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Full text of "Portrait and biographical record of Clinton, Washington, Marion and Jefferson Counties, Illinois : containing biographical sketches of prominent and representative citizens of the counties : together with biographies and portraits of all the governors of the state and the presidents of the United States"

'LI B RA FLY 

OF THE 

UN IVERSITY 
OF ILLINOIS 

977.379 
P82.8 



II RECORD 




Clinton, Washington, flarion 



and Jefferson Counties, 

ILLINOIS. * 



Containing Biographical Sketches of Prominent 

f HMD + 

Representative Citizens of the Counties, 

Together with Biographies and Portraits of all the 

Governors of the State and the Presidents of the United States, 



CHICAGO: 

CHAPMAN PUBLISHING CO. 

1894, 







HE greatest of English historians, MACAULAT, and one of the most brilliant writers of 
the present century, has said: "The history of a country is best told in a record of the 
lives of its people." In conformity with this idea the PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL 
RECORD o f tn ig coun ty nas Vjeen prepared. Instead of going to musty records, and 
taking therefrom dry statistical matter that can be appreciated by but few, oui 
air corps of writers have gone to the people, the men and women who have, by theii 
enterprise and industry, brought the county to rank second to none among those 
comprising this great and noble State, and from their lips have the story of their life 
struggles. No more interesting or instructive matter could be presented to an intelli- 
gent public. In this volume will be found a record of many whose lives are worthy the 
imitation of coming generations. It tells how some, commencing life in poverty, by 
industry and economy have accumulated wealth. It tells how others, with limited 

> advantages for securing an education, have become learned men and women, with an 
; influence extending throughout the length and breadth of the land. It tells of men who 
have risen from the lower walks of life to eminence as statesmen, and whose names have 
become famous. It tells of those in every walk in life who have striven to succeed, and 
records how that success has usually crowned their efforts. It tells also of many, very 
many, who, not seeking the applause of the world, have pursued "the even tenor of their way," content 
to have it said of them as Christ said of the woman performing a deed of mercy "they have done what 
they could." It tells how that many in the pride and strength of young manhood left the plow and the 
anvil, the lawyer's office and the counting-room, left every trade and profession, and at their country's 
call went forth valiantly "to do or die," and how through their efforts the Union was restored and peace 
once more reigned in the land. In the life of every man and of every woman is a lesson that should not 
be lost upon those who follow after. 

Coming generations will appreciate this volume and preserve it as a sacred treasure, from the fact 
that it contains so much that would never find its way into public records, and which would otherwise be 
inaccessible. Great care has been taken in the compilation of the work and every opportunity possible 
given to those represented to insure correctness in what has been written, and the publishers natter them- 
selves that they give to their readers a work with few errors of consequence. In addition to the biograph 
ical sketches, portraits of a number of representative citizens are given. 

The faces of some, and biographical sketches of many, will be missed in this volume. For this the 
publishers are not to blame. Not having a proper conception of the work, some refused to give the 
information necessary to compile a sketch, while others were indifferent. Occasionally some member of 
the family would oppose the enterprise, and on account of such opposition the support of the interested 
one would be withheld. In a few instances men could never be found, though repeated calls were made 
at their residence or place of business. 

June, 1894. CHAPMAN PUBLISHING Co. 



71861 




Governors of Illinois, 



AND OF THE 





D8QVS. 




GEORGE WASHINGTON. 



**S~ HE Father of our Country was born in West- 
|C moreland County, Va., February 22, 1732. 
\*) His parents were Augustine and Mary (Ball) 
Washington. The family to which he belonged 
has not been satisfactorily traced in England. 
His great-grandfather, John Washington, emi- 
grated to Virginia about 1657, and became a 
prosperous planter. He had two sons, Lawrence 
and John. The former married Mildred Warner, 
and had three children, John, Augustine and 
Mildred. Augustine, the father of George, first 
married Jane Butler, who bore him four children, 
two of whom, Lawrence and Augustine, reached 
maturity. Of six children by his second mar- 
riage, George was the eldest, the others being 
Betty, Samuel, John Augustine, Charles and 
Mildred. 

Augustine Washington, the father of George, 
died in 1743, leaving a large landed property. 
To his eldest son, Lawrence, he bequeathed an 
estate on the Potomac, afterwards known as Mt. 
Vernon, and to George he left the parental resi- 
dence. George received only such education as 
the neighborhood schools afforded, save for a 
short time after he left school, when he received 
private instruction in mathematics. His spelling 
was rather defective. Remarkable stories are 
told of his great physical strength and develop- 
ment at an early age. He was an acknowledged 
leader among his companions, and was early 
noted for that nobleness of character, fairness and 
veracity which characterized his whole life. 

When George was fourteen years old he had a 
desire to go to sea, and a midshipman's warrant 
was secured for him, but through the opposition 
of his mother the idea was abandoned. Two 



years later he was appointed surveyor to the im- 
mense estate of Lord Fairfax. In this business 
he spent three years in a rough frontier life, 
gaining experience which afterwards proved very 
essential to him. In 1751, though only nineteen 
years of age, he was appointed Adjutant.with the 
rank of Major, in the Virginia militia, then being 
trained for active service against the French and 
Indians. Soon after this he sailed to the West 
Indies with his brother Lawrence, who went there 
to restore his health. They soon returned, and 
in the summer of 1752 Lawrence died, leaving a 
large fortune to an infant daughter, who did not 
long survive him. On her demise the estate of 
Mt. Vernon was given to George. 

Upon the arrival of Robert Dinwiddie as Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of Virginia, in 1752, the militia 
was reorganized, and the province divided into 
four military districts, of which the northern was 
assigned to Washington as Adjutant-General. 
Shortly after this a very perilous mission, which 
others had refused, was assigned him and ac- 
cepted. This was to proceed to the French post 
near Lake Erie, in northwestern Pennsylvania. 
The distance to be traversed was about six hun- 
dred miles. Winter was at hand, and the journey 
was to be made without military escort, through 
a territory occupied by Indians. The trip was a 
perilous one, and several times he nearly lost his 
life, but he returned in safety and furnished a full 
and useful report of his expedition. A regiment 
of three hundred men was raised in Virginia and 
put in command of Col. Joshua Fry, and Maj. 
Washington was commissioned Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel. Active war was then begun against the 
French and Indians, in which Washington took 



GEORGE WASHINGTON. 



a most important part. In the memorable event 
of July 9, 1755, known as "Braddock's defeat," 
Washington was almost the only officer of dis- 
tinction who escaped from the calamities of the 
day with life and honor. 

Having been for five years in the military serv- 
ice, and having vainly sought promotion in the 
royal army, he took advantage of the fall of Ft. Du- 
quesne and the expulsion of the French from the 
valley of the Ohio to resign his commission. Soon 
after he entered the Legislature, where, although 
not a leader, he took an active and important 
part. January 17, 1759, he married Mrs. Martha 
(Dandridge) Custis, the wealthy widow of John 
Parke Custis. 

When the British Parliament had closed the 
port of Boston, the cry went up throughout the 
provinces, ' ' The cause oi Boston is the cause of 
us all! '' It was then, at the suggestion of Vir- 
ginia, that a congress of all the colonies was 
called to meet at Philadelphia September 5, 
1774, to secure their common liberties, peaceably 
if possible. To this congress Col. Washington 
was sent as a delegate. On May 10, 1775, the 
congress re-assembled, when the hostile -inten- 
tions of England were plainly apparent. The 
battles of Concord and Lexington had been fought, 
and among the first acts of this congress was the 
election of a commander-in-chief of the Colonial 
forces. This high and responsible office was con- 
ferred upon Washington, who was still a member 
of the congress. He accepted it on June 19, but 
upon the express condition that he receive no sal- 
ary. He would keep an exact account of ex- 
penses, and expect congress to pay them and 
nothing more. It is not the object of this sketch 
to trace the military acts of Washington, to whom 
the fortunes and liberties of the people of this 
country were so long confided. The war was 
conducted by him under every possible disadvan- 
tage; and while his forces often met with reverses, 
yet he overcame every obstacle, and after seven 
years of heroic devotion and matchless skill he 
gained liberty for the greatest nation of earth. 
On December 23, 1783, Washington, in a parting 
address of surpassing beauty, resigned his com- 
mission as Commander-in-Chief of the army to the 



Continental Congress sitting at Annapolis. He 
retired immediately to Mt. Venion and resumed 
his occupation as a farmer and planter, shunning 
all connection with public life. 

In February, 1789, Washington was unani- 
mously elected President, and at the expiration 
of his first term he was unanimously re-elected. 
At the end of this term many were anxious that he 
be re-elected, but he absolutely refused a third 
nomination. On March 4, 1797, at the expiration 
of his second term as President, he returned to his 
home, hoping to pass there his few remaining 
years free from the annoyances of public life. 
Later in the year, however, his repose seemed 
likely to be interrupted by war with France. At 
the prospect of such a war he was again urged to 
take command of the army, but he chose his sub- 
ordinate officers and left them the charge of mat- 
ters in the field, which he superintended from his 
home. In accepting the command, he made the 
reservation that he was not to be in the field until 
it was necessary. In the midst of these prepara- 
tions his life was suddenly cut off. December 1 2 
he took a severe cold from a ride in the rain, 
which, settling in his throat, produced inflamma- 
tion, and terminated fatally on the night of the 
1 4th. On the i8th his body was borne with mili- 
tary honors to its final resting-place, and interred 
in the family vault at Mt. Vernon. 

Of the character of Washington it is impossible 
to speak but in terms of the highest respect and 
admiration. The more we see of the operations 
of our government, and the more deeply we feel 
the difficulty of uniting all opinions in a common 
interest, the more highly we must estimate the 
force of his talent and character, which have been 
able to challenge the reverence of all parties, 
and principles, and nations, and to win a fame as 
extended as the limits of the globe, and which we 
cannot but believe will be as lasting as the exist- 
ence of man. 

In person, Washington was unusually tall, erect 
and well proportioned, and his muscular strength 
was great. His features were of a beausiful sym- 
metry. He commanded respect without any ap- 
pearance of haughtiness, and was ever serious 
without being dull. 



JOHN ADAMS. 



(TORN ADAMS, the second President and the 
I first Vice- President of the United States, was 
(2) born in Braintree (now Quiucy) Mass., and 
about ten miles from Boston, October 19, 1735. 
His great-grandfather, Henry Adams, emigrated 
from England about 1640, with a family of eight 
sons, and settled at Braintree. The parents of 
John were John and Susannah (Boylston) 
Adams. His father, who was a farmer of limited 
means, also engaged in the business of shoe- 
making. He gave his eldest son, John, a classical 
education at Harvard College. John graduated 
in 1755, and at once took charge of the school at 
Worcester, Mass. This he found but a ' ' school 
of affliction," from which he endeavored to gain 
relief by devoting himself, in addition, to the 
study of law. For this purpose he placed himself 
under the tuition of the only lawyer in the town. 
He had thought seriously of the clerical profes- 
sion, but seems to have been turned from this by 
what he termed " the frightful engines of ecclesi- 
astical councils, of diabolical malice, and Calvin- 
istic good nature, ' ' of the operations of which he 
had been a witness in his native town. He was 
well fitted for the legal profession, possessing a 
clear, sonorous voice, being ready and fluent of 
speech, and having quick perceptive powers. He 
gradually gained a practice, and in 1764 married 
Abigail Smith, a daughter of a minister, and a 
lady of superior intelligence. Shortly after his j 
marriage, in 1765, the attempt at parliamentary 
taxation turned him from- law to politics. He 
took initial steps toward holding a town meeting, 
and the resolutions he offered on the subject be- 
came very popular throughout the province, and 
were adopted word for word by over forty differ- 
ent towns. He moved to Boston in 1768, and 
became one of the most courageous and promi- 
nent advocates of the popular cause, and was 
chosen a member of the General Court (the leg- 
islature) in 1770. 

Mr. Adams was chosen one of the first dele- 



gates from Massachusetts to the first Continent- 
al Congress, which met in 1774. Here he dis- 
tinguished himself by his capacity for business 
and for debate, and advocated the movement for 
independence against the majority of the mem- 
bers. In May, 1776, he moved and carried a res- 
olution in Congress that the Colonies should 
assume the duties of self-government. He was a 
prominent member of the committee of five ap- 
pointed June 1 1 to prepare a declaration of inde- 
pendence. This article was drawn by Jefferson, 
but on Adams devolved the task of battling it 
through Congress in a three-days debate. 

On the day after the Declaration of Independ- 
ence was passed, while his soul was yet warm 
with the glow of excited feeling, he wrote a letter 
to his wife, which, as we read it now, seems to 
have been dictated by the spirit of prophecy. 
"Yesterday," he says, "the greatest question 
was decided that ever was debated in America; 
and greater, perhaps, never was or will be de- 
cided among men. A resolution was passed 
without one dissenting colony, 'that these United 
States are, and of right ought to be, free and in- 
dependent states.' The day is passed. The 
Fourth of July, 1776, will be a memorable epoch 
in the history of America. I am apt to believe it 
will be celebrated by succeeding generations as 
the great anniversary festival. It ought to be 
commemorated as the day of deliverance by 
solemn acts of devotion to Almighty God. It 
ought to be solemnized with pomp, shows, games, 
sports, guns, bells, bonfires and illuminations 
from one end of the continent to the other, from 
this time forward forever. You will think me 
transported with enthusiasm, but I am not. I 
am well aware of the toil and blood and treas- 
ure that it will cost to maintain this declaration 
and support and defend these States; yet, through 
all the gloom, I can see the rays of light and 
glory. I can see that the end is worth more than 
all the means, and that posterity will triumph, 



JOHN ADAMS. 



although you and I may rue, which I hope we 
shall not." 

In November, 1777, Mr. Adams was appointed 
a delegate to France, and to co-operate with Ben- 
jamin Franklin and Arthur Lee, who were then 
in Paris, in the endeavor to obtain assistance in 
arms and money from the French government. 
This was a severe trial to his patriotism, as it 
separated him from his home, compelled him to 
cross the ocean in winter, and exposed him to 
great peril of capture by the British cruisers, who 
were seeking him. He left France June 17, 
1779. In September of the same year he was 
again chosen to go to Paris, and there hold him- 
self in readiness to negotiate a treaty of peace and 
of commerce with Great Britain, as soon as the 
British cabinet might be found willing to listen 
to such proposals. He sailed for France in No- 
vember, and from there he went to Holland, where 
he negotiated important loans and formed im- 
portant commercial treaties. 

Finally, a treaty of peace with England was 
signed, January 2 1 , 1783. The re-action from the 
excitement, toil and anxiety through which Mr. 
Adams had passed threw him into a fever. After 
suffering from a continued fever and becoming 
feeble and emaciated, he was advised to go to 
England to drink the waters of Bath. While in 
England, still drooping and desponding, he re- 
ceived dispatches from his own government urg- 
ing the necessity of his going to Amsterdam to 
negotiate another loan. It was winter, his health 
was delicate, yet he immediately set out, and 
through storm , on sea, on horseback and foot, he 
made the trip. 

February 24, 1785, Congress appointed Mr. 
Adams envoy to the Court of St. James. Here 
he met face to face the King of England, who 
had so long regarded him as a traitor. As Eng- 
land did not condescend to appoint a minister to 
the United States, and as Mr. Adams felt that he 
was accomplishing but little, he sought permis- 
sion to return to his own country, where he ar- 
rived in June, 1788. 

When Washington was first chosen President, 
John Adams, rendered illustrious by his signal 
services at home and abroad, was chosen Vice- 



President. Again, at the second election of Wash- 
ington as President, Adams was chosen Vice- 
President. In 1796, Washington retired from 
public life, and Mr. Adams was elected President, 
though not without much opposition. Serving 
in this office four years, he was succeeded by Mr. 
Jefferson, his opponent in politics. 

While Mr. Adams was Vice-President the 
great French Revolution shook the continent of 
Europe, and it was upon this point that he was 
at issue with the majority of his countrymen, led 
by Mr. Jefferson. Mr. Adams felt no sympathy 
with the French people in their struggle, for he 
had no confidence in their power of self-govern- 
ment, and he utterly abhorred the class of atheist 
philosophers who, he claimed, caused it. On the 
other hand, Jefferson's sympathies were strongly 
enlisted in behalf of the French people. Hence 
originated the alienation between these distin- 
tinguished men, and the two powerful parties were 
thus soon organized, with Adams at the head of 
the one whose sympathies were with England, 
and Jefferson leading the other in sympathy with 
France. 

The Fourth of July, 1826, which completed the 
half-century since the signing of the Declaration 
of Independence, arrived, and there were but 
three of the signers of that immortal instrument 
left upon the earth to hail its morning light. 
And, as it is well known, on that day two of 
these finished their earthly pilgrimage, a coinci- 
dence so remarkable as to seem miraculous. For 
a few days before Mr. Adams had been rapidly 
failing, and on the morning of the Fourth he 
found himself too weak to rise from his bed. On 
being requested to name a toast for the cus- 
tomary celebration of the day, he exclaimed 
"Independence forever!" When the day was 
ushered in by the ringing of bells and the firing 
of cannons, he was asked by one of his attend- 
ants if he knew what day it was ? He replied, 
' ' O yes, it is the glorious Fourth of July God 
bless it God bless you all!" In the course of 
the day he said, "It is a great and glorious 
day." The last words he uttered were, "Jeffer- 
son survives." But he had, at one o'clock, 
resigned his spirit into the hands of his God. 



OF THE 

UMIVC.SITY of t l - 



THOMAS JEFFERSON. 



^"HOMAS JEFFERSON was bom April 2 , 

I C 1743, at Shadwell, Albemarle County, Va. 
\S) His parents were Peter and Jane (Ran- 
dolph) Jefferson, the former a native of Wales, 
and the latter born in London. To them were 
born six daughters and two sons, of whom Thomas 
was the elder. When fourteen years of age his 
father died. He received a most liberal educa- 
tion, having been kept diligently at school from 
the time he was five years of age. In 1760 he 
entered William and Mary College. Williams^ 
burg was then the seat of the Colonial court, and 
it was the abode of fashion and splendor. Young 
Jefferson, who was then seventeen years old, lived 
somewhat expensively, keeping fine horses, and 
going much into gay society; yet he was ear- 
nestly devoted to his studies, and irreproachable in 
his morals. In the second year of his college 
course, moved by some unexplained impulse, he 
discarded his old companions and pursuits, and 
often devoted fifteen hours a day to hard study. 
He thus attained very high intellectual culture, 
and a like excellence in philosophy and the lan- 
guages. 

Immediately upon leaving college he began the 
study of law. For the short time he continued 
in the practice of his profession he rose rapidly, 
and distinguished himself by his energy and 
acuteness as a lawyer. But the times called for 
greater action . The policy of England had awak- 
ened the spirit of resistance in the American Col- 
onies, and the enlarged views which Jefferson had 
ever entertained soon led him into active politi- 
cal life. In 1 769 he was chosen a member of the 
Virginia House of Burgesses. In 1775 he mar- 



ried Mrs. Martha Skelton, a very beautiful, 
wealthy, and highly accomplished young widow. 
In 1775 he was sent to the Colonial Congress, 
where, though a silent member, his abilities as a 
writer and a reasoner soon become known, and he 
was placed upon a number of important com- 
mittees, and was chairman of the one appointed 
for the drawing up of a declaration of independ- 
ence. This committee consisted of Thomas Jef- 
ferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger 
Sherman and Robert R. Livingston. Jefferson, 
as chairman, was appointed to draw up the paper. 
Franklin and Adams suggested a few verbal 
changes before it was submitted to Congress. On 
June 28, a few slight changes were made in it by 
Congress, and it was passed and signed July 4, 
1776. 

In 1779 Mr. Jefferson was elected successor to 
Patrick Henry as Governor of Virginia. At one 
time the British officer Tarleton sent a secret 

i expedition to Monticello to capture the Governor. 

| Scarcely five minutes elapsed after the hurried 
escape of Mr. Jefferson and his family ere his 
mansion was in possession of the British troops. 
His wife's health, never very good, was much 
injured by this excitement, and in the summer 
of 1782 she died. 

Mr. Jefferson was elected to Congress in 1783. 
Two years later he was appointed Minister Pleni- 
potentiary to France. Returning to the United 
States in September, 1789, he became Secretary 
of State in Washington's cabinet. This position 
he resigned January i, 1794. In 1797, he was 
chosen Vice- President, and four years later was 
elected President over Mr. Adams, with Aaron 



28 



THOMAS JEFFERSON. 



Burr as Vice-President. In 1804 he was re- 
elected with wonderful unanimity, George Clin- 
ton being elected Vice-President. 

The early part of Mr. Jefferson's second ad- 
ministration was disturbed by an event which 
threatened the tranquillity and peace of the Union; 
this was the conspiracy of Aaron Burr. Defeated 
in the late election to the Vice-Presidency, and 
led on by an unprincipled ambition, this extraor- 
dinary man formed the plan of a military ex- 
pedition into the Spanish territories on our south- 
western frontier, for the purpose of forming there 
a new republic. This was generally supposed 
to have been a mere pretext; and although it has 
not been generally known what his real plans 
were, there is no doubt that they were of a far 
more dangerous character. 

In 1809, at the expiration of the second term 
for which Mr. Jefferson had been elected, he de- 
termined to retire from political life. For a period 
of nearly forty years he had been continually be- 
fore the public, and all that time had been em- 
ployed in offices of the greatest trust and respon- 
sibility. Having thus devoted the best part of 
his life to the service of his country, he now felt 
desirous of that rest which his declining years re- 
quired, and upon the organization of the new ad- 
ministration, in March, 1809, he bade fare well for- 
ever to public life and retired to Monticello, his 
famous country home, which, next to Mt. Vernon, 
was the most distinguished residence in the land. 

The Fourth of July, 1826, being the fiftieth an- 
niversary of the Declaration of American Inde- 
pendence, great preparations were made in every 
part of the Union for its celebration as the nation's 
jubilee, and the citizens of Washington, to add to 
the solemnity of the occasion, invited Mr. Jeffer- 
son, as the framer and one of the few surviving 
signers of the Declaration, to participate in their 
festivities. But an illness, which had been of 
several weeks' duration and had been continually 
increasing, compelled him to decline the invita- 
tion. 

On the ad of July the disease under which he 
was laboring left him, but in such a reduced 
state that his medical attendants entertained no 
hope of his recovery. From this time he was 



perfectly sensible that his last hour was at hand. 
On the next day, which was Monday, he asked 
of those around him the day of the month, and 
on being told it was the 3d of July, he ex- 
pressed the earnest wish that he might be per- 
mitted to breathe the air of the fiftieth anniver- 
sary. His prayer was heard that day whose 
dawn was hailed with such rapture through our 
land burst upon his eyes, and then they were 
closed forever. And what a noble consummation 
of a noble life! To die on that day the birth- 
day of a nation the day which his own name 
and his own act had rendered glorious, to die 
amidst the rejoicings and festivities of a whole 
nation, who looked up to him as the author, un- 
der God, of their greatest blessings, was all that 
was wanting to fill up the record of his life. 

Almost at the same hour of his death, the kin- 
dred spirit of the venerable Adams, as if to bear 
him company, left the scene of his earthly honors. 
Hand in hand they had stood forth, the cham- 
pions of freedom; hand in hand, during the dark 
and desperate struggle of the Revolution, they 
had cheered and animated their desponding coun- 
trymen; for half a century they had labored to- 
gether for the good of the country, and now hand 
in hand they departed. In their lives they had 
been united in the same great cause of liberty, 
and in their deaths they were not divided. 

In person Mr. Jefferson was tall and thin, rather 
above six feet in height, but well formed; his eyes 
were light, his hair, originally red, in after life be- 
came white and silvery, his complexion was fair, 
his forehead broad, and his whole countenance 
intelligent and thoughtful. He possessed great 
fortitude of mind as well as personal courage, and 
his command of temper was such that his oldest 
and most intimate friends never recollected to 
have seen him in a passion. His manners, though 
dignified, were simple and unaffected, and his 
hospitality was so unbounded that all found at 
his house a ready welcome. In conversation he 
was fluent, eloquent and enthusiastic, and his 
language was remarkably pure and correct. He 
was a finished classical scholar, and in his writ- 
ings is discernible the care with which he formed 
his style upon the best models of antiquity. 



. 




% 



JAMES MADISON. 



(TAMES MADISON, "Father of the Consti- 

I tution," and fourth President of the United 
(2) States, was born March 16, 1757, and died 
at his home in Virginia June 28, 1836. The 
name of James Madison is inseparably connected 
with most of the important events in that heroic 
period of our country during which the founda- 
tions of this great republic were laid. He was 
the last of the founders of the Constitution of the 
United States to be called to his eternal reward. 

The Madison family were among the early emi- 
grants to the Ne%v World, landing upon the shores 
of the Chesapeake but fifteen years after the settle- 
ment of Jamestown. The father of James Madison 
was an opulent planter, residing upon a very fine 
estate called Montpelier, in Orange County, Va. 
It was but twenty-five miles from the home of Jef- 
ferson^ at Monticello, and the closest personal and 
political attachment existed between these illustri- 
ous men from their early youth until death. 

The early education of Mr. Madison was con- 
ducted mostly at home under a private tutor. At 
the age of eighteen he was sent to Princeton Col- 
lege, in New Jersey. Here he applied himself to 
study with the most imprudent zeal, allowing him- 
self for months but three hours' sleep out of the 
twenty-four. His health thus became so seriously 
impaired that he never recovered any vigor of 
constitution. He graduated in 1 77 1 , with a feeble 
body, but with a character of utmost purity, and 
a mind highly disciplined and richly stored with 
learning, which embellished and gave efficiency 
to his subsequent career. 

Returning to Virginia, he commenced the study 
of law and a course of extensive and systematic 
reading. This educational course, the spirit of 
the times in which he lived, and the society with 
which he associated, all combined to inspire him 
with a strong love of liberty, and to train him for 
his life-work as a statesman. 

In the spring of 1776, when twenty-six years of 



age, he was elected a member of the Virginia Con- 
vention to frame the constitution of the State. The 
next year (1777), he was a candidate for the Gen- 
eral Assembly. He refused to treat the whisky -lov- 
ing voters, and consequently lost his election; but 
those who had witnessed the talent, energy and 
public spirit of the modest young man enlisted 
themselves in his behalf, and he was appointed to 
the Executive Council. 

Both Patrick Henry and Thomas Jefferson were 
Governors of Virginia while Mr. Madison re- 
mained member of the Council, and their apprecia- 
tion of his intellectual, social and moral worth 
contributed not a little to his subsequent eminence. 
In the year 1 780 he was elected a member of the 
Continental Congress. Here he met the most il- 
lustrious men in our land, and he was immediately 
assigned to one of the most conspicuous positions 
among them. For three years he continued in Con- 
gress, one of its most active and influential mem- 
bers. In 1784, his term having expired, he was 
elected a member of the Virginia legislature. 

No man felt more deeply than Mr. Madison the 
utter inefficiency of the old confederacy, with no 
national government, and no power to form trea- 
ties which would be binding, or to enforce law! 
There was not any State more prominent than 
Virginia in the declaration that an efficient na- 
tional government must be formed. In January, 
1786, Mr. Madison carried a resolution through 
the General Assembly of Virginia, inviting the 
other States to appoint commissioners to meet in 
convention at Annapolis to discuss this subject. 
Five States only were represented. The conven- 
tion, however, issued another call, drawn up by 
Mr. Madison, urging all the States to send their 
delegates to Philadelphia in May, 1787, to draft 
a Constitution for the United States, to take the 
place of the Confederate League. The delegates 
met at the time appointed. Every State but 
Rhode Island was represented. George Washing- 



JAMES MADISON. 



ton was chosen president of the convention, and the 
present Constitution of the United States was then 
and there formed. There was, perhaps, no mind 
and no pen more active in framing this immortal 
document than the mind and the pen of James 
Madison. 

The Constitution, adopted by a vote of eighty-one 
to seventy-nine, was to be presented to the several 
States for acceptance. But grave solicitude was 
felt. Should it be rejected, we should be left but a 
conglomeration of independent States, with but 
little power at home and little respect abroad. Mr. 
Madison was elected by the convention to draw up 
an address to the people of the United States, ex- 
pounding the principles of the Constitution, and 
urging its adoption. There was great opposition 
to it at first, but at length it triumphed over all, 
and went into effect in 1789. 

Mr. Madison was elected to the House of Repre- 
sentatives in the first Congress, and soon became 
the avowed leader of the Republican party. While 
in New York attending Congress, he met Mrs. 
Todd, a young widow of remarkable power of fas- 
cination, whom he married. She was in person 
and character queenly, and probaby no lady has 
thus far occupied so prominent a position in the 
very peculiar society which has constituted our 
republican court as did Mrs. Madison. 

Mr. Madison served as Secretary of State under 
Jefferson, and at the close of his administration 
was chosen President. At this time the encroach- 
ments of England had brought us to the verge of 
war. British orders in council destroyed our com- 
merce, and our flag was exposed to constant insult. 
Mr. Madison was a man of peace. Scholarly in 
his taste, retiring in his disposition, war had no 
charms for him. But the meekest spirit can be 
roused. It makes one's blood boil, even now, to 
think of an American ship brought to upon the 
ocean by the guns of an English cruiser. A 
young lieutenant steps on board and orders the 
crew to be paraded before him. With great non- 
chalance he selects any number whom he may 
please to designate as British subjects, orders them 
down the ship's side into his boat, and places them 
on the gundeck of his man-of-war, to fight, by 
compulsion, the battles of England. This right 



of search and impressment no efforts of our Gov- 
ernment could induce the British cabinet to re- 
linquish. 

On the i8th of June, 1812, President Madison 
gave his approval to an act of Congress declaring 
war against Great Britain. Notwithstanding the 
bitter hostility of the Federal party to the war, the 
country in general approved; and Mr. Madison, 
on the 4th of March, 1813, was re-elected by a 
large majority, and entered upon his second term 
of office. This is not the place to describe the 
various adventures of this war on the land and on 
the water. Our infant navy then laid the found- 
ations of its renown in grappling with the most 
formidable power which ever swept the seas. The 
contest commenced in earnest by the appearance 
of a British fleet, early in February, 1813, in 
Chesapeake Bay, declaring nearly the whole coast 
of the United States under blockade. 

The Emperor of Russia offered his services as 
mediator. America accepted; England refused. 
A British force of five thousand men landed on the 
banks of the Patuxet River, near its entrance into 
Chesapeake Bay, and marched rapidly, by way of 
Bladensburg, upon Washington. 

The straggling little city of Washington was 
thrown into consternation. The cannon of the 
brief conflict at Bladensburg echoed through the 
streets of the metropolis. The whole population 
fled from the city. The President, leaving Mrs. 
Madison in the White House, with her carriage 
drawn up at the door to await his speedy return, 
hurried to meet the officers in a council of war. 
He met our troops utterly routed, and he could not 
go back without danger of being captured. But 
few hours elapsed ere the Presidential Mansion, 
the Capitol, and all the public buildings in Wash- 
ington were in flames. 

The war closed after two years of fighting, and 
on February 13, 1815, the treaty of peace was 
signed at Ghent. On the 4th of March, 1817, his 
second term of office expired, and he resigned the 
Presidential chair to his friend, James Monroe. 
He retired to his beautiful home at Montpelier, and 
there passed the remainder of his days. On June 
28, 1836, at the age of eighty-five years, he fell 
asleep in death. Mrs. Madison died July 12, 1849. 



JAMES MONROE. 



([AMfiS MONROE, the fifth President of the 
I United States, was born in Westmoreland 
G) County, Va., April 28, 1758. His early life 
was passed at the place of his nativity. His an- 
cestors had for many years resided in the province 
in which he was born. When he was seventeen 
years old, and in process of completing his educa- 
tion at William and Mary College, the Colonial 
Congress, assembled at Philadelphia to deliberate 
upon the unjust and manifold oppressions of Great 
Britain, declared the separation of the Colonies, 
and promulgated the Declaration of Independence. 
Had he been born ten years before, it is highly 
probable that he would have been one of the 
signers of that celebrated instrument. At this 
time he left school and enlisted among the pa- 
triots. 

He joined the army when everything looked 
hopeless and gloomy. The number of deserters 
increased from day to day. The invading armies 
came pouring in, and the Tories not only favored 
the cause of the mother country, but disheartened 
the new recruits, who were sufficiently terrified 
at the prospect of contending with an enemy 
whom they had been taught to deem invincible. 
To such brave spirits as James Monroe, who went 
right onward undismayed through difficulty and 
danger, the United States owe their political 
emancipation. The young cadet joined the ranks 
and espoused the cause of his injured country, 
with a firm determination to live or die in her 
strife for liberty. Firmly, yet sadly, he shared in 
the melancholy retreat from Harlem Heights 
and White Plains, and accompanied the dispirited j 
army as it fled before its foes through New Jersey. ! 
In four months after the Declaration of Inde- i 
pendence, the patriots had been beaten in seven 
battles. At the battle of Trenton he led the van- 
guard, and in the act of charging upon the enemy 
he received a wound in the left shoulder. 



As a reward for his bravery, Mr. Monroe was 
promoted to be captain of infantry, and, having re- 
covered from his wounds, he rejoined the army. 
He, however, receded from the line of promotion 
by becoming an officer on the staff of Lord Ster- 
ling. During the campaigns of 1777 and 1778, 
in the actions of Brandywine, Germantown and 
Monmouth, he continued aide-de-camp; but be- 
coming desirous to regain his position in the 
army, he exerted himself to collect a regiment for 
the Virginia line. This scheme failed, owing to 
the exhausted condition of the State. Upon this 
failure he entered the office of Mr. Jefferson, at 
that period Governor, and pursued with consid- 
erable ardor the study of common law. He did 
not, however, entirely lay aside the knapsack for 
the green bag, but on the invasion of the enemy 
served as a volunteer during the two years of his 
legal pursuits. 

In 1782 he was elected from King George 
County a member of the Legislature of Virginia, 
and by that body he was elevated to a seat in the 
Executive Council. He was thus honored with 
the confidence of his fellow-citizens at twenty- 
three years of age, and having at this early period 
displayed some of that ability and aptitude foi 
legislation which were afterward employed with 
unremitting energy for the public good, he was 
in the succeeding year chosen a member of the 
Congress of the United States. 

Deeply as Mr. Monroe felt the imperfections of 
the old Confederacy, he was opposed to the new 
Constitution, thinking, with many others of the 
Republican party, that it gave too much power to 
the Central Government; and not enough to the 
individual States. Still he retained the esteem 
of his friends who were its warm supporters, and 
who, notwithstanding his opposition, secured its 
adoption. In 1789 he became a member of the 
United States Senate, which office he held for 



JAMES MONROE. 



four years. Every month the line of distinction 
between the two great parties which divided the 
nation, the Federal and the Republican, was 
growing more distinct. The differences which 
now separated them lay in the fact that the Repub- 
lican party was in sympathy with France, and 
also in favor of such a strict construction of the 
Constitution as to give the Central Government as 
little power, and the State Governments as much 
power, as the Constitution would warrant; while 
the Federalists sympathized with England, and 
were in favor of a liberal construction of the Con- 
stitution, which would give as much power to the 
Central Government as that document could pos- 
sibly authorize. 

Washington was then President. England had 
espoused the cause of the Bourbons against the 
principles of the French Revolution. All Europe 
was drawn into the conflict. We were feeble and 
far away. Washington issued a proclamation of 
neutrality between these contending powers. 
France had helped us in the struggles for our 
liberties. All the despotisms of Europe were now 
combined to prevent the French from escaping 
from a tyranny a thousand-fold worse than that 
which we had endured. Col. Monroe, more mag- 
nanimous than prudent, was anxious that, at 
whatever hazard, we should help our old allies in 
their extremity. It was the impulse of a gener- 
ous and noble nature, and Washington, who could 
appreciate such a character, showed his calm, se- 
rene, almost divine, greatness, by appointing that 
very James Monroe who was denouncing the pol- 
icy of the Government, as the minister of that 
Government to the Republic of France. Mr. 
Monroe was welcomed by the National Conven- 
tion in France with the most enthusiastic dem- 
onstration. 

Shortly after his return to this country, Mr. 
Monroe was elected Governor of Virginia, and 
held the office for three years. He was again 
sent to France to co-operate with Chancellor Liv- 
ingston in obtaining the vast territory then known 
as the province of Louisiana, which France had 
but shortly before obtained from Spain. Their 
united efforts were successful. For the compara- 
tively small sum of fifteen millions of dollars, the 



entire territory of Orleans and district of Loui- 
siana were added to the United States. This was 
probably the largest transfer of real estate which 
was ever made in all the history of the world. 

From France Mr. Monroe went to England to 
obtain from that country some recognition of our 
rights as neutrals, and to remonstrate against 
those odious impressments of our seamen. But 
England was unrelenting. He again returned to 
England on the same mission, but could receive 
no redress. He returned to his home and was 
again chosen Governor of Virginia. This he soon 
resigned to accept the position of Secretary of 
State under Madison. While in this office war 
with England was declared, the Secretary of War 
resigned, and during these trying times the 
duties of the War Department were also put upon 
him. He was truly the armor-bearer of President 
Madison, and the most efficient business man in 
his cabinet. Upon the return of peace he re- 
signed the Department of War, but continued in 
the office of Secretary of State until the expira- 
tion of Mr. Madison's administration. At the 
election held the previous autumn, Mr. Monroe 
himself had been chosen President with but little 
opposition, and upon March 4, 1817, he was in- 
augurated. Four years later he was elected for 
a second term. 

Among the important measures of his Presi- 
dency were the cession of Florida to the United 
States, the Missouri Compromise, and the famous 
" Monroe doctrine." This doctrine was enun- 
ciated by him in 1823, and was as follows: " That 
we should consider any attempt on the part of 
European powers to extend their system to any 
portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our 
peace and safety," and that " we could not view 
any interposition for the purpose of oppressing or 
controlling American governments or provinces 
in any other light than as a manifestation by 
European powers of an unfriendly disposition 
toward the United States." 

At the end of his second term, Mr. Monroe re- 
tired to his home in Virginia, where he lived un- 
til 1830, when he went to New York to live with 
his son-in-law. In that city he died, on the 4th 
of July, 1831. 








3, a. 



JOHN QUINCY ADAMS. 



(JOHN QUINCY ADAMS, the sixth President 

I of the United States, was born in the rural 
(2) home of his honored father, John Adams, in 
Quincy, Mass., on the nth of July, 1767. His 
mother, a woman of exalted worth, watched over 
his childhood during the almost constant ab- 
sence of his father. When but eight years of 
age, he stood with his mother on an eminence, 
listening to the booming of the great battle on 
Bunker's Hill, and gazing out upon the smoke 
and flames billowing up from the conflagration of 
Charlestown. 

When but eleven years old he took a tearful 
adieu of his mother, to sail with his father for Eu- 
rope, through a fleet of hostile British cruisers. 
The bright, animated boy spent a year and a-half 
in Paris, where his father was associated with 
Franklin and Lee as Minister Plenipotentiary. ] 
His intelligence attracted the notice of these dis- 
tinguished men, and he received from them flat- 
tering marks of attention. 

John Adams had scarcely returned to this 
country, in 1779, ere he was again sent abroad. 
Again John Quincy accompanied his father. At 
Paris he applied himself to study with great dil- 
igence for six months, and then accompanied his 
father to Holland, where he entered first a school 
in Amsterdam, then the University at Ley den. 
About a year from this time, in 1781, when the 
manly boy was but fourteen years of age, he was 
selected by Mr. Dana, our Minister to the Rus- 
sian court, as his private secretary. 

In this school of incessant labor and of ennobl- ; 
ing culture he spent fourteen months, and then . 
returned to Holland, through Sweden, Denmark, 
Hamburg and Bremen. This long journey he 
took alone in the winter, when in his sixteenth 
year. Again he resumed his studies, under a pri- 
vate tutor, at The Hague. Then, in the spring of [ 
1782, he accompanied his father to Paris, travel- ( 
ing leisurely, and forming acquaintances with the 
most distinguished men on the continent, examin- ; 



ing architectural remains, galleries of paintings, 
and all renowned works of art. At Paris he 
again became associated with the most illustrious 
men of all lands in the contemplation of the 
loftiest temporal themes which can engross the 
human mind. After a short visit to England he 
returned to Paris, and consecrated all his energies 
to study until May, 1785, when he returned to 
America to finish his education. 

Upon leaving Harvard College at the age of 
twenty, he studied law for three years. In June, 
1794, being then but twenty-seven years of age, 
he was appointed by Washington Resident Min- 
ister at the Netherlands. Sailing from Boston in 
July, he reached London in October, where he 
was immediately admitted to the deliberations ol 
Messrs. Jay & Pinckney, assisting them in nego- 
tiating a commercial treaty with Great Britain. 
After thus spending a fortnight in London, he 
proceeded to The Hague. 

In July, 1797, he left The Hague to go to Por- 
tugal as Minister Plenipotentiary. On his way to 
Portugal, upon arriving in London, he met with 
despatches directing him to the court of Berlin, but 
requesting him to remain in London until he 
should receive his instructions. While waiting 
he was married to an American lady, to whom he 
had been previously engaged Miss Louisa Cath- 
erine Johnson, a daughter of Joshua Johnson, 
American Consul in London, and a lady en- 
dowed with that beauty and those accomplish- 
ments which eminently fitted her to move in the 
elevated sphere for which she was destined. He 
reached Berlin with his wife in November, 1797, 
where he remained until July, 1799, when, hav- 
ing fulfilled all the purposes of his mission, he so- 
licited his recall. 

Soon after his return, in 1802, he was chosen 
to the Senate of Massachusetts from Boston, and 
then was elected Senator of the United States foi 
six years, from the 4th of March, 1804. His rep- 
utation, his ability and his experience placed 



JOHN QUINCY ADAMS. 



him immediately among the most prominent and 
influential members of that body. 

In 1809, Madison succeeded Jefferson in the 
Presidential chair, and he immediately nominated 
John Quincy Adams Minister to St. Petersburgh. 
Resigning his professorship in Harvard Col- 
lege, he embarked at Boston in August, 1809. 

While in Russia, Mr. Adams was an intense 
student. He devoted his attention to the lan- 
guage and history of Russia; to the Chinese trade; 
to the European system of weights, measures and 
coins; to the climate and astronomical observa- 
tions; while he kept up a familiar acquaintance 
with the Greek and L,atin classics. In all the 
universities of Europe, a more accomplished 
scholar could scarcely be found. All through 
life the Bible constituted an important part of his 
studies. It was his rule to read five chapters 
every day. 

On the 4th of March, 1817, Mr. Monroe took 
the Presidential chair, and immediately appointed 
Mr. Adams Secretary of State. Taking leave of 
his numerous friends in public and private life in 
Europe, he sailed in June, 1819, for the United 
States. On the i8th of August, he again crossed 
the threshold of his home in Quincy. During the 
eight years of Mr. Monroe's administration, Mr. 
Adams continued Secretary of State. 

Some time before the close of Mr. Monroe's 
second term of office, new candidates began to be 
presented for the Presidency. The friends of Mr. 
Adams brought forward his name. It was an 
exciting campaign, and party spirit was never 
more bitter. Two hundred and sixty electoral 
votes were cast. Andrew Jackson received ninety- 
nine; John Quincy Adams eighty-four; William 
H. Crawford forty-one; and Henry Clay thirty- 
seven. As there was no choice by the people, 
the question went to the House of Representa- 
tives. Mr. Clay gave the vote of Kentucky to 
Mr. Adams, and he was elected. 

The friends of all the disappointed candidates 
now combined in a venomous and persistent as- 
sault upon Mr. Adams. There is nothing more 
disgraceful in the past history of our country than 
the abuse which was poured in one uninterrupted 
stream upon this high-minded, upright and pa- 



triotic man. There never was an administration 
more pure in principles, more conscientiously de- 
voted to the best interests of the country, than 
that of John Quincy Adams; and never, perhaps, 
was there an administration more unscrupulously 
and outrageously assailed. 

On the 4th of March, 1829, Mr. Adams retired 
from the Presidency, and was succeeded by An- 
drew Jackson. John C. Calhoun was elected 
Vice- President. The slavery question now be- 
gan to assume portentous magnitude. Mr. Adams 
returned to Quincy and to his studies, which he 
pursued with unabated zeal. But he was not 
long permitted to remain in retirement. In No- 
vember, 1830, he was elected Representative in 
Congress. For seventeen years, or until his death, 
he occupied the post as Representative, towering 
above all his peers, ever ready to do brave battle 
for freedom, and winning the title of "the Old 
Man Eloquent." Upon taking his seat in the 
House, he announced that he should hold him- 
self bound to no party. Probably there never 
was a member more devoted to his duties. He 
was usually the first in his place in the morning, 
and the last to leave his seat in the evening. 
Not a measure could be brought forward and es- 
cape his scrutiny. The battle which Mr. Adams 
fought, almost singly, against the pro-slavery 
party in the Government was sublime in its 
moral daring and heroism. For persisting in 
presenting petitions for the abolition of slavery, 
he was threatened with indictment by the grand 
jury, with expulsion from the House, with assas- 
sination; but no threats could intimidate him, and 
his final triumph was complete. 

On the 2ist of February, 1848, he rose on the 
floor of Congress with a paper in his hand, to 
address the speaker. Suddenly he fell, again 
stricken by paralysis, and was caught in the arms 
of those around him. For a time he was sense- 
less, as he was conveyed to the sofa in the ro- 
tunda. With reviving consciousness, he opened 
his eyes, looked calmly around and said ' ' This 
is the end of earth;" then after a moment's pause 
he added, " I am content." These were the last 
words of the grand ' ' Old Man Eloquent. ' ' 



ANDREW JACKSON. 



Gl NDREW JACKSON, the seventh President 
T I of the United States, was born in Waxhaw 
/| settlement, N. C., March 15, 1767, a few 
days after his father's death. His parents were 
poor emigrants from Ireland, and took up their 
abode in Waxhaw settlement, where they lived 
in deepest poverty. 

Andrew, or Andy, as he was universally called, 
grew up a very rough, rude, turbulent boy. His 
features were coarse, his form ungainly, and there 
was but very little in his character made visible 
which was attractive. 

When only thirteen years old he joined the 
volunteers of Carolina against the British invasion. 
In 1781, he and his brother Robert were captured 
and imprisoned for a time at Camden. A British 
officer ordered him to brush his mud-spattered 
boots. "I am a prisoner of war, not your serv- 
ant," was the reply of the dauntless boy. 

Andrew supported himself in various ways, such 
as working at the saddler's trade, teaching school, 
and clerking in a general store, until 1784, when 
he entered a law office at Salisbury, N. C. He, 
however, gave more attention to the wild amuse- 
ments of the times than to his studies. In 1 788, 
he was appointed solicitor for the Western District 
of North Carolina, of which Tennessee was then 
a part. This involved many long journeys amid 
dangers of every kind, but Andrew Jackson never 
knew fear, and the Indians had no desire to re- 
peat a skirmish with "Sharp Knife." 

In 1791, Mr. Jackson was married to a woman 
who supposed herself divorced from her former 
husband. Great was the surprise of both parties, 
two years later, to find that the conditions of the 
divorce had just been definitely settled by the 
first husband. The marriage ceremony was per- 
formed a second time, but the occurrence was 
often used by his enemies to bring Mr. Jackson 
into disfavor. 



In January, 1796, the Territory of Tennessee 
then containing nearly eighty thousand inhabi- 
tants, the people met in convention at Knoxville 
to frame a constitution. Five were sent from 
each of the eleven counties. Andrew Jackson 
was one of the delegates. The new State was 
entitled to but one member in the National House 
of Representatives. Andrew Jackson was chosen 
that member. Mounting his horse, he rode to 
Philadelphia, where Congress then held its ses- 
sions, a distance of about eight hundred miles. 

Jackson was an earnest advocate of the Demo- 
cratic party, and Jefferson was his idol. He ad- 
mired Bonaparte, loved France, and hated Eng- 
land. As Mr. Jackson took his seat, Gen. Wash- 
ington, whose second term of office was then 
expiring, delivered his last speech to Congress. 
A committee drew up a complimentary address in 
reply. Andrew Jackson did not approve of the 
address, and was one of the twelve who voted 
against it. He was not willing to say that Gen. 
Washington's administration had been "wise, 
firm and patriotic. ' ' 

Mr. Jackson was elected to the United States 
Senate in 1797, but soon resigned and returned 
home. Soon after he was chosen Judge of the 
Supreme Court of his State, which position he 
held for six years. 

When the War of 1812 with Great Britain com- 
menced, Madison occupied the Presidential chair. 
Aaron Burr sent word to the President that there 
was an unknown man in the West, Andrew Jack- 
son, who would do credit to a commission if one 
were conferred upon him. Just at that time Gen. 
Jackson offered his services and those of twenty- 
five hundred volunteers. His offer was accepted, 
and the troops were assembled at Nashville. 

As the British were hourly expected to make 
an attack upon New Orleans, where Gen. Wil- 
kinson was in command, he was ordered to de- 



ANDREW JACKSON. 



scent 1 , the river with fifteen hundred troops to aid 
Wilkinson. The expedition reached Natchez, 
and after a delay of several weeks there without 
accomplishing anything, the men were ordered 
back to their homes. But the energy Gen. Jack- 
son had displayed, and his entire devotion to the 
comfort of his soldiers, won for him golden opin- 
ions, and he became the most popular man in the 
State. It was in this expedition that his tough- 
ness gave him the nickname of "Old Hickory." 

Soon after this, while attempting to horsewhip 
Col. Thomas Benton for a remark that gentleman 
made about his taking part as second in a duel 
in which a younger brother of Benton' s was en- 
gaged, he received two severe pistol wounds. 
While he was lingering upon a bed of suffering, 
news came that the Indians, who had combined 
under Tecumseh from Florida to- the Lakes to ex- 
terminate the white settlers, were committing the 
most awful ravages. Decisive action became nec- 
essary. Gen. Jackson, with his fractured bone 
just beginning to heal, his arm in a sling, and 
unable to mount his horse without assistance, 
gave his amazing energies to the raising of an 
army to rendezvous at Fayettesville, Ala. 

The Creek Indians had established a strong 
fort on one of the bends of the Tallapoosa River, 
near the center of Alabama, about fifty miles be- 
low Ft. Strother. With an army of two thousand 
men, Gen. Jackson traversed the pathless wilder- 
ness in a march of eleven days. He reached their 
fort, called Tohopeka or Horse-shoe, on the 27th 
of March, 1814. The bend of the river enclosed 
nearly one hundred acres of tangled forest and 
wild ravine. Across the narrow neck the Indians 
had constructed a formidable breastwork of logs 
and brush. Here nine hundred warriors, with 
an ample supply of arms, were assembled. 

The fort was stormed. The fight was utterly 
desperate. Not an Indian would accept quarter. 
When bleeding and dying, they would fight those 
who endeavored to spare their lives. From ten 
in the morning until dark the battle raged. The 
carnage was awful and revolting. Some threw 
themselves into the river; but the unerring bul- 
lets struck their heads as they swam. Nearly 
every one of the nine hundred warriors was 



killed. A few, probably, in the night swam 
the river and escaped. This ended the war. 

This closing of the Creek War enabled us to 
concentrate all our militia upon the British, who 
were the allies of the Indians. No man of less 
resolute will than Gen. Jackson could have con- 
ducted this Indian campaign to so successful an 
issue. Immediately he was appointed Major- 
General. 

I,ate in August, with an army of two thousand 
men on a rushing march, Gen. Jackson went to 
Mobile. A British fleet went from Pensacola, 
landed a force upon the beach, anchored near the 
little fort, and from both ship and shore com- 
menced a furious assault. The battle was long 
and doubtful. At length one of the ships was 
blown up and the rest retired. 

Garrisoning Mobile, where he had taken his 
little army, he moved his troops to New Orleans, 
and the battle of New Orleans, which soon ensued, 
was in reality a very arduous campaign. This 
won for Gen. Jackson an imperishable name. 
Here his troops, which numbered about four 
thousand men, won a signal victory over the 
British army of about nine thousand. His loss 
was but thirteen, while the loss of the British was 
twenty-six hundred. 

The name of Gen. Jackson soon began to be 
mentioned in connection with the Presidency, 
but in 1824 he was defeated by Mr. Adams. 
He was, however, successful in the election of 
1828, and was re-elected for a second term in 
1832. In 1829, just before he assumed the reins 
of government, he met with the most terrible 
affliction of his life in the death of his wife, whom 
he had loved with a devotion which has perhaps 
never been surpassed. From the shock of her 
death he never recovered. 

His administration was one of the most mem- 
orable in the annals of our country applauded 
by one party, condemned by the other. No man 
had more bitter enemies or wanner friends. At 
the expiration of his two terms of office he retired 
to the Hermitage, where he died June 8, 1845. The 
last years of Mr. Jackson's life were those of a de- 
voted Christian man. 



MARTIN VAN BUREN. 



|ARTIN VAN BUREN, the eighth Presi- 
dent of the United States, was born at Kin- 
derhook, N. Y., December 5, 1782. He 
died at the same place, July 24, 1862. His body 
rests in the cemetery at Kinder hook. Above it is 
a plain granite shaft, fifteen feet high, bearing a 
simple inscription about half-way up on one face. 
The lot is unfenced, unbordered or unbounded 
by shrub or flower. 

There is but little in the life of Martin Van 
Buren of romantic interest. He fought no battles, 
engaged in no wild adventures. Though his life 
was stormy in political and intellectual conflicts, 
and he gained many signal victories, his days 
passed uneventful in those incidents which give 
zest to biography. His ancestors, as his name indi- 
cates, were of Dutch origin, and were among the 
earliest emigrants from Holland to the banks of 
the Hudson. His father was a farmer, residing 
in the old town of Kinderhook. His mother, also 
of Dutch lineage, was a woman of superior intel- 
ligence and exemplary piety. 

He was decidedly a precocious boy, developing 
unusual activity, vigor and strength of mind. At 
the age of fourteen, he had finished his academic 
studies in his native village, and commenced the 
study of law. As he had not a collegiate educa- 
tion, seven years of study in a law-office were re- 
quired of him before he could be admitted to the 
Bar. Inspired with a lofty ambition, and con- 
scious of his powers, he pursued his studies with 
indefatigable industry. After spending six years 
in an office in his native village, he went to the city 
of New York, and prosecuted his studies for the 
seventh year. 

In 1803, Mr. Van Buren, then twenty-one years 



of age, commenced the practice of law in his na- 
tive village. The great conflict between the Federal 
and Republican parties was then at its height. 
Mr. Van Buren was from the beginning a politi- 
cian. He had, perhaps, imbibed that spirit while 
listening to the many discussions which had been 
carried on in his father' s hotel. He was in cordial 
sympathy with Jefferson, and earnestly and elo- 
quently espoused the cause of State Rights, though 
at that time the Federal party held the supremacy 
both in his town and State. 

His success and increasing reputation led him 
after six years of practice to remove to Hudson, 
the county seat of his county. Here he spent 
seven years, constantly gaining strength by con- 
tending in the courts with some of the ablest men 
who have adorned the Bar of his State. 

Just before leaving Kinderhook for Hudson, Mr. 
Van Buren married a lady alike distinguished for 
beauty and accomplishments. After twelve short 
years she sank into the grave, a victim of con- 
sumption, leaving her husband and four sons to 
weep over her loss. For twenty-five years, Mr. 
Van Buren was an earnest, successful, assiduous 
lawyer. The record of those years is barren in 
items of public interest. In 1812, when thirty 
years of age, he was chosen to the State Senate, 
and gave his strenuous support to Mr. Madison's 
administration. In 1815, he was appointed At- 
torney-General, and the next year moved to Al- 
bany, the capital of the State. 

While he was acknowledged as one of the most 
prominent leaders of the Democratic party, he had 
the moral courage to avow that true democracy did 
not require that ' 'universal suffrage' ' which admits 
the vile, the degraded, the ignorant, to the right 



48 

of governing the State. In true consistency with 
his democratic principles, he contended that, while 
the path leading to the privilege of voting should 
be open to every man without distinction, no one 
should be invested with that sacred prerogative 
unless he were in some degree qualified for it by 
intelligence, virtue, and some property interests in 
the welfare of the State. 

In 1821 he was,elected a member of the United 
States Senate, and in the same year he took a 
seat in the convention to revise the Constitution of 
his native State. His course in this convention 
secured the approval of men of all parties. No 
one could doubt the singleness of his endeavors to 
promote the interests of all classes in the com- 
munity. In the Senate of the United States, he 
rose at once to a conspicuous position as an active 
and useful legislator. 

In 1827, John Quincy Adams being then in the 
Presidential chair, Mr. Van Buren was re-elected 
to the Senate. He had been from the beginning 
a determined opposer of the administration, adopt- 
ing the ' 'State Rights' ' view in opposition to what 
was deemed the Federal proclivities of Mr. Adams. 

Soon after this, in 1828, hewas chosen Governor 
of the State of New York, and accordingly resigned 
his seat in the Senate. Probably no one in the 
United States contributed so much towards eject- 
ing John Q. Adams from the Presidential chair, 
and placing in it Andrew Jackson, as did Martin 
Van Buren. Whether entitled to the reputation 
or not, he certainly was regarded throughout the 
United States as one of the most skillful, sagacious 
and cunning of politicians. It was supposed that 
no one knew so well as he how to touch the secret 
springs of action, how to pull all the wires to 
put his machinery in motion, and how to organize 
a political army which would secretly and stealth- 
ily accomplish the most gigantic results. By these 
powers it is said that he outwitted Mr. Adams, Mr. 
Clay, and Mr. Webster, and secured results which 
few then thought could be accomplished. 

When Andrew Jackson was elected President 
he appointed Mr. Van Buren Secretary of State. 
This position he resigned in 1831, and was im- 
mediately appointed Minister to England, where 
he went the same autumn. The Senate, however, 



MARTIN VAN BUREN. 



when it met, refused to ratify the nomination, and 
he returned home, apparently untroubled. Later 
he was nominated Vice-President in the place of 
Calhoun, at the re-election of President Jackson, 
and with smiles for all and frowns for none, he 
took his place at the head of that Senate which had 
refused to confirm his nomination as ambassador. 

His rejection by the Senate roused all the zeal 
of President Jackson in behalf of his repudiated 
favorite; and this, probably, more than any other 
cause secured his elevation to the chair of the 
Chief Executive. On the 2oth of May, 1836, Mr. 
Van Buren received the Democratic nomination 
to succeed Gen. Jackson as President of the United 
States. He was elected by a handsome majority, 
to the delight of the retiring President. ' 'Leaving 
New York out of the canvass," says Mr. Parton, 
"the election of Mr. Van Buren to the Presidency 
was as much the act of Gen. Jackson as though 
the Constitution had conferred upon him the power 
to appoint a successor." 

His administration was filled with exciting 
events. The insurrection in Canada, which 
threatened to involve this country in war with 
England, the agitation of the slavery question, 
and finally the great commercial panic which 
spread over the country, all were trials of his wis- 
dom. The financial distress was attributed to' 
the management of the Democratic party, and 
brought the President into such disfavor that he 
failed of re-election, and on the 4th of March, 
1841, he retired from the presidency. 

With the exception of being nominated for the 
Presidency by the "Free Soil" Democrats in 1848, 
Mr. Van Buren lived quietly upon his estate until 
his death. He had ever been a prudent man, of 
frugal habits, and, living within his income, had 
now fortunately a competence for his declining 
years. From his fine estate at Lindenwald, he 
still exerted a powerful influence upon the politics 
of the country. From this time until his death, 
on the 24th of July, 1862, at the age of eighty 
years, he resided at Lindenwald, a gentleman of 
leisure, of culture and wealth, enjoying in a 
healthy old age probably far more happiness than 
he had before experienced amid the stormy scenes 
of his active life. 



WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON. 



pGJlLLIAM HENRY HARRISON, the ninth 
\ A / Ptesident of the United States, was born 
V V at Berkeley, Va. , February 9, 1773. His 
father, Benjamin Harrison, was in comparatively 
opulent circumstances, and was one of the most 
distinguished men of his day. He was an inti- 
mate friend of George Washington, was early 
elected a member of the Continental Congress, 
and was conspicuous among the patriots of Vir- 
ginia in resisting the encroachments of the British 
crown. In the celebrated Congress of 1775, Ben- 
jamin Harrison and John Hancock were both 
candidates for the office of Speaker. 

Mr. Harrison was subsequently chosen Gov- 
ernor of Virginia, and was twice re-elected. His 
son William Henry, of course, enjoyed in child- 
hood all the advantages which wealth and intel- 
lectual and cultivated society could give. Hav- 
ing received a thorough common-school educa- 
tion, he entered Hampden Sidney College, where 
he graduated with honor soon after the death of 
his father. He then repaired to Philadelphia to 
study medicine under the instructions of Dr. Rush 
and the guardianship of Robert Morris, both of 
whom were, with his father, signers of the Dec- 
laration of Independence. 

Upon the outbreak of the Indian troubles, and 
notwithstanding the remonstrances of his friends, 
he abandoned his medical studies and entered the 
army, having obtained a commission as Ensign 
from President Washington. He was then but 
nineteen years old. From that time he passed 
gradually upward in rank until he became aide 
to Gen. Wayne, after whose death he resigned 
his commission. He was then appointed Secre- 
tary of the Northwestern Territory. This Terri- 
tory was then entitled to but one member in Con- 



gress, and Harrison was chosen to fill that position. 
In the spring of 1800 the Northwestern Terri- 
tory was divided by Congress into two portions. 
The eastern portion, comprising the region now 
embraced in the State of Ohio, was called ' ' The 
Territory northwest of the Ohio." The western 
portion, which included what is now called Indi- 
ana, Illinois and Wisconsin, was called "the Indi- 
ana Territory." William Henry Harrison, then 
twenty-seven years of age, was appointed by John 
Adams Governor of the Indiana Territory, and 
immediately after also Governor of Upper Loui- 
siana. He was thus ruler over almost as exten- 
sive a realm as any sovereign upon the globe. 
He was Superintendent of Indian Affairs, and 
was invested with powers nearly dictatorial over 
the then rapidly increasing white population. The 
ability and fidelity with which he discharged 
these responsible duties may be inferred from the 
fact that he was four times appointed to this 
office first by John Adams, twice by Thomas 
Jefferson, and afterwards by President Madison. 

When he began his administration there were 
but three white settlements in that almost bound- 
less region, now crowded with cities and resound- 
ing with all the tumult of wealth and traffic. 
One of these settlements was on the Ohio, nearly 
opposite Louisville; one at Vincennes, on the 
Wabash; and the third was a French settlement. 

The vast wilderness over which Gov. Harrison 
reigned was filled with many tribes of Indians. 
About the year 1806, two extraordinary men, 
twin brothers of the Shawnee tribe, rose among 
them. One of these was called Tecumseh, or 
"the Crouching Panther;" the other Olliwa- 
checa, or "the Prophet." Tecumseh was not 
only an Indian warrior, but a man of great sagac- 



WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON. 



ity, far-reaching foresight and indomitable perse- 
verance in any enterprise in which he might en- 
gage. His brother, the Prophet, was an orator, 
who could sway the feelings of the untutored In- 
dians as the gale tossed the tree-tops beneath 
which they dwelt. With an enthusiasm unsur- 
passed by Peter the Hermit rousing Europe to the 
crusades, he went from tribe to tribe, assuming 
that he was specially sent by the Great Spirit. 

Gov. Harrison made many attempts to con- 
ciliate the Indians, but at last war came, and at 
Tippecanoe the Indians were routed with great 
slaughter. October 28, 1812, his army began its 
march. When near the Prophet's town, three 
Indians of rank made their appearance and in- 
quired why Gov. Harrison was approaching them 
in so hostile an attitude. After a short confer- 
ence, arrangements were made for a meeting the 
next day to agree upon terms of peace. 

But Gov. Harrison was too well acquainted 
with the Indian character to be deceived by such 
protestations. Selecting a favorable spot for his 
night's encampment, he took every precaution 
against surprise. His troops were posted in a 
hollow square and slept upon their arms. The 
wakeful Governor, between three and four o'clock 
in the morning, had risen, and was sitting 
in conversation with his aides by the embers 
of a waning fire. It was a chill, cloudy morning, 
with a drizzling rain. In the darkness, the In- 
dians had crept as near as possible, and just then, 
with a savage yell, rushed, with all the despera- 
tion which superstition and passion most highly 
inflamed could give, upon the left flank of the 
little army. The savages had been amply pro- 
vided with guns and ammunition by the English, 
and their war-whoop was accompanied by a 
shower of bullets. 

The camp-fires were instantly extinguished, as 
the light aided the Indians in their aim, and 
Gen. Harrison's troops stood as immovable as 
the rocks around them until day dawned, when 
they made a simultaneous charge with the bayo- 
net and swept everything before them, completely 
routing the foe. 

Gov. Harrison now had all his energies tasked 
to the utmost. The British, descending from the 



Canadas, were of themselves a very formidable 
force, but with their savage allies rushing like 
wolves from the forest, burning, plundering, scalp- 
ing, torturing, the wide frontier was plunged into 
a state of consternation which even the most vivid 
imagination can but faintly conceive. Gen. Hull 
had made an ignominious surrender of his forces at 
Detroit. Under these despairing circumstances, 
Gov. Harrison was appointed by President Madi- 
son Commander-in-Chief of the Northwestern 
Army, with orders to retake Detroit and to protect 
the frontiers. It would be difficult to place a man 
in a situation demanding more energy, sagacity 
and courage, but he was found equal to the 
position, and nobly and triumphantly did he meet 
all the responsibilities. 

. In 1816, Gen. Harrison was chosen a member 
of the National House of Representatives, to rep- 
resent the District of Ohio. In Congress he proved 
an active member, and whenever he spoke it was 
with a force of reason and power of eloquence 
which arrested the attention of all the members. 

In 1819, Harrison was elected to the Senate of 
Ohio, and in 1824, as one of the Presidential Elec- 
tors of that State, he gave his vote for Henry 
Clay. The same year he was chosen to the Uni- 
ted States Senate. In 1836 his friends brought 
him forward as a candidate for the Presidency 
against Van Buren, but he was defeated. At the 
close of Mr. Van Buren's term, he was re-nom- 
inated by his party, and Mr. Harrison was unani- 
mously nominated by the Whigs, with John Tyler 
for the Vice-Presidency. The contest was very 
animated. Gen. Jackson gave all his influence to 
prevent Harrison's election, but his triumph was 
signal. 

The cabinet which he formed, with Daniel Web- 
ster at its head as Secretary of State, was one of 
the most brilliant with which any President had 
ever been surrounded. Never were the prospects 
of an administration more flattering, or the hopes 
of the country more sanguine. In the midst of 
these bright and joyous prospects, Gen. Harrison 
was seized by a pleurisy-fever, and after a few 
days of violent sickness died, on the 4th of April, 
just one month after his inauguration as President, 
of the United States. 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY of ILLINOIS 



JOHN TYLER. 



(JOHN TYLER, the tenth President of the 
I United States, and was born in Charles 
G) City County, Va., March 29, 1790. He was 
the favored child of affluence and high social po- 
sition. At the early age of twelve, John entered 
William and Mary College, and graduated with 
much honor when but seventeen years old. After 
graduating, he devoted himself with great assi- 
duity to the study of law, partly with his father 
and partly with Edmund Randolph, one of the 
most distinguished lawyers of Virginia. 

At nineteen years of age, he commenced the 
practice of law. His success was rapid and as- 
tonishing. It is said that three months had not 
elapsed ere there was scarcely a case on the 
docket of the court in which he was not retained. 
When but twenty-one years of age, he was almost 
unanimously elected to a seat in the State Legis- 
lature. He connected himself with the Demo- 
cratic party, and warmly advocated the measures 
of Jefferson and Madison. For five successive 
years he was elected to the Legislature, receiving 
nearly the unanimous vote of his county. 

When but twenty-six years of age, he was 
elected a Member of Congress. Here he acted ear- 
nestly and ably with the Democratic party, oppos- 
ing a national bank, internal improvements by 
the General Government, and a protective tariff; 
advocating a strict construction of the Constitu- 
tion and the most careful vigilance over State 
rights. His labors in Congress were so arduous 
that before the close of his second term he found 
it necessary to resign and retire to his estate in 
Charles City County to recruit his health. He, 
however, soon after consented to take his seat in 
the State Legislature, where his influence was 
powerful in promoting public works of great 
utility. With a reputation thus constantly in- 
creasing, he was chosen by a very large majority 
of votes Governor of his native State. His ad- 
ministration was a signally successful one, and his 
popularity secured his re-election, 



John Randolph, a brilliant, erratic, half-crazed 
man, then represented Virginia in the Senate of 
the United States. A portion of the Democratic 
party was displeased with Mr. Randolph's way- 
ward course, and brought forward John Tyler as 
his opponent, considering him the only man in 
Virginia of sufficient popularity to succeed 
against the renowned orator of Roanoke. Mr. 
Tyler was the victor. 

In accordance with his professions, upon tak- 
ing his seat in the Senate he joined the ranks of 
the opposition. He opposed the tariff, and spoke 
against and voted against the bank as unconsti- 
tutional; he strenuously opposed all restrictions 
upon slavery, resisting all projects of internal im- 
provements by the General Government, and 
avowed his sympathy with Mr. Calhoun's view 
of nullification; he declared that Gen. Jackson, 
by his opposition to the nullifiers, had abandoned 
the principles of the Democratic party. Such 
was Mr. Tyler's record in Congress a record in 
perfect accordance with the principles which he 
had always avowed. 

Returning to Virginia, he resumed the practice 
of his profession. There was a split in the Demo- 
cratic party. His friends still regarded him as a 
true Jeffersonian, gave him a dinner, and show- 
ered compliments upon him. He had now at- 
tained the age of forty-six, and his career had been 
very brilliant. In consequence of his devotion to 
public business, his private affairs had fallen into 
some disorder, and it was not without satisfac- 
tion that he resumed the practice of law, and de- 
voted himself to the cultivation of his plantation. 
Soon after this he removed to Williamsburg, for 
the better education of his children, and he again 
took his seat in the Legislature of Virginia. 

By the southern Whigs he was sent to the 
national convention at Harrisburg in 1839 to nom- 
inate a President. The majority of votes were 
given to Gen Harrison, a genuine Whig, much 
to the disappointment of the South, which wished 



JOHN TYLER. 



for Henry Clay. To conciliate the southern 
Whigs and to secure their vote, the convention 
then nominated John Tyler for Vice-President. 
It was well known that he was not in sympathy 
with the Whig party in the North; but the Vice- 
President has very little power in the Govern- 
ment, his main and almost only duty being to 
preside over the meetings of the Senate. Thus it 
happened that a Whig President and, in reality, 
a Democratic Vice-President were chosen. 

In 1841, Mr. Tyler was inaugurated Vice- 
President of the United States. In one short 
month from that time, President Harrison died, 
and Mr. Tyler thus found himself, to his own 
surprise and that of the whole nation, an occu- 
pant of the Presidential chair. Hastening from 
Williamsburg to Washington, on the 6th of 
April he was inaugurated to the high and re- 
sponsible office. He was placed in a position of 
exceeding delicacy and difficulty. All his long 
life he had been opposed to the main principles of 
the party which had brought him into power. 
He had ever been a consistent, honest man, with 
an unblemished record. Gen. Harrison had se- 
lected a Whig cabinet. Should he retain them, 
and thus surround himself with counselors whose 
views were antagonistic to his own ? or, on the 
other hand, should he turn against the party 
which had elected him, and select a cabinet in 
harmony with himself, and which would oppose 
all those views which the Whigs deemed essen- 
tial to the public welfare? This was his fearful 
dilemma. He invited the cabinet which Presi- 
dent Harrison had selected to retain their seats, 
and recommended a day of fasting and prayer, 
that God would guide and bless us. 

The Whigs carried through Congress a bill for 
the incorporation of a fiscal bank of ihe United 
States. The President, after ten days' delay, re- 
turned it with his veto. He suggested, however, 
that he would approve of a bill drawn up upon 
such a plan as he proposed. Such a bill was ac- 
cordingly prepared, and privately submitted to 
him. He gave it his approval. It was passed 
without alteration, and he sent it back with his 
veto. Here commenced the open rupture. It is 
said that Mr. Tyler was provoked to this meas- 



ure by a published letter from the Hon. John M. 
Botts, a distinguished Virginia Whig, who se- 
verely touched the pride of the President. 

The opposition now exultingly received the 
President into their arms. The party which 
elected him denounced him bitterly. All the 
members of his cabinet, excepting Mr. Webster, 
resigned. The Whigs of Congress, both the 
Senate and the House, held a meeting and issued 
an address to the people of the United States, 
proclaiming that all political alliance between the 
Whigs and President Tyler was at an end. 

Still the President attempted to conciliate. He 
appointed a new cabinet of distinguished Whigs 
and Conservatives, carefully leaving out all strong 
party men. Mr. Webster soon found it necessary 
to resign, forced out by the pressure of his Whig 
friends. Thus the four years of Mr. Tyler's un- 
fortunate administration passed sadly away. No 
one was satisfied. The land was filled with mur- 
murs and vituperation. Whigs and Democrats 
alike assailed him. More and more, however, he 
brought himself into sympathy with his old 
friends, the Democrats, until at the close of his 
term he gave his whole influence to the support 
of Mr. Polk, the Democratic candidate for his 
successor. 

On the 4th of March, 1845, President Tyler re- 
tired from the harassments of office, to the regret 
of neither party, and probably to his own unspeak- 
able relief. The remainder of his days were 
passed mainly in the retirement of his beautiful 
home Sherwood Forest, Charles City County, 
Va. His first wife, Miss Letitia Christian, died 
in Washington in 1842; and in June, 1844, 
he was again married, at New York, to Miss Julia 
Gardiner, a young lady of many personal and 
intellectual accomplishments. 

When the great Rebellion rose, which the 
State Rights and nullifying doctrines of John C. 
Calhoun had inaugurated, President Tyler re- 
nounced his allegiance to the United States, and 
joined the Confederates. He was chosen a mem- 
ber of their Congress, and while engaged in 
active measures to destroy, by force of arms, the 
Government over which he had once presided, he 
was taken sick and soon died. 



JAMES K. POLK. 



(I AMES K. POLK, the eleventh President of 
I the United States, was born in Mecklenburgh 
Qj County, N. C., November 2, 1795. His 
parents were Samuel and Jane (Knox) Polk, the 
former a son of Col. Thomas Polk, who located 
at the above place, as one of the first pioneers, in j 
1735. In 1806, with his wife and children, and ! 
soon after followed by most of the members of the j 
Polk family, Samuel Polk emigrated some two or 
three hundred miles farther west, to the rich val- I 
ley of the Duck River. Here, in the midst of the | 
wilderness, in a region which was subsequently 
called Maury County, they erected their log huts 
and established their homes. In the hard toil of 
a new farm in the wilderness, James K. Polk ! 
spent the early years of his childhood and youth. [ 
His father, adding the pursuit of a surveyor to 
that of a farmer, gradually increased in wealth, 
until he became one of the leading men of the | 
region. His mother was a superior woman, of 
strong common sense and earnest piety. 

Very early in life James developed a taste for 
reading, and expressed the strongest desire to ob- 
tain a liberal education. His mother's training : 
had made him methodical in his habits, had taught j 
him punctuality and industry, and had inspired I 
him with lofty principles of morality. His health | 
was frail, and his father, fearing that he might not | 
be able to endure a sedentary life, got a situation 
for him behind the counter, hoping to fit him for 
commercial pursuits. 

This was to James a bitter disappointment. He 
had no taste for these duties, and his daily tasks ] 
were irksome in the extreme. He remained in this ' 
uncongenial occupation but a few weeks, when, 
at his earnest solicitation, his father removed j 
him and niade arrangements for him to pros- 
ecute his studies. Soon after he sent him to Mur- 
freesboro Academy. With ardor which could 
scarcely be surpassed, he pressed forward in his 



studies, and in less than two and a-half years, in 
the autumn of 1815, entered the sophomore class 
in the University of North Carolina, at Chapel 
Hill. Here he was one of the most exemplary of 
scholars, punctual in every exercise, never allow- 
ing himself to be absent from a recitation or a 
religious service. 

Mr. Polk graduated in 1818, with the highest 
honors, being deemed the best scholar of his class, 
both in mathematics and the classics. He was 
then twenty-three years of age. His health was 
at this time much impaired by the assiduity with 
which he had prosecuted his studies. After a 
short season of relaxation, he went to Nashville, 
and entered the office of Felix Grundy, to study 
law. Here Mr. Polk renewed his acquaintance 
with Andrew Jackson, who resided on his planta- 
tion, the " Hermitage," but a few miles from 
Nashville. They had probably been slightly ac- 
quainted before. 

Mr. Folk's father was a Jeffersonian Republican 
and James K. adhered to the same political faith. 
He was a popular public speaker, and was con- 
stantly called upon to address the meetings of his 
party friends. His skill as a speaker was such 
that he was popularly called the Napoleon of the 
stump. He was a man of unblemished morals, 
genial and courteous in his bearing, and with that 
sympathetic nature in the joys and griefs of oth- 
ers which gave him hosts of friends. In 1823, 
he was elected to the Legislature of Tennessee, 
and gave his strong influence toward the election 
of his friend, Mr. Jackson, to the Presidency of 
the United States. 

In January, 1824, Mr. Polk married Miss Sarah 
Childress, of Rutherford County, Tenn. His 
bride was altogether worthy of him a lady of 
beauty and culture. In the fall of 1825 Mr. Polk 
was chosen a member of Congress, and the satis- 
faction he gave his constituents may be inferred 



6o 



JAMES K. POLK. 



from the fact, that for fourteen successive years, 
or until 1839, he was continued in that office. He 
then voluntarily withdrew, only that he might 
accept the Gubernatorial chair of Tennessee. In 
Congress he was a laborious member, a frequent 
and a popular speaker. He was always in his 
seat, always courteous, and whenever he spoke 
it was always to the point, without any ambitious 
rhetorical display. 

During five sessions of Congress Mr. Polk was 
Speaker of the House. Strong passions were 
roused and stormy scenes were witnessed, but he 
performed his arduous duties to a very general 
satisfaction, and a unanimous vote of thanks to 
him was passed by the House as he withdrew on 
the 4th of March, 1839. 

In accordance with Southern usage, Mr. Polk, 
as a candidate for Governor, canvassed the State. 
He was elected by a large majority, and on Octo- 
ber 14, 1839, took the oath of office at Nashville. 
In 1841 his term of office expired, and he was 
again the candidate of the Democratic party, but 
was defeated. 

On the 4th of March, 1845, Mr. Polk was in- 
augurated President of the United States. The 
verdict of the country in favor of the annexation 
of Texas exerted its influence upon Congress, 
and the last act of the administration of President 
Tyler was to affix his signature to a joint resolu- 
tion of Congress, passed on the 3d of March, ap- 
proving of the annexation of Texas to the Union. 
As Mexico still claimed Texas as one of her 
provinces, the Mexican Minister, Almonte, im- 
mediately demanded his passports and left the 
country, declaring the act of the annexation to be 
an act hostile to Mexico. 

In his first message, President Polk urged that 
Texas should immediately, by act of Congress, be 
received into the Union on the same footing with 
the other States. In the mean time, Gen. Taylor 
was sent with an army into Texas to hold the 
country. He was first sent to Nueces, which the 
Mexicans said was the western boundary of Tex- 
as. Then he was sent nearly two hundred miles 
further west, to the Rio Grande, where he erected 
batteries which commanded the Mexican city of 
Matamoras, which was situated on the western 



banks. The anticipated collision soon took place, 
and war was declared against Mexico by President 
Polk. The war was pushed forward by his ad- 
ministration with great vigor. Gen. Taylor, 
whose army was first called one of ' ' observation, ' ' 
then of "occupation," then of "invasion," was 
sent forward to Monterey. The feeble Mexicans 
in every encounter were hopelessly slaughtered. 
The day of judgment alone can reveal the misery 
which this war caused. It was by the ingenuity 
of Mr. Folk's administration that the war was 
brought on. 

' ' To the victors belong the spoils. ' ' Mexico 
was prostrate before us. Her capital was in our 
hands. We now consented to peace upon the 
condition that Mexico should surrender to us, in 
addition to Texas, all of New Mexico, and all of 
Upper and Lower California. This new demand 
embraced, exclusive of Texas, eight hundred 
thousand square miles. This was an extent of 
territory equal to nine States of the size of New 
York. Thus slavery was securing eighteen ma- 
jestic States to be added to the Union. There 
were some Americans who thought it all right; 
there were others who thought it all wrong. In 
the prosecution of this war we expended twenty 
thousand lives and more than $100,000,000. Of 
this money $15,000,000 were paid to Mexico. 

On the 3d of March, 1849, Mr. Polk retired 
from office, having served one term. The next 
day was Sunday. On the 5th, Gen. Taylor was 
inaugurated as his successor. Mr. Polk rode to 
the Capitol in the same carriage with Gen. Tay- 
lor, and the same evening, with Mrs. Polk, he 
commenced his return to Tennessee. He was 
then but fifty-four years of age. He had always 
been strictly temperate in all his habits, and his 
health was good. With an ample fortune, a 
choice library, a cultivated mind, and domestic 
ties of the dearest nature, it seemed as though 
long years of tranquillity and happiness were be- 
fore him. But the cholera that fearful scourge 
was then sweeping up the Valley of the Missis- 
sippi, and he contracted the disease, dying on the 
1 5th of June, 1849, in the fifty-fourth year of his 
age, greatly mourned by his countrymen. 



% 





ZACHARY TAYLOR. 



TAYLOR, twelfth President of j 
I. the United States, was born on the 24th of 
/~) November, 1784, in Orange County, Va. 
His father, Col. Taylor, was a Virginian of j 
note, and a distinguished patriot and soldier of ; 
the Revolution. When Zachary was an infant, 
his father, with his wife and two children, emi- 
grated to Kentucky, where he settled in the path- ( 
less wilderness, a few miles from Louisville. In 
this frontier home, away from civilization and all 
its refinements, young Zachary could enjoy but 
few social and educational advantages. When } 
six years of age he attended a common school, | 
and was then regarded as a bright, active boy, ! 
rather remarkable for bluntness and decision of I 
character. He was strong, fearless and self-reli- | 
ant, and manifested a strong desire to enter the 
army to fight the Indians, who were ravaging the 
frontiers. There is little to be recorded of the 
uneventful years of his childhood on his father's 
large but lonely plantation. 

In 1808, his father succeeded in obtaining for 
him a commission as Lieutenant in the United 
States army, and he joined the troops which were 
stationed at New Orleans under Gen. Wilkinson. 
Soon after this he married Miss Margaret Smith, 
a young lady from one of the first families of 
Maryland. 

Immediately after the declaration of war with 
England, in 1812, Capt. Taylor (for he had then 
been promoted to that rank) was put in command 
of Ft. Harrison, on the Wabash, about fifty miles 
above Vincennes. This fort had been built in the 
wilderness by Gen. Harrison, on his march to 
Tippecanoe. It was one of the first points of at- 
tack by the Indians, led by Tecumseh. Its garri- 
son consisted of a broken company of infantry, 
numbering fifty men, many of whom were sick. 

Early in the autumn of 1812, the Indians, 
stealthily, and in large numbers, moved upon the 



fort. Their approach was first indicated by the 
murder of two soldiers just outside of the stockade. 
Capt. Taylor made every possible preparation to 
meet the anticipated assault. On the 4th of Sep- 
tember, a band of forty painted and plumed sav- 
ages came to the fort, waving a white flag, and 
informed Capt. Taylor that in the morning their 
chief would come to have a talk with him. It 
was evident that their object was merely to ascer- 
tain the state of things at the fort, and Capt. 
Taylor, well versed in the wiles of the savages, 
kept them at a distance. 

The sun went down; the savages disappeared; 
the garrison slept upon their arms. One hour 
before midnight the war-whoop burst from a 
thousand lips in the forest around, followed by 
the discharge of musketry and the rush of the 
foe. Every man, sick and well, sprang to his 
post. Every man knew that defeat was not 
merely death, but, in the case of capture, death by 
the most agonizing and prolonged torture. No 
pen can describe, no imagination can conceive, the 
scenes which ensued. The savages succeeded in 
setting fire to one of the block-houses. Until six 
o'clock in the morning this awful conflict con- 
tinued, when the savages, baffled at every point 
and gnashing their teeth with rage, retired. 
Capt. Taylor, for this gallant defense, was pro- 
moted to the rank of Major by brevet. 

Until the close of the war, Maj. Taylor was 
placed in such situations that he saw but little 
more of active service. He was sent far away 
into the depths of the wilderness to Ft. Craw- 
ford, on Fox River, which empties into Green 
Bay. Here there was little to be done but to 
wear away the tedious hours as one best could. 
There Were no books, no society, no intellectual 
stimulus. Thus with him the uneventful years 
rolled on. Gradually he rose to the rank of 
Colonel. In the Black Hawk War, which re- 



ZACHARY TAYLOR. 



suited in the capture of that renowned chieftain, 
Col. Taylor took a subordinate, but a brave and 
efficient, part. 

For twenty-four years Col. Taylor was engaged 
in the defense of the frontiers, in scenes so re- 
mote, and in employments so obscure, that his 
name was unknown beyond the limits of his own 
immediate acquaintance. In the year 1836, he 
was sent to Florida to compel the Seminole Indi- 
ans to vacate that region, and retire beyond the 
Mississippi, as their chiefs by treaty had prom- 
ised they should do. The services rendered here 
secured for Col. Taylor the high appreciation of 
the Government, and as a reward he was ele- 
vated to the high rank of Brigadier-Ge'neral by 
brevet, and soon after, in May, 1838, was ap- 
pointed to the chief command of the United 
States troops in Florida. 

After two years of wearisome employment 
amidst the everglades of the Peninsula, Gen. Tay- 
lor obtained, at his own request, a change of 
command, and was stationed over the Department 
of the Southwest. This field embraced Louisiana, 
Mississippi, Alabama and Georgia. Establishing 
his headquarters at Ft. Jessup, in Louisiana, he 
removed his family to a plantation which he pur- 
chased near Baton Rouge. Here he remained 
for five years, buried, as it were, from the world, 
but faithfully discharging every duty imposed 
upon him. 

In 1846, Gen. Taylor was sent to guard the 
land between the Nueces and Rio Grande, the 
latter river being the boundary of Texas, which 
was then claimed by the United States. Soon 
the war with Mexico was brought on, and at Palo 
Alto and Resaca de la Palma, Gen. Taylor won 
brilliant victories over the Mexicans. The rank 
of Major-General by brevet was then conferred 
upon Gen. Taylor, and his name was received 
with enthusiasm almost everywhere in the na- 
tion. Then came the battles of Monterey and 
Buena Vista, in which he won signal victories 
over forces much larger than he commanded. 

The tidings of the brilliant victory of Buena 
Vista spread the wildest enthusiasm over the 
country. The name of Gen. Taylor was on 
every one's lips. The Whig party decided to 



take advantage of this wonderful popularity in 
bringing forward the unpolished, unlettered, hon- 
est soldier as their candidate for the Presidency. 
Gen. Taylor was astonished at the announce- 
ment, and for a time would not listen to it, de- 
claring that he was not at all qualified for such 
an office. So little interest had he taken in poli- 
tics, that for forty years he had not cast a vote. 
It was not without chagrin that several distin- 
guished statesmen, who had been long years in 
the public service, found their claims set aside in 
behalf of one whose name had never been heard 
of, save in connection with Palo Alto, Resaca de 
la Palma, Monterey and Buena Vista. It is said 
that Daniel Webster, in his haste, remarked, " It 
is a nomination not fit to be made. ' ' 

Gen. Taylor was not an eloquent speaker nor a 
fine writer. His friends took possession of him, 
and prepared such few communications as it was 
needful should be presented to the public. The 
popularity of the successful warrior swept the 
land. He was triumphantly elected over two 
opposing candidates, Gen. Cass and Ex-Presi- 
dent Martin Van Buren. Though he selected an 
excellent cabinet, the good old man found himself 
in a very uncongenial position, and was at times 
sorely perplexed and harassed. His mental suf- 
ferings were very severe, and probably tended to 
hasten his death. The pro-slavery party was 
pushing its claims with tireless energy; expedi- 
tions were fitting out to capture Cuba; California 
was pleading for admission to the Union, while 
slavery stood at the door to bar her out. Gen. 
Taylor found the political conflicts in Washington 
to be far more trying to the nerves than battles 
with Mexicans or Indians. 

In the midst of all these troubles, Gen. Taylor, 
after he had occupied the Presidential chair but 
little over a year, took cold, and after a brief 
sickness of but little over five days, died, on the 
9th of July, 1850. His last words were, " I am 
not afraid to die. I am ready. I have endeav- 
ored to do my duty." He died universally re- 
spected and beloved. An honest, unpretending 
man, he had been steadily growing in the affec- 
tions of the people, and the Nation bitterly la- 
mented his death. 



MILLARD FILLMORE. 



IV A ILLARD FILLMORE, thirteenth President 
I V I of the United States, was born at Summer 
101 Hill, Cayuga County, N. Y., on the yth of 
January, 1800. His father was a farmer, and, owing 
to misfortune, in humble circumstances. Of his 
mother, the daughter of Dr. Abiathar Millard, of 
Pittsfield, Mass., it has been said that she pos- 
sessed an intellect of a high order, united with 
much personal loveliness, sweetness of disposi- 
tion, graceful manners and exquisite sensibilities. 
She died in 1831, having lived to see her son a 
young man of distinguished promise, though she 
was not permitted to witness the high dignity 
which he finally attained. 

In consequence of the secluded home and limited 
means of his father, Millard enjoyed but slender 
advantages for education in his early years. The 
common schools, which he occasionally attended, 
were very imperfect institutions, and books were 
scarce and expensive. There was nothing then 
in his character to indicate the brilliant career 
upon which he was about to enter. He was a 
plain farmer's boy intelligent, good-looking, 
kind-hearted. The sacred influences of home 
had taught him to revere the Bible, and had laid 
the foundations of an upright character. When 
fourteen years of age, his father sent him some 
hundred miles from home to the then wilds of 
Livingston County, to learn the trade of a clothier. 
Near the mill there was a small village, where 
some enterprising man had commenced the col- 
lection of a village library. This proved an in- 
estimable blessing to young Fillmore. His even- 
ings were spent in reading. Soon every leisure 
moment was occupied with books. His thirst for 
knowledge became insatiate, and the selections 
which he made were continually more elevating 
and instructive. He read history, biography, 
oratory, and thus gradually there was enkindled 



in his heart a desire to be something more than a 
mere worker with his hands. 

The young clothier had now attained the age 
of nineteen years, and was of fine personal appear- 
ance and of gentlemanly demeanor. It so hap- 
pened that there was a gentleman in the neigh- 
borhood of ample pecuniary means and of benev- 
olence, Judge Walter Wood, who was struck 
with the prepossessing appearance of young Fill- 
more. He made his acquaintance, and was so 
much impressed with his ability and attainments 
that he advised him to abandon his trade and de- 
vote himself to the study of the law. The young 
man replied that he had no means of his own, 
no friends to help him, and that his previous edu- 
cation had been very imperfect. But Judge Wood 
had so much confidence in him that he kindly 
offered to take him into his own office, and to 
lend him such money as he needed. Most grate- 
fully the generous offer was accepted. 

There is in many minds a strange delusion 
about a collegiate education. A young man is 
supposed to be liberally educated if he has gradu- 
ated at some college. But many a boy who loi- 
ters through university halls and then enters a 
law office is by no means as well prepared to 
prosecute his legal studies as was Millard Fill- 
more when he graduated at the clothing-mill at 
the end of four years of manual labor, during 
which every leisure moment had been devoted to 
intense mental culture. 

In 1823, when twenty-three years of age, he 
was admitted to the Court of Common Pleas. 
He then went to the village of Aurora, and com- 
menced the practice of law. In this secluded, 
quiet region, his practice, of course, was limited, 
and there was no opportunity for a sudden rise in 
fortune or in fame. Here, in 1826, he married a 
lady of great moral worth, and one capable of 



MILLARD FILLMORE. 



adorning any station she might be called to fill, 
Miss Abigail Powers. 

His elevation of character, his untiring industry, 
his legal acquirements, and his skill as an advo- 
cate, gradually attracted attention, and he was 
invited to enter into partnership, under highly ad- 
vantageous circumstances, with an elder member 
of the Bar in Buffalo. Just before removing to 
Buffalo, in 1829, he took his seat in the House of 
Assembly of the State of New York, as a Repre- 
sentative from Erie County. Though he had 
never taken a very active part in politics, his vote 
and sympathies were with the Whig party. The 
State was then Democratic, and he found himself 
in a helpless minority in the legislature; still the 
testimony comes from all parties that his courtesy, 
ability and integrity won, to a very unusual de- 
gree, the respect of his associates. 

In the autumn of 1832, he was elected to a 
seat in the United States Congress. He entered 
that troubled arena in the most tumultuous hours 
of our national history, when the great conflict 
respecting the national bank and the removal of 
the deposits was raging. 

His term of two years closed, and he returned 
to his profession, which he pursued with increas- 
ing reputation and success. After a lapse of two 
years he again became a candidate for Congress; 
was re-elected, and took his seat in 1837. His 
past experience as a Representative gave him 
strength and confidence. The first term of service 
in Congress to any man can be but little more 
than an introduction. He was now prepared for 
active duty. All his energies were brought to 
bear upon the public good. Every measure re- 
ceived his impress. 

Mr. Fillmore was now a man of wide repute, 
and his popularity filled the State. In the year 
1847, when he had attained the age of forty- 
seven years, he was elected Comptroller of the 
State. His labors at the Bar, in the Legisla- 
ture, in Congress and as Comptroller, had given 
him very considerable fame. The Whigs were 
casting about to find suitable candidates for Presi- 
dent and Vice-President at the approaching elec- 
tion. Far away on the waters of the Rio Grande, 
there was a rough old soldier, who had fought 



one or two successful battles with the Mexicans, 
which had caused his name to be proclaimed in 
trumpet-tones all over the land as a candidate for 
the presidency. But it was necessary to associate 
with him on the same ticket some man of repu- 
tation as a statesman. 

Under the influence of these considerations, the 
names of Zachary Taylor and Millard Fillmore 
became the rallying-cry of the Whigs, as their 
candidates for President and Vice-President. The 
Whig ticket was signally triumphant. On the 
4th of March, 1849, Gen. Taylor was inaugurated 
President, and Millard Fillmore Vice-President, 
of the United States. 

On the gth of July, 1850, President Taylor, 
about one year and four months after his inaugura- 
tion, was suddenly taken sick and died. By the 
Constitution, Vice-President Fillmore thus be- 
came President. He appointed a very able cabi- 
net, of which the illustrious Daniel Webster was 
Secretary of State; nevertheless, he had serious 
difficulties to contend with, since the opposition 
had a majority in both Houses. He did all in his 
power to conciliate the South; but the pro-slavery 
party in the South felt the inadequacy of all 
measures of transient conciliation. The popula- 
tion of the free States was so rapidly increasing 
over that of the slave States, that it was inevitable 
that the power of the Government should soon 
pass into the hands of the free States. The fa- 
mous compromise measures were adopted under 
Mr. Fillmore's administration, and the Japan ex- 
pedition was sent out. On the 4th of March, 
1853, he, having served one term, retired. 

In 1856, Mr. Fillmore was nominated for the 
Presidency by the "Know-Nothing" party, but 
was beaten by Mr. Buchanan. After that Mr. 
Fillmore lived in retirement. During the terri- 
ble conflict of civil war, he was mostly silent. It 
was generally supposed that his sympathies were 
rather with those who were endeavoring to over- 
throw our institutions. President Fillmore kept 
aloof from the conflict, without any cordial words 
of cheer to one party or the other. He was thus 
forgotten by both. He lived to a ripe old age, 
and died in Buffalo, N. Y., March 8, 1874. 



