith, 
of Milton, and to them has been born a daugh- 

ter. JNFary, who is now the wife of Edward Fager, 
of C'ljlumljia. Mrs. Snyder died in bSGT, and the 
lady whom our subject chose as his second com- 
panion was Miss Nancy C. daughter of James 
JlcCIosky, of Clinton County, this state. To them 
have been born four children: Zella, deceased; 
William Lloyd, Jennie B., and one who died in 

HENRY C. BURROWES. I„ Lancaster, 
where he was born and in which city ids 
life has been principally passed, the sub- 
ject of this sketch is well known as a genial gentle- 
man and energetic business man. Since 1890 he 
has filled the position of Superintendent of the 
Penn Iron Works, in which capacity he has been 
instrumental, not only in increasing the prosperity 
of that enterprise, but also in promoting the wel- 
fare of the people of the city and county. 

The name of Burrowes is one of the most hon- 
ored in the Keystone State, where three genera- 
tions bearing that name have resided. Grandfa- 
ther Thomas Burrowes was born in County Cavan, 
Ireland, and was educated for the ministry of the 
Episcopal Church, but did not enter the pulpit. 
In 1784 he emigrated to America and settled in 
Delaware, whence three years later he came to 
Pennsylvania, and established his home in Stras- 
burg, Lancaster County, where he engaged in me- 
chanical pursuits. He and his wife, who was a 
native of County Monaghan, Ireland, were the 
parents of thirteen children, of whom seven at- 
tained years of maturity. 

The death of the elder brother of Grandfather 
Burrowes required the presence of the family in 
Ireland, to which country they returned in 1810, 
to take possession of the family property. Seven 
years later the\' again crossed the Atlantic, this 
time settling in (Quebec, in Lower Canada, where 
they continued to reside until 1822. They then 


went back to the Emerald Isle, where they dis- 
posed of the family estate, and in 1825 tinally 
came back to the United States. In the various 
removals of the family our subject's father, Thomas 
Henry Burrowes, jiarticipated. He was born in 
Strasburg, Lancaster County, Pa., November 16, 
1805, and was a child of five years when he went 
to Ireland. For three years he was a private pupil 
of Rev. William Craven, a kinsman of his mother, 
and a clergyman of the Church of England. Dur- 
ing the five years spent in Quebec, he attended the 
classical and English schools of that city. Return- 
ing to Ireland, he was for a year a pui)il of Rev. 
James Thompson, a Presbyterian minister of Ft. 
Henry, County Cavan, and during a part of the 
two following years was a student in Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin. In addition to the ordinary branches 
of a liberal English education, he acquired a good 
knowledge of the Latin and French languages, as 
well as a fair acquaintance with Greek and Ger- 
man. While he gained much through his collegiate 
course, his character was largely moulded by his 
environments, by observation through extended 
travel, in which ways he gained an enlarged view 
of the world and habits of self-reliance. In after 
years he was often heard to say that whatever of 
self-reliance, of directness of purpose, and of power 
to foresee distant results cleared from the mists of 
the present, he might possess, had been niainlj- 
conferred by the accidents and peculiarities of his 
whole education, modified, restrained and im- 
proved, as it was, by a constant moral and relig- 
ious home training. 

On his return to Pennsylvania in 1825, our sub- 
ject's father selected for his profession that of law, 
and in January, 1826, entered the office of Amos 
Ellmaker, of Lancaster, wliere he continued his 
studies for two years and a-half. In the summer 
of 1828 he entered the law school of Yale Univer- 
sity, where he remained one } ear. Admitted to 
the Bar in the autumn of 1829, he soon afterward 
commenced the practice of law at Lancaster. He 
soon gained considerable prominence in his dis- 
trict, and in 18.31 was elected to tlie State Legis- 
lature, where, owing to the fact that his party was 
greatly in the minority, he was not chosen upon 
any important committees. However, when the 

party became successful through the election of 
Joseph Ritner to the office of Governor, in 1835, 
Mr. Burrowes. as a recognition of his valued polit- 
ical services, was appointed Secretary of the Com- 
monwealth, the chief office in the gift of the Ex- 
I ecutive. In December, 1835, he entered upon the 
discharge of the duties of this position. At this 
point began his first connection with the educa- 
tional interests of the state, with which his name 
is now inseparably associated. At that time the 
I common school system had just been introduced, 
but educational matters were in a chaotic condi- 
tion, and a deplorable lack of system was greatly 
injuring the cause of the pulilic schools. The 
! school law enacted in 1834, he found inadequate 
and practically inoperative, and it was necessary 
that there should be immediate improvement. He 
drafted another law, which, as revised by himself, 
was passed by the Legislature in 1836, and con- 
tinued in operation until 1849. 

A change in administration was followed by the 
retirement of Mr. Burrowes to private life. On 
I his return to Lancaster, he settled upon a farm 
I and devoted his attention to agricultural pursuits. 
In 1845 he resumed his legal practice at Lancaster. 
About that time he published in the Lancaster In- 
lelUgencer a series of articles pointing out the 
defects of the school system, and urging the ap- 
pointment of County Superintendents. For a num- 
ber of years he served as Director of the citj' 
schools of Lancaster, a position in which he ren- 
dered valuable service. In 1847 he published "The 
State Book of Pennsylvania," which was afterward 
used in the schools of the state. In 1852 the Lan- 
caster Count}' Educational Association passed a 
resolution recommending the publication of a 
paper in the interests of the schools of the state. 
The plan was carried out, the Pennsylvania School 
Journal was founded, and Mr. Burrowes became 
its editor, continuing in that capacity until shortly 
before his death. In 1855, responding to the re- 
quest of the State Superintendent and other offi- 
cers, he published the Pennsylvania School Arcii- 
\ In 1858 Dr. Burrowes (for by this title he was 
, usually called) was chosen Mayor of Lancaster, 
[ but two years later was promoted from city to 



state office, being elected in 1860 State Superin- 
tendent of Common Schools. During his three 
years' incumbency of the office he was instrumental 
in still further advancing the cause of education 
and contributing to the progress of the schools. 
It was, however, a time of great national distress, 
and the good he might have accomplished in time 
of peace, was rendered impossible by the disturbed 
condition- of the entire country. In 1865 he be- 
came .Superintendent of Soldiers' Orphans, and 
while thus engaged organized and placed upon a 
working basis the system of schools for orphans of 
the war heroes. In 1869 he was elected President 
of the State Agricultural College, and was the in- 
cumbent of that office when called from earth, 
February 25, 1871. His remains lie in the church- 
yard of St. James' Episcopal Church of Lancaster, 
near the home so dear to him and in the shadow 
of the house of worsliiii whilher he had so often 

Many were the tributes paid to the memory of 
Dr. Burrowes. Friends from all parts of the coun- 
try, realizing the debt of gratitude they owed to 
him, delighted to recall the grandeur of his life, 
the loftiness of his intellect and the strength of 
his character. During the annual meeting of the 
State Teachers' Association held at Williamsport, 
in July, 1871, memorial services were held in honor 
of him, and the following resolutions were adopted: 

•'Whereas, Since the last meeting of this Asso- 
ciation it has pleased Divine Providence to remove 
by death Hon. Thomas H. Burrowes, LL. D., one 
of the earliest friends and warmest advocates of 
our common school system; therefore 

"■Resolved. That the death of Dr. Burrowes is to 
us a source of profound sorrow. 

'■^Resolved. That as a man, as a citizen, and as an 
educator, the deceased deserved well of his fellow- 

'■'■Resolved, That in a special manner, as a bod}' of 
teachers we recognize the following as among the 
great services of the cause of education: The prac- 
tical organization of our common-school system, 
as its head in 1836, '37 and '38, and the putting 
of it into full and successful operation; starting 
the Scliool Journal, and editing it nearly nineteen 
years; valuable assistance in founding this Asso- 

ciation in 1852, and in promoting its interests in 
subsequent years; framing the normal school law 
in 1857; three years of educational work .as State 
Superintendent of common schools from 1860 to 
1863; and carrying into effect the plan for the es- 
tablishment of a system of schools for the educa- 
tion and maintenance of the destitute children of 
soldiers and sailors, orphaned by the War of the 
Rebellion, and supervising for three years the 
schools thus established. 

'■•Resolved, That we pledge our active co-opera- 
tion in any effort that ma}' be made hy those more 
intimateh' connected with the deceased, to express 
in some suitable way our gratitude for services 
rendered b}' him to the cause of popular education, 
and to perpetuate the memory of his good deeds." 

The lady who for many years was the devoted 
helpmate of Dr. Burrowes, bore the maiden name 
of Salome Jane Carpenter; she was born in Lancas- 
ter, and died in this city in 1888. Her father, 
Dr. John Carpenter, was a son of Abraham, a na- 
tive of Lancaster County, whose father had come 
hither from Delaware. To Dr. and Mrs. Burrowes 
fifteen children were born, of whom our subject is 
the eighth. One of his brothers, M.aj. Thomas B., 
was in the United States service for twenty-seven 
years, and served through the late war as a mem- 
ber of the Ninth United States Infantry, being 
wounded at Jonesboro. The other brothers are, 
Isaac, who served in the One Hundred and Twen- 
ty-second Pennsylvania Infantry during the late 
war, and is now engaged in gold mining in New 
Mexico; Frank, a United States engineer, stationed 
at Cleveland, Ohio, and John C, who is commis- 
sary agent for the Pullman Palace Car Company, 
with headquarters m Chicago and New York. 

The subject of this sketch was boi'n in Lancas- 
ter, September 8, 1849, and attended the high 
school of this city, from which he was graduated 
in 1866. He then entered the Polytechnic College 
at Philadelphia, where he took a mech.anical and 
civil engineering course until within live months 
of graduation. He then accepted a position as 
assistant in a flour mill in Wilkes Barre, Pa., where 
he remained two years. He then became Superin- 
tendent of Oliver's Powder Mill, which had a ca- 
pacity of ten kegs -a day, and was comparatively 


new. When lie left in 1887, the works had been 
enlarged so that they had a capacit}' of one thou- 
sand kegs per day. For one year he was with a 
powder mill company in New York Cit3-,aud from 
there returned to Lancaster, where he has since 
been Superintendent of the Penn Iron Works. In 
Dixon. 111., he married Miss Mary Dimock, a na- 
tive of that city, and an estimable lady, who, with 
her husband, holds membership in St. James' Epis- 
copal Church. While not active in politics, Mr. 
Burrowes is thoroughly posted concerning the 
great questions of the age, and uniformly supports 
the principles of the Republican party. He is a 
liberal spirited citizen, stanch in his advocacy of 
aggressive measures and a warm supporter of en- 
terprises calculated to benefit the people. In 
social and business circles he is higlily esteemed, 
and among the citizens of Lancaster occupies an 
iiitluential position. 

HENRY NEFF KEllLER, well and favora- 
bly known among the residents of Col- 
umbia, has spent his entire life in Lan- 
caster County, and was born upon the farm where 
he now resides in West Hempfteld Townsliip, 
the date of his birth being the 17th of Ajiril, 
1821. The family originated in Switzerland but 
has been represented in the LTnited States for sev- 
eral generations. Our subject's paternal grand- 
father, Josliua Kehler, was born in the village of 
Stiasburg, Lancaster County, and there remained 
until his death in the prime of manhood. His 
trade was that of a carpenter. In his family there 
were three children: Philip, a carpenter who lived 
in Ohio; a daughter, Mrs. Myers, who resided in 
Illinois; and Joshua, father of our subject. 

The last named was born in Str.asburg. Pa., Octo- 
ber l.i, 1782, and in early life engaged in distill- 
ing, but later became jiroprietor of a hotel. In 
181 1 he purcliased one hunch-ed and thirty-five 
acres on the Columbia and Lancaster Pike, one 

and one-half miles from Columbia. Settling upon 
that place he continued to make it his home until 
his the age of sixty-nine years, November 
22, 1850. Though usually voting the Democratic 
ticket he was inclined to be liberal in his suffrage, 
giving his support lo the man rather than the 
party. In religious belief he wa? a men]l)er of the 
Mennonite Churcli. 

The marriage of Joshua Kehler and Anna Neff 
was blessed by six children, five daughters and 
one son. Maria, the eldest, married Samuel Cald- 
well, a lumberman of Williarnsport, Lycoming 
County. Both are deceased. Ann and Elizabeth 
never married. Matilda first married Dr. Clark- 
son, and after his death became the wife of James 
Marshall, one of the most extensive iron mer- 
chants of Pittsburg and the founder of the Farm- 
ers'^ Deposit Bank, now the Farmers' National 
Bank, of which he was President to the time of 
his death; lie was a brother of Tom Marshall, 
who was one of the greatest commercial Lawyers 
of the state. Sarah, the youngest daughter, mar- 
ried B. Frank Spangler, a business man of Colum- 
bia, Pa. The motlier of tliis family was born 
March 1.5, 1789, and died January 19, 1874, at the 
age of eighty-five years. 

In the sulDScription schouls of West Ilemptield 
Township our subject received a practical educa- 
tion that fitted him for a successful business career. 
His school days ended when he was sixteen, hut 
he has always been a thoughtful student of the 
great issues of the age, and few men are better 
posted upon current events than is he. After the 
death of his father he took charge of the farm, and 
here he still resides. He also owns a farm occu- 
liied by a tenant. In his possession is a valued 
heirloom. He has the original Penn deeds for two 
hundred and seventy acres taken up by William 
Penn. He has been interested in the private bank- 
ing business at Columbia, and for thirty years has 
been Directer in the Columbia National Bank. 
Politically he is a Republican. In religious belief 
a Presbyterian, he is serving as Trustee of the 
church at Columbia. 

February 23, 1871, Mr. Keliler married Kate 
Stewart, daughter of John Hunter Knox, who was 
born March 5, 1815, and died February 28, 1862. 


He was a well educated man, a graduate of Dick- 
inson College and a civil engineer by occupation. 
For man}- _vears be resided in Lycoming Count}-, 
Pa. During the late war be enlisted in Company 
D, Eleventh Pennsylvania Infantr_y, of which he 
■was Captain until his death. His three sons, .John 
Moran, Robert S. and James Ruggles., served in 
the Union army during tlie Rebellion. 

The grandfather of Mrs. Kehler. .lolin Knox, 
emigrated from County Antrim, Ireland, in ITIMI, 
and with his parents located in Maryland near the 
city of Emmitsburg. He became a man of promi- 
nence m his community, and conducted success- 
full}- many large enterprises, being principally en- 
gaged in farming and milling. During the most 
of his life he resided on Jersey Shore, Pa. >>'ot- 
withstanding the fact that he was so near tlie 
headquarters of the Confederacy, he remained 
loyal to the Union and was a stanch Abolitionist 
and a firm Republican as long as he lived. He 
was connected with the under-ground railroad 
scheme, and any plan that had for its object the 
freedom of the slaves received his warm support. 
He married Catherine Stewart, of Jcrse}- Shore, 
and they reared three sons, Robert, Charles and 
John H., and one daughter, Mrs. Jane Russell, the 
latter being the only survivor of the family. 

For many years Grandfatlier Knox followed the 
trade of a millwright at West Branch, and about 
the close of the last centur_y be built the first, grist 
mill on Pine Creek, where he was extensively en- 
gaged in lumbering and milling. During almost 
his entire life he res'ded with his wife a short dis- 
tance from the mouth of Lany's Creek, where his 
death occurred October 18, 185-1, at the age of 
eighty-four years. He was a man of robust ph}-- 
sique and powerful frame. Positive opinions upon 
all subjects characterized him. He was a man of 
great piety and for many years took an active part 
in the Methodist Church, of which he was a de- 
voted member. 

The great-great-grandfather of Mrs. Kehler was 
Charles Stewart, Sr., who was born in 1743 near 
the town of Letterkenny, County Donegal, Ire- 
land, and when nineteen years of age be came from 
that country to his uncle's, Samuel Hunton, where 
he married the daughter, Elizabeth. He engaged 

in milling in Dauphin County near Harrisburg. 
From there he removed to Cumlierlaud County, 
where be purchased property in the "New Pur- 
chase" and afterward bought seven hundred and 
fourteen acres in the Xippeusa bottom in Lycom- 
ing County. The only son of Mr. and .Airs. Keh- 
ler is Henry Neff, who was born May 3, 1874. He 
is at present ( 1894) a sophomore in Princeton Col- 


JOHN F. STAUFFER. This prominent resi- 
dent of Lancaster occupies the responsible 
position of Street Commissioner, to which of- 
fice he was elected April 1, 1894. Prior to 
that time, however, lie was a successful railroad 
contractor and built many of the roads running 
through the county. 

Our subject was born in Penn Township, this 
county, August 6, 1845, and is the son of Benjamin 
M. Stauffer, a native of the same place. His grand- 
father, wiio bore the name of John, was born in 
Donegal Township, this county, and was a miller 
by trade. He operated many of the mills in this 
and adjoining counties. The great-grandfather of 
our subject, Johannus Stauffer, came from Switzer- 
land in 1790, and soon afterward built the large 
stone mill at White Oak, Penn Township, wiiich 
he operated until his decease, when the property 
fell to John Stauffer. 

The father of our subject assumed control of 
the mill when a young man of twenty-one years, 
and during the time from 1856 to 1859 was elected 
Register of Lancaster Count}- on the Republican 
ticket. After disposing of the projjerty, he pur- 
chased a farm near Mt. Joy, which he cultivated 
for four years, and in 1863 bought the old Bossier 
Mill, near Manheim, on Chickies Creek, which he 
conducted for some time, and in 1868 sold out and 
returned to Mt. Joy. He is still living, and has 
attained the advanced age of seventy-five years. 

The mother of our subject, who prior to her 
marriage was Miss Sophia, daughter of John For- 



ney, was born in Earl Township, this county. She ] 
was cousin to John W. Forney, the proprietor of ' 
the Philadelphia Press. Grandfather Forney was 
keeper of the inn known as Forney's Tavern, on 
the Reading road, where he lived for many years. ; 
Mrs. Stauffer departed this life in 1884, leaving i 
two children. The brother of our subject, Benjamin, 
is a member of the Board of Trade in Chicago. 

The subject of this sketch was reared in his na- 
tive township and was educated at the John Beck 
School at Lititz. When old enough he was ai)pren- 
ticed to learn the trade of a miller, working under 
Gabriel Bear. Later he and his brother operated 
the Bossier Mill, for two years and thens old out, j 
our subject returning to private life, and for sev- 
eral years was not engaged in any business. 

In 1872 Mr. Stauffer came to Lancaster, and 
taking up railroad work, has contracted for many 
roads, and also engaged extensively iu sewer build- 
ing. His first work was for the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, building a double track from Middletown 
to Steelton, and later received the contract to lay 
the double track for the Philadelphia, Wilming- 
ton tt Baltimore Railroad Cumpauy from Swath- 
more to Media. His next enterprise build- 
ing a road for the Caledonia Mining Company 
between Mt. Alto Junction and the ilountain's 
point, ten miles, filling in some places forty-three 
feel in depth, winch contract he completed in 
eleven iiii.inth.-. .Mr. Stauffer was the builder of 
five miles of road for the Baltimore & Eastern 
Shore Railroad Company, lying between E.aston 
and St. Michael's, Md. 

In 1893 our subject built the Marietta Water 
Works. He constructed a reservoir in York C oun- 
ty, and laid a twelve-inch main across the Sus(iue- 
hanna River from York to Lancaster County. Mr. 
Stauffer was married in this city, in the Trinity 
Lutheran Church, November 25, 1868, to Miss 
Clara S.. youngest daughter of John Fondersmith, 
a prominent citizen of Lancaster. By her union 
with our subject there have been born two chil- 
dren, Charles F., a of Philadelphia; and 
B. (iraut, of this city. 

Ain-il 1, IS'J-l, our subject was elected Street 
Commissioner, and assumed the duties of the po- \ 
sition soon thereafter. Mr. Stauffer built the sec- | 

ond street railway in the city, from Duke Street to 
the terminus, a distance of one and one-third 
miles, in twenty days. He is a member of the 
Royal Arcanum of high standing, and in religious 
affairs belongs to the Trinity Lutheran Church, of 
which he was Warden for three years. In politics 
he is a stalwart Republican. 

\^ Mm. -(^J 

editor of the Columbia Daily and Weekly 
Sjiy, published in Columbia, Lancaster 
Count}'. This journal was established in 1816 and 
is one of the oldest in tiie county. Mr. Y'ocum 
became its owner in 1869, it then being a dailj' 
and weekly paper known as the Columbia Spy. 
When our subject became the purchaser the daily 
edition was abandoned for a time, but it re- 
sumed in 1893 and has since been regularly issued. 
The Columbia Daily Sjiy has exercised great influ- 
ence over the people of this locality during much of 
county's histor3%and of late years particularly has 
merited the success it has attained, both in popu- 
larity and financially. Mr. Y'ocum is a well edu- 
cated and widely informed, who' is 
amply fitted by nature and experience to carry on 
a paper of this kind, and as he is greatly devoted 
to the prosperity and development of Columbia 
and the surrounding country, he is highly es- 
teemed as one of the promoters of local prosper- 
ity. He has been prominent in many of the lead- 
ing industries of the place, and among others we 
mention the following: The Columbia Iron Com- 
pany, of which he is Secretaiy, Treasurer, and a 
member of the Board of Directors; the Grey Iron 
Company, of which he is President; .and the Colum- 
bia Fire Company, of which he is Treasurer and 
which is the oldest company in the i)l.ace. As a 
soldier during the Civil War Major Yocum is also 
entitled to honor and credit, as he saw hard .service 



and sustained wounds while defending the cause of 

The father of our subject was William Yocum, 
who was of Swedish ancestiy. The original foun- 
der of the famil3' in America settled in this state 
during the last century, and the paternal grand- 
father was born at Swedeland, Montgomer}' Coun- 
ty. They were farmers, politically were Whigs, 
and in religion were identified with the Reformed 
Church. William Yocum was one of seven chil- 
dren, six sons and a daughter. He received a dis- 
trictschool education in Montgomery County. He 
was reared to agricultural pursuits and resided for 
some years at the Trappe, in the same county, this 
being an old Lutheran and Reformed settlement. 
William Yocuui married Sarah Rlmby and they 
had two children: Annie Maiia,who married Jesse 
H. Peterman, and Joseph W.. our subject. The 
father died December 5. 1892; his wife is still 

The birth of our subject occurred at the Trappe 
in Montgomery County, June 27, 1843. He re- 
ceived his elementary education in the public 
schools of that locality and later pursued his 
studies at Washington Hall Boarding School. In 
1868 he was graduated from Franklin and Marshall 
College with honors, and then read law witli Hon. 
J. B. Livingston, presiding Judge of Lancaster 
County. In 1868 he was admitted to the Bar and 
remained in the oflice of his tutor for about one 
year. In 1869 he became the owner of the paper 
which he has since conducted, as previously stated, 
and to its publication he has since devoted his en- 
ergies. He is an ardent Republican, having cast 
his first Presidential vote for Abraham Lincoln in 
1865, under a bomb proof tent in front of Peters- 
burg, Va., serving as Judge of the election. He 
has held a number of local oltices and has served 
as a delegate to Republican state conventions a 
number of times. 

In June, 1862, J. W. Yocum enlisted in Com- 
pany C, One Hundred and Sixteentli I'ennsylva- 
nia Regiment, and served in General Meagher's 
Irish Brigade, Hancock's Division of the Second 
Army Corps, Army of the Potomac. He rose from 
the ranks, being promoted to the position of First 
Sergeant, afterwards to Second Lieutenant, then 

First Lieutenant and finally' was made Captain of 
Company I, of the same regiment and lirevetted 
Major by President Lincoln. He took part in all 
of the engagements of the Arm}' of the Potomac 
from Antietam to the battle of Petersburg. At the 
battle of the Wilderness he received a slight wound 
and near Petersburg was struck in the left arm by 
a minie ball, which necessitated his retirement 
from the field. At the end of three years' service 
he was discharged. May 26, 1865, at the Annapolis 
Hospital, his dismission being on account of the 
effects of wounds received. During the Peters- 
burg campaign he was Aide-de-camp on the staff 
of General Ramsey, commanding the brigade. 

On the 1st of January, 1872, occurred the mar- 
riage of our subject to Miss Annie E. Herr. They 
have had two children: Katie, who died in in- 
fancy, and Howard H., who is attending Prince- 
ton College. Fraternally Mr. Yocum belongs to 
Columbia Lodge No. 286, F. & A. M., of which 
lie is Past JNIaster, and is Treasurer and Past High 
Priest of Columbia Chapter No. 224. R. A. M. 
JMoreover he is a member of General Welsh Post. 
No. 118, G. A. R., which he has served as Com- 
mander-Adjutant and Quartermaster. As an Odd 
Fellow he is identified witli Susquehanna Lodge 
No. 80, and is connected with Columbia Assembly 
No. 20, Artisans Mutual Protection. For eighteen 
years Mr. Yocum has been a member of the Board 
of Trustees and has served as Superintendent of 
the Sunday-school of the Presbyterian Cliurch of 
this tilace. 


BYRON J. liEEMSNYDER. M. D., skillful 
physician and surgeon of Ilinkletown, 
was born near Akron, this state, July 23, 
1853, and is the son of Henry and Mary Jane 
(Gray) Reemsnyder. The family in America was 
founded by Samuel Reemsnyder, the grandfather 
of onr subject, who came from Germany in an 
early day and located first in Philadelphia, where 
he followed his trade of cabinet-maker for a time. 
He served as a .soldier in the Revolutionary War. 
The grandfather of our subject was married in 

ounty, and became the father of a large fam- 
He became prominent and wealthy, and died 
54, firm in the faith of the Lutheran Church, 
ilitics he was a strong Democrat. Dr. Henry 
isnyder, father of our subject, was born in 
'ille, tliis county, and when beginning his 
eal studies, entered the ottice of Dr. Weidler, 
3chanicsburg, after which he entered the Penn- 
,nia Medical College. He established for prac- 
n the city of Lancaster, where he also owned 
\g store. After a residence there of two years 
3nt to Bareville, where he spent another two 
, and on the expiration of that time moved 
iron, this state, where his death occurred in 
, aged fifty-two years. He was successful as 
^•sician, and was in the enjoyment of a lucra- 
practice. He belonged to the Lancaster Coun- 
edical Society, and socially was a member of 
lasonic order of Reading. He was active in 
ics, voting with the Democratic party, and 
;he recipient of many positions of honor and 
. The Reformed Church found in him one of 
ost valued members and cheerful givers. 
1862, during the late war. Dr. Reemsnyder 
lized Company F, Ninth Pennsylvania Cav- 
of which he was commissioned Lieutenant, 
h position he shortly afterward resigned in 
r to accept the Captaincy of another company. 
fas in active service for eighteen months, and 
honorably discharged on account of physical 

le mother of our subject was the daughter of 
■y Gray, a farmer of Akron Township, and by 
anion with Dr. Reemsnyder she became the 
ler of four sons and two daughters, of whom 
subject was the eldest. His brothers and sis- 
were, Charles, a manufacturer of cigars in 
idelphia; Jennie, the wife of Isaac C. Netzley, 
ock Haven, this state; Henry G., M. D., en- 
d in practice in Ephrata, this state; Edward 
esidiug in Akron, this county, and Annie, 
died young. The wife and mother is now in 
lixtieth year of her age, and is a devoted mem- 
)f the Reformed Church, 
je original of this sketch was given a good 
ation in the common schools, and when seven- 
years of age began the study of medicine 

under the instruction of his honored father. In 
1873 he entered the University of Pennsylvania, 
from which he was graduated with the degree of 
Doctor of Medicine the following year. He re- 
mained practicing with his father for one year 
thereafter, and in 1875, we find him located in 
Hiukletown, where he has resided ever since. He 
soon won an enviable reputation as a practitioner 
of the healing art, and now commands a large and 
lucrative practice. He is a member of the Reformed 
Church, and like his father before him, votes with 
the Democratic party. 

The lady to whom Dr. Reemsnyder was married 
in 1877 was Miss Alice A., daughter of R. N. 
Winter, of this place. To them was born a daugh- 
ter, Anna. Mrs. Reemsnyder died May 30, 1882, 
and two years later the Doctor chose as his second 
companion Miss Mar.y M., sister of his former 
wife, by whom he has become the father of two 
children, Mary and Charles. 


JUSTUS BARD is extensively engaged in rais- 
ing leaf tobacco on a tract of land in Upper 
Leacock Township. In 1883 he purchased 
a farm near the old liomestead and devoted 
his time and attention to raising garden stuffs. In 
1893, however, he added tobacco raising, and now 
gives the cultivation of that plant almost his en- 
tire time. 

Our subject is the son of Samuel and Leah 
(Stuck) Bard, and was born in the old Bard home- 
stead, five miles east of Lancaster, July 15, 1856. 
He was leared on the farm, and received his pri- 
mary education in the common schools, after which 
he attended the Millersville State Normal. When 
ready to establish in life on his own account, as 
before stated, he purchased land near his father's 
estate, which he farmed on a small scale until 
branching out in his present enterprise. 

In May, 1889, Mr. Bard was appointed Justice 
of the Peace on the Republican ticket, and has 

R. K. BrEHRI.K, PH. 


given much of bis time to aid in tlie fiirtlicrance 
of the principles of that paity. February- 1, 18.S3, 
the original of this sketch was married to Miss F. 
Alice, daugliter of Joel Miller, who is engaged as 
a general merchant at Witmer, this county'. To 
Mr. and Mrs. Bard there have been born two chil- 
dren: Charles Miller, born August 11, 1883, and 
Mary Hess, whose birtii occurred May 22, 1890. 

Joel Miller, tlie father of Mrs. Bard, was born in 
Witmer, February 25, 1825, and after obtaining a 
fair education in the schools of the neighborhood, 
learned the trade of a slioemaker. He followed 
this for a time, and tlien engaged in business in 
his native place as a general merchant. He car- 
ried a large stock of goods and in his community 
is ver}' popular. He is a devoted member of the 
Methodist Church, to which body he gives liberal 
support, and is known as a strong exponent of its 

In 1866 Joel Miller married Miss Mary Hess, by 
whom he became the father of six children: Alice, 
Mrs. Bard; Lizzie, who is the wife of Harry Esh- 
man; William, who married Miss Esther Sides; 
Anna, who married Harry Bush; Edward G. and 
Howard. In politics Mr. Miller is a stanch Re- 
pul.ilican and stands loyally by his party. 

recognized as a very able educator, is 
Superintendent of the Lancaster public 
schools, and during the time that has elapsed since 
he became connected witli tlitm, they have made 
great advances in every direction. The city is 
certainly very fortunate in having so capable and 
practical a man in chaige of its system of instruc- 
tion, for he has wide experience and is peculiarly 
adapted for the position. 

Superintendent Buehrle was born in Uebcrlingen, 
Baden, Germany, September 24, 1810. His father, 
whose Christian name was Joseph, was for six ^ears 
in the German army; afterward for sis years in the 

Government service as guardsman on the frontier, 
and promoted thence for meritorious services, he 
was for three years Internal Revenue Collector 
and Assessor in his native place, Kappel, am-Rhine. 
In 1844 he came to America, and two years later 
was followed by his family. By trade a linen 
weaver, but not finding the business congenial, he 
became a boatman on the Lehigh Canal about 
1848, running from Mauch Chunk and points 
above to Philadelphia and New York. He owned 
his boat, of which he was master, being assisted hy 
his two sons, the suliject of this sketch and his 
elder brother. For eleven j'ears he followed this 
occupation; his home having previously been at 
Mauch Chunk and South Easton, was now trans- 
ferred to Tinicum Township, Bucks County. On 
his farm in the latter place he settled about 1848, 
and on leaving boating in 1858, retired, engaging 
in agriculture to some extent until his death in 
1877, wiien in his seventy-fourth year. A man of 
universally admitted i)robity of character, he was 
well read and well informed, and an intense hater 
of despotism. He strove with those who unsuc- 
cessfully attempted to secure the freedom and 
unity of Germany in the Revolution of 1848, 
which object was. however, largely achieved in 
1870. In religion he was a Free Thinker, though 
a great admirer of Jlartin Luther. After coming 
to America, he voted with the Democrats until 
that party became distinctively pro-slavery, when, 
in 1860 he became and continued to be a consist- 
ent Republican and an anti-slavery man. His 
wife, whose maiden name was Joanna Koch, was 
born in Baden, (iermauy. She became the mother 
of five children, and passed from this life in 1886 
near the old iiome, wiien in her eightieth year. 

Superintendent Buehrle was reared in Bucks 
County, and at the age of eight years started on tlie 
tow path of the canal. Later he became the right- 
hand man of his father, with whom he remained 
boating on the canal until 1858. During this time 
his schooling was limited to a winter terra of about 
two months each year. In the fall of 1858, he 
literally stepped from the canal-boat to the teach- 
er's platform, teaching in the winter for the next 
two years, and in the summer pursuing his studies 
with great zeal while attending the Bucks County 



Normal and Claf-si( 
paring for collcii;( 

)1 at (^lal. 

rtown, pre- 
II Willi; two years he 
was onga.t^ed in teaching near Allentown. Lehigh 
County, after which for a short time he took 
charge of Weaversville Academy. In the fall of 
18(j;! lie lierame clerk in tiie motive- power depart- 
ment of the Pennsylvania Railroad at Pittsburg. 
AVhen two years had expired lie returned to his 
former occupation, having been elected Principal 
of the Allentown High School, of which he re- 
mained ill charge until ISCS, when he was pro- 
moted to be the lirst City Suiierintendent of Al- 
lentown. Under his supervision the schools be- 
came widely known for their complete and effec- 
tive organization, and he was successivelj"- re- 
elected until 1878, when he resigned. lie was fre- 
quently' consulted by the Board of Directors on 
important matters relating to the school system, 
and his influence in the educational affairs of the 
place was felt long after his departure. In 1878 
he became Superintendent of the Reading Schools, 
continuing as such for two years, when he accepted 
a call from Lancaster as the lirst City Superin- 
tendent of Schools. 

Since becoming connected with the Lancaster 
schools, Doctor Buehrle has been a power for 
progress in the educational affairs of the place. In 
1878 Franklin and Marshall College conferred upon 
him the honorary degree of IMaster of Arts, and in 
1886 it also bestowed upon him that of Doctor of 
Philosophy. Under his jurisdiction are ninety-six 
teachers, who preside over the different depart- 
ments of fifteen school buildings. In the Pennsyl- 
vania State Teachers' Association Superintendent 
Buehrle has taken an active and influential part, 
and he has also been for many years a member of 
the National Educational Association. He has 
been especially prominent in the formation of the 
City and Borough Superintendents' Association 
of Pennsylvania, which was organized at Lancas- 
ter in January, 1888. He was its first President 
and was again elected to that position in 1 893. A 
close student and an excellent writer, he has fre- 
quently contributed to leading journals, and is 
the author of '•Grammatical Praxis," published 
in 1877, and '"Practical Exercises in Arithmetic," 
published in 1886. As a linguist he is a man of 

no small ability, being conversant with the Latin, 
Greek, French and German languages. During 
recent revisions of Webster's and Murray's Eng- 
lish Dictionaries, he was called upon to contribute 
material; and he has also assisted in the prepara- 
tion of the History of Pennsylvania by 'William 
H. Egle. 

In early life, he married Anna Maria Lazarus, 
who was born in Lehigh County, where her father, 
Jacob Lazarus, was a farmer. The home of Super- 
intendent Buehrle and his estimable wife, at No. 
-108 Manor Street, is a doulile house, and was 
erected by the owner. He also owns four resi- 
dences elsewhere in the city. Since 1858 our sub- 
ject has been identified with Sunday-school work 
and has been Sii|n'rintendent of Christ Lutheran 
Sunday-schiiol of thiscity for thirteen years. He is 
a charter member of the Pennsylvania German So- 
ciety, and is a M.ason, Pastmaster of Barger Lodge, 
of Allentown, and a member of Chapter No. 43, 
R. A. M., of Lancaster. Politically a Republican, 
Superintendent Buehrle believes in civil service 


is a man widely known in Pennsylvania as 
publisher for many years of the Pennsyl- 
vania School Journal, which goes monthly into 
each of the nearly twenty-five hundred school dis- 
tricts in this great state. He is also favorably 
known throughout the United States wherever the 
Franklin Square Song Collection is found and en- 
joyed. This very popular series of books of fa- 
miliar and favorite songs, which combines upon a 
unique plan much reading matter with the music 
of the songs, and of which a quarter of a million 
copies have been sold, at present comprises eight 
numbers, with the ninth in preparation. It is is- 
sued by Harper & Bros., of New York, who find a 
large sale for it in Canada as well as in the United 
States. He finds delight in the best literature, 
and is an enthusiast in his enjoyment of music 



and the drama. Lancaster is not far from Phila- 
delphia (the night is as good for iiuiek transit as 
the day) and for thirty years he has kept close 
watch upon tiie Philadelphia newspapers for 
art, music and the drama, as advertised in tliat 
great city. During that time lie has seen and 
heard nearly all the great singers and actors in 
their leading roles, some of them dozens of times, 
the great orchestras and soloists on instruments, 
concert and opera, and the best dramatic represen- 
tations the age affords. This he esteems a large 
part of his "university training," and upon it he 
has spent thousands of dollars, as he says, -'with a 
big return on the investment." 

Mr. McCaskey was born on a farm nearGordon- 
ville, Lancaster County, October 9, 1837, and con- 
gratulates himself that he had a mother who sang 
as the birds do, because she couldn't lielp it, and 
that she taught him to read at a very early 
age. His parents were fortunately ignorant of all 
modern theories of dela^' in this regard. He at- 
tended the countiy schools until ten years of age, 
read in the Testament class, kept a "setting-down 
book," learned Comly's speller under pressure so 
as to be "up" in the spelling classes and matciies. 
ciphered in Pike's arithmetic, with all tlie rest 
carried hisgoose quill to the master to be mended. 
and looks back to that happy time in the old Zook 
schoolhouse by the cross roads, in tiie shade of the 
woods, as a blessed experience of childhood life in 
the country, for loss of which at the impressionable 
age no life in a city could make amends. 

At eleven _years of age he left home for ()ak 
Hill Academy, "saturated with tiie Liblc," a^ he 
gratefully expressed it. He had access \i\> to this 
to but four or five books, which were Pilgrim's 
Progress, Fox's Book of Martyrs, Lives of the Re- 
formers, a Descriptive Geography of the WorhL 
and the Bible. The first named were for occasional 
reading, but the Bible was for well nigh every day 
in the week and a large part of Sunday, so that 
he could not fail to l)ecome very familiar witli the 
doings of the met and woiiien, gnod and hail, with 
its biography, its history, its pdetiy; to be dtT|ily 
impressed with the thought of Gf)d and the angels, 
and the life to come; and above all to be attracted 
by a story of a Just man, "real, above all things 

and shadowy above all things," who lived and 
died at Palestine. This childhood experience of 
the Bible, under a good motlier's constant care and 
guidance, he regards the best education he has 
ever had, and he "would not exchange it for the 
best university course in the world," excellent as 
that may be, for out of this has come what lie re- 
gards the best good in life. What far-reaching 
work he has done in music, affording pleasure and 
profit to tens of thousands, he says, must all be 
credited to the hymns and ballads of his mother, 
whose voice yet rings sweet and clear through the 
sunny air of a happy childhood. 

Three main lines of work which he has carried 
on for many years, and regards important, are the 

Fii>t— That in the Boys' High School, which is 
local to Lancaster and perhaps of least importance. 
After nearly six years in the schools of the city, 
four of which were spent in the high school, he 
became, in 1855, an assistant teacher under Prof. 
William Van Lear Davis. In 1857 he left school 
for a 3'ear, during which, in the office of the Lan- 
caster Evening Express, he acquired such knowledge 
of the printer's craft as was afterward of great 
value, when, in 1866, he undertook in addition to 
his ordinary work the business management of the 
SrhonI Jnunial. then published by Dr. Thomas H. 
r.urrowes. In Is.'iS he returned to the school, be- 
coming l'rinci|ial m 1865, and I'etaining that posi- 
tion to the present time (1894). He has never 
been a machine teacher, and his "morning talks" 
arc recalled hy huiidi-cds of hoys, now grown to 
iiianhood, as aiming the most \'alual)le experiences 
of their school life. Believing in Arbor Day, he had the school, for each of the twenty or more 
Arbor Days, plant more trees than there have been 
boys enrolled. Believing in music, he has had it 
introduced by the school authorities, and for many 
years the high school has given concert programs 
that it IS a privilege to hear. The high school or- 
chestra is also a unique feature of the educational 
work of the .-chool and the city, nearly half the pu- 
l>ils enrolled being under instnicti<in on orchestral 
instruments. He has continued to teach year after 
year, though tempting offers in other fields have 
come to him, feeling himself called to this great 



work, and not at libd-ty to turn aside while 
strength remains for it. 

Second — The general editoiial and business mnn- 
agement of the Pennsylcania School Journal. The 
monthly edition of this influential periodical, which 
is liie ollicial organ of the State Department of 
I'ulilic Instruction in Pennsylvania, averages from 
six to seven thousand copies. Its circulation is 
largely confined to the state, its School Su|ierin- 
ten dents. Teachers, and School Directors, ihougli 
it is sent to all State Superintendents of Pulilic in- 
struction in the United States, and to many other 
centers of educational influence abroad. This froe 
list, that its influence may be extended as wid<>ly 
as possible, has for a long time been several hun- 
dred copies. "A man lives but once." and Dr. 
McCaskey holds it a wise policy, as he moves 
through life to scatter seed generously, sowing be- 
side all waters. He was associated upon The Jour- 
nal ■w'Mi Dr. Burrowes, its founder, in IHfid. though 
the place had been offered to him the year In-fore 
upon condition that he should leave the scIkjoI to 
acce|)t it. He was unwilling to ahamlon what by 
that time he had come to regard his life work, 
and a year later, as ha^ been said. Dr. IJuirowes 
sent for him, saying that he ••would take him on 
his own terms." In l^TO Th'- Jminial was bought 
from Dr. Burrowes, who had taken the Presidency 
of the Pennsylvania Agricultural College, by Dr. 
.T. P. Wickersham, then State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, and Dr. .J. P. McCaskey, and 
was pulilished by them as equal partners until 
1881, when Dr. McCaskey purchased the inter- 
est of Dr. Wickersham, and Dr. E. E. Higbee, the 
newly appointed Superintendent of Public In- 
struction, became editor. He died in is,s;», and 
was succeeded by Dr. I). .1. Waller; and he in turn, 
in 1893, by Dr. N. C. Selueffer, the present State 
Superintendent and editor-in-chief of The Journal. 
Of educational i)eriodicals this is one of the two 
oldest of the country, the other being the Ohio Edu- 
cational Monthly, the initial number of each bear- 
ing date .Ianuar_v, 18.")"2. Of state educational jour- 
nals, it has been, beyond question, for forty years 
the most influential in the United States. Within 
that time the school system of Pennsylvania has 
had its practical development. Tlie Journal being 

all the while the able and earnest advocate of 
popular education, has pioneered manv of the 
measures which now give character and perma- 
nent value to that S3'stem, conceded to be one of 
tlie best in the vvorld. There have been many 
news[)apers in the state that have filled a larger 
space in the eye of the pulilic, but we know of 
none to equal this modest journal in its broad 
field, in its quiet, constant, intelligent work at the 
foundations and upon the superstructure of a grand 
and ever-growing system of education, which in 
part under its moulding influence has taken and 
is taking shape and character that must endure for 
hundreds of years. 

Third — The publication of the Franklin Square 
Song Collection and numerous other compilations 
of music. This work was begun a quarter of a 
century ago with the Pennsylvania Song Collec- 
tion, and the annual issues of compilations of 
music for use of schools and institutes. As has 
been said, eight numbers of the Franklin Square 
Collection, each comprising two hundred favorite 
songs and hymns, with much approjjriate literary 
matter, have lieen published, and the ninth is now 
nearly ready for the press. These books are very 
fa\(iralily known wherever the publications of this 
great house of Harper & Bros, are found, and 
they have given lasting pleasure to unlold thou- 
sands. Two or three years ago he issued, through 
Messrs. Harper ct Bros., a beautiful book of three 
hundred and twenty jiages entitled "Christmas 
in Song and Story," which the Episcojial Re- 
corder, a very good authority, pronounces "a per- 
fect encyclopedia of Christinas Songs." Dr. J. 
INIax Hark, writing of it in Christian Culture, 
says: "A precious collection, indeed, of old and 
new. Where can another such garner be found, 
so rare, so choice, and so full? There are twenty- 
two full-page illustrations, which range all the 
way from Raphael and Murillo to Nast and Gib- 
son. All are on Christmas subjects; nearl^^ all are 
reproduced from works of art that are Immortal. 
Wiien we examine the 'Sketch and Story' in the 
book we come to what, I tliiuk, is to us all a new 
revelation of Dr. McCaskey's versatility; we are 
almost surprised at the faultlessness of literary 
taste and judgment displayed. We knew him to 


he a musical critic. We were familiar with his 
artistic sense. But we were scarcely prepared to 
find him possessed of an equally- consummate taste 
and discriminating judgment in the very diilicult 
field of literary selection. It is not too mucii to 
say of the seven long selections from the great 
mass of extant Christmas literature, which he gives 
in this volume, that no seven better selections 
could have been made. They are the very cream 
of the cream of our literature on that subject, 
taking contents, jnirpose and form into consider- 
ation. To have these seven crown jewels brought 
together into one diadem is alone worth more 
than is asked for the entire work, to say nothing 
of the rich setting, musical and pictorial, to which 
we have before referred." To few men is the 
privilege granted of doing such work for tlieir 
kind, and, in the thought of its haiii>y intluence, 
]>r. IMeCaskey, who finds rare gladness in almost 
everytiiing in his busy life, enjoys tliis music 
work most and best of all. 

Dr. McCaskey has been Secretary of the Penn- 
sylvania State Teachers' Association since I860. 
lie has been Treasurer of the Teachers' Institute 
of Lancaster County for nearly thirty years, and 
has, we think, been present at ever}' meeting of 
this large body of teachers since its oi'ganization 
in 1853. He has frequently been urged to permit 
the use of his name for City and County Sujierin- 
tendent, and for other more prominent and lucra- 
tive positions than the Piincipalsliip of the Lan- 
caster High School. But he has never been a can- 
didate for any higher position or for any that will 
take him out of Lancaster, having no ambition for 
higher place, though for more than twenty-five 
years his salary in no single year amounted to 
*1,000. It is now §l,-200. He was working on 
other lines and was content with low wages in this, 
since it gave him the life he desired in the school 
room, of six hours per day. That life has been the 
great tiling to him, not the salary paid for service 

Our suljject is a member of St. James' Episcopal 
Church and has Ijeen a member of its vestry since 
18C9. He was one of the original stockholders of 
the Inquirer Printing Company and was for ten or 
twelve years Secretary of the company. He was 

for some ten years the Secretary of the Lan- 
caster Watch Company-, and met with heavy loss 
in the failure of that great enterprise, being the 
third largest stockholder. He was for some jears 
a member of the Board of Directors of the Young 
[ Men's Christian Association in Lancaster until the 
j pressure of duty in other directions compelled his 
I withdrawal, though the work will alwa3's have his 
hearty sympathy and generous support. While 
connected with the association he organized and 
conducted a large evening class for the study of 
astronomy, known as the "Star Club," before which 
he had lectures delivered in Fulton Opera House 
by Prof. Eiciiard A. Proctor, the noted English 
astronomer, and Bishop Henr^- W. Warren, author 
of '■Recreations in Astrononiy." The proceedings 
<if this dull fi-om week to week were so widely 
published in the local press and through the 
Pennsylvania School Journal as to awaken an un- 
usual |)opular interest in this grandest of all 
sciences and to cause its introduction into man}- 
schools of the state. 

Dr. McCaskey was honored with the degree of 
Master of Arts by Franklin and Marshall College, 
and some years afterward with that of Doctor of 
Philosophy hy the same institution of liberal 
learning. Eacli came to liiin as a quick surprise. 
He had never thought of either, and says that 
while he has done little to merit these degrees he 
appreciates the courtesy which awarded them, 
and is grateful fcir the personal kindness which 
prompted the authorities by whom they were be- 
stowed. On the death of Dr. E. E. Iligbee, State Su- 
perintendent of Public Instruction, in 1889, he was 
api)ointed by the President of the State Teachers' 
Associaticni to be Chairman of the Memorial Com- 
mittee. With County Superintendent M.J. Brecht, 
also of Lancaster, he entered into the work with 
an energy and enthusiasm that knew no pause un- 
til such a memorial had been planned and com- 
pleted as has no parallel in the history of the 
common school work in America. Ten thousand 
copies of a very remarkable memorial volume 
were distributed to teachers and superintendents 
throughout the slate; twelve thousand copies of a 
life-size and life-like portrait were distributed to 
the normal schools and common schools and to the 



offices of the superintendents; a bust in hronze 
of heroic size and a noble cnwnri ln-ud were 
placed in tlie Department of I'lililic; Insirurtion; 
and a massive block of granite of :ippiii|iri:it.' de- 
sign at his grave will tell its story to the ages. 
This work he did in memorinni because he loved 
Dr. Higbee. 

He comes of a strong aucestr}-. His father, 
William McCaskey, was a man of iron will, of 
Scotch-Irish descent, and of the Presbyterian faith, 
which wtis a f'nniiiy heritage. His grandfather, 
.lohn McCaskey. was a freeholder near Blaney 
Castle. County Monaglian, in the North of Ire- 
land, where the family name is still perpetuated 
through Presbyterian clergymen and others. His 
great-grandfather, William McCaskey, served in 
the British army in America during the Revolu- 
tion, and Lis son John was accustomed to icll as one 
of the pleasantest recollections of hi- childhood. 

how with the delight of a child hi' 

d ui 

and sat on his father's knee on his return from the 
war in America. John emigrated to Pennsylvania 
about the year 1793, having been married to l\[ar- 
garet Gorman some two or three years before 
leaving Ireland. With him came three brothers, 
Hugh, William and James, all of whom some years 
later went farther west, and three brothers-in-law, 
who settled in Lancaster County. He was a farmer, 
and for many years did a large business in droving. 
He died at the age of seventy -six and is buried in 
the Leacock Church-yard, a mile west of Inter- 
course, one of the oldest Presbyteriam Churches in 

Dr. McCaskey 's name has in full that of both 
his grandfathers. His mother, Margaret (Piersol) 
McCaskey, is the second daughter and third child 
of John Piersol and Catharine (Wilson) Piersol, 
comes of sturdy pioneer stock, the Davises and 
Piersols of Wales, Wilsons of England or of 
IScotch-Irisli descent, the P]ckerls of C4ermau-Swit- 
zerlaud, and others, and is descended on two lines, 
her father and mother having been second cousins, 
from Archibald Douglas, one of three sons of 
Lord Douglas, the lineal heir of that noted fam- 
ily, which fills so large a space for hundreds of 
years in the stirring history of Scotland. Her 
Great-gi-andfather Davis was a Captain in the 

Fiench and Indian War, and a member of tlie 
Committee of Safety in the War of Independence. 
Her father was Captain of a company of cavalry 
in the War of 1812. At the age of eighty-four, 
after a long life of unselflsh devotion to homely 
duties and the care of others, always blessing and 
blessed, with hearing unimpaired, eye undimmed, 
and heart still young, her devoted son says of her 
that she deserves to be own sister to that "Douglas 
tender and true," of whom the old Scotch poet 
tells, an<1 of whom also Dinah Maria Muloch has 
sung so lovingly as to catch the ear and win the 
heart of the world. She belonged, when a girl, to 
St. John's Episcopal Church at Compassville, one 
of the oldest Episcopal Churches in America. Here 
are buried Douglases, Davises, Piersols, Wilsons, 
scores of her ancestors and more immediate rela- 
tives and friends. 

William and Margaret McCaskey had seven chil- 
dren: John Piersol, the subject of our sketch; 
Joseph I>arr, Catharine Wilson, William Spencer, 
Cyrus Davis, Margaret Salome, and James Newton, 
sis of whom are still living. William S. is Cap- 
tain in the Twentieth United States Infantry. He 
enlisted at the age of seventeen, within two or 
three days after the fall of Ft. Sumter, and served 
throughout the war, (irst as |)rivate in the First 
Pennsylvania Volunteers, thou .as Orderly-Ser- 
geant, Lieutenant and Captain in the Seventy- 
ninth Pennsylvania, taking part in some twenty- 
eight battles, from Chaplin Hills, Ky., in 1862. 
to Bentonville, N. C, in 1«G.^. At the close of the 
war he was named by Hon. Thaddeus Stevens for 
appointment to a Lieutenency in the regular army. 
He succeeded General Custer in command at Ft. 
Abraham Lincoln, when that dashing cavalry offi- 
cer started on his fatal campaign against the In- 
dians in the Big Horn Mountains. In all his varied 
army life his record is that of a most capable and 
efficient officer. He is now stationed at Ft. Leaven- 

In IKGO Dr. .McCaskey was married in Bath, N. 
Y., to Miss Ellen Jlargaret Chase, who born in 
that place, and who is a lineal descendant of Rev. 
Everard and Aiineke Jans Bogardus, both of Hol- 
land, tlie former of whom w;is the first te.acher and 
first preacher in the Dutch settleraeut of New 



Amsterdain, now New York. Their children are 
Edward William, Richard Douglas, .John Sidney, 
Walter Bogardus, Helen Wilson, Donald Gilbert, 
and Elsa Piersol, two of whom, .Tolin and Helen. 
are deceased. Edward W. is a First Lieutenant in 
the Twenty-first United States Lifanlry, and is 
now on dut}' at the Pennsylvania State College, 
as Professor of Military Tactics, where there is one 
of the finest armories in Pennsylvania, and where 
he has a battalion of two hundred and fifty cadets, 
uniformed and equipped, and one of the best 
drilled military organizations in the state. The 
authorities of the college have requested a renewal 
of his detail by the War Department at Washing- 
ton, on the ground of "special fitness and atten- 
tion to dut}'." He is a young man of marked 
ability, as well as a very fine officer, interested in 
science, literature, art, music, no less than in the 
profession of arms. Graduating from the Lancas- 
ter High School in 1880, he entered West Point in 
1882, from the Junior Class in Franklin and Mar- 
shall College, after competitive examination, and 
graduated there in 188(5. He took the post-grad- 
uate course of two j-ears at Ft. Leavenworth, after 
service at Ft. Du Chesne in Utah. Since that time 
he has been on duty at Ft. McKinney, in Wyoming 
Territory-, Fts. Du Chesne and Douglas in Utah, 
and in the late Sioux Campaign. He was ordered 
to his present post in 1892. He was married within 
a week after his graduation from West Point, to 
Catharine Kennedy, of Lancaster, and they now 
have five children: Mary Ellen, John Piersol, 
Hugh Kennedy, Pklward William and Catharine. 
Richard Douglas, the second son of Dr. McCaskey, 
a graduate of the high school, is also a graduate of 
the Pennsylvania College of Dental Surgery in 
Philadelphia, and is successfully engaged in the 
practice of his profession in this city. Walter 
Bogardus graduated from the Lancaster High 
School, afterward took a course of two years in the 
Pennsylvania School-ship "Saratoga," from which 
he graduated at the head of his class, taking the 
first prize for "general efflciencj'." He is now 
(1894) at the head of the Junior Class in Penn- 
sylvania State College. At the close of his Sopho- 
more year he took the higliest [irize in mathema- 
tics (calculus). He excels in all college work. 

including music and gymnastics, and is the "born 
quarter back" of their famous college foot-ball 
team. Donald Gilbert graduated from the high 
school in the Class of '04. 

Li politics Dr. McCaskey has always been a Re- 
publican, casting his tirst vote for Andrew (t. 
Curtin for Governor, and Abraham Lincoln for 
President, in 1860. 

J MARTIN ECKMAN, an enterprising busi- 
ness man of Lancaster, has for the jiast four 
years been engaged in the manufacture of 
lime, and in disposing of this product, in 
vrhich his sales are constantly increasing and are 
bringing in an ample income. In civic societies he 
is very prominent, and in 1894 iiad tlie high honor 
conferred upon him of Grand Treasurer of the 
(irand Comniandery of Pennsjlvania, in the Order 
of Knights of Malta. In other societies he has fre- 
quently served in an official capacity, and is also a 
leading Republican, being a member of the Citi- 
zens" Club and Chairman of the Executive Com- 

The Eckinan faiuilv is a very old one in Lancas- 
ter County, and the grandfather of our subject 
was a well-to-do farmer of Drumore Township, 
and in local politics was quite prominent, serving 
as Justice of the Peace for several years. He was 
very philanthropic and liberal in his support of 
benevolences and church work. By his marriage 
with a Miss Lafferty he had eight children, John 
W., James, Martha, Joseph, Washington, Sarah, 
JIary and Katie. Washington, the father of our 
subject, was born in Drumore Township, where he 
attended the district school. He became a distiller 
and later resorted to fanning, having his home in 
Strasburg Township. He was a Whig and after- 
wards a Republican, and at one time was Captain 
of a militia company. In religion like his father 
he was a member of the Reformed Church, and 
was a man who was much esteemed by all who 


knew him. 

His wife 

was formerly 


912. Jr. 0. U. A. M., 

n tlie ftrand Council, and is 

Helm, and t 

liev liad u 

ilv one ehild. 

,ur subjeet. 

^Master Workman o 

his lodge in the Ancient 

The father r 

led when i 

n his sixty tlii 

rd year, and 

Order of United W(n 

knien, and is honorary mem- 

his wife departed this life after attaining her 
seveuty-sixlh Mrthday. 

The birth <.f .1. Martin Kckman took place 
IMareli Hi. I^.'jIi. in p:den Township, of this coun- 
ty. I'litii about twenty years of age he attended 
the common schools and assisted his father in 
carrying on the homestead. For four years sub- 
sequently he worked for neighboring farmers, and 
afterwards wa> employed bv the Pliiladelphia 
Stock t'onipaiiy for a period of six months. At 
this time he was married and located in Strasburg 
Township, making a business of market gardening 
and sending his farm products to the Lancaster 
markets. Next removing to Manheiin Township, 
he worked for four years in the lime kilns, and 
was tiien employed by the Lancaster l'i>catorial 
Company in building a jiond. which, when it was 
completed, was placed in his charge. For a period 
of four years succeeding this he was engaged in 
the ice business for himself, and finally in 1890 
commenced burning lime, and furnishes material 
for inacademizing the streets. lie regularly em- 
ploys fifteen men and as many teams, and at times 
has found it necessary to have one hundred in his 
service. Thus it will be seen that he has succeeded 
admirably m his latest business venture, and 
though he has been so recently connected with the 
same, his trade has expanded remarkably. 

Mr. Eckmau belongs to Herscliel Lodge No. 123, 
I. O. O. F.; Meridian Lodge No. 99, K. of M.; Lan- 
caster Council No. 91, .)r. O. U. A. M.; Conestoga 
Council No. 8, Sr. (_). U. A. ^l.; Lancaster Castle 
No. G8,K. of P.; Lancaster Castle No. 2G, Order 
of the Mystic Chain, and is Master Workman in 
the lodge of the Ancient Order of United Work- 
men. With his lodge of the Knights of ISIalta 
Mr. Eckman has served as Commander and also as 
Deputy, and at the convention which met at 
Lewisburg in 1894, was elected Grand Treasurer of 
the Grand Commandery of the state. He is third 
Noble Grand in the Odd Fellow.-,' Lodge, and has 
been Priest and Chief Patriarch in Washington" 
Encampment, and Past Grand of his lodge. At 
the present time he is representative of Lodge No. 

ber of the Daughters of America. October 27, 
1874, Mr. Eckman married Miss Anna L., daugh- 
ter of Jacob Myers, and of this union have been 
born seven children, Willie Ross, Laura ^'., Enos 
M., Jacob Wesley, Mary Elizabeth, Miles and Ches- 
ter Reed. 


rpr rtasTUS F. RKINOEHL, agent for 

^j — \ Mutual Life Insurance Company of ^ 

York, is their oldest representativ 

is their oldest representative in 
Lancaster County. He is also a successful auc- 
tioneer, and an inlliiential citizen of Lancaster. 
Born in Piltslnirg. November 20, 1851, he is a son 
of Augustus and Leah (Reigel) Reinoehl, natives of 
Lebanon, Pa. His paternal grandfather, Jacob, 
was born in tlie same locality in 1794, and was a 
lumber merchant, carpenter and builder. Remov- 
ing to Lancaster, he engaged m business here until 
his deatli. 

Our subject's father was a manufacturer of var- 
nishes, being the second in that line of business in 
the United .States. On coming to Lancaster he 
started a manufactory on North (Jueen Street and 
was actively engaged in the enterprise for over 
forty years. After he had acquired a comfortable 
fortune he retired from business, at the age of sev- 
enty-five. His wife, who was called from this life 
in 1887, liad eight children, onl^y three of whom 
are living. The parents were highly' respected 
citizens and .active members of the Lutheran 

The early educati(_)n of Augustus F. Reinoehl 
was obtained in the public schools of Lancaster, 
and afterward he attended Yeates Institute. In 
1869 he completed a course in the Cumberland 
Valley Institute at Mechanicsburg, and then went 
into Inisiness with his father. He was very suc- 
cessful in the manufacture of varnishes and oils, 
the works being situated on the old .Manheiin 

T(mx KKIJ.HR. 



pike. From 1880 until 1885 he engaged in the 
sale of antique furniture, being the liead of that 
business in the county. Later he drifted into 
auctioneering in Lancaster and vicinity, and has 
been quite successful in this undertaking. In 1890 
he commenced to represent the Mutual Life Insur- 
ance Compan}-, of which he became exclusive agent 
for the cit}-, and two years later for the county. 
His office is at 61 North Duke Street, and his cus- 
tomers are constantly increasing. 

Tiie residence occupied b}- Mr. Reinoebl is situ- 
ated on the corner of Frederick and North Duke 
Streets. His wife, whom he married in Mechanics- 
burg in 1875, was then Clara Muniaii, and was 
born in Adams County, Pa. They have three 
children, Benjamin, Elizabeth and Leah. Socially 
our subject is a member of the Knights of Malta, 
Ancient Order of United Workmen, Junior Older 
of United American Mechanics, and the Benevo- 
lent Protective Order of Elks. He deposits his vote 
in favor of Republican nominees and measures. 
With his worth}- wife he holds membership in the 
Duke Street Methodist Episcopal Church. Ho is 
honorable and upright in his business dealings and 
therefore has won the good will of all. 

JOHN KELLER, a prominent railroad man, 
whose home is in Lancaster, has been of great 
assistance in a practial way to many of the 
industries and enterprises m this ]30rtion of 
Penns_\lvaiiia and has led a very active and useful 
life. At various tunes he has had as many as four- 
teen hundred men in his emplovat one time, and in 
the concerns with which he has been identified em- 
ployment has been given to thousands of others. 
In his financial dealing he has filled contracts for 
Jay Gould, Russell Sage, and other prominent 
railroad magnates and his operations have been on 
a very large scale. 

Mr. Keller was born September U», 1828, near 
Elizabethtown, Lancaster County, his parents, Ja- 

cob and Fannie (Disinger) Keller, being of German 
descent. His ancestors were among the pioneer 
settlers of this county, where his paternal grand- 
father, John Keller, was born. He was a farmer 
and blacksmith in West Donegal Township and in 
politics supported the Democratic party. By his 
first wife, the grandmother of our subject, a Miss 
Disinger, he had three sons and two daughters. 
His death occurred when he was about eighty 
years of age. 

Jacob Keller, the father of our subject, was 
also born in West Donegal Township, and learned 

j the carpenter's trade. He was a man of natural 

I ability, practical ami \'ery industrious. During 

[ his entire life he lived in the township where 
his birth had occurred and identified with 
everything pertaining to the general good. A 
stanch Democrat, he held a number of local offi- 
ces. He was called from this life when in his fifty- 
seventh year. His wife, who is enjoying good 
health, has now reached the ripe old age of ninety- 

; four years. They were the parents of the follow- 
ing children: Jacob, a locomotive engineer, whose 
death occurred at the age of fifty-eight years; 
David, who died in his nintecnth year; John; 
Abraham, now engaged in the wholesale liquor 
business in this city; Elizabeth, Mrs. Carter, now 
deceased; F.anuie, and Samuel, who was an engineer 
on the Pennsylvania Railroad and was killed in 
an accident in 1872. 

John Keller received a district school education 
and when he was twelve years old commenced 
working for a farmer at «4 per month during the 
summer. From childhood he was trained to in- 
dustrious habits and this has become one of his 
marked traits. When seventeen years old he en- 
tered the employ of the Harrisburg and Lancaster 

[ Railroad, receiving eighty cents a day. and in 1845 
helped to transport soldiers for the Mexican War. 
Later he was promoted to carpenter work at 81 

■ |)er day on the road, and at the age of twenty was 
made a foreman of repairs on seven miles of track 

I near Lancaster. For three years he served in that 
capacity and was afterward placed in charge of 

I the entire railroad between DillersviUe and Har- 
risburg, and just prior to this, in 1857, had built,, 

I the Mt. Joy car shops. From 1858 to 18(J0 he was 



in charge of the track between Columbia, Dillers- 
ville and llarrisburg, and at tlie last named date 
left the erai)lo_y of the company to start a wood 
and railroad tie business, taking contracts for the 

In 1861 Supervisor Hambright resigned his po- 
sition and Mr. Keller was given the place, which 
he held for seven years, and at the end of that 
time was appointed Trainmaster at Lancaster. In 
18C8 he launched into contracting and quarrying, 
residing where he does at present and having his 
business headquarters in Conoy Township. From 
his granite stone quarrj' was made the monument 
placed to the memory of Thaddeus Stevens and 
also the mausoleum for William F. Lockard, which 
stands in the Columbia Cemetery. For some eight 
years Mr. Keller operated his quarry in connection 
with bridge building and general railroad contract- 
ing. He constructed the Quarry ville Railroad, 
thirteen miles of the Schuylkill Valley Railroad, in 
connection with Colonel Bush, built the llarrisburg 
& Gettysburg Railroad; one hundred and eleven 
miles of the New York, Philadelphia & Norfolk 
Kiiilroad; the Pennsylvania and Northwestern Rail- 
road from Irwona to a point four miles beyond 
Punxsutawney, the road known as the Tapeworm 
Railroad; a branch of the Harrisburg & Potomac 
Railroad; the Camliria cfe Clearfield Railroad; thir- 
teen miles of track between ( ilenlock and Trenton, 
and the western part of the Ft. Washington Road 
between Philadelphia and Ft. Washington. Mr. 
Keller luas been very energetic, possessed of great 
organizing power, and has skillfully managed his 
business and his employes. He was among the first 
to project the idea of the Conawaga tt Cornwell 
Railroad, of which he made the first survey, and 
also of the road between Lancaster and New Hol- 
land. When filling his contract of building the 
New York, Philadelphia & Norfolk line, he man- 
aged to get seventy miles of the line eunstruct- 
ed in eleven mouths, and seven miles were com- 
pleted in one week. The day after completion 
the locomotive passed over those seven miles in 
seven minutes. At this time he often had four- 
teen hundred men in his em|)loy. In 1«74 Mr. 
Keller built the Philadelphia Stockyards, on the 
Schuylkill River, and he was one of the promoters 

of the Lancaster Trust Company, which is now in 
a ttourisliing condition. At present, in partner- 
ship with Kennedy Crossen, of the fii'ni of FiUierl, 
I Porter it Co., he is engaged in making the (.iueeu 
Lane Reservoir in Philadelphia, which when com- 
pleted will hold three hundred and eighty million 
gallons. According to contract this is to be 
finished in two years, but will be completed in 
nineteen months, and for this work * 1,159,000 
will be paid. The firm of Filbert, Porter ife Co. 
have just taken the contract for depressing the 
North Pennsylvania Junction Railroad in the 
Quaker Cit}', allowing the streets intersecting the 
same to pass over the tracks. In this work are 
engaged one thousand men, with five hundred 
horses and wagons, six locomotives and three steam 
shovels. Mr. Keller owns a stone quarry in Texas 
in connection with Messrs. Slaymaker, Baker & 
Warner, and in connection with two others he op- 
erated the Westa Fui-nace of the Columbia Rolling 
Mills Company until 18',).3. As a stockholder in 
the New York, Philadelphia & Norfolk Railroad he 
is interested, and likewise in the Pennsylvania and 
Northwestern Railroad, and has extensively en- 

L'd in many other ent 

these be- 

ing the Meriden Traction Company, between that 
cit3' and Wallingford, Conn. 

In 1852 Mr. Keller married Klizabctli Huber, 
daughter of Peter Huber, of thi^ city. :nid they 
had a family of seven children. Ada died at the 
age of four and a-half years; .John Franklin is a 
bridge contractor on masonry, his home being in 
this city, and was educated at LaFayette College; 
AVilluun Albert died at the age of twenty-eight 
years; Anna :\Iay Ix-came the wife of .lolin Coch- 
ran, who is engaged in the coal business in Lan- 
caster; Mary E. resides with her parents; Fannie 
May wedded Clay Landis, a dealer in grain in this 
place, ami Flora is the wife of .John F. Heinitz, a 
paint dealer of this city. 

In his iJolitical relations Mr. Keller is an active 
Republican and was a delegate to the state conven- 
tion that nominated Governor Curtin to be Chief 
Execuiive of the state. Religiously Mr. Keller is 
identified with tlie Lutheran denomination and so- 
cially is a member of Lamlierton Lodge No. 43, 
F. ct A. M. At the time of the Centennial he 



laid all the tracks into the various buildings, and 
with a companj- built a road from Ft. Scott to To- 
peka, of whicii lie was made President and which 
was later sold to Jay Gould. This contract called 
for au expenditure of «1,300,000. He was also 
interested in the construction of one hundred and 
twelve miles of railroad from Memphis, Tenn., to 
Bald Knob, a branch of the Iron Mountain Rail- 
way, this piece of work been done under 
contract for Ja\- Gould. With this s\'nopsis of the 
great work our subject has accomplished, it is need- 
less to say more, for his enterprise speaks plainly 
through what he has done. 

<X:4 "i"t"}"!":-^":"i">-i"i- ^ -^-^-i-^^-i"i"{- »•!"!"> » 

JACOB F. KAUTZ has a good trade m the 
coal business, and is one of the leading citi- 
zens of Lancaster. A veteran of the late 
war, he served in the Seventy-seventh Penn- 
sylvania Regiment, and took part in many of the 
most noted battles and engagement? of the Rebel- 

This city was the place of the nativity of our 
subject, the year of the event being 1846. His 
father, Jacob F., Sr., was likewise a native of this 
county, and lii> grandtather, George Kautz, was 
born in Germany. He settled in this |)lace, where 
he engaged in brick manufacturing. The father 
of our subject also followed the business of brick- 
makmg, being a memlier of the firm of Kautz A: 
Corson, owning tliiee yards at Willow Street, and 
two yards in Lancaster. This partnership was car- 
ried on until 1875, when Buchanan was appointed 
Government iSurvej'or, and with him the senior Mr. 
Kautz went on a tour to the Pacific Coast for the 
purpose of surveying the lioundaries of Washing- 
ton Territory'. On his return to this county he 
engaged in fanning until he retired from active 
cares, and he passed from this life at the age of 
sixty-four years. He was a Lutheran, like his fa- 
ther, and was a member of the Masonic fraternity. 
His wife, Barbara, was tlie daughter of George 

Coswiter, and was left an orphan when quite 
voung. She was born here, and died at the age of 
seventy-three years. Of her nine children all but 
three grew to maturity, and five are still living. 

Jacob F. Kautz, who is an onl_\- sun, attended 
the city school until twelve years of age, and in 
the fall of 18()2 enlisted in Company K, Seventy- 
seventh Pennsylvania Infantry, and was mustered 
into the service at Pittsburg. He was then sent 
to the fnint and participated in the battles of Chat- 
tanooga, Chickamauga and Mission Ridge, and then 
went to Atlanta, taking part in many engagements. 
He was later in the three days' fight at 2sashville 
and in the battles of Pulaski and Spring Hill. After 
Lee's surrender he was sent to Texas, where he 
was mustered out in December, 1865. Coming 
back to the north, he worked on his father's farm 
until 1869, at which time he obtained the position 
as clerk in a grocery in Philadelphia. He was 
thus occupied for sis years, and then once more 
returned to Lancaster, where he engaged in the 
ice business for three years. Then selling out his 
interests he embarked in the coal business in part- 
nership with Elliott it Kautz. When three years 
had passed our suliject sold out and started a new 
yard on South Water Street, succeeding the firm 
of tjuade A- Smith, and this has been his place of 
business since 1883. The yards have a siding 
from the Pennsylvania ct Reading Raihdad, and 
all kinds of hard coal are his specialty. 

Jacol) F. Kautz was united in marriage with 
:\Iiss Kate Oclis. The lady is a daughter of John 
Ochs. a giocer of this place, where Mrs. Kautz 
was born and reared. Two children have come 
to bless their union, their names being Edith and 
Lillian. The parents are members of the Trinity 
Lutheran Church, and are considered by all who 
know them to he most estimable people. 

In educational affairs Jlr. Kautz has ever been 
very active, and is now serving the second year of 
his third term as a member of the School Board 
from the Seventh Ward. He is Chairman of the 
Visiting Committee and a member of the Fur- 
nisliing Committee. In 1890 he was elected on 
the Democratic ticket as a member of the Common 
Council from the Seventh Ward, and served for 
one term. The following year he was elected to 



seive on tlie Select Council, and was re-elected two 
years later. During tills period he was Chairman 
of the Railroad Commiltee. Fraternally Mr. Kautz 
is identified with Lanil)ertun Lud,L;o No. 476, F. & 
A. M., and is a Knight of, being Past Com- 
mander of the Uniformed Rank of that order. 

MICHAEL R. HOFFMAN. There are few 
places the size of Marietta that claim 
more successful business men, or where 
there is a greater amount of competition in every 
line of trade. Perhaps because of its desirable 
location. l.Hit more likely because of the progres- 
sive spirit of its citizens. It has alwa3's enjo3'ed a 
good rei)utation and is a profitable residence place, 
with influential and active business men. Prom- 
inent among them is our subject, who is one of 
the largest tobacco dealers in the county. In the 
year 1893, he packed six thousand five hundred 
cases of the leaf, and in the prosecution of this 
industiy be gives employment to sixty-five men 
in the busy season. 