FRANKLIN PIERCE. 



[""RANKUN PIERCE, the fourteenth Presi- 
j>) dent of the United States, was born in Hills- 
| * borough, N. H., November 23, 1804. His 
father was a Revolutionary soldier, who with his 
own strong arm hewed out a home in the wilder- 
ness. He was a man of inflexible integrity, of 
strong, though uncultivated, mind, and was an un- 
compromising Democrat. The mother of Frank- 
lin Pierce was all that a son could desire an in- 
telligent, prudent, affectionate, Christian woman. 

Franklin, who was the sixth of eight children, 
was a remarkably bright and handsome boy, 
generous, warm-hearted and brave. He won 
alike the love of old and young. The boys on 
the play-ground loved him. His teachers loved 
him. The neighbors looked upon him with pride 
and affection. He was by instinct a gentleman, 
always speaking kind words, and doing kind 
deeds, with a peculiar, unstudied tact which 
taught him what was agreeable. Without de- 
veloping any precocity of genius, or any unnatural 
devotion to books, he was a good scholar, and in 
body and mind a finely developed boy. 

When sixteen years of age, in the year 1820, 
he entered Bowdoin College, at Brunswick, Me. 
He was one of the most popular young men in 
the college. The purity of his moral character, 
the unvarying courtesy of his demeanor, his rank 
as a scholar, and genial nature, rendered him a 
universal favorite. There was something pe- 
culiarly winning in his address, and it was evi- 
dently not in the slightest degree studied it was 
the simple outgushing of his own magnanimous 
and loving nature. 

Upon graduating, in the year 1824, Franklin 
Pierce commenced the study of law in the office 
of Judge Woodbury, one of the most distinguished 



lawyers of the State, and a man of great private 
worth. The eminent social qualities of the young 
lawyer, his father's prominence as a public man, 
and the brilliant political career into which Judge 
Woodbury was entering, all tended to entice Mr. 
Pierce into the fascinating yet perilous path of 
political life. With all the ardor of his nature he 
espoused the cause of Gen. Jackson for the Presi- 
dency. He commenced the practice of law in 
Hillsborough, and was soon elected to represent 
the town in the State Legislature. Here he 
served for four years. The last two years he was 
chosen Speaker of the House by a very large 
vote. 

In 1833, at the age of twenty-nine, he was 
elected a member of Congress. In 1837, being 
then but thirty-three years old, he was elected to 
the Senate, taking his seat just as Mr. Van Buren 
commenced his administration. He was the 
youngest member in the Senate. In the year 
1834, he married Miss Jane Means Appleton, a 
lady of rare beauty and accomplishments, and one 
admirably fitted to adorn every station with which 
her husband was honored. Of the three sons who 
were born to them, all now sleep with their par- 
ents in the grave. 

In the year 1838, Mr. Pierce, with growing 
fame and increasing business as a lawyer, took up 
his residence in Concord, the capital of New 
Hampshire. President Polk, upon his accession 
to office, appointed Mr. Pierce Attorney-General 
of the United States; but the offer was declined 
in consequence of numerous professional engage- 
ments at home, and the precarious state of Mrs. 
Pierce's health. He also, about the same time, 
declined the nomination for Governor by the 
Democratic party. The war with Mexico called 



FRANKLIN PIERCE. 



Mr. Pierce into the army. ' Receiving the appoint- 
ment of Brigadier-General, he embarked with a 
portion of his troops at Newport, R. I., on the 
27th of May, 1847. He took an important part 
in this war, proving himself a brave and true sol- 
dier. 

When Gen. Pierce reached his home in his na- 
tive State, he was received enthusiastically by the 
advocates of the Mexican War, and coldly by his 
opponents. He resumed the practice of his pro- 
fession, very frequently taking an active part in 
political questions, giving his cordial support to 
the pro-slavery wing of the Democratic party. 
The compromise measures met cordially with his 
approval, and he strenuously advocated the en- 
forcement of the infamous Fugitive Slave Law, 
which so shocked the religious sensibilities of the 
North. He thus became distinguished as a 
' ' Northern man with Southern principles. ' ' The 
strong partisans of slavery in the South conse- 
quently regarded him as a man whom they could 
safely trust in office to carry out their plans. 

On the 1 2th of June, 1852, the Democratic con- 
vention met in Baltimore to nominate a candidate 
for the Presidency. For four days they contin- 
ued in session, and in thirty -five ballotings no one 
had obtained a two-thirds vote. Not a vote thus 
far had been thrown for Gen. Pierce. Then the 
Virginia delegation brought forward his .name. 
There were fourteen more ballotings, during which 
Gen. Pierce constantly gained strength, until, at 
the forty-ninth ballot, he received two hundred 
and eighty-two votes, and all other candidates 
eleven. Gen. Winfield Scott was the Whig can- 
didate. Gen. Pierce was chosen with great una- 
nimity. Only four States Vermont, Massachu- 
setts, Kentucky and Tennessee cast their elec- 
toral votes against him. Gen. Franklin Pierce 
was therefore inaugurated President of the United 
States on the 4th of March, 1853. 

His administration proved one of the most 
stormy our country had ever experienced. The 
controversy between slavery and freedom was 
then approaching its culminating point. It be- 
came evident that there was to be an irrepressible 
conflict between them, and that this nation 
could not long exist ' ' half slave and half free. ' ' 



President Pierce, during the whole of his admin- 
istration, did everything he could to conciliate the 
South; but it was all in vain. The conflict every 
year grew more violent, and threats of the disso- 
lution of the Union were borne to the North on 
every Southern breeze. 

Such was the condition of affairs when Presi- 
dent Pierce approached the close of his four- 
years term of office. The North had become 
thoroughly alienated from him. The anti-slavery 
sentiment, goaded by great outrages, had been 
rapidly increasing; all the intellectual ability and 
social worth of President Pierce were forgotten in 
deep reprehension of his administrative acts. The 
slaveholders of the South also, unmindful of the 
fidelity with which he had advocated those meas- 
ures of Government which they approved, and 
perhaps feeling that he had rendered himself 
so unpopular as no longer to be able to accepta- 
bly serve them, ungratefully dropped him, and 
nominated James Buchanan to succeed him. 

On the 4th of March, 1857, President Pierce re- 
turned to his home in Concord. His three chil- 
dren were all dead, his last surviving child hav- 
ing been killed before his eyes in a railroad acci- 
dent; and his wife, one of the most estimable and 
accomplished of ladies, was rapidly sinking in 
consumption. The hour of dreadful gloom soon 
came, and he was left alone in the world without 
wife or child. 

When the terrible Rebellion burst forth which 
divided our country into two parties, and two 
only, Mr. Pierce remained steadfast in the prin- 
ciples which he had always cherished, and gave 
his sympathies to that pro-slavery party with 
which he had ever been allied. He declined to 
do anything, either by voice or pen, to strengthen 
the hand of the National Government. He con- 
tinued to reside in Concord until the time of his 
death, which occurred in October, 1869. He was 
one of the most genial and social of men, an hon- 
ored communicant of the Episcopal Church, and 
one of the kindest of neighbors. Generous to a 
fault, he contributed liberally toward the allevia- 
tion of suffering and want, and many of his 
towns-people were often gladdened by his material 
bounty. 



JAMES BUCHANAN. 



(JAMES BUCHANAN, the fifteenth President 
I of the United States, was born in a small 
(2) frontier town, at the foot of the eastern ridge 
of the Alleghanies, in Franklin County, Pa., on 
the 2^d of April, 1791. The place where the 
humble cabin home stood was called Stony Bat- 
ter. His father was a native of the north of Ire- 
land, who had emigrated in 1783, with little prop- 
erty save his own strong arms. Five years after- 
ward he married Elizabeth Spear, the daughter 
of a respectable farmer, and, with his young bride, 
plunged into the wilderness, staked his claim, 
reared his log hut, opened a clearing with his 
axe, and settled down there to perform his obscure 
part in the drama of life. When James was eight 
years of age, his father removed to the village of 
Mercersburg, where his son was placed at school, 
and commenced a course of study in English, 
Latin and Greek. His progress was rapid, and 
at the age of fourteen he entered Dickinson Col- 
lege, at Carlisle. Here he developed remarkable 
talent, and took his stand among the first scholars 
in the institution. 

In the year 1809, he graduated with the high- 
est honors of his class. He was then eighteen 
years of age; tall and graceful, vigorous in health, 
fond of athletic sports, an unerring shot, and en- 
livened with an exuberant flow of animal spirits. 
He immediately commenced the study of law in 
the city of Lancaster, and was admitted to the 
Bar in 1812, when he was but twenty-one years 
of age. 

In 1820, he reluctantly consented to run as a 
candidate for Congress. He was elected, and for 
ten years he remained a member of the Lower 
House. During the vacations of Congress, he 



occasionally tried some important case. In 1831 
he retired altogether from the toils of his profes- 
sion, having acquired an ample fortune. 

Gen. Jackson, upon his elevation to the Presi- 
dency, appointed Mr. Buchanan Minister to Rus- 
sia. The duties of his mission he performed 
with ability, and gave satisfaction to all parties. 
Upon his return, in 1833, he was elected to a seat 
! in the United States Senate. He there met as 
| his associates Webster, Clay, Wright and Cal- 
| houn. He advocated the measures proposed by 
President Jackson, of making reprisals against 
France to enforce the payment of our claims 
against that country, and defended the course of 
the President in his unprecedented and wholesale 
removal from office of those who were not the 
supporters of his administration. Upon this 
question he was brought into direct collision with 
Henry Clay. He also, with voice and vote, ad- 
vocated expunging from the journal of the Senate 
the vote of censure against Gen. Jackson for re- 
moving the deposits. Earnestly he opposed the 
abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia, 
and urged the prohibition of the circulation of 
anti-slavery documents by the United States 
mails. As to petitions on the subject of slavery, 
he advocated that they should be respectfully re- 
ceived, and that the reply should be returned 
that Congress had no power to legislate upon the 
subject. "Congress," said he, "might as well 
undertake to interfere with slavery under a for- 
eign government as in any of the States where it 
now exists. ' ' 

Upon Mr. Folk's accession to the Presidency, 
Mr. Buchanan became Secretary of State, and as 
such took his share of the responsibility in the 



7 6 



JAMES BUCHANAN. 



conduct of the Mexican War. Mr. Polk assumed 
that crossing the Nueces by the American 
troops into the disputed territory was not wrong, 
but for the Mexicans to cross the Rio Grande 
into Texas was a declaration of war. No candid 
man can read with pleasure the account of the 
course our Government pursued in that movement. 

Mr. Buchanan identified himself thoroughly 
with the party devoted to the perpetuation and 
extension of slavery, and brought all the energies 
of his mind to bear against the Wilmot Proviso. 
He gave his cordial approval to the compromise 
measures of 1850, which included the Fugitive 
Slave Law. Mr. Pierce, upon his election to the 
Presidency , honored Mr. Buchanan with the mis- 
sion to England. 

In the year 1856, a national Democratic Con- 
vention nominated Mr. Buchanan for the Presi- 
dency. The political conflict was one of the most 
severe in which our country has ever engaged. 
All the friends of slavery were on one side; all 
the advocates of its restriction and final abolition 
on the other. Mr. Fremont, the candidate of the 
enemies of slavery, received one hundred and 
fourteen electoral votes. Mr. Buchanan received 
one hundred and seventy-four, and was elected. 
The popular vote stood 1,340,618 for Fremont, 
1,224,750 for Buchanan. On March 4, 1857, 
the latter was inaugurated. 

Mr. Buchanan was far advanced in life. Only 
four years were wanting to fill up his three-score 
years and ten. His own friends, those with 
whom he had been allied in political principles 
and action for years, were seeking the destruc- 
tion of the Government, that they might rear 
upon the ruins of our free institutions a nation 
whose corner-stone should be human slavery. In 
this emergency, Mr. Buchanan was hopelessly 
bewildered. He could not, with his long-avowed 
principles, consistently oppose the State Rights 
party in their assumptions. As President of the 
United States, bound by his oath faithfully to 
administer the laws, he could not, without per- 
jury of the grossest kind, unite with those en- 
deavoring to overthrow the Republic. He there- 
fore did nothing. 

The opponents of Mr. Buchanan's administra- 



tion nominated Abraham Lincoln as their stand- 
ard-bearer in the next Presidential canvass. 
The pro-slavery party declared that if he were 
elected and the control of the Government were 
thus taken from their hands, they would secede 
from the Union, taking with them as they retired 
the National Capitol at Washington and the 
lion's share of the territory of the United States. 

As the storm increased in violence, the slave- 
holders claiming the right to secede, and Mr. 
Buchanan avowing that Congress had no power 
to prevent it, one of the most pitiable exhibitions 
of governmental imbecility was exhibited that the 
world has ever seen. He declared that .Congress 
had no power to enforce its laws in any State 
which had withdrawn, or which was attempting 
to withdraw, from the Union. This was not the 
doctrine of Andrew Jackson, when, with his hand 
upon his sword-hilt, he exclaimed: "The Union 
must and shall be preserved!" 

South Carolina seceded in December, 1860, 
nearly three months before the inauguration of 
President Lincoln. Mr. Buchanan looked on in 
listless despair. The rebel flag was raised in 
Charleston; Ft. Sumter was besieged; our forts, 
navy-yards and arsenals were seized; our depots 
of military stores were plundered, and our cus- 
tom-houses and post-offices were appropriated by 
the rebels. 

The energy of the rebels and the imbecility of 
our Executive were alike marvelous. The na- 
tion looked on in agony, waiting for the slow 
weeks to glide away and close the administration, 
so terrible in its weakness. At length the long- 
looked-for hour of deliverance came, when Abra- 
ham Lincoln was to receive the scepter. 

The administration of President Buchanan was 
certainly the most calamitous our country has ex- 
perienced. His best friends can not recall it with 
pleasure. And still more deplorable it is for his 
fame, that in that dreadful conflict which rolled 
its billows of flame and blood over our whole 
land, no word came from his lips to indicate his 
wish that our country's banner should triumph 
over the flag of the Rebellion. He died at his 
Wheatland retreat, June i, 1868. 



ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 



(p\ BRAHAM LINCOLN, the sixteenth Presi- 

Hdent of the United States, was born in Hardin 
County, Ky., February 12, 1809. About 
the year 1780, a man by the name of Abraham j 
Lincoln left Virginia with his family and moved 
into the then wilds of Kentucky. Only two years 
after this emigration, and while still a young man, 
he was working one day in a field, when an Indian 
stealthily approached and killed him. His widow 
was left in extreme poverty with five little chil- 
dren, three boys and two girls. Thomas, the 
youngest of the boys, and the father of President 
Abraham Lincoln, was four years of age at his 
father's death. 

When twenty-eight years old, Thomas Lincoln 
built a log cabin, and married Nancy Hanks, the 
daughter of another family of poor Kentucky 
emigrants, who had also come from Virginia. 
Their second child was Abraham Lincoln, the sub- 
ject of this sketch. The mother of Abraham was 
a noble woman, gentle, loving, pensive, created 
to adorn a palace, but doomed to toil and pine, and 
die in a hovel. " All that I am, or hope to be," 
exclaimed the grateful son, "I owe to my angel- 
mother. ' ' When he was eight years oi age, his 
father sold his cabin and small farm and moved 
to Indiana, where two years later his mother died. 

As the years rolled on, the lot of this lowly 
family was the usual lot of humanity. There 
were joys and griefs, weddings and funerals. 
Abraham's sister Sarah, to whom he was tenderly 
attached, was married when a child of but four- 
teen years of age, and soon died. The family 
was gradually scattered, and Thomas Lincoln 
sold out his squatter's claim in 1830, and emi- 
grated to Macon County, 111. 

Abraham Lincoln was then twenty-one years 
of age. With vigorous hands he aided his father 
in rearing another log cabin, and worked quite 
diligently at this until he saw the family com- 
fortably settled, and their small lot of enclosed 
prairie planted with corn, when he announced to 



his father his intention to leave home, and to gc 
out into the world and seek his fortune. Little 
did he or his friends imagine how brilliant that 
fortune was to be. He saw the value of educa- 
tion and was intensely earnest to improve his 
mind to the utmost of his power. Religion he 
revered. His morals were pure, and he was un- 
contaminated by a single vice. 

Young Abraham worked for a time as a hired 
laborer among the farmers. Then he went to 
Springfield, where he was employed in building 
a large flat-boat. In this he took a herd of swine, 
floated them down the Sangamon to Illinois, and 
thence by the Mississippi to New Orleans. What- 
ever Abraham Lincoln undertook, he performed 
so faithfully as to give great satisfaction to his 
employers. In this adventure the latter were 
so well pleased, that upon his return they placed 
a store and mill under his care. 

In 1832, at the outbreak of the Black Hawk 
War, he enlisted and was chosen Captain of a 
company. He returned to Sangamon County, 
and, although only twenty-three years of age, was 
a candidate for the Legislature, but was defeated. 
He soon after received from Andrew Jackson the 
appointment of Postmaster of New Salem. His 
only post-office was his hat. All the letters he 
received he carried there, ready to deliver to those 
he chanced to meet. He studied surveying, and 
soon made this his business. In 1834 he again 
became a candidate for the Legislature and was 
elected. Mr. Stuart, of Springfield, advised him 
to study law. He walked from New Salem to 
Springfield, borrowed of Mr. Stuart a load oi 
books, carried them back, and began his legal 
studies. When the Legislature assembled, he 
trudged on foot with his pack on his back one 
hundred miles to Vandalia, then the capital. In 
1836 he was re-elected to the Legislature. Here 
it was he first met Stephen A. Douglas. In 1839 
he removed to Springfield and began the practice 
of law. His success with the jury was so great 



8o 



ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 



that he was soon engaged in almost every noted 
case in the circuit. 

In 1854 the great discussion began between Mr. 
Lincoln and Mr. Douglas on the slavery ques- 
tion. In the organization of the Republican party 
in Illinois, in 1856, he took an active part, and at 
once became one of the leaders in that party. 
Mr. Lincoln's speeches in opposition to Senator 
Douglas in the contest in 1858 for a seat in the 
Senate, form a most notable part of his history. 
The issue was on the slavery question, and he 
took the broad ground of the Declaration of In- 
dependence, that all men are created equal. Mr. 
Lincoln was defeated in this contest, but won a 
far higher prize. 

The great Republican Convention met at Chi- 
cago on the 1 6th of June, 1860. The delegates 
and strangers who crowded the city amounted to 
twenty-five thousand. An immense building 
called " The Wigwam," was reared to accommo- 
date the convention. There were eleven candi- 
dates for whom votes were thrown. William H. 
Seward, a man whose fame as a statesman had 
long filled the land, was the most prominent. It 
was generally supposed he would be the nomi- 
nee. Abraham Lincoln, however, received the 
nomination on the third ballot. 

Election day came, and Mr. Lincoln received 
one hundred and eighty electoral votes out of two 
hundred and three cast, and was, therefore, con- 
stitutionally elected President of the United States. 
The tirade of abuse that was poured upon this 
good and merciful man, especially by the slave- 
holders, was greater than upon any other man 
ever elected to this high position. In February, 
1861, Mr. Lincoln started for Washington, stop- 
ping in all the large cities on his way, making 
speeches. The whole journey was fraught with 
much danger. Many of the Southern States had 
already seceded, and several attempts at assassi- 
nation were afterward brought to light. A gang 
in Baltimore had arranged upon his arrival to 
"get up a row," and in the confusion to make 
sure of his death with revolvers and hand-gren- 
ades. A detective unravelled the plot. A secret 
and special train was provided to take him from 
Harrisburg, through Baltimore, at an unexpected 



hour of the night. The train started at half-past 
ten, and to prevent any possible communication 
on the part of the Secessionists with their Con- 
federate gang in Baltimore, as soon as the train 
had started the telegraph-wires were cut. Mr. 
Lincoln reached Washington in safety and was 
inaugurated, although great anxiety was felt by 
all loyal people. 

In the selection of his cabinet Mr. Lincoln gave 
to Mr.' Seward the Department of State, and to 
other prominent opponents before the convention 
he gave important positions; but during no other 
administration had the duties devolving upon the 
President been so manifold, and the responsibilities 
so great, as those which fell to his lot. Knowing 
this, and feeling his own weakness and inability 
to meet, and in his own strength to cope with, 
the difficulties, he learned early to seek Divine 
wisdom and guidance in determining his plans, 
and Divine comfort in all his trials, both personal 
and national. Contrary to his own estimate of 
himself, Mr. Lincoln was one of the most cour- 
ageous of men. He went directly into the rebel 
capital just as the retreating foe was leaving, with 
no guard but a few sailors. From the time he 
had left Springfield, in 1861, however, plans had 
been made for his assassination, and he at last 
fell a victim to one of them. April 14, 1865, he, 
with Gen. Grant, was urgently invited to attend 
Ford's Theatre. It was announced that they 
would be present. Gen. Grant, however, left the 
city. President Lincoln, feeling, with his char- 
acteristic kindliness of heart, that it would be a 
disappointment if he should fail them, very re- 
luctantly consented to go. While listening to 
the play, an actor by the name of John Wilkes 
Booth entered the box where the President and 
family were seated, and fired a bullet into his 
brain. He died the next morning at seven 
o'clock. 

Never before in the history of the world was 
a nation plunged into such deep grief by the death 
of its ruler Strong men met in the streets and 
wept in speechless anguish. His was a life which 
will fitly become a model. His name as the 
Savior of his country will live with that of Wash- 
ington's, its Father. 



ANDREW JOHNSON. 



G| NDREW JOHNSON, seventeenth President 
LJ of the United States. The early life of An- 
I I drew Johnson contains but the record of pov- 
erty, destitution and friendlessness. He was born 
December 29, 1808, in Raleigh, N. C. His par- 
ents, belonging to the class of "poor whites" 
of the South, were in such circumstances that they 
could not confer even the slightest advantages of 
education upon their child. When Andrew was 
five years of age, his father accidentally lost his 
life, while heroically endeavoring to save a friend 
from drowning. Until ten years of age, Andrew 
was a ragged boy about the streets, supported by 
the labor of his mother, who obtained her living 
with her own hands. 

He then, having never attended a school one 
day, and being unable either to reader write, was 
apprenticed to a tailor in his native town. A gen- 
tleman was in the habit of going to the tailor's 
shop occasionally, and reading to the boys at 
work there. He often read from the speeches of 
distinguished British statesmen. Andrew, who 
was endowed with a mind of more than ordinary 
ability, became much interested in these speeches; 
his ambition was roused, and he was inspired with 
a strong desire to learn to read. 

He accordingly applied himself to the alphabet, 
and with the assistance of some of his fellow- 
workmen learned his letters. He then called upon 
the gentleman to borrow the book of speeches. 
The owner, pleased with his zeal, not only gave 
him the book, but assisted him in learning to com- 
bine the letters into words. Under such difficul- 
ties he pressed onward laboriously, spending usu- 
ally ten or twelve hours at work in the shop, and 
then robbing himself of rest and recreation to de- 
vote such time as he could to reading. 

He went to Tennessee in 1826, and located at 



Greenville, where he married a young lady who 
possessed some education. Under her instructions 
he learned to write and cipher. He became 
prominent in the village debating society, and a 
favorite with the students of Greenville College. 
In 1828, he organized a working man's party, 
which elected him Alderman, and in 1830 elected 
him Mayor, which position he held three years. 

He now began to take a lively interest in 
political affairs, identifying himself with the work- 
ing-class, to which he belonged. In 1835, he 
was elected a member of the House of Represent- 
atives of Tennessee. He was then just twenty- 
seven years of age. He became a very active 
member of the Legislature, gave his support to 
the Democratic party, and in 1840 "stumped the 
State," advocating Martin Van Buren's claims to 
the Presidency, in opposition to those of Gen. 
Harrison. In this campaign he acquired much 
readiness as a speaker, and extended and increased 
his reputation. 

In 1841, he was elected State Senator; in 1843; 
he was elected a Member of Congress, and by suc- 
cessive elections held that important post for ten 
years. In 1853, he was elected Governor of Tenn- 
essee, and was re-elected in 1855. In all these 
responsible positions, he discharged his duties 
with distinguished ability, and proved himself the 
warm friend of the working classes. In 1857, Mr- 
Johnson was elected United States Senator. 

Years before, in 1845, he had warmly advocated 
the annexation of Texas, stating, however, as his 
reason, that he thought this annexation would 
probably prove ' 'to be the gateway out of which 
the sable sons of Africa are to pass from bondage 
to freedom, and become merged in a population 
congenial to themselves." In 1850, he also sup- 
ported the compromise measures, the two essen- 



ANDREW JOHNSON. 



tial features of which wer, that the white people 
of the Territories should be permitted to decide 
for themselves whether they would enslave the 
colored people or not, and that the free States of 
the North should return to the South persons who 
attempted to escape from slavery. 

Mr. Johnson was never ashamed of his lowly 
origin: on the contrary, he often took pride in 
avowing that he owed his distinction to his own 
exertions. "Sir," said he on the floor of the 
Senate, "I do not forget that I am a mechanic; 
neither do I forget that Adam was a tailor and 
sewed fig-leaves, and that our Savior was the son 
of a carpenter. ' ' 

In the Charleston-Baltimore convention of 1860, 
he was the choice of the Tennessee Democrats for 
the Presidency. In 1861, when the purpose of 
the Southern Democracy became apparent, he took 
a decided stand in favor of the Union, and held 
that "slavery must be held subordinate to the 
Union at whatever cost. ' ' He returned to Tenn- 
essee, and repeatedly imperiled his own life to 
protect the Unionists of that State. Tennessee 
having seceded from the Union, President Lincoln, 
on March 4, 1862, appointed him Military Gov- 
ernor of the State, and he established the most 
stringent military rule. His numerous proclama- 
tions attracted wide attention. In 1864, he was 
elected Vice-President of the United States, and 
upon the death of Mr. Lincoln, April 15, 1865, 
became President. In a speech two days later he 
said, "The American people must be taught, if 
they do not already feel, that treason is a crime 
and must be punished; that the Government will 
not always bear with its enemies; that it is strong 
not only to protect, but to punish. * * The 
people must understand that it (treason) is the 
blackest of crimes, and will surely be punished. ' ' 
Yet his whole administration, the history of which 
is so well known, was in utter inconsistency with, 
and in the most violent opposition to, the princi- 
ples laid down in that speech. 

In his loose policy of reconstruction and general 
amnesty, he was opposed by Congress, and he 
characterized Congress as a new rebellion, and 
lawlessly defied it in everything possible to the ut- 
most. In the beginning of 1868, on account of 



"High crimes and misdemeanors," the principal 
of which was the removal of Secretary Stanton in 
violation of the Tenure of Office Act, articles of 
impeachment were preferred against him, and the 
trial began March 23. 

It was very tedious, continuing for nearly three 
months. A test article of the impeachment was 
at length submitted to the court for its action. It 
was certain that as the court voted upon that ar- 
ticle so would it vote upon all. Thirty-four voices 
pronounced the President guilty. As a two-thirds 
vote was necessary to his condemnation, he was 
pronounced acquitted, notwithstanding the great 
majority against him. The change of one vote 
from the not guilty side would have sustained the 
impeachment. 

The President, for the remainder of his term, 
was but little regarded. He continued, though 
impotently, his conflict with Congress. His own 
party did not think it expedient to renominate 
him for the Presidency. The Nation rallied with 
enthusiasm, unparalleled since the days of Wash- 
ington, around the name of Gen. Grant. Andrew 
Johnson was forgotten. The bullet of the assassin 
introduced him to the President's chair. Not- 
withstanding this, never was there presented to a 
man a better opportunity to immortalize his name, 
and to win the gratitude of a nation. He failed 
utterly. He retired to his home in Greenville, 
Tenn. , taking no very active part in politics until 
1875. On January 26, after an exciting struggle, 
he was chosen by the Legislature of Tennessee 
United States Senator in the Forty-fourth Congess, 
and took his seat in that body, at the special ses- 
sion convened by President Grant, on the sth of 
March. On the 27th of July, 1875, the ex-Presi- 
dent made a visit to his daughter's home, near 
Carter Station, Tenn. When he started on his 
journey, he was apparently in his usual vigorous 
health, but on reaching the residence of his child 
the following day, he was stricken with paralysis, 
which rendered him unconscious. He rallied oc- 
casionally, but finally passed away at 2 A. M., 
July 31 , aged sixty -seven years. His funeral was 
held at Greenville, on the 3d of August, with 
every demonstration of respect. 



ULYSSES S. GRANT. 



HLYSSES S. GRANT, the eighteenth Presi- 
dent of the United States, was born on the 
2gth of April, 1822, of Christian parents, in 
a humble home at Point Pleasant, on the banks 
of the Ohio. Shortly after, his father moved to 
Georgetown, Brown County, Ohio. In this re- 
mote frontier hamlet, Ulysses received a common- 
school education. At the age of seventeen, in 
the year 1839, he entered the Military Academy 
at West Point. Here he was regarded as a solid, 
sensible young man, of fair ability, and of sturdy, 
honest character. He took respectable rank as a 
scholar. In June, 1843, he graduated about the 
middle in his class, and was sent as Lieutenant of 
Infantry to one of the distant military posts in the 
Missouri Territory. Two years he passed in these 
dreary solitudes, watching the vagabond Indians. 

The war with Mexico came. Lieut. Grant was 
sent with his regiment to Corpus Christi. His 
first battle was at Palo Alto. There was no 
chance here for the exhibition of either skill or 
heroism, nor at Resaca de la Palma, his second 
battle. At the battle of Monterey, his third en- 
gagement, it is said that he performed a signal 
service of daring and skillful horsemanship. 

At the close of the Mexican War, Capt. Grant j 
returned with his regiment to New York, an-1 : 
was again sent to one of the military posts on the | 
frontier. The discovery of gold in California 
causing an immense tide of emigration to flow to J 
the Pacific shores, Capt. Grant was sent with a j 
battalion to Ft. Dallas, in Oregon, for the protec- 
tion of the interests of the immigrants. But life 
was wearisome in those wilds, and he resigned 
his commission and returned to the States. Hav- 
ing married, he entered upon the cultivation of a 
small farm near St. Louis, Mo., but having little 



skill as a farmer, and finding his toil not re- 
munerative, he turned to mercantile life, entering 
into the leather business, with a younger brother 
at Galena, 111. This was in the year 1860. As 
the tidings of the rebels firing on Ft. Sumter 
reached the ears of Capt. Grant in his counting- 
room, he said: "Uncle Sam has educated me 
for the army; though I have served him through 
one war, I do not feel that I have yet repaid the 
debt. I am still ready to discharge my obliga- 
tions. I shall therefore buckle on my sword and 
see Uncle Sam through this war too. ' ' 

He went into the streets, raised a company of 
volunteers, and led them as their Captain to 
Springfield, the capital of the State, where their 
services were offered to Gov. Yates. The Gov- 
ernor, impressed by the zeal and straightforward 
executive ability of Capt. Grant, gave him a desk 
in his office to assist in the volunteer organiza- 
tion that was being formed in the State in behalf 
of the Government. On the 1 5th of June, 1861, 
Capt. Grant received a commission as Colonel of 
the Twenty-first Regiment of Illinois Volunteers. 
His merits as a West Point graduate, who had 
served for fifteen years in the regular arm}', were 
such that he was soon promoted to the rank of 
Brigadier-General, and was placed in command at 
Cairo. The rebels raised their banner at Padu- 
cah, near the mouth of the Tennessee River. 
Scarcely had its folds appeared in the breeze ere 
Gen. Grant was there. The rebels fled, their 
banner fell, and the Stars and Stripes were un- 
furled in its stead. 

He entered the service with great determina- 
tion and immediately began active duty. This 
was the beginning, and until the surrender of 
Lee at Richmond he was ever pushing the enemy 



ULYSSES S. GRANT. 



with great vigor and effectiveness. At Belmont, 
a few days later, he surprised and routed the 
rebels, then at Ft. Henry won another victory. 
Then came the brilliant fight at Ft. Donelson. 
The nation was electrified by the victory, and the 
brave leader of the boys in blue was immediately 
made a Major-General, and the military district 
of Tennessee was assigned to him. 

Like all great captains, Gen. Grant knew well 
how to secure the results of victory. He imme- 
diately pushed on to the enemies' lines. Then 
came the terrible battles of Pittsburg Landing, 
Corinth, and the siege of Vicksburg, where Gen. 
Pemberton made an unconditional surrender of 
the city with over thirty thousand men and one 
hundred and seventy -two cannon. The fall of 
Vicksburg was by far the most severe blow which 
the rebels had thus far encountered, and opened 
up the Mississippi from Cairo to the Gulf. 

Gen. Grant was next ordered to co-operate with 
Gen. Banks in a movement upon Texas, and pro- 
ceeded to New Orleans, where he was thrown 
from his horse, and received severe injuries, from 
which he was laid up for months. He then 
rushed to the aid of Gens. Rosecrans and Thomas 
at Chattanooga, and by a wonderful series of 
strategic and technical measures put the Union 
army in fighting condition. Then followed the 
bloody battles at Chattanooga, Lookout Moun- 
tain and Missionary Ridge, in which the rebels 
were routed with great loss. This won for him 
unbounded praise in the North. On the 4th of 
February, 1864, Congress revived the grade of 
lieutenant-general, and the rank was conferred 
on Gen. Grant. He repaired to Washington to 
receive his credentials and enter upon the duties 
of his new office. 

Gen. Grant decided as soon as he took charge 
of the army to concentrate the widely-dispersed 
National troops for an attack upon Richmond, 
the nominal capital of the rebellion, and endeavor 
there to destroy the rebel armies which would be 
promptly assembled from all quarters for its de- 
fense. The whole continent seemed to tremble 
under the tramp of these majestic armies, rushing 
to the decisive battle-field. Steamers were crowd- 
ed with troops. Railway trains were burdened 



with closely-packed thousands. His plans were 
comprehensive, and involved a series of cam- 
paigns, which were executed with remarkable 
energy and ability, and were consummated at the 
surrender of Lee, April 9, 1865. 

The war was ended. The Union was saved. 
The almost unanimous voice of the nation de- 
clared Gen. Grant to be the most prominent in- 
strument in its salvation. The eminent services 
he had thus rendered the country brought him 
conspicuously forward as the Republican candi- 
date for the Presidential chair. 

At the Republican Convention held at Chicago, 
May 21, 1868, he was unanimously nominated 
for the Presidency, and at the autumn election 
received a majority of the popular vote, and two 
hundred and fourteen out of two hundred and 
ninety-four electoral votes. 

The National Convention of the Republican 
party, which met at Philadelphia on the 5th 01 
June, 1872, placed Gen. Grant in nomination for 
a second term by a unanimous vote. The selec- 
tion was emphatically indorsed by the people five 
months later, two hundred and ninety-two elect- 
oral -votes being cast for him. 

Soon after the close of his second term, Gen. 
Grant started upon his famous trip around the 
world. He visited almost every country of the 
civilized world, and was everywhere received 
with such ovations and demonstrations of respect 
and honor, private as well as public and official, 
as were never before bestowed upon any citizen 
of the United States. 

He was the most prominent candidate before 
the Republican National Convention in 1880 for 
a renomination for President. He went to New 
York and embarked in the brokerage business 
under the firm name of Grant & Ward. The 
latter proved a villain, wrecked Grant's fortune, 
and for larceny was sent to the penitentiary. 
The General was attacked with cancer in the 
throat, but suffered in his stoic-like manner, never 
complaining. He was re-instated as General of 
the Army, and retired by Congress. The cancer 
soon finished its deadly work, and July 23, 1885, 
the nation went in mourning over the death ot 
the illustrious General. 




o 



RUTHERFORD B. HAYES. 



QUTHERFORD B. HAYES, the nineteenth j 
UC President of the United States, was born in 
P\ Delaware, Ohio, October 4, 1822, almost 
three months after the death of his father, Ruther- 
ford Hayes. His ancestry on both the paternal and 
maternal sides was of the most honorable char- 
acter. It can be traced, it is said, as far back as 
1280, when Hayes and Rutherford were two 
Scottish chieftains, fighting side by side with 
Baliol, William Wallace and Robert Bruce. Both 
families belonged to the nobility, owned extensive 
estates, and had a large following. Misfortune 
overtaking the family, George Hayes left Scotland 
in 1680, and settled in Windsor, Conn. His son 
George was born in Windsor, and remained there 
during his life. Daniel Hayes, son of the latter, 
married Sarah Lee, and lived from the time of 
his marriage until his death in Simsbury, Conn. 
Ezekiel, son of Daniel, was born in 1724, and was 
a manufacturer of scythes at Bradford, Conn. 
Rutherford Hayes, son of Ezekiel and grandfather 
of President Hayes, was born in New Haven, in 
August, 1756. He was a farmer, blacksmith and 
tavern-keeper. He emigrated to Vermont at an 
unknown date, settling in Brattleboro, where he 
established a hotel. Here his son, Rutherford 
Hayes, the father of President Hayes, was born. 
He was married, in September, 1813, to Sophia 
Birchard, of Wilmington, Vt, whose ancestors 
emigrated thither from Connecticut, they having 
been among the wealthiest and best families of 
Norwich. Her ancestry on the male side is 
traced back to 1635, to John Birchard, one of the 
principal founders of Norwich. Both of her grand- 
fathers were soldiers in the Revolutionary War. 

The father of President Hayes was an industri- 
ous, frugal, yet open-hearted man. He was of a 



mechanical turn of mind, and could mend a plow, 
knit a stocking, or do almost anything else that 
he chose to undertake. He was a member of the 
church, active in all the benevolent enterprises 
of the town, and conducted his business on Chris- 
tian principles. After the close of the War of 
1812, for reasons inexplicable to his neighbors, he 
resolved to emigrate to Ohio. 

The journey from Vermont to Ohio in that day, 
when there were no canals, steamers, or rail- 
ways, was a very serious affair. A tour of in- 
spection was first made, occupying four months. 
Mr. Hayes decided to move to Delaware, where 
the family arrived in 1817. He died July 22, 
1822, a victim of malarial fever, less than three 
months before the birth of the son of whom we 
write. Mrs. Hayes, in her sore bereavement, 
found the support she so much needed in her 
brother Sardis, who had been a member of the 
household from the day of its departure from 
Vermont, and in an orphan girl, whom she had 
adopted some time before as an act of charity. 

Rutherford was seven years old before he went 
to school. His education, however, was not neg- 
lected. He probably learned as much from his 
mother and sister as he would have done at 
school. His sports were almost wholly within 
doors, his playmates being his sister and her asso- 
ciates. These circumstances tended, no doubt, to 
foster that gentleness of disposition and that del- 
icate consideration for the feelings of others which 
were marked traits of his character. 

His uncle, Sardis Birchard, took the deepest 
interest in his education; and as the boy's health 
had improved, and he was making good progress 
in his studies, he proposed to send him to college. 
His preparation commenced with a tutor at home; 



9 2 



RUTHERFORD B. HAYES. 



but he was afterwards sent for one year to a pro- 
fessor in the Wesley an University in Middletown, 
Conn. He entered Kenyon College in 1838, at 
the age of sixteen, and was graduated at the head 
of his class in 1842. 

Immediately after his graduation he began the 
study of law in the office of Thomas Sparrow, 
Esq., in Columbus. Finding his opportunities 
for study in Columbus somewhat limited, he de- 
termined to enter the I,aw School at Cambridge, 
Mass., where he remained two years. 

In 1845, after graduating at the I^aw School, he 
was admitted to the Bar at Marietta, Ohio, and 
shortly afterward went into practice as an at- 
torney-at-law with Ralph P. Buckland, of Fre- 
mont. Here he remained three years, acquiring 
but a limited practice, and apparently unambitious 
of distinction in his profession. 

In 1849 he moved to Cincinnati, where his am- 
bition found a new stimulus. For several years, 
however, his progress was slow. Two events 
occurring at this period had a powerful influence 
upon his subsequent life. One of these was his 
marriage with Miss L,ucy Ware Webb, daughter 
of Dr. James Webb, of Chillicothe; the other was 
his introduction to the Cincinnati Literary Club, 
a body embracing among its members such men 
as Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase, Gen. John 
Pope, Gov. Edward F. Noyes, and many others 
hardly less distinguished in after life. The mar- 
riage was a fortunate one in every respect, as 
everybody knows. Not one of all the wives of 
our Presidents was more universally admired, 
reverenced and beloved than was Mrs. Hayes, and 
no one did more than she to reflect honor upon 
American womanhood. The L,iteraryClub brought 
Mr. Hayes into constant association with young 
men of high character and noble aims, and lured 
him to display the qualities so long hidden by his 
bashfulness and modesty. 

In 1856 he was nominated to the office of Judge 
of the Court of Common Pleas, but he declined to 
accept the nomination. Two years later, the of- 
fice of City Solicitor becoming vacant, the City 
Council elected him for the unexpired term. 

In 1 86 1, when the Rebellion broke out, he was 
at the zenith of his professional life. His rank at 



the Bar was among the first. But the news of 
the attack on Ft. Sumter found him eager to 
take up arms for the defense of his country. 

His military record was bright and illustrious. 
In October, 1861, he was made Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel, and in August, 1862, promoted Colonel of 
the Seventy-ninth Ohio Regiment, but he refused 
to leave his old comrades and go among strangers. 
Subsequently, however, he was made Colonel of 
his old regiment. At the battle of South Moun- 
tain he received a wound, and while faint and 
bleeding displayed courage and fortitude that 
won admiration from all. 

Col. Hayes was detached from his regiment, 
after his recovery, to act as Brigadier-General, 
and placed in command of the celebrated Kanawha 
division, and for gallant and meritorious services 
in the battles of Winchester, Fisher's Hill and 
Cedar Creek, he was promoted Brigadier-General. 
He was also breveted Major-General, "for gallant 
and distinguished services during the campaigns 
of 1864, in West Virginia." In the course of his 
arduous services, four horses were shot from un- 
der him, and he was wounded four times. 

In 1864, Gen. Hayes was elected to Congress 
from the Second Ohio District, which had long 
been Democratic. He was not present during the 
campaign, and after the election was importuned 
to resign his commission in the army; but he fi- 
nally declared, " I shall never come to Washing- 
ton until I can come by way of Richmond." He 
was re-elected in 1866. 

In 1867, Gen. Hayes was elected Governor of 
Ohio, over Hon. Allen G. Thurman, a popular 
Democrat, and in 1869 was re-elected over George 
H. Pendleton. He was elected Governor for the 
third term in 1875. 

In 1876 he was the standard-bearer of the Re- 
publican party in the Presidential contest, and 
after a hard, long contest was chosen President, 
and was inaugurated Monday, March 5, 1877. 
He served his full term, not, however, with satis- 
faction to his party, but his administration was an 
average one. The remaining years of his life 
were passed quietly in his Ohio home, where he 
passed away January 17, 1893. 



JAMES A. GARFIELD. 



(TAMES A. GARFIELD, twentieth President 
I of the United States, was born November 19, 
G) 1831, in the woods of Orange, Cuyahoga 
County, Ohio. His parents were Abram and 
Eliza (Ballou; Garfield, both of New England 
ancestry, and from families well known in the 
early history of that section of our country, but 
who had moved to the Western Reserve, in Ohio, 
early in its settlement. 

The house in which James A. was born was 
not unlike the houses of poor Ohio farmers of 
that day. It was about 20 x 30 feet, built of logs, 
with the spaces between the logs filled with clay. 
His father was a hard-working farmer, and he 
soon had his fields cleared, an orchard planted, 
and a log barn built. The household comprised 
the father and mother and their four children, 
Mehetabel, Thomas, Mary and James. In May, 
1823, the father died from a cold contracted in 
helping to put out a forest fire. At this time 
James was about eighteen months old, and 
Thomas about ten years old. No one, perhaps, 
can tell how much Jfames was indebted to his 
brother's toil and self-sacrifice during the twenty 
years succeeding his father's death. He now 
lives in Michigan, and the two sisters live in Solon, 
Ohio, near their birthplace. 

The early educational advantages young Gar- 
field enjoyed were very limited, yet he made the 
most of them. He labored at farm work for 
others, did carpenter work, chopped wood, or did 
anything that would bring in a few dollars to aid 
his widowed mother in her struggles to keep the 
little family together. Nor was Gen. Garfield 
ever ashamed of his origin, and he never forgot 
the friends of his struggling childhood, youth and 
manhood; neither did they ever forget him. 
When in the highest seats of honor, the humblest 
friend of his boyhood was as kindly greeted as 
ever. The poorest laborer was sure of the sym- 
pathy of one who had known all the bitterness of 



want and the sweetness of bread earned by the 
sweat of the brow. He was ever the simple, 
plain, modest gentleman. 

The highest ambition of young Garfield until 
he was about sixteen years old was to be cap- 
tain of a vessel on Lake Erie. He was anxious 
to go aboard a vessel, but this his mother strongly 
opposed. She finally consented to his going to 
Cleveland, with the understanding, however, that 
he should try to obtain some other kind of em- 
ployment. He walked all the way to Cleveland. 
This was his first visit to the city. After making 
many applications for work, and trying to get 
aboard a lake vessel and not meeting with suc- 
cess, he engaged as a driver for his cousin, Amos 
Letcher, on the Ohio & Pennsylvania Canal. 
He remained at this work but a short time, when 
he went home, and attended the seminary at 
Chester for about three years. He then entered 
Hiram and the Eclectic Institute, teaching a few 
terms of school in the mean time, and doing other 
work. This school was started by the Disciples 
of Christ in 1850, of which body he was then a 
member. He became janitor and bell-ringer in 
order to help pay his way. He then became both 
teacher and pupil. Soon "exhausting Hiram," 
and needing a higher education, in the fall of 1854 
he entered Williams College, from which he grad- 
uated in 1856, taking one of the highest honors of 
his class. He afterwards returned to Hiram Col- 
lege as its President. As above stated, he early 
united with the Christian, or Disciples, Church at 
Hiram, and was ever after a devoted, zealous 
member, often preaching in its pulpit and places 
where he happened to be. 

Mr. Garfield was united in marriage, Novem- 
ber ii, 1858, with Miss Lncretia Rudolph, who 
proved herself worthy as the wife of one whom 
all the world loved. To them were born seven 
children, five of whom are still Irving, four boys 
and one girl. 



9 6 



JAMES A. GARFIELD. 



Mr. Garfield made his first political speeches in 
1856, in Hiram and the neighboring villages, and 
three years later he began to speak at county 
mass-meetings, and became the favorite speaker 
wherever he was. During this year he was 
elected to the Ohio Senate. He also began to 
study law at Cleveland, and in 1861 was admitted 
to the Bar. The great Rebellion broke out in the 
early part of this year, and Mr. Garfield at once 
resolved to fight as he had talked, and enlisted to 
defend the Old Flag. He received his commission 
as Lieu tenant- Colonel of the Forty-second Regi- 
ment of Ohio Infantry August 14, 1861. He 
was immediately put into active service, and be- 
fore he had ever seen a gun fired in action, was 
placed in command of four regiments of infantry 
and eight companies of cavalry, charged with the 
work of driving out of his native State the able 
rebel officer, Humphrey Marshall, of Kentucky. 
This work was bravely and speedily accomplished, 
although against great odds, and President Lin- 
coln commissioned him Brigadier- General, Janu- 
ary 10, 1862; and "as he had beej the youngest 
man in the Ohio Senate two years before, so now 
he was the youngest General in the army." He 
was with Gen. Buell's army at Shiloh, in its 
operations around Corinth and its march through 
Alabama. He was then detailed as a member of 
the general court martial for the trial of Gen. 
Fitz-John Porter. He was next ordered to re- 
port to Gen. Rosecrans, and was assigned to the 
" Chief of Staff." The military history of Gen. 
Garfield closed with his brilliant services at Chick- 
amauga, where he won the rank of Major- General. 

Without an effort on his part, Gen. Garfield 
was elected to Congress in the fall of 1862, from 
the Nineteenth District of Ohio. This section of 
Ohio had been represented in Congress for sixty 
years mainly by two men Elisha Whittlesey and 
Joshua R. Giddings. It was not without a strug- 
gle that he resigned his place in the army. At 
the time he entered Congress he was the youngest 
member in that body. There he remained by 
successive re-elections until he was elected Presi- 
dent, in 1880. Of his labors in Congress, Senator 
Hearsays: "Since the year 1864 you cannot 
think of a question which has been debated in 



Congress, or discussed before a tribunal of the 
American people, in regard to which you will not 
find, if you wish instruction, the argument on 
one side stated, in almost every instance better 
than by anybody else, in some speech made in 
the House of Representatives or on the hustings 
by Mr. Garfield." 

Upon January 14, 1880, Gen. Garfield was elect- 
ed to the United States Senate, and on the 8th of 
June, of the same year, was nominated as the 
candidate of his party for President at the great 
Chicago Convention. He was elected in the fol- 
lowing November, and on March 4, 1881, was 
inaugurated. Probably no administration ever 
opened its existence under brighter auspices than 
that of President Garfield, and every day it grew 
in favor with the people. By the ist of July 
he had completed all the initiatory and prelimi- 
nary wofk of his administration, and was prepar- 
ing to leave the city to meet his friends at Will- 
iams College. While on his way and at the 
depot, in company with Secretary Elaine, a man 
stepped behind him, drew a revolver, and fired 
directly at his back. The President tottered and 
fell, and as he did so the assassin fired a second 
shot, the bullet cutting the left coat sleeve of his 
victim, but inflicting no further injury. It has 
been very truthfully said that this was ' ' the shot 
that was heard around the world. ' ' Never before 
in the history of the nation had anything occur- 
red which so nearly froze the blood of the people 
for the moment as this awful deed. He was 
smitten on the brightest, gladdest day of all his 
life, at the summit of his power and hope. For 
eighty days, all during the hot months of July 
and August, he lingered and suffered. He, how- 
ever, remained master of himself till the last, and 
by his magnificent bearing taught the country 
and the world one of the noblest of human les- 
sons how to live grandly in the very clutch of 
death. Great in life, he was surpassingly great 
in death. He passed serenely away September 
19, 1883, at Elberon, N. J., on the very bank of 
the ocean, where he had been taken shortly be- 
fore. The world wept at his death, as it rarely 
ever had done on the death of any other great 
and noble man. 



CHESTER A. ARTHUR. 



E HESTER A. ARTHUR, twenty-first Presi- 
dent of the United States, was born in Frank- 
lin County, Vt. ( on the sth day of October, 
1 830, and was the eldest of a family of two sons 
and five daughters. His father was the Rev. Dr. 
William Arthur, a Baptist clergyman, who emi- 
grated to this country from County Antrim, Ire- 
land, in his eighteenth year, and died in 1875, in 
Newtonville, near Albany, after a long and suc- 
cessful ministry. 

Young Arthur was educated at Union College, 
Schenectady, where he excelled in all his studies, j 
After his graduation he taught school in Ver- | 
mont for two years, and at the expiration of that 
time came to New York, with $500 in his pocket, 
and entered the office of ex -Judge E. D. Culver 
as a student. After being admitted to the Bar, he 
formed a partnership with his intimate friend and 
room-mate, Henry D. Gardiner, with the inten- j 
tion of practicing in the West, and for three 
months they roamed about in the Western States 
in search of an eligible site, but in the end re- 
turned to New York, where they hung out their 
shingle, and entered upon a successful career al- 
most from the start. Gen. Arthur soon after mar- 
ried the daughter of Lieut. Herndon, of the 
United States Navy, who was lost at sea. Con- 
gress voted a gold medal to his widow in recog- 
nition of the bravery he displayed on that occa- 
sion. Mrs. Arthur died shortly before Mr. 
Arthur's nomination to the Vice-Presidency, leav- 
ing two children. 

Gen. Arthur obtained considerable legal celeb- 
rity in his first great case, the famous Lemmon 
suit, brought to recover possession of eight slaves 
who had been declared free by Judge Paine, of 
the Superior Court of New York City. It was in 



1852 that Jonathan Lemmon, of Virginia, went to 
New York with his slaves, intending to ship them 
to Texas, when they were discovered and freed. 
The Judge decided that they could not be held by 
the owner under the Fugitive Slave Law. A howl 
of rage went up from the South, and the Virginia 
Legislature authorized the Attorney-General of 
that State to assist in an appeal. William M. 
Evarts and Chester A. Arthur were employed to 
represent the people, and they won their case, 
which then went to the Supreme Court of the 
United States. Charles O' Conor here espoused 
the cause of the slaveholders, but he, too, was 
beaten by Messrs. Evarts and Arthur, and a long 
step was taken toward the emancipation of the 
black race. 

Another great service was rendered by Gen. 
Arthur in the same cause in 1856. Lizzie Jen- 
nings, a respectable colored woman, was put off 
a Fourth Avenue car with violence after she had 
paid her fare. Gen. Arthur sued on her behalf, 
and secured a verdict of $500 damages. The next 
day the company issued an order to admit colored 
persons to ride on their cars, and the other car 
companies quickly followed their example. Be- 
fore that the Sixth Avenue Company ran a few 
special cars for colored persons, and the other lines 
refused to let them ride at all. 

Gen. Arthur was a delegate to the convention 
at Saratoga that founded the Republican party. 
Previous to the war he was Judge- Advocate of 
the Second Brigade of the State of New York, 
and Gov. Morgan, of that State, appointed him 
Engineer-in-Chief of his staff. In 1861, he was 
made Inspector-General, and soon afterward be- 
came Quartermaster-General. In each of these 
offices he rendered great service to the Govern- 



CHESTER A. ARTHUR. 



ment during the war. At the end of Gov. Mor- 
gan's term he resumed the practice of law, form- 
ing a partnership with Mr. Ransom, and then 
Mr. Phelps, the District Attorney of New York, 
was added to the firm. The legal practice of this 
well-known firm was very large and lucrative, 
as each of the gentlemen composing it was an able 
lawyer, and possessed a splendid local reputa- 
tion, if not, indeed, one of national extent. 

Mr. Arthur always took a leading part in State 
and city politics. He was appointed Collector of 
the Port of New York by President Grant, No- 
vember 21, 1872, to succeed Thomas Murphy, 
and he held the office until July 20, 1878, when 
he was succeeded by Collector Merritt. 

Mr. Arthur was nominated on the Presidential 
ticket, with Gen. James A. Garfield, at the 
famous National Republican Convention held at 
Chicago in June, 1880. This was perhaps the 
greatest political convention that ever assembled 
on the continent. It was composed of the lead- 
ing politicians of the Republican party, all able 
men, and each stood firm and fought vigorously 
and with signal tenacity for his respective can- 
didate that was before the convention for the 
nomination. Finally Gen. Garfield received the 
nomination for President, and Gen. Arthur for 
Vice- President. The campaign which followed 
was one of the most animated known in the his- 
tory of our country. Gen. Hancock, the stand- 
ard-bearer of the Democratic party, was a popular 
man, and his party made a valiant fight for his 
election. 

Finally the election came, and the country's 
choice was Garfield and Arthur. They were in- 
augurated March 4, 1881, as President and Vice- 
President. A few months only had passed ere 
the newly-chosen President was the victim of the 
assassin's bullet. Then came terrible weeks of 
suffering those moments of anxious suspense, 
when the hearts of all civilized nations were 
throbbing in unison, longing for the recovery of 
the noble, the good President. The remarkable 
patience that he manifested during those hours 
and weeks, and even months, of the most terrible 
suffering man has ever been called upon to en- 
dure, was seemingly more than human. It was 



certainly godlike. During all this period of 
deepest anxiety Mr. Arthur's every move was 
watched, and, be it said to his credit, that his every 
action displayed only an earnest desire that the 
suffering Garfield might recover to serve the re- 
mainder of the term he had so auspiciously be- 
gun. Not a selfish feeling was manifested in 
deed or look of this man, even though the most 
honored position in the world was at any moment 
likely to fall to him. 

At last God in his mercy relieved President 
Garfield from further suffering, and the world, as 
never before in its history over the death of any 
other man, wept at his bier. Then it became the 
duty of the Vice-President to assume the respon- 
sibilities of the high office, and he took the oath 
in New York, September 20, 1881. The position 
was an embarrassing one to him, made doubly so 
from the fact that all eyes were on him, anxious 
to know what he would do, what policy he would 
pursue, and whom he would select as advisers. 
The duties of the office had been greatly neglected 
during the President's long illness, and many im- 
portant measures were to be immediately decided 
by him; and to still further embarass him he did 
not fail to realize under what circumstances he 
became President, and knew the feelings of many 
on this point. Under these trying circumstances, 
President Arthur took the reins of the Govern- 
ment in his own hands, and, as embarrassing as 
was the condition of affairs, he happily surprised 
the nation, acting so wisely that but few criticized 
his administration. He served the nation well 
and faithfully until the close of his administra- 
tion, March 4, 1885, and was a popular candidate 
before his party for a second term. His name 
was ably presented before the convention at Chi- 
cago, and was received with great favor, and 
doubtless but for the personal popularity of one 
of the opposing candidates, he would have been 
selected as the standard-bearer of his party for 
another campaign. He retired to private life, car- 
rying with him the best wishes of the American 
people, whom he had served in a manner satisfac- 
tory to them and with credit to himself. One 
year later he was called to his final rest. 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY of ILLINOIS 



STEPHEN GROVER CLEVELAND. 



(STEPHEN GROVER CLEVELAND, the 
?\ twenty -second President of the United States, 
Q) was born in 1837, in the obscure town of 
Caldwell, Essex County, N. J., and in a little 
two-and-a-half-story white house, which is still 
standing to characteristically mark the humble 
birthplace of one of America's great men, in 
striking contrast with the Old World, where all 
men high in office must be high in origin and 
born in the cradle of wealth. When the subject 
of this sketch was three years of age, his father, 
who was a Presbyterian minister with a large 
family and a small salary, moved, by way of the 
Hudson River and Erie Canal, to Fayetteville, N. 
Y., in search of an increased income and a larger 
field of work. Fayetteville was then the most 
straggling of country villages, about five miles 
from Pompey Hill, where Governor Seymour 
was born. 

At the last-mentioned place young Grover com- 
menced going to school in the good, old-fashioned 
way, and presumably distinguished himself after 
the manner of all village boys in doing the 
things he ought not to do. Such is the dis- 
tinguishing trait of all geniuses and independent 
thinkers. When he arrived at the age of four- 
teen years, he had outgrown the capacity of the 
village school, and expressed a most emphatic de- 
sire to be sent to an academy. To this his fa- 
ther decidedly objected. Academies in those 
days cost money; besides, his father wanted him 
to become self-supporting by the quickest pos- 
sible means, and this at that time in Fayetteville 
seemed to be a position in a country store, where 
his father and the large family on his hands had 



considerable influence. Grover was to be paid 
$50 for his services the first year, and if he proved 
trustworthy he was to receive $100 the second 
year. Here the lad commenced his career as 
salesman, and in two years he had earned so good 
a reputation for trustworthiness that his employ- 
ers desired to retain him for an indefinite length 
of time. 

But instead of remaining with this firm in 
Fayetteville, he went with the family in their re- 
moval to Clinton, where he had an opportunity 
of attending a High School. Here he industri- 
ously pursued his studies until the family re- 
moved with him to a point on Black River known 
as the "Holland Patent," a village of five or six 
hundred people, fifteen miles north of Utica, N. Y. 
At this place his father died, after preaching but 
three Sundays. This event broke up the family, 
and Grover set out for New York City tD accept, 
at a small salary, the position of under- teacher 
in an asylum for the blind. He taught faithfully 
for two years, and although he obtained a good 
reputation in this capacity, he concluded that 
teaching was not his calling in life, and, revers- 
ing the traditional order, he left the city to seek 
his fortune, instead of going to the city. He first 
thought of Cleveland, Ohio, as there was some 
charm in that name for him; but before proceed- 
ing to that place he went to Buffalo to ask advice 
of his uncle, Lewis F. Allan, a noted stock- 
breeder of that place. The latter did not speak 
enthusiastically. "What is it you want to do, 
my boy?" he asked. "Well, sir, I want to study 
law," was the reply "Good gracious!" remarked 
the old gentleman; " do you, indeed? Whatever 



104 



STEPHEN GROVER CLEVELAND. 



put that into your head? How much money 
have you got?" "Well, sir, to tell the truth, I 
haven't got any." 

After a long consultation, his uncle offered him 
a place temporarily as assistant herd-keeper, at 
$50 a year, while he could look around. One 
day soon afterward he boldly walked into the of- 
fice of Rogers, Bowen & Rogers, of Buffalo, and 
told them what he wanted. A number of young 
men were already engaged in the office, but Gro- 
ver's persistency won, and he was finally per- 
mitted to come as an office boy and have the use 
of the law library, receiving as wages the sum of 
$3 or $4 a week. Out of this he had to pay for his 
board and washing. The walk to and from his 
uncle's was a long and rugged one; and although 
the first winter was a memorably severe one, his 
shoes were out of repair, and as for his overcoat he 
had none; yet he was, nevertheless, prompt and 
regular. On the first day of his service there, his 
senior employer threw down a copy of Black- 
stone before him, with a bang that made the dust 
fly, saying "That's where they all begin." A 
titter ran around the little circle of clerks and 
students, as they thought that was enough to 
scare young Grover out of his plans; but in due 
time he mastered that cumbersome volume. 
Then, as ever afterward, however, Mr. Cleve- 
land exhibited a talent for executiveness rather 
than for chasing principles through all their 
metaphysical possibilities. "Let us quit talking 
and go and do it, ' ' was practically his motto. 

The first public office to which Mr. Cleveland 
was elected was that of Sheriff of Erie County, 
N. Y., in which Buffalo is situated; and in such 
capacity it fell to his duty to inflict capital punish- 
ment upon two criminals. In 1881 he was 
elected Mayor of the City of Buffalo, on the 
Democratic ticket, with especial reference to bring- 
ing about certain reforms in the administration 
of the municipal affairs of that city. In this of- 
fice, as well as in that of Sheriff, his performance 
of duty has generally been considered fair, with 
possibly a few exceptions, which were ferreted 
out and magnified during his Presidential cam- 
paign. As a specimen of his plain language in 
a veto message, we quote from one vetoing an 



iniquitous street-cleaning contract: "This is a 
time for plain speech, and my objection to your 
action shall be plainly stated. I regard it as the 
culmination of a most bare-faced, impudent and 
shameless scheme to betray the interests of the 
people and to worse than squander the people's 
money." The New York Sun afterward very 
highly commended Mr. Cleveland's administra- 
tion as Mayor of Buffalo, and thereupon recom- 
mended him for Governor of the Empire State. 
To the latter office he was elected in 1882, and 
his administration of the affairs of State was 
generally satisfactory. The mistakes he made, 
if any, were made very public throughout the na- 
tion after he was nominated for President of the 
United States. For this high office he was 
nominated July n, 1884, by the National Demo- 
cratic Convention at Chicago, when other com- 
petitors were Thomas F. Bayard, Roswell P. 
Flower, Thomas A. Hendricks, Benjamin F. 
Butler, Allen G. Thurman, etc.; and he was 
elected by the people, by a majority of about a 
thousand, over the brilliant and long-tried Re- 
publican statesman, James G. Elaine. President 
Cleveland resigned his office as Governor of New 
York in January, 1885, in order to prepare for 
his duties as the Chief Executive of the United 
States, in which capacity his term commenced at 
noon on the 4th of March, 1885. 

The silver question precipitated a controversy 
between those who were in favor of the continu- 
ance of silver coinage and those who were op- 
posed, Mr. Cleveland answering for the latter, 
even before his inauguration. 

On June 2, 1886, President Cleveland married 
Frances, daughter of his deceased friend and part- 
ner, Oscar Folsom, of the Buffalo Bar. Their 
union has been blessed by the birth of two daugh- 
ters. In the campaign of 1888, President Cleve- 
land was renominated by his party, but the 
Republican candidate, Gen. Benjamin Harrison, 
was victorious. In the nominations of 1892 
these two candidates for the highest position in 
the gift of the people were again pitted against 
each other, and in the ensuing election President 
Cleveland was victorious by an overwhelming 
majority. 




I 



BENJAMIN HARRISON. 



HENJAMIN HARRISON, the twenty-third 

ft President, is the descendant of one of the 
\,J historical families of this country. The first 
known head of the family was Maj.-Gen. Harrison, 
one of Oliver Cromwell's trusted followers and 
fighters. In the zenith of Cromwell' s power it be- 
came the duty of this Harrison to participate in 
the trial of Charles I., and afterward to sign the 
death warrant of the king. He subsequently 
paid for this with his life, being hung October 13, 
1660. His descendants came to America, and 
the next of the family that appears in history is 
Benjamin Harrison, of Virginia, great-grandfa- 
ther of the subject of this sketch, and after whom 
he was named. Benjamin Harrison was a mem- 
ber of the Continental Congress during the years 
1774, 1775 and 1776, and was one of the original 
signers of the Declaration of Independence. He 
was three times elected Governor of Virginia. 

Gen. William Henry Harrison, the son of the 
distinguished patriot of the Revolution, after a 
successful career as a soldier during the War of 
1812, and with a clean record as Governor of the 
Northwestern Territory, was elected President of 
the United States in 1840. His career was cut 
short by death within one month after his in- 
auguration. 

President Harrison was born at North Bend, 



Hamilton County, Ohio, August 20, 1833. His 
life up to the time of his graduation from Miami 
University, at Oxford, Ohio, was the uneventful 
one of a country lad of a family of small means. 
His father was able to give him a good education, 
and nothing more. He became engaged while at 
college to the daughter of Dr. Scott, Principal of 
a female school at Oxford. After graduating, he 
determined to enter upon the study of law. He 
went to Cincinnati and there read law for two 
years. At the expiration of that time young Har- 
rison received the only inheritance of his life his 
aunt, dying, left him a lot valued at $800. He 
regarded this legacy as a fortune, and decided to 
get married at once, take this money and go to 
some Eastern town and begin the practice of law. 
He sold his lot, and, with the money in his pocket, 
he started out with his young wife to fight for a 
place in the world. He decided to go to Indian- 
apolis, which was even at that time a town of 
promise. He met with slight encouragement at 
first, making scarcely anything the first year. 
He worked diligently, applying himself closely to 
his calling, built up an extensive practice and 
took a leading rank in the legal profession. 

In 1860, Mr. Harrison was nominated for the 
position of Supreme Court Reporter, and then be- 
gan his experience as a stump speaker. He can- 



io8 



BENJAMIN HARRISON. 



vassed the State thoroughly, and was elected by 
a handsome majority. In 1862 he raised the 
Seventeenth Indiana Infantry, and was chosen its 
Colonel. His regiment was composed of the raw- 
est material, but Col. Harrison employed all his 
time at first in mastering military tactics and drill- 
ing his men, and when he came to move toward 
the East with Sherman, his regiment was one of 
the best drilled and organized in the army. At 
Resaca he especially distinguished himself, and 
("or his bravery at Peachtree Creek he was made 
a Brigadier-General, Gen. Hooker speaking of 
him in the most complimentary terms. 

During the absence of Gen. Harrison in the 
field, the Supreme Court declared the office of 
Supreme Court Reporter vacant, and another 
person was elected to the position. From the 
time of leaving Indiana with his regiment until 
the fall of 1864 he had taken no leave of absence, 
but having been nominated that year for the same 
office, he got a thirty-day leave of absence, and 
during that time made a brilliant canvass of the 
State, and was elected for another term. He then 
started to rejoin Sherman, but on the way was 
stricken down with scarlet fever, and after a most 
trying attack made his way to the front in time to 
participate in the closing incidents of the war. 

In 1868 Gen. Harrison declined a re-election 
as Reporter, and resumed the practice of law. In 
1 876 he was a candidate for Governor. Although 
defeated, the brilliant campaign he made won for 
him a national reputation, and he was much sought 
after, especially in the East, to make speeches. 
In 1880, as usual, he took an active part in the 
campaign, and was elected to the United States 
Senate. Here he served for six years, and was 
known as one of the ablest men, best lawyers and 
strongest debaters in that body. With the ex- 
piration of his senatorial term he returned to the 
practice of his profession, becoming the head of 
one of the strongest firms in the State. 

The political campaign of 1888 was one of the 
most memorable in the history of our country. 
The convention which assembled in Chicago in 
June and named Mr. Harrison as the chief st. md- 
ard-bearer of the Republican party was great in 
every particular, and on ttis account, and the at- 



titude it assumed upon the vital questions of the 
day, chief among which was the tariff, awoke a 
deep interest in the campaign throughout the 
nation. Shortly after the nomination, delegations 
began to visit Mr. Harrison at Indianapolis, his 
home. This movement became popular, and from 
all sections of the country societies, clubs and 
delegations journeyed thither to pay their re- 
spects to the distinguished statesman. 

Mr. Harrison spoke daily all through the sum- 
mer and autumn to these visiting delegations, 
and so varied, masterly, and eloquent were his 
speeches that they at once placed him in the fore- 
most rank of American orators and statesmen. 
Elected by a handsome majority, he served his 
country faithfully and well, and in 1892 was nom- 
inated for re-election; but the people demanded a 
change and he was defeated by his predecessor 
in office, Grover Cleveland. 

On account of his eloquence as a speaker and 
his power as a debater, Gen. Harrison was called 
upon at an early age to take part in the dis- 
cussion of the great questions that then began to 
agitate the country. ; lie w,as an uncompromising 
anti-slavery man v aijd_was 'matched against some 
of the most eminent 1 :, .Demi^atic speakers of his 
State. No man who felt the touch of his blade 
desired to be pitted with him again. With all 
his eloquence as an orator he never spoke for ora- 
torical effect, but his words always went like bul- 
lets to the mark. He is purely American in his 
ideas, and is a splendid type of the American 
statesman. Gifted with quick perception, a logi- 
cal mind and a ready tongue, he is one of the 
most distinguished impromptu speakers in the 
nation. Many of these speeches sparkled with the 
rarest eloquence and contained arguments of great 
weight, and many of his terse statements have 
already become aphorisms. Original in thought, 
precise in logic, terse in statement, yet withal 
faultless in eloquence, he is recognized as the 
sound statesman and brilliant orator of the day. 
During the last days of his administration Presi- 
dent Harrison suffered an irreparable loss in the 
death of his devoted wife, Caroline (Scott) Har- 
rison, a lady of many womanly charms and vir- 
tues. They were the parents of two children. 



GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS. 





HADRACH BOND, the first 
Governor of Illinois after its 
organization as a State, serving 
from 1818 to i&22, was born in 
Frederick County, Maryland, 
in the year 1773, and was 
raised a farmer on his father's 
plantation, receiving only a plain 
English education. He emigrated 
to this State in 1794, when it was a 
part of the "Northwest Territory," 
continuing in the vocation in which 
he had been brought up in his native 
State, in the " New Design," near 
Eagle Creek, in what is now Monroe 
County. He served several terms as 
a member of the General Assembly 
of Indiana Territory, after it was organized as such, 
and in 1812-14 he was a Delegate to the Twelfth 
and Thirteenth Congresses, taking his seat Dec. 3, 
1812, and serving until Oct. 3, 18:4. These were 
the times, the reader will recollect, when this Gov- 
ernment had its last struggle with Great Britain. 
The year 1812 is also noted in the history of this 
State as that in which the first Territorial Legislature 
was held. It convened at Kaskaskia, Nov. 25, and 
adjourned 'Dec. 26, following. 

While serving as Delegate to Congress, Mr. Bond 
was instrumental in procuring the right of pre-emp- 
tion on the public domain. On the expiration of his 
term a 1 . Washington he was appointed Receiver of 
Public Moneys at Kaskaskia, then the capital of the 
Territory. In company with John G. Comyges, 



Thomas H. Harris, Charles Slade, Michael Jonas, 
Warren Brown. Edward Humphries and Charles W 
Hunter, he became a proprietor of the site of the 
initial city of Cairo, which they hoped, from its favor- 
able location- at the junction of the two great 
rivers near the center of the Great West, would 
rapidly develop into a metropolis. To aid the enter- 
prise, they obtained a special charter from the Legis- 
lature, incorporating both the City and the Bank of 
Cairo. 

In 1818 Mr. Bond was elected the first Governor 
of the State of Illinois, being inaugurated Oct. 6 
that year, which was several weeks before Illinois 
was actually admitted. The facts are these: In 
January, 1818, the Territorial Legislature sent a peti- 
tion to Congress for the admission of Illinois as a 
State, Nathaniel Pope being then Delegate. The 
petition was granted, fixing the northern line of the 
State on the latitude of the southern extremity of 
Lake Michigan; but the bill was afterward so amend- 
ed as to extend this line to its present latitude. In 
July a convention was called at Kaskaskia to draft a 
constitution, which, however, was not submitted to 
the people. By its provisions, supreme judges, pros 
ecuting attorneys, county and circuit judges, record- 
ers and justices of the peace were all to be appointed 
by the Governor or elected by the Legislature. This 
constitution was accepted by Congress Dec. 30. At 
that time Illinois comprised but eleven counties, 
namely, Randolph, Madison, Gallatin, Johnson, 
Pope, Jackson, Crawford, Bond, Union, Washington 
and Franklin, the northern ]X>rtion of the State be- 
ing mainly in Madison County. Thus it appears 
that Mr. Bond was honored by the naming of a 



SHADRACH BOND. 



county before he was elected Governor. The present 
county of Bond is of small limitations, about 60 to 80 
miles south of Springfield. For Lieutenant Governor 
the people chose Pierre Menard, a prominent and 
worthy Frenchman, after whom a county in this State 
is named. In this election there were no opposition 
candidates, as the popularity of these men had made 
their promotion to the chief offices of the Slate, even 
before the constitution was drafted, a foregone con- 
tlusion. 

The principal points that excited the people in 
reference to political issues at this period were local 
or "internal improvements," as they were called, 
State banks, location of the capital, slavery and the 
personal characteristics of the proposed candidates. 
Mr. Bond represented the "Convention party," for 
introducing slavery into the State, supported by Elias 
Ke it Kane, his Secretary of State, and John Mc- 
Lean, while Nathaniel Pope and John P. Cook led 
the anti-slavery element. The people, however, did 
not become very much excited over this issue until 
1820, when the ftrrous Missouri Compromise was 
adopted by Congress, limiting slavery to the south 
of the parallel of 36 30' except in Missouri. While 
this measure settled the great slavery controversy, 
so far as the average public sentiment was tempor- 
arily concerned, until 1854, when it was repealed 
under the leadership of Stephen A. Douglas, the issue 
as considered locally in this State was not decided 
until 1824, after a most furious campaign. (See 
sketch of Gov. Coles.) The ticket of 1818 was a 
com promise one, Bond representing (moderately) the 
pro-slavery sentiment and Menard the anti-slavery. 

An awkward element in the State government 
under Gov. Bond's administration, was the imperfec- 
tion of the State constitution. The Convention 
wished to have Elijah C. Berry for the first Auditor 
of Public Accounts, but, as it was believed that the 
new Governor would not appoint htm to the office, 
the Convention declared in a schedule that " an 
auditor of public accounts, an attorney general and 
such other officers of the State as may be necessary, 
may be appointed by the General Assembly." The 
Constitution, as it stood, vested a very large appoint- 
ing power in the Governor ; but for the purpose of 
getting one man into office, a total change was made, 
and the power vested in the Legislature. Of this 
provision the Legislature took advantage, and de- 



clared that State's attorneys, canal commissioners, 
bank directors, etc., were all " officers of the State ' 
and must therefore be appointed by itself independ- 
ently of the Governor. 

During Gov. Bond's administration a general law 
was passed for the incorporation of academies and 
towns, and one authorizing lotteries. The session of 
1822 authorized the Governor to appoint commis- 
sioners, to act in conjunction with like commissioners 
appointed by the State of Indiana, to report on the 
practicability and expediency of improving the navi- 
gation of the Wabash River; also inland navigation 
generally. Many improvements were recommended, 
some of which have been feebly worked at even till 
the present day, those along the Wabash being of no 
value. Also, during Gov. Bond's term of office, the 
capital of the State was removed from Kaskaskia to 
Vandalia. In 1820 a law was passed by Congress 
authorizing this State to open a canal through the 
public lands. The State appointed commissioners 
lo explore the route and prepare the necessary sur- 
veys and estimates, preparatory to its execution; 
but, being unable out of its own resources to defray 
the expenses of the undertaking, it was abandoned 
until some time after Congress made the grant of 
land for the purpose of its construction. 

On the whole, Gov. Bond's administration was 
fairly good, not being open to severe criticism from 
any party. In 1824, two years after the expiration 
of his term of office, he was brought out as a candi- 
date for Congress against the formidable John P. 
Cook, but received only 4,374 votes tc 7,460 for the 
latter. Gov. Bond was no orator, but had made 
many fast friends by a judicioas be;towment of his 
gubernatorial patronage, and these worked zealously 
for him in the campaign. 

In 1827 ex-Gov. Bond was appointed by the Leg- 
islature, with Wm. P. McKee and Dr. Gershom 
Jayne, as Commissioners to locate a site for a peni- 
tentiary on the Mississippi at or near Alton. 

Mr. Bond was of a benevolent and convivial dis- 
position, a man of shrewd observation and clear ap- 
preciation of events. His person was erect, stand- 
ing six feet in height, and after middle life became 
portly, weighing 200 pounds. His features were 
strongly masculine, complexion dark, hair jet and 
eyes hazel ; was a favorite with the ladies. He died 
April n, 1830, in peace and Contentment. 



UNIVERSITY 



GO VERNORS OF ILLINOIS. 





DWARD COLES, second 
Governor of Illinois, 1823- 
6, was born Dec. 15, 1786, 
in Albemarle Co., Va., on 
the old family estate called 
"Enniscorthy," on the 
Green Mountain. His fath- 
er, John Coles, was a Colonel in the 
Revolutionary War. Having been fit- 
ted for college by private tutors, he 
was sent to Hampden Sidney, where 
he remained until the autumn of 1805, 
when he was removed to William and 
Mary College, at Williamsburg, Va. 
This college he left in the summer of 
1807, a short time before the final and graduating 
examination. Among his classmates were Lieut. 
Gen. Scott, President John Tyler, Wm. S. Archer, 
United States Senator from Virginia, and Justice 
Baldwin, of the United States Supreme Court. The 
President of the latter college, Bishop Madison, was 
a cousin of President James Madison, and that cir- 
cumstance was the occasion of Mr. Coles becoming 
personally acquainted with the President and re- 
ceiving a position as his private secretary, 1809-15. 
The family of Coles was a prominent one in Vir- 
ginia, and their mansion was the seat of the old- 
fashioned Virginian hospitality. It was visited by 
such notables as Patrick Henry, Jefferson, Madison, 
Monroe, the Randolphs, Tazewell, Wirt, etc. At the 
age of 23, young Coles found himself heir to a plant- 
ation and a considerable number of slaves. Ever 
since his earlier college days his attention had been 
drawn i > the question of slavery. He read every- 



thing on the subject that came in his way, and 
listened to lectures on the rights of man. The more 
he reflected upon the subject, the more impossible 
was it for him to reconcile the immortal declaration 
"that all men are born free and equal " with the 
practice of slave-holding. He resolved, therefore, to 
free his slaves the first opportunity, and even remove 
his residence to a free State. One reason which de- 
termined him to accept the appointment as private 
secretary to Mr. Madison was because he believed 
that through the acquaintances he could make at 
Washington he could better determine in what part 
of the non-slaveholding portion of the Union he woula 
prefer to settle. 

The relations between Mr. Coles and President 
Madison, as well as Jefferson and other distinguished 
men, were of a very friendly character, arising from 
the similarity of their views on the question of slavery 
and their sympathy for each other in holding doc- 
trines so much at variance with the prevailing senti- 
ment in their own State. 

In 1857, he resigned his secretaryship and spent a 
portion of the following autumn in exploring the 
Northwest Territory, for the purpose of finding a lo- 
cation and purchasing lands on which to settle his 
negroes. He traveled with a horse and buggy, with 
an extra man and horse for emergencies, through 
many parts of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Missouri, 
determining finally to settle in Illinois. At this time, 
however, a misunderstanding arose between our 
Government and Russia, and Mr. Coles was selected 
to repair to St. Petersburg on a special mission, bear- 
ing important papers concerning the matter at issue 
The result was a conviction of the Emperor (Alex- 



EDWARD COLES. 



ander) of the error committed by his minister at 
Washington, and the consequent withdrawal of the 
the latter from the post. On his return, Mr. Coles 
visited other parts of Europe, especially Paris, where 
he was introduced to Gen. Lafayette. 

In the spring of 1819, he removed with all his 
negroes from Virginia to Edwardsville, 111., with the 
intention of giving them their liberty. He did not 
make known to them his intention until one beautiful 
morning in April, as they were descending the Ohio 
River. He lashed all the boats together and called 
all the negroes on deck and made them a short ad- 
dress, concluding his remarks by so expressing him- 
self that by a turn pf a sentence he proclaimed in 
the shortest and fullest manner that they were no 
longer slaves, but free as he was and were at liberty 
to proceed with him or go ashore at their pleas- 
ure. A description of the effect upon the negroes is 
best desctibed in his own language : 

"The effect upon them was electrical. They stared 
at me and then at each other, as if doubting the ac- 
curacy or reality of what they heard. In breathless 
silence they stood before me, unable to utter a word, 
but with countenances beaming with expression which 
no words could convey, and which no language 
can describe. As they began to see the truth of 
what they had heard, and realize their situation, there 
came on a kind of hysterical, giggling laugh. After 
a pause of intense and unutterable emotion, bathed 
in tears, and with tremulous voices, they gave vent to 
their gratitude and implored the blessing of God 
on me." 

Before landing he gave them a general certificate 
of freedom, and afterward conformed more particu- 
larly with the law of this State requiring that each 
individual should have a certificate. This act of 
Mr. Coles, all the more noble and heroic considering 
the overwhelming pro-slavery influences surrounding 
him, has challenged the admiration of every philan- 
thropist of modern times. 

March 5, 1819, President Monroe appointed Mr. 
Coles Registrar of the Land Office at Edwardsvihe, 
at that time one of the principal land offices in the 
State. While acting in this capacity and gaining 
many friends by his politeness and general intelli- 
gence, the greatest struggle that ever occurred in 
Illinois on the slavery quesiion culminated in the 
furious contest characterizing the campaigns and 
elections of 1822-4. 1 the summer of 1823, when a 
new Governor was to be elected to succeed Mr. 
Bond, the pro-slavery element divided into factions, 
putting forward for the executive office Joseph 
Phillips, Chief Justice of the State, Thomas C. 
Browne and Gen. James B. Moore, of the State Mil- 
itia. The anti-slavery element united upon Mr. 
Coles, and, after one of the most bitter campaigns, 
succeeded in electing him as Governor. His plural- 
ity over Judge Phillips was only 59 in a total vote of 



over 8,000. The Lieutenant Governor was elected 
by the slavery men. Mr. Coles' inauguration speech 
was marked by calmness, deliberation and such a 
wise expression of appropriate suggestions as lo 
elicit the sanction of all judicious politicians. But 
he compromised not with evil. In his message to 
the Legislature, the seat of Government being then 
at Vandalia, he strongly urged the abrogation of the 
modified form of slavery whkb then existed in this 
State, contrary to the Ordinance of 1787. His posi- 
tion on this subject seems the more remarkable, when 
it is considered that he was a minority Governor, the 
population of Illinois being at that time almost ex- 
clusively from slave-holding States and by a large 
majority in favor of the perpetuation of that old relic 
of barbarism. The Legislature itself was, of course, 
a reflex of the popular sentiment, and a majority of 
them were led on by fiery men in denunciations of 
the conscientious Governor, and in curses loud and 
deep upon him and all his friends. Some of the 
public men, indeed, went so far as to head a sort of 
mob, or " shiveree " party, who visited the residence 
of the Governor and others at Vandalia and yelled 
and groaned and spat fire. 

The Constitution, not establishing or permitting 
slavery in this State, was thought therefore to be 
defective by the slavery politicians, and they desired 
a State Convention to be elected, to devise and sub- 
mit a new Constitution ; and the dominant politics 
of the day was "Convention" and "anti-Conven- 
tion." Both parties issued addresses to the people, 
Gov. Coles himself being the author of the address 
published by the latter party. This address revsaled 
the schemes of the conspirators in a masterly .tian- 
ner. It is difficult for us at this distant day to esti- 
mate the critical and extremely delicate situation in 
which the Governor was placed at that time. 

Our hero maintained himself honorably and with 
supreme dignity throughout his administration, and 
in his honor a county in this State is named. He 
was truly a great man, and those who lived in 
this State during his sojourn here, like those who 
live at the base of the mountain, were too near to see 
and recognize the greatness that overshadowed them. 

Mr. Coles was married Nov. 28, 1833, by Bishop 
De Lancey, to Miss Sally Logan Roberts, a daughter 
of Hugh Roberts, a descendant of Welsh ancestry, 
who cami to this country with Wm. Penn in 1682. 

After the expiration of his term of service, Gov. 
Coles continued his residence in Edwardsville, sup- 
erintending his farm in the vicinity. He was fond 
of agriculture, and was the founder of the first agri- 
cultural society in the State. On account of ill 
health, however, and having no family to tie him 
down, he spent much of his time in Eastern cities. 
About 1832 he changed his residence to Philadel- 
phia, where he died July 7, 1868, and is buried at 
Woodland, near that city. 



GO VERNORS OF ILLINOIS. 





INIAN EDWARDS, Governor 
from 1827 to 1830, was a sou 
of Benjamin Edwards, and 
was born in Montgomery 
County, Maryland, in March, 
1775. His domestic train- 
ing was well fitted to give 
his mind strength, firmness and 
honorable principles, and a good 
foundation was laid for the elevated 
character to which he afterwards 
attained. His parents were Bap- 
tists, and very strict in their moral 
principles. His education in early 
youth was in company with and 
partly under the tuition of Hon. Wm. 
Wirt, whom his father patronized 
and who was more than two years 
older. An intimacy was thus 
formed between them which was lasting for life. He 
was further educated at Dickinson College, at Car- 
lisle, Pa. He next commenced the study of law, but 
before completing his course he moved to Nelson 
County, Ky., to open a farm for his father and to 
purchase homes and locate lands for his brothers and 
sisters. Here he fell in the company of dissolute 
companions, and for several years led the life of a 
spendthrift. He was, however, elected to the Legis- 
lature of Kentucky as the Representative of Nelson 
County before he was 2 1 years of age, and was re- 
lected by an almost unanimous vote. 




In 1798 he was licensed to practice law, and the 
following year was admitted to the Courts of Tennes- 
see. About this time he left Nelson County for 
Russellville, in Logan County, broke away from his 
dissolute companions, commenced a reformation and 
devoted himself to severe and laborious study. He 
then began to rise rapidly in his profession, and soon 
became an eminent lawyer, and inside of four years 
he filled in succession the offices of Presiding Judge 
of the General Court, Circuit Judge, fourth Judge of 
the Court of Appeals and Chief Justice of the State, 
all before he was 32 years of age! In addition, in 
1802, he received a commission as Major of a battal- 
ion of Kentucky militia, and in rSo4 was chosen a 
Presidential Elector, on the Jefferson and Clinton 
ticket. In 1806 he was a candidate for Congress, 
but withdrew on being promoted to the Court of 
Appeals. 

Illinois was organized as a separate Territory in 
the spring of r8og, when Mr. Edwards, then Chief 
Justice of the Court of Appeals in Kentucky, received 
from President Madison the appointment as Gover- 
nor of the new Territory, his commission bearing date 
April 24, 1809. Edwards arrived at Kaskaskia in 
June, and on the i ith of that month took the oath of 
office. At the same time he was appointed Superin- 
tendent of the United States Saline, this Governmen 
interest then developing into considerable proportion 
in Southern Illinois. Although during the first thre 
years of his administration he had the power tomak 
new counties and appoint all the officers, yet he alway 
allowed the people of each county, by an informal 



NINIAN EDWARDS. 



vote, to select their own officers, both civil and mili- 
tary. The noted John J. Crittenden, afterward 
United States Senator from Kentucky, was appointed 
by Gev. Edwards to the office of Attorney General of 
the Territory, which office was accepted for a short 
time only. 

The Indians in 1810 committing sundry depreda- 
tions in the Territory, crossing the Mississippi from 
the Territory of Louisiana, a long correspondence fol- 
lowed between the respective Governors concerning 
the remedies, which ended in a council with the sav- 
ages at Peoria in 1812, and a fresh interpretation of 
the treaties. Peoria was depopulated by these de- 
predations, and was not re-settled for many .years 
afterward. 

As Gov. Edwards' term of office expired by law in 
1812, he was re-appointed for another term of three 
years, and again in 1815 for a third term, serving 
until the organization of the State in the fall of 1818 
and the inauguration of Gov. Bond. At this time 
ex-Gov. Edwards was sent to the United States 
Senate, his colleague being Jesse B. Thomas. As 
Senator, Mr. Edwards took a conspicuous part, and 
acquitted himself honorably in all the measures that 
came up in that body, being well posted, an able de- 
uater and a conscientious statesman. He thought 
seriously of resigning this situation in 1821, but was 
persuaded by his old friend, Wm. Wirt, and others to 
continue in office, which he did to the end of the 
term. 

He was then appointed Minister to Mexico by 
President Monroe. About this time, it appears that 
Mr. Edwards saw suspicious signs in the conduct of 
Wm. H. Crawford, Secretary of the United States 
Treasury, and an ambitious candidate for the Presi- 
dency, and being implicated by the latter in some of 
his statements, he resigned his Mexican mission in 
order fully to investigate the charges. The result 
was the exculpation of Mr. Edwards. 

Pro-slavery regulations, often termed "Black Laws," 
disgraced the statute books of both the Territory and 
;he State of Illinois during the whole of his career in 
ihis commonwealth, and Mr. Edwards always main- 
tained the doctrines of freedom, and was an important 
r.ctor in the great struggle which ended in a victory 
for his party in 1824. 

In i826--7 the Winnebago and other Indians com- 
mitted some depredations in the northern part of the 



State, and the white settlers, who desired the lands 
and wished to exasperate the savages into an evacu- 
ation of the country, magnified the misdemeanors of 
the aborigines and thereby produced a hostility be- 
tween the races so great as to precipitate a little war, 
known in history as the " Winnebago War." A few 
chases and skirmishes were had, when Gen. Atkinson 
succeeded in capturing Red Bird, the Indian chief, 
and putting him to death, thus ending the contest, at 
least until the troubles commenced which ended in 
the " Black Hawk War " of 1832. In the interpre- 
tation of treaties and execution of their provisions 
Gov. Edwards had much vexatious work to do. The 
Indians kept themselves generally within the juris- 
diction of Michigan Territory, and its Governor, 
Lewis Cass, was at a point so remote that ready cor- 
respondence with him was difficult or impossible. 
Gov. Edwards' administration, however, in regard to 
the protection of the Illinois frontier, seems to havs 
been very efficient and satisfactory. 

For a considerable portion of his time after his re- 
moval to Illinois, Gov. Edwards resided upon his 
farm near Kaskaskia, which he had well stocked with 
horses, cattle and sheep from Kentucky, also with 
fruit-trees, grape-vines and shrubbery. He estab- 
lished saw and grist-mills, and engaged extensively 
in mercantile business, having no less than eight or ten 
stores in this State and Missouri. Notwithstanding 
the arduous duties of his office, he nearly always pur- 
chased the goods himself with which to supply the 
stores. Although not a regular practitioner of medi- 
cine, he studied the healing art to a considerable ex- 
tent, and took great pleasure in prescribing for, and 
taking care of, the sick, generally without charge. 
He was also liberal to the poor, several widows and 
ministers of the gospel becoming indebted to him 
even for their homes. 

He married Miss Elvira Lane, of Maryland, in 
1803, and they became the affectionate parents of 
several children, one of whom, especially, is well' 
known to. the people of the " Prairie State," namely, 
Ninian Wirt Edwards, once the Superintendent c< 
Public Instruction and still a resident of Springfield 
Gov. Edwards resided at and in the vicinity of Kas- 
kaskia from 1809 to 1818; in Edwardsville (named 
after him) from that time to 1824; and from the lat- 
ter date at Belleville, St. Clair County, until his 
death, July 20, 1833, of Asiatic cholera. Edwards 
County is also named in his honor. 



Of THE 

UNIVERSITY of ILLINOIS 



GO VERNGRS OF ILLINOIS. 



123 





J..OHN REYNOLDS, Governor 1831- 
4, was born in Montgomery Coun- 
ty, Pennsylvania, Feb. 26, 1788. 
His father, Robert Reynolds and 
his mother, nee Margaret Moore, 
were both natives of Ireland, from 
which country they emigrated to 
the United States in 1785, land- 
ing at Philadelphia. The senior 
Reynolds entertained an undying 
hostility to the British Govern- 
ment. When the subject of this 
sketch was about six months old, 
his parents emigrated with him to 
Tennessee, where many of their 
relatives had already located, at the base of the 
Copper Ridge Mountain, about 14 miles northeast of 
the present city of Knoxville. There they were ex- 
posed to Indian depredations, and were much molest- 
ed by them. In 1794 they moved into the interior 
of the State. They were poor, and brought up their 
children to habits of manual industry. 

In 1 800 the family removed to Kaskaskia, 111., with 
eight horses and two wagons, encountering many 
Hardships on the way. Here young Reynolds passed 
the most of his childhood, while his character began 
to develop, the most prominent traits of which were 
ambition and energy. He also adopted the principle 
and practice of total abstinence from intoxicating 
liquors. In 1807 the family made another removal, 



this time to the " Goshen Settlement," at the foot of 
the Mississippi bluffs three or four miles southwest 
of Edwardsville. 

On arriving at his 2oth year, Mr. Reynolds, seeing 
that he must look about for his own livelihood and 
not yet having determined what calling to pursue, 
concluded first to attend college, and he accordingly 
went to such an institution of learning, near Knox- 
ville, Tenn., where he had relatives. Imagine his 
diffidence, when, after passing the first 20 years of 
his life without ever having seen a carpet, a papered 
wall or a Windsor chair, and never having lived in a 
shingle-roofed house, he suddenly ushered himself 
into the society of the wealthy in the vicinity of 
Knoxville! He attended college nearly two years, 
going through the principal Latin authors; but it 
seems that he, like the rest of the world in modern 
times, had but very little use for his Latin in after 
life. He always failed, indeed, to exhibit any good 
degree of literary discipline. He commenced the 
study of law in Knoxville, but a pulmonary trouble 
came on and compelled him to change his mode 
of life. Accordingly he returned home and re- 
cuperated, and in 1812 resumed his college and 
law studies at Knoxville. In the fall of 1812 he was 
admitted to the Bar at Kaskaskia. About this time 
he also learned the French language, which he 
practiced with pleasure in conversation with his 
family for many years. He regarded this language 
as being superior to all others for social intercourse. 



JOHN REYNOLDS. 



From his services in the West, in the war of 1812, 
he obtained the sobriquet of the " Old Ranger." He 
was Orderly Sergeant, then Judge Advocate. 

Mr. Reynolds opened his first law office in the 
winter and spring of 1814, in the French village of 
Cahokia, then the capital of St. Clair County. 

In the fall of 1818 he was elected an Associate 
Justice upon the Supreme Bench by the General 
Assembly. In 1825 he entered more earnestly than 
ever into the practice of law, and the very next year 
was elected a member of the Legislature, where he 
acted independently of all cliques and private inter- 
ests. In 1828 the Whigs and Democrats were for 
the first time distinctively organized as such in Illi- 
nois, and the usual party bitterness grew up and 
raged on all sides, while Mr. Reynolds preserved a 
'udicial calmness and moderation. The real animus 
_if the campaign was " Jackson " and " anti-Jackson," 
'he former party carrying the State. 

In August, 1830, Mr. Reynolds was elected Gov- 
ernor, amid great excitement. Installed in office, he 
did all within his power to advance the cause of edu- 
cation, internal improvements, the Illinois & Mich- 
igan Canal, the harbor at Chicago, settling the coun- 
try, etc.; also recommended the winding up of the 
State Bank, as its affairs had become dangerously 
complicated. In his national politics, he was a 
moderate supporter of General Jackson. But the 
most celebrated event of his gubernatorial admin- 
istration was the Black Hawk War, which occurred 
in 1832. He called out the militia and prosecuted 
the contest with commendable diligence, appearing 
in person on the battle-grounds during the most 
critical periods. He was recognized by the President 
as Major-General, and authorized by him to make 
treaties with the Indians. By the assistance of the 
general Government the war was terminated without 
much bloodshed, but after many serious fights. This 
war, as well as everything else, was materially re- 
tarded by the occurrence of Asiatic cholera in the 
West. This was its first appearance here, and was 
the next event in prominence during Gov. Reynolds' 
term. 

South Carolina nullification coming up at this time, 
t was heartily condemned by both President Jackson 
and Gov. Reynolds, who took precisely the same 
grounds as the Unionists in the last war. 

On the termination of his gubernatorial term in 
,834, Gov. Reynolds was elected a Member of Con- 
gress, still considering himself a backwoodsman, as 
r.e had scarcely been outside of the State since he 
became of age, and had spent nearly all his youthful 
lays 'u the wildest region of the frontier. His first 
nove in Congress was to adopt a resolution that in 
all elections made by the House for officers the votes 
should be given viva voce, each member in his place 
naming aloud the person for whom he votes. This 
created considerable heated discussion, but was es- 



sentially adopted, and remained the controlling prin- 
ciple for many years. The ex-Governor was scarcely 
absent from his seat a single day, during eight ses- 
sions of Congress, covering a period of seven years, 
and he never vacillated in a party vote; but he failed 
to get the Democratic party to foster his " National 
Road" scheme. He says, in "My Own Times" (a 
large autobiography he published), that it was only 
by rigid economy that he avoided insolvency while in 
Washington. During his sojourn in that city he was 
married, to a lady of the place. 

In 1837, while out of Congress, and in company 
with a few others, he built the first railroad in the 
Mississippi Valley, namely, one about six miles long, 
leading from his coal mine in the Mississippi bluff to 
the bank of the river opposite St. Louis. Having not 
the means to purchase a locomotive, they operated it 
by horse-power. The next spring, however, the com- 
pany sold out, at great sacrifice. 

In 1839 the ex-Governor was appointed one of the 
Canal Commissioners, and authorized to borrow 
money to prosecute the enterprise. Accord'ngly, he 
repaired to Philadelphia and succeeding in obtaining 
a million dollars, which, however, was only a fourth 
of what was wanted. The same year he and his 
wife made at our of Europe. This year, also, Mr. 
Reynolds had the rather awkward little responsibility 
of introducing to President Van Buren the noted 
Mormon Prophet, Joseph Smith, as a " Latter-Day 
Saint ! " 

In 1846 Gov. Reynolds was elected a member of 
the Legislature from St. Clair County, more particu 
larly for the purpose of obtaining a feasible charter 
for a macadamized road from Belleville to St. Louis, 
a distance of nearly 14 miles. This was immediately 
built, and was the first road of the kind in the State. 
He was again elected to the Legislature in 1852, when 
he was chosen Speaker of the House. In 1860, aged 
and infirm, he attended the National Democratic 
Convention at Charleston, S. C., as an anti-Douglas 
Delegate, where he received more attention from the 
Southern Delegates than any other member. He 
supported Breckenridge for the Presidency. After 
the October elections foreshadowed the success of 
Lincoln, he published an address urging the Demo- 
crats to rally to the support of Douglas. Immedi- 
ately preceding and during the late war, his corre- 
spondence evinced a clear sympathy for the Southern 
secession, and about the first of March, 1861, he 
urged upon the Buchanan officials the seizure of the 
treasure and arms in the custom-house and arsenal 
at St. Louis. Mr. Reynolds was a rather talkative 
man, and apt in all the Western phrases and catch- 
words that ever gained currency, besides many cun- 
ning and odd ones of his own manufacture. 

He was married twice, but had no children. He 
died in Belleville, in May, 1865, just after the close 
of the war. 



UNIVERSITY 



GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS. 







ILLIAM LEE D. EWING, 
Governor of Illinois Nov. 3 
to 17, 1834, was a native 
of Kentucky, and probably 
of Scotch ancestry. He had 
ine education, was a gentle- 
man of polished manners and 
refined sentiment. In 1830 John Rey- 
nolds was elected Governor of the State, 
and Zadok Casey Lieutenant Governor, 
and for the principal events that followed, 
and the characteristics of the times, see 
sketch of Gov. Reynolds. The first we 
see in history concerning Mr. Ewing, in- 
forms us that he was a Receiver of Public 
Mor eys at Vandalia soon after the organization of 
Uii* State, and that the public moneys in his hands 
vere deposited in various banks, as they are usually 
.* tlu present day. In 1823 the State Bank was 
obbed, by which disaster Mr. Ewing lost a thousand- 
dollar deposit. 

The subject of this sketch had a commission as 
C olonel in the Black Hawk War, and in emergencies 
no acted also as Major. In the summer of 1832, 
^hen i was rumored among the whites that Block 
Hawk and "iis men had encamped somewhere on 
Reck River, Gen. Henry was sent on a tour of 
reconnoisance, and with orders to drive the Indians 
from the State. After some opposition from his 
ubordinate officers, Henry resolved to proceed up 
Rock River in search of the enemy. On the iQth of 
iuly, early in the morning, five baggage wagons, 



camp equipage and all heavy and cumbersome arti- 
cles were piled up and left, so that the army might 
make speedy and forced marches. For some miles 
the travel was exceedingly bad, crossing swamps 
and the worst thickets ; but the large, fresh trail 
gave life and animation to the Americans. Gen. 
Dodge and Col. Ewing were both acting as Majors, 
and composed the " spy corps " or vanguard of the 
army. It is supposed the army marched nearly 50 
miles this day, and the Indian trail they followed 
became fresher, and was strewed with much property 
and trinkets of the red-skins that they had lost or 
thrown away to hasten their march. During the 
following night there was a terrific thunder-storm, and 
the soldiery, with all their appurtenances, were thor- 
oughly drenched. 

On approaching nearer the Indians the next day. 
Gen. Dodge and Major Ewing, each commanding a 
battalion of men, were placed in front to bring on the 
battle, but the savages were not overtaken this day 
Forced marches were continued until they reached. 
Wisconsin River, where a veritable battle ensued, 
resulting in the death of about 68 of Black Hawk's 
men. The next day they continued the chase, and 
as soon as he discovered the trail of the Indians 
leading toward the Mississippi, Maj. Ewing formed 
his battalion in orde r of battle and awaited the order 
of Gen. Henry. The latter soon appeared on the 
ground and ordered a charge, which directly resulted 
in chasing the red warriors across the great river. 
Maj. Ewing and his command proved particularly 
efficient in war, as it seems they were the chief actors 
in driving the main body of the Sacs and Foxes, in- 



[2ft 



WILLIAM L. D. EWING. 



eluding Black Hawk himself, across the Mississippi, 
while Gen. Atkinson, commander-in-chief of the ex- 
pedition, with a body of the army, was hunting for 
them in another direction. 

In the above affair Maj. Ewmg is often referred to 
as a " General," which title he had derived from his 
connection with the militia. 

It was in the latter part of the same year (1832) 
that Lieutenant Governor Casey was elected to Con- 
gress and Gen. Ewing, who had been elected to the 
Senate, was chosen to preside over that body. At 
the August election of 1834, Gov. Reynolds was also 
elected to Congress, more than a year ahead of the 
time at which he could actually take his seat, as was 
then the law. His predecessor, Charles Slade, had 
just died of Asiatic cholera, soon after the elec- 
tion, and Gov. Reynolds was chosen to serve out his 
unexpired term. Accordingly he set out for Wash- 
ington in November of that year to take his seat in 
Congress, and Gen. Ewing, by virtue of his office as 
President of the Senate, became Governor of the 
State of Illinois, his term covering only a period of 
15 days, namely, from the 3d to the i7th days, in- 
clusive, of November. On the ryth the Legislature 
met, and Gov. Ewing transmitted to that body his 
message, giving a statement of the condition of the 
affairs of the State at that time, and urging a contin- 
uance of the policy adopted by his predecessor; and 
on the same day Governor elect Joseph Duncan 
was sworn into office, thus relieving Mr. Ewing from 



the responsible situation. This is the only time that 
such a juncture has happened in the history of Illi- 
nois. 

On the agth of December, 1835, Gen. Ewing was 
elected a United States Senator to serve out the 
unexpired term of Elias Kent Kane, deceased. The 
latter gentleman was a very prominent figure in the 
early politics of Illinois, and a county in this State is 
named in his honor. The election of Gen. Ewing to 
the Senate was a protracted struggle. His competi- 
tors were James Semple, who afterwards held several 
important offices in this State, and Richard M. 
Young, afterward a United States Senator and a 
Supreme Judge and a man of vast influence. On 
the first ballot Mr. Semple had 25 votes, Young 19 
and Ewing 18. On the eighth ballot Young was 
dropped ; the ninth and tenth stood a tie ; but on 
the 1 2th Ewing received 40, to Semple 37, and was 
accordingly declared elected. In 1837 Mr. Ewing 
received some votes for a continuance of his term in 
Congress, when Mr. Young, just referred to, was 
elected. In 1842 Mr. Ewing was elected State 
Audit?r on the ticket with Gov. Ford. 

Gen. Ewing was a gentleman of culture, a lawyer 
by profession, and was much in public life. In person 
he was above medium height and of heavy build, 
with auburn hair, blue eyes, large-sized head and 
short face. He was genial, social, friendly and 
affable, with fair talent, though of no high degree of 
originality. He died March 25, 1846. 




LIBRARY 

Cf i HE 

l'N!Vn-:?MV' i.f I' 



GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS. 





OSEPH DUNCAN, Governor 
1834-8, was born at Paris, 
Ky., Feb. 23, 1794. At the 
tender age of 19 years he en- 
listed in the war against Great 
Britain, and as a soldier he 
acquitted himself with credit. He 
was an Ensign under the daunt- 
less Croghan at Lower Sandusky, 
or Fort Stephenson. In Illinois 
he first appeared in a public capa- 
city as Major-General of the Militia, 
a position which his military fame 
had procured him. Subsequently 
he became a State Senator from 
Jackson County, and is honorably 
mentioned for introducing the first bill providing for 
a free-school system. In 1826, when the redoubt- 
able John P. Cook, who had previously beaten such 
men as John McLean, Elias Kent Kane and ex- 
Gov. Bond, came up for the fourth time for Congress, 
Mr. Duncan was brought forward against him by his 
friends, greatly to the surprise of all the politicians. 
\s yet he was but little known in the State. He was 
an original Jackson man at that time, being attached 
to his political fortune in admiration of the glory of 
his militaiy achievements. His chances of success 
against Cook were generally regarded as hopeless, 
luit he entered upon the campaign undaunted. His 
speeches, though short and devoid of ornament, were 
full of good sense. He made a diligent canvass of 
the State, Mr. Cook being hindered by the condition of 
his health. The most that was expected of Mr. 
Duncan, under the circumstances, was that he would 



obtain a respectable vote, but without defeating Mr 
Cook. The result of the campaign, however, was a 
source of surprise and amazement to both friends 
and foes, as Mr. Duncan came out 641 votes ahead! 
He received 6,321 votes, and Mr. Cook 5,680. Un- 
til this denouement, the violence of party feeling 
smoldering in the breasts of the people on account 
of the defeat of Jackson, was not duly appreciated. 
Aside from the great convention struggle of 1824, no 
other than mere local and personal considerations 
had ever before controlled an election in Illinois. 

From the above date Mr. Duncan retained his 
seat in Co.igress until his election as Governor in 
August, 1834. The first and bloodless year of the 
Black Hawk War he was appointed by Gov. Rey- 
nolds to the position of Brigadier-General of the 
volunteers, and he conducted his brigade to Rock 
Island. But he was absent from the State, in Wash- 
ington, during the gubernatorial campaign, and did 
not personally participate in it, but addressed circu- 
lars to his constituents. His election was, indeed, 
attributed to the circumstance of his absence, be- 
cause his estrangement from Jackson, formerly his 
political idol, and also from the Democracy, largely 
in ascendency in the State, was complete; but while 
his defection was well known to his Whig friends, 
and even to the leading Jackson men of this State, 
the latter were unable to carry conviction of that fact 
to the masses, as mail and newspaper facilities at 
that day were far inferior to those of the present 
time. Of course the Governor was much abused 
afterward by the fossilized Jackson men who re- 
garded party ties and affiliations as ibove all 
other issues that could arise; but he was douotless 



132 



JOSEPH DUNCAN. 



sincere in his opposition to the old hero, as the latter 
ad vetoed several important western measures 
which were dear to Mr. Duncan. In his inaugural 
message he threw off the mask and took a bold stand 
against the course of the President. The measures 
te recommended in his message, however, were so 
desirable that the Legislature, although by a large 
majority consisting of Jackson men, could not refrain 
from endorsing them. These measures related 
mainly to banks and internal improvements. 

It was while Mr. Duncan was Governor that the 
people of Illinois went whirling on with bank and in- 
ternal improvement schemes that well nigh bank- 
mpted the State. The hard times of 1837 came on, 
and the disasters that attended the inauguration of 
ihese plans and the operation of the banks were mu- 
tually charged upon the two political parties. Had 
any one man autocratic power to introduce and 
carry on any one of these measures, he would proba- 
bly have succeeded to the satisfaction of the public ; 
but as many jealous men had hold of the same plow 
handle, no success followed and each blamed the other 
for the failure. In this great vortex Gov. Duncan 
was carried along, suffering the like derogation of 
character with his fellow citizens. 

At the height of the excitement the Legislature 
" provided for " railroads from Galena to Cairo, Alton 
to Shawneetown, Alton to Mount Carmel, Alton to the 
eastern boundary of the State in the direction of 
Terre Haute, Quincy via Springfield to the Wabash, 
Bloomington to Pekin, and Peoria to Warsaw, in all 
about 1,300 miles of road. It also provided for the 
improvement of the navigation of the Kaskaskia, 
Illinois, Great and Little Wabash and Rock Rivers ; 
also as a placebo, $200,000 in money were to be dis- 
jibuted to the various counties wherein no improve- 
ments were ordered to be made as above. The 
estimate for the expenses for all these projects was 
jlaced at a little over $10,000,000, which was not 
more than half enough ! That would now be equal to 
saddling upon the State a debt of $225,000,000! It 
was sufficient to bankrupt the State several times 
over, even counting all the possible benefits. 

One of the most exciting events that ever occurred 
in this fair State was the murder of Elijah P. Love- 
py in the fall of 1837, at Alton, during Mr. Duncan's 
term as Governor. Lovejoy was an " Abolitionist," 
editing the Observer at that place, and the pro- 
slavery slums there formed themselves into a mob, 



and after destroying successively three presses be- 
longing to Mr. Lovejoy, surrounded the warehouse 
where the fourth press was stored away, endeavoring 
to destroy it, and where Lovejoy and his friends 
were entrenching themselves, and shot and killed the 
brave reformer! 

About this time, also, the question of removing the 
State capital again came up, as the 20 years' limit for 
its existence at Vandalia was drawing to a close. 
There was, of course, considerable excitement over 
the matter, the two main points competing for it be- 
ing Springfield and Peoria. The jealousy of the lat- 
ter place is not even yet, 45 years afterward, fully 
allayed. 

Gov. Duncan's term expired in 1838. In 1842 
he was again proposed as a candidate for the Execu- 
tive chair, this time by the Whig party, against Adam 
W. Snyder, of St. Clair County, the nominee of the 
Democrats. Charles W. Hunter was a third candi- 
date for the same position. Mr. Snyder, however, died 
before the campaign had advanced very far, and his 
party substituted Thomas Ford, who was elected 
receiving 46,gor votes, to 38,584 for Duncan, and 
909 for Hunter. The cause of Democratic success 
at this time is mainly attributed to the temporary 
support of the Mormons which they enjoyed, and the 
want of any knowledge, on the part of the masses, 
that Mr. Ford was opposed to any given policy en- 
tertained in the respective localities. 

Gov. Duncan was a man of rather limited educa- 
tion, but with naturally fine abilities he profited 
greatly by his various public services, and gathered 
a store of knowledge regarding public affairs which 
served him a ready purpose. He possessed a clear 
judgment, decision, confidence in himself and moral 
courage to carry out his convictions of right. In his 
deportment he was well adapted to gain the admira- 
tion of the people. His intercourse with them was 
both affable and dignified. His portrait at the Gov- 
ernor's mansion, from which the accompanying was 
made, represents him as having a swarthy complex- 
ion, high cheek bones, broad forehead, piercing black 
eyes and straight black hair. 

He was a liberal patron of the Illinois College at 
Jacksonville, a member of its Board of Trustees, and 
died, after a short illness, Jan. 15, 1844, a devoted 
member of the Presbyterian Church, leaving a wife 
but no children. Two children, born to them, had 
died in infancy. 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY of ILLINOIS 



GO VERNORS OF ILLINOIS. 





HOMAS CARLIN, the sixth 
Governor of the State of 
Illinois, serving from 1838 
to 1842, was also a Ken- 
tuckian, being born near 
Frankfort, that State, July 
1 8, 1789, of Irish paternity. 
The opportunities for an education 
being very meager in his native 
place, he, on approaching years of 
judgment and maturity, applied 
himself to those branches of learn- 
ing that seemed most important, 
and thus became a self-made man ; 
and his taste for reading and 
study remained with him through 
life. In 1803 his father removed 
lo Missouri, then a part of " New Spain," where he 
died in 1810. 

In 1812 young Carlin came to Illinois and partici- 
pated in all the "ranging" service incident to the 
war of that period, proving himself a soldier of un- 
daunted bravery. In 1814 he married Rebecca 
Huitt, and lived for four years on the bank of the 
Mississippi River, opposite the mouth of the Mis- 
sc-ri, where he followed farming, and then removed 
to Greene County. He located the town site of Car- 
no 'ion, in that county, and in 1825 made a liberal 
donation of land for county building purposes. He 
was the first Sheriff of that county after its separate 
organization, and afterward was twice elected, as a 
Jackson Democrat, to the Illinois Senate. In the 
Black Hawk War he commanded a spy battalion, a 
post of considerable danger. In 1834 he was ap- 
pointed by President Jackson to the position of 
Receiver of Public Mon-ys, and to fulfill the office 



more conveniently he removed to the city of Quincy. 

While, in 1838, the unwieldy internal improvement 
system of the State was in full operation, witli all its 
expensive machinery, amidst bank suspensions 
throughout the United States, a great stringency in 
the money market everywhere, and Illinois bonds 
forced to sale at a heavy discount, and the " hardest 
times " existing that the people of the Prairie State 
ever saw, the general election of State officers was 
approaching. Discreet men who had cherished the 
hope of a speedy subsidence of the public infatua- 
tion, met with disappointment. A Governor and 
Legislature were to be elected, and these were now 
looked forward to for a repeal of the ruinous State 
policy. But the grand scheme had not yet lost its 
dazzling influence upon the minds of the people. 
Time and experience had not yet fully demonstrated 
its utter absurdity. Hence the question of arresting 
its career of profligate expenditures did not become 
a leading one with the dominant party during the 
campaign, and most of the old members of the Leg 
islature were returned at this election. 

Under these circumstances the Democrats, in State 
Convention assembled, nominated Mr. Carlin tor the 
office of Govjrnor, and S. H. Anderson for Lieuten- 
ant Governor, while the Whigs nominated Cyrus Ed- 
wards, brotherof Ninian Edwards, formerly Governor, 
and W. H. Davidson. Edwards came out strongly 
for a continuance of the State policy, while CarHr 
remained non-committal. This was the first time 
that the two main political parties in this State were 
unembar-assed by any third party in the field. The 
result of the election was: Carlin, 35,573; Ander- 
son, 30,335 ; Edwards, 29,629 ; and Davidson, 28,- 
715- 

Upon the meeting of the subsequent Legislature 
(1839), the retiring Governor CDuncan} in his mes- 



1 3* 



THOMAS CARLIN. 



sage spoke in emphatic terms of the impolicy of the 
internal improvement system, presaging the evils 
threatened, and uiged that body to do their utmost 
to correct the great error ; yet, on the contrary, the 
Legislature not only decided to continue the policy 
but also added to its burden by voting more appro- 
priations and ordering more improvements. Although 
the money market was still stringent, a further loan 
of $4,000,000 was ordered for the Illinois & Mich- 
igan Canal alone. Chicago at that time began to 
loom up and promise to be an important city, even 
the great emporium of the West, as it has since in- 
deed came to be. Ex-Gov. Reynolds, an incompe- 
tent financier, was commissioned to effect the loan, 
and accordingly hastened to the East on this respons- 
ible errand, and negotiated the loans, at considera- 
ble sacrifice to the State. Besides this embarrassment 
io Carlin's administration, the Legislature also de- 
clared that he had no authority to appoint a Secretary 
of State until a vacancy existed, and A. P. Field, a 
Whig, who had already held the post by appointment 
through three administrations, was determined to 
keep the place a while longer, in spite of Gov. Car- 
lin's preferences. The course of the Legislature in 
this regard, however, was finally sustained by the 
Supreme Court, in a quo warranto case brought up 
before it by John A. McClernand, whom the Gov- 
ernor had nominated for the office. Thereupon that 
dignified body was denounced as a "Whig Court!" 
endeavoring to establish the principle of life-tenure 
of office. 

A new law was adopted re-organizing the Judici- 
ary, and under it five additional Supreme Judges 
were elected by the Legislature, namely, Thomas 
Ford (afterward Governor), Sidney Breese, Walter B. 
Scales, Samuel H. Treat and Stephen A. Douglas 
all Democrats. 

It was during Cov. Carlin's administration that the 
noisy campaign of "Tippecanoe and Tyler too " oc- 
curred, resulting in a Whig victory. This, however, 
did net affect Illinois politics very seriously. 

Another prominent event in the West during Gov. 
Carlin's term of office was the excitement caused by 
the Mormons and their removal from Independence, 
Mo., to Nauvoo, 111., in 1840. At the same time 
they began to figure somewhat in State politics. On 
account of their believing as they thought, accord- 
ing to the New Testament that they should have 



" all things common," and that consequently " all 
the earth " and all that is upon it were the" Lord's " 
and therefore the property of his " saints," they 
were suspected, and correctly, too, of committing 
many of the deeds of larceny, robbery, etc., that 
were so rife throughout this country in those days. 
Hence a feeling of violence grew up between the 
Mormons and "anti-Mormons." In the State of 
Missouri the Mormons always supported the Dem- 
ocracy until they were driven out by the Democratic 
government, when they turned their support to the 
Whigs. They were becoming numerous, and in the 
Legislature of 1840-1, therefore, it became a matter 
of great interest with both parties to conciliate these 
people. Through the agency of one John C. Ben- 
nett, a scamp, the Mormons succeeded in rushing 
through the Legislature (both parties not daring to 
oppose) a charter for the city of Nauvoo which vir- 
tually erected a hierarchy co-ordinate with the Fed- 
eral Government itself. In the fall of 1841 the 
Governor of Missouri made a demand upon Gov. 
Carlin for the body of Joe Smith, the Mormon leader, 
as a fugitive from justice. Gov. Carlin issued th~ 
writ, but for some reason it was returned unserved. 
It was again issued in 1842, and Smith was arrested, 
but was either rescued by his followers or discharged 
by the municipal court on a writ of habeas corpus. 

In December, 1841, the Democratic Convention 
nominated Adam W. Snyder, of Belleville, for Gov- 
ernor. As he had been, as a member of the Legisla- 
ture, rather friendly to the Mormons, the latter 
naturally turned their support to the Democratic 
party. The next spring the Whigs nominated Ex- 
Gov. Duncan for the same office. In the meantime 
the Mormons began to grow more odious to the 
masses of the people, and the comparative prospects 
of the respective parties for success became very 
problematical. Mr. Snyder died in May, and 
Thomas Ford, a Supreme Judge, was substituted as 
a candidate, and was elected. 

At the close of his gubernatorial term, Mr. Carlin 
removed back to his old home at Carrollton, where 
he spent the remainder of his life, i.z before his ele- 
vation to office, in agricultural pursuits. In 1849 
he served out the unexpired term of J. D. Fry in the 
Illinois House of Representatives, and died Feb. 4, 
1852, at his residence at Carrollton, leaving a wife 
and seven children. 



GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS. 



'39 





JHOMAS FORD, Governor 
from 1842 to 1846, and au- 
thor of a very interesting 
history of Illinois, was born 
at Uniontown, Pa., in the 
year r 800. His mother, after 
the death of her first hus- 
band (Mr. Forquer), married Rob- 
ert Ford, who was killed in 1802, 
by the Indians in the mountains 
of Pennsylvania. She was conse- 
quently left in indigent circum- 
stances, with a large family, mostly 
girls. With a view to better her 
condition, she, in 1804, removed to 
Missouri, where it had been cus- 
tomary by the Spanish Govern- 
ment to give land to actual settlers ; but upon her 
arrival at St. Louis she found the country ceded to 
the United States, and the liberal policy toward set- 
tlers changed by the new ownership. After some 
sickness to herself and family, she finally removed to 
Illinois, and settled some three miles south of Water- 
loo, but the following year moved nearer the Missis- 
sippi bluffs. Here young Ford received his first 



schooling, under the instructions of a M\ Humphrey, 
for which he had to walk three miles. His mother, 
though lacking a thorough education, was a woman 
of superior mental endowments, joined to energy 
and determination of character. She inculcated in ' 
her children those high-toned principles which dis- 
tinguished her sons in public life. She exercised a 
rigid economy to provide her children an education ; 
but George Forquer, her oldest son (six years older 
than Thomas Ford), at an early age had to quit 
school to aid by his labor in the support of the family. 
He afterward became an eminent man in Illinois 
affairs, and but for his early death would probably 
have been elected to the United States Senate. 

Young Ford, with somewhat better opportunities, 
received a better education, though limited to the 
curriculum of the common school of those pioneer 
times. His mind gave early promise of superior en- 
dowments, with an inclination for mathematics. His 
proficiency attracted the attention of "Hon. Daniel P. 
Cook, who became his efficient patron and friend. 
The latter gentleman was an eminent Illinois states- 
man who, as a Member of Congress, obtained a grant 
of 300,000 acres of land to aid in completing the 
Illinois & Michigan Canal, and after whom the 
county of Cook was named. Through the advice of 






- 
. 





* 




GO VERNORS OF ILLINOIS. 



'43 





AUGUSTUS C. FRENCH, 
Governor of Illinois from 
1846 to 1852, was born in 
the town of Hill, in the 
State of New Hampshire, 
Aug. 2, 1808. He was a 
descendant in the fourth 
generation ot Nathaniel 
French, who emigrated from England 
in 1687 and settled in Saybury, Mass. 
In early life young French lost his 
father, but continued lo receive in- 
struction from an exemplary and 
Christian mother until he was 19 years 
old, when she also died, confiding to 
his care and trust four younger broth- 
ers and one sister. He discharged his trust with 
parental devotion. His education in early life was 
such mainly as a common school afforded. For a 
Srief period he attended Dartmouth College, but 
from pecuniary causes and the care of his brothers 
and sister, he did not graduate. He subsequently 
read law, and was admitted to the Bar in 1831, and 
shortly afterward removed to Illinois, settling first at 
Albion, Edwards County, where he established him- 
self in the practice of law. The following year he 
removed to Paris, Edgar County. Here he attained 
eminence in his profession, and entered public life 
by representing that county in the Legislature. A 
strong attachment sprang up between him and Ste- 
phen A. Douglas. 

In 1839. Mr. French was appointed Receiver of 
the ITiiied States La:id Office at Palestine, Craw- 
ford County, at which place he was a resident when 



elevated to the gubernatorial chair. In 1844 he was 
a. Presidential Elector, and as such he voted for 
James K. Polk. 

The Democratic State Convention of 1846, meet- 
ing at Springfield Feb. 10, nominated Mr. French 
for Governor. Other Democratic candidates were 
Lyman Trumbull, John Calhoun (subsequently of 
Lecompton Constitution notoriety), Walter B. Scales, 
Richard M. Young and A. W. Cavarly, an array of 
very able and prominent names. Trumbull was per- 
haps defeated in the Convention by the tumor that 
he was opposed to the Illinois and Michigan Canal, 
as he had been a year previously. For Lieutenant 
Governor J. B. Wells was chosen, while other candi- 
dates were Lewis Ross, Win. McMurtry, Newton 
Cloud, J. B. Hamilton and W. W. Thompson. The 
resolutions declared strongly against the resuscita- 
tion of the old State Banks. 

The Wliigs, wiio were in a hopeless minority, held 
their convention June 8, at Peoria, and selected 
Thomas M. Kilpatrick, of Scott County, for Governor, 
and Gen. Nathaniel G. Wilcox, of Schuyler, for 
Lieutenant Governor. 

In the campaign the latter exposed Mr. French's 
record and connection with the passage of the in- 
ternal improvement system, urging it against his 
election ; but in the meantime the war with Mexico 
broke out, regarding which the Whig record was un- 
popular in this State. The war was the absorbing 
and dominating question of the period, sweeping 
every other political issue in its course. The elec- 
tion in August gave Mr. French 58.700 votes, and 
Kilpatrick only 36,775. Richard Kells, Abolitionist 
candidate for the same office, received 5,152 vot*>s 



AUGUSTUS C. FRENCH. 



By the new Constitution of 1848, a new election for 
State officers was ordered in November of that year, 
before Gov. French's term was half out, and he was 
re-elected for the term of four years. He was there- 
fore the incumbe.it for six consecutive years, the 
only Governor of this State who has ever served in 
that capacity so long at one time. As there was no 
organized opposition to his election, he received 67,- 
453 votes, to 5,639 for Pierre Menard (son of the 
first Lieutenant Governor), 4,748 for Charles V. 
Dyer, 3,834 for W. L. D. Morrison, and 1,361 for 
James L. D. Morrison. But Wm. McMurtry, of 
Knox County, was elected Lieutenant Governor, in 
place of Joseph B. Wells, who was before elected 
and did not run again. 

Governor French was inaugurated into office dur- 
ing the progress of the Mexican War, which closed 
during the summer of 1847, although the treaty of 
Guadalupe Hidalgo was not made until Feb. 2, 
1848. The policy of Gov. French's party was com- 
mitted to that war, but in connection with that affair 
he was, of course, only an administrative officer. 
During his term of office, Feb. 19, 1847, the Legisla- 
ture, by special permission of Congress, declared that 
all Government lands sold to settlers should be im- 
mediately subject to State taxation; before this they 
were exempt for five years after sale. By this ar- 
rangement the revenue was materially increased. 
About the same lime, the distribution of Government 
land warrants among the Mexican soldiers as bounty 
threw upon the market a great quantity of good 
lands, and this enhanced the settlement of the State. 
The same Legislature authorized, with the recom- 
mendation of the Governor, the sale of the Northern 
Cross Railroad (from Springfield to Meredosia, the 
first in the State and now a section of the Wabash, 
St. Louis & Pacific) It sold for $100,000 in bonds, 
although it had cost the State not less than a million. 
The salt wells and canal lands in the Saline reserve 
in Gallatin County, granted by the general Govern- 
ment to the State, were also authorized by the 
Governor to be sold, to apply on the State debt. In 
1850, for the first time since 1839, the accruing State 
revenue, exclusive of specific appropriations, was 
sufficient to meet the current demands upon the 
treasury. The aggregate taxable property of the 
State at this time was over $100,000,000, and the 
population 851,470. 



In 1849 the Legislature adopted the township or- 
ganization law, which, however, proved defective, 
and was properly amended in 1851. At its session 
in the latter year, the General Assembly also passed 
a law to exempt homesteads from sale on executions 
This beneficent measure had been repeatedly urged 
upon that body by Gov. French. 

In 1850 some business men in St. Louis com- 
menced to build a dike opposite the lower part of 
their city on the Illinois side, to keep the Mississippi 
in its channel near St. Louis, instead of breaking 
away from them as it sometimes threatened to do. 
This they undertook without permission from the 
Legislature or Executive authority of this State ; and 
as many of the inhabitants thera complained that 
the scheme would inundate and ruin much valuable 
land, there was a slight conflict of jurisdictions, re- 
sulting in favor of the St. Louis project; r.nd since 
then a good site has existed there for a city (East St. 
Louis), and now a score of railroads center there. 

It was in September, 1850, that Congress granted 
to this State nearly 3,000,000 acres of land in aid of 
the completion of the Illinois Central Railroad, 
which constituted the most important epoch in the 
railroad we might say internal improvement his- 
tory of the State. The road was rushed on to com- 
pletion, which accelerated the settlement of the in- 
terior of the State by a good class of industrious citi- 
zens, and by the charter a good income to the State 
Treasury is paid in from the earnings of the road. 

In 1851 the Legislature passed a law authorizing 
free stock banks, which was the source of much leg- 
islative discussion for a number of years. 

But we have not space further to particularize 
concerning legislation. Gov. French's administra- 
tion was not marked by any feature to be criticised, 
while the country was settling up as never before. 

In stature, Gov. French was of medium height, 
squarely built, light complexioned, with ruddy face 
and pleasant countenance. In manners he was 
plain and agreeable. By nature he was somewhat 
diffident, but he was often very outspoken in his con- 
victions of duty. In public speech he was not an 
orator, but was chaste, earnest and persuasive. In 
business he was accurate and methodical, and in his 
administration he kept up the credit of the State. 

He died in 1865, at his home in Lebanon, St. 
Qair Co., 111. 



LIBRARY 

OP THE 
UNIVERSITY uflLLIMIS 



GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS, 



0el 3L matteeott. 





|:OEL A. MATTESON, Governor 
1 85 3-6, was born Aug. 8, 1808, 
in Jefferson County, New York, 
to which place his father had re- 
moved from Vermont three years 
before. His father was a farmer 
in fair circumstances, but a com- 
mon English education was all 
that his only son received. Young 
Joel first tempted fortune as a 
small tradesman in Prescott, 
Canada, before he was of age. 
He returned from that place to 
his home, entered an academy, 
taught school, visited the prin- 
cipal Eastern cities, improved a farm his father had 
given him, made a tour in the South, worked there 
in building railroads, experienced a slorin on the 
Gulf of Mexico, visited the gold diggings of Northern 
Georgia, and returned via Nashville to St. Louis and 
through Illinois to his father's home, when he mar- 
ried. In 1833, having sold his farm, he removed, 
with his wife and one child, to Illinois, and entered 
a claim on-Government land near the head of Au 
Sable River, in what is now Kendall County. At 
that time there were not more than two neighbors 
within a range of ten miles of his place, and only 
.hree or fo ir house; between him and Chicago. He 
opened a l.irge farm. His family was boarded 12 



miles away while he erected a house on his claim, 
sleeping, during this time, under a rude pole shed. 
Here his life was once placed in imminent peril by 
a huge prairie rattlesnake sharing his bed. 

In 1835 he bought largely at the Government land 
sales. During the speculative real-estate mania which 
brokeout in Chicago in 1836 and spread over the State, 
he sold his lands under the inflation of that period 
and removed to Joliet. In 1838 he became a heavy 
contractor on the Illinois & Michigan Canal. Upon 
the completion of his job in 1841, when hard times 
prevailed, business at a stand, contracts paid in State 
scrip; when all the public works except the canal 
were abandoned, the State offered for sale 700 tons 
of railroad iron, which was purchased by Mr. Mat- 
teson at a bargain. This he accepted, shipped and 
sold at Detroit, realizing a very handsome profit, 
enough to pay off all his canal debts and leave him a 
surplus of several thousand dollars. His enterprise 
next prompted him to start a woolen mill at Joliet, 
in which he prospered, and which, after successive 
enlargements, became an enormous establishment. 

In 1842 he was first elected a State Senator, but, 
by a bungling apportionment, jc. in Pearson, a Senator 
holding over, was found to be in the same district, 
and decided to be entitled to represent it. Mat- 
teson's seat was declared vacant. Pearson, however 
with a nobleness difficult to appreciate in this day of 



JOEL A. MATTESON. 



greed for office, unwilling to represent his district 
under the circumstances, immediately resigned his 
unexpired term of two years. A bill was passed in a 
few hours ordering a new election, and in ten days' 
time Mr. Matteson was returned re-elected and took 
his seat as Senator. From his well-known capacity 
as a business man, he was made Chairman of the 
Committee on Finance, a position he held during 
this half and two full succeeding Senatorial terms, 
discharging its important duties with ability and faith- 
fulness. Besides his extensive woolen-mill interest, 
when work was resumed on the canal under the new 
loan of $1,600,000 he again became a heavy con- 
tractor, and also subsequently operated largely in 
building railroads. Thus he showed himself a most 
energetic and thorough business man. 

He was nominated for Governor by the Demo- 
cratic State Convention which met at Springfield 
April 20, 1852. Other candidates before the Con- 
vention were D. L. Gregg and F. C. Sherman, of 
Cook ; John Dement, of Lee ; Thomas L. Harris, of 
Menard ; Lewis W. Ross, of Fulton ; and D. P. Bush, 
of Pike. Gustavus Koerner, of St. Clair, was nom- 
inated for Lieutenant Governor. For the same offices 
the Whigs nominated Edwin B. Webb and Dexter A. 
Knowlton. Mr. Matteson received 80,645 votes at 
the election, while Mr. Webb received 64,408. Mat- 
teson's forte was not on the stump; he had not cul- 
tivated the art of oily flattery, or the faculty of being 
all things to all men. His intellectual qualities took 
rather the direction of efficient executive ability. His 
turn consisted not so much in the adroit manage- 
ment of party, or the powerful advocacy of great gov- 
ernmental principles, as in those more solid and 
enduring operations which cause the physical devel- 
opment and advancement of a State, of commerce 
and business enterprise, into which he labored with 
success to lead the people. As a politician he was 
just and liberal in his views, and both in official and 
private life he then stood untainted and free from 
blemish. As a man, in active benevolence, social 
rirtues and all the amiable qualities of neighbor or 
citizen, he had few superiors. His messages present 
a perspicuous array of facts as to the condition of the 
State, and are often couched in forcible and elegant 
diction. 

The greatest excitement during his term of office 
was the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, by Con- 



gress, under the leadership of Stephen A. Douglas in 
1854, when the bill was passed organizing the Tcrri 
tory of Kansas and Nebraska. A large portion of 
the Whig party of the North, through their bitter op- 
position to the Democratic party, naturally drifted 
into the doctrine of anti-slavery, and thus led to what 
was temporarily called the " Anti- Nebraska " party, 
while the followers of Douglas were known as " Ne- 
braska or Douglas Democrats." It was during this 
embryo stage of the Republican party that Abraham 
Lincoln was brought forward as the "Anti-Nebraska" 
candidate for the United States Senatorship, while 
Gen. James Shields, the incumbent, was re-nom- 
inated by the Democrats. But after a fewballotings 
in the Legislature (1855), these men were dropped, 
and Lyman Trumbull, an Anti-Nebraska Democrat, 
was brought up by the former, and Mr. Matteson, 
then Governor, by the latter. On the nth ballot 
Mr. Trumbull obtained one majority, and was ac- 
cordingly declared elected. Before Gov. Matteson s 
term expired, the Republicans were fully organized 
as a national party, and in 1856 put into the field a 
full national and State ticket, carrying the State, but 
not the nation. 

The Legislature of 1855 passed two very import- 
ant measures, the present free-school system and a 
submission of the Maine liquor law to a vote of the 
people. The latter was defeated by a small majority 
of the popular vote. 

During the four years of Gov. Matteson s admin- 
istration the taxable wealth of the State was. about 
trebled, from $137,818,079 to $349,951,272; the pub- 
lic debt was reduced from $17,398,985 to $12,843,- 
144; taxation was at the same time reduced, and the 
State resumed paying interest on its debt in New 
York as fast as it fell due ; railroads were increased 
in their mileage from something les,s than 400 to 
about 3.000 ; and the population of Chicago was 
nearly doubled, and its commerce more than quad- 
rupled. 

Before closing this account, we regret that we have 
to say that Mr. Matteson, in all other respects an 
upright man and a good Governor, was implicated 
in a false re-issue of redeemed canal scrip, amount- 
ing to $224,182.66. By a suit in the Sangamon Cir- 
cuit Court the State recovered the principal and all 
the interest excepting $27,500. 

He died in the winter uf 1872-3, at Chicago, 



GO VEKMORS OF ILLINOIS. 



'- i. llL?!; 1 --' Y.<'I ;.V..'i . 'i . 'i . 'i . '' . V . 'X' . V . i 1 . '>' . ']' . i 1 .V.i 





ILLIAM H. BISSELL, Gov- 
ernor 1857-60, was born 
April 25, 1811, in the 
State of New York, near 
Painted Post, Yates County. 
His parents were obscure, 
honest, God-fearing people, 
who reared their children under the daily 
example of industry and frugality, accord- 
ing to the custom of that class of Eastern 
society. Mr. Bissell received a respecta- 
ble but not thorough academical education. 
By assiduous application he acquired a 
knowledge of medicine, and in his early 
manhood came West and located in Mon- 
roe County, this State, where he engaged in the 
practice of that profession. But he was not enam- 
ored of his calling: he was swayed by a broader 
ambition, to such an extent that the mysteries of the 
healing art and its arduous duties failed to yield him 
further any charms. In a few years he discovered 
his choice of a profession to be a mistake, and when 
he approached the age of 30 he sought to begin 
anew. Dr. Bissell, no doubt unexpectedly to him- 
self, discovered a singular facility and charm of 
speech, the exercise of which acquired for him a 
ready local notoriety. It soon came lo be under- 



stood that he desired to abandon his profession and 
take up that of the law. During terms of Court he 
would spend his time at the county seat among the 
members of the Bar, who extended to him a ready 
welcome. 

It was not strange, therefore, that he should drift 
into public life. In 1840 he was elected as a Dem- 
ocrat to the Legislature from Monroe County, and 
was an efficient member of that body. On his re- 
turn home he qualified himself for admission to the 
Bar and speedily rose to the front rank as an advo- 
cate. His powers of oratory were captivating. With a 
pure diction, charming and inimitable gestures, 
clearness of statement, and a remarkable vein of sly 
humor, his efforts before a jury told with irresistible 
effect. He was chosen by the Legislature Prosecut- 
ing Attorney for the Circuit in which he lived, and 
in that position he fully discharged his duty to the 
State, gained the esteem of the Bar, and seldom 
failed to convict the offender of the law. 

In stature he was somewhat tall and slender, and 
with a straight, military bearing, he presented a dis- 
tinguished appearance. His complexion was dark, 
his head well poised, though not large, his address 
pleasant and manner winning. He was exemplary 
in his habits, a devoted husband and kind parent. 
He was twice married, the first time to Miss James, 



'5* 



WILLIAM H. BISSELL. 



of Monroe County, by whom he had two children, 
both daughters. She died soon after the year 1840, 
and Mr. B. married for his second wife a daughter 
of Elias K. Kane, previously a United States Senator 
from this State. She survived htm but a short time, 
and died without issue. 

When the war with Mexico was declared in 1846, 
Mr. Bissell enlisted and was elected Colonel of his 
regiment, over Hon. Don Morrison, by an almost 
unanimous vote, 807 to 6. Conside j the limited 
opportunities he had had, he evinced a high order of 
military talent. On the bloody field of Buena Vista 
he acquitted himself with intrepid and distinguished 
ability, contributing with his regiment, the Second 
Illinois, in no small degree toward saving the waver- 
ing fortunes of our arms during that long and fiercely 
contested battle. 

After his return home, at the close of the war, he 
was elected to Congress, his opponents being the 
Hons. P. B. Fouke and Joseph Gillespie. He served' 
two terms in Congress. He was an ardent politician. 
During the great contest of 1850 he voted in favor 
of the adjustment measures; but in 1854 he opposed 
the repeal of the Missouri Compromise act and 
therefore the Kansas-Nebraska bill of Douglas, and 
thus became identified with the nascent Republican 
party. 

During his first Congressional term, while the 
Southern members were following their old practice 
of intimidating the North by bullying language, 
and claiming mos't of the credit for victories in the 
Mexican War, and Jefferson Davis claiming for the 
Mississippi troops all the credit for success at Buena 
Vista, Mr. Bissell bravely defended the Northern 
troops ; whereupon Davis challenged Bissell to a duel, 
which was accepted. This matter was brought up 
against Bissell when he was candidate for Governor 
and during his term of office, as the Constitution of 
this State forbade any duelist from holding a State 
office. 

In 1856, when the Republican party first put forth 
a candidate, John C. Fremont, for President of the 
United States, the same party nominated Mr. Bissell 
for Governor of Illinois, and John Wood, of Quincy, 
for Lieutenant Governor, while the Democrats nomi- 
nated Hon. W. A. Richardson, of Adams County, 
for Governor, and Col. R. J. Hamilton, of Cook 
County, for Lieutenant Governor. The result of the 



election was a plurality of 4,729 votes over Richard- 
son. The American, or Know-Nothing, party had a 
ticket in the field. The Legislature was nearly bal- 
anced, but was politically opposed to the Governor. 
His message to the Legislature was short and rather 
ordinary, and was criticised for expressing the sup- 
posed obligations of the people to the incorporators 
of the Illinois Central Railroad Company and for re- 
opening the slavery question by allusions to the 
Kansas troubles. Late in the session an apportion- 
ment bill, based upon the State census of 1855, was 
passed, amid much partisan strife. The Governor 
at first signed the bill and then vetoed it. A furious 
debate followed, and the question whether the Gov- 
ernor had the authority to recall a signature was 
referred to the Courts, that of last resort deciding in 
favor of the Governor. Two years afterward another 
outrageous attempt was made for a re-apportionment 
and to gerrymander the State, but the Legislature 
failed to pass the bill over the veto of the Governor. 

It was during Gov. Bissell's administration that 
the notorious canal scrip fraud was brought to light 
implicating ex-Gov. Matteson and other prominent 
State officials. The principal and interest, aggregat- 
ing $255,500, was all recovered by the State except- 
ing $ 2 7.S - ( See sketch of Gov. Matteson.) 

In 1859 an attempt was discovered to fraudu- 
lently refund the Macalister and Stebbins bonds and 
thus rob the State Treasury of nearly a quarter of a 
million dollars. The State Government was impli- 
cated in this affair, and to this day remains unex- 
plained or unatoned for. For the above, and other 
matters previously mentioned, Gov. Bissell has been 
severely criticised, and he has also been most shame- 
fully libelled and slandered. 

On account of exposure in the army, the remote 
cause of a nervous form of disease gained entrance 
into his system and eventually developed paraplegia, 
affecting his lower extremities, which, while it left 
his body in comparative health, deprived him of loco- 
motion except by the aid of crutches. While he was 
generally hopeful of ultimate recovery, this myste- 
rious disease pursued him, without once relaxing its 
stealthy hold, to the close of his life, March 18, 
1860, over nine months before the expiration of his 
gubernatorial term, at the early age of 48 years. He 
died in the faith of the Roman Catholic Church, oj 
which he har been a member since 1854. 



UNIVERSI 1 1 O j 



GC VERNORS OF ILLINOIS. 





|;OHN WOOD, Governor i86o-i,and 
the first settler of Quincy, 111., 
was born in the town of Sempro- 
nius (now Moravia), Cayuga Co., 
N. Y., Dec. 20, 1798. He was 
the second child and only son of 
Dr. Daniel Wood. His mother, 
nee Catherine Crause, was of 
German parentage, and died 
while he was an infant. Dr. 
Wood was a learned and skillful 
physician, of classical attain- 
ments and proficient in several 
modern languages, who, after 
serving throughout the Revolu- 
tionary War as a Surgeon, settled on the land granted 
him by the Government, and resided there a re- 
spected and leading influence in his section until his 
death, at the ripe age of 92 years. 

The subject of this sketch, impelled by the spirit 
of Western adventure then pervading everywhere, 
left his home, Nov. 2, 1818, and passed the succeed- 
ing winter in Cincinnati, Ohio. The following sum- 
mer he pushed on to Illinois, landing at Shawneetown. 
and spent the fall and following winter in Calhoun 
County. In 1820, in company with Willard Keyes, 
he settled in Pike County, about 30 miles southeast 
of Quincy, where for the next two years he pursued 
farming. In 1821 he visited "the Bluffs" (as the 
present site of Quincy was called, then uninhabited) 
and, pleased with its prospects, soon after purchased 
a quarter-section of land near by, and in the follow- 
ing fall (1822) erected near the river a small cabin, 



1 8 x 20 feet, the first building in Quincy, of which 
he then became the first and for some months the 
only occupant. 

About this time he visited his old friends in Pike 
County, chief of whom was William Ross, the lead- 
ing man in building up the village of Atlas, of that 
county, which was thought then to be the possible 
commencement of a city. One day they and others 
were traveling together over the country between the 
two points named, making observations on the com- 
parative merits of the respective localities. On ap- 
proaching the Mississippi near Mr. Wood's place, 
the latter told his companions to follow him and he 
would show them where he was going to build a city. 
They went about a mile off the main trail, to a high 
point, from which the view in every direction was 
most magnificent, as it had been for ages and as yet 
untouched by the hand of man. Before them swept 
by the majestic Father of Waters, yet unburdened by 
navigation. After Mr. Wood had expatiated at 
length on the advantages of the situation, Mr. Ross 
replied, " But it's too near Atlas ever to amount to 
anything!" 

Atlas is still a cultivated farm, and Quincy is a 
city of over 30,000 population. 

In 1824 Mr. Wood gave a newspaper notice, 
as the law then prescribed, of his intention to apply 
to the General Assembly for the formation of a new 
county. This was done the following winter, result- 
ing in the establishment of the present Adams 
County. During the next summer Quincy was se- 
lected as the county seat, it and the vicinity then 
containing but four adult male residents and half 



JOHN WOOD. 



that number of females. Sinoe that period Mr. 
Wood resided at the place of his early adoption un- 
til his death, and far more than any other man was 
he identified with every measure of its progress and 
history, and almost continuously kept in public posi- 
tions. 

He was one of the early town Trustees, and after 
the place became a city he was often a member of 
the City Council, many times elected Mayor, in the 
face of a constant large opposition political majority. 
In 1850 he was elected to the State Senate. In 1856, 
on the organization of the Republican party, he was 
chosen Lieutenant Governor of the State, on the 
ticket with Wm. H. Bissell for Governor, and on the 
death of the latter, March 18, 1860, he succeeded to 
the Chief Executive chair, which he occupied until 
Gov. Yates was inaugurated nearly ten months after- 
ward. 

Nothing very marked characterized the adminis- 
tration of Gov. Wood. The great anti-slavery cam- 
paign of 1860, resulting in the election of the honest 
Illinoisan, Abraham Lincoln, to the Presidency of the 
United States, occurred during Ihe short period 
while Mr. Wood was Governor, and the excitement 
and issues of that struggle dominated over every 
other consideration, indeed, supplanted them in a 
great measure. The people of Illinois, during all 
that time, were passing the comparatively petty strifes 
under Bissell's administration to the overwhelming 
issue of preserving the whole nation from destruction. 

In 1861 ex-Gov. Wood was one of the five Dele- 
gates from Illinois to the " Peace Convention " at 
Washington, and in April of the san.e year, on the 
breaking oi't of the Rebellion, he was appointed 



Quartermaster-General of the State, which position 
he held throughout the war. In 1864 he took com- 
mand as Colonel of the 1 37th 111. Vol. Inf., with 
whom he served until the period of enlistment ex- 
pired. 

Politically, Gov. Wood was always actively identi- 
fied with the Whig and Republican parties. Few 
men have in personal experience comprehended so 
many surprising and advancing local changes as 
vested in the more than half century recollections of 
Gov. Wood. Sixty-four years ago a solitary settler 
on the "Bluffs," with no family, and no neighbor 
within a score of miles, the world of civilization away 
behind him, and the strolling red-man almost his 
only visitant, he lived to see growing around him, 
and under his auspices and aid, overspreading the 
wild hills and scraggy forest a teaming city, second 
only in size in the State, and surpassed nowhere in 
beauty, prosperity and promise ; whose people recog- 
nize as with a single voice the proverbial honor and 
liberality that attach to the name and lengthened 
life of their pioneer settler, "the old Governor." 

Gov. Wood was twice married, first in January, 
1826,10 Ann M. Streeter, daughter of Joshua Streeter, 
formerly of Salem, Washington Co., N. Y. They had 
eight children. Mrs. W. died Oct. 8, 1863, and in 
June, 1865, Gov. Wood married Mrs. Mary A., widow 
of Rev. Joseph T. Holmes. Gov. Wood died June 4, 
1880, at his residence in Quincy. Four of his eight 
children are now living, namely: Ann E., wife of 
Gen. John Tillson; Daniel C., who married Mary J. 
Abernethy; John, Jr., who married Josephine Skinner, 
and Joshua S., who married Annie Bradley. The 
last mentioned now resides at Atchison, Kansas, and 
all the rest are still at Quincy. 




LIBRARY 

OF I HE 

UNIVERSITY ft ILLINOIS 




ICHARD YATES, the "War 
Governor," 1861-4, was born 
Jan. 18, 1818, on the banks of 
the Ohio River, at Warsaw, 
Gallatin Co., Ky. His lather 
moved in 1831 to Illinois, and t 
after stopping for a time in 
Springfield, settled at Island 
ve, Sangamon County. Here, 
after attending school, Richard joined 
the family. Subsequently he entered 
Illinois College at Jacksonville, 
where, in 1837, he graduated with 
first honors. He chose for his pro- 
fession the law, the Hon. J. J. Har- 
din being his instructor. After ad- 
mission to the Bar he soon rose to distinction as an 
advocate. 

Gifted with a fluent and ready oratory, he soon 
appeared in the political hustings, and, being a 
passionate admirer of the great Whig leader of the 
West. Henry Clay, he joined his political fortunes to 
he party of his idol. In 1840 he engaged with great 
"rdor in the exciting " hard cider " campaign for 
Garrison. Two years later he was elected to the 
Legislature from Morgan County, a Democratic 
stronghold. He served three or four terms in the 
Legislature, and such was the fascination of his ora- 
^ry that by 1850 his large Congressional District, 
f Mending from Morgan and Sangamon Counties 
. .jrth to include LaSalle, unanimously tendered him 
t 'i*. Whig nomination for Congress. His Democratic 
opponent was Maj. Thomas L. Harris, a very pop- 
; 'ar man who had won distinction at the battle of 
Cerro Gordo, in the Mexican War, and who had 
oeater. Muii. Stephen T. Logan for the same position, 



two years before, by a large majority. . Yates waf 
elected. Two years later he was re-elected, over 
John Calhoun. 

It was during Yates second term in Congress that 
the great question of the repeal of the Missouri Com- 
promise was agitated, and the bars laid down for re- 
opening the dreaded anti-slavery question. He took 
strong grounds against the repeal, and thus became 
identified with the rising Republican party. Conse- 
quently he fell into the minority in his district, which 
was pro-slavery. Even then, in a third contest, he 
fell behind Major Harris only 200 votes, after the 
district had two years before given Pierce 2,000 
majority for President. 

The Republican State Convention of 1 860 met at 
Decatur May 9, and nominated for the office of Gov- 
ernor Mr. Yates, in preference to Hon. Norman B. 
Judd, of Chicago, and Leonard Swett, of Blooming- 
ton, two of the ablest men of the State, who were 
also candidates before the Convention. Francis A. 
Hoffman, of DuPage County, was nominated foi 
Lieutenant Governor. This was the year when Mr. 
Lincoln was a candidate for President, a period re- 
membered as characterized by the great whirlpool 
which precipitated the bloody War of the Rebellion. 
The Douglas Democrats nominated J. C. Allen cf 
Crawford County, for Governor, and Lewis W. Ross, 
of Fulton County, for Lieutenant Governor. The 
Breckenridge Democrats and the Bell-Everett party 
had also full tickets in the field. After a most fear- 
ful campaign, the result of the election gave Mr. 
Yates 172,196 votes, and Mr, Allen 159,253. Mr. 
Yates received over a thousand more votes than did 
Mr. Lincoln himself. 

Gov. Yates occupied the chair of State during the 



i6o 



RICHARD YATES. 



most critical period of our country's history. In the 
fate of the nation was involved that of each State. 
The life struggle of the former derived its sustenance 
from the loyalty of the latter; and Gov. Yates 
seemed to realize the situation, and proved himself 
both loyal and wise in upholding the Government. 
He had a deep hold upon the affections of the 
people, won by his moving eloquence and genial 
manners. Erect and symmetrical in person, of pre- 
possessing appearance, with a winning address and a 
magnetic power, few men possessed more of the ele- 
ments of popularity. His oratory was scholarly and 
captivating, his hearers hardly knowing why they 
were transported. He was social and convivial. In 
the latter respect he was ultimately carried too far. 

The very creditable military efforts of this State 
during the War of the Rebellion, in putting into the 
field the enormous number of about 200,000 soldiers, 
were ever promptly and ably seconded by his excel- 
lency ; and the was ambitious to deserve the title of 
"the soldier's friend." Immediately after the battle of 
Shiloh he repaired to the field of carnage to look 
after the wounded, and his appeals for aid were 
promptly responded to by the people. His procla- 
mations calling for volunteers were impassionate 
appeals, urging upon the people the duties and re- 
quirements of patriotism; and his special message 
in 1863 to the Democratic Legislature of this State 
pleading for material aid for the sick and wounded 
soldiers of Illinois regiments, breathes a deep fervor 
of noble sentiment and feeling rarely equaled in 
beauty or felicity of expression. Generally his mes- 
sages on political and civil affairs were able and com- 
prehensive. During his administration, however, 
there were no civil events of an engrossing character, 
although two years of his time were replete with 
partisan quarrels of great bitterness. Military ar- 
rests, Knights of the Golden Circle, riot in Fulton 
County, attempted suppression of the Chicago Times 
and the usurping State Constitutional Convention of 
1862, were the chief local topics that were exciting 
during the Governor's term. This Convention assem- 
bled Jan. 7, and at once took the high position that 
'he law calling it was no longer binding, and that it 
:,ad supreme power; that it represented a virtual 
assemblage of the whole people of the State, and was 
sovereign in the exercise of all power necessary to 
effect a. peaceable revolution of the State Government 



and to the re-establishment of one for the "happiness, 
prosperity and freedom of the citizens," limited only 
by the Federal Constitution. Notwithstanding the 
law calling the Convention required its members to 
take an oath to support the Constitution of the State 
as well as that of the general Government, they 
utterly refused to take such oath. They also as- 
sumed legislative powers and passed several import- 
ant "laws!" Interfering with the (then) present 
executive duties, Gov. Yates was ^revoked to tell 
them plainly that " he did not acknowledge the right 
of the Convention to instruct him in the performance 
of his duty." 

In 1863 the Governor astonished the Democrats 
by " proroguing " their Legislature. This body, after 
a recess, met June 2, that year, and soon began to 
waste time upon various partisan resolutions ; and, 
while the two houses were disagreeing upon the 
question of adjourning sine die, the Governor, having 
the authority in such cases, surprised them all by 
adjourning them " to the Saturday next preceding the 
first Monday in January, 1865 ! " This led to great 
excitement and confusion, and to a reference of the 
Governor's act to the Supreme Court, who decided in 
his favor. Then it was the Court's turn to receive 
abuse for weeks and months afterward. 

During the autumn of 1864 a conspiracy was de- 
tected at Chicago which had for its object the liber- 
ation of the prisoners of war at Camp Douglas, the 
burning of the city and the inauguration of rebellion 
in the North. Gen. Sweet, who had charge of the 
camp at the time, first had his suspicions of danger 
aroused by a number of enigmatically worded letters 
which passed through the Camp postoffice. A de- 
tective afterward discovered that the rebel Gen. 
Marmaduke was in the city, under an assumed 
name, and he, with other rebel officers Grenfell, 
Morgan, Cantrell, Buckner Morris, and Charles 
Walsh was arrested, most of whom were convicted 
by a court-martial at Cincinnati and sentenced to 
imprisonment, Grenfell to be hung. The sentence 
of the latter was afterward commuted to imprison- 
ment for life, and all the others, after nine months' 
imprisonment, were pardoned. 

In March, 1873, Gov. Yates was appointed a Gov- 
ernment Director of the Union Pacific Railroad, in 
which office he continued until his decease, at St. 
Louis, Mo., on the 27th of November following. 



UNIVERSITY of ILLINOIS 



I 







GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS. 



163 





ICHARD J. OGLESBY, Gov- 
ernor 1865-8, and re-elected 
in 1872 and 1884, was born 
July 25, 1824, in Oldham Co., 
Ky., the State which might 
be considered the " mother of 
Illinois Governors." Bereft of 
his parents at the tender age 
of eight years, his early education 
was neglected. When 12 years of 
age, and after he had worked a year 
and a half at the carpenter's trade, 
he removed with an uncle, Willis 
Oglesby, into whose care he had 
been committed, to Decatur, this 
State, where he continued his ap- 
ticeship as a mechanic, working six months for 
Hon. E. O. Smith. 

In 1844 he commenced studying law at Spring- 
field, with Judge Silas Robbins, and read with him 
one year. He was admitted to the Bar in 1845, and 
commenced the practice of his chosen profession at 
Sullivan, the county seat of Moultrie County. 

The next year the war with Mexico was com- 
menced, and in June, 1846, Mr. Oglesby volunteered, 
was elected First Lieutenant of Co. C, Fourth Illinois 
Regiment of Volunteers, and participated in the bat- 
tles of Vera Cruz and Cerro Gordo. 

On his return he sought to perfect his law studies 
by attending a course of lectures at Louisville, but 
on the breaking out of the California "gold fever " in 
1849, he crossed the plains and mountains to the 
new Eldorado, driving a six-mule team, with a com- 



pany of eight men, Henry Prather being the leader. 

In 1852 he returned home to Macon County, and 
was placed that year by the Whig party on the ticket 
of Presidential Electors. In 1856 he visited Europe, 
Asia and Africa, being absent 20 months. On his 
return home he resumed the practice of law, as a 
member of the firm of Gallagher, Wait & Oglesby. 
In 1858 he was the Republican nominee for the 
Lower House of Congress, but was defeated by the 
Hon. James C. Robinson, Democrat. In 1860 he 
was elected to the Illinois State Senate ; and on the 
evening the returns of this election were coming in. 
Mr. Oglesby had a fisticuff encounter with " Cerro 
Gordo Williams," in which he came out victorious, 
and which was regarded as " the first fight of the 
Rebellion." The following spring, when the war 
had commenced in earnest, his ardent nature 
quickly responded to the demands of patriotism and 
he enlisted. The extra session of the Legislature 
elected him Colonel of the Eighth Illinois Infantry, 
the second one in the State raised to suppress the 
great Rebellion. 

He was shortly entrusted with important com- 
mands. For a time he was stationed at Bird's Point 
and Cairo ; in April he was promoted Brigadier Gen- 
eral ; at Fort Donelson his brigade was in the van, 
being stationed on the right of General Grant's army 
and the first brigade to be attacked. He lost 500 
men before re-inforcements arrived. Many of these 
men were from Macon County. He was engaged in 
the battle of Corinth, and, in a brave charge at this 
place, was shot in the left lung with an ounce ball, 
and was carried from the field in expectation of ina- 



i6 4 



RICHARD J. OGLESBY. 



mediate death. That rebel ball he carries to this 
day. On his partial recovery he was promoted as 
Major General, for gallantry, his commission to rank 
from November, 1862. In the spring of 1863 he 
was assigned to the command of the i6th Army 
Corps, but, owing to inability from the effects of his 
wound, he relinquished this command in July, that 
year. Gen. Grant, however, refused to accept his 
resignation, and he was detailed, in December follow- 
ing, to court-martial and try the Surgeon General of 
the Army at Washington, where he remained until 
May, 1864, when he returned home. 
The Republican, or Union, State Convention of 

1864 was held at Springfield, May 25, when Mr. 
Oglesby was nominated for the office of Governor, 
while other candidates before the Convention were 
Allen C. Fuller, of Boone, Jesse K. Dubois.of Sanga- 
mon, and John M. Palmer, of Macoupin. Wm. 
Brass, of Chicago, was nominated for Lieutenant 
Governor. On the Democratic State ticket were 
James C. Robinson, of Clark, for Governor, and S. 
Corning Judd, of Fulton, for Lieutenant Governor. 
The general election gave Gen. Oglesby a majority 
of about 31,000 votes. The Republicans had also a 
majority in both the Legislature and in the repre- 
sentation in Congress. 

Gov. Oglesby was duly inaugurated Jan. 17, 1865. 
The day before the first time set for his installation 
death visited his home at Decatur, and took from it 
his only son, an intelligent and sprightly lad of six 
years, a great favorite of the bereaved parents. This 
caused the inauguration to be postponed a week. 

The political events of the Legislative session of 

1865 were the election of ex-Gov. Yates to the 
United States Senate, and the ratification of the i3th 
amendment to the Constitution of the United States, 
abolishing slavery. This session also signalized 
itself by repealing the notorious " black laws," part 
of which, although a dead letter, had held their place 
upon the statute books since 1819. Also, laws re- 
quiring the registration of voters, and establishing a 
State Board of Equalization, were passed by this Leg- 
islature. But the same body evinced that it was cor- 
ruptly influenced by a mercenary lobby, as it adopted 
some bad legislation, over the Governor's veto, nota- 
bly an amendment to a charter for a Chicago horse 
railway, granted in 1859 for 25 years, and now 
sought to be extended 99 years. As this measure 
was promptly passed over his veto by both branches 
of the Legislature, he deemed it useless further to 
attempt to check their headlong career. At this 
session no law of a general useful character or public 
interest was perfected, unless we count such the 
turning over of the canal to Chicago to be deepened. 
The session of 1867 was still more productive of 
private and special acts. Many omnibus bills were 
proposed, and some passed. The contests over the 
.ocation of the Industrial College, the Capital, the 



Southern Penitentiary, and the canal enlargement 
and Illinois River improvement, dominated every- 
thing else. 

During the year 1872, it became evident that if 
the Republicans could re-elect Mr. Oglesby to the 
office of Governor, they could also elect him to the 
United States Senate, which they desired to do. 
Accordingly they re-nominated him for the Execu- 
tive chair, and placed upon the ticket with him for 
Lieutenant Governor, John L. Beveridge, of Cook 
County. On the other side the Democrats put into 
the field Gustavus Koerner for Governor and John 
C. Black for Lieutenant Governor. The election 
gave the Republican ticket majorities ranging from 
35334 to S 6 , I 74i the Democratic defection being 
caused mainly by their having an old-time Whig and 
Abolitionist, Horace Greeley, on the national ticket 
fot President. According to the general understand- 
ing had beforehand, as soon as the Legislature met 
it elected Gov. Oglesby to the United States Senate, 
whereupon Mr. Beveridge became Governor. Sena- 
tor Oglesby 's term expired March 4, 1879, having 
served his party faithfully and exhibited an order of 
statesmanship beyond criticism. 

During the campaign of 1884 Mr. Oglesby was 
nominated for a "third term" as Executive of the 
State of Illinois, against Carter H. Harrison, Mayor 
of Chicago, nominated by the Democrats. Both 
gentlemen " stumped " the State, and while the peo- 
ple elected a Legislature which was a tie on a join'; 
ballot, as between the two parties, they gave the 
jovial " Dick" Oglesby a majority of r 5,01 8 for Gov- 
ernor, and he was inaugurated Jan. 30, 1885. The 
Legislature did not fully organize until this date, on 
account of its equal division between the two main 
parties and the consequent desperate tactics of each 
party to checkmate the latter in the organization of 
the House. 

Gov. Oglesby is a fine-appearing, affable man, with 
regular, well defined features and rotund face. In 
stature he is a little above medium height, of a large 
frame and somewhat fleshy. His physical appear- 
ance is striking and prepossessing, while his straight- 
out, not to say bluff, manner and speech are weL 
calculated favorably to impress the average masses. 
Ardent in feeling and strongly committed to the pol- 
icies of his party, he intensifies Republicanism 
among Republicans, while at the same time hisjovia. 
and liberal manner prevents those of the opposite 
party from hating him. 

He is quite an effective stump orator. With vehe- 
ment, passionate and scornful tone and gesturcr,. 
tremendous physical power, which in speak'ng he 
exercises to the utmost ; with frequent descents to 
the grotesque; and with abundant homely compari- 
sons or frontier figures, expressed in the broadest 
vernacular and enforced with stentorian er.ichasis, 
he delights a promiscuous audience beyond measure 



GO VERNORS OF ILLINOIS. 



16, 





)HN Me AULEY PALMER, Gov- 
ernor 1869-72, was born on 
Engle Creek, Scott Co., Ky , 
Sept. 13, 1817. During his in- 
fancy, his father, who had been 
a soldier in the wnr of 1812, re- 
moved to Christian Co., Ky., 
where lands were cheap. Here 
the future Governor of the greai 
Prairie State spent his childhood 
and received such meager school 
ing as the new and sparsely set- 
tled country afforded. To this 
he added materially by diligent 
reading, for which he evinced an 
eaily aptitude. His father, an ardent Jackson man, 
was also noted for his anti-slavery sentiments, which 
he thoroughly impressed upon his children. In 1831 
he emigrated to Illinois, settling in Madison County. 
Here the labor of improving a farm \vas pursued for 
about two years, when the death of Mr. Palmer's 
mo;her broke up the family. About this time Alton 
College was opened, on the "manual labor " system, 
and in the spring of 1834 young Palmer, with his 
elder brother, Elihu, entered this school and remained 
1 8 months. Next, for over three years, he tried 
various')' coopering, peddling and school-teaching. 

Dining the summer of 1838 he formed the ac- 
quaintunce f Sie;ihe.i A Douglas, then making his 



first canvass for Congress. Young, eloquent and in 
political accord with Mr. Palmer, he won his confi- 
dence, fired his ambition and fixed his purpose. The 
following winter, while teaching near Canton, he be- 
gan to devote his spare time to a desultory reading 
of law, and in the spring entered a law office at Car- 
linville, making his home with his elder brother, 
Elihu. (The latter was a learned clergyman, of con- 
siderable orginality of. thought and doctrine.) On 
the next meeting of the Supreme Court he was ad- 
mitted to the Bar, Douglas being one of his examiners. 
He was not immediately successful in his profession, 
and would have located elsewhere than Carlinville 
had he the requisite means. Thus his early poverty 
was a blessing in disguise, for to it he now attributes 
the success of his life. 

From 1839 on, while he diligently pursued his 
profession, he participated more or less in local 
politics. In 1843 he became Probate Judge. Ir 
1847 he was elected to the State Constitutional Con 
vention, where he took a leading part. In 1852 h*. 
was elected to the State Senate, and at the special 
session of February, 1854, true to the anti-slaverj 
sentiments bred in him, he took a firm stand in op 
position to the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, 
and when the Nebraska question became a partj 
issue he refused to receive a re-nomination for th< 
Senatorship at the hands of the Democracy, issuinj 
a circular to that effect. A few weeks afterward 



i6S 



JOHN MC AULEY PALMER. 



however, hesitating to break with his party, he par- 
ticipated in a Congressional Convention which noini- 
T. L. Harris against Richard Yates, and which 
unqualifiedly approved the principles of the Kansas- 
Nebraska act. But later in the campaign he made 
the plunge, ran for the Senate as an Anti-Nebraska 
Democrat, and was elected. The following winter 
ne put in nomination for the United States Senate 
Mr. Trumbull, and was one of the five steadfast men 
who voted for him until all the Whigs came to their 
support and elected their man. 

In 1856 he was Chairman of the Republican State 
Convention at Bloomington. He ran for Congress in 
1859, but was defeated. In 1860 he was Republican 
Presidential Elector for the State at large. In 1861 
ne was appointed one of the five Delegates (all Re- 
publicans) sent by Illinois to the peace congress at 

Washington. 

When the civil conflict broke out, he offered his 
services to his country, and was elected Colonel of the 

:4th 111. Vol. Inf., and participated in the engagements 
at Island No. 10; at Farndngton, where he skillfully 
extricated his command from a dangerous position ! 
at Stone River, where his division for several hours, 
Dec. 31, 1862, held the advance and stood like a 
rock, and for his gallantry there he was made Major 
General; at Chickamauga, where his and Van Cleve's 
divisions for two hours maintained their position 
when they were cut off by overpowering numbers 
Under Gen. Sherman, he was assigned to the I4lh 
Army Corps and participated in the Atlanta campaign. 
At Peach-Tree Creek his prudence did much to avert 
disaster. In February, 1865, Gen. Palmer was as- 
signed to the military administration of Kentucky, 
which was a delicate post. That State was about 
half rebel and half Union, and those of the latter 
element were daily fretted by the loss of their slaves. 
He, who had been bred to the rules of common law, 
trembled at the contemplation of his extraordinary 
power ovjr the persons and property of his fellow 
men, with which he was vested in his capacity as 
military Governor; and he exhibited great caution in 
the execution of the duties of his post. 

Gen. Palmer was nominated for Governor of Illi- 
nois by the Republican State Convention which met 
at Pe >ri i M ly 6, 1868, and his nomination would 
probably have been made by acclamation had he not 
oersistently declared that he could not accept a can- 



didature for the office. The result of the ensuing 
election gave Mr. Palmer a majarity of 44,707 over 
John R. Eden, the Democratic nominee. 

O.i the meeting of the Legislature in January, 
1869, the first thing to arrest public attention was 
that portion of the Governor's message which took 
broad State's rights ground. This and some minor 
pjints, which were more in keeping with the Demo- 
cratic sentiment, constituted the entering wedge f>r 
the criticisms and reproofs he afterward received 
f ro n the Republican party, and ultim uely resulted 
in his entire alenia'ion from the Litter element. The 
Legislature just referred to was noted for the intro- 
duction of numerous bills in the interest of private 
parties, which were embarrassing to the Governor. 
Among the public acts passed was that which limited 
railroad charges for passenger travel to a maximum 
of three cents per mile ; a.id it was passed over the- 
Governor's veto. Also, they passed, over his veto, 
the "tax-grabbing law" to pay nulroed subscriptions, 
the Chicago Lake Front bill, etc. The new State 
Constitution of 1870, far superior to the old, was a 
peaceful " revolution" which took place during Gov. 
Palmer's term of office. The suffering caused by the 
great Chicago Fire of October, 1871, was greatly 
alleviated by the prompt responses of his excellency. 

Since the expiration of Gov. Palmers 's term, he has 
been somewhat prominent in Illinois politics, and 
h:is been talked of by many, especially in the Dem- 
ocratic party, as the best man in the State for a 
United States Senator. His business during life has 
been that of the law. Few excel him in an accurate 
appreciation of the depth and scope of its principles- 
The great number of his able veto messages abun- 
dantly testify not only this but also a rare capacity to 
[>oint them out. He is a logical and cogent reasoner 
and an interesting, forcible and convincing speaker, 
though not fluent or ornate. Without brilliancy, his 
dealings are rather with facts and ideas than with 
appeals to passions and prejudices. He is a patriot 
and a statesman of very high order. Physically he is 
above the medium height, of robust frame, ruddy 
complexion and sanguine-nervous temperament He 
has a large cranial development, is vivacious, social 
in disposition, easy of approach, unostentatious in his 
habits of life, democratic in his habits and manners 
and is a true American in his fundamental principle' 
of statesmansliii . 



GO VERKORS OF ILLINOIS. 



171 




. '. .,'1 . ', .>'> ,,','.:', . ', . y.,<i '. v. '. '. 'X' ; : v : >' : i> ..'..','.. ,';v :.'.. .':.'.: >*: .' : .'<;.' 




OHN LOWRiE BEVER- 
IDGE, Governor 1873-6, was 
born in the town of Green- 
wich, Washington Co., N. Y., 
July 6, 1824. His parents 
were George and Ann Bever- 
idge. His father's parents, An- 
drew and Isabel Beveridge, be- 
fore 'their marriage emigrated 
from Scotland just before the 
Revolutionary War, settling in 
^ Washington County. His father 
was the eldest of eight brothers, the 
youngest of whom was 60 years of 
age when the first one of the num- 
ber died. His mother's parents, 
James and Agnes Hoy, emigrated 
from Scotland at the close of the 
Revolutionary War, settling also in 
Washington Co., N. Y., with their 
first-born, whose " native land " was 
the wild ocean. His parents and 
grandparents lived beyond the time 
allotted to man, their average age 
being over 80 years. They belonged to the " Asso- 
ciate Church," a seceding Presbyterian body of 



America from the old Scotch school ; and so rigid 
was the training of young Beveridge that he never 
heard a sermon from any other minister except that 
of his own denomination until he was in his igth 
year. Later in life he became a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, which relation he still 
holds. 

Mr. Beveridge received a good common-school ed- 
ucation, but his parents, who could obtain a livelihood 
only by rigid economy and industry, could not send 
him away to college. He was raised upon a farm, 
and was in his i8th year when the family removed 
to De Kalb County, this State, when that section was 
very sparsely settled. Chicago had less than 7,000 
inhabitants. In this wild West he continued as a 
farm laborer, teaching school during the winter 
months to supply the means of an education. In the 
fall of 1842 he attended one term at the academy at 
Granville, Putnam Co., 111., and subsequently several 
terms at the Rock River Seminary at Mount Morris, 
Ogle Co., 111., completing the academic course. At 
this time, the fall of 1845, his parents and brothers 
were anxious to have him go to college, even though 
lie had not money sufficient; but, n 4 willing to bur- 
den the family, he packed his trunk and with only 
$40 in money started South to seek his fortune 



JOHN L. BE VE RIDGE. 



Poor, alone, without friends and influence, he thus 
entered upon the battle of life. 

First, he taught school in Wilson, Overton and 
Jackson Cos., Tenn., in which experience he under- 
went considerable mental drill, both in book studies 
and in the ways of the world. He read law and was 
admitted to the Bar, in the South, but did not learn 
to love the institution of slavery, although he ad- 
mired many features of Southern character. In De- 
cember, 1847, he returned North, and Jan. 20, 1848, 
he married Miss Helen M. Judson, in the old Clark- 
Street M. E. church in Chicago, her father at that 
time being Pastor of the society there. In the spring 
of 1848 he returned with his wife to Tennessee, 
where his two children, Alia May and Philo Judson, 
were born. 

In the fall of 1849, through the mismanagement 
of an associate, he lost what little he had accumu- 
lated and was left in debt. He soon managed to 
earn means to pay his debts, returned to De Kalb 
Co., 111., and entered upon the practice of his pro- 
fession at Sycamore, the county seat. On arrival 
from the South he had but one-quarter of a dollar in 
money, and scanty clothing and bedding for himself 
and family. He borrowed a-little money, practiced 
.aw, worked m public offices, kept books for some of 
the business men of the town, and some railroad en- 
gineering, till the spring of 1854, when he removed 
to Evanston, 12 miles north of Chicago, a place then 
but recently laid out, under the supervision of the 
Northwestern University, a Methodist institution. 
Of the latter his father-in-law was then financial 
agent and business manager. Here Mr. Beveridge 
prospered, and the next year (1855) opened a law 
office in Chicago, where he found the battle some- 
what hard; but he persevered with encouragement 
and increasing success. 

Aug. 12, 1861, his law partner, Gen. John F. 
Farnsworth, secured authority to raise a regiment of 
cavalry, and authorized Mr. Beveridge to raise a 
company for it. He succeeded in a few days in rais- 
ing the company, of course enlisting himself along 
with it. The regiment rendezvoused at St. Charles, 
111., was mustered in Sept. 1 8, and on its organiza- 
tion Mr. B. was elected Second Major. It was at- 
tached, Oct. ii, to the Eighth Cavalry and to the 
Army of the Potomac. He served with the regiment 
until November, 1863, participating in some 40 bat- 



tles and skirmishes : was s\ Fair Oaks, the seven days 
fight around Richmond, Fredericksburg, Chancellors- 
ville and Gettysburg. He commanded the regiment 
thegreaterpartofthesummerof i863,andit waswhlle 
lying in camp this year that he originated thu policy 
of encouraging recruits as well as the fighting capac- 
ity of the soldiery, by the wholssale furlough system 
It worked so well that many other officers adopted 
it. In the fall of this year he recruited anothercom- 
pany, against heavy odds, in January, 1864, was 
commissioned Colonel of the i7th 111. Cav., and 
skirmished around in Missouri, concluding with the 
reception of the surrender of Gen. Kirby Smith's 
army in Arkansas. In 1865 he commanded various 
sub-districts in the Southwest. He was mustered 
out Feb. 6, 1866, safe from the casualties of war and 
a stouter man than when he first enlisted. His men 
idolized him. 

He then returned to Chicago, to practice law, with 
no library and no clientage, and no political experi- 
ence except to help others i.ito office. In the fall of 
1866 he was elected Sheriff of Cook County, serving 
one term; next, until November, 1870, he practiced 
law and closed up the unfinished business of his 
office. He was then elected State Senator; in No- 
vember, 1871, he was elected Congressmaii'at large; 
in November, 1872, he was elected Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor on the ticket with Gov. Oglesby; the latter be- 
ing elected to the U. S. Senate, Mr. Beveridge became 
Governor, Jan. 21, 1873 Thus, inside of a few 
weeks, he was Congressma i at large, Lieutenant 
Governor and Governor. The principal events oc- 
curring during Gov. Beveridge 's administration were: 
The completion of the revision of the statutes, begun 
in 1869; the partial success of t'l ; "farmers' move- 
ment;" " Haines' Legislature " a. id Illinois' exhibit at 
the Centennial. 

Since the close of his gubernatorial term ex-Gov 
Beveridge has been a member of the finn of Bever- 
idge & Dewey, bankers and dealers in commercial 
paper at 71 Dearborn Street (McCormick Block), 
Chicago, and since November, 1881, he has also been 
Assistant United States Treasurer- office in the 
Government Building. His residence is still at Ev- 
anston. 

He has a brother and two sisters yet residing in 
De Kalb County James H. Beveridge, Mrs. Jennet 
Henry and Mrs Isabel French. 



GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS. 



SHELBY M. CULLOM. 





HELBV M. CULLOM, Gover- 
nor 1877-83, ib the sixth child 
of the late Richard N. Cullom, 
and was born Nov. 22, 1829, in 
Wayne Co., Ky., where his fa- 
ther then resided, and whence 
both the Illinois and Tennessee 
branches of the family originated. In 
the following year the family emi- 
grated to the vicinity of Washington, 
Tazewell Co., 111., when that section 
was very sparsely settled. They lo- 
cated on Deer Creek, in a grove at 
the time occupied by a party of In- 
dians, attracted there by the superior 
hunting and fishing afforded in that 
vicinity. The following winter was 
known as the " hard winter," the snow being very 
deep and lasting and the weather severely cold ; and 
t'ne family had to subsist mainly on boiled corn or 
hominy, and some wild game, for several weeks. In 
the course of time Mr. R. N. Culloro became a prom- 
inent citizen and was several times elected to the 
Legislature, both before and after the removal of the 
capital from Vandalia to Springfield. He died about 
' 8 73- 

Until about 19 years of age young Cullom grew up 

tc agricultural pursuits, attending school as he had 

lunortunity during the winter. Within this time, 

owevet, he spent several months teaching r.hool. 



and in the following summer he "broke prairie "with 
an ox team for the neighbors. With the money ob- 
tained by these various ventures, he undertook a 
course of study at the Rock River Seminary, a 
Methodist institution at Mt. Morris, Ogle County: 
but the sudden change to the in-door life of a stu- 
dent told severely upon his health, and he was taken 
home, being considered in a hopelesa condition. While 
at Mt. Morris he heard Hon. E. B. Washburne make 
his first speech. 

On recovering health, Mr. Cullom concluded to 
study law, under the instruction of Abraham Lincoln, 
at Springfield, who had by this time attained some 
notoriety as an able lawyer; but the latter, being ab- 
sent from his office most of the time, advised Mr. 
Cullom to enter the office of Stuart & Edwards. 
After about a year of study there, however, his healtb 
failed again, and he was obliged to return once more 
to out-door life. Accordingly he bought hogs for 
packing, for A. G. Tyng, in 1'eoria, and while he re- 
gained his health he gained in purse, netting $400 in 
a few weeks. Having been admitted to the Bar, he 
went to Springfield, where he was soon elected City 
Attorney, on the Anti-Nebraska ticket. 

In 1856 he ran on the Fillmore ticket as a Presi- 
dential Elector, and, although failing to be elected as 
such, he was at the same time elected a Representa- 
tive in the Legislature from Sangamon County, by a 
local coalition of the American and Republican par- 
ties. On the organization of the House, he received 
the vote of the Fillmore men for Speaker. 



| 7 6 



SHELB Y M. CULLOM. 



law until 1860, he was again elected to the Legisla- 
ture, as a Republican, while the county went Demo- 
cratic on the Presidential ticket. In January follow- 
ing he was elected Speaker, probably the youngest 
man who had ever presided over an Illinois Legis- 
lature. After the session of 1 86 1, he was a candidate 
for the State Constitutional Convention called for 
that year, but was defeated, and thus escaped the 
disgrace of being connected with that abortive party 
scheme to revolutionize the State Government. In 
1862 he was a candidate for the State Senate, but 
was defea'eJ. The same year, however, he was ap- 
pointed by President Lincoln on a Government 
Commission, in company with Gov. Boutwell of 
Massachusetts and Cnarles A. Dana, since of the 
New York Sun, to investigate the affairs of the 
Quartermaster's and Commissary Departments at 
Cairo. He devoted several months to this duty. 

In 1864 he entered upon a larger political field, 
being nominated as the Republican candidate for 
Congress from the Eighth (Springfield) District, in 
opposition to the incumbent, John T. Stuart, who had 
been elected in 1862 by about 1,500 majority over 
Leonard Swett, then of Bloomington, now of Chicago. 
The result was the election of Mr. Cullom in Novem- 
ber following by a majority of 1,785. In 1866 he 
was re-elected to Congress, over Dr. E. S. Fowler, by 
the magnificent majority of 4,103! In 1868 he was 
again a candidate, defeating the Hon. B. S. Edwards, 
ani >ther of his old preceptors, by 2,884 votes. 

During his first term in Congress he served on the 
Committee on Foreign Affairs and Expenditures in 
the Treasury Department; in his second term, on 
the Committees on Foreign Affairs and on Territories ; 
and in his third term he succeeded Mr. Ashley, of 
Oliio, to the Chairmanship of the latter. He intro- 
duced a bill in the House, to aid in the execution of 
law i:i Utah, which caused more consternation among 
the Mormons than any measure had previously, but 
which, though it passed the House, failed to pass the 
Senate. 

The Republican Convention which met May 25, 
1876, nominated Mr. Cullom for Governor, while the 
other contestant was Gov. Beveridge. For Lieuten- 
ant-Governor they nominated Andrew Shuman, editor 
of the Chicago Journal. For the same offices the 
Democrats, combining with the Anti-Monopolists, 
nlaced in nomination Lewis Steward, a wealthy 



farmer and manufacturer, and A. A. Glenn. The 
result of the election was rather close, Mr. Cullom 
obtaining only 6,800 majority. He was inaugurated 
Jan. 8, 1877. 

Great depression prevailed in financial circles at 
this time, as a consequence of the heavy failures of 
1873 and afterward, the effect of which had seemed 
to gather force from that time to the end of Gov. 
Cullom's first administration. This unspeculative 
period was not calculated to call forth any new 
issues, but the Governor's energies were at one time 
put to task to quell a spirit of insubordination that 
had been begun in Pittsburg, Pa., among the laboring 
classes, and transferred to Illinois at Chicago, East 
St. Louis and Braidwood, at which places laboring 
men for a short time refused to work or allow others 
to work. These disturbances were soon quelled and 
the wheels of industry again set in motion. 

In May, 1880, GJV. Cullom was re-nominated by 
the Republicans, against Lyinan Trumbull, by the 
Democrats; and although the former party was some- 
what handicapped in the campaign by a zealous 
faction opposed to Grant for President and to Grant 
men for office generally, Mr. Cullom was re-elected 
by about 314,565, to 277,532 forthe Democratic State 
ticket. The Greenback vote at the same time was 
about 27,000. Both Houses of the Legislature again 
became Republican, and no representative of the 
Greenback or Socialist parties were elected. Gov. 
Cullom was inaugurated Jan. 10, 1881. In his mes- 
sage he announced that the last dollar of the State 
debt had been provided for. 

March 4, 1883, the term of David Davis as United 
States Senator from Illinois expired, and Gov. Cul- 
lo n was chosen to succeed him. This promoted 
Lieutenant-Governor John M. Hamilton to the Gov- 
ernorship. Senator Cullom's term in the United 
St.-ites Senate will expire March 4, 1889. 

A.S a practitioner oflaw Mr. C. has been a member 
ofthe firm of Cullom, Scholes & Mather, at Spring- 
field ; and he has also been President of the State 
National Bank. 

He has been married twice, the first time Dec. 
itt, 1855, to Miss Hannah Fisher, by whom he had 
trto daughters; and the second time May 5, 1863, 
to Julia Fisher. Mrs. C is ,1 member ofthe Method - 
isl Episcopal Church, with which religious body Mi. 
C. is also in sympathy. 



GO VERNORS OF ILLINOIS. 





OHN MARSHALL HAMIL- 
TON, Governor 1883-5, was 
born May 28, 1847, in a log 
house upon a farm about two 
miles from Richwood, Union 
County,Ohio. His father was 
muel Hamilton, the eldest son 



of Rev. Wm. Hamilton, who, to- 
gether with his brother, the Rev. 
Samuel Hamilton, was among the 
early pioneer Methodist preachers in 
Ohio. The mother of the subject of 
this sketch was, before her marriage, 
Mrs. Nancy McMoiris, who was 
born and raised in Fauquier or Lou- 
doun County, Va., and related to the 
two large families of Youngs and Marshalls, well 
known in that commonwealth ; and from the latter 
family name was derived the middle name of Gov. 
Hamilton. 

In March, 1854, Mr. Hamilton's haher sold out 
his little pioneer forest home in Union County, O., 
and, loading his few household effects and family 
(of six children) inlo two emigrant covered wagons, 
moved to Roberts Township. Marshall Co., 111., being 
2 1 days on the route. Swamps, unbridged streams 
and innumerable hardships and privations met them 
on their way. Their new home had been previously 
selected by the father. Here, after many long years 
of toil, they succeeded in payihg for the land and 
.nakir.g a com fort ->>>'> home. John was, of course, I 



brought up to hard manual labor, with no schooling 
except three or four months in the year at a common 
country school. However, he evinced a capacity 
and taste for a high order of self-education, by 
studying or reading what books be could borrow, as 
the family had but very few in the house. Much of 
his study he prosecuted by the light of a log fire in 
the old-fashioned chimney place. The financial 
panic of 1857 caused the family to come near losing 
their home, to pay debts ; but the father and two 
sons, William and John, "buckled to'' and perse- 
vered in hard labor and economy until they redeemed 
their place from the mortgage. 

When the tremendous excitement of the political 
campaign of 1860 reached the neighborhood of Rob- 
erts Township, young Hamilton, who had been 
brought up in the doctrine of anti-slavery, took a zeal- 
ous part in favor of Lincoln's election. Making special 
efforts to procure a little money to buy a uniform, he 
joined a company of Lincoln Wide-Awakes at Mag- 
nolia, a village not far away. Directly after the 
ensuing election it became evident that trouble 
would ensue with the South, and this Wide-Awake 
company, like many others throughout the country, 
kept up its organization and transformed itself into a 
military company. During the ensuing summer they 
met often for drill and became proficient ; but when 
they offered themselves for the war, young Hamilton 
was rejected on account of his youth, he being then 
but 14 years of age. During the winter of 1863-4 he 
attended an academy at Henry, Marshall County, 



JOHN MARSHALL HAMILTON. 



and in the following May he again enlisted, for the 
fourth time, when he was placed in the 14151 111. 
Vol. Inf., a regiment then being raised at Elgin, 111., 
for the too-day service. He took with him 13 other 
lads from his neighborhood, for enlistment in the 
service. This regiment operated in Southwestern 
Kentucky, for about five months, under Gen. Paine. 

The following winter, 1864-5, Mr. Hamilton taught 
school, and during the two college years 1865-7, ne 
went through three years of the curriculum of the 
Ohio Wesleyan University at Delaware, Ohio. The 
third year he graduated, the fourth in a class of 46, 
in the classical department. In due time he received 
the degree of M. A. For a few months he was the 
Principal of Marshall " College " at Henry, an acad- 
emy under the auspices of the M. E. Church. By 
this time he had commenced the study of law, and 
after earning some money as a temporary Professor 
of Latin at the Illinois Wesleyan University at 
Bloomington, he entered the law office of Weldon, 
Tipton & Benjamin, of that city. Each member of 
this firm has since been distinguished as a Judge. 
Admitted to the Bar in May, 1870, Mr. Hamilton 
was given an interest in the same firm, Tipton hav- 
ing been elected Judge. In October following he 
formed a partnership with J. H. Rowell, at that time 
Prosecuting Attorney. Their business was then 
small, but they increased it to very large proportions, 
practicing in all grades of courts, including even the 
U. S. Supreme Court, and this partnership continued 
arnbroken until Feb. 6, 1883, when Mr. Hamilton 
was sworn in as Executive of Illinois. On the 4th 
f March following Mr. Rowell took his seat in Con- 
gress. 

In July, 1871, Mr. Hamilton married Miss Helen 
M. Williams, the daughter of Prof. Win. G. Williams, 
Professor of Greek in the Ohio Wesleyan University. 
Mr. and Mrs. H. have two daughters and one son. 

In 1876 Mr. Hamilton was nominated by the Re- 
publicans for the State Senate, over other and older 
competitors. He took an active part " on the stump " 
in the campaign, for the success of his party, and was 
elected by a majority of 1,640 over his Democratic- 
Greenback opponent. In the Senate he served on 
the Committees on Judiciary, Revenue, State Insti- 
tutions, Appropriations, Education, and on Miscel- 
lany ; and during the contest for the election of a 
U. S. Senator, the Republicans endeavoring to re- 



elect John A. Logan, he voted for the war chief on 
every ballot, even alone when all the other Republi- 
cans had gone over to the Hon. E. B. Lawrence and 
the Democrats and Independents elected Judg? 
David Davis. At this session, also, was passed the 
first Board of Health and Medical Practice act, of 
which Mr. Hamilton was a champion, against co 
much opposition that the bill was several times 
" laid on the table." Also, this session authorized 
the location and establishment of a southern peni- 
tentiary, which was fixed at Chester. In the session 
of 1879 Mr. Hamilton was elected President pro tern. 
of the Senate, and was a zealous supporter of John 
A. Logan for the U. S. Senate, who was this time 
elected without any trouble. 

In May, 1880, Mr. Hamilton was nominated on 
the Republican ticket for Lieutenant Governor, his 
principal competitors before the Convention being 
Hon. Wm. A. James, ex-Speaker of the House of 
Representatives, Judge Robert Bell, of ^abash 
County, Hon. T. T. Fountain, of Perry County, and 
Hon. M. M. Saddler, of Marion County. Reengaged 
actively in the campaign, and his ticket was elected 
by a majority of 41,200. As Lieutenant Governor, 
he presided almost continuously over the Senate in 
the 32d General Assembly and during the early days 
of the 33d, until he succeeded to the Governorship. 
When the Legislature of 1883 elected Gov. Cullom 
to the United States Senate, Lieut. Gov. Hamilton 
succeeded him, under the Constitution, taking the 
oath of office Feb. 6, 1883. He bravely met all the 
annoyances and embarrassments incidental upon 
taking up another's administration. The principal 
events with which Gov. Hamilton was connected as 
the Chief Executive of the State were, the mine dis- 
aster at Braidwood, the riots in St. Clairand Madison 
Counties in May, 1883, the appropriations for the 
State militia, the adoption of the Harper high-license 
liquor law, the veto of a dangerous railroad bill, etc. 