Our subject was born January 31, 18.")7, to Ben- 
jamin and Elizabeth (Rhoads) Hoffman. He is a 
native of Conoy Township, Lancaster County, 
and traces his ancestry back to his great-great- 
grandfather, .John Hoffman, who, it is supposed, 
was the first of that name to locate in the I'liited 
States, having come hither with a Swiss uolony 
who located at Marietta, near duckies Creek. 
He was a large man physically, possessing remark- 
able strength, and was one of the first millers in 
the county. 

Of the three sons of the above gentleman, .lolin, 
Jacob and ]Miehael, the latter was the great-grand- 
father. He was a farmer by occupation and a 
member of the River Brethren Church. He had 
two children: Micliael, Jr., and a daughter whose 
name is not known. His siui, the grandfather of 

our subject, lived in Adams County, this state 
when a boy. Although very poor in early life, 
he l)ecanie one of the wealtliy agriculturists of this 
section, leaving at his decease a valuable tract of 
land, aggregating over one thousand acres. He 
passed his last years in Conoy Township. He was 
twice marrieil. By Ins first union there were born 
six children: Benjamin, Michael. John, Anna, Eliz- 
abeth and Mary. His second marriage, with Ann 
Hersh}', resulted in the birth of two children, 
Abraham and Susan. 

Benjamin Hoffman was born in East Donegal 
Township, Lancaster County, and like (.)ther lads 
of that day, acquired his education in the district 
schools. For many years he farmed and raised 
leaf tobacco in his native place, but after Lis mar- 
riage moved to Conoy Township. He is still liv- 
ing, making his home on the farm, and is still 
engaged in active business. In politics he is a 
stanch Republican and in religious affairs a con- 
sistent member of the River Brethren Church. 

The parents of our subject were married in 
1853, and to them were born ten children, named 
respectively: Paris, deceased; Michael R., of this 
sketch; Emma, Alartha, Mar}', Benjamin F., Abra- 
ham L., Norman R,, Elizabeth and Clayton. He 
of whom this history is written attended school 
at Millersville until the age of sixteen, when he 
began teaching, following that occupation for a 
short time. His next venture was in the tobacco 
business in Maytown, in which he engage«l in 
1878 with a Mr. Grove and his uncle, Michael M. 
The firm was known as Grove, Hoft'man & Co. 
This partnership was dissolved two years later, 
when Mr. Hoffman removed his business to Bain- 
bridge, where he operated alone in the same line 
of trade for about seven years. At the expiration 
of that time we find him located in Marietta, 
whither he had removed his office and tobacco 
interests. He is without doubt one of the largest 
packers in the county, within whose bounds he is 
recognized as one of the leading business men. 
He is one of the directors in the Exchange Bank 
of Marietta, a promoter of the Marietta Casting 
Company and a director in the Columbia Flint Com- 
pany in Columbia Borough. He lias been remark- 
ably successful in worldly affairs, and besides the 



business already mentioned is tlie owner of two 
valuable farms in Lancaster County. 

The original of this sketch and Jliss Ida, the 
daughter of Jacob Risser, were united in marriage 
in 1884. Their four children bear the respective 
names of Paris, ^Michael R., Jr., Amos Kisser and 
Guy S. In politics oar subject is a Kepulilican 
and IS serving a term as School Director in East 
Donegal Township. His intelligence, good citizen- 
ship and line cliaracter entitle him to the esteem 
of his ac(iuaintance.>, and hi^ friends in this vicin- 
ity are many and sincere. 

. ^^^mm-^i-<^^^m^ 

HENRY BURD CASSEL is a member of the 
lumber firm of A. N. Cassel & .Son, long 
one of the leading industries of Marietta, 
Lancaster County. He is also the principal stock- 
holder and Treasurer of the Marietta Manufactur- 
ing Compan}-, which furnishes forges, iron fence, 
hose reels, various kinds of agricultural implements, 
etc., to the trade. In otlier enterprises of this vi- 
cinity he has been an important factor, and has 
used his influence and means for the upbuilding of 
the community. In lines of church and benevolent 
work he has also been active, and is justly consid- 
ered one of the best citizens of this place. 

Tlie birth of ^Mr. Cassel occurred in ^Marietta 
October 19, 1855. He comes from one of the best 
families of the county, where his ancestors have 
been residents for four or live generations. On 
the paternal side he is of German descent, while 
on his mother's side he is of German and French 
extraction. His grandfather, Henry Cassel, was 
interested in the lumber business and was one 
of the incorporators of the old Marietta Bank. 
On his death he was placed to rest near Marietta, 
in the family burying groun.l. Aljram X. Cassel, 
our subject's father, was born in this liorough in 
Januar}-, 1810, and learned the hatter's trade in 
his youtii. During liis twentieth year he started 
in business for himself at his birthplace, and con- 


hatter's trade some twenty years. 
On the ex|iinitioii of that time he embarked in the 
lumber business, to wliich he has devoted his ener- 
gies up to the present time, iieing the senior mem- 
ber of the firm of A. N. Cassel ife .Son, though he is 
not now actiyely engaged in business affairs. For 
tliree terms he has served tiie people of this dis- 
trict in the State Legislature, where his career was 
most commendable. He was one of tiie first advo- 
cates of tlie public-school system, and has been a 
member of tlie School Board, and also of the Town 
Council a number of terms. Until the formation 
of the Republican party he was a Whig, and since 
1856 has actively supported the foi'mer organiza- 
tion. In county conventions and in local politi- 
cal meetings, he has been a prominent figure for 
many years. One of the incorpoi'ators of the Lan- 
caster and Marietta Pike Company, he is now its 
President. Religiously he holds membership with 
the Presbyterian Church, in which he has been an 
Elder for years. By his marriage with Mary J. 
Stalil, he lias two living children, George L., M. D., 
and our subject. The former is a practicing pliy- 
sician, now located in Philadelphia. 

The early years of H. Burd Cassel were passed 
in Marietta, and his education was received in the 
public schools of this place and ColuinI)ia. Soon 
after completing his studies he went into his fa- 
ther's office and has since been identified witii the 
lumber trade. He also owns and operates a retail 
lumber yard in Mt. Joy, and controls numerous 
mills throughout the state. Tiie present firm was 
formed in 1888, previous to wliich time he liad 
long managed the business. Their trade, which 
before 1888 was exclusivel}- retail, is now largely 
wholesale. Everything in the line of bill lumber 
and dealers' supplies is constantly kept on hand, 
and the firm's trade in shingles alone is greater 
than that of any other in the state. Much of the 
trade in this article is from the state of Washing- 
ton. The lumber in which the firm deals is shipped 
from Canada, the states of Washington and Flor- 
ida, and in fact from almost every state in the 
Union. Mr. Cassel is Secretary and Treasurer of 
the Lancaster it ]\Iarietta Turnpike Company, is a 
member of the Marietta Flour and Feed Company, 
which manufactures flour and feed by the roller 



liroeo^^. and i,- a Director in the Marietta Gravity 
Water Comiiany. the Home IJiiildiiiii and Loan As- 
sociation and tlie Ilaltiniore liuihliiig and Loan 
Association. I 

For four successive terms Mi-. Ca.ssel lias served ^ 
as a member of the Borougli C'duncil. Though lie 
is not an aspirant for jjolitical jireferment. lie is | 
the present Chairman of tiie Republican County I 
Coniniittee, and has always taken an interested 
share in political matters. For over a dozen years ; 
he has been Superintendent in the Sunday-school of 
the Presbyterian Church, where he holds the office 
of Flder. Moreover, he is President of the Lan- I 
caster County Sunday-school Association, President 
of the Lancaster (bounty LTniouof Young People's 
Society of Christian Endeavor, and is President of i 

the York District of the Young IMen's Christian 

.Uily 17, 1877, Mr. Cassel married .Miss Mary A- 
Patterson, of Marietta. Of their union live chil- 
dren were born, their names in order of birth lieing 
as follows: Howard Xeflf, M. V.Ke, Frances Patter- 
son, Henry and Walter Patterson. The family is 
held in the highest esteem by all whii have the 
pleasure of their acquaintance, and the circle of 
their friends is nut limited to this immediate vi- 
cinity or county. In his business dealings Mr. 
Cassel's career has been miirked with honor an in- 
tegrity to the highest degree, and the success which 
he has achieved is duo to these qualities united 
with his oood linancial manni,'ement. 


/"^ K( >ROK W. MKIIAFFKY is honorably bear- 
^^^ iiig his part in sustaining the interests of 
.Marietta, where he is engaged in business. 
He is a native of Lancaster County, having been 
born on the old homestead. .Tuly -i'J, 1831. His 
father. .laine> Meliaffey, wa> of Scotch-Irish de- 
scent, as was also his mother, whose maiden name 
was iNIary Cochran. The great-grandfather of our 
subject, James Mehaffey, was born in Scotland, 

whence he removed to the North cif Ireland, and 
there made his home until emigrating to the 
L'uited States about the middle of the last century. 

The father of our subject was also a native of 
Lancaster County, and was born in 1781. He was 
a large lumber merchant in .>Lirietta. in which 
business he was engaged from l8til until his de- 
cease in 1850. He was also interested in a mer- 
cantile establishment, and was one of the pro- 
gressive and successful business men of the city. 
James Mehaffey was one of the founders of that 
part of Marietta called Waterford, and was the 
only business man to survive the panic of 1812. 
Besides carrying on his large wholesale and retail 
lumber trade, he was the owner of valuable timber 
land in the western part of the state, and also had 
in his possession large real-estate interests in the 
vicinity of INIarietta. In fact, he was one of the 
leading business men of Lancaster County, who was 
proliably better known than any other resident 
within its bounds. His personal character was one of 
such integrity and hiscapacitj^ for fluaucial affairs 
so decided, that he won a high place in the esteem of 
his fellow-citizens. In politics he was in early life 
a Whig. He was identified religiously with the 
Donegal Presbyterian Church, in which he was 
Elder for many years. 

To Mr. and JMrs. James Mehaffey there were born 
twelve children, nine of whom grew to mature 
years, and three are still living. Andrew, who was 
formerly President of the Cumberland Coal and 
Iron Company, is now living retired in New Y'ork 
City. This son was also Superintendent of the 
Philadelphia & Harrisburg Railroad, now known 
as the Pennsylvania Road. He was a very compe- 
tent business man, and spent seventeen years in 
Europe as a representative of a great commercial 
enterprise. William K. Mehaffey, another son, is 
a graduate of the I'niversity of Pennsylvania, and 
while Reading Clerk of the House of Representa- 
tives in AVashington was one of the most com- 
petent otHcials ever holding that i)osition. He is 
now living in Boston, pr.actically retired. ( )ur sub- 
ject was the youngest in order of birth in the fam- 
ily, and Samuel, the eldest; then f(.illowed Andrew; 
Elizabeth, the wife of James Law; and James, suc- 
cessor to his father in the lumber business. The 



last-named son was also for a lime Din'cloi- n( the 
Han-isburg, Mt. Joy & Portsinouth Railroad, now 
owned by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. 
Margaret was the second daughter, and the other 
members of the household were Franklin and Cal- 
vin. Franklin was a Lieutenant in the Ri'LTular 
Army during the Mexican War, and died at New 
Orleans soon after the close of that con ll let. Cal- 
vin was graduated from Princeton College in 1S.')3 
and engaged in business in Philadelphia on the out- 
break of the Civil War. He was appointed Lieu- 
tenant in the Regular United States Army, Com- 
pany C. of which he was made Captain. He was 
later placed ou General Porter's staff, and after a 
time was transferred to the staff of General Patrick, 
and subsequently became acting Assistant Adjutant- 
General. Some time thereafter he was changed to 
the staff of (General McClellan, and at Harrison's 
Landing was placed in chaige of all prisoners. He 
also served as a member of General Sheridan's 
staff later, and was Provost-Marshal of New Or- 
leans at the time that general commanded the 
forces of thatcit}-. Calvin Mehaffey was appointed 
Recruiting Officer at New York, which position 
was gained through a competitive examination for 
officers having the best record of field service. He 
filled the position for about two years, during 
which time he was ordered to California, and af- 
ter his return remained with his regiment, the First, 
until retired in LSTO. He was very much brnken 
down in health at this time, and died eight inontlis 

Our subject grew to manhood in his native town, 
and completed his education in the college of 
Princeton, with the Class of 'o-t. After leaving 
college he engaged in the lumber business on the 
west branch of the Susquehanna River, which oc- 
cupation he followed for about four years, when 
he returned to ^larietta and purchased a sawmill 
which he conducted with good results until 1865. 
That year he disposed of his interest in the mill. 
Like his father before him, he was one of the (irom- 
inent business men of the county, being at the 
time stockholder and Director of the Kxehange 
Bank, one of tlie original stockholders of the First 
National Bank and thirty years Director in the 
Columbia National Bank. He was very prominent 

in (lolitical affairs, and at one time was Auditor of 
the county. He served as County Coinniis>i(.)ner 
from 1872 to 1875, and has also been Burgess and 
School Director at Marietta. In religious affairs 
he is a member of St. John's Episcopal Church, in 
which he is Vestr\'nian, and has Ijeen a delegate to 
everv diocesan convention since the formation of 
the present diocese. Socially, he is a prominent 

The marriage of George W. Mehaffey and Miss 
Charlotte Russell Rinehart was celebrated June 16, 
1859. The lady the youngest daughter of 
David Rinehart, a wealthy lumber merchant of 
Marietta. To them was granted a family' of four 
children, of whom Mary, Mrs. B. Frank Hiestand, 
is deceased. David is civil engineer in the employ 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad. Emily is the wife of 
Richard Mott, and resides in P.urlington. X. J., 
and Gertrude, the youngest of the family, is at 
home with her parents. 


/-'y- APT. (;EOR(rE H. ETTLA, of Marietta, is 
\^'y one of the leaders in the Republican po- 
litical circles of this county and won his 
title during his gallant army service. In 18.S2 he 
was appointed Postmaster of Marietta and served 
for two 3'ears and eight months, wlien he resigned 
on account of Cleveland's accession to the Presi- 
dency. During the years of 1875 to 1879 inclus- 
ive, he was a member of the State Legislature anc. 
for one term was mercantile appraiser of Lancaster 
County. He now represents the National Invest- 
ment and Loan Company, of Washington, D. C, 
and is greatly interested in a new and improved 
process of inaiuifacturing brick. This is effected 
by a down-draft kiln and many of these are in o[)- 
eration in various parts of this and adjoining 

The Captain was born August 15, 1831, in Hum- 


melstiiwii. I);ui|>liin C'ovuity, Pa. He is of Oerman 
descent and a .Mill of Conrad and I'.arl.ara Ettla. 
At the tender age of two years our subject was left 
an orphan and was reared l)j his uncle, George, 
President of the Middletown Bank. He remained 
with him until, -cvfiitri'n y^ux.f age and fur tliree 
winters altcr.ded Kniiuau> Institute, a scIkioI for 
ori)hans. For eight 3eais he was in the otliee of the 
Canal Toll Collector on the Union Canal, where he 
had been from his tenth year. At seventeen his 
healtli wa> si.i liroken diiwii from eonlinement to 
tlie olliec that lie ^taited out to rough it and lead 
an out-door life. In 18.50 he started for California 
but was prevented from carrying out his plan by 
his elder brother. In Philadelphia he was next as- 
sociated with a wholesale elolliing house fora year 
and a-h;i|f. after which lie located on the .lersey 

In ls,"],"i our subject came to this city and was in 
the employ of Col. .lames Duffy, a lumberman, f(.)r 
three years. AVe next tind him acting as book- 
keeper for S. F. Eagle, who was at that time in the 
iron and lumber business. In 1860 he embarked in 
the lumber commission business at Marietta and 
continued until the breaking out of the war. 

In the early part of l.siH our suliject made ap- 
plication to the Secretary of War, asking to be al- 
lowed to recruit a regiment of colored troops from 
Lancaster. Up to 1865 he was Deputy Provost- 
Marshal and Enrolling Oflicer and during this time 
recruited two companies at Marietta. When news 
came of the assassination of Lincoln tlie Captain 
immediately raised a company of one hundred and 
tliirtecn men here and was made Captain of Com- 
pany B, Two Hundred and Fifteenth Regiment. 
This was in April, 18C5, and he was sent from Vir- 
ginia to Ft. Delaware, being placed in possession of 
the same and doing guard duty until mustered out 
at the close of the war. When hostilities had ceased 
he became General Claim and Insurance Agent and 
also wa> interested in obtaining pensions for old 
soldiers for some time. His first vote was cast for 
.lohii C. Fremont in 1856. During Harrison's cam- 
paiun he liuilt a wigwam and lias always been act- 
ively concerned iu Presidential elections. For four 
consecutive terms he was Commander of Post No. 
123, G.A.R., and was formerly identified with Post 

No. 84, G. A. R., of Lancaster. He is a Mason, be- 
longing to Ashara Lodge No. 398 of this place, is 
a Knight of Pythias and a member of Waterford 
Council No. 72, O. U. A. M. During the late war 
he instituted thirty-two councils of the Union 
League and was made District Deputy in this coun- 
ty with Dr. Muehlenburg and Congressman Jack 
Hiestand. For a number of _years he remained the 
chief promoter and founder of various leagues 
lliroughout the county. 

Tlic new scheme for brick manufacturing in which 
our subject is miicli interested has as its chief merit 
great saving of fuel and labor and the uniformity 
of excellence in the manufactured article. Com- 
panies have been established and plants located by 
the Captain at Fi-edericksburg, Md., Pine Grove, 
Schuylkill Ci.iunty, Clearfield, Columbia, Saxonburg 
and various other places in the cast. 

June 10, 1856, our subject married Amanda C, 
daughter of David Harry, of Marietta. They have 
had six cliildrcn. as follows: Mary, wife of John H. 
Kreitzer, IMayor of [Milton. Pa.; D. Harry, who is in 
the employ of the Lehigh Valley Railroad at Wilkes 
Barre; George S., now at Clearfield Pcunt; Anna 
J., a resident of Doyleston, Bucks County, Pa.; 
Emily E., a resident of Pliiladel|iliia; and Robert 
H., Manager of the Western Union Telegraph Com- 
iianv of this iilace. 

JOHN A. CAl'P. M. 1).. one of the latest phy- 
sicians and surgeons to locate in Lancaster, 
was born in Jonestown, Lebanon County, 
Pa., November 7, 1849. His father, George 
T., and grandfather, John Capp. were natives of 
the same place, and the latter was a uiercliant of 
Jonestown, dying at the age of sixty-one years. 
The great-grandfather, Daniel Capp. a lumber- 
man and followed the river. The original name 
of this familv was Kopp, but the s|)elling was 
changed for convenience. The original Michael 




Kopp settled in I.elianon County. Our subject's 
father continued in tlie mercantile business until 
l!S75, when he sold out, and about that time he 
was elected Justice of the Peace. He died Octo- 
ber 26, 1885. For four years he was Burgess of 
.Jonestown Burough. He took [lart in the engage- 
ment at Gettysburg during the Civil War. Polit- 
ically he was a Republican, and in religious mat- 
ters -was a member of the Lutheran Church. 

Our subject's mother, whose maiden name was 
Sarah E. Bickel, was a daughter of Samuel Bickel. 
a merchant. The great-grandfather. .John W. 
Bickel, was in the War of 1812 and was appointed 
the first Postmaster at Jonestown, holding the 
ofhce for sixty years. After liis death, which oc- 
curred at that place iu 1858, his son Samuel E. 
succeed him. serving until 1861. He died in 1872, 
aged sixt^'-three years. Our subject's mother still 
resides at the old homestead. 

John A. is one of three sous. Thomas II., who 
served three terms in the Pennsylvania Legisla- 
ture, is now a practicing attorne^y at Lebanon, be- 
ing senior member of the firm of Capp d- Shock; 
George S. is a traveling salesman of Philadelphia. 
Our subject was educated in Tremont Seminary in 
Norristowu, after which he assisted his father in the 
store until 1872. He was then appointed general 
collector for the South ^Mountain Railroad, and 
after two years of service in that capacity com- 
menced to study medicine, reading under Dr. E. R. 
Umberger. In 1876 he entered the Medical De- 
partment of the University of Pennsylvania, from 
which institution he was graduated in 1878 with 
the degree nf M. I). He at once began the prac- 
tice of his [irofession at Jonestown, where he re- 
mained until April, 1894, and then located in 

The first marriage of Dr. Capp occurring in 
1872 united him with Jliss M. Alice Walter, who 
was born in the city of Lebanon, Pa., her father 
having been a miller and grain merchant in Jones- 
town. She died June 10, 18'Jl,the mother of five 
children, Sadie E., Edna I., Carrie E., Walter S. 
and George T. The last-named child died in 1889, 
aged one year. For his second wife the Doctor 
married Miss Amy L. Echternach, the date of their 
marriage being April 10, 1894. She is a native of 

Lancaster County and the daughter of John F. 
Echternach, a hotel man at Orvilla. 

Of the public life of Dr. Capp it may be said 
that while a resident of Jonestown he served as a 
member of the School Board for three years, dur- 
ing that time holding the position of President. 
He was also a member of the Borough Council 
three j-ears. resigning upon his removal from that 
place. Politically he is a Republican, and in relig- 
ious matters is identified with the Lutheran 
Church. He is an acceptable member of the Leb- 
anon County Medical Society, as well as the med- 
ical societies in Lancaster city and county. 


T7> DWIX BOOKMYER, Pension Attorney and 
r C) Notary Public, whose office is at No. 9 
South Duke Street, Lancaster, is a veteran 
of the late war, and has an army record of which 
he and his children may well be proud. For the 
boys in blue he has always had a warm affection, 
and takes a real and personal interest in present- 
ing their claims for recognition to the Govern- 
ment. In the various social and other circles of 
this city he numbers a great. many sincere friends, 
and is highly resjiected liy all who have had the 
good fortune to make his acquaintance in whatever 
walk of life. 

( )ur subject was born on the 12th of June, 
184.'i. being a son of Michael and Mai-garel (Beck- 
ley) Bookmyer. The former was born in Freder- 
ick City. M. D., and became a resident of Man- 
heim, Lancaster County, where he was Burgess in 
1.S4(>. His father. Jacob, who was a farmer in 
Maryland, was of English descent, and it is sup- 
posed was a participant in the AVar of 1812. Mi- 
chael Bookmyer, or B'myer, as the name was some- 
times spelled, was at one time in a military com- 
pany belonging to the Lancaster State Militia, and 
was a shoemaker by trade, being noted for the fine 
work which he put forth. Though he was only 
tiiirty-two years old at the time of his death, in 
1847, he had acquired "a substantial fortune, and 



ul.ility and ii.-ixiiial mtomilv. r.,.iii- iiinMe.,lly 
inclined, he \v:is particulai ly >killliil un the vi(,liii. 
and was an instructor of llie art. In \\\v work of 
the Lutheran dcnoniinatiun he tonk nn artive and 
interested jiarl. Hi'- wife \va^ Imin in I'lrscntl 
Station, whtnx' her father and -randfalher were 
also born and reared. The latter, i'rederiek IJeek- 
ley, of English de.scunt, was a soldier in the War 
of 1812, and later became an extensive farmer in 
Lebanon County, Pa. His wife, a Mis< Strocli. 
wasofCerman descent. After his fallieiV early 
death the mother of our Mil.jcM.-t became the wife 
of George DetTenderfer. now deceased, and for- 
merly well known in tlii- city. His widow makes 
her home in Reading. I'a.. and though eighty-four 
years old is still hale and hearly. and is one of 
the active workers of the Lutheran Church of that 
place. By her first marriage she had three sons 
and two daughters, but only two of the family are 
now living. 

From the age of seven years Edwin liookmyer 
was reared in Lancaster, and when only two years 
ildcr worked in the cotton factories. His school- 
ng was therefore very meagre. Init he made the 
oest of such advantages as he had. and by private 
study and determination in time became a well 
nformed man. For one summer he worked on a 
arm, and later was apprenticed to D. P. Locher as 
currier, remaining in that business until the war 
iroke out. Though only seventeen years of age. 
4e volunteered his scrvice> in defen.-e of the Stars 
md Stripes, but was strongly opp(.>sed in this reso- 
ution by his mother, who twice had his name 
taken off the rolls. Finally she was persuaded to 
<ign a cerlilicate. and the youth wa> aeeepted as 
Fifer in Company K.One Hundred ami Twenty- 
second Pennsylvania Lifantr,\-, the date of his en- 
(Stment being August 11, 1862. He was mustered 
into the service at Lancaster, and was in camp 
'or nine montlis. Later he took part in tlie >ec- 
Jiul battle of Lull i;un and in the engagenienl> 
,t Mana><a> Cap. Fredcri.'k^burg and Chaiic.-ll..i>- 

Deing musi.ercd out at ilairisburg. May I."., 
•863, Mr. Lookmyei- then turnecl lii. attention to 
yarious lines of work until the following si. ring. 

when he r.'-enliMed. April I. ls(U. being jilaced 
in Company 1. Tw.-lfth Pennsylvania Cavalrv. as- 
-igiied lo the (tne Hundred and Thirteenth Regi- 
ment of Infantry, and wa> mu>tered in at Phila- 
delphia. With \n> company, he was in the battles 
of Lolivar Heights, ISIartinsburg. Winchester, ller- 
ry\ille. near Ke^yes Ford, and was injuied at 
llalltown. November 20, 1864, being thrown from 
his horse. When at a point between Winchestei- 
and Charlestown he was captured by a small band 
of Confedi-rate bu>lnvliaekers. luit made his escape 
the -aine night. November s. l.sC.l. and ran the 
distance of ten miles which intervened between 
their caini) and that of his regiment. Decem- 
ber 8 he was appointed Bugler, and on the 18th 
of the following April was detailed as Chief Bugler, 
to the Second Battalion, having the rank of Cor- 
poral. After his long and valiant service he was 
mustered out. .luly 20, 1865. near Winchester, and 
was discharged iu Philadelphia. 

eral months was in very poor health as the result 
of his army experiences, and he was unable to en- 
gage in active pursuits. Until September, 186."), 
he resided in the (Quaker City, and thence going 
to .Montgomer\- County, remained >in a farm until 
April 1 of the following year, when lie came 
back to Lancaster. He was variously employed 
until 1S67. when he began learning the business 
of coach trimming, and afterward that of house 
painting. l''or three years succeeding he was em- 
ployed at jiainting and decorating work, and then 
started to secure contracts in the same line of 
trade. This occupation he followed with fair suc- 
cess until 1886. He then took up the jjension 
bu>iiiess. and has since di'voted hi-^ time exclu- 

I diers' claims he has been invariably successful, as 
is shown by the number of cases he has had recog- 

! nized by the Government authorities. In ISKO 
he was made Notary Public, a position his father 
had tilled before him, .and in IS'.):', his daughter 
was awarded the same honor. 

j In 1870 i"\Ir. Bookmyia- and .Mary A. HotT were 
united in marriage in this city. The lady 
born here, being a daughter of Charles Frederick 

I HotT, a native of Stuttgart, German}', wIk.i subse- 



qiiently emigrated to this cit}-. Of this union five 
cliildren liave been liorn, as follows: Ella, who is 
in her father's ottice. and is now a Xntary Public; 
Edwin II.. a clerk iu the same <illicc; Charles F., 
who is au electrician; Herbert F., whose death (_ic- 
curred in Lancaster; and Paul N. The family at- 
tend the First Reformed Church, in which our 
subject has been an Elder and Trustee, and one | 
of the leading meniliers for many years. Particu- 
larly interested in the Sunday-school department, 
he has been a teacher for some twenty years. 

In his political affiliations Mv. Bookmyer is an 
ardent Republican. He is a (hand Army man, 
having formerly been Senior Y'lce Commander of 
Ceorge H. Thomas Post No. 84, and having been 
their delegate and representative to the general 
encampment. As an Odd Fellow he belongs to 
Monterey Lodge No. 212. of which he is ex-.lunior 
W.irden and is Past Chief Patriarch of Washing- 
ton F^neampment. He is also identified with Coun- 
sellor Branch No. 156, American Mechanics, and 
at one time was a member of the Board of Man- 
agers of the Yoiuig ilen's Christian Association 
of this place. 


<rpr MMON M. LEASE, proprietor of the White 
/ — \ Elephant Photograph Gallery, was born 
in Adams County. Pa. His father, A. M. 
Lease, also a native of that county, was a mason 
and brickla^'er by trade, and also engaged as a 
contractor. Late in life he located in York Coun- 
ty and followed the same business. He died near 
York in 1892, at the age of about seventy years. 
Grandfather David Lease came from German}- 
when a mere boj, locating in Adams County, 
where he died at the age of ninetv-two, his good 
wife surviving him one year. The original fam- 
ily name was spelled Leas, but our subject changed 
it to Lease. 

Our subject's mother, whose maiden name was 
Susan Chronister, was born near Hampton, and 
was a member of an old Pennsylvania-German fam- 
ily. She died at the age of forty-five years, being 

the mother of five sons and one daughter, all of 
wlioni grew to years of maturity, and the sons 
still survive. Amnion M.. the second youngest, 
was horn Ajii-il II. 18.'jl. He was reared about 
ten miles from (Tettvsbnrg, and distinctl}' recol- 
lects the morning of the great battle fought at 
that place. After the close of that conflict he 
started out in life for himself, with no resources, 
save his own energy. At first he clerked in York- 
shire, Adams County, in a general merchandise 
store, and was Assistant Postmaster when twenty 
years of age. 

While living im a farm, Mr. Lease had the mis- 
fortune to fall from a horse, receiving an injury 
in his right leg and hip that for nearly three years 
incapacitated him for active work. A clerkship 
of four years followed, and he then went to Bal- 
timore, where he learned the photographic busi- 
ness in Richard WalzelFs photographic emporium. 
After one year at that place, he obtained a posi- 
tion in York, Pa., as a re-toucher for B. C. Pence, 
with whom he remained seven j-ears. He then 
spent a short time in travel, coming to Lancaster 
iu August. 1884, to enter thellubley gallery, where 
he was employed as a re-toucher and assistant op- 
erator for three years. From that time until 1889 
he was employed in the Rote gallery on North 
Queen Street. 

During the month of May, 1889. Jlr. Lease 
opened lii^ own gallery, known as the White Ele- 
phant. The building isl(jxl07 feet in dimensions, 
three stories high, with a marble front. The gal- 
lery occupies the two upper floors. His rooms are 
elegantly furnished, and are provided with all the 
modern ap|)lianees for the production of first class 
art work. His trade is the largest of any artist in 
Lancaster. He does work from the smallest card 
photograph to the largest life size colored and oil 
painting work. 

Mr. Lease was united in marriage, at York, with 
Miss S. Ruth, a native of Berks County, born near 
Reading. Their family consists of four children: 
Adah. Art. Norman and Slilton (twins). Our sub- 
ject moves in the best circles of Lancaster society, 
is a member (if the Golden Eagle, Mystic Chain, 
W. R. N. Chain, the Order of Elks, and other 
civic societies, in which he has held important of- 



Ilccs. Ill luisinrss lie is a .."'nil liimiicicT, iiiul is 
:i I)il-CTl(.l- ..f sevrial l.UviiRv-s (-(.ilioi uliniis. lie is 

IR' |,(.; 

if Sr 


uiiT (if the l..ral linuich .if the NaliciKil Life lluil.l- 
in,l,':uiii I,..:iii A>^. .. iati. m at i.aii.-a-ter. I'.ililirall.v 

faitli is c.iiiiH'ctcd with the Ui'f.irniiMl Cliiucli. 



/'^ FAJRCK 1>. K1N(;, M. D.. one of the suc- 
^^^J cessful, competent, thiu'oiigh and skillful 
practitioners of the nieilieal fraternity in 
Lancaster, is justify entitled to a biographical no- 
tice in this connection. lie was born in the city 
of Lancaster, July 1."), 18r)8, the son of Jacob and 
Catherine (Frcy) King, also natives of Lancaster. 
Our subject's father and grandfather were coopers 
by trade, the former establishing himself in busi- 
ness on East King Street, but later in life he en- 
gaged in the grocery business on South C^ueen 
Street. His death oecurre.l in ISTl. at the age of 
seventy-eight years, lie was a ineinber of St. 
Paul's Refdrined Cliiueh and in politics was a Re- 

Our subject's graiiilfather, .laeob Frey, wasa na- 
tive of Lancaster. I'ulUically he was a Democrat 
and for a number i.f years served as Sheriff of his 
county. His father was a soldier in the War of 
1812. The mother resides with our subject and is 
now seventy-two years of age. She is a consist- 
ent memlier <if St. Paul's K'efiiniied C'liureli. 

Mr. and .Mrs. .laenh Kin- were the |.arents of 
Qve children, two nf whom are living, our suli- 
ject and Jacob F., the latter engaged in the manu- 
facture of tobaeeii nil Nmtli i^tiieen Street. Our 

a [irivate schnnl in llarrislnirg. When eighteen 
years of age, under the guidance of Dr. Henry 
Carpenter of Lancaster, he began the study of 

iiiedicuie. which science from his early lioyhood 
days lie had desii'ed to master. In IsTil he entered 
.leirer.-..n Medical College at Philadelphia, from 
which institution he was graduated three \ears la- 
ter with the degree of M. D. He then located in 
the practice of his chosen profe.ssion at Lancaster, 
and has occupied the same oflice ever since. He 
was liorii next door to where he is pi'acticing, 
that place being his father's property at the time 
of his birth. Since 1889, he has been the attend- 
ing physician at St. Joseph's Hospital, where he 
has shown great ability, both as a physician and 

Politically the Doctor is a linn supporter of the 
Republican party, and takes great interest in city, 
count}', state and national polities. Sociall}' he 
is a member of Lamberlon Lodge No. 476, A. F. A' 
A. M., and lielongs to the City and County Med- 
ical Association. He is a strong advocate of the 
adoption of the process of cremation. He stands 
well as a citizen, possessing advanced views, and is 
among the best read modern-day physicians and 
surgeons of the Keysttme State. In the role of a 
physician he has iiiaile a success both lliiancially 
and as a faithful jiractitioner. His familiar form 
and face have cheered the sick room of many a 
household in Lancaster County, and it has ever 
been his aim to exercise all the skill he possesses for 
rich and poor alike. 

1^ FTKR 1!. ESP.KNSIIADF is perhaps one of 
the largest land owners in Manheim Town- 
ship. He is a self-made man and has been 
very successful tinaiicially. being the possessor of 
four farms comprising in all over four hundred 
broad acres of as line farming land as may fie found 
in the county. 

Our subject is the son of. laeob and .Maria ( Link- 
ley) Fsbeiishade.and was b.irn March \:). l.s.-)l. in 
the above township at the old homestead, located 
near Binkley's liridge. The family is of German 
origin, the grandfather, Peter Esbensliade having 


emigi-.ited fmm the Fatht'ilaiu) in :iii (-mI) day and 

ly, where he was engaged in fanh pursuits, own- 
ing sixty or seventy acres. Together with culti- 
vating his land he preached in the Meniionite 
Church, and was nuicli helnved liy those who knew 
him. In his political relations he was a stanch 
Whig. He married Mrs. Elizabeth (Howry) Le- 
fever, and to them were born four sons, namely: 
Henry, Jacob, David and Joseph. The grandfa- 
ther died at the age of eighty-one years. 

Jacob EjSbensliade, the father of our subject, was 
born January 18, 1805, in Paradise Township, this 
count}'. Like the youth of that early day he at- 
tended the district scliool and assisted his father 
in carrying on the farm work. In 1829 he pur- 
chased a tract of land near Binkley's Bridge which 
he farmed for eleven years and then became the 
in-oprietor of one hundred and twenty acres. He 
was very successful in all his ventures and at his 
decease owned six good farms in Lancaster Coun- 
ty, aggregating about six liundred .'teres. A man 
of more than ordinary intelligence, atnlily and 
force of character, he assumed his rightful jjosition 
as a leader, and his fellow-townsmen ever looked up 
to him for counsel and assistance. He bore a [U-m- 
cipal part in the settlement of estates and was hon- 
ored by being called to responsible public posi- 
tions, which he tilled with abililj' and a conscien- 
tious regard to the highest interests of. the com- 

In 1832 Jacob Ksbenshade married Miss Maria, 
daughter of Christian Binkley. and t(> them were 
granted the following named chililren, Elizabeth, 
Christian, Barbara, Jacob 15., Maria, Henry B.. 
Amanda, Isaac, Peter B. and Annie. The husband 
and father departed this life November 10. 1881. 
and in his death the county lost one of its best and 
most honored citizens. His good wife preceded 
him to the better land, having passed away March 
17,1879. She was at that time sixty-eight years 
of age and a devoted member of the Mennonite 

The original of this sketch received a good edu- 
cation in the common schools, and choosing the 
occupation of a farmer, was very successful in his 
undertaking, and as before stated owns over four 

liundied acres in Manlieim and Strasburg Town- 
ships. Uptakes .-i deep interest in the welfaic of his 
county, materially and otherwise, and borne a 
pidriiineni pmt in promoting it's rise and [jrogress 
to Its [ircsent high standing among its sister coun- 
ties as.a wealthy and well developed cMiuiitiy and 
a rich agricultural portion of Pennsylvania. 

December 13, 1877. Peter I!. Esbenshade and 
Miss Susan, daughter of Henry Le:iman,were united 
in marriage and to them Imvi' been born three 
children: Franklin L.. Elmer L. and Cora L. 

HOWARD C. McAllister is one of the 
;dile anil etllcient business men of Cone- 
stoga Township, Lancaster County, and 
for some years has been engaged in the manufac- 
ture of cigars. Though comparatively a young 
man. he has made an enviable reputation in this 
locality for the good common sense and industrious 
spirit he manifests in his affairs, and b}- those who 
have known him from boyhood he is held in high 

The [laternal grandfather of our subject was 
Amos McAllister, who was one of the early settlers 
and farmers of Lancaster County. He married 
Fannie Hess and seven children graced their union. 
Jacob, the eldest in order of birth, born in Pe- 
quea Township, and from boyho(_id was a farmer, 
dealingextensively in stock. At one time he was a 
member of the State Militia and was a very ac- 
tive politician in the ranks of the Republican party. 
Educational affairs found in iiim a very interest- 
ed supporter, and for some few terras he was School 
Director in this township. He married Miss Bar- 
bara Greider, and they became the parents of two 
children, Howard C. whose name heads this sketch, 
and Cora. 

In Pequea Township, on the 22d of October, 
1867, occurred the birth of Howard C. McAllister. 
His parents gave him good educational advantages, 
and he was a pupil of the common schools of the 
district for about ten years. Subsequently he sup- 




plemented his knowledge liy two terms >\m\{ 

. at 

was a child of only six years. The parents were 

the MiUersville Xonnnl Schnul. u hu-h he U'lt 


dcvoteil adherents of the Lutheran Church, in the 

attaining hismajority. Aftei |i.-is-iim the iiM|iii 


faith of which ihey liroughl up their three sons 

examinations he obtained a (■eitilir.-ile and tor 


and tw,, daughters, all of wliom are now living. 

next four years engaged in teaehin-- school 

. in 

One l.rotlier is >lill a resident of the Fatherland, 

which line of work he met with gratifying siicc 


but the two sifter- make tlieir home in the I'liited 

Afterwards he engaged in milling, following 1 



vocation for about a year, but since that time 


Clin.sto[)her Liller was reared in Frankfort, where 

been occupied as a cigar manufactuiiT. to wl 


he acquired an excellent education in liis mother 

trade he is giving all of hi> time and attention. 

Religiously Mr. Mi'Allister i> a member of the 
Methodist Fpi-eopal Church, and i.- now acting in 
an oHicial capacity as a Steward. In his political 
affiliations he is a standi and tried HepuMican. and 
has strong opinions and convictions that his [laity 
is adopting the best methods in all matters of great 
publicmoment, especially in the protection of Amer- 
ican industries and working men. 

May 22, 188;t, was celebrated the mai'iiage of Mr. 
McAllister and Miss Edith Crban. and one child, 
a little daughter whom the\' call Ruth, has come 
to b!e,>s their home. 

ellRISToPIlFR I.ILLFR is the oldest and 
leading toii>orial artist in Lancaster, where 
he ha> been m business since 1854, and 
since LSIM has heen located at No. 22.".-227 North 
(^ueen Street, lie is a man of experience in liis 
trade, and in addition to that is a graduate in sur- 
gery. A well informed and courteous gentleman, 
he numliers a host of warm friends in this city, 
where his face lias been so long a familiar one. 

A native of Frankfort-on-the-Maiu, (Jermany. 
Mr. Liller was born August 8. 1831. His father, 
Andrew, a native of the same locality, a mer- 
chant tailor by trade, and was a soldier of the (ier- 
raan War of 1S12. In l^.Ui Andrew Liller con- 
cluded to try his fortunes in America and accord- 
ingly came hither, making his Ikjuic in Lancaster 
until his death, in 1863. His wife, wlio was before 
her marriage Catherine Scliaaf. was horn in the 
same neighborhood as was her hir-liand. and her 

tongue. On attaining suitable age he was admit- 
ted as a student in the School of Anatomy and 
Surgery, and sei \ eii an apprenticeship as a barber. 
x\.fter liis course of >tuily at the School of Anatomy 
he passed his examinations and was graduated 
therefrom. In ls."i4 he sailed for America in the 
"(Jilchrisf by way of llarve and New York City, 

a thirty days" voyage. His liist work in the 
riiitc.l States was in Ihooklyn. aiul later he was 
emi)loyed on Pearl Street. New York City. For 
a time he was next in Jersey Cit^-, and in the fall 
of the same year he came to Lancaster, starting a 
shop in this block. He continued at the first lo- 
cation for about ten jears. and then built the 
structure in which he has since been h.icated. He 
is thoroughly competent as a surgeon, having 
learned the proper method of cupping, bleeding, 
leeching, etc. His shoi) is equipped with six chairs, 
and in addition to this there are public bathrooms 
well supi)lied with all conveniences. Mr. Liller 
is an adept in his line and manufactures switches, 
etc., f(rr the fair sex. Mrs. Liller has charge of 
the ladies' deiiartment in the shop, and superin- 
tends the renting of masquerade suits, of which 
they have a large assortment and for which there 
is considerable demand during certain seasons, 
they being the only ones in this line in the city. 

Soon after coming to Lancaster, in l)s.J4, Mr. 
Liller was iiiarned to Miss Eliza Pfeift'er, who was 
horn in Hesse-Darmstadt, and live children have 
graced their union: George C, who keeps barbers' 
supplies; Charles, who is in business with his fa- 
ther; Charlotte, wife of John Brucker, a barber of 
this place; William II., a practical confectioner of 
Lancaster, and Mary, Mrs. Miller, also of this city. 

Mr. Liller is a member of L,,dge No. 4:!, A. F. 
A A. M.; Chapter No. 1.;. R. A. .M.: Coodwin Coun- 


cil No. Ill; l.anravtci- LchI-v at 1 Vii'ectioii. and 
LaiK'a>trr ('(.miiiaiKlny No. l:;. K.T. Ili>isal.-o 
a.-^soL-ialed nmUi IJcbel Lodge No. .VJ'.t. 1 . (). (). F.. 
and with tlio Teulonia No. 16;'), K. P. Politi- 
cally lie is a Democrat, and religiously belongs to 
the German Luthcian denomination. Havingcon- 
sideralile miisieal ability and much love fur the 
art, he has l(.ng been nunilHTed among the mem- 
bers of the Maennerehor. 

■ f S, 

< T i^i I LSON r.lU ■ r.AKKR, deceased, was for- 
X,/ \ nieriy one (if the iirosperuus agricul- 
turists and business men of Manlieim 
Townshiii. lie was the owner of a good estate in 
thatseeti(jn and a hotel in Mechanicsburg. to which 
lie gave liis |iers(nial ^ul)el■\•i^ioll. Our suliject 
was the son of Wilson, Sr., and Su>an (Sliafer) 
ISrubaker, and was born in Upper Peacock Town- 
ship, July 5, Urial. The Brubaker family i>-an (.)ld 
and respected one in Lancaster C'ouniy. and its 
members are of German e.vtraction. 

The great-grandfather of our subject, liy name 
Samuel Brubaker, was also a native of Pennsylva- 
nia and followed farm pursuits all his life. He 
was a Whig in politics and a devoted member of 
the Lutheran Church. He married p;iizalieth Eck- 
ert, and by her became the father of a son, also 
named Samuel, and who wa> the grandfather of 
Wilson of this sketcli. He was an extensive fann- 
er of Earl Township, this county, being the po.s- 
sessor of live valuable estates, which he operated 
with excellent success. Like his father, lie too was 
a Whig in [lolltics until the formation of the Re- 
publican [larty, when he joined its ranks. 

W'il,son Brubaker, .Sr., was born in the above 
township, December 13, 1810. He owned two 
good farms in this state and was generally conced- 
ed to be one of tlieiiio>t prosperous and substantial 
men in the county. In politics he was a Republi- 
can and a decidedly public-siiirited man, holding 
many olfices of honor and trust. When twenty- 
eight years of age he was married to Miss Susan, 

to II 

a far 

.lohn. iHiw ilccca>cd; Lizzie, the laic wife of lleii- 
jamin Kividcr; Sii>an.Mis. K.lwar.l ( inibc; Samuel 
and \Vils(ui. Tlic liu>baiid and lather departed 
this life Se[)teinber ."i. l.'^'.M.and was jireceded to 
the Ix'tter land many \cais by his good wife, who 
passed away in 1852, when thirty-eight years of age. 

The original of this sketch was reared upon his 
father's farm and obtained a good education in 
the common schools. When starting out in life 
for himself he operated a hotel in Neffsville and 
one at Mechanicsburg. In 1888 he returned to 
his home in ]\Ianlieim Township, where he resided 
until his death, which occurred .luly 7, 1894. He 
was a member vf the .lunior Order of ,Vmeriean 
Mechanics and the Knights of the (iolden Eagle. 
In i)olitics he was an ardent aduiiier of Ke[iublican 
lirinciples and never failed to cast a vote in favor 
of that party's candidates. 

In Scptemlicr, Wilson Brubaker and 
Amanda, daughter vf Christian Bumberger, were 
united in marriage. The father of Mrs. Brubaker 
is a hotel keeper in Millersville and stands high 
in the business community. To our subject and 
his estimable wife there were born four chiblren, 
bearing the respective names of Wilson, .Jr., Har- 
rison, Ada and JMabel. 


u.r^ SHERMAN SMITH, D. I). S.. a practicing 

I J dentist ill the city of Lancaster, was born 
in Lampeter S(p]are, September 21, 1864. 
His father, Dr. .bihn S. Smith, was born June 27, 
18.38. in Lancaster County, and the grandfather, 
Abraham Carpenter Smith, was also a native of the 
same county. The latter, who was of Scotch-Irish 
extraction, was a large farmer and stock-grower 
and operated a sawmill on Pequea Creek. He died 
in that locality at the age of seventy-one years. 
Dr. J. S. Smith was a graduate of the Pennsylvania 
Dental College at Philadelphia and received the 
title of D. D. S. in 1865. He served in the late war 



as a I'll ion soldier, being for a time a incmber of 
Cunijian y Ci, One Hundred and Twenty-second Reg- 
iment. Later lie served in tlioTliird I'ennsylvania 
Artillt'iy from February K, ISCI, to ^'(^velnber, 
l«<',."j. Ill the engagement at ( 'liaiircliorsville he 
was struck l.y a shell. 

.\ftei' his reluni liDiiie Dr. Smitli was graduated 
and began tlie [naetiee ot liis eliosen profession in 
Lampeter Square. Afterward he iiad an office at 
Columbia, and in 1879 moved to Lancaster, wliere 
bis practice became very large. He continued in 
the profession until his deatii, December 18, 1892. 
He was also interested in the pension business and 
attended to many claims of soldiers in the late 
war. An honored member of the Grand Army of 
the Repul.ilic, he served as Commander of Post No. 
405, and was also a member of the National Vet- 
erans' Legion, the Knights of the Golden Eagle 
and Independent Order of Odd Fellows. He was 
one of the organizers of tiie Harris Dental As- 
sociation and was prominent in the State Dental 
Association, besides being a liberal contributor to 
dental journals. In 1881 be took a partial course 
in the medical and surgical department of Jefferson 
Jledical College. He was a member of the Duke 
Street Methodist Church and was a prominent 
official of the same. Politically he was a Reijiib- 
, Of our subject's mother it may be sai<l that she iHirn near Strasluirg, the daughter of Dan- 
iel Ki-eidcr, who was a farmer in Lancaster County. 
On this side of the family they trace their ancestry 
back to Ilance Herr, of 1710 fame, who was among 
the first settlers of Lancaster County. The mother 
still resides at the old homestead. There were five 
children in the family, four of whom are living, our 
subject being the eldest, lie was educated in the 
Columbia and Lancaster public schools, graduating 
from the high school in 1882, after which he took 
up bookbinding with II. L. Trout, remaining thus 
engaged for four years, during which time he be- 
came a practical bookbinder. He then took a po- 
sition on the Philadelphia /'nss, but in 1889 en- 
tered the Philadel[)hia Dental College, from which 
he was graduated in 1890 with the degree of I). 
I). S. He practiced with his father one year and 
then opened an ollice at No. 3 East King Street, 

Lancaster, where he practices dentistry in all of its 

The Masonic fraternity. Lodge No. 43, A. F. & 
A. M., claims Dr. Smith as an honored member. In 
Lodge No. 143, 15. P. O. E., he is an esteemed Loyal 
Knight. He is Chaplain in the military order of Sons 
of \'eteransand belongs to (xeorge II. Thomas Post 
No. 19. In religious matters he is a member of the 
Duke Street Methodist P^piscopal Church. Politi- 
cally he atliliates with the Republican party and is 
a member nf the Executive Committee of "The 
Young Republicans." He was a delegate to the 
State Dental Association which met at Niagara 
Falls in 1892, and is a member of the Lancaster 
Local P)oard of Directors of the Anglo-American 
Buildina: it Loan Association. 

E^ MANUEL P. KELLER is engaged in farm- 
er ing pursuits m Manheim Township. His 
line estate is supplied with every needful 
and coii\ eiiieut structure in the way of liuildings, 
anil beaulilied with fruit and forest trees, also 

: small fruits. The energetic owner is the son of 

I Adam and Elizabeth (Schafer) Keller, and was 
born on the old Keller homestead, located on the 

I Lancaster Pike, one mile north of that city, April 

i 18, 1816. 

I The grandfather of our subject, Charles Andrew 
Keller, was born in this state, of (ierman descent, 
and located in this county when a young man, 
with his |)arents' family. He was a brass founder 
by trade, which liusiness he followed during the 
active years of his life. He married Miss Barbara 
Bigler, b3' whom he became the father of the fol- 
lowing named children, Anna Maria, .lolin Peter, 
John, Andrew, Adam, Jacob, Sophia, Michael, IJen- 
jamin and Jeremiah. 

Adam Keller, the father of our subject, learned 
the trade of a brass founder from his father, which 
he followed for some time, but devoted the greater 
part of his time and attention to rope-making, at 

i which business he was an expert. Later in life he 


purchased five acres of land, where our subject was 
born, erected a comfortable brick residence on the 
place and kept adding to it five acres at a time un- 
til he had forty acres. He derived a good income 
from the cultivation of his property', raising as 
much grain -on the forty acres as many fanners 
would on one hundred. 

In politics Adam Keller was a stanch Demo- 
crat and a member of the Franklin Benevolent So- 
ciety. He worshiped with the Lutheran Church 
and in Ihe congregation near his lioiiie lilled tlie 
oHice of Trustee, being active in all cluiich work 
and a man greatly resi)ected in liis community. 
He married Miss Elizabeth, daughter of Piiilip 
Scliafer, of Baltimore, Md., and to them were liorn 
sixteea children, of whom nine grew to manhood 
and womanhood. The husband and father died 
in 1S64, at the age of eighty years, having been 
born December 7, 1784. His good wife is also de- 
ceased, departing this life June 23, ]Soi. John 
Peter Keller, great-grandfaiher of our subject, was 
born in Germany and emigrated to the I'nitod 
States in 1760, locating in this state. He was mar- 
ried in the Fatherland and he and his wife, Anna 
Maria, departed this life in Lancaster County, 
where they were well and favorably known. 

The original of this sketch received his educa- 
tion in the district school and when old enough 
to be of assistance worked on tiie home farm, thus 
becoming thoroughly prepared to assume the man- 
agement of property of his own. When twentv- 
seven years of age he was married, and locating j 
upon a tract of land in Manheim Township, has i 
devoted his entire life to agricultural pursuits. 
He has been remarkably successful in his calling I 
and by much hard work on his part, together with j 
the assistance rendered by his estimable wife, he ' 
has accumulated a good property-. 

March 12, 1844, our subject and Miss Harriet B., ' 
daughter of John Slirap, were united in marriage, j 
To them have been granted three chiUiren, namely: 
Julia Anna, John Adam and Mary p]lizabeth. The 
father of Mrs. Keller was l)orn in Pennsylvania, 
March 16, 1773. He was a well educated man and 
taught school for some time, together witli carrying 
on a mercantile trade. Later in life however, he 
turned his attention to farming, and in 1827 moved | 

which is located on tlie Fruitvillc I'ikc. three mik'S 
from Lnncaster. The year previous to seUing his 
farm he tried his luck in the Lnion Canal Lottery 
and was fortunate enough to diaw x2n.O0O, whicii 
together with the means which he ab'eaily p..ssessed. 
enalihMl him to spend his deeliiiiiig years amid 
comfort and luxury. He married Miss .lulia A. 
Lightner, who came from one of the old and prom- 
inent famdies of the state, and to them were born 
three children. John L.. now deceased; Mrs. Keller, 
and Mary A. The wife of uur suliject is a most 
estimable and worthy lady, and a devoted mem- 
ber of the Lutheran Church, to which Mr. Keller 
also belongs. In politics he is a strong Democrat. 
In 1.'S72 he was elected County Commissioner for 
a term of three years. He always takes an active 
part in local affairs and has served as a member of 
the School lioard on numerous occasions. 


-roSEPH H. RATHFOX for a period of five 
I years was Cit}- Treasurer of Lancaster, and 
i^r actjuitted himself with great ability and to 
the satisfaction of everyone in the discharge 
of the imi^ortant duties of that position. On the 
change of administration in 1892 lie retired from 
the office, but in April, 1894, was honored by be- 
ing re-elected to the post which he holds at the 
|)resent time. He makes a reliable and trustworthy 
ofiicial, keeping his accounts in a very systematic 
manner, and In' all who have dealings with him is 
considered a most courteous and affable gentleman. 
He is a native of this city, liis birth having here 
occurred July 6, 1856. 

The Rathfon family are descendants of Swiss 
refugees who came to this slate several generations 
since and assisted in the iipbuildiiiL; and develop- 
ment of the community in which they located. 
Joseph, the grandfather of J. IL, was born in Con- 
estoga Township, of this count3-, and during his 
lifetime followed agricultural pursuits, being the 


(iwiin uf a lari;p trad of laud lyiiiL;' aloiiii; the 

CKTUired in \s-2-2. His (inl\ chili) was .lacdli, wlio 
\va> lidi'ii on tlio old lionieslcad. and in hi- youtli 
learned the tailor's trade. This has heen his call- 
ing since that tune, and for many years he has 
carried on a clothing biisiuess in Lancaster, since 
1867 having been a member of the firm of Samuel 
M. Myers A- Ralhfon, at No. 12 East King Street. 
A very ardent Reiniblican, he has served as a mem- 
ber of the Common Council from the First Ward, 
and was elected to serve ou the School Board from 
the same ward. His second term in that capacity 
was as a member from the Sixth Ward, and he is 
very conscientious in the discharge of public du- 
ties. Religiously for many years past he has seived 
as a Vestryman in the Lutheran Church, and is at 
present a Trustee. April 30, 1844, he married 
Miss Mary L.Brown, and of their union were born 
the following children: Mary E.. (Hlherl B.. Will- 
iam P.. .lohn E.. .1. 11. and .Melvin H. The eldest 
of the family. Mary, became the wife of Christian 
Rine, Jr., who died February 20, 1887. 

The subject of this biography attended the pub- 
lic schools of the city until about fifteen years of 
age, when he started out to make his own liveli- 
hood. Deciding to become a printer, he entered the 
Iiitellhjenwr otlice, serving an apprenticeship at the 
trade, upon the completion of which he worked on 
the Nt'ir Em f..r a [.rriod of three years. Later he 
obtained a position in the postollice as a Money 
Order clerk, and acted as such from February, 
1881, until August 5, 1885. For about two years 
succeeding this he was engaged with his father in 
the clothing business, Init in April. 1887. was 
elected City Treasurer, and in 18'J2, when he re- 
signed his place, he returned to his father's store, 
there remaining for about two years. 

On tlie 1st of October. 1878. occurred the mar- 
riage of Mr. Uathfon and :\Iary E., daughter of 
(U'orge II. llartnian. a well known resident of this 
city. Our subject and iiis estimable wife had a 
little son. who was named (ieorge H. in honor of 
his grandfather, but who called from their 
home by the death an-el, December l"). 1880, at 
the age of fifteen months. The parents are uiem- 

liers of St. .lohn's Episcopal Church of this city, 
and lend their as>i-tance to worthy benevolences. 
Ml-. K'athfon is an able business UKiii and financier, 
anil in all circles iu which he moves numbers 
many very true and sincere friends and acquaint- 
ances, who esteem him highly for his known quali- 



known journalist of Lancaster and Secre- 
tary of the Pennsylvania (iernian Society, 
was born in New Holland. Lancaster County, Pa., 
April 3(1, 1833. He is of German ancestry, and 
the fifth in the lino of descent from John Diffen- 
dorffer. a native of Nehnslieim, near Heidelberg, 
in the Palatinate. He sailed from Rotterdam in 
the ship -William and Sarah." reaching Philadel- 
phia September 18. 1727, and soon afterward settled 
in this county. David Diffenderffer, his grandfa- 
ther, was first a volunteer in the Continental army 
during the Itevolution, and later became a com- 
missioned otlicer. He i>artici|)ated in the capture 
of the Hessians at Trenton in 177G, in the second 
bombardment of that [ilace iu 1777, and in the 
battle of Princeton, where he was taken ))risoner, 
and was one of the famous '-sugar house" captives. 
He was at A'alley Forge in the winter of 1777-78, 
at the battles of Jlonmouth in the latter year, and 
served under Genera! .Sullivan in the memorable 
campaign against the .Six Nations in western New 
York in 1 77;.>. 

The subject of this article was educated in the 
public schools of his native place and at Marshall 
College. He was trained to the business of a book 
seller, which pursuit he followed for six years in 
Lancaster. In 1857 he removed to Mexico, where 
he engaged in general merchandising for a period 
of fifteen years. In 1871 he returned to this city, 
and in conjunction with his two brothers stjjrted 
the banking house of Diffenderffer Bros. 

In 1877 Mr. Diffenderffer became one of the 
editors of the Npm Era, one of the most iufluen- 



tial and successful newspapers in eastern Penn- 
sylvania. Since then lie has been a voluminous 
writer, not only for his own paper, luit also for 
state and national publications. lie i> thi> ;iiithni- 
(if the history of "The Three Karls" (tnwiiships m 
Lancaster C(iunty), and of r.unieruus hi>t(irital 
articles on mnttersof local interest. Uv r- the Sec- 
retary of tlie Lancaster County Agricultural and 
Horticultural Society, and a member of the I. in- 
mean Scientific and Historical Society and of the 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania. He was one 
of the founders of the Peuns^ylvania (ierman So- 
ciety, the first meeting looking to the formation 
of this organization having met in his ottice at his 
invitation. Although only four years old, this 
society has advanced rapidly in mlluence and 
inemliership. Its aim and object are to perpetuate 
the memory and deeds of the ancestors of the 
members, search out, collect and preserve still ex- 
isting documents relating to tlie early liistory of 
these people, and to publish such as sh.-ill set fcjilh 
the part belonging to them in the growth and de- 
velopment of American institutions and [iiogress. 
The membership is composed of the lineal descen- 
dants of the early German and Swiss immigrants, 
and includes many of the most prominent and in- 
fluential citizens of the state. Of this society, Mr. 
Diffenderffer has been the Secretary since its or- 
ganization, and has edited the foui' volunics of 
"Papers and Proceedings" already puljlislicd. and 
in this capacity has shown enterprise, zeal and 
ability in producing works at once attractive in 
appearance and of high literary merit. He was 
also one of the founders of tlie Lancaster County 
Historical Society, and the first Secretary of the 
Lancaster County Forestry Association. 

Although an ardent Republican, JL'. Diffenderf- 
fer has never been allured by the attractions of 
political life, though he may claim to be among 
the founders of his parley, as he was, when a 3'oung 
man, the Secretary of the first Republican club 
formed in this county, this being in 1856. He 
has served in the Councils of Lancaster City, and 
was twice Acting Vice-Consul of the United States 
111 the city of El Paso, Mexico. Living in the 
largest tobacco-growing county in the I'nited 
States, Mr. Ditfenderffer, through his journalistic 

relations, has naturally made tob.Mcco and the sta- 
tistics ,,n the subject a study. For l.olli the slate 

on this inilnstry in IVniisvl vania which appeared 
in the Tenth Census Report, and isanackuoul- 

ject. In the year I.ST:! oui' subject was married 
to .Miss Annie S. Sprenger. and one son. Harold 
Frank by name, has resulted from their union. 


E^ DWARD CONROY is one of the enterpris- 
er ing and progressive business men of Lan- 
caster, being proprietor of the South t^ueen 
Street green-houses. He is a practical florist, hav- 
ing served his full time at the trade and has become 
well ac(iuainted with its various details. As the 
result of his ability, industry and perse- 
verance, he has succeeded in Iniildiug up a fine 
trade and has a nice appearing row of green-liouses 
fitti'd out in the most approved methods. 

ICdwaid Conroy was born near Jersey City, N. 
.1., Xov.'iiiber Mi. is.-.c' His father, Patrick Con- 
roy, was a native of Ireland and was reared in 

New .lersey, he tlieie successfully engaged in can\- 
ing on a farm until his death, at tin' extreme old 
age of eiglity-seven years. His wife, who was in 
her maiden days Ann Chrisom, was likewise a na- 
tive of the Kmerald Isle, and was the mother .if six 
sons and one daughter. 

(Jn attaining the age of eighteen years. Fduard 
Conroy commenced learning the business of flori- 
culture with Judge Lathrop, at Madison. N. J. .Vt 
the end of tliree years, during wliieli time he was 
assiduous in his attention and interest in the work, 
he began traveling and continued his journe\s 
through Ohio, New York, Massachusetts, New 
Jersey- and Pennsylvania. In 18«7 Mr. Conroy 
located in Lancaster, believing that this would be 
a favorable point for a young man of enterprise 



and nliility to start in liusincs>, and the result has 
sliowii the wisdom of liis decision. Necessarily 
commencing on a small scale, he rented a green- 
house in the west end and was situated there for 
three years, during which time he built up a good 
rcpnlation in his line of work and laid the foun- 
dation for his future success. In IblH) he took 
charge of the green-house which he now operates. 
This plant he laid out and has relniilt, being the 
first person to occupy the premises. The six green- 
houses are models (.)f their kind and cover a large 
extent of space, live of the number being 100x20 
feet and the other 120x16 feet in dimensions. Mr. 
Conroy is an adept in the line of decorative work, 
making a specialty of getting up beautiful designs. 
He has a large trade in cut flowers by the whole- 
sale, and is making a good success of his business. 
Since becoming associated with this work he has 
been a member of the American Florists' Society, 
and studies the best magazines and papers on the 

In 1»1S1 Jlr. Conroy was married in Jersey City 
to Miss Ann Martin, a native of New York State, 
and of their union have been born four children, 
Ann, Mary, Helen and Edward. The parents are 
members of St. Mary's Catlujlie Church, and polit- 
ically our subject uses his influence in favor of 
the Democratic party. He is a young man of in- 
tegrity in his business efforts and numbers many 
warm friends in this locality. 

comes from one of the respected pioneer 
families of J>ancaster County, is an enter- 
prising physician and surgeon who has succeeded 
in building up a fine and paying practice in Lan- 
caster. His falhei-. one of tlie influential citizens 
of this jilace until his recent death, was John 
IJiemesderfer, wliosc liirth occurred in Elizabeth 
Township. His father who bore the same Chris- 
tian name, was liorii in that township and for 

years was a cabinet maker, later devoting himself 
to agricultural pursuits. He was of(;erman lin- 
eage, a member of the Lutheran Church and was 
seventy years of age on his demise in 1879. Tiie 
Doctor's father also learned the furniture trade, 
which he followed fiir some years successfully, then 
took charge of the old Keller mill just east of 
Lititz. Sul)sequently he abandoned the milling 
business and engaged in running an hotel after 
the war. He was in the one hundred days' ser- 
vice at that time and was a member of the City 
Council of Manheim for years. For a period of 
nine years he was proprietor of tlie Rothville Hotel 
and then for fourteen years ran the American Rail- 
road House of Manheim. For a term of five years 
he was in charge of the Lancaster County House 
on East King Street, but retired January 1, 1894, 
on account of ill health. He was called from 
this life February 12 of that year, and was placed 
to rest iu Manheim. He was a member of the 
Lutheran Church and politically was a Republican. 

The mother of the Doctor was before her mar- 
riage Caroline Ressler. She was born near Lititz, 
in Pine Hill, in which vicinity her father, Isaac 
Ressler, was also born. He was a farmer of Ger- 
man descent and his death occurred when he was 
in the i^rime of life, he being only forty-nve 
years of age. Mrs. Biemesderfer is still living, her 
home being in Lancaster. Of her six children the 
Doctor is the onjy one living, the others having 
died in childhood. 

In the fall of 1883, after receiving a good |)ublic 
and high school education at Manheim, Dr. Biem- 
esderfer entered the iMillersville Normal School, 
from which he graduated three years later with the 
degree of Bachelor of Elements. Afterwards he 
taught school quite successfully for one year at 
Lancaster Junction and then devoted himself to 
the study of medicine with Dr. C. J. Snaveley, a 
leading physician of Manheim. In 1888 he be- 
came a student of the Medical Department of the 
University of Pennsylvania, receiving his diploma 
and the degree of Doctor of Medicine on his grad- 
uation in 1891. Commencing his professional ca- 
reer he located in Lancaster, having his office at No. 
212 East King Street. He has built up a good rep- 
utation and a remunerative practice, his office be- 



ing now at No. 527 Church Street. He is on the 
medical staff of St. .loseph's Hospital and belongs to 
the Lancaster County and City Medical Societies, as 
well as to tlie Pathological Society. As a memlier 
of the Young Men's Republican Club he is greatly 
interested in politics. Fraternally he is associated 
with the .Junior Order of Tnited American Me- 
chanics and the Benevolent Order of Klks. For 
several years he was organist of the Manlieim 
Lutheran Church, and while at IMillersviile devoted 
considerable time to the study of the art. afterward 
teaching for awhile. He is a member of tlie Lu- 
theran Church of tliis city and is a young man of 
good principle, integrity and honor. 



HENRY DRACHBAR. Asa representative 
of the business element, to whose progres- 
sive spirit and superior abilities is due 
much of the prosperity enjoyed by Lancaster, we 
present the name of Mr. Draclibar, who is well 
known n(.)t alone in this city, but also througlioiit 
the county. His entire life has been spent in the 
town where he now resides. Here he was born 
November 10, 18-18, to the union of Henry and 
Anna Donner Drachbar. The family is of (Terman 
origin, the paternal grandfather of our subject, 
Anthony Drachbar, having been born in Ilesse- 
Cassel. He was a Catholic and died in that faith 
at the iige of sixty-five years. 

The father of our subject, Henry Drachbar, was 
the third in order of birth among five children. 
lie was born in Ilesse-Cassel and there resided un- 
til thirtj' years of age, when, accompanied by 
his wife and two children, he started across the 
Atlantic intending to locate in America. One 
child died during the voyage. Arriving in the 
United States he settled in New Jersey, but siiortly 
afterward removed to Pennsylvania and made set- 
tlement in Lancaster County, where he continued 
to reside until his death. He was a brick laver 

and stone mason by trade, and engaged as a eon- 
tractor, doing a large business throughout the 
county. In religious belief he was a member of 
the Catholic Church and belonged to the Cath- 
olic beneficial societies. Politically he was a Dem- 
ocrat. He died in 18S1, aged sixty-five years. 
His wife passed away in 1.^87, at the age of sixty- 
eight years. Tlieir children, seven in number, 
were named as follows: Philip B., Henry, Mary. 
Albert, Clara, .Tohu and Kate. 

Remaining with his parents until attaining man- 
hood, Jlr. Drachbar meantime was the recipient of 
common school advantages. He selected for his 
occupation that in which his father had previously 
engaged, and for some time assisted the latter in 
I his work as a brick layer and m.ason. At the pres- 
ent time he is in partnership with his brother 
Philip. In this line of work he is one of the most 
1 prominent and successful business men of Lan- 
I caster, and in his employ at one time had as many 
I as thirty-eight skilled workmen. Among the con- 
tracts which he has had may be mentioned the fol- 
lowing: the Franklin and Schiller Hotels, St. .Jo- 
seph's Hospital and Academy; Ann, South Prince, 
New, Manor and Walnut Street .Schools, Lancaster 
Caramel Works, Lancaster County Trust Company 
I Building, Williams & Foster large store, the old 
umbrella factory. Girard House, Steinman .1: Co. 
Building. Ittquirer Building, .Southern and Western 
Markets, Arnold and Heinitsh Blocks, Science and 
Library Building at JNIillersville, Lancaster Car- 
I riage Works, and innumeralile warehouses. 

In politics a Democrat. Mr. Drachlmr is interest- 
ed in all measures pertaniiig to his party. He is 
a progressive citizen and is a warm advocate of 
ever}- project calculated to promote the welfare of 
people. He has served as Street Commissioner, and 
at one time was candidate for the Legislature, but 
the Democratic party being in the minority he was 
defeated with the rest of the ticket. He is a mem- 
ber of the Catholic Church, and belongs to St. 
Leo's Beneficial Society and theShanahan Catholic 
Beneficial League. With the Jlaennerchor Singing 
Society he is also associated, and for many years 
was President of the organization. 

February 22, 1881, Mr. Dr.achbar was united in 
marriage with Miss Kate, daughter of Francis and 



llu'iiicnz. Tlicy have 
namely: .lolni, Fiancis. .Mary, .1. 
cenl. .lulia, Henry and Kaynmnc 
Helen. Vincent, -lulia and Hem 

' ehildron, 
elen, \'in- 
ese. Mary, 

RK\. 1>. WKSLKY HIC'KSI.F.i; was one of 
Ihc prune uiovers and founders of the 
Lancaster (ieneral Hospital, of which lie 
is now Superintendent, and deserves great credit 
for his zealous and disinterested efforts in getting 
the in>litution eslalilished. He had always he- 
lieved that Lancaster ought to have a general and 
non-sectarian hospital. One day in 1892, on meet- 
ing one of the members of his lodge of the Knights 
of Ulalta, he broached the idea he had in mind, and 
at their next lodge meeting an add.ress on the ad- 
visability of starting a general hospital here was 
delivered by Rev. J\lr. Bicksler. A coininittce was 
appointed to look into the matter and he was made 
one of the same. The committee organized by 
electing Reuben Bertztield as Chairman and H. M. 
Illyus Secretary. After they had worked for a 
few months they decided to issue a circular to all 
the Protestant churclies and benevolent orders of 
the city, asking them to appoint committees of 
three members from each organization. They met 
in convention in the parlors of the Young Men's 
Christian Association , Rev. Mr. liicksler being made 
President of the meeting and temporary President 
of the P.oard of Directors. The charter for the 
hospital was finally granted in September, 1893, 
one article for the same making it a regular train- 
ing school for nurses. The institution wasopened 
Decenilier 19, 1^9:1, and the success of this new 
enterpri,-e is now a.-suied. 

Thel.irthofRov. Mr. Liek^ler.H'curred in liethel 
Township, lierks Cotinly. De.-einber 1.3, is.'il, and 
in that same locality also occurred the birth of his 
father, David S.,and his grandfather, Daniel liick- 
sler. His great-great-grandfather, who bore the 
Christian name of Peter, emigrated from Switzer- 
land and took up land in Pennsylvania, on which 

the four succeeding generations were born. The 
father of our subject was a farmer and owned the 
old homestead, and among other family relics had 
an old Bible, which is now in the possession of Rev. 
Mr. Bicksler. About 1880 his father sold the old 
farm and removed to Ohio, where he jiassed his 
remaining years. His wife, Anna, was a daughter 
of Daniel Bicksler, of Fredericksburg, Pa. She 
became the mother of seven children: Mrs. Anna 
Buclier, of Altoona, Pa.; Charles A. and Francis 
D.. residents of Ohio; A. Lincoln, who resides in 
Nebraska; Mrs. Lizzie Ransliarger, of Troy Grove, 
La Salle County, 111.; our subject, D. Wesley, and 
Aaron J., who died in infancy. 

The youth of Rev. Mr. Bicksler was passed in 
assisting liis fatlier in the care of the old home- 
stead, and his education was acquired in tlie com- 
mon schools. When about eighteen years old he 
began serving an apprenticeship to the shoemak- 
er's trade, and at the same time privately prepared 
for the ministry. After having been licensed to 
((reach, he further pursued a theological course in 
Central Pennsylvania College, then called Union 
Seminary. He first filled several vacancies and 
then took a regular charge in Halifax, Pa., where 
he remained for a year. He was next placed on 
the Brownstown circuit in this county, and dur- 
ing the years which followed he was successively 
in charge of congregations at Birdsboro and Wo- 
melsdorf, Berks County; Mt. Joy. Lancaster Coun- 
ty; Dauphin charge, Dauphin County; Barnesville, 
Schuylkill County; and White Haven, Luzerne 
County. In 1891 he came to Lancaster to take 
charge of the First Evangelical Church on North 
Water Street. This building is quite an old one, 
having been erected in 1840, and the congrega- 
tion was served by our subject until July, 1893, 
when he was elected Superintendent of the hos- 
pital. For the past five years he has been Statis- 
tical Secretary of the Eastern Pennsylvania Con- 
ference of tlie Ev.angelical Association, and has 
faithfully devoted his best efforts to advancing his 
Master's cause and to zealous work in His vine 

Key. ilr. Licksler was married in Akron, Lan- 
caster County, in September, 1881, to Miss Almeda 
I B., daughter of Samuel K. and Fannie Wolf. The 



former is now retired from business and is a Di- 
rector in tlie Lincoln National Bank of this coun- 
ty. To Mr. and Mrs. Bicksler were born the fol- 
lowing children, who are living: Samuel D., Anna 
L., Harry E., Charles L. and Minnie E. Rev. Mr. 
Bicksler is a niemlMT of tlic Knights of Malta, and 
the Juuiiir Order of I'mlcd American Mechanics. 


tor of St. Joseph's Catholic Church, which 
is situated on St. Joseph Street, Lancaster. 
This congregation is one of the largest and most 
prosperous in the city, and was organized about 
1869 by Father Tamachin. Father Schmidt cele- 
brated his silver jubilee in 1894, it having liceii jiwt 
twenty-five years since he was ordained a Priest 
in the Cathedral of Philadelphia. 