The Governor was a Delegate at large to the 
National Republican Convention at Chicago in June, 

1884, where his first choice for President was John 
A. Logan, and second choice Chester A. Arthur; but 
he afterward zealously worked for the election of Mr. 
Elaine, true to his party. 

Mr. Hamilton's term as Governor expired Jan. 30, 

1885, when the great favorite "Dick" Oglesby was 
inaugurated. 



GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS. 



183 





5EPH WILSON FIFER. This 
distinguished gentleman was 
elected Governor of Illinois 
November 6, 1888. He was 
popularly known during the 
campaign as "Private Joe." He 
had served with great devotion 
to his country during the Re- 
bellion, in the Thirty-third 
Illinois Infantry. A native of 
Virginia, he was born in 1840. 
His parents, John and Mary 
(Daniels) Fifer, were American 
born, though of German de- 
scent. His father was a brick 
and stone mason, and an old 
Henry Clay Whig in politics. John and Mary 
Fifer had nine children, of whom Joseph was the 
sixth, and naturally, with so large a family, it was 
all the father could do to keep the wolf from the 
door, to say nothing of giving his children any- 
thing like good educational advantages. 

Joseph attended school for a while in Virgina, 
but it was not a good school, and when his father 
removed to the West, in 1857, Joseph had not ad- 
vanced much further than the "First Reader." 
Our subject was sixteen then and suffered a great 
misfortune in the loss of his mother. After the 



death of Mrs. Fifer, which occurred in Missouri, 
the family returned to Virgina, but remained only 
a short time, as during the same year Mr. Fifer 
came to Illinois. He settled in McLean County 
and started a brickyard. Here Joseph and his 
brothers were put to work. The elder Mr. Fifer soon 
bought a farm near Bloomington and began life 
as an agriculturist. Here Joe worked and attended 
the neighboring school. He alternated farm- work, 
and brick-laying, going to the district school for 
the succeeding few years. It was all work and no 
play for Joe, yet it by no means made a dull boy 
of him. All the time he was thinking of the great 
world outside, of which he had caught a glimpse 
when coming from Virginia, yet he did not know 
just how he was going to get out into it. He 
could not feel that the woods around the new farm 
and the log cabin, in which the family lived, were 
to hold him. 

The opportunity to get out into the world was 
soon offered to young Joe. He traveled a dozen 
miles barefoot, in company with his brother George, 
and enlisted in Company C, Thirty-third Illinois 
Infantry, he being then twenty years old. In a 
few days, the regiment was sent to Camp Butler, 
and then over into Missouri, and saw some vigor- 
ous service there. After a second time helping to 
chase Price out of Missouri, the Thirty-third Regi- 



184 



JOSEPH W. FIFER. 



ment went down to Milliken's Bend, and for several 
weeks "Private Joe" worked on Grant's famous 
ditch. The regiment then joined the forces oper- 
ating against Port Gibson and Vickshurg. Joe 
was on guard duty in the front ditches when the 
flag of surrender was run up on the 4th of July, 
and stuck the bayonet of his gun into the embank- 
ment and went into the city with the vanguard of 
Union soldiers. 

The next day, July 5, the Thirty-third joined 
the force after Johnston, who had been threatening 
Grant's rear; and finally an assault was made on him 
at Jackson, Miss. In this charge "Private Joe" fell, 
terribly wounded. He was loading his gun, when 
a minie-ball struck him and passed entirely 
through his body. He was regarded as mortally 
wounded. His brother, George, who had been 
made a Lieutenant, proved to be the means of sav- 
ing his life. The Surgeon told him that unless he 
had ice his brother could not live. It was fifty miles 
to the nearest point where ice could be obtained, 
and the roads were rough. A comrade, a McLean 
County man, who had been wounded, offered to 
make the trip. An ambulance was secured and 
the brother soldier started on the journey. He re- 
turned with the ice, but the trip, owing to the 
roughness of the road, was very hard on him. Af- 
ter a few months' careful nursing, Mr. Fifer was able 
to come home. The Thirty-third came home on a 
furlough, and when the boys were ready to return 
to the tented field, young Fifer was ready to go 
with them, for he was determined to finish his 
term of three years. He was mustered out in Oct- 
ober, 1864, having been in the service three years 
and two months. 

"Private Joe" came out of the army a tall, tan- 
ned, and awkward young man of twenty-four. 
About all he possessed was ambition to be some- 
body and pluck. Though at an age when most 
men have finished their college course, the young 
soldier saw that if he was to be anybody he must 
have an education. Yet he had no means to ena- 
ble him to enter school as most young men do. 
He was determined to have an education, however, 
and that to him meant success. For the following 
four years he struggled with his books. He en- 



tered Wesleyan University January 1, 1865. He 
was not a brilliant student, being neither at the 
head nor at the foot of his class. He was in great 
earnest, however, studied hard and came forth with 
a well-stored and disciplined mind. 

Immediately after being graduated, he entered 
an office at Bloomington as a law student. He 
had previously read law a little, and as he continued 
to work hard, with the spur of poverty and prompt- 
ings of ambition ever with him, he was ready to 
hang out his professional shingle in 1869. Being 
trustworthy, he soon gathered about him some in- 
fluential friends. In 1871 he was elected Corpora- 
tion Counsel of Bloomington. In 1872 he was 
elected State's Attorney of McLean County. This 
office he held eight years, when he took his seat in 
the State Senate. He served for four years. His 
ability to perform abundance of hard work made 
him a most valued member of the Legislature. 

Mr. Fifer was married in 1870 to Gertie, daugh- 
ter of William J. Lewis, of Bloomington. Mr. Fifer 
is six feet in height and is spare, weighing only one 
hundred and fifty pounds. He has a swarthy com- 
plexion, keen black eyes, quick movement, and pos- 
sesses a frank and sympathetic nature, and natur- 
lly makes friends wherever he goes. During the 
late gubernatorial campaign his visits throughout 
the State proved a great power in his behalf. His 
faculty of winning the confidence and good wishes 
of those with whom he comes in personal contact 
is a source of great popularity, especially during a 
political battle. As a speaker he is fluent, his lan- 
guage is good, voice clear and agreeable, and man- 
ner forcible. His manifest earnestness in what he 
says, as well as his tact as a public speaker, and his 
eloquent and forceful language, make him a most 
valuable campaign orator and a powerful pleader 
at the bar. At the Republican State Convention, 
held in May, 1888, Mr. Fifer was chosen as its 
candidate for Governor. He proved a popular 
nominee, and the name of "Private Joe" became 
familiar to everyone throughout the State. He 
waged a vigorous campaign, was elected by a good 
majority, and in due time assumed the duties of 
the Chief Executive of Illinois. 



GOVERNORS OF ILLINOIS. 



>. fillgeld. 




)HN P. ALTGELD, the present 
||j Governor of Illinois, is a native 
|pw of Prussia, born in 1848. Shortly 
after his birth his parents emi- 
grated to America, locating on 
a farm near Mansfield, Ohio. 
When but a mere lad, young 
Altgeld had to walk from the 
farm to Mansfield with butter, 
eggs and garden produce, which 
he peddled from house to house. 
About 1856, his parents moved 
to the city of Mansfield, and for 
a time our subject was engaged 
morning and evening in driv- 
ing cattle to and from the pas- 
ture, a distance of eight miles. When fourteen 
years of age he hired out as a farm hand, and con- 
tinued in that avocation the greater part of his 
time until he was sixteen years of age, when he 
enlisted in Company C, One Hundred and Sixty- 
fourth Ohio Infantry, and served until the close of 
the war. On being mustered in, the regiment was 
sent to Washington and was actively engaged in 
the various campaigns in and around that city 
until the surrender of Lee. In the fall of 1864, 
young Altgeld was taken sick, while with his regi- 
ment in the front, and the surgeon desired to send 
him to a hospital hi Washington; but he asked to 



be allowed to remain with the regiment, and soon 
recovering from his sickness was actively engaged 
until the close of the war. He was mustered out 
at Columbus, Ohio, in the spring of 1865. The 
succeeding summer he worked with his father on 
a farm, during which time he became connected 
with the Sunday-school and was given charge )! 
the Bible class. Before entering the army he had 
but very limited educational advantages, having 
attended school but a part of two summers and 
one winter. He had at home, however, studied 
the German language and had become familiar 
with some German authors. Determining to fit 
himself for a useful life, he resolved to attend a 
select school at Lexington, Ohio, and in a little 
eight-by-ten room, meagrely furnished, he kept 
"bachelor's hall," and in time was so far advanced 
that he secured a certificate as teacher, and for 
two years was engaged in that profession. At the 
end of that time he left home and traveled exten- 
sively over the country, working at odd jobs, un- 
til he finally reached Savannah, Mo., where he en- 
tered a law office, and in 1870 was admitted to the 
Bar. In the fall of 1872, he ran as Prosecuting 
Attorney for Andrews County, Mo., and was de- 
feated by four votes. He ran again in 1874 and 
was elected. But life in the small town of Savan- 
nah was a little too monotonous for him, and he 
determined to locate in Chicago. In October, 



JOHN P. ALTOELD. 



1875, lie resigned the office of Prosecuting Attor- 
ney, moved to Chicago, and at once commenced 
the practice of law. For some years after he had 
but little to do with politics, confining himself to 
his piactice and dealing in real estate. One year 
after his arrival in Chicago he found himself with- 
out a dollar, and in debt some $400. By a streak of 
good luck, as it might be termed, he won a case in 
court, from which he received a fee of $900, and 
after paying his debt he had $500 left, which he 
invested in real estate. This venture proved a 
successful one, and from that time on the profits 
of one transaction were invested in others, and 
to-day he is numbered among the millionaire resi- 
dents of the great metropolis of the West. 

In 1884, Mr. Altgeld was nominated for Con- 
gress, but was defeated by three thousand votes. 
In 1886, he was nominated and elected Judge of 
the Superior Court of Cook County. His services 
as Judge were such as to commend him to the peo- 
ple. Early in the year 1892, by the solicitation of 



many friends, he announced himself as a candi- 
date for Governor. At the convention held 
April 27, he received the nomination and at once 
entered upon an active canvass. Alone, he traveled 
all over the entire State, and visited and consulted 
with the leading politicians of every section. He 
made few public speeches, however, until near the 
close of the campaign, but it was very evident that 
he was master of the situation at all times. When 
the votes were counted at the close of election 
day, it was found that he had a majority of the 
votes, and' so became the first Democratic Governor 
of Illinois since 1856. 

Born in poverty, alone, single-handed and un- 
aided, he faced the world, and with a determina- 
tion to succeed, he pressed forward, until to-day he 
has a National reputation, and is the envied of 
many. The lesson of his life is worthy of careful 
study by the young, and shows what can be done 
by one who has the desire in his heart to attain a 
front rank among the noted men of the country. 




Clinton, Washington, rtarion 

and Jefferson Counties, 



f ILLINOIS. 



INTRODUCTORY 





E time has arrived when it 
becomes the duty of the 
people of this county to per- 
petuate the names of their 
pioneers, to furnish a record 
of their early settlement, 
and relate the story of their 
progress. The civilization of our 
day, the enlightenment of the age 
and the duty that men of the pres- 
ent time owe to their ancestors, to 
themselves and to their posterity, 
demand that a record of their lives 
and deeds should be made. In bio- 
graphical history is found a power 
to instruct man by precedent, to 
enliven the mental faculties, and 
to waft down the river of time a 
safe vessel in which the names and actions of the 
people who contributed to raise this country from its 
primitive state may be preserved. Surely and rapidly 
the great and aged men, who in their prime entered 
the wilderness and claimed the virgin soil as their 
heritage, are passing to their graves. The number re- 
maining who can relate the incidents of the first days 
jf settlement is becoming small indeed, so that an 
actual necessity exists for the collection and preser- 
vation of events without delay, before all the early 
settlers are cut down by the scythe of Time. 

To be forgotten has been the great dread of mankind 
from remotest ages. All will be forgotten soon enough, 
in spite of their best works and the most earnest 
efforts of their friends to perserve the memory of 
their lives. The means employed to prevent oblivion 
and to perpetuate their memory has been in propor- 
tion *o the amount of intelligence they possessed. 
Thi pyramids of Egypt were built to perpetuate the 
names and deeds of their great rulers. The exhu- 
mations made by the archeologists of Egypt from 
buried Memphis indicate a desire of those people 



to perpetuate the memory of their achievements 
The erection of the great obelisks were for the same 
purpose. Coming down to a later period, we find the 
Greeks and Romans erecting mausoleums and monu- 
ments, and carving out statues to chronicle theii 
great achievements and carry them down the ages. 
It is also evident that the Mound-builders, in piling 
up their great mounds of earth, had but this idea 
to leave something to show that they had lived. All 
these works, though many of them costly in the ex- 
treme, give but a faint idea of the lives and charac- 
ters of those whose memory they were intended to 
perpetuate, and scarcely anything of the masses of 
the people that then lived. The great pyramids and 
some of the obelisks remain objects only of curiosiiy; 
the mausoleums, monuments and statues are crum- 
bling into dust. 

It was left to modern ages to establish an intelli- 
gent, undecaying, immutable method of perpetuating 
a full history immutable in that it is almost un- 
limited in extent and perpetual in its action ; and 
this is through the art of printing. 

To the present generation, however, we are in- 
debted for the introduction of the admirable system 
of local biography. By this system every man, thougl 
he has not achieved what the world calls greatness, 
has the means to perpetuate his life, his histoiy, 
through the coming ages. 

The scythe of Time cuts down all ; nothing of the 
physical man is left. The monument which his chil- 
dren or friends may erect to his memory in the ceme. 
tery will crumble into dust and pass away; but his 
life, his achievements, the work he has accomplished, 
which otherwise would be forgotten, is perpetuated 
by a record of this kind. 

To preserve the lineaments of our companions we 
engrave their portraits, for the same reason we col- 
lect the attainable facts of their history. Nor do we 
think it necessary, as we speak only truth of them, to 
wait until they are dead or until ihose who know 
them are gone: -to do this we are ash.imed only to 
publish t> the woild the history of those whose live? 
are unwcnhy of public record. 




BIOGRAPHICAL. 




ipssa AMUEL L. DWIGHT. The record of the 
^j eminent men of Illinois, perpetuated for 
lvLH 8 enera tions yet to come, will contain 
among its galaxy of legal luminaries the 
name of S. L. Dwight, of Centralia, who both at 
the Bar and in the legislative halls has won a 
prominence and success justly merited. In his 
life he has furnished an illustration of what per- 
sistent industry and studious application will do 
for a man in securing his success, for the exercise 
of these qualities has been the potent factor in 
raising him from poverty to prosperity, and from 
a position of obscurity to one of prominence. 

In every duty, whether of public or private 
life, Mr. Dwight has been faithful. When the 
dark clouds of the Rebellion overshadowed the 
nation, he was one of the boys in blue who volun- 
teered in the defense of the Union. Such was his 
ability that he arose through successive promo- 
tions from private to Captain and aid-de-camp, 
and when, the war ended, he resigned official com- 
mand to resume the duties of civic life, he carried 
with him the esteem of his soldiers and the regard 
of every patriotic citizen to whom his valor was 
known. 

The subject of this sketch is of distinguished 
lineage and is the grandson on his mother's side 
of the illustrious Zadock Casey, at one time State 
Senator, also Lieutenant-Governor of Illinois, and 
for about twelve years a Member of Congress. 
Born in Georgia of Irish descent. Governor Casey 
was in early life a minister in the Methodist 
Church, but after coming west he engaged in 
farming and became the owner of large and valu- 
able tracts of land. Later he was interested in 
mining at Casey ville, St. Clair County. With the 
public life of the state his name is indissolubly 



connected, and for years he was Jefferson County's 
most prominent citizen. 

Governor Casey and his wife, who bore the 
maiden name of Rachel King and was born in Ten- 
nessee, became the parents of seven children, all of 
whom attained mature years, while three of them 
are now living. Samuel K., who was a successful 
lawyer and a member of the State Senate, had the 
contract for the building of the Joliet State Prison, 
and was in other ways prominently connected 
with public affairs until his death at Mt. Vernon. 
Hiram died in Texas when a young man. Ma- 
hala P., our subject's mother, died in 1841. Dr. 
N. R. is engaged in the practice of medicine at 
Mound City, 111. Judge Thomas S., an influential 
attorney, served as State's Attorney of Jefferson 
County, also as a member of the State Legislature, 
and afterward on the Circuit and Appellate Benches 
of Illinois; his death occurred in Springfield. Dr. 
John R., the youngest member of the family, is 
now a physician and surgeon of Joliet, 111. 

The father of our subject was born and reared 
in Massachusetts, and as a child displayed the 
possession of a high order of ability. When only 
eight years of age he could read Latin, and in his 
other studies was equally in advance of others of 
his age. Entering Yale College, he conducted his 
studies in that institution until graduating there- 
from. In an early day he came to Illinois, accept- 
ing the position of Principal of the Mt. Vernon 
schools, and while there he married Miss Mahala 
P. Casey. They settled in Mt. Vernon, where on 
the 15th of March, 1841, the subject of this 
sketch was born, and where soon afterward his 
mother died. 

After the death of his mother, Mr. Dwight was 
reared in the home of Governor Casey and ac- 



204 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



quired his early education in the public schools 
of Mt. Vernon. The information there gained 
was supplemented by attendance in McKendree 
College, at Lebanon, and in a private school at 
Mt. Vernon. In 1860 lie commenced to read law 
in the office of Tanner & Casey, and while pursu- 
ing his studies the war broke out. Prompted by 
patriotic impulses, he entered the service of his 
country, enlisting in 1863 as a private in Com- 
pany I, Sixtieth Illinois Infantry. From the ranks 
he was promoted to be First Lieutenant and Cap- 
tain, and later became aide-de-camp on the staff 
of General Vanderver, in which position he con- 
tinued until he took command of his old com- 
pany. He was mustered out in July, 1865, and 
after participating in the Grand Review at Wash- 
ington was sent to Louisville, Ky., thence to 
Springfield, III., where the regiment was disbanded 
in August. He took part in the battles of Rocky 
Face and Kenesaw Mountains, the Atlanta Cam- 
paign, the march to the sea, the Carolina campaign 
and the engagement at Goldsboro. 

When his country no longer needed his services, 
Captain Dwight returned to Mt. Vernon, and in 
July, 1866, came to Centralia, where he completed 
his legal studies. For a time he wag a student in 
the law school at Benton, 111., and in 1869 was 
admitted to the Bar. lie then formed a partner- 
ship with Louis F. Case} 1 , which continued until 
the death of the latter, in May, 1892. Mr. Casey 
was an able lawyer and served as a member of 
the Legislature of Illinois. Subsequently remov- 
ing to Texas, he was there State's Attorney for 
several years and a member of the Texas State 
Senate. At the close of the war he returned to 
Illinois, and in May, 1866, settled in Centralia, 
where he continued the practice of law until his 
demise. 

On the 4th of September, 1872, Mr. Dwight 
was united in marriage with Miss M. Irene, daugh- 
ter of Capt. R. D. Noleman. This lady was born 
in Jefferson County, 111., and received an excel- 
lent education in Jacksonville. Socially, Mr. 
Dwight is connected with the Grand Army of the 
Republic, and served as Commander of the post 
for two years. He is also a member of the Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows, and is identified 



with the Knights of Pythias. He and his wife 
are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
and are prominent people of the community, oc- 
cupying a leading position in social circles. 

In politics a Democrat, Mr. Dwight has been 
an active worker in the interests of that party for 
many years. Frequently he has been a delegate 
to the state conventions, and has also been a 
member of the State Democratic Central Commit- 
tee. He represented his district in the Twenty- 
seventh General Assembly, and has held various 
other positions of honor and trust. As an influ- 
ential member of the Democracy he is known 
throughout the state. He is an able advocate, a 
logical reasoner, possessing keen perceptive powers 
and acute discrimination, and among Centralia 's 
attorneys none is more successful than he. 



JUDGE WILLIAM STOKER, the Nestor of 
the Bar of this county, who is now suc- 
cessfully engaged in practice in Centralia, 
was born in Montgomery County, Ohio, on 
the 10th of November, 1822, and is a son of Isaac 
Stoker, a native of Virginia. The great-grandfa- 
ther, Balzer Stoker, was born on the Rhine in Ger- 
many, and crossing the Atlantic, became the 
founder of the family in America. He first located 
in Baltimore, Md., but afterward engaged in farm- 
ing near Harper's Ferry, Va. His son John, the 
grandfather of our subject, was reared in Virginia, 
and educated at Annapolis, Md. He followed 
milling and farming and was also a Methodist 
preacher. During the Revolution he was one of 
the valiant defenders of the Colonies, and held 
the rank of Lieutenant. His wife, who bore the 
iiiaiden name of Elizabeth Critten, was also a na- 
tive of Virginia. 

The father of our subject was reared on the old 
homestead and in 1811 accompanied his parents to 
Montgomery County, Ohio, the family becoming 
pioneers of that locality. lie- there married Mas- 
sey Fryback, daughter of John Fryback, who was 
a native of Virginia, and who in 1809 became one 
of the pioneers of Montgomery County, Ohio. 
There he entered land from the Government, and 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



205 



to this he added until he became one of the 
most extensive land holders of the locality. Isaac 
Stoker and his wife began their domestic life 
in Ohio, where they resided until 1838, and then 
removed to Washington County, 111. There the 
father entered a tract of prairie and timber 
land from the Government, and upon the farm 
which he developed made his home until his 
death, which occurred in August, 1847. His 
wife passed away January 11, 1864. During 
the Mexican War, he served as a member of the 
Sixth Illinois Infantry under Capt. James Burns. 
He was a successful agriculturist, carrying on gen- 
eral farming and stock-raising, and ere his death 
became the owner of eleven hundred acres of land. 
His wife was a member of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, and was a sincere Christian woman. 
All of their five children grew to mature years 
and two are yet living, our subject and Mrs. Har- 
riet A. Le Compte, a widow living in Nashville. 
Nancy was the wife of John O. Hornet, who was 
killed by the explosion of a cannon after his re- 
turn from the Mexican War. She then married 
William Kingston, who is also now deceased. 
Jacob, a farmer of Washington County, 111., died 
in 1854, and John H., a stock-dealer, who served 
in the late war, died in 1879. 

Mr. Stoker of this sketch was in his sixteenth 
year when he came to Illinois. He was educated 
near Dayton, Ohio, attending the old subscription 
schools. He remained on the old home farm until 
twentj' years of age, and then read law with Ben- 
jamin Bond, a noted attorney of the Third Judi- 
cial Circuit, located in Carlyle, 111. September 11, 

1844, in Nashville, he was admitted to the Bar un- 
der Judge James Shields, afterward General 
Shields, who served as United States Senator from 
three different states. At that time the Circuit 
Judges constituted the Supreme Court of the state. 
After his admission to the Bar Mr. Stoker began 
practice in Nashville, where he remained until 

1845, when he went to Salem. Soon afterward, 
however, he was forced to suspend his labors for 
nine months on account of trouble with his eyes. 

In May, 1846, Mr. Stoker enlisted in Company 
A, Second Illinois Infantry, under Col. W. A. Bis- 
sel and Capt. E. C. Coffey. He was engaged in 



detail service but took part in the battle of Buena 
Vista, and was mustered out June 18, 1847. He 
then engaged in law practice in Louisville, Clay 
County, 111., where he engaged from 1848 until 
1854, when he came to Centralia. Since that time 
he has been one of the prominent attorneys of 
that place and has done an extensive law business. 

Mr. Stoker was married June 27, 1849, to Miss 
Martha Ann, daughter of Peter Green, who was 
born and reared in Kentucky, and then removed to 
Indiana, where he remained until 1832. After his 
marriage Dr. Green went to Clay County, 111., 
where he engaged in the practice of medicine un- 
til his death, in 1869. He was one of the pioneer 
physicians of that county. His family numbered 
ten children, of whom Mrs. Stoker is the fifth in 
order of birth. To our subject and his wife have 
been born three children. Eugene Lc Compte, a 
member of the law firm of Whitehead & Stoker, 
located at 728 Chicago Opera House Block, Chi- 
cago, is a very successful attorney. While in Ma- 
rion County he served as State's Attorney, was City 
Clerk and City Attorney, and was one of the or- 
ganizers of the Centralia Building and Loan As- 
sociation. He has also served as a member of the 
State Legislature. Harriet H. E. is the wife of Dr. 
W. Scott Marshall, a successful physician of Chi- 
cago. W. A. is a graduate of the Ohio Medical 
College of Cincinnati, and is now engaged in 
practice in Centralia. 

In politics Judge Stoker has been a stalwart 
Republican since 1860, previous to which time he 
was a Whig. He has been a very active and 
prominent member of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church since 1855, when he aided in its organiza- 
tion. For many years he has served as one of its 
Trustees, is also one of the Trustees of McKendree 
College, at Lebanon, and was a representative from 
the Southern Illinois Conference to the General 
Conference of the Methodist Church in 1872. He 
is a mejnber of the Mexican Veterans' Association 
of Illinois, which he joined during the second year 
of its existence. In connection with his other 
business interests he is one of the Directors and 
stockholders of the Exchange Bank of Centralia, 
and was one of its organizers. In the legal profes- 
sion he has won a well merited success, having 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



steadily worked his way upward to a position of 
prominence among his professional brethren. He 
is one of the honored pioneers of the community, 
few having longer resided in Centralia, and it is 
therefore with pleasure that we present his sketch 
to our readers. 



eAPT. JAMES CREED, of Walnut Hill, is 
recognized as one of the leading fruit grow- 
ers of Marion County. For many years he 
has been connected with this enterprise and has 
won a high degree of success in the undertaking. 
As he is widely and favorably -known in this com- 
munity we feel assured that a record of his life 
will prove of interest to many of our readers. The 
Captain is a native of Texas, but was reared in 
Rutherford County, Tenn., and in 1844 came to 
southern Illinois, locating in what is now Saline 
County. The region was then but sparsely settled, 
wild game of all kinds was found in abundance 
and much of the land was still in the possession of 
the Government. 

Captain Creed's parents were natives of South 
Carolina, and were of English and French descent, 
respectively. His father, Robert Creed, went to 
Texas and served in Captain Anderson's Company 
under Gen. Samuel Houston, in the war which oc- 
curred in the establishment of the state's indepen- 
dence. The maternal grandfather of our subject, 
David Reed, was one of the heroes of the Revolu- 
tion, but would never accept the pension tendered 
to the soldiers of that war. He reached the age 
of one hundred years. 

The 'family was represented in the Mexican 
War by our subject, who in June, 1846, enlisted 
in the Third Illinois Regiment, serving for twelve 
months. He saw some hard service, took part in 
the bombardment of Vera Cruz, and later went to 
Cerro Gordo Pass, participating in the engage- 
ment at that place, where General Shields was in 
command. About 1876 Mr. Creed saw the Gen- 
eral in Centralia, and they had a pleasant conver- 
sation concerning the events of the campaign. 

After his return home thn Captain was married, 
in 1848, to Miss Stacy J. Randolph, a descendant of 



one of the signers of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence. Six children were born to them, who grew to 
mature years. Nancy E., who was educated in the 
Southern Illinois Normal at Carbondale, and suc- 
cessfully engaged in teaching for ten years; James 
H., a resident farmer of Marion County; Scott; S. 
Angaline, wife of Charles E. Jennings, of Wash- 
ington; Mathias W. nnd Edith, wife of Charles P. 
Root, a teacher of this county. 

During the Civil War Captain Creed was again 
found as one of the defenders of the country. He 
aided in organizing Company K, of the Seventy- 
first Regiment of Illinois, and was unanimously 
elected its Captain. With his troops he was 
largely engaged in guarding the bridge at Big 
Muddy River, and for about two years was ac- 
tively engaged in raising recruits for the army. In 
1865 he came to the farm on which he now re- 
sides, and has since been engaged in general farm- 
ing and fruitgrowing. He has developed and im- 
proved a farm of four hundred acres, has about 
one hundred acres planted in apples, and is also 
considered one of the most successful peach grow- 
ers of this region. His farm is one of the valua- 
ble ones of the county, and upon it he has erected 
a beautiful brick residence, a fine country home. 
His wife was called to the home beyond in 1885, 
and her loss was mourned by many friends. She 
was a member of the United Baptist Church of 
Centralia, to which the Captain also belongs. He 
is likewise connected with the Grand Army post 
of Walnut Hill. 

In Captain Creed we see one of the founders of 
the Farmers' Grange. He was a member of the 
first farmers' club ever held. This was established 
in a lyceum of Walnut Hill, of which he was a 
member, and from this club sprang the Grange 
which has become a wide-spread organization. He 
is probably the only surviving member of the origi- 
nal club. He has traveled all over the state organ- 
izing Granges and has been the most prominent 
member of the society. Since the war the Captain 
has been identified with no political organization, 
but holds himself free to support the man whom 
he thinks best qualified for the oflice. A pleasant, 
genial gentleman, he has the high regard of all, 
and in the community in which he has so long re- 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



207 



sided is recognized as one of its honored citizens. 
He was a candidate for Congress on the Green- 
back ticket, his opponents being A. J, Sparks, of 
Carlyle, and B. B. Smith, of Salem. He was nom- 
inated by the Labor party for State Senator, and 
indorsed by the Republicans, and at one time was 
a candidate for the Legislature, running indepen- 
dent. 



BAUGH. It is always a pleasure 
to see persevering industry crowned with 
success, and to find those well advanced in 
years able to retire from the toils of life and spend 
their declining years in comfort and repose. A 
goodly number of the citizens of Marion County 
have met with success in their worldly affairs and 
thus have no fears for the future. Among this 
number is George Baugh^whccis now retired and 
who is one of its most prosperous citizens. He is 
now living in Centralia, and being a general fa- 
vorite, his friends will be well pleased to read this 
sketch of his life. 

Our subject was born in Germany November 6, 
1815, and is the son of George and Catherine 
Baugli, also natives of the Fatherland, where the 
former was a weaver by trade. Three years after 
his birth the parents crossed the Atlantic and lo- 
cated in Maryland, where the mother died shortly 
after coming here, and the father lived only about 
two years when he too passed away. The parental 
family included four children, only two of whom, 
our subject and Henry, are living. The latter 
makes his home near Springfield, this state. 

George Baugh of this sketch was reared to 
manhood in Washington County, Md., where he 
learned the miller's trade, which he followed there 
until reaching his twenty-third 3 r ear. Six months 
later he came to Ogle County, this state, and spent 
the succeeding three years in operating a mill near 
Mt. Morris. He then went to Lee County and for 
six years operated a mill there. 

While residing in Lee County, Mr. Baugh was 
married, January 13, 1851, to Miss Catherine Em- 
mert, the daughter of Joseph Emmert, a minister 
of the Dunkard Church in that county. Mr. Em- 
mert was of German descent and an old resident 



of that locality. Mrs. Catherine Baugh was born 
in Washington County, Md., June 6, 1822. 

In 1865 Mr. and Mrs. Baugh came to Marion 
County, where our subject purchased land, which 
he rented. In 1866 he moved into the city and 
has since led a retired life. His union with Miss 
Emmert resulted in the birth of five children, all 
of whom are living, with one exception. Mary 
Alice is the wife of Harry Prather, and they live 
in St. Paul, Minn., where Mr. Prather is engaged 
in the grocery business; Dora Catherine is at home; 
Melinda married William Fowler, who is a grocer 
in Eau Clare, Wis.; and Ida is at home. Susanah 
is deceased. Miss Dora is a very fine artist, and 
for some time has been engaged in teaching paint- 
ing. 

Mr. Baugh owns a very fine home in Centralia, 
which comprises seven acres of land adorned with 
a handsome residence, bearing all the modern im- 
provements and furnished in an elegant manner. 
The property in Lee County which he formerly 
owned included two hundred and twenty acres of 
fine farming land, and in Alma Township, Marion 
County, he is the possessor of a quarter-section 
which he rents. 

In politics our subject is a strong Democrat, and 
while he never aspires to any political office, he is 
interested in matters of public interest and is 
prominent in local affairs. With his family he oc- 
cupies a high social position in the city and en- 
joys the confidence of his many friends. 



. KELL, who is now extensively engaged 
in farming, stock-raising and fruit grow- 
ing on section 9, Grand Prairie Township, 
Jefferson County, is recognized as one of the val- 
ued and leading citizens of the community. He is 
a representative of one of the early families of the 
county and was born April 24, 1859, on the same 
section where he now lives. His father, James 
Kell, removed with the family to Walnut Hill in 
1860, and there purchased and operated a saw- 
mill. At that place our subject spent his early 
boyhood days, and at the age of seven he entered 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



school. His education was acquired during the 
winter season, while in the summer months he 
worked at home. When a youth of fourteen 
years, he became a member of the Walnut Hill 
Cornet Band, and in one year's time had become 
an expert and skilled performer on the E flat cor- 
net. When this organization was disbanded, he 
became a leader and instructor of other bands. 
His love of music has not only afforded him much 
pleasure, but has been a source of enjoyment to 
others. 

In 1879 our subject formed a partnership with 
his brother, D. B. Kell, in the general merchan- 
dising business at Walnut Hill, and under the 
firm name of D. B. Kell & Bro. they continued 
operations until December, 1882, when he with- 
drew from the firm. He then purchased a large 
farm of two hundred and eighty acres on section 
9, Grand Prairie Township, and in 1884 began the 
improvement of the same by erecting a very large 
barn. A short time afterward his barn was de- 
stroyed by fire, but with characteristic energy he 
rebuilt it in 1885. In 1888 he erected his commo- 
dious residence at a cost of $2,000. His outbuild- 
ings are all models of convenience, and the neat 
appearance of the place indicates the thrift and 
enterprise of the owner. In connection with gen- 
eral farming, he deals extensively in horses and 
mules, and is also interested in fruit growing. He 
now has upon his farm two thousand apple trees, 
one thousand peach trees and two hundred pear 
trees. 

On attaining his majority, Mr. Kell married 
Miss Sarah E., daughter of F. R. Foust, a wealthy 
fruit grower, their wedding being celebrated Jan- 
uary 13, 1881. Their family numbered seven chil- 
dren: Clara M., born May 25, 1882; James R., 
Novembei-5, 1883; William T.,May 5, 1886; Fred 
and Frank (twins), January 27, 1888, the latter of 
whom died September 30, of that year; Dornton 
A., born August 3, 1889; and Cecil, May 21, 1892. 

The cause of education finds in Mr. Kell a 
warm friend, and he has served as School Director 
for several years. He was elected Supervisor of 
his township at the spring election of 1888, was 
again elected in 1890, and the third time in 1892. 
In 1893 he was chosen Chairman of the Board of 



Supervisors, having the honor of being the young- 
est and at the same time the only Republican who 
ever served as Chairman. He is a warm advo- 
cate of Republican principles and takes an active 
interest in the success and growth of his party. 
He is recognized as a public-spirited and progress- 
ive citizen, who takes pleasure in the upbuilding 
of the county. 



JOHN ROBERTSON, a retired farmer resid- 
ing in Centralia, was born in Tecumseh, 
Lena wee County, Mich., February 20, 1834, 
and is a son of John C. Robertson, a native 
of New Jersey. The grandfather, David Robertson, 
was also a native of that state. The mother of our 
subject bore the maiden name of Matilda Goheen, 
was the youngest of a family of eight children, and 
was born and reared in Livingston County, N. Y. 
About two years after their marriage, they located 
in Lenawee County, Mich., where some time pre- 
vious the father of our subject had entered land 
from the Government. There were only eleven 
families in the county at the time, and the Robert- 
sons, like the others, lived in true pioneer style. 
They lived on the Indian trail between Detroit 
and the west, and the red men were seen in 
the neighborhood in great numbers. Bears and 
wolves were frequently shot, and deer and other 
wild game could be secured in abundance. J. C. 
Robertson made a home in Michigan, but after- 
ward removed to La Grange County, Ind., becom- 
ing one of its honored pioneers. Subsequently he 
bought a farm in Hillsdale County, Mich., and 
carried on a store in the town of Hillsdale for 
about three years. The succeeding three years of 
his life were spent upon a farm in Steuben County, 
Ind., after which he lived with his son in Hillsdale 
until his death, which occurred in 1884. His wife 
passed away in 1864. 

In the Robertson family were twelve children, 
all of whom grew to mature years, while seven j'et 
abide. Charles G., who for twenty-three years en- 
gaged in school teaching in Hillsdale, Mich., now 
follows farming in that locality; John is the next 
younger; Harriet is the widow of O. II. Jewett, of 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



Toledo, Ohio; Cyrus is ex-Postmaster of Pleasant 
Lake, Ind.; Frances Helen is the wife of Mr. Kelly, 
a farmer of Reading, Mich.; Arthur is a farmer of 
Hillsdale; Agnes Matilda is the wife of Marshall 
II. Weber, a prominent attorne}' of Winona,Minn. 
The father was a Whig in politics until the organ- 
ization of the Republican party, when he became 
one of its stanch supporters. Both he and his wife 
were faithful members of the Presbyterian Church. 
Born in a pioneer home, John Robertson was 
reared amid the wild scenes of the frontier, both 
in Michigan and in Indiana. He has shared in the 
hardships and trials of such a life, and has aided 
in the arduous task of developing a new farm. He 
was married in 1858 to Eliza Barkley, daughter of 
Robert Barkley, a farmer and * minister of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. They became the par- 
ents of two children, Arthur W., who is engaged 
in farming in Centralia Township, Marion County, 
and Amy Matilda, wife of John M. Martin, a far- 
mer of the same community. The mother died 
May 6, 1861, and in May, 1862, Mr. Robertson 
was married to -Mrs. Melissa Norris, widow of J. 
B. Norris, of Hillsdale County, Mich., and a daugh- 
ter of Virgil Gould. Her father was a native of 
AVatertown,N. Y., and Mrs. Robertson was married 
in Hillsdale, Mich., where she resided. 
' In 1858, Mr. Robertson located in Reading, Mich., 
but after two years removed to Allen, Mich., where 
he remained until 1866. In the spring of that 
year he came to Marion County, 111., and pur- 
chased forty acres of land on section 13, Centralia 
Township. To this he added until he owned one 
hundred and twenty acres. He was successfully 
engaged in general farming, stock-raising and 
in fruit growing, and was thus employed until 
December 9, 1890, when he came to Centralia, 
where he has since made his home. All of the im- 
provements upon his farm were placed there by 
himself, and his labors made it one of the valuable 
and desirable country homes of the neighborhood. 
Mr. Robertson has ever taken an active interest 
in the cause of education, and for twelve years en- 
gaged in teaching through the winter season. He 
is now serving his second term as a member of the 
Board of Education in Centralia. He has also been 
Commissioner of the township, and is now Town- 



ship Supervisor. In politics he is a stalwart Re- 
publican, and is a member of the Farmers' Protec- 
tive Association of Marion County. From an hum- 
ble position he has steadily worked his way upward 
to one of affluence, and he is now living retired in 
the enjoyment of the fruits of his former toil. 



GILLESPIE B. WELDEN occupies the re- 
sponsible position of postal clerk of the 
Illinois Central Railroad, running between 
Chicago and Centralia, in which latter place he 
makes his home. He was born in Bradford County, 
Pa., December 4, 1839, and is the son of Matthew 
W. Welden, also a native of the Keystone State. 

The father of our subject was reared and mar- 
ried in his native place, his wife bearing the 
maiden name of Lydia A. Camp. Matthew W. 
was a farmer in Pennsylvania, where he resided 
until 1849, the winter seasons being occupied in 
lumbering. Thinking to better his condition in 
this then far western county, he came with his 
family to Illinois and located in Lee County, 
where he lived until 1857, and then removed to 
Du Quoin. In the last-named place he was en- 
gaged in farming and stock-raising until his death, 
in 1872. 

Gillespie B. was a lad of nine years when his 
parents came to Illinois, and in Lee Count}' his 
education was conducted in the common schools. 
On the outbreak of the Civil War, in April, 1861, 
he enlisted as a member of Company G, Twelfth 
Illinois Infantry, at a time when the first call was 
made for seventy-five thousand volunteers. He 
only enlisted for three months, and on the expira- 
tion of that time again entered the ranks of the 
same company, this time fora period of three years. 
He participated in many hard-fought battles of 
the war, being present before Ft. Donelson, Ft. 
Henry, Shiloh and Corinth. At Shiloh he was se- 
verely wounded and was thus disabled from active 
service for about three months. Again at Corinth 
he received a slight wound. 

Mr. Welden was mustered out of service at 
Chattanooga, Term., August 1,1864, and return- 
ing to Illinois, located at Cairo, where he was 



210 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



given employment in the postoftice. Later he en- 
tered the railway postal service, which line of 
business he has continued to follow ever since, 
with the exception of the year 1868, when he was 
removed by President Johnson. His first route 
lay between Cairo and Centralia, between which 
points Mr. Welden traveled until 1890, when his 
"run" was changed to Chicago and Centralia. 

Our subject was united in marriage January 6, 
1867, to Miss Delia E. Middleton, and of their 
union were born two children: Alfredda, now Mrs. 
Edward P. McFarland, residing in Centralia, and 
Matie. lu politics Mr. Welden is a strong Re- 
publican. He is the oldest postal clerk in the 
employ of the Government on the Illinois Central 
Railroad, and in Centralia, where he has made his 
home for nearly thirty years, he is widely and 
favorably known. Socially, he is a Grand Army 
man, and in religious matters worships with the 
Methodist Episcopal congregation at this place. 

Mrs. G. B. Welden is the daughter of Watson J. 
Middleton, a native of Tennessee and the son of 
William Middleton. In an early day, her father 
came with his parents to luka Township, Marion 
County, where he grew to manhood and was 
married to Miss Mary McGuire, also a native of 
Tennessee. Grandfather William Middleton was 
a prominent man in his locality and a soldier in 
the War of 1812. 



HOMAS B. MOORE, a successful farmer re- 
siding in section 2, Grand Prairie Town- 
ship, Jefferson County, was born on the 
27th of March, 1820, in Ohio. His father, Oliver 
Moore, was of Irish descent, and for many years 
resided in Philadelphia, where he worked at the 
blacksmith's trade. In an early day he emigrated 
to Clermont County, Ohio, and in 1827 he moved 
to Cincinnati. 

Our subject was one of nine children of the 
family. His educational privileges were limited, 
and at the age of eighteen he began learning the 
baker's trade, serving an apprenticeship of a year 
and a-half in Cincinnati. Not liking this work, 
however, he sought and obtained a situation in a 



machine shop, and was employed on the building 
of engines for about a year. He then removed to 
Jeffersonville, Ind., where he worked in a factory, 
making edged tools. He served a two years' ap- 
prenticeship to that business and then went to 
Clark County, Ind., where he was engaged in oper- 
ating a sawmill for a year. During this time he 
became acquainted with Edmond Beadles and his 
family, who were preparing to emigrate to Illinois, 
and he was induced to join them. At about sun- 
rise on the morning of November 5, 1840, the 
party started, and after a journey of four weeks 
reached their destination, on the 5th of December, 
and located on section 10, Grand Prairie Town- 
ship. 

The acquaintance thus formed between Mr. 
Moore and Miss Olivia Beadles, sister of Richard 
Beadles, was followed by marriage in February, 
1842, the wedding ceremony being performed by 
John Breeze, Justice of the Peace. To this worthy 
couple were born thirteen children, eight of whom 
are still living, Margaret, wife of J. R. Gardner, a 
successful farmer of Shiloh Township, Jefferson 
County; Azelia, wife of R. B. Hubbard, a prosper- 
ous farmer of Dahlgrecn, 111.; Luana, wife of Sam- 
uel Copple, an agriculturist of Grand Prairie 
Township; Oliver, who wedded Mary Root and 
owns and manages a large fruit farm; Edgar, who 
is now living in Colorado; Thomas B., Jr., a suc- 
cessful farmer, who married Mattie Dobbs, who died 
November 8, 1885; William Tell, who married Alma 
Garrett and is engaged in farming in Dix, 111.; 
and Susan, wife of F. M. Corners, a successful fruit 
grower. The mother of this family was born No- 
vember 4, 1825, and was a devout Christian lady, 
who for many years held membership with the 
Methodist Church. She was an earnest worker in 
the church, and the suffering and needy found in 
her a friend. She passed away December 29, 1893, 
and her loss was mourned not only by her family, 
but by all who knew her. 

After his marriage, Mr. Moore located on a farm 
on section 16, Grand Prairie Township, and build- 
ing a smithy, worked at the blacksmith's trade un- 
til 1844. He then removed to section 14, built a 
residence upon his land, and for a year engaged 
in the operation of a sawmill, which he built for 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



211 



R. D. Noleman. On the expiration of that period 
he located one hundred and sixty acres of land on 
section 11, Grand Prairie Township, securing the 
same through a land warrant, which he had pur- 
chased of a soldier of the Mexican War. With 
characteristic energy he began to clear and im- 
prove his farm, and placed the entire amount un- 
der a high state of cultivation. There he made his 
home for eighteen years, or until 1868, after which 
he purchased fifty-six acres on section 2 of the 
same township. Here he has since made his home, 
being comfortably situated amidst pleasant sur- 
roundings. For thirty-seven years he served as 
Justice of the Peace, and no more capable officer 
ever held that position. He gave five-eighths of 
an acre of land on which to erect a house of wor- 
ship. In politics he is a Republican, and during 
the war he was a zealous member of the Union 
League. He is a prominent and representative 
citizen, and has done much to improve this part of 
the county. 



JAMES ADAMS, who is the proprietor of a 
meat market in Centralia, began business 
along this line in 1888, and has worked up 
a good trade, which he well deserves. He 
has the honor of being a native of Illinois, his 
birth having occurred in Washington County Jan- 
uary 4, 1837. His parents were David and Cath- 
erine (McCrossen) Adams. The father was a na- 
tive of Ireland, and on emigrating to America 
located in Philadelphia, where he married Miss 
McCrossen, a native of that city. In 1835 he re- 
moved to Washington County, 111., becoming one 
of its pioneers, and entered land from the Gov- 
ernment six miles north of Nashville. Not a fur- 
row had been turned or an improvement made 
upon the place, but he at once began transforming 
the wild prairie into rich and fertile fields. In 
1848 he went to New Orleans, where he died of 
yellow fever, but his widow is still living in 
Nashville, 111. She is a member of the Baptist 
Church, and Mr. Adams was a member of the 
Presbyterian Church. The grandfather, James 
Adams, and an uncle of our subject, Hugh Adams, 
also took up land from the Government in Wash- 



ington County, and were numbered among its 
early settlers. 

Our subject was reared on the old home farm, 
and was educated in the district schools and in 
the seminary of Nashville. In that place in 1858 
was celebrated his marriage with Miss Mary Hill, 
daughter of Ephraim Hill, an early settler of St. 
Clair County, who afterward removed to Wash- 
ington County. After his marriage Mr. Adams 
embarked in merchandising, but later bought a 
farm of eighty acres four miles west of Nashville, 
and there carried on agricultural pursuits for two 
years. 

On the 25th of August, 1862, we find our sub- 
ject among the boys in blue of Company I, 
Eightieth Illinois Infantry, and he was mustered 
in with the rank of First Lieutenant. With his 
regiment he went south to Nashville and Mur- 
freesboro, and during a raid, on the 3d of May, 
1863, he was captured at Rome, Ga. For one year 
he was incarcerated in Libby Prison, and was 
then taken to Macon, Ga., where he was kept in 
a stockade for two months. Later they were 
taken to Charleston, S. C., and put under the fire 
of the Union guns. For about five months he 
was held a prisoner at Columbus, S. C., and the 
night before Sherman entered that city was taken 
to the outskirts of the town and given his liberty, 
being thence sent to Annapolis, and on to St. 
Louis. In June, 1865, Mr. Adams was mustered 
out. For twenty-two months he was held a pris- 
oner and suffered all the hardships and rigors of 
southern prison life. He now draws a pension of 
$12 per month. 

When the country no longer needed his services, 
our subject returned to Nashville and embarked 
in the butchering business, which he carried on 
until 1886. He then spent two years in travel- 
ing in the west in the stock business, and in July, 
1888, came to Centralia, where he has since made 
his home. To him and his wife were born three 
children: David L.; Jessie J., the wife of Andrew 
Myer, a merchant of Centralia; and Edna May, 
who is now studying bookkeeping and elocution 
in Jones' Commercial College, of St. Louis. 

In politics Mr. Adams is a stalwart Repub- 
lican, and is a member of the Grand Army of the 



212 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



Republic and the Knights of Honor. Both he 
and his wife belong to the Presbyterian Church, 
and are numbered among the highly respected 
people of this community. 



JH. JOHNSON is the senior member of the 
firm of J. II. & J. T. Johnson, proprietors of 
the Centralia Mills. This is one of the 
leading enterprises of Centralia, and the 
owners are men of excellent business and execu- 
tive ability, who deserve the success which attends 
their efforts. Our subject was born in Lancaster 
County, Pa., July 5, 1838, and is of Scotch descent. 
His grandfather, James Johnson, was born in Scot- 
land. His father, Samuel Johnson, was born in 
Dauphin County, Pa., whence he removed to Lan- 
caster County, where he engaged in the milling 
business. He there married Annie Heidler, and 
continued to make his home in that county until 
his death, which occurred in 1854. His widow 
still survives him. Their family numbered eight 
children, of whom three are yet living: Samuel, a 
commercial traveler, residing in Newberg, N. Y.; 
James W. II., of Lancaster County; and J. H. Two 
of the children were drowned. 

Our subject was reared in his native county and 
after attending the public schools completed his 
education in a seminary in the same county. He 
learned the milling business with his father and 
uncle, and followed that pursuit in the east until 
1866. In the meantime he was married. On the 
15th of December, 1859, he wedded Henrietta, 
daughter of Jacob Mathiot, a prominent farmer 
and citizen of Lancaster County, Pa. Four chil- 
dren were born of this union: Flora A.; J. T., who 
is engaged in business with his father; Lewis S., a 
grocer; and William M., a jeweler of Centralia. 

In 1866 J. II. Johnson left the east and removed 
with his family to Stephenson County, 111., where 
he remained for two years, after which he engaged 
for three years in the milling business in Sioux 
City, Iowa. On the expiration of that period he 
removed to Washington County, 111., where he 
followed milling until his arrival in Centralia, in 
1873. In 1877, he bought an interest in his pres- 



ent milling property, becoming a member of the 
firm of May, Johnson <fe Cunningham, which con- 
nection continued for about three years, when the 
senior partner died, and the firm became Johnson 
& Cunningham. In 1890 the latter retired and 
the present partnership between our subject and 
his son was formed. The mill was supplied with a 
fine roller system in 1882, and has a capacity of 
one hundred barrels of flour per day. They are 
doing a good business, for the flour which they 
manufacture is of excellent quality and hence 
finds a ready sale on the market. 

Mr. Johnson is a leading member of the Masonic 
fraternity, and has served as Junior Warden of the 
lodge in Centralia. In politics he is a stanch Re- 
publican, and for two years served as Alderman of 
the city. He takes an active interest in every- 
thing pertaining to the welfare of the community, 
and is a man of good business ability, who by his 
enterprise and well directed efforts has steadily 
worked his way upward until he is now numbered 
among the substantial residents of his adopted 
county. 



ZEDDOCK C. JENNINGS, who is now living 
near Walnut Hill, is a representative of one 
of the honored pioneer families of Marion 
County. Among the first settlers who came to 
Illinois were Israel Jennings and his family. He 
was the grandfather of our subject, and was a na- 
tive of Kentucky. In that state he grew to ma- 
ture years and was married, and thence came with 
his wife and children to Marion County. The 
members of his family were: Israel, who died in 
this county, leaving a family; Charles, father of 
our subject; William, who located in Texas; and 
George, who was married, and at his death left 
two daughters, one of whom, Mrs. White, died 
leaving a son, John. The father of this family 
served in the War of 1812. 

Charles Jennings was born in Kentucky, and 
ere attaining to mature years accompanied the 
family to Illinois. Here he met and married 
Maria Davidson, and to them were born eight 
children: Joseph us, who died in Marion County, 
learing a family; Sarah, widow of Robert Nole- 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



213 



man; Harriet, wife of Frank Marshall, of Salem; 
Lizzie, widow of Silas Bryan, of Virginia, and the 
mother of William Bryan, United States Senator 
from Nebraska; America, wife of William Stites, 
of Centralia; Z. C., of this sketch; Nancy, wife of 
Dr. James Davenport, of Salem; and Docia, wife 
of Abraham Van Antwerp, of Sedalia, Mo. The 
father located on a farm near Walnut Hill, where 
lie reared his family. He was a man of excellent 
business ability, and by his good management and 
industry he became quite wealthy, accumulating 
nine hundred acres of valuable land. He held 
membership with the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
took an active part in politics and was an uncom- 
promising Democrat. The best interests of the 
community ever found in him a friend, and he 
was recognized as a progressive and valued citizen. 

The gentleman whose name heads this record 
was born in Marion County in 1838, was reared 
upon the old homestead farm and acquired his 
education in the common schools and in an 
academy. When twenty-two years of age he 
chose as a companion and helpmate on life's jour- 
ney Miss Mary J., daughter of James C. Baldridge, 
of Jefferson County. The young 'couple began 
their domestic life upon the farm which has since 
been their home. It then comprised only forty 
acres and was a part of the tract which the grand- 
father, Israel Jennings, had entered from the Gov- 
ernment. His landed possessions have been in- 
creased, however, from time to time until he now 
owns a valuable tract of four hundred and twelve 
acres all in one body. It is under a high state of 
cultivation and is one of the best stock farms in 
the county, the owner raising a high grade of fine 
horses and cattle. All the improvements upon the 
place were made by him and stand as monuments 
to his thrift and enterprise. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Jennings were born six chil- 
dren. Dwight, who was born in 1860, and was 
graduated from the St. Louis Medical College, has 
been successfully engaged in practice in that city 
for several years. He was married in Carlyle to 
Cora Locy. Emmett is engaged in stock-raising in 
Sprague, Wash. Maggie is the wife of Louis 
Thomas, of Centralia. Samuel is engaged in bus- 
iness with his father, Hattie is the wife of Ed- 



ward Jones, of Francisco, Ind. Maria S. died aged 
six months. 

The parents and their children are all members'of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, and the family is 
one of prominence in the community. Our sub- 
ject is a Democrat in politics and has held the 
office of Town Supervisor for four years, but has 
never been an aspirant for public office, preferring 
to give his entire attention to his business inter- 
ests. In 1889 he established a box factory in 
Walnut Hill for the manufacture of fruit boxes 
and still carries on this euterprise, having a ready 
sale for these commodities. He carries forward to a 
successful completion whatever he undertakes and 
his prosperity is well deserved. 



H. CULLIMORE is engaged in the manu- 
facture of fruit package boxes in Centralia. 
This is one of the leading industries of the 
place, and the owner is now carrying on opera- 
tions on quite an extensive scale. As he is wide- 
ly and favorably known in this community, we 
feel assured that the record of his life will prove 
of interest to many of our readers, and therefore 
gladly gave it a place in this volume. 

Mr. Cullimore was born in New York City, Jan- 
uary 1, 1837, and is a son of Thomas and Jane 
Cullimore. His parents were married in England, 
their native land, about 1820, and emigrating to 
America, located in New York, where the father 
followed his trade of boiler-making. In 1837, he 
removed with his family to Cleveland, Ohio, and 
a few years later embarked in business for himself 
as a boiler-maker, continuing operations along that 
line until his death, which occurred in 1860. His 
wife passed away in 1864. He was a successful 
business man, and built up a large manufactory in 
Cleveland. He held membership with the Method- 
ist Episcopal Church. 

Our subject is the only survivor in a family of 
three children. He was reared and educated in 
Cleveland, and after attaining to mature years 



214 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD 



followed fanning in Cuyalioga County, Ohio. In 
the city of Cleveland in 1857 was celebrated his 
marriage with Miss Eliza, daughter of James Culli- 
more, who was also a native of England. The 
lady was born in Baltimore, Md., and reared near 
Cleveland, and in that locality the young couple 
began their domestic life upon a farm, which con- 
tinued to he their home until the autumn of 1860, 
when they removed to Baltimore. 

In May, 1861, Mr. Cullimore enlisted in Com- 
pany G, First Maryland Infantry. He entered the 
service as a private, but was made Third Sergeant, 
then Orderly-Sergeant, afterward Sergeant-Major, 
and later became Second Lieutenant. He partici- 
pated in the battle of Winchester, and on the 23d 
of May, 1862, at Port Royal, was captured by 
Stonewall Jackson. He was sent to Lynchburg, 
and thence to Belle Isle, and four months later 
was taken to Annapolis, where on the 17th of 
September he was exchanged. He then rejoined 
his regiment, which went to the Shenandoah Val- 
ley, and did guard duty at Maryland Heights until 
July 2, 1863, when they started across the moun- 
tains to head off Lee's Cavalry. Mr. Cullimore 
was sent to Baltimore on recruiting service, and 
on the expiration of his three months' term was 
there mustered out, June 30, 1864. 

Our subject then returned to his old farm near 
Cleveland, where he remained two years, and in 
1868 he came to Centralia. He bought a fruit 
farm of forty-two acres within the city limits, on 
which was a twelve-acre orchard of apple and 
peach trees. Much of the land he planted in 
strawberries and for twenty years was the most 
extensive strawberry raiser of this locality; He 
was very successful in his undertakings, and the 
fine fruit which he grew found a ready sale in the 
market. In 1888, however, he retired from busi- 
ness life and is now enjoying a well earned rest 
from that enterprise. He is now managing the 
factory where are manufactured boxes in which 
to ship fruit. 

Mr. Cullimore takes a very active part in politi- 
cal affairs and is a stanch supporter of the Re- 
publican party. In March, 1889, he was appoint- 
ed Postmaster of Centralia, and filled that office 
until July, 1893. He has also been Alderman of 



the city. Socially, he is connected with the Grand 
Army of the Republic, and both he and his wife 
are faithful members of the Baptist Church. The 
best interests of the community ever receive the 
hearty support and co-operation of Mr. Culliraore, 
whose progressive and public-spirited measures 
have made him one of the leading citizens of his 
adopted county. 



OBERT J. MOORE. An honorable position 
among the business men of Centralia is 
accorded our subject, who is the present 
Secretary of the Centralia Building and 
Loan Association and manager and lessee of the 
Sadler Opera House. He is a native of the Em- 
erald Isle and was born in County Tyrone Octo- 
ber 15, 1864. 

Our subject was a lad of six years when he was 
brought to America by his paternal uncle, who 
located in the city of Chicago. Subsequently 
Robert J. went to a farm near Lisbon, 111., where 
he attended the common school and afterward 
supplemented the knowledge gained therein by 
attendance at the Jennings' Seminary in Aurora. 
Later he became a student in the Northwestern 
Normal College at Geneseo, from which institu- 
tion he was graduated in 1887 with the degree of 
Bachelor of Science. 

After completing his education Mr. Moore came 
to Centralia and accepted the position of Princi- 
pal of the East Side public schools, in which capac- 
ity he was retained for two years. Then, being 
desirous of following the profession of a lawyer, 
he began reading law in the office of W. & E. L. 
Stoker, of Centralia, and on the election of E. L. 
Stoker to the Legislature our subject was ap- 
pointed to fill the vacancy thus occasioned in the 
Secretaryship of the Centralia Building and Loan 
Association. 

The Centralia Building and Loan Association 
was organized in 1879 and has handled since that 
time over three-quarters of a million dollars. It 
has eight hundred shareholders and has made al- 



U8F.AKY 

OF THE 

IVEP.SITY of ILLINOIS 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



217 



together six hundred and seventy-five loans. The 
business of the association is on the increase, and 
during the years 1892, 1893 and 1894 has nearly 
doubled. Its officers are: T. Leander Parkinson, 
President; R. J. Moore, Secretary; James E. Mar- 
shall, Treasurer; S. A. Frazier, Attorney. The 
Directors are T. L. Parkinson, Seymour Andrews, 
Will J. Blyth, S. A. Frazier, T. S. Hobbs, Michael 
Touve, John II. Oxley, A. W. Schroeder and Rob- 
ert J. Moore. 

Politically, Mr. Moore is a strong Republican. 
While 1 his private affairs naturally receive the 
major part of his time and attention, yet he is in- 
terested in matters of public importance and is 
prominent in local affairs. He is a member of the 
Library Board of the city, of which he is Vice- 
President and Treasurer, and is Secretary of the 
Centralia Provident Association. 

Socially, our subject is a Knight of P3'thiasand 
an Odd Fellow. He is a young man of excellent 
judgment and has always been progressive, fear- 
less and honest in every measure calculated to 
benefit the community. 



PERDINAND KOHL, Cashier of the Old 
National Bank of Centralia. The Old Na- 
tional is the successor of the First National 
Bank, which was organized in 1865, and went 
into voluntary liquidation twenty years later. In 
March of 1885 an organization was perfected 
called the Old National Bank, which purchased 
the assets of the First National. The capital stock 
of the institution is $80,000, surplus capital #20,- 
000. Its officers are: E. S. Condit, President; S. 
M. Warner, Vice-President; and Ferdinand Kohl, 
Cashier. The Directors are: E. S. Condit, F. Kohl, 
S. M. Warner, S. L. Dwight, W. M. Casey, Jacob 
Erbes and C. C. Davis. The present banking 
house was erected in 1888, and is one of the most 
substantial structures of the city. 

A native of Germany, our subject was born in 
Nassau, Prussia, October 28, 1831, and is the son 
of Henry and Elizabeth (Zeyher) Kohl, natives of 
Germany. The father, who was a cabinet-maker 
by trade, emigrated to America with his family in 
1853 and settled at Belleville, St. Clair County, 
2 



111., but after a sojourn there of two years came to 
Centralia, where he continued to reside until his 
death in 1873. In his family were six children, 
all of whom are still living. They are: Jacob, 
who is in business at Centralia; Mrs. Louisa Heiss, 
who resides in this city; Julius, a prominent phy- 
sician and surgeon of Belleville, 111., and a member 
of the Illinois State Board of Health; Mrs. Chris- 
tina Oster, a widow; Mrs. Minnie Geiss, the wife 
of a manufacturer residing in Belleville, 111.; and 
Ferdinand, of this sketch. 

In the land of his birth our subject was reared, 
and in its schools he gained a practical education, 
becoming a fluent speaker of the German, English 
and French languages. After leaving school, he 
devoted his attention to mercantile pursuits, and 
served a four years' apprenticeship to a business 
embracing grocery, flour mills, vermicelli factory 
and a general wholesale line. Afterward he gained 
a fair knowledge of the lumber business through a 
clerkship of two years. In 1853 he emigrated to 
the United States, and proceeding direct to Illi- 
nois, settled at Belleville, St. Clair County, where 
for two years he was a clerk in the employ of 
Kellermann Bros. 

The year 1855 witnessed the arrival of Mr. Kohl 
in Centralia, where lie formed a partnership with 
S. M. Warner, and for ten years engaged in the 
general mercantile business, the firm being Kohl <fc 
Warner. In 1865 he accepted the position of 
Cashier in the First National Bank, and when, in 
1885, the bank was merged into the Old National, 
he still retained his position. Of the latter insti- 
tution he was one of the organizers, and has been 
its only Cashier. With other important enter- 
prises of the city and county, his name is indis- 
solubly associated. He is Secretary, Treasurer 
and Director of the Centralia Light & Power Com- 
pany, in the organization of which he was a prom- 
inent factor. He aided in the organization of the 
Centralia Fair Association, of which he is now the 
Treasurer. He has been Director and Treasurer of 
the Centralia Iron & Nail Works, and at the pres- 
ent time is Director and Treasurer of the Centralia 
Mining <fc Manufacturing Company. 

In the city of New York, May 11, 1860, Mr. 
Kohl was united in marriage with Miss Louisa 



218 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



Jokel, who was born and reared in Frankfort, Ger- 
many. The union has resulted in the birth of six 
children: Arnold, senior member of the firm of 
Kohl Bros., grocers of Centralia; Oscar, Cashier of 
the First National Bank of San Bernardino, Cal.; 
Ferdinand, who is the junior member of the firm 
of Kohl Bros., Centralia; Walter, who lias been 
clerking in the Old National Bank, but is now 
traveling for his health, being at present in Colo- 
rado; Flora, who resides with her parents; and 
Harry, a clerk for Kohl Bros. 

In politics a Republican, Mr. Kohl has been so 
closely engrossed in his business as to leave little 
time for public affairs. He is a friend of the pub- 
lic school system, and has served as a member of 
the Board of Education. He and his wife are 
identified with the German Evangelical Church, 
and he was one of the organizers of the church at 
Centralia, which he has served as Trustee for 
many years. He is still a member of the firm of 
Kohl & Warner, an enterprising firm of this city, 
and the owners of the Kohl & Warner Block. He 
began in business without means, but by industry 
and good business methods he has accumulated a 
handsome competence. He is peculiarly adapted 
for the intricate business of banking, and the solid 
foundation upon which the Old National rests is 
largely due to his financial skill. As a careful, 
safe and successful financier he stands high in the 
commercial world. 



. =3* 



JOHN P. STELLE, editor of the Progressive 
Farmer, of Mt. Vernon, and national lecturer 
of the Farmers' Mutual Benefit Associa- 
tion, was born in Calhoun County, 111., April 
16, 1843. His father was reared in New Jersey, 
and his iiother in New York. They became ac- 
quainted in a pioneer locality in Illinois in 1825, 
and were married the next year. The father had 
made the journey westward mostly on foot, cross- 
ing the Alleghanies and traveling through the 
forests of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois with a guide. 
He located in Hamilton County in 1817, but after 



about two years returned to New Jersey and 
brought back with him a brother and his family. 
Later he pushed on to the Mississippi, but after a 
short time spent in Calhoun County, returned to 
Hamilton County. The family, however, was liv- 
ing in Calhoun County at the time of the birth of 
our subject, but when he was a child of six months 
they again went to Hamilton County and located 
upon wild land. There the mother died in 1863, 
while the father passed away in 1870. 

Our subject still lives within seven miles of the 
old homestead and there has a good farm, well 
stocked with horses, cattle, sheep and poultry, but 
his special business is in Mt. Vernon. When four 
years old he was stricken with infantile spinal pa- 
ralysis, which disabled his right leg and made him 
a cripple for life, but from his earliest child hood he 
was a great lover of books and papers and eagerly 
studied everything which he could get hold of. 
His educational opportunities, however, were very 
limited and books were not accessible to poor fam- 
ilies. His mother taught the boy to knit, furnish- 
ing him with yarn spun by herself on the old 
spinning wheel. He knit a pair of socks which was 
exchanged at a country store for a copy of McGuf- 
fy's First Reader, the first book he had ever pos- 
sessed, and outside of the Bible and a hymn book, 
about the first he had ever seen. This book he 
thoroughly studied until he knew it word for 
word from beginning to end. He first entered a 
school in 1855, when the free schools were estab- 
lished. He was then thirteen years of age. Four 
years later he became the teacher in that school, 
where he taught for eight consecutive terms. 

When the War of the Rebellion broke out, Mr. 
Stelle espoused the Union cause, and in 1864 cast 
his first Presidential vote for Abraham Lincoln. 
That year, against his protest, he was nominated 
for Circuit Clerk, but on account of the strong 
Democratic majority was defeated, although he 
ran ahead of the ticket. About this time the Re- 
publicans of the county purchased a printing out- 
fit and established a union paper in McLeansboro, 
the Union Eagle. Mr. Stelle, who had previously 
learned something of the business, was chosen edi- 
tor and thus served until the paper was sold. He 
then resumed teaching, but in 1872, in company 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



219 



with some friends, established the Golden Era of 
McLearisboro. He became its editor and the paper 
secured the largest circulation in the county. 
When the Credit Mobilier, Whiskey Ring, etc.,were 
developed, and the granger agitation was begun 
he espoused the latter cause and organized the 
farmers' movement in his county, which in 1873 
entirely defeated the Democratic party. Mr. Stelle 
was nominated for County Superintendent of 
Schools and was elected over the Democratic can- 
didate by a vote of two to one. On the expira- 
tion of his term he was re-nominated, but at that 
election the Democratic forces were successful. In 
1876 he was a delegate to the national convention 
in Indianapolis which nominated Peter Cooper) 
and has since been an advocate of the cause of re- 
form. In 1878 he sold his interest in the Golden 
Era, and going to Murphysboro, 111., took charge 
of the editorial work of a new reform paper, 
which attained a large circulation. 

In 1866 Mr. Stelle married Miss Eliza E. Coker, 
and to them were born ten children, nine of whom 
are yet living. Mr. Stelle was prominent in or- 
ganizing the Farmers' Mutual Benefit Association, 
and was elected its National Secretary, to which 
position he was annually re-elected until 1892. 
He then declined to serve further and so was 
unanimously elected National Lecturer, which po- 
sition he still fills. In the fall of 1893 he was 
elected President of the State Assembly. In 1888 
some members of the Farmers' Organization or- 
ganized a stock company to publish a paper in 
Mt. Vernon, the Progressive Farmer, in the inter- 
est of the new movement. Mr. Stelle was chosen 
its editor and soon was made sole business mana- 
ger, which position he still holds. This paper has 
been very successful financially and otherwise. It 
had no capital on the start, but has never failed 
to meet a bill on maturity or to pay the employes 
each week. New and improved material has been 
purchased, including a steam engine, and the 
building occupied is now also the property of the 
stockholders. 

Mr. Stelle has declined several nominations for 
Congress tendered him by the new party, and 
against his wish was run to fill a vacancy caused 
by the death of Hon. R. W. Townsend and polled 



a surprisingly large vote. In the celebrated Sena- 
torial contest in 1890, until he requested other- 
wise, he received the united Populist vote, and 
near the close of the contest the Republicans offered 
to give him their one hundred votes solid if the 
Populists would also support him, but two of them 
had already promised to vote for Palmer and 
would not recede. The farmers everywhere ac- 
knowledge him as a leader of the party, and he is 
undoubtedly an untiring worker in the interest of 
reform. 



yiLSON GRAGG, of Centralia Township, is 
one of the honored pioneers of Marion 
County, who since an early day in its his- 
tory has watched the growtli and development of 
tliis region and aided in its upbuilding and ad- 
vancement. The record of his life is as follows: 
A native of the state of Massachusetts, he was 
born in Berkshire County, on the 8th of August, 
1834. On the paternal side he is of Scotch and 
Irish lineage, and comes from an old New Eng- 
land family. His father, Samuel Gragg, was born 
and reared in Vermont. His family numbered 
eight children, four sons and four daughters, 
namely: Sarah, the wife of John Lane; Jane; Robert, 
who died leaving a family; John, who makes his 
home in Reading, Pa.; Susan; Wilson, whose name 
heads this record; Mary and Samuel. 

During the early boyhood of our subject, his 
parents removed to New Jersey, and he was there 
reared and educated, but when he had attained to 
man's estate he determined to make his home in 
the west, for he believed that that less thickly set- 
tled district furnished better opportunities to am- 
bitious young men than the older states of the 
east. Accordingly in 1855 Mr. Gragg left his old 
home and made a location in Berrien County, 
Mich., where he lived for two years. On the ex- 
piration of that period he came to Illinois, settling 
in Marion County. This was in 1858, and in the 
many years which have since come and gone he 
has known no other home. 

In 1861 Mr. Gragg was joined in marriage with 
Miss Mary M. Baird, and by their union have been 
born eight children, who are yet living: John, a 



220 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



resident of Sparta, Randolph County; Jennie, who 
was educated in the common schools in Sparta 
and Carbondale and is now successfully engaged in 
teaching in Marion County; Jessie,who was also ed- 
ucated in Carbondale, and is now engaged in teach- 
ing; Josie, James, Nettie, Robert and Guy. They 
have also lost two children. Mr. and Mrs. Gragg 
began their domestic life upon the farm where 
they are still living. About 1877, he erected a 
beautiful brick residence, one of the finest country 
homes of the neighborhood. It is the abode of 
hospitality and the many friends of the family 
there delight to assemble. The farm comprises two 
hundred and eighty acres of rich and arable land, 
which is under a high state of cultivation and im- 
proved with all modern accessories and conven- 
iences. The fields are well tilled, and the neat and 
thrifty appearance of the place indicates the care- 
ful supervision of the owner, who is recognized as 
one of Marion County's most practical and pro- 
gressive farmers. In his political views Mr. Gragg 
is a stalwart Republican. The cause of education 
finds him a warm friend and he has done much 
for its advancement. His wife is a member of the 
Presbyterian Church, and though he holds mem- 
bership with no organization, he contributes lib- 
erally to the cause of religion. 



&j\\ MOS CLARK, a wealthy capitalist of Cen- 
i<wj| tralia, is a native of Connecticut, lie 
IJ Is was born in Litchfield County, Novem- 
^P ber 6, 1806, and is a son of Friend Clark- 
His great-grandfather, Joseph Clark, was a native 
of England and founded the family in America. 
He settled in Litchfield County, Conn., where he 
took up large tracts of laud, and his son Amos, 
the grandfather of our subject, served as Sheriff 
of that county for forty years. Friend Clark was 
reared in Litchfield County, and there wedded 
Mary Hubbell, by whom he had ten children, our 
subject being the youngest and the only surviving 
child. The father served in the Revolution, and 
his son Chauncey was in the War of 1812. Amos 



remembers hearing the roar of the cannon at the 
battle of New London during that struggle. 

Our subject was only three and a-half years old 
when his father died. He was reared in his native 
county, and was educated in its public and private 
schools. When quite young he worked on farms 
during the summer months in order to support 
himself and his widowed mother, and his leisure 
hours in the evening he would devote to study. 
He served an apprenticeship with a man engaged 
in the manufacture of spinning wheels, and later 
embarked in the manufacture of mouse traps in 
connection with Mr. Hotchkiss, who afterwaids 
invented the Hotchkiss gun. As soon as he had ac- 
quired a sufficient capital, Mr. Clark purchased 
land in Litchfield County and engaged in raising 
sheep and cattle, becoming the owner of a fine 
place. 

On the i5th of April, 1829, Mr. Clark was united 
in marriage with Henrietta, daughter of Abijah 
Guernsey, a farmer of Watertown, Conn. Her 
grandfather, Ebenezer Guernsey, was a native of 
England. Her mother bore the maiden name of 
Anna Hotchkiss, and she too came of an old New 
England family. Mrs. Clark was born in Water- 
town, Conn., March 12, 1808, and in girlhood at- 
tended the same school as did her husband. In 
1857 they left the east and emigrated to Marion 
County, 111., locating in Salem, In 1859, Mr. Clark 
built a large three-story hotel at that place, which 
he carried on for eight years, when he retired from 
active life. In 1865, he came to Centralia, where 
he has since made his home. To him and his es- 
timable wife were born seven children, but four 
died in infancy, namely: Stephen B., Ann Maria, 
Stephen B. (the second of the name) and Joseph. 
Elizabeth died at the age of nineteen; John G. 
wedded Mary Bishop, by whom he had a daugh- 
ter, Elizabeth, who died at the age of five years. 
His death occurred at the age of twenty-nine. 
Amos A. enlisted in 1862 in Company A, One 
Hundred and Eleventh Illinois Infantry, and was 
made its Captain, for he had raised the company. 
He was shot and killed at Decatur Junction, March 
9, 1864, at the age of twenty-nine, leaving a wife 
and one child. 

In early life, Mr. Clark was a Whig and cast 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



221 



his first Presidential vote for Henry Clay. He 
has also voted the Free Soil ticket. He aided in 
organizing the Republican party, voted for John 
C. Fremont in 1856, and has since been one of the 
most stalwart supporters of Republican principles. 
He and his wife are faithful and consistent mem- 
bers of the Methodist Episcopal Church, in which 
he serves as Trustee, and to the support of which 
he contributes liberally. He was also Trustee of 
the Insane Asylum of Anna for four years, being 
appointed by Governor Beveridge, and has held 
numerous city offices in Centralia. Mr. Clark is a 
self-made man, who began life empty-handed, but 
by industry and perseverance has steadily worked 
liis way upward, until he has become one of the 
wealthiest citizens of Marion County. His deal- 
ings have always been straightforward and honor- 
able, and through the legitimate channels of busi- 
ness his success has been achieved. 



|js^ ENECA L. HAND, ESQ. There is nothing 
^%s5 of more interest to the general reader 
IJl/lj) than a sketch of a gentleman who has won 
both fame and fortune in the battle of life, 
and according to this principle a brief sketch of 
Mr. Hand cannot fail to prove interesting. He 
was born in Otsego County, N. Y., April 9, 1805, 
and was the son of Heman and Hannah (Ilaight) 
Hand. 

The paternal grandfather of our subject was 
Joseph Hand, who was born in Connecticut prior 
to the Revolutionary War. He emigrated early in 
life to New York State, where he was one of the 
pioneers of Columbia County, and there carried 
on farming. Joseph Hand was descended from 
one of two brothers who came from England and 
made their home in the United States many years 
before the devolution. His ancestor located in 
Connecticut, and the brother made his home in 
the Empire State. 

Heman Hand, the father of our subject, was 
born in Connecticut, where he received a very 
fair education for those times and was early 
trained in farm pursuits. When quite young he 
married Miss Hannah, the daughter of Jonathan 



and Marian Haight, and to them were born the 
following children: Alvah, Hosea, Seneca L. (of 
this sketch), Joseph, William, Abraham, Henry and 
Parmelia. The elder Mr. Hand later removed to 
Ohio, which was the home of some of his children, 
and where his death occurred in 1829, when in his 
sixtieth year. Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Hand were 
members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, al- 
though the mother had been reared in the Quaker 
faith. In his political relations the father was a 
strong and influential Whig. 

Seneca L. Hand is a well informed man and ac- 
quired a good education in the common schools. 
lie remained with his parents until reaching his 
twentieth year, when he removed to a place in 
Portage County, Ohio, but which is now in Sum- 
mit County, and for the three succeeding years 
he was engaged in teaching school. At the ex- 
piration of lha't time he began reading law, and 
July 4, 1830, was admitted to the Bar. Mr. Hand 
continued to reside in the above county, where 
he was engaged in the practice of law, until 1847, 
when he was compelled to abandon that profession 
on account of failing health. During that time 
he. had built up a large and paying clientage and 
was regarded as the best attorney in the county. 
While residing in Ohio, Mr. Hand held the office 
of Justice of the Peace for twelve years and in 
many other ways took an active part in public 
affairs. 

In 1853 our subject emigrated still further west, 
his destination being Dubuque, Iowa. During 
the years of his residence there he was engaged 
in handling real estate, but after making a visit 
to Marion County, in 1865, he was so well pleased 
with the outlook that he returned to Iowa and, 
disposing of his interests in that city, came with 
his family to Centralia, where he has since made 
his home. 

Mr. Hand had not resided in this city long be- 
fore its citizens recognized his ability as a lawyer 
and elected him City Attorney. Later, from 1867 
to 1889, he held the office of Justice of the Peace, 
and for one year was Police Magistrate. While 
residing in Ohio, our subject, October 24, 1832, 
was married to Esther O. Nash. Mrs. Hand was 
the daughter of Abraham and Hannah (Jordan) 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



Nash and was bora at Balston Spa, N. Y., No- 
vember 16, 1810. The two daughters born to 
them were, Nellie, now deceased, and Alice, the 
wife of Andrew McLean, with whom our subject 
and his good wife make their home. They have 
also performed the part of parents to three moth- 
erless children, Mary J. Nash, a sister of Mrs. 
Hand, who married William St. John; Kate Nash, a 
niece of Mrs. Hand, who married Robert P. Min- 
shall, and George K. Minshall, the sixteen-month- 
old son of the latter. 

Mrs. Seneca L. Hand is a devoted member of the 
Episcopal Church, while Mr. Hand holds to the 
church of his youth, the Quaker Church. While 
residing in the east our subject was a prominent 
member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
in which societ3 T he held all the Chairs. His po- 
litical views coincide with those laid down in the 
platform of the Republican party. Mr. and Mrs. 
Hand have been married nearly sixty-two years, 
and botli are hale and hearty for their years. 

Mrs. McLean, the daughter of our subject, is a 
Iad3' possessing a fine education, having completed 
her studies in the Dubuque (Iowa) High School. 
She was married in Centralia in 1879 to Andrew 
McLean, who is a prominent commission merchant 
of that city. 



I, 




PERRINE, who resides just in- 
Jj side the corporation limits of Centralia, 
^yj|j was born in Wayne County, N. Y., in 1822, 
and during his early childhood accompanied his 
parents on their emigration westward to Indiana. 
The family located in Ripley County, and there 
our subject was reared to manhood in the usual 
manner of farmer lads. His parents were both 
natives of New Jersey, and one of the famous bat- 
tles of the Revolution, that of Monmouth, occur- 
red on his great-grandfather's farm. During the 
engagement seven cannon balls penetrated the 
walls of the residence. The Perrine family was 
originally of French origin, and as is indicated, 



was founded in America during early Colonial 
days. 

Our subject acquired his education in the com- 
mon schools, which he attended in the winter 
season, while in the summer months he aided in 
the labors of the field. After arriving at years of 
maturity, he was married in the Hoosier State, 
the lady of his choice being Nancy J. Mills, who 
died leaving one child, Cyrus M. Perrine, who 
lives in Wayne County, 111. For his second wife 
he chose Miss Rosetta Alden, a descendant of the 
noted John Alden. Seven children were born of 
their union, but David, the second child, and 
Lucy Bell are now deceased. The others are Car- 
rie, Charles T., Samuel A., William S. and Cora B. 
Cyrus, who is married and has three daughters, is 
engaged in the nursery business. William and 
Charles T. are also engaged in the same enterprise 
with their father. Samuel, who graduated from 
the Chicago University, is now a minister of the 
Baptist Church, serving as a missionary to India. 
The family was represented in the Civil War by- 
Cyrus, who enlisted in the Union army in 1862 
and served until after the cessation of hostilities. 
David G. was a graduate of the Chicago Uni- 
versity, and was largely instrumental in establish- 
ing the present prosperity of the business now 
conducted by his father and brothers. Cora B. is 
a graduate of Wellesly College, in Massachusetts, 
and is now connected with the Chicago Universi- 
ty as assistant librarian. 

In 1867, Mr. Perrine brought his family to 
Marion County, 111., and has since resided in this 
locality. He located upon the farm which has 
since been his home, and after carrying on agri- 
cultural pursuits for some years, he embarked in 
the nursery business, in 1875. To this work he 
has since devoted his time and attention in con- 
nection with the raising of small fruits. He now 
has one of the most extensive nurseries in the 
county and is doing an excellent and lucrative 
business, which has steadily increased from the 
beginning. 

In his political views, Mr. Perrine is a stalwart 
Republican, and his sons are also supporters of 
the same party. He and his children, with one 
exception, all belong to the Baptist Church, and 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



223 



the family is one of prominence in the community 
and its members are people of sterling worth. Re- 
cently, Mr. Perrine erected a beautiful home on 
his farm, just at the edge of the city limits of Cen- 
tralia, and there he expects to pass his remaining 
days, surrounded by the comforts and many of 
the luxuries of life, which he has secured through 
his own well directed efforts. 



JAMES M. .ROBNETT, a surveyor and real- 
estate dealer, who is now acting agent for 
the Loan and Protection Association of 
Patoka, 111., is a native of the Hoosier 
State. He was born in Clark County, Ind., March 
21, 1849, and comes of an old Virgina family. His 
grandfather, David Robnett, was a native of Vir- 
ginia, and emigrating westward became one of the 
pioneers of Clark County. In the midst of the 
forest he hewed out a farm, which was located 
near where Bull Creek empties into the Ohio River. 
There he spent his remaining days. In the family 
were two sons and two daughters, of whom Pleas- 
ant H. Robnett, the father of our subject, was the 
eldest. He was born at Bull Creek Landing, and 
was reared on the old homestead. He married 
Elizabeth C. F. Henley, daughter of Noah Henley, 
who was a native of Virginia, and in an early day 
cast in his lot with the pioneer settlers of Clark 
County, Ind. Later he removed to Carroll Coun- 
ty, Mo., where his death occurred. Mrs. Robnett 
spent the days of her maidenhood in Indiana. 

For five years after their marriage the parents of 
our subject remained on the old homestead and 
then came to Marion County, 111., in 1852. They 
settled on section 8, Centralia Township, where 
Mr. Robnett purchased one hundred and sixty 
acres of land, which he secured through a land 
warrant which was given his brother, Andrew 
Robnett, who died while returning home from the 
Mexican War. To this farm Mr. Robnett kept 
adding from time to time, and at his death he 
owned seven hundred acres of valuable land, of 
which five hundred acres were located in Marion 



County. He was a Democrat in politics, served as 
Supervisor of the township, and held other local 
offices. In his family were ten children, eight of 
whom are yet living: Sarah, wife of Charles Gal- 
braith; A. J., a farmer of Farina, 111.; Willie E., 
who died at the age of two years; Reuben A., a 
farmer of Centralia Township; Noah, a farmer and 
stock dealer of Kinmundy; Ella M. and Lena M., 
twins; Charles, who occupies the old homestead 
in Centralia Township; and Frank, who is engaged 
in the livery business in Denver, Colo. Lena M. 
died at the age of five years, and Ella M. is the 
wife of John Cretzmeyer, who is living just out- 
side the boundary limits of Centralia. 

In the usual manner of farmer lads, James M. 
Robnett spent the days of his boyhood and youth, 
and the public schools afforded him his educational 
privileges. On the 27th of September, 1877, he 
was united in marriage with Miss Millie Preston, 
daughter of Isom Preston, who in an early day lo- 
cated near Waterloo, 111., and was the third to en- 
ter land from the Government in this state. He 
there lived until 1860, when he went to Iowa, and 
in the spring of 1864 he came to Centralia, where 
he is still living. His daughter was born and 
reared on the old homestead, near Waterloo. The 
young couple began their domestic life in Boone 
Township, Jefferson County, where they remained 
for two years, when they took up their residence 
in Raccoon Township, Marion County. In 1888 
they located in Centralia, where they still make 
their home, and Mr. Robnett is now doing busi- 
ness as a surveyor and a civil engineer. He is 
agent for the Loan and Protection Association of 
Patoka, which was organized in 1889 for the pur- 
pose of loaning money to those who wished to 
build homes. 

Mr. and Mrs. Robnett are now the parents of 
five children, and they have also lost one. Those 
still living are Pleasant E., Bessie Elizabeth, Rolla 
B., Chauncey Cleveland and Ernest Marcellus. 
Socially, Mr. Robnett is connected with the Mod- 
em Woodmen of America, and was formerly a 
member of the Farmers' Mutual Benefit Associa- 
tion. In politics he is a Democrat, but is not an 
aspirant for public office. He still owns two 
farms, one of eighty acres and another of one 



224 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



hundred and sixty acres, and both are under a 
high state of cultivation. There are forty acres 
comprised in a peach and apple orchard. Mr. 
Robnett is a highly respected citizen, and his well 
spent life has gained him universal confidence. 



\OBERT ROHL, who is at present residing 
in Centralia, is agent for the Heim Brew- 
ery Branch of the St. Louis Association 
land is engaged in manufacturing soda 
water and other carbonated drinks. He was born 
in Marquette, Mich., on the shores of Lake Supe- 
rior, January 14, 1856, and is the son of Carl Rohl, 
a native of Prussia. 

The father of our subject came to America early 
in the '50s and located in the then village of 
Chicago, where he met and married Miss Caroline 
Weiland, who was born in Wurtembcrg, Germany. 
The young couple soon afterward made their way 
to Marquette, Mich., where the father engaged in 
following his trade of merchant tailor for a num- 
ber of years but now lives a retired life. Mrs. 
Rohl departed this life in 1868, after having be- 
come the mother of nine children, four of whom 
are still living, namely: Emma, who married John 
Inglis,and makes her home in Montana, where they 
are farmers; Charles, who is engaged in the jewelry 
business in Champion, Mich.; August, who is re- 
siding in West Superior, Mich., where lie is cany- 
ing on bottling works; and Robert, of this sketch. 

Our subject received a good education in the 
schools of Marquette, and when ready to make his 
own way in the world began manufacturing soda 
water and bottling beer. This he followed in the 
Wolverine State until 1886, when he came to Cen- 
tralia and established the bottling works of which 
he has since been the proprietor aad which is the 
only factory of the kind in the city. As before 
stated, Mr. Rohl is also agent for the Heim Brew- 
ery, which position he accepted about a year ago. 

In 1881, while making his home in Marquette, 
our subject was married to Miss Anna Stabler, a 
native of Switzerland. Mrs. Rohl came to Amer- 
ica with her brother when a young lady and lo- 
cated with him in Michigan, where she met her 



future husband. The four children which have 
come to bless their home bear the respective 
names of Theresa, Anna, Caroline and Robert. 

Politically, our subject is a strong Republican 
and has been sent as a delegate of his party to the 
different conventions. In 1891 he was elected 
Alderman of the Fourth Ward, and is serving his 
second term as a member of the council. He is a 
Knight of Honor and a prominent Odd Fellow, 
aiid while making his home in Michigan was a 
delegate'to the Grand Lodge. He is deeply inter- 
ested in all matters pertaining to the welfare of 
the city, and as a man of extended influence en- 
joys the esteem of hosts of fiiends. 



M. GRAY, who is now serving as Sheriff of 
Jefferson County, makes his home in Mt. 
Vernon. He claims Tennessee as the state of 
his nativity, for he was born in Sumner County, on 
the 1 1th of February, 1852. His father, David S. 
Gray, was a native of North Carolina, as was his 
mother, who bore the maiden name of Mary Lit- 
tleton. In an early day they removed to Tennes- 
see, where the father engaged in farming for a 
number of years. He became a leading and influ- 
ential citizen of that community, served as Deputy 
Sheriff of Sumner County, and was also Tax Col- 
lector. In 1860 he came with his family to Illi- 
nois, locating in Franklin County, and two years 
later he came to Jefferson County, where he is yet 
living, his home being upon a farm six miles from 
Mt. Vernon. Here he has also been honored with 
several local offices, having served as Justice of 
the Peace, Township Assessor and Tax Collector. 
In the family were ten children, three sons and 
seven daughters, all of whom are yet living. 

T. M. Gray, who is the eldest son, was reared 
upon his father's farm in the usual manner of 
farmer lads and acquired his education in the pub- 
lic schools of the neighborhood. During the 
greater part of his life he has been connected with 
public office. On attaining his majority he was 
made Constable of McClellan Township, and also 
served as Tax Collector of his township. After 
coming to Mt. Vernon he was elected Alderman, 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



227 



which position he filled for four years. During 
his second term George H. Varnell, the Mayor of 
the city, died and Mr. Gray was appointed to fill 
out the unexpired term. In 1876 he was ap- 
pointed Deputy Sheriff, which position he held for 
six years, and in 1882 was elected Sheriff of the 
county. When that term had expired he was again 
appointed Deputy, in which capacity he served 
for four years, and his second election to the su- 
perior office occurred in 1890. He has ever since 
held that position, and is a fearless and faithful 
incumbent, ever ready to respond to the call of 
duty. 

In 1876 Mr. Gray was united in marriage with 
Miss Lulu E. Bradley. They are well and favora- 
bly known in this community, having many warm 
friends. In his social relations Mr. Gray is an Odd 
Fellow, and in politics he is a Democrat, who 
warmly advocates the principles of his party. 
Much of his life has been spent in Jefferson 
County, and he is recognized as one of the valued 
citizens of the community. 



SIL ON. JACOB GROSCH, of Centralia, occu- 
'if)! 1 l'' es a potion of prominence among the 
jy^ business men of this city, where he has re- 
(|^) sided for many years. He is the owner and 
manager of a general mercantile store situated at 
No. 103 Locust Street, which since its establish- 
ment in the year 1889 has enjoyed a lucrative and 
steadily increasing trade. He also owns a grocery 
and general store on the corner of Walnut and 
South Second Streets. In addition to these enter- 
prises he has other valuable and extensive inter- 
ests, and is numbered among the wealthy men of 
the county. His prosperity has been gained solely 
through his tireless exertions, as he had but limited 
means when emigrating to the United States. 

A native of Germany, Mr. Grosch was born in 
Gernsheim, on the Rhine, October 10, 1839. He is 
the son of Jacob and Magdalina Grosch, the 
former of whom came to America in 1868, while 
the latter died when Jacob was a child of six years. 
Our subject was educated in the excellent schools 
of his native land, and in his boyhood assisted his 



father, who was a miller on the River Rhine. Emi- 
grating to this country in 1856, he joined his 
brother-in-law, Jacob Kohl, at Centralia, and was 
here employed as a carpenter and cabinet-maker 
until the outbreak of the Rebellion. 

At the first call for troops, Mr. Grosch enlisted 
in the Union army, and in April, 1861, his name 
was enrolled as a member of Company C, Eleventh 
Illinois Infantry. The term of service being for 
three months, he again enlisted at the expiration 
of that period, July 25 becoming a member of 
Company B, Eighth Illinois Infantry. He was 
mustered out of the service at Springfield, 111., in 
September, 1864, after three years of arduous toil, 
during which time he had experienced alike the 
exposures and privations of camp life and the 
dangers of many a hard-fought battle. Among 
the important engagements in which he took part 
were those of Ft. Donelson, February 15, 1862 
(where he was wounded by a bullet passing through 
his hand); Shiloh, April 6 and 7, 1862; Corinth, 
May 28 and 29, 1862; Port Gibson, Miss., May 1, 
1863; Raymond, Miss., May 12; Jackson, Miss., 
May 14; Champion Hills, Miss., May 16, and the 
siege of Vicksburg, which closed with the fall of 
that city July 21, 1863. The Colonel of the regi- 
ment was R. J. Oglesby, late Governor of Illinois. 

After having been honorably discharged from 
the army, Mr. Grosch returned to Centralia, where 
he held a clerkship until 1870. He then built a 
store at the corner of Walnut and South Second 
Streets, which he stocked with a complete assort- 
ment of general merchandise, and in which he has 
since conducted a large trade. However, his prin- 
cipal occupation is fruit growing, and upon his 
forty-four acre fruit farm in Clinton County he 
raises the principal varieties of fruits, having 
thirty-eight acres planted to apple, and one acre 
to pear trees. lie also raises strawberries and 
cherries. In addition to the farm, he owns about 
eighteen tenement houses in the city, and the 
business block on the corner of South Second and 
Walnut Streets. 

On the 4th of May, 1865, Mr. Grosch married 
Miss Annie E. Pfaff, a native of Switzerland, who 
accompanied her parents to the United States in 
childhood. Her father, Jerome Pfaff, settled in 



228 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



St. Louis, Mo., and thence in 1849 removed to 
Madison County, 111., where he engaged in farm- 
ing and stock-raising. In 1863 he came to Cen- 
tralia, where he was proprietor of a boarding 
house, and continued to make this city his home 
until death. Mr. and Mrs. Grosch are-the parents 
of five children: Bertha, who is a clerk in her fa- 
ther's store; Edward J., Louisa A. and Otto W., 
who are clerking in the West Side store; and Ber- 
nard August, who is a student in the Centralia 
schools. 

Politically a strong Republican, Mr. Grosch has 
for years been very active in the ranks of his party. 
He has been a member of the Board of Education, 
and served as its Secretary. For four years he 
was Commissioner of the Southern Illinois Peni- 
tentiary, at Chester, having been appointed to that 
position by Gov. R. J. Oglesby. At the present 
time he is a member of the City Council. Fre- 
quently he has served as delegate to county, con- 
gressional and state conventions. He was one of 
the organizers of the Centralia Mining & Manu- 
facturing Company, of which he is a Director. In 
1891 he aided in the organization of the Centralia 
& Central City Street Railway Company, in which 
he owns a controlling interest. He is also a Di- 
rector of the Centralia Iron & Nail Company, of 
which he was one of the organizers, and a Director 
of the Centralia Coal & Mining Company. 

Socially, Mr. Grosch is identified with Wallace 
Post No. 55, G. A. R., and is the present Quarter- 
master. He also belongs to the Knights of Honor, 
in which he has been Dictator, and is prominent in 
the Treubund and the Turnverein. In social cir- 
cles he and his family are well known and popular. 
The success which has rewarded his exertions is 
the result of his indefatigable energy and excel- 
lent management. In business matters he is keen 
and discriminating, quick to discern and equally 
quick to decide. His prosperity is well deserved. 



PRANK M. BEADLE is the owner of one 
of the fine farms of Jefferson County, a 
tract of land of one hundred acres, situ- 
ated on sections 16 and 17, Grand Prairie Town- 
ship. His home is a comfortable and commodi- 



ous dwelling, in the rear of which stand a large 
barn and other outbuildings, which are models of 
convenience. These are surrounded by rich and 
well cultivated fields, and the farm, which is neat 
and thrifty in appearance, indicates the careful 
supervision of the owner, who is recognized as a 
most successful agriculturist. 

Our subject was born on the old Beadle home- 
stead on section 17, and is a son of Richard F. 
Beadle, who was born in Clark County, Ind., 
October 12, 1814. The father came to Illinois in 
1840, settling on section 15, Grand Prairie Town- 
ship, where he made his home for about three 
years, and then purchased one hundred and sixty 
acres of land on section 17, which he transformed 
into one of the model farms of the community. 
He was a Republican in politics and a zealous 
worker in the interests of that party. For some 
years he served as School Director and School 
Trustee. He was united in marriage June 19, 
1834, with Barbara Butoff, and to them were born 
nine children, six of whom are yet living: Susan 
A., wife of William Johnson, of Centralia; Cath- 
erine E., wife of James R. Johnson, who served 
in the late war and is now living one mile east 
of Centralia; Nancy J., wife of Z. C. Moore, who 
was a member of Company H, Eightieth Illinois 
Infantry, and is now living in Tamalco,!!!.: John, 
who wedded Mary A., daughter of John Jackson, 
and resides in Grand Prairie Township; F. M., 
who wedded Mary M., daughter of William Craig, 
and is also living in Grand Prairie Township; and 
William, deceased, who married Mary Ann Gris- 
more. The mother of this family was born December 
31, 1812, and died in February, 1866. Mr. Beadle 
afterward married Mrs. Catherine Piercy and took 
up his residence upon her large farm. In politics 
he was a Republican, and was one of the hon- 
ored pioneers and representative citizens of the 
community. He passed away June 25, 1885. 

Frank M. Beadle was reared to manhood under 
the parental roof. He attended the district schools 
of the neighborhood during the winter season 
until twenty-one years of age. To his father he 
gave the benefit of his services until twenty-five 
years of age, when he was married. On the llth 
of August, 1870, he wedded Mary M. Craig, 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



229 



daughter of William Craig, of Ccntralia Town- 
ship, Marion County, but she died October 27, j 
1890, leaving six children, viz.: William C., Susan 
A., Richard F., Catherine B., Julia F. and Francis 
C. On the 30th of August, 1892, Mr. Beadle 
was united in marriage with Miss Mary Long, a 
most estimable lady. 

Our subject has always been a Republican until 
recently, when he joined the Populist party, and 
is now one of its zealous members. He has served 
as Tax Collector for two terms, was Assessor for 
two terms, and has been School Director for sev- 
eral years. He discharged his duties in a prompt 
and able manner, proving a capable officer. So- 
cially, he is a member of the Odd Fellows' lodge 
of Irvington, the Illinois Mutual Protective Asso- 
ciation and the Farmers' Mutual Benefit Associa- 
tion. He is a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. His entire life has been passed in Jef- 
ferson County, and those who have known him 
from boyhood are numbered among his warmest 
friends, a fact which indicates an honorable career. 



SAMUEL P. TUFTS. The Democratic party 
in the state of Illinois has within its ranks 
no worker more active or influential than 
the gentleman above named, the present 
Postmaster at Centralia, and probably the oldest 
surviving settler of this city. Elected to many 
positions of honor and trust, both in the county 
and state, his entire official career has been an hon- 
orable one, and has brought him into just promi- 
nence among his fellow-citizens, irrespective of 
political ties. 

Referring to the ancestry of Mr. Tufts, we find 
that his father, Almanza, was born in Boston, Mass., 
and was there reared to manhood, in his youth 
learning the trade of a merchant tailor. He mar- 
ried Mary, daughter of John Mellen, a Revolu- 
tionary hero. She was born and reared at Milford, 
Mass., and became the mother of eight children, 
only three of whom now survive. Shortly after 
his marriage, Mr. Tufts removed to Ithaca, N. Y., 
and there for a time conducted a merchant-tailor- 



ing business. Thence, about 1834, he removed 
with his family to St. Louis, Mo., having visited 
the west the previous year in search of a suitable 
location. The removal was made by stage to the 
Ohio River at Pittsburgh, and thence to St. Louis 
on the steamer "A. N. Phillips," commanded by- 
Captain Tufts, a cousin of our subject's father. 

Locating in St. Louis, Almanza Tufts embarked 
in business as a merchant tailor, and continued 
thus engaged until 1838. In the spring of 1840 
he came to Illinois and purchased land adjoinii 
the village of Collinsville, where he engaged 
agricultural pursuits for about fifteen years. Whi 
carrying on his farm he also traveled as a con 
mercial salesman. In the early '60s he moved 
Winchester, this state, where he purchased a farm. 
About 1870 he bought property adjacent to the 
city of Centralia, and locating there made his 
home upon the farm until his death, which oc- 
curred January 28, 1879, at the age of seventy- 
five years. While attending a party in honor of 
our subject's birthday, he suddenly fell over dead, 
the victim of heart disease. Politically he was 
first a Whig and later a strong advocate of Repub- 
lican principles. He was educated and grounded in 
the faith of the Unitarian Church, but during the 
latter part of his life was a devoted member of 
the Presbyterian Church, in which he served as 
Deacon. 

Born in Fitchburg, Mass., January 28, 1827, the 
subject of this sketch was a lad of seven years 
when he accompanied his parents to Missouri, and 
was twelve years of age when he removed to Col- 
linsville, 111. The rudiments of his education 
were gained in the schools of St. Louis, both pri- 
vate and public, and the knowledge there ac- 
quired was supplemented by attendance at the 
Collinsville High School. Upon completing his 
studies, he was sent to Racine, Wis., in order to 
learn the trade of a carpenter, and remained in 
that city for two years. At the breaking out of 
the war with Mexico he enlisted at Milwaukee, 
Wis., in the spring of 1847, his name being en- 
rolled as a member of Company F, Fifteenth United 
States Infantry. The regiment enlisted for five 
years, or until the close of the war. After spend- 
ing a month at Camp Washington, near Cincin- 



230 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



nati, Ohio, they moved southward, and crossing 
the Gulf in> July, landed at Vera Cruz. 

From the coast the regiment proceeded to Pu- 
eblo, and thence accompanied General Scott into 
the valley of Mexico, participating in all the en- 
gagements from that time until they entered the 
city of Mexico. To them was given the honor of 
holding the castle of Chapultepec. Among the 
most important engagements in which they took 
part were those of Tucabia, Contreras and Cheru- 
buseo, the latter being one of the hardest-fought 
battles of the war. After the surrender of Mexico 
they were quartered for some months in the castle 
of Chapultepec, and thence proceeded to the city 
of Queretaro, where they remained until peace was 
declared. 

Mustered out of the service at Covington, Ky., 
Mr. Tufts at once returned to his home in Collins- 
ville. In 1850 he crossed the plains to California 
with an ox-team, being a member of a party of 
six. Before reaching Nevada the little company 
unfortunately lost all their stock, and after hard- 
ships and privations innumerable, reached the El 
Dorado of their dreams. Mr. Tufts engaged in 
mining for two years and met with fair success. 
At the expiration of that time he returned to Illi- 
nois via the Isthmus of Panama, and resuming 
work at his trade, spent the winter of 1853-54 in 
Belleville. 

In March, 1854, before the railroad was com- 
pleted to Centralia, Mr. Tufts came to this place, 
and embarking in business as a carpenter, was 
thus engaged until the opening of the Rebellion. 
On the 6th of June, 1861, he enlisted in the First 
Illinois Cavalry, and was elected First Lieutenant 
of Company H, which he aided in raising. Nole- 
man's Cavalry (as it was usually called) was un- 
der the command of Colonel Oglesby, afterward 
Governor of Illinois, and under the leadership of 
their gallant commander they did considerable 
scouting service. He took part in the battles of 
New Madrid and Island No. 10, and before the 
former engagement carried the first flag of truce 
known to the Union. 

At the expiration of his term of enlistment, Mr. 
Tufts was mustered out of the service at St. Louis, 
Mo., in July, 1862, and returning to Centralia, 



shortly afterward received the appointment of 
Deputy Collector of Internal Revenue, which he 
occupied for two years. He also aided in recruit- 
ing soldiers, being the enrolling officer for the 
camp near Centralia. He served as a delegate to 
the National Republican Convention at Baltimore 
that nominated Abraham Lincoln for President 
and Andrew Johnson for Vice-President. Later 
he was elected City Clerk, and in 1866 was ap- 
pointed mail agent between Cairo and Centralia, 
which office he held until January, 1869. 

In 1868, at the time of the establishment of The 
Democrat, Mr. Tufts was one of the prime factors 
in founding the paper, and for a time served as 
Secretary and manager of the company. In 1871 
he assumed complete control of the paper, which 
had the distinction of being the first Democratic 
publication in the city. In 1870 he was granted 
the contract for building railroads in Christian 
County, 111., for the Wabash Railway Company, 
and with his partner cut out a road bed through 
rock, a feat that had been attempted but aban- 
doned by two former contractors. About the same 
time Mr. Tufts was awarded the contract for build- 
ing the Cairo Short Line between Pinckneyville 
and Du Quoin. 

During the first administration of President 
Cleveland the subject of this sketch was appointed 
to the postoflice of the House of Representatives 
at Washington, I). C., which position he filled for 
about three years. In 1886 he was appointed 
Postmaster at Centralia, and under the second ad- 
ministration of President Cleveland was again 
appointed to that office, his commission bearing 
date of September 23, 1893. This responsible po- 
sition he still holds, and by his fidelity to duty 
and the efficient manner in which the office is con- 
ducted has won the high regard of his fellow-citi- 
zens, lie has held other positions of prominence. 
For one year he served as Alderman, and for three 
terms officiated as City Clerk. Socially he is iden- 
tified with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
and was the representative of the Encampment at 
this place to the Grand Encampment of the state. 
He is now Acting President of the State Associa- 
tion of Mexican War Veterans. 

The marriage of Mr. Tufts occurred October 4, 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



231 



1857, and united him with Zerelda Goodwin, who 
was born and reared in Clark County, Ind., and 
received an excellent education in the Bloomfield 
Seminary, at Bloom field, Ky. She came to Cen- 
tralia in the winter of 1855-56, and made her 
home with a sister until her marriage. Her father, 
John Goodwin, was born near Nicholasville, Ky., 
and upon attaining man's estate removed to Clark 
County, Ind., where he became an extensive farmer. 
He was a soldier in the War of 1812, and partici- 
pated in the memorable battle of Tippecanoe. In 
Clark County he married Miss Pauline Jenkins, 
and their union resulted in the birth of six chil- 
dren, who reached mature years. Only two now 
survive, Mrs. Tufts and Mrs. Martha Fry, the lat- 
ter being a resident of Arkansas City, Kan. Mr. 
Goodwin continued to make his home in Clark 
County until liis death, which occurred in 1859. 
His wife survived him many years, passing away 
in 1878. 

The marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Tufts resulted in 
the birth of seven children: Gay L. and Charles 
Drew, editors and proprietors of The Democrat; 
Elsie May and Zerelda 1)., those deceased being: 
Otho, Elda and Samuel. For further information 
concerning the younger son, the reader is referred 
to the sketch of Charles Drew Tufts, presented on 
another page of this volume. In the social circles 
of Centralia the family occupies a position of 
prominence, and in their hospitable home fre- 
quently gather the most refined and famous of 
Centralia's citizens. 

JEREMIAH TAYLOR, one of the prominent 
business men and influential citizens of Mt. 
Vernon, who is now extensively interested 
in the Mt. Vernon Bank, claims Kentucky 
as the state of his nativity, his birth having oc- 
curred in Warren County, November 26, 1816. 
No event of special importance occurred during 
his boyhood and youth, which were passed in the 
usual manner of farmer lads. He acquired his 
education under the instruction of a private tutor, 
and at the age of eighteen began teaching school, 
which he followed for about four years. lie then 



began trading and speculating in horses, cattle 
and produce, taking the same to New Orleans by 
flatboat. In this way he made quite a little money, 
but in 1837 he lost it all by the failure of the state 
banks in the financial crash of that year. He 
struggled on until 1843, when he found himself 
without a dollar, but he was enterprising and in- 
dustrious, and learning that photography was be- 
coming a profitable business, he set about fitting 
himself for. that work. He was an apt scholar, 
and ere long he had mastered the business, pro- 
cured an outfit and started out as a traveling artist. 
He was thus employed for about five years, during 
which time he made a considerable sum of money. 
He then took up his residence in Jefferson County 
and purchased a good farm. 

It was here that Mr. Taylor formed the ac- 
quaintance of Mrs. Frances Ham, a widow and 
the mother of C. D. Ham, the present cashier of 
the Mt. Vernon Bank. Not long afterward they 
were married, and locating upon a farm, Mr. Tay- 
lor carried on agricultural pursuits and engaged 
in stock-raising. He also owned a tannery and 
carried on a shoe shop, for his enterprising and 
progressive spirit led him to take up any honor- 
able pursuit whereby he might increase his finan- 
cial resources. He was not avaricious, but he 
wished to get a good start in life and secure a 
comfortable home for himself and family. 

After some eighteen years spent in this line of 
business, on account of the failing health of his 
wife, Mr. Taylor removed to Mt. Veruon, where he 
carried on merchandising in connection withC. D. 
Ham. They also operated a woolen mill for five 
years, when they sold out, and in company with 
others, organized the Mt. Vernon National Bank, 
Mr. Taylor being one of its largest stockholders. 
He has since been connected with that institution, 
and is also interested in other enterprises, being a 
stockholder in the water works, the car shops and 
coal mine, and he owns an extensive farm of 
nearly six hundred acres. During the Civil Wai- 
he was appointed by Governor Yates to help or- 
ganize the State Militia, and in this way did good 
service for his county. He has been a stanch Re- 
publican since the formation of the party, and for 
sixty years has been a faithful member of the 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



Methodist Church, to the support of which he con- 
tributes liberally. He started out in life empty- 
handed, but has steadily worked his way upward, 
and his honorable, upright dealings well merit the 
handsome competence which he has acquired, and 
which is but the just reward of his labors. 



HOMAS L. JOY. Upon the prosperity of 
a community a newspaper exercises a mark- 
ed influence. To it, perhaps more than to 
any other agency, the growth and development of 
a city are due, and from it emanate the principles 
that promote the welfare of its best interests. 
Throughout this section of Illinois, the Centralia 
Sentinel has gained great popularity and is recog- 
nized as the leading organ of the Republican party. 
The high position it occupies in journalistic circles 
is due to the energy and ability of Mr. Joy, the 
present editor and proprietor. 

The subject of this sketch is a native of Illinois, 
having been born in the town of Equality, Sep- 
tember 15, 1850. His father, Rev. Ephraim Joy, 
was born in this state September 6, 1818, and in 
his youth received a liberal education and also 
learned the trade of a tailor. In Lawrence Coun- 
ty, 111., occurred his marriage to Miss Margaret E. 
Seed, a native of Ireland, who came to America 
at the age of about seventeen years. She was one 
of a family of thirteen children, and after coming 
to the United States settled in Illinois, making her 
home in Lawrence County until the time of her 
marriage. 

A man of deeply religious nature and an inter- 
esting and earnest speaker, Rev. Ephraim Joy was 
only twenty years of age when he commenced to 
preach the Gospel, and soon afterward he was or- 
dained to the ministry of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. His first circuit embraced four whole 
counties and portions of two others, and while 
his labors were arduous, yet his energy and ability 
were such that he gained an enviable reputation 
as a successful preacher. Now a resident of Mound 



City, 111., he still follows the profession to which 
he has devoted his entire active life. His wife 
passed away in August, 1883. 

In the parental family there were four children, 
namely: Sarah Ann, who died in childhood; Mel- 
ville II., who died at the age of four years; Thomas 
L. and Andrew F., the latter living in Carmi, 111. 
The subject of this sketch was reared in this state 
and received his education in the district schools. 
At the age of about eighteen years, he started out 
to make his own way in the world, and going to St. 
Louis, there learned the trade of a printer, at which 
he served an apprenticeship of three years. Re- 
turning home, he became a member of the firm of 
E. Joy & Sons, which was organized for the pur- 
pose of conducting a newspaper. They founded 
the Carmi Weekly Times, the first Republican 
paper issued in the county seat of White County. 

One year later, Andrew F. having become of 
age, the firm was changed to Joy Bros., and as 
such continued for ten years. In August, 1880, 
the firm established the Cairo Daily and Weekly 
Neivs, which was successfully conducted under the 
management of the subject of this sketch. In 1881, 
the paper was discontinued and Thomas L. re- 
turned to Carmi. On the 1st of January, 1883, 
he sold out his interest in the Carmi Times and 
removed to Mt. Carmel, his father's old home, and 
purchased the Mt. Carmel Republican, which he 
edited and published weekly until 1887. 

Disposing of the plant in that year, Mi. Joy 
took a vacation from business until October, 1888, 
when he purchased an interest in the Centralia 
Daily and Weekly Sentinel, and in September, 1892, 
the plant passed into the hands of the present 
management. The Daily Sentinel is issued every 
evening, and the Weekly every Thursday. In ad- 
dition to this paper, the company publishes the 
Patoka Enterprise, the Sandoval Times and the 
Odin News, all of which are in a prosperous con- 
dition. The Weekly Sentinel was established in 
1864, and the Daily in 1880. The paper has a 
large circulation and liberal advertising patronage. 
It is the leading Republican paper in this section 
of the state and wields a potent influence for that 
party. It is the advocate of all judicious public 
enterprise and has contributed materially to the 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



growth of Centralia, with the interests of which its 
own are intimately associated. 

At Mt. Erie, 111., September 14, 1873, occurred 
the marriage of Thomas L. Joy to Lizzie V., 
daughter of Willard and Mary E. Lockwood. The 
parents of Mrs. Joy were natives of Ohio and Illi- 
nois respectively, and her mother is still living. 
Our subject and his wife are the parents of one 
child, a son, Vern E. In politics, Mr. Joy is a 
stalwart Republican. Socially, he is a member of 
Helmet Lodge No. 26, K. P., of Centralia, and is 
identified with the Uniformed Rank of that order. 
He also belongs to Queen City Lodge No. 179, 
I. O. O. F. The Southern Illinios Press Associa- 
tion has his name upon its roll of members, and 
at the present time he is serving as President of 
the Republican Press Association of the Twenty- 
first Congressional District. 

He has always taken an active part in politics 
and served as delegate to various conventions of 
state, district and count} 1 . He is a public-spirited 
man, and believes in Centralia and its future de- 
velopment. In disposition he is generous and 
charitable, always ready to aid a worthy cause or 
serve a friend. With such traits of character, he 
cannot but hold a strong place in the hearts of the 
people. 



JAMES WILSON, a carpenter and millwright 
of Centralia, is one of the oldest residents 
of this place. lie lias witnessed the growth 
and development of this community since 
the days of its early infancy, and has taken a com- 
mendable interest in its progress and advance- 
ment. He was born in Chester County, S. C., Oc- 
tober 1, 1816, and is a son of James Wilson, who 
was a native of the same state and was of Scotch- 
Irish descent. He wedded Mary Hamilton, who 
was born in South Carolina in 1792, and was a 
daughter of Robert Hamilton, a native of the 
North of Ireland. The latter started for America 
in 1790, and after a voyage of thirteen weeks 
landed at Charleston. 

James Wilson, Sr., followed the trade of carpen- 
tering in his native state, and also engaged in 
farming there until the spring of 1832, when he 



removed to Greene County, Ohio. In 1835 he be- 
came a resident of St. Clair County, 111., and en- 
tering land from the Government, developed a 
fine farm, upon which he made his home until his 
death, August 23, 1866, at the age of seventy-two 
years. His wife also died on the old homestead, 
January 10, 1874. They were the parents of eight 
children, but our subject is the only one now liv- 
ing. Both were members of the Reformed Pres- 
byterian Church. 

Mr. Wilson of this sketch spent the first sixteen 
years of his life in the state of his nativity, and 
acquired his education in its common schools. He 
was about nineteen years of age when he came to 
Illinois. When quite young he learned the car- 
penter's trade with his father and uncle, and for 
some years followed that pursuit, but at length en- 
tered eighty acres of land in St. Clair County, 
where he carried on farming until September, 1854. 

In South Carolina, on the 26th of Novem- 
ber, 1840, Mr. Wilson was united in marriage 
with Miss Jane B. White, daughter of John and 
Margaret (Kennedy) White, the former of whom 
was a native of South Carolina. The grandfather, 
William White, was a Revolutionary soldier and 
took part in many important engagements dur- 
ing that struggle for independence. John White 
was a fanner and stock-raiser, and died in his 
native state in the year 1840. After his death 
the family removed to Bloomington, Ind., and 
thence to St. Clair County, 111. In the family 
were seven children, the following of whom are 
yet living: Francis White, of Marissa, 111.; and 
Elizabeth, wife of William Johnson, deceased, of 
Bloomington, Ind. 

In September, 1854, James Wilson removed to 
Walnut Hill, 111., and in April, 1855, located in 
Centralia. The main line of the Illinois Central 
Railroad was just built, and the now flourishing 
city was then only a village. He began business 
as a contractor and builder, and built many of the 
first houses in this locality. He has since engaged 
as a carpenter and millwright, and has succeeded 
in securing a liberal share of the public patronage. 
His efforts being successful, he has thereby ac- 
quired a handsome income. At one time he was 
j a member of the firm of Wilson. Kell & Co., millers, 



234 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



of Centralia. In 1866 he acted as Superintendent 
for an oil company. He is one of the oldest resi- 
dents of this place and is one of its most highly 
respected citizens. November 26, 1890, he and 
Mrs. Wilson celebrated their golden wedding. 

In politics, Mr. Wilson was first an Abolitionist; 
in 1856 lie joined the Republican party, but since 
1872 has supported the Greenback or Populist 
party. He was the first Assessor and Treasurer of 
Centralia, and was the first Postmaster of Marissa, 
111., which position he filled for eight years. He 
gave the name of Marissa to the office. 

Mr. and Mrs. Wilson are both Presbyterians, 
and he was Superintendent of the first Sunday- 
school ever held in Centralia. They have had no 
children of their own, but they adopted and reared 
three girls, one of whom, Mary, is deceased. The 
other two are married. Jane became the wife of 
B. M. Kimzey, and they reside at Rush Springs, 
Ind. Ter. Nellie is the wife of C. W. Foster, 
and they live in Erie County, Pa. Mr. Wil- 
son has ever maintained his interest in church and 
benevolent work, and has done much for the ad- 
vancement of the cause in this locality. He is 
recognized as one of the best citizens of Marion 
County, for he has ever been prominent in the 
upbuilding of the community and has done all in 
his power to aid in its progress. 



jlU ON. JOHN W. BURTON, Clerk of the Ap- 
ifjj! pellate Court of Mt. Vernon, and one of 
(^^ the prominent and representative citizens 
l^y) of Jefferson County, was born on a farm 
in Johnson County. 111., on the 3d of August, 
1854. His grandfather, Fielderi Burton, was a na- 
tive of North Carolina, whence in early life he re- 
moved to Virginia, and later became a resident of 
Tennessee. In 1834 he came to Illinois, and was 
numbered among the early settlers. He became a 
prosperous farmer, and died in Johnson County in 
1859. His father was of English birth, and came 
to America as a soldier during the Revolution. A 
noted Baptist preacher, he was widely known in 
church circles. 

Charles Burton, father of our subject, was born 
in Virginia in 1824, and accompanied his parents 



on their various removals until locating in Illi- 
nois. He was a man of liberal education, and in 
early life taught school. He served in the Mexi- 
can War, and in 1869 settled in Carbondalc, 111., 
where he was extensively engaged in the produce 
business. He accumulated a handsome fortune, 
but later in life he lost much of it through invest- 
ments in cotton and tobacco. At the time of his 
death, which occurred at Mt. Vernon in the winter 
of 1893-94, he was serving as a member of the 
Board of Grain Inspectors in Chicago. His wife, 
who bore the maiden name of Caroline Russell, 
was of Irish, English, French and German lineage. 
She is now living in Mt. Vernon. 

The subject of this sketch was the third in the 
family of seven children, three sons and four 
daughters. One daughter died in infancy, and 
one son at the age of nineteen years. Charles H. 
is now an attorney of Edwards, 111., engaged in 
practice as a partner of ex-Senator Iladley; Arista 
occupies the chair of history in the Southern Illi- 
nois Normal School of Carbondale; Julia also at- 
tended that school; and Martha is the wife of S. 
W. Frizzell, a stockman of Athens, Tex. 

John W. Burton acquired his early education in 
the Southern Illinois College at Carbondale, and 
completed his literary studies in the Indiana State 
University of Bloomington, Ind., graduating in 
the Class of '76. Wishing to enter the legal pro- 
fession, he read law with Judge William J. Allen 
and Judge Andrew D. Duff, and in June, 1879, 
was admitted to the Bar of Illinois. Scon afterward 
he began practice in Marion, 111., becoming a mem- 
ber of the firm of Clemens & Burton. This con- 
nection was continued until 1884, or until the elec- 
tion of our subject as Clerk of the Appellate 
Court. In 1890, he was re-elected, and since his 
first election to the office he has lived in Mt. Ver- 
non. lie is a very able attorney, and is recog- 
nized as one of the best court officials in the state. 
While he is a stanch Democrat in political senti- 
ment, some of his strongest supporters and truest 
friends are found in the Republican party. 

On the 21st of December, 1881, in Marion, Mr. 
Burton was married to Miss Augusta, daughter of 
Dr. Robert M. Hundley, a prominent physician of 
that place and a distinguished soldier in the late 



LIBRARY 

OF THE . 

UNIVERSITY uf ILLINOIS 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



237 



war, who served as Colonel of an Illinois regi- 
ment. Her mother was a daughter of Judge Wil- 
lis Allen, who was a leading Democratic politician 
of southern Illinois. He was a Member of Con- 
gress, and was Circuit Judge of his district. To 
Mr. Burton and his wife have been born two chil- 
dren: Helen A., aged ten years; and John Allen, 
aged five. Mr. Burton is a Royal Arch Mason 
and a member of the Knights of Pythias, and is a 
leader in both organizations. 



\IL^ IRAM S. PLUMMER, M. D. This gentle- 
|M)) man, who is one of the leading physicians 
'jb^r and surgeons of Mt. Vernon, was born in 
(||) Marysville, Union Count}', Ohio, February 
25, 1831, and is the fourth in order of birth of the 
parental family. His father, Joseph Plummer, was 
born in Rutland, Vt., in 1794, and is descended 
from good old Puritan stock. The latter was a 
lad of eighteen years when his father, Asa Plum- 
mer, removed with his family to Lower Canada, 
where young Joseph remained until he had at- 
tained his majority. In 1815 he returned to the 
States and became one of the early settlers of 
Union County, Ohio. 

Our subject was only two years of age when his 
father located in Champaign County, Ohio, where 
his early life was spent on a farm, and where his 
education was conducted in the common schools. 
Upon reaching his twentieth year, he went to Ur- 
bana and entered the office of Dr. Andrew Wilson, 
under whose instruction he read medicine for three 
years. At the end of that time he entered the 
Cincinnati College of Medicine and Surgery, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, from which he was graduated. In 
May, 1857, he came to Mt. Vernon, where he was 
residing at the outbreak of the Rebellion. In 
September of 1862, he entered the Union army 
as First Assistant Surgeon of the One Hundred 
and Tenth Illinois Infantry, and remained in 
the field with his regiment until after the battle 
of Perryville. He was then given charge of the 
wounded from that conflict, and served as phy- 



sician of the hospital near that place until Jan- 
uary 1, 1863. Ordered thence to Nashville, Tenn., 
he was placed in charge of General Hospital No. 
18, and was there on duty about one year. On 
the re-organization of his regiment, he resigned 
his position as Assistant Surgeon and accepted 
that of Acting Assistant Surgeon of the United 
States army, with headquarters at Nashville. This 
charge he held for about four months, when he 
again resigned, and in February, 1864, returned 
home. Shortly afterward, however, he was ap- 
pointed Surgeon of the One Hundred and Fifty- 
second Illinois Infantry, and continued in the 
service until September 11, 1865, when the regi- 
ment was discharged. 

After the close of the war, Dr. Plummer re- 
sumed his professional duties in Mt. Vernon, where, 
besides attending to his extensive practice, he has 
filled several responsible positions. He has been 
President of the Pension Examining Board since 
1867, with the exception of four years under 
Cleveland's first administration. For four years 
he was Mayor of Mt. Vernon, and for six years 
was a member of the Board of Education, being 
President of that body the greater part of the 
time. 

The lady whom our subject married in 1860 
was Miss Martha, daughter of Harvey T. Pace, 
who was born in Kentucky January 20, 1805. 
The paternal grandfather of Mrs. Plummer, John 
M. Pace, was a native of Henry County, Vs., and 
the son of Joel Pace, Sr., who was a soldier in the 
Revolutionary War. The grandfather had twin 
brothers, Joel and Joseph, who were sold iers in the 
War of 1812 under General Harrison, and both of 
whom were noted men in the early history of Mt. 
Vernon. Joel was the first County Commissioner, 
to which position he* was elected in 1819. He also 
served as the first Clerk of the county, and was 
the first Probate Judge. In fact, he held almost 
all of the county offices at different times. He 
was also a prominent merchant. Joseph was a 
wealthy farmer in this vicinity, and both brothers 
lived to an advanced age. 

Hon. Harvey T. Pace, the father of Mrs. Plum- 
mer, was a tailor by trade, and followed that line 
of work for some time after coming to Mt. Ver- 



2.'! 8 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



non, with whose interests he became identified in 

1822. Ten years later he embarked in the general 
mercantile business on the same corner and in the 
same building where Dr. Plummer's office is now 
located. It was the first two-story building in the 
town, and within its walls Mr. Pace transacted 
business for forty-four years, or until his decease, 
which occurred August 13, 1876. He was one of 
the wealthiest men in the locality, and at one 
time was President of what is now the Air Line 
Railroad. He held many local offices, and was 
three times honored by being elected a member of 
the State Legislature. At one time he owned 
about half of the original site of Mt. Vernon, as 
well as large tracts of land in other parts of Jeffer- 
son County. 

The mother of Mrs. Plummer, Mrs. Nancy 
(Bruce) Pace, was born in Wilson County, Tenn., 
April 25, 1807. Her father was a native of Vir- 
ginia, of Scotch ancestry, and served as a soldier 
in the War of 1812. He came to Mt. Vernon in 

1823, and during the early days in the history of 
this county was a member of the County Board 
of Commissioners. He departed this life in 1854, 
and the mother of Mrs. Plummer died October 30, 
1875, seven months after celebrating her golden 
wedding. 

J. M. Pace, a brother of Mrs. Plummer, was the 
eldest member of the family, and is at present re- 
siding in Mt. Vernon, of which city he was the first 
Mayor. He is employed as a Claim Agent, and 
his son, William T., is Judge of Jefferson Count}'. 
Mrs. Plummer is a member of the Christian Church, 
of which body her father was the organizer in Mt. 
Vernon. In 1854 he purchased the old Methodist 
Church, and at his own expense had it remodeled 
and used as the house of worship for the Christian 
congregation. Mrs. Plummer is a highly accom- 
plished lady, and is a graduate of the Daughters 
College of Harrodsburg,Ky. Throughout the state 
she is well known as a member of the Board of 
Education in Mt. Vernon. Her election to that 
body was contested, and by her the case was taken 
to the Supreme Court, where the election was con- 
firmed. 

Dr. and Mrs. Plummer are the parents of the 
following children; Hollie A., now Mrs. William 



Kelly, of Mt. Vernon; Grace, at home; Minnie M., 
the wife of E. W. Raymond, of St. Louis; Nannie, 
Adah R., Loolali and H. Gale. The Doctor is a 
member of the Southern Illinois Medical Associa- 
tion, and is connected with the Jefferson County 
Medical Association. Socially, he is a Chapter 
Mason and a member of the Knights of Honor. He 
also belongs to the Knights and Ladies of Honor, 
the I. O. M. A., and the National Railway Surgeons. 



;ILLIAM F. BUNDY, though still a young 
man, has already acquired a fine reputa- 
tion as a successful lawyer and has built 
up an extensive practice in Centralia. He is a 
native of this county, and was born in Raccoon 
Township June 8, 1858, to Isaac and Amanda 
(Richardson) Bundy, early residents of this lo- 
cality. 

William F.was reared to manhood in his native 
place, and after completing his studies in the com- 
mon schools, in 1879 entered the Southern Illinois 
Normal at Carbondale. After leaving college Mr. 
Bundy began reading law in the office of W. <fe 
E. L. Stoker, of Centralia, and was admitted to 
the Bar in May, 1887. When ready to begin the 
practice of his profession our subject found a 
suitable location in Centralia, whither he removed, 
and where he has resided ever since. He was mar- 
ried May 7, 1890, to Mary E., daughter of James J. 
McNally. The latter was a native of New York 
State, and at the time of his decease was residing 
in Belleville, 111. Mrs. Mary E. Bundy was born in 
Cleveland, Ohio, where she received a fine educa- 
tion and later was a student at De Pauw Universi- 
ty, in Greencastle, Ind. 

By their union Mr. and Mrs. Bundy have be- 
come the parents of two children, Donald M. and 
Dorothy K. The father of our subject was a strong 
Abolitionist, and as might be expected, the son is 
a true blue Republican. He possesses a thoughtful, 
clear mind, an intellect well balanced, and execu- 
tive talent of high order. He is recognized at an 
able and first-class all-round lawyer, and his ap- 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



239 



pointtnent for two terms as City Attorney shows 
the high estimate placed upon his services as a 
lawyer. He was City Clerk for two years and 
socially is a Free & Accepted Mason. 



"77 LFRED FAULKNER, a farmer residing on 
(@//j|| section 34, Centralia Township, Marion 

Jll IB County, is one of the best known citizens 
^jl of this community. His father, William 
Faulkner, was born in Green County, Ky., in 
1797, and when he had attained his majority went 
to Orange County, Ind., where he met and married 
Miss Ann Harnett. Previously he had joined the 
Jo Davis Company of Kentucky Mounted Infan- 
try, and served for a year in the War of 1812. 
After his marriage he entered land in Kentucky, 
and there began farming in his own interest. For 
one term he served as Deputy Sheriff of Green 
County. .In 1843, lie returned to Orange County, 
Ind., where he again purchased a farm. He served 
as Road Commissioner for several years, and was a 
member of the Regular Baptist Church. In the 
family were twelve children, Warren, Albert, Mary 
Ann, Melinda, Jane, Catherine, Alfred, Martha, 
Joseph, Louisa, Thomas and Samuel, six of whom 
are now deceased. Alfred married Amanda C., 
daughter of Virgil Grubb, a prosperous farmer, 
and died in Centralia Township. Warren married 
Elizabeth Sanders and is living in Wayne County, 
111. Joseph wedded Kate Long and is living in 
Birdseye, Ind. The father of this family died De- 
cember 18, 1859, and the mother, who was bom in 
1811, passed a way in 1880. 

Alfred Faulkner was born in Orange County, 
Ind., August 2, 1833, attended the public schools 
through the winter months, and in the summer 
season worked upon the farm. At the age of 
twenty-one, he began working as a farm hand, and 
after two years went to Hardinsburg, Ind., where 
he followed the blacksmith's trade for a year. 
Later he began clerking in a general store, and as 
the postofflce was in the store he was appointed 
Deputy Postmaster. With the desire to try his 
fortune in the west, he started with a wagon in 



October, 1854, and after four weeks of travel 
reached Grand Prairie Township, Jefferson Coun- 
ty. There he learned that the Illinois Central 
Railroad was in process of construction, and ob- 
tained work on the same south of Centralia. Later 
he was engaged in the construction of the Ohio & 
Mississippi Railroad in Knox County, Ind., and in 
the spring of 1856 he returned to this state, locat- 
ing in Richview, where he obtained work in a 
woolen factory, carding wool. In the following 
year he went to Bond County, 111., where he fol- 
lowed blacksmithing for twelve months, after 
which he spent one winter in making rails in Grand 
Prairie Township. During the summer of 1858, 
he was employed as a farm hand by David Copple, 
and in the winter taught the Copple district school. 

During this time, Mr. Faulkner became ac- 
quainted with Amanda Grubb, and they were mar- 
ried March 20, 1859, after which our subject oper- 
ated a rented farm in Centralia Township. In the 
autumn of 1861 we find him on a farm in Jeffer- 
son County, and in the summer of 1862 he enlisted 
for three years' service in Company H, Eightieth 
Illinois Infantry, for three years. He was always 
ready for duty, participated in twent3 T -three battles 
of importance, and on the 19th of June, 1865, was 
honorably discharged. He then returned to his 
family, and in the autumn removed to Orange 
County, Ind., where he rented a farm, which he 
carried on for two years. During that time he 
served as Constable. 

In March, 1868, Mr. Faulkner returned to Illi- 
nois, and for nineteen years lived on a farm near 
Centralia. He then purchased a farm on section 
34, Centralia Township, and is now extensively 
engaged in the cultivation of fruit, making a spec- 
ialty of apples, strawberries and peaches. 

Unto Mr. and Mrs. Faulkner were born seven 
children, six yet living, Martha, who became the 
wife of William Parker, and after his death mar- 
ried II. Willis, who is living in Washington Coun- 
ty, 111.; Frank, who married Minnie Sendmoreand 
is living near Centralia; Thomas M., who married 
Rosa Dobbs and. is living in Centralia Township; 
Joseph, John and Willie, who are at home. 

Mr. Faulkner is a member of the Christian 
Church, and belongs to the Farmers' Mutual Pro- 



240 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



tective Association. In politics he is a supporter of 
the Republican party, and be has served as School 
Director. He now receives a pension of 18 per 
month, which rewards him for his valuable services 
at the front. 'lie is still the same faithful citizen 
that he was in time of war, and all who know him 
respect him for his sterling worth. 

Virgil Grubb, father of Mrs. Faulkner, was born 
near Bowling Green, Warren County, Ky., Septem- 
ber 7, 1811, and -his father, Jacob Grubb, was born 
in Washington County, Va., April 30, 1775. The 
family was represented in the Revolutionary War 
and was of German descent In 1796, Jacob 
Grubb removed to Pennsylvania, and there first 
learned the English language, attending an En- 
glish school for about a year and mingling with 
English speaking people. In the spring of 1804, 
he married Sallie Rice, daughter of John and Mar- 
tha Rice, who were of English and Irish descent, 
respectively. Her father served in the Revolution- 
ary War and in the Indian War. To Jacob Grubb 
and his wife were born six children. Nancy, who 
was born August 13', 1808, became the wife of 
Elijah Burkheiser, and died in 1836, leaving six 
children; Virgil was the second of the family; Car- 
oline, born in 1814, became the wife of Elijah 
Newby, and died in her eighteenth year, leaving 
one child; Sallie, born in 1817, is the widow of 
William Collier and is living in Campbellsburg, 
Ind.; Joel, born May 1, 1819, is living in Mis- 
souri; John, born May 1, 1823, married Florence 
Burkheiser and is living in Washington, Ind. 

The parents of this family removing from Ten- 
nessee, settled in Warren County, Ky., in 1806 
and there secured a good farm, but the buildings 
upon the place were destroyed by tire. The father 
served as a soldier during the War of 1812 and 
then resumed farming, which he followed in Ken- 
tucky until the spring of 1818, when he sold out 
and removed to Washington County, Ind. There 
he continued to make his home until his death, 
June 16, 1861, at the age of eighty-seven. His 
wife, who was bom December 19, l'781, died May 
9, 1840. 

Virgil Grubb left Kentucky at the age of seven 
years. His educational privileges were limited, for 
the schools of that time were poor and books ex- 



ceedingly scarce. He had to leave school in order 
to work on the farm, and was thus employed until 
the winter of 1830-31, when he worked in his own 
interest in New Albany, Ind. In the spring he 
purchased a small farm, for which he paid *100, 
but just as he was ready to move onto it, it was 
entered by another man. 

On the 16th of February, 1832, Mr. Grubb mar- 
ried Delilah Sanders, who was born in Clark Coun- 
ty, Ind., November 24, 1814. Her parents were 
Thomas and Hannah (Copple) Sanders. With 
their families they removed from North Carolina 
to Indiana in 1809. and were married in 1812. Mr. 
Sanders was of English descent, and his father, 
Richard Sanders, died in Orange County, Ind., in 
1836. He was born in 1790, and passed away in 
November, 1832. His wife, who was born in 1796, 
departed this life in October, 1843. From Clark 
County they removed to Orange County, Ind., in 
1818, and became the parents of eight children, 
Mrs. Grubb having three sisters. Mary became the 
wife of John Free, by whom she had eight chil- 
dren, all living in Orange Count} 1 . Margaret be- 
came the wife of William H. Crittenden, later 
married James Walker, afterward married John 
McDuffy, and is now living in Centralia. Elizabeth 
is the wife of Warren Faulkner, of Wayne Coun- 
ty, 111. The brothers are, Morgan, who is living in 
New Albany, Ind., and has eight children; Jacob, 
who married Polly Breeze and has six children; 
John, who married Jane Breeze and has four 
children; Richard, who married Belinda Faulkner 
and had nine children. 

After losing his farm in Washington County, 
Ind., Mr. Grubb embarked in farming in Orange 
County, in 1832. In that year he cast his first 
Presidential vote, supporting General Jackson. In 
April, 1834, he removed to a house belonging to 
Thomas Winters, and entered forty acres of land, 
upon which he built a cabin, stable and crib, and 
took up his residence on that place. In the follow- 
ing spring he was elected Captain of a military 
company, and after holding the position for six 
years, resigned. Sometimes his crops were good 
and sometimes poor, but altogether he prospered. 
In October, 1835, he purchased eighty acres of 
land and improved his farm as he found oppor- 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



241 



tunity. He also engaged in teaching school and 
bought more land. 

Mr. Grubb and his wife had a large family of 
children. Julia Ann was born March 27, 1833; 
Sallie Matilda became the wife of Jonathan Sand- 
ers, and they had six children, of whom two are 
yet living, Mary and Samuel. The mother died 
April 24, 1868. Amanda C., wife of Mr. Faulk- 
ner, is the next younger. Mary Ellen, born De- 
cember 16, 1839, married Elwood Sanders and 
had three children, one yet living, Hattie Ma- 
tilda. After her first husband's death she married 
Hugh Shipley, and died May 8, 1865. Hannah I., 
born October 20, 1841, married Eli Copple, who 
was killed in the army, and then married David 
Copple, by whom she has four children, Joel R., 
Benjamin F., Virgil J. and Ida D. Nancy Eliza- 
beth, born November 19, 1843, became the wife of 
John Copple, and seven of her nine children are 
living, Emma, Minnie, Virgil, He, John, Mary and 
Anna. Joel Lee, born October .21, 1845, married 
Mary Ellen Copple and had seven children, five 
living, Charlie Oscar, Mary Ellen Mabel, Virgil, 
Frank and Thula. Thomas Volney, born June 6, 
1848, married Alice Johnson, and died February 
23, 1877, leaving three daughters, Hattie A., Lillie 
B. and Volney J. John Franklin, born December 
27, 1849, went to Missouri, where he married 
Rindy Smith, by whom he had two children, Eva 
Dora and Cora Alice, and is now living in Chicago. 
Virgil, who was born July 8, 1852, married Lillie 
Burbanks,and travels for a wholesale house of Chi- 
cago; he has two children. Delilah J., born October 
11, 1858, became the wife of James A. Boggs, and 
died August 7, 1876, leaving a daughter, Iva J. 

In 1844, Mr. Grubb traveled through southwest- 
ern Missouri, accompanied by John Sanders and 
Wiley Johnson, and on the 9th of September, 
returned home. In 1846 he sold his farm with the 
intention of going to Missouri, but changed his 
mind and purchased another farm in Indiana. In 
1847, he was elected Captain of a compan}' raised 
for the Mexican War, but while they were drilling 
the war ended. In the spring of 1848, he was 
elected Justice of the Peace. While attending a 
wood chopping, April 5, 1851, he had his left ankle 
badly injured by a falling tree, and has since been 



a cripple. In the following winter he taught 
school, and in 1853 he bought an other farm of one 
hundred acres. In that year he was also unani- 
mously elected Justice of the Peace. He continued 
farming and school teaching until 1857, when he 
sold out with the intention of removing to Kansas, 
but on account of the slavery troubles there, came 
to Illinois. He bought a farm of two hundred 
acres near Centralia, and then returned for his 
family. They experienced many of the hardships 
and trials of frontier life, but altogether prosperity 
attended their efforts. At the breaking out of the 
late war, three of the sons-in-law enlisted and two 
were killed in the service, and on the 21st of June, 
1861, his eldest son had his right knee crushed, and 
the limb was amputated. Those were trying and 
exciting times. In the spring of 1865 his wife lost 
her eyesight. In 1867, Mr. Grubb embarkad in 
business in Centralia, and did well along that lime 
until March 3, 1870, when his store and stock were 
destroyed by fire. When he had settled up his 
affairs in town, he retired to a farm in Jefferson 
County, where he remained for three years, but 
health and eyesight having become impaired, he 
began travelling. His eyesight, however, con- 
tinued to fail, and on the 1st of February, 1877, 
his left eye was removed. He then sold his farm 
and removed to Centralia, where he made his home 
until after the death of his wife. He then lived 
with his daughter, Mrs. Faulkner, until called to 
the home beyond, March 26, 1885. He was an 
honored pioneer, and will be remembered by many 
friends throughout southern Illinois. 



,ILLIS DUFF GREEN, who for nearly 
lalf a centurj' has been recognized as the 
leading physician of Mt. Vernon, is well 
worthy of representation in this volume, and we 
feel assured that many will receive this record of 
his life with interest. A native of Danville, Ky., 
he was the eldest son of Dr. Duff and Lucy Green. 
He received his classical education in Center Col- 
lege, in his native town, and fitted himself for his 



242 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



profession in Transylvania University, of Lexing- 
ton, Ky., and the Medical College of Cincinnati, 
Ohio, being graduated from the latter institution 
with the degree of M. D. in 1844. 

The Doctor's father, Dr. Duff Green, was a lieu- 
tenant in the regular army, but on account of 
failing health was compelled to resign. During 
the War of 1812, he served as surgeon in Barbee's 
Volunteer Kentucky Regiment and then located in 
Danville, Ky., where he continued the practice of 
medicine until the summer of 1844, when with 
our subject he went to Pulaski,Tenn., and in 1846 
to Mt. Vernon, where his death occurred at the 
age of seventy-three. His mother also died in Mt. 
Vernon at the advanced age of eighty-three. 

Dr. Green whose name heads this sketch was 
. married in Kentucky in 1845 to Miss Corinna L., 
(Daughter of Isaac Morton, a prominent merchant 
of Hartford, Ky. She is a lady of fine education 
and literary attainments. They have eight chil- 
dren. Alfred Morton, the eldest, is an able attor- 
ney, who-served as State's Attorney of Jefferson 
County; he was a member of the Legislature from 
this district, and is now a leading lawyer of 
Gainesville, Tex. William H. is a prominent at- 
torney, who graduated from the Michigan State 
University, served for one term as Master in 
Chancery, was elected City Attorney, and while 
thus serving was elected State's Attorney, in 1884. 
In 1888, he was re-elected, filling the office eight 
years. He is a rising young politician, and his 
name is before the people as a candidate for the 
Legislature. Earl, who graduated from Bellevue 
College of New York, and has studied medicine 
in Vienna, Paris and London, is now practicing 
with his father in Mt. Vernon. Ineze I. is a pro- 
fessor in the Southern Illinois Normal at Carbon- 
dale. Lora Reed, Cora Lee, Minnie and Madelyn 
F. are at home. 

Dr. Green has been one of the most successful 
physicians in southern Illinois, winning a most 
extensive practice by his skill and ability. He is 
a member of the National Medical Association, 
and is an honorary member of the Illinois Medical 
Association. He owns much valuable property, 
all of which has been acquired through his own 
efforts. He was President of the Mt. Vernon Rail- 



road Company, which built the first railroad into 
this place. For nearly half a century he has been 
a prominent Odd Fellow and was Grand Master of 
the State in 1858, and Grand Representative to the 
the United States the following year. The Doctor 
was a delegate to the National Convention that 
nominated Samuel J. Tilden. 



JASPER N. KERR. With almost every en- 
terprise that has promoted the progress of 
Centralia during the past decade, the sub- 
ject of this sketch has been intimately as- 
sociated. He is now the Secretary of the Home 
Building & Loan Association of Centralia, is a 
prominent real-estate owner, and was formerly an 
extensive fruit-grower. In his official life he 
proved himself to be independent, fearless and in- 
corruptible, and he has filled with marked ability 
the highest position within the gift of his fellow- 
townsmen that of Mayor. 

In presenting the biography of Mr. Kerr, we 
claim the privilege of every historian that of re- 
ferring to the past, mentioning his ancestry and 
some events connected with the lives of his fore- 
fathers. The Kerr family was identified with the 
early history of Virginia, where our subject's 
grandfather, George, was born and reared, and 
whence he removed to Kentucky, later settling in 
Ohio. Upon crossing the Ohio River he came to 
Cincinnati, which then gave so few indications of 
its present greatness that he could have purchased 
in exchange for an old gun all the land the city 
now embraces. 

Proceeding northward, George Kerr came to 
Miami County, where he made settlement and of 
which he was a pioneer. He entered a tract of 
land from the Government, and turning the first 
furrows in the soil, gave his attention to its culti- 
vation until death claimed him. During the In- 
dian wars of early days he served as a scout under 
the Government. His brother, Hamilton, was 
killed by an Indian, and he it was who figured in 
the well known story of the Indian and white 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



243 



man who stood behind the same tree during the 
battle. The members of the Kerr family in re- 
mote generations were of English and Irish birth. 

Granfather Kerr had six sons, five of whom grew 
to manhood, our subject's father, George W., be- 
ing the youngest of the number. There was also 
a daughter who attained mature years. George W. 
spent his boyhood days upon the old homestead 
in Miami County, Ohio, where his birth occurred 
August 29, 1807. Upon starting out in life for 
himself he entered a tract of land from the Gov- 
ernment, and such was the prosperity that resulted 
from his arduous labors that he acquired large and 
valuable possessions. In 1863 he disposed of his 
property in Miami County, and coming to Illinois, 
purchased land in Hoyleton, Washington County, 
and there engaged in farming. That place con- 
tinued to be his home until his death, which oc- 
curred in September, 1878. 

The marriage of George W. Kerr occurred in 
Miami County and united him with Miss Nancy 
Collins. They became the parents of five daugh- 
ters and two sons, all of whom are now living. 
Harriet, the eldest, married Charles R. Thomas, 
and they live near Vine, Darke County, Ohio, 
where he operates a farm. Alithea M. is the wife 
of Rev. George P. Slade, a minister in the Chris- 
tian Church, residing at Danville, 111. Our sub- 
ject is the next in order of birth. Martha, who 
married Frank A. Jones, lives upon a farm in Bar- 
ton County, Mo. Mary E. is the wife of R. D. 
Baldwin, an agriculturist and large land-owner of 
Washington County, 111. Lucinda J., wife of 
Amos P. Free, lives in Jones County, Tex., where 
he is a farmer and stock-raiser. Charles V. is a 
professor of mechanical engineering in the State 
University of Arkansas, at Fayetteville. The 
mother of this family died February 10, 1880, at 
her home in Washington County, 111. In religious 
belief she was a devoted member of the Christian 
Church, while her husband was identified with the 
Baptist Church. Their home farm comprised two 
hundred and eighty acres and was one of the finest 
in the county. 

Near Troy, Ohio, the subject of this sketch was 
born March 28, 1841. His early education was 
gained in the city schools of Troy. In the fall of 



1862 he began to teach school, and after one term 
came west to Illinois, where for fifteen years he 
prosecuted farming in the summer and teaching in 
in the winter. During the Civil War he enlisted 
in the One Hundred and Thirty-sixth Illinois In- 
fantry, and aided in the organization of Company 
B, of which he was elected Second Lieutenant. 
At the expiration of his term of service he resumed 
the combined occupations of farmer and teacher. 
He taught school for several years in this part of 
Illinois. 

October 1, 1867, Mr. Kerr was united in mar- 
riage with Mary A., daughter of John Wilson, a 
native of Indiana. Mrs. Kerr was born in Indiana 
July 2, 1848, and came to this state after her 
father's death. Two children have been born to 
their union: Mabel, the wife of Ben W. Storer, a 
gcocer of Centralia; and Edward W., a student in 
Purdue University, where he is fitting himself for 
the profession of an electrical and mechanical en- 
gineer. 

Upon abandoning his labors in the schoolroom, 
Mr. Kerr devoted his attention to fruit-growing 
in Clinton County, where he was also prominent 
in public. affairs, serving for two terms as Clerk of 
Brookside Township, for two terms as Supervisor 
of that township, for seven years as Secretary of 
the Fair Association, and for one year as Vice- 
President of the Board of Fair Directors. In 1882 
he removed from Clinton to Marion County. Pre- 
vious to that, however, he had, in December of 
1881, purchased a half-interest in the Centralia 
Sentinel, and about two years later he bought the 
other half-interest. In 1884 he established the Cen- 
tralia Daily Sentinel, which he edited for four years, 
and of which he was sole manager until 1888. In 
October of that year he sold the paper and plant to 
T. L. Joy, the present proprietor. During that 
time Mr. Kerr also established the Sandoval Times 
and the Patoka Enterprise, both of which he has 
since sold to the same purchaser. 

Mr. Kerr's connection with the fruit-growing 
industry of Marion County has been close and 
continuous, and he shipped the first single carload 
of strawberries from the city of Centralia in a sin- 
gle day's shipment. He is the owner of the Elm- 
wood Addition to Centralia, which is located about 



244 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



one-half mile from the center of the town, and 
which is now being laid off in lots. 

Reared in the faith of the Democratic party, 
Mr. Kerr advocated its tenets until the firing upon 
Ft. Sumter aroused his indignation and caused 
him to transfer his allegiance to the Republican 
party. He has since been a stalwart champion of 
its platform. He was the first regular nominee 
for Mayor put forward by the Republican party 
as a party candidate. He never sought office, but 
when chosen for the responsible position of Mayor 
he pledged an honest and faithful administration 
of municipal affairs and carried out to the letter 
every promise he had made. During his adminis- 
tration the water-works enterprise took its first 
substantial move forward. Fearlessness and fair 
dealing with everyone characterized his term of 
office and won the approval of the people. He 
could have been re-nominated, but declined to be 
a candidate. Independent and honorable, he has 
never during the entire period of his political life 
sacrificed principles for the emoluments of office. 
In 1891 he aided in the organization of the Home 
Building <fe Loan Association of Illinois, and has 
since been identified with the enterprise. Socially 
he belongs to the Grand Army of the Republic, 
and is also a member of the Knights of Pythias, 
in which he has filled all the chairs. 



|L_ENRY KEISTER has a well cultivated 
JlM^i farm on section 26, Meridian Township 
^^ and holds an honorable place among the 
(^g| men of character and principle, who have 
had the making of Clinton County and are active 
in sustaining its reputation as one of the rich 
agricultural communities in a county noted for its 
exceptionally fine resources. He has been success- 
ful in a career in which he embarked with no for- 
tuitous aids of wealth or name, and lias gained a 
high position among the substantial men of his 
township. As such he merits the regard in which 
he is held. 

. Mr. Keister is one of the German citizens of 
Clinton County, who have aided so materially in 
the promotion of its farming interests. Born in 



Hanover in 1828, he is a son of Henry and Louisa 
(Gonn) Keister, the former a native of Hanover, 
and the latter of Brunswick. The father followed 
the occupation of a farm laborer in his native 
land, and during his latter years came to America, 
where his death occurred at the age of sixty-seven. 
In religious belief he was a Lutheran. He and 
his wife were the parents of eight children, three 
of whom died in childhood. The others are, Mina, 
who married Andrew Bendra; Fritz, August, 
Henry and Christ. Mina and Christian are de- 
ceased. 

On account of the poverty of his parents our 
subject had no educational advantages in child- 
hood. At the age of eight years he was hired out 
by his parents to work for his board, and two 
years afterward began to work on levees and rail- 
roads, finally becoming "boss" of five hundred 
men in railroad contract work. During a disturb- 
ance in Germany war threatened, and not wishing 
to enter the army or become involved in interne- 
cine troubles he borrowed money and crossed the 
Atlantic to America. For about eight years he 
worked on a farm near Aurora, 111., and about the 
close of the Civil War he came to Clinton County, 
where he operated a rented farm for one year. 

Buying a tract of prairie land, Mr. Keister from 
time to time added to his first purchase until he 
now owns six hundred acres. The entire amount, 
excepting forty acres, is under cultivation, compris- 
ing as fine a farm as is to be found in the eastern 
part of the county. Mr. Keister gives his atten- 
tion largely to stock-raising and aims to keep on 
his place the best grade of horses, cattle and hogs. 
He owns a bull, half Jersey and half Holstein, 
which weighs twenty-two hundred pounds and was 
imported at a cost of $400. Upon his farm may 
also be noticed as fine a herd of mules as can be 
found in the state. 

In this country, in 1864, Mr. Keister was united 
in marriage with Miss Christina Christ, and they 
are the parents of five children, Henry, Christina, 
Emma, Arnold and Hannah (twins). Christina 
has been afflicted for a number of years with a 
diseased limb and is now receiving treatment at 
the St. Louis Hospital, where they are very hope- 
ful of her recovery. During his residence in this 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



247 



township Mr. Keister has proved the worth of his 
citizenship by his liberal support of all measures 
in any way tending to advance the community. 
His standing here is of the best, as his dealings 
are conducted upon a strictly honorable basis, and 
all who come in contact with him soon learn to 
trust him. His capacity for intelligent and well 
directed labor is of a high order, and by his thrift 
and industry he has won a competence. In his 
political relations he supports Democratic princi- 
ples and projects. 



eHARLES H. PATTON, the leading chan- 
cery attorney of Mt. Vernon, was born in 
Hartford County, "Conn., near the city of 
Hartford, May 9, 1834, and is descended from 
good old Revolutionary stock. His grandfather, 
Seth W. Patton, who served in the War of 1812, 
was a shipbuilder by trade, and being a man of 
more than ordinary ability, accumulated a fortune. 
He served as Selectman of his town, was a prom- 
inent and influential citizen, and his entire life 
was spent in the Nutmeg State, where he died at 
the age of eighty-three. His wife passed away 
three years later, at the same age. The famil}' 
was founded in America by the Pilgrim Fathers, 
who settled in Massachusetts. 

The father of our subject, Eliphalet W. Patton, 
was also a shipbuilder and a man of considerable 
means. In 1835 he removed with his family to 
Ashtabula County, Ohio, and settled on a farm, 
where he continued to prosper. In 1860 he made 
a trip to Illinois and purchased land in Jefferson 
County not far from Mt. Vernon, after which lie 
returned to his Ohio home. He was a man greatly 
respected and was recognized as a leader by his 
fellow-citizens. For many years he served as Jus- 
tice of the Peace and filled other offices. He was 
an upright, honorable man, a devoted member of 
the Christian Church, and died at the age of 
seventy-four years. His wife, who bore the maiden 
name of Ladora Ann Griswold, was born in Mas- 
sachusetts and is still living. Her father, Clark 



Griswold, removed in an early day to Connecti- 
cut with his family. He too belonged to one of 
the prominent Puritan families. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Eliphalet W. Patton were born 
six children, five brothers and a sister. Albert 
W. has for twenty-one years been master car builder 
for the Louisville & Nashville Railroad at Howell, 
Ind. Arthur is a contractor and builder of Carmi, 
111. Byron died in Arkansas. Adelaide is the 
deceased wife of Charles McKinney. Frank E., 
who is City Treasurer of Mt. Vernon and has 
been County Treasurer of Jefferson County, is 
now serving as Cashier of the George W. Evans 
Bank at this place. 

Our subject spent his boyhood days on his fa- 
ther's farm and attended Kingsville Academy, in 
Ashtabula County, at the head of which institution 
was Rev. Z. C. Graves, who later founded the Fe- 
male Seminary in Nashville, Tenn., and was the 
author of the celebrated book "Iron Hand." Mr. 
Patton taught the common and select schools for 
eight terms and studied law with Judge Milton 
A. Leonard, of Pierpont, Ohio. It had been his 
intention to go to Michigan, but his father in- 
duced him to decide to spend one season in Jef- 
ferson County upon the farm, with the ultimate 
view of engaging in legal practice in Mt. Vernon. 
'Accordingly, loading his household effects into a 
wagon, he started for the Ohio River, intending 
to go by boat to Shawn eetown, but when he 
reached the river he found that no steamers were 
in use for travelers, all having been pressed into 
Government service. In consequence he made the 
entire journey by team. After a year upon the 
farm, he associated himself with Judge J. M. Pol- 
lock in law practice at Mt. Vernon, but as the 
business was not profitable during the Civil War 
he accepted the nomination for County Clerk, 
and in 1865 was elected to that office. 

During his service of four years in that capacity 
Mr. Patton brought to the discharge of the du- 
ties his fine business training and legal education. 
He completely revolutionized the business methods 
of the office, and the reforms and improvements 
introduced by him have since been followed and 
are still in use. Since retiring from the office he 
has devoted his entire attention to law and has 



248 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



built up an extensive practice, as large perhaps as 
that of any attorney in southern Illinois. If 
possible to avoid it, he never takes a criminal 
case, but makes a specialty of chancery and cor- 
poration law. He is attorney for the George W. 
Evans Bank and the Mt. Vernon Building and 
Loan Association, general counsel for the Mt. Ver- 
non Car Works, and local attorney for the Louis- 
ville, Evansville & St. Louis, Louisville <fe Nash- 
ville, Wabash and Jacksonville Southeastern Rail- 
roads. 

During the entire period of his legal practice 
Mr. Patton has had but two partners, the first 
being Hon. Thomas S. Casey, afterward Judge of 
the Appellate Court of Illinois; and the second 
being Albert Walton, the present State's Attorney, 
who was Mr. Patton 's first law student. Our sub- 
ject owns the Phoenix Block, in which his office is 
located, and has other valuable business interests. 
He is a stockholder in the water works and the 
Mt. Vernon" Car Works. In 1883 his office was 
burned to the ground, causing the loss of his li- 
brary, which cost $3,000, but hardly had the 
smoke cleared away from the ruins before he be- 
gan the erection of another structure. His home 
an.d some other buildings owned by him were de- 
stroyed in the great cyclone of 1888. 

In Ohio, in 1854, Mr. Patton married Charlotte 
Shave, an English lady, who came to this country 
when twelve years of age. Her father was well- 
to-do and gave her a fine education. Four chil- 
dren were born of this marriage: Dr. Fred W., a 
graduate of Miami Medical College, of Cincinnati, 
and now one of the leading physicians of Mt. 
Vernon; Lulu L.. wife of S. G. H. Taylor, son of 
Mayor Taylor, and a former merchant of Mt. Ver- 
non; Lillie W., wife of James G. Nugent, of the 
dry-goods house of Nugent Bros., of St. Louis; 
and Otto C., who was educated in the State Uni- 
versit}' of Champaign and is now a student in his 
father's office. 

Socially, Mr. Patton is a Knight Templar Ma- 
son and takes a great interest in all branches of 
the order, in which he has filled various important 
offices for thirty-three years. He was High Priest 
of H. W. Hubbard Chapter, R. A. M., and Grand 
Master of the Second Veil in the Grand Chapter 



of Illinois. In the Grand Lodge of Illinois, A. F. 
& A. M., he served for several years on the highest 
committee, that of Masonic Jurisprudence, and 
has been District Deputy Grand Master for sev- 
eral terms. A charter member of the Knights of 
Honor, lie has filled various offices in this organ- 
ization and has served as representative to the 
Grand Lodge. For several years lie was Trustee 
and afterward Chairman of the Finance Commit- 
tee of the Grand Lodge, and is now one of the two 
representatives of the Grand Lodge of Illinois in 
the Supreme Lodge of the United States. He and 
his wife arje members of the Eastern Star, of which 
he is Worthy Patron, and Mrs. Patton is Assistant 
Worthy Matron. They are numbered among the 
most prominent people of the community and are 
held in the highest regard by all. 



ETER BRERETON is a well known and 
influential citizen of Iluey, Clinton Coun- 
where he owns a fine residence and 
considerable real estate. He is the son of 
Benjamin Brereton, who was born in Cheshire in 
Wernetlilow, England, in 1792. His occupation 
was that of a dresser in a cotton factory in Hyde, 
in which place he spent the greater part of his life. 

The father of our subject was married when 
twenty- two years of age to Miss Ash worth, of 
Hyde, England, by whom he became the father of 
five children. Only one in that family is living 
at the present time: Joseph, who makes his home 
in Joliet. Mrs. Brereton departed this life in 
1829, and the following year the father was mar- 
ried to the lady who became the mother of our 
subject, and whose name was Miss Ann Furness; 
her parents were natives of Derbyshire. 

Benjamin Brereton departed this life in his na- 
tive country when seventy-eight years of age. 
His good wife had preceded him to the better land 
by many years, her death having occurred when 
in her sixty-fifth year. Their family included 
five sons and four daughters, of whom the subject 
of this sketch was the eldest. His brothers and 
sisters were, Edwin, John, Benjamin, Cain, Lucy, 
Ann, Mary and Sarah. They are all living in 




PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



249 



England with the exception of Edwin, who makes 
his home in Fall River, Mass., and John and Ben- 
jamin, who are deceased. 

Our subject was born in England, December 10, 
1831, and emigrated to America in 1857, landing 
in the harbor at New York. Very soon thereafter 
lie came west to this state and located in Joliet, 
where he was engaged in farming. When in his 
native land he worked in the factory with his fa- 
ther until reaching his majority, when he learned 
the trade of a baker, which he followed only for 
two or three years. He was married when twenty- 
six years old to Miss Martha Marshall; she also 
lived in Hyde, and was the daughter of John 
Marshall, who was born in Derbyshire in 1803. 
The latter was a wood carver by trade, which oc- 
cupation he followed until his decease, in 1853. 
The mother of Mrs. Brereton was known prior to 
her marriage as Miss Betsy Thornly; she likewise 
was a native of Derbyshire, was born in 1806, and 
died in 1882. She reared a family of six sons and 
four daughters, namely: James, Joseph, Samuel, 
Job, Benjamin, Ebenezer, Elizabeth, Hannah, 
Martha and Mary. Mrs. Brereton has one brother, 
Samuel, who also makes his home in the United 
States, and is now living in lola, 111. Previous to 
coming to America he was a private in the British 
army, and served for eight years at various sta- 
tions belonging to Great Britain on the Mediter- 
ranean Coast. In 1870, however, the mother pur- 
chased his release from the army, at which time he 
came to America, landing in Canada, in which 
place lie was married. His wife bore him four 
children, and is now deceased. Samuel later mar- 
ried a widow by the name of Williams. After the 
death of the father, Mrs. Marshall was a second 
time married, her husband on this occasion being 
Thomas Bridge. 

Peter Brereton, of this sketch, after locating in 
Joliet, worked out as a farm hand near the city, 
where he remained for three years, and then re- 
moved to Centralia, where he rented land for a 
time and soon purchased property of his own near 
Huey. This farm included forty acres, to which 
he later added eighty acres more, and a short time 
thereafter again added a like amount. 

During the late war our subject enlisted, in 1864, 



as a member of Company F, Twenty-eighth Illi- 
nois Infantry, and during his period of service 
engaged in the siege of Spanish Fort and Ft. 
Blakely, which latter place was captured April 9, 
1865. At the close of the war he received his hon- 
orable discharge at Brownsville, Tex., and on be- 
ing mustered out of the service, returned home 
and engaged in farm pursuits. In 1882 he re- 
moved with his family into the city of Huey, 
where he is living retired. He has been very sue-* 
cessful in a financial way, and besides owning a 
quarter-section of fine farming land, is the posses- 
sor of twelve valuable lots in the city, together 
with a beautiful dwelling. Mr. Brereton has never 
sought public office, but has been called upon by 
his fellow-citizens to represent them on the City 
Board. 

Our subject traces his ancestry back to Sir Will- 
iam Brereton, who served as a soldier in Crom- 
well's army. At one time he with a company of 
soldiers was sent from Ireland to Chester, in order 
to besiege the latter place, and in consideration of 
his services was given a large amount of land, on 
which he erected a building which is still known 
as Brereton Hall. The paternal grandparents of 
our subject were Benjamin and Betty Brereton, 
the latter of whom lived to the remarkable age of 
ninety-eight years. His grandparents on his moth- 
er's side were John and May Furness, both of 
whom also lived to a good old age. The father 
of our subject was a British soldier and served un- 
der AVellington during the Waterloo campaign. 

The Thorn lys, the relatives of Mrs. Brereton, 
were very numerous in Derbyshire, England, where 
they were ranked among the leading families of 
the county. By her union with our subject she 
became the mother of four children, of whom 
Arthur Peter, John Thomas, and Lucy are de- 
ceased. James Edward was born October 6, 1847, 
near Plainlield, this state. After completing the 
course of studies in the common schools, he was a 
student at Champaign for four years, and later en- 
tered the Congregational Theological Seminary in 
Chicago, where he remained for four years. His 
first charge after becoming a minister was at Cres- 
ton, this state, where he preached for a twelve- 
month and then went to Ashley, Neb., where he 



250 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



remained for a period of four years. He then ac- 
cepted a call of one year as Field Secretary of the 
Doane College, at Crete, Neb., and at the end of 
that time moved to Geneva, that state, where he 
is still residing and is pastor of the Congregational 
Church. He was married in 1883 to Miss Mary 
Linhoff, whose parents are old settlers of Huey. 
Their union was blessed by the birth of three chil- 
dren, Harold B., Loring and Winefred. 



OWIE C. WARFIELD, a prominent and 
successful fruit-grower of Marion County, 
makes his home on a fine tract of land just 
one mile north of the village of Sandoval. 
He was born in Howard County, Md., October 27, 
1835, and is the son of William R. and Eleanor 
(Watkins) Warfield. 

The paternal grandfather of our subject, Beale 
Warfield, was a native of Maryland. He was de- 
scended from Richard Warfield, who was the first 
of the name to make his home in America, coming 
hither as early as 1637 from Wales. The latter- 
named gentleman had three sons, John, Richard, 
Jr., and Alexander. John emigrated to the west- 
ern states, while his two brothers remained in Mary- 
land. Our subject is descended from that branch 
of the family which sprang from Richard, Jr. 

Grandfather Warfield was a farmer by occupa- 
tion and reared a family of three children : George, 
Catherine, and William R., the father of our sub- 
ject. The latter was born in Maryland and re- 
ceived his education in the select schools of that 
state. His father dying when he was quite young, 
he, together with his brother George, was taken 
into the home of an uncle, with whom they re- 
mained until reaching their majority. Then hav- 
ing inherited the home place, they removed thither 
and resided for many years in the old frame house 
which was erected in 1793, and which stood on the 
farm until a short time ago. 

The lady who became the mother of our subject 
was prior to her marriage Miss Eleanor Watkins, 
the daughter of Col. Gassaway and Eleanor B. 
(Claggett) Watkins. The former was born near 
Annapolis, Md., in 1752, and was descended from 



John Watkins, who emigrated to this country in 
1660. He was the original settler on the paternal 
side of the house, while on his mother's side, Capt. 
John Worthington was the first to make his home 
in the United States. Colonel Watkins was quite 
young when, on the death of his father, he was 
taken by an older brother to Howard County, 
Md., where he passed the remainder of his life 
with the exception of the time spent in the Revolu- 
tionary War. He entered that conflict in January, 
1776, with Colonel Smallwood's regiment, and par- 
ticipated in the battles of Long Island and White 
Plains. In November of that year he was taken 
sick and was confined in the hospital at Morristown. 
Later he traveled on foot to Annapolis, where 
he arrived in January, 1777, and lay sick in the 
hospital of that city until April. Then reporting 
for duty, lie was made Lieutenant of a regiment 
and was in active service in Maryland until Sep- 
tember. 

Colonel Watkins spent the winter of 1778 at 
Wilmington, where the regiment was quartered, 
and during the battle of Monmouth, which took 
place afterward, was a member of General Scott's 
Light Infantry. The following winter was spent 
in camp at West Point, and in April the army went 
south and fought the battle of Camden. At that 
place Colonel Watkins was sent to a house by Gen- 
eral Green in order that lie might secure some val- 
uable information, when being pursued by spys of 
the enemy, he made for the woods, where for two 
days and nights he remained without food of any 
kind. Later he commanded a company at the bat- 
tle of Cowpens. On the day on which General 
Davidson was killed, our subject's grandfather 
was carrying orders for General Green. He trav- 
eled night and day, and when reaching the Yadkin 
River found it swoolen and thick with floating 
logs and trees. The enemy were in pursuit of him, 
and desirous of carrying out the General's orders, 
he threw off his coat and boots and put the valu- 
able papers in his hat and swam to the opposite 
shore. When reaching camp he was received with 
great honor by General Morgan. 

Colonel Watkins also took a prominent part in 
the War of 1812, being appointed Commander-in- 
Chief of that portion of the army stationed at An- 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



251 



napolis, which position he held until peace was 
declared. The Colonel was on many occasions 
petitioned to accept official positions in his com- 
munity, but always refused, preferring to spend 
the remainder of his life with his family on the 
old plantation known as "Walnut Hill" in Mary- 
laud. 

Bowie C. Wai-field, of this sketch, was one in a 
family of thirteen children, all of whom grew to 
mature years except three. They were, Rosa V., 
Gassaway, Beale, Bowie C., Gassuway (2), Eleanor, 
Emma, Albina, Camsadel, Alberta, William, Cath- 
erine and Georgetta. The father of these chil- 
dren owned a valuable plantation of four hundred 
acres in Maryland, which was worked by five negro 
men and three women, besides several children. 
One of these old slaves, John Howard, by name, 
lives in Washington, D. C., where he has two sons, 
one a prominent lawyer and the other a physician. 
William R. Warfield departed this life in 1864. 

Our subject remained under the parental roof 
until becoming of age, in the meantime acquiring 
fine education. In 1857 he came west, locating 
n Marshall County, this state, where for one year 
e hired out by the month as a farm hand. Then 
enting property he began working for himself, 
nd later leased a farm for five years. This he oc- 
upied until 1862, when, on account of the out- 
break of the late war, he gave up his lease, and in 
August of that year entered the Union army, be- 
coming a member of Company I, Eleventh Illinois 
Infantry. With his regiment he engaged in the 
fight before Vicksburg, and after gain ing a victory 
there, the company moved on to Jackson, thence 
to New Orleans, then to Mobile, later to New 
Orleans again, and lastly went up the Red River. 
He was mustered out at Springfield in July, 1865, 
after which he joined his family in La Salle Coun- 
ty, whence they had removed. 

August 24, 1862, our subject was married to 
Miss Julia, daughter of Hall and Amanda (Cul- 
ver) Gregory. Mrs. Warfield was born in the Prai- 
rie State, while her parents were natives of Ver- 
mont. The latter came to this state in 1836, loca- 
ting in Marshall County, where they were among 
the very earliest settlers of Crow Meadows. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Warfield were born two daugh- 



ters: Alverta M., who was graduated with the 
Class of '91 from the normal at Valparaiso, Ind.; 
and Alice E., who is a student in the Washington 
University Art Academy in St. Louis, Mo. These 
accomplished young ladies occupy a high position 
in the society of Sandoval, and the many beauti- 
ful pictures which adorn the walls of our subject's 
home bear evidence of the gift of his younger 
daughter. 

Mr. Warfield came to Marion County in 1866, 
at which time he purchased eighteen acres of land, 
which he devoted entirely to fruit-growing. He 
is now the possessor of one hundred and ten fer- 
tile acres, and is probably one of the most success- 
ful fruit-growers in southern Illinois. 



ESBON MERRILL is one of the most exten- 
sive and enterprising farmers in Jefferson 
County, and one of the largest land owners 
in Moore's Prairie Township, where his farming 
and stock-raising interests are centered on sec- 
tion 10. He is one of the most successful men of 
his class and a fine representative of those who 
began life without a cent and have worked their 
way to wealth solel}' through their own efforts and 
who are therefore rightly called self made. 

Our subject was born in Wayne County, N. Y., 
September 7, 1830, and was the son of Benjamin 
Merrill, who was a native of Maine and who emi- 
grated to New York when a young man, where he 
met and married Miss Alice Sanford. He was a 
farmer and stock-raiser by occupation and reared 
a family of nine children in the Empire State. They 
were, Esbon, Cornelia, Alice, Sanford, Edie, Caro- 
line, Benjamin, Lucy and Fannie. The parents re- 
moved to Chautauqua County when our subject was 
a lad of twelve years and there resided until their 
decease, the father dying in 1882, when eighty- 
one years of age. He was an ardent Democrat in 
politics and served successively as Supervisor and 
Commissioner of his township and county. He 
was a man of fine education and taught school for 
many years during his earlier life, although while 



252 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD 



making his home in western New York he was en- 
gaged in the dairy business. With his wife he was 
a devoted member of the Baptist Church and for 
many years took an active part in religious work. 
Mrs. Merrill died in 1884, when in her eightieth year. 
Four of the aunts and uncles of our subject on the 
paternal side of the house are still living, namely: 
Fannie, Benjamin, Cornelia and Alice. 

Our subject, although attending the district 
school, received his education mainly under the 
tutelage of his father. He remained at home until 
reaching his majority, when he began earning his 
own money and for three years worked at the car- 
penter's trade in his native state. While there he 
was married, in 1852, to Miss Fannie Brigham 
and three years thereafter came to this state and 
made his home in Fairbury, where he was engaged 
at his trade for a period of seven years. At the 
expiration of that time he purchased a farm south 
of the city, in McLean County, which consisted of 
a section of prairie land, which he placed under 
fine improvements and lived upon until Septem- 
ber, 1891, when he sold out and bought his pres- 
ent large farm of two hundred and ninety-eight 
acres, which is his home place. He is also the pos- 
sessor of a good estate in Jasper County, Ind., 
where his three sons are living, besides owning a 
ranch in Cheyenne County, Neb., on which his 
daughter and her family make their home. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Esbon Merrill were born nine 
children. Alice married L. F. Clowsmas and re- 
sides in Nebraska. Jay makes his home in Omaha, 
Neb., where he is Assistant United States I nspec- 
tor of Meats. Rollin, Forest and Cornell are 
cultivating the farm in Indiana. Delia, Mrs. W. 
M. Newell, resides in Colfax, McLean County, 
this state, which is also the home of Vina, Mrs. 
R. S. Bradford. One son, Lee, died when seven- 
teen years of age, and Sanford, the youngest of 
the family, resides with his father. The wife and 
mother departed this life in 1879, greatly mourned 
by all who knew her. 

Although inclining toward the Democratic party, 
Mr. Merrill is non-partisan in politics, and during 
local and county elections votes for the one whom 
he considers the best man. He is a great lover of 
fine horses and commenced stocking his place with 



thoroughbred animals about seven years ago. He 
first purchased "Douglas," a superb Hambletonian, 
sired by "Stephen A. Douglas," whose record 
shows a gait of 2:25. He also has two other stall- 
ions, "Guy Mark Victor," sired by "Von Bismarck," 
also a Hambletonian, and "George Douglas," sired 
by "Douglas, Jr." His stables likewise contain 
animals sired by "Mambrino King," "Marlboro" 
and "Crayton Edsall." Mr. Merrill has on his es- 
tate a half-mile race track on which he trains and 
speeds his horses, although he does not make a 
specialty of training them except to thoroughly 
break and fit them for city use. He finds a ready 
market for his carriage horses, whose record is a 
mile in three minutes. They are all beautiful an- 
imals of bay color, have perfect action and kind 
dispositions. Besides breeding horses our subject 
has on his place a fine herd of Jersey cattle, which 
are used for dairy purposes. 



JOHN P. DULANY, a history of whose life 
is herewith presented to the public, has 
passed from the scenes of earthly joys 
and sorrows to his final resting place, he 
having been blind for a number of years. He was 
born in Rockbridge County, Va., in 1809, whence 
he emigrated with his parents to Middle Tennes- 
see, where he was reared to manhood, and at the 
time of his death was living retired. 

The parental family included five children, of 
whom Thomas was a soldier in the Black Hawk 
war and after his enlistment was never heard from 
again. Nancy became the wife of George Cook, 
and makes her home near Jackson, Miss. Mary 
married B. Ilowell and they too are living in that 
state. Our subject was the next in the order of 
birth. James also makes his home in Jackson. 

John P., our subject, when reaching man's 
estate was married in Tennessee to Miss Susan 
Hutson, by whom he became the father of eleven 
children, all of whom are still living with one ex- 
ception: Isaiah, James M., Margaret, Eleanor, 
George P., Thomas A., Sarah, William B., Mathias, 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



Jesse H. and Susan. The eldest son was married 
in Tennessee, and on coming to Illinois iu the 
'60s located near Bluford, in Weber Township. 

During the late war he served as a teamster in 
in the Union army, and on returning home after 
the close of that conflict taught school for many 
years. Soon after coming to Illinois he began 
studying medicine and is now a practicing physi- 
cian at Middleton, Wayne County; he is also a 
local preacher in the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
James M., the second son, made his home in 
Middle Tennessee until 1893, when he too came 
to Illinois, where he is engaged as a Methodist 
minister. Margaret married James Burge. Eleanor 
became the wife of Thomas Martin and makes her 
home in Texas. George P. is a prominent agri- 
culturist of Hamilton County, this state, which is 
also the home of Thomas A. The latter is a min- 
ister of the Missionary Baptist Church and also 
owns a valuable estate. Sarah died unmarried. 
Mathias is a resident of Weber Township, where 
Jesse H. is also a farmer, and Susan is the wife of 
Hugh Casey, of Hamilton County. 

Mr. Dulany, of this sketch, was a great lover of 
fine stock and was a truly self-made man, all his 
property being the result of much hard labor on 
his part. He was an active member of the Method- 
ist Episcopal Church and was ever ready to assist 
in religious work or benevolent enterprises in his 
vicinity. 

Isaac W. Dulany, the grandson of our subject, 
was born in Van Buren County, Tenn., at the foot 
of the Cumberland Mountains, in 1859. He re- 
mained in that state until twenty years of age, 
when he came to Jefferson County and located in 
Belle Rive, where he remained for three years. At 
the end of that time he returned to his native 
state, where he was married to Miss Tesshiemingo 
Reynolds, whom he brought to this county, and 
located in Bluford, where he established a black- 
smith shop which he has conducted since that time. 
Their family includes the following seven chil- 
dren : Bertha, James Marion , Martha, Louisa, Carrie, 
Ned and William P., and Pollie is deceased. His 
wife departed this life when her youngest child 
was but a few days old. James M. Dulany, the 
father of Isaac W., was born in Tenncs8ee and 



there resided until 1893, when he came to this 
county. Here he is engaged in preaching for 
the Methodist Church South. In politics, Isaac 
W. is a strong Republican, and has filled the of- 
fices of Justice of the Peace since coming to the 
township where he now resides, and in the spring 
of 1893 was elected Supervisor. He has always 
taken a great interest in school affairs and is now 
serving his second term as a member of the Board. 
He has been intimately associated with local af- 
fairs and for four years was Postmaster of Bluford 
under Harrison's administration. 



JUDGE JOHN G. VAUGHAN, a prominent 
farmer and fruit-grower of Marion County, 
residing in Carrigan Township, has been 
identified with the history of this commu- 
nity since December of 1855, and has therefore 
been an eye-witness of much of its growth and de- 
velopment. Born in Butler County, Ohio, Janu- 
ary 21, 1827, the Judge is the eldest of five chil- 
dren, of whom the others are: Martha, Mrs. M. A. 
Francis, of Butler County, Ohio; W. C., a resi- 
dent of Dayton, Tenn.; Mary, the widow of Reese 
Evans, of Greensburg, Ind., and one child that 
died in infancy. The father of this family was 
born in 1803, engaged in farming throughout his 
entire life, and passed away in Butler County 
in 1851. The mother, who bore the maiden name 
of Mary Bebb, was born in Ohio in 1806, being the 
only daughter of Edward and Margaret (Roberts) 
Bebb, and died in 1884, at the age of seventy- 
eight. She had two brothers, Hon. William Bebb, 
who was Governor of Ohio from 1846 to 1848, and 
Evan R., a merchant in New York City. 

The paternal grandfather, John Vaughan, was 
born in Wales in 1765, on the 12th of May, o. s., 
and the 1st of May, n. s. Emigrating to America 
in 1801, he spent one winter in Pennsylvania, and 
in the spring of 1802 settled on section 25, Mor- 
gan Township, Butler County, Ohio. The' mater- 
nal grandfather, Edward Bebb, was born in Wales 
in 1764, and emigrated to the United States in 



254 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



1795. During the following year he came to Cin- 
cinnati and waited for five years for the lands in 
the Miami Purchase to come into market. He en- 
tered his first half-section on the^ay that the land 
office was opened, and settling on that place, en- 
gaged in clearing and cultivating the land until 
his decease, in 1840. His widow, Margaret, sur- 
vived him some twelve years, dying in 1852. She 
had brought to this country an old-fashioned 
clock, which is now in the possession of the Judge 
and is still in perfect running order. 

Until he was thirty years old our subject resided 
in Ohio, and was self-supporting after the age of 
twenty-one. In 1855 he bought land in Marion 
County, and two years later settled here. His pur- 
chase comprised a tract of five hundred and twenty 
acres of land. He cleared the land and there en- 
gaged in general farming and stock-raising, mak- 
ing a specialty of raising hogs for some years. For 
ten years or more he has devoted his attention to 
fruit-raising, and now has an apple orchard of 
about eighty-five acres, to which he is continually 
adding. There have been about one million apple 
trees set out in this county during the past ten 
years, and he is one of the keen, shrewd men who 
have discerned that in this industry great success 
may be secured. 

In the year 1859 occurred the marriage of Judge 
Vaughan and Miss Belle Peters, a native of Ripley, 
Brown County, Ohio, and the daughter of Frazier 
and Elizabeth (Courtney) Peters, residents of the 
Buckeye State for many years. Mrs. Vaughan was 
one of six children, one son and five daughters, 
and is the mother of eight living children: Mary, 
who married George E. Wild, and lives in St. 
Louis; Alice, who is with her parents: Annie, who 
is the wife of W. L. Cope, of Tonti Township, 
Marion County; John, a resident of St. Louis; 
Robert C., Abner Francis, Bessie and Edward Bebb, 
who are all at home. 

As a Prohibitionist the Judge takes a prominent 
part in public affairs. He won his title by his 
service as County Judge, to which position he was 
elected in 1877. He also served as Supervisor of 
the township, and has held other local ottices. At 
the present time he is a member of the Farmers' 
Club that was organized twenty years ago. He is 



also President of the County Horticultural Society, 
which was organized in Salem in 1891. Well 
known among the residents of the county, he is 
one of the leading men in this region, and an ear- 
nest, whole-souled, honest man, he enjoys the re- 
spect and confidence of the community to an un- 
common degree. 



JOHN M. RUTHERFORD. Every country, 
state and county furnishes its quota of what 
, the world calls self-made men men who, 
commencing in life without financial assist- 
ance, have by means of good judgment and energy 
succeeded in gaining success in their chosen vo- 
cation. The subject of this sketch undoubtedly 
belongs to this class, as he is one of the well-to-do 
farmers residing in McClellan Township, Jefferson 
County. 

Our subject was born in Knox County, Tenn., 
July 7, 1850, and is the seventh in order of birth 
of the parental family, his parents being Houston 
L. and Mar3' (Milterbarger) Rutherford, also na- 
tives of Tennessee. The parents emigrated to Illi- 
nois when our subject was only a few weeks old, 
and choosing a location in Shiloli Township, this 
county, there resided, engaged in farm purbiiits, 
until their decease, Houston Rutherford dying in 
1865, and his good wife departing this life March 
8, 1871. 

John M., of this sketch, was a student in the log 
schoolhouse, with its primitive furnishings, for a 
short time, and his father being in limited circum- 
stances, he was obliged to assist him in carrying 
on the home farm. When reaching his nineteenth 
year he began the struggle of life on his own ac- 
count, and having obtained a thorough knowledge 
of agriculture, chose farming as his life work. He 
later purchased a tract of land in McClellan Town- 
ship, which has since been his home and where he 
has been very prosperous. 

The lady who became the wife of our subject, 
December 9, 1869, was Miss Elizabeth, daughter of 
Adam and Eliza (Howe) Rightnower, natives ot 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



259 



Tennessee, but late of Jefferson County, this state. 
To Mr. and Mrs. Rutherford has been born a 
family of two daughters and three sons. Francis, 
who married Emma Hamilton, makes his home in 
McClellan Township; Mary Florence, who is the 
wife of Fountaine A. Moreland, lives in Franklin 
Count}', this state: Adam, Melzelda and Houston 
are at home with their parents. 

Mr. Rutherford, together with his wife and eld- 
est daughter, is a devoted member of the Christian 
Church, in which society he is an Elder. He is a 
member of the Farmers' Mutual Benefit Association, 
and in politics votes with the People's part}'. He 
has occupied many positions of importance in his 
community, and for four years was Justice of the 
Peace. He has also been Township Collector, 
Highway Commissioner, and is at present a mem- 
ber of the Board of Supervisors of Jefferson Coun- 
ty, forming one of the financial committee on the 
Board. 



ENJAMIN WATTS. There are many pros- 
perous farmers in Clinton County, but 
probaoly none have been more successful 
thatr the progressive agriculturist whose 
name introduces this sketch, and whose finely im- 
proved farm is pleasantly situated on section 17, 
Brookside Township. As a farmer and slockman 
Mr. Watts has had large experience and is justly 
recognized as one of the substantial citizens of the 
county. He is the possessor of several well im- 
proved farms situated in Brookside, Lake and 
Santa Fe Townships, his landed possessions aggre- 
gating altogether about one thousand acres. 

Concerning our subject's parentage we note the 
following: His father, Haden Watts, was born in 
Virginia, November 8, 1785, and from the Old 
Dominion moved to Georgia, where he married 
Miss Lesa Wadsworth, October 2, 1806. This lady 
was born in Jackson County, Ga., February 24, 
1788, and traced her ancestry to Wales, as did also 
her husband. They reared a family of eight chil- 
dren, as follows: James H., William H., Haden A., 
Benjamin, Richard, Sallie W., Celia Ann and Su- 
4 



sanna L., all of whom are deceased, excepting Ben- 
jamin, Celia Ann and Susanna. The wife and 
mother passed away in Clinton County, 111., July 
30, 1864. The father also died in this county, his 
demise occurring May 21, 1846. In religion he 
was a Methodist, and in politics a Whig. 

The subject of this sketch was born in Washing- 
ton (now Clinton) County, III., November 13, 
1819, and amid scenes of pioneer life was reared 
to a stalwart manhood. His educational advan- 
tages were limited, consisting of a brief attendance 
in the subscription schools of the neighborhood. 
In the school of experience, however, he has been 
an apt pupil, and has gained many lessons invalu- 
able to him in his business career. Being a well 
read man, and being posted upon topics of current 
interest, his opinion is often sought upon matters 
of importance. 

The first marriage of Mr. Watts occurred Janu- 
ary 9, 1840, and united him with Miss Sarah, 
daughter of William and Sallie Johnson. Four 
children were born of this union, all of whom died 
young, excepting Haden Harrison, who now re- 
sides upon a farm adjoining the old homestead. 
The wife and mother, Mrs. Sarah Watts, was born 
July 19, 1823, and died July 31, 1852. The sec- 
ond marriage of Mr. Watts, November 3, 1853, 
united him with Miss Catharine E. Sloat, who was 
born February 28, 1830. Her parents, Henry and 
Margaret C. Sloat, were natives respectively of 
Pennsylvania and Germany, the latter accompany- 
ing her parents to the United States when eleven 
years old. Mr. Sloat was a member of the Method- 
ist Church, in which faith he died November 18, 
1877. His wife, who was identified with the Ger- 
mnn Lutheran denomination, passed away on the 
llth of November, 1845. 

Having spent his entire life in Clinton County, 
Mr. Watts is well known as one of the most suc- 
cessful farmers of Brookside Township. His home 
farm is embellished with an elegant residence, a 
number of barns and sheds, all constructed with a 
view to convenience and comfort. On his farm 
will also be noticed a good orchard and garden. 
Notwithstanding the fact that he is now (1894) 
about seventy-five years old, he superintends his 
farm personally, and apparently has the vigor and 



260 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



activity of a man of thirty. He has been the ad- 
ministrator of five estates, which he has settled ac- 
cording to law, and has also been guardian for 
eleven minors, whose financial affairs he managed 
to their entire satisfaction. Possessing kind hearts 
and generous natures, he and his wife reared four 
children to years of maturity, all of whom are now 
doing well. He is a Republican, but has never cared 
for political preferment. In religion he is a Metho- 
dist. For many years he has taken his part in for- 
warding all enterprises tending to the develop- 
ment of this section, and is well and favorably 
known in this and adjoining counties. He is a 
friend to education and a firm believer in our ex- 
cellent public schools. He and his estimable wife 
enjoy the friendship and high esteem of their 
many friends and neighbors, and are well worthy 
to have their names placed in this RKCOKD of repre- 
sentative citizens. 



J~ OHN WADE, Police Magistrate for the city 
of Carlyle, was born in Dauphin County, 
Pa., October 21, 1811. lie is of immediate 
Irish descent, his grandfather, Richard 
Wade, having been born in Dublin. From the 
Emerald Isle he emigrated to America in early 
manhood, and settling in Pennsylvania, there fol- 
lowed his trade of a shoemaker. lie and his wife 
had a family of four sons and one daughter; two 
of the sons, Henry and William, were soldiers in 
the War of 1812. 

The father of our subject, Richard Wade, Jr., 
was born in Dauphin County, Pa., and there spent 
the years of boyhood, his time being devoted to 
hard manual labor, and few opportunities being 
offered for acquiring a good education. Learning 
the trade of a shoemaker in his youth, he embarked 
in the business for himself, and was thus engaged 
continuously in Dauphin County until his death, 
at a ripe old age. He and his estimable wife, who 
bore the maiden name of Barbara Schride, and was 
born in Pennsylvania of German parentage, had a 



family of fourteen children, of whom nine attained 
manhood and womanhood, and five are now living. 
Of these, John is the second in order of birth. The 
others are, Levi B., who follows the trade of a stone 
mason in Pennsylvania; Samuel, who is connected 
with the iron works in Dauphin County, Pa.; 
George W., a farmer by occupation, and Mrs.' Mary 
Hotter, also a resident of the Keystone State. The 
father of this famil}' was a man of influence in his 
community, a stanch advocate of Whig principles, 
and an upright and honorable citizen, who was 
highly esteemed by all with whom he came in con- 
tact. His death occurred in 1839, and his widow 
passed away five years later. 