The birth of the Reverend Father occurred in the 
village of Ornbau,on the River Altiiiuelil. liavaiia. 
May 9, ISKI. Ill-* paternal grandfatlicr. Adam 
.Schmidt, was an agncultiinsl, and his father, who 
bore the Cluistian name of Martin, was a native 
of the same district. lie learned the trade of a 
mason and stone cutter, and in 1M.J4, with his fam- 
ily, set sail for America, going by way of liremen, 
with Baltimore as his destination. In the last 
named city he remained for about three years 
working at his trade and thence went to York, Pa., 
where he continued actively engaged in work un- 
til he retired. He was a resident of York until his 
decease, August 5, 1894. His wife, who before her 
marriage was Barbara Kautz, was born in Bavaria, 
being a daughter of a farmer, Adam Kautz by name. 
Six children gr.aced the union of Martin and I'.ar- 
bara Schmidt, lint only three of the number are 
now living. The d.-voted wife and mother is a 
resident of York, and is eiglity-f(.)ur years of age. 

Father Schmidt, who was next to the eldest in 
his father's family, attended the common schools 

of Baltimore and the parochial school of St. IMary 's. 
in York, until 1859. At that time he entered St. 
Vincent's College at Latrobe, where he pursued 
a complete course in the classics, after which he 
was enrolled as a student in the .St. Charles' Semi- 
nary in Philadelphia, which is located at the cor- 
ner of Fj'ghteenth and Race Streets. After com- 
pleting the required course of theology and phi- 
losophy he was ordained, on January 2, 1869, by 
Bishop C. Shanahan, the first Bishop of the Harris- 
burg diocese. The young Priest's first charge was 
as an assistant at St. ]Mary's, Lebanon, Pa., where 
he remained only until IMay, 1869, thence going 
to the Ilarrisburg Cathedral, where he was an as- 
sistant for about five months. The succeeding 
three years he was pastor of St. Hubert's Catholic 
Church in Danville, Pa., and next ollieiated as 
Priest in St. Joseph's Church at Renovo, Clinton 
County, until October, 1878. During this time, 
under his auspices, the present church and school 
were erected and great progress was made in every 
department of church wtirk. In October, 1878, 
Father Schmidt returned to Danville and once 
more took charge of St. Hubeil's congregation, 
over which he presided for ten years. 

On the death of FatluT .lolm ( Jroteuieyer, of 
St. Joseph's Church, Father Si-lnnidt was assigned 
the position, this being in 1888, ami he at (.nice 
took charge of the congregation. In I8'.il the i)a- 
rofhial residence was built at a cost of ■•<2(i.0<)0, a 
new pipe (_)rgan has been placed in tlic church at a 
cost of s;4,000, and five sanctuary windows have 
been jiLaced in the church. These were im[iorted 
from Europe and represent the five Joyful Mys- 
teries. They are considered by judges to be very 
fine works of art and their cost was some -$1,500. 
The church owns nearly one block of land on 
which it is situated, and six acres of land adjoin- 
ing the city, on which is located the St. Joseph's 
Cemetery. St. Jt)st;ph's congregation numbers 
over four hundred families, or about two thousand 
persons; the altar sodality has three hundred mem- 
bers, the s,,lidity of the Bless,.,! \ii-iu tlirce hun- 
dred and fifty members, and the St. I'eler and St. 
.lames Societies for men also number many regular 
attendants and members. In the parochial .school 
which is carried on in connection with the church 



tlicre aro .-even si>tprs of the St. Francis Order. 
On the (,c(:i>Miii of flic silver juWiice of Fatlier 
SclimiiU, vvliicli was celeliralcd at the rectory, tliere 
was a lar,!i;e aftendance of many iiolalilc people 
and memljers of flie clergy. Of tlu' hifler there 
were over tliirty-fl\e present and among these was 
the celebrated I'.islioi) Thomas Mc.tlovern. 

■Sig-a'^$:iga;g-S^S>a- ^ g^^g-^i6^iS-^^^ _ 

Wlien mention is made of the influential 
citizens of Lancaster, those wiio liave at- 
tained [Misitions of especial prominence in the pul- 
pit, at the Bar, on the Bench, or in the avenues of 
commerce, the mind at once reverts to the subject 
of tliis biograpliical notice, who has been a life 
long resident of tliis city. His entire active career 
has been devoted to the legal profession, and his 
researches and culture have moulded him into a 
type of lawyer which in dignity, ability and learn- 
ing marks the highest order of his i)rofe.ssion. By 
constant ap[)licalion, broad knowledge and ex- 
tended practice, he gained a wide reputation 
as a reliable counsel and successful advocate. 

There is no family in Lancaster wiiosc origin is 
more noble or whose history more honorable than 
tliat represented by our subject. His father, ])r. 
John Light Atlee, sketch is elsewhere pre- 
sented, was a physician and surgeon of national 
reputation, and one of the most eminent men of 
Lancaster. 'Williain Augustus was born in this 
citv .lanuary '.I, 1k:!2, and receiveti the rudiments 
of his education in the public schools of this place. 
Later he entered Yale College, and from that insti- 
tution in 1H,")1 he was graduated with the degree 
of P.achelor of Arts. .Subseipiently, in 1«.54, the de- 
gree of Master lA Alts was conferred upon him by 
the same college. 

Immediately after completing his literary studies, 
Mr. Atlee commenced to read law under Thomas 
I'j. Franklin, and after three years of study was ad- 
mitted to the Bar, in August, 1854. Since that 

time he has devoted his attention to liis large and 
varied practice. He has allowed no outside mat- 
ters to interfere with his profession. Neither the 
allurements of public office nor the winning smiles 
of fortune tempt him from the chosen labor of his 
life. Only one thing ever caused him to lay aside 
his books and i)apei'S, and that was the peril of the 
Government during the dark days of the Civil 
War. With true patriotic spirit he responded to 
the first call for troops, which was issued by Presi- 
dent Lincoln in 1861. Volunteering as a private, 
his name was enrolled as a member of Company 
F, First Pennsylvania Infantry. He was mus- 
tered in at Harrisburg for three months and was 
honorably discharged at the expiration of the time. 

In the summer of 1862, when the call for trooj^s 
was issued at the battle of Antietam, among 
who responded was Captain Atlee, of Company A, 
Twelfth Pennsylvania Militia. In the summer of 
1863, when the emergency call came at the time 
of the battle of Gettysburg, he served as Captain 
of Company F, Fiftieth Pennsylvania Militia. Po- 
liticall>' he has always championed Republican 
principles, and has long been a leader in the coun- 
cils of the party. In 1856 he was Chairman of the 
Republican County Committee. From 18C5 until 
1868 he served as District Attorney. He enjo^'s 
the distinction of having been the first Republican 
Mayor of Lancaster, having been elected in 1869 
upon the straight Republican ticket. He filled the 
office foi' a term f)f two years, but did not discon- 
tinue his practice in the meantime. 

At Lancaster, October 14, 1857, occurred the 
marriage of Mr. Atlee and Miss Elizabeth Champ- 
ueys, who was born in this city. Mrs. Atlee's fa- 
ther was the late .Tudge Benjamin Champneys, 
formerly a iirominent attorney t>f this place and 
.Judge of the courts. The}' are the parents of 
three living children, Benjamin C, John L. and 
Elizabeth S. Socially, Mr. Atlee is a Mason of the 
Royal Arch degree, and is also a member of the 
George H. Thomas Post No. 84, G. A. R. He is 
one of the charter members of the Lancaster Law 
Library Association. For years he been one 
of the most active men in the vestry of St. James 
E|)iscopal Church and is a regular attendant at its 
services. When at leisure from professional du- 




ties, he finds pleasant relaxation from liusiness 
cares in the society of liis family and in social in- 
tercourse with his friends. He is a man of genial 
disposition, and is always happiest when welcom- 
ing and entertaining his guests at the family resi- 
dence on the corner of North Puke and Orange 


JM. W. GEIST. Tliroiighout the Keystone 
State there is no name held in higher honor 
than that of the "Nestor of journalism," who 
is the subject of this biographical sketch. 
Associated with the newspaper business for a half- 
centuiy, he enjoys the distinction of being the 
oldest editor in Lancaster County, but though now 
in the twilight of life his pen is as vigorous and 
his utterances as forcible as in days of 3'ore. With 
all the enterprises tending to the improvement of 
his city and county he has been intimately con- 
nected, and both through the press and by per- 
sonal influence he has promoted the welfare of his 

The Lancaster Neiv Era, of which Mr. Oeist is 
editor, is one of the leading papers of this section of 
Pennsylvania. It has a circulation of over fourteen 
tiiousand and is read by many thousands more. In 
1891 the plant was removed to Nos. 3i) and 41 
North (^ueen Street, where a commodious and sub- 
stantial building has been erected for its accom- 
modation. The location is central and conven- 
ient, and the building admirably adapted to the 
business, which occupies its entire extent. The 
structure contains an area of over twelve thousand 
square feet, is three stories in height and is built 
of brick, with stone trimmings. 

The first floor is occupied willi the business 
office and deliver}- room in frcjiit ami the jircss 
room in the rear, the two bciiii^ -^eparalcd liy oaken 
paneled wainscoting under a double airh sup- 
ported on iron columns and fllled in vvith glass. 
The entire length of this floor is one hundred and 
six feet. Next to the business office, on a solid brick 

and stone foundation built up from the cellar, 
stands one of the latest improved perfecting, print- 
ing and folding machines, built for the New Era. 
It takes the paper from a roll, prints both sides and 
folds, delivers and counts the papers At the rate of 
twenty-four thousand copies per hour of a single 
folio, or twelve thousand double folios. In the 
same room are an Adams press, a large drum cyl- 
inder, a two-revolution book press and a pony job 
press. The machinery and the freight elevator 
are run by a twenty horse-power Perret Electric 

In the rear of the press room and connected 
with it is a two-story building. The lower floor 
is used as a stereotyping department and is fur- 
nished with a complete outfit for newsi)aper and 
job work. The second floor is occupied by the 
job printing department, furnished with seven 
presses and other latest improved appliances for 
first-class work, and that of the building in the 
rear is utilized as a stock room. On the third floor 
are the compositors department and the editorial 
rooms. The building is lighted with Edison incan- 
descent lamps, is also supplied with gas fixtures 
and has two fire proof vaults. 

Having thus briefly outlined a sketch of the 
Npir Era it will he of interest to our readers to 
phace on record some facts concerning the editor. 

I Mr. (ieist was born in Bart Township, Lancaster 
County. Deceinlier 14, 1824, and is of German and 
Scotch descent. He was orphaned by his mother's 
death when he was a boy, and his father having 
lost his eyesight before .J. M. W. was born, tholat- 
ter was early in life thrown u|ion his own resour- 
ces. Educational advantages in those days were 
meagre, both the school buildings and the qualit}^ 
of instruction being very crude. However, as he 
grew toward manliood he eagerly availed himself 
of every opportunity for ac(iuiring knowledge, 
and so rapid was ids progress that at the age of 
sixteen he began to teach school. He had no am- 
bition to make this his life occupation, nor was he 
particularly impressed with the medical profession, 
tln>ugh he commenced its study at tlie earnest so- 
licitation of friends. 

While a student Jlr. Geist wrote occasional arti- 

I cles for contemporaneous journals, and his ability 



being recognized, he soon drifted into the printing 
and stereotyping business, in both of wiiich arts 
he acquired proficienc.y. His first venture in tiie 
journalistic field was as publisher and editor of the 
Lancaster Reformer, wliich responsible position he 
assumed at less than twenty years of age. On ac- 
count of lack of funds he was obliged to aliandon 
the enterprise, but subsequently renewed it at Ilar- 
risburg in partnership with U.J.Jones. In 184('i 
he edited an independent Democratic paper called 
the Ymman, which was larg(4y instrumental in 
defeating William P.. Foster, the Democratic can- 
didate for State Canal Commissioner. In 1847 he 
was news editor of the Pennsyfranian, pulilislied 
by Hamilton A- Fooney in Philadelphia. In 1848 
and 1849 he furnished editorial and literary con- 
tributions to the Columbia Sjn/ and Lancaster &- 

Subsequently returning to Philadeliiliia. Mr. 
Geist became the assistant editur of the Quolir 
City, a literary joiu-nal edited liy (ieorge Li|;iparcl. 
and news editor of the Eceiiinij Anjux. publishcil 
under the same auspices. Later he became editor 
of the Sunday Olobe, and was afterward similarly 
employed with the Suurhiy Mercury. During his 
editorial nianngemcnt the Glnhe increased its circu- 
lation from two thousand to nearly twenty thou- 
sand per week. F'rom 1852 until 18;")6 lie was 
editor of the Weekly E.qves,^ at Lancaster, and 
when the Daily E.cpress was established, during the 
year last namud, he and .loliii II. Pearsol began its 
publication. This they continued until the fall 

the E.qiress was sold and consoli 

of 1876, 

dated with the Lancaster Examiner. Mr. Geist 

served as editor of the consolidated iournal until 


ready been suliscrilied when Hon. John 1>. Warfel, 
then just retired from the State Senate, agreed to 
assume the financial responsibility of tlie new 
paper. This was adoi)ted. lieiiig considered a more 
feasible plan than the stock company. In this way 


h. 18 


en he 



. ouil 








the 1 







"i. a 




formed b\ 





t element 


it\ to 



hsh a 








A h 

rge s 


of n 

commenced the partnership of Warfel & Geist and 
the publication of the Neiv Era, the senior jiartner 
devoting his attention to the business management, 
and the junior partner taking the editorship. 

For many years Mr. Geist served as Vice-Presi- 
dent of the Young Men's Christian Association, 
and his indefatigable exertions on several occa- 
sions saved that organization and its fine library 
from being financially' stranded. He also aided in 
securing the choice collection of books that has 
attracted to the Association Hall the young men 
of the city, thus affording a healthful mental stim- 
ulus. In religions belief he is identified with St. 
John's Free Episcopal Church, in which he has 
been a Vestryman for nearly forty years, and to 
the growth of which he has largely contributed. 

There is no man more highly esteemed than Mr. 
Geist among the newspaper fraternity. From the 
editorial columns of a local contemporary we 
quote the following: "To Mr. Geist journalism has 
been from earliest manhood an absoiliing passion. 
Nothing that detracted from it, nothing that inter- 
fered with it in the slightest degree did he ever 
allow to come between him and his darling pur- 
suit. Public office of a lucrative character been 
offeied him again and again, and at times when he 
sorely stood in need of its added eniolumeiits, but 
with a rare singleness of purpose, ever true to his 
calling, he always turned his back upon politics 
and its allurements except as these contributed to 
replenish the news columns of his paper, or were 
made to fill out the chosen work of his busy life 
calling. And what a life's work in has been! 

"Editor Geist wielded his magnificent pen 
through the heroic age of American history. It 
has often been remarked that the great gen- 
erals who fought in the war were fortunate in the 
happy coincidence that they came upon that 
stage in the prime of life. The .same happy coin- 
cidence attended the career of IMr. (ieist; in the 
strength of middle liff, with a lich and varied 
journalistic experienct' behind him, he presided 
over the best newspaper this county then pos- 
sessed, at a period when the war Lashed to fury 
every element of society. He emiiloyed hiss.icred 
office of teacher and preacher conil)iiied to sound 
the bugle notes of warning and call men to duty 



and to battle in behalf of an imperiled nation with 
the fidelit}- of a man who loved his country only 
next to his God." 

In closing an extended account of the life and 
works of Mr. Geist another contemporary says: 
"It gives us pleasure to record so full a life as this 
in making up the record of the leading men of 
this state in the line of public journalism, and it 
once more emphasizes in a marked degree the fact 
that for honest, industrious, high-minded, true- 
hearted men, there is room in our noble calling; 
and that success is not alone to be gauged by 
the standard of this grabbing age in dollars and 
cents, but in all that goes to make up a full 
rounded character. Mr. Geist exemplifies in his 
life's work that manhood and courage must not 
be lost sight of and that the greatest journalist, 
even in these limes, can be the best citizen." 

T^ DWARD KRECKEL for thirty-seven years 
I Cy has been engaged in the harness business^ 
and by attending strictly to his financial 
interests has built up a fine local reputation, and 
man}' years has transacted *20,000 worth of busi- 
ness. His shop is centrally located at No. 30 Penn 
Square. Lancaster, where everything in the line 
of saddles, harness, trunks, robes, blankets, etc., 
may be procured. The store is a substantial build- 
ing. 20x100 feet in dimensions, with three floors 
and a basement, which are crowded with the largest 
and most complete line of goods in this business 
in the city. 

Mr. Kreckel was born October 9, 1839, in Nas- 
sau, Germany. His parents were John and Cath- 
erine (Gilbert) Kreckel. The former was a native 
of the same town as his son, and received an ex- 
cellent education, later turning his attention to 
agricultural pursuits. He served for seven years 
in the army, being with Napoleon at the battle of 
Waterloo. In 1842 he removed to the L^nited 
Slates with his wife and four children, and set- 

tling in tills city, made his home here until his 
death. As he was possessed of considerable meansi 
he lived retired from business most of the time 
after settling here. His death occurred on the 
I 1st of July, 1867, at the age of seventy-four j-ears. 
I He was twice married, b}' his first union having 
' three children, and by his second union two chil- 
I dren. Edward and Rose. The mother, who was 
born in 1802, is still living. The father was one 
of tiie organizers of St. Joseph's Society, and was 
a very active member of the Catholic Church. In 
his political proclivities he sided with the Whig 
I Edward Kreckel received a private and pulilic 
school education until reaching his thirteenth year 
in Lancaster. At that time he was employed in 
the Conesloga Cotton Factory. Again for a short 
time he was in the cotton mill after having served 
as an errand boy for a hat store. Deciding to 
become a harness maker, he served .an apprentice- 
ship at that trade, and after completing the same 
started in business on a small scale at Fairfield, 
Drumore Township, this county, selling out at the 
end of a year. Returning to Lancaster, he was 
engaged in business for a short period, and then 
going west, located at Louisville, Ky.. in the same 
line of trade. In 1857 he returned to Lancaster, 
entering the employ of B. Yecker, with whom he 
continued until October. 18G0. For the next two 
decades he gave his faithful assistance to M. Haber- 
bush, and finally, in June, 1881, opened a shop 
of his own at No. 4 East King Street, which was 
his headquarters for the following seven years. 
Succeeding this he was for three years situated at 
No. 5 East King Street, opposite his former loca- 
tion, and in 1891 purchased his old employer's 
business, where he has since been engaged in trade. 
Eight men are constantly employed to fill orders, 
and his trade extends over this and adjoining coun- 
ties, the site of the business being the oldest in the 

In 1859 Mr. Kreckel married Catharine, daugh- 
ter of Charles Rice, of this city, a weaver by 
trade. To this marriage the following children 
were born: Mary, wife of Fred C. Ruof. of the 
Central Cafe, Lancaster; Edward and John (twins), 
who assist their father in business; Catherine S.; 



Lucy niid Charles (twins), the latter of whom died 
in infancy. j\Ir. and Mrs. Kreckel are members 
of the Roman Catholic Church, and he belongs to 
St. Peter and St. Joseph Beneficiary Societies. Al- 
though often solicited to serve in jjolitical offices, 
he has constantly refused, though he is a good 
Democrat. Though he commenced life a poor 
Ijoy, he has become well-lodo by his own efforts. 

HKXRV (lOOD for over fifty years has been 
one of the residents of Pequea Townsliip, 
his postoffice being Jlartickville. Lancas- 
ter County. He comes of one of the honored 
early families of this i1i>trict, who have lieen sup- 
porters of the old Mcnminite Church, and have 
been noted for their industrious and thrifty (luali- 
ties. The paternal grandfather, .lulni (iood was 
born and reared in this townsliiii. nnd was a very 
successful linancicr. He succeeded in making a 
nice little fortune in his various enterprises as a 
farmer, miller and distiller. For many jears he 
was Justice of the Peace, and politically was a 
Democrat. By his marriage with Miss Kreider, he 
had seven children, as follf)ws: Christian. Barbara 
(wife of George Woffel), -Tacoli. JuIju. Klizalieth 
(wife of Benjamin Kaufman), one who died in in- 
fancy unnamed, and Daniel. 

Christian, the father of Ilenrv (iood, was Ijorn 
January 1, 17'JG. and was reared in l'e(|Uea Town- 
ship. Upon arriving at man's estate, he was 
united in marriage with Catherine Breneman. As 
soon as he had acquired sufficient means, he became 
the owner of a good farm in Pequea Township, 
and for the rot nf his life was active m its culti- 
vation. Ill time his resources increased until he 
became ipiite wealthy. Identically he was a sup- 
porter of the Democratic party, and, like his father 
before him. belonged to tlieold Menuonite Church. 
He and liis wife were the parents of eleven chil- 
dren: .loliii: Maria. wIm, became the wife of Jacob 
Good; r.arbara, ISIrs. Harnish; Mamie, deceased; 

one who died before receiving a name; F^lizabetb, 
Mrs. Hoover; Christian, Henry. Elias, .lacob and 

Henry Good was born Seiitember 7, l.S.'>(), in I'e- 
quea Township, where he grew to manhood and 
was given good common-school advantages. In 
his boyhood he was trained to farm life by his fa- 
ther, and when sixteen years old commenced in 
earnest to make his own livelihood. From that 
time until the present, he has succeeded almost en- 
tirely bj' his own unassisted efforts, and owes it to 
his perseverance in whatever he has undertaken 
that he is now well-to-do. The farm on which he 
was born and now lives contains one hundred 
and eleven acres, and is under high cultivatitm. 
Year by year the owner has gathered rich harvests 
in return for his care and labor. In religion he is 
a Mennonite, belonging to the old congregation 
with which his ancestors have been identified for 
several generations. In politics he votes for Re- 
publican measures and camlidates, and, like a true 
jiatriot, tries in every possible w.ay to u[)liold the 
public good. For one terra he served acceptably- 
as Supervisor of the townshii), and also acted in 
the capacity of School Director for one term. 

On the 31st of January, 1861, .Mr. Good 
married to JMiss Susan Miller. The lady is the 
daughter of Martin INIiller, was born in Martic 
Township March 4, 1810, and there passed her 
girlhood. Mr. and Mrs. Cood have become tiie 
parents of two childien. their names being respec- 
tiveh', Louisa and Ilenrv M. 




' of tlie youngest men e\er commis 
led Colonel in the Lnited States Arm> 

and IS a veteran of the late Civil War. He has an 
office at Xo. 31 North Duke Street, Lancaster, and 
is engaged as a patent solicitor, having a very suc- 
cessful business, which extends to other states. His 
professional career, as well as his war record, re- 
dounds greath- to his honor and credit. He is a 



man of exlenderi information and is a very inter- 
esting conversationalist. 

Colonel (ierharl" was born in Gettj-sburg, Pa., 
.Ianuar_y 10. 1814, being a son of E. V. Gerhart, 
D. D., LL. D., President of the theological semi- 
nar}' in Lancaster. (See his sketch elsewhere in 
this volume.) The Colonel is the oldest child in 
his father's famil}- and passed his bo3hood princi- 
pally in this cit}'. Here he acquired the main i)art 
of his education, and in 18.09 entered the Fresh- 
man Class of Franklin and Marshall College, from 
which he graduated in 1863 with the degree of 
Bachelor of Art. Soon after his enlistment in tlie 
army his Alma .Mater conferred upon him the de- 
gree of M.aster of Arts, and that j'ear, on account 
of the war, there were no commencement exercises. 
In 1862 he was Lieutenant of the Stale Militia 
called out at the time of the battle of Autietam. 
In .June, 1863, he was enlisted in Independent Bat- 
tery 1, Pennsylvania Artillery, as First Sergeant, 
and later became Second Lieutenant. With his 
battery he went to Philadelphia and thence to 
Harper's Ferry. In the spring of 1KG4 he was 
commissioned Major of llie One Hundred and 
Twentj'-first United States colored troops. Going 
to Kentucky, he served in that state, and later was 
transferred to the One Hundred and Twenty-fifth 
United States Colored Infantry, of which he later 
became Colonel, and from Ft. Leavenworth, Kan., 
marched with his regiment across the plains to New 
Mexico, taking the old Santa Fe trail through 
that state and Colorado as far as El Paso, Tex. 
This was a difficult and iiazardous march of some 
thirteen hundred miles through a hostile country, 
all the Indians being on the war path, and con- 
sumed about three monlli~. The maicli was ac- 
complished successfully without the loss of animals 
or materials. The regiment remained in New 
Mexico aliout a year and a-half, protecting the set- 
tlements against hostile Indians until 1867, and re- 
turned in December of that year. They had several 
skirmishes with the Indians at Ft. Craig and other 
points, and after being mustered out at Ft. Leaven- 
worth, returned to their respective homes. 

Colonel Gerhart returned to Lancaster and be- 
came City Engineer or Regulator, occupying that 
position for four years and a-half. In 1876 he 

opened Ids ollirc as sdliritor of patents, and 
succceiled in liecinning widely known and has all 
the bu>ini'>s in- ran well liiok after. Fraternally 
he is a Kiaiid Arriiy man. lieing a mcmljer of 
George 11. Thomas Post No. 8-1, and is Past Com- 
mander of the Knights of the Mystic Chain. In 
politics he is a stanch Republican. 'I'lie wife of 
the Colonel, Miss Ella Carpenter, whom he married 
in this city in 1882, is a native of the [ilace, and a 
daughter of the late William Carpenter, who was 
a prominent man. Iia\ing held the olllce of protlio- 


MARTIN W. ( ; R( )FF. Lancaster County is 
justly proud of her native born citizens, 
who are honorably bearing their share 
in sustaining her interests and in extending her 
wealth. Among these is tiie subject of this l)io- 
grapliical review, who is engaged in farming in 
Man helm Township, and is one of its mo>.t pro- 
gressive and enlightened farmers. His estate, wliicrh 
comprises one hundred and thirty-one broad acres, 
is placed under substantial improvement. The 
lields are well tilled, and a neat set of farm build- 
ings adorn the place. 

Our subject was born in Lain|)eter Township, 
this county, March 12, 1823, to David and Eliza- 
beth (Whitwer) Groff. The family is of German 
descent, and the grandfather, who also bore the 
name of David, was a native of Lancaster County, 
and a farmer in East Lampeter Township. He 
was successful in his chosen calling, being the 
owner of an estate numbering two hundred well 
improved acres. In politics he was a Whig, and a 
member of the Mennonite Church. 

David Groff, Jr., was also a native of the above 
township, and being thoroughly trained to farm 
pursuits by his lionored father, adopted that occu- 
pation as his life work. He lived to be thirty-six 
years of age, and died in 1825. By his union 
with Miss Whitwer, there were born five children: 
Ann, Benjamin, David, Elizabeth and Martin W. 


The wife and mother followed her huslmnd to the 
land beyond a year later, at the aire of thirty-six 

Our ,-uhject was quite young- at the <leatli of his 
l)arents, and was reared to nianliood in the hdine 
of !ii.s older brotlier, Benjamin. He was tlie recip- 
ient of a common-sehool education, and has fol- 
lowed agiieullural pur^uils all his life, lie has 
been sucee,-.>ful, haviiiL; aeeiiniulated a gcjudly 
amount of land, and is in the enjoyment of a com- 
fortable competence. In religion he is a member 
in good standing t>f the Jlennonile Church. In 
18.5.3 he married Mi^s Klizalieth lUiekwalter. by 
whom he has beeume the father <>( the following 
named three ehildren: Salome 1'... Clayton 1',. and 
Marv. the wife of lleiirv Landis. 

JACOl! I.. MOWKRY, M. I)., is a very success- 
ful physician, who is now located at Letort. 
He received good medical preparations for his 
duties in after years, and has made the best 
of his optiortunities with the result that he is to- 
da}' recognized a? one of the leading physicians of 
the county, lie was born .lune 23, l^."i.5. in West 
Lampeter To\viishi[), being a son of Jacob and 
Emma (Lefever) JMowery, and passed liis boyiiood 
days on his father's farm in .Strasburg Township. 

The ]Mfiwery family located in Lancaster County 
in the early days of its hi>tory. one of the early 
representatives being David, the great-grandfather 
of the Doctor, who it is believed settled near New 
Providence or Quarryville. On the maternal side it 
is known that three brothers came from France, set- 
tling in West Lamiieter Townsliii), where one made 
his iierunanent home, while another went to Phila- 
delphia, and the third also remained in this locality. 
The descendants of the brother L>aac have been 
for four generations farmers in West Lampeter 
Township. Isaac Lefever was a son of a Revolu- 
tionary hero. Philip, one of his seven children, is 
the grandfather of the Doctor, and his death oc- 
curred in August, 1810, at the age of seventy-three 

years. He was a Whig, like all the others of the 

I family, and was a member of the Mennonite Church, 
though his ancestors were Lutherans. Emma Le- 
fe\er was a child (if her father's first marriage. and 
her mother, Catherine, died in 1842, at the age of 
thirty-seven years. Her father then married a 
sister of his first wife and to tiiem were born two 
children, the mother's deatli <iecurring in 18.53. 
Mr-. Emma Mowery, who is still living, is a meni- 
bei- of the Methodist P^jiscopal Church. 

.lacob Mowery.Sr.. was born September 24, 1822, 
in Stra>liurg Town-hip. where he spent all his life 
with the exce|)tion of two years. He was a suc- 
ces-ful agriciilturi.-t and continued to carry on his 
farm until his death. September 24, 1858, when he 
was onl_y twenty-nine years of age. He was a ver^' 
active member of the Methodist Episco|)al Church, 
and was p(.)litically a Whig. Octolier 2. 1.S50, oc- 
curred Ins marriage, and of hi- union f<_)ur chil- 
dren were born: Abrani, a farmer residing in Stras- 
burg Township; Frank, who died in infancy; Jacob 
L., Jr., and Benjamin M., who operates a farm in 

' West Lampeter Township. 

Dr. JMowery attended the pulilic scho(.ils of Stras- 
burg in his boyhood, and sulisequenlly entered the 

I Millersville Normal .School, after leaving which he 
taught for three years in West Lamiieter Township. 
In ISTJ he took up thestudyof medicine with Dr. 
I. 11. Mayer, of AVilli- Street, being under his in- 
struction for two years. In 1878 he was graduated 

j from the Jefferson Medical College of Philadelphia, 

! soon after which he settled at Conestoga Center, 
where he carried on a successful practice for six 
years. In lis84. going (o Masonville, he continued 
the practice of his jirofession and numbers among 
his clients many of the best people in that locality. 
When at college he made a special study of gyue- 
cohjgy and obstetrics, but lias been mainly engaged 
in general medical work. He is a member of Lan- 
caster City and Couniy Medical .Societies, and of 
the Pennsylvania State Medical Organization, and 

! is a student of the best journals and reviews in his 

' line. 

The Doctor married on the 3d of May. 1881, 
to Lizzie J., daughter of John Steighman. and of 
their union two ciiildren were born, John W. and 

I Mary Emma. Mrs. Moweiy was called from this 



life August 111, 1889, at the age of thirty years 
and eleven months, leaving a host of true friends, 
ulio have sincerely mourned her loss. 

Dr. Mowery isa meniljerof the C. M. Howell Loilge 
Xo. 496, of .Safe Harbor, and was for many years as- 
sociated with Lodge No. 67, 1. O.O. F., of Lancaster. 
Personally he possesses many traits of character 
which have endeared him tn liis friends, for he is 
an ideal pliysician. being kind and sympatlietic, 
II rm and reliable. 


RKl'LKX liLRTZFIELI), an lionored vet- 
eran of the Civil War, is one of tiie prom- 
inent dealers in leaf tobacco in Lancaster, 
having conducted this business successfully for 
man^' j'ears. His public services have won for 
hira the respect and commendation of his fellow- 
citizens, and he has been active in everything 
connected with its general welfare. For three 
terms he served in the City Council, once as a 
representative from the Third and the other times 
of the Ninth Ward. As one of the founders of 
tiie Lancaster General Llospital, which was started 
December 2, 1893, he was conspicuous and has de- 
voted a great deal of time and work in the inter- 
ests of this now flourishing institution. 

The subject of this biography is the son of 
.Lacob and Elizabetli (Stauffer) Bertzfleld, his birth 
having occurred November 11, 1842, at iMillers- 
ville, Lancaster County. His paternal grandfather 
was born in England and settled in tliis locality 
at a very early day, and his sou Jacob was for 
many years a resident of Millersville and a de- 
voted member of the United Bi'ethren Church. 
The birth of our subject's father occurred January 
13, 1793, in Millersville, and he followed the trade 
of a tailor, both there and after his removal to 
this city in 1869. For thirty years he was an ac- 
tive worker m churcli circles, and was a Trustee 
for a long time in the Lutheran congregation. In 
the War of 1812 he was drafted into the service, 
but only went as far as Baltimore. In politics he 

was a Democrat and at one time served as Super- 
visor. His first marriage was celebrated December 
2, 1W19. with Eli/.abetli Killlieifer, wJK. was li.,rn 
.lunc 27, 17'.)7, and died October 22, ls:;(;, bi.jng 
in her f<.)rtietli year. B_v her marriage she was the 
mother of the following children: Catiierine, wife 
of Chris Fencetermacher, of Altoona, Pa.; Susan, 
Mrs. Benjamin Kuhns, of Jlillersville; JLaria, who 
died in infancy; Elizabeth, Mis. Josepii Habecker, 
of Philadel|jhia; John, whose death occurred in 
the hospital at Freeport, 111., during the Rebellion, 
and Hannah, who died in infancy. 

By his marriage with our subject's mother, April 
9, 1840, Jacob Bertzfleld liad five children: Caro- 
line; Reuben; Fannie, deceased, wife of John Mil- 
ley; Ilettie, Mrs. George Brenner, deceased, and 
Mary, who married Jacob Chambers. The mother 
of these children died October 20, 1875, in her 
sixty-third year, and the father was called from 
this life March 29, 1888, when he had readied the 
extreme old age of ninety-five years and two 

Reuben Bertzfleld attended the common schools 
of Millersville until ten years old, when he turned 
his attention to learning the trade of a cigar 
maker. For two 3ears he worked as a journej'- 
man and later started a cigar manufactory on his 
own account in Millersville, where be continued 
until 1863. At that time he enlisted in Company 
A, Eighty-seventh Pennsylvania Infantry, being 
placed in the Third Division of the Sixth Army 
Corps, Army of the Cumberland, and later being 
transferred to the Army of the Potomac. At the 
end of fourteen months' arduous service he re- 
ceived an honorable discharge, having contracted 
a severe illness. 

On recovering his health to some extent, our 
subject returned to his former employment of 
manufacturing cigars in Millersville, remaining 
here until 1869. Then coining to Lancaster, he 
worked at the same calling until 1870, when he 
associated himself with Teller Bros., dealers in leaf 
tobacco, and has been very successful in his chosen 
work, building up a remunerative trade. He is a 
Director in the Anglo-American Saving and Loan 
Association, and politicall3' is much interested in 
the success of the Republican party. Fraternally 



ho is n nienilicr fif Li.>ili:e No. 'J'.i, K. of M.; Lorlge 
Xo..s,s. K. ,,f r.: Lu,|ue Xo. -j:,}. A. (). T.W.: Lan- 
caster Council No. '.Mi'. .Ii-. ( ). I'. A. M., and Oeorge 
Reynolds No. m.",, (;. A. li. He is a member 
of St. .Tolm's Lutheran Cliuroli. wliile his wife, 
formerly Mr>. Su>an E. Lem.,n. holds memhrrsliip 
with Uie ■rrinity Lutheran Cliureh. Their union 
was celebrated .lanuary (i, liSTti, the lady lieini; a 
daughter of John Keller, of this city. 

Mrs. Bertzfleld's paternal grandfather lived to 
the age of one hundred and four years, and her 
maternal grandmother, Mrs. Susan Rumberger, 
lived to l-)e over ninetj'-five years of age. The 
father of Mrs. liertzlield served in the Seventy- 
seventh I'ennsylvania Regiment daring tlie Civil 
War as a member of Captain Wimi'r's eiunpany. 
and contracted a disease finm which his death re- 
sulted soon after his discharge. He was at an ad- 
vanced age which would have exempted him from 
duty, but he went to the front nevertheless. Ills 
son John A., of the Seventy-ninth Regiment, was 
also wounded at the battle of Champion Hills antl 
died at the hosi)ital in Louisville, Ky., at twenty- 
one years of age. He was the elder of two chil- 
dren, the other being the wife of our subject. 
Their mother died April 17, lisT.J, aged seventy- 
six years. 

M(^RRIS ZOOK, a wholesale leather and 
shoe finding and upper manufacturer, is 
justly entitled to space in this connection 
for a biographical notice. He was born m New 
Providence Township, February 11, 1841, the son 
of Noah K. Zook. who was born in Lancaster Coun- 
ty'. Our subject's father was a farmer by occupa- 
tion; he learned the woolen manufacturer's trade 
and bought a woolen mill at New Providence, 
which was run by water power. He continued to 
operate this until 1865, when he located in Stras- 
bnrg, and there died in 1879, aged seventy-four 
j-ears. In his religious convictions he was a 3Ien- 
nonite. Tlie family are noted for their longevity. 
In one of the families of ten sons and daughters, 

none died younger than seventy-four N'ears; one 
of that number >till suivives and is living in the 
far west. Our subject's mother, Susan (Miller) 
Zook, was born on a farm adjoining Lancaster 
City. She died at about the age of thirty-six 
\ears. Of her family, three sons and one daugh- 
ter are now living, our subject being the third eld- 
est. He was reared at New Providence, attend- 
ing school at that place and Millersville. In 1858 
he went to Philadelphia, where he served as a clerk 
in a whf>lesale hardwai'e store until 1862, which 
was during the Civil War ijeriod. He enlisted as 
a member of Company D, One Hundred and Twen- 
ty-second Pennsylvania Infantry. He served in 
the capacity of Sergeant for nine months, partiei- 
liating in several engagements, including Freder- 
icksliurg and Chancelhjrsville. After his return 
from the army he took charge of his father's wool- 
en mill at New Providence until 1868, when he 
engaged in the leather business at Lancaster. He 
inirchased a tannery of I). P. Locher on South 
Water Street, and was partner of A. A. Myers. 
This was followed for seventeen years. In 1885 
he sold the tannery and engaged in finishing har- 
ness and dealing in leather and findings, also man- 
ufactured boot and shoe uppers. An extensive 
business was carried on in a two-story building 
33x50 feet on Grant Street. Five men are em- 
ployed constantly to help conduct the business in 
one department, and four in another. Our subject 
is one of the stoekholders of the Champion Blower 
& Forge Co., and was one of the original incorpor- 
ators; he is also a stockholder in the Lancaster 
Trust Company, besides being connected with sev- 
eral other manufacturing industries. 

In 1866 Mr. Zook was united in marriage with 
Miss Elizabeth S. Locher, daughter of Mr. and 
Mrs. Henry T. Locher, her father being a manu- 
facturer of morocco leather and the owner of a 
morocco tannery. Our subject and his estimable 
wife have been blessed with three children: Harry 
L., engaged with his father; S. Kurtz, a jeweler on 
the corner of Orange and Queen Streets, Lancaster, 
and Catherine C, attending school. 

Mr. Zook has always been an active man and has 
served two and a-half terms on the Common Coun- 
cil from the Fourth Wai-d,and held positions on im- 




portant committees. Politicallv he is a Repiiblican. 
He is an honored member of the Masonic fraternity, 
belonging to the Blue Lodge, Chapter and Com- 
mander}'. Like many another of his comrades 
who took part in the Civil War from the Keystone 
Stata, he is a member of tiie Grand Aimy of the 
Republic. He is a consistent member of St. .Joim's 
Ciiurcii, and has been one of the Vestrymen for 
fifteen years. As a party worker he has no superior. 

MARTIX KREIDKR, one of the old and 
highly respected citizens of this county, 
is now largely retired from business but 
is still interested in various concerns in Lancaster, 
being President of the Eastern Market House, 
Treasurer and Director of the Home Mutual Fire 
Insurance Company, and a Director in the Farmers' 
National Bank, beside others that we might men- 
tion. For three 3'ears he was on the Board of 
Poor House Directors and has always lieen benev- 
olent and interested in the welfare of his fellow- 

The paternal grandfather of our subject, Toliias 
Kreider, was born in Lampeter 'I'ownship, where 
he engaged in farming on arriving at manhood, 
and there departed this life at the age of seventy- 
seven years. His father in turn bore tlie same 
Christian name, and the family is of Swiss-German 
descent, having been members of the Mennonite 
Church. Our subject.'s father, ;\Iartin Kreider, was 
born in the same locality as liis father and was a 
farmer only two miles distant from the city limits, 
where his death occurred in 1866. His wife, Eliz- 
abeth, was a daughter of Christian Rohrer, both of 
Lampeter Township, the latter being a farmer and 
distiller by occu|)ation. The mother ilie<l when over 
eighty-six years of age, leaving a family of five 
children, two having previously passed away. The 
youngest child, Daniel, took part in the battles of 
the Civil AVar, being in Nevins' Battery. 

Martin Kreider, of this sketch, was born in the 
same locality as his ancestors November 8, 1824, 
and remained at home until thirty-eight j'ears of 
age. In 1863 he located in Lancaster, becoming 

proiirietor of tlie building known as the Cross 
Keys Hotel on West King Street near the square, 
so called on account of the two large crossed gilt 
keys with which it is surmounted. The hotel of 
the same name was o[)erated by Mr. Kreider for 
alxiut seventeen years, and in connection with it 
he carried on a stable until 1S80. He then became 
the owner of and located at No. '224 East King 
Street, since which time he has merely looked after 
his real estate. The Cross Keys, which had been a 
hotel for over one hundre<l years, wa.-> rebuilt in 
1882 into stores. 

During the time that Mr. Kreider was oneof the 
Directors of the Poor, from 1883 to 1886, a wing 
of the liospital was liurned and later rebuilt. At 
another time the county liarn was burned and also 
rebuilt. He well rememliers when the Pennsylva- 
nia Railroad was built and when his father hauled 
his own farm products to Philadelphia. Since 1882 
our subject has been a Director in the Farmers' Na- 
tional Bank and has been President of the p].astern 
Market H(^use since it was started, it now having 
a capital of ^50,000. The Home Mutual Fire In- 
surance Companj', of which he has been Treasurer 
since 1891, is a large organization, having over 
three million places insuied. For some years he 
has been one of the Directors of the Peoi)le's 
Building, Loan and Deposit Company. He is also 
a stockholder in the Ilaii]ilt.)ii Watch Company 
and one of the promoters and Directois of the 
Conestoga and Beaver A'alley Pike. 

In this city our subject married Mary E. (Tr(^iff, 
who was bi.irii in Diuniore Township, and they 
have two children. Anna and Mary. Mis. Kreider 
is a member of the First Reformed Churcli. Our 
subject, who has traveled considerably, went to 
Ohio in 1846 and made his return trip by team, 
the journey taking some seventeen days; he went 
to Chicago as early as 1852. He is an active and 
influential member of the Republican party. 

— <g i'^ 


FRANK PFEIFFER bears the distinction of 
being the oldest slate roofer in the city of 
Lancaster. Ilis office is located at No. 
230 West King Street and his yard at No. 514 West 



Orange Street. He is engaged in dealing in i)lain 
and fancy roofing slate, roofing paper, slate fiag- 
ging for pavements, etc. He has been a resident 
of the city since 1846 and therefore bears a wide 
acquaintance, and is a man who makes friends of 
all whom he meets. 

Our subject was born across the water in Hesse- 
Darmstadt, Germany, June 9, 1825, and is the son 
of William Pfeiflfer, also a native of the Fatherland, 
where he followed the trade of a painter. He 
joined oursiibject in the New World, and dej)arted 
this life in Lancaster when in the seventy-third 
year of his age. His good wife, prior to her mar- 
riage known as Maria Storm, was also born in Ger- 
many and died here at the advanced age of eighty- 
three years. The parents w'ere devoted meinljers 
of the Lutheran Church. 

The parental family comprised ten children, five 
sons and five daughters. William, who is living 
in New York City, served during the late war as 
Lieutenant of his regiment and was wounded a 
number of times. Frank, of this sketch, was reared 
in his native place and until fourteen years of age 
attended school. He was then apprenticed to a 
slate roofer and after mastering the business 
worked as a journeyman for three years. In the 
spring of 1846 he determined to try his fortunes 
in America, and in com[)any with his brotiier, 
Balthaser, left Bremen on a sailing-vessel which 
was fifty-four days in making the journey. 

On arriving in this country our subject made 
his way directly to Philadelphia, where he worked 
at his trade until the following spring, the date of 
his advent into this city, with whose interests he 
has since been identified. Not being able to secure 
work at his trade just then, he was variously em- 
ployed until the following year, when he was given 
employment as a slate roofer. (Jne week after en- 
tering the employ of the company he was made 
foreman of the business, which position he held for 
nine years, after which he opened up in business for 
liimself on East King Street, doing contract work 
and dealing in all kinds of roofing materials. Since 
1892, however, his place of business has been at 
No. 230 West King Street. He keeps constantly 
on hand Vermont red and green roofing slate, Le- 
high A Bangor slate, and all varieties of roofing 

paper, having the largest supply and the best ma- 
terial of any establishment in the county. 

The original of this sketch married in this 
city in 1854 to Miss Elizabeth Weller, born in 
Chestnut Hill, tiiis county, and the daughter of 
Fred Weller, a shoemaker. Mrs. Pfeiffer departed 
this life in 1891, leaving five children, namely: 
Emma, the wife of (ieorge Shari); Lizzie, who mar- 
ried L. H. Bacher; Amanda, who is at home with 
our subject; Mary, the wife of Dr. John Palmer, 
and Frank W., engaged in business in Lancaster. 

In social affairs Mr. Pfeiffer is a prominent Ma- 
son, belonging to both Council and Commandery. 
He is also a Knight of Pythias and an Odd Fellow, 
holding membership with Hebel Lodge. He is a 
member of Zion's Lutheran Church and gives ma- 
terial aid to its suiiport. In politics he is a be- 
liever ill Democratic iirinciples and gives the can- 
didates of the party his influence and vote. 


'^ X ilent nf Lancaster is engaoed i 

sale and lelail coal liu-ine>s. having his 
yards located at Xu. 22 Ea-t King Sticet. He is 
also one of the proi)rietors of the Lancaster Paper 
and Bag Mills, with his office at the above number, 
and the mills situated in Slackwater, this county. 
Our suliject was born in this city, October 14, 
1857, and is the son of George Shulmyer, who was 
born in Heidelberg, Germany, and on attaining 
mature years, learned the trade of a rope-maker. 
In 1853 he crossed the Atlantic, locating in Lan- 
caster, where the folhiwingyear he began the man- 
ufacture of rupc, iiiaking that article by hand, and 
having his place of business at No. 602 North 
Queen Street. There he continued to operate un- 
til 1882, when he abandoned that occupation alto- 
gether. In 1869 he had eniharked in the coal 
business in company with Me>M>. Ailam and Phili[) 
Finger, the firm operating under the title of Shul- 
mver it Finger. This connection lasted until 
1875, when the partnership was dissolved, and 



each coiitiiuied to luindle coal alone. fieoige 
Shulniyer, Sr., in l.sT'J toiik in as partner A. W. 
Russell, and purchasing the j-ards of D. P. Bitner. 
they continued in business together until 1884, 
when in February' of that year the former died. 
He was a ver\' prominent man in local affairs, was 
a member of the Common Council, and Director 
in the Maennerchor Hall Association. In politics 
he was a stanch Democrat, and in religious affairs 
"a devoted member of St. Steplien's Lutheran 

Mrs. Julia A. (Ochsley) Shulmyer, the mother 
of our subject, was also born in the Fatherland, 
near the city of Heidelberg, and was married after 
coming to the United States. She is still living, 
and resides in the old home. George, of this 
sketch, was next to the eldest of five children, and | 
received his education in the public schools of this 
city. He earl}- learned the trade of a rope-maker, 
and in 1875 entered his father's coal yards, hav- , 
ing charge of the ottice work. 

In 1881 our subject went to Philadelphia, and 
July 2 of that year began in the retail coal busi- 
ness on his own account, having liis yards located 
on the corner of Eighteenth Street and Washing- 
ton Avenue. These he operated until the death of 
bis father in 1884, when he disposed of his inter- 
ests in the Quaker City, and returning lujine, took 
charge of liis father's interest in the business here. 
The firm was known as Russell & Shulmyer until [ 
July, 1886, when the senior member died. Since i 
that time our subject has conducted affairs alone, ,' 
and has been ver}' successful in all his undertak- 
ings. His yards are located near the railroad, 
where he has every convenience for loading and 
unloading coal, and in his ottice he has telephone [ 
connection with his down-town office. He handles 
all kinds of coal, including anthracite, bituminous 
and cannel, being the only dealer m the city to 
carry the latter grade. 

Mr. Shulmyer is also engaged in the manu- 
facture of paper and paper bags, being one of 
tiie proprietors of the Lancaster Paper and Bag 
Mills. This has been in operation only since Jan- 
uary, 1894, and has a capacity of four tons of [la- 
per per day. The machinery is operated b}' water- 
power, and the mill is superintended by W. J. 

Smith. Our subject IS a Director in the building 
and loan association, together with the Mutual 
Fire Insurance Company. Socially, he is a prom- 
inent Odd Fellow, belonging to Lancaster Lodge 
No. (57. In politics he is a stanch Democrat, and 
at all times is loval to the interests of his part\. 


E^ D\VAHI) M. COIIX is one of the most pop- 
Cy ular young business men of Lancaster and 
ranks high among his associates and fellow- 
citizens. He is a son of Gustav Cohn, a successful 
physician, who for many years engaged in practice 
at Wanfrieil, near Cassel, Kuhrhessen, (Germany. 
He was a very prominent and honored man in that 
locality and ever manifested a public spirit. In 
later years he was appointed a pensioner of the 
Government for services he had rendered. He was 
a man of excellent education, having pursued his 
studies in the Universities of Gottingen and Mar- 
burg, and stood in the front rank of the medical 
profession. His father, also a noted scholar, was a 
teacher in the Jewish school and was sanctioned 
head )ireacher by the < ;o\ernmeut. The mother 
of Edward jNL, who before her marriage was Ra- 
chinaWeck, died when her son was onl\' a year old. 
The subject of this biography was born May 17, 
18.53, in Germany, and received a superior educa- 
tion in his native language, his name having been 
enrolled for some time in the Schmal Kalden Col- 
lege. In 1874 he came to the United States with 
a relative and located in New YorkCit}', where he 
became clerk for an importer of mirrors, etc.. and 
remained in that jiosition for five years. It was 
in 1879 that he first came to Lancaster, where for 
about three or four years he worked as a clerk for 
a California tobacco house, and during a portion 
of this time he carried on a small business on his 
own account. F'or about three years he dealt in 
leaf tobacco, his warehouse being located at No. 3.'54 
North Queen Street. In 1885 he moved to the C(ji- 
ner of Duke and Chestnut Streets, where he deals 




lioarl (if 

extensively in leaf tob!iC( 

the Pennsylvania C'ijiar Company and has met 

with good success in both branches. 

On the nth of April, 1881, ?:dward M. Colin 
was united in marriage with Miss Sarah Ileciit, 
who grew to womanhood and received her ediiea- 
titin in Philadeliihia. She is a daughter of Samuel 
Ileclit, who was engaged in the wholesale notion 
business on Third Street, Philadelphia, and was 
numbered among the jjrosperous tiusiness men of 
that metropolis. 

Politically ^Ir. Cohn is ardently attached to the 
principles set forth b}' the Republican party and 
in every possible manner upholds and promotes 
every measure pertaining to the growth and pros- 
perity of this city and the lienelit of his fellows. 
Fraternally he is associated with the Royal Arca- 
num, and beingaffable and pleasingin manner, has 
thereby won hosts of warm friends. lie is identi- 
fied with several Jewish organizations and a num- 
ber of charilalile institutions of various kinds. 




DAVID C. HOFFSTADT, proprietor of a 
general country store at Felort, Manor 
Township, has carried on this enterprise 
for the past seven years, meeting with good suc- 
cess and keeping a well selected stock continually 
on hand. lie is a self-made and self-educated man, [ 
who has had to depend entirely on his own un- 
assisted efforts and native qualities in the battle of 
life, having overcome many obstacles which would 
have daunted a man of less courage. From very 
early j^ears he has literally had to "paddle his own 
canoe," as he was deprived of his father by death 
when he was (miy four years old and five years 
later had to go to live with strangers. 

David C, of this sketch, is a son of Adam and I 
Hannah (Creep) Iloffstadt, and his birth occurred 
November 25, 1842, in Yokemtowu, York County, | 

Pa. Adam Iloffstadt was a miller by trade and 
this calling he followed near '^'okemtown. where 
his life was mainly passed, (irandfather Peter 
Iloffstadt followed agriculture for his life work. 
When four years old David C. was taken by his 
grandmotlicr and liveil with linr until nine years 
of age. When ipiite young he learned the trade, 
of a cigar-maker in Yorkemtown with an uncle, 
at which business he served an apprenticeship of 
three years. Later he learned the carpenter's trade, 
to which he devoted his attention for four years, 
and then took u|) coach-making, his knowledge of 
carpentry serving him in good stead. To the lat- 
ter calling he has mainly devoted his life and has 
in the course of time built up a good business. In 
1887 he engaged in general merchandising and in 
1891 started in the undertaking business, manu- 
facturing his own goods and often employing as 
many as ten men in the several departments of his 
business. He has succeeded in making a good liv- 
ing and in the acquisition of a comfortable com- 
petence, and this he has done by means of hard 
work and perseverance, for he started his business 
career without means and even without the usual 
education which is the almost universal heritage 
of American children. He is certainly entitled to 
great praise for what he has accomplished under 
these discouraging circumstances. His worthy 
characteristics have won for him the friendship 
and respect of those who know him, and in 1887 
he was made Postmaster at Letort, having secured 
an ottice at that point, to which he had carried the 
mail most of the time for four years at his own 
expense. Politically he is a Democrat, and sociallj' 
belongs to Christian M. Howel Lodge No. 496, 
F. & A. M., at Safe Harbor. 

September 20, 1863, our subject married Bar- 
bara, daughter of Henry Fishel, a resident of 
Washington Borough. To our subject and his 
worthy wife were born seven children, Lilly; Han- 
nah, wife of Jonas Henry, who works for his father- 
in-law; Christian, Henry, Eli, Mary and Alice. 
The grandfather of Mrs. Iloffstadt was a farmer of 
Manor Township, and his family ci.imprised the 
following children, Jolin, Freil, George, Henry, 
Sallie (Mrs. Ent), Lizzie (Mrs. Dritt), and Cath- 
erine (Mrs. Randall). Henry Fishel married Mis.s 



Marj- Fry, by whom he had eleven ehihlreii, Eliz- 
abeth, Daniel, liarbara, Adam, Ann !\I. Caroline 
(who died wlien quite young), Abrani and Henry 
(twins), Amanda (Mrs. Sliopf), Kate (Mrs. Dritt), 
and Mary, wife of George Sheltz, 

(Tp^ BRAHAM C. STAUFFER, one of tlie rep- 
/ — \ resentative citizens of Manheim Town- 
ship, and a man of enterprise and influ- 
ence, is engaged in floricultural pursuits and also 
raises various kinds of vegetables for the city 
market. He has a good greenhouse on his place 
and makes a specialty of the cultivation of carna- 
tions and violets. 

The original of this sketch is tiie son of .lohn 
and p]lizabelh (Charles) Stauffer and was l)orn in 
Manor Township, this county, A|)ril 0, I.SJ4. The 
Stauffers in this vicinity ai-e of German descent, 
and as far back as is known were all well-to-do 
farmers. John Stauffer was a native of West Ilemp- 
field Townshii), Lancaster County, and owned at 
one time a valual)le estate, comprising two hun- 
dred broad and well cultivated acres. He was a 
member of the Dunkard Church, and was a firm 
believer in Democratic principles, politically. 

Our subject was the youngest in a family of two 
sons and three daughters, named as follows: .lacob 
C; Barbara, the deceased wife of Dr. Kendig, of 
Salunga; Esther, deceased; Elizabeth and Abraham 
C. The father departed this life in .July, 1852, at 
the age of fort^'-six years; his good wife survived 
him many years, passing away in January, 1891, 
at the advanced age of eightj--three years. They 
were members of the Dunkard and Mennonite 
Churches respectively. 

Abraham C. was reared on his father's farm and 
remained at home until reaching his twentieth 
.year, during which time he received a good educa- 
tion in the district schools. Going to Pougiikeep- 
sie, N. Y., he entered Eastman's Business College, 
where he took the full course, and was graduated 

in 1864. lie then returned to the farm which he 
owned in "West Ilempfield Township, and after 
three years engaged in its cultivation, sold the 
tract and migrated to Ohio, making his home in 
the Buckeye State for six j-ears, engaged in vari- 
ous business enterprises. 

At the expiration of that time Mr. Stauffer re- 
turned home, and in 1877 moved upon his present 
place, which he purchased from his sister Esther. 
In 1886 he became the proprietor of twentj'-five 
acres of land on the Petersburg Pike, just one mile 
from the citj- of Lancaster, where he follows gar- 
dening and where his green douses are located. He 
has every variety of small vegetables upon his place, 
and is making a decided success of this industry. 
He raises none but the best and consequently finds 
a ready market for his produce and a price above 
the average. Altliough his greenhouses are stocked 
with every form of plant life which can be grown 
in that section, he makes a specialty of cultivating 
carnations and violets. 

Our subject is a true blue liepublican in politics, 
and while living in ( )hiii sciNcd as a member of the 
School Board. November 1. ls61, he married Miss 
Hettie R., daughter of Jolian Leahman, a farmer of 
Manor Township, this county. To them were 
born five children, one of whom died in infancv; 
the others are, Ida May. who died at the age of 
thirteen years; John .I.,a telegraph operator on the 
Pennsylvania Road, located at Kauffman: Charles 
and Annie E. Mrs. Stauffer is a member of the 
Mennonite Church. In every respect they are val- 
ued and most highly esteemed citizens, whom we 
are glad to represent in this volume. 


REUBEN P. SW.\UR, engaged in the manu- 
facture of cigars in Landisville, is the son 
of John and Elizabeth (Peifer) Swarr, and 
was born in East HempHeld Township, September 
12, 1855. The father died January 25, 1887, when 
sixty-seven years of age. His good wife is still 
living, and makes her home in East Petersburg. 

^Many years ago three brothers, ancestors of our 
subject, emigrated from Switzerland, bound for the 


New World, .ind on nrriviiiir hove located west of 
the city of l.aiieaster on a tract of land which they 
farmed, .lohn Swarr, the great-grandfather of our 
subject, was born in 1734, and died in 1821. He 
was twice married, his first wife being Miss ^^eron- 
ica Shirk, who died in 1779, V>y her he became 
tlie fatiier of the following-named children: .Tohn, 
Christian, Peter, Veronica and Ann, His second 
wife, who bore the maiden name of Blagdalene 
Nissby, was born November 14, 1762, and died in 
lS,-)2, She became the mother of Martin, giand- 
father of our subject, who was born (October 25, 
17.S8, and died February 5, 1847, 

Martin Swarr, the grandfather, was also a farmer 
iu this township, in which pursuit he was success- 
ful, and belonged to the Mennonite Church. He 
first married Miss Anna Heistand, who bore him 
five children, of whom three died when young. 
The only sister of John, the father of our subject, 
who lived was Martha, who married Jacob Easier, 
and on his death became the wife of John Shenck. 
The lady who became the second wife of Martin 
Swarr was Ellizabeth Milling, and to them was 
granted a family- of seven children, Annie, David, 
Martin, Jacob, Amos, Susan and Elizabeth. 

The father of our subject, Jolin Swarr, was a na- 
tive of Hast Hempfield Township, and in follow- 
ing farm pursuits was very prosperous, accumu- 
lating three hundred and fifty acres. He was an 
active member of the Mennonite Church, and iu 
politics voted with the Republican party after its 
organization. He was greatly interested in the 
cause of education in his neighborhood, and for 
many years served as a member of the School 
Board. His wife was the daughter of John Peifer, 
of ;\Ianlieim Township, and to them were born 
eight >ons and two daughters, of whom three died 
in infancy. They were, Phares, Martin, Hiram, 
John, :Meno, Reuben and Lizzie Ann. 

Reuben P. Swarr received his education in the 
public schools and the Millersville State Normal. 
When leaving school he engaged for a short time 
as clerk in INIanheim, after which he i-ctiirned to 
till' old homestead and resided there for the fol- 
lowing three years. Then c(.iming to Landisville, 
he began the manufacture of cigars, and now oc- 
cupies a building two and one-half stories in 

height, and 30x,50 feet in size. He does 825,000 
worth of business annually, and gives employment 
to from thirty to forty hands. He manufactures 
several special brands of cigars, and is thoroughly 
familiar with every detail of the business. 

December 23, 1880, R, P, Swarr and Miss Annie 
S„ daughter of Jacob Risser. of Rapho Township, 
this county, were united in marriage. Their three 
children are respectively Mabel, born in 1883, J. 
Reuben in 1885, and Annie in 1887, Mrs, Swarr 
departed this life December 10, 1887, She was 
greatly lieloved by those who knew her. and her 
death was a severe blow to her husband and fam- 
ily. In his political relations our subject is a 
stanch Repul)lican, and is one of the most public 
spirited citizens of Landisville, where he has many 
warm friends. 

ISAAC DILLER'SSONS. This firm of wholesale 
and retail dealers in hardware at Lancaster is 
composed of William F. and Charles F. Diller. 
This is tme of the most successful business concerns 
of the city and is situated at No. 7 East King 
Street, in a central location. They manufacture 
tinware, roofing and plumbing material of all 
kinds, and sella general line of hardware, includ- 
ing stoves, iron and steel, and blacksmith supplies. 
The business occupies four floors and they have 
additional warehouses 35x100 feet. Several men 
are employed as traveling salesmen on the road. 
The}' handle powder, which they keep in maga- 
zines out of the limits of the city. In 1893 they 
established the Lancaster Peerless Emery Wheel 
Company on North AVater Street, and have re- 
cently increased their capacity threefold. They 
ein|)loy three men on the road in that line con- 
stantly, and are conducting a rapidly increasing 
business. This fact is in part exi)lained by the fact 
that their wheel is the only one made by a process 
wliich includes the burning to a white heat, whicii 
destroys all impurities, and further that each wlieel 
is subjected to hydraulic pressure, which makes it 



as superior to another wheel as a pressed brick to 
an ordinary one. 

Isaac Diller, Hie senior member of this firm, was 
born in Lancaster February 5, 1823, and is a di- 
rect descendant of Casper Diller, a French Hugue- 
not, and the progenitor of the family in Lancaster 
County. There are documents in the possession of 
the family dating back to Michael Dilier (1543), 
who was a court preacher and also a distinguished 
literary man, some of his works being still extant. 
Casper Diller came to America with his wife, Bar- 
bara, whom he had married in England, accom- 
panied by their two children, and in 173'J settled 
in the locality of New Holland, on Mill Creek, 
where he engaged in agriculture, becoming a very 
successful man. 

Many members of tlie family have been pronii- 
nentl3' identified with the medical and legal pro- 
fessions and the ministry; some gained distinction 
in the Revolutionary War and in subsequent strug- 
gles for the rights of American citizens in the 
United States. Casper Uillei liad thiee sons, 
Philip Adam, II. Martin and Casper, .Tr. He also 
had seven daughters. Philip Adam was liorn near 
Heidelberg, Germany, and came to Lancaster with 
his parents. He married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Leonard P^llmaker. who came fiom (iermany and 
settled in Earl Townshii) in 172(!. One of tlieir 
children was Leonard, the grandfather of Isaac; his 
father was George A., who resided in Lancaster, 
where he was in business the most of his life. One of 
his brothers was the proprietor of DiUerville, and 
for two terms, beginning in 1835, was Adjutant- 
General of I'ennsylvania, the second highest office 
in the state at tliat period. He was also Sheriff of 
Lancaster County when it embraced much more 
territory than at present. During the ^Mexican 
War he raised a company for service and was out 
for a short time. He was a bold and courageous 
man and a splendid horseman. 

Isaac Diller was reared at Lancaster and started 
out in life as a boy in tlie mercantile business. His 
first employment was that of a clerk in a grocery 
store, and from 1836 to 1843 he was a clerk in the 
dry-goods store of George Fahenstock. He spent 
five years in the store of .Tohn M. Lane and gained 
a reputation for integiity, besides acquiring val- 

uable knowledge of the business. In 1848 he en- 
tered the hardware store of Steinman as book- 
keeper, and afterward became a valuable salesman. 
From 1860 to 1872 he was a partner in the firm 
which was known as George iM. Steinman it Co. 
At the last named date he retired from the firm, 
hut continued his business relations with it until 
1877, when he purchased the large hardware estab- 
lishment on East King Street, which business he 
snccessfull}- conducted, assisted by his sons. He 
was a Vestryman of St. .James' Episcopal Church 
until he helped to organize St. John's Free Church 
in 1853, of which he was a charter member. He was 
Chairman of the building committee and Senior 
Warden from 1854, a compliment bestowed upon 
him by each succeeding rector. He always mani- 
fested a deep interest in the affairs of the church. 
In the renovation of the property in 1871 he as- 
sumed three-fifths of the expenses incurred, be- 
sides the sum subscribed, and as tlie records show, 
made "a generous donation of the lot adjoining." 

In 1840 Mr. Diller was united in marriage with 
Miss Anna M., daughter of .Taeob Frey and grand- 
daughter of .Tacob Frey, one of the early merchants 
of Lancastei", who was one of the reception com- 
mittee of five to receive and entertain Oen. George 
Washington when he visited Lancaster, .luly 4, 
1780, the only recorded time that the father of 
our country ever visited the place. Mrs. Diller 
survives, with the following children: William F., 
Charles ]'>., Lydia and Anna M. The sad fate of 
the eldest son. Rev. Alonzo P. Diller, is remem- 
bered by all. Together with his family he met 
death in the terrible Johnstown flood. He was a 
graduate of Franklin and Marshall College of 
Lancaster, as well as of the General Theological 
Seminary of New York, and was a prominent min- 
ister in the Episcopal Church. Samuel B. Diller, 
the youngest son, is the manager for his family of 
the controlling interest which they own in a large 
tract of coal and timber land in West \'irginia. 
and is also President and builder of the Roaring 
Creek it Charleston Railroad, twenty miles long, 
which runs through the above property. 

Mr. Diller never sought or filled any public of- 
fice, and whatever he did was without ostentation. 
He distributed his charities in a quiet way and 



many sucli acts were never known even to liis 
family. A relined gentleman, of simple habits, 
possessing a pure mind and a good heart, he was 
also a progressive citizen, ever ready and willing 
to assist in a good cause. Socially he was an hon- 
ored member of the JMasonie fraternity, belonging 
to Lodge No. 43, F. & A. M. lie died Novem- 
ber 28, 1892,aftera brief illnessof two weeks. His 
last visit outside of his house was Sunday morn- 
ing two weeks prior to his death, when he attended 
services at St. John's Episcopal Church and wit- 
nessed the baptism of his youngest grandson. He 
became afflicted with a stroke of paralysis and this 
progressed gradually until it affected his entire 
body, finally resulting in his death, thus ending a 
long, eventful and well spent career. 


^ ^ "."^ILIJAM P. Wnrni occui)ies the very 

\/\,/ res|)onsible position of Chief Engineer 
of the Edison Electric Illuminating 
Company of Lancaster and has been longer in the 
employ of this concern than any other man. He 
is a fine mechanic and well versed in his calling, 
and by tlie faithful manner in which he discharges ' 
all (if the duties devolving ujiun him has won the 
entire esteem and confidence of his superiors. Jn 
manner being very genial and pleasant to all, he has 
won many warm friends and is very popular among 
those will I liave the pleasure of his acquaintance. 
Tliiiiigli a native of LalUinoie. wlun-e his birth oc- ' 
cuiicd .Ivuie 12, IS I'.i, 1k' was reared in this cit^y j 
and with its welfare has been identified nearly all 
his life. 

The p;itrrii:il gianilfaUier of imr subject, Will- 
iuMi Wirlh, uaslHun in liesse-l )arnislaill, ( Jerniany, 
and was a practical blacksmith, which viication he 
followed during his entire active life. The father, j 
Peter, a native of the same locality, came to Amer- 
ica in his boyhood, and being a practical mechanic 
and blacksmith, engaged in work at his trade in j 

Baltimore. About 1856 he was an employe of the 
Melcher Rifie Works, five miles from that cit3', 
continuing with them until he came to Lancaster. 
At one time he served in the Government employ 
on the gunboat "Princeton," and his death oc- 
curred when he was in his sixty-fifth year. Both 
he and his wife were active workers in the Re- 
formed Church, and the latter is still living, her 
home being in Lancaster. In her girlhood she 
bore the name of Hannah Wendt, and her birth 
occurred in Hanover, Germany. 

William P. Wirth is one of two sons and a 
daughter who grew to maturity, and with his 
brothers and sisters attended the public schools of 
this cit}-. With his father he was for a time em- 
ployed in the Henry E. Lemon Rifle Works, work- 
ing for that firm about seven years and becoming 
engineer. Mi. Wirth then started at No. 527 North 
Christian Street, in paitnership with his father in 
the m.anufacture of gun locks, tools, etc., and con- 
tinued at that point for three or four years. In 
187G he went to Philadelphia to accept the posi- 
tion of hotel engineer jn the St. Cloud Hotel and 
soon was promoted to be chief engineer. 

In 1878 Mr. Wirth returned to Lancaster, doing 
general engineering work until 1886, when he was 
offered the post of assistant engineer in the Edi- 
son Electric Illuminating Company, the plant of 
which had just been completed. He accepted this 
position and v.-as of some assistance in putting 
the niacliiiiery in proper shape. The same year 
he was made chief engineer and under his advice 
the concern has been enlarged and many improve- 
ments made on the original plans. The city in- 
corporated this company, buying out the old 
United States Company and starting in with four 
engines of one hundred horse-power, which have 
been increased to those of the present with a ca- 
pacity of twelve hundred horse-power. The P^lec- 
tric Company can furnish six thousand Edison 
lights with two thousand alternates, one hundred 

streets. I ndcr the supervision of our suliject 
there are at the [iresent time about nine men, and 
to every branch of the work he gives his personal 

In 1876 our subject was married in Philadel- 







pliia to Miss Margaret A. Brubaker, a native of 
Manheim Township and a daugliter of ISIietiael 
Brubaker, who formerly operated a farm. Mr. and 
Mrs. Wirth have a familj- of five children: Harry 
B., Irene M., Margaret E., William C. and Clarence 
P. The parents hold membership with the First 
Reformed Church of this city and are highly es- 
teemed by their many friends and acquaintances. 
Our subject belongs to the Order of Red Men and 
politically votes with the Democratic [larty. 

HENRY BOMBERGER. a brick manufac- 
turer of Lancaster, is one of its success- 
ful business men, his products finding a 
ready sale in this vicinity. In addition to his 
regular line of work he has invested in other en- 
terprises, and is quite extensively interested in 
building operations, owning and having erected 
about thirty houses and other liuildings. Besides 
this he has put up a planing mill for general work 
and the manufacture of sash, doors and blinds. 
His brick kilns and works are fitted out with mod- 
ern improvements in his line, and turn out a fine 
grade of work. 

Mr. Bomberger was born in Rheinboyer, Lan- 
terecht, Germany, June 25, 1845. His father, Law- 
rence, a native of the same locality, was a carpen- 
ter and cooper b}' trade. May 12, 1846, he landed 
in Lancaster, after a voyage of fort\'-eight days 
on the briny deep in a sailing-vessel, in which he 
and bis wife and two children had embarked at 
Bremen. For eighteen years he was actively en- 
gaged in working at his trade, after which he 
turned his attention to market gai'dening on Manor 
Street, which calling he followed for many years. 
He was born in 1811, and died in Lancaster, Octo- 
ber 1, 1893. His wife, formerly Mary Ileitzemer, 
died in 1885. They were both members of the 
Lutheran Church, and in politics the father was a 
Democrat. Of their five children, Henry is next 
to the eldest. 

Until attaining his twelfth year, our subject 
continued to reside under the parental I'oof in this 

vicinit}', and at this time commenced working for 
neighboring families. He was only a lad of about 
thirteen when he commenced learning his father's 
trade of a cooper under his instruction. On be- 
coming master of the business, he started a shop 
of his own on Hazel and Loveland Streets, and 
succeeded very well at this occupation, employing 
about one d(jzen hands, and continuing in the 
trade for some twenty -seven years. Latterly he 
was located on Manor Street, and had turned his 
attention somewhat toward brickmaking. Finally 
he sold out his cooperage and became foreman for 
.lames Brangley, a brick manufacturer, working 
steadily for the succeeding live years. At the end 
of that time he engaged in putting up five frame 
houses on Fifth Street for himself, doing the work 
mainly alone. Three of these places he has sold, 
and the other two he still owns. 