The boyhood years of the subject of this sketch 
were passed in a rn;mner similar to that of the ma- 
jority of lads in the opening years of the present 
century. He grew to manhood in Dauphin and 
Perry Counties, Pa. His entire schooling con- 
sisted of eight months' attendance at the primitive 
"temple of learning" in the home locality. The 
building was constructed of logs, presenting on the 
exterior an unattractive appearance, while the in- 
terior was equally unsightly in aspect. There was 
no furniture save a few benches, a large fireplace 
in one corner of the room, and some boards util- 
ized for writing desks, placed on the side of the 
building. 

It will thus be seen that Mr. Wade had none of 
the advantages which the children of to-day en- 
joy. However, being a man of close observation, 
retentive memory and studious habits, lie made up 
for the lack of early opportunities, and gained a 
broad range of information upon historical and 
current events. When a mere lad he learned un- 
der the tutelage of liis father the trade of a shoe- 
maker, and followed that occupation in Dauphin 
County from 1828 until 1847. In the year last- 
named he came to Illinois and settled upon a farm 
five miles northwest of Carlyle, where he entered 
one hundred and twenty acres of Government 
land, in what is now Wheatfield Township. A 
pioneer in this part of the country, he began the 
pioneer task of breaking the prairie and tilling the 
soil. At first he was obliged to endure many hard- 
ships, and the task of improving a farm from the 
raw prairie was by no means an easy one, but be- 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



261 



ing a man of energy and perseverance, success 
was his. 

In Dauphin County, Pa., in 1834, Mr. Wade 
was united in marriage with Miss Annie A&hley- 
man, whose father was a native of Dauphin Coun- 
ty, Pa., and accompanied Mr. Wade to the west. 
At the time of removing to this state our subject 
had six children, and six more were added to the 
household after settling in Clinton County. Of 
these, seven sons and four daughters attained man- 
hood and womanhood, and eight of the number 
are now living. They are, Richard, a shoemaker 
residing in Baxter Springs, Kan.; John, a carpen- 
ter by trade, and a resident of Carlyle; William, 
who is engaged in the restaurant business in Cen- 
tralia; Lyman, who is engaged in farming in 
Irishtown Township, Clinton County; Jacob, a 
grocer in Carlyle; Caroline, who married Cyrus 
Davidson and lives in Kansas; Elizabeth, the wife 
of Benjamin Links, of East Fork Township, Clin- 
ton County, and Martha Ann, the wife of Robert 
Pierce, of Carlyle. 

The removal to this state was made by canal to 
Pittsburg, thence by steamboat to St. Louis, and 
from there by wagon to Clinton County. To the 
original entry of land he added by purchase until 
he owned one hundred and sixty acres in Wheat- 
field Township, upon which he placed first-class 
improvements in the way of buildings and farm 
accessories. In 1866 he disposed of his property, 
and in the spring of the following year removed 
to Buxton, this county, where he engaged in the 
manufacture of shoes for about eleven years. Dur- 
ing the entire period of his residence on the farm 
in Wheatfield Township, he had followed his 
trade, though not giving his entire attention to it. 

Coining to Carlyle in 1877, Mr. Wade has since 
made this city his home. Politically, he is a Jack- 
sonian Democrat, and has been loyal to that party 
ever since the days of Andrew Jackson. For 
twenty years he was Justice of the Peace, and for 
five years he has filled the office of PoKce Magis- 
trate. In religious belief he is identified with the 
Baptist Church. His first wife dying in 1859, he 
was again married in 1862, choosing as his wife 
Mrs. Ellen Ogle, who died three years later. One 
child was born of this union, but it died in in- 



fancy. He took for his third wife Mrs. Rebecca 
(Ripley) Ashlock, who still survives. Mr. Wade 
owns ninety acres in Wheatfield Township, which 
is in a high state of cultivation. 

Few citizens of Clinton County have resided 
here longer than the venerable gentleman of whom 
we write. It has been his privilege to witness the 
wonderful transformation of the county during 
the past half century, and in the development of 
its resources he has been a prominent factor. For 
years he has been an influential member of the Old 
Settlers' Association, the annual meetings of which 
he attends and enjoys, though there is also some- 
thing of sadness mingled with the pleasure of the 
occasion, for each recurring reunion is marked by 
the absence of one or more of the pioneers, who, 
having labored long and well, have been called to 
their final rest. 



JOHN J. McGAFFlGAN. Carlyle is the 
home of many gentlemen of fine natural 
abilities, thorough education and business 
energy, who in various fields of industry 
are acquiring enviable reputations and gaining the 
highest worldly success. Among this number, we 
present the life sketch of Mr. McGaffigan,City At- 
torney of Carlyle and one of the most influential 
counselors-at-law residing in Clinton County. Of 
the success he has achieved he has no reason to 
complain, and he merits especial regard inasmuch 
as his present standing is due to his unaided exer- 
tions and represents the results of his own unre- 
mitting efforts. 

Of Irish parentage and ancestry, our subject is 
the son of Andrew McGaffigan, a native of Coun- 
ty Donegal, Ireland, who there married Mary Laf- 
ferty. Emigrating to the United States in 1836, 
he settled in Brooklyn, N. Y., and there secured a 
position as foreman in a distillery. In 1849 he re- 
moved to Virginia and engaged in the same busi- 
ness in Lynchburg, whence in 1852 he came to 
Clinton County, 111., and settled upon a farm in 
Irishtown Township, about nine miles north of 
Carlyle. Upon that place he carried on mixed 



202 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



farming together with stock-raising until about 
1886, when he retired from active life. Two years 
later, in July of 1888, he was bereaved by the 
death of his devoted wife, who through all the 
years of their wedded life had been his faithful 
companion and loving helpmate. 

In the parental family there were nine children, 
of whom seven attained years of maturity, and 
five are still living. Of these John J. is the young- 
est. The others are: Hugh J., who is engaged in 
the railroad business at Denver, Colo.; Mrs. Ellen 
McClaren, a widow residing in Carlyle; Dr. A. J., 
a physician who conducted an extensive practice 
in Carlyle, 111., for about fourteen years, and who 
removed to East St. Louis, 111., in 1893, where he 
is now practicing his profession; and Mary A., the 
wife of M. P. Murray, State's Attorney of Carlyle. 
The father of this family is a Democrat in politics, 
and though now advanced in years, still retains his 
interest in local and national issues of importance. 
In religious belief he is identified with the Catholic 
Church. 

In Lynch burg, Va., the subject of this notice 
was born December 14, 1852. A mere lad when 
th family came to Clinton County, he was reared 
in Irishtown Township and attended lfie schools 
of the home neighborhood. For some time he was 
a student in Blackburn University, in Macoupin 
County, III., and afterward attended the southern 
Illinois Normal at Carbondale. His studies com- 
pleted, he engaged in teaching school for seven 
years, and during the last year was Superintendent 
of the Schools of Carlyle. At the same time and 
also for one year ensuing, he read law with the 
firm of Murray & Andrews, of Carlyle. In Feb- 
ruary, 1886, he was examined for admission to the 
Bar before the Appellate Court, and was admitted 
before the Supreme Court at Mt. Vernon May 1, 
1886. 

Opening an office in Carlyle, Mr. McGaffigan 
has since conducted an extensive legal practice, 
which includes the clientage not only of Carlyle's 
citizens, but also of many residents of the sur- 
rounding country and towns. In the ranks of the 
Democratic party in this section he has for years 
been an active worker and has represented that 
political organization in numerous conventions. 



In the spring of 1886 he was elected City Attor- 
ney, which office he still fills, having had charge 
of many very important cases, in all of which he 
has proved his admirable adaptabilit}' for the po- 
sition he occupies. In 1892 he was chosen Chair- 
man of the Democratic Central Committee for 
Clinton County. He is a member of the Board of 
Education, and has served as its President. 

October 22, 1884, J. J. McGaffigan and Miss 
Anna R. Shinn were united in marriage. This 
lady is a daughter of Samuel Shinn, one of the 
early settlers of Irishtown Township; she was born 
and reared on the old homestead in this county, 
and is a lady of amiable disposition, who is de- 
votedly attached to her husband and children. Of 
the latter there are four, James Clinton, Mark A., 
Emma Mary and Harold. The family is identified 
with the Catholic Church of Carlyle. The life of 
Mr. McGaffigan furnishes an illustration of what 
may be accomplished by perseverance and deter- 
mination. Through pluck and energy he has won 
his way to an influential position in the legal fra- 
ternity. He devotes his attention to general prac- 
tice, and has an excellent and thorough knowledge 
of the intricacies of the law. His office is situated 
on the west side of the public square in Carlyle, 
and his residence is a commodious and tastily 
furnished house in the same city. 



[OMAS J. GREEN, M. D., a skillful and 
popular physician of Salem, is prominent 
among the medical practitioners of Marion 
County, where his success in the treatment of the 
various forms of disease to which human flesh is 
heir has brought him into favor with the people. 
With his family he occupies one of the finest resi- 
dences of the city. This is a two-story structure, 
containing eight rooms, finished in a modern style 
and furnished with an elegance that betokens the 
refinement of the inmates. 

The Doctor has spent his entire life in the city 
where he now resides, and the house in which his 
eyes first opened to the light stood on the site just 
south of the Broadway Hotel. He is the son of S. 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



W. Green, a native of Tennessee, who came to Illi- 
nois more than sixty years ago and settled in 
Salem. During the Civil War he enlisted in the 
Union army, becoming a member of Company B, 
Sixty-sixth Illinois Infantry, and serving with 
valor for more than two years. He was killed in 
the battle of Spring Hill, Tenn., when fighting 
valiantly for the Stars and Stripes. 

The mother of our subject was in her maiden- 
hood Martha Evans, and was a native of Tennes- 
see. In her childhood she accompanied her father, 
Obcdiah Evans, to Illinois and settled three miles 
south of Salem. She is still living, and notwith- 
standing her advanced years (seventy-one) she 
enjoys excellent health and the possession of her 
mental faculties unimpaired. In her family there 
were thirteen children, of whom three are now liv- 
ing, namely: Thomas J.; Martha J., who is married 
and lives in St. Louis, and Mrs. Belle Watson, 
whose home is in Salem. Three sons grew to ma- 
turity and all served in the Civil War. William 
R. was a member of Compaq' H, Fortieth Illinois 
Infantry and died April 14, 1894; S. W., Jr., en- 
listed in Company G, Twenty-first Illinois Infan- 
try, and under General Grant participated in many 
hard-fought battles. At Cliickamauga he was 
taken by the enemy, and for fourteen months was 
held a prisoner in Belle Isle, Libby, Andersonville 
and other prisons. Shortly after his return home 
he died from paralysis. 

The youngest of the sons, Thomas J., was born 
February 28, 1846, and grew to manhood in Salem, 
attending the schools of this place. When a mere 
lad his attention was directed to the medical pro- 
fession, and upon completing his literary studies 
he commenced to read medicine under the precep- 
torship of Dr. William Hill, now of Bloomington, 
111., with whom he remained for four years. At 
the opening of the Civil War Dr. Hill entered 
the Union service as surgeon of the Forty-eighth 
Illinois Infantry, and upon going to the front took 
our subject with him. After the battle of Shiloh 
his preceptor resigned and both returned home. 

In the fall of 1862, when a youth of but sixteen 
years, our subject enlisted as a private in Company 
A, One Hundred and Eleventh Illinois Infantry, 
and accompanied his regiment to tiie front, partic- 



ipating in every skirmish and engagement in which 
they took part prior to his capture. On the 22d 
of July, 1864, in front of Atlanta, Ga., he was shot 
by a musket ball in the right limb above the knee. 
At the same time the Confederates charged, and 
while his comrades were helping him from the field 
they were hard pressed by their foes. Fearing for 
the safety of his friends he asked them to leave 
him, and this they did, with the exception of one 
comrade, David Ravens, who stayed by his side. 
Both were captured by the forces of the opposing 
armies and were taken to Atlanta, where the 
wounded lad was placed in a hospital. A few days 
later he was taken to Macon, Ga., and thence 
twenty days later was conveyed to Audersonvillc 
Prison, where he spent seven months, enduring all 
the horrors of that infamous place. From one hun- 
dred and sixty-six pounds he was reduced to ninety 
pounds, and was a mere shadow of his former self 
at the expiration of the eight months and five days 
of his imprisonment. 

Released by parole March 18, 1865, our subject 
was sent to Vicksburg, landing in that city March 
27. From there he went to St. Louis, and thence 
returned home on a furlough. He rejoined his 
regiment at Springfield, III., and after a service of 
two years and nine months was honorably dis- 
charged, June 9, 1865. He now receives $8 per 
month as a pension. In 1866 he went to Blooming- 
ton, 111., and resumed his medical studies under Dr. 
Hill, with whom he remained for four years. Later 
he spent one year at the Chicago Medical College, 
after which he was obliged to discontinue his 
studies until he earned money sufficient for their 
further prosecution. 

In 1875 the young Doctor opened an office at 
Philipstown, White County, and began the practice 
of medicine. In June, 1883, he came to Salem, 
where he has since conducted a lucrative practice. 
He is prominent in the Grand Army of the Repub- 
lic, and is surgeon of Chandler Post No. 102, at 
Salem. In politics he is a firm adherent of Repub- 
lican principles, and while not desirous of official 
honors, he nevertheless maintains a quiet interest 
in public affairs. His beautiful home is presided 
over by his accomplished wife, with whom he was 
united May 12, 1877. Mrs. Green, who bore the 



264 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



maiden name of Mary Hoon, was born in Roxbury, 
Morgan County, Ohio, February 20, 1858, and is 
well educated and popular in social circles as well 
as prominent in the Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church, to which she belongs. Four children blessed 
this union, of whom the survivors are, Edward 
Homer and Lulu. Arthur Clyde and Allie Ger- 
trude are deceased. 



,IL_^ ON. FREDERICK BECKER. Clinton Coun- 
ifjj ty numbers among its citizens many men 
/iv#^ eminent in the annals of the state, men of 
\(J)j ability, energy and honor, who in the du- 
ties both of private and public life have ever been 
true and loyal. Such an one is the subject of this 
sketch, who gained considerable distinction as the 
representative of his district in the State Legisla- 
ture, and who is now the owner and occupant of 
one of Santa Fe Township's most valuable farms, 
situated on section 5. 

It may well be a matter of pride with Judge 
Becker that his fortune has been of his own mak- 
ing; his hands and brain have been busily em- 
ployed in its upbuilding, as he had no other capi- 
tal when he started out in life for himself. He is 
independent and self-reliant, keen and prompt in 
his dealings, frank and cordial in manner, and no 
one is more ready than he to extend a helping 
hand to those who have been less fortunate than 
himself. In him Santa Fe Township finds a loyal 
citizen, whose public spirit prompts him to aid in 
pushing forward every movement for the benefit 
of the community. 

It may not be amiss, before further considera- 
tion of our subject's life, to record a few facts con- 
cerning his parentage. His father, Ferdinand 
Becker, was born in Hanover, Germany, in 1797, 
and was a wagon-maker by trade. Immigrating to 
the United States in 1834, he landed in Baltimore, 
Md., whence he proceeded to Pittsburg, Pa., and 
there worked at his trade fora period of two years. 
He was also janitor of the court house for the same 
length of time. From the Keystone State he came 
west to Illinois, and arriving in Clinton County, 



settled in Germantown Township, where in part- 
nership with two friends he bought an eighty-acre 
tract. After making his home there for twelve 
years he sold the property and purchased an ad- 
joining farm of one hundred and sixty acres. 

Prior to coining to America, Ferdinand Becker 
married Anna Mary Take, and they became the 
parents of five children who grew to maturity. Of 
these one is now deceased, another lives in Nash- 
ville, Tenn., and the three others are residents of 
Illinois. For further facts concerning the family 
history the reader is referred to the sketch of 
Henry Becker, presented on another page of this 
volume. The subject of this sketch was born in 
Hanover, Germany, in 1826, and accompanied his 
parents to the United States. He grew to manhood 
upon the home farm in Clinton County, and was 
the recipient of ordinary common-school advan- 
tages. 

The original purchase made by Judge Becker 
was sixty acres, to which he has added until his 
landed possessions now aggregate ten hundred and 
sixty-three acres. Both as a general farmer and 
stock-raiser he has met with success, his methods 
in agriculture being practical and modern. In 
politics a Democrat, he has been a member of the 
County Central Committee for twenty years, and 
is the present Drainage Commissioner of his town- 
ship and also School Trustee. In 1861 he was 
elected Associate Judge, in which position he 
served for five years, thus gaining the title by 
which he is now familiarly known. For four terms 
he served as Supervisor of Germantown Township, 
and filled the position for the same period in Santa 
Fe Township. Elected to the State Legislature in 
1881, he introduced two noted bills, one of which, 
the Magistrate Bill, was passed by the Assembly, 
but vetoed by the Governor. During the Civil 
War he was drafted into the service, but being un- 
able to leave his family, paid $800 for a substitute. 

In September, 1852, Judge Becker was united 
in marriage with Miss Katharine Krake, a na- 
tive of Germany. She is the daughter of Henry 
Krake, who died in Germany. Some time after his 
death, about the year 1842, the widowed mother 
came with her children to America. Mrs. Becker 
is one of five children, of whom the others are, 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



265 



Anton, deceased; George, who lives in Clinton 
County; Margaret, whose home is in Germantown, 
this county, and Elizabeth, deceased. Margaret, 
who is the widow of Theodore Hagen, has five 
children, Lizzie, Katie, Mary, Henry and Benedict. 
Henry, who conducted his literarj' and theological 
studies at St. Francis, Wis., and Innspruck, Ger- 
many, was pastor of the Catholic Church at Mt. 
Vernon, 111., for two years, and is at present Secre- 
tary to the Bishop of the Belleville Diocese. 

The union of Judge and Mrs. Becker has re- 
sulted in the birth of nine children, as follows: 
Ferdinand, who is married and has six children; 
George, who is married and the father of four chil- 
dren; Henry, whose marriage has resulted in the 
birth of two children; Bennett; Katie, the wife of 
John Junke, and the mother of four children; 
Mary, who married M. Rheinhardt and has four 
children; Elizabeth, Maggie and Regina, who are 
with their parents. The Judge is one of the larg- 
est stockholders in the Germantown Mutual Fire 
Insurance Company, of which he has been Presi- 
dent ever since its organization, excepting one 
year. He is also a Director in the Carlyle Mutual 
Fire Insurance Company, and one of the Commis- 
sioners of the Santa Fe Drainage Company. 



AVID H. CONWELL, one of Carlyle's 
most progressive and capable business 
men, was born upon a farm in Delaware 
Augusts, 1827, and was reared toman- 
hood in Milton, that state. He is a son of Charles 
Con well, a soldier in the War of 1812 and a car- 
penter by trade, who spent his entire life in Dela- 
ware. Twice married, by his flrst union he had 
three children, of whom only one survives. Unto 
him and his seaond wife, Jeannette, were born 
seven children, four of whom are now living. 

One of the children of the second marriage was 
D. II., the subject of this sketch. His boyhood 
years were passed in Milton, where he prosecuted 
his studies in the pioneer schools, but devoted 
his attention principally to farming until he bound 



himself out to learn ship carpentering. Learning 
that trade, he was thus engaged until the age of 
twenty-five. Meantime he went to sea and fol- 
lowed his trade on board steamers and sailing- 
vessels. A sea-faring life, however, was not ex- 
actly suited to his tastes, and it was without 
regret that he returned to his former place of resi- 
dence. 

At Milton, Del., in 1848, Mr. Conwell was united 
in marriage with Miss Patience Higby, also a na- 
tive of Delaware. Five years later he came to 
Illinois, and followed his trade in Hancock for 
two years, after which he went to Rock Island, 
and was there employed for about two years. Pro- 
ceeding from there to St. Louis, he engaged in 
steamboating on the Mississippi River for nine 
years. In 1860 he moved his family to Clinton 
County, and in 1868 permanently located here 
himself. During the trying and perilous times of 
the late war he ran transports on the Mississippi, 
and had many unpleasant and dangerous experi- 
ences during that conflict. 

Upon settling in Clinton County, Mr. Conwell 
purchased a farm in Wheatfield Township, and 
continued to reside there until 1872, when he 
moved to Carlyle. Here in 1873 he bought the 
livery business in which he has since engaged. 
In addition to that enterprise he also conducts 
a large trade in the coal and teaming business, 
and has an undertaking establishment in connec- 
tion with his other interests. His first wife died 
in 1872, and two years later he married Mrs. 
Christina Wells, a native of Pennsylvania, from 
which state her father, Adam Yinchs, removed to 
Clinton County, 111., in an early day. By his first 
marriage Mr. Conwell had five children, of whom 
the following four are now living: Charles, who 
is in the employ of the American Express Com- 
pany in St. Louis; Samuel, who is employed in 
Kansas City, Mo.; Mary, the wife of James Shade, 
a teamster of Carlyle; and Marshall, who assists 
his father. The third son, William, is deceased. 

A Democrat in national issues, Mr. Conwell is 
somewhat independent in local matters, voting 
for the man whom he considers best qualified for 
the office in question, irrespective of political affilia- 
tions. For about sixteen years he has been High- 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



way Commissioner of the township and has also 
served as Alderman. He is a man of temperate 
habits and a strong advocate of temperance. As 
a citizen, he is public-spirited, as a business man 
prosperous, and as a friend thoughtful and genial. 
Socially, he is identified with the Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows and belongs to the en- 
campment. He is also connected with the Knights 
of Honor. In the former organization he has held 
the majority of oflices and is the present Deputy 
Grand Master of Lodge No. 38, at Carlyle. He 
became an Odd Fellow in 1848, and since that 
time has always been prominent in the fraternity, 
which he has frequently represented in the Grand 
Lodge. His membership is in the Presbyterian 
Church and his contributions to religious and 
benevolent projects are generous and frequent. 



,EV. FATHER P. J. BECKER. There is in 
this section of the state no priest who has 
gained greater prominence, not alone 
! among the members of the Catholic Church, 
but also among the clergy and laymen of other 
denominations, than the rector of the Assumption 
Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary, of Centralia, 
and the popularity he has gained is a just tribute 
to his merits. A profound scholar and thinker, 
his attainments have taken a wide range science, 
literature, theology, history, etc. He is a forcible 
and eloquent speaker, an extensive reader and a 
close observer. His pastorate of the church at 
Centralia dates from September, 1881. 

The subject of this sketch was born in Jackson- 
ville, 111., May 15, 1856. The rudiments of his 
education were acquired in the parochial schools 
of that city, and he afterward conducted his 
studies in St. Joseph's College, at Teutopolis, and 
Sacred Heart College, now a convent of the Sister- 
hood of the Precious Blood, at Ruma, 111. His theo- 
logical course was completed at St. Francis College, 



Milwaukee, Wis., from which institution he was 
graduated in 1881. From boyhood it had been his 
ambition to enter the priesthood, and after com- 
pleting his theological studies he at once entered 
upon his chosen life work. 

At Alton, 111., July 29, 1881, Father Becker was 
ordained to the ministry of the Catholic Church, 
Bishop Joseph Baltes performing the ceremony 
of ordination. In September following he was 
appointed to the charge at Centralia, 111., and has 
been with the congregation at this place ever since. 
Upon coming here he found the membership small, 
the building old, and a lack of interest pervading 
the entire congregation, but through his efforts 
the membership was rapidly increased and a new 
interest was felt in every department of the 
work. 

In 1891 a new church edifice was commenced, 
and it is now completed. The structure is built 
of pressed brick and stone, and is handsomely 
adorned with stained glass windows, manufactured 
by E. F. Kerwin, of St. Louis. In point of excellence 
and beauty, the furnishings and altar correspond 
with the exterior of the edifice. The architecture 
is Gothic, and the dimensions are 41x111 feet. 
The building cost about $30,000 and is the most 
modern in appointments and elegant in appear- 
ance of all the churches in southern Illinois. It is 
the intention to place a town clock in the spire. 
The church will indeed be to its occupants "a thing 
of beauty and a joy for ever." Great credit is 
due to the architect, N. H. Melcher, of St. Louis, 
whose ability is proved by the imposing and at- 
tractive building he has constructed. 

The present church membership consists of 
about ninety families. There are two parochial 
schools, attended by about ninety pupils and in 
charge of two Poor Hand Maids of Christ, of 
Fort Wayne, Ind. Two other sisters devote their 
time to hospital work. There is a good choir in 
the church, and everything is done to make the 
temple of worship a pleasant and attractive place 
to members, and visitors as well. Morning serv- 
ices are held from eight to ten o'clock Sunday, and 
the afternoon services are held at three o'clock. 
In addition to this work Father Becker has charge 
of a mission at Patoka, which he visits once a 




CHURCH OFTHE ASSUMPTION, B V. M ., CENTRAL! A ,ILL. 



PORTRAIT ANT) BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



269 



month. There are about twenty-five families in 
the congregation, and the membership is constantly 
increasing. 

J~ AMES B. LEWIS, editor of the Marion 
County Democrat, is a man of strong convic- 
tions and docs not hesitate to express them 
freely and frankly and with all the vigor 
he can command. He has devoted his best ener- 
gies to the work of making a newspaper that 
should educate its constituency and be a potent 
factor in the upbuilding of city and county. This 
he is accomplishing, and the journal which owes 
its strength and high position to his genius is 
read far and wide. 

Mr. Lewis is a native of Kentucky and the son 
of Orin M. Lewis, who was born in Rensselaer 
County, N. Y., August 30, 1826. The latter was 
a finely educated gentleman, graduating from Al- 
fred Center College in 1846. In 1847 he en- 
listed as a private and served in the war with 
Mexico until peace was declared. He taught 
school for a number of years and at different times 
was principal of the schools in Maysville, Carlisle, 
and other cities in Kentucky. About 1848 the 
father of our subject removed to Ohio, making his 
home in Dayton. The following year he returned 
to the Blue Grass State, and was united in mar- 
riage with Miss Elizabeth F. Hibler March 1, 1849. 
Mrs. Lewis was born in Nicholas County, Ky., Jan- 
uary 14, 1833, and after her marriage continued 
to reside there until September, 1863, when she 
came with her children to Marion County, this 
state, and is still residing near Patoka. 

In 1861 O. M. Lewis entered the ranks of the 
Union army, being commissioned Captain of Com- 
pany II, Eighteenth Kentucky Infantry. He had 
one brother in the ranks of the northern army, 
but three brothers-in-law who fought for the 
south. While engaged in battle at Richmond, Ky., 
August 30, 1862, the father of our subject, with 
about eight hundred others of his regiment, was 
killed. His widow was married to George E. Bin- 
nion, of Patoka, September 15, 1866, and by that 
union has become the father of four children, 
three of whom are now living. 

The parental family included seven members,of 



whom Louisa L., our subject and Anna J. are liv- 
ing. The elder daughter is the wife of J. W. 
Davidson, of Patoka, while Anna J. (now Mrs. 
James A. Burns) makes her home in California. 

Our subject was born November 14, 1853, in 
Nicholas County, Ky., and was a lad of ten years 
when, on the death of his father, the family re- 
moved to Illinois. He possesses a fine education, 
having been a student in the Irvington Agricul- 
tural College in 1871, and finished his education 
at Milton College, in Wisconsin, in 1874. Pro- 
fessor Whitford, of the latter institution, was an 
old friend of his father while residing in New 
York. 

For some years after completing his education 
our subject taught school in various parts of Ma- 
rion County and at the same time carried on his 
medical studies. In 1878 he was graduated from 
the Eclectic Medical Institute of Cincinnati, Ohio, 
immediately commencing practice in Patoka. He 
was very successful in his calling, for six years being 
one of the best physicians in the county. In 1884, 
having been elected Clerk of the Circuit Court, 
Dr. Lewis abandoned the practice of medicine, and 
after serving in that oflicial capacity for four years, 
in February, 1889, established his present paper, 
for the successful carrying on of which he seems 
to be peculiarly fitted. For a period of five years 
Mr. Lewis was engaged in the drug business in 
Patoka in company with Dr. T. N. Livesay. 

September 12, 1877, our subject and Miss Mona 
I. Quayle,the daughter of Thomas 11. and Rebecca 
(demons) Quayle, were united in marriage. The 
father of Mrs. Lewis was born in Kirk Bride, Isle 
of Man, March 17, 1831, while her mother is a 
native of Indiana, having been born in Clark Coun- 
ty, January 25, 1835. Thomas H. Quayle during 
the Civil War was Captain of Company B, Ninety- 
third Indiana Volunteers, enlisted August 12, 
1862, and after three years of hard service came 
out of the conflict unharmed. With his good wife 
he is at present residing in Patoka Township, this 
county, where the family located while the war 
was in progress. 

Mrs. Lewis was born March 11, 1858, in Sey- 
mour, Ind., and by her union with our subject has 
become the mother of four children, Anna L., 



270 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



Orin M., Thomas O.and Owen W. In social affairs 
Mr. Lewis is a prominent Mason, being connected 
with Marion Lodge No. 130. He was Senior War- 
den of Patoka Lodge No. 613 in 1884, and at the 
present time is a member of Mt. Olive Lodge No. 
114, 1. O. O. F., at Salem, in which order he has 
occupied all the chairs. He is Chief Patriarch of 
Olive Branch Encampment No. 156, and in the 
numerous orders with which he is connected takes 
a great interest. He is a member of the Illinois 
Citizens' Mutual Protective Association, and in 
politics always votes with the "Democratic party. 
He lias frequently served as a delegate to state 
and county conventions, and at all times works 
for the furtherance of his party's interest. 



(IL ON. THOMAS E. MERRITT. In present- 
!l[)j) ing to our readers the biography of this 
^d? gentleman, we are perpetuating the life 
^p) of one of Marion County's most hon- 
ored residents. Throughout a long and influen- 
tial career he has maintained the integrity and en- 
ergy characteristic of his earlier years. As an at- 
torney-at-law he has gained a prominence by no 
means limited to Salem, his home, but is eminent 
among the legal fraternity of southern Illinois. 

During the dark days of the Revolution, the 
Colonies had no defender more loyal than Ebene- 
zer Merritt, our subject's grandfather, who served 
with valor until, captured by the British, he was 
placed in an old hulk of a ship in New York Har- 
bor. In after years he was wont to say that the 
sweetest morsel of food he ever tasted was a rot- 
ten Irish potato, which he found in his prison. 
The father of our subject, Hon. John W. Merritt, 
was born in the city of New York July 4, 1806, 
and in his early youth evinced a very decided lit- 
erary taste, contributing articles to many of the 
most prominent magazines of that day. Entering 
the practice of law, he built up a lucrative busi- 
ness in that line in connection with J. J. Brad 3'. 
Meantime he also invested in real estate, and so 
fortunate was he in his speculations that he be- 



came independent at a comparatively early period 
of life. However, the crisis of 1837 destroyed the 
value of his investments and made him a poor 
man once more. 

Deciding to seek a home in the west, Mr. Mer- 
ritt came to Illinois in 1840, and settling in St. 
Glair County, established the Belleville Advocate, 
which he successfully conducted from the year 
1848 until 1851. Meantime he also superintended 
the management of his farm and contributed to 
eastern magazines and New York papers. He also 
wrote and published a novel called "Shubal Dar- 
ton." Coming to Salem in 1851, he established 
the Advocate, of which he was proprietor and edi- 
tor for many years. In 1861 he was elected As- 
sistant Secretary of the Constitutional Conven- 
tion, and in the following year became a member 
of the Legislature. 

The State Register having lost its prestige, Mr. 
Merritt, with his son, Edward L., assumed edi- 
torial charge of the paper in January, 1865, and 
attempted to place it upon a substantial footing. 
The enterprise, though not prudent, was gallantly 
undertaken and proved a success. For some years 
Mr. Merritt conducted its editorial columns with 
great ability, and during a portion of that time 
supplied the St. Louis Republican with its Spring- 
field correspondence. As an editor he justly at- 
tained celebrity throughout the country, and was 
one of the most successful journalists of the day. 
His county may well feel proud of his life and la- 
bora. He was modest, unassuming, never ambi- 
tious for worldly distinction, and preferring the 
success of his friends to his own. In politics he 
was an old-school Democrat, and was one of the 
most influential workers in his party throughout 
the state. He was devoted to the doctrines of the 
Episcopal Church, and was a faithful member of 
that denomination. In disposition mild, he never 
used profanity and was also a man of temperate 
habits, never tasting intoxicating liquor through- 
out his life. 

In his domestic relations Mr. Merritt was espe- 
cially happy. He married in Rochester, N. Y., in 
August, 1827, Miss Julia A. De Forrest, who was 
born in Oswego, N. Y., and there received a good 
education. Ten children blessed the union, of 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



271 



whom seven are now living. Julia C.,now living 
in Jefferson City, Mo., married William G. Mc- 
Carty, and they have one son; our subject is next 
in order of birth; Gen. Wesley Merritt, of the 
regular army, married, but his wife is deceased; 
Edward L., proprietor of the Illinois Stale Register 
and member of the State Legislature, has been 
twice married, having two children by his first 
union and five by his second marriage; Joseph D., 
who is engaged in the newspaper business at More- 
head, Minn., is married and has one son and three 
daughters; W. W., a druggist of Salem, married a 
Miss Day, and they have three daughters; and 
Emily O. married Jacob Chance, formerly Clerk of 
the Supreme Court of Illinois, and they, with their 
four children, live in Mt. Vernon, this stute. 

During his residence in New York, John W. 
Merritt served as Alderman and aided in formu- 
lating a new plat of the Fifth Ward, which he rep- 
resented in the Council. In 1860 he was a mem- 
ber of the state delegation to the National Demo- 
cratic Convention at Charleston, S. C., later was 
present at the recall of that convention in Balti- 
more, Md., when Stephen A. Douglas was nomin- 
ated for the Presidency, lie was President of the 
first Press Association held in the state of Illinois, 
and was also at the time of his demise the oldest 
Odd Fellow in Salem. While uniformly success- 
ful in business enterprise, he nevertheless met with 
reverses, and at one time lost by fire two valuable 
blocks of buildings in Brooklyn. By his long and 
virtuous life he left a name to which his descen- 
dants may point with pride, and when, Novem- 
ber 16, 1878, he departed this life, he left many 
warm friends to mourn his loss. The funeral serv- 
ices were largely attended by the citizens of Salem 
and Marion County, as well as many friends from 
a distance. The pall bearers were Hon. Silas L. 
Bryan, John Gibbon, Reuben Chance, R. H. Whit- 
taker, Judge Samuel Hull and Thomas Day, Sr., 
all of whom have now joined the silent majority. 

We now consider the events in the life of the 
immediate subject of this sketch. Born in the city 
of New York, he was brought in childhood to Illi- 
nois and received a good education in the schools 
of Belleville. Before attaining his majority, he 
went to St. Louis, where he learned the trade of 



carriage and omnibus painting in the shops of 
Theodore Salom, serving a three years' apprentice- 
ship at the trade. Afterward he followed the oc- 
cupation for four years in St. Louis. He then 
came to Salem, and in 1859 began to read law with 
P. P. Hamilton, an attorney of this place, now de- 
ceased. In 1862 he was examined before the Su- 
preme Court and was admitted to the Bar, after 
which he opened an office in Salem and has since 
made this city his home. 

Always a stanch Democrat, reared in the faith 
of that party, Mr. Merritt early became an active 
worker in its ranks. In 1860, in Romine Town- 
ship, Marion County, he made his first political 
speech, and since then has participated in ever}' 
campaign. Until 1875 he stumped every town- 
ship in the county each year. The first National 
Democratic Convention that he attended was held 
in St. Louis, when S. J. Tilden was nominated 
President. Later he was sent as delegate for the 
state at large to the convention that nominated 
Gen. W. S. Hancock, and the night before the con- 
vention met, he made a speech in favor of Col. W. 
R. Morrison on the steps of the Burnct House, 
Cincinnati. At the next National Convention he 
was alternate-at-large, and as Col. W. R. Morrison, 
who was delegate-at-large, was appointed on the 
Committee on Resolutions and obliged to give his 
entire time to the work of that body, Mr. Mer- 
ritt took his place in the convention. It was this 
assembly that nominated Grover Cleveland at the 
time of his first term. Our subject was a delegate 
from the Nineteenth Congressional District to the 
convention at St. Louis that nominated President 
Cleveland the second term. In 1892 he attended 
as a citizen the convention at Chicago which 
nominated Cleveland the last time. During the 
three campaigns in which that famous man was 
the Presidential candidate, our subject made fifty- 
six speeches in Illinois, and at the time believed 
that his party promised more than they could ful- 
fill. 

In 1868 Mr. Merritt was elected to the State 
Legislature, and was a member of the House of 
Representatives for fourteen years. In addition, 
he served as State Senator for eight years, thus 
making a legislative experience of twenty-two 



272 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



years. He was a member of the joint session which 
elected John A. Logan three times and defeated 
him once; also the joint session that elected Rich- 
ard Oglesby United States Senator, and those that 
elected Shelby M. Cullom and John M. Palmer. 
In 1875 he was a leading member of the House 
when the City Judge of East St. Louis was to be 
impeached, and through his influence the measure 
was re-considered and laid on the table. During 
the same year he secured the passage of the first 
coal mine bill through the Legislature, which was 
the first act ever passed in the state in the interest 
of the coal mines. 

Hon. John M. Palmer, State Auditor and Secre- 
tary of State, gave to Mr. Merritt the honor of 
passing the bill assessing capital stock corporations, 
and he was banquetted afterward. In 1871 he in- 
troduced and secured the passage of the bill com- 
pelling railroads to pay for burning along their 
lines, which lias since been warped by the construc- 
tions placed on that act by the Supreme Court. 

He was prominent in the attack made upon state 
officials for extravagant expenditures, and in that 
way saved to the tax payers of Illinois more than 
enough to pay the entire expenses of that General 
Assembly. His services in that capacity were so 
greatly appreciated throughout the state, that 
many of the papers advocated his nomination as 
Governor of Illinois. 

Another bill introduced by Mr. Merritt Was that 
allowing parties to sue before a Justice of the 
Peace for killing stock along the railroad. The 
Anarchist bill introduced by him in 1887 and 
passed June 16 of that year was the cause of the 
greatest fight of his life. Afterward it was pub- 
lished by Great Britain, France and Russia, while 
at the meeting of the United States National Bar 
Association at Saratoga, N. Y., the President gave 
one hour to its consideration before that body. 
Mr. Merritt worked long and faithfully upon the 
bill, which finally passed, receiving one hundred 
and eighteen votes in the House. 

The Anti-Trust Bill, January 22, 1889, was the 
first ever introduced in the state. This passed the 
Judiciary Committee by one majority, and the 
House by one hundred votes, but "hung up" in 
the Senate by the two-thirds rule. While a mem- 



ber of the Senate, Mr. Merritt introduced a bill to 
compel insurance companies to pay the full value 
of the policy for destruction of property. This he 
passed twice through the Senate, and it was de- 
feated in the House. He passed it twice in the 
House and it was as many times defeated in the 
Senate. In 1868 he introduced in the House a 
bill securing the investigation of the proceeds 
from the sale of lands and other moneys connected 
with Irvingtou Agricultural College. After in- 
vestigation the State Auditor and Secretary of 
State took possession of the institute and from 
the wreck saved to the state a large amount of 
money. 

In 1868 Mr. Merritt introduced a resolution 
calling upon the Secretary of State to account for 
the interest received by him on about $3,000,000 
of surplus money that was lying idle in the treas- 
ury and could be used only to pay off the old 
state indebtedness, which was held by English cap- 
italists in the shape of state bonds, this money be- 
ing set aside to pay the bonds as they became due. 
It had been collected from the Illinois Central 
Railroad as seven per cent, of its gross earnings, 
and was invested in United States ten per cent, 
gold interest-bearing bonds. The resolution in- 
troduced by Mr. Merritt was to the effect that the 
Governor and Attorney-General of Illinois should 
look after the interest on this money and report 
their action to the next session of the General As- 
sembly. He passed the resolution through the 
House, but by a strong lobby it was defeated in 
the Senate. 

In 1872 $3,000,000 of these bonds became due 
and were paid in New York in gold to the Eng- 
lish bondholders, the Secretary of State having to 
purchase the gold in New York. He notified 
Gould and Fisk that he would require so much 
gold on that day. By bulling the market gold ad- 
vanced one-third of one per cent, so that the 
$3,000,000 paid that much premium. The State 
Treasurer making by this deal the interest on 
United States bonds that this money was invested 
in, came out $400,000 ahead, which was a loss to 
the people of the state by the defeat of the resolu- 
tion in the Senate. 

During Mr. Merritt's entire legislative experi- 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD 



273 



ence, covering a period of twenty-two years, it 
cannot be shown that he ever cast a vote against 
the interests of the people. As one of the dele- 
gates of the state-at-large, he attended the conven- 
tions at St. Louis in July, 1892, and at New Or- 
leans in February, 1893, in reference to the Nica- 
ragua Canal. At the latter place he made the 
speech for Illinois before the convention. lie was 
one of the Commissioners to locate the Institute 
for the Feeble Minded at Quincy,Ill. (now at Lin- 
coln), also the Asylum for the Incurable Criminal 
Insane, at Chester. For ten successive years he 
served as Alderman of Salem. 

From the above account it will be seen that Mr. 
Merritt has been one of the most prominent Dem- 
ocrats of Illinois, and he still occupies a foremost 
position among the leaders of that party. His 
work in behalf of the people of the state entitles 
him to a high place in their regard, and his name 
will be deservedly perpetuated in the annals of the 
state as a loyal, able and eminent man. From the 
press of the country he has received the highest of 
commendation for his unwearied services in the 
interests of the people, as well as for his great abil- 
ity. The State Register says of him that "The man 
who wields the keenest satire is Merritt, of Ma- 
rion." The Mt. Vernon Free Press pays him the 
following tribute: "He is always awake to the in- 
terests of southern Illinois, and no influence, let it 
come from what source it may, is ever able to 
swerve him from the path of duty to his constitu- 
ents and the people generally." Another paper 
says of him: "Merritt is a wit; besides he is a good 
fellow, and everybody likes him. He never rises 
but he commands the attention of the House. He 
is a Bourbon of Bourbons." In addition to his 
other services, previously mentioned, he was a 
member of various committees of importance. To 
him belongs the honor of having nominated both 
William R. Morrison and John M. Palmer for 
United States Senators. 

On the 3d of February, 1862, Mr. Merritt was 
united in marriage with Miss Alice McKinney, a 
native of Jefferson County, 111., and a daughter of 
William McKinney, who was killed in battle in the 
Civil War. Four daughters and three sons have 
blessed this union, as follows: Addis D., who was 



admitted to the Bar by the United States District 
Court of the District of Columbia, and is now in 
the patent office at Washington, D. C.; Frank F., 
who was educated at Jacksonville College and is 
now with the lirm of Armour & Co., of Chicago; 
Clara, Harriet, Lottie, Edith and Harold. The two 
eldest daughters were students at St. Agnes School 
at Springfield, and are accomplished and cultured 
young ladies. In religious belief Mrs. Merritt is 
a devoted member of the Methodist Church. 



J~ OSEPH IIALLERMANN, a well known cit- 
izen of Germantown, has been a resident of 
Clinton County for a period covering more 
than forty years. Of German birth and 
parentage, he was born in Hanover, in September, 
1832, and grew to manhood in the land of his 
birth, where he was the recipient of a common- 
school education in that language. Believing that 
the New World offered opportunities to the young 
and energetic such as are not to be found in 
Europe, he determined to seek a home across the 
ocean. 

Accordingly, in 1848 Mr. Hallermann crossed 
the Atlantic, and arriving in the United States, 
proceeded to Connecticut, where he made a short 
sojourn in Essex. Prior to emigrating he had 
learned the trade of a carpenter and shipbuilder 
and he was thus engaged in Essex. In 1849 he 
came west and spent a year in the city of St. Louis, 
from which place he came to Clinton County in 
1850. Here he embarked at his trade of a carpen- 
ter, which he followed energetically and success- 
fully until 1875. During that year he opened a 
store containing a stock of general merchandise, 
such as is to be found in every first-class country 
establishment. Though he has not followed his 
trade for some years, he still takes occasional con- 
tracts for buildings. In addition to his other in- 
terests he is a stockholder in the mill at this place. 

The lady who in 1853 became the wife of Mr. 
Hallermann bore the maiden name of Caroline 
Vibbals and was born in this country. Two years 



274 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



after her marriage she died, and Mr. Hallermann 
remained a widower until 1871, when he was 
again married, choosing as his wife Miss Annie 
Meyer, a native of Clinton County. Their union 
has resulted in the birth of six children, named as 
follows: Benjamin, Henry, Lizzie, Josephine, Frank 
and Mary. With his family Mr. Hallermann holds 
membership fu the Catholic Church, to the mainte- 
nance of which they give liberally of their means. 
Several of the children, in addition to receiving a 
common-school education in Germantown have 
had the advantage of an attendance in the school 
at Milwaukee, Wis. 

Ever since coming to the United States Mr. Hal- 
lermann has been a loyal friend to our form of Gov- 
ernment and has proved a good citizen in his com- 
munity. He made a study of the issues of the day, 
the result being that he gave his support to the 
Democratic party. He has taken an active part in 
politics for man}' years and has frequently repre- 
sented his chosen party as their delegate in county 
conventions. He has also held various town offi- 
ces, in all of which he has rendered satisfactory 
service. Having been economical, industrious and 
energetic, he has thereby accumulated considerable 
means, and is recognized us one of the well-to-do 
citizens of the community. 



JOHN CONRAD EISENMAYER. The name 
of this gentleman is inseparably connected 
with the history of the Trenton Bank, a 
solid financial institution established by him 
in 1890, and now one of the prominent concerns 
of the kind in the county. He was born May 5, 
1854, in Mascoutah, and is the third in order of 
birth of a family of eight children, the others be- 
ing, Elizabeth, Mrs. Dr. A. E. Wehrman, of Indian- 
apolis; Louisa, the wife of William Bromelsick, of 
Lawrence, Kan.; Catherine, Mrs. Taylor Remick; 
Andrew and Julius, living in Springfield, Mo.; 
Anna, Mrs. Dr. L. C. Toney, of Phoenix, Ariz., and 
Amelia, who lives at home. The parents, Andrew 
J. and Christina Eisenmayer, are wealthy residents 



of this county, and their biographical sketch will 
be found on another page in this volume. 

Our subject was fifteen years of age when he 
came to Trenton with his parents. He has mafle 
this place his home since that time with the excep- 
tion of the years spent in attending school at Mas- 
coutah and McKendree College in Lebanon. He 
became a student in the latter institution in 1868 
and took a course of three years. After being 
graduated he returned home and engaged witli his 
father in the milling business until 1886, when the 
plant was destroyed by fire. He then turned his 
attention to buying and selling grain, and con- 
tinued thus engaged for the following four years. 
In 1890 he established the Trenton Bank, which is 
a thoroughly reliable institution, and is well pat- 
ronized by the business men and farmers through- 
out the county. 

Besides engaging in the business already men- 
tioned, Mr. Eisenmayer owns three farms, two lo- 
cated in Clinton County, and the third in Madison 
County. He purchased the first tract of land 
when only fifteen years of age and now rents the 
entire property, which comprises in all three hun- 
dred acres of valuable land. His varied talents 
permit him to engage successfully in different lines 
of business, and he has recently become interested 
in the Treuton Milling Company, now being or- 
ganized, of which he is to be the President and 
manager. In a short time this will undoubtedly 
be one of the important industries of the city. 

The lady whom our subject married in June, 
1877, was Miss Augusta, only daughter of Charles 
J. and Amelia (Wilhelmi) Steinmetz, who have 
been residents of this city for a quarter of a cen- 
tury. Previous to that time they lived in St. 
Louis, where Mrs. Eisenmayer was born January 
27, 1858. Their home has been blessed by the 
birth of five children, Charles W., a student in the 
Central Wesleyan College at Warrenton, Mo.; 
Herman Andrew, Homei Conrad, Augustus and 
Amelia Christina, all at home. 

In 1878, Mr. Eisenmayer erected his present ele- 
gant residence in Trenton, which is furnished in 
modern style, and which is one of the best dwellings 
in the city. In politics he is a true-blue Republican, 
and firmly believes in the principles laid down by 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



275 



that party. He has always been actively interested 
in public affairs, and at one time served as Mayor 
of the city, and on another occasion was Alderman 
of the First Ward. At the present time he is Treas- 
urer of Sugar Creek Township, which position he 
has held for the past five years. He is a devoted 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and has 
aided greatly in furthering the work of that de- 
nomination in this locality. 



/^ ORAL F. LENDER, who is now engaged 
(if in general farming and in fruit-growing 
^^^ on section 34, Centralia Township, Marion 
County, was born in Cleveland, Ohio, May 25, 
1845, and is a son of Charles F. and Sophia (Burke) 
Lender, the former a native of Baltimore, Md., and 
the latter of Lorain County, Ohio. The father 
was a carpenter and ship builder, and followed 
that business in Cleveland when it was a mere 
trading post. The grandfather of our subject, 
Ferdinand Lender, emigrated from Prussia to 
America in 1792, and sold his time for one year to 
pay his passage across the ocean. John Jacob As- 
tor was sold at the same time, on the same block. 
The srrandfather settled in Baltimore in the year 
1794, and in the year 1802 was married, after 
which he removed to Lorain County, Ohio. His 
two sons were Charles F. and George. The lat- 
ter removed to Minnesota, where with his fam- 
ily he was murdered by the Sioux Indians. Ferdi- 
nand Lender was appointed Postmaster at Copopa, 
Ohio, July 27, 1827, and was a well known citizen 
of that region. 

During his youth Charles Lender served an ap- 
prenticeship to the carpenter's trade. He was 
married November 20, 1828, to Sophia Burke, and 
the year following removed to Cleveland. He 
soon became prominent in politics, and was a 
leader in the Democratic party. For some years he 
was a Colonel in the State Militia, and was fre- 
quently a delegate to state and national conven- 
tions. He continued to support tin Democracy 
until 1856, when he joined the new Republican 
party, with which he continued his affiliations un- 



til death. In 1860 he emigrated to Walnut Hill, 
111., and made his home upon a farm until 1879, 
when he went to live with his son, C. F., in whose 
home he died March 12, 1887, at the age of eighty- 
four. 

Our subject was a lad of about fourteen years 
when with his parents he came to Illinois. For a 
short time he worked upon the home farm and 
then became a clerK in the village store in Walnut 
Hill, where he remained during 1862 and 1863. 
He then resigned that position to accept a situa- 
tion in the postofflce of Centralia, where he re- 
mained for a j'ear. Later he spent some time in 
Kinmundy. 

On the 24th of December, 1866, Mr. Lender was 
united in marriage with Miss Elizabeth A. Smith, 
youngest daughter of Isaac Smith, and the fol- 
lowing year he worked upon a farm. In April, 
1868, he formed a partnership with D. B. Kell, un- 
der the firm name of Kell & Lender, dealers in 
general merchandise. This connection was con- 
tinued for four years, on the expiration of which 
period our subject sold out to his partner, and in 
the autumn of 1873 went to Centralia, where he 
was employed as a salesman for sixteen years. In 
1879, he bought a farm of eighty acres and set out 
a large peach orchard. 

In the spring of 1882, Mr. Lender, whose health 
was much impaired, went on a trip to Missouri and 
northwestern Arkansas in the hope of being bene- 
fited there bj', and during his absence he was nom- 
inated as a candidate for County Clerk on both 
the Republican and Greenback tickets. Winning 
the election, he served for four years in that of- 
fice, retiring in 1886. His arduous duties and the 
close confinement to the office had again greatly 
impaired his health and he resolved to move to the 
country. He purchased a farm four miles southeast 
of Centralia, comprising one hundred and eighteen 
acres, and to this he has added until he has two 
hundred acres of rich land, forty of which are com- 
prised within an apple orchard. His home is a 
comfortable dwelling, and h,e has a very large 
barn, and in all of its appointments the farm is com- 
plete. 

Unto Mr. and Mrs. Lender were born five chil- 
dren, Harry W., who died in 1893; Add ie, Charles 



276 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



D., Osraer I. and Coral F. The family is one of 
prominence in the community and its members 
rank high in social circles. Mr. Lender belongs to 
the Masonic fraternity. He has always taken an 
active interest in political affairs, both local and 
national, always keeps well informed on the is- 
sues of the day, and frequently serves as delegate 
to the county and state Republican conventions. 
He lias a wide acquaintance in this community, and 
his sterling worth and strict integrity have gained 
for him the confidence and esteem of all. 



^p| DAM JUNKER, Sheriff of Clinton County 
'*y| and an influential citizen of Carlyle, is a 
jj IS native of Germany, having been born in 
$jj the city of Nackenheim, in Hesse-Darm- 
stadt, April 12, 1853. He is the son of Peter and 
Elizabeth (Sigling) Junker, natives of the same 
place as that in which his eyes first opened to the 
light. The father, who in the Old Country fol- 
lowed the trade of a butcher, emigrated to the 
United States in 1855, and coming west to Wiscon- 
sin, settled at Port Washington. He purchased a 
tract of eighty acres of timber land, whicli he 
cleared and converted into a fertile and finely im- 
proved farm. 

Selling his farm for $4,400 in 1867, Peter Junker 
came to Aviston, Clinton County, in the spring of 
the same year and purchased property at that 
place. About 1876 he purchased a farm in Sugar 
Creek Township, but did not settle there until 
three years later. In Aviston he carried on a meat 
market. After removing to the farm, he engaged 
in the cultivation of its forty acres until his death, 
which occurred January 2, 1894. His wife died 
six days after his demise. Their family consisted 
of seven children, of whom six attained years of 
maturity and five are now living. They are: 
Lawrence, who is a farmer and stock-raiser of Wil- 
son County, Kan., and resides in Neodesha, that 
state; Adam, the subject of this sketch; Jacob, who 



is engaged in the confectionery business at Milwau- 
kee, Wis.; Charles, who lives upon the old home- 
stead; and Elizabeth, who married Charles J. 
Bisch and lives in Port Washington, Wis. The 
father of this family was a Democrat in political 
belief and a Roman Catholic in religion. 

Brought to this country when only two years 
old, our subject has no recollection of the land of 
his birth and is a loyal citizen of the United 
States. He was reared in Wisconsin, and in Avis- 
ton, Clinton County, 111., received a fair education 
in the public schools. He remained with his fa- 
ther until the year 1879, and June 10 of that year 
was united in marriage with Miss Margaret San- 
tel, who was born in Germantown, Clinton Coun- 
ty, in 1855, and has spent her entire life in this 
state. Her father, Anton Santel, a native of Ger- 
many, emigrated to the United States and was 
numbered among the pioneers of Clinton County, 
where he engaged in the mercantile business. His 
death occurred in Iowa. Unto Mr. and Mrs. Junker 
were born seven children, of whom the following 
now survive: Edward P., Elizabeth, Anton Johann 
and Willie. 

Among the citizens of Clinton County, few are 
more widely and favorably known than Mr. Junker, 
and especially is he prominent in the Democratic 
party. For years he has been an active and influ- 
ential worker in that political organization, and 
he has frequently been called upon to fill positions 
of trust within the gift of the people. In 1876 he 
was chosen Constable in Sugar Creek Township, 
and held that position until 1890. For a number 
of years he was Village Clerk and Street Commis- 
sioner, and also served as Clerk of the Board of 
School Directors. He was Assessor of Sugar Creek 
Township for eight successive years, and since 
1876 has been the incumbent of some position 
continuously to the present time. In 1890 he was 
elected Sheriff of Clinton County, in which oflice 
he is now serving with fidelity and success. Fre- 
quently he has represented his party as delegate 
to the various conventions. At the present time 
he is a candidate for the office of County Clerk, 
and it is safe to say that, should he receive the 
nomination, he will have the unanimous and 
hearty support of the Democrats of the county. In 



\JH1YCFV 




*^ 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



279 



his religious belief he is a member of the Roman 
Catholic Church. In addition to the other enter- 
prise in which he has engaged, for some time he 
conducted farming pursuits, in which he met with 
success. 



PRANCIS M. TOMKINS was born in Morris- 
town, N. J., on the 29th of January, 1820, 
and was a son of 'Squire Tomkins, whose 
birth occurred in the same place, August 23, 1783. 
The paternal grandfather was one of the heroes of 
the Revolution. 'Squire Tomkins was a cabinet- 
maker by trade, and a skilled mechanic. On the 
4th of May, 1809, he married Miss Mary Clark, 
who was born August 4, 1785. He spent his en- 
tire life in Morristown, where his death occurred 
December. 17, 1847. His wife there passed away 
April 20, 1834. They had eight children, but only 
one now survives, Mrs. Caroline I). Mersereau, who 
is now living in South Orange, N. J., at the age of 
eighty-four. Delia, Augustus, Francis aud Mary 
L. attained to mature years. 

Our subject was reared in his native city, and at 
the age of sixteen entered Fairchilds Academy, in 
Mendham, N. J., where he pursued his studies for 
two years. He then spent four years in learning 
the trade of a tinsmith, after which he removed to 
Ohio and entered Oberlin College. Later he spent 
about a year in New Jersey, after which he went 
to Kalamazoo County, Mich., where he worked in 
a tin shop. On going to St. Joseph, Mich., he was 
employed in the same way for about five mouths, 
when his employer died and he took the manage- 
ment of the store. He afterward bought a stock 
of hardware and tinware and opened a store in 
Schoolcraft, Mich. 

On the 8th of April, 1846, Mr. Tomkins was 
united in marriage with Miss Lucy A. Roys, a na- 
tive of Newark, Wayne County, N. Y., born July 
20, 1825, and a daughter of Rufus A. Roys, who 
was a native of New Haven County, Conn. He 
was born February 2, 1795, and there wedded Mary 
Saloma Johnson, who was born August 11, 1796, 
and was a daughter of Joel Johnson. Rufus Roys 
was a carpenter in his younger years, and after- 
ward engaged in farming and teaching school. 
He also served as Justice of the Peace for some* 
5 



time. Later he removed to Kalamazoo County, 
Mich., and in 1833 located in Schoolcraft Town- 
ship, where he entered land from the Government. 
In the midst of the forest he hewed out a farm, 
and as one of the early settlers, was closely identi- 
fied with the growth of the county. To him be- 
longed the honor of having cast the first Republi- 
can vote in Kalamazoo, and he also helped to raise 
the first liberty pole on the banks of the Kalama- 
zoo River. 

When he removed to the west, the Indians were 
very numerous in Michigan. Bears, wolves and 
other wild animals were to be seen, and deer and 
lesser game could be had in abundance. Mr. and 
Mrs. Roys had a family of eight children, six of 
whom grew to mature years, but only one is now 
living. The father became the owner of a fine 
homestead, and carried on agricultural pursuits un- 
til his death, which occurred September 25, 1877, 
at the age of eighty-three years. His wife passed 
away November 14, 1860. Both were members of 
the Presbyterian Church and took a very active 
part in church work. They were prominent people 
and had the high regard of all who knew them. 

Continuing to reside in Michigan until 1850, 
Mr. Tomkins then removed to Kankakee County, 
111., locating in Momence, where he engaged in the 
hardware business for several years. He then re- 
mored to Manteno, where he carried on business 
for two years, and in March, 1858, came to Cen- 
tralia, which was then a small village. Here he 
engaged in the hardware business until 1879, when 
he retired from active life. He was enterprising 
and industrious, and by well directed efforts and 
fair and honest dealing won a high degree of suc- 
cess. In the year of his arrival here he purchased 
the lot upon which the home of Mrs. Tomkins now 
stands, and in 1867 built a comfortable residence. 

At the age of eighteen, Mr. Tomkins united 
with the Presbyterian Church, and was one of the 
charter members of the congregation at this place. 
He contributed liberally to the support of the 
church, and his life was ever in harmony with his 
professions. The best interests of the community 
always found in him a friend, and he did all in 
his power to aid in the advancement of public en- 
terprises, He was interested in several business 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



enterprises, and was a stockholder, director and one 
of the organizers of the Old National Bank, a 
stockholder and director of the Centralia Mining 
and Manufacturing Company, the Centralia Light 
and Power Company, and the Centralia Fair Asso- 
ciation. He built the Tomkins Block and owned 
other real estate in the city. 

In politics Mr. Tomkins was a stalwart Republi- 
can, and during the late war was a loyal supporter 
of the Union. The cause of temperance found in 
him a friend, one who did much for its advance- 
ment. He passed away on the 20th of February, 
1893, at his home in Centralia, at the age of seven- 
ty-three years aud twenty-two days, and his loss 
was mourned by many friends as well as his im- 
mediate family. Mrs. Tomkins is still living at 
the old home, where she has resided for so many 
years. She is a most estimable lady aud, like her 
husband, delights in doing good. Her many ex- 
cellencies of character have won for her the love 
and confidence of all. 

The only child of Mr. and Mrs. Tomkins, Mary 
A., married James B. Sanders, who died August 
17, 1893, leaving three children, Jessie T., Lucy 
Josephine and Mabel Augusta. Mr. Sanders was 
born in Williamstown, Mass., the son of Anthony 
and Mary Sanders, and married Miss Tomkins 
March 25, 1869. For many years he was engaged 
in the jewelry business, aud subsequently, in part- 
nership with Mr. Ullyette, owned and conducted a 
hardware establishment. After his death his 
widow disposed of his interest in the store. In 
politics he was a Republican, though not aggress- 
ive or partisan in his opinions. He was a member 
of the Presbyterian Church, and had charge of the 
cjioir for about twenty years. One of his most 
notable characteristics was his musical ability; not 
only was he very fond of music, but he displayed 
great skill in that art and possessed a strong and 
melodious voice. 



PRANK H. A LEERS, Deputy Circuit Clerk 
of Clinton County, and an influential citi- 
zen of Carlyle, was born in Germantown, 
111., January 18, 1860. He is of direct German 
descent, his father, Franz Albers, having been born 
and reared in that country. Emigrating thence to 



the United States, he proceeded at once to Illinois 
and became one of the first settlers of German- 
town To'wnship, Clinton County. Beginning here 
with limited means, but with an abundance of en- 
ergy, tact and keen judgment, he gradually at- 
tained prosperity, and at the time of his death was 
numbered among the successful and wealthy farm- 
ers of the county, his landed possessions aggrega- 
ting several thousand acres. He passed away in 
1866. at the age of fifty-three years. Three years 
prior to his demise his wife departed this life, aged 
forty-four years. A native of Germany, she was 
known in maidenhood as Christina Dieckmann. 

In the parental family there were seven chil- 
dren, all of whom attained mature years, and five 
are now living. They are, Theodore, who is liv- 
ing on the old homestead; Mrs. Elizabeth Sher- 
man, whose husband is in the milling business at 
Germantown; Catharine, the wife of H. Albers, a 
resident of Germantown Township, Clinton Coun- 
ty, who though bearing the same name is not re- 
lated to our subject; Caroline, the wife of F. H. 
Worries, who is engaged in the bakery and confec- 
tionery business at Nickerson, Kan.; and F. H., of 
this sketch. Those deceased are, Mary, who became 
the wife of Clements Niebur and died in Breese, 
111.; and Christena, who married Dr. Charles E. 
Gissy and died in Breese. 

Spending the days of childhood upon the home 
farm, our subject at the age of twelve years came 
to Carlyle, where he made his home with a brother- 
in-law. His education was commenced in this 
county aud completed in the St. Louis University, 
where he prosecuted his studies for three years. 
For about six years he filled a clerkship in Carlyle, 
and in 1888 accepted the position of Deputy Cir- 
cuit Clerk, in which position he is still serving to 
the utmost satisfaction of all concerned. For four 
years he has been Township Collector. Since Mr. 
Niehoff, the present Circuit Clerk, has been hold- 
ing the office of Inspector of Insurance at Spring- 
field, he has had the entire control of the office at 
this point. 

Reared in the faith of the Roman Catholic 
Church, with which his parents were identified, 
Mr. Albers is prominently connected with that re- 
ligious organization at Carlyle. Politically a Dem- 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



281 



ocrat, he has ever taken an active interest in the 
welfare of his party, and no one rejoices more at 
its success than does he. He is the owner of con- 
siderable valuable property in Clinton County, in- 
cluding two hundred and twenty-four acres in 
Gerraantown Township, two tracts of eighty-four 
and forty acres respectively in Looking Glass 
Township, and some farming land in Santa Fe 
Township. The land has been placed under a high 
state of cultivation, improved with good build- 
ings, and is devoted to the raising of grain. 



HEO KLUTHO, Sit. The name of this gen- 
tleman is inseparably associated with the 
growth and progress of the village of 
Breese, where he has resided for a period covering 
nearly forty years. In all enterprises to promote 
the development of the place he has been fore- 
most, and there has been no plan evolved to ad- 
vance the business and social interests of Breese 
Township or Clinton County with which he has 
not been prominently connected. A conspicuous 
figure in public life, he lias held offices of trust, 
and for a number of years has represented the 
township upon the County Board of Supervisors. 

Our subject is the only surviving member of 
the family of Henry and Theresa (Butz) Klutho, 
who lived and died in Prussia, where the father 
followed the trade of a weaver. Theo was born 
in Prussia February 12, 1830, and received a good 
education in the German language. For three 
years he served as a member of the First Regi- 
ment, Prussian Body Guards, and at the expira- 
tion of his service, in 1853, he came to America 
and spent the two ensuing years in Frankfort, 
Ky., where he learned the carpenter's trade. In 
1856 he went to St. Louis, and from there the 
following 3 - ear came to Breese, becoming one of 
the first settlers of the town. Here he worked 
both at his trade and in a lumber yard. 

The first marriage of Mr. Klutho occurred in 
1863, and united him with Miss Anna Mary, 
daughter of Frank and Tracy Marks, prominent 



old settlers of Breese. This lady died fifteen 
months after her marriage, and in 1866 our sub- 
ject was united with Miss Anna Mollitor, a na- 
tive of Clinton County, and a daughter of the 
late William Mollitor, one of the pioneers of this 
part of Illinois. Eleven children were born of 
this union, of whom four are now living: Henry, 
John, August and Regina. The children have 
been given the best educational advantages and 
are young people of culture and energy. Henry 
is a graduate of a business college in St. Louis, 
and is an architect in the latter place. John was 
graduated from St. John's College in Minnesota, 
and the two youngest children are students in 
Breese. The family is identified with the Catholic 
Church. 

In his political affiliations Mr. Klutho is a stanch 
supporter of Democratic principles, and has fre- 
quently represented his party in local and state 
conventions. During the Civil War he was Cap- 
tain of the Home Guards. For twenty years he 
filled the position of Justice of the Peace, after 
which he declined to hold the office longer. In 
1880 he was elected Supervisor of Breese Town- 
ship, and six years later was again chosen to fill 
that position, which he has since held. In 1890 
he was Chairman of the Committee on Public Im- 
provements and Buildings. He is President of 
the Future Coal Mine Company and is also inter- 
ested in the Ingersoll Silver Mines in Montana. 
At present he is in the lumber business in Breese 
and is one of the oldest business men of this 
place. 

The landed possessions of Mr. Klutho include 
one hundred and forty acres in Wheatfield Town- 
ship, one hundred and forty-five in Breese Town- 
ship and forty in Germantown Township. His 
residence, situated in the village, was erected in 
1867 at a cost of $4,000, and is one of the most 
elegant homes in the township. He has also 
built six other houses, which he has sold. From 
the founding of the village to the present time he 
has aided in its growth and contributed to its up- 
building, and in its history his name will occupy 
a prominent place through all years to come. 
He is a member of the Concordia Singing So- 
ciety, to the success of which he has largely 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



contributed. Many other enterprises have also 
received from him an impetus which has aided 
their advancement. It is but natural, therefore, 
that he should stand high in the respect of his 
fellow-citizens and occupy a conspicuous position 
among the residents of the county. 



/p^,USTAVE VAN IIOOREBEKE, senior mem- 

i( <T7 bei f tlie fum f Van Hooreheke & Ford, 
\^jjj attorneys-at-law in Carlylc, is a native of 
Belgium, having been born in the city of Ghent, 
February 2, 1838. He is the only child born of 
the union of Emanuel and Colette Van Hoorebeke, 
natives of Ghent, who in 1850 emigrated to Amer- 
ica and settled in St. Louis County, Mo., where the 
father engaged in general farming. In 1853 he 
removed thence to Cole County, the same state, 
where he followed agricultural pursuits until the 
fall of 1855. 

Prior to the admission of Kansas into the Union 
Mr. Van Hoorebeke removed to Franklin County, 
where in addition to mixed farming he engaged 
in the mercantile business. His wife dying there 
in 1856, in the following year he returned to St. 
Louis County, Mo., and resumed the tilling of the 
soil there. In the winter of 1857-58 he came to 
Clinton County, and made his home here until 
1874, when he returned to Kansas, and in Labette 
County, that state, still carries on farming enter- 
prises. In politics he is a Democrat, but not par- 
tisan in his opinions, voting for the best man in 
local campaigns and supporting the Democracy in 
national issues. By his second marriage he had 
five children. 

In the private schools of Ghent, our subject re- 
ceived an excellent education in the language of 
his native land, which was afterward supplemented 
by an English education received in the schools of 
St. Louis County and the St. Louis University. 
After completing his studies, he remained with his 
father until 1862, when he came to Carlyle and 



commenced to read law in the office of Benjamin 
Bond. In September, 1863, lie was admitted to 
the Bar by the Supreme Court at Mt. Vernon, 111., 
and immediately afterward formed a partnership 
with his former preceptor, Benjamin Bond, with 
whom he continued until that gentleman retired 
from practice. For some time afterward he was 
alone, but now practices in partnership with Mr. 
Ford. 

In 1858 Mr. Van Hoorebeke was united in mar- 
riage with Miss Ann E. Phillips, who was born and 
reared in Indiana. Six children resulted from 
this union, of whom only two are now living: 
Charles, foreman in a carriage factory in Cincin- 
nati, and William, a carpenter and builder living 
in Aspen, Colo. The second marriage of Mr. Van 
Hoorebekc occurred in 1 869, his wife being Miss 
Helen Owen, a native of Kentucky, who at the age 
of six years accompanied her parents to Clay 
County, Mo., and grew to womanhood in the city 
of Liberty. This lady died July 18, 1876, and the 
following year Mr. Van Hoorebeke and Miss Cora 
Cooke were united in marriage. 

Mrs. Van Hoorebeke, at the time of her marriage, 
was a resident of Evansville, Ind., of which place 
her father, Lucius Cooke, was a prominent citizen. 
She was born in Jersey City, N. J., and was a child 
of about six years when she was taken by the fam- 
il3' to Urbana, Ohio. When she was nine years of 
age her father came to Clinton County, 111., and 
from here removed to Evansville, Ind., seven years 
later. At the present time Mr. Cooke is a resident 
of Fostoria, Ohio. Mr. Van Hoorebeke and his es- 
timable wife are the parents of three sons, Eugene, 
Harold and Vivian. The eldest boy is a student 
in the college at Knoxville, 111., while the younger 
sons are pupils in the public school of Carlyle. 

In the Democratic party Mr. Van Hoorebeke has 
long been an active worker, and so prominent is 
he among the members of this political organiza- 
tion in Illinois that in 1868 he was a candidate for 
the office of Secretary of State. In 1876 he served 
as delegate to the National Democratic Convention 
at St. Louis. Under the first admin islration of 
President Cleveland he was tendered and accepted 
the position of United States District Attorney for 
the southern district of Illinois. He has also been 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



City Attorney of Carlyle. Socially he is identified 
with the Ancient Order of United Workmen. 

In 1874 Mr. Van Hoorebeke removed to Colo- 
rado, and settling in Denver, formed a legal part- 
nership with Gen. B. M. Hughes, but owing to the 
continued illness of his wife, to whom the dimate 
was unsuited, he was obliged to give up his inter- 
ests in the west and return to Carlyle. As a mem- 
ber of the legal fraternity he stands high. He is a 
large-brained, broad-minded and generous-spir- 
ited man, who commands the esteem and confi- 
dence of all who know him. The exacting de- 
mands and large requirements of his profession 
have not dulled his taste for general literature. He 
has a miscellaneous library, and to legal learning 
adds a cultivated taste and a large store of general 
information. 



OOAH HOYT SCOTT, a well known citizen 
of Meridian Township, Clinton County, 
was born in Geauga County, Ohio, Feb- 
ruary 21, 1826, and is a son of Dr. John W. 
and Mary A. (Hoyt) Scott. The paternal grand- 
father, John Scott, was born Giennock, Scotland, 
and there spent the years of his boyhood and 
youth. Deciding to seek a home across the Atlan- 
tic, he took passage in an American-bound vessel, 
in company with John Weatherspoon,a member of 
the same church as was he. With him he brought 
a package of linen and with this he traveled north 
into Vermont, selling his goods from house to 
house. He settled in the Green Mountain State, 
and the Revolutionary War coming on shortly af- 
ter his arrival in this country, he was chosen Lieu- 
tenant of a company of Green Mountain Boys. 
However, he saw no active service as an official, his 
time being devoted to the care of valuables in 
towns raided by the British. 

At the close of the war Grandfather Scott re- 
sumed the occupation of a farmer and leased the 
Gleab farm for a period of one hundred years, it 
remaining the home of his descendants for a long 
time. He and his wife reared a family of thirteen 
children, among whom was John W., who first 



opened his eyes to the light in Vermont. His ed- 
ucation was commenced in the district schools and 
completed in Rutland Academy and Dartmouth 
College, and he was graduated from the institu- 
tion last named with the degree of M. D. Through- 
out the remainder of his life he followed the med- 
ical profession, in which he was very successful. 
About 1816 he removed west to Ohio, making the 
trip on horseback and locating in the woods at 
Parkman, that state, where he purchased property. 

The marriage of Dr. J. W. Scott united him 
with the daughter of Noah and Rebecca (Belts) 
Hoyt. The Hoyt family lias been represented in 
this country for many generations and was origi- 
nally from England, the first ones of that name 
who crossed the Atlantic having made settlement 
at Danbury, Conn. Our subject is the eldest of 
five children, the others being, John (deceased), 
a volunteer in the late war and formerly a toll- 
gate keeper in Montana, where he was one of the 
earliest settlers; Mary A., deceased; Charles, who 
served for four years in the Civil War and was for 
sixteen years clerk in the Treasury at Washington; 
and Maria, who lives in Cleveland, Ohio. The 
parents of this family were devoted members of 
the Episcopal Church. In politics the father was a 
Whig and a Federalist. 

Although he remained with his parents until 
twenty-eight years old, our subject had been self- 
supporting for some years prior to that time and 
had commenced to teach school at the age of six- 
teen. For five years he was Assistant Principal in 
an Ohio college, but meantime he prosecuted the 
study of medicine; he went to Wisconsin in 1856, 
where he practiced the profession for eighteen 
months. For a time he lived in Hamilton, III., 
where he owned property and conducted a good 
practice. In 1867 selling the place, he purchased 
ninety acres of raw prairie land in Clinton Coun- 
ty, where he has since made his home. 

On the last day of the year 1889, Dr. Scott suf- 
fered a deep bereavement in the loss of his faith- 
ful wife, an estimable lady, who was highly re- 
garded in this community. Frances Moore, as she 
was known in maidenhood, was born in Rutland, 
Vt., and was a daughter of Charles Moore, also a 
native of the Green Mountain State. Dr. and Mrs. 



284 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



Scott became the parents of one son, Rev. John 
W. Scott, who was educated in McKendree College, 
of Lebanon, 111., and at Syracuse, N. Y.; he is now 
a minister in the Methodist Episcopal Church and 
resides at present with his father. 



,sp^ AMUEL P. COOPER. The biographies of 
^ successful men are suggestive of the most 
[iV/^JI precious and important truths and serve 
as potent examples to each succeeding 
generation, teaching them how to achieve the 
highest success. From them may be gleaned the 
most valuable lessons of perseverance in the face of 
obstacles, honesty in the midst of temptations, and 
fidelity in even the most trivial duties of every- 
day life. 

It will therefore be both interesting and instruct- 
ive to record the events which have given charac- 
ter to the career of Samuel P. Cooper. A history 
of Washington County would be incomplete with- 
out a biographical sketch of this pioneer, who has 
been so long and so closely connected with its 
highest material and commercial interests. His 
name is indissolubly associated with the history of 
Richview,of which he is now the oldest surviving 
business man. He came to this place in 1845, 
embarked in business three years later and is now 
widely and favorably known as President of the 
Exchange Bank. 

The city of Alton, 111., was the early home of 
Mr. Cooper, and there he was born in December 
of 1832, being the next to the eldest child in the 
family of William P. and Elizabeth (Ballard) 
Cooper. The Cooper family is of distinguished 
ancestry and its first representatives in this coun- 
try were among the Pilgrim Fathers of immortal 
fame. Our subject's maternal grandfather on the 
Cooper side was a sister of the illustrious Wendell 
Phillips. The Ballard family is of Kentucky ori- 
gin, but our subject is not familiar with their gen- 
ealogical history. 

William P. Cooper was born in Boston, Mass., 
and at the age of twenty-five years left that 



city, removing west to Illinois, where he en- 
gaged in surveying and school-teaching. A prin- 
ter by trade, he published at Carlyle one of the 
first papers of southern Illinois. His death oc- 
curred in Marion County, 111., in 1855. Samuel 
P., at the age of fourteen , entered a saddlery and 
harness establishment in St. Louis, Mo., where he 
served an apprenticeship of five years. On leav- 
ing that city he joined his mother at Carlyle, of 
which city he was a resident for a few years fol- 
lowing. 

The year 1845 witnessed the arrival of Mr. 
Cooper in Richview, Washington County, 111., 
where he was employed as a journeyman for three 
years. At the expiration of that time he embarked 
in the harness business, which he followed exclu- 
sively for two years and then added stoves, tinware 
and hardware to his stock. In that line he met with 
flattering success until 1867, when he engaged in 
the mercantile trade, although he still held a half- 
interest in his former establishment. Later he 
embarked in the grain business, to which in 1882 
he added lumbering. The Exchange Bank was 
founded by himself in 1878 and is one of the most 
substantial private banks in this section of the 
state. In all the enterprises above mentioned he 
is still engaged, with the exception of the harness 
and mercantile trade. 

The marriage of Mr. Cooper and Miss Sarah 
Needles took place in 1858. Mrs. Cooper is the 
daughter of J. B. and Sarah (Talbot) Needles, the 
former of Quaker origin, and the latter a mem- 
ber of a Virginia family. To this marriage were 
born three children, one of whom died in infancy. 
The two surviving are: Charles Phillips, who is* 
engaged in the agricultural business and is also 
interested with his father in the banking, grain 
and lumber trade; and Carrie C., the wife of J. W. 
Stanton, formerly of Clinton County, but now of 
Richview, where he is engaged in agricultural pur- 
suits and also owns an interest in the banking, 
grain and lumber business. Charles P. married 
Miss Ida Moffet, of Wisconsin, and they reside in 
Richview. 

In religious connections Mr. Cooper and his 
family are identified with the Methodist Church, 
in which he is a Steward. Socially, he is identi- 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



285 



fled with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
and has represented his lodge in the Grand Lodge 
for fifteen years. His political adherence is given 
to the Republican party, but he is not a politician 
in the ordinary usage of that word, preferring to 
devote his attention exclusively to his extensive 
and important business interests. By his fellow- 
citizens he is regarded with respect as an honorable 
citizen and progressive business man. His active co- 
operation has been given to every improvement 
planned and executed in the village of Richview, 
and all enterprises calculated to increase the ma- 
terial prosperity of the people receive his enthusi- 
astic and loyal support. 



PRANK ISAAC, a farmer residing on section 
33, Wade Township, Clinton County, was 
born in France April 9, 1830. He is the 
son of Nicholas and Susie (Koshier) Isaac, natives 
of France, the former being a weaver by trade. In 
September of 1837 the family emigrated to Amer- 
ica, and coming direct to Illinois, settled upon a 
farm situated in the American Bottom in St. Clair 
County. Thence, eighteen months later, they came 
to Clinton County and made settlement upon a 
farm on section 31, Wade Township. The father, 
however, was spared but a few years longer, and 
just as he was succeeding in his effort to place his 
land under cultivation, he was killed by lightning, 
in 1848. 

The death of the father was a severe blow to the 
widow and orphaned children, who were thus left 
with little property and no means of support save 
the tilling of the soil of the home farm. Though 
far from her native land and in the midst of a 
sparsely settled country, the mother was undis- 
mayed by the hardships she was obliged to en- 
counter, and struggled bravely to support the 
family. In this endeavor she was assisted by her 
children, who were energetic, industrious, frugal 
and persevering. There were in the family five 
children, but only two are now living, Frank and 
Mrs. Rohr. The mother survived her husband 



many years, and passed away in 1884 at an ad- 
vanced age. 

At the time of coming to America, the subject 
of this sketch was a child of seven years, and he 
grew to manhood amid pioneer scenes in a new 
and undeveloped country. He had few opportuni- 
ties of acquiring an education, but so anxious was 
he to gain knowledge that, whenever possible to 
attend, he walked five miles to a subscription 
school, a requirement which would be considered 
impossible by the schoolboy of modern times, who 
goes "creeping, like a snail, unwillingly to school." 

In 1856 Mr. Isaac married Miss Mary Peorot, a 
native of the village in France where our subject 
first saw the light. This lady died in 1859, leav- 
ing one child, Nicholas, who married Lena Rohr, 
and with his wife and four children lives in Wade 
Township. The second marriage of Mr. Isaac oc- 
curred in 1860, his wife being Katie Tieman, a 
native of Germany. They are the parents of eight 
children, Henry, Frank, John, Bennie, Susie, Katie, 
Mary and Annie. When Mr. Isaac first settled 
upon his farm in the year 1860, it consisted of onlj 
forty acres, but from time to time he added to his 
possessions until he now owns five hundred and 
twenty-four acres, all of which is improved ex- 
cepting one hundred acres. Here he engages in 
general farming and also makes a specialty of rais- 
ing stock. 

In religious connections Mr. Isaac and his fam- 
ily are members of the Catholic Church, in which 
they are prominent workers. In politics he is a 
Democrat, which party is also supported by his 
sons. It has never been his desire to mingle in 
public affairs, and he has not been solicitous of 
office, preferring to devote his attention exclu- 
sively to agriculture. He has given his children 
the best advantages possible, is a friend of the pub- 
lic-school movement, and served as School Director 
for one year. As one of the oldest settlers of this 
locality, as well as one of its most successful farm- 
ers, he is well and favorably known throughout 
the township and county. His life affords an illus- 
tration of the power of self-reliance and deter- 
mination. In early life he struggled against in- 
numerable obstacles. Not only had he no means, 
but he and the other members of the family were 



286 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



obliged to pay the debts incurred by his father in 
purchasing the home farm, and it required twelve 
years to do so. Meantime, they often lacked even 
the ordinary comforts of life and were obliged to 
be content with the bare necessities of existence. 
Not having money to pay for having corn ground 
at the mill, they ground it in the coffee mill at 
home and thus made bread for the family. This 
is but one of the privations they endured, but 
success, after many years, has rewarded the pa- 
tient efforts of Mr. Isaac, and he is now numbered 
among the prosperous farmers of Wade. Township. 



pl NDREW EISENMAYER. Among the resi- 
(@A-J|| dents of Trenton who have prosecuted a 

|n* successful business career for many years, 
l^j/ investing their means in such a manner as 
to derive a good income by close application to 
their business, and have retired from the arduous 
labor of life, is the gentleman above named. He 
was for a n umber of years the proprietor of the 
Trenton Flouring Mill, but after it was destroyed 
by fire in 1886 he practically retired from active 
life, and is now giving his attention to the general 
supervision of his large interests. 

Our subject was born in Hassloch, Bavaria, Feb- 
ruary 22, 1824, is a son of John Conrad and Ann 
Eliza (Fuesser) Eisenmayer, and was the fourth in 
order of birth of their eight children. During his 
boyhood he attended the schools of his native 
land, where he received a good education, and 
when eighteen years of age boarded a sailing-ves- 
sel leaving Havre and arrived in New Orleans in 
June, 1840. From that point he came north to 
St. Louis and later located in St. Clair County, 
and remained in Mascoutah for about a year. At 
the end of that time he removed to Belleville, and 
during the two years he made his home in that 
place learned the carpenter's trade. He subse- 
quently spent a short time in Galena, working at 
his trade, but soon returned to Mascoutah, where 
he lived until 1846. 

In the above year our subject visited his old 
home in Germany, and in March, 1847, was there 



married to Miss Christina Sauter, who was a na- 
tive of Lachen, which was located near his own 
birthplace. He soon afterward returned to Amer- 
ica with his bride, and again taking up his abode 
in Mascoutah, purchased an interest in a saw and 
grist mill, which at that time was the only one in 
that region. In 1850 he formed a partnership 
with P. H. Postel and erected a new mill in addi- 
tion to the one already in use, and they operated 
together for about two years, when Mr. Eisenmayer 
purchased the entire plant. 

Our subject remained in business in Mascoutah 
until 1869, when he became dissatisfied with the 
location of his mill and determined to invest in 
mill property enjoying railroad facilities. In 1866, 
in partnership with John Sauter, he purchased the 
mill property owned by Peter Emig, and three 
years later bought the interest of his partner. He 
thus became the sole proprietor of the largest 
flouring mill in Clinton Count}', and in conse- 
quence carried on a large and important business 
until 1886, when the plant was destroyed by fire. 

In 1885 Mr. Eisenmayer went to Springfield, 
Mo., where he established a large mill which had a 
capacity of four hundred barrels of flour per day, 
and which enterprise is now carried on by his 
sons Andrew and Julius. Our subject having ac- 
cumulated a handsome fortune, in 1886, after the 
destruction of his mill, abandoned all active work, 
and as before stated, gives his attention to super- 
intending his large and varied interests in the 
county. 

In politics, our subject was a Democrat until the 
formation of the Republican party, when, being a 
strong anti-slavery man, he joined its ranks, and 
now firmly believes in the principles laid down in 
its platform. Mr. Eisenmayer has on several occa- 
sions represented his party as delegate to state and 
national conventions, and is recognized as one of 
the political leaders in this section of the state. 
The popularity which he enjoys is illustrated by 
the fact that he was commissioned by the Gov- 
ernor of Illinois in 1893 to represent the state, 
together with other prominent citizens, as a mem- 
ber of the International Committee, which met at 
New Orleans to consider the question of the ad- 
visability of carrying on the Nicaragua Canal proj- 



UNIVERSITY o< ILUNUb 





' <^ls&^^'7 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



ect, an enterprise which our subject has strong!}' 
endorsed and advocated. In 1876 he ran for 
State Senator, but was defeated by twenty-nine 
votes. 

By force of character and great business ability, 
our subject has become one of the wealthy and 
representative men of southern Illinois. lie has 
aided greatly in the development of Clinton Coun- 
ty and is highly respected for his sterling qualities 
and broad-minded views of life. Mr. and Mrs. 
Eisentuaycr have eight children, of whom we make 
the following mention: Elizabeth married Dr. A. 
E. Wehrmann and resides in Indianapolis; John 
Conrad is a banker in Trenton; Louisa is now 
Mrs. William Bromelsick, of Lawrence, Kan.; Cath- 
erine married Taylor Remick and makes her home 
in Trenton; Andrew and Julius are residents of 
Springfield, Mo.; Anna married Dr. L. C. Toney, 
and is living in Phoenix, Ariz.; and Amelia is at 
home. 



6APT. S. H. WATSON, ex-Mayor of Mt. Ver- 
non, has been prominently connected with 
the business and political interests of this 
place, and all who know him respect him for his 
honorable and straightforward career. He was 
born in Mt. Vernon, November 5, 1838, and is a 
son of John H. Watson, a native of Kentucky. 
His great-grandfather, John Watson, was born on 
the Isle of Man, and founded the family in Amer- 
ica in Colonial days. His son, Dr. John W. Wat- 
son, was born in Virginia. January 10, 1777, in 
earl}' life went to Kentucky, and afterward brought 
his family to Jefferson County, 111. He was one 
of its first physicians and occupied a prominent 
place in professional and social circles. He died 
June 3, 1845, respected by all who knew him. His 
wife, Frances Watson, was a sister of Joel and 
Joseph Pace, twin brothers, who were numbered 
among the honored pioneers of Jefferson County, 
and who were the founders of the family in Illinois. 
OIHcial positions were held by them, and in busi- 
ness circles they were widely and favorably known, 



Joel following merchandising, while Joseph carried 
on agricultural pursuits. 

John H. Watson, the father of the Captain, was 
a contractor and builder, and for twenty-five years 
served as Justice of the Peace. He was also Mas- 
ter in Chancery for several years, and his fidelity 
to all duties, whether public or private, won him 
the respect and confidence of the entire commu- 
nity. He died in Mt. Vernou, September 26, 1861, 
and his loss was deeply mourned. He was one of 
a large family of children, including Joel F. Wat- 
son, of Mt. Vernon, the wealthiest citizen of Jef- 
ferson County, and the father of Albert Watson, 
the able State's Attorney, of this county, and Dr. 
Walter Watson, a prominent physician and politi- 
cian, who is now a member of the Democratic State 
Central Committee, and a candidate for Congress 
in his district. 

The mother of the Captain was in her maiden- 
hood Elizabeth M. Rankins. She was born in 
North Carolina, July 26, 1805, and went to Ten- 
nessee with her father, Robert Rankins, who in 
December, 1825, brought his family to Mt. Ver- 
non. She was married December 13, 1827, to 
John H. Watson. She was a lady of good educa- 
tion, of kindly disposition, and a devoted wife 
and loving mother. She lived to an advanced 
age, and died in Mt. Vernon, June 5, 1891, at the 
age of eighty-five years, ten months and ten days. 
During the great cyclone of 1887, she was alone in 
the house with her daughter, Mrs. Miller. The 
storm struck the dwelling, completely destroying 
it, but left her sitting in her chair, only slightly 
injured. She lived far beyond the allotted age, 
but the shock no doubt hastened her death. 

In the Watson family were nine children, six 
sons and three daughters. John R. died in Iowa 
about 1862; William D. is interested in mining in 
Silverton, Colo.; Amelia J. became the wife of 
Bennett S. Miller, and died in 1893; Thomas P. is 
living in Mt. Vernon; Milla is the wife of John 
A. Wall, who served in the late war, but is a news- 
paper man by profession, and for nearly five years 
was Postmaster of Mt. Vernon; Capt. Joel P. 
served in the Civil War as aid-de-camp on Gen. 
John M. Palmer's staff, and is now a real-estate 
dealer of Ashley, 111.; Dr. J. H. is a prominent 



290 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



physician of Woodlawn, 111., and the present mem- 
ber of the State Legislature; and Nancy died in 
childhood. 

Captain Watson was reared and educated in Mt. 
Vernon, and began business as a grain dealer. He 
afterward dealt in agricultural implements, estab- 
lishing the large house which is now the property 
of his sons. On October 1, 1860, he was married 
to Miss Anna Augusta Goetchius, a native of 
Massachusetts, and the only child of Isaac D. and 
Elizabeth Goetchius, the former of whom was 
of German descent, and who was an extensive 
railroad contractor. At the age of sixteen she came 
to Illinois with her father, who was building the 
Air Line Railroad from Fairfield, 111., to St. Louis. 
He died in Paducah, Ky., while engaged in rail- 
roading. Mrs. Watson had excellent educational 
advantages, and is a most accomplished and agree- 
able lady. They have two sons, Fred P. and 
Harry W., who are now engaged in the agricult- 
ural implement business. The latter has recently 
returned from California, where he was Teller in 
the University Bank of Los Angeles, and brought 
with him as his bride the cultured daughter of 
Judge R. M. Widney, who was President of that 
bank. 

The year after the marriage of our subject, the 
Civil War broke out, and he promptly responded 
to the call for troops, enlisting July 25, 1861, in 
Company G, Fortieth Illinois Infantry. He dis- 
tinguished himself on the battlefield of Shiloh,and 
for meritorious conduct was made Second Lieuten- 
ant and became aid-de-camp on the staff of Gen. 
C. C. Walcutt, and later on the staff of Gen. John 
M. Corse. Subsequently he was made Inspector of 
the First Brigade, Second Division Fifteenth Army 
Corps, and was later promoted to the rank of Cap- 
tain. He served in the Atlanta campaign, and 
went with Sherman on the celebrated march to the 
sea. His army record is an honorable one, of 
which he may well be proud. 

When the war was over, Captain Watson re- 
turned home and once more resumed business as a 
dealer in grain and implements. For a number of 
years he successfully carried on operations along 
this line, but at length sold his business to his son, 
and is now practically living retired. In 1891 he 



was brought forward as a candidate for Mayor, by 
his fellow-townsmen, who, looking to the best in- 
terests of the city, wanted to elect a man having 
large property interest and one in favor of making 
improvements that would be of benefit to the ma- 
jority. They found in the Captain a public-spir- 
ited and progressive man, and he was elected on 
the issue of city improvements. He adhered to 
his policy, and his enterprising and progressive 
movements have made Mt. Vernon one of the most 
beautiful cities in the state. Throughout life he 
has been a supporter of the Republican party, has 
served as Chairman on the County Central Com- 
mittee for the past twelve years, and is now being 
urged to allow the use of his name as candidate to 
represent his county in the Legislature of his state. 
Socially he is a member of the Grand Army of the 
Republic and is a Royal Arch Mason. In addition 
to his other interests, he owns the Harrison Block, 
on Broadway, as well as one of the loveliest homes 
in Mt. Vernon, in which he is now spending his 
days in ease and comfort, enjoying a rest which is 
well deserved. 



AVID B. MAGNESS. A stroll through 
the city of Salem will give a visitor a 
good idea of the business enterprise of the 
people and the demand made upon its 
various lines of activity by the community. While 
passing down one of the main streets we come to 
the mill of Magness & Draper, and, with the curi- 
osity of a stranger, we enter the building. One 
of the proprietors, with the utmost courtesy, con- 
ducts us through the mill, which is provided with 
the full roller system and is operated by steam, 
the capacity being eighty barrels per day. On 
every hand may be observed evidences of the thrift 
and progressive disposition of the owners, who 
justly rank among the successful business men of 
Salem. 

Of southern birth and parentage, Mr. Magness 
is the son of Joseph Magness, a native of Ruther- 
ford County, N. C., who in turn was the son of 
Benjamin Magness. He was reared upon a farm, 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



291 



and in the state of his birth was united in marriage 
with Esther Beam, who survives him, still making 
her home in Rutherford (now called Cleveland) 
County. His death occurred in 1857. They were 
the parents of eight children, of whom six are now 
living. Four sons participated in the Civil War, 
namely: Benjamin, who served in a Texas regi- 
ment in the Confederate army; D. B., of this 
sketch; J. J., who was Captain of a Confederate 
regiment, and Perry, who was also a member of a 
North Carolina company and is now deceased. 
The fattier of this family served as Justice of the 
Peace for many years, and was a man of upright, 
honorable character, who won the high regard of 
his fellow-citizens. His widow is a devoted mem- 
ber of the Methodist Episcopal Church South. 

The subject of this sketch was born in Cleveland 
County, N. C., March 24, 1833, and was reared to 
manhood upon a farm, his time being devoted 
principally to the details of agricultural work. 
During three months in the summer he was a pupil 
in the free schools. In 1854 he was united in 
marriage witli Miss Elizabeth, daughter of John 
and Elizabeth (Carpenter) Whisnant, natives of 
North Carolina. Mrs. Magness was born in Cleve- 
land County, N. C., January 1, 1834, and by her 
marriage has become the mother of three children. 
Those now living are, John O., who married Dora 
Bandy, and they with their two children live in 
Murpliysboro; and Laura II., the wife of J. E. 
Wooters, of Du Quoin, they being the parents of 
one child. 

After his marriage Mr. Magness settled upon a 
farm in Cleveland County, where he was residing 
at the opening of the late war. In December, 1861, 
he enlisted as a member of Company I, Thirty- 
eighth North Carolina Volunteers, C. S. A., in 
which he was First Lieutenant and later Captain. 
The regiment was organized at Raleigh, under 
Colonel Iloke, and was ordered to Richmond, Va., 
where Lieutenant Magness took an active part in 
the seven-days battle under Stonewall Jackson, the 
hero of the south. Later he participated in the 
second battle of Bull Run, also the engagements at 
Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, and then, un- 
der General Pickett, bore an honorable part in the 
celebrated charge of that commander. Being cap- 



tured by the Federal troops, he was taken to Ft. 
Delaware, and from there conveyed to Johnson 
Island, where he was imprisoned for twenty-one 
months. All the horrors of long confinement, 
where he endured the pangs of hunger and the 
chill rigors of winter, were his to meet, but his 
spirit remained undaunted by hardships and pri- 
vations. So nearly starved was he at one time 
that he was forced to eat rats. Finally, in March 
of 1865, he was parolled, and at once returned to 
his home. At the battle of Gettysburg he was 
struck by a spent ball in the chest, and by a piece 
of shell in the knee, but was not disabled thereby. 
His entire service covered a period of four years. 

In 1867 Mr. Magness, accompanied by his fam- 
ily, removed from North Carolina to Illinois, the 
trip being made in a two-horse wagon, and six 
weeks being consumed by the journey. Locating 
upon a farm in Salem Township, Marion County, 
he rented land for a number of years, after which 
he settled on section 24, Salem Township, and now 
has two hundred acres of improved land. In 1892, 
lie came to Salem, where he formed a partnership 
in the milling business with W. L. Draper, and the 
firm is now one of the best known in the county. 

As members of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
South, Mr. Magness and his estimable wife contri- 
bute to the support of religious projects and en- 
deavor to promote the cause of Christianity 
throughout this section. He is now Steward of 
the church and is an active worker in its behalf. 
He is also interested in educational matters, and 
during hi? occupancy of the position of School 
Director was instrumental in promoting the inter- 
ests of the public schools. Socially, he is identified 
with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. 

Mr. Magness possesses decision of character and 
tenacity of purpose, and has other valuable traits 
that have made him successful in business and 
rendered htm a successful civic official. A Demo- 
crat in politics, he maintains a deep interest in the 
progress of his party, which he has frequently 
represented in county conventions. For four 
years he filled the position of Highway Commis- 
sioner, and served as Supervisor of Salem Town- 
ship for six years. In 1886 he was elected County 
Treasurer, and discharged the duties of that posi- 



292 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



tion with fidelity and efficiency for a period of 
four years, retiring in 1890. Benevolent and sym- 
pathetic by nature, Mr. Magness is ever ready to 
extend a helping hand to the poor and needy, and 
by an upright and consistent Christian life lias won 
the respect of his fellow-men. 



ENJAMIN SMITH. There are few things 
in life that inspire more general interest 
than does a sketch of a successful business 
man, who by achieving fortune himself, 
gives an example to those trying to climb the lad- 
der of fame, and thus encourages them to hope for 
similar successes. Mr. Smith is a man of decided 
abilitv, and is generally conceded to rank among 
the first agriculturists of Jefferson County. He 
has spent his entire life in Spring Garden Town- 
ship, and in his five hundred broad acres is in- 
cluded the estate of his father, and also the farm 
of his paternal grandfather. 

Our subject was born in the above township, 
August 29, 1838, and is one in a family of eleven 
liildren born to his parents, only four of whom 
eside himself are living, namely: William H., Me- 
da, Johanna and Lois. Anderson Smith, the 
ather, was born in Hickman County, Tenn., Feb- 
uary 6, 1814, and was a lad of sixteen years when 
is parents came to Illinois and located in Spring 
Garden Township, on the western edge of Moore's 
Prairie. There he was married April 10, 1832, to 
Miss Elizabeth C., daughter of Thomas and Phila- 
delphia (Ferguson) Hopper. Mrs. Smith was born 
January 28, 1811, in Tennessee, of which state her 
parents were also natives. 

After his marriage the father of our subject 
started out in life for himself, for many years car- 
rying on his trade of a blacksmith, and at the 
same time was engaged in farm pursuits. He 
spent his entire life on section 1, and at the time 
of his decease, May 3, 1872, his loss was felt by the 
entire community. When thirty-five years of age, 
Anderson Smith joined the Ham's Grove Baptist 
Church. For the remainder of his life he was one 



of the pillars in that church, and also served as 
Deacon. He was widely and favorably known in 
the community where he spent so many years of 
his life, and being a man of rare judgment, his 
advice was much sought after by his friends and 
neighbors. He was one of those honored citizens 
of the county who accomplished much good in 
his life. 

Mrs. Elizabeth C. Smith departed this life March 
22, 1870, when fifty-nine years of age. Grandfa- 
ther Isaac Smith was born January 19, 1779, in 
North Carolina, and was one of ten children born 
to his parents, Abraham and Johanna (Bateman) 
Smith. He spent his early life in his native state, 
where he met and married Miss Millie Hassel. 
Soon after their union the young couple emigrated 
to Tennessee, where they lived foraboutten years, 
and then came to Illinois and located on a farm in 
Spring Garden Township, where their decease oc- 
curred. Grandfather Smith was a Regular Baptist 
in religion, and one of the organizers of the first 
church of that denomination in this locality, which 
was known as Moore's Prairie Church. He was a 
noble-minded, conscientious Christian, and died in 
1854, at the age of seventy-five years. He was a 
soldier in the War of 1812,and participated in the 
battle of New Orleans. 

The great-grandfather of our subject, Abraham 
Smith, was born in the early part of the last cen- 
tury, and served as a soldier in the Revolutionary 
War, in which conflict the father of Grandmother 
Millie Smith also participated. Abraham Smith 
and his wife reared a family of ten children, the 
eldest of whom was born January 6, 1770, and the 
youngest February 19, 1797. Our subject traces 
his ancestry back to one John Smith, who was born 
in Manchester, England, and came to this country 
in the Colonial days. 

Benjamin Smith, of this sketch, has always re- 
sided in his native county, and when reaching his 
majority was married, January 24, 1861, to Miss 
Elizabeth E., daughter of Russell and Jincey 
(Allen) Shirley, natives of Hamilton County, this 
state. Mrs. Smith departed this life November 18, 
1891, leaving a family of the following-named ten 
children: Isaac N., George II., Charles E., Judson 
A., Olhe J., Ellis Lee, Oiua, Rado, Herman and Iva. 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



293 



Three children had previously died in childhood, 
and Seth T. died when twenty-three years of age. 

After his marriage our subject located on a farm, 
and in addition to its cultivation for twelve win- 
ters thereafter taught school. His first purchase 
consisted of forty acres, which he cultivated in such 
a profitable manner that he was soon enabled to 
enlarge his estate, and at the present time owns 
four hundred acres, and has given farms to each 
of his sons. His property includes the old home- 
steads of both his father and grandfather, which 
it is his intention to retain in the family. 

Mr. Smith is a man whose character and per- 
sonal attributes are such as to win the confidence 
and friendship of the people by whom he is sur- 
rounded. He has always been interested in town- 
ship affairs, and for nine years was Road Commis- 
sioner, and held the office of Supervisor for three 
terms. In politics he was a strong Democrat, until 
the Peter Cooper Campaign, since which time 
he has voted with the People's party, and on that 
ticket was candidate for County Treasurer in 18!)0. 
Socially, he is a prominent Odd Fellow, with which 
order he has been connected since twenty-one 
years of age. He is one of the charter members 
of Ham's Grove Lodge, which he represented 
for two years at the Grand Lodge of the state. He 
is a member of the Farmers' Mutual Benefit Asso- 
ciation, and is President of the Assembly of Jeffer- 
son County. 



\JL^ ENRY SCHURMANN, President of the 
llfjjjl Hanover Star Milling Company at Ger- 
ubx'' man town, is of German parentage, his fa- 
((H) ther, Peter, and his mother, Annie (Bell- 
mann) Schurmann, having both been born in the 
province of Westphalia about 1819. The day of 
their marriage, and a few hours after that event 
had been solemnized, they took passage on a sail- 
ing-vessel for America, and landing in this coun- 
try in November of 1846, came direct to Illinois 
and settled upon a partly improved farm situated 
in Looking Glass Township, Clinton County. 
There the husband and father died in 1849 during 



the cholera epidemic, a victim of that dread dis- 
ease. While a resident of Germany he had served 
in the Prussian army and was a non-commissioned 
officer. 

After the death of Peter Schurmann his widow 
was again married, becoming the wife of Christo- 
pher Sch wake, and that union resulted in the birth 
of four children, of whom the only survivor is 
Bernard, a resident of St. Louis, Mo. After the 
death of Mr. Schwake his widow married Henry 
Harrenburg. Her death occurred in the fall of 
1872. She was a devoted member of the Catholic 
Church, as was also our subject's father. Henry 
is the 011)3' child born of his mother's first mar- 
riage, and he is a native of Looking Glass Town- 
ship, his birth having there occurred November 12, 
1847. He grew to manhood in Clinton County and 
was a student in the public and parochial schools, 
also for a time attended Jones' Commercial College 
in St. Louis, and the schools at St. Maurice, Ind. 

In the milLthen owned by Lampen & Kleine- 
korte, now the property of the Hanover Star Mill- 
ing Company, Mr. Schurmann served an appren- 
ticeship under Patrick Ilosey. In 1868 he was called 
home from school to take charge of this mill and 
assumed the management of the concern for Mr. 
Kleinekorte, who had become sole owner. In May, 
1869, the mill was rented to Usselmann & Sprehe, 
and our subject was retained as manager. In the 
fall of the same year the enterprise was sold to 
Usselmann, Schurmanu <fe Co. (Mr. Sprehe being 
the Co.), and under that title the firm conducted 
business until the death of the senior partner in 
1878, when his interest was purchased by the other 
partners. The firm of Sprehe & Schurmann con- 
tinued until the death of the former, in December, 
1880, since which time our subject has been the 
sole owner. 

The plant known as the Hanover Star Mills was 
built in 1859 by Lampen, Kleinekorte & Niemyer, 
all now deceased. Originally a sawmill plant, it 
was afterward a four-run burr mill, with a capa- 
city of one hundred barrels in twenty-four hours. 
In 1881 Mr. Schurmann changed it to a roller mill, 
with a capacity of three hundred barrels, and ex- 
pects very soon to increase its capacity to five 
hundred barrels. The building is five stories in 



294 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



height and is equipped with the latest machinery. 
It is exclusively a flouring mill, the best brands 
being manufactured. The favorite brands are 
"Schurmann's Patent" and "Hanover Star," but 
there are others manufactured, including the "Per- 
fection," "Sunbeam, ""Tea Rose," "Tip Top" and 
"Kaskaskia." The goods are principally shipped to 
Boston and other parts of New England, but ship- 
ments are also made to Mobile, Ala., Baltimore, Md.; 
New York, N. Y., Liverpool, England, and Belfast, 
Ireland, and they expect soon to do nothing but 
an export business. Steady employment is given 
to twelve men, and for the past two years not an 
employe has been discharged. There are also about 
twelve coopers employed, the company manufact- 
uring all its own barrels. 

In 1885 Mr. Schurmann organised a stock com- 
pany, styled the Hanover Star Milling Company. 
The officers are: Henry Schurmann, President; 
Edward Schurmann, Secretary; and G. Gesen- 
liues, Treasurer. The Directors are: Henry and 
Edward Schurmann, G. Gesenhues, A. B. Michels 
and Ferdinand Nordmann. One fifth of the stock 
is owned by our subject. In addition to this en- 
terprise he is also interested in the German town 
Creamery and owns the Bartelso Creamery, the 
latter having already been established on a sound 
financial basis. 

On the 8th of February, 1870, Mr. Schurmann 
was united in marriage with Miss Elizabeth, 
daughter of Franz Albers, further reference to 
whom will be found in the biographical sketch of 
F. H. Albers. Mrs. Schurmann was born in Ger- 
mantown Township, Clinton County, in December 
of 1853, and received a good education in the 
public schools of the home locality and the Sisters' 
School at Breese. Their union has resulted in the 
birth of nine children, of whom the following are 
living: Annie, a graduate of the Ursuline Convent 
at St. Louis; J. Henry, a finely educated young 
man, who is now in the creamery business with his 
father; Edward, a graduate of Jones' Commercial 
College of St. Louis; August, Carrie, Paula and 
Cecilia, who are conducting their studies in the 
home schools. Elizabeth and Leo are deceased. 

In their religious, connections Mr. and Mrs. 
Schurmann are identified with the Catholic Church. 



In politics he is a Democrat, and has for years 
been quite active in local affaire. In 1873 he was 
elected County Clerk and occupied that position 
for nine years. From 1886 until 1890 he served 
as County Treasurer, and for three years, begin- 
ning with 1890, was President of the village. For 
two terms he officiated as President of the Carlyle 
City Council, and also served as a member of the 
School Board at that place. 






ILLIAM II. NORRIS, ex-Postmaster at 
Carlyle, was born in the city of New Al- 
bany, Ind., in 1845! He is the son of 
Daniel W. Norris, who was born in New Castle, 
Del., about the year 1804, and at the age of eigh- 
teen started on foot to Pittsburgh, Pa. Reaching 
that place, the ambitious youth secured passage on 
a flat-boat down the Ohio River, and thus jour- 
neyed to New Albany, where he settled. With his 
uncle, Thomas Sinex, of that place, he bound him- 
self as an apprentice to the trade of a carpenter 
and builder for seven years, and at the expiration 
of that time he followed his chosen occupation in 
New Albany until 1847. 

The first marriage of Daniel W. Norris united 
him with Miss Mary Conner, who died in New Al- 
bany. Of the children resulting from that union, 
only two are now living: Mrs. Emma Stevenson, 
of Rockville, Ind.; and Mrs. Elizabeth Albin, of 
Greencastle, Ind. The second marriage of Mr. 
Norris united him with Mrs. Parker, and they be- 
came the parents of two children, William II. (our 
subject) and Mrs. Harriet A. Doyng, whose hus- 
band, a man of considerable reputation, is now the 
editor of the Courier-Journal of Jacksonville, 111. 

Leaving New Albany in 1847, Daniel W. Nor- 
ris went to St. Louis, and from there proceeded to 
Belleville, where he engaged in business as a car- 
penter and builder for seven years. Among the 
structures which he assisted in erecting were num- 
erous substantial court houses, jails and other pub- 
lic buildings, which still stand as monuments to 
his enterprise and ability. In 1849 he built the 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



295 



court house which still stands at Carlyle, and 
which, notwithstanding its age, is still in constant 
use. After completing the court house, he brought 
his family to Carlyle and permanently settled here. 
His wife had died in Belleville 111., and in Carlyle 
he married Mrs. Matilda (Mitchell) Scott, their 
union being blessed by the birth of one son now 
living, C. P. Norris, of Carlyle. 

In 1857 Mr. Norris, Sr., purchased and settled 
upon a farm one mile from the court house, and 
there he gave his attention to agriculture, meeting 
with such success in his undertakings that his 
estate was recognized as one of the best in Clinton 
County. In every enterprise calculated to enhance 
the development of his community he was fore- 
most, and his death, in May, 1860, was a great loss 
to the people. While he gave his time and atten- 
tion principally to his business, he was also inter- 
ested in all matters pertaining to the welfare of 
the county, and was especially concerned in the 
progress of religion, being himself a consistent 
member of the Presbyterian Church. 

Coming to Carlyle at the age of nine years, the 
subject of this sketch received a practical educa- 
tion in the schools of this place. He followed 
farming pursuits until twenty-eight years of age. 
In November, 1870, he married Miss Martha E. 
Crocker, a native of Adams County, 111., who was 
there reared to womanhood. Her father, Joseph 
Crocker, was born in St. Clair County, 111., and 
was one of the early settlers of Adams County, 
where he engaged in farming and milling. Three 
children blessed the union of Mr. and Mrs. Norris, 
namely: Leon, who was formerly Deputy Postmas- 
ter; Daniel W. and Elizabeth. 

During the Civil War, our subject, then a youth 
in his teens, was warmly interested in the success 
of the Union cause, and such was his devotion to 
the Stars and Stripes, that in May, 1864, his name 
was enrolled among the boys in blue. He became 
a member of Company B, One Hundred and Forty- 
fifth Illinois Infantry, in which he served for one 
hundred days, being mustered out September 23, 
1864. In January of the ensuing year he again 
enlisted in the Union army, becoming a member of 
Company A, One Hundred and Fifty-fifth Illinois 
Infantry, in which ho remained until the close of 



the war, being mustered out September 4, 1865. 
During his first enlistment he was Corporal of his 
company, and during his second period of service 
was First Sergeant. His regiment was with the 
western army, principally in Tennessee, Missouri 
and the southwest. He now draws a pension of $6 
per mouth. 

Returning to Clinton County at the close of the 
war, Mr. Norris resumed farming, in which he was 
engaged until 1868. He then came to Carlyle, 
where he engaged in the grain business for two 
and one-half years. Afterward he accepted a clerk- 
ship in one of the stores. In 1877 he was elected 
Justice of the Peace, in which capacity he served 
for four years. For seven consecutive years he was 
Collector of the township, and was also engaged 
as Clerk during that entire time for the firm of 
Schnell & Allen. July 1, 1889, he was appointed, 
under the administration of President Harrison, 
Postmaster at Carlyle, which position he held for 
some time after the change of administration. As 
may easily be surmised, Mr. Norris is a stanch Re- 
publican in his political preferences. His first Re- 
publican vote was cast for General Grant in 1868, 
and since that time he has never failed to support 
the issues and principles of his chosen party. In 
religious belief he is identified with the Presby- 
terian Church. Socially, he is a member of the 
Ancient Order of United Workmen and the Grand 
Army of the Republic. 



eAPT. FRANK W. IIAVILL, an honored 
veteran of the late war, who is now edit- 
ing a paper in Mt. Carmel, and who is serv- 
ing as Clerk of the Supreme Court of Illinois at 
Mt. Vernon, where he makes his official home, was 
born in Roscoe, Ohio, September 15, 1842. His 
father is a native of Maryland, and his mother 
was born in the Buckeye Stale of Irish parentage. 
The Captain attended the common schools of Ohio 
until fourteen years of age, when, in 1857, he came 
to Illinois, locating in Mt. Carmel, where he 
worked in a brick yard and at railroad building 
until the breaking out of the war. 

Mr. Havill was then eighteen years of age, but 
he possessed the spirit of patriotism of many an 



296 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



older soldier, and on the 25th of July, 1861, en- 
listed as a private, becoming a member of Com- 
pany I, Fortieth Illinois Infantry. At the end of 
three years he re-enlisted at Huntsville, Ala., and 
continued in the service until the close of the 
war. He was severely wounded at Pittsburg 
Landing, April 6, 1862, and at Kenesaw Moun- 
tain, June 27, 1864. He served in the campaigns 
in Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, Mis- 
sissippi, Georgia, and South and North Carolina. 
For a portion of the time he was in the secret serv- 
ice, and was an Adjutant in Harrison's Tennessee 
Cavalry. He was promoted to the ranks of First 
Lieutenant and Captain, and when mustered out 
August 1, 1865, was an Assistant Inspector Gen- 
eral. 

Captain Havill then returned to his home in 
Mt. Carmel, and on the 30th of June, 1867, in 
Friendsville, III., was married to Miss Marie Eliza- 
beth Willman. For many years he was one of the 
most prominent citizens of Mt. Carmel, and was 
honored with several offices. He served as Master 
in Chancery of AVabash County for two terms, and 
was postmaster of Mt. Carmel under President 
Cleveland's first administration. In 1872, he be- 
came the editor and publisher of the Mt. Carmel 
Register, which is now recognized as the leading 
Democratic paper of southern Illinois. He has 
served on the senatorial, congressional and state 
Democratic committees and takes a very active 
part in politics. 

It is said that Captain Havill's paper exerts a 
greater influence in the politics of southern Illi- 
nois than any other force, and that he has secured 
more officials for state and national offices than 
any other man in southern Illinois. It is com- 
monly reported that what he favors in this line 
usually goes through, and what he opposes falls to 
the ground. His eldest son holds a high position 
in the State Penitentiary in Chester, and is a rising 
young politician. 

In November, 1890, the Captain was elected 
Clerk of the Supreme Court of Illinois for the 
Southern Grand Division for a term of six years, 
receiving the largest majority ever given a can- 
didate in this division, a fact which indicates his 
popularity and the confidence and trust reposed in 



him. He is an able and forcible writer and 
throughout the state he is both widely and favor- 
ably known. Socially he is identified with the 
following organizations: the Blue Lodge, Chapter, 
Council, Commandery, Eastern Star and Shrine, 
of the Masonic fraternity; Subordinate Lodge, 
Encampment and Rebekah Lodge of Odd Fellows; 
Knights of Labor, Patrons of Husbandry, Work- 
men and Red Men, being Sachem of the order last 
named. He was the first charter member of Mt. 
Carmel Post, G. A. R. 



JOHN J. DIEIIL, M. D. A notable instance 
of the success which almost invariably re- 
wards energy and skill, coupled with judi- 
cious management, is afforded by the life of 
Dr. Diehl, of Centralia, who is justly prominent, 
not alone in the professional circles of this city, 
but throughout this section of the state as well. As 
a physician he displays skill in the diagnosis of in- 
tricate cases, and rare judgment in the prescription 
of the remedial agencies calculated to most rapidly 
alleviate pain and secure the recovery of the pa- 
tient. 

The father of our subject, Dr. John Diehl, was 
a successful physician and surgeon in Germany, 
the land of his birth, where he engaged in the 
practice of his profession until his death, in 1865. 
He married Miss Eliza Moellinger, and unto them 
were born fifteen children, twelve of whom sur- 
vive. John J. was born in Dalsheim, Germany, 
September 30, 1841, and was reared to manhood 
in his native country, receiving an excellent edu- 
cation in the common schools. At the age of 
thirteen he entered the gymnasium at Worms, on 
the Rhine, from which he was graduated in 1861. 
Having resolved to choose as his life work the 
profession in which his father was successfully en- 
gaged, our subject entered the medical college at 
Giesseu and there prosecuted his studies until De- 
cember, 1865, when he was graduated from the in- 
stitution. After practicing his profession for a 
short time in Germany lie came to America, in 
1866, and settling in Kentucky, opened an office 
and engaged in practice at Henderson until 1878. 
While a resident of that city he was united in 



UNIVEI 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



299 



marriage, in 1875, with Miss Katie Rutlinger, who 
was born in Henderson and was a daughter of 
Jacob Rutlinger, a watchmaker and jeweler of that 
city. They are the parents of two sons: Otto 
Darwin and Bruno Huxley. 

Opening an office in Centralia in 1878, Dr. Diehl 
has since conducted an extensive and lucrative 
practice, which includes a large number of patients 
throughout the surrounding country as well as in 
Centralia itself. His office is in his residence, a 
commodious and handsome structure on Walnut 
Street, which was erected by the Doctor in 1892. 
While his attention has been given to his profes- 
sional duties to the exclusion of almost every 
other interest, he is nevertheless well informed 
upon topics of general importance and is a stanch 
supporter of the principles of the Republican 
party. Every measure having for its object the 
promotion of the welfare of the city and its resi- 
dents receives his hearty support, and no citizen 
is more progressive and public spirited than he. 
It is to him, and such as he, that the city and 
county owe their prominence in this part of the 
state. He and his family are well known in the 
community and are welcomed guests in the best 
homes of the place. 



ROF. S.G. BURDICK, the efficient Coun- 
ty Superintendent of Public Schools of 
Marion County, who now makes his home 
in Centralia, was born in Madison County, 
N. Y., January 20, 1842, and comes of an old New 
England family. His great-grandfather, Ebenezer 
Burdick, was an officer in the Revolutionary War. 
His grandfather, Ebenezer Burdick, Jr., was a na- 
tive of Connecticut, and his father, Silas Burdick, 
was born in Oneida County, N. Y. The former 
married Rachel Clute, whose father was a Captain 
in the Revolutionary War. The family also had 
its representatives in the War of 1812, Ebenezer 
Burdick taking part in the battle of Sackett's 
Harbor. He was a carpenter and mechanic and a 
very ingenious man. 

Silas Burdick was reared in New York, and in 
Madison County wedded Phoebe Crandall, daugh- 



ter of Augustus Crandall, who served in the War 
of 1812 and was a son of one of the Revolution- 
ary heroes. About 1790 the Crandall family re- 
moved to Madison County, N. Y., where Augustus 
lived until his death. Mrs. Burdick was there 
born December 3, 1819, and in February, 1839, 
was married. They afterward removed to Alle- 
gany County, N. Y., where Mr. Burdick still makes 
his home. For many years he engaged in farming 
and carpentering. His wife passed away in Au- 
gust, 1892. All of their five children grew to 
mature years and four are yet living: Elvira, wife 
of J. Mack Keller, a farmer of Allegany County, 
N. Y.; Laverue, who owns a flouring mill in Alle- 
gany County; Ada C., wife of Joseph L. Stillman, 
a farmer of Nortonville, Kan.; and S. G. Alvin S. 
was killed in Minnesota in the winter of 1881-82, 
at the age of twenty-two years. The father and 
his family all belong to the Seventh Day Baptist 
Church and he takes an active part in its work. 

From the age of two years Professor Burdick was 
reared in Allegany County, N. Y., and aided in 
the arduous task of clearing and developing a 
farm. He attended the public schools of the 
neighborhood, and at the age of seventeen entered 
Alfred University, but in August, 1861, the young 
freshman abandoned his studies and responded to 
the President's call for three hundred thousand 
volunteers, enlisting in Company C, Eighty-fifth 
New York Infantry. He was with McClellan in 
the campaigns of 1862 and participated in the bat- 
tles of Hampton Roads, Yorktown, Williamsburg, 
Wilderness, Carrsville, Goldsboro, Little Wash- 
ington, and Plymouth, where he was captured 
April 19, 1864. He was then sent to Anderson- 
ville Prison, and after about four months was 
taken to Charleston, a month later to Florence, 
S. C., and thence to Goldsboro, N. C., where he 
was parolled in March, 1865. When captured, his 
weight was one hundred and seventy pounds, and 
when released weighed only eighty-seven pounds. 
He was wounded in the battle of Fair Oaks and at 
Plymouth. After his release from southern prisons 
he served as clerk in the paymaster's department 
in Elmira, N. Y., until honorably discharged, June 
9, 1865, at the close of the war. 

On the 8th of July following, Mr. Burdick mar- 



300 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



ried Miss Martha A., daughter of George Irish. 
Her father was a native of Rhode Island and was 
a farmer and lumberman. His grandfather was 
one of the Revolutionary soldiers,and in his home 
General Prescott was captured. George Irish 
married Mary S. Adams, whose father was a cousin 
of John Quincy Adams, and they removed to 
Allegany County, N. Y., where Mrs. Burdick was 
born March 31, 1848. She is a lady of culture 
and refinement, and for thirty years, both before 
and aftor her marriage, engaged in teaching. Her 
maternal grandfather was born at South Brain- 
tree, Mass., the old Adams country seat. Unto 
Professor and Mrs. Burdick were born a son and 
daughter, both now deceased. 

Professor Burdick purchased a farm in Fayette 
County, 111., and there he and his wife engaged in 
teaching for four years. In 1870 they came to 
Centralia, and he was employed as Principal of 
the Third Ward School for three years. During 
the next six years they both followed teaching in 
Allegany County, N. Y., and also in Steuben 
County, N. Y., for a year. Mr. Burdick was Prin- 
cipal of the schools in Andover for five years, and 
both he and his wife were teachers in Friendship 
Academy. They also attended the State Normal 
in Geneseo. Going to the state of Washington, 
Professor Burdick served as Principal of the 
schools of Dayton and as Superintendent of Col- 
umbia County. lie holds state certificates from 
New York, Wisconsin and Washington. In 1882 he 
came to Centralia, and the same year was elected 
City Superintendent, which position he filled con- 
tinuously until 1890, with the exception of one 
year (1886-87), when he was .Principal of the 
schools of Montrose City, Colo. In the fall of 
1890 he was elected Superintendent of Schools of 
Marion County and is the present incumbent of 
that office. His wife was for eight years Principal 
of th,e high school of Centralia and is recognized 
as one of the most efficient lady educators in the 
state. 

In politics the Professor is a Republican and has 
served as Justice of the Peace in Fayette Countj'. 
He has been Commander of Wallace Post No. 55, 
G. A. R., of Centralia, and for two years was chief 
mustering officer of the department of Illinois. 



He was also Junior Vice Commander and was a 
delegate to the National Encampments in Boston 
and Detroit. He has been very prominent in 
Grand Army work and has done much for the 
order. He is now Captain of Company K, Fourth 
Illinois National Guards, and was a Lieutenant of 
the National Guards both in Colorado and Wash- 
ington. He and his wife hold membership with 
the Seventh Day Baptist Church. 

Ever since becoming County Superintendent of 
Schools it has been the constant endeavor of Pro- 
fessor Burdick to grade the district schools and 
advance the standard of education. During his 
administration sixteen schoolhouses have been 
built, and the excellence of the schools is such 
that the citizens may well be proud of the educa- 
tional privileges here afforded. That Professor 
Burdick is a most competent and faithful officer, 
and that he has the confidence of all, is shown by 
the fact of his frequent re-election on the Repub- 
lican ticket in a Democratic county. He is prom- 
inent in military and educational circles, and his 
broad and cultured mind and his many excellen- 
cies of character well entitle him to the leading 
position which he occupies. 



\j/_^ ON. ALBION FLETCHER TAYLOR, the 
IJTjj efficient and popular Mayor of Mt. Vernon, 
J\^^ is numbered among the native sons of Illi- 
(|) nois. He was born in Rushville, Schuyler 
County, November 22, 1832. His father, the Rev. 
William H. Taylor, was born in Vermont, August 
27, 1800, and was the son of Ezra Taylor, who 
traced his ancestry back to the Pilgrim Fathers. 
He was a wheelwright by trade, and served as one 
of the heroes of the Revolution, Mis death oc- 
curred in the Buckeye State. 

The Rev. Mr. Taylor came to Illinois in 1818, and 
joining the Methodist Church, became one of its 
ministers. He preached for more than half a cen- 
tury, and was a man of great natural ability and 
force of character. He was modest in demeanor, 
honest in every act with himself and all mankind, 
and did much for the cause of Christianity in the 
communities where he lived. His death occurred 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



301 



in Mt. Vernon in 1871. His wife, whose maiden 
name was Elizabeth Spohnimore, was a native of 
Kentucky, but her father, Philip, was a Pennsyl- 
vania Dutchman and served as a soldier in the 
War of 1812 under Gen. William Henry Harrison. 
Mrs. Taylor died in Mt. Vernon in 1855. The 
two paternal uncles of our subject were Albion, a 
physician who went to Texas in 1832 and was 
killed while fighting the Indians; and John F., a 
millwright, who is yet living in Ohio. 

Mr. Taylor of this sketch had one brother. Norris 
H., a soldier of the Civil War, who did duty in the 
Forty-fourth Illinois Infantry. He served for more 
than three years, and was twice reported mortally 
wounded, and finally received his discharge on ac- 
count of his injuries. He was first wounded in 
the head by a piece of shell. This necessitated 
the removal of a part of the skull, but he regained 
his health, and after again joining his regiment, 
was shot through the lungs and arm. Although 
left for dead on the field' of battle, he is now en- 
gaged in the manufacture of carriages in Rtish- 
ville. The sisters of the family are, Susan A., 
widow of Charles T. Pace, a merchant of Mt. Ver- 
non; Prudence M., widow of the Rev. J. B. Rey- 
nolds, a Methodist preacher, who served during the 
Civil War; Elizabeth, wife of E. T. Smith, of Den- 
ver, Colo.; and Julia, wife of Prof. A. C. Courtney, 
Principal of the public schools of Denver. 

A. F. Taylor spent his early life upon his fa- 
ther's farm and received but limited school priv- 
ileges. In September, 1847, the family came to 
Mt. Vernon, where subsequently he embarked in 
merchandising, which he followed until after the 
breaking out of the late war. He was a loyal sup- 
porter of the Union however, and on the 16th of 
July, 1861, responded to the call for troops, en- 
listing in the Fortieth Illinois Infantry as Regi- 
mental Quartermaster, in which capacity he served 
for two years. He was then Brigade Adjutant for 
one year, and afterward served as Post Adjutant 
for General Meredith in Paducah, Ky. He was 
in the service exactly four years, and was then 
honorably discharged, returning at once to his 
home. 

In 1855 was celebrated the marriage of Mr. Tay- 
lor and Miss Elmira A. Hicks, of Mt. Vernon, 111., 



daughter of Stephen G. Hicks, who was a Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel in the Mexican War, served in the 
State Legislature with Lincoln and Douglas, and 
was Colonel of the Fortieth Illinois In fan try. At 
the battle of Shiloh he was severely wounded and 
remained with the regiment until the close of the 
war. His death occurred in 1867. To Mr. and 
Mrs. Taylor were born three children: William 
Worth, who died in 1857; Stephen, who for many 
years was a merchant of Mt. Vernon, and married 
the daughter of C. II. Patton, a leading attorney 
of this place; and Mellie, who is at home. 

On his return from the war, Mr. Taylor resumed 
merchandising, which he successfully and contin- 
uously carried on until 1888. He then assumed 
the management of the mills belonging to the Mt. 
Vernon Milling Company. He had long been a 
stockholder of that company, and is now Manager, 
Secretary and Treasurer. He possesses good abil- 
ity, and his business career has proved a profitable 
one. lie has never aspired to office, but in the 
spring of 1893 his friends nominated him for 
Mayor on the Anti-License ticket, and he was 
elected. No more efficient officer has ever filled 
the position, and he is a man whose strict integrity 
and honesty of purpose have won him the confi- 
dence of all classes of people. During the greater 
part of his life he has been a member of the Meth- 
odist Church, is a leading Grand Army man, and 
is a Royal Arch Mason. 

OTIS M. WATERS. This young gentleman 
is numbered among the live business men 
of Mt. Vernon, of which place he is a na- 
tive, and where he is conducting a large and pay- 
ing business as one of its leading druggists. He 
was born in this city July 22, 1861, and is the son 
of Henry T. Waters, a native of Tennessee, who 
was brought to Jefferson County by his parents 
when he was quite young. 

The father of our subject was a soldier in Com- 
pany C, Sixtieth Illinois Infantry, during the late 
war, and served his country faithfully and well 
for three years. He was a prominent resident of 
Mt, Vernon, where be was living in 1887, when 



302 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



killed by a cyclone, which also caused the death 
of the wife and little child of his son, John T. 
Waters. Mrs. Mary P. Waters, mother of our 
subject, although escaping with her life, was 
crippled. She is still living and makes her home 
with her son John T. Prior to her marriage that 
lady was known as Miss Mary P. Johnson, the 
daughter of Dr. John N. Johnson and a sister of 
Dr. Alva C. Johnson, of this city. Her family was 
among the oldest and leading families of this sec- 
tion. 

Otis M. Waters and his brother John T. were 
the only members of their parents' family. The 
former grew to mature years in his native city, 
where he was given a good high school education. 
When fifteen years of age he entered the drug 
store belonging to his uncle, who was his instructor 
in the compounding of medicines. After having 
passed a most thorough examination he removed 
to Ashley, this state, where he went into business 
for himself. After a short time spent in that 
place Mr. Waters returned to Mt. Vernon, and 
forming a partnership with his uncle, Dr. Alva 
C. Johnson, was engaged in the drug business with 
him just two days prior to the great cyclone which 
swept this city. The drug store and all that it 
contained was completely demolished, but Dr., 
Johnson being a very wealthy man. the business 
was put on foot again. 

Mr. Waters remained the partner of his uncle 
until 1890, when he established a store of his own, 
and by being a registered pharmacist and keeping 
in his house a full line of medicines and toilet 
articles, has built up a large and paying patronage. 
He was married April 25, 1888, to Miss Berin- 
tha I., daughter of the Hon. Edward C. Pace, a 
wealthy banker in Ashley and a leading politician 
of southern Illinois. The paternal grandfather of 
Mrs. Waters, Joel Pace, and his twin brother, 
Joseph, were among the earliest residents in Jeffer- 
son County and the former was the first clerk after 
the organization of Jefferson County. He was a 
man of fine attainments and took a prominent 
part in public affairs. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Waters has been born one 
son, Allan, whose birth occurred August 6, 1889. 
They are both devoted members of the Methodist 



Episcopal Church and are active in all good works 
in the city. Socially, our subject is a Knight of 
Pythias and a Modern Woodman, in which latter 
order he is Trustee. Although never aspiring to 
office, he is a stanch Republican and interests him- 
self in all matters which will prove of benefit to 
the city. 



GRAHAM G. SMITH. This gentleman, who 
is one of the prominent citizens of Mt. 
Vernon, recently erected a large two-story 
brick building, where he is conducting business as 
a dealer in all kinds of monuments. He is a na- 
tive of this state, and was born in Decatur, Sep- 
tember 11, 1856. His father, James H. Smith, was 
born in Edinburgh, Scotland, April 5, 1825, and 
after spending nearly a quarter of a century in his 
native land, emigrated to America in company 
with three of his brothers. 

The paternal grandfather of our subject, who 
also bore the name of James Smith, was a sea-far- 
ing man, and died in his native land, Scotland. 
The maiden name of our subject's mother was 
Elizabeth Graham; she was born at Alexandria, a 
suburb of Glasgow, Scotland, June 10, 1826. Her 
parents were likewise natives of that country. 
There the father died, and the mother who came 
to America, lived to be ninety-six years old. 

Graham G., of this sketch, was the youngest but 
one in the parental family of eight children, six 
of whom were born in Scotland. When only six 
months old, his parents removed to St. Louis, 
where they lived until the death of the mother, 
August 15, 1858. James Smith chose for his sec- 
ond companion a sister of his former wife, and 
soon after their union removed south, where he 
was extensively engaged in the cotton trade. Sep- 
tember 15, 1866, his family, which remained in the 
Mound City, wore notified of his sudden death, 
which occurred in Madison Parish, La. He was at 
one time a very wealthy man, but his fortune, like 
that of many others, was swept away during the 
late war. 

The brothers and sisters of our subject were, 
Jane, who married John G. Bromley and made her 
home in St. Louis until her decease, August 17, 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



303 



1875; Margaret, the twin sister of Jane; (The 
former is the wife of W. T. Folke, and makes her 
home in the above named city.) William R., who 
is foreman in a brass foundry in St. Louis, and 
who married the widow of the late Edward Colvin, 
of that place; Elizabeth, who died soon after her 
marriage to Dr. C. A. Bohanan; and James, who is a 
mechanic in St. Louis, which is also the home of 
Jemimah, who is the wife of George S. Dcrrickson. 

Graham G., of this sketch, was residing in St. 
Louis at the time of his father's .decease, and al- 
though but ten years of age, was compelled to 
leave school and commence to support himself. 
His first work was in a glass factory, where he re- 
mained for three years, in the meantime carrying 
on his studies in the night school. His next em- 
ployment was found in a china, glass and queens- 
ware house in St. Louis, where he was engaged for 
eighteen months, after which he went to work in a 
wholesale tea and coffee house. When attaining 
his seventeenth year, he apprenticed himself to 
learn the marble cutter's trade, and in 1877 he 
came to Illinois and was thus employed for a time 
in Salem. Later he removed to Centralia, where 
he formed a partnership with S. A. Frazier, under 
the firm name of Frazier & Smith, which connec- 
tion lasted until 1883, the date of his advent into 
Mt. Vernon. When first locating here, he opened 
an establishment in company with his brother, Will- 
iam R., under the firm name of Smith Bros., and 
at the end of a twelvemonth purchased the inter- 
est of his partner, and since that time has been 
conducting the business on his own account. He 
has been very successful and has built up a large 
and paying business, being one of the leading busi- 
ness men in the city to engage in that line of 
trade. 

May 4, 1879, Miss Hattie L. Johnson, of Carmi, 
White County, 111., became his wife. She is the 
daughter of William Johnson, deceased, a promi- 
nent farmer of that county. Our subject has been 
actively identified with the Methodist Episcopal 
Church for the past twenty-two years, and during 
his residence in Salem, Centralia, and also in this 
city, has been Superintendent of the Sunday-school. 
He has also taken a prominent part in church mat- 
ters, and for nineteen years has held the official 



positions of Steward and Trustee. Socially he is a 
Royal Arch Mason, and as a public-spirited gentle- 
man is held in the highest esteem by the entire 
community. 



J" ARVIS CRACKEL, senior member of the 
firm of Crackel & Co., extensive dry- 
goods merchants of Mt. Vernon, was born 
in Wabash County, this state, in April, 
1843. He is the son of Thomas Crackel, a native 
of Lincolnshire, England, who, coining to America 
in an early day, cast in his lot with the residente 
of Albion, Edwards County, which place was es- 
tablished by Flower, the noted Englishman. In 
later life he removed to Wabash Count}', where he 
became an extensive farmer, and at the time of his 
death, in 1863, was accounted one of the wealthiest 
men in the county. His brother, Kelsey Crackel, 
who also came to the United States when a young 
man, likewise became rich in this world's goods. 
It is a notable fact that when the brothers landed 
at Shawneetown they had only fifty cents between 
them, and from that small beginning they arose to 
be classed among the foremost citizens of Wabash 
County. 

The mother of our subject, whose maiden name 
was Elizabeth Hall, was also of English ancestry 
and departed this life m 1849. She reared a fam- 
ily of seven children, of whom Jarvis was the 
fifth in order of birth; George is a resident of Ed- 
wards County; Mary, Mrs. Berket, died seyeral 
years ago, while residing in the above county; 
William was killed during the lat war, while in 
the service as a member of the Sixty-third Illinois 
Infantry; Robert is a farmer in Edwards County; 
pjlizabeth married Ilert Joachen and makes her 
home in Evansville, Ind., and Thomas, a railroad 
engineer, met his death in November, 1886, by 
being thrown from his engine. 

Jarvis Crackel grew to man's estate on his fa- 
ther's farm, in the meantime receiving but limited 
advantages for obtaining an education. He en- 
gaged in farm pursuits until 1887, when he came 
to Mt. Vernon, where he opened a large dry-goods 
store. His house is widelj- known from the fact 
that it was the only place of business of its kind 



304 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



which withstood the cyclone of 1888. His son John 
is engaged in business witli him, and by the thor- 
ough manner in which they conduct their affairs 
they have built up a large patronage and rank 
among the prosperous merchants of the city. 

Mr. Crackel was married January 29, 1864, to 
Miss Mary E. Goodbourn, who was a native of 
Leicestershire, England, and came to America in 
company with her father, John Goodbourn, when 
she was fourteen years of age. Her father was a 
shoemaker by trade, which he followed in his na- 
tive country, but after coining to America en- 
gaged in farming, and died October 13, 1882, 
while residing in Edwards County, this state. His 
good wife is still living and makes her home in 
Albion. Mrs. Crackel has two brothers and two 
sisters, namely: Isaac, a prominent farmer of Ed- 
wards County; John, a retired farriier of Edwards 
Count}'; Sarah A., Mrs. George Green, of Albion; 
and Anna, Mrs. George Hall, of Grayville, this 
state. 

Mr. and Mrs. Crackel have had born to them 
one son, John, who is in his twenty-ninth year 
and is junior member of the firm of Crackel & Co. 
He was married to Miss Martha Pickering, grand- 
daughter of General Pickering, ex-Governor of 
AVashington Territory. 



(SL 



1ST" 



<j*jft UGUST W. SCHROEDER, who is a dealer in 
^jO boots and shoes of Centralia, is one of the 
Ji I* representative business men of the city. 
1$ He is prominent not only in business, but 
also in official circles, and has the high regard of 
all who know him. He claims Germany as his 
native land, for he was born in Hanover, on the 
llth of March, 1829, and is a son of Frederick 
Schroeder, who was also born and reared in Han- 
over. The mother bore the maiden name of Hen- 
rietta Holman, and was a native of Prussia. By 
trade Frederick Schroeder was a shoemaker, and 
in his native land followed that business until his 



death. In the family were eight children, of whom 
three are still living, Mrs. Mary Weber and Au- 
gust W. being residents of America. 

Our subject spent the days of his boyhood and 
youth in his parents' home, and with his father 
learned the trade of shoemaking. In 1852, when a 
young man of twenty-three, he determined to seek 
his fortune beyond the Atlantic and sailed for 
New Orleans. In that city he worked at his trade 
for six months, thence going to St. Louis, worked 
two and a-half ytfars there, and in June, 1855, came 
to Centralia. He made the first pair of boots in this 
place and established the first boot and shoe store 
in the town. He is now one of the oldest resi- 
dents of Centralia, and with the progress and up- 
building of the place he has been prominently 
identified. 

On the 5th of December, 1856, Mr. Schroeder 
was married to Miss Mary Menzen, a native of 
Prussia, Germany, who came to America with her 
parents in 1848. Her father settled in German- 
town, Clinton County, 111., where he died about 
one year later. To Mr. and Mrs. Schroeder were 
born ten children, seven of whom are living, Emma, 
widow of Louis George; Charles, a watchmaker, 
who died at the age of twenty-one; Josephine, wife 
of John P. Herring, a master mechanic in the mines 
of Madison County, 111.; Augusta, deceased; Will- 
iam, who is engaged in the boot and shoe trade 
with his father; Dena, wife of Christian Pfeiffer, a 
carpenter and builder of Centralia; Ida, Adelia, 
Flora and Frederick, who complete the family. 

Since April, 1841, Mr. Schroeder has been en- 
gaged in the shoe business, either as a manufacturer 
or as a dealer. He has also been connected with 
various other enterprises. He is one of the direc- 
tors of the Centralia Mining and Manufacturing 
Company, and of the Centralia Building and Loan 
Association. Of the former he was an original 
stockholder, and of the latter he was a charter 
member. He was one of the original stockholders 
of the Centralia Gas Company and of the Centra- 
lia Fair Association, and is a stockholder in the 
Centralia Iron and Nail Works and the National 
Bank. He has been connected with nearly all of 
the leading enterprises of the city, and thereby 
has material!}- aided in the progress and prosperity 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



305 



of the place. He is also a stockholder in the Amer- 
ican Central Insurance Company of St. Louis. 

On coming to Centralia in 1855, Mr. Schroeder 
built a home on the site of his present residence 
and has since there lived. In 1870, his shop was 
destroyed by fire. With characteristic energy 
however, he replaced it by his present commodious 
and comfortable business block. He also has an- 
other residence next to the one in which he lives, 
which he rents. He was one of the organizers of 
St. Peter's Evangelical Church of Centralia, and 
for many years has been one of its elders. In 
politics he is a Republican, and since April, 1893, 
has been one of the Aldermen of the city. He is 
now serving on the water works committee, the 
committee on streets and alleys, the police and fire 
departments, and the finance and light and power 
committees. He is recognized as one of the most 
able members of the City Council, for he labors ear- 
nestly for the best interests of the community. He 
may well be numbered among the founders of 
Centralia, for few men have done more for its up- 
building. 



EWIS E. JONES, of Alt. Vernon, who is now 
serving as Circuit Clerk of Jefferson Coun- 
ty, was born in Jennings County, Ind., 
June 28, 1843, and comes of a family of Welsh 
origin, which in early Colonial days was founded 
in Virginia. There the great-grandfather was born, 
as was the grandfather, George Jones. The latter 
went to Jackson County, Ind., in 1816, becoming 
one of its pioneers, and his death occurred in Jen- 
nings County in 1853. 

George D. Jones, father of our subject, was born 
in Jackson County, Ind., May 12, 1821, and was 
the fourth in the family of seven brothers and one 
sister. Three brothers came to Illinois. George 
located in Pendleton Township, Jefferson County, 
in 1865, and in connection with farming dealt in 
agricultural implements. He was a very success- 
ful man, accumulating a handsome property. He 
held a number of offices served as Justice of the 
Peace in Indiana, and was filling the same position 
in Illinois at the time of his death. For thirty 
years he was a leading member of the Methodist 



Church. He belonged to the Masonic and Odd Fel- 
lows' fraternities, and was a prominent Democrat. 
He died in 1879, at the age of fifty-eight. His eldest 
brother, William A., was a Alethodist preacher in 
early life, but afterward engaged in merchandising 
in Jefferson County. He was a member of the first 
Board of County Supervisors, and lived to the 
ripe old age of seventy-seven. David C. served 
for three terms as Sheriff of Jennings County, Ind. 
was twice a member of the Legislature of that 
state, served as County Supervisor in this county 
for several years, and reached the age of seventy- 
six. James K., a successful farmer, is now living 
retired in Alt. Vernon. J. C., a farmer, died at the 
age of fifty-eight. Isaac S. came to Jefferson Coun- 
ty in 1863, but is now a prosperous agriculturist 
of Clay County, whither he removed in 1868. 
Samuel W., the youngest of the brothers, and the 
first to come to Jefferson County, is now success- 
fully engaged in farming three miles west of Alt. 
Vernon, and has served as County Treasurer. 

The mother of our subject bore the maiden name 
of Sarah Brougher, and was born in Jennings 
County, Ind., in April, 1821. Her father was one 
of its pioneers. He was born in North Carolina, 
and was of German descent. His twin brother, 
Frederick Brougher, went to Alississippi, became a 
large slave holder, and had five sons in the Con- 
federate army. The eldest, Charles A., was Secre- 
tary of State in Alississippi at the breaking out of 
the war. Jacob Brougher had four sons, three of 
whom were in the Union army. His son Lewis 
F. was a captain, and is now living on a farm in 
Jennings County, where lie was born. For several 
years he has served as Township Trustee. Fred- 
erick C. was a Lieutenant in the late war and was 
wounded at Pittsburg Landing, where two of hie 
cousins in the Confederate service were killed. He 
is now a wealthy citizen of Oakland, Cal. Andrew 
D. served for four years with the boys in blue, was 
taken prisoner, and for a long time was confined 
in Andersonville and Libby Prisons. He is a car- 
penter and is now living in Opdyke, 111., where 
John W., an elder brother, is living retired. 

Lewis E. Jones belonged to a family of four sons 
and two daughters, all younger than himself. They 
are Silas W., of Mt. Carmel, 111.; Jacob B., a farmer 



306 



POKTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



of Tippecanoe County, Ind.; Isaac, a farmer of 
Jefferson County; C. L. V., of Mt. Vernon; Cather- 
ine, wife of Alexander Mobley, a farmer, and Rosa 
L., wife of J. W. Estes, of the firm of Estes Bros., 
merchants and stock dealers. 

On the old homestead in Indiana, Lewis E. 
Jones was reared to manhood, and in the public 
schools acquired a good education. At the age of 
twenty he began teaching, and was thus employed 
for five years. In 1868, he came to Illinois and 
taught one term of school in Jefferson County. 
His fellow-townsmen, appreciating his worth and 
ability, have frequently called upon him to serve 
in positions of public trust, and for three terms he 
was a member of the Board of Supervisors, Collec- 
tor one term, and School Trustee twelve years. In 
1893, he was elected Circuit Clerk, and is now fill- 
ing that office with credit to himself and satisfac- 
tion to his constituents. 

In 1863, Mr. Jones was united in marriage with 
Catherine Burns, of Decatur County, Ind., and to 
them have been born seven children, Eldo W., a 
tinner residing in Sumner, 111.; Isham H. and 
Lemon C., at home; Nellie M., wife of John Boyd, 
a railroad man of Venedy, 111.; George B., Ina and 
Susie. In politics, Mr. Jones is a Democrat, and is 
a member of the Methodist Church. lie is one of 
the leading officials of the county and has the 
high esteem of all. 



ORRIS EMMERSON, editor and publisher 
of the Mt. Vernon Daily Register of Mt. 
Vernon, 111., was born in Edwards County, 
this state, June 7, 1853. His father, Jesse 
Emmerson, was born in Indiana in 1813, and with 
his parents removed to Edwards County, 111., in 
1817, where he spent the greater part of his life. 
He was a prominent and influential citizen of that 
community, and served for several terms as Coun- 
ty Sheriff and County Clerk, and as Collector for 
twenty years. His death occurred in Albion, 111., 
in 1891, at the age of seventy-eight. His father, 
the grandfather of our subject, was Allen Emmer- 
son. He was a native of Kentucky and was of 



English descent. He became a Christian preacher 
and built the first church of that faith in Illinois, 
on his farm near Albion, in 1818. He served as 
Associate Judge and County Judge, and was one 
of the leading citizens of the community. The 
mother of our subject bore the maiden name of 
Samantha Sperry. She was born in Connecticut, 
came west in 1840, and died in 1856. 

Morris Emmerson was then a child of only three 
years, and the eldest of three brothers. Charles is 
now living in Albion, where for seventeen years 
he has filled the office of County Clerk or Deputy. 
L. L. Emmerson is now in the furniture business in 
Mt. Vernon, and was a member of the last City 
Council. 

Our subject was reared in Albion, and after com- 
pleting his literary education in its high school 
attended Bryant & Stratton's Commercial College 
of St. Louis. In 1869, he entered the employ of 
Churchill & Dalby, merchants and pork packers of 
Albion, as a bookkeeper and continued with that 
firm until 1875, when he went to Red Oak, Iowa, 
where he served as bookkeeper for a hardware 
firm and for the Valley National Bank. A year 
later he returned to Illinois, and was employed as 
clerk in a store in Fairfield until September, 1876, 
when he purchased an interest in the Albion Jour- 
nal, the official Republican paper of Edwards 
County. Later he became sole proprietor of that 
paper and continued its publication until 1884. 

In 1878, Mr. Emmerson was united in marriage 
with Miss Ida Harris, daughter of George Harris, 
of the dry-goods house of Harris Bros., of Al- 
bion. Four children were bom to them, Annie, 
aged fifteen; Raymond, aged twelve; George Har- 
ris, ten years of age, and Ethel, a little maiden of 
seven summers. 

On selling his paper in Albion, Mr. Emmerson 
came to Mt. Vernon and purchased what was 
known as the Exponent, a Republican sheet, the 
name of which he at once changed to Register. As 
there was a growing demand for a daily Republi- 
can paper, he determined to keep abreast with the 
times and give the people what they wanted, so 
established the Daily Register in December, 1892. 
The same year he built his fine office, a two-story 
brick block, the entire second floor being devoted 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



309 



to the publishing business. By strict and close at- 
tention to his business interests by good man- 
agement he has made the Register one of the lead- 
ing papers in southern Illinois. It is a well edited 
family paper and well deserves the liberal patron- 
age which it receives. Mr. Emmerson is a pro- 
gressive man, and is also connected with other en- 
terprises. He is Secretary of the Mt. Vernon 
Building and Loan Association, an institution 
which has done much toward making this place 
one of the finest cities in southern Illinois, and is 
a stockholder and director in the Mt. Vernon Car 
Works. Socially, he is connected with the Royal 
Arch Masons and is a prominent member of the 
fraternity. 



(|L_KNRY KURTH, who is now living retired 
ifjV in Centralia, was born in Prussia, Germany, 
/lU^ August 11, 1830, and is a son of Christian 
(fg> and Ursula (Schmitz) Kurth, natives of the 
same country. His father was there engaged in 
farming and merchandising and held the office of 
burgomaster. There were seven children in the 
family, of whom three are yet living, two being 
residents of the Fatherland. Our subject was 
reared and educated in Prussia, and in his youth 
worked on the farm and in a store, thus acquiring 
a good business education. On the 1st of April, 
1850, he entered the German army and served as 
one of the sharpshooters until April, 1853. 

The following year witnessed the emigration of 
Mr. Kurth to America. He first located in St. 
Louis, where he worked in a general store for 
about a year, and then engaged in farm work in 
St. Clair County, 111., until the 15th of September, 
1856, when he came to Centralia. For a few years 
he worked as steward in a hotel, and in 1859 re- 
turned to St. Louis, where he was employed until 
the fall of 1862. He then again came to Centra- 
lia, where he embarked in merchandising. After- 
ward he purchased a brewery, which he conducted 
from 1869 until 1874. He also owned a large farm 
of two hundred acres, which he rented. He has 
been engaged in fruit raising, making a specialty 
of strawberries, apples, peaches and pears. He was 
formerly one of the most extensive fruit growers 



in this locality, and his business yielded him a 
good income. 

January 5, 1864, Mr. Kurth wedded Miss Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Andrew and Theresa (Mann- 
hard) Zick, her father having been one of the 
earliest German settlers of this locality. The lady 
is also a native of Germany, and came to America 
when a maiden of about seven summers. Five chil- 
dren hare been born to them, Theresa, the wife of 
Rev. F. C. Kruger, a minister of the German Evan- 
gelical Church of Centralia; Henry W., a druggist 
of Chicago; Gertrude, a. talented musician and a 
graduate of the Beethoven Conservatory at St. 
Louis; Oscar, a graduate of the Centralia High 
School, who is now teaching near this place, and 
Katie, a student in the high school. 

Mr. Kurth was one of the organizers of the gas 
company, the First National Bank of Centralia, 
and one of the organizers and stockholders of the 
Centralia Mining and Manufacturing Company. 
He was also one of the original stockholders of 
the Centralia Iron and Nail Works, a stockholder 
in the Centralia Agricultural Works, of which he 
was President, and is a stockholder in the North 
St. Louis Planing Mill Company and the Centralia 
Fruit Package and Shipping Association. Few men 
have been more prominently identified with the 
business interests of this place than he, and his 
connection therewith has added greatly to the 
prosperity and upbuilding of the city. He was 
also one of the organizers of the Agricultural Fail- 
Association of Clinton, Washington, Jefferson and 
Marion Counties. 

In politics, Mr. Kurth has been a Republican 
since becoming an American citizen, and has taken 
an active interest in everything pertaining to the 
growth of his party. He has served as Justice of 
the Peace for four years, was Police Magistrate 
four years, Notary Public eight years, and has fre- 
quently been a delegate to the county, congres- 
sional and state conventions, and has been a mem- 
ber of the County Republican Central Committee. 
Socially, he is a menjber of the Odd Fellows' so- 
ciety and encampment, and has filled all the offi- 
ces of the lodge. Mr. Kurth is also quite exten- 
sively interested in real estate. He owns two 
business blocks on East Broadway, together with 



310 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



several good residences. He also has considerable 
property in Denver, Colo., owning stock in silver 
and gold mines in that state, and is also a stock- 
holder in a suburb of Chicago on the Galena 
branch of the North-western Railroad. He is a 
self-made man, who began life empty-handed, but 
has steadily worked his wa}' upward, until he is 
now one of the wealthiest citizens of Centralia. 
He possesses most excellent business and executive 
ability, and his well directed efforts have brought 
him a handsome competence. 



JUDGE WILLIAM C. BLAIR, Police Judge 
of Mt. Vernon, and one of the able lawyers 
at the Bar of Jefferson County, claims Illi- 
nois as the state of his nativity, his birth 
having occurred in Nashville, Washington County, 
on the 24th of May, 1861. His father, William 
Blair, was born near Cape Girardeau, Mo., Decem- 
ber 21, 1820, and the grandfather, Francis Blair, 
was a native of Georgia. The latter went to Mis- 
souri in 1805 with his parents, being at that time 
only five years old. There were only fourteen 
families between Cape Girardeau and Jackson, so 
he was one of the earliest settlers. He helped to 
build the first church west of the Mississippi River 
and there spent his entire life, lie married Jennie 
Massey, who was born in Lincoln County, N. C., 
and was a daughter of Drury and Jennie (Pack) 
Massey, of Virginia. Her death also occurred in 
Missouri. Their family numbered seven children, 
including John, who died at the age of fourteen; 
Franklin and James, who went to California during 
the gold excitement, and there died; Drury, who 
was a Lieutenant during the Civil War, and is now 
deceased, and Isaac N., who died just after the 
battle of Perryville, while serving in the Union 
army. 

The mother of our subject bore the maiden name 
of Mary Grain. She was born in Tennessee and 
was a daughter of Ezekiel and Nancy (Haw) 
Grain, both natives of Sumner County, Tenn. She 
had six brothers, Louis, who served for four years 



and nine months in the late war, and died in Kan- 
sas; John, who died at the age of twenty-four; 
Isaac, who died at the age of thirty; Alfred, who 
died at the age of thirty-two; William, who served 
in the late war for three years and is now living 
in Oakdale, 111., and Jack, who makes his home in 
California. 

The parents of our subject were married Febru- 
ary 1, 1844, in Missouri, and in 1845 came to Illi- 
nois, locating in Nashville, where the father was 
employed as a brick and stone mason. In 1872, 
he came to Mt. Vernon, where he carried on his 
trade until a short time since, when he retired to 
private life. In 1894, he and his estimable wife 
celebrated their golden wedding. Their five sons 
and four daughters, with one exception, were all 
present. Although the parents are now well ad- 
vanced in years, they still enjoy good health, and 
each day Mr. Blair calls at the office of his son, 
where he reads with much interest the daily papers, 
thus keeping well informed on general topics. The 
children of the family are, Nancy J., now the wife 
of B. Parker, of Hutchinson, Kan.; Lina, wife of 
W. D. Maxey, a farmer of Jefferson County; James 
R., who is trainmaster on the Chicago, Rock Is- 
land & Pacific Railroad in Kansas City; Thomas 
L., who is connected with the elevated railroad in 
St. Louis; Sallie E., wife of Joseph Lowe, of Mt. 
Vernon; Frank G., Superintendent of schools in 
LeRoy, 111.; G. W., Principal of the West Side 
schools of Mt. Vernon, and Minnie M., wife of C. 
R. Phillips, a farmer of Jefferson County. 

The Judge was only eleven years old when the 
family came to Mt. Vernon. He attended school 
until twelve years of age, when his father lost all 
of his property and his son had to aid in the sup- 
port of the family, but his leisure hours he devoted 
to his books, thus becoming well informed. At the 
age of eighteen he began reading law, spent one 
year in the office of an attorney of Mt. Vernon, 
and then, passing a rigid examination, was admit- 
ted to the Bar. He has built up a very extensive 
practice, and has associated with him Colonel 
Jones, a noted criminal lawyer, and Capt. J. R. 
Moss in the real-estate business. 

In 1886, Judge Blair was united in marriage 
with Miss Laura E. Johnson, daughter of L. C. 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



311 



Johnson, a veteran of the late war. They now 
have five children, Ethel M., Mary J., Willie L., 
Katie L. and a babe unnamed. The parents are 
both members of the Methodist Church, have many 
warm friends throughout the community and rank 
high in social circles. 

The Judge has taken quite a prominent part in 
politics, and aided in establishing the Progressive 
Farmer of Mt. Vernou, the paper of the People's 
party. In May, 1892, he made the race for County 
Judge on the People's ticket, but was defeated. 
He is now serving as Police Magistrate, and was 
appointed by Governor Fifer as Public Adminis- 
trator for Jefferson County. lie is a prominent 
member and officer in the Knights of Pythias 
lodge, belongs to the Modern Woodman frater- 
nity, and was one of the original members of the 
Farmers' Mutual Benefit Association in Jefferson 
County. 



AFT. JAMES CUNNINGHAM is the senior 
member of the firm of Cunningham & Son, 
liverymen of Centralia, and is also an hon- 
ored veteran of the late war. A native of Ken- 
tucky, he was born in Todd County, October 20, 
1825. His father, John Cunningham, was born in 
Ireland, and when four years old was brought to 
America by his parents, who located in South 
Carolina, where he grew to manhood and was 
married. He afterward removed to Todd County, 
Ky., and in 1829 came to Perry County, 111., en- 
tering land from the Government near Pinckney- 
ville. There he followed farming until his death. 
He served as County Superintendent of Schools 
in an early day, and was a prominent and inflnen- 
tial citizen. In the family were twelve children 
who reached mature years, but only two are now 
living, Robert W., who resides on the old home- 
stead in Perry County, and our subject. 

The Captain was only about four years old when 
the family came to Illinois. He aided in clearing 
and developing the farm and remained under 
the parental roof until April, 1841, when he mar- 



ried Margaret Jane Cooper, daughter of Andrew 
Cooper, one of the early settlers of Perry County. 
The lady was born in South Carolina, but during 
early girlhood came to this state. The young 
couple spent the first two years of their married 
life upon the old homestead, after which Mr. Cun- 
ningham's father gave him an eighty-acre tract of 
timber land, on which he lived until his removal 
to Walnut Hill. By his first marriage he had four 
children, two yet living: Mary Jane Koonce, now 
of Colorado; and John Thomas, of Centralia. 
Margaret E. and Andrew C. are both deceased. 

After the death of his first wife Mr. Cunning- 
ham married Sarah A., daughter of John Steele, 
and a native of Indiana. Eight children graced 
this union, and two sons and two daughters are 
yet living. The former are, G. L., and James S., 
who is a mail agent on the Illinois Central Rail- 
road, running between Chicago and Centralia. 
Janet is the wife of E. McDowell, a fireman on the 
Illinois Central Road; and Esther is the wife of 
Woodson Phenix, a farmer of Clinton County. 

About 1850 Mr. Cunningham sold his farm in 
Perry County and for a short time engaged in 
merchandising in Walnut Hill. About 1853 he 
came to Centralia and lived in the first house 
erected in this place. Here he engaged in black- 
smithing and wagon-making, and also engaged in 
the manufacture of plows for a year. He then 
embarked in carpentering, but in July, 1862, he 
laid aside business cares and raised what became 
Company H, Eighteenth Illinois Infantry. He 
was at first elected Second Lieutenant, but was 
promoted to the rank of Captain before they left 
for the front. His regiment was captured in the 
Streight raid, but during that time our subject 
was sick at Nashville. The officers were held as 
prisoners for some time, and so Captain Cunning- 
ham re-organized the regiment and commanded 
the same until the close of the war. He was mus- 
tered out with the rank of Brevet-Major in June, 
1865, after having participated in the battles of 
Perrysville, Murfrecsboro, the celebrated march to 
the sea and the battles of Jonesboro and Love- 
joy Station. 

On his return to the north, Captain Cunningham 
located in Centralia and the following spring was 



312 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



elected City Marshal. He afterward engaged in 
the grocery business for six years, and then be- 
came a brakeman on the Illinois Central Railroad. 
During President Grant's first administration he 
was appointed Postmaster of Centralia, which po- 
sition he held for eight years. He then purchased 
a farm of sixty acres in Brookside Township, 
Clinton County, which he operated for nine years, 
when he returned to Centralia and enc.barked in 
the livery business as a member of the firm of 
Cunningham & Son. This he still continues, and 
his undertaking is proving a profitable one. In 
early days Captain Cunningham was an Abolition- 
ist, and since 1856 has been a stalwart Republican. 
He was one of the first Alderman of the city and 
helped to organize the village and lay out tho 
cemetery and has been identified with many other 
public works. There is not another person living 
in the place who was here at the time of his arrival. 



</ AFAYETTE F. PATCHIN, a history of 
I /7g) whose life is herewith presented, is living 
JILJ^ retired in the city of Centralia. He is a 
son of Jabez and Sally (Garfield) Patchin, and was 
born in Warren County, N. Y., May 4, 1826. His 
paternal grandfather was Samuel Patchin, who 
probably came to the United States from Canada. 
He located in New York in a very early day, and 
was captain of a company during the Revolutionary 
War. During that conflict he was seriously wound- 
ed and taken prisoner by the English. He met an 
accidental death when in his eighty-sixth 3 r ear. 

The father of our subject was the fourth in or- 
der of birth in a family of the following named 
sons and daughters: Lyman, Manly, Grandes, John, 
Charlotte, Caroline and Harriet. Jabez Patchin 
acquired a good education for that early day, and 
was a man very prominent in public affairs. His 
early occupation was that of a farmer in Warren 
County, N. Y., but he later became interested in a 
sawmill, which he operated for some time. 

The mother of our subject was likewise born in 
the Empire State, and was the daughter of Na- 



thaniel Garfield. By her union with Jabez Patchin 
she had born to her thirteen children, namely: 
Jabez S. N., Volney O., Lyman W., Charles M. C., 
Alanson, L. Byron, La Fayettc (our subject), Maria, 
Cynthia, Sally, Martha, Jane and Caroline. The 
two latter, together with our subject, are the only 
members of the family living. After the death of 
his first wife, the father of our subject was married 
to Miss Louisa Miller, and by that union there 
were born two children, Fannie E. B., and Francis 
M., who is deceased. 

Jabez Patchin died while residing in New York, 
when in his sixty-sixth year. He was a very ac- 
tive member of the Baptist Church and ever took 
a prominent part in all good works. In politics 
he was a Jacksonian Democrat. He was a self- 
made man in the truest sense of the term, and at 
his death left an estate of three hundred acres. He 
held many local positions of trust, and enjoyed 
the esteem of many friends. 

Our subject was educated in the common schools 
of his native place, and later in life, when in St. 
Louis, Mo., attended a commercial school. He re- 
mained at home until reaching his twenty-second 
year, when he began working out on a farm by 
the month in Warren County. In 1851 he went 
to Pennsylvania, where he was engaged in the 
lumber district until coming west to Missouri. He 
stopped in Platte County, that state, and for some 
time was employed at farm work. Then making 
his way to St. Louis, he was given a position in 
the wholesale commission store of his brother, with 
whom he remained for four years. During that 
time he saved a sufficient sum of money to enable 
him to start in business on his own account, and 
coming to Marion County, opened up a general 
store in Sandoval, which he conducted for three 
years. Then disposing of his stock, he purchased 
a qwarter-section of land in Clinton County, where 
he farmed for many years and accumulated an 
estate comprising three hundred acres, which he 
has since divided among his children. 

In 1864, Mr. Patchin and Miss Elizabeth Hugh- 
son were united in marriage, and by their union 
were born five children, three of whom died in in- 
fancy. Those living are, Isaac L., who married 
Miss Mary Clark, and resides on a portion of the 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



313 



home farm; and Clara, at home with our subject. 
Mr. Patchin is an official member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, with which he lias been con- 
nected for many years. In politics he is a true- 
blue Republican, and has held many positions of 
trust in his township. 

Mrs. La Fayette Patchin died about nineteen 
years ago, September 30, 1874. She was the daugh- 
ter of Abraham and Sarah Hughson, and was born 
in Clinton County, this state, September 12, 1845. 
Her parents were of German descent, and her ma- 
ternal grandmother could not speak the English 
language. The parents of Mrs. Patchin located in 
the above county in a very early day, when the 
court house was a log cabin. Her father was a 
very successful stock-raiser, and at his death, when 
in his seventy-seventh year, was worth $50,000. 

Our subject has been a great sufferer from rheu- 
matism for many years, and claims that the disease 
was occasioned by exposure. He occupies a very 
high position among the old residents of this sec- 
tion, and is a member of the Old Settlers' Union 
of Clinten County. 



JOHN A. WAKEMAN, M. D., PH. D., one 
of the leading physicians and surgeons of 
Centralia, was born on the 23d of January, 
1815, in Hector, Tompkins County, N. Y. 
His father and grandfather both bore the name of 
John, and the ancestors on both sides came over 
in the "Mayflower." The father was born and 
reared in Weston, Conn. In that city he married 
Ruth Adams, a native of Connecticut, and after 
about two years they removed to Tompkins 
County, N. Y. Supplied with one year's provis- 
ions, they made the journey in a one-horse wagon 
and later endured all the trials of the early pio- 
neers. He served in the War of 1812, and for many 
years followed farming and carpentering. After 
the completion "of the Erie Canal he owned and 
ran several canal boats. In Tompkins County he 
continued to make his home until about 1832, when 
he emigrated to Huron County, Ohio, where he 
followed farming and milling for about twenty 
years. With his youngest son he then went to 



Branch County, Mich., where they built and oper- 
ated a sawmill and gristmill and also carried on 
a farm. The father there died April 8, 1859, and 
the mother passed away November 5, 1856. They 
were the parents of nine children, six of whom 
grew to mature years, but only two are now living: 
John A., and Eli, who is engaged in farming and 
milling in Branch County, Mich. William H. was 
a farmer and miller and died in Missouri; Sher- 
wood followed the same pursuits and spent his 
last days in Ohio; Bradley, who was a school 
teacher, died in early life; Harriet became the wife 
of Dr. Bronson and died in Los Angeles, Cal.; 
Miranda died at the age of eight years; and the 
others died in infancy. The father of this family 
was a Whig in early life, but became one of the 
stalwart supporters of the Republican party on its 
organization. He held membership with the Pres- 
byterian Church. In his business dealings he was 
very successful and aided all of his children in 
making a good start in life. 

John A. Wakeman was a youth of about fifteen 
when with his father lie removed to Huron Coun- 
ty, Ohio. For about a year he engaged in teach- 
ing school in the Buckeye State and then began 
reading medicine in Worthiugton. On the 24th 
of March, 1828, he was graduated from the medi- 
cal department of Worthington College, and the 
following day was united in marriage with Miss 
Hulda Janet Stiles, a native of Oneida County, 
N. Y. She was for many years his faithful com- 
panion and helpmate on life's journey, but died at 
their home in Centralia in 1885, at the age of sev- 
enty years, five months and thirty days. 

After his marriage Dr. Wakeman engaged in 
practice for about a year in Tiffin, Ohio, and then 
returned to Worthington, where he pursued a 
post-graduate course. Locating in Huron County, 
he was for fifteen years engaged in practice in 
Fairfield, and during that time became a convert 
to homeopathy. In the winter of 1852-53 he was 
a student in the Hahnemann Medical College of 
Philadelphia, from which he was graduated in 
March of the' latter year. Removing to Ports- 
mouth, Ohio, he there engaged in practice for 
seven years, and in June, 1859, came to Marion 
County, 111., purchasing a farm one mile from 



314 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



Centralia. He has been very successful, and his 
skill and ability have secured for him a liberal 
patronage. He continued to reside on his farm 
until after the death of his first wife, when he re- 
moved to the city, lie was again married May 4, 
1887, his second union being with Mrs. Sarah Ann 
Willard, daughter of Caleb Trevor, who was a 
native of England and during his youth came to 
America. For some years he followed merchan- 
dising, and he and his wife spent their last days 
in Cincinnati. The Doctor has a family of three 
children. Emmet 15. is General Superintendent 
of Transportation for the Great Northern Rail- 
road and has his office in St. Paul, but, his home is 
in Minneapolis. Josephine C. became the wife of 
J.C. Kehoe, a merchant of Ceutralia, and after his 
death she married Dr. William II. Leonard, now 
of Minneapolis. Henry S. is Assistant Superin- 
tendent of one of the divisions of the Great North- 
ern Railroad and is located in Willmar, Minn. 

In early life Dr. Wakeman was a supporter of 
the Whig party, but since the organization of the 
Republican party has been identified with its in- 
terests. He holds membership with the Episcopal 
Church and has served as Senior Warden and 
Vestryman. His wife is an active member of the 
Baptist Church and they both take an active in- 
terest in charitable and benevolent work, contrib- 
uting liberally to all worthy enterprises and ob- 
jects. For fifty-seven years the Doctor has engaged 
in the practice of medicine, devoting the greater 
part of his time and attention to his business. He 
has always kept abreast of the times, and his abil- 
ity has won him not only a liberal patronage, but 
lias also secured him a prominent name in the pro- 
fession. 



WILLIS WOODS, deceased, was one of the 
early settlers of Marion County, and for 
many years was numbered among its 
most prominent citizens. A native of North Caro- 
lina, he spent the days of his boyhood and youth 
in that state, and was there married after attaining 
to mature years, the lady of his choice being Miss 



Mary Wilbourn, also a native of North Carolina. 

In the early '50s, Mr. Woods left the south and 
emigrated to Illinois, locating in Odin, Marion 
County. There he engaged in farming, successfully 
following agricultural pursuits up to the time of 
his death. He was accompanied by his family, 
which numbered the following children: Louisa, 
who became the wife of John Carrighan,and made 
her home in Clinton County until her death; John; 
William, who died in this county, leaving a son, 
Silas; Mary, wife of George Burge, and Green, who 
is living in Springfield, 111. 

John Woods is now the only member of the 
family living in Marion County. He was born in 
Tennessee in 1827, and was only a year old when 
his parents removed to Illinois. In 1847, he was 
united in marriage with Miss Catherine McClel- 
land, daughter of Isaac McClelland, one of the 
honored pioneers of Marion County, who here lo- 
cated in 1820. lie was a native of Pennsylvania, 
and was reared in the Keystone State. After com- 
ing to the west, he married Sarah Welch, daughter 
of Thomas Welch, who came from Tennessee to 
Illinois in 1812. Her grandfather, Alexander Mc- 
Clelland, was one of the honored heroes of the 
Revolution, and was killed in that struggle. Her 
maternal grandfather also aided the Colonies in 
their struggle for independence. In the family to 
which Mrs. Woods belonged were six children, 
Alexander; John, a resident of Oregon; Rachel, 
wife of Thomas N. Deadman, of Marion County; 
Catherine, the honored wife of our subject; Eliza- 
beth, wife of William Bundy, and Rebecca, widow 
of Richard Collins. 

Mr. and Mrs. Woods are the parents of five chil- 
dren who are yet living, and they have also lost 
four. Those who still survive are, Florence, wife 
of Asa Maddox; Luella, wife of William Ingram; 
George R., who married Martha Sanders; Cecelia, 
wife of Erastus Root, and Susan R., wife of John 
Hey duck. 

Upon their marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Woods lo- 
cated upon the farm which has since been their 
home. This was an unimproved tract of land, and 
Mr. Woods had to perform the arduous task of de- 
veloping the raw prairie. His labors, however, 
soon transformed it into a tract of rich fertility, 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



315 



and the highly cultivated fields soon began to 
yield to the owner a golden tribute in return for 
the care and cultivation he bestowed upon them. 
He has successfully carried on general farming 
throughout the greater part of his life, and by his 
well directed efforts has acquired a comfortable 
competence. His home was the first brick resi- 
dence erected on Seven Mile Prairie. In politics, 
Mr. Woods has always been a Democrat, but has 
never sought or desired the honors or emoluments 
of public office. 



G. CORMICK. The business inter- 
lf)|) ests of Centralia have a worthy represent- 
<MP ative in the subject of this sketch, who is 
(^) the proprietor of a large and flourishing 
establishment in the city. Both by nature and as 
the result of long and varied experience, he is ad- 
mirably fitted for the successful management of a 
large concern and is considered authority upon 
any subject bearing upon hardware or stoves. He 
carries a complete assortment of the best qualities 
of hardware, tinware and stoves of every variety, 
and his store is one of the best of its kind in the 
county. 

Our subject's father, Joseph G. Cormick, was a 
native of Savannah, Ga., whence in boyhood he 
removed to Ohio and for a time sojourned at San- 
dusky. During the residence of the family in 
Columbus he was connected with the postofflce at 
Cleveland, Ohio. There he married Miss Louisa, 
daughter of Peter Putnam, a tanner by trade and 
one of the very earliest settlers of Columbus. 
During the infancy of that now flourishing city 
he entered the town with $5 in his pocket and all 
his earthly possessions tied in a handkerchief 
which he carried. He entered a tract of land from 
the Government a very short distance from the 
capital and there carried on a large tanyard for 
many years. He made his home in that city until 
a few years prior to his death, which occurred at 
Columbus City, Iowa. Our subject's paternal 
grandfather, John Cormick, was a native of Ire- 
land, and being a Fenian, was obliged to leave his 



home in that country. He emigrated to the United 
States and settled near Savannah, Ga. 

After his marriage Joseph G. Cormick began to 
work for the Indianapolis & Bellefontaine Rail- 
way Company, but soon afterward removed to 
Cairo, 111., and accepted a position as conductor 
on a passenger train between Cairo and Sandoval, 
111. In the spring of 1854 he came to Centralia, 
before the road was completed to this place. 
Afterward he ran the train between Cairo and 
Centralia and continued as conductor on the Illi- 
nois Central Railroad from 1853 until 1879. His 
death occurred May 1 1 th of the last named year. 

In local politics Mr. Cormick was influential 
and prominent and was honored by election to 
the office of Mayor, in which he rendered efficient 
service in behalf of his fellow-citizens. In poli- 
tics he was a Republican and was a warm personal 
friend of Generals Logan and Grant, as well as 
other famous men. Socially, he was identified 
with the Masonic fraternity, and for a number of 
years was Secretary of the Old Reliable Conduc- 
tors' Life Association, of which he was one of the 
organizers, as well as one of the first Viee-Presi- 
dents. He was a man of peculiarly genial temper- 
ament and formed many warm and intimate 
friendships. His widow is still living, as is also 
one of their children, the other, Georgiana, having 
died at the age of nineteen years. 

Not only was Mr. Cormick prominent in Cen- 
tralia, but he was well known throughout this 
section of the state and was honored wherever 
known. During the Mexican War he enlisted as 
private and served with fidelity and valor. 
Though somewhat advanced in years when the 
clouds of the Rebellion darkened the sky of na- 
tional prosperity, he was so loyal to the cause of 
the Union that he volunteered his services in its 
defense. During the early part of the war his 
name was enrolled as a member of Company D, 
Eighteenth Illinois Infantry, he having raised the 
company and been elected its Captain. With the 
regiment he participated in a number of engage- 
ments, which though not among the most impor- 
tant of the war were none the less perilous to life. 

Harry G. Cormick was born in Columbus, Ohio, 
November 1, 1853, and has spent almost his entire 



316 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



life in the city where he now resides. Here he was 
educated in the public schools, and upon complet- 
ing his schooling went to Cairo, where he served a 
three years' apprenticeship to the printer's trade, 
being in the office of the Cairo Bulletin. Later he 
was thus engaged in Chicago, Minneapolis, Cen- 
tralia and other cities. Next we find him fireman 
on the Illinois Central Railroad between Centra- 
lia and Cairo, and after four years thus spent he 
was promoted to the position of locomotive en- 
gineer, but three years afterward lost his position 
through an accident. Retiring from the railroad, 
he entered the mercantile business at Centralia, 
and two years later embarked in the hardware 
trade, which he has since successfully conducted. 
In politics Mr. Cormick gives his support to the 
measures of the Republican party and is an en- 
thusiastic champion of its candidates and princi- 
ples. In his social connections he is identified 
with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, the 
Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers and the 
Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen, and has 
served as chief officer of the two latter organiza- 
tions. All enterprises calculated to advance the 
welfare of the city along the lines of moral, social 
or material development, receive his hearty sup- 
port and active co-operation. 

ILTON B. WILSON. The gentleman whose 
sketch we herewith place before our read- 
ers is one of the prominent fruit-growers 
of the state, and has the honor of being 
the pioneer in the strawberry business in this sec- 
tion. He makes his home in Centralia, and in 
1864 he planted on his valuable farm near the city 
ten acres of that fruit, which was the first grown 
for shipment in this region. 

Our subject was born in Clinton County, Ohio, 
March 16, 1839, and is the son of Hugh Wilson, 
also a native of the Buckeye State, whose birth 
occurred in Lebanon, Warren County. The fa- 
ther was in early life a tanner, but in later j-ears 
followed the saddlery business. He was married 
in his native county to Miss Nancy Kelsey, also a 



native of that place. Our subject was only two 
years of age when his parents removed to Indiana, 
where his father plied his trade of saddler until 
his decease, March 18, 1861. In politics he was a 
strong Republican after the formation of the party, 
and while residing in the Hoosier State was Re- 
corder of Boone County. With his wife he was a 
devoted member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
and was a man whom everyone respected and hon- 
ored. 

Of the family of five children born to his par- 
ents, our subject and his sister Mary, now Mrs. .1. 
N. Kerr, of Centralia, are the only survivors. The 
former was educated in the public schools of Boone 
County, Ind., and after completing his education 
learned the saddler's trade from his father, which 
business he followed until going to Aurora, 111. 
In the latter city he spent a year learning the art 
of caring for strawberries, for which knowledge he 
paid $14 per month. 

In the spring of 1862 Mr. Wilson came to Salem, 
this state, where he had an uncle who was engaged 
in the fruit business. Our subject remained with 
him for two years and then came to Centralia, 
and in partnership with Elijah E. Sims, purchased 
land one-half mile from the city, which they set 
out in fruit. This connection lasted for about 
four years, when Mr. Wilson purchased his part- 
ner's interest in the farm. He now has forty acres 
devoted to an apple orchard and forty acres in 
fruit, of which five acres are planted in the finest 
varieties of strawberries. Of the latter fruit he ships 
great quantities and has never yet failed to find a 
ready market for them, as the strawberries speak 
more for themselves than is claimed for them. 

August 16, 1871, M. B. Wilson was united in 
marriage with Miss Eugenia Penn, the daughter 
of John Penn, of Tennessee. He was a farmer by 
occupation, and owned a good estate in Henry 
County, 111., where the parents were residing at the 
time of Mrs. Wilson's birth. To our subject and 
his wife was born a daughter, Grace A. 

Mr. Wilson cast his first vote for Abraham Lin- 
coln, and has ever since voted with the Republican 
party. With his wife he is a consistent member 
of the First Baptist Church of Centralia, and they 
occupy a comfortable home in the city, where they 



UN! 1 -. 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



319 



entertain a host of warm friends. Our subject is a 
stockholder in the Centralia Fruit Packing & Ship- 
ping Company, and is without doubt one of the 
largest fruit-growers in southern Illinois. 



?OHN MERKELBACH. Although not one 
of the earliest settlers, Mr. Merkelbach may 
justly be regarded as one of the pioneers of 
Centralia, to the progress of which he has 
contributed, and of which he has been a resident 
since the year 1857. His name will always be 
closely linked with that of his adopted home, as 
partly by his influence it has attained a place among 
the leading cities of this section of the state. He has 
ever been active in extending its commercial and 
business interests, and has contributed generously 
to all projects that would enhance its material 
prosperity. 

A man of such vigorous mind, such unerring 
sagacity and keen insight, cannot well avoid ac- 
cepting public office at the call of his fellow-men 
when it seems his duty as a loyal citizen to do so, 
and hence, while having the care of a large prop- 
erty, Mr. Merkelbach has found time to take a 
part in the administration of local affairs, and for 
four years represented his ward in the City Coun- 
cil of Ceutralia. At present he passes his time 
quietly in his pleasant home, somewhat retired 
from active business, although he still retains the 
supervision of his extensive interests. 

Many of the foremost citizens of Marion Coun- 
ty are of German birth and ancestry. Such is the 
case with the subject of this sketch, who was born 
near the River Rhine, in Grenzhausen, October 1, 
1828. His father, John Merkelbach, was born in 
Grenzhausen, and was a member of an old and 
prominent family of that locality. He received 
an excellent education in the German language, 
and early in life learned the trade of a shoemaker, 
which he made his life occupation. He was twice 
married, his first union being with Anna Schell- 
mann, who bore him two children, John and Jean- 
ette. His second marriage resulted in the birth of 
three children. William, Mina and Christina, all of 
whom reside in Germany. The father was a lead- 
ing man in local affairs, and at various times held 
7 



offices of trust and responsibility. A deyoted 
Christian, he held membership in the Presbyterian 
Church. 

John Merkelbach, like all German lads, attended 
school between the ages of six and fourteen years, 
and afterward learned the trade of a shoemaker 
under the instruction of his father. Later he 
traveled through the greater part of Germany 
working at his trade, and when a young man en- 
tered the army, serving his country for five years. 
He was a soldier during the war in 1848, but did 
not participate in any engagement. 

In 1853 our subject decided to try his fortune 
in the New World, and in the month of April 
landed on American shores. Previous to coming 
hither, his father had given him a sum of money, 
which enabled him to live comfortably until he 
found a suitable location. After working in vari- 
ous places, he came to Centralia, March 7, 1857, and 
for twenty years followed the trade of a shoemaker. 
Since that time he has been variously occupied, 
and is now living in comparative ease in the city 
where he has spent so many of his best years. 

In October, 1856, our subject and Miss Susan, a 
daughter of Bernhard and Catherine Keller, were 
united in marriage. Mrs. Merkelbach was born in 
the same locality in Germany as was our subject, 
and came to the United States in company with 
friends. By her union she has become the mother 
of four children, Gustavus, Mena, Emma and Al- 
bert. Albert makes his home in Oskaloosa, Iowa, 
while the others arc residing in Centralia. 

Mr. and Mrs. Merkelbach are members in good 
standing of the German Evangelical Church. So- 
cially, the former is connected with Centralia 
Lodge No. 108, I. O. O. F. In politics he is a 
stanch Republican, having cast his first vote for 
John C. Fremont. He has always been actively 
interested in public affairs, a*hd in 1872 was elected 
Alderman of the Second Ward, serving a term -of 
four years. 

RED F. REINHARDT, editor of the San- 

doval Times, was born September 3, 1860, 

in the city which is still his home. He is 

a son of Charles and Fredenka Reinhardt, of 

whom mention is made in the biographical sketch 



320 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



of the former, presented on another page. In the 
common schools of this place he gained the rudi- 
ments of his education, which was further supple- 
mented by attendance at McKendree College, of 
Lebanon, 111., and the Bryant <fe Stratton Business 
College of St. Louis. From the latter institution 
he was graduated in 1879. 

At the age of nineteen Mr. Reinhardt accepted 
a clerkship with the firm of Lichty & Steinner, 
dealers in lumber and grain at Sandoval, with 
whom he remained until their bankruptcy, in 1884. 
The business was then put in the name of Mr. 
Reinhardt, who, as their successor, has paid up 
the indebtedness of the former concern in full 
and made satisfactory settlements with all the 
creditors. This was an undertaking of no trivial 
character or importance, as the liabilities of the 
firm were over $16,000, and it required two years 
to settle up the business. For a time Mr. Rein- 
liardt continued the business in partnership with 
M. M. Pate, whom, however, in January, 1894, he 
bought out, and since then has carried on the en- 
terprise alone. 

While the interests just named have consumed 
a great deal of Mr. Reinhardt's time and energies, 
he has nevertheless found time for other impor- 
tant enterprises. He does a large exchange and 
collecting business in fact, all the banking busi- 
ness in the town is done by him. He also handles 
farming implements of every kind, keeping in 
stock the machinery of most modern and im- 
proved pattern. In 1891 he made his debut in 
the literary and journalistic world, at which time 
he assumed the management and accepted the 
editorship of the Sandoval Times. The paper is 
printed in Centralia, is strictly independent in 
politics, aiming to become a chronicler of social 
events rather than a party organ, and has a circu- 
lation in this locality of five hundred. 

In 1885 the Sandoval Building & Loan As- 
sociation was established, and from the date of its 
organization until the present time it has been 
actively and successfully managed by Mr. Rein- 
hardt. This enterprise is recognized as one of the 
best in the county, and, indeed, one of the most 
thriving in the state, and its success is almost 
wholly due to the judicious management of our 



subject. With the public affairs of the village he 
has been identified ever since attaining his major- 
ity, and has held a number of responsible posi- 
tions. For some years he has been a member of 
the Town Board and the School Board, in both 
of which he has held official positions. lie has 
also served as Township Clerk. In politics he is 
a stalwart champion of the Democracy, and that 
party has in the entire county no friend more de- 
voted than he. In his social affiliations he is iden- 
tified with Minerva Lodge No. 432, K. P., of San- 
doval; the Alliance Lodge No. 395, I. O. O. F.; 
the Encampment No. 113; and Rebekah Lodge 
No. 52. 

In 1883 occurred the first marriage of Mr. Rein- 
hardt, which united him with Miss Nettie L., 
daughter of Samuel and Jessie Reed, and a native 
of Marion County, 111. Two sons, Harry and 
Frank, were born of this union. After the death 
of Mrs. Nettie L. Reinhardt, our subject married 
her sister, Miss Jennie B. Reed, an estimable and 
accomplished lady, who is highly esteemed in so- 
cial circles. One child, Nettie, has blessed their 
union. 



GE. EIS is one of the thrifty and enterpris- 
ing citizens of Centralia, and by his pro- 
gressive spirit has done much for the up- 
building and advancement of this place. He is 
ever alive to its best interests, and its leading en- 
terprises always receive his hearty support and co- 
operation. He is now sole owner of the Big Injun 
Cigar Factory, and is a manufacturer of and whole- 
sale dealer in cigars and tobacco. 

Mr. Eis was born in Dayton, Ohio, January 6, 
1855, and is a sou of John Eis, a native of France, 
who emigrated to America in 1844 and located 
in Newark, Ohio, where he engaged in farming. 
Later he engaged in teaching French in Dayton, 
Ohio, until 1861, when, on the first call for volun- 
teers, he entered the service of his adopted coun- 
try. After serving for three years he re-enlisted, 
and started home on a furlough, but it is supposed 
that he was murdered and thrown in the Licking 
River. His wife bore the maiden name of Mary 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



321 



Engle, and was a native of Byrne, Germany. At 
the age of seven she came to this country with 
her father, George Engle, who located in Dayton, 
where he engaged in the grocery business. Seven 
children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Eis, of whom 
the following are living: Sophia, wife of John 
Byer, who is engaged in the cabinet-maker's trade 
in Buffalo, N. Y.; Callie, wife of William Gemin, a 
fresco painter of Dayton; G. E., of this sketch; 
George, a resident of Buffalo, who is employed as 
a traveling salesman for the Dayton Cash Register 
Company; and Emma, wife of Richard Jacobs, 
now owning and operating a job office in Dayton, 
Ohio. 

At the age of nine years our subject left his na- 
tive city and went to Boone County, Ky., where 
he served a three years' apprenticeship to the trade 
of cigar making. He worked in that locality un- 
til fifteen years of age, and then followed the same 
line of business in Kenton County, Ky., for two 
years, after which he went to Franklin, Ind. There 
he was employed for three years, when in 1881 he 
came to Centralia. Here he embarked in the 
manufacture of cigars with Joseph Heisermau, un- 
der the firm name of Heiserman & Eis, which con- 
nection continued for six months, since which time 
Mr. Eis has been alone in business. He has built 
up the largest cigar manufacturing business in this 
part of the state and has a most extensive sale. 
Among the leading brand of cigars are La Flor de 
Eis, Potillio, Silk Hat, Cuban Hand, etc. 

Mr. Eis was married in Centralia, September 26, 
1883, to Miss Annie Merkel, daughter of Edward 
Merkel, a native of Germany, who came to Amer- 
ica in 1855 and settled in Centralia. He was a 
baker and confectioner, and built and owned the 
first business block on Chestnut Street. His daugh- 
ter is a native of this city. Mr. and Mrs. Eis now 
have three children, Clarence M., Walter and Val- 
lett Reuben. 

In politics, Mr. Eis is a stalwart Democrat, has 
served as Alderman from the Second Ward for two 
years, and has frequently been a delegate to the 
conventions of his party. He is a member of the 
Knights of Pythias and of the Uniformed Rank. 
He has also been connected with various business 
interests which are numbered among the leading 



industries of the city. He is a stockholder and 
Director of the Centralia Light and Power Com- 
pany, is a Director and the largest stockholder in 
the Centralia and Central City Street Railway 
Company, and was one of the originators of the 
old electric light company. He is a large stock- 
holder in the building and loan association, and 
Treasurer of the Centralia Provident Association, 
a charitable organization. He owns a sixth inter- 
est in the electric light plant of Creal Springs, has 
an interest in forty town lots, owns the Saddler's 
Block and some fine residence property. Through 
the legitimate channels of business, Mr. Eis has 
achieved a success which has materially promoted 
the prosperity of Centralia and has made him one 
of its substantial citizens. He is very prominent in 
business circles, and has the confidence and regard 
of all with whom he has been brought in contact. 



m 



GODDIN WELDEN, who in August, 
1892, was promoted to be traveling en- 
gineer of the Illinois Central Railroad, 
has been in the employ of that company for over 
eleven years as engineer, his route lying between 
Centralia and Cairo. He is a native of this state, 
having been born near Freeburg, St. Clair County, 
on the 14th of January, 1850. 