In the fall of 18'J2 Jlr. Bomberger purchased 
the brickyard formerly owned by Peter Zeigler. 
He now owns eleven and thi'ee-fourth acres of 
ground on Pearl and Second Streets. He has a 
bnck machine and manufactures mainly by hand, 
emplciyiiig two sets of men as moklers. The clay 
used in this brick is of a fine quality, which stands 
the weather and is impervious to moisture. The 
engines and boilers used arc of twenty-five and 
thirty-five horse-power, respectively; the kilns 
have a capacity of one hundred and twenty-six 
thousand brick apiece, there being two in number 
of the square shai)e. The sheds in use can contain 
aliout one hundred and thirty-five thousand brick, 
and tlif drying place has a caiiaeity of (nie bun- 
dled and twenty thousand, five hundred and 
twenty. The works are run steadil3' during the 
summer season, when thirty-five hands are em- 
ployed. Mr. Bomberger still continues his build- 
ing operations, and has put up a planing mill 
34x60 feet in dimensions, and still owns thirteen 
city residences. Four teams are constantly em- 
ployed to deliver the products of his brick manu- 
factory and the trade of the concern issteadil}- in- 

The home of our subject, a substantial and well 
K)uilt residence, is at No. 202 Pearl Street. He was 
married in the Vine Street Church of this city in 
1867 to Miss Charlotte Willig, who was born in 




(Germany, and 

-f.i Willi r. 


ilics. M 
.an \vl,( 

. 1 


whom 1 

1 liis fallicr: anil William. Ir 
Ik rp'r viitc-^ in favor of Ihi- \>vh\- 
liy the Dcmocralie liartv. Ik' h 
.-. till' olt'cm of hi.sfellow-citizeus 


Reiiuhlican party. His death occun-ed at tiie age 
of sixiy-iwo year-, in November, 1888, and his 
wife (icpai led this life September 1(1. 181)2. ac;ed 
sixty -six years. 

The birth of David I!, ocenrred .Inne 2. 1853, 
and his ediir.'ition w;is received in the i)ublic 
srlio(.ls of lliuhville. whu-li he attended more or 
less until M-venleen years of ago. After leaving 
seliool he workc'il on a farm in Manheirn Town- 
ship until ahont twenty-two years of age, at which 
tinu' he commeneed serving an apprenticeship at 
the blaeksmilii's trade in Safe Harbor and completed 
it at the end of two years. Later he worked with 
Benjamin K. Kchelman, with whom he remained 
for eleven years, hi he purchased his pres- 

DAVinB. KALFF^LAX. of Manor Town- ent place, which comjirises five acres. He has 
ship, is en^aned m'a general blacksmith made the most of its improvements, consisting of 
and wagon-making business, having been , a new frame residence, a good shop. etc. 
located at his present place for the past .six years. ] November l:). IsT'.t. Mr. Kanffman married Bar- 
lie is a practical workman, who knows thoroughly | bara Dear-ter, of Creswell. Her father. Frederick 
ever\- br.-inch of his liusiness an<l receives patron- Learster, feillows the business of fence construction. 
a"e from far and near. 1 le comes from one of the Mr. and ]Mrs. Kaufifman have become the parents 
pioneer families of Lancaster County, his grand- j of five children, Ada D.. Blaine D., Elma D., Es- 
father. Jolm Kauffman, in his early life having I ther I), and Ralph I). They are members of the 
lived ill this township near Creswell, where he Evangelical Church and have many warm friends 
operated a goinl farm. Later he reiw.ved U> Rolir- in this c(miniiiii ity. A true blue Republican, Mr. 
erstown. iiMliis county, where his death occurred Kaulfman is active in the ranks of hi~ panv, and 
in ISC,:;, at the age of sixty-six years, having been at one time served as Judge of electi.uis. He is 
liorn in 1797. In iwlitics he was a Republican, doing well in his biisine-- \entiire. and as he turns 

and reliu'iously he was a member of the Old Men- out only the best of w( 
iHuiite Church. By his wife, formerly a Miss customers who give hi 
Lnnnor. he had ■-ix children: Katie, who became 
the wife of .lames Hughes; lienjamin T., Lizzie, 

Mattie, Aljram and Abner. ^^^___^— -,^..{.4.4. 

Abner B. Kauffman, the father of our subject, ' ■Jr-i-i-'.' 

was born in Manor Township and learned the 
cooper's triide, which he followed for seven years 
at Millersville, and then pursued his calling at 
Safe llarlior for a time. Afterward he was engaged 
at the butcher's trade until his death. He mar- 
ried Mrs. Catharine (Crec.nwall) I'.oweii. win, had in tins city since l,si;,-,. 
tw.. children. Cyrus and Henry, by her marriage Street, and ha^ built up an 
with Cyrus I'.oweii. To Mr. and Mrs. Kauffman , the relialile ,-laiidai d .and I 
were born ten childivn. .lolin. Lizzie, David B ! ways carries. He numbei 
Lenitimin F.. Amanda. Kale, Mattie, Amos i^., many of the oldest ami be 
.lennie and Abram. The father was a member of some of whom have const.-i 
the Lnited Ihethren Church, and voted with the , with him for the |.ast tlii 


an enterprising 
f Lancaster, has 
ocery business 
No. 1.^)7 West King 
•client reputation for 

their < 
A nati 


German}', Mr. Scliaefer was born .11 Ma'^san, Si'p- 
teniber 25, 1837, being a son nf Ik'iiiy SrliaeftT. 
likewise a native of the Fatlierland. who follnwe.l 
the trade of a cabinet-maiier. On renii'viu^ ti> 
tlie United Stales he located in this city, in l»(j;t. 
and continued to make his home here until iiis 
death, in 1873, when he had attained the age of 
scvent3--five years. lie was a devoted memlier of 
the Lutheran Church and came from a lon^' lived 
family, his father having i)assed away when in his 
eighty-sixth year. 

The mother of "William Scliaefer, who was mar- 
ried in Germany, was a native of that land and 
bore the maiden name of Margaret Winkle. I!y 
her marriage she liecame the mother of six chil- 
dren, four sons and two daughters, namely: Chris- 
tian, Charles, William and Jacob (deceased): Hen- 
rietta, Mrs.Goodecker, and Catherine, Mrs. Schlaush. 
Mrs. Henry Schaefer is still living, at the extreme 
old age of ninety-two years. 

William Schaefer, of this sketch, received a good 
education in his native language, but was obliged 
to leave his studies when fourteen years of age in 
order to obtain a livelihood. For some time he 
worked at various pursuits, steadily laying aside a 
certain sum, for he was determined to come to the 
United States, believing that he would have better 
opportunities for the acquisition of a fortune in 
this country. When he found himself able to 
carry out his plans he left his native land in a 
sailing-vessel, and vn his arrival in New Yi.iik 
City pursued his westward journe\', landing in 
Lancaster in 1865. He soon opened a groceiy in 
the central portion of the city and year by year 
has become more and more prosperous. 

In 1808 "Sir. Schaefer was united in marriage 
with Miss Annie Marie Gunzenhouser, and seven 
children have been born of their union, four of 
whom are living, as follows: William, photog- 
rapher, in Lancaster; Anna, Henry and Mary. 

Socially Mr. Schaefer is a member of the Red 
.Jacket Lodge No. 144,' Order of Red iNIen, and be- 
longs to Lodge No. 165, K. of P. Religiously he 
follows the teachings of his childhood, belonging 
to the Trinity Lutheran Church of this i)laee. 
Politically he is a Democrat and interested in the 
success of his [lart}'. He is an example of the self- 


has risen step hy step to a position of atllucnce 
and inllueiiee 111 the coiiiuiunity. owing to the ex- 
ercise of industrious and persevering qualities. 
He has a host of warm friends and acquaintances 
in tliis place who hold him in the highest respect. 



15RAM 15. SNAYELY, a retired and wi 

in I'ecpiea Township, Lancaster Coun- 
ty, but has relegated the care of the same to others. 
In former 3'ears he has frequently been called upon 
hy his fellow-citizens to serve in public positions 
of trust and honor, and in each instance has so 
met the requirements of the situation that he has 
won only commendation from those concerned. 

The father of our subject bore the same Chris- 
tian name and wa--' born in Conestoga. now Pequea 
Township. He was nearly all of his life a farmer 
and wa-- alsii a minister in the new Mennonile 
Chuivli. of which he was a niQinlier for years. On 
arriving at man's estate ho married Elizabeth 
lUirk waiter. Ijy whom she had six children, two 
sons and f,,ur daughters, as follows: Annie. Mrs. 
Weber; Benjamin; Elizabeth, Mrs. Mylin; Abram 
B., of this article; Martha, deceased, and Fannie. 

The liirth of Abram B. Snavely, .Tr., occurred in 
December, lsi'3, near Wheatland Mills, in Lampe- 
ter Townshiii. His education was limited to such 
as he might obtain in the common schools of this 
township, which he attended a portion of the 3-ear 
until he was twenty years of age. Up to this time 
he ha.l worked on the farm under lii^ father's in- 
struction anil tliu>- became familiar with all depart- 
ments pertaining thereto. He continued to reside 
under the parental roof until 18G6, when he 
purchased the farm which was the scene of his 
oiierations during the leiiiamdei' of his active life. 
Thispro[ierty is well cultivated and very desirable. 
There are good buildings, barns, etc., upon the 



farm, and tlie fortunate possessor of the iilaee lias 
derived a irood ineome from his jj;eneral farming 
and stock-raising for over fort^y _years. 

In December, 18S6, Mr. .Snavelj- was united in 
marriage with Miss Catherine Roherer, and to 
them were born two cliildren, sous, the eldest of 
wlioni, Kolierer, was nameii in lionor of Airs. 
Snavely's family, and the younger was christened 
Stoner. Mns. Snavely was born in this county and 
here grew to womanhood and received her educa- 
tion. Sli'e has been a faitliful companion and help- 
mate to her husband ui the acnuisition of his 
property' and is still living on the old homestead. 

In politics Mr. Suavely is a very lo3'al Repub- 
lican, and on four different occasions has been 
sent as a delegate to county conventions of the 
party. He has been very active in political affairs 
and for three terms served as Judge of Elections, 
and for a like number of terras was Inspector of 
Elections. For one term he served in tlie capacity 
of School Director and has been Townsliip Assessor 
for ihice terms. In these varied positions he has 
been failhfid and honorable, and his reputation as 
a public man has l)een above reproach. 


IACOl! L. HESS. For over sixty years this 
worthy old settler has been numbered among 
_ the progressive citizens of Pe(iuea Town- 
ship, Lancaster County, his entire life having 
been passed on the old homestead which is now in 
his possession. This farm was formerly owned by 
other generations of the Hess family and has come 
down in direct descent. The paternal grandfather, 
Michael Hess, was born and reared on this farm, 
and with his son, our subject's father, at one time 
was extensively interested in the manufacture of 
plows. During his last years he returned to agri- 
cultural pursuits, which formed his main life occu- 
|)atioii. He was a member of the Oerman Baptist 
Church and freciuenlly preached in that <leiiomi- 
nation. He married Maria Shock, and to them 

were born f.uir s,,n^ and two d.-iughieis. namely: 
.Jacob, .bihn, Abram, Michael, liarbara (Mrs. Zook) 
and \'eronica. 

Jacob Hess, tlie father of our subject, was born 
in Conestoga, now I'eciuea Townshi|j. and us pre- 
viously mentioned, was for some years a |)low 
manufacturer. He was a practical farmer and as 
such was often consulted by his friends and neigh- 
bors on questions relating to agriculture. Polit- 
ically he was a Federalist and siilisequently es- 
poused the cause of the Whigs. For one term he 
served as Supervisor of this town>hip and bore an 
enviable reputation in the community for his qual- 
ities of industry, sobriety and high sense of honor 
in business affairs. Religiously he is a member of 
the German Baptist Church as was his father, and is 
greatly interested in the work of the denomination. 
By his marriage with Elizabeth Lichty, six chil- 
dren were born, as follows: Barbara, Maria, Susan, 
Fannie, Jacob L. and Michael, who died in child- 
hood. The eldest daughter was twice married, 
first to Samuel Reiff, and after his death to Conrad 

The subject of this article was born March .0, 
I.S27, im his father's farm, in Pccpiea Township, 
which proi)erty is now owned and tarried on by 
him. His education was olitained in the district 
schools of the township, which he attended more 
or less regularly until reaching his eighteenth year. 
From his boyhood his practical and industrious 
father trained him for agricultural pursuits and in 
such branches as would be of use to him in after 
years. The farm, which is under flue cultivation, 
has good buildings and imjjrovements upon it and 
comprises within its boundaries some one hundred 
and six acres. I'A'eivlhing about the place is kept 
ui) in a thrifty and business like manner, showing 
the c'onstant attention and supervision of the care- 
ful owner. Jununry 3, 1853, Mr. Hess was mar- 
ried to Miss M:iiy llerr. daughter of one of the 
worthy old sl.ttler^ of the couiily. :\[r. and Mrs. 
Hess have had a family of ten childivn. all but three 
of whom are living. Their naim^s in the order of 
birth areas follows: Lizzie, :\[artin, Barbara, Henry, 
Martha, Anna, -lacob L.. iNIary, Fannie and Suie. 
Lizzie, ]\Iartlia and Anna have been called to the 
better land and the other members of the family 



are nmuheied among the ini»t. fxcclli'iit ritizcns 
of the varkiiis cuinimiiiitie.s in which they make 
their home, as tiieir parents reared them to lives of 
usefulness and industry. A very active worker in 
the Republican party. Mr. Hess has always been 
greatly interested since its organization in its 
prosperity and has lent his influence to that end. 
As one who is known to be on the side of educa- 
tion and advancement, he has quite frequently 
been elected to serve as School Director and as 
such has spared no pains in the discharge of his du- 
ties. In liis religious belief he is, like his ancestors, 
a member of the (ierman I5a|)tist Church. 

.^Y^^R. GP:()RGE W. HULL, Pii. D., A. M., is 
I I one of the leading instructors in the insti- 
tutes held in the eastern and central part 
of Pennsylvania, and at present is a member of the 
faculty of the Miilersville Normal Scliof)l. For 
the past few years he has devoted much of his time 
to lecturing and work in the ministry and has been 
very successful along these lines. 

The ancestors of Dr. Hull on the paternal side 
were German, and on the maternal side were 
French. The original spelling of the name was 
HoU, and a part of the branch of the family in 
this county have changed it to its present style. 
Tiie Professor's grandfather, .John Hull, was a car- 
penter by trade, and resided most of his life near 
Chester County, in Lancaster. His death occurred 
in Str.asburg, where he had lived f<jr some time 
previous. Religiously he was a member of the 
Lutheran Church. He and his wife became the 
parents of seven sons: .Tohn, Adam, .Joseph, 
George, Levi, Henry and David. George, our 
subject's father, was born in 1812 and also learned 
the carpenter's trade. He worked at his calling 
during the most of his mature life at Strasburg. 
He was an Odd Fellow; in politics he was first a 

Whig and later a IJeiniblican. To himself and wife, 
formerly Sidney Pelen, live sons and five daugh- 
ters were born, Mary, Emma, Elizal)etli and Harry, 
whodied in childhood; Letitia, Mrs. Iloak, of Sterl- 
ing, 111.; .John F., whose home is in Strasburg;, Mrs. Frew, of Paradise Township, this coun- 
ty; Sidney, Mrs. Frazier; George, of Sterling, III., 
and Cornelius, of Strasburg. The mother of this 
famih- is still living. 

The birth of Dr. Hull occurred September IG, 
1852, at Strasburg. He attended the public and 
high schools of that place, graduating from the 
latter at the age of eighteen 3'ears. In 1871 he en- 
tered the elementary class of the Miilersville Nor- 
mal School, from which he graduated in 1871, and 
a year later from the scientific course. On ac- 
count of his exceptional ability he was at once 
chosen to be Assistant Professor of mathematics. 
He was educated in the school of Dr. Ed Brooks, 
author of Brooks' series of mathematics, and in- 
herited from his maternal grandfather, Clianey 
Pelen, his talent in this direction. With the ex- 
ception of the year 1882, when Dr. Hull was Prin- 
cipal of the schools of Huntingdon. Pa., he has been 
connected witii the Miilersville Normal School as 
a member of the faculty since 1875. For the past 
eleven years he has been First Professor of mathe- 
matics and for seven years has lectured before 
county institutes on matliematics and general edu- 
cational subjects, having more demands upon his 
time than he can possibly fill. In 1885 he took 
the post-graduate courses in the University of Illi- 
nois, Bloomington, HI., receiving the degrees of A. 
M. and Ph. D., and thou took the regular lines of 
study prescribed by the Philadelphia Conference 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and in 1884 
was ordained a minister of the denomination by 
Bishop Warren, of the Quaker City. Though he 
has never taken a regular charge, he has done con- 
siderable preaching and is an influential member 
of the denomination. He has strong convictions 
on the subject of temperance and frequently 
made this the theme of his lectures. Dr. Hull is 
now engaged in editing a series of mathematics 
for one of the leading jniblishing houses in Phila- 

August 4, 1880, Dr. Hull married Miss Anna, 



only daughter nf 'I'lioinris llanililetun, of liiicks 
t'ounlv. Pa., aiwl tlu'V liuve live cliildi-en : Anna 
May. Arthur II.. 1 1..raec .M.. ( M-.n-f U. ami Kuth S. 
lie is a ,-laiK'h .-u|)i>(irlei- of the i;«'|iulilieaii parly. 

/-^ KOR(;i-: Rrss is one of the worthy Ger- 
^"^ man-AiiK'iican citizens who liave been act- 
ively identified with the uiibuilding and 
development of Lancaster, lie lent his services 
to the defense of the Stars and Stripes when he 
had lieen under their iirotcetion .some six \ears 
onl3'. The birth of Mr. Rnss oceuri'ed February 
8, 1837, in Wurtcmberg, he being a son of Chris- 
tian and Elizabeth (Seegar) Russ, and he was the 
only niciiiber of the family who ever left the Fa- 
therland to come to this favored land. 

It was in 1856 that Mr. Russ left his ancestral 
Lome and embarked in a sailing-vessel boiuid for 
the United States. On liis arrival he settled at 
Lititz, Lancaster County, where he remained for 
three years, and in 1800 came to this place, where 
he worked at his trade until the lireaking out of 
the Civil War. On the Utli of July, 1862, he 
donned the blue, becoming a member of the Twen- 
tieth Regiment Ohio P.attery. and was atta,'hed to 
McCork's Company. Afleiwards lie joined (kui- 
eral Sherman's Array and took part in the follow- 
ing celebrated battles and numerous other engage- 
ments: Liberty (iap. Chiekamauga and Cumber- 
land Mountain, lb served faithfully and valiant- 
ly, lieing ever found at tlie post of duty, and was 
always to Ije relied upon by lii> -upenor otticeis. 
At the expiration of his ihirc \cais' term of en- 
listment he was mustered out at the chise of the 
war. .luly 1 1. ISC.",, at Cleveland, Ohio. 

On his return from >.uilluMn battlefields. Mr. 
Hiis- worked at his trade as a blacksmith and horse- 
shoer in this eity, where he has remained ever 
since, liy tlie exercise of industry, economy and 
strict attention to busin.-.>. he has succeeded in 
accumulatiiiL; consideral)le means, and what is quite 

as important has built up a reputation for ability, 
integiity and honorable dealings which might well 
lie envied by any one. 

]\Larch 20, 186C, George Russ was united in 
marriage with Caroline Kling, and to them were 
born one son and four daughters. The only son, 
Christian, died at the age of eleven months, and 
JLary, the eldest daughter, is also now deceased. 
The younger members of the faimily, Carrie, Katie 
B. and Lillie, are at home. They have been given 
good educational privileges and are cultured and 
intelligent young ladies. The family ha\e many 
friends in citj' who hold them in high esteem, 
and it is a great pleasure to them to throw wide 
the doors of their hospitable home for the enter- 
tainment of their aciiuaintances. 

business at No. 2."i Center Square. Lancas- 
ter, where he does all kinds of book-bind- 
ing and similar work, and has the largest trade in 
the city in this direction, employment being afford- 
ed to twent3--two hands. He is one of the native 
sons of this city, where he received his education 
and was reared to ma nhood, and with the excep- 
tion of aliout three years has passed his entire life 
in this place, being identified with every tiling re- 
lating to its upbuilding and progress. 

The parents of II. L. Trout were Adam and Sa- 
lome (Lefever) Trout, formerly respected citizens 
of this locality. Our subject was b(.rn October 28, 
ls."i;^, and is a brother of F. I'.. Trout, who is also 
engaged in business in this viiv. lie received an 
excellent education in the grammar and high 
schools of Lancaster, completing his .studies in 
186',i. when tifteen years (if age. In 187(1 he went 
to Philadelphia, where for three years he was em- 
jjloyed in the queensware business, but on the ex- 
]iiration of that time he returned to Lancaster,an(l 
for the succeeding four years devoted his enei-gies 
to learning the trade of liook-binding, serving an 



api)ixMitJeesliip. I'lioii the eniiiplc-tidii of his triule, 
(ir slioi'tly aftiTwarcl. he .-taitnl in l.iusiness for 
himself at his present hicatiuii and lias been v^ery 
successful in his enterprise, receiving the work of 
the various publishers in this and neighboring- 
cities, and also doing work for the general trade. 

A very active worker in the Rei)ublican party, 
Mr. Trout has been called upon to serve as a mem- 
ber of the Common Council, and for the past six 
)-ears has served on important committees, being 
at the present time Chairman of the Committee on 
Highways, and was elected from the Fifth Ward. 
Sociallj^ he is a Mason, belonging to Lamberton 
Lodge No. 476. F. ct A. M. 

On the 2d of September. 1875. was celeljrated 
the marriage of .Air. Tiout .mid Miss Sarah Iv. a 
daughter of .Joseph Y. folby.a well known cilizen 
of this place. Mr. and Mrs. Trout have a daugh- 
ter, Maude C. They are members of the Presb}-- 
terian Church of this i)lace, in which they are act- 
ive workers. They number many waiTii friends 
both in church and social circles, and are a worthy 
and hos|)itable young coujile. 

!■<,'. and 

d and 



JAAn<:s S. SY.MIN(;T()X is an enterprising 
and [irogressive citizen of IJinkley's Bridge, 
where lie is senior member <.if the firm of 
-lames S.Symington & Co.. manufacturers of 
all kinds of mauilla, envelope and drawing paper. 
He has been engaged in this business in the above 
place since 1876, having that year purchased the 
plant of the Eden Paper Company. 

Our subject is the son of Walter and .lennette 
(Paiden) Symington, and was born in lierwiek- 
shire, Scotland, July 13, 1832. The father was 
likewise a native of that shire, where lie had a good 
position as landscape gardener. He was a mason 
of high standing andbeh)nged to the Presbyterian 
Church, in the faith of which he died when only 
twen ven years of age. His wife was the daugh- 
ter of John Paiden, a large manufacturer at Ed- 

lescended fro, 
ineiit family in Scotland. She was reared in the 
family of Iht uncle. .lohn Lyle. of Dalkeath, Si>ot- 
land. who was publi>li,.r of the Lyle Bible. The 
parental family included two sons and one daugh- 
ter. The latter, Ellen, became the wife of .Tames 
Crawford, of Lasswade, Sci_>tland; .John came to 
America in 1861 and fought as a soldier in the 
War of the Rebellion, enlisting in. the Hartford 
City Guards. He participated in all of the battles 
fought by the Army of the I'otonw, and when 
peace was declared located in Burnside, Conn., 
where he found employment in the paper mills. 
James S., of this sketch, was the eldest in the family. 

James Symington, the grandfather of our sub- 
ject, w.asa native of Led Hills, Lanarkshire, Scot- 
land, where he was an extensive shepheril farmer. 
He was a brother of William .Symington, who is 
known as the inventor of the first steamlioat. The 
paternal graiidfather of James S. Symington ded 
to Ireland after the battle of Uotlnvell and re- 
mained there until his death. 

The original of this sketch was educated in his 
native land, and after the death of his father he 
learned the trade of a paper manufacturer under 
Alexander Annandle. of the Bolton Paper Works. 
In 1853 he emigrated to America, locating in Nor- 
wich, Conn. He worked at his trade for the fol- 
lowing five years, when, owing to his executive 
ability and thorough fitness for the position, he 
was made Superintendent of the plant at that place. 
Ill 1868 he came to this state and for eight years 
was Superintendent of the mills in Reading. Two 
\-ears previously, however, in company' with other 
gentlemen, he had purcha,sed the mills of the Eden 
Paper Compan}^ at Binkley's Bridge, and when 
severing his connection with the firm in Reading 
he removed to this place and has since given his 
entire time and attention to making a success of 
the enterprise. The mill was burned in 1883, but 
the firm immediately rebuilt, erecting a larger and 
more substantial structure. They manufacture ma- 
nilla, envelope and drawing paper and turn out 
over five thousand [lounds of paper jier day. The 
plant contains the latest improvements in the way 
of machinery and is first-class in every particular. 
The company was organized with a capital stock 



of ^50,000 and employment in the mill is given to 
twenty-four men and five girls. 

Mr. Symington is aiitliority on paper-making, 
and in 1882 was sent to Europe in tlie interest of 
tlie Pluisey-Jones Steamship Company for the pur- 
pose of looking into the improved metiiods in the 
manufacture of paper, as well as matters of a me- 
chanical nature jjcrtaining to the mechanical con- 
struction of all kinds of paper and machinery. 
Socially he belongs to Lodge No. 62, F. & A. M., in 
Reading, and in politics is an ardent Republican. 

March 1, 1856, James S. Symington and Miss 
Ann Dobson, of Lancashire, England, were united 
in marriage and to them were born four children: 
Walter; Martiia, Mrs. John Pollard, now deceased:, and Jeanette, the wife of Daniel Kagill. 
Mrs. Symington departed this life in 18G6 and two 
3'ear3 later our subject married Miss Eliza Arnold, 
of Burnside, Conn. By this union there have also 
been born four children, as follows: Harriet, the 
wife of Henry Middfeit; Charles, William and 


WILLIA?*! W. TRIPPLE, a general mcr- 
cliaiit at Safe Harbor, for thirteen years 
was a member of the firm of Tripple 
i^- Warfel, succeeding George A. Tripple, and Ije- 
ing in partnership with Elias W^arfel. He has been 
a resident of Safe Harbor since 1856, and during 
this long period has lieen actively interested in all 
|)ubiic movements ])ertaining to the genei'al wel- 
fare. He is a son of John and Hannah (Cox) 
Tripple, his birth having occurred November 11, 
1836, at New Holland. Earl Township, and he re- 
ceived his early education in tlie common schools 
of Churchtown, being obliged to leave his studies 
when sixteen years of age to work on a farm m 
order to olitain liis livelihood. 

John Tripple, the father of William W., passed 
the early years of his life in Lancaster and learned 
the trade of a hatter, wliicii lie successfully followed 
for a number of years at Lancaster. Subsequently 

he removed to New Holland, which was his home 
for several years, and passed his last days at 
Clmrclitown. In politics he was a Democrat and 
at one time was Township Assessor. He was an 
active member of the Episcopal Church at Church- 
town and was elected a member of the Indepen- 
dent Order of Odd Fellows, but died before he had 
been initiated. His death occurred May 9, 1851, 
while he was still in the prime of life, being only 
forty-four years of age at the time. His wife sur- 
vived him for many years, departing this life when 
seventy-nine years old. She Itecame the mother of 
the following children, who grew to maturity, and 
all but three of them are still living. In order of 
birth they are: Samuel Z., deceased; John J., a resi- 
ident of Safe Harbor; William W.; Mary C, de- 
ceased wife of Isaac Mundorf; Caroline, Mrs. A. 
J. Hudson, of Safe Harbor; Charles D.; Sarah A., 
wife of Edward Lincoln, of Cliurchtown; George 
A., a grocer in Lancaster, and Benjamin F., of Pliil- 

In l.s,')6 Mr. Tripple of this sketch came to tiiis 
city and learned the business of heater in the roll- 
ing mill, in which he was an employe until the mill 
was closed. For four years he then followed his 
trade at Buffalo, N. Y., but in 1866 returned to 
this place, and for thirteen years succeeding oper- 
ated a general store, doing a good business, at the 
end of that time buying out liis partner. He has 
been successful in his investments and for a num- 
ber of years has engaged in dealing and packing 
leaf tobacco for the trade. In his social relations 
he holds membership witii the C. M. Howell Lodge 
No. 496, F. ik A. M., of Safe Harbor, in which he 
is Past Master, and has been Secretaiy for the past 
eleven years. He has been ver\' active in Masonic 
circles and also in the Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows, having passed through all the chairs of 
Conestoga Lodge No. 334, and for a long time 
represented it in the Grand Lodge. 

Scjitember 21, 1857, Mr. Tripple married Eliza- 
beth Lewis, whose father, David Lewis, is a resi- 
dent of Colerain Townshij), this county. Our sub- 
ject and his wife have had nine children, Mary 
C, wife of J. B. Doty, now of York City, Neb., 
where lie is eng.aged in teaciiing in the public 
schools; Ilannaii, wife of .lolin Svnser, of thiscoun- 



ty, and a carpenter hy trade; Cliarles, wlio died at 
the age of one j-ear; George II., a very intelligent 
young man, who died in his twenty-third year by 
falling down the stairs during a fainting lit; Lewis 
A.; Alice and Annie, who died in childhood; John 
D., a general confectioner, baker and grocer in 
York City, Neb., and Leon C, who assists his fa- 
ther in business. Professor Doty, the husband of 
the eldest daughter, is a fine scholar, a lecturei and 
a preacher in the Methodist Episcopal Church. He 
is a native of Luzerne County, Pa., where he grew 
to manhood. Mr. and Mrs. Tripple also reared an 
adopted son, William Wirt, giving him a good 
education, two years having been spent in York 
City College of Nebraska, and he is now holding a 
clerkship in that place. 

Mr. Tripple is a member of the Safe IIarl>(>r 
Methodist Episcopal Church, with which he has 
been connected in an official capacity ever since 
joining it in 1858. In the Sunday-school and in 
all departments of church work he has ever lieen 
interested and efficient. Until the re-organization 
of the Conestoga Bank in Lancaster Mr. Tripple 
was one of its Directors, having been also one of 
Its founders, but when the new officers weie elected 
he tendered his resignation. He is a man of honor 
and uprightness, who has made a liostof friends in 
the vicinity of his home. 

-^^^M ^ I s-® si ^ l«^ 

PH. KELLER. A commercial institution 
which has gained an established reputa- 
tion among the residents of Lancaster is 
the Keystone Business College, of which Professor 
Keller is the Principal. It is conveniently situ- 
ated at No. 140 North Queen Street, over the 
Northern National Bank. Here instruction is 
given, both day and evening, in bookkeeping, 
shorthand and typewriting, penmanship, commer- 
cial arithmetic, correspondence, commercial law, 
grammar, orthography, capitalization, office prac- 
tice, etc. After completing the regular business 

course, a student is tlmroughly qualillcd for the 
satisfactory discharge of duties in a [xisitidii of 
responsibility and trust. 

The Keller family is of German origin, our miIi- 
ject's great-grandfather having been the lirst of 
that name to emigrate to America. (Ti-andfather 
Daniel Keller was a weaver of fancy fabrics, lieing 
thus engaged first at Eplirata, then in Manheim, 
and later in Lebanon County-. Daniel Keller, Jr., 
our subject's father, was born at the last-named 
))lace,and there he still makes his home. Through 
his active years he was engaged as a contractor 
and builder, but now lives in retirement from bus- 
iness cares. His wife, whose maiden name was 
Susanna Heffley, died in 1877. 

There were ten children in the family, all of 
whom are still living, our subject being the young- 
est son. He was born in Stricklerstown, Lebanon 
County, December 30. 1865, and in that village the 
yeais of boyhood and youth were uneventfully 
passed. When very young he was an expert in the 
use of tools, and in Lebanon County aided his fa- 
ther in carpentering. Later he was similarly em- 
ployed at Williamsport, and while in that city he 
took a commercial course, thus laying the founda- 
tion for his present broad education. 

About 1887 our subject went to Georgia, and 
at Tallapoosa was employed at his trade, as fore- 
man and bookkeeper for his brother. Thence he 
went to Bluffto"n, Ala., where he also held the same 
position. Returning to Lebanon he sojourned 
there for ten months, after which he returned to 
the south and spent the next eighteen months, 
again holding the same position with his brother 
at liluffton, Ala., thus by his travel gaining a 
broad and practical knowledge of business. In 
1892 he took a special teacher's course at Lebanon 
Business College, from which he holds two di- 
plomas. Going to llarriman, Tenu., he opened a 
commercial college, which he conducted success- 
fully for some time. However, he afterward sold 
out to Professor Niver. 

The Keystone Business College was established 
January 7, 1889, and was purchased by Professor 
Keller in May, 1893, since which time he has con- 
ducted it upon thoroughly business principles and 
with flattering success. In addition to other in- 



writers, willi l,un(l.|UaiUi> in N.-w V,,ik. h. w 
liglous iK'licf he i> a iu.'inl..T of lUv KvHii-riu-:i 
Association. Hi- imlilicMl piclciciitcs arc witli tli 
Republican i>arty, lo wliicli lie in i^ives lii 



(Tpr LDIS r.l'CKWALTKR BARR is eng.ago.l 
/ — V in dairy farming in Manor Townsliii). He 

is thu |iossess(ir of a good estate, which lir- 

Mr. Barr was born .January I'.t. lS,-,.s, in I'etiiica 
Township, this county, and is Uiesnn of Ui'iijainin 
and P.arliara ( ISuckwalter) Barr. 

The urandfatlier of oui- suliject. who bore the 
name of Benjamin Barr, spent tlie greater i)art of 
his life in the above township, within whose 
Ijounds were located his two farms, one containing 
one hundred and thirteen and the other one hun- 
dred and fourteen acies. He was very successful 
in all his undertakings, and was recognized as one 
of the wealthiest agriculturists of the county. 
He was shrewd in all business transactions, upright 
and honest with all those who had dealings with 
him. and conse(piently was greatly resiieeted and 
esteemed by his fellow-men. In polities he was a 
Re|nililiean. and was a member of the INIennonite 
Church. He married Miss Barbara Miller, and l)y 
her liecainc the father of five cliildren: Aliram. 

M. The giaudfather departed this lif.' at the age 
of eighty-one years, whih'. his good wife was 
seventy-eight at the time of her death. 

The native place of the father of Aldus P). was also 
Pe(i\U'a Township, where he sicukmI his common 
school education, and was thoroughly trained in 
farm pursuits. When ready to begin life on his 
own aeeount he secured a tract of land adjoining 
the old homestead, comprising one hundred and 
fourteen acres, wliieli he opeiate.l until I.SG'.t. 
Tliree years later he purehase<l the estate now oc- 

iiir subject, where he conducted agricul- 
tioii- with fair success. Benjamin Barr 
owner <:f one hundred and twenty-four 
hmI farmiiii; hind in .Martic Township, 
■act of one liundred and fifty-four acres 
lying ill West Ilemplield Township, upon which he 
is residing at the present time, lie is prominent 
in the political life of his community, and always 
votes with the Republican party. 

The jiarental family included three children, 
of whom our subject was the second born. Elam, 
the eldest, died at the age of niuotecn, and 
Benjamin is unmarried and resides at home. Al- 
dus B. r)arr received his education in the district 
si-hools of his native township, and has made agri- 
cultiiie his life work. He gives special attention 
to daily fanning, keeping on his place seventeen 
good milcli cows. He also raises a line grade of 
leaf tobacco, for which lie finds a ready market in 
the surrounding cities. 

Aldus B. B,arr and .Miss Alice, daughterof Henry 
II. Stehman. were married in 1872. Mrs. Barr's fa- 
ther is a farmer of Manor Township, wiiere he also 
owns the Stehman flouring mills. The only child 
of our subject and his wife is a son. Klwood B. 
In politics Mr. Barr is a Prohibitionist of the 
strongest type, and religiously belongs to therni- 
ted Brethren Church in Lancaster. 


r~y iU'WA-: .TACOP. SPOO. a prominent poli- 
ey^ ticiau of Lancaster, is .lu-tice of the Pi'ace 
.and is now serving as Alderman of the 
Ei^htli Ward.havingbeen elected on the Democratic 
ticket. His ollice, which was built for the pur- 
pose, is at No. ;!1 I West King Street, and he at- 
tends to all kinds of eon vcyancing. collecting, real 
estate business and civil iiracticc. The ward which 
he represents is practically a Cierman ward and his 
clients and constituents are mainly drawn from 
the worthy nativt-s or descendants of the Father- 



conversant witli the Enulisli and (itrmnn languages 
ami is a very intelligent and well informed man. 

The fatiier of our subject bori- the Christian 
name of Mathias. He was born in Luxemhui-g, 
Germany, and reared in Alsace, where he learned 
the trade of porcelain maker. Wlien twenty-four 
years of age he came to America, settling in this 
city, where he married Eliza Kitcli,a native of the 
place. For several j-ears he worked at his trade 
m the pottery owned by Henry Gast. In 1861 lie 
volunteered his services as a musician and was 
made leader of Band R. Afterwards lie was trans- 
ferred to the Arm}- of the West, being placed in 
the Fiftii Wisconsin Infantry, and was killed at 
Camp (Triffln in 18G2, when only thirty-five years 
of age. He was reared in the faitli of the Cath- 
olic Church, but his wife was a Lutheran. Her fa- 
ther, Jacob Kitch, who died in Lancaster, was of 
Swiss descent, members of the family having set- 
tled at a very early day in New Jersey. INIrs. 
Spoo, after the death of her husband, became the 
wife of Henry Butt, and is still a resident of Lan- 
caster. Frank, the only brother of oursuliject, is 
now a farmer in Warwick Township. 

Until ten years old. Squire Spoo was reared in 
the city, attending the common school. He was 
born November 27, 1858, and was therefore only 
four years old at the time of his father's death. 
For that reason, and being the eldest of his moth- 
er's children, he was obliged to early assist in tiie 
family's support. From the age of ten to eighteen 
years he worked in a brick yard, after which he 
served an apprenticeship as a cigar maker for an 
uncle, C. Scheid, for three years. After becoming 
familiar with the business he continued to work 
for his uncle for three years more and then was 
employed at various places for several years. In 
February, 1892, he was elected Justice of the Peace 
by the Democrats, and in i\Iay was commissioned 
by Governor Pattison. 

In 1881 Jacob Spoo was married to IMiss Ida E. 
Kuhns, whose birtli occurred in Lancaster, and 
whose father, Henry Kuhns, now ileceasid. was a 
harness manufacturer. F<inr children were limn 
to bless the union (^f Mr. and Mrs. Spoo: Frank; 
Mabel, who died at the age of seven years; Annie, 
and Harry, who died in infancy. The family resi- 

dence is a i)leasant one and is situated at No. ?>]'2 
West King Street. 

Socially Mr. Spoo lielongs to the Sons of Amer- 
ica of Lancaster, being Vice-President of that 
order. For three years, or until he resigned, he 
held the i>osition of Recording Secretary of Thad 
Stevens Council, O. V. A. 'SI. For s(_ime six yeais 
he served .as Deacon of St. Luke's Reformed Church, 
of which he is a member. He is also a memlier of 
the Daughters of Libert}'. 

WALTER D. MADIGAN. one of the pro- 
prietors of tlie Lancaster News Com- 
pany, is justly entitled to space for a 
biograiihical notice in this connection. He was 
born in Lancaster, April G, 1806. His father, John 
Madigan. was born in Ireland, emigrated to Amer- 
ica, and settled in Lancaster, where he clerked in a 
store. Subsequently he removed to St. Louis, Mo., 
where he engaged in the wholesale and retail boot 
and shoe business. He died in that city in May, 

Our subject's mother, Elizabeth (Denton) Madi- 
gan, was a native of Lancaster, and the daughter 
of Mr. and Mrs. John Denton. Her father, who 
was a shoe manufacturer and dealer, came from 
England to this country, where he established his 
permanent home. After his death, liis wife reared 
the family in Lancaster, where she still resides. 
Her mother was a sister of John Wise, the cele- 
brated baloonist, whose last ascension took [)lace 
from St. Louis and proved fatal, at least he was 
never heard of afterward. 

Our subject is the j-oungest of a family of four 
children, three of whom are living. He was edu- 
cated in the public schools, and when ten years of 
age engaged in the news liusiness. working for dif- 
ferent companies. When sixteen years of age, he 
engaged in business for himself in his present 
place. In September, 1893, tiie business was en- 
larged and became known as the Lancaster News 



Company, nf wliicli he i< |iriiKip:il owiifi-. Tliu 
location is No. .". Wc^l Iviii- Stivct. wlicic :i 
full lino of all kin(]> of ne\vs|ia|n'i>. niaL^M/.iiu-,- 
and ollifi- liU'iary mailer are f..r sale, lie is a 
meiiiher of Uie National As>( ,.f News- 
dealers, ami Iki> M'lved mi the cuinniittce on oi'- 
ganizalion. Pdlitieally lie is identified with the 
Democratic iiartv. 

ROHERT ,1. IIOl'STON', one of the active 
Inisiness factors of Lancaster, well known 
as President of the Helvetia Leather Com- 
pany and of the Houston Coal and Coke Com- 
pany, was Ijidii 111 .Maghora, Londonderry Country, 
Leland, .lanuary 1(1. l^i.32. The family of which 
he is an honored representative was for many years 
identified with the histoiy of Scotland, where they 
owned "•Houston Castle," the history of which 
dates liack to the twelfth century. Alujut that 
time Sir Hugh de Padvinan. wli.i was of French 
descent, engaged to fight f(jr Malcolm IV., King of 
•Scotland, and in compensation for his services was 
granted the lands of Kilpeter, Strathgrief, where 
he built a castle. His Scotch neighbors, unable to 
pronounce his French name, called his place 
"Hughs-town," hence tiie name Houston. Two of 
his descendants emigrated to Ireland late in the 
seventeenth century and settled in County Lon- 
donderry. One of them, who bore the name of 
Robert, was granted tliree townships of land, and 
from this branch of the family is our subjeet de- 

The parents of our subject. David and Margnret 
(Niel) Houston, were married in Ireland Marcli 17, 
1831, and the following year emigrated to the 
United States, landing lu August of 1832. The 
father, being the youngest of three sons, was there- 
fore disinlierited by the English law of entail, and 
so sought a home in the New World. The voyage 
across the Atlantic, ef)vering sixty-three days, was 
one of considerable peril, but at last they anchored 
in the liarbcn- of Philadelphia. Tliev immediately 

look pass.age in a Conestoga wagon for Lancaster 
Coiiiity, where his aunt, Mrs. Tliomas Patterson, 
and cousin, .lohn Houston, resided. In the spring 
of ls;.'i-'3 they coinnienced housekeeping near liis 
aunt's home, liul shortly afterward, through the 
solicitation of his lirother Henry, he was induced to 
move to Ogdensburg, N. Y., where he formed a 
partnership with John Harper in the boot and shoe 
business. The climate, however, was not congen- 
ial, fever and ague prevailing, and so he soon re- 
turned with his family to Lancaster County, reach- 
ing that place in 1838 with only fifty cents in liis 
pocket, and five persons dependent upon him for 
support. He at once began to work at his trade of 
a shoemaker, and being an industrious and skilled 
workman, he had a large trade, continuing in the 
business until ISlil. Now advanced in years, he 
makes hi- home with his daughter in Chester 
County. Pa. The wife and mother died in 1883. 

To Da\id and Margaret Houston were born four 
children, all of whom are living, as follows: Robert 
J., of this sketch; Dr. Joseph W., a practicing phy- 
sician of Lancaster; Rose Ann, wife of William A. 
Fleming, a farmer of Chester Count}-, Pa., and Dr. 
Samuel X., a physician of Washington. D. C. The 
eldest son, our subject, was reared in Lancaster 
Coiintj', with the exception of eighteen months 
spent in Ogdensburg, N. Y. He was educated in 
the public schools and McCuUough's Academy, at- 
tending the latter institution two years. In 1851 
he began clerking in the store of T. Armstrong & 
Co., Georgetown, Lancaster County, and two^-ears 
later engaged in business for himself at Bethania, 
Salisbury Township, Lancaster County, continuing 
as a general merchant under the firm name of D. 
Houston iV- Son until 1867. Meanwhile, in 1862, 
he took part in the great civil conflict, and was 
present at Antietam under Col. .lohn L. Wright in 
the Second Pennsylvania militia. 

Dissolving partnership with his father in 1867, 
;\Ir. Ilou-ton came to Lancaster, where he was ap- 
jioiiiled Deputy Assessor in the Internal Revenue 
office under John B. AVarfel. In 1868 he was a 
delegate from Lancaster County to the National 
Convention at Chicago, which nominated Grant 
and Colfax. In May of l.s6'.l he resigned as 
Deinity, and engaged in the manufacture of corks 


as a member of the Conostoga Cork Works Com- 
l^an}-, his partners being the late Jay Cadwell and 
Harris Boardman. In April, 1870, tlie concern 
was burned out, and his partnership in the business 
was dissolved. Septemljer 1, 1870. he embarked in 
the wholesale notion liusiness. which he lias since 
followed. At tir.'-t he ticcupied a building •24x(")(; 
feet, but gradually increased his quarters until he 
now occupies three times that space. The location 
of his estai)lisliment is at Nos. "24, 2.5 and 2fj I'cnn 

In the organization of the Ilelvt.'lia Leather 
Company, Mr. Houston was a prime factor, and lie- 
came President of the concern, which manufac- 
tures a machinery leather three times the strength 
of oak tanned leather, lie was also one of the or- 
ganizers of the lloustuii Coal and Coke Company, 
of which he is President. The plant is located at 
Elkhorn, McDowell Countj^W. Va., and the works 
have a capacity of five hundred thousand tons per 

At Lancaster in 1882. Mr. Houston united 
in marriage with Miss JNIargaret A., daughter of 
Thomas C. Wilev, a boot and shoe merchant of 
this city. By this union one child was born, named 
Margaret Olive. Politically Mr. Houston became 
a Greenbaeker in 1877. In 188G he was the nom- 
inee of that party for Governor of Pennsylvania, 
and received the full party vote. The issues hav- 
ing since changed, however, he supported ISenja- 
min Harrison for President in ls'.i2. He has oc- 
cupied various positions of trust within the gift of 
his fellow-citizens. In 1857 he was elected a mem- 
ber of the Board of Prison Inspectors, and served 
in that capacity until 18G1. The following year 
he assisted in organizing the Union League of 
Salisbury Township, of which he was President 
during its existence. During the memorable elec- 
tion of 1886 for members of the British House of 
Commons, Mr. Houston assisted in organizing 
Branch No. 694 of the Irish National League of 
America at Lancaster, Pa., of which he was elected 
President. This lirancli. with only thirty inenibers, 
sent more than >;2,00(l t(.i Ireland to aid in that 
struggle. After the division in the Irish ranks 
growing out of the Paruell scandal, this branch 
surrendered its charter and organized the James 

I Stewart Branch of the Irish Federation of America. 
of which Mr. Houston was again made President. 
Mr. Houston's loyalty to his native land has never 

j interfered with his devotion to the highest inter- 
I ests of his adopted country. He has ever been ac- 
; live in the [iromotion of all enter|)rises calculated 
to advance the material, commercial and social 
welfare of the people. Especiall}' is he interested 
111 the prosperitj- of Lancaster, which has no citi- 
zen more public spirited than he. He aided in or- 
ganizing the Board of Trade, and as long as it ex- 
isted was one of its most active members. His 
recognized business ability has won for him the 
regard of tlie people and the confidence of those 
I with whom he has been iutimatelv associated. 


r^ IIAKLES II. FREY, who is intimately con- 
\\j nected with the liusiness interests of the 
enterprising city of Lancaster, is a whole- 
sale and retail dealer in boots and shoes, hence he 
very naturally finds a place in this connection. 
He was born in Lancaster County, April 1, 1862, 
the eldest son of Mr. and Mrs. Jacoli L. Frev. and 
was reared in his native county, graduating from 
the high school in 1880, after which he superin- 
tended his father's farm. In 1882 he engaged in 
the leaf tobacco business, being associated with his 
father from the time of his partner's death. 

In December, 1885, our subject retired from the 
business and formed a partnership with William K. 
Eckert, under the firm name of Frey it Eckert. 
Their boot and shoe business, which has been es- 
talilished for twenty years at Nos. .3 and 5 East 
King Street, has a frontage of thirty-two feet, with 
a depth of one hundred and foity-llve feet, and is 
four stories in height. The first tloor is stocked 
with boots and shoes, while the remainder of the 
building is rented. Large quantities of goods are 
bought direct from manufacturers. This is one of 
the lie>t conducted boot and shoe houses in Fan- 
caster, and its success is due largely to the good 
business management of our subject. 

The marriage of C. H. Frey and Miss Annie 


Reniley look placo in l.riiicaster in August, 1886. 

office of Judge Shippen, was admitted to the Lan- 

Ow child lilessc> thrir lionu'. Edna M. Mr. 

caster Bar. lie soon rose to eminence in the legal 

Fi-ey IS an hon.nvd niiMulKT of IlerselR'l Lodge, 

fraternity, and in 1777 became First Associate 

]. (). (). F.. and lias l.fcii an active woiker in the 

.Judge of the Supreme Court of Penns^dvania, con- 

Young :Men',s Christian Ass(,ciati.iii for twelve 

tinuing on that bench until August 17, 1791. He 

years, serving as its Treasurer for the [last five 

was an ardent supporter of the Colonial cause, and 

years. He is a consi>tenl mriniier of St. Paul's Re- 

after the establishineiU of our independence, was 

formed Church, and polilieally is identilied with 

appointed, August 17, 171*1, President Judge of 

the Prohibition party. 

the First District Court, which embraced in its 

The successful business career of .Air. Frey fur- 

jurisdiction the counties of Chester, Lancaster, 

nishes another exani[)le of what untiring indus- 

York and Dau|iliiii. AVliile filling that position he 

try will acconiplisli for a young man possessing 

fell a victim to bili(nis fever. 

good habits with a proper aim in life. Allliough 

William Pill, sou of Judge Willian A. and F2s- 

scarcely 3'et in life's prime, he is in the possession 
of a lucrative business, is well connected socially, 
and financially ranks among the active business 
men of this city. 

JOHN LIGHT ATLEE,M. D., LL. D. In every 
department of human activit}' Lancaster has 
contributed successful and eminent men, 
whose superior talents ami researches have 
promoted the world's progress, whose abilities have 
won wide recognition and whose culture of mind 
has brought them the admiration of many to whom 
they are personally unknown. Such an one was 
the late Dr. Atlee, than whom Lancaster has con- 
tributed no brighter light to adorn the galaxy of 
the medical world. It is. therefore, tilting that in 
this volume mention should be made (.)f his event- 
ful career. 

The Atlee family is of English descent and dates 
its lineage back in an unbroken line jirior to the 
time of Charles I., and many of the name filled po- 
sitions of honor and trust. Our subject's great- 
grandfather. William Atlee. of Forilhook House, 
hi the parish of Acton, England, emigrated to this 
country in 1733 as Private Secretary to Lord Howe, 
Governor of the Barbadoes. His wife was a daugh- 
ter of an English clergyman, and a cousin of Will- 
iam Pitt. Dr. Atlee 's grandfather, William Au- 
gustus Atlee, oldest son of William and Jane Atlee. 
was bom in Philadelphia, aud studying law in the 

ther (Sayre)Atiee, married a daughter of Maj. John 
Light, and of the six children resulting from this 
union, the suliject of this sketch was the eldest. 
He was born in the city of Lancaster November 2. 
1799, and in bo.yhood was a student of the then 
famous academy of Wray & Urley, in Philadel- 
lihia. He commenced his medical studies in 1815 
in the ottice of Dr. Samuel Humes, of Lancaster, 
and two years later entered the medical department 
of the University of Penns\dvauia, graduating 
from that institution in 1820 with the degree of 
Doctor of Medicine. After graduating he returned 
to the city of his birth and commenced the prac- 
tice of his profession. 

Maich 12, 1822, Dr. Atlee married .Sarah IL, 
daughter of Hon. Walter F'ranklin, an eminent 
jurist, who for many years served as President 
Judge of the courts of Larcaster and Y'ork Coun- 
ties. Mrs. Allee was a woman of amiable disposi- 
tion aud cultured mind, aud adorned every relation 
of life with dignity and grace. Fifty-eight years 
she was her husband's faithful helpmate, and then 
was called from earth at an advanced age. Her 
surviving children are; Dr. Walter F. Atlee, the 
well known surgeon of Philadelphia and honored 
F'ellow of the College of Physicians; William Au- 
gustus, an intluential memlier of the Lancaster Bar, 
and Miss Anne Franklin Atlee. A third son. Dr. 
John L.. Jr., a physician who stood high in every 
relation in life, died in 1885. 

F'rom the time of graduating in 1820 until 
within a few days of his death. Dr. Allee was act- 
ively engaged in the duties of his profession. A 
few months before his decease be had an attack of 



facial paralysis, but the direct caiisp of liis death 
was an attack of pneumonia, and on the afternoon 
of October 1, 1885, after an eventful career of 
nearl}- eight_y-six years, lie passed away. 

The services rendered by Dr. Atlee in educa- 
tional matters were of the highest value. In 1!^38 
the State LegishUun- created the system of free 
sciiool education, but when the effort was made to 
carry this s^-stem into practical oi)eration it met 
with formidable oi^position, especially among tlie 
Germans, who formed a large element of the ()op- 
ulation of Lancaster County. Tlicso people still 
held tenaciously to the school system existing un- 
der the act of 1820. When the time came for the 
change from tlie old ])lan to the new. it was largely 
througli the uiiwearifd, intflligent and >killful ef- 
forts of Dr. Alice that the free .-eliooLs were inau- 
gurated and tlie opposition tiiereto overcome. Nor 
did his interest in the free school s^'Stem cease with 
its estal)lishment. lie tiecame Cliairman of the 
Superintending Coinniittee, and for forty years 
served as l)n-ectorof the School Board of Lancas- 
ter. In founding the Normal School at Millers- 
viUe he was also a [jrominent factor. Tlie reso- 
lutions of the School Board of Lancaster, passed 
after his demise, fully attest the v.-iiue of Ins .serv- 
ices in the cause of education. In tlie organiza- 
tion of Franklin and Marshall College he largely 
aided, and also lilld the iiosjtion of Professor of 
Anatomy and Physiology in that institution, from 
which he received the degree of Doctor of Laws. 

While educational affairs always received the 
warmest interest and deepest sympath}- of Dr. At- 
lee, he was prominent in other fields of usefulness. 
His philanthropic spirit was especially noticeable 
in the founding and management of institutions 
for the poor, the friendless and the unfortunate. 
For some time he was (uie of the nianagei-s iif the 
Home of Refuge in Lancaster. He was a Trustee 
in the Bishop Bowman Church Home in this city, 
and acted as President of the Board of Trustees of 
the Home for Friendless Children, also filling a 
similar position in the P.oard of Managers fnr the 
State Lunatic A^ylunl. at liarrishurg. It wns, liow- 
ever, as a [ihysiciau that Dr. Atlce was most useful 
and gained the widest reputation. By natural 
gifts and training he was admirably adapted for a 

successful professional career. His studies did not 
cease with graduation, but were continued through- 
out his entire life. His gentle, cheerful and dii;- 
iiified demeanor iii^|iired tlie conliilcnce of the 
sick and commanded the res[iec\ of the medical 
fraternity, ^'ery early in the history of medical 
organizations he discerned the imiioitance of cen- 
tralizing professional power, not only as a scientific 
measure, but as calculated to establish a kindly re- 
ciprocity of feeling among physicians, thereby ele- 
vating the |)rofession in imblie estimation. With 
this view of matters, it was natural that he should, 
in 1844, lead in the organization of the Lancaster 
Countv Medical Society and that he should also 
twice preside over it as President. In 1848 he aided 
in organizing the State Medical Society, of which 
in 1857 he was chosen the presiding olHcer. When, 
in 1847, the idea of organizing the American Med- 
ical Association was conceived, his name appeared 
among the founders. In 1868 he was elected Vice- 
President, and in 1.S82 became President of the or- 
ganization. In 1^77 he was elected an lionmary 
'member of the Gynecological Society of Boston, 
and was also an Associate Fel'ow of the College of 
Physicians of Philadelphia. 

reer of Dr. Atlee was the revival of the operation 
of ovariotomy. This idea Ik> began to develop in 
1843. There was at that time no experiences of 
former surgeons to aid liini. exceiit the cases of Mc- 
Dowell, dating back to isn;). and these were al- 
most forgotten. On the uther hand, there was 
much to discourage one less bold. The best tea<!h- 
ers in the profession and its most influential rep- 
resentatives oil both sides of the Atlantic had con- 

: demned the procedure, yet in spite of this Dr. At- 
lee pursued his investigations undisturbed. Those 
who are acquainted with medical science know the 
large measure of success that crowned his labors. 
Doul)tlcss this, more than anything else in his 

j eventful career, will make succeeding generations 
his grateful delilors. The first oi>eration he per- 
formed of this character was .lime 2'.l, l.Sl.'L and 


As a surgeon Dr. .MIee met with the greatest 
! success. In over two thousand o[)erationsof which 



lie has left a record are included every manner of 
surgical procedure, and these were followed liy a 
success comparing not iinfavoraljly with the lead- 
ing surgeons of tiie worhl. i-lveii when advanced 
in years he performed many dillicult and exceed- 
ingly delicate operations. Six times in his eighty- 
third year and three times in his eighty-fourth 
year he performed the operation of ovariotomy. 
From every part of the country his advice was 
sought, not alone by patients, but also by his pro- 
fessional brethren, who reposed the greatest confi- 
dence in his skill. Early in life Dr. Atlee united 
with the Episcopal Church, in which for fifty years 
he was Senior Warden. He attended the ofiiciai 
meetings of the church regularly, and endeavored 
in every way possible to promote the prosperity of 
his denomination. In all the philanthropic enter- 
prises undertaken by the congregation he was 
deeply interested and to them he gave his heart3' 
co-operation. His exemplary private and public 
life proved, mow elni|ucntly than words could do, 
the sincerity of his religious convictions. Tlie 
simple epitaph that marks his last resting place, 
"Pertransivit Benefacieudo," is the most appro- 
priate that love and reverent esteem could write. 


^ THOMAS ELI. MAKER, M. !)., of Lancaster, 
lias lived retired from active business for 
alxiut twenty years, but was formerly en- 
gaged in practice at Landisville, of this county. 
In 1851 he established a drug store on East King 
Street of this city, and continued to manage the 
same for a period of some twenty years. In vari- 
ous enterprises and interests of the place, he has 
taken his part, and has always had great faith in 
the future of the city. 

Dr. EUmaker is a s(jii of Amos and Mary Rachel 
(Elder) EUmaker, and was Ijorn in J.aiicaster March 
22, 1825. He received his elementary education 
in the local schools, and subsequently attended St. 
Paul's E|)iscoi)al College in New York City. In 
1816 he graduated from the Jefferson Medical Col- 

lege, and immediately settled to engage in the 
practice of his profession at Landisville. How- 
ever, after embarking in the drug trade in 1851, 
he gradually withdrew from the arduous duties of 
a i)hysician and devoted his means to the improve- 
ment and carrying on of his drug business. He 
has traveled considerably through the west, and is 
a scholar, being very proficient in the Latin, Greek 
and French langu.ages, and being well read in tlie 

Fraternally the Doctor is a member of the Inde- 
pendent Order of LTnited American Mechanics. 
In former years he belonged to the Lancaster City 
and the County Medical Societies, in which he 
served as Secretarj' and in various official capaci- 
ties, and also held membership with the State and 
General American Medical Societies. In politics 
he has voted with the Republican party since the 
organization of the same, being greatly interested 
in the questions of the da}-, and keeping well 
posted on topics of general interest. 

It may not be uninteresting to many to trace 
the history of the Elder family, of which the Doc- 
tor's mother was a member, as they were early and 
respected pioneers of this state. One Robert Elder, 
who W.1S born in Scotland in 1679, emigrated to 
County Antrim, Ireland, and from there to Amer- 
ica in 1730, settling near Harrisburg, in the moun- 
tains, and his death occurred July 28, 1746, his 
remains being placed to rest in Paxtong, where he 
had made his home. While he lived in Edinburg, 
his son, Rev. -John, was born, and he became 
noted as a minister and scholar. He received 
a classical education, graduating from the Edin- 
burg University, subsequently studied theology 
in the same institution, and in 1732 received a 
license to preach. Four years later he followed 
his parents to America, becoming pastor of the 
church at Paxtong, which he served in that cap- 
acity for half a century, being very popular. One of 
his children, John, served in the War of the Revo- 
lution, from 1704 to 1797, was Deputy Surveyor 
and Sheriff of Dauphin County, Pa., and erected the 
first steel plant in Middletown. Robert, another 
son, who was a Captain in charge of a company 
raised at Paxtong, was in the War for Independ- 
ence. He followed farming and was a Ruling El- 

RV R()HRr-R. 



der in the Paxtong Church. .Joshua, the third son, 
was active in the military service during the fron- 
tier troubles of 1763-64. and during tlie Revolu- 
tionary War was a leader of the jxatriots, serving 
until the close of hostilities. He was appointed 
Associate Judge in 1791. and prothonotary in 
1800, serving for nine years, and in 1810 was 
elected Burgess of Harrisburg. Samuel, another 
son, was a soldier in tlie Whiskey Insurrection, 
and from 1800 to 1803 was Siieriff of Dauphin 
County. The history of their descendants is well 
known to many in this state, and a number have 
distinguished themselves in church, military and 
professional circles. Mrs. Mary (Elder) EUmaker 
was a grand-daughter of Rev. .John Eider. 

<0C ->^-i-^-W-»-i-»-i"i"i- ^ -H-»'i"»»»-t"t"M-4 -X» 

HENRY ROHRER, the genial proprietor of 
the AVilliam Penn Hotel, is a liberal 
minded and accommodating gentleman, 
and a popular resident of J^ancastcr. lie is a na- 
tive of this city and was born November 12, 18.J3, 
to Christian Rohrer, a native of Switzerland, his 
birth occurring in the canton of Argau. 

The father of our subject was a shoemaker by 
trade and made the trip alone to this country 
when a 3'oung man, locating m Lancaster, where 
he was engaged at his trade until his decease, at 
the age of forty-nine years. lie was a devoted 
member of the Catliolic Church. His wife, whom 
he married in the Keystone State, bore the maiden 
name of Elizabeth Hunsicker, and at the time of 
her union with him was the widow of Matthew j 
Wunch. .She was likewise born across the water, 
in Switzerland, where her first husband died. Slie ' 
came to the Lnited States with her family of four 
cliildren and located in Lancaster, where slie met 
and married Christian Rolirer. She is still living, 
having passed her seventy-eighth birthday last 
November. Her eldest son by her first marriage, 
Joseph Wunch, was killed at the second battle of \ 
Bull Run during the late war; Elizabeth married 1 

Philip Weber; John, who was also a soldier in the 
Civil War, served tlirough the entire period and is 
now living in this city and carrying on a good 
business as a cigar manufacturer; ^Mary, the second 
daughter, is deceased. 

The union of Christian and Elizabeth Rohrer 
was blessed by the birth of a son, Henry, of this 
sketch. He was reared in this city and educated 
in St. Joseph's parochial school. When a lad of 
sixteen years he was apprenticed to learn the 
printer's trade in the office of the Volksfreund, 
where he remained until eighteen months after 
reaching his majorit}'. 

In 1877 our subject became bartender for a ]\Ir. 
Rieker, by whom he was employed two years, and 
then purchased the Centennial saloon, on the 
corner of Mulberr}- and Strawberry Streets. This 
he disposed of in 1884 and became the proprietor 
of Excelsior Hall, which he conducted for a year, 
and then selling it launched out in his present en- 
terprise, that of a hotel keeper. The house had 
been the property of his mother-in-law, Mrs. Mar- 
garet Gerz, who operated it four years prior to dis- 
posing of it to our sul)jeet. It is pleasantly located 
at Nos. 429 and 431 Mulberry Street, and is first 
class in its appointments. 

The original of this sketch was married Septem- 
ber 16, 187.T, to Miss Mary Dorwort, a native of 
this city, born Februaiy 25, 1885. Mrs. Rohrer 
and her brother Frederick (now deceased) were 
born to llie union of A. Frederick and Margaret 
(Clavow) Dorwort. After the death of Mr. Dor- 
wort, his widow married Capt. Alexander J. Gerz, 
by whom she became the mother of four sons, 
Alexander IL, John J., William H. and Frank J. 
Captain (rerz died m 1876, and his widow now 
makes her home at No. 433 ^lulbeny Street. To 
our subject and his wife were born seven children, 
Margaret Elizabeth, ^lary Elizabeth, Charles Henry, 
Mary Catherine, Catherine Cecelia. Henry Jacob 
and Andrew. Mary Catlierine. Henry and Andrew 
are deceased. 

^Ir. Rohrer was candidate on the Democratic 
ticket in 1891 for Councilman of liis ward, but 
tlie district being strongly Republican, lie was de- 
feated by three votes. Religiously he is a devoted 
member of St. Joseph's Catholic Church, in the faitU 



of which he has reared his cliildreii. He belongs 
to St. Joseph's and St. Michael's societies, also the 
Gruetlie A'ereiu, a Swiss organization, of which he 
has been President for live years, and of which his 
father was a charter member and AMce-President. 
He also belongs to the Maennerchor, the Turners, 
and the Schiller and Fulton societies. 

l-!"!"i"5- ^S? •i-'i-i-i-^ 

REV. Wm. F. LICIILITER. Pastor of St. 
Luke's Reformed Cinncli. of Lancaster. 
In its organization nnd gruwtli the liis- 
tory of this church is both interesting and unex- 
ampled. In cities, missions usually begin bj' a 
number of members going out from an established 
church to organize a new church; Iml this was not 
the case in the history of St. Luke's. Ueginning 
in the autumn i>f 1S7! witli a Sunday-school of 
forty-twii children, organized and carried forward 
in a jiulilic school building by tlio efforts of stu- 
dents of the Theological Scniinaiy; and in the 
latter part of January, l.'s7;». as an organized 
church, consisting of nine communicant members 
who had become interested in or through tiie Sun- 
day-school, it was necessarily a work that required 
great faith and unwearied devotion, but the re- 
sults of the fifteen years' labor more th:ni justify 
the attempt. When tiie liftoentli anniversary was 
celebrated. Feliruary t, ls:)4. tin' repoit rendered 
showed that three hundred and twenty-eight mem- 
bers had been received into the churdi, of wiiom 
two hundred and five were tlicn cniolled; also 
that the Sunday-school nunihcied four hinidred 
and forty scliohus, with tliirty-thre<' teachers and 
seven otlicers. 

In 1871 the seed was sown tluit result.Ml Mune 
years afterward in the ors^anizMtion of the church. 
The Theological Seniiunry. which since bs;l7 liad 
been located at Meiccishnri;. I'a.. was then re- 
moved to Lancaster. On .hinnaiy i:; foHowing, 
the students in the '•Society of ln.|niiy" debated 
this question: "Sliovild tlie Theobi,i;ir;d Seminary 
establish a mission in Lancaster.''' On the merits 
of the question the society' voted tnianiniously in 

the aflirmative, and then appointed a Committee 
to confer with tlie faculty in regard to the feasi- 
bility of estal)lishing a Mission Sunday-school. 
Of this project the facidty heartily approved. 

The "Society of Inquiry" appointed a Commit- 
tee to have charge of the work of pre[)aring for 
the organization of the Mission Sunday-school. 
The |)lan was to start the mission under the care 
of the First Clancli. l)ut nfter waiting for two 
.years, it was found tliat nothing could be done in 
tins way. The society then authorized its Com- 
mittee to ask authority from the consistory of St. 
Stephen's (the College) Church. This was done and 
the Committee authorized to go forward with the 
work of organizing the Sunday-school. At this 
time the Cfmimittee consisted of the students: 
"Wm. F. Lichliler. J. Calvin Bowman and Zwingli 
A. Yeasick. A (jublic school building was secured 
in tlie southwestern section of the cit}'. "With the 
a.ssistance of an auxiliary committee oi six stu- 
dents, a house to house canvass for scholars was 
instituted, and on November 15, 1874, the Sun- 
day-school was organized with forty-two scholars, 
fourteen teachers (seven ladies, seven gentlemen) 
and four ofticers. It was then known as St. Steph- 
en's Mission Sunday-school. The officers elected 
were all seminary studei.ts, as follows: Wm. F. 
Lichliter, Superintendent; G. D. Gurley, Assistant 
Superintendent; Z. A. Yeasick, Secretary; and G. "\V. 
Roth, Librarian. The number enrolled gradually 
increased until it reached about one hundred and 
twenty-five, and the school continued at this until 
it was privileged to enter the new church building 
on Marietta Avenue in 1880. 

The teacliers felt that to secure jiermanent re- 
sults from tlirii- worli. it. w:is necessary that there 
should be au oiuani/,e(! chui-cli in connection with 
the mission. :ind in l.'^T.s brought this fact to the 
attenticui of the consistoiy of St. Stephen's Church. 
The consistoiy iccoinnicnded that Rev. J. F. Wiant, 
then residing in the v\[y. lie elected Superintend- 
ent of the Sunday-school, and that a canvass be 
made to ascertain how innny persons interested in 

the work were willing I ganize a church. This 

was done, ami nine pcisons. including the pastor's 
wife, were found who were ready to organize a 
church. In the latter part of January, 1870, the 



organization was eflfected, the nine members being 
Mrs. Mary Wiant, Mrs. Mar_y Elizabeth Suter, .Ja- 
cob Boniberger, .1. Rudoliih Suter. .1. Ereflerick 
Suter, B. F. Bausman, IMrs. Sennett .Aliller, Mrs. 
Catharine Mlschlieh and rhilip :\Iischlich. The 
name chosen for the organization was St. Luke's 
Reformed Churcli. 

A church building was a necessity, and the 
work prosecuted as rapidly as ptissible. t)cto- 
ber 26, 1879, the cornerstone was laid, and on 
February 6, 1880, the cluirch was dedicated with 
appropriate services. The building was oOx.tO 
feet, and cost >;l..sOii. the furniture costing 8o00 
more. The Rev. ]Mr. Wiant having accepted a call 
to the pastorate of the Beaver Charge, Clarion 
Countv, Pa., tenderetl his resignation March 14, 
1880, and on March 21 the present pastor, who 
had been instrumental in starting the mission, was 
chosen, and the call to him confirmed by the 
Board of Jlissious. Accepting the call, he entered 
upon the work of the pastorate Jlay 30. 

So rapidlj- did the Sunda3--5chool increase, that 
the building was not large enough for efficient 
work, nor to accommodate the congregation at 
special services, and in 1884 a movement was 
commenced for the enlargement of the edifice. It 
was, however, four years later before conditions 
were favorable enough to warrant the erection of 
an addition to the building. On Thanksgiving 
Day, November 29, 1888, the completed building 
was consecrated. The cost of the ground and im- 
provements to the building was 83,925, which 
amount was contributed in large part by the 
friends of the church, irrespective of denomina- 
tion. In connection with the church are the fol- 
lowing societies: Willing Workers' Aid Society, 
Guild of Faithful Helpers, Missionary Society, 
Guild of St. Mark, Choral Class, and St. Andrew's 
and St. Mark's Sundaj'-school, in addition to the 
home Sundaj'-school. 

The popular pastor of tliis church, to wh(.)se self- 
sacrificing labors the success of the work is largely- 
due, was born in AVoodstock, Va., and is a son of 
Conrad and Elizai)eth .lane (Dinges) I.ichliter, 
also natives of the Old Dominion. The paternal 
grandfather, Adam Lichliter, was born in Virginia, 
and enlisting for service in the War of 1812, went 

I to the front, but never returned home. The fam- 
! ily was first represented in America about one hun- 
I drcil and sixty years ago, when some of that name 
settled near Philadelphia, Pa.. Itut later removing 
to V^irginia, settled in Shenandoah County, in the 
[ vicinity of Woodstock. Our subject's maternal 
grandfather, Frederick Dinges, was a Virginian, 
:ind a descendant of German ancestors, who emi- 
grated to America about the same time as did the 

Learning the merchant tailoring trade, Conrad 
Lichliter followed that business for many years, 
but is now living in retirement from active work. 
An original Lnion man on the lireaking out of the 
war, when the Rebellion was ended he became a 
Republican in politics, and was appointed Post- 
master of Woodstock under President .Johnson's 
administration, and was Deputy Collector of In- 
ternal Revenue during President Grant's admin- 
istration, under Col. E. White. His wife died Feb- 
ruary 1, 1891. Tiiey had four children. Of these 
our subject is the eldest. The others are, .1. H., 
an attorney at Washington, D. C; D. C, a prac- 
ticing physician of Dayton, Ohio; and Sarah L^liza- 
beth, wife of the Rev. George A. Whitmore, of 
Frederick County, JMd. 

The subject of this sketch spent the years of 
his boyhood in Woodstock. When the Rebellion 
broke out he was attending the academy in that 
town, but on the day following the passage of the 
ordinance of secession, when the volunteer militar}' 
company left to aid in seizing the Government 
armory at Harper's Ferry, the school was closed. 
In 18C3, with three other refugees, he left home, 
and passing through the mountains, after two 
nights and three days entered the LTnion lines at 
Winchester. Thence he went to Washington, D. 
C, and soon afterward entered the employ of the 
Government as a journeyman carpenter, working 
at building soldiers' barracks and corrals. It was 
while in this service, and at the time of the battle 
of Gettysburg, that the emplo3'es of his depart- 
ment were called on to do guard duty around 
Washington in order to relieve the soldiers. For 
two d.ays therefore he carried a Government rifle, 
and for one day stood guard at the prison in 
Georsfetown, D. C. Six months later he went to 



Chambersburg and entered the academy, wliore he 
eairied on his studies for two niontlis. lie was 
then offoi-ed the situation of s.iiesman in the dry- 
goods >l(Mc of .1. liukc ,v Co.. ( liuniVicrsburg, which 
he accepted, and w;is in tlicir cijiiihty until .luly, 
1864, when the city was burned by the Confed- 
erates. Through the kindness of friends, he was 
now offered a situation with Crec J.ros.. Pittsburg. 
Pa., and continued with them until lisGi;, when 
he began to study for the ministry. 

Entering the Preparatory Department of Mer- 
cersbui'g College, IMercersburg. Pa., 5Ir. Liciditer 
continued m that institution from February 22, 
186(), until 1872, when he was graduated with the 
degree of Bachelor of Arts. Later the degree of 
Master of Arts was conferred upon liim by the 
same college. In 187;3 he was graduated from tlie 
Theological Seminary at Lancaster, and on August 
1 of the same year was ordained to the ministry, 
becoming pastor of St. John's Church, at Wyom- 
ing, Del. The following year he accepted a call 
to the First Reformed Church of Allegheny, Pa., 
remaining there until the year 1878. He was then 
Principal for one year of Harmony Collegiate In- 
stitute, Harmony, Pa. His next pastorate was that 
of St. Luke's Reformed Church, in wliich capacity 
he ha> ^ince served with efficiency and success. He 
is a man of superior ability, keen intellect, excel- 
lent judgment and a wide range of information in 
history, theology and literature. For his chosen 
profession bf)th nature and training have admir- 
ably adapted him. and he well deser\'es iiis wide 


TPAKKF (;rTiIi;iF. one of the leading 
grocers of Lancaster, has been a roident of 
the city >inee April L'C, LsTl!; he was liorn 
at Cuthiieville. CheMer < oiinly. I'a., Octolier 12. 
18.52, the son of .loeph (iuthrie and his wife. 
Grandfather Cuthiie built the first house in (lutli- 
rieville, and it was he who platted the town and it 
was named after him. Our siiliject's father was a 
farmer near Guthrieville, where he owned one 

hundred and sixty-two acres. He was a I)eacr>n in 
the Baptist Church and died at the age of sixty- 
one years, in 18fi.3. 

Our subject's mother's maiden name was Mar- 
garet Wilson; slie was born at Compassville, and 
died at the age of forty-one years, after which our 
subject's father married again. T. Parke Guthrie 
was one of a family of eleven children, and three 
sons of this family wore the loyal blue during 
the Civil War. They are, Williner, in the employ 
of the I'ulliiiau Car Company, at Wilmington, Del.; 
Howard, ri'siding at Hlue Rock, Chester County, 
Pa.; our subject. T. Parke; Elizabeth, Mrs. Samuel 
Moore, of Philadelphia; Sadie, Mrs. W. II. Murray, 
of Peoria, 111.; .Tohn, who was a bugler in the 
Eleventli Pennsylvania Cavalry; Levi, who died 
prior to the Civil War. and William, who died in 
Chattanooga, Tenn. 

The subject of this notice was reared amidst 
rural scenes, and obtained his education at the 
common schools, passing his youth as most of the 
Pennsylvania boys did. At the age of eleven years 
his father died and he was thrown upon his own 
resources. The first year he worked upon a farm 
and then went to CoatesviUe, in the employ of the 
merchant tailoring firm of Wright & Morgan as an 
errand boy. He remained there one year, and then 
clerked in a grocery store, for Lewis G. Jeffries; 
after two years he worked for John E. Stout, an- 
other grocer, for whom he clerked one year, and 
then went with a brother-in-law, Samuel Moore, 
who condueteil a clc.itliing and sewing machine busi- 
ness; after two years he became a salesman at No. 
810 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, but after a few 
months went to Gerinantown, where lie took charge 
of a branch store, which he operated until the 
failure of J. Cooke in 1873. He then entered the 
employ of the Singer .Sewing JMachine Company, 
and opened an office for them in German town; he 
managed their business for them until June 8, 
Lsso, at which time lie came to Lancastei-, having 
lived in this city two years before, while in the 
employ of the Singer Manufacturing Company. 

September 18, 1879, marked a new era in this 
young man's life, for it was in that beautiful au- 
tumn month that he was united in marriage to 
Lizzie B, Best, the daughter of 3Ir. and Mrs. John 


Best. j\lr. and Mrs. (iutlirie li:ivi' one child, Anna 
M. The eoiniian_y wanted to send him to other 
cities to do prelim inar3- work, so in .Tune, 1880, he 
bought out .Tolin L. Melzer, a grocer on the corner 
of Lime and Chestnut Streets, where be lias since 
conducted a good grocery trade. His residence is 
at No. 327 North Lime Street. He is a stockholder 
in the Mechanics' Building tt Loan Association of 
Lancaster, also in the Couestoga Bank. 

Of his domestic and social life, it may be said 
tiiat he a member of Monterey Lodge No. 242, 
I. O. O. F.; Ridgely Kncampinent, and Lodge No. 
68, K. of P. He is also a member of the Royal Ar- 
canum and a past oflicer in the Ancient Order of 
United Workmen. Politically, our subject is a 
stanch Republican, and is a member of the Presby- 
terian Church. 


WILLIAM R. MARTIN, Secretary and 
Treasurer of the Henry Martin Brick 
Machine Manufacturing Company, was 
born in Lancaster August 26, 1870. His father 
was Henry Martin. William R. is tlie eldest of the 
second marriage of his father, and he was reared in 
Lancaster,where he received a good education in the 
common and high schools and graduated from 
Lancaster Business College in 1S8G. He engaged 
in business with his father in the niaiuifacture of 
brick-m.aking machinery, which concern was incor- 
porated in 1887, and William R. made Secretary 
and Treasurer. He is also engaged in the real- 
estate business and platted William R. Alartin's 
addition to Lancaster on the old ^Morton [)roperty, 
where he has erected eight houses and other build- 
ings. He laid out and named Higliland Avenue, 
an extension of South Queen Street, and deeded 
it to the city. His own residence is No. 653 West 
Chestnut Street. 

Like most sensible young men, our subject early 
in life cbose a worthy companion in the person of 
Miss Catherine R. Falienstock, a native of Lancas- 

ter, to whom lie was married February 2. 1802. 
She is the daughter of Mr. and INIrs. Harry R. 
Falienstock, of Lancaster. By this niarri.age one 
child, Richard F., has come to bless their home. 

In his political afiiliations our subject is a Re- 
publican, and in religious matters is a niemlier of 
Trinity lAitheran Church, while his wife is a mem- 
ber of St. .James' Episcopal Church. Mr. Martin is 
a member of the Royal Arcanum. That the reader 
m.ay form a comprehensive idea of the character 
of the machine manufactured by the Heniy Martin 
Brick Machine Manufiicturing Company the sub- 
joined is given: 

"In speaking of the great inventions of the daj' 
that have done the most to revolutionize the old 
process of hard labor and proved of the greatest 
real good to civilization, the machine for manu- 
facturing brick deserves more comment than is 
usually bestowed upon it. 

"The Martin Machines have justly a reputation 
through the United States and Canada, and have 
gone into great concerns all over the different 
states and territories. 

"In Rochester, N. Y., the Rochester German 
Brick and Tile Company use six; while the Roches- 
ter Brick and Tile Com pan}- employ nine. In Buf- 
falo, Messrs. Brush have thirteen Martin Machines 
in use in their yards; Louis Kirkover, of the same 
place, has Ave; G. W. Schmidt has four; F. W. 
Haake, three; Henry Deitschler, three. In Pitts- 
burg there are seventy-eight firms who are using 
the lAIartin ISIachine. This is a great showing in a 
single city, especially when it is remembered that 
all of them are leading concerns and must have a 
reliable machine. Other companies in scores of 
important towns, to whom reference cannot here 
be made, have several Martin Machines in use in 
their yards, many having reitlaced those of other 

"The simplicity and great strength of these ma- 
chines make them particularly desirable for the 
export trade. At Bangkok, Siam; Dundee, New 
Zealand; Finland, Russia, Sagua la Chica, Cuba; 
Valparaiso, Chili, and many other foreign points, 
the Martin Machines are giving entire satisfaction. 

"Its inventor is a practical man. He is an En- 
glishman by birth and started in life with limited 



means and little influence from fiiends. lie learned 
the brick-making business and carpenlor's trade in 
the Old Country, and by private study at odd 
times ill the city of Liver|i(nil liccainc in lime ;in 
expert in iiieclianical drawing and .■irchitccturi'. 

"In England he was connected with some of the 
largest brick-making concerns of that country and 
became familiar with every detail of the business. 
"Since 1858 these machines have been tested all 
over the United States and Canada; many recent 
patented improvements having added greatly to 
the value and etllcieiicy of the machine. 

"It is ]ierl'ei'lly automatic and self-striking. Its 
strength and duraljility are its two principal points. 
Its out|iut is always very large and it acquits itself 
with cicdit under trying circumstances with any 
kind (if clay that can be worked by hand. 

"All parts being well fortified, it allows the 
brick to be molded unusually stiff. The machine 
taken in all its parts is as near perfect as human 
ingenuity can make it. 

"It will fill out each mold ami turn out godd 
brick, with srpiare corners and well delincd edges, 
and if suitable moliling sand is used, with smooth 


JOHN E. BRENNEK, one of the practical 
ers of Manor Township, is the propriet 
a good farm comprising thiity-llirce 
and also owns the AVilhnv (;in\i' V\<, 
Mill, wliicli is located on the banks of the 
Conestoga River. Almost his entire life has 
passed in this township, in which liis birth occi 
jand thus for a jjeriod nf aljout >c\ciity \ ca 
home has been made in this iinmediate vie 
The Brenner family liave long been not 
Lancaster County, and our subject's great-g 
father, who located here in the last ceiiluiy, 
from his native country, Switzerland, mi accm 
religious intolerance. Ills son, C'liii>ti>plie 
grandfather of our subject, was a blacksmith, 
occupation he followed actively during the 


of his life, but in later years operated a farm near 
Safe Harbor, and died at the old homestead. He 
was an old line Whig, and in religion was a Luth- 
eran. He married a Miss Ery, by wh.mi he had a 
family of eight children, namely: Ailam. Cliiistn- 
pher, .lohn, Jacob, Margaret, Elizabeth. I'olly and 
George. Jacob, the father of our subject, wa-^ born 
in Indiantown, Manor Township. In his hoyliond 
he learned the miller's trade, and became al-o fa- 
miliar with agricultural piirMiits. Hi- death oc- 
curred on his farm, which he had carricil on for 
many years, its location being in IManor Towu;-hii) 
near Groff's Mill. Politically Mr. Breiiuer was a 
Whig, and like hisancestors held to the faith of the 
Lutheran Church. On attaining to man's estate 
he wedded Susan Eshbach, by whom he liad twelve 
children, in order of birth as follows: Adam, John, 
Nancy, Susan, .lacob. Christian. Abram (deceased), 
Matlie. Elizabeth, Fauiiie. Katie and David. The 
fathei- dci.aited thi,- life in ISG'J, aged sixty-nine 
years, while his wife died in 18G7. ' 

John E. Brenner was born October 2, 1818, at 
Mellingers Mill in this towiishi)i, and received his 
early e.lueatiou in the district schools of the local- 
ity and in Millersville. He remained with his fa- 
ther on the farm, lending his assistance to its cul- 
tivation until he was twenty-four years of age. He 
was then married and began farming on his own ac- 
count in the same township, and in 187:! removed 
to his present location. He is a thorough and prac- 
tical agriculturist, and is also a business man of 
good ability, i-^ver ;icii ve in educational affairs, he 
has used his iiilluence and means in the acquire- 
ment of good si-hools and teachers, and served for 
three terms as a School Director. An active Re- 
IHiblican, he served as Supervisor of this township 
for one term, was one of the Poor House Directors 
of the county, at one time was on the United States 
Jury at Philadelphia, and has tilled minor positions 
with fidelity and credit to himself. 

December 11, 1843, Mi: Brenner was united in 
marriage with Mary, daughter of Christian Kill- 
lieifer. Of this union nine children were born, as 
follows; l.e\i. wh(i operates his father's mill; Heiuy, 
also at home; .loliii.\vlio is engaged in the nursery 
business; lienjamii^a resident of Columliia: David; 
Amanda, wife of Abner Miller: Susan, wife (^f Will- 



iam Dietrich, who is employed in tlie United States 
Mint in Philadelpliia; Klizabetli, who became liie 
wife of William ,Spera, now Superintendent of the 
Columbia Graj- Iron Works, and Ezra, who lives in 
Millersville, and who is Tax Collector of Manor 
Township. Mr. and ^Irs. Ihennor are mcnilievs (:>f 
the Mennonite Church, in the w..rk of which they 
are interested and active, and durinjr the long years 
of their residence in this community they have 
won the approbation of their friends aud neighbors 
for their industrious and wortliv course in life. 


FRAXK[,lNsrTT()X,an honored resident 
of Lancaster, is a native (>( this county, 
and the work that lie has th.iic towaid de- 
veloping its interests gives him a wiuthy phice 
among the true-hearted, hard-working men who 
laid the foundation for the present prosperity of 
this portion of the state. He is the son of .hjel 
and Margaret (Lovett) Sutton, and was burn in 
Fulton Township. January l.j. 182G, 

The paternal grandfather of our subject lived 
in Cecil County, ^Nld,, and was descended from one 
of three brothers who came to this country fr(im 
Scotland, of whom it is thought one located in 
Canada. The grandfather [lassed his entire life in 
the above county, and his only child was .loci, llie 
father of our subject. lie was l)(irn in Cecil Ccuin- 
ty, where he obtained a good education and de- 
veloped into an intelligent young man. liis oc- 
cupation in life was that of a miller, wliich he fol- 
lowed after removing to Fulton Townshi|), tliis 
county. Later he took up his abode on a tract t)f 
one hundred and sixty acres of land in Colerain 
Townshii), and while superintending its operation 
carried on a good business as proprietor of Steels 
Mill. In politics he was first a Whig and after 
the formation of the Republican party joined its 
ranks. He was the recipient of many local ])osi- 
tions, and was ever true to the responsibilities and 
duties imposed upon him in various capacities. 

if Ihe Baptist 

He was for many \-ears a iiic 

The parental familv included eleven children, of 
wh(nn Franklin was the eldest but one. His 
brothers and sisters bore the respective names of 
James L.,, Edwin, .loci. Anna. William L., 
Cieorge K., Waller, Orlando and Sarah. The two 
latter arc deceased. The father of these children 
passed away in 1863, at the age of sixtj'-nine. 
His good wife survived him many years, dying 
when in her eighty-fifth year. 

The original of this sketch received his educa- 
tion m the public and select schools of Lancaster, 
and at the age of nineteen entered the employ of 
his father, with whom he remained until after at- 
taining his majority. He then began clerking in 
a store in the county, holding that position for 
two aud one-half years. At the expiration of that 
time he a.ssumed charge of his father's mill in 
Colerain Townshiii, and two years thereafter em- 
barkcil in life on his own account, buying a store 
at Oak Shade, in Little Britain Township, whither 
he removed and took charge of affairs. 

■\Vliile residing in the above pl.ace our subject 
was i)ost master for three years. Later he purchased 
a farm and mill property, both of which he carried 
on with signal success until 18G2,when he sold his 
farm and removed into the cit\' of Laneastei-. 
Before removing to Lancaster, Franklin Sutton was 
aiipoiiited Ins|iectorof Distilled Spirits and 
( )il, which othce he hehl for four years under Alex- 
ander Hood, who was Inspector of Internal Rev- 
enue. His term of oftlce having expired, our sub- 
ject, in comiiany with .lohii Shaeffer, engaged in the 
planing mill business and the manufacture of agri- 
cultural implements, aud .-ome time later, with 
other iiarties. prospected fiir iron ore in Lancaster 
County. Li polilics he is a true blue Republican. 
He is an ollieial mcmlierof the P.aptist Cliurch, be- 
ing Trustee and Deacon for a number of years. 

October 21, 1851, Franklin Sutton was united 
in marriage with Jliss BLary JI. Long, daughter of 
.lohn I>ong, a farmer and manufacturer of cycles 
in Drumore Townshi]i. To them have been born 
three children. Ella, who is the wife of Dr. E. H. 
Witraer, resides in Neffsville, this county; John 
L. is at home with his parents, and has charge of 



the wall puiier dei)artiiieiit cf the .1. I!. Martin 
Cunipaiiy; llattie S. married Pans KvU. a pattern- 
maker and maehinist. 

Dr. .lames L. .Sutton, the eldest liruther of our 
subject, is a gra<1uate of the .U-ffL-rson Medical 
College of Philadelphia, al-o the Hahnemann 
Homeopathic College of I'lilhulelphia. He served 
as a surgeon in the late war and died while in the 
army from typhoid fever. William L., another of 
the family, was clerk in the Keformatory School at 
Huntingdon, and has served for many yeai-s in that 
capacity in the various departments of the court 
house in this city. He is a very [jopular man. and 
was Deputy Sheriff several years ago. 

JAj\H^S H. MARSHALL, formerly Postmaster, 
and at the present time Assistant Postmaster 
of Lancaster, has been in this department of 
Government work ever since 18C7, with the 
exception of the four years of President Cleve- 
land's first term. He is one of the most honored 
citizens of this place, where he is well known and 
very popular in all circles. As one of the boys in 
blue who marched from Chattanooga to the sea 
and did valiant service in upholding the Union 
cause, it is surelj' most fitting that the Govern- 
ment which he so bravely defended should m a 
public manner manifest their appreciation of his 
services, as they have done in giving him his im- 
portant position. 

James H. is the son of William ^L^rshall. who 
was born in Lancaster in DSKI, and was a i)romi- 
nent shoe manufacturer for many years in this 
city. His death occurred in issi. while that of 
his wife took place in 1893. The latlei-, who was 
also born in Lancaster, bore the uiaiden name of 
Elizabeth Sowers and was the daughter of Henry 
.Sowers; she was of German descent and was born 
in 1812. The paternal grandfather of our subject. 
who was born in the northern part of Ireiand, 
emigrated to this county at a very early day. 

and his descendants have since been well known in 

The birth of .lames H. Marshall took [ilace in 
Lancaster Sei)tcmber 12, 1838. He received a 
pul)lic school education and was also a stmlent in 
the private school of St. .lames' Episcoiial C'lnucli. 
When seventeen years of age he was apprenticed 
to learn the pi'inter's trade in the office of the Lan- 
caster Examiiu'i- and Herald, where he remained for 
four years. For the next year he resided in Har- 
risburg. l)eing a iiressman in the otHce of the D<iilii 
Putrinl of that place. In 1 .S;V.), going to Nashville, 
Tenn., he obtained emiiloyment in the I)a|)tist 
Publishing house for a time. Coming back to this 
city, he was foreman in the Examiner and Hirakl 
office until the fall of 18G1. October 5 of that 
year he enli.-ted in Company K, Seventy-ninth 
Pennsylvania Infantry, and was assigned to the 
Army of tlie Cumberland. On the expiration of 
his three years' service he veteranized and con- 
tinued until the close of the war, fighting on south- 
ern battlefields. With his regiment he took part 
in the engagements of Perryville, Stone River, 
Chickamauga, Chattanooga, Missionary Ridge, 
went with Sherman on his march through Georgia 
to the sea, and was ap|iointed Commissary Ser- 
geant February 12. l.S(;2. .lanuary 20, 18G5, he 
was commissioned First Lieutenant b}- Governor 
Curtin, and at the same time was Quartermaster 
of the regiment. After the march to Atlanta, he 
particijiated in the engagements of Goldsboro and 
Benton ville. After Johnston's surrender he went 
to Washington, where he took part in the Grand 
Review, and was mustered out in July, 1865. 

For a few years after his return to this^tate, Mr. 
Marshall worked at his trade in Coatesville, and 
was then appointed United States Deputy Marshal 
in Lancaster. Subsequently for eight years he 
served in the postotlice department, and was one 
of the first letter carriers in the city. January 
2ij. ISTIJ. he was appointed Po>tmaster, and was 
re-apl)ointed in 18.S1, serving until August 10, 
188.3, when he was removed on account of the 
change in the administration. He next received 
the appointment of Financial Clerk of the Soldiers' 
Orphans Schools at Harrisburg, from State Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction, Dr. E. E. Higbee 




This post he held until resigning to accept the 
place of Assistant Postmaster under Maj. Ehvood 
Greist, of Lancaster. When he became an employe 
of the postal service in 1867 there were only eight 
employes in the postoffice, including the Postmas- 
ter, delivery, mone}- order and registrj- clerks, 
and tlie four letter carriers. Now there are over 
thirty men cmiiloyed in the various departments, 
and in 1891 tho postotlice was assigned to the first 

May 26, 1863. while at home on a furlough. 
Mr. Marshall married Catherine W. McCaskey. wlio 
was born in Leacock Township. Slie is a daughter 
of William an<l sister of Piof. .1. P. MrCaskey, 
whose sketcli ap|)ears elsewhere in tliis work. .Mr. 
and Jlrs. Marshall have had six eluldren, Maggie, 
who died at the age of seventeen years; William 
L., a graduate of the high school now holding a 
prominent position in tlie Farmers' National Bank 
of this place; Bertha, Harry H., Maud and Bhuiche. 
The family residence is situateii at No. 2ii East 
Walnut Street. 

Religiously Mr. Marshall is an Episcopalian and 
a Vestryman in the St. James' Church. He belongs 
to Lancaster Lodge No. 43, F. A- A. M.; to Lancas- 
ter Chapter No. 43, R.A. M., and is identified witli 
George H. Thomas Post No. 84, G. A. R. 

JOHN G. FORSTBURG. Superintendent of 
the Star Brewery of Lancaster, is a practical 
and successful man in this trade, and the 
company with which he now is may con- 
sider itself fortunate in having secured his services, 
for he IS unanimously conceded to be foremost in 
his line in the county. A man of more than usual 
intelligence, he is a chemist and an iinentor. hi 
partnership with Mr. Burkland, lie patented an 
ammonia valve for ice machines which is of great 
practical value and destined to make a fortune for 
tlie owners. 

The suliject of this biography is a native of 
Sweden, having Ijeen born in Christinehornn, 

His father, Johan, was 
d was superintendent 
?sided until his death 

inember of the Lulii- 

Vermiand. A|.ril 12. 1 
born in the same local 
of a large fai-m, when 
in 1870. He was a fa 
eran Church and wortliy and upright in his daily 
life. His wife, Maria M. (Carlson) Forstburg, was 
born ill ChristiiielR)rnii. and iier death occurred in 
the year of our subject's birth. Her only otlier 
child who lived to mature years. Carl F., is a ma- 
chinist in Sweden. 

John (L Forstburg was reared on the home farm, 
attending the common schools of his native land 
and there acquiring a good general education. 
After his father's death lie went toSundsvall and 
at the age or sixteen was apprenticed to a brewer, 
becoming thorougly conversant with all the details 
of the business and giving much of his attention 
to the study of chemistry and kindred subjects. 
In 1877, going to Hull, England, he pursued a 
course of training in an extensive brewer}-, after 
which he returned to his former place. 

In 1879 Mr. Forstburg set sail for America, go- 
ing by way of Hull and (Glasgow, and arriving in 
New York City on the steamer "State of Nevada." 
For a sliort time he worked in Heralds Brewer}- in 
Hartford, Conn., thence going to Buffalo. After- 
ward he was employed for a time in the large 
Ruperts Brewery in New York City. Receiving 
fine recommendations from his former employers, 
he went to Baltimore, Md., becoming foreman of 
the Standard Brewery, and acted in that capacity 
for three years. It was in July, 1888, that he 
came to this city, being Superintendent of Spen- 
ger's Brewery for about three years. In 1891 he 
was offered :i similar [.oMtion with the Star Brew- 
ing Company, and in 18'.)3 superintended the erec- 
tion and e(iuipnient of this establishment, wliich is 
known to be the finest of the kind in the state, 
and furnished with all modern appliances and ma- 
cliinery used in the trade. Tiie Star Brewery 
manufactures the celebrated Pilsener and \'ienna 
beer and can turn out aliuut forty thousand bar- 
rels per annum. On account of the superior qual- 
ity of their goods the products find a ready sale in 
all parts of the surrounding counties, and the 
business is steadily increasing. 

In 1884 Mr. Forstburg was married in New Y'ork 



C:ity U> Miss Philippiio Wclicr, n ii:itive n( Sucili- 

well built iiome on Pearl Street and also own the 
four adjoining residences. They have an interest- 
ing family of three children, .Tohn, Ijillie anil(ius- 
tav. Mr. and Mrs. Forstlmr,- are faillifiii nieni- 
hers of the Pntheran Church of this city. The 
former is a Denmcrat and sucially lielon;;s t(.) ^lat- 
tomow Tribe No. 63 Order of lied .Alen. 

MA.T. JEHE.MIAII P.OllKKi; is the largest 
wholesale liquor merchant in Lancaster, 
in which business lie has been engaged 
since 18(11. A veteran of the iate war, he arose to 
the rank of Major through merit and valiant ser- 
vice, holding that commission in the One Hundred 
and Twenty-seventh Pennsylvania Infantry. Ma- 
jor Rolirer has served a number of times in oilicial 
capacities and in public affairs and each time ac- 
quitted himself greatly to his own credit and to tiie 
satisfaction of those concerned. 

Our subject was born in Lebanon, Pa., May 9, 
1827, coming from one of the old families of Leb- 
anon Count}', his ancestors having located in Lan- 
caster County on coming from .Switzerland. The 
paternal grandfather, John Rohrer, was in the 
War of the Revolution and endured the terril)le 
sufferings of Valley Forge, being First Lieutenant 
of the Flying P.attalion. He was a lock-mitli by 
trade and was an early settler of Lcl.nnon County. 
Our subject's father, David Rohrer. wa> al,^. born 
in Lebanon County, which was tlien known as 
Dauphin, and, likr his father, he was in early years 
a locksmith, but in later _\ears engaged in manu- 
facturing grain sickles. Removing to Middletown. 
he worked at this business until his death, at the 
age of forty-two. 

The mother of our subject, who was born near 
Middletown, was .Mary, daughter of .lohn .1. I'ar- 
themore. llei- paternal grandfather came to the 
LTnited Slates from a village near Hamlnug in 

Hesse-Darmstadt, and he was an active member of 
the (u'rman Reformed Church. The latter, -lohn 
Frederick, landed in Philadelphia October 20, 1744, 
and located in what is now Dauphin County, where 

is death occur 



John P 



J., his son, also followed agricultural pui-suits in 
the same neighborhood. Mrs. Rohrer after the 
<leath of her first husband, David Rohrer, in 1843. 
married John I'artheniore. by whom she had one 
child. Her death occurred .March 24, 1848. The 
Major is the second of the children of the first 
union. His eldest brother, Jacob L., died at the 
age of one year; Elizabeth died in Springfield, 
Ohio; Absalom S. and Jacob both died in child- 
hood; and George F. is a resident tif Ilarrisburg. 

In his youth Major Rohrer learned the carpen- 
ter's trade, and afterward worked at contracting 
and building. He then a manufacturer of 
sash, doors and blinds in Middletown for about 
two months, when he was burned out; afterward 
he rebuilt and continued the business for five 
years, later next engaging in fruit farming. In 
August, 18G2, he Iiecame a memlier of the One 
Hundred and Twenty-seventh Pennsylvania Infan- 
try, being under Colonel Jennings. Major Rohrei- 
recruited Company H, Susquehanna Rangers, at 
Middletown, in three days and was made Caiitain 
of the company. When it was mustered in at 
Ilarrisburg August 12, he was commissioned Major 
of the regiment and placed in the Second Divi- 
sion of the Army of the Potomac. At the bat- 
tle of Fredericksburg this regiment was one of the 
lirst to cross the river, and they lost two hundred 
and f(uty-two of their enrolled men during the 
battle. The next engagement in which they par- 
ticipated was the battle of Chancellorsville and 
skirmishes near Fredericksburg that followed. The 
IMajor was on duty night and day for a long time, 
and though he had many narrow escapes, was for- 
tunate in never being wounded. After his faith- 
ful service he was mustereilout at Ilarrisburg, .Alay 
29, 18G3. 

In the spring of IbGl our subject came to Lan- 
caster and for the succeeding thirteen years has 
been located at No. 22 Penu Square, in the whole- 



sale liquor business. In lliis luiililiiig he oceupios 
tlie four floors and basement, the lii>t lloor lieing 
used for tlie retail business. Tlie building- is sup- 
plied with an elevator, and everythiny- in llie line 
of his business may here be found. Ills Wild 
Cherry Tunic lias a wide reinitatidn fm- excell- 

Our subject is interested in the Lancaster Trust 
Company, the People's National and the People's 
Trust Saving' and Deposit Companies Banks. In 
the fall of 1872 he was elected Register of Wills 
of Lancaster County, serving until January, I.s7(>. 
Prior to this lie was for three years an Ins|)ector 
of Prisons and was President of the Board during 
the last year, lie suggested and invented the 
iron-clad cells in use in the prisdus anil many dllicr 
improvements of a practical nature. For the pa>t 
ten j'ears he has been Trustee of the Home for 
Friendless Children. In Masonic and social cir- 
cles be is very active, being a member of Lodge 
No. 43, F. iVr A. M., and has raised four of his 
sons in about three years to the Master Mason '^ de- 
gree. A Royal Arch Mason, he lulongs to Chapter 
No. 43, to Council No. i;i. and to Commandery 
No. 13, K. T., of which he is Past Commander. 
Formerly lie was associated with the Odd Fellows, 
the Senior Order of United American Mechanics 
and tlie Knights of Pythias, being a cliartci- mem- 
ber of the lodge. As a member of the Koyal .Vr- 
canum he is active, as well as with the (leorge II. 
Thomas Post No. 84, G. A. R. In politics he de- 
posits his ballot in favor of Republican nominees. 

Major Rohrer was married in Elizabethtown, 
Lancaster County. Jlarcli 24, l.sjo, to .Mary .\.. 
daughter of (ieorge Redsecker, an early setllcraiid 
miller on the Conewago Creek, the dividing line 
between Dauphin and Lancaster Counties. .Ahs. 
Rohrer was born in Elizabethtown. and by her 
marriage became the mother of eight children, 
seven of whom are living, namely: Dr. George 
R., whose oftice is at No. 45 East Orange Street, 
Lancaster; Jacob B., a civil engineer on the Chi- 
cago Drainage Canal; Marie Louise and Mary, who 
are at home; Grant, arailroad contractoi : Howard, 
a druggist, but now in business with his father; 
and Daisy M., who is at home. Mrs. Rohrer and 
several of her children are members of the F'irst 

md the family 

Pre.-.byt,Tiaii Cliuicli of tlii, 
is liighly respccte.l. 

For two terms ;Major Rohrer was a member of 
the Common Council of Lancaster, serving on the 
special Water Committee, which built and com- 
pleted the new water wiuks. As a member of the 
.Select Council, he also served for two terms, when 
he resigned, and while there was a member of the 
Finance and Water Committees. In everything re- 
lating to the improvement and development of 
tlie place he has been zealous and active, having 
the welfare of the people at heart. 

:„^.;..i..i.^ ^ .;„t„;„{.,}„}.^,i„;..;^,{. ;;X>. 

I~^i;()F. GEORGK BENKERT, proprietor of 
r.enkert's School of Jiusic in Lancaster, is 
an accomplished musician and able teacher. 
While studying that ait in Germany he carried off 
the honors of his <>la--s. which distinction was ac- 
corded him by Professor Volckmar. His estab- 
lishment is located at No. 147 FLast King Street, 
and its owner is highly appreciated and received 
in the best circles of society in the city. 

()ui- sulijei-t was born in Ilesse-Casscl, Germany, 
Aiiril 14, 18ti4,and is the son of William Benkert, 
also a native of the Fatherland. The latter com- 
pleted his musical training in a noted school in 
llomberg and is a teacher in the iniblic schools 
and an oiuaiiist in his native place. He married 
.Miss Matilda :\Ioeller, a native of Kirchberg, Ger- 
maii\. and the daughter of Jacob Moeller, an or- 
ganist and pianist in this community. 

of iiii'lli among nine chihlren, of whom live are 
now living. He was reared in Germany, where he 
received a good education in the [lublic schools 
and studied music under his father and grand- 
father. When eoiiiiiienciiig his studies in the llom- 
berg Seminary, he placed hiinself under the in- 
struction of Professor A'olckinar, taking lessons 
in liarmon3% composition, and on the piano, organ 
and violin. He entered the seminary when sev- 




entcen yenrs of aiie, mid at'ter soiii 
entered the |irc|jarat<iry .scliuol. wlniv he leniained 
two years. On leaving the ■>eininar\' he reeeived 
the honors of his class in organ and piano music. 
Decidini; to come to America, Professor Benkert 

in New York City, he immediately made his way 
to this city and obtained the position of organist 
and teacher in a parochial school. After being thus 
engaged for four years he established a school of 
music, which lie has provided with the best instruc- 
tors on piano and pi|ie organ. He devotes his en- 
tire time to this fnisiness and has luanv pupils, 
who have placed themselves under his instruction 
knowing that he will develop in the best possible 
manner whatever musical talent they may ha\i'. 

Professor Benkert was married in this city in 
18",I0 to Miss Clara A., daughter of August .J. 
Riske. a merchant tailor. To them were born two 
children, William A. and Catherine A. 

E3<'T^S&— ■ SI 

BYRON .1. BROWN is one of the most suc- 
cessful contract(_)rs in the painting and 
decorating line in Lancaster and has done 
the most artistic work on the best houses and pub- 
lic buildings in the citj'. He is very popular in 
all circles and is widely and favorably known as 
a good business man and a leader in church and po- 
litical lines as well. In all measures pertaining 
to the good of this city and his neighbors he takes 
an active and vigorous part. 

A native of Lancaster, Mr. Brown was born Au- 
gust 7, l,s.')2, being a son of Oeorge W., a native 
of Cumberland County, his birthplace having been 
only three miles from Harrisburg. The paternal 
grandfather, whose Christian name was also George, 
was b(un and reared in Cumberland County, where 
his father, a native of the North of Ireland, settled 
at a very early day. (Grandfather Brown on at- 
taining maturity turned his attention to the iron 
business, operating the Tyrone Forge in Cumber- 

land County fora numljer of years, or until shortly 
brfoie hi^ deatli. His wife, who was a member of 
the Hickeruell family, w,as of German descent and 
died when over eighty years of age. 

George W. Brown, Jr., was the youngest of 
twelve children and wa> a youth of only fifteen 
years on his ai'iival in Lancaster, where his brother, 
David P., who had charge of the Henry Leaiuan 
Rille Works, had preceded him. George Brown 
commenced his apprenticeship as a painter and 
furniture maker with George Rote, and at the end 
of hi^ time, in 1848, started in business for himself 
as a contract painter, which trade is still carried 
on by his son. His olHce was for many years on 
North Queen Street and in 1865 the shop was per- 
manently located at No. 52 North Queen Street. 
Byron J. continues the business of house painting, 
in addition to being a dealer in paints, oils, glass, 
etc., at No. 50 North Queen Street. The father de- 
parted this life Miiy 27, 1889, at the age of sixty- 
three years. A prominent Democrat, he served in 
various public cap,acities in former j-ears, having 
been Assessor .and later being a member of the Select 
Council from the First Ward and also of the Com- 
mon Council. From 1848 he had been active in 
Masonic circles, being a member of the old Lodge 
No. 43 and having taken the Knight Templar de- 
gree. In 1849 he became a memlier of the Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows, afterward joining 
the Knights of Pythias and Order of Red Men. F"or 
his wife he married Mary E., daughter of Herman 
Villee, whose birth occurred in France. He was a 
job printer, and ran a book store for a number of 
years, later removing to Moconoy, where his death 
occurred. Mrs. Brown, who survives her husband, 
was born in Lancaster and now reached the 
age of sixty-three years. As one of the charter 
members of St. John's Episcopal Church of this 
city she has always been most active in its work 
and continues to be a zealous worker at the pres- 
ent time, devoting the main part of her time and 
interest to various lienevolent and religious enter- 
lirises. Of her three sons and two daiighteis, four 
still survive, Byron J. being the eldest of the 

The gentleman whose name heads this article 
obtained a good education in the common and 



high schools of Lancaster, and when seventeen 
years old commenced learning his father's trader 
continuing in business with liim with the excep- 
tion of one year, which was passed in Philadelpliia. 
Ill time he was given most of the superintendence 
of the business, and when his father died, in 188'.*, 
succeeded him at the old location. The specialty 
of Mr. Brown, a department in which lie excels, is 
fine graining for the trade, and for twelve years 
his services in this direction have been in great de- 
mand in all parts of the vicinity. In fine decorat- 
ing and interior finishings he also devotes much of 
his time, and many of the finest private residences 
in the city owe much to his skill and good taste. 
Among the many public buildings which might be 
mentioned as bearing evidence of his handiwork 
are the Trinity Lutheran and St. .lohn's Episcopal 

The lady who presides over tlie liome of Mr. 
Brown, whicli is located at No. 544 West Cliest- 
nut Street, became his wife April 21, 1872, at 
IMiddletown, Pa. She was formerly Lydia D. Sloat 
and was born at Ephrata, being a daughter of John 
Sloat. who was proprietor of the tlour mills at 
that iilace. Nine children were born to Mr. and 
i\Irs. Brown, >ix of whom .are living, as follows, 
Mary, Harry, Helen, George, Robert and Paul. 
Harry, the eldest son, is now in business with his 
father, and is his right hand man. 

For the past two years our subject has been Clerk 
of the Select Council, his term having expired 
April 1. 1894. For eleven years he has been fore- 
man of Truck A of the Lancaster Fire Depart- 
ment, and is a member of the old Empire Associa- 
tion. In the line of his work he is affiliated with 
the Master House Painters and Decorators Associ- 
ation of Pennsylvania, and has been a represen- 
tative every year since it was organized, serving 
on various committees. Active in the ranks of 
the Democracy, he belongs to the Young Men's 
Democratic Society of this city, and socially is a 
member of Can-as-sa-te-go Tribe No.203, Improved 
Order of Red Men, of which he has been Secretary 
for several j-ears. He has served as a representa- 
tive to the Great Council of tiie stale, and was 
honored by being elected to tlie Great Council of 
the United States, Pennsylvania electing onlj' four 

representatives each year. Tlie other organiza- 
tions to which he belongs are the Knights of 
Pythias, Knights of Malta and Independent Order 
of Odd Fellows. With his wife he holds mem- 
bership witli St. .John's Ejiiscopal Church, in wliich 
he is one of the most valued workers. 





^ y tlie young men wlio are cultivating a [lor- 
tion of the soil of Lancaster County with 
gratifying success, should be mentioned this gen- 
tleman, who is a prominent agriculturist in East 
Hemi)field Township. He is the son of Christian 
and Martha (Minich) Musselman, and was born on 
the farm where he is at present residing Marcii 1, 

John Musselman. grandfather of our suliject, 
was also a native of this county, where he was 
well-to-do financially. He married a Miss Klugli, 
by whom he became tlie father of two sons and 
three daughters, bearing the respective names of 
Joliii, May, Sarah, Elizabetli and Christian. The 
grandfather departed this life while yet a young 
man and when Christian was a lad of seven years. 
The latter born March 1, 1817, and received 
a good education for that early day. 

The father of our subject in early life followed 
the combined occupations of farmer and butcher 
and also to some extent engaged in operating a 
threshing machine. He is now, however, in pos- 
session of a good estate in this county, upon which 
he located in April, 1881. Besides his four farms 
he is the possessor of a mill and is highly regarded 
by all who know him. He is well-to-do in this 
world's goods and liis competence lias been the re- 
sult of his own efforts, together with the assist- 
ance rendered liy his good wife, who was also 
economical .and industrious. Cliristian Jlusselman 
is a devoted member of the Reformed Church. In 
politics he is a firm Democrat, and was elected on 



that ticket Id I ho "lllci 


The matenirtl graiidfathfi- of our Mil 
name John Minieh, was a faiiiuT ami <-. 
carrying on opei-atioiis in this io\vii>h 
daughter, the mother of our sul.Jeet. had the fol- 
lowing chihlreii: Sarah, tlie wife of .loliu Martin; 
Henry, a miller in this townsiiip; Martha, Fanny, 
Christian M.; Jacob, engaged in operating a thresh- 
ing machine in P^ast FlempReld Township; Fiank- 
lin, a farmer Iticated in this township; Christine, 
the wife of Cyrus Ihistand; Benjamin, a butelier, 
located in Donorville; and Amos, a fanner of this 
section. Tiie family are all living and are well 
established in life. 

The subject of this sketch has spent his entire 
life on the old homestead and was educated in the 
district school. In 1881, when his parents removed 
from this place, he took charge of the farm, com- 
prising one hundred and thirty-five acres, and is 
now its owner. He has always followed agricul- 
tural pursuits and is making a success of his call- 
ing. He is a stanch Democrat in politics and is 
greatly interested in the success of his party. Oc- 
tober 23, 1880, he was united in marriage with 
Miss Mar}' Hustand, a daughter of Jacob Ilustand, 
a coal and lumber merchant of Salunga. The life 
record of our subject is a good one and such as to 
commend him to the resiieet and esteem of the 
entire communitv. 


JACOB IHESTANl). The spirit of progress 
so characteristic of American citizens of the 
nineteenth century finds an exemplification 
in the gentleman alxive named. He is en- 
gaged in operating an r\teii-i\e coal and liimlier 
yard in Salunga, in which bu>iness lic> has lieen en- 
gaged since 1865. He is the owner of considerable 
valuable real estate in the city, together with farm 
property, all of which he is handling in a profit- 
able manner. 

John and Catherine (Good) Iliestand, the par- 

ents of our subject, wore natives respectively of 
Ytirk and Lancaster Counties, this state. When 
a \'oiniL; man tlie father came to Lancaster Countj', 
where he was engaged in farming one hundred 
and ten acres of land, pleasantly located one quar- 
ter of a mile from Salunga, which at that time was 
little more than a village. He was also the pro- 
prietor of a tract of one hundred and seventeen 
acres near his other estate. LTpon it was located a 
distillery, which he operated for some time. He 
was respected throughout his community, was thor- 
oughly trusted and was often called upon to act 
as administrator in the settlement of estates. The 
old Mennonite Church found in him one of its 
most valued members. In politics he was first a 
Whig, but after the organization of the Republi- 
can jiarty joined its ranks. 

John Iliestand was three times married and by 
his first union there were born the following named 
children: Christian, Anna, John, Abraham, Susan, 
P^lizabeth and I'.arliara. By his second wife he had 
seven children. His marriage with the mother of 
our subject, the daughter of Henry Good, resulted 
in the birth of Jacob, IMary, Alattie, John M., Henry 
Sarah, Catherine and I?enjamin, the two latter of 
whom are deceased. 

Jacob was liorn on the old homestead August 
21, 1811. He received a good education and for 
many years nnnained on the home farm, which, on 
the death of his father, he purchased from the 
other heirs, and is still the owner of the estate. 
He has two acres of land adjoining Salunga, which 
he sold on one occasion to the firm of Patterson & 
Patterson, who used it for their coal and lumber 
yard. Five j-ears later he bought out their busi- 
ness, which he is still carrying on with good suc- 
cess. While engaged in farming he accumulated 
a comfortable fortune. He is i)ossessed of a keen, 
clear intellect and is a man of wide experience 
and extended information. He is known and re- 
spected for the honest}' and sincerit}' of his char- 
acter, and has the friendship of the best men in 
the communitv. 

Jacob Iliestand was married in 18-14 to Jliss 
Elizabeth, daughter of John Stehman, by whom 
he became the father of ten children. John is de- 
ceased; Henry is living on the home farm; Cath- 



erine is the wife of Clirisiian Swan; ISarbara mar- 
ried Abraham llarnish; Sarali is now IMrs. Daniel 
(irady; Mary is the wife of Christian JIusselman; 
Susan is deceased: Annie is Mrs. Phineas Jlussel- 
man; Fannie is deceased, as is also Elizabeth, who 
was the wife of Amos Lehman. 

HON. WALTER W. FRANKLIN is the pres- 
ent Representative to the Pennsylvania 
State Legislature from Lancaster, Ilis 
home has been made for many ye.ars in the city 
of Lancaster, where his birth occurred and where 
he is one of the leading attorneys. He is active 
in the ranks of the Republican party, and has 
served in political positions of influence. During 
his professional career he has made man.v warm 
friends in this roinnuinity, and is liiuhly esteemed 

The birth of our suliject occurred November 12, 
1S58, he being a son of Col. Emlen Franklin, also 
a native of this city. His paternal grandfather, 
.Judge Walter Fianklm, was of English descent, 
and was Ijciii in Flushing, L. 1, He also was a 
law^-er, who possessed unusual ability in that pro- 
fession, and settled in Lancaster in the early days 
of its history, becoming one of her first lawyers. 
In political as well as professional circles, he bore 
a high reputation, served in a number of pulilic 
capacities, and was Judge of the district at the time 
of his death. In religious faith he was a member 
of the Society of Friends, and his life was upright 
and honoralile in every res])ect. Our subject's fa- 
ther. Colonel Franklin, was a man of superior edu- 
cation, who graduated from Yale College with the 
degree of Master of Arts, and then, like his father, 
engaged in the practice of law. In 1865 he was 
in the State Legislature, where lie represented his 
district for one term, and at another time was Dis- 
trict Attornej' and Register of Wills, resigning the 
former position in order to offer his services to the 
Union. In 1861 he entered Company F, of the 

First Pennsylvania A'olunteers, being elected Caj)- 
taiii. and served fur three months. On the expira- 
tion of that period he re-enlisted in the nine 
months' service, and was active in raising the One 
Hundred and Twenty-second Regiment, of w^hich 
he was made Colonel, and was also acting Briga- 
dier-General of the Third Brigade, Third Divis- 
ion, Third Army Corps. With that department 
he participated in the important battles of Chan- 
cellorsville, Fredericksburg and Antietam, as well 
as in minor engagements. When the term of his 
enlistment exjiired he returned home and took 
charge of raising companies on the Emergency 
Call, and served as Colonel of the Fiftieth Penn- 
sylvania Militia until the end of the allotted time. 
Returning to his law practice he continued actively 
engaged in business until his death, which occurred 
.June lit, 1891. at which time he was in his sixty- 
fifth year. In politics he was a stanch Republican, 
and at one time was candidate on the party ticket 
for the nomination of Meralier of Congress, but 
was beaten by thirty votes, this liappening two 
times. He was also a (irand ^Vrniy man, and a 
thoroughly [latrK.itic citi/.eii. His wife, formerly 
Clara A, Withers, was born in Lancaster County, 
being a daughter of Michael Withers, whose birth 
occurred in Strasburg, also in this county. He 
i was of English descent, and his father was, like him, 
born within the county boundary. In order to 
obtain a livelihood, he followed farming and mill- 
ing, and after his long and useful career passed 
away in this city, 

Hon, W. W, Franklin, whose name heads this 
article, is one of three children, lie being the eldest. 
The others are Josephine and Emlen A,, who is en- 
gaged in the manufacture of mining machiner}' in 
Durango, Colo, The early education of Mr, Frank- 
lin was obtained in the excellent i)ublic and pri- 
vate scli0(.>ls of Lancaster, after leaving wliieli it 
was his privilege to attend for a time the Franklin 
and Marshall College, which he left at the close of 
the sophomore year to become a teacher at St. 
;\Iary's Academy in tlli^ ounty. Concluding to 
adopt the profession of his father and grandfather, 
and having himself a decided inclination in that 
direction, the young man next began the pursuit 
of law studies with his father, and after becoming 



thorouglil}' familiar with the theory and much of 
the practical workings of law, was admitted to the 
Bar in 1882. Under tlie able tutelage and direc- 
tion of Colonel Franklin lie was tiainc>d in the 
best methods and skill of niii(U>in lawyeis. and con- 
tinued in practice witli liini until the elder Mr. 
Franklin died. Since then he has carried on iiis 
business alone, having his (jflice at No. 23 South 
Duke Street, and numbers among his clients those 
who formerly depended upon his fatiier, and have 
now come to place the same reliance in tlie son. 
In the spring of 1888 he was nominated as a can- 
didate for tlie State Legislature, and in the fall of 
that year was elected, and during his service iu 
the House was Chairman of the Local Judiciary 
Committee and also served on minor committees. 
In 1890 he was re-elected to the Legislature, serv- 
ing as Chairman of the same committee as previ- 
ously, and also being appointed to serve as a 
member of Committee on Railroads, being Secre- 
tary of that committee. Wlien the returns were 
counted in IH'JII. it was found that he had been 
defeated at the'i)olls on account of fraud, which 
was so evident that the election was contested, the 
result being that his election was sustained. In 
personal manner he is c(.iurtcous and affable, and 
readily wins and retains friends. 


eOL. EDWAIU) I\I< OOVFRN, who is a prom- 
inent factor of Lancaster County, as was 
his father before him, will form tlie sub- 
ject of this notice. He was born in Lebanon, Pa., 
November 11, 18:34, and reared on a farm three 
miles out of the city. In 184(! he went to AVor- 
cester, Mass., and attended tlie college of the Holy 
Cross for six years, gradu.-itinu in lH."i2, with the 
degree of A. B. Later the degree of A. M. was 
conferred upon him b}' the Georgetown College. 
In 18fil. after having studied law under Colonel 
Fin/.cr. our subject was admitted to the Bar and 
practiced law with him until August of that year. 

when he enlisted in Company G, Seventy-ninth 
Pennsylvania Infantry. He raised the company, 
and was mustered in as its Captain. In the fall 
of 1862 he was commissioned by Governor Curtin 
as Colonel of the One Hundred and Twentj^-sec- 
ond Regiment. He joined his regiment at the sec- 
ond battle of Bull Run, and jjarticipated in the 
battles of Antietam, Fredericksburg and Ciiancel- 
lorsville, and was mustered out with them under 
General Sickles. Afterward he went to Mexico as 
civil engineer under Lyon, who was later shot, 
and worked in that capacity for the Xerm Cruz 
Railroad Company, with which corporation he re- 
mained for three years. He then returned by the 
way of New Orleans, and was engaged on the 
Louisville Short Line Railroad for two years, after 
the completion of which he returned to Pennsyl- 
vania. He later worked for the Pittsburg & Con- 
uelsville Railroad, for whom he superintended the 
construction of two large tunnels, and returned to 
Lancaster. We next tind him as a contractor on 
the Columbia cl- Port Defjosit Railroad, where he 
was engaged in heavy work for two or three years. 
From there he went to New Jersey, and in 1880 
to Colorado, where he was engaged with the Den- 
ver cl' Rio Grande Railroad Company. This was 
a big contract, retjuiring much ability as a rail- 
road constructor. During this work he tunneled 
the Cascade Mountains. He then returned to his 
Lancaster home and engaged in farming and fruit 
growing, and set out a tine orchard three miles 
from the city. He also built three large tobacco 
warehouses in Lancaster. 

Politically, our subject was originally a Repub- 

1 lican, casting his vote for John C. Fremont in 
1856, but in 1880 became identified with the Dera- 

I ocratic party and voted for General Hancock. He held numerous local offices; has been a mem- 
ber of the Common Council from the Sixth Ward 

' for two years; and also Street Commissioner. He 
was Judge Advocate in the Army of the Potomac 
and Ohio. 

Of our subject's ancestry it m.ay be stated that 
his father, John McGovern, was born in the i)rov- 
ince of Ulster, Ireland, where he was reared to 

j faiin life, lie was in the British army and in the 

I battle of Waterloo in 1815. In January, 1816, 



be emigrated to America, landing at New York, 
and came to Pennsylvania on foot accompanied 
by Judge Burnsides, and at once went to work 
with no capital save two strong arms. He drifted 
from one tiling to another, and finally engaged in 
mercantile business, lumbering, etc He was lo- 
cated at the corner of Lemon and Mulberry Streets, 
and also ran a store at Lebanon. He was a con- 
tractor from about 1820 to 1852, and from 1833 
operated a farm. Our subject still owns this prop- 

Our subject's mother, ;\Iary Anne (^IcDono) 
McGovern, was a native of Trenton, N. J., and 
the daughter of Peter McDono, a native of Ire- 
land. He came to Trenton in 1793, and was an 
importer of beer. In 18(U he removed to Lan- 
caster, having learned tiie bottling business in 
England. He was the first person to engage in 
the bottling business at Lancaster, and sold bot- 
tled goods from wagons throughout the country 
as far as Cincinnati and Columbus, Ohio. He died 
in 1840. By reference to the above concerning 
our subject's father, the reader can readily under- 
stand why Col. Edward McGovern has made a 
success of his life, being reared, as he was, to in- 
dustry and economy by his father before lura. 


-<f^ AVID "\\^ GRAYBILL, engaged in the leaf 

I I tobacco and mercantile business in East 
Petersburg, is the son of Daniel and Eliz 
abeth (Witmer) Graybill, and was born in this 
place November 10, 1853. The Graybill family 
is of Swiss origin, and has been identified with 
the history of Lancaster County for many years. 
The grandfather of our subject, who bore the 
name of Daniel, was born in this state, and ia 
said to have been the owner of a large tract of 
land. He followed farm pursuits until 1850, when 
he retired from active life, and spent the remain- 
der of his years near East Petersburg. In politics 
he was a l\ei>ublican. and in religion was identi- 
fied with the German Baptist Church. By his 

marriage with a Miss Hollinger he became the fa- 
ther of the following-named children, of whom 
all but two are living: Joseph, Isaac, Daniel, Ja- 
cob, Benjamin, Elizabeth and Mary. He departed 
tliis life in 1859, when just past his three-score 
years and ten. 

The father of our subject was born in Wliite 
Oak, Penn Townsliip, this county, where he was 
given a common-school education, and was trained 
by his honored father to farm pursuits. He was 
the possessor of a tract of one hundred acres, 
which was devoted principally to stock-raising. 
I'ollowing m the footsteps of his father, lie voted 
tlie Kepul)lican ticket, but otherwise was not ac- 
tive in i)olitics. During the latter part of liis 
life he was connected by nu'inbcrsliip with the 
(lerman Baptist Church. 

The parents of David W. were married about 
1836, the mother being the <laughterof Dr. Herman 
Witmer, a prominent physician of Manor Town- 
ship. Their union resulted in tlie liirth of four 
^(in.s aii<l two daughters. Martlia is the wife of 
Daniel 1). Kreider and resides on the old home- 
stead; Herman W. is a cual and lumber mercliant 
in I'etei'sburg; Anius \V.. n(.)w deceased, was for- 
merly cngageil in the furniture business in the 
state of Kansas; IJcnjaiiiin W. is a farmer and 
stock-raiser of Avon, Idaho; Elizabetli died in 
childhood; David W., of this sketch, was the young- 
est. The husband and father died October 11, 
1890, aged seventy-seven \ears. His wife pre- 
ceded him to the land beyond, dying in 18811, at 
the age of seventy-one. 

The subject of this sketch was reared on his 
father's farm, and like the other boys of the neigh- 
borhood attended the district sclniol for a time. 
Afterward he became a student in the Millers- 
ville State Normal. When completing his educa- 
tion he taught three terms of school, after which 
he engaged in the leaf tobacco business, occupy- 
ing a large warehouse, which is devoted to pre- 
paring that article for the market. He gives em- 
ployment to from eighteen to thirty-four men, 
and has represented three different tobacco firms, 
doing a business of about %!60,000 annually. 

In addition to the enterprise already mentioned, 
Mr. Graybill is one of the general merchants of 



Pi'lcrsliur--. liaviiiu an cstulili-lniH-nl u.-ll Mocked 
will, nil ,,r -...hI- >uilalilc tn. Im,1|i ruuiitl V 
an<l rilv h, -n.ial iiiattci- li,- \<v\niv^> to 
l,aiira>ttr Lo.luc S<<. \:'.. l\ ,V A. M.. and has lic.-n 
Pasl (Iraud of Sclali I.odua^ No. Ofu. 1. (). O. F.. 
of lAIanheiui. lie is likewise eounecled willi the 
Meridian Sun C'onimandeiy No. D'.i, K. jM.,of Lan- 
caster; Lancaster Lodue No. 88. K. P.; Lancaster 
Lodiic No. iL'i;. A. (). K. of M. t'.; and Re.] Rose 
t'onipanv No. -.'O. Lniforuied Rank, of Lancaster. 
Mr. (irayliill forms one of the State Coniniandery 
with rank of l!rigadier-(Teneial under J. 15. Roberts, 
Comniandini;- Oeneral.of the state, lie bclon,!.'S 

various orders is iironiinent and irdlucntial. In 
politics lie is a Republican, and lias lield the oflice 
of Justice of the Peace since 1881. He has been 
Assessor for a number of terms, and was Secre- 
tary of the County Couiiiiittee for two years. 

April --'T. IS.sii, Mr. Ciayliill aii.l .Ali-s S. Alice, 
daughter of William K. .Martin, were uiiite.l in 
marriage. To tiiein have lu'en l.ioni two children, 
Guy Martin and David Reid. 


PATRICK DONNELLY. The history of 
Lancaster County would be incomplete 
with(jut mention of ^Mr. Donnelly, who is 

For over a ipiarter of a century he was an Alder- 
man in the city (if Lancaster, and for tliree years was 
the able editor of the Lancaster Democrat. He is the 
son of .lames and Bridget (Holland) Donnelly, 
and was born F'ebruary '>:). 1810. in County Ty- 
rone, Ireland, .lames Donnelly- also a native 
of the aliove place, where he was a weaver by traile, 
which business he followed in his native laud un- 
til the time of his emigration to America. He 
tiecame a citizen of this country as soon as [lossi- 
lile after living here the [irescribed time, and in 
politics was a linn Democrat. His first vote was 
given in 18^!3 m favor of John Andrew Schulty 

for (lovcrnor. He was a devout Catholic in re- 
ligion, to winch faith he remained true during liis 
entire life. He came to the United States in the 

was active in public affairs and was a prominent 
citizen of Lancaster at the time of his decease, 
.September 27. 1S(I.'!. when ninety-seven years of 

Patrick, of this sketch, after completing his edu- 
cation in the comiiioii ~chool>, devoted three years 
towards learning tlie trade of a tailor. Not finding 
this suited to his health he traveled, 
selling Irish linens through the south. His he.alth 

liusinoss, and after working in the interests of this 
house for three years, .young Donnelly went upon 
the stage, traveling with some of the best compan- 
ies in the country, and engaged with the home 
eompany (The Connor Dramatic Society), with 
which he remained for ten years. At the expi- 
ration of that time our subject took up the study 
of law% reading under John R. Montgomery, who 
at that time was one of the most celebrated men 
at the Lancaster County r,ar. lie continued thus 
for three years and was admitted to practice in 
l.slT. The profession not being suited to his taste, 
however. Mr. Donnelly abandoned it a short time 
thereafter. In 1851 he was appointed Inspector of 
Cargoes at Lancaster for the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road. In 1853 he went to Wasljington. 1). C, 
where he was given a position in the PostolHce 
Department, and in this and other departments 
seived altogether eight years under the adminis- 
trations of Pierce and ISiiclianan. He is a devout 
member of St. .'Mary's Catholic Church and belongs 
to the St. Pernard Society. 

Patrick Donnelly was married April 30, 1846, to 
jNIiss Catherine Oallagher and to them were granted 
seven children : .lohn and James, who died when 
(piile young; Chailcs ('.. of whom mention is made 
on another page; two who died in infancy un- 
named; James, at home with his parents, and Clar- 
ence, who is Registrar Clerk in the Postoflice. 
Mrs. Donnelly departed this life July 21. 1889, 
when a little past threescore years and ten. 

Mr. Donnelly published in LsiU a chart called 
"Donnelh's Perpetual rnion Almanac and Yearly 



Indicator," dating baci< to the year 17<)(i and car- 
ried to 8090. He is also the autimr of a table 
showing the occurrence of Easter from 1700 to 
8099, or to time indefinite. This table is most in- 
geniousl3- gotten up and shows very plainly that 
our subject spent much time in its construction. 
A man of intelligence, reliable in his citizenship, 
honorable in his dealings witli his fellow-men and 
kindly in social and domestic life, he is regarded 
with a due measure of esteem by those about him. 


name will be at once recognized by the 
majority of our readers as that of one of 
the most enterprising citizens of Lancaster. lie is 
carrying on an extensive business as a paper lianger, 
and during the busy season gives employment to 
sixteen men. He is also a talented musician and 
for many years has been President of the Clemmens 
City Band, and Manager of the Iroquois Band. 
The son of Patrick and Catherine (Gallagher) 
Donnelly, he born in the city of Lancaster 
August 18, 1850. For a full account of the par- 
ental histor}-, the reader is referred to the sketch 
of Patrick Donnell}-, which appears on another 
page in this volume. 

Charles C, of this sketch, acquired his primary 
education in the public schools of his native city, 
after which he attended Professor Davis' private 
academy. After completing his education he ap- 
prenticed himself to learn the trade of paper hanger 
under the instruction of his uncle. Later he 
associated himself with .J. B. Martin iVr Co.. large 
dry goods and wail paper merchants of this place, 
with whom he remained for nineteen years, or un- 
til embarking in business for himself in the year 
1891. He is the proprietor of a good establishment, 
carrying a full line of handsome wall paper, and 
employes a large force of men in tlie spring and 
fall of the year. 

Mr. Donnelly is widely known through this 

section as a fine musician and has been Presiden'' 
and Manager of the Irocpiois Band ever since its 
organization in 1888. In 1892 he was made the 
recipient of a handsome gold medal by the citi- 
zens of Lancaster, as a token of their appreciation 
of his services rendered the band, which is one of 
the finest in the country. The medal consists of a 
bar bearing his name and is beautifully engraved. 
Our subject is one of the sturdiest supporters of 
the Democratic party, on which ticket he is the 
present candidate for the positi<in of Director of 
the County Poor Farm. In religion Mr. Dcmnelly 
is a devout Catholic and belongs to St. Michael's 
Beneficial and the St. John's Societies. He is also 
a working member of St. Anthonj-'s and other 
societies. He is connected with the Schiller Club, 
which meets in Turner Hall, and is prominent in 
all good work in whicli his church is interested. 
Mr. Donnelly was one of the members of the old 
Volunteer Union Fire Company, and as an intel- 
ligent and wi'll educated young man, is well 
calculated to win the re>pect and esteem of all 
whom he encounters, either in business or social 

JOHN W. HESS. M. D., one of the largest 
general piactitioneis in Lancaster, is a gen- 
tleman of extended knowledge, both in the 
leading affairs and interests of the day and 
in the line of his life work. He has been emi- 
nently successful in his use of electricity for the 
treatment of many forms of disease, particularly 
those of the nerves, and was one of the first phy- 
sicians in the county to recognize the great use- 
fulness of this factor in the healing art, as he has 
employed it since 1868. Believing that the best 
results follow when a physician personally attends 
to putting up his own prescriptions, he has a well 
equipped office and carries out this idea. 

The birth of Dr. Hess occurred March 7, 1840, 
near the village of Lampeter, Lancaster County^ 
and his father, Daniel S., was born in the same 



vicinity. The Hess family is of Swiss descent, 
and its members have been generally sturdy and 
industrious farmers. The Doctor's father during 
his active life was a prosijcrous agriculturist on 
his farm sit\iated iu Ka-^t IIeni[)field Townsliip, on 
the Columbia Pike, near this city. He died when 
in his sixtieth year on his homestead. His wife, 
Barbara, was born iu Manor Township, and was a 
daughter of Dr. .John Witmei-, who was a farmer 
and a physician in the early (htys. IJis death oc- 
curred on his farm in Manor Township, about 
three and a-half miles west of this place. IMrs. Hess 
became the mother of twelve chiklren, ail but 
three of whom are still living, and of these .J. W. 
is the eldest. The mother was called from this 
life when she had reached tlie age of sixty-five 

After completing his comuion sciiool education 
Dr. Hess attended the IMillersville Normal for two 
years, and when eighteen years of age began stud^-- 
ing medicine with Dr. A. M. Cassidy, of Millers- 
ville. In 18G1 he entered the Medical Depart- 
ment of the New York University, where he passed 
two years in study, and then was enrolled with 
the pupils of Jefferson Medical College, Phila- 
delphia, from which he was graduated with the 
degree of Doctor of Medicine in 18()4. On first 
beginning his practice, he returned to Millers- 
ville, and for two years was a partner with liis 
former preceptor. In 1863 Dr. Hess reponded to 
the emergency call, being placed in the Fortieth 
Pennsylvania Militia, under Colonel Wickersham. 
For about eleven years he continued in practice 
alone in Miliersville, building up a good reputa- 
tion as a physician. In the fall of 1876 he came 
to Lancaster, and has found his time amply oc- 
cupied with the constant demands which are made 
upon it by his many clients and patrons. He 
makes a specialty of general family jiractice, hav- 
ing little to do with surgical cases. 

The Doctor owns a pleasant and well built resi- 
dence at No. 2.5 South Prince Street, which home 
is presided over by his amiable wife, formerly 
Miss Sarah A. Baer, to wlmm lie was united in 
marriage in the year ISC'), in tliis city. Mrs. Hess 
was born in East Hemplield Townshi[), and is a 
daughter of Martin Baer. Since 1873 Dr. Hess 

has been a member of Lodge No. 43, F. & A. M., 
and is also identified with Chapter No. 43, R. A. M.; 
Council No. 19. and with Commandery No. 13, 
K. T.. and the Lodge of Perfection. He also be- 
longs to the Knights of Pythias. His right of 
suffrage he uses in f.ivor of the principles es- 
poused in the Keiiublican party and the nominees 
which it sets forth. 


T~^ LI B. POVVL, one of the leading liverymen 
r Cy doing business in Lancaster, was born 
1 April 2, 18r)4, near Neffsville, the son of 

I Isaac Powl, who was also a native of Lancaster 
County. The latter was a farmer by occupation, 
and moving to Lancaster in 1864, operated a hotel. 
He later sold his hotel and operated a livery busi- 
ness, which he began on a small scale and gradually 
increased. In 1866 he built and located where our 
subject is now doing business. In October, 1884, 
lie sold the business to our subject and the follow- 
ing April died. Politically, our subject's father 
was a Republican and in religious matters was a 
believer in the Mennonite faith. The Powl family 
were among the old style German families. 

Our subject's mother was Barbara (Buckwalter) 
Powl, a native of Lancaster County, where her 
father was a farmer. Our subject's father and 
mother were each married twice, and of their last 
marri.age our subject was born, he being the elder 
of two children. He was reared and educated at 
Lancaster, and grew into the business he now fol- 
lows, by degrees, and the last ten years of his 
father's life, the son had charge. His livery 
stable is 60x96 feet in size and two stories high, 
provided with a hand elevator. It is located at 
No. 14 East Walnut Slieet.ainl his residence is next 
door. This is a fiist class lively Inisiiiess and they 
are able to turn out thirty rigs, fifteen hacks and 
three hearses. 

Oursubject was married at Lancaster, in August, 
1878, to Miss Alice C. Henry, a native of 



ter and the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin 
IIiMiry. Our subject and his estimable wife are the 
parents of two cliildren: Isaac Benjamin and 
Tlieodore Franlilin. Jlr. Powl is a member of the 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and is a char- 
ter memlier of Ilersehel Lodge. Politically he is a 
linn believer in the general pi'incii)les of the Re- 
publican party. 

^ TOBIAS STEHMAN is the owner of the old 
mansion home in Conestoga Township, 
Lancaster County, which now has within 
its boundaries one hundred and three acres, and in 
addiliim to this he owns an adjoining tract of one 
hundred and sixty acres. For years he bore the 
reputation of being one of the most extensive 
and progressive agriculturists in the township, and 
in 18JS2 he retired from his active career to make 
his home in Millersville, w^here he purchased a sub- 
stantial brick residence and is living on the fruits 
of his former years of toil and well directed ef- 
forts. Mr. Steiiman is a son of Tobias and Martha 
(Detricli) Stehman, and was born .July 17, IblT, 
in Conestoga Township, of this county-. Ills great- 
grandfather, .Joseph, came with his large family 
from Germany prior to the War of the Revolution 
and. became one of the pioneer farmers of Cones- 
toga Township, owning extensive tracts of land, 
which lie cleared and greatly improved. One of 
his sous, Tobias, the grandfather of our subject, 
owned live hundred acres of land in Conestoga ! 
Township, and, like his father, was a devoted mem- 
ber of the Lutheran Church. His family com- 
prised six children: Elizabeth, Catherine, Fannie, 
Rebecca, .John and Tobias. 

Tobias Stehman, the father of our subject, was 
born on the old homestead and liecame the owner 
of a farm comprising three hundred acres in the 
same townsliii). He was also a member of the I>u- 
theran Cliuicli and devoted to his well founded 
convictions of right and duty. He wasalways pres- ! 

ent to cast his vote on election days, as a true citi- 
zen should do, and was a worker in the ranks of the 
Democratic party. By his marriage he became the 
father of three sons and one daughter, of whom our 
subject is the eldest. Henry D. died in 1890, aged 
sixty-five years; Jacob, a farmer of Conestoga 
Township, owns two farms in tiiat locality; Martha, 
wife of .John Mylen, of Willow Street, died in 1889, 
when about seventy-two years of age. 

In the early years of our subject he received 
practical instruction in the duties of farm life, and 
while still a boy learned to shoe horses and do gen- 
eral blacksmith work. Until 1881 his bus^- and 
useful life was jiassed in carrying on his large 
farm in the townshi|) where his birth occurred. He 
is practical and progressive in his methods of con- 
ducting a farm and laid up a large fortune, an 
abundance for his remaining years. He has always 
been a stanch advocate of the Democratic paity 
and in religious belief is a member of the I^utheran 
Church, being an Folder in the Mt. Zion Congrega- 
tion of Millersville. 

In 1833 Mr. Stehman married Mary !\Iilyn, by 
whom he had one son, Henry M., who died Sep- 
tember 17, 1889, aged thirty-three years. The 
faithful wife of our subject was called from this 
life in September, 1884, when in her seventieth 
year. Her father. Christian Milyn, formerly 
a resident of Rock Hill and carried on a milling 
business there for many vears. 

u^^AVID LANDIS, a well known citizen of 
1 J Millersville, owns and erected a handsome 
residence in which he now lives retired 
from active cares in this place. This is one of the 
finest home properties in the village, the lawn sur- 
rounding the home being well kept, and the whole 
bespeaking the careful attention and thrift of the 
proprietor. For thirty years our subject was act- 
ively engaged in agricultural i)ursuits on his farm 
in Pequea Township, Lancaster County, and since 



1876 has made his home on hi? present location, 
whieli 01 ini I irises two and a-l]ulf acres within its 

David Landis was born October 13, 18-23, in Con- 
estoga Townsliip, which is now embraced williin 
the limits of Pequea Township. On the paternal 
side he is the descendant of a noted family in this 
portion of Pennsylvania, who bought land at a 
very early day. having been driven by religious 
intolerance from their native countrv, Switzerland, 
to seek a refuge in this the land of freedom and 
lilierty. The p.irents of our subject were .John and 
Anna (Hoover) Landis, formerly well known citi- 
zens of Conestoga Township, where the father was 
engaged in farming. Our subject, like most of his 
ancestors, has been mainly interested in tilling the 
soil and in the cultivation of liis farm. In early life 
he resided in Maixjr Tdwnship f(jr some years, and 
after his marriage became a farmer in Pequea 
Township, where he became owner of some two hun- 
dred and ten acres. For three decades he was ex- 
tensively engaged in general farming and stock- 
raising, making a success of his calling. For near- 
ly twenty years he has been living in Millorsville 
in his commodious and well furnished home. 

A member of the Mennonite Church, in the faith 
of which he was reared, he is devoted to its tenets 
and is also much interested in educational matters, 
having served for a number of terms as School Di- 
rector in Pequea Township, and one of the or- 
ganizers of and a stockholder in the New Danville 
Pike. He deposits his ballot in favr,r of the nom- 
inees and principles set forth by the Republican 
party, and is a patriotic and respected citizen of 
these parts. 

In December. 1845. Daviil Landis married Fan- 
nie Mayer. Her fallier, Martin Mayer, was ft>rra- 
erly a leading farmer and minister of Manheim 
Township and is now deceased. His death oc- 
curred in 1872. Five children were born to 
David and Fannie Landis, as follows: Urias. who 
died in childhood; Mary A., Fannie: Am,,.-, who 
married Lizzie, daughter of Amos Herr, of Lam- 
peter Township, and Lizzie, who died in infancy. 
Amos, the only living son of this familv, is an en- 
terprising young agriculturist of Peque:i Town- 
ship, and is there engaged in carrying vn the old 

homestead still owned by liis father, Mary A. is 
deceased, and Fannie, who is living with her |)ar- 
ents in Milh'rsville. has received excellent ed- 
ucational and general advantages. David Landis 
inherits the business qualifications and the honest 
and sturdy hardihood of a long line of most in- 
dustrious and iKinorable ancestors. 

HKNRY r,()WMAN carries on a first-class 
general store at Millersville, Lancaster 
County. He has a well selected stock, and 
by his courteous and genial treatment of his cus- 
tomers has w-on many friends in this community, 
and his trade is continually increasing. He is a 
son of .lacob and Susan (Oialiill) Bowman, and is 
a native of Lancaster, where his birth occurred 
October 27. \s:)'i. The liowman family located m 
this region during the last century, having come 
witli a (German colony. The paternal grandfather 
of our subject was born in Ephrata.of this county, 
was a good business man and possessed consider- 
able wealth at the time of his death. He conducted 
a fine farm and at the same time engaged in hotel- 
keeping. Ilts home was on the Downingtown 
branch of the Lancaster Pike, which was then 
largely traveled between Philadelphia and Pitts- 
burg, and there he continued to live until his 
death, at the rii)e old age of ninety 3'ears. He 
was a member of the Dunkard Church and was a 
true patriot, taking part in the militia service and 
licmg much interested in the success of the Whig 
party, with which he was identified. For his wife 
he married Elizabeth Laer and to them were born 
the following children: Jacob, Abram, .Jonas, 
David. Maiy, Elizabeth, .Julia, Maria, Sarah and 
Ihiniiah. Tlic family are noted for longevity. The 
mother died at the age of eighty-eight years and 
her children's ages at their demise averaged eighty 

.Jacob ISowman. the fatlier of our subject, was 
the eldest son of his family; he was born at Ephrata 



and followed agricultural pursuits, dealing con- 
siderably in real estate. The early pari of liis life 
he lived in this Ideality, hut latei renidved to Lan- 
caster and thence to Delaware, his death occurring 
in Wilmington. In that city he served on the 
Council and was an ardent Whig. By his marriage 
with Susan (ualiill he had a family of five chil- 
dren, William, who resides at Battle Creek, Mich.; 
Henry; Charles, and Julia and Susan, who died in 
childhood. Jacob Bowman was stricken with the 
cholera in 1849, when in his forty-sixth year, and 
died of that dread disease. 

The early education of our subject was received 
in the common schools of Lancaster, and at the 
early age vf fourteen years he became associated 
U'ith his cousin, B. B. Martin, in general merchan- 
dising at Millersville, continuing thus for four 
years. At the end of that time he became a part- 
ner in the firm of Bowman & Martin, continuing 
foi two years as such, and on the esi)iration of 
that time bought Mr. Martin's interest, since which 
time he has conducted the business in his own 
name. Few men in the community have devoted 
themselves more steadily and industriously to one 
line of business than has Mr. Bowman, who has 
been engaged in commercial pursuits in this place 
for about half a <entuiy. He is therefore very 
well known, and this record would be surely in- 
complete without this brief tribute to his worth. 
In his place of business may be found everytliing 
usually carried in a first-class country store. 

September 20, 1860, Mr. Bowman married t;iiza- 
beth Shell k. Her father, Jacob K., who was a 
•well-to-do farmer of Lancaster County, is now 
deceased. To Mr. and Mrs. Bowman four children 
have been born: Charles K., who married Miss 
Mary Newpher, and .assists in tlie management of 
his father's store; Henry L., who is engaged in 
the steel works at ritt>burg: Jacobs., at home at 
the (iresent writing, and .Mary, who has bci/ii given 
an excellent musical education and is a teacher 
of the art in the Spruce Street Academy of Phila- 

A loyal citizen. Mr. I'.owman never fails to east 
his vote eilluM- at the primaries or regular elec- 
tions, and is a stanch liepiiblican. For a number 
of years he was a Trustee in the Millersville State 

Normal School, and has been interested in the 
cause of education. At the present time he is a 
Director in the Farmers' Bank of Lancaster. Ever 
since 187() he has lieen an Elder in the Lutheran 
Church, and for the past twenty years has served 
as Superintendent of the Sunday-school. He is 
strictly hrmorable and c<iiiscieiitious in the dis- 
charge of his duties in life, and those who know 
him best have the utmost conlidence in his genu- 
ine trustworthiness. 



JACOB RIEKER has for nearly forty years 
been one of the res[)ected citizens of Lancas- 
ter, having arrived here with his young wife 
in 18.57, and has ever since made this his 
place of abode. He a fine market at Nos. 39 
and 41 East \'inc Street, where he has succeeded 
in building up one of the best trades in the city. 
In everything that i)ertains to the general welfare 
he takes a very active part and never regretted 
the decision he made to permanentl3' settle in 
Lancaster at the time he first visited the place. 
He was favorabl}' impressed at that early day and 
believed that a great future of prosperity was 
in store for this region. Mr. Rieker is of German 
ancestry, his father, Fred, having been born in 
Wurtcmberg, in which province his own birth took 
place, March 12, 182.5. The father was a tavern 
keeper and also a butcher and was eng.aged in 
business during all his lifetime in Wurtemberg. 
He married Margaret Rieker and had a family of 
the following children: Frederick, Margueretta, 
Joanna, Catrina and Louisa. The father, who was 
a devoted member of the Lutheran Church, died 
in 1839, at the age of forty-six years, while his 
wife's death occurred when she was about sixty 
years old. 

.lacob Rieker was given good school advantages 
and learned the butcher's trade in his youth, serv- 
ing at the same for about three years, and subse- 



quentlj- wnrked as a journeyman until 1857, when 
he left lii> native land to seek his fortunes in 
America. Witti lii> newly wedded wife lie came to 
this city on a visit to his sister, and at the end of 
two months started in business, openinjr a market 
at the corner of Vine and South (^ueen Streets, 
where he remained for a year. In 1858 he re- 
moved to his present location and before lonoj had 
succeeded in the acquisition of a very substantial 
trade, which has constantly increased from year to 
year until he has one of the best and most remu- 
nerative markets of Lancaster, and for most of this 
time he has personally supervised the butchering 
of stock for his patrons, thus being able to secure 
for them the very best to be had. 

April 16. 1857, Mr. Rieker married Barbara 
Krasle. Slic has been a faithful helpmate and 
companion to her husband, assisting him by her 
wise counsel and aid along the journey of life. 
To them were born seven children: Adam F., who 
married Ada Sieger; Jacob; Fred; Carolina, who 
married John Antz; Mary, Louisa and Minnie. 
In politics our subject uses his right of franchise 
in favor of the Democratic party. Socially he 
belongs to the Society of the Seven Wise Men, 
and with his familv attends the Lutheran Church. 

< X ^ ILLIAM W. BOXES is eng.aged in e^il- 
\/ \/ tivating his farm, which is situated in 
Conestoga Township, Lancaster Coun- 
ty. For several years he has been one of the lead- 
ing citizens of this community, and was honored 
with the position of Prison Inspector of the coun- 
ty in 1883, in which capacit_v he served for one 
year. In educational measures his influence has 
always been felt on the side of progress, and he 
has served as a School Director for four terms in 
this township. For a period of three years he was 
a member of the Jury Commission, and in these 
several positions has made the welfare of the gen- 
eral public his great end and aim at all tunes. 

James Bones, the father o{ the subject of this 
sketch, was born in Chester County, Pa., and in 

his day was a leading farmer of his neighborhood. 
He followed farming as his chief occupation, and 
alw.ays kept large numbers of fine stock on hand. 
A great lover of horses, he was considered one of 
the best authorities on the subject in the counties 
of Chester and Lancaster. In his belief 
he was a supporter of the Democracy. By his 
marriage with Mary A. Wright were born six chil- 
dren, as follows: Susan E., who married a Mr. 
Weeks; William W., Benjamin F. (deceased), Re- 
becca, John W., and Jane, now the wife of Dr. 

William W. Bones was born in Chester County, 
Pa., November 21, 18.38, and his education was ob- 
tained in the district schools of Manor Township, 
this county, where he pursued his studies for about 
ten years. Afterward he took a course of four 
teims at the Millersville Normal School, but since 
his twenty-second year has been principally oc- 
cupied as an agriculturist. After attaining his 
majority he was employed as a farmer for two 
years, and then for a like period of time was en- 
gaged in merchandising. This business he aban- 
doned at the expiration of a couple of years, find- 
ing that his qualifications and tastes were more in 
the direction of farm life, and from that time un- 
til the present he has given every energy to the 
development and management of his farm, which 
comprises one hundred acres. It is well improved 
and is one of the most valuable pieces of property 
in the township, having good buildings, fences, 
etc., upim the place. 

For many years Mr. Bones has Iieen identified 
with the Methodist Ei)iscopal denomination, and 
for years has been a Trustee of the congregation 
wheie lie holds his memberehip. For about two 
years he was Sunday-school Superintendent, and 
has been much concerned in every department of 
chuieh work. In his fraternal relations he is a 
Ma^..n. i.eldiiging to Charles M. Howell Lodge No. 
4;iG, of Safe llarbnr. and is connected with Lodge 
No. 222, Knights <>f the Golden Eagle, of the same 

In the year 1864 was celebrated the marriage of 
William W. Bones and Miss Mary A. Davis. Three 
children have graced their union, namely: David 
D., .lames and Lizzie. Mrs. Bones is a daughter 



of David Davis, a well-to-do mechanic of Cones- 
toga Township. She was born in 1842, and re- 
ceived the advantages of a good education in the 
schools adjacent to her lK)nie. Slie lias proved a 
faithful companion and helpmate to her husl)and 
on life's journey, and has cheered and aided him 
with her counsel and lielpful ways. j\Ir. Bones 
bears a high reputation as a man in whom every 
confidence may be safely placed, and his word 
may be considered as good as liis bond. 

HUGH S. GARA is a highly respected old 
settler and leading citizen of Lancaster, 
who in former years was a merchant and 
for a long period has been Notary Public. lie was 
President and helped to organize the Union Build- 
ing and Loan Association and continued as an 
official until the first issue was paid out. He is 
very much interested in civic societies, being Sec- 
retary of Lodge No. 43, F. <fe A. M., and Secretary 
of Cha|)ter No. 43, R. A. M. In Goodwin Coun- 
cil No. 19, R. & S., he is the present Recorder, and 
holds a similar post in Lancaster Comraandery No. 
13, K. T. 

Born in East Lampeter Township March 28, 
1819, Hugh S. is the eldest of the living children. 
The family originally comprised three sons and 
two daughters, but four of the number are de- 
ceased. Isaac B., a brother, was Deputy Secretary 
of the staff of Governor Geary and was Postmas- 
ter at Erie. Formerl}' a journalist, he is now re- 
tired from business. The youth of Hugh S. Gara 
was passed at liis birthplace, and when fifteen 
years of age he commenced clerking at Strasburg, 
where he remained three years. In 1839 coming 
to Lancaster, he olitained a position in a store and 
later embarked in trade for himself with David 
Coekleyas a partner. Later buying out that gen- 
tleman's interest, Mr. Gara continued his dry- 

goods and general merchandise trade at No. 128 
East King Street until 18(53, when he sold out. 

The next enterprise to which our subject gave 
his attention was to fire and life insurance, and 
he was thus engaged for nearly twenty years, sell- 
ing out in April, 1892, to Christopher Hager. He 
represented the North American, Pennsylvania 
and Franklin Insurance Companies of Philadel- 
phia, the Liverpool, London, Globe, Queen, Hano- 
ver and other societies. Since January. 1S74, he 
has been Notary Public for Lancaster County Na- 
tional and for the first National Banks. For a 
period of nine years he was one of the inspectors 
of the county prison, and a portion of this time 
officiated as Treasurer of the same. For three years 
he was a School Director and has always been much 
interested in educational affairs. 

The home of Mr. Gara, which is located at No. 
206 East King Street, was erected by him and has 
always been the alwde of hospitality. Sir. Gara 
was married in Lancaster in 1844, to a native of 
the city. Miss Sarah J. Buck, who was called from 
this life March 13, 1890, leaving one child, Eliza- 
beth B. For over thirty years Mr. Gara has been 
a member of the Presbyterian Church, and for two 
decades has been President of the Board of Trus- 
tees. For a long time he was Superintendent of 
the Sundaj'-school and to general church work has 
given a great deal of his time. Besides the frater- 
nity to which we have referred, Mr. Gara is a mem- 
ber of Lancaster Lodge No. 67, I. O. 0. F. 


J HARRY WIDMYER has one of the oldest 
locations in the furniture business in the city 
of Lancaster, as his father started in the 
manufacture of this line of articles in the 
early part of this century on this identical site, at 
the corner of Duke and East King Streets. 

The birth of our subject occurred May 29, 1847, 
where the court house is now situated. His fa- 
ther. Christian Widra^-er, was born in Wurtein- 
berg, Germany, and learned the cabinet-maker's 



trade. Comin^ to this coimtrv a siiiirle man. he 
manied llariiel yi. r,i-..un. wh,, ^va^ l.oin in Lan- 
ca>ter ami was IIr' aau-hler (.f Julin lUuwn. an 
old settler of this place. Christian Widmyer es- 
tablished himself in business, and at that time all 
fiirnilure was made liy hand. He l)uilt up a good 
ti-ade. and erected the nr>t four-stury liuilding put 
up in the eity. this being the place where his son 
is now engaged in trade. Until 1871 he continued 
in the business, then being bought out by .1. H. 
Widmyer and .L F. Uicksecker, after which he lived 
a retired life and died November 22, 1892, at the 
age of eightv-live years, lie was an active Demo- 
crat, and religiously was a Lutheran. His wife, 
who died in 1886. was then seventy-eight years of 
age. They were the ]jarents of two sons and four 
daughters, and all of the family with the excep- 
tion of one daughter are yet living. 

The early education of .1. H. Widmyer was ob- 
tained in tlie puljlic and high schools of this city, 
and for a time lie was a student in a private insti- 
tution. At the age of >cvciilceii he liegan learning 
the cabinet-maker's trade, and at the end of four 
vcars was a practical w(.irkinan. In his father's 
factory lie was .\>sistaiit Suiierinteudent until Sep- 
tember. IsTl. when, as previously stated, in com- 
pany with his partner he bought out his father. 
Since ISMI. at which time he purchased his part- 
ner's interest, he has continued the business alone. 
At times he has employed twenty-five men, and 
sold his wares in all parts of the county. In 18S»1 
he remodeled his building, making the front of 
the ground lloor entirely of plate glass, and thus 
these show windows are the finest in the city. 
Tills is the largest furniture estalilishment in the 
city, and a full line of choice and less costly goods 
is kept ill stock. The building has a frontage of 
thirty-six an(.l a-half feet and i> one hundred and 
twenty-six and a-half feet in depth, with a wing 
34x42 feet. In addition to his furniture trade, 
the propriet(U' has a large undertaking establish- 
ment, and in thi:- department his son. David IJ., is 
associated with him. 

In l.SfiL) Mr. Widmyer was married in Lancaster, 
to Dora S.. daughter of David liinkley, wdio was a 
miller by trade. Mrs. Widmyer was born in Lan- 
caster C'ountv, and bv her marria<ie has become the 

mother of a sou. David B. He graduated from 
the high school and afterward attended the Mill- 
ersville Normal, and is a graduate of an embalm- 
ing school in Harrisburg. The parents are mem- 
bers of St. John's Lutheran Church, of which our 
subject has been one of the Deacons, and Librarian 
of the Sunday-school for jears. Fraternally he is 
a charter member of the Royal Arcanum of this 
place, in which he has i)assed all the chairs, and 
also belongs to the Loyal Legion. Politically he 
deposits his ballot for Democratic nominees. 

■i i^^^ }. ^ I ^ \^^mm 

E^ WFSLEY PYNK, a skilled musician making 
Cy his home in Lancaster, is the author of 
many l.irilliant instrumental compositions 
and organist of St. James' Episcopal Church. He 
was born in Somersetshire, England, in 1863, and 
came from a very musical family, the gift having 
seemingly been transmitted from one generation 
to another. His ancestors originally settled in 
Devon, but later removed to Kent. Thomas Pyne, 
the great-great-great-grandfaiher of our subject, 
was a fellow of St. Mary's College, and one of his 
descendants was a Justice on the Queen's Bench. 
There are still in existence at Grayford some an- 
cient buildings which are still known as "Pyne's 

The grandfather of our subject, J. Kendrick Pyne, 
was a celebrated tenor singer, living between the 
years 178,5 and 18,57. His son, James Kendrick 
Pyne. father i.if our subject, was born in l8l(i and 
was a [luiiil in music <if S. Wesley and .lohann 
Sebastian Bach. His compositions are well known, 
among them being five prize glees and an anthem, 
for which he received the Lord Gresliam prize medal. 
Louisa Pyne. a niece of our subject's father, was 
the daughter of (ieorge Pyne, an eminent tenor 
singer. She was a prima donna in English opera and 
a noted oratorio si nger. Her sister, Susan Pyne, was 
also a well known contralto. Our subject's father 
was a fellow of the Roval Acadcmv of Music in 



London and departed this life in 1S!)3, at the ad- 
vanced age of ninety-two years, lie held the 
position of organist in the eatludial at P>ath. Kng- 
land. for a period of fifty-two years. 

The family of James K. Pyne included five chil- 
dren. Louisa, a brilliant musician, is now ihe wife 
of George Tetley, and resides in Leeds, England; 
James Kendrick is organist of the Manchester 
Cathedral; Jlinton is organist for St. Mark's Epis- 
copal Church in Philadelphia; our subject was the 
next in order of birth. Zoe is a graduate of the 
Conservatory of :\Iusic in Loudon, where she makes 
her home. 

E. Wesley was reared to man's estate in Bath, 
England, and was educated at Magdalen College, 
Oxford, England. He was the solo boy of the col- 
lege clioir, which was considered a great honor. 
He also studied music under Sir Walter Parratt, 
who is now organist to Her Majesty the t^ueen. 
Our subject was graduated from Oxford in l«8l 
with the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and coming 
about that time to America, spent one year in 
Wisconsin. Returning at the expiration of that 
time to Ills native land, he came three months later 
t(i this cuuiitiy. and locating in this state was of- 
fered tlie position of organist of St. Luke's Epis- 
copal Church at Altoona. His next position was 
with Mt. Calvary's Episcopal Church in Baltimore, 
where he remained for six years, during that time 
training four different choirs. He tlien became 
organist for St. Paul's Cathedral in Buffalo, N. Y., 
and one 3ear later, in June, 1893, came to Lancaster, 
where he accepted the position of organist of St. 
James' Episcopal Church. He is also training the 
choir of theEpiscojial Church in Ilurrislmrg and has 
charge of the choir of the Presbyterian Church in 
Columbia, in both of which cities he teaches music. 

Professor P\'ne, together with Rev. P. J. Robot- 
torn and Kev. Charles L. Fry, were the prime movers 
in organizing the Oratorio Society in this city, 
which was successful from the start. Professor 
Pyne was chosen leader of the society and their 
rendition of the "Holy City" in 1894 was magnif- 
icent and greatly appreciated liy the music-loving 
people of Lancaster. 

Professor Pyne was married in Philadelphia, in 
February, 1885, to Miss Margaret, daughter of 

George E. Arnold, who was President of the clear- 
ing house (if tliat city for over a quarter of a cen- 
tury. To them have liccn granted three children, 
Ernest Sebastian Wesley. Margaret Cecelia and 
Emily Kendrick. In politics he is a Republican, 
and while living in his native England was a 


cry AMUEL J. POOL, wlio is Superintendent 
''-^^ <'f the Lancaster Cemetery, was born in 
the city of Lancaster, November 6, 1834, 
the son of Edward Pool, also a native of the same 
place. His mother was ilarv Ilatz, a native of 
Lancaster, where her [larents were also born, though 
the Hatz family was of German origin. Our sub- 
ject's Grandfather Pool came from the North of 
Ireland and settled in Little Britain, Lancaster 
County, on a farm. Our suliject's mother died at 
the aue of sixty-eight years, being a devoted mem- 
ber of the Lutheran Church. Samuel J. is one of 
a family of four children, two sons and two daugh- 
ters. The sons, who are still surviving, are Will- 
iam and Samuel, (nir subject. William was a sol- 
dier in the late war, a nieniber of C(.inipany K, 
Seventy-ninth Penn.sylvania Regiment, and held 
the rank of Lieutenant. 

He of whom this memoir is written was reared 
in the city of Lancaster and at the age of fifteen 
learned the silver-plating business under l'hilli[i 
Worner, after winch he engaged in that business 
for himself on Prince Street, continuing for eigh- 
teen years, and doing a general silver-plating busi- 
ness in all of its branches. He employed from seven 
to nine hands in his works, and continued in that 
line until the electric plating process came into use. 
In 1883 he became Superintendent of the Lancas- 
ter Cenieteiy, and still holds that position. During 
the summer season the Trustees of the Cemetery 
Association era[)loy from seven to nine men, who 
work under his supcrvisicui. Under our subject's 
management manv valuable and attractive im- 



provements have heen made about this beautiful 
cL'iiieterv. where rest the departed dead of Lan- 
caster. In 1891 a superiutendent's house was 
erected. This cemetery consists of twenty-one 
acres, with an entrance on East Lemon Street. 

(»ur suhjcct was united inmarriasfe at Lancaster 
in l.s.").",. t<i .Aliss Mary C. Stounfeltz, a native of 
Lancaster. Three children bless this union, Mary 
E., Mrs. W. F. Wiley, of Lancaster; Edward, our 
subject's assistant; and C'ienK'nlina, Mrs. (icorge 
Forrest, of Lancaster. 

Mr. Pool is active in i)ublic affairs, and is 
a member of the Common Council from the First 
Ward, having served two terms, lie is an hon- 
ored member of Lodge No. 68, K. of P.. and is also 
a member of the Order of Red Men. 

Politically Mr. Pool is identified with the Re- 
pulilican party. The family attend the Lutheran 
Cliurch, of which his wife is a member. No better 
persdu r(juld have been selected for the position 
he holds tlian Mr. Pool. He is thorough and 
painstaking, as well as obliging to the public with 
whom he has come in contact. Every part of this 
beautiful cemetery gives evidence of his careful 
and economical management. 

m. mmmp.^. 



r^ EOPvGE A. TRIPPLE. of Safe Harbor, is a 
^^y member of the tirra of Haskell, Tripple k 
Co., also of the firm of George A. Trippie & 
Co. Tlie first mentioned firm are engaged in the 
milling business in thi,'- place, and liave two otlier 
mills at Hock Hill. For tifteen years prior aud 
up to the war he was engaged in carrying on a 
general store in company with David Warfel, and 
since that time has been interested in the coal and 
lunilier trade mainly, having lieen very successful 

The Tiip|>le family is of Cermaii origin, and 
Jose|ih, the father <if our subject, was bt)rn in 

Berks County, in the village of Kutztown, where 
his father located on his arrival from Germany. 
Joseph Tripple was a hatter by trade and carried 
on the business quite extensively in Lancaster, 
having one of the oldest stores In the place, which 
was his home during the most of his life. In la- 
ter years, he continued in his trade at Safe Har- 
bor, where his death occurred. He was a soldier 
of the War of 1812, and was present at the attack 
on Baltimore. A very earnest Democrat, he was 
active in the ranks of that part_v, and in religious 
faith was a Catliolic. He married Miss Mary Smith, 
by whom he had ten children: Susan, who died 
in infancy; Mary, Catherine, John, Susannah, Jos- 
eph C, William S.. Maiy A., George A. and Susan, 
the second. The father died at the age of seventy- 
one years, in 1853, and the mother in August, 18-iO, 
aged fifty-six years. 

The subject of this sketch was born February 8, 
1826, at Lancaster, and received his education in 
the schools of this place. When fifteen years of 
age, he learned the tailor's trade, in Bellefonte, 
Centre County, which he has more or less ever 
since followed. For a short time he was located 
in Caledonia, Elk County, Pa., was seven years in 
Bellefonte, and in 1848 came to Safe Harbor. 
Here he has followed his calling as a merchant tail- 
or ever since in connection with other enterprises. 
In 1857 he opened a general store, in which he did 
business for fifteen years. Afterwards, in company 
with his former partner, he started a coal and lum- 
ber j'ard, and operated a sawmill at Bainbridge. 
When that partnership was discontinued he re- 
tired from business for two years, and then once 
more embarked in general merchandise with Mrs. 
Amos Sourbeer, whose husband had formerly been 
in business with him, and they continued for five 
3'ears together. Subsequentl}' he was a member of 
the firm of Tripple k Rose, in Manor Township, 
for four years, and for a period of three years he 
was in business in Smithville, having charge of a 
country store. In 1889 Mr. Tripple opened a 
branch store in Steelton that was managed by his 
nephew, George T. Rose, for two 3'ears; he did a good 
business and then he sold out. This is in brief a 
summary of only a few erterprises in which our 
subject has neeii successfully engaged, and now he 


is interested in the firm of George A. Tripple & j 
Co., they carrying on mercantile business in the j 
building formerly occujued by the Safe Harbor j 
Iron Cfinipany. at Safe Ilarlior. In Conestoga j 
Township, IMr. Tripjilc nwns a good farm of eigh- j 
t3--nine acres, one of the rich iron ore farms of tlie 

Politically our subject is a Repulilican. is now 
and has been for fourteen years past. Auditor of 
Conestoga Township, :ind was formerly Treasurer 
of the Safe Harbor Savings Bank. For two years 
Mr. Tripple owned a general notion and dry-goods 
store at Anderson, Ind., which was conducted by 
his daughter, the firm being M. G. Tripple ^t Co. 

November 6. 1*<48, our subject married Har- 
riet, daughter of William Bowen. a hotel-keeper 
of this citj'. Ten children were born of tliis mar- j 
riage, William and John .J., who died in infancy; "i 
Mary E., wife H. K. Hershey, Alexander, Ind.; 
Haitie, Mrs. Shelly; Curtis ¥.; Oscar and Susan, 
who died in cliildhood; Lottie and Georgiana, who 
are at home; and Minnie G., who manifested ex- 
cellent business qualities wliile running the store 
at Anderson, Ind., and is now stenographer for 
the firm of Slaymaker, Barry ct Co., of Lancas- 
ter. William Bowen, tlie fattier of Mrs. Tripple, 
was of Welsli descent, and a resident formerly of 
Chester County, and in later yeaisof Safe Harbor. 
One of his sons, Eli, who was locally styled the 
Humboldt of America, was one of the greatest geol- 
ogists in the country, and published a work on 
the subject which has long been recognized as 
standard, the title of the same being "Physical His- 
tory of the Creation of the Earth and its Inhabi- 
tants." He is also author of a book of rules useful 
to those conducting postottices, and he was for a 
short time in the general postoffice at Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

George A. Tripple is a member of the Methodist 
Church, having been for forty-five years connected 
with the congregation at Safe Harbor, and for about 
a quarter of a century has been a local preacher. 
Socially he has passed through all the chairs of 
the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, belonging 
to the lodge of this place, Ko. 334, and is a Knight 
Templar Mason. He is also identified with tlie 
Temple of Honor, and belonged to the Sons of , 

Temperance in former years. He is a member of 
Washington Lodge No. 156, F. & A. M., .at Dru- 
more Center, of this county, and has alwaj's been 
very prominent in local affairs. 

HON. SAMCEL T. D.WLS. M. D., has had a 
long and distinguished career, being one 
of the leading citizens of Lancaster. He 
served his friends and neighbors as a Representa- 
tive in the State Legislature, and in the line of his 
profession has long been in the front ranks. He 
is especially skillful as a surgeon, though he has a 
large general pr.ictice. and is now President of the 
State Board of Health. 

Our subject's paternal grandfather, Lewis Davis, 
was born in South Wales and came to America, 
settling in Lancaster County at an early day. For 
some years he was engaged in the distillery busi- 
ness, and later in life he became a resident of 
Huntingdon County, where he departed this life. 
The father of the Doctor was Henry Davis, whose 
birth occurred in Rohrerstown, this county, where 
he was reared until fourteen 3'ears of age. He 
then removed witii his parents to Huntingdon 
County-, there learning the wagon-making and 
blacksmith's trade. He also an agriculturist, 
and during his later years turned his attention 
solely to farming. Though now eighty years ot 
age, he is still active and well preserved. His wife, 
Cathai'ine (Wallheater) Davis, was born in Penn- 
sylvania, and is of German descent. Her father, 
whose given name was Henry, removed to Hunt- 
ingdon County-, where he engaged in farming un- 
til his death. His wife has attained the age of 
seventy-seven 3ears, and is a woman of more than 
ordinary abilit}' and good qualities. Four of her 
sons were in the service during the late war in the 
defense of the Union. 

Dr. Davis was born March 6, 1838, at Cottage, 
Huntingdon County, being one of six chiblren. all 
of whom are still living. In boyhood he learned 



his father's trade, but was aniliitious to acquire 
an I'chicalion. early deciding tucntei- the medical 
]in>fe>si(.n. He pursued hisjtudics in tlii> direction 
hv himself at lirst. iceitiny 1<. Dr. II. Orlaily. and 

later lakin- a cours,. at M esviUe Academy. and at 

MiUer-ville State Ndrnial Scluxil. Afterward he 
tauLiht scluiol for a time, when, the war breaking out, 
he rnlisted in ComiJany II, Fifteenth Pennsylvania 
Infantry, being in the service three months. Ite- 
enlistiiig ill t<.niiiany C, Seveiit\ -seventh liegi- 
inciit. as Second l.icutenent. he was successively 
liroiiK.tril until lie received the commission of 
C'aiitain of C omiiaiiy (;, which company he himself 
re-enlisted. 'While on the staff of Gen. William 
(i rose, at the engagement at Resaca, he was severely 
wounded, and for five days lay on the field. After 
being at the hospital at Chattanooga for three 
months he was honorably discharged in 18G4. 

Rctuming to hi- interrupted medical studies, the 
Doctor took a course of lectures at Jefferson .Medi- 
cal College and at Long Island Medical College, 
from which he graduated in 1865. Going to Mill- 
ersville, he was for a year in partnerslii[) with Dr. 
S. I!. Ilartman. For the succeeding nine years he 
was in practice alone, and in 1874 removed to 
Lancaster, his otllce at the jjresent time being 
located at Ko. 1.32 North Prince Street. 

Dr. Davis was married in ;Millersville, Octolier 
2. IHCO, to Miss Flizabeth Fenstermacher, who 
was 1m, rn in that plac, being a daughter of 
Christian Fenstermacher, an oU\ settler of that 
locality. The Doctor and his wife have no chil- 
dren of their own. but have an adopted daughter, 
■Martha II. 

In .luly, 18S'.i. our subject was ajipointed Presi- 
dent of the State IJoard of Health, and was re- 
elected in July, 1893. In addition, he is a member 
and Vicc-Piesident of the City Pathological Asso- 
ciation and has been Presi(bnt of the County So- 
ciety. He was one of the original members of the 
American Surgical Association and is a member of 
the American Medical Association. At the conven- 
tions of the various medical societies he has deliver- 
ed many adilres,~i's, and while in the Legislature 
was very active in matters pertaining to hygiene 
and sanitary affairs. He was a member of the Pan- 
American Medical Congress which convened at Chi- 

cago in 1893, and in short, has always been promi- 
nent in everything jiertaining to his profession. 

In local politics the Doctor has taken consider- 
able interest and served in the City Council for 
live years, having liecn at onetime President of 
the same. In the fall of 1885 he was elected to 
the State Legislature on the Republican ticket, and 
two years later was re-elected by the largest Re- 
pulilican majority ever polled in Lancaster. Fra- 
ternally he is a member of George II. Thomas Post 
No. 84, G. A. R., of the Union Veteran Legion and 
of the Loyal Legion. He is a thirty -second degree 
M.ason and has served as Master in Perfection 
Lodge No. QG. of this citv. 

m. .^I#)4. ,oj 

P LARSON E. GRUGLR, a well known and 
public spirited citizen of Lancaster, has 
been engaged in business in this city for 
exactly thirty years, during which time he has 
made many sincere friends in the various walks of 
life. For nearly that length of time he has con- 
ducted a marble and granite trade at No. 25 South 
Queen Street, bis business having steadily increased 
year by year, until he has had to employ a large 
number of men in the work. .Mr. Gruger is a son 
of Adam P. and Hannah C. (Sallada) Gruger, his 
birth having occurred October 1, 1834, in Stouchs- 
burg, Berks County, Pa. The name is very well 
known in this state, as members of the family are 
vei-y numercius in certain counties. The original 
founders of the family in America were of Hugue- 
not descent and settled mainly in the southern 
states. Peter, the paternal grandfather of our 
subject, died when his son Adam was only ten years 
of age. The latter was born in Lehigh County, 
this state, bi June, 1808, and learned the saddler's 
trade, which business he followed for a number of 
years. He also was engaged at coach trimming. 


and al one time was Postmaster of Woraelsdorf, 
Berks Country. In politics he was in bis early life 
a Democrat, but later espoused the principles of 
tlie Republican party. lie was a member of the 
Reformed Church and fraternally was a JIason, 
belonging to old Mt. Lelwn<in Lodge, which has 
since disbanded. His death occurred in February, 
1891, when he had attained the ripe old age of 
eighty-two years, but his wife is still living, her 
home being in Columbia. They were the parents 
of the following children: P. E., Francis; Louisa, 
now a resident of Columbia; .lolin, who is engaged 
in the marble business in Philadelphia; Martha, 
deceased; ilary, wlio resides with her motlier in 
C<jlumbia; Charles, a traveling salesman, whose 
death occurred in Philadelphia, at the age of thirty- 
three years; William and Emily, deceased; Clara, 
and one who died in infancy. 

I\Ir. Gruger, whose name heads tliis article, re- 
ceived his early education in the public schools of 
Lancaster; afterward it was his privilege to attend 
the old Franklin College, when it was located on 
Liine .Street. When seventeen years of age, he 
left his studies in order to learn a trade, and was 
employed with C. M. Howell, of tliis city, for five 
years. For the succeeding six years he worked in 
Philadelphia, after which he returned to locate 
permanently in this place. In 1H66 he oi)ened a 
marble and granite establishment mi Soutli <^ueen 
Street, where he has ever since Ijeen engaged m 
this business. On an average some eight "men are 
employed, and as many as seventeen workmen have 
been at times required in-order to meet large con- 
tracts. Jlr. (Iruger is a good business, and 
has. by attending strictly- to his own affairs and 
by the exercise of industry and correct principles 
of trade, acquired a comfortable fortune. 

May 20, 1858, Mr. Gruger married Rebecca, 
(laughter i>f Philip Metzger, and of tlieir union 
eiglil children have been born, as follows: Charles; 
Florence, who died in infancy; Margaret, William, 
Frank, Walter, Catherine and Harry. The mother 
of these children was called from this life .January 
9, 187.5, at the age of thirty-eight years. On 
Christmas Day 1883, our suliject married Salome, 
daughter of David Xauman. .Mr. and Mrs. (Jruger 
are members of the Reformed Churcli. and for 

many j'ears the former 
gregation at Columbia, 
he is a stanch Repulilic; 
educational matters. 



MOS S. KliKIDKK was born and iias passed 
his entire life in Pecpiea 'rou-nshii), and 
lias long been numbered among the pro- 
gressive farmers of Lancaster County. F(.)r several 
generations the Kieider family have been engaged 
in following agricultural pursuits in this immediate 
neighborhood and have Ijeen noted for their indus- 
trious and useful qualities. .Micliael Kreider. tlie 
grandfather of our subject, married a Miss Harnish, 
and to them nine children were born, namely: 
Lizzie (Mrs. Herr), Maria, Andrew, .Tacob. Susan 
(Mrs. Miller), Martin, Barbara. .Jonas and Sarah. 
The parents were members of the Old .Mennonite 
Churcli and were very active in denominational 
work. Indeed, for yeais Mieliac! Kreider was a 
minister in the church ami rose to the rank of 

.Michael Kreider. tiLC father of our sul)ject. 
born in Pe(iuea Townshiii May 1. LSI 2, and from 
his boyhood followed the occupation of farmer. 
On arriving at mature years he eli'ise for his life's 
companion Miss >Laiia Sliank,aiid four children 
ciiine to their home, Rarbtira, who became the 
wife of Hiram Woffel; Lizzie, deceased; Amos S., 
our subject, and Epiiraim, deceased. The father was 
one of the leading members of the Old Mennonite 
Church and by all who knew him was highly re- 

The birth of Amos S. Kieider occurred on the 
6th of May, 1845, in Pequea Township, uithin 
whose boundaries almost all of his life lias been 
si)ent. He remained under the parental roof until 
about twenty years of age, assisting in the work 
of tlie farm, and during the winter seasons he 
attended the common schools of the locality. 
When he was married, about 1865, he took charn;e 



of the hfimc farm for himself aiirl has since that 
time heen iii(lii>tii(nisly engaged in its cultivation 
and iniiiri)\ement. Tlie farm, which is one of the 
best in this region, is very fertile and everything 
about the place is kept up in good shape, bespeak- 
ing the care and labor of the thrifty owner. In 
the homestead there are about eighty acres, which 
are well adapted for i)uri)oses of general farming 
and stock-raising. 

Mr. Kreider has one child, a daughter, Annie W. 
In his political belief Mr. Kreider is a Republican 
and in all public affairs is found on the side of ad- 
vancement and progress. By means of extensive 
reading he has become well posted on current af- 
fairs and matters of interest and is an entertaining 
conversationalist. His business methods are strictly 
honorable and upright in every particular, and for 
that reason, and because of his uniform courtesy 
and friendliness, his neighbors are always his well- 


JOHN M. KRIPER is one of the most liberal 
supporters of new enterprises in Lancaster, 
and is a membei of the firm of .7. M. Keiper 
it Hertzler. who conduct a large and lucrative 
business, being dealers in furniture and upholstery. 
A native of Dauphin County, he was born in Derry 
Township, October 14, 1831, his parents being 
Samuel and Anna (Moore) Keiper. His paternal 
grandfather, who>e Christian name was .Jacob, 
lived in the early part of his life in Reamstown, 
Lancaster County, that place being his home dur- 
ing his entire life. He was a cooper by trade and 
became quite well-to-do. He was a i)atriot of the 
War of 1 «!■_', and in religion held to the faith of 
the Reformed Church. He married a Miss Meyers, 
whose family were among the pioneers of this 
county, but later emigrated to the west. This 
worthy couple became the parents of six children: 
S.amuel, .John, .Joseph, Lenjamin, Sallie A. and 

The eldest member of the family, Samuel, was 
born near Reamstown, Lancaster County, and was 

a man of ordinary education. On arriving at 
mature years he engaged in bhicksmitli work and 
afterward became a drover, at which time his home 
was in Dauphin Countj', where most of his chil- 
dren were born. He was married in Berry Town- 
ship when about twenty-one 3'ears of .age, and had 
six children by that union, namely: John, Susan; 
Lizzie, Fannie and .Jacob, who died in childhood; 
and Samuel, a resident of Allentown, Pa. The 
latter is a manufacturer of powder and dynamite, 
having a large and paying trade in those products. 
Susan became the wife of Benjamin Booser and 
lived for many years on the old homestead, in 
Dauphin County. The father of these children 
for a number of jears was engaged in taking cattle 
from western iioints to the Philadelphia market, 
and hiseldest sun. "ur subject, on several occasions 
walked with liiiu from ()hio to the Quaker City. 
In politics the senior Mr. Keiper was a Republican, 
and before the organization of that party was an 
old line Whig, having taken a very interested part 
in elections and having held a number of township 
offices. For a long time he was a Deacon in the 
Reformed Church and bore a reputation for honor 
and integrity. His death occurred in October, 
liS83, at the age of seventy-five years, while his 
wife, who survived him until Marcii 1, 1888, was 
in her eighty-fourth year at the time of her de- 

,1. M. Keijier received a district scliool education 
in Dauphin County, wheie they had only a four 
months' term during the year, but he made the 
best of such opportunities as were within his reach, 
and when quite young secured a certificate, after 
which he taught for a period of four years. At 
this time he had only attained his m.ajority and 
his next venture was to engage in the manufacture 
of hay rakes in Dauphin County. Later selling 
out his business he invested money in oil lands, 
during the great excitement over that product, and 
was interested in that line for about four years. 
Subsequently he returned to Dauphin County, 
again turning his attention to the making of 
hav rakes, and met witli an unfortunate .accident, 
being crippled by a severe cut in the leg while 
working at his trade. After that our subject be- 
came a salesman, sellini,' farm inijilements, and U)r 



two years engaged in taking orders for sewing 

November 20, 1869, ]Mr. Keiper came to Lan- 
caster, continuing in the sewing macliine business, 
and afterward launched into tlie furniture trade, 
in which he has been veiy successful. Abiiut IS'.Mi 
he took into partnership his son-in-law. Jlr. Heitz- 
ler, and their business has constantl}' increased up 
to the present time. Our subject is one of the 
stockholders in the Champion Forge and Blower 
Company at Lancaster, and has also interests in va- 
rious industries of this city and localit\ . 

April 12, 1853, Mr. Keiper wedded Nancy, 
daughter of John Brinser, and four children graced 
tliis union, namely: Sarah Ann, wife of Harvey 
Hertzlcr, who is a [lartiier witii our suliject; Lin- 
neus B., a traveling salesman for the Cliam|)ion 
Forge and Blower Company; Albert, who died at 
the age of three months, and Henry B., President 
of the Champion Forge and Blower Company. Tlie 
devoted wife and mother was called to her final 
rest September 2, 18'J0, being in her llfty-tiftli 
year. The family number many sincere friends 
and acquaintances in the community where tliey 
make tlieir home, and Mr. Keiper's intluence is 
often solicited in the pnnniaioii of leading mnve- 
ments which liave in view tlie uplmildiiig of the 


(Tp^ DAM PONTZ. Among the enterprising 
/ — \ and successful business men of Lancaster 
is this gentleman, who is popular in all 
circles where he is known. He is one of the vete- 
rans of the late Civil conflict, having a war record 
of which he ma^- well be proud, as he served faith- 
fully for four years and three months in tlie de- 
fense of the Stars and Stripes, and took part in 
many of the important battles of the war. He is 
a stanch Republican, having suiiimrted the party 
since arriving at his majority. 

A native of Lancaster, the birth of our subject 
occurred July 6, 1840, liis parents being George 
and Ehzabeth (Muscatnus) Pontz, whose history 

is given in tliat of his elder brother, Jacob, wliicli 
may be found elsewhere in this volume. Adam 
Pontz was reared in this city, where he attended 
the common schools, but was only eleven years old 
when he began working in a brick yard. Later 
j for a few years he was employed in a cotton mill, 
and then, the War of the Rebellion coming on. he 
enlisted in Company K, Seventy -seventh Regiment 
of Pennsylvania Volunteers, and was mustered into 
service at Pittsburg. As one of the soldiers of the 
Army of the West he was in the battles of Sliiloh, 
Stone River, Chickamauga. Chattanooga and others, 
after which he returned home on a thirty days' 
furlough, rejoining his regiment at Blue Springs, 
Tenn. From there until reiching Atlanta he was 
with his regiment in numerous engagements and 
encounters with the enemy, and then fell back to 
Nashville, from which city he was sent to Texas to 
be placed on guard duty. In December, 1865, he 
received an lionoralile discharge at Victory, Tex., 
and was mustered out at Pliiladeliiliia on the 16th 
of the folhnving .lanuaiy. He had never been 
off duty up to the time he arrived in Texas, where 
he was for a few weeks in the hos[)ital with a fever. 
Though he had many narrow escapes he was never 
captured nor wiuinded. Enlisting as a lu'ivate. he 
was |)ronioted t<_i the lank of Ciu'iioral. then Ser- 
geant, and was mustered out as Orderly Sergeant. 

Until the fall of 1867 Adam Pontz worked in 
the brick yard for Fred Coonley. and then in part- 
nership with George Singleton houglit out hisinter- 
est. A year later the latter's iiorfion was bought 
bv our subject's brother Jacob, and the firm became 
A. Pontz ct Bro. They continued this connection 
until 1885. niien tliey dissolved partnership, each 
taking the management of one of the brick yards, 
which they owned in common. There are nearly 
nine acres in the one which our subject operates, 
and the three kilns have a capacity of about four 
million brick per annum, part of this being made 
by machinery and the rest are hand pressed. There 
are large sheds for storing and drying, and a 
thirty-five horse-power engine. The clay which 
is used is of a very superior quality', and during 
the busv season about forty hands are employed 
to carry on the work. 

In 1868 Mr. Poutz wedded Susan Shay, who 



was born and reared in this city. Slie is the 
daughter of Miehn.-i Sha.v. whc \v:is f,.i-nierl.v also 
engaged m tlie niauufacturo of lirick. Mr. and 
Mrs. Pontz have become the parents of six chil- 
dren: 'William II., a brickmaker; Frederick, who is 
a carpenter; Walter, a painter by trade; (iertie; 
lU-Mc anil I'hilip S. Mrs. Pimtz is a nieiiiber of 
the eiimch of (iud. and pri'sidc. over her pleasant 
home with grace and hospitality. 

For some j'ears our suliject has been investing 
quite exlen-sively in real estate, and in cmnpany 
with Ills brother .Jacob has Imilt liftccn residences. 
He also owns his home at Xn. 7fJS Fast t'hcstnnt 
Street, and four acres (if land within the city limits. 
He is now erecting a sulislaiitial brick residence in 
the eastern part of the cit_\ , and is doing a good 
share of the imijrovementand upbuilding of Lancas- 
ter. Though not at present connected with the so- 
cieties, he was fdinierly an Odd Fellnw and a 
Knight Teini)lar, iuil still Ik. hi.- membership with 
Admiral Revnolds Post No. AOo. <;. A. P. 


UWARD C. HALL is ju-oprietor of t 
Delmonieo Hotel, which is noted for ha 
ing the linest bar room in the city, it ha 

■n ei|uipiied at a cost of o\er s^d.odo and 

location lieing very central, at No. \:]}^ Penn 
Square. IMr. Hall also instructs select classes in 
dancing, being the only master of this science in 

Horn in Strasburg, Lancaster County, September 
I, l.So.'i, Mv. Hall is a son of A. Carpenter and Eliz- 
abeth (Train) Hall, both likewise natives of this 
county. The paternal grandfather, Isaac Hall, was 
born in Chest ea- County. Pa., and was a miller by 
trade, being for years proprietor of :\Ius>leman-s 
Mill. He was of English descent and comes of an 
old Quaker family, his father having emigiated 
from England to become a jjioneer of Chester Coun- 

ty. Isaac Hall participated in the War of 18P2, and 
led a life of industry and usefulness, his deatii oc- 
curring in .Strasburg at the age of seventy-one 
years. A. C. Hall followed the same calling as his 
father and carried on the old mill for a number of 
years. In August, 1861, he enlisted in the War of 
the Rebellion, being a member of Company K, 
Seventy-seventh Pennsylvania Infantry, and with 
them taking part in many battles, being a part of 
the Army of the Cumberland. He served faith- 
fully until .Tanuary. 18G5, when he returned home, 
but did not resume his milling on account of poor 
health. Locating in Lancaster, he made this citj' 
his home until his death, in 1884, at the age of 
seventy-one years. He was a very patriotic man, 
and at the time of his enlistment was over the re- 
quired age, as his years entitled him to exemption 
from duty, and in politics he voted with the Dem- 
ocratic party. His wife, who is of English descent, 
is still living in this cit}', and eight of their nine 
children yet survive, three being residents of Can- 
ton, Ohio, and the otiiers living in this city. 

Edward C. Hall passed his first few years in the 
city of his nativity, but since 1861 has been al- 
most continuously a resident of Lancaster. His 
educational advantages were those of the jjublic 
schools, and on becoming of suitable age he entered 
the employ of the Conestoga Cork Works on Lo- 
cust Street. On becoming proficient in the manu- 
facture of corks he was made foreman of the works 
of (!.W. Dodge it Son, serving in that capacity 
for about eight years. In 1882 he formed a part- 
neishiji with W. .1. and (iideon Arnold, and bought 
out the Cadwell Conestoga Cork Works, which 
were destroyed by fire. The firm removed then to 
Fulton and Lime Streets, where they built u]) the 
[iresent Conestoga Cork Works, and about a year 
later Mr. Hall sold out his interest, afterward re- 
turning to the Lancaster Cork Works as foreman 
until the ciineorn failed. April 18, 1885. 

Subse(piently our subject became proprietor of 
the Schiller House on North Queen Street, and 
operated the same for three years, after which he 
puivhased the Delmonieo Ibitel. and has since car- 
ried thi- on. It has been greatly remo.leled and 
improved, being one of the best hotels in the city. 
In this building there is a good hall, which is very 



useful for dances, and in October, 1878, the Pro- 
fessor (ipenod tlie first dancinir scliool in the city, 
.ind lias c(_>ntiiiiied in this line more or less ever 

The marriage of Mr. Hall and xMiss Sarah M. 
Afflebach was celebrated in this city August 4, 
1S75. The lady was liorn in Lancaster, and is the 
daughter of Daniel and Susan Afflebach, the former 
being a brick manufacturer by occupation. The 
four children of our subject and his wife are, 
Mabel, who is attending the high school, being a 
member of the Class of "'J5: Charles, Walter and 
Raeli. The parents are members of the (irace 
Lutheran Church, and are active in social affairs. 
Mr. Hall belongs to tlie Junior Order of American 
IMechanics, to the Knights of Pythias, Artisans 
and Elks. I'olitically he stands by the men and 
measures advocated bj- the Democratic party. 

JOHN OCHS, of Lancaster, is engaged in busi- 
ness at No. 306 South (,)ueen Street, a hand- 
some building of brick, wliich was erected 
b}' him. This building is three .stories in 
height, is 30x36 feet in dimensions, with an annex 
16x34 feet and three stories in height. Here Mr. 
Ochs runs a grocery. Hour and feed business, and 
has succeeded in building mi a Hue trade. In 
many of the local affairs of the city he takes a 
prominent part, and is justly considered one of 
the leading business men within her borders. 

Mr. Ochs was born September 19, 1832, at Wur- 
temberg, Germany, being a son of Martin and 
Lucia (Ilousman) Ochs. The former was a na- 
tive of the same locality, and learned the trade of 
making nails, which business he followed during 
most of his life. He was a memlier of the Lutli- Church, in the faith »( which he died in ISIG, 
.aged lifty-nine years. His wife departed this life 
in 18,jli, being then in her sixty-lirsl year, as her 

birth occurred in 17110. By her marriage she be- 
came tlie motlier of seven cliildreii: (iottlieb, who 
died in Germany; Elias, who emigrated to this 
country and followed his trade in the iron works 
of this city; Christian, whose death occurred in 
the Fatherland; Frederick, a tanner by trade, who 
passed his life in Wurtemberg; .Tcjanna. John and 

In the excellent national schools of Germany, 
our subject was a student until about fourteen 
years of age, when he commenced serving an ap- 
prenticeship which covered three and a-half years. 
The calling which he then learned and followed 
was that of making combs. In 1854 he left his 
native land, and after his arrival in the United 
States, was for a short time a resident of Lancas- 
ter. Afterward he worked on farms in different 
places while he learned the English language, and 
in 1856 permanently settled in this city. For 
some two years he worked in Graham's Comb F'ac- 
tory, and then started in business for himself as a 
Hour and feed dealer on South (^lueen Street, con- 
tinuing there until 1 .S7 1. whtn he purchased the 
property where his plant is now situated. He em- 
ployes two men and runs a delivery- wagon con- 
stantly in order to su|tply his customers. 

For two terms Mi-. Ochs served as a member of 
the City School ISo.nrd. ami has always been greatly 
interested in educational alTairs. He is liberal cm 
the question of politics, though he favors the De- 
mocracy, and was for one term a member of the 
Common Coiincil. In the Citizens' Electric Light 
Coiniiaiiy he holds considerable stock, and is like- 
wise inliTcsted in the Street Railway, and is one 
(pf tlie Diit'ctors of the Blaennerchor Hall Associa- 
tion. Fraternally he is identilhid with Matamora 
Lodge No. 2, Order of Red Men, having passed 
through all the chairs; lielongs to Monterey Lodge 
Xo. 242. I. (). (). F.; to Lamberton Lodge No. 476, 
F\i'A. M.. and to the ( )rder of the Seven Wise 

For a period of ten years Mr. Ochs was Secre- 
tary of the St. Stephen 'sticrnian Lutheran Church, 
and is President of the Vestrymen. May 11, 1856, 
was celebrated his marriage to Miss Christiana 

ing children: Catherine, wife of Jacob F. Kout/,; 



Charles E., a salesman in Pitlsliurg; Elizabeth, Mi'S. 
Adam Kiihlinan, the latter being a blacksmith re- 
siding at the home of oursubjeet; .lobn. deceased: 
Cln-i:-tian P., in the employ of the Adams i:x|.ic>s 
Con)i)any of this cily: .lolm: Kmma. wlio>,. ,K'.Hlh 
occnrred at the age <.f two years, and Auna A. 
Mr. Oclis is a man of trm- \v..rlh. and i> iiiu< h re- 
si)etted by those who have the pleasiiie of his ae- 

inlliieiiee ni the eommunity by his native ehaiae- 
teristies of industry and [ier,-everanee m whatever 

JdllN V. PONTZ. formerly (u-cupying the re- 
sponsible position of Superintendent of the 
Water Works in Lancaster, is earr\'ing on a 
profital)le business as a contractor, painter 
and decorator, having a well equipped establish- 
ment and commanding the larger p(,)i'tion of the 
trade in the city. 

Our subject ivas liorn in this city February 4, 
1862, and is the son of Oeorge Ponlz, also a na- 
tive of Lancaster and in turn the son of .Jacob 
Pontz. The father of our suliject was a painter 
by occupation and during the late war, in 18G4, 
enlisted as a member of Com|)any K, Seventy- 
seventh Pennsylvania Infantry. He served until 
the establishment of peace, after which he returned 
home and touk u\> his trade, having his shops lo- 
cated on West King and Mulberry Streets. In 
187'J he removed to the location now occupied by 
our subject, where he carried on business until his 
decease, October 28, LS90, at the age of fifty-flve 
years. He was a thorough musician, and although 
making a specialty of campaign music, also sang in 
the Lutheran choir. 

The maiden name of our subject's mother was 
Amanda C. King. She likewise was biu-n in this 
city and was the daughter of .lohii King, a boot 
and shoe maker. i\Irs. Poutz is now deceased, pass- 
ing aw.ay April 14, l,s:i:_i, and leaving three sons, 
of whom our subject is the eldest. He was educa- 

ted in the imblic schools, and in 1877, when the 
time came for iiim to choose a calling in life, he be- 
gan learning the trade of a painter and has reached 
the fop round of the ladder in this branch of 
work. In l.HlHl lu' Ijecame the proprietor of the 
White Horse Hotel, which he operated for only a 
few months, and on the death of his father he sold 
out and took charge of the paint shojis. Since that 
time he has completed the painting and deciirating 
on the new court house, Lutheran Church, City 
Hall, besides numerous other public buildings. 

In 1892 Mr. Pontz was appointed by the City 
Council as Superintendent of the water works, 
and while holding that piisition put in new punips 
and made other necessary impro\einents. The 
lad}' whom he married December 25, 1881, was 
Miss Clara .1. Shaw, a native of Montgomery Coun- 
ty, this state. I>y her union with our subject there 
have been born two daughters, Elizabeth and Cleo. 

Socially Mr. Pontz is a Knight of Pythias, be- 
longing to Lodge No. 88, and also is connected 
with the Slatemaster Painters' Association. Like 
his father before him, he belongs to the Lutheran 
and (lermania societies. In politics he is a believer 
in Democratic [irinciples and has represented his 
party on various occasions to county and state 
conventions. For a number of years he was a 
member of the volunteer fire company and during 
that time was delegate to the firemen's convention. 
He is ver3' prominent in local affairs and was the 
first President of the local Painters" Association in 

X with ellicient ability occupied various ofB- 
cial positions of trust in his present local- 
ity, is well known and highly respected through- 
out tlie community. He isof (;erman birth, having 
been born in Hesse-Darmstadt. October 4. 1827, 
and is a son of (ieorge and Mary K. ( Loetler) 
Darnistaetter. The parents of our subject were 
married in Germanv. lo them were born seven 



children, ns follows: Anna M.iiv; Mary C. who niar- 
riefl and canio to tiiis iMuntrv and died in Illinois; 
Eva Mary, who was l<ilh>d on a canal lioal near 
r.iiffalo, N. Y.; George II.. our subject; Magdaiine, 
who also passed away in Illinois; Rev. J. Adam, a 
minister of the Lutiieran Church at Columbia, Pa.; 
and Elizabeth, wife of John B. Diger (deceased), a 
resident of Ilarrisburg, Pa. 

The father of our subject was a hotel keeper in I 
Germany, and was also a butcher b}' trade. He 
served as a soldier in Napoleon's "War for two 
years, taking part in several hard fought battles. 
He was born January "21. 17'Jl, and departed this 
life January 20, 1840, at the age of forty-nine 
years. The mother was born February 20, 1799, 
and ixassed away March 13. 186.3, at the age of 
sixty-four, in Lancaster. 

Gur subject eniigrated to this country in 1848, 
accompanied by his mother, and landed in New 
York City September 14 of the same year. He 
came direct to Lancaster, arriving in this city 
on his birthday, and for forty-six years he has 
made his home here. Mi. Darmstaetter was united 
in marriage March 21, 1850, with Miss Julia 
Drepperd, and to them were born three children, 
namely: George H. (deceased); Maiy Elizabeth 
and Anna C. Jlrs. Darmstaetter was called away 
to her final lejt April 19, 1856, at the age of 
lliirt3'-four years. Our subject was married the 
second time February 1, 1864, to Miss Barbara 
C. Beck, and the result of this union was ten 
children, Magdalene, John Adam, Katie, Louie, 
Emma. Dorothy, Marie, John George, Anna Mary, 
and Martin Luther. John Adam, Dorotliy, .Marie 
and John George died when young. 

Politically Mr. Darmstaetter is a stanch Demo- 
crat, taking an active part in politics. He is a mem- 
ber of the German Lutheran Church and has served 
as a \'estrynian for over thirty 3'ears. For six 
years he served as Common Councilman, and as 
Select Councilman for one terra, refusing re-elec- 
tion. He always took an active part in all ques- 
tions coming before the council and is well posted 
in the issues of the day. He represented the 
Southeast Waid when there were but four wards 
in the town, and afterward the Seventh Ward. In 
1.S82 he was elected a member (.>f the School Board, | 

and is now serving his fifth term satisfactorily to 
all. He is a candidate at the present time for 
.hiry Commissioner of Lancaster. He is a [irogros- 
bive and public-spirited citizen, ever ready to do 
his full share in matters of public welfare, and is 
numbered among the leading men of Lancaster 

JOSEPH B. iMcCASKEY.. D. I). S., is one of 
the oldest dentists engaged in practice in 
Lancaster, having learned his profession in 
this cit\', and having had his present ollice 
since 1864. He is skilled and has the reputation 
of being one of the finest dentists in the state, 
making a specialty of crown and bridge work, 
in which he is particularly advanced. His eldest 
son. Harry, and Ins son Joseph B., Jr., are, like their 
father, men of experience, and are now in business 
with him. 

Dr. McCaskey was born in Leacock Township, 
Lancaster County, in 1839,l)eing the second son of 
William 3IcCaskey, who owned and operated a 
farm in that township. Our subject's brother, 
Prof. J. P., is represented elsewhere in this volume 
and is also a man of wide reading and a noted citi- 
zen of this county. The boyhood of our subject 
was passed on his father's farm, and in 1843 he 
came to this city, where he secured a good educa- 
tion in the common and high schools. About 
1854 he first turned his attention to dentistry, 
studying with Dr. Whiteside, one of the pioneer 
dentists of this citj-. About 1861 our subject be- 
gan practicing for himself in Hanover, York Coun- 
ts, and three years later permanently located in 
this city, opening his ofHce at No. 11 p]ast King 
Street, which has since been his headquarters. His 
whole time has been devoted to practice and he 
has neglected no stud}' or effort that would place 
him in the front rank of his profession. He is 
Pastmaster of Dental Surgery and crown and bridge 
work, in which great advancement has been made 
of late years. Tlie former method of extracting a 


iHiniber of sound teeth and 

(1 >. 

false. I'rovi.lin- two.)r lliree u 1 s.unid roots 

are h'ft in the jaw of tlie patient, i h-ni dentistry 

has |ii-oved that they ean he so ulilized as to form 
a sei'ure foundation foi- teetli set upon a bridge, 
and in one method or another, according to cir- 
cumstances, attached to the af<n-esaid roots. Tliere 
are many methods in use among dentists, and some- 
times it is found that one and sometimes another 
process is best suited for a given case, and in this, 
good judgment, skill and experience on the part 
of the dentist are absolutely necessary in (U'der to 
secure the best results. 

In 1857 Dr. McCaskey married Mi-ss Fannie 
Conneli, who was born in Lancaster, and they have 
tiiree children: Harry, .Joseph B.,.Jr., and Clothilda. 
The home of the family is pleasantly situated 
at No. 320 North Duke Street. Tlie young men 
have received the best of practical training from 
their boyhood in the office of their father and are 
perfectly competent in their profession. Joseph 
graduated in the Class of '90, from the Philadel- 
phia Dental College. In politics the Doctor and 
his sons use their votes and influence in the sup- 
[lort of the Republican party. 

■i-i-i-'^msS +♦•{••{■1- 

^ T S^ILLIAM A. IIALI'.ACll lias one of 
\/\/ the best equi|>ped general job print- 
ing offices in Lancaster, and numbers 
among liis patrons the leading business men, and 
also does tlie city printing. He has been blessed 
with prosperity of late years in his business vent- 
ures and employs good workmen, who are thor- 
t)ughly familiar with the finest class of trade print- 

Onr subject is a son of Henry C. and Sarah 
(\yeidle) Ilalliaeh, and was born iMarch !•, l.S(;2, in 
Lancaster. The7ather, also a native of this place, 
learned the shoemaker's trade, which he followed 

exclusively <liiring his active career. He was a 
nieiiili.r of the Knights of Pythias and was an Odd 
Felli>\v. Politically he voted with the Democracy, 

the Trinity Lutheran Chureh. taking cpiite an 
active part m the various lines of its work. In 
his family were three children, William A. being 
the eldest. Maiy \. is the wife of Milton Weidle, 
a Teller in the First National P.ank of this city. 
Grace is the wife of Grant Mentzer, who is in 
charge of the dry-goods department of the firm of 
Williamson & Foster, of Lancaster. The father 
departed this life in 1872, aged thirty-four years, 
but his wife is still living. 

The educational jirivileges of our suliject were 
those afforded by the grammar and high schools 
of Lancaster. He had almost finished his high 
school course when his father's death occurred, 
and as he was the only son he was obliged to seek 
employment in order to assist in the support of 
the family. To that end he began an apprentice- 
ship as a printer with the New Era, remaining there 
for four years, and then serving as a journeyman 
for another year. 

Completely mastering the details of the trade, 
and being verv industrious and economical, 3'oung 
Ilalbach saved enough money to start in business 
on his own account in a very modest way. There- 
fore, in 1882 we find him embarking on his busi- 
ness career at No. [> North Duke Street, where he 
engaged in job printing work, published the Week- 
ly Ledger, Market Directory and other similar 
sheets. On his removal to No. 41 East King 
Street his business continually increased until, in 
order to meet the demand, he was obliged to se- 
cure larger quarters on Grant Street. For two 
years ha was a member of the firm of Ilalbach & 
Lefever. but bought out his partner and continued 

which time he rented the Lancaster Skating Kmk, 
which he operated and fitted up for a variety 
show. At the end of a year and a-half, this prov- 
ing a complete failure and his losses having 
aniouiited to x(l.l)0(i. he returned to his former oc- 
cupation, and ill l.s.s'J eanie to where he is now 
situatcil. at No. 14 Fast King Street. Here may 
be found improved presses, many varieties of type 



and everything necessary in conducting a flrst- 
class job printing business, and employment is 
given to nine compositors. 

Mr. Ilalbacliis a Democrat and is identifled willi 
tlie Young Men's Democratic vSociety. Socially-, 
lie belongs to Lodge No. G8, K. of P.. Monterey 
Lodge No. 242, I. O. O. F., Can-as-sa-te-go Tribe, 
No. 203, Order of Redmen; tlie German Turnvere- 
in Social Club; the Gerniania Singing Society and 
the Schuitzen Verein. He was one of the pro- 
moters of the Young Jlen's Democratic Society 

May 11,«, Mr. Ilalbach was united in mar- 
riage with Miss Emeline T. McCulley and they 
have had two sons, Allen IL, who died at the age" 
of eight months, and Robert C. ^Irs. Ilalbach is 
the youngest daugiiter of Robert C. McCulley, a 
Itrominent citizen, who is engaged in the foundry 

I ®). _..?^(Ms ^ 

eYRUS W. STRICKLER for the. past four 
years has been engaged in carrj'ing on his 
valuable farm near the village of Creswell. 
He is a practical and thorough .agriculturist, who 
in his farm work met with a fair degree of suc- 
cess, and of late he turned hi.s attention to 
selling leaf tobacco and doing a general manu- 
facturing business in this line. Since his boyhood 
Mr. Strickler has been well known in these parts, 
and the liigh esteem in which he is held by tliose 
who have known him a lifetime is the only com- 
mendation he needs to a stranger. 

The birth of C. W. Strickler occurred June 21, 
1855, on his father's old homestead at Wisler's 
Run. His jiarents were Obed and Magdalena 
(Wisler) Strickler. The latter name is of German 
origin, the paternal gieal-grand father of our sub- 
ject, who bore the Christian name of .Joseph, hav- 
ing been a native of the Fatherland, and in an 

early day came to tlie United States. His son, 
.Iose|ih, born in York County, Pa., where he 
was reared and passed the most of his life. Near 
York Village he built a gristmill, which he oper- 
ated for a number of years, and afterward fanned 
near Goldsboro, there owning a place of one hun- 
dred acres. He was a Democrat and was a minis- 
ter of the Dunkard Church. By his marri.age with 
a Miss Leib he had Ave sons and two daughters, 
namely: Rebecca, Obed, Eli, Elizabeth, Henry, Jo- 
seph and Reuben. On the 31st of July, 1828, oc- 
curieil the birth of the s(iu Obed. the father of 
Cyrus AV. He was reared m York County to agri- 
cultural pursuits, which he followed extensively. 
After his marriage he removed to this county and 
became the owner of a farm comprising one hun- 
dred and forty-five acres in Manor Township, on 
which he raised tobacco to a large extent. Like 
his father before him he a Dunkard. and polit- 
ically a Democrat. By his first wife, a Miss Mil- 
ler, he had two sons, John and David, and after 
her death he married Miss Wisler, whose father, 
Jacob Wisler, was a well-to-do farmer, owning the 
place which has now come into possession of our 
subject. B}" this union were born four sons and 
three daughters, C. W., Mary K., Martin, Agnes, 
Elizabeth, Jacoli and Eiios W. Jacob died at the 
£ige of eight years, and the daughters became the 
wives of respected citizens of this community. 
The father departed this life July 15, 1888, when 
nearly sixty-six years of age, and his wife's death 
occurred September 17, 1890. 

Cyrus W., who is the eldest child in his father's 
family, attended the district schools of Manor 
Township. and until nineteen yearsof agegavehis 
dutiful .assistance to his father in carrying on the 
farm. After his marri.age he assumed charge of 
the Wisler farm, which belonged to his father. This 
valuable and improved place consists of one hun- 
dred and flftj'-two acres, and for a period extend- 
ing over sixteen years Mr. Strickler assiduously 
devoted himself tt) its proper management. lu 
1890 he removed to an adjoining farm, having 
sold the old home, and is still living on this place. 
He helped to elect Cleveland and is a stanch sup- 
[lorter of the Democratic party. Socially he is a 
member of the Artisans' Society of Cohimlna, and 



in evervtliinu: iiertaiiiini; tn the general good en- 

()n Uie lolli (if Xuvemlior, 1.S72, Mr. Strickler 
married Elizal)etli. danglitcr of .laeob ]}. Frey, a 
well-to-do farmer of iManor Townsliip, who owns 
property near the village of Creswell. To our 
snlijcet a.ul In.. e>linialple wife were born live M.ns, 
namely, J ra F., Aros F., Willis F., Simon F. and 
.laeob F. 


HENRY E. MrilLENEERfi, M. 1)., has for 
over twenty years been engaged in the 
practice of his profession. He comes of 
an old and prominent family in this state and the 
name is inseparable from the histor3- of this and 
adjoining counties. His great-grandfather, Rev. 
Henr3- E., was born in Trapi)e, Montgomery Ccjun- 
ty, in 1755, being a son of Rev. Henry Melchoir 
Muhlenberg, a native of Germany, who received a 
fine education and became a minister in the Luth- 
eran denomination. He was born September 2, 
1711, sailed forAmericain 1743, and came to Phil- 
adelphia re-organizing the scattered Lutherans in 
congregations. He preached in Pennsylvania and 
New York. He was the head of the church for a 
number of years, being a pioneer, and in his honor 
Muhlenberg College at AUentown was founded.' 
His death occurred in 1787, and only three years 
later his son, Rev. Henry, before referred to, became 
a resident of Lancaster, and here his death occur- 
red in 1815. He was a great botanist and was known 
as the Linnseus of America. His son, Dr. Frederick 
A., the next in line of descent, was born in this 
city about 1704 and was graduated from the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania as Doctor of Medicine, 
practicing in Lancaster until shortly before his 
death in 1867. 

Our subject's father, whose Christian name was 
Henry E., was born in 1810 and was the eldest son 
in his father's family. Like him, he also was grad- 
uated from the ]Medical Department of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania and made Lancaster his 

field of practice during his active career. For two 

lector of Internal lU^venue, but bi-fore the second 
term was conipleted he was summoned from this 
life, in July, 1877. He was a leading member of 
the fraternity in these parts, was active in local 
enterprises, being a member of the Council and 
School Board, and was also one of the founders of 
the Lancaster Medical Society. His wife, who bore 
the maiden name of Catherine Cameron, was born 
in this city, being a daughter of John Cameron, a 
native of Lancaster County, and a brother of 
.Sim-on Cameron. 

The Cameron family' is of Scotch descent, and 
they have long been numbered among the best 
citizens of this state. Mrs. Muhlenberg departed 
this life in 1800. She had a family of seven chil- 
dren. One of these, John C, is a Pa^'master in 
the United States army. William was a Lieutenant 
in the Second Penns^dvania Lifantry and died in 
the service, and Charles E., the youngest living, 
resides in Kansas. 

Dr. Muhlenberg, of this article, was born and 
reared in Lancaster, his primary education being 
obtained in the common schools. Later it was his 
privilege to supplement his studies by a course at 
Yates Institute, after which he began studying 
medicine with his father. With this good begin- 
ning as a foundation he entered the Medical De- 
partment of the University of Penns^dvania in 
1809, and two years later, on his graduation, re- 
ceived the degree of Doctor of jMedicine. Return- 
ing to his native city he has been engaged in prac- 
tice ever since with the exception of three years, 
from 1874 to 1877, which time he passed in Boston, 
New York and Philadelphia in the United States 
Marine llospit;il service. In 1871 he was for a 
time with the preliminary survey of the Texas 
Pacific Railroad. His life has been very active, and 
it IS worthy of mention that three of his family- 
in succession have been engaged in medical prac- 
tice in this city during the most of this century. 

In Wilkes Barre, Pa., in 1879, Dr. Muhlenberg 
married Miss Emma J., daughter of John P. Fell, 
a leading business man of tliat city. The Doctor 
is a Repulilican, liaving been connected with that 
party since its organization. Fraternall}- he is 



connected with the Masonic oixier, and has served 
oil the Exaiiiinhig Board of Pensions for six years, 
coni|>rising the term of Artluir's administration 
and a part of President Cleveland's first term. He 
stands at the head of his profession in tiiis city, 
numbering many of the best and oldest families as 
his regular clients. The Doctor is a man who is 
thoroughly abreast with the times, taking the best 
periodicals in the medical world and keeping up 
his studies regularly, thus in addition to bis many 
years' practice keeping in touch with the leading 
thought of the times. 

T~^ LI K. ]MYLIX is one of the old settlers and 
r^ C) prosperous farmers of Pequea Townsliip, 
Lancaster County, having his postofHee at 
Herrville. For over half a century his home has 
been on the farm where he still resides and of 
which he is now the owner. His ancestors located 
at a very early day in tiiis region, coming here 
with a colon3' of Mennonites, who have l)een ver3' 
inalrumental in the develoinnent and uiiliuilding 
of Lancaster County. 

Jacob M^iin, the paternal grandfather of our 
subject, who followed agricultural pursuits, owned 
and carried on the identical farm which is now in 
the possession of his grandson, Kli K. He was a 
Whig prior to the formation of the Republican 
party, after which he became identified with th« 
latter. He married Elizabeth Miller and tiieir 
three children were John, Jacob and Eliza, who 
died in early childhood. 

The father of our subject, John Mylin, was born 
December 25, 1806, in West Lampeter Townsliip, 
receiving his education in the primitive schools of 
the da_y. From his youth he was strongly inclined 
toward agricultural pursuits, and in turn oper- 
ated the farm which now belongs to his son. 
He married Elizabeth Kendig, and of their union 
eight children were born, onl.y two of whom 
survive. Their names in the order of their birth 

are as follows: Amos, Isaac. Eli K., Aaron, j\Iar- 
tin, Eliza, John and Jacob. The father of these 
children supported the Whig party by his ballot, 
and in later years was a Republican. Like his fa- 
ther he was a member of the old Mennouite Church, 
and had the respect and love of his friends and 
neighbors for his upright and honorable life. 

The subject of this article was born May 2, 
1833, on the old homestead, and his life passed 
uneventfully during his yi;>uth. His days were 
spent in work on the farm and in [ilay and sport 
of the countiy, and until nineteen years of age he 
pursued his studies in the neighborhood schools. 
From that time onward he has given his energies 
exclusively' to farming. The homestead is a place 
of about one hundred and ten acres, well equipped 
with good fences, barns and necessary outbuild- 
ings. Mr. Mylin keeps on hand good grades of 
live stock more than suflicient for his own faniil^y 
use. and has been (larticularly successful in this 
branch of work. 

March 20, 1861, was celebrated the marriage of 
Eli K. Mylin and MibS Martha Charles, who was 
born in Pequea Township and there grew to wo- 
manhood. Twelve chihlren have been born to 
this couple, eight of tlie number being boys. In 
order of their birth they are as follows: Lizzie, 
John, Benjamin, Frances, Charlie, Jacob, Eli, Ber- 
tha, Walter, C'elia, Henry and Christian. Lizzie, 
the eldest daughter, became the wife of Isaiah Stay- 
man, and is a resident of Mt. Joy Township. The 
eldest son married Mary ( irafe, and Fiances is mar- 
ried to Harry Keen. 

DAVID H. SHENK,M. D., a prominent phy- 
sician of Lancaster, is engaged in the prac- 
tice of his profession in j)artnershi|) with 
Dr. IM. L. Ilerr. Our subject is a native of this 
county and was born in East Ilempfleld, July 20, 
1850. His father, Henry Shenk, was born near 
New Danville, as also the grandfather. Rev. 
llenr\' Shenk, wIk.) was a minister and bishoii in the 


< mother was 
n\ Street, live 
e dau"iiter of 

Jlcnnoiiite Churcli. The Doctor's ancestors sev- 
eral ■jnicTatidii- hack came from Switzcrlaiul and 
the family name wa^ oriirinally r^|iellcd Schenck. 

Henry Shenk owned the hind which is now the 
site of the zinc and lead mines. The lead and nickel 
ore on his estate havinj^- been discovered, he was 
offered 875.0(1(1 for lii.^ farm, hut refused to accept 
the iiroiii)siti<_.n. and (n-uauiziiiu- a stock company, 
opened a mine and operated it for some lime. He 
was very successful for a number of years but 
eventually lost all his property. He then removed 
to Lancaster, where he engaged in the liquor busi- 
ness, carrying on a good trade until his decease, in 
18J2. He was a Whig in politics and took an act- 
tive part in public affairs. 

The maiden name of our subjec". 
Annie Barr. She was hdrn on Wil 
miles south of Lancaster, and was t 
Samuel Barr, a fanner by occupation and of Ger- 
man descent. The mother died in 187-1 leaving 
seven sons, three of whom now survive. Our sub- 
ject lived in his native place until a lad of fourteen 
years, then removed with the family U> jNIillersville, 
and there completed his studies in the normal 

Young Shenk had always desired to lead a pro- 
fessional life and for two years he read medicine 
with Dr. S. T. Davis; at the end of that time he 
entered the Bellevue Hospital in iS'ew York City 
and after a period of two terms in that institution 
became a student in Long Island Hospital College, 
from which he was graduated in 1874 with the de- 
gree of Doctor of Medicine. He at once located 
for practice in Rohrerstown, this county, where he 
remained until 1894. March 15 of that year he 
came to this city and formed a partnership with 
Dr. :Sl. L. Ilerr ami they have a line office located 
at ^o.2-2G North Duke Street. He makes a spec- 


so ai 

in profc 

I lias be- 
md Mic- 

cessful in hi 
Dr. D. 1 

Se|)temher 'J 


Ilk wa> married in MiUersviUe Miss .lennie Bones, a native 
of this count\',and to them have been granted two 
children. Grace and Mabel, the latter of whom died 
after having passed her fifth birthday. The wife 
and mother departed this life October 21. 1893, 

greatly mourned b}' a large circle of relatives and 
friends. She was a most estimable Christian lady 
and a devoted member of the Methodist Eiiiscopal 

The Doctor i> pliy>ician to Lancaster County 
Prison for 18;) I. to which responsible position lie 
was elected by the Board of Lispectors. Socially 
he is an Odd Fellow, belonging to Ilerschel Lodge 
and Washington Encampment. In religious affairs 
he is a consistent member of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, and contributes liberally of his means 
toward its support. Politically, he believes in 
Repulilicaii principles and never fails to cast a vote 
in favor of candidates of that jiarty. He belongs 
to the Lancaster Citj- and County Medical Socie- 
ty, of which lie has been Vice-President. He is 
likewise connected with the State Medical Asso- 
ciation and the Lancaster Pathological Society. 

<x: ^^"i•^^••^•^•i" ^• ^"^^•^■t••i• ^ ^^^^•!"^"^"i•^^•i•^^♦•^•i• >0 

J(_)HN -L BAUSMAN is one of the enterprising 
and progressive young farmers of Manor 
Township, his postoflice being at MiUers- 
viUe. He is a son of one of the pioneer fam- 
ilies of this locality, and from boyhood has been 
reared to an industrious and active life. For the 
past seven years he has been engaged in cultivat- 
ing and operating the farm formerly owned by his 
grandfather. It comprises one hundred and four 
acres and is one of the most valuable and highly 
improved farms of the township. 

The subject of this biography was born October 
12, 1859, m Lancaster Township, of this county. 
His parents, Henry and Barbara (Brennman) Baus- 
man, were born in this county and are still living, 
though well along in years, on the farm cultivated 
by the father during his entire .active life, it being 
advantageously' situated in Lancaster Township. 
The bo>-hood days of John J. passed uneventfully, 
his time being spent partlj' in giving such assist- 
ance as he could in the work of the farm, and the 
remainder being devoted to the pursuit of an edu- 



cation. He attended the schools of the neighbor- 
hood and also those at Millcrsville. His school 
life was finished in the Normal, wliicli he left at 
the age of seventeen years to devote his entire 
time to the future occuimtion of liis life, that of 
farming. He remained under Ihe parental roof 
until attaining liis twenty-eighth _year, when he 
was married and removed to this farm, which is 
owned by his father, and foi-merly was the property 
of Andrew Bausman. ()ur sulijcet makes a sjjeci- 
alty of raising tubaccii, in which he has been very 
successful, and i^ a good general and practical all- 
around farmer. 

The marri.age of John .J. Bausman was celebrated 
in January, 1887, when Miss Barbara Fry became 
bis wife. She is a lady of excellent education, is 
a good housekeeper, and is a devoted companion 
and helpmate to her husband. Her father, John 
Fry, is a successful agriculturist of Rapho Town- 
ship. Mr. and Mrs. Bausman are members of the 
Reformed Ciiurch of Millersville, of which the 
former has been a Deacon for two 3'ears. In his 
political atliliations he adheres to the platform and 
candidates set forth by the Republican party. 


r~y EORGE S. NORBECK, one of the success- 
Vlf ful business men of Lancaster, is now Al- 
derman from the Third Ward, having been 
appointed and commissioned by Governor Palli- 
son March 20, 1893, to fill the unexpired term of 
J. K. Barr, deceased. For the p.ast five years he 
conducted a carriage manufactory, and had a well 
equipped repository. His temporary headquarters 
were at Nos. 126 and 128 East King Street, as his 
factory on Duke and Vine Streets was burned 
down. He is now located at No. 144 East King 
Street, where he has one of tlie finest saloons in 
the city. 

Lewis Norbeck, our subject's father, was born in 
Adams County, Pa., and was of German descent. 
He was engaged in the wliolesale grocery trade 

at the corner of Utah and Franklin Streets, Bal- 
timore, for a number of years prior to his death, 
which occurred when he was in his forty-fourth 
year. He married Lydia C. Little, who was l)orn 
in the same eounty. being tlie daughter of IL'ury 
Little, a farmer (if Adams County. Mrs. Little 
was of English ancestry and a member of the 
Lutheran Church. The paternal grandfather of 
our subject, Jacob, was born in Gettysburg, and 
was in the War of 1812. He was in early life a 
farmer, and later engaged in the grocery trade, 
his death occurring when he was about three- 
score and ten years of age. In religions belief he 
was a Catholic, as was also his son. After her 
husb.and's death Mrs, P^lizabetii Norbeck went to 
Giettysburg, and later became the wife of Philip 
Doerson, a carriage manufacturer. In 1865 he 
started in business in this city as a member of the 
firm of Slingerwalt k Doerson. After a few years 
he bought out his partner and ran the business 
under his own name, and is now carrying on the 
carriage business in Gettysburg. His wife died 
in 1891, in her sixty-ninth year. By her first 
marriage she became the mother of two sons and 
two daughters: William A., a carriage trimmer, of 
Lancaster; George S.; Clara L., Mrs. McElligott, 
of this city; and Lovina, who married Dr. J. jM. 
Bentz, of Carlisle, I'a. 

The early years of C4eorge S. Norbeck were 
passed in Baltimore and Gettysburg, and he was 
born in the former place November 10, 1848. In 
1857 he went with his mother to Gettysburg, and 
was partly educated in Mt. St. Mary's College, at 
Emmetsburg, Md. When the family removed to 
this city, in 1855, he came with them, and two 
years later was apprenticed to learn the carriage 
trimmer's trade in his step-father's factory. After- 
ward he traveled for the firm, introducing the 

i Doerson patent fifth wheel, the invention of his 
step-father. For eighteen months he was on the 
road and traveled all through the northern, west- 
ern and eastern states. 

In October, 1889, Mr. Norbeck started in busi- 
ness for himself as a carriage manufacturer in this 
city, and kept twenty-six workmen employed un- 
til the fall of 1893, when he closed tiie factory. 

I He then rented a [jlace at the corner of Duke 



and Mail Streets. Formerly he manufactured sev- 
enty-live (lifferrnt kinds of vehicles, buggies and 
earriages. Tins location lie has remodeled and 
improved extensively, owning tliu property from 
King to Mifflin Streets, and was sole agent of the 
Columbus Buggy Company. His shop has a front- 
age of tliirty-nine feet, and he leases platforms 
and sheds for storage. 

Deceml)er 17. 1871, Mr. Norbeck married Lizzie 
A., daughter of John Tomlinson, now deceased, 
who was formerly a contractor for sand and stone. 
Mrs. Norlieek was horn and reared in Lancaster, 
and hy her marriage has become the mother of 
one cliild, David K., who is in business with his 
father. Mr. Norbeck is now proprietor of Nor- 
beck Cafe and Hotel, Nos. 144 and 146 East King 
Street, formerly the Coldeii Horse Hotel. He be- 
longs to tlie Home Ihiilding and Loan Associa- 
tion, and fraternally is identified with the Order 
of Elks. 


PATRICK KELLY, who makes his home in 
Lancaster, is an extensive buyer and ship- 
per of cattle, and has made a fine success 
of his ventures in this direction. For over thirty 
years he has given his exclusive attention to this 
occupation and is an uutlnjrity on the subject. A 
native of the Emerald Isle, he was born in County 
Derry March 26, 1826, and left the friends and 
scenes of his youth soon after attaining his major- 
ity to make his fortunes in the New World. 

James Kelly, the father of our subject, was, like 
his son, a native of County Derry, Ireland, where 
he followed the calling of a farmer until his death, 
which occurred in April, 1866, at the good old age 
of seventy-eight years. His wife, Ann (Kelly) 
Kelly, by her marriage became the mother of twelve 
children: Mar.y, who became the wife of Andrew 
Kelly; Catherine. Bridget, Ann; Margaret, who is 
still living in the Ohl Country; Michael, a former 
resident of Lancaster, and now deceased; Daniel 

and John, who are still in Ireland; James, Patrick, 
Ellen and Isabella. The mother of these children 
died in November. 1866, when she had reached the 
allotted age of three-sccjre and ten years. 

Patrick Kelly received good educational advan- 
tages in his native land, and continued to make 
his home with his parents until twenty-two years 
of age, when, in 1848, he set sail for America alone, 
and continuing his journey to Lancaster, arrived 
in this place on the 1st of June. He soon obtained 
employment with his uncle, Patrick Kell3% for 
whom he was named, who was extensively engaged 
in buying cattle and in conducting a banking 

With this uncle the young man remained until 
the death of the former, which occurred in June, 
1861. and after that event he started in on hisown 
account. Going to Ohio, Illinois and other west- 
ern states, he bought cattle and drove tiiem over- 
land. Later he turned his attention more exclu- 
sively to shipping cattle, and carried on a large 
business for many years. By means of his indus- 
try and economy he has made a good living for 
himself and famil}-, and has laid aside from year 
to year a goodl}' sum with which to provide means 
for pleasantly passing his declining years. 

On the 1st of May, 1862, Mr. Kelly was united 
in marriage with Miss Julia Gratton, and they are 
members of the Catholic Church. Mr. Kelly uses 
his right of franchise in favor of the Democratic 
party and its nominees. At one time his father 
crossed the Atlantic and made his son a pleasant 
visit, but subsequently returned to his old iiome- 


,VI H. :MANN, a i)rogressive and well-to- 
do farmer of Manor Ttiwnsliip, is the pro- 
prietor of a well cultivated farm which 
comprises two hundred and thirty-six acres, and 
which has been in his possession since 1871). In 
addition to general farming .Mr. Mann is inter- 



ested in raising horses and fanc}' grades of live 
stock and regularly sends the products of his farm 
to the markets of Columbia. He is entitled to 
high praise for what he has accomplished in life, 
for he has acquired his foi tune \>y close economy 
and industry, particularly in his early years. He 
comes from an old family of this township, as his 
paternal grandfather for long \'ears was one of its 
inhabitants, and his descendants have ever since 
been members of this community. 

Barney Jlann, the father of our subject, was a 
son of George S. On arriving at mature 3ears 
he became the owner of a farm of seventy-five 
acres in Manor Township, to the cultivation of 
which he devoted the most of his life. Later he 
removed to West Hempfield Townshii), where he 
operated a place of one hundred and three acres 
very successfully and attended the markets at 
.Columbia. Politically he was a stanch Democrat 
and had a high ideal of the duties of citizenship. 
He was twice married, first to Elizabeth Hershey, 
who died when only twenty-six years of age, leav- 
ing two sons: Christian, whose death occurred in 
childhood, and Levi H. By the second wife, Mary 
Ann Stoner, six children were born, namely: Maiy 
A., Cj'rus, Emily, Amanda, Barbara and Christian. 
The father was called from his labors in 18811, aged 
seventy-six years. 

The birth of Levi H. Mann occurred September 
25, 1835, in Manor Township, and in boyhood at- 
tended the schools of the neighborhood until six- 
teen 3'ears of age. His mother died when he was 
only two years old, and he was early placed among 
Strangers, where he had to work his way in order 
to obtain a livelihood. When fourteen years old 
he returned to his father's roof and remained 
there for three years, assisting in farm work. 
Then under Barney Stoner he served an appren- 
ticeship as a carpenter, but that calling not being 
entirel}' to his taste, he took a position with a 
farmer by which he earned *400 in the three years. 
By close economy during the three years he re- 
mained there he saved *250, which amount was 
the nucleus of his fortune. Returning to his fa- 
ther's home he then made that his place of abode 
until his marriage, at the age of twenty-eiglit years, 
when he rented a house and for the succeeding 

two years engaged in tobacco-growing, and subse- 
quently operated the farm of his father-in-law in 
iManor Townshii) for a |)eri(id of thirteen years, 
running it f>n shares. In 187S he became the 
owner of the f:irni on which he is now living, and 
in the following year Ijouglit two hundred and 
thirty-six acres of liundrcd and seventy- 
flve of which are now cleared and under cultiva- 

In isi'A) Mr. Mann we<l(led Anna, d.inuliter of 
Bernard .Mann, an agrieultui-ist. To our subject 
and his wife were born seven children: Mattie, 
Anna. Effle, Agnes, Franklin 11.. ;ind Edith and 
Emily, twins. The family are nieinliers of the 
Evangelical Church of Creswell, <if which Mr 
Mann is a Trustee. With his ballot he supports 
the men and measures of the Democratic partv. 

<3C -5"i"{-^-{"i"S"i"i"i"I"> ^ -S"5-4-4">-^^-i"5"}"i"i' X> 

"y EORGE ^■A^MA^' is one of the leading 
"^ attorneys of Lancaster, having conducted 
successfully his extensive practice here 
since 1862. During three years of this time he was 
City Solicitor and frequently represents the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad Company. Jloreover he is coun- 
sel for the Lancaster Street Railroad Company and 
for all of the three oil lines in this county. In the 
various business, social and political circles he is 
exceedingly popular, and his name has fre(iueutly 
been put forward for high positions. 

The birth of George Nauinan occurred in Holton, 
I\Ie., February 5, 1811, his parents being Col. 
George and Mary (Dummett) Nauman, natives of 
Lancaster aud England, respectively. Colonel Nau- 
man, a distinguished officer in the United States 
Army, was born October 7, 1802, and at the age of 
seventeen was enrolled as a cadet at the West 
Point Academy. In 1821 he was acting Assistant 
Professor in French in that institution and three 
years later was graduated, the same year being ap- 
pointed Second Lieutenant of the First Regiment 
of Artillery. From September 28 to August, 1829, 



he was assistant instructor of French at West Point, 
and in May, 1832, recoived tlie rank of First Lieu- 
tenant. During the Florida War, which lasted 
from February, 18.36, to May. 18.38, he served con- 
tinuously, being in the battle of Wahoo Swamp, and 
was made Captain of the First Artillery in February, 
18.37. During tlic Mexican War he was brevetted 
M.ajor for gallant conduct at the battle of Cerro 
Gordo, April 18, 1847, and later received the rank 
of Lieutenant-Colonel for meritorious service at 
the battle of Controras and Churubusco, whicli oc- 
curred August "JO. At the engagement at Cha- 
pultepec SeptemluT «, 1S17, he was wounded, 
but continued in the service and commanded the 
First Regiment of Artillery, being prize commis- 
sioner at \eiti Cruz at the close of the war, conduct- 
ing the evacuation of that cit}'. From May, 1854, 
until .laiiuary, 1861, the Colonel served at different 
points on the Pacific Coast. As Major of the Third 
Regimeut of Artillery, he commanded the same 
from May, 1854, until March, 1857, and for seven 
months in 1860 was inspector of artillery for the 
departments of Oregon and California, from 1859 
to 1861 conducting the ai-lillery school at Van- 

July 23, 1861, Colonel Nauinan was promoted to 
the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel of the First Artil- 
lery, and was at Newport News in March 1862, dur- 
ing the engagements with the "Meniniac"' "York- 
town" "Jamestown" and other rebel steamers; was 
chief of artillery and was favorably mentioned liy 
General Mansfield in his reportof the affair. He was 
stationed at Ft. Warren in Boston Harlior in 1863, 
where he engaged in ])laeing that important work 
in a proper condition for defence. August 1, 
1863, he was promoted to be Colonel of the Fifth 
Artillery, but was permitted to enjoy this honor 
for only ten days, for his death occurred in Phila- 
delphia August 1 1 of that }-car. His health having 
been much impaired by the exiiosuie and hardships 
to which his long and active career had subjected 
him, he was prostrated by sunstroke, from which 
he did not recover. For forty years he had served 
in the I'niled States army, having lieen stationed 
in eveiy section in the I'nion.and in every cajiaci- 
ly aeipiitled liinisell' witli honor and distinction. 
At the time of the breaking out of the Rebellion 

he was residing with his family in Florida, and 
though offered high rank and command by the 
men organizing the new Confederacy, spurned it 
all, preferring to stand by the flag under which he 
had so long fought. 

The marriage of Colonel Nauman was celebrated in 
.St. Augustine, Fla. The lady's father, Thomas Dum- 
mett, a native of England, became a sugar planter 
on the Isle of Barbadoes until the al)olition of sla- 
verj' there, when he went to Connecticut. When 
the United States acquired Florida he was one of 
the first to introduce sugar planting in that state. 
Our subject's mother died in 1861, leaving six 
children, four of whom still survive. 

Until 1853, when a lad of twelve years, George 
Nauman of this sketch remained with his father at 
the different military stations where he had his 
headquarters, and when the Colonel went to 
California with his mother and the other members 
of the family, went to St. Augustine, Fla. There he 
remained until the breaking out of the Civil War, 
but prior to this, in 1859, he had graduated from 
St. James' College at Hagerstown, Md., with the 
degree of Bachelor of Arts, after which he read law 
in Florida for a year. In the fall of 1860 he became 
a student in the department of law in the Univer- 
sity of Virginia, and in June, 1861, came to Lancas- 
ter, where he continued his legal studies and was 
admitted to the Bar in 1862. He immediately en- 
teieil iqion his iirofessional career in this city, 
which has been marked with great success. For a 
n umber of years his office has been located on North 
Duke Street and among his patrons and clients are 
numbered many of the leading citizens of the 

In Lancaster in 1867 was celebrated the mar- 
riage of George Nauman and Miss Lizzie Hender- 
son. Her father, Amos S. Henderson, was in former 
years a leading banker of this place. Mr. and 
Mrs. Nauman have become the pai'ents of seven 
children who arc living. George is a member of 
the Civil Engineers' Corps of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad and is a graduate of Lehigh University; 
Alfred is in the hardware business in this city and 
graduated from the Franklin and Marshall (dliegc. 
The younger children are in order of birth as fol- 
I lows: .John, Frank, Elizabeth, Siienccr and Harriet. 



Mr. and Mrs. Naumaii are memhers of St. James' 
Episcopal Church of this city, in which they are 
actively interested. As a leading Democrat our 
subject has served as Chairman of the Democratic 
Cit}' Committee and was the candidate for his 
partj' at one time from this district for member of 
Congress but unfortunately was in the minority 




HON. EDWIN S. SMELTZ was elected 
JIayor of Lancaster in Feliruary, 1894, 
being victorious in a liotly contested 
fight between the i)olitical factions. He was a 
candidate, with two others, for the nomination 
and received over twenty-one hundred out of 
thirty-three hundred votes cast at the primaries; 
though his final majority in the lemilar election 
was only ninetj'-one. A Republican of the truest 
kind, Mr. Smeltz is decidedly the man for the po- 
sition he now occupies and is not one who would 
for a moment allow an\- narrow motives to sway 
him in the management of the public affairs en- 
trusted to him. As one of the native sons of this 
city be has always taken great interest in what- 
ever pertains to its welfare and genei'al advance- 
ment and is greatly concerned liy all tilings which 
may effect its prosperity for good or evil. He is 
Secretary of the Union Building and Loan Asso- 
ciation, which has a capital stock of over -^200,000; 
it is a most important organization and has bene- 
fited the citizens and place inestimably. 

The birthplace of our subject was at the corner 
of North (Jueen and Lemon Streets, the event tak- 
ing place M.ay 9, 1852. Ills parents were Jacob 
R. and Rebecca (Hoffman) Smeltz, natives resi)ec- 
tively of Lancaster and Bainbridge, Lancaster 
County. The father of Jacob R. Smeltz was also 
one of tlie pioneer residents <if the city, being of 
German descent and a of the Kcfornied 
Church. many years our sulijeclV fatlier was 
a successful ciyar and tobacco dealer and later be- 

came interested in the grocery trade. The store 
in which he carried on hi> retail business was cen- 
trally located at the comer ..(' Noith (,)ueen and 
Lemon Streets, and in former years liis liead.iuar- 
ters were at the corner of Chestnut and North 
(^ueen Streets. He was a piominent church iiumii- 
ber, having been (Hie of the <iigani/,ers of tlio 
Weinbenarian Chuich, in which he served as a 
Deacon. Politically, he alllliated with the IJepub- 
Iican paity and served for a lime in tin' City 
Council. His death occurred 111 IST.J. I.iit his wife 
survives iiiin. still making liei- lionie in her former 
residence. Mrs. Smeltz' father was a merchant and 
one of the pnuninent business men in fonneryears 
of Bainbridge. 

In a family of eight children born to Jacol> and 
Reliecca Smeltz only three sons and a daui;hter 
are now livin.ii, and of these Edwin S. is the eld- 
est. He was reared in Lancaster and attended the 
common and private schools, graduating from the 
high school in 18(59 with honor when sixteen 3'ears 
old, his average, the highest in the class, being 
ninet3'-six per cent. For a short time thereafter 
he was in his father's store and then took u|) the 
printing business in the office of the Church ^Idco- 
cate, where he remained for a year. When that 
paper was removed from the city he coinnienced 
his apiirenticeship as a coach liimnier for S. B. Ctix 
iV Co., and was with them for four years, after 
which for the 3'ear following he worked at his 
trade in different (ilaces. For a like peiiod of 
time he was travi'ling salesman for Philadelphia 
and New York hardware lirms, his trips being in 
this and adjoining states. At this time occurred 
the sickness and death of liis father, and the 
young man was obliged to take charge of the store 
and estate. The grocery occupies one of the old- 
est sites of the retail business in this city and is 
one of the most successful stores in that branch of 

In 1888 Mr. Smeltz was appointed to the oflice 
of Chief of Police by Mayor Edgerley with.iut his 
solicitation, and served for a term of two years. 
He was then elected Street Commissioner, acting 
as such foi' two years, and then left the field of 
politics, becoming reporter for the Intelliiji-nnr and 
also being employed in the ottice. In 1893 he was 



again honored by beino elected Street Commission- 
er, wliirh he lield until the end of the year, then as- 
snnieil tlie oltiee (if Mayor. Vov live years prior 
to liis election as Chief of Police lie served suc- 
ce.ssfullyas Clerk of the Street Committee and has 
also been Clerk of the S|iecial Water Committee. 
and in these capacitie-^ has Miececded in effectually 
improving the advantages ot Lancaster citizens. 

Fraternally, Mayor Smell/, has been for tifteen 
years a nuMuber of ( oucsloga Council No. 22, Jr. 
(). r. A. M. Foi t(ui years he was IMaster of 
Fin:UHv of Inland City Lo<lge No. SS, K. of P., in 
which he has passed all tlii' chairs; belongs to ller- 
schel Podge No. 12:!. 1. (».(). F.. in which he is a 
charter member, and has adcd in several oflices in 
Conestoga Council No. 8. Sr. O. P. A. M. 

In l.sTO occurred the marriage of Fdwin S. 
Smeltz and l.ydia Fshcliiian, who was born in 
Liver[iool. Pciry County. I'a., and to them has 
been born a daughter. .Malicl. The pleasant home 
of the family is at No. ',) Fast Lemon Street, 
within a few feet of where he was liorn, the resi- 
dence having been erected by Mr. Snicllz. His 
good wife is a member of the First Metlunlist 
Episcopal Church of Lancaster and is a lady who 
is greatly esteemed by her many friends. Polit- 
ically he is an active worker and is recognized as 
one of the influential members of the Repulilican 
party in the citv and county. 


BAllN, who is very prominent in musical 
circles, is instructor of instrumental music 
at the high school and leader of the high school 
orchestra at Lancaster. Ho is Professor of orches- 
tral instrumental music, and pays especial atten- 
tion to the classics, having had during the last year 
pupils whose work has been mainly on Beethoven's 
and Haydn's Symphonies. 

Professor Th or balm had the honor of passing his 
early years in the house in which occurred the 
birth of the noted military man, (ienerai von 

Moltke. The Professor's birth occurred in the 
same house as that of the great general, for his fa- 
ther had bought the place at the time that the 
General's parents removed to the city to educate 
their children. Our subject was born F'ebruary 8, 
LS3J1. in Parchim. Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Ger- 
many, being a son of .lohn J. and Maria Di.irotlioa 
(Ceiize) Thorbahn. The former, whose birth oc- 
curred in the same vicinity, February 2ti, 1794, 
followed agricultural pursuits, and at one time 
visited the United States, lie died after reaching 
a good old age, and <ine of his brothers lived to 
be one hundred and two years old. His wife, who 
was born in Mecklenburg, August 17, 1803, was a 
daughter of Jacob and Anna D. (Luebcke) Geuze. 
She came to America, her death occurring in Can- 
ada, and her six children are all living. One son, 
Herman, is a wholesale merchant in Ottawa, Can- 
ada, at the present time. 

Professor Thorbahn received an excellent edu- 
cation in his native language, and manifesting 
marked ability in a musical way, was given the 
best instruction that could be had. Fie attended 
the musical academy of his birthplace, and later 
learned to be a skillful player ou the clarionet, vio- 
lin and other orchestral instruments. He gi'adu- 
aled from the academy when nineteen years of age, 
after which he easily secured engagements in or- 
chestras for several years. In 1854 he set sail for 
America from Hamburg, landing in Quebec after 
a stormy voyage of fourteen weeks upon the deep. 
When they arrived at their destination the vessel 
was in a most unfortunate condition, and nearly 
disabled, as there was not a whole mast left upon 
it. Proceeding to Montreal, the Professor secured 
a position with the George Coopers English Grand 
Opera Company, later secured the position as 
leader of the orchestra of the Theater Royal, which 
he held for seventeen j'ears, playing every night 
in the week except Sunday' during this time. With 
the orchestra of which he was a member he traveled 
considerably to fill special engagements in Boston 
and other points. In the Boston Theater he took 
part in many concerts given b}' the Harvard Or- 
j chestra, in oratorios b3' Handel and Haydn, the 
I conductor being Carl Zaliran. While in Boston, 
I during the Parepa Kosa Opera season, he became a 




member of the Botiton IMusical Union. He played 

five consecutive seasons at Sai-atoga, two seasons 
was at Alexandria Bay, ami one season at Shelter 

In 1873 the Professor went to Warren. ( )hio, 
there becoming one of the lirst faculty- of the 
Dana Musical Institute, and remained in cliaige 
of orchestral instruction for a period t>f eleven 
\ears. Then comino' to Lancaster, he was leader 
in the Opera House Orchestra for j'ears, but of 
late has given up that work, devoting himself to 
teaching. In 1892 he became Professor of Instru- 
mental Music at the high school, establishing a 
regular course of two hours' work each day after 
school. In his violin class there are forty-two 
young ladies, and more than that number vvlio are 
jnirsuing musical courses on other instruments. As 
a composer he has contributed much to his art and 
arranges all his own music, and has compiled a com- 
plete course of instruction for the violin. 

The Professor is a prominent Free A Accepted 
Mason, being a /uembcr of Lamberton Lodge No. 
467, of this citj', and in his political affiliations is 
identified with the Republican party. Religiously 
he and his wife are members of Trinity Lutheran 


WILLIAM A. WOOD re|)iesents the Col- 
umbia Building, Loan and Investment 
Association and the Fidelity Building 
and Loan Association in Lancaster, being Superin- 
tendent of the important district embracing Le- 
high, Bucks, Lebanon, Lancaster and York Coun- 
ties. He was appointed to that position December 
1, 1893, and in May, 1894, his duties and territory 
were extended, embracing the whole of Pennsyl- 
vania and Mar3'land. Mr. Wood is one of the 
youngest Superintendents of these companies in 
the country and has under his instruction sixty 
traveling agents. He is exact and methodical in 
his system and correspondence, making an excel- 
lent man for so important a post, and in every 

way has merited the high favor in which he is held 
by his superiors. 

The birth of Mr. Wo()<l occurred October 19, 
1861, in New York City, where his ancestors for 
several generations had made their home. His pa- 
ternal grandfather, Samuel S., was born in Peeks- 
kill, N. Y., and was a man of rare educational 
attainments considering the meagre advantages 
which fell to the young of that period. He was a 
baker by trade, following that occupation during 
most of his active life in New York City, and later 
engaged in the hotel business. His last years were 
passed in Peckskill, where his death occurred at 
the age of about seventy years. Politicall^v he was 
a Democrat and in religious faith was identified 
with the Episcopal Church. He was the father of 
six children, who grew to maturity, namely: Sam- 
uel S., Jr.; John H.; Katie, wife of Thomas Snow- 
den; Mary, who became Blrs. George D. Seaford; 
Amelia, wife of Thomas Goadby, mid Alexan- 
der M. C. 

The father of our subject, A. M. C. Wood, was 
born at Peekskill, N. Y.,and in his early manhood 
learned the confectioner's trade. Embarking in 
business in New York City% he there spent most of 
his life, and many of his family still reside in the 
metropolis. They are relatives of the Smiths, the 
great steamboat builders of New York City. Mr. 
Wood was a very stanch Democrat and a member 
of the Episcopal Church. His wife was formerly 
Mary A. Cooper, and their family comprised two 
children, William A. and Mary Frances, now the 
wife of O. E. Nelson, whose home is in Baltimore. 
The father was called from this life in 1879. The 
mother is still living, at the age of seventy-two 

The boyhood of William A. Wood was passed 
in the place of his birth and he received a good 
education in the excellent schools of the city. He 
was only thirteen years old, however, when he 
abandoned his studies temporarily in order to ac- 
cept a position as office boy for an insurance firm. 
Later he became associated with his uncle in the 
same branch of work and at that time learned 
much of tlie routine work connected with the in- 
surance Inisiness. For some time subsequently he 
was employed in his father's confectionery manu- 



factory on West Bioadway, wliorc lie remained 
until his father's death in 1^7',). The next occu- 
pation of the ambitinu,- \(iuth. who, owing to liis 
zeal and energy, had lieconie well educated, was on 
the rep(irtiii-ial staff cif the Wnlumnre Evening Neivs 
and Mnniiwj JImthl. Return ing to New York City 
in 1884, he entered the political field, and during 
the first term of President Cleveland'sadininistra- 
tion served four yeai's in the United States Cus- 
tom House. Owing to his wife's failing health at 
this time he icnK.ved to Ualtiniure, but in 1890 re- 
entered the insurance business, and as stated in 
the beginning of this article, has been rapidly pro- 
moted to his iiresent exceedingly responsible po- 

February 22, 1887, Mr. Wood married Helen 
Sinski, who died .January 24, 1890. In March, 
1891, our subject wedded Miss Ella Brook, of Bal- 
timore, and two children, a son and a daugliter. 
have come to brighten their home, their names be- 
ing Arthur M. and Edith JI. Socially Mr. Wood 
is a member of Steven's Castle of the Jlystic Chain 
and belongs to Red Rose Comniandery Xo. 20; Blue 
Cross Castle No. 46, Knights of the Golden Eagle, 
Lodge No. 134, B. P. O. E. He is very active as a 
worker in the ranks of the Democrac}- and is con- 
nected with the Young Men's Democratic Society 
of this place. 


REV. EMIL MEISTER is the pastor of St. 
Stephen's Lutlieran Church, and is one of 
the worthy German-American citizens of 
Lancaster. A man possessed of great intelligence 
and wide information, he has excellent command 
of language, and is a successful lecturer and pul- 
pit orator. For the past fifteen years he has been 
the pastor of the congregation with which he is 
identified, and has succeeded in building it up 
spiritually, numerically and financially. As a 
writer he is clear, energetic and concise, and is 
editor of the "Family F'riend" and the "Church 
Messenger," which he conducts with much ability. 
Rev. Mr. Meister was born in Freiburg, Baden, 

Germany, May 18, 1850, and his parents, Sam- 
uel Fj. and Barbara (Blattner) Meister, were also 
natives of the same jjrovince. The former was a 
silk merchant in p-reibui-g until about 1854, when 
he emigrated to Switzerland. Both parents, who 
were zealous members of the Lutheran Church, are 
deceased. Samuel, the only brother of our subject, 
is a resident of Basel, Switzerland. 

The boyhood of our subject was passed in Switz- 
erland, and his literary and classical education was 
received in the college at Zurich and Heidelberg 
I'niversity, from which he was graduated in 1868, 
with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. Subsequently 
he was in business with his father until 1870, when 
he came to America. Locating in Reading, Pa., he 
was connected with the Pilger Publishing House 
for two years, and then removed to Baltimore. 
For al)out three years his time was devoted to 
work on the Baltimore Weaker. 

About 1878 Rev. Mr. Meister again took up 
the study of theology, pursuing a special course 
of study, and was ordained b\' the Evangelical 
Lutheran Synod of ^Maryland to the ministry, in 
May, 1880, and his first charge was the First 
Evangelical Lutheran Church on Eastern Avenue, 
Baltimore. In August, 1880, he was given a call 
to .St. .Stephen's Church of this city, and accepted 
the same August 15. This congregation was 
started in 1874 b.v Rev. W. Poor, and a build- 
ing was put up but not entirely finished, and in 
the meantime the services were held in the lecture 
room. Under our subject's supervision the audi- 
ence room was com|ileted in the spring of 1881, 
and a fine pipe organ has since been placed within 
it. The church edifice is 49x75 feet in dimen- 
sions, and one hundred and seventy-two feet 
high. The membership has constantly increased, 
and during the years of this church's history has 
grown from seventeen to its present enrollment of 
four hundred members, while the Sunday-school 
usually averages about two hundred and twenty- 
five pupils. 

In the year 1871 Rev. Mr. Meister married in 
Reading, to Miss Amelie Kleinschmidt, who was 
born in Prussia. Their children are, Catherine, 
who is at home; Samuel E.. a druggist and organ- 
ist in the church; and Marv, who is a member of 



the high school Class of '95. Tlie father has shown 
great interest in educational measui-es, and is now a 
member of the Cit}- School Board. In 1882 he be- 
gan editing the German monthly magazine known 
as the "Family Friend," which is devoted to the 
home and church. In December. 1892, the St. 
Stephen's Church "Messenger," which is pub- 
lished in the English language, and is a monthly 
periodical, was also started. Rev. JSIr. Jleister is 
an honored member of the Linnsean Society of 
Lancaster. In September, 1894, he founded the 
A. Herr Smith Evangelical Lutheran Memorial 
Chapel, at the corner of North Ann and East Ross 
Streets. This is the English Mission of St. Steph- 
en's Church, and was erected in memory of Hon. 
A. Herr Smith. 




CjT' CLAY MILLER, one of the leading citi- 
^^ zens of Lancaster, who served valiantly 
during the War of the Rebellion in the 
defense of the Union, has been for a number 
of years eng.aged in dealing in wholesale and re- 
tail liquors. He is a Mason of the Thirty-second 
Degree, and is an active Grand Army man and a 
stalwart Republican, belonging to the Young Men's 
and the Citizens' Republican Clubs. 

Our subject was born April 25, 1844, in Man- 
heim Township, this county, and is the son of Solo- 
mon and Fannie (Snyder) IMiller, the former a na- 
tive of this cit}'. He was a butcher by tiade, 
which calling he followed more or less during his 
active career, and his last days were passed in the 
village of Manheim, his death occurring in Wash- 
ington, D. C, where he had been visiting his sis- 
ter. He was a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, and fraternally was associated with the 
.lunior Order of United American Mechanics and 
other societies. He was the father of eight children: 
Mary, wife of Abram Reist, of Lancaster, both be- 
ing now deceased; Rev. Jacob, pastor of the Chris- 

tian Street Methodist Episcopal Church in Phila- 
delphia; Fannie, deceased wife of Theodore Krei- 
der; Henry, who died from wounds received in 
the late war; Solomon Clay, of this sketch; Lizzie, 
Mrs. Sbubert. of this city; and Washington and 
Harry, both of whiim died young. The son Henry 
was a member of the Ninety-third Pennsylvania 
Regiment, belonging to Company K, and was un- 
der McClellan during the Peninsular Campaign. 
In an engagement a ball passed through bdtli (jf 
his thighs, and from the effects of this he died in 
South Bend, Ind., several years after the termina- 
tion of the war. The father of these children died 
at the age of eighty-four yeai's, while his wife 
passed away in her fifty- third year. 

The early education of Solonion Clay Miller was 
that of the common schools, but his advantages in 
an educational way were very meagre. He re- 
mained with his uncle on a farm until the break- 
ing out of the war, when he enlisted in Company 
II, Seventy-sixth Infantry, known as the Keystone 
Zouaves, the date of his enlistment being October 
3, 1861. He was sent to the south, and with his 
regiment participated in the capture of Ft. Pu- 
laski and in many minor engagements in front of 
Charlestown, S. C. In the first battle in which he 
participated, oil the expedition toMcKaj^'s Point, 
he was struck b\' a minie ball in the left thigh, and 
at the second assault on Ft. Waggoner, in which 
he carried the regimental colors, one-half of the 
regiment was destroyed. He vvas with General 
i Strong, and was one of the first to stand on the 
enemy's breastvTorks. For his courage and num- 
erous acts of bravery. General .Strong before he 
expired, having received a mortal wound as he 
reached the top of the breastworks, ordered a 
medal of honor to be conferred upon Mr. Miller. 
The latter was shortly afterward made Sergeant, 
and General Gilmore awarded him a medal of 
bronze upon which was engraved "S. C. Miller, 
Company II, Seventy-sixth P. V., for gallant and 
meritorious conduct, presented by Q. A. Gilmore, 

The regiment arrived on the .James River in 
18G4, being attached to the Tenth Arm}- Corps un- 
der Gen. B. F. Butler, taking part in the engage- 
ments of Drurv's Bluff and skirmishes in front of 




Petcrsliuiix, aftorwni'd joinini: '' 
Cold Ilarl.or. Our Milijcct «:,> fur the M'coi.d lime 
injured liy a ^|H'ijt miiiic hall, this tiin.^ lui tlio aii- 
!<!,.. hut cuntiuucd U> carry the c.dnrs. and liore 

liotloui, a piece of shell .strucif Inn tlic hc.dy. 

knoc'kinj; luiii .senseless, and afterxvanl in t'nint of 
Petersburg was struck by a piece of shell in the 
neck, uhicli made a se\ere cut. .'uid the scar of 
which he still carries. lieinii mustered nut in De- 
cember, 18G1. Mr. Miller coni|ileled his active .serv- 
ice of three years and three months. At one time 
when a number of his comrades had lieen taken 
prisoners. Mr. Miller and Lieutenant Lloss led the 
advance on the enen.y and succeeded m rescuing 
his comrades, and at all times his hiavery and 
deeds of daring were noted in the reuiment~. 

On his return from the south, .Mr. Millei- scon 
obtained employment in the .\danis Kxpress Com- 
pany's ollice in Lancaster, after wliicli he was em- 
ployed as a clerk for several firms, and then re- 
ceived a position with the express company at 
Louisville, l)eing afterward sent to Mobile, Ala., 
where hi- oi)eiied up business for the same com- 
pany, and made freipient triiis from that point to 
Cairo, 111., some live hundred miles. Me remained 
for about a year in the south, but being .stricken 
with the fever and ague, returned to this city, 
the di.-ease hanging to him for fully six months. 

mission house until the spring of l«G!l, when, 
permanently settling in Lancaster, lie entered the 
employ of C. W. Kreiter, a wholesale liquor 
dealer, and in time was admitted to the lirm. 
Their p.'utnership was dissolved in l.sTl. Mr. 
]\Iiller withdrawing and starting in business on his 
own account. He continued alone until 1876, 
when lie took in as a partner M. V. B. Neaveling, 
and the lirm was known as Miller .t Neaveling un- 
til 1S7S, siiK-e which lime our subject has con- 
ducted the business alone in connection with liis 
other interests. He owns considerable real estate, 
an orange farm of eighty acres in Florida, with a 
grove of three hundred trees, and pro].erty at 
other points. An ardent Kepubiicaii, he has as 
far as possible assisted in the success of his party 
at all times, and belongs to the Union \'eteran Le- 

gion. He has [lassed through all the chairs in 
Perfection Lodge, is a Mason of the Thirty-second 
Degree, and belongs to George Reynolds Post No. 
405, G. A. n. 

March 21t, H^T.K Mr. Miller was united in mar- 
riage with Louisa Rudduck, and five children have 
been Ijorii of their union, namely: Leon Rudduck, 
Herbert Clay, Mabel Louise, Ellie Isabella .and 
Lulu r.ess. His family are members of the Duke 
Street Methodist Kpiscopal Church, to which Mr. 
JNIiller "ives liberally of his means. 



JOHN S. RRKNEMAN comes from one of the 
eldest and most respected families of Lancas- 
ter County, and for about thirty years has 
conducted a coal, real-estate and pension bus- 
iness in Lancaster, his office being now at No. 34^^ 
.South Duke Street. The records of the I'>reneman 
family are very full and exact, and are of great 
interest to their many friends and acquaintances. 
The jjaternal great-grandfather of our subject 
was prominent in the War of the Revolution, and 
was on the Committee of Safety during the troiu 
file in this city. The grandfather lived nearly all 
his life in Lancaster, was a renowned specialist, 
had a large practice and became very wealthy. He 
owned considerable real estate and a number of 
farms in Manheim Township, some two hundred 
and ninety acres in all. He married liarbara 
Stoner, and had two sons, one of whom. Rev. 
John S.,was educated in the Flushing Theological 
Seminary of New York, became very popular as a 
minister, and was prolicient in seven langviages. 
His death occurred at the age of about twenty- 
seven years. 

Abraham Ihciieman. the father of our subject, born in Lancaster in 1S17. and was a physi- 
cian, being edacated in the Franklin Academy, 
and a graduate of the Lniversity of IVnnsy Ivania. 
At first he engaged in practice with his father, 
and in time had a large cilv and country client- 



age. In politics lie was a AVliig. and religiously 
was a \'estnnian in St. .lame.--' K|iiseii|ial Cliurcli. 
His death oecuned when he was thiit y-one years 
of age. By his marriage with Anna Reigart. he 
hud five children: Anna F... wife ..f Francis L. 
Calder. of this city; Henry H.. who is in the in- 
surance and real-estate business in this city; Kine- 
line M., who died March 11, 1865; .lolm S.,of this 
sketch; and Abrani A., an analytical chemist in 
New York City. The mother, who died October 
21, 1881, was bom October 13, 1820. The young- 
est son has contributed greatly to the science of 
chemistry, and stands high as a member of the 
American Association for the Advancement of 
Science, a society of which Agassiz was the first 
President. For several years lie was Professor of 
Chemistry at Ccirnell, after graduating a^ one of 
the highest in his class in the Pennsylvania State 

John S. Breneman was born Septenil)er 22, 1844, 
in Lancaster, and received his education in the St. 
James' Parish School and Professor Yates' Institute, 
after which he took a course in the Franklin and 
Marshall College, but when he w^as in the Sopho- 
more 3'ear, the college was suspended on account 
of the war, and the young man went to the west. 
Returning, he embarked in the coal business in 
1866 -at this place, and has since been in that line 
of trade, in addition to the real-estate and pen- 
sion business. He is active in the support of the 
Republican party, but is not desirous of public 
oflice, nor is he a politician, but does what he can 
toward getting good and clean representatives 
and honest elections. During the war he was a 
member of the Union League, and served in the 
Tenth and Forty-seventh Pennsylvania Militia, and 
the One Hundred and Ninety-fifth Pennsylvania 
Infantry. The farailj- to which he belongs have 
all been Episcopalians, very conscientious and up- 
right in all their dealings with their fellow-men. 

F'rom the archives of the Reigart family, to which 
the mother of our subject belonged, we find that 
one of her ancestors on the paternal side. I'lrich, 
emigrated from Germany in 17.38, his liirtli hav- 
ing occurred in 1693. He brought with him his 
wife, a native of the same province, and they lo- 
cated in an old house on South Queen Street, Lan- 

caster. His wife, Anna, who was born in 1701, 
was a daughter of Alirain .Merkel, a weaver and 
prominent citizen. She was married in her twenty- 
first year, and of Ii't uniun four sons and five 
daughters were li(.>rn. Her death occurred Octo- 
ber 30, 1768, at the age of sixty-seven years, while 
the husband departed this life March 16, 1766, m 
Ins seventy-second year. Their second son, Adam, 
married Catherine Yeiser, April 7, 1763. To them 
were born the following children: John, born Feb- 
ruary 3. 1764; Adam, January 17, 176.5; Anna 
Mary, July 6, 1767; Kmaiuiel. July 28, 1760; 
f:iizabeth, September 8. 1771; Thomas, M.'iy 10, 
1774; and Catherine, January 28. 177'.i. The 
mother of these children died in May. 178'J, and 
the husbiand married fm- his second wife Susannah 
Franks. lie was called from this life July 17, 
1813. His son Adam had nine children: Eliza, 
Anna, Henrietta, Susannah, Philip W., Margaret, 
Sarah, Eliza and Susan. Adam Reigart, Jr., died 
May 10, 1844. Henry M.. who was the father of 
Anna, the mother of our subject, was the son of 
Emanuel, the son of Adam, who was very promi- 
nent in the Revolutionary War. 

HIESTAND FREY is a descendant of one of 
the worthy pioneer families of Lancaster 
County who have been the founders of 
its present prosperit}- and development. He owns 
a good farm comprising one hundred and twenty 
acres which is nearly all well improved, and which 
is located in Manor Township. In addition to 
general farming, he makes a sijeciall}' of growing 
tobacco; and also raises stock, breeding fine grades 
of horses. He is the son of Fred and Eveline 
(Hiestand) Frey, his birth having occurred Jul^' 
3. 1873. 

The paternal great-grandfather of our subject, 
who bore the Christian name of Jacob, was a na- 
tive of Manor Township, and followed farming 
pursuits. His son, the grandfather of II. Frey, also 



>n n farm in Man< 

i-hip; he was first a 
Whii:. anil later a licpulilican. His eldest son was 
Jacob, anil the -i-runil in oriler of hirth was Fi-e<l, 
the father i>f our sulijeet. Tlie latter was horn 
in 182t;. in the |)laee svliere his sun Fred I>. now 
lives, and received a eomraon-school education. 
Beinj; early inured to farm life, be adopted that 
calling for liis own, and at one time owned three 
iinijroved farms, aggregating six hundred acres, in 
addition to which he possessed other real-estate 
properties in Manor Township. He was very suc- 
cessful, being one of the most prosperous farmers 
in the county, and during the existence of the 
Safe Harbor I ron Works bad a number of teams 
employed there. In politics be was a I\e[)ublican, 
and stoiid well in the estimation of all. A mem- 
ber of the liiver Ibethren Cbureli, he endeavored 
to do the right at all times and to follow the 
teachings of the Golden Rule. He was three times 
married, by his first wife, Anna, having six chil- 
dren: Mary. Deliali. Fannie, Elizabeth, Adeline 
and .lacob. His second wife was a Miss Benedict, 
and they iiad two children, Frederick and Barbara 
Ann. By his union with the mother of our sub- 
ject, Fred Frey bad three children: Anna, Hie- 
stand and Jessie, who died in childhood. The fa- 
ther departed this life at the age of seventy years, 
while the mother is still living. 

Our subject received his education in the public 
schools of Creswell, where he remaiiied until tif- 
tecn years of age. On his father's death he i-e- 
turned to the homestead, assisting m the cultiva- 
tion of tlie same about four years. At that time 
he went to the west and visited with his relatives 
in Manitou, Colo. Then returning to the old farm, 
he took charge of the place for bis mother, in the 
capacity of manager, anil faithfully perfmiiieil the 
duties in connection with the same for a period of 
one year. The farm which he now owns is one of 
the l)est in the township, and the young man has 
proved his ability as a model farmer of the picsent 
day. Like his foiefalhers, be abides by the prin- 
ciples of the Repniilican |iarty. to which he gives 
liis warm support. 

The marriage of Mr. I'ley and Susan Frantz 
took place October 18, 1893. at her father's home 
near IMiilersville. Mrs. Frey is a daughter of .lolin 

I'rantz, a prominent agriculturist and dairyman 
of this countv. She received an excellent educa- 
tion, and is a lad^' of marked refinement and cul- 
ture. The young couple are well received in the 
best social circles of the place. 

PW. HH-:STAND, D. D. S., who for the past 
ten years has been retired from active pro- 
fessional life at his home in Manor Town- 
ship, was for nearly thirty years an active pi-actic- 
ing dental surgeon of Millersville and vicinity. 
His clients were scattered throughout Lancaster 
and neighboring counties over a wide range of 
territory. His labors told upon his health in la- 
ter years, for liehasalways been a close student in 
his piofosion and has kept actively- in touch with 
all the improvements and discoveries in his line. 
The Doctor is a son of Peter and Elizabeth (Wis- 
ler) Hiestand, and was born December 1.5, 1831. 
near ^Millersville. in Manor Township. The fam- 
ily til wliieh be belongs is of German descent, 
his ancestors having come to this county from 
Wittenlierg, sailing from Rotterdam on the ship 
"Britania" in 1731, and arriving in Pliila(ielpbia, 
whence they proceeded to this county. John, the 
great-grandfather of the Doctor, was one of the 
l)ioneer settlers and farmers of Manor Township, 
and his son Peter was a preacher in the Dunkard 
Church. lie was born in 1776, and died at the 
age of seventy-two years. A successful business 
man. he owned a fulling-mill and also conducted 
a farm, his home being on the Blue Rock Road in 
iManor Township. Ilis wif°, Annie (Lintner) Hie- 
stand, was born in 1772, and they had five children: 
Peter, Fanny, Daniel. Anna and Henry. Fanny 
became the wife of John Stehman, and .\niia the 
wife of John I""ritz, after whose death .she married 
William DeWitt. 

Peter, the father of our subject, was born .Au- 
gust 17. I7!il,and died .January 8, 18.i 1. having 
S()ent his entire life in Manor Township. His wife, 



Elizabeth, daughter of Jacob Wissler, of the same 
township, was born October 20, 1793, and died 
January 8, 1868. By her marriage she became the 
mother of tlie following children: Jacob; F'annie, 
wife of Robert Evans; Elizabeth, Mrs. Abrani Lan- 
dis; Catherine, wife of Henry Fory; Ann, Mrs. 
Christian Witraer; John. Henry, Dr. Peter W.. 
Benjamin and Evaline Frey. 

The subject of this sketch was born on the old 
homestead in Manor Township, wiiere he remained 
until attaining the age of eighteen years. He then 
began an apprenticeship to the coach making busi- 
ness with his brother John, and subsequently learn- 
ed and worked at pattern-making. In the mean- 
time lie employed his leisure moments in the 
study of dentistry with Dr. .losiah Martin, of 
Strasburg, tliis county. In 18,')6 he began the 
practice of his profession at Millersville, wliich 
continues to be his home at the present time. 
Great advance has been made in dentistry during 
the last quarter of a century, perhaps more than 
in any other profession, and the Doctor has not 
been behind his brothers in discoveries and im- 
provements, and was one of the founders and pro- 
moters of the Harris Dental Association of Lancas- 
ter County, whicli was organized June 21, 1867, and 
the Slate Dental Association was also formed largely 
through his efforts. In many local industries tlie 
Doctor has also been active both with his influence 
and means, and was one of the original stockhold- 
ers of the Millersville State Xnrmal, having been 
a meinlier of the Board of Trublees from 18.")6 to 
1866, and was Treasurer for a period of seventeen 
years. As Chairman of the Committee on In- 
^truction and Discipline from the organization of 
the institution, he served for nearly forty years, 
and still occupies the same position, and has been 
a member of the Finance and Executive Commit- 
tees. Thus it will be seen that in every possible 
way he has furthered and fostered this important 
educational institution. For five years he leased 
and controlled the Lancaster and Millersville Street 
Railwaj, which was in an embarrassed condition 
until he placed it on a sound Snancial basis. F'or 
a number of years he devoted considerable atten- 
tion to agriculture, but his other interests gradually 
encroached upon this branch of work, though he 

owns a farm of one hundred and twenty acres in 
Manor Township, and since retiring from liis pro- 
fession has devoted much of his time to its eulti- 
vati(jii, making a specialty of raising tobacco. 

The wife of our subject was formerly Maiia, 
daughter of Christian Ilabecker, of Manor Town- 
slii[), and they have two living.children: Frank, at 
home, and Ira, a graduate of the Dental Depart- 
ment of the Universit}' of Pennsylvania. He gradu- 
ated in 1884 and is now practicing his profession 
in Millersville. He married Elizabeth Yecker, of 
Lancaster. Lizzie, the only daughter of the Doc- 
tor, died in 1863. Our subject was one of the found- 
ers and promoters of the Conestoga Bank, of which 
he is at present Vice-President and one of the 
stockholders. In liis political opinions he is a 
Republican and is a liberal contributor to charit- 
able organizations. 


r^ EORGE M. MYERS is the accommodating 
^^ and very popular proprietor of the Relay 
House, at the corner of Prince and Wal- 
nut Streets, Lancaster. This hostelry is well kept 
up, and for its moderate price and numerous ad- 
vantages is one of the best to be found in the city. 
The manager has been running the same about 
three years, but during this short time has made a 
host of friends among his customers, who always 
return to the place of his hospitality whenever 
circumstances permit. 

Mr. Myers was born in Phrenixville, Pa., March 
22, 1859, and his father, Rodger Myers, was born 
in Lancaster in 1831. The paternal grandfather, 
wiiose given name was Mathias, was likewise a na- 
tive of this city, and followed his trade as a lock- 
smith on Noitli Prince Street. During the Semi- 
nole and Florida War, he went into the service 
with Captain Downing. His death occurred at 
the age of forty-five years, and he was to the last 
a faithful member of the Reformed Church. His 
wife, Ann Maria, a native of Lancaster, was the 



daughter of George Roth, wh 
a hotel on the .-.ite of tlie 1! 
Myers was a liriek la\er |]\ (, 

former years ran 
House. Rodger 
)ation and a con- 

tractor, later becoming a furnace builder. For fif- 
teen and a-lialf years he resided at Phcenixville. 
where he had cliarge of the furnace department, 
and after his return to this city was manager of 
the furnaces of the Lancaster Manufacturing Com- 
Ijan}^ which lie erected on the same plan as those 
of the Pennsylvania Iron Company. After a cer- 
tain length of time he left that occupation and re- 
turned to his contract and building work, being 
still in that calling. Ili> wife, who was before her 
marriage Mary IIard\', was born in Lebanon, and 
was reared in Reading. She became the mother of 
seven children, six of wiioni are living, and was 
called from this life in 18.S6. 

George M. Myers, who was the eldest child of 
his parents, was reared in Phcenixville, and was 
given good public and high school advantages. 
He came to this [jlace in 1871. and in his early 
youth spent some time in the tobacco business. At 
the age of nineteen he was apprenticed to the 
brick layer's trade, learningalso furnace and house 
building. Going to Long Branch, he did consid- 
erable work in that locality in jiartnership with 
another man. and built tlie Moiiinouth Park race 
course, which has tlie linesl track in the world. 
Later he became foreman of brick work on bridges 
and arches on the Trenton cutoff of the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad. Prior to this, however, he had 
been for two years a Patrolman of the police force 
under Mayor Edgerly, of Lancaster. In Novem- 
ber, 1891, he became proprietor of the Relay 
House, and is still engaged in running this popular 
hotel. There are seventeen roiuu,-. and the terms 
are only 81.50 per day. Kvcrythiug is kept up in 
good shape and in a neat, clean and hdmclike 

]March 23, l.s.sO, Mr. Myers was married in this 
city to ]\Iiss Ida Broom, who was born in Phila- 
delphia, and was reared to womanhood in Lancas- 
ter. Her father. William Broom . wlio was a plaster- 
er, was in the Civil War for three years, and is now 
deceased. For >ix ye:ir- Mi-. Myers was the Treas- 
urer and C'orresponding Secretary in the ISrick 
Layers L'nion, Lancaster Braiicli, and is a member 

of the Artisans Assembly No. 27. Fraternally he 
is identilied with the Odd Fellows. Lodge Xo. 
88. K. ,,f 1'., of Inland City and the rnifoimed 
Hank K. of P.. No. 7. Politically his >yinpatliies 
and votes go in favor of the Republican party. 

<x: -i-»»»4-»4-^-i"i-»-i- ^ »^-i"i"5"i"M"i-»-i- »:x> 

crp» MOS MeCALLlSTKR is one of tlie oldest 
/ \ settlers of Conestoga Townshi]i, Lancaster 
County, and for the past eight years has 
lived a retired life. He is of Irish descent, and his 
grandfather, Archibald McCallister, who was born 
in Canada, emigrated to this locality, where he 
settled in tlie last century. He was a tailor by 
trade and was engaged at that occujiation nearly 
all of his life. At one time he was .Superintendent 
of the County Alms House, and religiously was a 
member of the Methodist Elpiscopal Church. In 
politics he was an adherent of the principles advo- 
cated by the Whig party. P.y his marriage with 
Christiana Hockman he had six children, namely: 
Jacob, Isaac, John, Elizabeth, Susan and Christiana. 
His death occurred in the year 1829. after a long 
and active life. 

Jacob McCallister. the eldest son of Archibald, 
was born in Martic Township, and later became 
an inhabitant of what is now Pequea Township. 
For over fifty years lie was the owner of a good 
farm in that township, and in his last years retired 
fri.ini the arduous cares |iertainiiig to its operation. 
P.y his marriage with Miss Barbara Suavely he has 
three children : Mary, wife of Peter Snevely; Amos 
and Nancy, deceased. Prior to the formation of 
the Republiean ]iarty he was a Whig, and subse- 
quently espoused the principles of the latter or- 
ganization, and for one term or four years served 
as County Commissioner. 

The subject of this sketch was born in Cones- 
toga, now Pequea Township. Decemlier .'!. 1817, 
and reeeived a common school edueatiem. lie at- 
tended the neighboring district schools until reacli- 
inij the ai^e of fiiurteen years, when he enu-aued in 



agi-icultiiial pursuits, and to that occupation has 
given nearly all of liis time and energies since. 
The farm where he has made his home for so many 
_years comprises one hundred and eight acres, on 
which are grown year b\- yeargO(_)d harvests which 
yield a substantial income to tlie owner. The 
place, one of the best in the township, has well 
built fences, barns and a comfortable residence. 

In December, 1811. Mr. !\IcC'alli>ter was united 
in marriage with Fannie lle.-.s, who was born in 
this neighborhood, and by this union a family of 
eight children, four sons and four daughters, has 
been born. In the order of their birth they are 
named as follows: Jacob, Isaac; Barbara, Mrs. Over- 
holtzer; Maiy, Mrs. Mann; John; Lizzie, who died 
in childhood; Amos and Susan. 

Like bis father before him. Mr. McCallister sup- 
ports by his ballot the Republican party. Like all 
true patriots he is interested in educational affairs, 
and believes in giving the best possible advantages 
to the children of the rising generation. For four 
terms he served as a School Director in Conestoga 
Township, and in that capacity used his best en- 
deavors to secure well equipped schools and com- 
petent teachers. In religious belief he is a member 
of the Methodist F.piscopal Church. His life is 
molded on the precepts of the Bible, and he tries 
to do his duty b}' his fellow-men. 

JAC( )V> LEONARD SPRIGEL, one of the young 
and enterprising business men of Lancaster, 
has a good location at Nos. 31)1 and 303 North 
Lime Street, where he established himself in 
1890. Though his business career covers scarcely 
more tlian five or six \cni-s, lie lias already shown 
unusual commercial ability, and is making a good 
success of his large confectionery business. He 
gives employment to u|)wards of ten persons con- 
stantly, and his trade is rapidly increasing. 

Jane (Simpkins) Sprigel, and at the time of his 

liirth, u-hich occurred September 13, 18C6, the fam- 
ily were making their home in Upper Leacock 
Township, Lancaster County. The founder of the 
Sprigel family in this p,,ili,,n of this eoiuitry was 
one :\Iichael, who was a native of Cennauy. and 
in his boyhood crossed the Atlantic, settling in 
New York State near the Pennsylvania line. He 
learned the trade of weaving near Poughkeepsie, 
on tlie Hudson, and followed that calling during 
his early life in the vicinity of that pl.ace. Of his 
two sons, the elder went to Ohio, where he perma- 
nently settled, while the younger, Michael, was 
the grandfather of our subject. He was born near 
Poughkeepsie, and like his father, learned the 
weaver's trade, which he followed in order to 
obtain a livelihood. Later in life his home was 
near Eplirata, in this county, and there his death 
occurred. He was a member of the Reformed 
Church, and a, man who had the respect of his 
friends and neighbors. For his wife he chose 
a lyiss Troup, of English descent, and to them 
were born seven children. The grandfather's death 
occurred when he was about sixty years of age, 
while his wife passed away when in her fortieth 

.John Si)rigel was born near Ephrata abi^iut 1820, 
and learned the carpenter's trade in tliat pl.ace. 
For many years subsequently he was a resident of 
Upper Leacock Township, and since 1876 has lived 
in Lancaster. In politics he is a Republican, and 
socially belongs to the ( Idd Fellows' society and 
the Independent Order of Hed Men. To himself 
and wife have licen born eight children, as follows: 
]NLary, Mrs. Kitzen; John Albert, deceased; Sarah 
J. and Annie, who are unmarried; Charles, deceased; 
J. Leonard; Elizabeth and Adam, deceased. The 
parents are honored residents of this city, and are 
still .actively interested in the Reformed Church, 
to which they belong. 

The earl\' years of our suljject were [i.assed on his 
fatlier's farm in this county, where he received an 
elementary education in the district school. Upon 
the family's removal to Lancaster he became a stu- 
dent in its public schools and afterwards entered 
the Keystone Business College of Philadeli)liia, 
where he laid tlie foundation of his practical 
knowledge of commercial affairs. Soon after com- 



pleting his studies lie commenced serving an ap- 
prenticesliiii in the cunfectioiiery business in the 
(iuhker City, and his time was tints occupied for 
the next three years. After some time passed as 
a j(^iui'neyman he engaged in business for liim- 
self in Pliiladelphia, wiiere lie was located for about 
a year. It was in 1890 when he came to Lancas- 
ter, and in the few years that have passed he has 
met with good success in his undertakings. 

Mr. Sprigel is a member of Moravian Sun Lodge 
No. 9',l, K. M.; belongs to Herschel Lodge, I. (). 
(.). F., and George Shiller Council No. 117, .Ir. 
(_). r. A. ^L In political affairs he is a loyal Re- 
publican, and is an active member of the Citi- 
zen^' Kei>ublican Club. April 7, 188(1, was cele- 
brated the marriage of Mr. Sprigel and Miss Kath- 
arine, daughter of David Iloyer, of Philadelphia. 
Mrs. Sijrigel, who is highly accomplished and well 
educated, was born in the C^uaker City and there 
grew to maturity. 

^g-^i^^g^l ^^ie^^ ^S^^-gig^Cg^!^^^ 

T^ DWARD T. FRAIM is the owner and pio- 
l C) prietor of the Keystone Lock Works and 
is engaged in the manuf.acture of several 
kinds of padlocks on which he has patents. He is 
a man of genius and is one of the very few pat- 
entees who have secured a fortune b}' means of 
their own invention. He established and has car- 
ried on his now large and lucrative manufacturing 
trade and has a fine plant at No. 237 Park Ave- 
nue, Lancaster. Mr. Fraim was born in this city 
Febiiiary 18,1857. His paternal great-grandfather 
was a native of Scotland and was one of the earl}' 
settlers in this locality. His son Miller, the grand- 
father of our subject, was born in I^ancaster and 
was a successful confectioner until his death, which 
occurred here. 

Samuel D. and Annie E. (Kuhns) Fraim, the 
parents of our subject, were likewise born in this 
])lace and here grew to matnnty. The father was 
an iron fdunder and in IS'm rcnidveil to Dayloii, 
Ohio, where he worked at his trade and later estab- 

lished a foundry and machine shop there, being a 
member of the Arm of Johnson it Fraim. He con- 
tinued actively in business until his death, in De- 
cember, 18G8,when he died suddenly in the prime 
of life, being in his forty-first year. His wife was 
a daughter of Jacob Kuhns, a native of Lancaster, 
who in the early days was a distiller and later be- 
came a brick manufacturer. He was of German 
descent,a member of the Reformed Church, and his 
death occurred in Lancaster when he was about sev- 
enty-two years of age. The mother of our subject 
is still living, making her home in Dayton, and 
after the death of Mr. Fraim she married E. J. 
Zahn,of Lancaster, who died some eight years later. 
Of her four children, one is a daughter and the 
others are sons. The former, Clara, is Mrs. Van 
Horn, of Dayton; Edward T. is next in order of 
birth; Jliller AV. is a memlier of the firm of Rosen- 
stein it Fraim, of this city, and Parker is with the 
same firm. 

Edward T., of this sketch, was reared in Dayton, 
Ohio, until the year 1875, receiving a common 
school education and attending the commercial 
college of that place. In 1875 he came to this his 
birthplace and served a four years' apprenticship 
to the jeweler, E. J. Zahn. After finishing the 
trade he engaged in the li^icksmith business and 
finally secured a patent on a padlock in 1881, 
whicli has met with a wide sale. For some j-ears 
he was engaged in partnership with his brother 
Miller, his manufactory being situated on Cherry 
I Alley. In 1884 he removed from Fulton Street, 
where he had been situated for a time, and en- 
gaged in manufacturing on Park Avenue, where he 
still remains. The building has a frontage of one 
hundred and twenty feet, is thirty-four feet deep 
and has a basement and two stories. The foundry 
adjoining is 40x60 feet and there Mr. Fraim manu- 
factures brass castings. In the main building the 
basement is used for storage, the first floor as a ma- 
chine shop, shipping room and office, and the second 
floor for the finishing and polishing rooms. Mr. 
Fraim superintends the whole business in its various 
departments, keeps three salesmen on the road and 
employs in the shop from sixty-five to seventy-five 
men. He has patented about a dozen locks all tohl, 
but makes a specialty of his padlock. In 1K.S8 his 



hrotlipr withdrew from tlip flnn and he has since 
curried on the luisiiiess alone, constantly enhxrg- 
ing it and tinding it necessary to do so in order 
to meet his increase in trade. 

In 1877 Mr. Fraira was married in this city to 
Miss Bella Fairer. Mrs. Fraini was born in this 
city and is a daughter of Absalom Fairer, who for 
years was keeper at the court house. Mr. and Mrs. 
Fraim have become the i)arents of two sons, Sam- 
uel and Walter, and their pleasant home at No. 
621 North Duke Street was built by our subject. 
lie is a Republican politically, also a member of 
the Royal Arcanum. He also belongs to the Hard- 
ware Club, of New York Cit}-, in which manufact- 
urers and dealers in hardware are interested. He 
and his wife attend St. Paul's Reformed Church, 
of which tliev are valued members. 

tY~^AVIl) STONE RETTEW, President of 
I I the Common Council of Lancaster, is held 
in good repute as a man of intelligence, 
uprightness and cordial spirit. He is very prom- 
inent in liis ward, and in February, 1894, was 
elected on the Republican ticket to the Council 
by the largest majority ever accorded a candidate. 
He is also Superintendent of the manufacturing 
department of the Jacob Ilarnish Carpet House in 
tliis city. 

Our subject was born in this county in West 
Earl Township, May 15, 1837, and is the son of 
Samuel Rettew, a native of Chester County, this 
state, and in turn the sou of William Rettew, a 
farmer of English and French descent. The great- 
grandfather of our subject served as a soldier in 
the Revolutionary War, in which conflict he ac- 
quitted himself with honor. The father of our 
subject, after his marriage, located in West Earl 
Township, where he engaged in farm pursuits until 
1852, when he sold his estate and made his home 
with our suliject until his decease in 1876, at the 
age of seventy-two years. He was a good Chris- 

tian gentleman and a devoted member of the Re- 
formed Cliui-ch. Ho married Miss Susan, daughter 
of David Stone, a large landowner and successful 
agriculturist of this section. Mr. Stone was a man 
prominent in politics, and at one time served as 
Auditor of L.ancaster County. He was a Wliig, and 
a member of the Reformed Church, in the faith of 
which he departed this life in 1862. The mother 
of our subject died in l.s.'i.j, behived liy all who 
knew her. 

The parental family included four children, of 
whom David S. was the eldest. He was reared on 
his fatlier's farm, and until sixteen 3'cars of .age at- 
tended the common schools. He then entered the 
woolen mill of the late George Levan, where he 
learned the trade, and in 1864, in company with 
Solomon Gi^iff, bought out ;Mr. Levan and ran the 
business for eleven j-ears with fair success. At the 
expiration of that time he sold out and purchased 
a half-interest in a general merchandise store in 
New Holland, which was operated under the linn 
name of Hull & Rettew. This partnership existed 
for two years, when our subject disposed of his 
share, and in 1878 located in Lancaster. In the 
fall of 1877 Mr. Rettew had been elected b^- the 
Board of Prison Inspectors as underkeeper at the 
county prison, which position he held for two years; 
he then entered the emplo}- of Ilarnish & Co., dry 
goods and carpet manufacturers, having charge of 
the carpet department. He has been in the employ of 
the company for the past fourteen years and gives 
perfect satisfaction in discharging his duties as 
Superintendent. He is connected witii the Peo- 
ple's Building and Loan Association and is held in 
the higiiest esteem, possessing tiie confidence of all 
with whom he has dealings. 

David Stone Rettew was married in this city 
in 1860 to Miss Susan, daughter of Daniel Man- 
ning, a farmer of Manor Township, this county. 
To our subject and his estimable wife tliere have 
been born four children: William, engaged in the 
dry goods business in Norfolk, Va.; .Sarah, at home 
with her [>arents; Ella, the wife of A. L. Hornisli, 
and David, at home. 

In 1862 our subject enlisted in Company- B, 
Tenth Pennsylvania .State Militia, and with iiis 
regiment participated in the Battle of Antietam. 



On the expiration of liis term of enlistment lie was 
iionorably rliscliarged and returnerl htime. In 
1890 he was elected to the Common Council from 

the Second Ward mi the Rrimhlica}! tJL-ki't, and in 

elected to the same office the following j'ear. So- 
cially he is a MasoQ, belonging to Council No. 19, 
Commandery. No. 1:3 K. T., and Lodge of Perfec- 
tion, lie is likewise c.inneclcd with lleischei Lodge 
No. 12:;. I. (>. (). F..and Washiugtun Kneampment, 
No. 11. lie belongs to the Knights of the Mystic 
Shrine, of which he is District Deputy, and is a 
member of the .Junior Order of United American 
Jlechaiiics, holding mcmberslii |) with Lancaster 
Council No. '.U2. He is a p;isl officer and member 
of the Committee of Law and State IJody in the 
Knights of Malta, which he has represented to tiie 
Grand Lodge. He is a member of the Reformed 
Church and in politics is a true blue Republican. 

< '\ 4^1 L LI AM .1. ZH-:GLER for .about 
\/\/ twenty years been an employe of the 
I'hiladeliihia A- Reading Railroad as 
agent at Lancaster. From his early years he has 
been engaged in railroading, and has made a trust- 
worthy and responsible business man. He was 
born October 15, 184.5, at Columbia, Lancaster 
Count}', being a son of .lolm and Margaret (.len- 
kins) Ziegler, who came from old families and 
pioneers of this hicality, and were much respected 

The great-grandfather of our suliject, Francis 
Ottamor Ziegler, was boin in Alsace, France, in 
1750, and came to this countiy with Baron Steuben, 
taking part in the Revolutionary War and having 
the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. Afterwards he 
l(>cale<l ill Lnncaster, where he married Mary Fran- 
ces Hook, who w:,> born here in ITCO. .Air. Zieg- 
ler was a silvci>niiMi by Hade and f<.llowed Ids 
calling in lialtiinoie. and later in Coluiiiliia, where 
he died in IKllo. His i.^on (ieoigc, the grandfather 

of AVilliam J., of this sketch, born in Balti- 
more and learned the cooper's trade. He was a 
niemlier of the Catholic Church, and politically an old line Whig. Ly hi> lirst wife, ]\Iargaret 
Sloot, he ha.l eleven children, and liy his second wife, 
Mary Hoover, had three children. .John Ziegler, 
the father of our subject, was the fourth in order 
of birth of the family of the first wife; he was born 
February :j. 181G, and died April :], 189:3. .Inly 
29, 1841, he married .Margaret Jenkins, and their 
golden wedding was celebrated in 189L 

The boyhood of William J. Ziegler was passed 
at the pl.ace of his birth, where he received a 
regular school education until thirteen years of 
age. He then went with his father to Cincinnati 
for a short time and afterwards to Pittsburg, where 
the former was in the employ of the Pittsburg, Ft. 
Wayne & Chicago Railroad for some time. Later 
the youth went to Baltimore, becoming an opera- 
tor on the Northern Central Railroad, and served 
in that capacity during the war. It was a very 
responsible position at that time, but he discharged 
his duties with discretion and lidelitj', being later 
transferred to Manheim, where he was in the em- 
ploy of the Reading & Columbia Railroad, nov/ a 
branch of the Philadelphia & Reading. At the 
expiration of five years he worked for the Hunt- 
ingdon & Broad Top Railroad at Saxton, Pa., for 
nearly three years, and during that time he con- 
tracted the fever and ague and was obliged to give 
up his place. LIpon recovering his health to some 
extent Mr. Ziegler came to Lancaster and was made 
agent of what is now the Philadelphia & Reading 
Railroad. This place he has ably tilled for two 
decades, and is considered one of the most str.aight- 
forward and business-like agents in the employ of 
the company. He is also at present in charge of 
the United States Express agency at this point and 
in this also gives good satisfaction. 

January 10, 1871, Mr. Ziegler married Anna 
F^lizabeth, daughter of David Wolf, who did val- 
iant service during the late Civil conflict, and 
whose life paid the penalty for his patriotism in 
the Danville Prison. Prior to the war he had been 
a successful hotel-keeper and a much respected 
man. Mr. and Mrs. Ziegler have had six children: 
Mary P., .lolui D., Harry J., John D. (the second of 



tlie name), Josephine S. and Frank A. P)Oth boys 
who bure the name of John D. have passed away, 
but the other members of the family are still under 
the jiarental roof and are receiving good educa- 
tional advantages. The father is a supporter of 
the Democratic party, and has been active in 
everything pertaining to its success. AVith his 
family he is a member of St. Mary's Catholic 
Church, and contributes to worthy benevc.ilent en- 


^ T <i)ILLTAM II. BATK.MAN. This gentle- 
V/ \/ man, who is one of the oldest and most 
successful painters in Lancaster, has had 
a remarkable experience on sea and land. When 
a j'oung man he served for three and one-half 
years as a sailor in the United States Navy and 
for a period of twelve years was on the waters. 
He has been a resident of this city for many years 
and has contributed to the general welfare of the 
community, who hold him in higli esteem. 

Born in Baltimore. Md.. .July .'i, IHl'J, our suli- 
ject IS the sou of WiUuuu L. IJalcinan, also a na- 
tive of that city, as was.also the grandfallier, Ben- 
jamin Bateman. The latter was a teller in a bank 
in Baltimore and served efficiently as a soldier in 
the War of 1812. The great-grandfather of our 
subject came from England, and locating in Jlary- 
land, became ]n-ominent in local affairs. The father 
of our subject during his later years came to Lan- 
caster, where lii's decease occurred at the age of 
eighty-four years. He also fought in the War of 
1812 and distinguished himself for his bravery. 
He was a consistent meiiilK-r of the Mctliodi-t 
Episcopal Church and a worthy and inlhu'iitial 
citizen, highly respected throughout this county. 
He was married to Miss Catherine Dallas. aJMi a 
native of Baltimore and of Scotch descent. She 
departed this life near her native city in l.s.;2. at 
the age of thii'ty-five years. 

Tlie i)arental family includ('(l two >oiis and one 
daughter, of whom our sulijccl is tlieonh' one liv- 

ing. His older brother. James S., served all through 
the late war. and dh'd in 189 1 in Asburj Park, N. 
J. William II., of tins sketch, attended the public 

years left home and went to sea on a inoichniit 
vessel. This was in 183.5 and his first trip was 
made to London, England. He has visited nearly 
every port of importance in tlie world and rose 
from the hnnilile position of cabin boy to be 
chief mate of his vessel. In 183(1 Mr. P-atemau 
enlisted in the United States Navy under Commo- 
dore Dallas, a relative of his mother's, on the "Con- 
stitution." He was afterwards changed to the 
vessel commanded by Commodore Scott and par- 
ticipated in the Seminole War. At one time they 
put ashore and aided the infantry in fighting the 
enemy. Mr. Bateman was for two years and six 
months on land in Florida, during which time he 
was Sergeant of his company, lie was mustered 
out of service in the navy yard at liiooklyn, from 
the schooner "Flurd" and in 1840 was paid off. 
Our subject then returned to Baltimore, whence he 
went to New York and engaged to sail on the 
ship bound for Charleston. S. C, of which he was 
made chief mate. 

In August, 1847, Blr. Bateman abandoned the 
life of a sailoi-, and coming to Lancaster, has been 
engaged in painting ever since and is the oldest 
workman at that trade in tliccity. For seventeen 
years he was in partnei'shi|i with Michael McCul- 
lom, liut after its dissolution, eontinued alone. 
He has liecn called upon to lill contiacts in this 
and adjoining counties and has done work on 
many of the large and important buildings in this 
section, including the new almshouse, several col- 
lege buildings and St. Paul's Reformed Church. 
He gives employment to fifteen orttventy men and 
is considered an expert in his line. 

William II. P.vteman was married in 1846 to Miss 
Annie Pontz, a native of this city and the riaugh- 
ter of (icorge Pontz. an old settler in this county. 
Mrs. Bateman died in lialtimore in 18,"i.",. while in 
that place on a visit. She became the mother of 
four children, three (jf whom are living: William, 
Emily and .lacob. Our subject was again married, 
the lady on tliis occasion being Miss .Mary A. 
Dau-herlv, and to them were granted the follow- 



in<f fliililron : John. Martrarpt. Kate, .lames, Klla, 
Kilward. Waltci-. Mary .-md Sella. The Ihree hiUer 
are deeeasr,]. Mis. llatenian deiiarted this life 
Au-iiM 1. ISDl. 

Our siihjeet has lie.-n proiiiiiienl in scln lol aflfairs 
and I'cir three years ^erved as Director from the 
Seventh W.-nd. S,„-i;\lly he liel(inii;s to Lancaster 
Lim1-v Xi). 117. I. ().(). F.,aiid Washington Eneam|)- 
ment No. 11. He i> a d. voted lueniher of the 
MitlH.di~l Kpiseopal Chuivh. in whieh he has held 

polities and always votes the slraiglit ticket. 


KV. KDWAIil) C(K )rLU, A. M., M. D.. 

is pa>tor of the Piohyterian Memorial 
Chnrth on Sc.mtli (^neen Street, Lancaster^ 
and tlKiugh eiyhty yeais of age is still active and 
a worker in his Master's vineyard. In many parts 
of the United .States he has a wide acquaintance 
among prominent ami well known men, and in 
whatever comnninity his lot has been passed liis 
influence lias been only felt for good. Residing at 
Atchison, Kan., during the years when the grass- 
hopper was literally a burden, he assisted in the 
distribution of provisions to the poor and needy 
in that afflicted state. 

The birth of our subject occurred in Rensselaer 
County, N. Y,, in 1814, and his father. Christian 
C, -was also a native of the same county. His 
paternal grandfather, whose given name was also 
Christian, was born in (iermany, ami became a 
farmer in Rensselaer County, where his death oc- 
curred. He was a member of the Dutch Reformed 
Chureli. and some of hi> lirothers were in the 
Revolution.arv War. Christian C. Cooper was in the 
War of 1812, and later was an ollicer in the New 
York Militia. His wife, who in her girlhood was 
Mary Knsel, was born in Dutchess County, N. Y. 
She was a dauuhter of Caiitain Knsel, a native of 

Germany, who followed the sea and was lost in 
mid ocean. 3Irs. Cooper, who was brought up 
by Anthony IJoucher was a school-mate of Martin 
Van Piuren. 

Dr. Cooper of this sketch is the eldest of .seven 
children, four of whom are living, and was reared 
on his father's faini. His primary education was 
received in the pubHe -ehdols of the day, and his 
higher education was obtained in Fairfield Acad- 
emy, the New Brunswick (N. J.) College, which he 
left in the Junior j'ear, and Union College of Sche- 
nectady, N. Y., from which he graduated in 1839 
with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. After leav- 
ing college he engaged in teaching at Phelps, On- 
tario County, N. Y., while pursuing the study of 
law with Judge Folyor. He took charge of Cayuga 
Academy at Aurora, and subsequently the AVater- 
loo Academy. Both of these institutions, while 
he was Principal, became prominent centers of ed- 
ucation and commanded a large patronage. Dur- 
ing this period the subject of this sketch received 
the honorary^ degree of M. A. from three colleges. 

In 1845 he was prominent in a state convention 
of teachers held at Syracuse, at which the New 
York State Teachers' Association was formed, of 
which he was the first Corresponding .Secretary, 
and editor of the Teachers' Advocate, a weekly 
paper established as its organ. During its first 
year it gained circulation in every state of the 
Union, and was finallv merged into the Quarterly 
Journal of Education and published in New York 
City. Blr. Cooper having purchased one-third of 
the Syracuse Daily Journal became its editor for 
some years, leaving it on account of his wife's ill 
health for a more southern climate. For two years 
he was President of a female college at New Al- 
bany, from which he was called to the Presidency 
of the Odd F'ellows' Female College in Tennessee, at 
Paris, and was there ordained a minister of the 
Presbyterian Church. He became pastor of the 
church in Brownsville and Principal of the Female 
Institute, one of the most flourishing schools in 
the western district of that state. He active 
and influential in the canvass for the first conven- 
tion which was made for session, but the majority 
was against tliat ruinous measure. When the 
second convention was called, his con<;regation 



was regarded as decidedly opposed to the measure. 
It was deemed best to get him out of the wa_y, and 
General Pillow sent a detachment for his arrest. 
Warned b}' friends, he left for the north a few- 
hours ahead of its arrival, reaching Cincinnati in 
safety, and received a cordial welcome. Being very 
patriotic. Dr. Cooper made a great many speeches 
and succeeded in getting manv recruits for the 
Union. During tlie first of tlie war he was pastor 
of a Presbyterian C'liurch and Prineiiial of the 
acadenij' at Monroe, Butler County, Oliio, and in 
1863 was commissioned by Governor Brough 
Chaplain of the Eighth Ohio Cavalry. Going 
south to Virginia, he wa.> from that time all 
through the Shenandoah \'alley Campaign, and 
participated in about forty battles and skirmishes. 
In August, 1865, he received an honorable dis- 
charge and was mustered out with his regiment. 

Returning from southern battlefields to Bloom- 
ingburg, Fayette County. Ohio, Dr. Cooper took 
charge of the academy and church of that place 
for three years, after which he was made [wstor 
of the First Presbyterian Church at Atchison, 
occupying the pul|iit for al.iout nine years follow- 
ing, during which time he was also a member of 
the Board of Directois of Highland Universit.v, 
from which he received the degree of D. D. Being 
called to Cincinnati he took charge of the Mission- 
ary Department of the Presbyterian Board of 
Publications, as District Secretary for five synods, 
organized the work and continued for seven years 
in the discharge of its duties. Going next to St. 
Louis, the Doctor became editor of the St. Louis 
Evangelist, a paper published b\- the Presbyterian 
Newspaper Companj', which he changed from a 
monthly to a weekly imblication. At the end of 
five years the company bought the Mid Continent, 
of Kansas City, merged the two papers and made a 
grand success of the enterprise, which is still being 
carried on under the name of 3fid Continent. After 
about six years of hard editorial work he sold out 
his interest and retired on account of ill health. 
In 1891 he came to this city to rest and traveled 
some in the east, but his services were too valuable 
to be long unemployed, and he was unanimously 
called to take charge of the Memorial Presbyterian 
Church, for which he had occasionally preached. 

The aflfairs of the church were in a run-down condi- 
tion, but new life and energy hav<! been infused in- 
to its workings; the building has been remodeled 
and a One pipe organ placed in the church. The 
Sunday-school numbers two hundred and ?<eventy- 
five pupils, and every department of church work 
is in a flourishing condition. 

Rev. Mr. Cooper was first married in Fairfield, 
N. Y., to Miss Mary A. Raymond, l)y whom he 
had a family of six children, all of whom have 
passed to the lietter land. The present wife of our 
subject, whom he married in Lancaster, was Miss 
Louisa B. Bower, a native of Strasburg, Pa. Her 
energetic and faithful services in the church 
and community are gratefully appreciated. Dr. 
Cooper still continues to write for church and 
secular journals, and being well versed on the 
current affairs of the day, is not only an inter- 
esting writer, but an entertaining conversation- 
alist. Since 1845 he has been an Odd Fellow and 
helped to organize the Philadelphia Lodge in Sj-ra- 
cuse, and is a member of Friendship Lodge No. 5, 
in Atchison, Kan. Formerly a member of Ransom 
Post, G. A. R., of St. Louis, he is now identified with 
G. H. Thomas Post No. 84. of this city. A Whig 
and Abolitionist prior to the formation of the Re- 
publican party, he has since 1856 been astanchsup- 
porter of the latter organization, but never ex- 
presses a political sentiment in the pulpit. His 
preaching is expository of the Scriptures and earn- 
estly vivacious in style of delivery. 

ISRAEL P. >L\YER, a prominent contractor 
and builder of Lancaster, is a native of this 
county, having been born in Hcmpfield, near 
Rohrerstown, February 25, 1850. He is the son of 
Henry Mayer, whose birth occurred on the Mayer 
farm, in Manheini Township adjoining the city. 
Grandfather Jacob Mayer was also a native of 
Lancaster County, and was a prominent farmer in 
his community. He was a devoted member of the 



Mennonite Cliuicli, and active in all ■^uod works. 
The great-gi-unilfatlicr of our sulijcrt owned six 
hundred acres of xaln.-iMi' farming h\nd adjoining 
llie city of LancaMn-. Iioiilcs a va>f cslate of one 
thousand aciTs in .Maryland. 11.- ha.l foni sons 
and three daii-lil.Ts. <,f whom three sons located 
in this county, and the remainder of llio family 
made tlieir home in Maryland. 

Henry IMayer was in the employ of tlie Penn- 
sylvania Railroad ComiJany for a nnmher of years, 
having charge of tlie men I'epairing tlie tracks. 
He departed this life March 17, 1884, at his home 
in this county. Like his father before him he was 
a consistent member of the Mennonite ( 'hiucli. He 
was in his seventy-second year when 1k' dicil. and 
was the youngest member of tlie family, his brotli- 
ers and sisters all attaining a good old age. He 
was married to Miss Anna Iloefgen, born in Roh- 
verstowu, tliis county, and tlie daughter of Sebas- 
tian Hoefgen, who was liorn in Switzerland and 
came to America when a young man. He was a 
nail smith in the above place, and tliere made his 
home until his decease. The nK^thcr of our sub- 
ject is also deceased, passing away in 1(S.S2. at tlie 
age of sixty-seven years. She was a member of 
the Lutheran Church. 

The parental family of our subject included 
fourteen children, nine of whom grew to mature 
years, and named respectively: Elizabeth. Maria, 
Christian, Abraham, .h.liii, Isr.ael P., Anna, Samuel 
and Emma. During the late war Christian served 
in the LTnion ranks as a member of Company E, 
Seventy-ninth Pennsylvania Infantry, as Sergeant. 
His regiment formed a part of the Army of the 
Cumberland, and Mr. Mayer remained in the ranks 
for three years. He is now working for our sub- 
ject, and is an expert carpenter. He is i)roininent 
in Grand Army circles and is Colonel of Union 
Veteran P^ncampment No. 14. 

The subject of this sketch was educateil in the 
common schools, and when eighteen years of age 
was apprenticed to learn the carpenter's trade in 
Landisville with a l\Ir. Bowers. He remained with 
him for two years, and after the first eight months 
received $i per day. He was in the emi)loy of 
different parties in that i)lace until starting in 
business for himself m 1878. He has been very 

successful as a contractor and builder and has 
erected some of the largest stores and finest resi- 
dences in Lancaster, anujng them being Hotel Lan- 
caster, Isaac Diller's store. Major Rohrer's stoie, 
Green Stone Row Terrace, West Chestnut Street 
School, and the residences of .lames and David 
Rose. He also did the car|ieiiter w.,rk on the First 
Methodist i'lpiscopul Church and the Western 
IMethodist Ei)iscopal Church. He built most of the 
residences in what is known as the North End, 
and constructed tlie crematory on Swinburn Island. 
Our subject was married in Harrisburg in 1871, 
to Miss Elizabeth S. Dietrich, a native of Landis- 
ville, and the daughter of Samuel Dietrich. To 
them has been born a daughter, Anna E. In 
1884 Mr. Mayer was elected to the Common Coun- 
cil, and re-elected for several years successively, 
until he refused to hold the ofl3ce any longer. He 
is an attendant at the First INIethodist F^piscopal 
Church, and in politics is a stanch Republican. 

HENRY F. EBERMAN, M. D., is a successful 
pr.actitioner, and a native of Lancaster, as 
were his father and grandfather before him. 
The family has been veiy prominent in this locality, 
and in former generations bore alike reputation in 
the Fatherland. Our subject is a leading Republi- 
can, and in February, 1894, was elected City Coun- 
cilman from the First Ward, running at the head- 
of Ills ticket. For three terms, extending over a 
period of three years, he was a consulting physician 
of the Lancaster County Hospital, and has built up a 
lucrative and extensive practice in this city. 

The Doctor's paternal grandfather, .Tfilin, who 
was a man of considerable genius, made the large 
clock for the court house, whicli is used up to the 
present day, and carried on business at No. 215 
North Prince Street. His father was a native of 
F^bermaustadt, Germany, and on coming to the New 
World settled in Lancaster, where he worked at 
his trade, which was also that of watch and clock 
making. Charles F., the father of our subject, was 




born at No. 215 North Prince Street, and like tlie 
two sjeneration.s preceding liiin, learned the tiade 
of watch-making. For a few j-ears he had a store 
on North Queen Street, but afterwards entered a 
political career. He was appointed a letter carrier, 
being the second one in the city, and afterwards 
was made clerk in the County Assessor's office. 
When the Assessor's office was merged into the 
United States Collector's office, he became the first 
Deputy Revenue Collector of the Ninth Pennsyl- 
vania District, working with C. Wiley and A. J. 
Kaufifinan until Cleveland's first term. Then re- 
signing he was later made Deputy Recorder under 
Messrs. Longenecker and E. L. Reinhold. His death, 
which occurred April 9, 1888, was from the effect 
of typhoid fever, and at that time he was in his 
lifty-eighth year. lie was a strong Republican, and 
a very active worker in the Moravian Church. 
His wife, Christina Erisman before marriage, was 
born on Chestnut Street. Lancaster, and is a daugh- 
ter of Daniel and ^Mary ( Rnyal) Erisman. also na- 
tives of this city. The former was a contractor and 
builder. His wife is still living at No. 237 West 
Chestnut Street. The mother of the Doctor makes 
her home with him, and of her six children only two 
are now living, the other, Naomi, being a teacher 
in the city schools. 

Dr. Eberman was born at No. 24 1 West Chestnut 
Street, September 24, 1856, and here grew to man- 
hood, graduating from the high school in 1874. 
He began his medical studies with old Dr. H. E. 
Muehlenburg, and in 1876 entered the Medical De- 
partment of the University of Pennsylvania, from 
which he graduated three years later with the de- 
gree of Doctor of Medicine. In order to gain prac- 
tical experience, he was for the following year resi- 
dent physican of the Blockley, now the Philadelphia 
Hospital. This equipped him Qnely for his future 
work, and in 1880 he engaged in general practice 
in this city, his office now being at No. 230 North 
Prince Street. He numbers among bis clients man 3' 
of the best families of the place, and from year to 
year his ability is becoming more generally recog- 
nized. A true Republican, he has been very active 
in the affairs of his partj', and for seven years was 
clerk of the Fire Committee of tlie Council. 

September 27, 1887, Dr. Eberman married Miss 

Catherine A. Hostotter, who was bcirn in this 
county, and tlR-y have a little liaughter, Dorothy F. 
Religiously they are Moravians and members of that 
church. Personally Dr. Eberman numbers man}' 
warm friends in all circle?, and .as he is very good 
natured and of a happy dispusitidii his companirm- 
ship is much coveted. lie is very fond of hunting 
and fishing, is well C(iui[)pe<i with everything nec- 
essary in those lines, and has a thoroughbred bird 


FREDERICK I5UCIIER. Among the wor- 
thy (Tennan-Ameiicaii citizens of Colum- 
bia is this gentleman, who has been a resi- 
dent of the place for over forty years, during which 
time he has become actively interested in its wel- 
fare and development and has long been classed 
among its leading merchants. Since 1836 his 
time has been devoted ti> his real estate interests, 
and as he has built man}- houses, he has literally 
been thus identified with the material growth of 
the place. At the present lime he is the owner of 
over fifty houses which he rents, besides possessing 
a number of lots and other property in the localitj'. 
On the 18th of September, 1830, Mr. Bucher 
was born in Deggingen, Wurtemberg, Germany, 
being a son of Joseph Jlax and Barbara (Bernauer) 
Bucher. the former of whom was a prominent and 
well-to-do merchant. In 1853 our subject came 
to America, and three years later was followed by 
his brother Christian; and Max, another brother, 
crossed the Atlantic in 1858. Both of these broth- 
ers have since departed tins life. Soon after his 
arrival Mr. Bucher located at Columbia and secured 
employment in Rumple's hardware store. Later 
he entered the employ of Henry Phaler, of this 
place, with whom he remained until 1860. In that 
year he associated himself in business with J. W. 
Cottrell, and finally, in 1866, embarked in the gro- 
cery and hardware trade, in which lines he contin- 
ued for twentj' years. In 1857 he made an ex- 
tended tour through the south and west, with the 
idea in view of finding a place in which to per- 
manently settle, under favorable circumstances, but 


lietltT (-(Ml 


<1 t<iC 

a, hclit'vina; that no j 
iiiiiu'icial cciilrr with urratcr future inler- ' 
,1 !„■ luuiid llian hei-f, and llic wisdom of j 
uii liiis been conflfmed. 

:, 1 was celebrated the marria-e of Mr. 
iiikI Luuisa. dauiiliter of .Michael IJartsch, 
nut Hill, Lancaster County. To our sub- 
wife have been bum four chihlren : Mary, 
k. Amelia and William. The family liave 

circle of friends. The youngest son, William, is a 
drug clerk, and the elder, Frederick, is a student 
in the Medical Department of the State Tniversity 
of Pennsylvania. 

Fraternally our subject is a member of the 
Odd Fellows' society, having joined Susquehanna 
Lodge Xo. so, in \s:,i], in which he has passed 
through all the chairs. Since 1874 lie has been 
identilied with the Artisans' Order of Mutual Pro- 
tection, at Columbia, of which he is now Master 
Artisan, and lie is also President of the Columbia 
liod and (iiin Cluli. lie is a very active Repub- 
lican, and in l«'.t4 was elected a mr-mlx'r of the 
Borough Council from his ward. It is ii<.)w a long 
time since Mr. lUicher was placed in the rank of 
Columbia's wealthy men, and he has been generous 
in the di>tribution of his means for the iiublic good. 
He is a Director in the Keeley Stove Works of this 
[ilace, for a number of years served as Treasurer 
of the Columbia Laundry Machine Company, and 
was Treasurer of the New York ISuihling and 
Loan As.sociation at one time. In ls,so he \-isited 
the Fatherland and the most prominent points of 
interest in France, Germany and Italy. Although 
in his sixty-fourth year, he retains his youthful 
activity and energy of both mind and body and 
is affable and entertaining in conversation. 

SAMIKL M. WUIOIIT, a well known citi- 
zen and retired business man of iMiller.s- 
ville, is a son of Thomas and Margaret 
(McCauley) Wright, and was born September 8, 
1812, near Londonderry, County Donegal, Ire- 
land. His father was of English and his mother 

of Scotch descent. Having lost his father by 
death at a very early age, his mother, with her 
three children, Samuel M., Robert and Rebecca, 
emigrated to America in 1822 to join her father, 
who came to this country in 1810 and settled in 
the southern part of York County, Pa., where she 
lived until tlie time of her death, which occurred 
in 1858, at the age of seventy-live years. 

The subject of this sketch received his educa- 
tion in the private schools of York County and 
Borough, after which he taught school for eight 
terms. He taught during the first six years of the 
existence of the present public school system. 
After rciiring from the school room he was for 
several years connected with the mercantile busi- 
ness. F^rom 1844 to 1850 he was bookkeeper for 
the Colenians at their Castle Finn forge in York 
County, Pa. In the fall of 1850 he was offered, 
and accepted, a position as accountant for Reeves, 
' Abbott & Co., at their Safe Harbor Iron W^orks. 
; He remained at these works for a period of thirty- 
two years, during which time he filled the position 
of bookkeeper, cashier and general manager. In 
the spring of 1882 Mr. Wright retired to private 
life, after spending so many years of arduous labor 
I in the business world. 

I In politics our subject was a Henry Clay Wliig, 
but at present is a stanch Republican and has been 
since the organization of the party, and has served 
twenty-five years as School Director of the Safe 
Harbor Independent District in Conestoga Town- 
ship. In religion he has always been a Presbyter- 
ian, having connected himself with the church of 
I that denomination in Lower Chanceford Towii- 
ship, York County, in 1836. Socially Mr. AVright 
I is a member of Conestoga Lodge, I. (). () F., of 
Safe Harbor. 

Mr. Wright was united in marriage March 2, 
1852, with Miss Susan A. Wright, a daughter of 
! Benjamin and Susanna (Buckwalter) Wright, late 
of INIanor Township, by whom be had five chil- 
dren, as follows: Thomas C, Benjamin, William 
McCaulley, Emma R. and Robert, of whom Thomas 
C. and F]mma R. survive and are living at home. 
Thomas is at present engaged in preparing the 
genealogy of his mother's family. Mr. Wright de- 
I parted this life in 1873, aged forty-nine years. 



Her family are among the earlj- settlers of Lancas- 
ter County. She was a granddaughter of William 
and Elizabeth (Bartram) Wright and a lineal de- 
scendant of John Cartlidge, who took up land in 
Manor Township in 1718. 

Our subject is a man whose entire course in life 
has been in ever^y respect honorable, upright and 
conscientious and he is justly entitled to the resjiect 
of his associates and the esteem of all who know 
him. He now resides in the village of Millersville, 
to which place he removed in the spring of 1884. 


J FRANK BOWMAN for several years has 
been engaged in the cigar box manufactur- 
ing business in Lancaster, and has built up a 
remunerative and constantly increasing trade 
in this article, his business now amounting to from 
>= 18,000 to 820,000 per annum, and this has been 
accomplished during a short period of four _vears. 
In politics Mr. Bowman has taken quite an active 
part, and in February, 1894, was elected a mem- 
ber of the Common Council. In the fraternal 
circles of the city he is a leading memlier, and in 
many industries and enterprises which have greatly 
increased the standing of the city he has given his 

A son of .John M. and Catherine (Ubevly) Bow- 
man, the subject of this biography was born July 
19, 1856, in Lancaster Township, of this county. 
His paternal grandfather, whose Christian name 
was Isaac, was a native of Strasburg Township, 
and followed farming, also building and contract- 
ing, in that locality during iiis active career, which 
terminated when he had attained his seventy- 
seventh year. He was first a Whig, and subsequent- 
ly a Republican. By his marriage with Elizabetii 
Musser he ha(( eight children: John M., Henry; 
Elizabeth, who died at the age of eighteen years; 

Isaac, Joseph, Amanda. Anna, and Benjamin, who 
has passed away. 

Our subject's father was born in Eden Town- 
ship, this county, and learned the trade of a ma- 
chinist in the l)ending works, and was also a saw- 
3'er. In later years he devoted his time to carrying 
on his farm in Providence Township, a tract of 
ninety-two acres. He is a stanch supporter of the 
Republican party, and religiously was a member 
of the Mennonite Church. He has been twice 
married, having three children by his first union: 
Anna, J. F. and Charles. The mother of these 
children was called from this life when her son, 
J. Frank, was a lad of only two and a-half years, 
and his father subsequently married Mrs. Martha 
Starr, nee Boreman. Of his marriage eight children 
were born, as follows: Catherine, Benjamin, Ella, 
Martha, E.. Hays, Ezra and Sallie. 

J. Frank Bowman left his father's home when 
only nine years old, returning during the winters 
in order to attend scliool until he was thirteen 
years of age, when he went away permanentl}', 
and for the succeeding seven years worked on 
farms, or at whatever he could find to do, in 
order to obtain a livelihood. He then assumed 
a clerkship in a tobacco warehouse at Harnish 
Station, being in the employ of Mr. Harnish. 
To that gentleman he gave his faitliful services 
for fourteen years, during the latter part of the 
time running the business altogether. Afterward 
coming to Lancaster, he took a iiosition as solici- 
tor and collector for the firm of Levan A' Sons, 
merchant millers, and continued with them for 
four years. Later he engaged in the dour and 
feed business in this city, and tinally, in 1890, 
started his present industry at Nos. 135 and 137 
North Christian Street. This plant, which is 28x70 
feet and two stories in heiglit, is one of the lead- 
ing concerns of the city at the [jresent time, and 
affords employment to twelve hands. Mr. Bow- 
man is now also engaged in running a metal edge 
box shop at his home. No. 116 West Orange Street. 
The products of these manufactories are sold in 
Lancaster, Ilarrisburg, and many other cities in 
the eastern part of the state and Maryland. From 
his early years the proprietor has been possessed 
of great ingenuity and originality, and these qual- 


ities liave been very useful lo him in the various 
departments of his busiufss. lie is truly a self- 
niade and self-educated man, as his attendanee 
at school was very limited, and he was oliliy;ed 
to go to work when very young. Natuiully very 
studious, Mr. Bowman has succeeded in lieenming 
well posted by i.irivate reading and inaetical ex 
perieuce in the battle of life. 

Politically Mr. Bowman is a l!e|iuliliean, has 
served as .Judge and Inspector of Klections. and 
was President of the Campaign Club preceding 
the election of Rutherford B. Hayes. Among tlie 
civic societies to which Mr. Bowman belongs are 
the following: Monterey Lodge No. 242, 1. O. O. 
F.; Inland City Lodge No. 88, K. of P.; Meridian 
Sun Commaiideiy No. 99, K. of M.; Fulton c:astle 
No. 410, K. of (i. E.; .Stevens Cmmeil No. 156, 
Sr. U. L'. A. M.; Lancaster Couiieil No. 912, 
,Jr. U. U. A. M.; and m addition to which he 
belongs to the City Literary and Social Cub. 
Mr. liowman was married August 3, 188C. to Mi.-s 
Nanny Walker, and they have three children: 
Chester \V., Edgar Quay and David B. 

^ -^^^i-^-i^ilM^i^- 

HENRY D. ROIIRER is a jiractical florist 
and one of the [iroprietors of the East 
End greenhouses so well known in Lan- 
caster and hereabouts. For nearly a quarter of a 
century he has devoted his entire time and inter- 
est to the cultivation of plants and market vege- 
tables and has made a success of his business en- 
terprises. Until the spring of 1894 he engaged in 
partnership with his brother A. D., under the firm 
name of A. D. Rohrer & Brc, and since that time 
has carried on his business alone, having dissolved 
partnership with his brother. 

The birth of our subject occurred in E.ast Lampe- 
ter Township, Lancaster County, l\[arch 3, 1847, 
his parents being Abraham and Susan (Denlinger) 
Rohrer, who were likewise born in this township. 
The paternal grandfather, Jacob Rohrer, came 

from one of the oldest families of the county, his 
ancestors having originated in Switzerland and 
being of (jerinan descent. The Rohrers first set- 
tled in Montgomery County, but in a very early 
day located in Lancaster County. The father of 
Henry D. was an extensive farmer in former days 
near Conestoga Creek, having over three hundred 
acres at one time, which he divided between his 
children on retiring from active life. He is still 
living, residing on a portion of the old homestead, 
and is now about eighty j-ears of age. His wife, 
who was a daughter of Jacob Denlinger, has reached 
the ripe age of eighty-two years, and of her four 
sons and one daughter all are still living. The 
eldest, A. D., is retired from active business; John 
lives in East Lampeter Townshij); II. D. is next in 
order of birth; Benjamin lives at the old home, and 
Annie is the wife of Jacob Landis, of Lampeter 

Ilenrv D. Rtihrer reared to the duties of 
farm life and had common school advantages in 
his boyhood. In 1870 he bought the place ad- 
joining that of his brother Abraham D., and to- 
gether they began their present business. As t!ie 
years passed they found it necessary to continually 
enlarge the capacity of their greenhouses and they 
now have about forty, covering some ninety' thou- 
sand square feet. These are heated by steam with 
five engines, one of eighty horse-power, two of 
forty and two of twenty horse- power, and every- 
thing else is of the most improved modern kind. 
The location of the greenhouses is on Plast King 
Street adjoining the city, where the brothers own 
a thousand feet frontage. In the spring of 1894 
Henry D. Rohrer builta new plant of sixteen green- 
houses on the Conestoga Creek, at the foot of 
Orange Street, making them each one hundred 
feet in length, and gives his entire attention to 
growing flowers for the wholesale trade only. Mr. 
Rohrer has taken quite an active part in the up- 
building of the city and in public improvements. 
He owns a tract of sixteen acres which he opened 
and graded, besides making other improvements. 
Cottage Avenue, which is one of the most beauti- 
ful streets in the city, running from East King to 
East Orange Street, he g.-ive to the i)ublic. and af- 
terward, in connection with his brother and Mr. 


Rouk, opened and graded East Orange Street from 
the cit}- limits to Conestoga Creek, making a most 
beautiful drive. It is all laid out in fifty foot lots 
for residences only, and when Iniiit up will be one 
of the finest portions of the city. Tliis plat is 
nicely laid out and trees and evergreen hedges 
have been planted. JNIr. Rohrer erected a brick 
residence on Cottage Avenue which he has sold, 
and his own home is pleasantly situated on East 
King Street. 

In this cit3- our subject was married in 1S70 to 
Miss Mary Kreider, whose birth occurred in Lampe- 
ter Township. To this worthy couple three chil- 
dren have been born: Abram K., Harry K. and 
Ella. Mrs. Rohrer is a member of the Old Mennon- 
ite Church of this city and is a lady of excellent 
education and worthy qualities. 

Since the organization of the American Florist 
Association our subject has been a member of the 
same and regularly attends its meetings. In poli- 
tics he votes with the Republican part}'. Mr. 
Rohrer has under his personal control twenty-five 
greenhouses built on the most improved modern 
plans, which will make this the largest plant of the 
kind in Lancaster County. 

A. I). Rohrer was Ikhii in East Lampeter Town- 
ship in l!>l(i, and on his father's homestead passed 
his boyliood. After obtaining a good common 
school education he started in the florist business 
on the outskirts of Lancaster, beginning on a very 
small scale with only one greenhouse. Such at- 
tention and industr}' as he manifested was re- 
warded in time with the flue business which is now 
his. He owns a tract of thirteen acres and has 
built four residences on King Street and one on 
East Orange Street. In his real-estate venture he 
has been as successful as in his other enterprises 
and this property is rapidly rising in value in the 
market. When the Lancaster Electric Railway was 
started Mr. Rohrer was a Director in the same and 
superintended its laying out. Likewise in Cones- 
toga Park he has always been greatly interested 
and also in the West End Park, and to his efforts 
in a large measure are due these beautiful and at- 
tractive bits of scenery, which the people duly ap- 

A. D. Rohrer married Miss Barbara Esbenshade, 

whose birth occurred in Mauheim Township, and 
of their union has been born one child, Willis. Like 
his brother, A. D. is a true Republican and a \ici. 
triotic citizen. He is a member of the American 
Florist Association and makes it his endeavor to 
keep thoroughly abreast with the times. 

P HARKS W. FRY. a dealer in and manufac- 
turer (if leaf tobacco and cigars, was Iiorn 
in Milliiort, Lancaster County, Pa.. De- 
cember 24. 181.'). being a son of Samuel Fry. He 
was reared in his native town, obtaining his educa- 
tion in the common schools until ten years of age, 
and from 1855 to 1857 attending school at Lititz. 
In 1859-60 he was a student in the normal school 
at Millersville for eighteen months. The next 
two years of his life were spent as a clerk in a 
general store at New Haven. 

During the Civil War, in 1863, Mr. Fry enlisted 
in the Fiftieth Pennsylvania Regiment, and .July 
20, 18G1, volunteered in Company (t. One ILm- 
dred and Ninety-flfth Pennsylvania Infantry, un- 
der Capt. P. L. Sprecher. He served in Virginia 
and West Virginia until his command was mustered 
out at Harrisburg, November 4, 1864, when he re- 
turned to his hon;e. After a short time spent as 
clerk in a store, in 1865 he came to Lancaster, en- 
tering the employ of Lane & Co., dry-goods deal- 
ers, with whom he remained seven years. In 1872 
he engaged in the wall paper and wiiuh.iw sliade 
business at No. 63 North (.^ueen Street, and from 
there moved to No. 57 North Queen Street, where 
he remained until 1886. Disposing of the busi- 
ness he engaged in his present trade with his 
brother, M. M. Fry, under the firm name of M. M. 
Fry it Pro. The partnership continued until 1890, 
when our subject took the cigar business, which he 
conducted in the rear end of their warehouse. He 
also engaged in the leaf tobacco trade. In 1802 
he located at his present place, No. 119 North 
Christian Street, where he carries on business, ag- 


gregating from twelvo InuHlrod Ju (iflccii hundi-ed 
cases per annum. 

Oiii- sul)jecl was united in mairiage at, Safe Ilar- 
h(u-, April 7. 1.S7.S. witli Mi-s .losepliine ('.. daugh- 
ter . if fapt. (ieorge IIe>s. wlm was killed in the 
late war. l>y tliis marriage three ehildren were 
lM,in, Howard W., Emma H. and Allen C. Our 
sulijeel is counted among the pro,sperous business 
men of Lancaster, and among other interests it 
may lie mentioned that he is one of the stockhold- 
ers of the People's Building and Loan Association. 
Politically, he is a firm supporter of the Uepulilican 

the second oldest resident [jastor in Lancas- 
ter, and has charge of the First Presbyterian 
Church, which was organized in 1763. Tlie 
first building of the congregation was built about 
1770, and continued to be their church home until 
1821, when it was enlarged, and in 1850 the pres- 
ent walls were erected. The church is on Orange 
between Lime and Duke Streets, and of late years 
has been remodeled, and is now one of the finest 
structures both in finish and style in the state. 
Rev. Dr. Mitchell is a very popular and schol- 
arly gentleman, who has been prominent in his de- 
nomination for several decades, and was the Last 
Moderator of the Historic Synod of Philadelphia 
in 1881. 

The birth of our subject occurred in Philadel- 
phia, Pa. His father, .James Mitchell, was born in 
County Derry, Ireland, and learned the linen 
weaver's trade. A year after his marriage to 
Elizabeth Young the}' came to America and set- 
tled in Philadelphia. Until 1857 the father en- 
gaged in the manufacture of cotton and woolen 
goods, when he retired from active cares. He died 
in 1881, when he was over four-score years of age, 
and his wife onl_y survived him about three years. 
Though their parents were residents of Ireland, 

they were natives of Scotland. Our subject is the 
third in a famdy of five children, two of whom 
are living, and he was reared in Philadelphia, 
where he attended the high school for three years. 

The collegiate education of Rev. Dr. Mitch- 
ell was commenced at Delaware College in New- 
ark, Del., where he was a student for two years, 
continued in Union College of Schenectady, N.Y., 
from which he was graduated in 1854 with the 
degree of liachelor of Arts, and in 1857 he was 
graduated from the Princeton Theological Semi- 
nary after a three years' course. Union College 
later conferred upon him the degree of Master of 
Arts, and m 1880 he received from his Alma Mater 
the degree of Doctor of Divinity. After gradu- 
ating from the Theological Seminary in 1857 he 
was licensed to preach by the Philadelphia Pres- 
bytery, and soon accepted a call to the church in 
Phillipsburg, N. .1.. and while there the church 
building was finished and its debts paid. In Jan- 
uary, 18G2, he was called to the congregation in 
Philadeli)hia, in which he was reared and with 
which his parents and family were identified. 
Among his church members were Elders with 
whom he had played when a boy. A debt of 
$8,000 on the church was paid off in two weeks 
under his able management and earnest efforts. In 
1868 a new church was built at the corner of 
Franklin and Thompson Streets at a cost of 5^100,- 
001). This church, which is known as the Temple 
Presbyterian, is only two squares from Dr. Mitch- 
ell's birthplace, and he continued as its pastor un- 
til 1876, when he was called to his present charge. 

In September of that year. Dr. Mitchell removed 
his family to Lancaster, and the following year the 
church was remodeled, a )>ipe organ introduced 
and a bell hung. In 1889 Robert A. Evans built 
the adjoining memorial chapel, which cost $23,000. 
During the year 181)3 a further work of improve- 
ment upon the church was commenced, and about 
$13,000 were spent. Walnut pews, a new organ, 
steam heat and electric lights and modern con- 
veniences are now to be found in this, one of the 
wealthiest churches in the state. 

In October, 1858, Dr. Mitchell was married in 
Easton. to Henrietta, daughter of Peter S. Mich- 
ler, who was at the time President of a bank there. 



Mrs. Mitchell was born iuP]aston,and wasecUictited 
in seminaries of Massacliiisettsand New York City. 
By her marriage she has become the mother of live 
children. .lames, A. M., M. D.. who was graduated 
from the Frankhn and Marsliall College and the 
Medical Department of the Pennsylvania Univer- 
sity, is located in Philadelpliia. Mary, Mrs. II. H. 
Hoyt, resides in IMilwaukee, Wis., where her hus- 
band is an attorney. Martha became the wife of 
Capt. C. J. Crane, of the Twenty-fourth United 
States Infantry, who is now stationed at Ft. Baird, 
N. Mex. Warren, a civil engineer and graduate 
of the University of Wisconsin, is emiiloyed by 
the Pennsylvania Railroad, and Henrietta lives 
with her parents at No. .34 North Lime Street. 

Dr. Mitchell is a charter member of Kensington 
Commaudery, K. T., of Philadelphia. In former 
3-ears Hon. Tliaddeus Stevens and ex-President 
James Buchanan were pew holders, and the lat- 
ter a member of the First Presbyterian Church. 
Rev. Ur. Mitchell is a highly cultured and finely 
educated gentleman, who possesses a good deliv- 
ery, and has an earnest manner, which claims the 
attention of his hearers. 


JACOB II. LANDIS, a prominent citizen of 
Millersville, Lancaster County, has been re- 
tired from active cares since 1880, after hav- 
ing lived a useful and busy life as an agri- 
culturist and miller in Manor Township. The 
family of which he is a member is an old one in 
this county, the founder fif tlie liranch in these 
parts having been of Swiss nationality'. He was 
Benjamin Landis, who in 1717 located in Man- 
heim Township, where he proceeded to develop a 
tract of wild land. He was married to Elizabeth 
Brackbill, by whom he had two sons, Benjamin 
and John. The latter, born June 9, 178G, in 
Manheim Township, became the father of our 
subject, and when nineteen jears of age removed 
to a farm in Couestoga Township, which is now 

in possession of his son Tobias. The same year 
he married Elizabeth Rudy, and by her had the 
following children: Mary, Mrs. Gamber; Benjamin; 
Anna, Mrs. Forry; and Fannie. Mrs. Weiiller. I5y 
a second marriage, to Anna, daughter of Jacob llu- 
lier, were born Susan, now deceased; Betsey; .lacob 
11. , David, Tobias and Magdalena, the latter of 
whom became the wife of Rudolph Ilerr, but has 
since passed away. The father of these children was 
a man of great enterprise and industry. His judg- 
ment was always considered sound and his mllu- 
ence in the community was wholesome and bene- 
ficial. In 181)3 he was elected Supervisor of Con- 
estoga Township, and while a resident of Manor 
Township, served as County Commissioner. In 
politics he was first a Whig and later a Repulilican. 
A devoted member of the Mcnnonite Church, he 
held steadfast to the faith until his death, August 
22, 1870, when in his eighty-fifth year. 

Jacob Landis was born April 18, 1822, on his 
father's farm in Conestoga Township, and was 
only four years old when his parents removed to 
Manor Township. He pursued his study at Lititz, 
and also at a select school in Manheim Township. 
After becoming thoroughly familiar with the 
labors pertaining to farming he started an appren- 
ticeship at the miller's trade, in 1841, and after 
learning the same, assumed charge of his father's 
mill, which he successfully operated for several 
years. In 1861 he became sole proprietor of both 
the mill and the farm, and con ducted them success- 
fully- until his retirement from business life some 
fourteen years ago. 

February 26, 1852, Mr. Landis married Anna S., 
daughter of David and Susan Ilerr, of Lancaster 
Township, this county. Of this union two sons 
and four daughters were born: John II., who married 
Miss Betsy Thoma; Mary A., who married Clay- 
tou S. Wenger, of West Earl Township, Lancaster 
County; Susan, Mrs. Reist; Lizzie, who became the 
wife of II. L. Stehinan; Fannie, deceased, and 
DavuL who married Miss Ellen Shelly. In his po- 
litical faith Mr. Landis supports the Rejiublican 
part}', but has neither sought nor desired political 
honors. Ever a great friend to the cause of edu- 
cation, he IS a Trustee at the [iresent time of the 
Millersville State Normal School and in every 



W.I}- lins used h\< intluenee in favor of advanced 
iiiethods in eduealionai matters. lie is a Director 
of tiie Farmers' xS'ati.inal I'.ank of Lancaster, and 
was one of tiie Managers of llie Lancaster &. Mill- 
ersville Street Railroad. In his man}' investments 
and different business enterprises be has been very 
successful and prosperous, having shown great 
ability and foresight in the management of his 
affairs. He is a member of the Reformed Church 
of this place, with which he has been connected for 
many years as an active worker. Personally he is 
a man of strict integritv and true worth. 

prominent in musical circles in Lancaster, 
l)eing leader of Burge)'"s Orchestra and 
Burger's Military Band. F'rom his early years he 
has been noted for talent in this art and was a lad 
of only twelve years when he took the first prize 
for violin playing out of a class of six hundred 
pupils. From the time he was ten years of age he 
has given his earnest effort to improve in this line 
and has built up an almost national reputation for 
his skill. He has traveled in all parts of the conn- 
try with different companies as leader of orchestra 
and at one time was with Buffalo Bill in the Wild 
West Show. 

Professor Burger was born in Reading, Pa., March 
27, 1859, being a sou of Christian ,1. and Annetta 
(Kaul) Burger. The father was born in Baden, 
Germany, where he was a blacksmith by trade. 
When a young man he caine to this country, set- 
tling in Reading, where he engaged in making 
boilers for the firm of Obert & Sons. At the age 
of fifty-two years, in 1883, he departed this life in 
that city, and his widow now makes her lujine in 
Lancaster. The sketch of iier father, Rev. Permin 
Kaul, may be found in another portion of this 
work. Professor Burger is the eldest <;)f six ciiil- 
dren. all l)uttwoof whom are living, and until ten 

years of age attended the Reading public schools. 
He was then sent to Notre Dame, Ind., and there 
took up music, and, as previously mentioned, re- 
ceived high honors for his violin work. At the end 
of three years he was apprenticed to a jeweler in 
Reading and completed the trade, at the same time 
spending much of his time on music. At the end 
of four years our subject went on the road with the 
Welsh ife Hughes Brooklyn Minstrels, with whom he 
continued one season as leader of the orchestra. 
The following year he traveled with Haywood 
Brothers as leader, and then for two seasons went 
with the company of Agnes Villa. From 1881 to 
the spring of 1887 Professor Burger traveled with 
the Wild West Show as leader of the band and 
played in all the principal cities in the United 
States, having been in San Francisco five times. In 
the opera house in Lancaster the Professor was 
Director for two years and later traveled with Rus- 
sell's Comedians. In 1881 Burger's Orchestra and 
the Military Band were organized by him and since 
that time he has had a steady engagement at the 
Fulton Opera House in Lancaster, the orchestra 
being composed of from nine to fifteen pieces, and 
the band having twenty-five pieces. 

In 1883 our subject organized the Lancaster 
OperaCompany, which gave '•Pinafore." In 1890 
they performed in "Mikado," three years later re- 
turuingto'- Pinafore, "and m 1891 presented "Three 
Black Cloaks." This company was well drilled and 
met with flattering success. In the line of composi- 
tion Professor Burger has done considerable, mainly 
in the line of music fororchestra and bands, and he 
is the author of several popular marches and clever 
quadrilles and other dances. He has published 
music to a certain extent and many of his produc- 
tions have met with a large sale. As a professor 
of music in this city he is very favorably known, 
having numbered among his pupils many from the 
best families in Lancaster. 

In 1889 Professor Burger was married in Lan- 
caster to Miss F^mma Stewart, of this place, and 
daughter of Thomas Stewart. The father was for- 
merly engaged in farming in this locality and was 
killed l)y the cars in Philadelphia when in the 
I'rime of life, being about forty years of age. His 
wife, ftirmerly Mary Tangred, was born in Lancas- 



ter, as was also her father, George Tangred. Mrs. 
Burger is next to the youngest of four uhihlreii, 
and by her marriage has become the mother of one 
child, Christian P. Mr. and Mrs. Burger are mem- 
bers of St. Anthony's Ciiurch. The former is a 
Democrat and socially is a charter member of the 
Elk's society. 



is a pleasure to the biographer to head this 
sketch with the name of the man who is in 
every sense worthy of the distinction afforded by 
honorable mention among the distinguished citi- 
zens of the community in which he has passed 
nearly all the active years of his life. Mr. Steiger- 
walt is one of the prominent carriage-makers of 
Lancaster, in which business he has been engaged 
in the city since 1886. 

Henry and Mary (Trisler) Steigerwalt, the par- 
ents of our subject, were natives of Pennsylvania 
and people highly respected in their community. 
For a fuller history of this worthy couple the 
reader is referred to the sketch of M. F. Steiger- 
walt on another page in this volume. 

When ready to choose an occupation in life 
Samuel C, of this biography, learned the trade of 
a carriage-maker in the shops of Samuel B. Cox, of 
this city. Soon after mastering the business he 
went to Petersburg, afterward to Neffsville and 
later to Refton, where he was engaged in working 
as a carriage-maker. In 1882 we find him again in 
his native city. He opened up an establishment 
of his own on Prince Street, where he carried on a 
thriving business for two years, and then removed 
to his present location on Queen Street. He has 
a large shop, manufactures all kinds of road vehi- 
cles and gives employment to several men. He 
also has a department devoted to repairing wagons 
and carriages, and never fails to give satisfaction 
in all work turned out. 

In political relations our subject is an ardent 
Republican. He belongs to St. Paul's Methodist 

Episcopal Church and endeavors to aid the progress 
of tlie good work m tlie city. During the late 
war he enlisted in the LTnion army, offering his 
services the same month Ft. Sumter was fired upon. 
He was mustered into Company F, First Pennsyl- 
vania Infantry, in the three months' call, but re- 
mained in the army for eight months, when he was 
discharged at Harrisburg, this state. 

The lady whom our subject married on Clnist- 
raas Da}-, 1862, was Miss Alice Ryan, a sister of I. 
H. Ryan, whose sketch will be found in this 
volume, and who is a prominent real-estate dealer 
of this city. To Mr. and Mrs. Steigerwalt there 
were born eight children, namely: Samuel C; 
Albert H., deceased; Herbert R., a private detective 
in the employ of the Pennsylvania Traction Com- 
pany; Benton (I., ()liver I.. Alice M., Maude S. and 
Laura K. 

. ■ — g # p — ' ■ 

ROBERT C. McCULLEY is a well known 
and respected citizen of Lancaster, wlio 
owns and operates successfully a lai-ge iron 
foundry, and is the oldest foundrymau in the 
county. His works are situated at the corner of 
North Plum Street and the Pennsylvania Railroad, 
and he makes a specialty of the manufacture of 
corn and cob crushers and castings requiring 
great strength. The proprietor is a thorough mas- 
ter of his business, to which he has given his ener- 
gies and strict attention for his entire active ca- 
reer, about half a century. 

The birth of Mr. McCulley occurred in Lancas- 
ter, Jul}' 13, 1828, at a place where now stands 
the ticket oflice of the Pennsylvania Railroad. 
His paternal grandfather, Jacob, was born in Scot- 
land, and he it was who changed the name from 
its original spelling, McCullough. Our subject's 
father, Jacob, was born in Harrisburg, and was 
formerly a manufacturer of soap and candles, his 
business location having been on the site of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad station before the road was 
constructed. He died in this city when sixty-one 
years of age. He was a wealthy man and very in- 



Iluential, serving: at one time as a member of tlie 
City Council, lie wa> a member of llie Trinity 
Lutiieran Cliureli. and by his union with Cazanna 
I'.ilner had six children who grew to maturity. 
One (if the sons, James T., was for three years a 
soldier in a Pennsylvania Regiment during the 
War of the Rebellion, and died in Lancaster. The 
maternal grandfather of our subject, Jacob Bitner, 
was a resident of York County, where he followed 
the carpenter's trade, and afterwards located ou 
North Queen Street, Lancaster, lie lived to a ripe 
old age, being in liis ninety-lirst year at the time 
of his death, wliile lii> wife lived to be ninety- 
three years old. 

When fourteen years old R. C. McCulley was 
apprenticed to learn the molder's trade at a foun- 
dry on South Queen Street, near the Conestoga 
Creek, and remained there for two j'ears. After- 
wards he worked in Pennell's Machine E'ouudry, 
and then traveled as a journeyman in the south 
and through a number of states. For some seven 
years he was situated in Pittsburg and in Alle- 
gheny, but finally in 1858 returned to this place. 
Embarking in business on Water Street, he subse- 
quently purchased the site of the old iron works 
on Chestnut between Noith Queen and Prince 
Streets. For twenty years the firm was known as 
Ilarberger & McCulley, and they built up a fine 
business and remunerative trade. In 1883 our 
subject's partner withdrew from the firm, and Mr. 
McCulley has since continued in business alone. 
The same year he rented a portion of the old loco- 
motive works, at tlie corner of North Plum Street 
and the Pennsylvania Railroad, and makes a spe- 
cialty of general foundry and pattern work. The 
cob crusher which he manufactured has met with an 
extended sale, and over three thousand are in act- 
ual use. Mr. McCulley shiiis his products to every 
state in this country, and also sends castings, etc., to 
foreign ports. PJnployment is given to upwards 
of twenty-five hands, and the best machinery is 
used in turning out the articles he manufactures. 
At times he has cast rolls weighing four tons, 
cupola caiJS weighing eight tons, and other ma- 
chinery of almost incredible size. 

Mr. McCulley owns a pleasant home at No. 804 
Manor Street, also one in Philadelphia, two cot- 

tages at the sea shore, and some fifteen houses 
in Lancaster. In \Si)'J he married Miss Mary, 
daughter of Allen Magargil, who born in 
Philadelphia. The latter was a tanner and mer- 
chant in the Quaker City, and a citizen who was 
greatly respected. Mr. and Mrs. McCulley have 
three children, all of whom are living, namely: 
Annie, Martha and Emma, the latter the wife of E. 
S. Ilalbach, of Lancaster. Mrs. McCulley is a mem- 
ber of the Trinity Lutheran Church, and is a most 
estimable lady. 

In politics our subject is inde|iendent, and has 
served for three j'ears as a member of the Select 
Council from the Eighth Ward, but has since de- 
clined renoiuination. During his term he was 
active on the committee which had in charge the 
construction of the city water works, and he has 
always used his inttuence for the benefiting of his 


MI ETON T. REEDER, M. D., an able phy- 
sician of Jlillersville, received a flnegen- 
eral and medical education and is a stu- 
dent of his profession, having also contributed 
articles of great value to various medical jour- 
nals. For several generations the Reeder fam- 
ily have been prominent members of whatever com- 
munity they have resided in, and the first of whom 
anything definite is known one Henry Reeder, 
who came to the United States in 1810, settling 
near Ilagerstown, Md. This was the grandfather 
of our subject and he became owner of a large plan- 
tation. He was a slave owner, but freed all of his 
slaves prior to the war. He successfully carried 
on his plantation near Hagerstown and continued 
to reside there until his death. He was politically 
a Whig and a member of the Presbyterian Church. 
In his family were three sons and one daughter,, Henrv. William A. and Alary A. The lat- 



ter married J. B. Linch and afterward became the 
wife of Jolin Hall; she is still living in St. Louis. 
The Roeder family is noted for longevity, and our 
subject's giandfatlier died at an extreme old 

William A. Recder. the father of our sulijeet, re- 
ceived a common school education and learned the 
trade of cabinet-making, to which he devoted him- 
self in Hagerstown and Baltimoie and still later at 
Clear Spring, Md. In 1856 he removed to Wells 
Valley, Fulton County, Pa., where he lived for 
four years, then selling his place he located in 
Belfast Township, in the same county, where he 
continued to reside until his death. He was a Re- 
publican and a member of the Order of Red Men 
and the Junior Order of United American Me- 
chanics. Religiously he was a Baptist of the old 
school and very strict and upright in his con- 
duct. His wife was Mehitable (Tanner) Reeder, 
by whom he had two sous and two daughters: 
Milton T., our subject; Sarah A., Mrs. Stotz, of 
Marietta, Lancaster County; Mary C. and .Jacob T., 
of Marietta. The father of these children was 
called from life when in his sixty-eighth year. 

Dr. Milton T. Reeder was born January 9, 1848, 
at Clear Spring, Washington County, Md., and re- 
ceived his elementary education in the schools of 
Fulton County. Later he attended the County Nor- 
mal School at McConnellsburg and for three years 
studied higher mathematics and the languages 
under the tutelage of Prof. Charles A. Douglas, a 
graduate of Yale. In 1880 our subject graduated 
from the Bellevue Medical College of New York 
City, after having pursued the required course of 
study. He immediatel}' entered upon his profes- 
sional career at Millers ville, which has since been his 
field of work. During the fourteen years that 
have since elapsed he has acquired an enviable 
reputation as a man of ability in his line, and his 
practice, which is large and lucrative, is constantly 
increasing. A man of much more than the ordi- 
nary intelligence and information, he is a ready 
and interesting conversationalist and writer, and 
his contributions to medical peiiodicals and to the 
science are looked for and read with eagerness 
by hosts of his admirers and friends, who are scat- 
tered all through the country. Fraternally he 

Harrison ville Lod^e N( 

holds meniberslii| 
710. I. (). (). F. 

On the ICth of April, ISs.',, Dr. Reeder was mar- 
ried to Miss Mary K.. daughter of Jolin Lenhardt, 
who is a farmer and cooper of this county. Mrs. 
Reeder, a lady of culture and refinement, graduated 
from the Millersville State Normal in the Class of 
'77. The Doctor and his wife have many friends 
in this locality and are very popular in social 


JOHN II. JORDAN, whose sketch we now 
have the pleasure of presenting, is the only 
safe expert in the city of Lancaster. He is 
carrying on a lock and lilacksniithing estab- 
lishment, manufactures iron ladles and does gen- 
eral jobbing, making the repairing of safes a spe- 
cialty. His honored father, W. H. Jordan, who 
fought bravely as a Union soldier during the late 
war, was of Scotch-Irish ancestry and was orphaned 
by his father's death when he was an infant. After 
iiaving completed his apprenticeship to the lock- 
smith's trade under a Mr. Bush, he located in Lan- 
caster, where he was successfully engaged in the 
manufacture of German locks until his decease. 
This event occurred in 1876, when in his fifty- 
second year. He was a Democrat in politics and 
popular in his neighborhood. He married Sabina 
W^ise, a native of this county, who departed this 
life when our subject was only four years of age. 
During the late war W. H. Jordan served in 
Company A, Seventy-ninth Pennsylvania Infantry, 
for eighteen months. He participated in many of 
the hard fought battles of that period, performing 
the duties of a private in a most praiseworthy 
manner. He was an active member of George H. 
Thomas Post No. 84, G. A. R., during the remain- 
der of his life. 

The original of this sketch was the eldest of the 
parental family, comprising three children, one of 
whom is now deceased. Henry H. is engaged in 
the laundry business on East King Street in this 



city. .Tohn II. horn in Lancaster October 14, 
IS.Jo, and wlicii m 1;h1 (if fourteen years 
learning llie trade of a locksmith under the in- 
struction of his father and Henry Young, who was 
his partner. Later he worked as a journeyman in 
this city and Philadelphia, and in 1882 purchased 
Mr. Young's interest and he has since successfully 
conducted the business alone. lie does light black- 
smith work, has two fires and employs several men. 
As l)efore stated, he is the onl3' safe expert in the 
city and thus is always kept busy. 

The marriage of our subject with Miss Rachel, 
daughter of John Keys, was celebrated in this city 
in the fall of 1876. Mrs. .Jordan was born in 
Philadelphia and is a well educated and a most es- 
timable lady. Her father served during the late 
war in a Pennsylvania Regiment and was killed 
at the battle of Weldon Railroad. He was a very 
large, strong man and stood six feet two and one- 
half inches. 

To Mr. and Mrs. .lordan there were born tliree 
children: William D., engaged in the dry-goods 
business; Clara L. and ,Iohn H. Our subject and his 
family occupy a comfortable residence at No. 335 
Cliester Street. The former is a member in good 
standing of the Trinit}- Lutheran Church. He is 
a Knigiit of Pythias, belonging to Lodge No. 88, 
and in politics is a stanch Democrat. 

rpr IMOS I). AILES, Superintendent of the 
/— \ Conestiiga Cork Works, is the oldest prac- 
tical cork man in Lancaster. He was born 
in the city of Fairfield, Lancaster County, April 
14, 1842. His father, Amos Ailes, was born in the 
same place. The grandfather, Amos, a farmer by 
occupation, was of Scotch-Irish descent, and a 
soldier in the War of 1812. Our sultject's father 
was a blacksmith in his younger days, but later in 
life removed to a farm in Fulton Township. His 

mother, Margaret Cline Wenditz, was born in 
Strasburg, of German descent, and died at Lan- 
caster, aged sevcnt3'-two j-ears. Amos D. is one 
of a family- of ten children, six of whom are now 
living. Isaac was in a Maryland battery during 
the Civil War and now resides at Lancaster. Our 
subject was the oldest child; he was reared on a 
farm, obtained his education at the public schools, 
I .and in August, 1862, enlisted as a member of the 
Thirteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, being in Com- 
pany C. He was mustered in at Philadelphia and 
belonged to the Army of the Potomac, and partici- 
pated in the Shenandoah Valley campaign. He 
was taken prisoner at Fisher's Hill with ten others 
of his regiment and sent to Libliy Prison. After 
enduring the terrible hardships in that prison for 
six weeks, he was sent to Belle Isle, and after two 
weeks was paroled, and finally exchanged. He 
then joined his regiment at Winchester. After 
Grant took command he was at the front until 
Lee's surrender, when he was sent to Raleigh, N. C, 
to help General Sherman and was mustered out 
in August, 1865, after which he took a course 
in Bryant it Stratton's Commercial College at Phil- 
adelphia. The next eighteen months of his life 
were spent as a traveling salesman for a drug house. 
He traveled by team through Missouri. In 1868 
he was married at Kansas City, Mo., to Miss Flor- 
ence V. Rayel, the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. John 
Ra3'el, who owned a plantatiou in Tennessee. After 
his engagement on the road, he returned to Seda- 
lia. Mo., near which pLace he engaged in farming, 
and there remained until 1873. He then returned 
to Lancaster, and two years later embarked in the 
cork business with a Mr. Cadwell, for whom he 
kept books two years, and then went out as a trav- 
eling salesman, continuing at this for seven years 
during which time he traveled and kept the books 
for the concern. In 1882 the business was de 
stro3'ed by fire, but the good will of the concern 
was sold to Gideon Arnold, and our subject was 
employed as Superintendent and head bookkeeper. 
The works now employ one hundred and seventy 
hands and is a very successful plant. Our sub- 
ject has erected two fine residences on North Lime 
Street, and one near North Duke Street. Mr. and 
Mrs. Ailes are the parents of two children, Robert, 



a bookkeeper in Philadelphia, and Stella B., Mis. 
Edge, of Atlantic City, N. J. Mv. Ailes is an hon- 
ored member of Herschel Lodge, I. O. O. P., the 
Ro3'al Arcanum, the Artisans and the Ancient Or- 
der of United Workmen. Pi.ilitically, he is a Re- 
publican and an active participant in local and 
stale politics. 

DR. II. D. KNIGHT, a well known dentist 
of Lancaster, was born in Herkimer Coun- 
ty, N. Y., November 16, 1833, the sou of 
Rev. Joshua Knight, a native of Connecticut, and 
the grandson of David Knight, who was of old 
Puritan stock. Res'. Mr. Knight was graduated 
at Carlisle, Pa., and was pastor of the Congre- 
gational Church of Sherburne, from wliich place 
he went to Herkimer County, and iu 1840 removed 
to Rome, N. Y. For a time he conducted a drug 
business. He was of English and Scotch ancestry, 
and died at the age of eighty-two years. 

The first wife of Rev. Mr. Knight was Amanda 
Talcutt, and by that union eight children were 
born. His .second wife, our subject's mother, was 
Polly Kenyon, a native of Connecticut, who died 
at the age of forty-seven _years. This marriage 
was blessed with four children, of which oul3' one 
survives. Reared in Vienna, N. Y., our subject 
remained on the farm until twenty years of age. 
He was educated iu Adams Academy, Jefferson 
County, N. Y., and m 1851 began the study of 
dentistry at Utica, N. Y., under Dr. Alvin Blakesley, 
with whom lie remained about three years. After 
this he remained awhile in Chicago and then set- 
tled at Rockton, 111., where he practiced his pro- 

In 1800 Dr. Knight removed to Burlington, Wis., 
where he practiced until he enlisted as a soldier 
in the Union cause under Col. E. L. Butrick, of 
Milwaukee, becoming a member of Company D, 
Tiiirty-ninth Wisconsin Infantry. His time of 
service was spent principally at Meini)his, Teuu., 

and he took part in the famous raid of General 
Forrest. He was mustered out iu October and 
again resumed the practice of his i)rOfession, which 
he pursued until his licaltli failed, when he suhl out. 

In isr„s Di'. Knii^ht went to Elgin, 111., to work 
in the watch factory, where he remained seven years 
in the capacity of assistant foreman in the jewel- 
ing depaitraent. September IG, 1875, became to 
Lancaster, where he was engage<l for tluee years 
with the Adams A- Perry Watcli Co., but six months 
later the works shut down. He then resumed pro- 
fessional work. In 1878 he established an olhce 
for himself on North Queen Street, and later re- 
moved to No. 334 North Queen Street, where he is 
now located. His charming home residence is at 
No. 130 East Chestnut Street. He has a large, lu- 
crative ]jractice and stands liigh among his fellow- 
men. He is one of the Directors of the Lancaster 
(ieneral Hospital, lieh.uigs to the Executive Com- 
mittee and is one of the charter members. 

The Doctor was married in Beloit, Wis., to Miss 
Hannah Scoville, who was born in Canada; her 
paients, however, were from New York State. She 
died in Lancaster, after which our subject married 
Miss Emily C, daughter of the late George Al- 
bright. Our subject is a member of George H. 
Thomas Post No. 84, and is its surgeon. He is a 
consistent member of St. John's Lutheran Church, 
and was a member of the Board of Trustees for 
some three years. He belongs to the Harris Den- 
tal Association, and politically is a stalwart Re- 

/'^ EURGE A. MARSHALL, senior member of 
V^ ^ the wholesale and retail hardware tirm of 
Marshall & Rengier, who established them- 
selves in business in 1873, was born in Lancaster 
.lul_v 7, 1847, and was reared and educated in the 
city of his birth. When thirteen years cif age he 
commenced to learn the hardware trade with Stein- 
man cfe Co., with whom he remained thirteen years, 
Ix'coming head salesman. In 1873 Mr. Marshall, to- 
gether with Albert S. Rengier, left the emiiloyiiient 
of George M. Sleinman & Co., hardware dealers. 



and started the business at its present location, 
whicli from a small be.iifinning has, through tlie per- 
sistence and good business management of its pro- 
prietors, grown to its present proportions. They 
now have a building 32x140 feet in size, three 
stories high, with a warehouse 32x60 feet, two 
stories high, located at Nos. 9 and II South (^ueen 

Our suliject was married October 30, 1.^79, at 
Lancaster to Miss Maria L. Good, a native of Lan- 
caster County. She is a daugliter of John B. 
Good, an attorney. By this marriage two children 
have been born, Ella M. and Clara C. Mr. Mar- 
shall is a member of the Free & Accepted BLasons, 
as well as of the chapter and commandery, and 
is Pastmaster of all the chairs. He also belongs 
to the Odd Fellows' order and to the Knights of 
Pythias. He was a member of the building com- 
mittee that constructed the first Methodist Church 
edifice, which cost §83,000. He is active in church 
and Sunday-school work, and was librarian for ten 
years. Politically he is a Republican. 

It may be added that the Good family came to 
Weaverland in 1734 from (Germany, and were 
Mennonites. There were two brothers, -lacob and 
Christian Good. The latter reared a family of 
seventeen children, six sons and eleven daughters; 
one of these sons, .Jacob, was the grandfather of 
.Tohn r,. (iiHid. The latter was Ijorn in Brecknock 
Township; he was elected Justice of the Peace in 
the spring of 1847, and was twice re-elected. He 
was also a surveyor, and followed that until he 
located in Lancaster in the spring of 1858. He 
also iiracticed law during the last years of his life. 

THOMAS PKXDERGAST is tlie proprietor 
of the American Horological Institute, a 
tcehnieal school, which has a strong staff of 
instructors and is one of the imiwrtant local in- 
dustries of Lancaster. It was established many 
years ago in Philadelphia, and its reputation as a 

mechanical training school i 
established all over the coun 

(_)ur suljject is 

at the head of the institution, but prior to taking 
charge of it was Superintendent of a large watch 

Our suliject was born in Boston, Mass., April 23, 
1847, and is the son of Pierce Pendergasl, also a 
native of that state, and in turn the scui of John 
Peudergast, who was born in Ireland. He was an 
Orangeman, and upon emigrating to tlie United 
States located where now stands South Boston, 
Mass., where he carried on farm pursuits. In 
religion he was a consistent member of the Pres- 
byterian Church. The father of our subject is 
now living in Common wealth, a suburb of Boston, 
where he was the proprietor of a line market until 
his decease in 18.5.3. He married Miss Catherine 
Burke, born near South Adams, Mass., and the 
daughter of Edward Burke, a native of Ireland. 
Mrs. Pendergast is still living, making her home in 
Watertown, Mass. She too is a member of the 
Presbyterian Church and is seventy-eight years of 

The parental family of our subject included five 
children, all of whom are living, and Thomas was 
the eldest but one. James served during the late 
war as a member of the Forty-fourth Massachu- 
setts Infantry; he is now living in Chicago, 111., 
and is a retired manufacturer. Pierce B., Jr., an- 
other son, is a commission merchant in Boston; 
Frank is also engaged in that business in the same 
city, and Mary, the only daughter, is the wife of 
.lames McDonald, of Boston. 

The original of this sketch received his educa- 
tion in the public schools of his native city, and 
in August, 1864, ran away from home and enlisted 
in Company K, Fifth Massachusetts Infantry, as a 
drummer boy. In that capacity he participated in 
the battles of Kingston, N. C, Whitehall and 
Goldsboro. In the latter battle he was wounded 
by a musket ball and was onlj^ enabled to crawl off 
the field, where he was picked up by the ambulance 
and conveyed to the hospital. In July, 1865, he 
was honorably discharged, and returning home, was 
nursed b.ack to health by his good mother. 

When fully recovered, young Pendergast ap- 
prenticed himself to learn the watchmaker's trade, 
receiving for his first pay fifty cents per week. In 
1867 he went to Elyin, 111., where he entered the 



watch factory, receiving for liis salary 875 per 
montli. His abilit}- was soon recognized, and be- 
fore long he was placed in charge of a department 
cmplojing four hundred and twenty men. In 
1879 Mr. Pendergast went to Rockford, 111., and 
for two years was foreman of the jewel and en- 
graving departments of the factory there. 

In 1881 the original of this sketch came to 
Lancaster, where he was soon offered the position 
of foreman of the engraving department of the 
Lancaster Watch Company, and in 1892 was given 
entire charge of the Keystone Watch Company, 
superintending the same until it was closed in 
1893. That year our subject went to Philadel- 
phia, and buying out the Horological Institute, 
moved it to this city and has since conducted it 
successfully, having as many as sixt3' pupils. It 
occupies large, well ventilated quarters, wherein 
the students are taught watchmaking, engraving, 
jewelry manufacturing, watch repairing, etc. An 
important department connected with the insti- 
tute is the teaching of optical scie-jce. and not a 
few of the students have added this to their other 
branches. The discipline is as strict as in any 
other school or college, and the instructors are the 
best to be found anywhere. 

Our subject, who has had twenty years' exjieri- 
ence in the great Elgin and Waltham factories, ex- 
ercises a careful supervision over the institute. 
He is the Dean of the faculty, the Principal of 
the school and undoubtedly the best instructor in 
the country. IIis skill as an engraver and watcli- 
maker is unrivaled, and many beautiful specimens 
of his work are evidence of this fact. Of the 
eight institutions of the kind in America, the 
American Horological is known as the "Old Re- 
liable," and under its present management its fu- 
ture promises to be a brilliant one. 

Thomas Pendergast was married in 1879, in 
Elgin, to Miss Marj-, sister of Judge Eugene 
Clifford, of Chicago. She became the mother of 
three children, Eugene, Madge and Fred. She de- 
parted this life in 1882. The second union of our 
subject occurred in 1888, at which time Miss 
Flora Mingle became his wife. Siie was born in 
Huntingdon County, this state, and lias borne her 
husband a son, David Harold. Socially our sub- 

ject is a Knight of, belonging to the lodge 
in Elgin. In religious affairs he belongs to the 
First Presliyterian Church, and in politics votes 
the straight Rei)ublican ticket. 

S AMI-EL GOXTNER. whose P,,stotlice ad- 
dresb is Safe Harbor, is one of the most 
highly respected citizens of Conestoga 
Township, Lancaster County. His father, who bore 
the Ciu-isti;m name of Daniel, was born in Lebanon 
County. Pa., and in liis early liusiness career was a 
currier and tanner. Suljsequentl}' he abandoned 
that trade and became a contractor. From there 
he went to York County, Pa., where under his 
supervision the York Furnace was constructed. 
During the War of 1812, he a member of tiie 
Light Horse Cavalry and at all times, whether in 
peace or war, was patriotic and ready to surrender 
his personal interests for the benefit of the general 
|)uli!ic. In his political belief he was a Reijublican, 
and religiously was identified with tlie Lutheran 
denomination. During Ins last years he was en- 
gaged in farming in Conestoga Township and 
then lived retired from active cares until his death, 
which occurre.l in 187;i. His first wife was a Miss 
Alliriglil and Ijore liini two sons, (ieorge and Will- 
iam. His second wife bore the maiden name of 
Caroline Garett, and lier chihlren are named, ."Sam- 
uel and John. 

Samuel (iontner was horn in Shacferstown, 
Lebanon County, Pa., November 10, 1821, and 
there passed his early years. He received a good 
common school education in Conestoga Township 
and also in the schools of Lower Chanford Town- 
ship, York County, in which districts his father 
the other members of the family iiappened to be 
living. On leaving school at the age of nineteen 
yeai'S he devoted his energies to the millwright's 
trade and after learning the business made it his 
principal occupation in life. By means of his inher- 
ited qualities of industry, perseverance and thrift 



he has made a good living for himself and family 
and is suiTouudc'd with the necessities and comforts 
of life. For the past fift^- years he has made his home 
m this t(i\vn.-hi|. and bears an excellent re|)utation 
for his \vi.ith\- i|u:ilities among his neighbors, who 
have known liiui for years and have tlius liad 
ample opportunities for becoming familiar with 
his abilities and traits. 

November ;i. l.s 12. .Mr. (lontner was married 
to.Miss Mary A. ili-s. who was born in the year 
1826 ill Manor Township. Mrs. (ionlner is a lady 
of amiable disposition and has been a true wife and 
loving mother. Eight children have blessed their 
home, five of the luinilier being sons, and <iiily one 
of the family circle has been gatlieieii to the bet- 
ter land by the angel of death, in tlie order of 
their birth they are as follows: .Sarah A., Mrs. Ilart- 
man; Catheri