The parents of our subject are Elias W. and 
Louisa M. (Thrift) Welden, the former of whom 
was born in Lancaster County, Pa., June 9, 1819. 
When seven years of age he was bound out to 
work on a farm, but remained only a few years 
when he ran away, and in company with his 
brother went to Ohio, where he worked and saved 
his earnings, and in that way was enabled to go 
through college. E. W. Welden, after completing 
his education, began teaching school in the Buck- 
eye State, where he remained until 1844 or 1845, 
the date of his advent into St. Clair County, where 
he also taught school. On the outbreak of the 
Mexican War he enlisted his services and served 
until the close of hostilities. 

After returning from the war, the father of our 
subject made his way to the above county, where 



322 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



he was married to Miss Louisa, the daughter of 
Samuel M. and Sarah Fleming (Cowan) Thrift, 
natives respectively of Virginia and North Caro- 
lina. Mrs. Welden was born in Kentucky on the 
4th of June, 1827, and accompanied her parents 
on their removal to St. Clair County, where they 
were farmers. The elder Mr. Welden began read- 
ing law in 1851, and was admitted to practice at 
the Bar of St. Clair County about 1853. Soon af- 
terward he removed to Randolph County, and a 
short time thereafter went to Du Quoin, where he 
practiced from 1858 to 1861. 

On the outbreak of the Civil War, our subject's 
father offered his services to the Union army on 
two different occasions, but was rejected both 
times on account of the wound which he had re- 
ceived while in the Mexican War. That same year 
he was appointed route agent for mails carried be- 
tween Centralia and Cairo, and making his head- 
quarters in the former city, continued in the serv- 
ice of the company for ten years, then retired from 
active life. He was also interested in a grocery 
store in the city, and his popularity among the 
residents of Centralia resulted in his election as 
Mayor of the city, which honorable position he 
held for three terms. He was a stanch Republican 
in politics, and in early life was a Mason. With 
his wife, E. W. Welden was an active member of 
the Baptist Church. 

His lirst wife died March 3, 1867, and in Janu- 
ary, 1869, he was united in marriage with Mrs. 
Anna M. Clark, who is still living. He passed 
away from the scenes of earth April 3, 1890. 

Our subject completed his education in Sliurtleff 
College, in Alton. Later he took a commercial 
course in a business college in St. Louis, and in 
1870 entered the postal service on the Illinois Cen- 
tral Railroad. The following year, however, he 
began braking on the Illinois Central Railroad, 
which occupation he followed only a few months 
when he was made fireman. A twelvemonth later 
he began working for the Missouri Pacific Rail- 
road, and very shortly thereafter for the Big Four 
Railroad in the capacity of brakeman, and while 
engaged with the latter company was promoted 
to be conductor of a freight train. 

In 1876 Mr. Welden was offered the position of 



Postal Clerk for the Illinois Central Railroad, and 
for four years ran between Cairo, Centralia, Chi- 
cago and Tolono. His next occupation was as 
fireman of the company, and on being made en- 
gineer, held that responsible position for eleven 
years, or until accepting his present position as 
traveling engineer. 

Mr. Welden and Miss Mary L., daughter of An- 
drew J. and Anna C. (Peter) Thrift, were united 
in marriage on the 20th of December, 1882, in 
Macon County, this state. Mrs. Welden is a na- 
tive of this state, while her parents were born re- 
spectively in Kentucky and Pennsylvania. She 
completed her education in the State Normal 
School. Their union has been blessed by the birth 
of four children, only one of whom is living, a 
daughter, Goddina. 

Socially our subject is a Knight of Pythias, be- 
longing to Helmet Lodge No. 26. In polities, he 
is a true-blue Republican, and commands the high 
regard of all who know him. 



JAMES C. SEVERNS. This name will be at 
once recognized by a majority of our read- 
ers as that of one of the leading grocers in 
Centralia. He is a member of the firm of 
Reed it Severns, whose fine establishment is located 
on East Broadway, where will be found all the 
fruits and vegetables in their season, besides a full 
line of staple and fancy groceries. 

Our subject is a native of Indiana, and was 
born January 6, 1846, in' Jeffersonville. Jacob 
Severns, his father, is a native of Virginia, whence 
he moved to Ohio, and was 'the proprietor of a 
grocery store in Piqua. From there he removed 
to Jeffersonville, Ind., where he also did a flourish- 
ing trade in that line of business and was num- 
bered among its well-to-do citizens. 

While residing in the Hoosier State, Jacob Sev- 
erns met and married Miss Catherine Parrott, a 
native of Tennessee. The parents continued to 
live in Jeffersonville until the spring of 1849, 
when they came to Illinois and made their home 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



on a farm in Lawrence County. The father was 
more than ordinarily successful as an agriculturist, 
and resided on the place until retiring from the 
active duties of life, when he removed to Cen- 
tralia. His wife died March 15, 1893, firm in the 
faith of the Methodist Episcopal Church, with 
which denomination Jacob Severns is also con- 
nected. 

James C. Scvcrns received his education in the 
public schools of Sumner, Lawrence County, and 
in February, 1864, while the Rebellion was still in 
progress, enlisted his services in the Union army 
and joined Company E, One Hundred and Fifty- 
fourth Illinois Infantry. He was mustered in as 
Sergeant, which position he held until his dis- 
charge, in September, 1864. On returning home 
from the war young Severns engaged in farming 
pursuits for a short time, and then learning the 
painter's trade, he carried on that occupation for 
some time in Lawrence County, when, in 1876, he 
came to Centralia, with whose interests he has 
since been identified as one of its prominent busi- 
ness men. 

The lady to whom our subject was married 
July 9, 1874, was Miss Lydia, daughter of John 
Whitmore, now deceased. Her father was a pros- 
perous farmer in Ohio, and died when she was 
quite young. Mrs. Severns was born in Licking 
County, Ohio, and came to Illinois witli her par- 
ents when about twelve years of age. She attended 
the public schools of Lawrence County, and after 
completing her education was employed as a 
teacher for a number of years in the town of 
Sumner. 

For two years after coming to Centralia our 
subject was agent for the Home Sewing Machine 
Company, but having an opportunity to go into 
partnership with E. G. Gregory, he did so, and for 
three years they conducted a grocery. Mr. Sev- 
ern*, then clerked for G. L. Pittenger, and after be- 
ing variously employed for a number of years, May 
10, 1893, formed a partnership with L. H. Reed 
and established a grocery in the Odd Fellows' 
Building on East Broadway. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Severns has been born a fam- 
ily of three children, Willie, Jennie and Otto. 
Our subject is a Democrat in politics, and for two 



years was President of the Board of Education. 
Socially he is a Royal Arch Mason, and is High 
Priest of Centralia Chapter No. 93, and Senior 
Warden of Cyrene Commandery No. 23, K. T. 
Religiously he is an active worker in the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, in which he has been 
Steward and Class-leader. 



ELISHA JASON ADAMS. Sixty-six years 
have passed since this now venerable gen- 
tleman, then a youth of fifteen, came to 
Marion County, since which time he has not only 
witnessed its growth and upbuilding, but has aided 
materially in its welfare and progress. He well 
deserves mention' in this volume among the hon- 
ored early settlers and men of prominence. Though 
now (1894) incapacitated for active work by his 
advancing years and a severe attack of la grippe, 
he still says he will outlive many of his neighbors 
who are his juniors in years. 

The Adams homestead is pleasantly situated on 
section 18 of Raccoon Township, and is one of the 
finest farms in the locality. Two hundred acres 
of finely improved land pay an annual tribute to 
the care and cultivation of the owner. The place 
has been subdivided into fields of convenient size 
for the raising of grain and pasturage of stock, 
while all the buildings necessary for the farm work 
are to be here found. The family residence is a 
commodious two-story frame structure, while the 
barns are large and substantial. Altogether the 
farm is one of the best and most de^frable in the 
county, being complete in all its appointments, 
and supplied with all modern conveniences. The 
fields are well tilled, and the improvements stand 
as monuments to the thrift and enterprise of the 
owner. 

The Adams family is of English origin, but has 
been represented in this country for several gener- 
ations. Our subject's parents, John and Nancy 
(Burton) Adams, were natives respectively of Ken- 
tucky and Virginia, and coming to Marion Coun- 
ty in 1828, entered a tract of forty acres from the 
Government. To this the father subsequently 



324 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



added until he became the owner of one hundred 
acres of highly cultivated land. He was a man of 
energetic disposition, and in his death, which oc- 
curred in 1854, at the age of seventy-one years, 
the community sustained a severe loss. His widow 
survived him many years and passed away in 1873, 
at the advanced age of ninety-seven. 

The subject of this biographical notice was born 
in Logan County, Ky., April 4, 1813, and was one 
of eight children, two sons and six daughters. His 
only brother, Jacob, died more than a half-century 
ago. His sisters are: Susanna, the wife of J. N. 
Adams; Mary, who married M. S. Randall; Rebecca, 
who became the wife of S. Fyke; Elizabeth, Mrs. H. 
G. Burrow; Nancy, the wife of William Burge; and 
Lucy, who died unmarried. The father of this 
family was well known among the early settlers of 
Marion County, and was a prominent factor in the 
development of Raccoon Township during the 
first half of this century. He was, however, not 
active in politics, and never held any official posi- 
tion, though had he desired such, his fellow-citi- 
zens would undoubtedly have chosen him for local 
places of trust and honor. 

The boyhood years of our subject were unevent- 
fully passed upon the home farm. He was for a 
short time a pupil in the subscription schools, but 
his education has been mainly self-acquired. In 
1875 he married Miss Elizabeth Jane Williams, 
who is a native of Missouri. Her father, John W. 
Williams, emigrated from Kentucky to Missouri, 
and came to Marion County, 111., in an early period 
of its history. There were three children in his 
family, Mrs. Adams, Mrs. Julia Hunt and M. G. 
Williams. Unto the union of our subject and his 
estimable wife there were born two children, Ollie 
D. and John C., who are pupils in the district 
schools. 

In politics, Mr. Adams was first a Democrat, 
then an Abolitionist, and is at present a stanch Re- 
publican, but has never been active in local affairs, 
preferring to devote his attention exclusively to 
agricultural pursuits. In religious belief the fam- 
ily is identified with the Methodist denomination. 
To Mr. Adams belongs the distinction of being 
one of the oldest surviving settlers of Marion 
County, and none of the pioneers are more widely 



known or more highly honored than he is. His 
life furnishes a lesson well worthy the emulation 
of the young. Beginning in life with no capital, 
he was for a time in the employ of neighboring 
farmers, and saved his earnings until he accumu- 
lated a sufficient amount for the purchase of his 
present property. By hard work and shrewdness, 
he has gained valuable possessions, and in the de- 
clining years of his life is surrounded by every 
comfort. A pleasant conversationalist, many an 
interesting anecdote can he relate concerning the 
earlier days when St. Louis was the nearest trad- 
ing point for the residents of Marion County, 
when settlers were few, money scarce and hard- 
ships many. To such as he does the present gen- 
eration owe a debt of gratitude that can never be 
repaid, and in the annals of this county the name 
of E. J. Adams will ever hold a prominent place. 



RS. DELPHA A. MOORE, who is now liv- 
ig on section 16, Grand Prairie Town- 
ship, Jefferson County, is one of the old- 
est settlers of the community. She was 
born in Butler County, Ky., October 12, 1812, and 
is a daughter of George Anderson, who was also 
a native of the same county. When her father 
wns about twenty j'ears of age, he married Jennie 
Worrell, an accomplished young lady of Butler 
County, and they became the parents of five chil- 
dren: Isaac, Moses, Taber, Melinda and Polly. 
The mother of this family having died, Mr. An- 
derson afterward wedded Elizabeth Waters, by 
whom he had three children: Delpha A.; George, 
who married Susan Avants, and resides in As- 
sumption, 111.; and Crittenden, who married Eliza- 
beth Breeze, and died near Richview, 111. The fa- 
ther of this family died in Butler County, Ky., and 
Mrs. Elizabeth Anderson afterward became the 
wife of .David Roper, who was born in Sunmer 
County, Tenn., in October, 1779. Removing to 
Kentucky, he was there married, and by his first 
union had five children: Matthew, Franklin, Ma- 
rion, Jack and Jane. In the fall of 1816, Mr. 
Roper emigrated to Illinois with pack mules and 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



325 



horses and located near Carlyle, where he spent 
about three years. He then went to Mississippi, 
but finally returned to Illinois and settled on sec- 
tion 33, Centralia Township, Marion County. Two 
3'ears later, however, he sold that farm and pur- 
chased six hundred and forty acres of land on sec- 
tion 9, Grand Prairie Township. His death oc- 
curred January 1, 1854, and his wife died in 1859. 
They were held in high esteem for their many ex- 
cellencies of character by all who knew them. 

Mrs. Moore came to Illinois with her step-father 
in 1826, and remained in his home until her mar- 
riage. On 'the 30th of December, 1832, she be- 
came the wife of William Moore, and for about six 
years they lived in Centralia Township, Marion 
County. In 1838 they located on section 15, 
Grand Prairie Township, where Mr. Moore pur- 
chased three hundred and forty acres of land. 
Cultivation and improvement have made it one of 
the valuable farms of the neighborhood. A hand- 
some residence was erected, large barns built, and 
all the accessories and conveniences of a model 
farm were added. All this was not accomplished 
however without much hard work, and while Mr. 
Moore labored in the fields, his wife sat at the spin- 
ning-wheel, and all the clothing for herself and 
family was spun and woven by her hands. The 
husband went to St. Louis about four times a year 
with the farm produce, exchanging it for groceries, 
boots and shoes. lie had to drive to Belleville, a 
distance of sixty miles, for all the flour used. The 
family bore all the experiences and hardships of 
frontier life, but yet those days were- not unmixed 
with happiness, and many pleasant memories clus- 
ter about them. 

Unto Mr. and Mrs. Moore were born ten chil- 
dren, but five are now deceased, namely: Andrew 
J., Job, Melinda, Sarah and Elizabeth. Those liv- 
ing are, Zadoc, who married Nancy Beadles and 
resides in Bond County, 111.; Melvina, wife of 
James Bateman, of Bond County; Isaac, who mar- 
ried Josephine Adams and resides in Farina; Har- 
vey, who wedded Lulu Perry and is living on the 
old homestead; and Margaret, wife of Jackson 
Robinette, who is living near Kinmundy. 

Mr. Moore passed away July 2, 1873, and the 
honored pioneer, whose life was so well worthy of 



emulation, was deeply mourned by many friends. 
Mrs. Moore has been a member of the Methodist 
Church for sixty years. She has now reached the 
age of eighty-two, but is still well preserved and 
is a very interesting talker. She is indeed one of 
the honored pioneers of the county, for she has 
witnessed almost its entire growth and develop- 
ment, and the history of its frontier life is familiar 
to her. 



GGALE GILBERT, a prominent young at- 
torney of Mt. Vernon, who is rapidly win- 
ning his way to the front ranks of th legal 
profession in this locality, was born eight miles 
from the city, November 27, 1867. His father, 
Jatnes Eli Gilbert, was also a native of Jefferson 
County, the Gilberts being among its earliest set- 
tlers. The great-grandfather, Eli Gilbert, and the 
grandfather, Philo Gilbert, were both natives of 
Ohio. The latter is now living a retired life in 
Mt. Vernon, but the father of our subject died 
some years ago. The members of the family usually 
followed farming and became well-to-do. They 
were also numbered among the highly respected 
citizens of the community. James Eli Gilbert was 
at one time a candidate for County Treasurer of 
Jefferson County on the Republican ticket, but as 
the county is strongly Democratic, he failed to 
win the election. 

Our subject acquired his early education in the 
public and high schools of Mt. Vernon, and com- 
pleted it at the Southern Illinois College at Carbon- 
dale, after which he embarked in teaching, which 
profession he followed for four terms. He read law 
with the Hon. Norman II. Moss, of Mt. Vernon, 
preparatory to entering the legal profession, and 
was admitted to the Bar May 7, 1891. He then 
continued with Mr. Moss until June 1, 1893, when 
he started out on his own responsibility, *nd it is 
but just to say that he is rapidly winning his way 
to the front. 

Mr. Gilbert is a very prominent member of the 
Knights of Pythias fraternity and is the present 
Chancellor-Commander of his lodge in Mt. Ver- 



326 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



non. On April 3, 1894, our subject married Cath- 
erine Irvin Harman, a native of Illinois, and the 
daughter of the late John Q. Harman. He is a 
young man of more than average intelligence and 
ability, and drawing our conclusions from the past, 
we predict for him a successful and brilliant fu- 
ture. 



HAM, the popular and well known 
cashier of the Ml. Vernon Bank, ranks 
among the representative citizens of this 
place, being very prominent in business circles. 
He was born on a farm eight miles southeast of 
Mt. Vernon, September 10, 1838, and is a son of 
James Ham, a native of Virginia, who came to Illi- 
nois with his father, Moses Ham, when he was only 
a child, being among the early pioneers of Jeffer- 
son County. The family is of English origin, and 
at a very early day in the history of this country 
was founded in Virginia. Its members were mostly 
farmers. Moses Ham was quite a prominent citi- 
zen of Jefferson County, and held a number of 
offices, including that of Associate Judge. 

James Ham was a soldier in the Black Hawk 
War and died in 1848. He had several brothers 
but all are now deceased, and we know but little 
of their history. The mother of our subject was 
in her maidenhood Frances T. Criesel. She was 
born in Hamilton County, 111., where her father, 
Henry Criesel, was a pioneer settler. He was a 
great hunter and in that way mainly earned his 
livelihood. The family was of German origin. 
After the death of her first husband Mrs. Ham be- 
came the wife of Jeremiah Taylor, now one of the 
wealthiest citizens of Mt. Vernon, and a large 
stockholder in the bank of which our subject is 
cashier. Mrs. Taylor died in 1888. She had two 
sons by her first marriage, the younger being Or- 
lando, a prominent farmer of Jefferson County, 
who has held several local offices, including those 
of Township Collector and Supervisor. In the 
usual manner of farmer lads C. D. Ham spent the 
days of his boyhood and youth, and after attend- 
ing the common schools entered the Cincinnati 



(Ohio) Commercial College, from which he was 
graduated. Later he was graduated from the Cin- 
cinnati Law School and was admitted to the Bar, 
but has never practiced since to any great extent. 
He was for ten years engaged in merchandising 
and at the same time was interested with his step- 
father in a flouring mill and a woolen mill. In 
1872 he helped to organize the Mt. Vernon Na- 
tional Bank and was elected its cashier. This 
bank gave up its charter in 1886 and was super- 
ceded by the banking house of C. D. Ham & Co., 
which has since carried on business under the 
name of the Mt. Vernon Bank. In -it Mr. Ham 
has filled the same position, and the success of the 
institution is largely due to his able management, 
his foresight and progressive, yet conservative, 
policy. 

In 1865 was celebrated the marriage of Mr. 
Ham and Miss Anna Grant, of Mt. Vernon, the 
cultured and accomplished daughter of the late 
Judge A. M. Grant, a native of Kentucky and a 
pioneer settler of Jefferson County. Her mother, 
Mrs. Martha Grant, was a sister of Lieut.-Gov. 
S. A. Anderson, and an aunt of Gen. William B. 
Anderson, ex-Member of Congress, who at this 
writing is serving as United States Pension Agent 
at Chicago. To Mr. and Mrs. Ham have been 
born four children: Martha; Sidney B., who is em- 
ployed in his father's bank; Bernadine Frances 
and Grant Taylor. 

Socially, Mr. Ham is a Royal Arch Mason and 
was Secretary of the blue lodge, but his business 
cares have so occupied his time of late years that 
he has given little attention to the fraternity. He 
has held several local offices was Township Collec- 
tor for three terms, served as Township Clerk, was 
Alderman for three terms, was a member of the 
Board of Education for twelve years, and during 
the greater part of that time was its President. 
He served as Deputy County Treasurer, and in 
the year 1875 was elected Treasurer of Jeffer- 
son Count}' for one term. lie has ever discharged 
his duties with promptness and fidelity, and has 
therefore won the high commendation of all 
concerned. He has ever been a warm advocate 
of Republican principles, and served as a delegate 
to the national convention when R. B. Hayes was 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



329 



nominated for the Presidency. He, however, was 
a strong Blaiue man. Other business interests 
have occupied his attention, he being interested in 
the Mt. Vernon Roller Mills and in the Jefferson 
Count}' Fair Association. He was the first secretary 
of the Mt. Vernon Water Works, and is now Presi- 
dent and one of its stockholders. 



jJLLIAM M. CASEY is a retired farmer of 
Centralia, and one of the honored early 
settlers and prominent citizens of Marion 
County. The name of Casey is inseparably con- 
nected with the history of this community, and 
like the other members of the family our subject 
has borne a part in the work of development and 
advancement in this section of the state. 

Mr. Casey was born in Jefferson County, 111., 
December 15, 1825. His grandfather, Isaac Casey, 
was born in North Carolina April 5, 1770, and 
was a son of Randolph Casey, a native of the same 
state. His brothers were Abraham, Samuel, Ran- 
dolph and Zadock. The last-named served as 
Lieutenant-Governor and as Governor of Illinois, 
and for many years was a Member of Congress. 
He was also a pioneer Methodist minister. The 
family is of Irish descent. Isaac, Samuel, Abraham 
and Xadock emigrated from North Carolina to 
Tennessee, and in 1818 Isaac and Zadock came to 
Jefferson County, 111. The former married Eliza- 
beth Mackey, who was born in the shadow of the 
Cumberland Mountains in Tennessee, and on com- 
ing to Illinois, he located two miles from Mt. Ver- 
non, where he entered large tracts of land from the 
Government. He had his grandson make a sec- 
tional map of the county, and was well posted on 
all matters pertaining to the welfare of the people. 
Throughout his life Isaac Casey followed farming 
and became quite wealthy. His children were Re- 
becca, wife of Isaac Hicks, a farmer of Jefferson 
County; William, who followed farming, but is 
now deceased; Polly, wife of Clark Casey; Rev. 
Abraham, who was a pioneer Methodist minister 



and circuit rider; Thomas M., who was a local 
Methodist preacher; Brunette, wife of Dr. Carter 
Wilkie; Catherine, wife of Henry Tyler, a farmer 
of Jefferson County, and the only surviving mem- 
ber of the family ; and Miranda M., wife of George 
Bullock, who for many years was a tanner of Jef- 
ferson County. The father of this family, Isaac 
Casey, died October 17, 1851, in the faith of the 
Methodist Church. His word was taken as authori- 
ty on all matters pertaining to the history of that 
community. After the death of his first wife he 
married Jemima Ord. Governor Casey was a 
soldier in the Black Hawk War, and his son Tom 
served as Colonel of the One Hundred and Tenth 
Illinois Infantry during the Civil War. 

Rev. Thomas Casey, father of our subject, was 
born in Barren County, Ky., March 12, 1801, and 
in 1818 became a resident of Jefferson County, 
111. He there married Harriet Maxey, whose 
brother, Birchet Maxey, built the first house in Mt. 
Vernon. She was born in Sunnier County, Tcnn., 
in 1801, and they were married October '5, 1819. 
In fact, there was a triple wedding, which made 
the occasion one of more than ordinary interest. 
The other couples were Abraham T. Casey and 
Vilinda Maxey, and Bennett N. Maxey and Sallie 
Overbey, the six participants standing at the altar 
at the same time. 

After his marriage, Rev. Mr. Casey began the 
development of a farm. His home was a little log 
cabin in the midst of an undeveloped tract of 
land. Deer could easily be shot and bears were 
frequently killed in the neighborhood. He enter- 
ed about two hundred and fifty acres of land from 
the Government, and bore all the hardships and 
trials of pioneer life while performing the arduous 
task of opening up a farm. He and his wife 
joined the Methodist Church in 1819, and he at 
once was made a Class-leader and soon became a 
local preacher. He was untiring in church work 
and the cause was greatly advanced by his earnest 
efforts. He gave the ground on which Pleasant 
Grove Church was built, aided in the erection of 
the house of worship, and when it was destroyed by 
fire, helped to build the brick structure now in use. 
The poor and needy found in him a friend, and 
his neighbors a wise counselor. He passed from 



330 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



this earthly life October 4, 1868, and was buried 
at Pleasant Grove. His wife, who shared with 
him in all religious work, and was a faithful mem- 
ber of the Methodist Church for fifty-seven years, 
died March 15, 1877. 

In the parental family of eleven children, ten 
grew to mature years, while four sons and two 
daughters are yet living. C. M., now residing on 
the old homestead, was a soldier of the late war; 
Malyntha Jane died March 20, 1877, at the age 
of fifty-four; Cynthia E. is the wife of Harvey 
Gaston, a pioneer of Jefferson County; Parmelia 
Caroline, who lives in McPherson Kan., is the wife 
of Capt. B. T. Woods, a veteran of the Civil War; 
Rebecca V. was the wife of Edward Wood; Mary 
Sophrona died at the age of twenty-two; Wesley 
Barger, of Mt. Vernon, was a cavalryman during 
the late war and re-enlisted as Adjutant of the 
Eighty-third Illinois Infantry. Nancy Robinson 
died at the age of twenty-four; Abraham T., who 
served as aid-de-camp on the staff of General Payne 
during the late war, is now a lawyer of Lamed, 
Kan., and has served as State's Attorney; Rhoda 
married John Henry Dukes, who was a Lieutenant 
in the Union army. 

William M. Casey was reared on the old home- 
stead and was educated in a log schoolhouse with a 
puncheon floor, slab seats and greased paper win- 
dows. The history of pioneer life is familiar to 
him, not from hearsay, but from experience. March 
9, 1852, he married Miss Julia E., daughter of 
Dempsey Kennedy, a native of Tennessee, who 
later became a pioneer and a prominent farmer 
of Washington County, 111. Mrs. Casey was born 
in Washington County August 22, 1831, and 
died January 4, 1866. She had three children, 
two yet living. Dempsey is a painter and deco- 
rator of Centralia; Lillie C., a graduate of the 
Northwestern University at Evanslon, 111., was 
married in 1880, at the home of our subject, to 
Rev. J. T. Musgrove, also a graduate of the North- 
western University, and at present Dean of the 
University of Colorado, a Methodist school in 
Denver. Mary Harriet died October 18, 1875, at 
the age of seventeen. 

After his marriage, Mr. Casey located in Jeffer- 
son, and four years later removed to Washington 



County, where for ten years he owned and operat- 
ed a farm of two hundred and forty acres. He 
then sold the property and came to Centralia, 
where he has since lived in retirement from active 
labor. He was married April 28, 1872, to Mrs. 
Alice Hill, daughter of Thomas Ainswortli, a 
native of England, and the son of Thomas and 
Sarah (Townley) Ainsworth. He was born Janu- 
ary 30, 1814, and in early life worked in a cotton 
factory, but after coming to America engaged in 
farming. Locating in Mason County, 111., in 1842, 
he purchased six hundred acres of land and after- 
ward became the owner of fifteen hundred acres in 
Iroquois County. At present he makes his home 
in Chandlersville, Cass County, 111., and though 
now (1894) eighty years old, he is still one of the 
most prominent men in this community. 

In 1837, Mr. Ainsworth married Maria Abbott, 
who was born in Lincolnshire, England, in 1814. 
They became the parents of ten children, seven of 
whom are yet living, namely: Nancy, wife of 
August Wait, a merchant of Decatur,!!!.; William 
Henry, a merchant of Roodhouse, III.; Alice, wife 
of William Casey; Thomas T., of Chan dlersvi lie; 
Sarah E., wife of George Ransom, of Havana, 111.; 
Mary A., wife of Thomas Say, a painter of Chand- 
lersville; and Joseph, who operates the old home- 
stead. In religious belief Mr. Ainsworth and his 
wife belong to the Congregational Church. He is 
a stockholder in the Valley National Bank of St 
Louis. Mrs. Casey, who was the fifth child, was 
born July 16, 1847. She first married William 
Hill, who died ten months after their wedding. 

Mr. Casey has been a member of the Methodist 
Church since the age of nine years, and his wife 
since twelve years old. He has been numbered 
among its officers for thirty-eight years, and has 
ever been prominent in its work. He cast his first 
Presidential vote for Zachary Taylor, and was a 
Whig until 1856, since which time he has been a 
stanch Republican. For ten years he served as 
Township Treasurer of Washington, but has never 
been an office seeker. He is now practically liv- 
ing retired, but is still a Director of the Old 
National Bank, Centralia Mining and Manufactur- 
ing Company, and the Centralia Fair Association. 
He is a worthy representative of one of the promi- 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



331 



nent families of the state, and his honorable, up- 
right life gives him a leading place among the best 
citizens of the community. 



JOE S. HOBBS. The subject of this sketch 
is the senior member of the firm of Joe S. 
Hobbs & Son, real-estate and insurance agents 
in Centralia. His birth occurred October 9, 
1832, in Wabash County, this state, while his fa- 
ther, A. L. Hobbs, was a native of Kentucky, where 
he was reared to man's estate. In early life he came 
to this state, where he was one of the pioneers of 
Mt. Carmel and a well-to-do merchant. 

The mother of our subject prior to her marriage 
was known as Miss Mary Coleman. She was the 
daughter of Isaac Coleman, also an early resident 
of Mt. Carmel, where he was engaged in the mill- 
ing business. Jeremiah Coleman, the maternal 
uncle of our subject, served as a soldier through 
the entire period of the Black Hawk War. 

In 1839, A. L. Hobbs removed to Mt. Sterling 
111., where he conducted a store, and resided until 
his decease, which occurred in 1850. The paren- 
tal family numbered six children, all of whom grew 
to mature years, and five are yet living. Mrs. A. 
L. Hobbs has reached the age of eighty-live years, 
and makes her home with her daughter, Mrs. 
Brown, in Hutehinson, Kan. 

Joe S. Hobbs grew to manhood in Mt. Sterling, 
this state, where he was educated in the public 
schools. In 1855 he came to Centralia and began 
clerking in the postoffice under Postmaster J. A. 
O'Melveny. After three years thus occupied, 
young Hobbs started out as traveling salesman. In 
1864 he returned to Centralia and established an 
insurance busines 
that branch of trade 
grocery in company 
with whom he remaii 
divided the stock, ou subject taking as his share 
the crockery departm nt, and continuing to deal in 
that line of goods for the succeeding eleven years. 
Shortly after opening up his fine crockery store, 
Mr. Ilobbs combined with the business that of 



wo years later he abandoned 

nd engaged in running a 

th his brother, K. I). Hobbs, 

for three years, when they 



local insurance, loans and collections, which he 
found to be very profitable, and in 1880 sold out 
his stock of china and put in a large assortment of 
dry goods. This he carried on for eight years, 
when, his insurance business having reached such 
proportions as to demand more of his time, he dis- 
posed of his mercantile interests, and since that 
date has given his undivided attention to real 
estate, etc. He represents the following insurance 
companies: Westchester, of New York; North- 
western, of Milwaukee; the Delaware, of Philadel- 
phia; Security, of Connecticut; and Hockford, of 
Rockford, 111., besides several life and accident 
companies. 

Joe S. Hobbs was married June 4, 1868, to Mrs. 
Mary A. (Bishop) Clark, the daughter of George 
Bishop, and the widow of John Clark. Their 
union was blessed by the birth of one child, a son, 
Amos A., who is engaged in business with his 
father. 

In politics, Mr. Ilobbs is a strong Republican, 
and is a prominent Mason, having attained to the 
degree of Knight Templar. He is one of the old- 
est members of that order in Centralia, and for 
the past eleven years has been Secretary of the blue 
lodge, chapter and council, and for two years was 
Recorder of the commandery. With his wife, he 
is a devoted member of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, and has aided very materially in further- 
ing the good work in Centralia. Mr. Ilobbs is one 
of the corporators and is Vice-President of the. 
Ceutralia Building <fe Loan Association, of which 
he is also a Director. 

AVID O. AND JAMES E. BATCIIELOR, 
the well known editors and proprietors of 
the Salem Herald-Advocate, one of the 
leading Democratic papers of the county, 
are progressive and public-spirited citizens, and 
are exercising a marked influence on the affairs of 
their community. 

David O., the elder of the above firm, was born 
October 3, 1865, in Johnson County, Ind. He is 
the son of Henry Batchelor, a native of Penns} 1 !- 



332 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



vania, where his birth occurred in 1821. He was 
a cooper by trade, and when establishing a home 
of his own was married to the mother of our 
subject, who bore the maiden name of Mary Gray. 
Mrs. Batchelor was born in 1826,. in Edinburgh, 
Scotland, and emigrated to the United States in 
company with her parents. After her marriage 
she removed with her husband to Lawrence Coun- 
ty, Ind.; thence later to Franklin City, Johnson 
County, where they passed the remainder of their 
lives, the mother dying in 1876, and the father 
living until 1880. 

The parental family of our subjects included 
nine children, all of whom arc living witli one ex- 
ception. They are: Ella E., George T., William; 
Catherine, now Mrs. Martin White; Alice, now 
Mrs. Galbraith; David O. and James E., of this 
sketch, and Frank E. Henry Batchelor was active 
in all public affairs of his community, and in poli- 
tics always voted the straight Republican ticket. 

David O. Batchelor received his primary educa- 
tion in the common schools of Franklin County, 
and later completed his studies in the Central 
Normal College at Danville, Ind. Being thus ad- 
mirably qualified to teach school, he followed that 
occupation -for one year in Shelby County and 
four j - ears in Johnson County. At the expiration 
of that time, David entered the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road office in Edinburgh, Ind., in the capacity of 
clerk, which position he held for only a year, it 
being his intention to become a printer and pub- 
lisher. With this end in view he went to Frank- 
lin, in the above state, and for some time worked 
in the office of the Franklin Democrat, and later 
became local editor in the office of the Franklin 
Republican. October 19, 1891, he came to Salem, 
and purchasing the Herald- Advocate from its pro- 
prietors, Merritt & Pyles, he, in compan3 r with his 
brother James E., has since been successfully en- 
gaged in its publication. 

October 14, 1891, David O. Batchelor and Miss 
Hattie Mann were united in marriage. The lady 
was born June 30, 1868, in Shelby County, Ind., 
and was given a fine education in the schools of 
her native county. By her union with Mr. Batch- 
elor she has become the mother of one child, Orren 
B., who was born July 21, 1892. Mrs. Batchelor 



is a member of the Baptist Church and is an ex- 
emplary and devout Christian. Her husband is a 
strong Democrat in politics, and socially is promi- 
nently connected with the Knights of Pythias. 

James E. Batchelor, junior member of the firm of 
Batchelor Bros., was born March 14, 1868, in John- 
son County, Ind., and received his education in 
the city schools of Franklin. June 9, 1884, he en- 
tered the office of the Franklin Democrat, where he 
learned the " art preservative," and where he re- 
mained until January 19, 1892, when he came to 
Salem and joined his brother in the publication of 
their present paper. 

The lady to whom James E. was married, Sep- 
tember 30, 1890,_ was Miss Estella Newton, also 
born in Johnson County. Ind., and the daughter 
of James and Minerva Newton. In religious mat- 
ters Mr. Batchelor is a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, while his good wife worships 
with the Baptist congregation in Salem. 

EV. F. C. KRUEGER, pastor of the German 
Evangelical Church at Centralia, was born 
in the Fatherland, December 31, 1855, and 
is thus in the prime of a stalwart manhood. 
He has devoted the last fifteen years of his life to 
the salvation of others, and in his chosen field has 
been greatly prospered. In all things he proves 
that his desire is not "to be seen of men," or win 
their approbation, but to earn the consciousness of 
discharging the ordinary duties of life in an up- 
right manner. 

Frank and Augusta (Schiemann) Krueger, the 
parents of our subject, were likewise natives of 
Germany, where the former was a well-to-do mer- 
chant. He is now deceased, but the mother is still 
living and has attained the age of seventy-six 
years. She reared a family of six children, and 
besides our subject, has another son, Herman, who 
is also a minister, having a charge at Steinauer, 
Neb. The remainder of the family make their 
home in the Old Country. 

The Rev. F. C., of this sketch, received his early 
literary training in the gymnasium of his native 
city, and later attended the theological depart- 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



333 



ment of the University of Berlin, where he was 
graduated in 1880. Then, desirous of seeing some- 
thing of the New World, he came to America in 
1881, and making his way directly to St. Louis, 
Mo., was there ordained to preach in the German 
Evangelical Church on the 26th of June, that 
year. From the Mound City he went to Humboldt, 
Neb., and after preaching there for two years, re- 
moved to Creston, Iowa, which charge he held for 
the succeeding six years. 

In February, 1889, the Rev. Mr.Krueger came to 
Centralia and accepted the position of pastor of 
the church in this city, where, by his well balanced 
and well stored mind he lias become very popular 
among his parishioners. Mr. Krueger was married 
September 25, 1883, to Miss Lena Nestel. She 
died two years later, and November 15, 1893, our 
subject chose as his second companion Miss Ther- 
esa, daughter of Henry Kurth, see sketch. Mrs. 
Krueger, who was born, reared and educated in 
Centralia, aids her husband greatly in carrying on 
the good work in the city. 

The church over which Mr. Krueger presides 
was organized in 1860. It is now in a very flour- 
ishing condition, and has a large and interesting 
Sunday-school, whose present Superintendent is 
Jacob Kohl. Their new church building was erected 
in 1888, and the old structure is used for the Sun- 
day-school. Not only is Mr. Krueger highly es- 
teemed by those of his own church, but his name 
is the synonym for integrity and probity wherever 
known. In politics he is a Republican. 



JOHN A. WALL, ex-Postmaster of Mt. Ver- 
non and one of the highly respected citi- 
zens of Jefferson County, was born in Saline 
County, 111., September 12, 1836, and is a 
son of Charles Wall, a native of Tennessee. The 
grandfather, Henry Wall, was a native of Virginia, 
and served as a soldier in the War of 1812. The 
father died in Bond County, 111., in 1854, and the 
mother of our subject passed away in Saline Coun- 



ty in 1891. She bore the maiden name of Pris- 
cilla Haskins and was a native of Kentucky. 

The subject of this record is the only surviving 
member of a family of six children, the others 
having died when young. In 1842, when six 
years of age, he came to Mt. Vernon, and in 1851 
he began earning his own livelihood by work at 
the printer's trade in the office of the Jeffersonian. 
In 1856, when twenty years of age, he established 
the Sentinel of Mt. Vernon, and was engaged in 
the newspaper business from that time on until 
the breaking out of the Civil War. In August, 
1861, he enlisted in Company I, Forty-fourth Illi- 
nois Infantry; was made Orderly-Sergeant, and 
under Generals Fremont and Sigel took part in 
the Missouri campaign. After participating in 
the battle of Pea Ridge, Ark., he joined the Army 
of the Tennessee, and later was in the Army of 
the Cumberland. He took part in the battles of 
Perryville and Stone River, and in the latter was 
wounded in the left shoulder. He was captured and 
tin-own into Libby Prison, where he was held for 
four months. He was then parolled and soon 
afterward came home. 

In February, 1859, Mr. Wall was united in mar- 
riage with Miss Millie Watson, sister of Capt. S. II. 
Watson, and to them were born four children, two 
sons and two daughters: Angus Grant, who is the 
telegraphic editor of the Evening Telegraph of 
Springfield, 111.; Albert, who is foreman on the 
Palladium of Pana, 111.; Emma, the wife of John 
Belleville, a railroad man living in Princeton, 
Ind.; and Bessie, at home. 

On his return from the war, Mr. Wall established 
the Unconditional Unionist, which paper he pub- 
lished until 1866. He was thence engaged in the 
newspaper business in Salem until 1867, when he 
was elected Doorkeeper of the House of Repre- 
sentatives, serving two years. lie was then made 
Sergeant-at-Arms of the, Senate, and filled that 
position one term, after which he resumed news- 
paper work in Pinckneyville, 111. Later he was 
connected with papers in Carbondale, Belleville, 
Marion and Benton, and then returned to Mt. 
Vernon. In 1889 he was appointed Postmaster of 
this place, which position he filled for nearly five 
years, with credit to himself and satisfaction to 



334 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



liis constituents. He holds membership with the 
Grand Army post of Mt. Vernon, of which he is 
now serving as Commander, and he is also a mem- 
ber of the Odd Fellows' society. He is a member 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and has been 
Superintendent of several Sunday-schools. He 
takes an active interest in church and benevolent 
work, and is a loyal and progressive citizen, who 
ever befriends the best interests of the community 
in which he makes his home. 



\f? ORENZO DOW MOREY, a retired farmer 
I (?) of Centralia, claims Pennsylvania as the 
,1LJ^ state of his nativity. He was born in Erie 
County, January 30, 1822, and is a son of Moses 
Morey, a native of Vermont, in which state the 
grandfather, Charles Morey, was also born. He 
served in the Revolutionary War, and the father 
served in the War of 1812. The family was of 
English origin, and in early Colonial days was es- 
tablished in the Green Mountain State. The 
grandfather was a cooper by trade. He removed 
with his family to Erie County, Pa., where Moses 
Morey wedded Sallie Aubery, daughter of Fred- 
erick Aubery, who studied medicine in France 
and then emigrated to America. He was for many 
years a practicing physician of Erie County. His 
daughter was a native of Vermont. 

After their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Morey located 
in Pennsylvania, where he followed farming and 
blacksmithing. In 1838 he removed with his fam- 
ily to Vandalia, 111., and entered one hundred and 
sixty acres of land from the Government, from 
which. he developed a fine farm. About 1871 he 
took up his residence in Vandalia, where his death 
occurred in 1873. His wife died on the old home- 
stead in the fall of 1865. He was a successful 
farmer and honored pioneer, and served as Justice 
of the Peace and School Treasurer for several 
years. Both he and his wife belonged to the 
Christian Church. Their family numbered eight 
children, four of whom are yet living; Obediah 
E., a machinist of St. Louis; Alvin, of Colorado; 
Hannah D., wife of Isaac Slusser, a hotel keeper 



of Greeley, Colo.; and Lorenzo D. Those de- 
ceased are: O. T., who died in Pennsylvania at the 
age of seventeen; Alonzo, twin brother of our 
subject, who died in Fa} f ette County, 111., at the 
age of seventeen; Dr. Frederick, a prominent phy- 
sician of Vandalia, who died at the age of fifty, 
and Austin F., a merchant of Vandalia, who died 
at the age of forty. Alvin served as a member of 
Company A, Eleventh Illinois Infantry, during the 
late war. In politics the father was first a Whig 
and afterward a Republican. 

Lorenzo D. Morey was a youtk of sixteen when 
he came with the family to Illinois. His educa- 
tion was acquired in his native state and in Fay- 
ette County. He lived at home until his mar- 
riage, which was celebrated December 10, 1846, 
Paulina B. Lee becoming his wife. Her father, 
Newland R. Lee, was a native of Onondaga 
County, N. Y., and when a young man came to 
Illinois. After some time spent in the southern 
part of the state he bought land in Fayette Coun- 
ty. He married Polly, daughter of Isaac Jewctt, 
who was also born in Onondaga County, N. Y., 
and was one of the early settlers of Scott County, 
111. Mrs. Morey was born in Scott County, Octo- 
ber 7, 1827. After their marriage they located on 
a farm in Otego Township, Fayette County, 111., 
where our subject owned eighty acres of prairie 
land and forty acres of timber land, which he trans- 
formed into rich and fertile fields. He there carried 
on general farming and stock-raising until 1886, 
when he came to Centralia, where he has since 
lived retired. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Morey were born three chil- 
dren: Chester D., of Dallas, Tex., who is traveling 
for a tobacco company; Leva L., wife of Dr. D. W. 
Richardson, of Centralia; and C. L., a dentist of 
this city (see sketch). The parents are both mem- 
bers of the Christian Church, in which Mr. Morey 
is serving as Elder. He has been connected with 
the church for a half-century and has been a very 
active worker in its interest. In politics he is a 
stalwart Republican and has held a number of 
local offices. He has traveled from the eastern to 
the western shores of this country, for he was 
reared in the east, and in 1849 crossed the plains 
with an ox-team to California. He was accom- 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



335 



panied by his wife's uncle, who died of cholera 
while on the way. It took six months to make 
the journey, but after reaching his destination Mr. 
Morey was for some time successfully engaged in 
gold mining. He afterward kept a hotel and en- 
gaged in the butchering business. The return 
trip was made by way of San Francisco and the 
ocean route, across Central America and then 
to New Orleans, whence he came up the Missis- 
sippi. Mr. Morey is now spending his declining 
years in the enjoyment of a well earned rest, sur- 
rounded by the comforts of life, which he has se- 
cured with a competence gained by former toil. 



) OBERT F. PACE, one of the publishers and 
proprietors of the Mt. Vernon Daily and 
Weekly News, was born in Jeffeison Coun- 
!ty, 111., August 3, 1845, and is the son of 
John H. and Louisa M. (Guthrie) Pace. It is 
worthy of note that the house in which his eyes 
first opened to the light was also the birthplace of 
his father and the homestead of his grandfather. 
The latter, John M. Pace, who was born in Vir-' 
ginia in 1792, came to Illinois in an early day and 
engaged in farming in Jefferson County, where he 
continued to reside until his death, in 1846. The 
Pace family is of English origin, and was repre- 
sented in this country in Colonial times. 

John II. Pace was born June 30, 1826, and was 
reared upon the home farm, receiving his prelimi- 
nary education in the common schools. The knowl- 
edge there acquired was supplemented by an aca- 
demic course at Mt. Vernon. At the age of sixteen 
he entered upon the profession of a school teacher, 
in which he continued until about 1862. At that 
time he embarked in the mercantile business, in 
which he continued until his death, August 15, 
1873. For nine years he served as Superintendent 
of the public schools, and also filled the position 
of Justice of the Peace for several years. In poli- 
tics he was a Democrat, in social connections a 
Mason, and in religion a Methodist. He was a 
man of positive character, quite active in all pub- 



lic matters, and was highly respected by the people. 

Unto the parents of our subject were born four 
children, viz.: Robert F., the subjectof this sketch; 
Sarah M., who died at the age of fifteen years; 
Willis A., who passed away when a youth of eigh- 
teen; and Cora A., who was married to William D. 
Tabb and is now deceased. The mother was born 
in Brown County, Ohio, and in 1842 came to Illi- 
nois with her parents, who were farmers. Mrs. 
Louisa M. Pace died in December of 1862, and 
our subject's father afterward married Rachel J. 
Creasey, their union resulting in the birth of one 
child, Mary A., now the wife of William M. Man- * 
uing, of Mt. Vernon. 

The subject of this sketch was reared on the old 
homestead, and attended school prior to the age 
of sixteen years, after which he assisted his father 
in the store for about four years. Later he en- 
gaged in various pursuits. In February, 1886. he 
received from President Cleveland the appoint- 
ment of Postmaster at Mt. Vernon, and held that 
position until October 1, 1889, when his successor 
was appointed. In 1890 he went to San Antonio, 
Tex., and engaged in merchandising for a year. 
Returning to Mt. Vernon in June, 1892, he pur- 
chased from John W. Grear a half-interest in the 
News, which he still holds, the other half being 
owned by John J. Baker. The News is the out- 
growth of the old Jejfersonian, which was estab- 
lished in 1854 by John S. Bogan. For a quarter 
of a century it has been conducted under the title 
of the News, and has a large circulation. It is in 
a prosperous condition and is one of the successful 
and influential papers of this section of the state. 

AtMt. Vernon, 111., June 25, 1873, Mr. Pace 
was united in marriage with Miss Mary V. Strat- 
ton, who died September 28, 1887. Her parents, 
8. T. and Isabel J. Stratton, were natives of Ohio, 
and came to Illinois in 1857, settling in Mt. Ver- 
non. Mr. Stratton, who is now (1894) seventy 
years of age, is still actively engaged in the mer- 
cantile business at Mt. Vernon and is one of the 
prominent and well known old settlers of that 
city; his wife died in 1880. Mrs. Pace was a lady 
of estimable and noble character, and was beloved 
by all who knew her. Socially, our subject is 
identified with Mt. Vernon Lodge No. 31, A. F. & 



336 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



A. M.; the II. W. Ilubbard Chapter No. 160, R. A. 
M., and the Knights Templar, Tancred Command- 
ery, No. 50, of Belleville, 111. In politics he is a 
supporter of Democratic principles, and perhaps 
no citizen of the county is better informed con- 
cerning party issues than is he. He advocates 
every measure having for its object the promotion 
of the best interests of the city or the welfare of 
the people. In religious belief he is identified 
with the Methodist Episcopal Church. 



iJLLIAM CORNERS, Ju., an extensive and 
prosperous fruit-grower of Grand Prairie 
Township, Jefferson County, now living 
on section 3, was born in Yorkshire, England, on 
the 25th of August, 1819, and is a son of William 
Corners, Sr., who was born in Richmond, Yorkshire, 
where he made his home until his death. He was 
an agriculturist, and for several 3'ears served as 
Master of the Poor Farm. He also filled the oflice 
of Constable for several years. He married Miss 
Elizabeth Jaques, and to them were born twelve 
children. Elizabeth became the wife of James 
Terry in P^ngland, and with her husband emi- 
grated to America; Ann married Robert Oughten, 
a shoemaker, and remained in her native land; 
William is the next younger; Frank came to Amer- 
ica, and in New York City married Rebecca Drake; 
John is still living in England; Diana is the wife 
of William Warrington, of that country; Jane and 
George are still living in their native land; and 
the other members of the family are deceased. The 
father carried on farming on an extensive scale, 
and accumulated a handsome property. His life 
was well spent and he had the respect of all who 
knew him. Both he and his wife passed away in 
England. 

As soon as old enough, the subject of this sketch 
began work on his father's farm, and his educa- 
tion was acquired in night schools. In his twen- 
tieth year he and his brother Frank emigrated to 
America and located in New York, where he se- 
cured a position in a dairy, driving a milk wagon 
for five years. Possessed with an unconquerable 



desire to see his parents and his old home, he then 
returned to England on a visit of seven months, 
after which he again worked in New York City 
for about a year. There he became acquainted 
with and married Miss Letta, daughter of James 
Murray, a wagon manufacturer. The wedding 
was celebrated September 17, 1846, and the young 
couple then removed to Paterson, N. J., where 
Mr. Corners worked on a farm for about four 
j'cars. He then returned to New York and drove 
a fish and oyster wagon for a large firm of that 
city, receiving as compensation one-half of the 
profits. 

In 1853, Mr. Corners came to the west, locating 
in Chicago, where he secured a situation in a wood 
yard. He rapidly made friends, and soon after- 
ward was appointed on the police force, where he 
served witli credit to himself and satisfaction to 
his support, but the Illinois Central Railroad hav- 
ing been completed to Cairo in 1854, he thought 
he could do better in the southern part of the 
state and removed to Centralia, where lie worked 
in the railroad shops for four years. While thus 
employed he became acquainted with A. Van Ant- 
werp, who owned a farm on section 3, Grand Prai- 
rie Township, which land Mr. Corners rented, re- 
moving thither in the spring of 1861. For twen- 
ty-one years he there made his home, after which 
he purchased a tract of one hundred and sixty 
acres, and to this he has since added forty acres on 
section 3, and eighty acres on sections 1 1 and 14. 
He has twenty acres planted in apples, the same 
amount in peaches, and a large tract is devoted to 
the cultivation of strawberries. He is also en- 
gaged in dealing in stock, making a specialty of 
horses and mules. His business is well conducted, 
and as the result of his industry and enterprise it 
yields him a good income. He has built good 
barns and other outbuildings upon his farm and 
has also erected a substantial residence, in which 
he and his wife will probably spend their remain- 
ing days. 

To this worthy couple were born twelve chil- 
dren, but two died in early life. Vicelli is the wife 
of James Whitmore, of Nebraska; John married 
Sallie Buckney and is living in Auburn, Neb.; 
Frank wedded Etta Moore and makes his home 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



on section 3, Grand Prairie Township; Charlie II., 
who married Jennie Hartley, is living near Walnut 
Hill; William married Barbara Beadles and resides 
near Auburn, Neb.; George married Minnie Cop- 
]ile and is a farmer of Grand Prairie Township; 
lames married Ada Wells and is living in the 
same township; Albert wedded Charity Copplc 
and is an agriculturist of Grand Prairie Town- 
ship; Jule married Jesse Wright and is living in 
Auburn, Neb.; and Elizabeth is the wife of Ed- 
ward Wright, who makes his home near Auburn. 
Mr. Corners is a true-blue Republican and never 
fails to cast his ballot at the elections. He is a 
member of the Farmers' Protective Association, 
and served for several years as School Director. 
His career demonstrates what can be done by en- 
ergy and well directed efforts. lie started out in 
life a poor boy, but overcame the ditliculties and 
obstacles in his path, and has steadily worked his 
way upward to a position of affluence. He and 
his worthy wife are held in the highest regard by 
all. 



AVID COPPLE, deceased, was numbered 
among the honored pioneers of Marion 
County, having here located with his 
family in the autumn of 1832. He was 
born in Germany, and when quite young was 
brought to America by his parents, who located in 
North Carolina. They afterward removed to Clark 
County, Ind., where their last days were spent. In 
that county David Co'pple was reared, and when 
he had attained his majority, he was there united 
in marriage with Miss Lavina, daughter of John 
Huckleberry, who was also of German extraction. 
The mother of Mrs. Copple, however, was of Irish 
birth. 

Our subject and his wife located in Washing- 
ton County, Ind., about 1818, and fourteen years 
later came to Illinois, locating in Marion County, 
where he spent his remaining days. He was one 
of the valued and leading citizens of this commu- 
nity, and had the high regard of all with whom 



business or social relations brought him in contact. 
His family numbered twelve children, and with 
one exception all grew to mature years, namely: 
James, who lived in this neighborhood and died 
after having reared a large family. Elizabeth, 
who became the wife of Jacob Breeze, and died 
leaving a family; Angeline, wife of Henry Binga- 
man, a resident of Crete, Neb.; Eli, who is men- 
tioned later on; Christina, deceased wife of M. P. 
Hester; Samuel and Harvey, both of whom are now 
deceased; Edmund, a resident of Grand Prairie; 
Julia, wife of Marion Roper; David, who is located 
in Centralia, and Polly A., wife of David Roper, 
of Kansas. 

Eli Copple, who has resided in Marion County 
since the days of its early infancy, and for many 
years has been numbered among its successful 
farmers, was born in Washington County, Ind., 
June 8, 1820, and was a lad of only twelve sum- 
mers when he came with his parents to Marion 
County. They located on what was then known 
as the Seven Mile Prairie, and at one time our 
subject was acquainted with and knew the location 
of every settler residing upon the Prairie. He was 
reared amid the wild scenes of the frontier, and 
the history of pioneer life is familiar to him. 

In 1840 Mr. Copple was united in marriage with 
Miss Martha Flanagan, and they became the par- 
ents of the following children: Aiminda, wife of 
William Dolson, of Clinton County, and Loretta, 
wife of A. J. Hartley, of Jefferson County. After 
the death of his first wife, Mr. Copple married 
Sarah Dolson, whose father, Allen Dolson, was one 
of the earliest settlers of Marion County. By their 
union were bom seven children: Charles, of Ne- 
braska; Mary, wife of Joseph Baldridge, of Nance 
County, Neb.; Julia, wife of Harvey Baldridge, of 
Nance County, Neb.; Willis, who follows farming 
near the old homestead; Elmer, Robert, and Ada, 
wife of Sumner Kell, of this county. 

When Mr. Copplc started out in life for himself, 
he located upon the prairie, his father giving him 
a quarter-section of land, which he at once began 
to develop and improve. By enterprise, frugality 
and good management he has steadily worked his 
way upward, acquiring a handsome competence, 
and at one time owned two thousand acres of val- 



340 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



uable land, over half of which was in one body. 
He has usually carried on general farming, and his 
success has been well deserved. 

Mr. Copple was a member of the original Far- 
mers' Club, which was organized in Marion County 
at an early da}'. His first Presidential vote was 
cast for William Henry Harrison, and since the 
organization of the Republican party he has been 
one of its stanch supporters. He and his family 
are faithful members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. Their home is an elegant brick residence, 
which was erected in 1872, and at that time was 
far in advance of any in the county. Mr. Copple 
is one of the best known citizens of this commu- 
nity, as well as one of its most substantial resi- 
dents, and it is with pleasure that we present to 
our readers this record of his life. 



PRANK THOMAS. One totally unacquainted 
with the details of farm life, the value of 
different soils, or the modifying influence 
of forests, hills or prairies, can still judge of the 
worth of an estate and the capability of its 
proprietor at a glance. Fields wherein weeds fill 
every fence corner and lift their heads between 
the rows of grain, inadequate shelter for stock 
and crops, and a general air of disorder give con- 
ducive evidence that the land is illy managed. On 
the other hand, fields bearing bountiful harvests of 
grain, substantial buildings, improved machinery 
and neat fencing, give abundant indication of the 
thrift of the owner. 

The traveler passing the farm owned and occu- 
pied by Mr. Thomas and noting the air of prosper- 
ity everywhere visible will very naturally con- 
clude that the owner is a man of public spirit and 
enterprise. Such indeed is the case. His farm, 
while not one of the largest in the county of Clin- 
ton, is nevertheless finely improved and every 
acre is made to yield the very best results possible. 
The land lies in Meridian Township and comprises 
what is conceded to be one of the most valuable 
farms in the community. From the two hundred 



acres are gathered every year large harvests of 
grain, the property thus proving to be a source of 
a good revenue to the owner. 

In the biography of Adolph Thomas (our sub- 
ject's brother), presented elsewhere in this volume, 
will be found an extended mention of his parents, 
John B. and Josephine Thomas. Frank was born 
in St. Clair County, this state, December 15, 1844, 
and passed the years of boyhood and youth in a 
comparatively uneventful manner, alternating at- 
tendance at the common schools of St. Clair Coun- 
ty with work upon the home farm. Having been 
reared to the life of a farmer, it was natural upon 
choosing an occupation that he should select the 
one with which he was most familiar. At the age 
of twenty years, in partnership with his two broth- 
ers, he rented land in Clinton County and began 
tilling the soil and improving the farm. 

Twenty-six years have passed since Mr. Thomas 
came to Clinton County, and during that time he 
has worked his way upward from the proprietor of 
a rented farm to the owner of a valuable estate. 
Nor has his success been a material one only, but 
he lias also been successful in gaining the esteem 
and regard of those with whom business or social 
relations have brought him into contact. After 
having rented land for a few years he and a 
brother bought a piece of property, but shortly 
afterward he sold his interest in the place to his 
brother and purchased eighty acres in Meridian 
Township. Upon disposing of that place he pur- 
chased the two hundred acres where he has since 
engaged in agricultural pursuits. 

In 1871 Mr. Thomas was united in marriage 
with Miss Josephine, daughter of Nicholas and 
Dorothy Sheiger, and they became the parents of 
two children, Frank, Jr., and Mary. Mrs. Josephine 
Thomas died in 1877 and was buried in Centra- 
lia. The second marriage of Mr. Thomas occurred 
August 15, 1878, and united him with Miss Julia 
Schweitzer, an estimable lady, who was born in 
Wisconsin, being a daughter of John and Susan 
Schweitzer, natives of Germany. Of this marriage 
the following named children have been born: 
Joseph, Anna, John, George, Lena, Lulu and Peter. 

In their religious convictions Mr. and Mrs. 
Thomas are Catholics and are identified with the 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



341 



church of that denomination in Sandoval. Socially 
he afliliates with the Knights and Ladies of Honor 
at Centralia. In all progressive measures having 
for their ultimate or direct object the promotion of 
the best interests of his community, he is actively 
interested, and in various ways has aided in the 
progress of the township and county. While not 
a partisan in his political preference, lie believes 
in the platform and principles of the Democratic 
party, but is not an aspirant for official honors, 
preferring to give his attention unreservedly to 
his farming interests. 



JOHN W. LARIMER, a well known and in- 
fluential citizen of Salem, is engaged in the 
abstract and title business. He is a native 
of Marion County, having been born in 
Stevenson Township, May 14, 1852, to Smith and 
Sarah (Brown) Larimer, natives of Perry County, 
Ohio. The father was born in 1811, and was the 
son of John Larimer, a native of Ireland. The 
mother of our subject was born in 1818, and died 
in 1861, after having become the mother of eight 
children. 

The parents of our subject remained in their 
native state until 1840, when they made their 
way to Illinois and established a home on a 
tract of land in Stevenson Township, Marion 
County, where they owned and improved a fine 
farm. There they continued to reside until 1858, 
when they abandoned farm life and became iden- 
tified with the residents of Salem, in which city 
they were living at the time of their decease, the 
mother, as before mentioned, dying in 1861, and 
the father living until 1887. Previous to his 
marriage to Miss Sarah Brown, Smith Larimer had 
wedded, and by that union became the father of 
one daughter, Susannah, widow of William Everitt. 
The elder Mr. Larimer held a prominent place 
in the affairs of his community, and for twelve 
years was County Assessor and Treasurer. Al- 
ways interested in school affairs, he gave satisfac- 
tion as a member of the Board, with which he was 



identified for many years, and was also the popu- 
lar Justice of the Peace for some time. In poli- 
tics he was a stanch Democrat and took a great 
interest in both local and national issues. Of the 
parental family, which comprised eight children, 
all are living with two exceptions. W. F. makes 
his home in Denver, Colo., while Maggie, Mrs. 
Luke Hite, is residing in St. Louis, Mo. 

John W. Larimer, of this sketch, was reared and 
educated in his native place, and when of suffi- 
cient years to earn his own way in the world en- 
tered the office of J. O. Chance, who was engaged 
in the abstract and title business, having his of- 
fice in the court house. In 1874 Mr. Larimer 
was taken into partnership with his former em- 
ployer, which connection lasted for thirteen years. 
In 1887 our subject purchased the interest of Mr. 
Chance in the business and has since conducted 
affairs alone. 

May 6, 1879, our subject and Miss Rosa R., 
daughter of Seth S. and Kate (Parkinson) Andrews, 
were united in marriage. Mrs. Larimer was born 
March 25, 1853, in Walnut Hill, Marion County, 
and was given a good education in the public 
schools. She is a very fine pianist, completing 
her musical education in New York City. She is 
also much accomplished as an organist, and at the 
present writing (1894) plays the organ in the 
Cumberland Presbyterian Church. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Larimer has been born a 
family of three children: Dwight W., Sarah Louise 
and Kathryn A. They both occupy high positions 
in church society and are consistent members of 
the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. Socially, 
Mr. Larimer is an influential Mason, belonging to 
Marion Lodge No. 130, of which he is Master. 
He is also a member of Salem Chapter No. 64, in 
which he has taken all the Council degrees. He 
was Junior Warden in Cyrene Commandery No. 
23 for some time, and was Master Workman in 
the Ancient Order of United Workmen . 

Politically a Democrat, Mr. Larimer takes a 
leading part in local matters and is thoroughly 
posted in the issues of the hour. He has been 
Chairman of the County Central Committee and 
is the present Secretary of that order. For four 
years he served as Deputy Circuit Clerk, and is 



-via 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



recognized as a man of extended influence in bis 
party. He was Deputy County Clerk for eight 
years, and in 1887 was elected Clerk of Salem 
Township, after having served five years as Clerk 
of the city. He has been Alderman from the 
Third Ward for two years, and was elected Mayor 
of Salem. For three years he did efficient work 
as a member of the School Board, which at that 
time had just been organized. Mr. Larimer is a 
man of excellent jndgment and firm convictions 
upon all subjects of importance, and is regarded 
as one of the substantial citizens of the community. 



B. KELL, the efficient and popular Post- 
master of Walnut Hill, and one of its 
leading merchants, has the honor of being 
a native of Marion County, his birth 
having occurred in Centralia Township, March 24, 
1837. His parents, James and Margaret (Bald- 
ridge) Kell, were natives of South Carolina and 
North Carolina respectively, and in the early his- 
tor\' of this community they cast in their lot with 
its first settlers. During his boyhood James Kell 
came hither with his father, Thomas Kell, and 
here he was reared and married. About 1838 he 
removed to Jefferson County, where he made his 
home for some years, and then returned to Wal- 
nut Hill, where he embarked in the milling business, 
continuing the same until 1880. 

Our subject spent the days of his boyhood and 
3'outh in Jefferson County, no event of special 
importance occurring during that period. In 
1857 he was united, in marriage with Miss Chris- 
tina Copple, and their union has been blessed with 
a family of nine children, seven of whom are yet 
living: Mary I., wife of John Ratts, of Jefferson 
County; Thomas S.; Minnie J., the wife of Thomas 
McCulloch, a resident of Washington County; 
Edward E.; Maggie, wife of Egbert England, of 
Raccoon Township, Marion County; Zetta and 
Ora, who complete the family. 

Mr. Kell embarked in his present line of busi- 
ness about 1872. He opened a general store, and 



from the beginning his trade has constantly in- 
creased until he now enjoys a large and lucrative 
patronage. He earnestly desires to please his cus- 
tomers, and by his fair and honest dealing and 
courteous treatment he has won the confidence of 
the public and built up an excellent business, of 
which he is well deserving. In connection with 
his other interests he is also engaged in fruit- 
growing. He has followed this enterprise to a 
considerable extent for some years and now owns 
nearly five hundred acres of land in Marion and 
adjoining counties, the greater part of which is 
set out in fruit. His position as Postmaster has 
continued since 1872. 

In his political views Mr. Kell is a stalwart Re- 
publican and warmly advocates the principles of 
his party. He and his family are members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church; and socially he is a 
member of the Masonic fraternity and the Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows. He has at all 
times taken an active part in the advancement of 
those enterprises which are calculated to benefit 
the community. For five years he labored faith- 
fully to secure for his town its railroad facilities, 
and his efforts were finally rewarded. Two roads 
now form a junction at this place, and the pros- 
perity of Walnut Hill was thereby greatly in- 
creased. Mr. Kell may well be numbered among 
the valued citizens for he is ever found on the 
side of right and progress, and his name is insep- 
arably connected with the history of this commu- 
nity. 



eHARLES L. MOREY, D. D. S., was gradu- 
ated from the Baltimore College of Den- 
tistry in 1889, since which time he has been 
engaged in practice in Centralia. He was born 
near Vandalia, Fayette County, this state, June 
19, 1865, and is the son of L. D. Morey, a native 
of Pennsylvania, who came to Illinois in a very 
early day and grew to manhood in Vandalia. In 
that city the parents were married, the mother 
previous to that event being known as Miss Pau- 
lina Lee. She was a native of Illinois. 

The father of Our subject in early life followed 
the occupation of a farmer and stock-raiser. He 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



343 



has been more than ordinarily successful in his 
calling and is now living retired in the city of 
Centralia, where he is surrounded by all of the 
comforts of life. To Mr. and Mrs. L. D. Morey 
there were born three children, our subject's 
brother and sister being C. D., who is engaged as 
a traveling salesman for a St. Louis house, and 
Leva, now the wife of Dr. W. D. Richardson, of 
Centralia. 

Our subject was reared to man's estate on his 
father's farm, and desirous of following a profes- 
sional life, in 1886 entered the Baltimore Col- 
lege of Dentistry, and after a three years' course 
was graduated with the degree of Doctor of Den- 
tal Surgery. Looking about him for a suitable 
location, he decided to make his home in Centralia, 
and on coming hither entered into partnership 
with Dr. A. II. Rainey, which connection lasted 
for two and one-half years. Dr. Morey is now 
transacting his business alone, and in the discharge 
of his professional duties is acquiring local fame. 

Dr. Morey was united in marriage October 23, 
1889, to Miss Carrie Jackson. The lady is the 
daughter of George Jackson, a real-estate dealer 
in Dallas, Tex., where her birth occurred. She 
received a fine education in her native place and 
is a highly accomplished and much beloved lady. 
Dr. Morey has always been a stanch supporter of 
Republican principles, and socially is a member of 
the Modern Woodmen of America. With his wife 
he is a devoted member of the Baptist Church and 
contributes liberally of his means toward its sup- 
port. 



<^|3?DAM CULLI, senior member of the mer- 
(JPUJ cantile firm of Culli Bros. & McAtee, in MJ. 
IJ IL Vernon, was born in St. Clair County, this 
(fjjl state, October 17, 1856. His father, who 
also bore the name of Adam Culli, was a native of 
Alsace, France, and emigrated to America when a 
young man. He was a stone mason by trade, and 
was the son of Christian Culli, who followed the 
occupation of a farmer. The father of our subject on 
locating in America made his way directly to Illi- 
nois and settled in St. Clair County, where he is 



now living a retired life. The lady who became 
the mother of our subject was prior to her mar- 
riage Miss Christina Baker. She likewise was a 
native of France, and was born in Paris. Her de- 
cease, which occurred in 1890, took place at the old 
home. 

Adam Culli of this sketch was the eldest but one 
in his parents' family of six children. They are, 
George, engaged in business near Centreville; 
Philip, a prominent farmer near Mascoutah, this 
state; Christian, who is also following the occupa- 
tion of an agriculturist, and Leonard, one of the firm 
of Culli Bros. &. McAtee. Our subject received but 
the ordinary amount of schooling, and in 1880 he 
came to Jefferson County and engaged in farming 
near Mt. Vernon. At that time he was possessed 
of but very little means, but being ambitious and 
energetic, soon made money out of the stock which 
he placed upon his farm. During the years he was 
a resident of Dodds Township, he held many posi- 
tions of local trust, serving as Assessor for five 
years, and in 1890 was elected Supervisor. 

In 1891 Mr. Culli disposed of the stock on his 
farm and removed into Mt. Vernon, where he en- 
gaged in the grocery business in partnership with 
his brother Leonard. They were greatly prospered 
in this undertaking, and a year later they pur- 
chased the large dry-goods store adjoining their 
grocery, and in December of 1893 purchased still 
another store in the same building, which they 
stocked with a full line of carpets, boots, shoes and 
men's furnishing goods. At the time they pur- 
chased the dry-goods store the brothers took in as 
third partner Charles McAtee, and they now con- 
duct the largest and most prosperous business in 
Mt. Vernon. Our subject is a thorough business 
man, and it is principally owing to his wise judg- 
ment and careful management that the affairs have 
grown to their present large proportions. 

In 1880, Adam Culli was united in marriage 
with Miss Eva, daughter of John Dintelmann, a 
prominent farmer of St. Clair County. The three 
children born of their union are, Edward, Matilda 
and George Oscar. Mr. and Mrs. Culli were reared 
in the faith of the Lutheran Church, to which they 
still adhere. In politics our subject is a strong Re- 
publican and casts his ballot and uses his influence 



344 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



in its interest. He is a man of large experience, 
and is able at a glance to place the correct valua- 
tion upon men and things. His wealth and enter- 
prise have given him social prestige in the city, 
and as one of the prominent residents of the coun- 
ty we are pleased to present his biography in this 
RECORD. 



JOHN. KUHN, a farmer residing in Brook- 
side Township, Clinton County, was born 
in Lorraine, France, on the 14th of Febru- 
ary, 1842. His ancestors, as far back as 
there is an}' record of the family, lived in France, 
where his parents, John and Kate (Roller) Kuhn, 
were born the former in Lorraine August 15, 
1812, and the latter in the same province, the 
date of her birth not being known. John Kuhn, 
Sr., was a tanner by trade, which occupation he 
followed in his native land. Prior to emigrating 
to this country he served for seven years in the 
army of France. 

Coming to the United States in 1847, Mr. 
Kuhn, Sr., settled in St. Louis, Mo., and there 
worked at his trade until 1859, at which time he 
moved to Clinton County, 111., and remained with 
his son John until his death, March 8, 1888. He 
joined the Republican party after coming to Amer- 
ica, and always supported the principles of that 
party. He was a member of the Catholic Church, 
in which faith his ancestors, almost without ex- 
ception, had lived and died. His wife, who was 
also a member of the Catholic Church, died in 
St. Louis, Mo., in 1855. In their family were three 
sons, all of whom are living. Champear, the eld- 
est, resides in Cincinnati; John, of this sketch, is 
the second in order of birth; and Peter, the young- 
est, now a resident of the state of Washington, is 
engaged in farming. 

A child of five years when the family sought a 
home across the ocean, John Kuhn, Jr., retains 
few recollections of the land of his birth. He 
lived with his parents in St. Louis until he was 
seven, when he came to Clinton County, 111., and 
made his home with the family of his uncle, John 



Roher. In his youth he was the recipient of fair 
educational advantages and gained a thorough 
knowledge of the English language. At the age 
of fourteen his studies were discontinued, after 
which lie worked for neighboring farmers by the 
month until the commencement of the Civil War. 

Quite early in the Rebellion Mr. Kuhn enlisted 
in a company of cavalry attached to the Thir- 
tieth Illinois Infantry. After eighteen months' 
service this company was consolidated with others, 
comprising the Fifteenth Illinois Cavalry. He 
participated in many hard-fought battles, among 
which may be mentioned Belmont, Ft. Henry, Ft. 
Donelson and Corinth. On the 1st of January, 
1863, he was made prisoner by General Forrest's 
command and was parolled soon after and ex- 
changed in June of 1863. Rejoining his regi- 
ment, he served with the same until honorably 
mustered out, in September, 1864. He is now a 
prominent member of the Grand Army of the Re- 
public. 

After leaving the army, Mr. Kuhn returned to 
Clinton County and bought a farm of forty acres 
of land, upon which he established his home and 
where he continues to live. By industry, economy 
and business intelligence, he has added to his 
original purchase some two hundred and seventy 
acres of excellent land, well improved and em- 
bellished with all the buildings necessary for the 
proper management of a farm. He has built a 
residence containing every comfort desired. He 
also owns a fine residence in Centralia. While 
his farming interests require his attention almost 
constantly, they do not do so to the exclusion of 
matters of public importance. To the Goverment 
of the United States he is as loyal as any of its 
native-born sons, and having studied carefully 
tjie issues of the day gives his support to the prin- 
ciples of the Republican party. 

Soon after returning from the war, Mr. Kuhn 
married Miss Margaret, daughter of Peter Smith, 
who emigrated from France and settled in Clin- 
ton County. They were the parents of five chil- 
dren, three sons and two daughters. The sons, 
John Charles, George Peter and Andrew, live on 
the farm with their father. Mary, the eldest 
daughter, married Frank Shaker and died in 1893, 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



345 



aged twenty-seven. The younger daughter, Vina, 
is the wife of William Bodker and resides in Cen- 
tralia, this state. The devoted wife and mother 
passed from this life August 27, 1892. She was 
a consistent member of the Catholic Church, with 
which Mr. Kuhn is also identified. 



JAMES R. HARTLEY, one of the enterpris- 
ing and successful farmers of Grand Prairie 
Township, Jefferson County, residing on 
section 16, was born February 10, 1831, in 
Charleston, Clark County, Ind., and is a son of 
Hugh S. Hartley, an honored pioneer of the coun- 
ty, who is represented elsewhere in this work. 
When a child of nine years he came to Illinois 
with his parents, and in the usual manner of farmer 
lads the days of his boyhood and youth were 
passed. He attended the district schools of the 
neighborhood through the winter season, and in 
the summer months worked upon the farm. On 
attaining his majority, however, he left the old 
home, not wishing to longer engage in agricult- 
ural pursuits, and sought employment in other 
fields of business. After spending some time in 
seeking a location, he finally settled in Decatur, 
where he engaged in a restaurant for two years. 
He then sold out and removed to Centralia, where 
he accepted a position as clerk in the store of Will- 
iam O'Melveny, with whom he continued for a 
year. He then resigned and served an apprentice- 
ship to the painter's trade.' He soon became an 
expert workman, and for twenty-eight years car- 
ried on business along that line. 

July 3, 1857, Mr. Hartley was united in mar- 
riage with Miss Margaret A. Lafarty, who died 
in 1861, leaving two children: Nancy J., the elder, 
who is now the wife of Charles Connors, a highly 
respected and prosperous fruit-grower of Centralia 
Township, Marion County; and Benjamin W., who 
married a lady in Rochester, 111., and now resides 
in Springfield, where he carries on a tile factory. 
Mr. Hartley took for his second wife Lavina Reed, 



by whom he has one child living, Catherine Jessie, 
who is in the millinery business in Odin, 111. Mrs. 
Hartley died in 1887. 

Our subject is a member of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church and of the Farmers' Mutual Benefit 
Association. In his political views he was form- 
erly a Democrat, but is now a supporter of the 
Populist party. He has been honored with some 
local offices, having served as Constable in Cen- 
tralia Township, Marion County, in 1856, while in 
Grand Prairie Township he has for four terms 
served as Town Clerk. In 1885 he removed to 
the old home farm, on which his father settled in 
an early day, and took up general farming and 
fruit-growing. He has made a success of this en- 
terprise, and the fine fruit which he raises finds a 
ready sale on the market, and therefore a good in- 
come is derived from the business. lie is held in 
high esteem by his neighbors for his many good 
traits of character, and in the community has a 
large circle of warm friends. 



SIMPSON A. FRAZIER, an attorn ey-at-law 
located at Centralia, is also the senior 
member of the firm of FrazierA Leffel,and 
is a gentleman of fine education, logical 
mind, excellent business ability and high Christian 
character. After his name may be written the words 
of praise justly deserved, a self-made man, and 
his example of business activity, perseverance and 
indomitable energy may well be taken as an ex- 
ample by young men who, like himself, had to en- 
ter upon life without capital. 

In Clark County, Ind., the subject of this sketch 
was born January 31, 1846. He is the son of 
Jacob Frazier, also a native of Indiana, who re- 
moved to Illinois and settled in Centralia when 
our subject was a lad of five years. The latter re- 
ceived the rudiments of his education in the neigh- 
boring schoolhouse, which, constructed of logs and 
containing few articles of furniture, was unattrac- 
tive both in exterior appearance and interior aspect. 
He was also a student of the Centralia public 
schools, and afterward prosecuted his studies at 



346 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



Butler University, of Indianapolis, Ind., for three 
years. 

Having resolved to enter upon the legal profes- 
sion, Mr. Frazier entered the office of William 
Stoker and there conducted his studies until he 
was admitted to the Bar in 1861). Since that time 
he has been engaged in active practice, in which 
he has gained success. He makes a specialty of 
chancery and probate business, and also of collec- 
tions, having the largest collecting business in the 
city. He is also a Notary Public. In the organi- 
zation of the Centralia Building and Loan Asso- 
ciation he was a prominent factor, has served as a 
Director and has been its attorney ever since the 
enterprise was established, with the exception of 
one year. 

November 3, 1870, S. A. Frazier and Miss Eunice 
Ferris were united in marriage. Mrs. Frazier is a 
daughter of Enoch Ferris, formerly a prominent 
farmer of Hamilton Countj', Ohio, and now de- 
ceased. She was born and reared near Cincinnati 
and received an excellent education in Butler 
University. Three children have been born of the 
union, Edith, Allegra and Genevieve. The two 
eldest daughters are students in the Northern In- 
diana Normal, at Valparaiso, Ind. Mr. Frazier, ap- 
preciating the advantage afforded by a good edu- 
cation, has always been a stanch advocate of the 
public school system and for a number of years 
has served as President of the Board of Education 
at Centralia. 

In addition to his legal duties, Mr. Frazier is 
also interested in other enterprises. In 1886 he 
established the firm of Frazier & Leffel and the 
firm has since that time conducted an extensive 
business as marble and granite dealers. Politically 
a Republican, Mr. Frazier is active in the ranks of 
the party and for twenty years has been a member of 
the Republican County Central Committee. Upon 
several occasions he has been a delegate to the state 
conventions and has served as Alderman of Cen- 
tralia. No citizen of this place is more interested 
in it? welfare than he, and in every way possible 
he seeks to promote the social, educational and re- 
ligious advancement of the community. 

Socially Mr. Frazier is identified with the 
Knights of P3 r thias and the Modern Woodmen of 



America. In religious belief he adheres to the 
doctrines of the Christian Church, with which he 
holds membership. In Sunday-school work he is 
especially interested and for fifteen years served 
as Superintendent at this place. He is a generous 
contributor to religious and charitable projects, 
and gives his support to every progressive measure 
calculated to advance the interests of the people. 
His private library is the largest in Centralia and 
contains standard works of the best authors. Many 
of his happiest hours are spent with his books, and 
being a thoughtful reader, he has gained a broad 
fund of knowledge, which renders him a genial 
companion and an interesting conversationalist. 



M MLLIAM WALTER SCOTT. The subject 
\fij// of this sketch is one of the progressive 
UPX5 business men of Ceutralia, and has Income 
well known to its citizens as the proprietor of a 
fine grocery, located on Locust Street, which he 
has been conducting since 1890. He is a native of 
the far-away south, having been born in Hopkins 
County, Tex., July 12, 1849. 

The father of our subject, Dr. R. II. Scott, was a 
physician of Black Jack Grove, Hopkins County, 
Tex., where he resided until 1863, and then, being 
a strong Union man, was compelled to leave the 
state or endanger his life and that of his famil}' 
by remaining. Coming north, he chose Centralia 
as his future abiding place, and in the public 
schools of the city our subject completed his edu- 
cation. Here the father practiced his profession 
until his decease, which took place in November, 
1886. 

Mrs. R. H. Scott, the mother of our subject, was 
known prior to her marriage, as Miss Mary Agnes 
Smith, and was born in Kentucky. By her union 
with Mr. Scott she became the mother of seven 
children, all of whom arc living with one excep- 
tion. Dr. Scott was a prominent Mason and was 
always actively interested in the welfare of his 
community. 

W. W. Scott was a lad of fourteen years when 
he came with his parents to Centralia, and after at- 



- 

* 





C/rV^^ 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



349 



taining mature years he worked out on farms for 
five or six years. After that experience he began 
clerking in the store of M. B. Wilson, and was en- 
gaged in that capacity for other parties for about 
twelve years. In October, 1890, he established his 
present grocery, which is one of the best in the 
city, and by his courteous treatment of his custo- 
mers Mr. Scott has a large and paying patronage. 
He keeps a full line of choice, fancy and staple 
groceries, and by his patient industry and tireless 
efforts he is bound to have success in life. 

The lady to whom our subject was married Sep- 
tember 26, 1876, was Miss Mary Ellen, daughter 
of Rufus Maddux. She was born in Clinton Coun- 
ty, this state, which was also the birthplace of Mr. 
Maddux. To Mr. and Mrs. Scott has been born 
a family of six children, namety: William Frank- 
lin, Minnie May, Mary Agnes, Lillie Bell, Ethel 
Lena and Evangeline. 

For many years a Republican, our subject now 
votes with the People's party. He lias taken a 
great interest in schools, and for a number of 
terms was a member of the Board of Education. 
Mr. Scott was elected Alderman of the Third Ward 
in 1891, and socially belongs to the Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows. He is likewise a Knight of 
Pythias, and as a man of excellent judgment and 
firm convictions upon all matters of importance, 
he is regarded as one of the substantial citizens of 
the community. 



JABEZ WEBSTER, who formerly engaged 
in the nursery business, but is now living 
retired in Centralia, was born in Cam- 
bridgeshire, England, June 10, 1832, and is 
a son of Thomas and Mary (Hyde) Webster. The 
latter is a daughter of Walter Hyde. The Hydes 
were sea-faring men, who engaged in trading in 
India, and at one time were very wealthy people. 
Many of their descendants now live in America, 
and it is expected that a large fortune to which 
they are heirs may be secured for them. 

The father of our subject was reared and edu- 
cated in England and there followed the boot and 



shoe trade. Jabez also spent the days of his boy- 
hood and youth in his native land, at Sutton, Isle 
of Ely, Cambridgeshire, and acquired a good edu- 
cation in its public schools. In his boyhood da}'s 
he worked with a professional gardener, and at 
the age of twenty-one he sailed for America. Be- 
fore leaving his native land, he wedded Mary 
Ann, daughter of Henry Kent, who served for 
sixty years as Constable of the village in which 
he lived and died, known as Welches Dam Parish. 
For many years he was foreman of the Bedford 
Level Drainage Corporation. With his family of 
seven he lived in Manea Fen, Isle of Ely, Cam- 
bridgeshire. Mrs. Webster was born and reared in 
Cambridge County. The young couple crossed the 
Atlantic to New York and made their way di- 
rect to Chicago, but not finding employment in 
that place, they started for Mendota, where Mr. 
Webster had an aunt living, the wife of the Rev. 
William Edwards, one of the pioneer Methodist 
preachers of Illinois. lie built the first brick 
court house in Mt. Vernon and burnt the brick, 
and will be remembered by many in this section 
of the state. He too was a native of Cambridge 
County, England, and emigrating to America, lo- 
cated in Washington, 1). C., whence he came more 
than seventy j'ears ago to the west. 

Through the influence of Mr. Edwards, our sub- 
ject took up his residence in this locality, and for 
a number of years worked for farmers and fruit- 
growers. At that time, the raising of vegetables 
was not considered a profitable enterprise, but Mr. 
Webster began raising early peas for the market, 
and also sold the first cultivated strawberries 
raised in Centralia. From this beginning he 
drifted into the nursery business. In the fall of 
1865 he bought seven acres of land in Clinton 
County, close to the city limits south of Ceutralia, 
and afterward became owner of forty-eight acres 
of unimproved land in Marion County. 

The property now known as the Webster Nur- 
sery, situated on section 19, was virtually without 
improvements when it came into the possession of 
our subject, having no buildings nor any trees ex- 
cept the twin elm, which still stands. The land 
was bought from the Government at $ 1.75 an acre, 
May 10, 1853, when the capital of the state was at 



350 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



Vandalia, the purchaser being Benjamin Counsil, 
supposed agent of Gen. Madison Miller, of Ran- 
dolph County, 111. From the latter gentleman 
Mr. Webster bought the property before 1875, 
paying $65 per acre. The Illinois Central cutting 
the farm in two diagonally, he bought a piece of 
land at a time as he was able to pay for it. Such 
has been his industry, that for fifteen or twenty 
years he worked fifteen and often sixteen hours 
per day. Upon his land lie raised a greater variety 
of small fruits, vegetables and trees than had ever 
before been attempted by anyone in this vicinity. 
The first year he budded sixty thousand peach 
trees. The cultivation of peaches was just then 
being developed into a business in this locality. 
He continued setting out fruit trees, and at length 
found himself at the head of a large nursery. In 
1867 he sold fifty thousand peach trees, and each 
year he sold about four hundred thousand hedge 
plants. He also had other kinds of fruit trees, and 
engaged in raising strawberries and vegetables for 
the market. 

Mr. Webster is a very enterprising and progress- 
ive man, and has won a well merited success. He 
began advertising his business in the local and 
horticultural papers, and in this way secured an 
excellent trade, which by fair and honest dealing 
he has constantly increased. He issued his first 
catalogue in 1867, and has published one every 
year since. Orders have come to him from all 
over the country, and he has prospered from the 
beginning. He also established a green house, but 
gave the business over to his nephew, A. W. Web- 
ster, an orphan whom he reared and educated, 
and who has built up an extensive trade in that 
line. 

Unto Mr. and Mrs. Webster were born five chil- 
dren, three living: C. H., who is manager of the 
Webster Nurseries; George II., who is a conductor 
on the Air Line Railroad; and Lizzie, wife of J. 
A. Gilmore, whose parents were pioneer settlers of 
this locality. He is station agent on the Chicago 
&. North-western Railroad at Melrose Park, Cook 
County, 111. 

Mr. Webster cast his first Presidential vote for 
Abraham Lincoln, but is independent in politics. 
While in Clinton County he served as School Treas- 



urer of Brookside Township for many years. Two 
years ago he and his wife came toCentralia, where 
they now make their home. During the past sum- 
mer he was purchasing agent for the Illinois Hor- 
ticultural Society, securing fruit for the World's 
Fair fruit exhibit in the National Horticultural 
Building. He is the first Vice-President of the 
Horticultural Society of southern Illinois, and has 
been twice President of the State Horticultural 
Society. For a time he was temporarily placed in 
charge of the fruit exhibit for Illinois, and pur- 
chased seventy per cent, of the fruit for this state 
on exhibition at the World's Fair in the National 
Horticultural Building. Since March 10, 1894, he 
has been President of the Centralia Fruit & Truck 
Shippers' Association. He is one of the stockholders 
of the Centralia Fruit Package Company, and has 
written a number of articles on horticulture. Few 
men are better informed on the subject than Mr. 
Webster, who has devoted nearly his entire life to 
the business. He has been most successful in his 
work, and his sagacity, perseverance and well 
directed efforts have brought him a small, but ade- 
quate, competence. He became the head of the 
leading nursery business of this section and there- 
by acquired the means which now with moderate 
economy enables him to live retired. 



RS. JANE BALDRIDGE is one of the 
highly respected citizens of Grand Prairie 
Township, Jefferson County. She was born 
December 7, 1818, in Rutherford County, 
N. C., and is a daughter of Thomas Janes, who 
was born in the southern part of North Carolina 
June 12, 1786. On the 27th of January, 1814, he 
married Rebecca Boggs, and to them were born 
eight children, of whom four are yet living: Sa- 
rah, Martha, Nancy E. and Jane. Those who have 
passed away are, James, John P., Mary and Eliza- 
beth. The mother of this family passed away in 

1831, and Mr. Janes was married February 28, 

1832, to Alzirah Mitchell, by whom he had six 
children : Thomas, Catherine W., Lawson, William, 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



351 



Smythe and Alzirah. Mr. Janes was a sturdy pio- 
neer and a man of sterling integrity and worth. 
He held membership with the Presbyterian Church, 
and passed peacefully away December 2, 1856. 
His wife survived him but a few years, and died 
September 6, 1859. 

Mrs. Baldridge spent her early girlhood days in 
her parents' home and became familiar with all 
household duties. At the age of sixteen she left 
the parental roof, and on the 30th of September, 
1834, in Burke County, N. C., became the wife of 
John P. Baldridge. During that winter they emi- 
grated westward and cast in their lot with the 
pioneer settlers of Jefferson County, 111., locating 
on Walnut Hill Prairie, where they remained un- 
til March 11, 1847, when they removed to a farm 
on section 18, Grand Prairie Township. There 
Mr. Baldridge purchased four hundred acres of 
choice farming land and greatly improved that 
property, making it a beautiful home, which was 
numbered among the finest farms of the county. 
He possessed good business ability, and through his 
well directed efforts he acquired a handsome corn- 



Twelve children were born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Baldridge, of whom seven are yet living: Rebecca 
J., wife of David P. McCuHough,a wealthy farmer 
residing near Irvington, 111.; James A., who mar- 
ried Lydia Pitchford and is living in Irvington; 
Martha L., wife of John Turner, a successful agri- 
culturist who now operates a portion of the old 
homestead; John A., who married Sarah E. Fitz- 
simmons, and is located in Elwood, Neb.; Julia, 
wife of Howard J. Hardy, an enterprising farmer 
of Grand Prairie Township; Annette, wife of 
Robert Summerville, a successful farmer of the 
same township; Rosetta, deceased, formerly the wife 
of Charles Miller, a physician of Brimfield, 111.; and 
Salem, who married Rachel A. Summerville and is 
living near Fullerton, Neb. 

After her husband's death, which took place in Ir- 
vington April 6, 1869, Mrs. Baldridge moved onto 
the home farm again, and not only successfully man- 
aged it, but also reared her family and gave them 
good educational advantages, thus fitting them 
for the practical duties of life. After her children 
were of age the farm was divided, and she received 



seventy-six acres and the buildings for her share 
of the estate. Here she is still keeping house, and 
her home is noted for its hospitality. She has the 
honor of being one of the pioneer ladies of the 
county, and is also one of the highly esteemed 
residents of the community. She has, besides her 
farm property, a fine residence in Irvington, which 
brings in a good income. 



JOHN DANNER owns and occupies a com- 
fortable estate on section 23, township 2, 
range 2, Shiloh Township, Jefferson County. 
The land is carefully and intelligently tilled 
and the place is well stocked and bears the usual 
improvements, including the latest inventions in 
the way of farm machinery. Mr. Danner was born 
September 17, 1839, in York County, Pa., and is 
the son of David and Barbara (Leib) Danner. 

The father of our subject was also born in the 
above county in Pennsylvania in 1805, and there 
grew to mature years and received a good educa- 
tion. The family, which originally came from 
Germany, located in York County, where they were 
farmers of the enterprising and progressive stamp. 
David Danner had four brothers and one sister. 
Solomon resides on the old home farm near Han- 
over, Pa., which has been in the possession of the 
family for more than a century and a-half. The 
remaining three brothers emigrated to Ohio and 
finally to Illinois, where two of them died. The 
only survivor is Henry, who makes his home in 
Astoria, Fulton County, at which place the father 
of our subject died July 14, 1873. The latter was 
a man of high moral character, strictly honest and 
greatly esteemed by his neighbors. In politics he 
was a Jeffersonian Democrat, and although not in 
any sense an office seeker, at various times filled 
the positions of Township Supervisor and Assessor. 
In religion he was a Dunkard, and in every sense 
was a true Christian. 

The mother of our subject, who was likewise a 
native of York County, Pa., is descended from a 
family of early settlers iu the Keystone State. The 



352 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



marriage of Mr. and Mrs. David Danner occurred 
about 1830 in York County. Their union was 
blessed by the birth of six children, only three of 
whom are living, viz.: Elizabeth, who married Sam- 
uel Grove, of the above county; Jesse, a stock- 
dealer near Rushville, this state, and John, of this 
sketch. 

Our subject grew to mature years in his native 
county, and received his education in the schools 
near his home. He assisted his father in carrying 
on the home farm until reaching his seventeenth 
year, when he learned the tanner's trade, which 
occupation he followed in connection with farm- 
ing for a period of nineteen years. Since that 
time, however, he has devoted his entire time and 
attention to cultivating the soil. In 1879 he came 
to Illinois, making his home near Rushville, where 
he remained until 1893. In that year he came to 
Jefferson County and purchased the land on which 
stood the house formerly owned and occupied by 
Lieutenant-Governor Casey in Shiloh Township. 
His landed estate comprises a quarter-section of 
fine land, which is accounted one of the best in the 
township. 

While living in Pennsylvania our subject seemed 
to be unfortunate in all his undertakings, and con- 
sequently when coming to the Prairie State he had 
but little means with which to commence life in a 
strange country. He began farming as a renter, 
but so successful was he that he was soon enabled 
to purchase sixty acres of land in Schuyler Coun- 
ty. With the energy characteristic of his people, 
he has pushed ahead and to-day has a valuable and 
comfortable estate. 

September 3. 18C3, Mr. Danner and Miss Mary 
J., daughter of John and Mary (Woolf) Kline, 
were united in marriage. Of their union have been 
born six children, all living, viz.: Frank E.; Minnie 
A., now Mrs. Charles Vancleave, of Schuyler Coun- 
ty; Lizzie, who is one of the clerks in the Census 
office at Washington, 1). C.; Clarence E., who is 
engaged with his father in carrying on the home 
farm; Mary M. and Urie K. 

In social affairs Mr. Danner is a Mason and a 
member of the Grange. He is a Democrat in poli- 
tics, and while residing in Schuyler County was 
Township Supervisor. With his wife he is a mem- 



ber of the Evangelical Church. Although a new 
comer in Jefferson County, he is welcomed by his 
neighbors, and already occupies an honored place 
in their midst. 






||LEXANDER ANDERECK, one of the 

S/ I' prominent farmers of Marion County, has 
1/1 a good estate located on section 29, Odin 
Hj^ Township. He is a native of Licking 
County, Ohio, where his birth occurred April 4, 
1824. His parents were Isaac and Martha (Mc- 
Clelland) Andereck, the former of whom was the 
son of Jacob and Rebecca Andereck. The paternal 
grandfather of our subject was born in Germany 
and came to America prior to the Revolutionary 
War. On arriving here he located in Virginia, 
where he operated as a tanner, which trade he had 
learned in the Old Country. 

Isaac Andereck was born in Virginia, where he 
was given a good education, and when attaining 
mature years learned the trade of a tanner from 
his father. Later in life he removed to Licking 
County, Ohio, where he met and married Miss 
McClelland, by whom he became the father of 
six children, namely: Alexander, our subject; 
Jacob, Catherine, William, Andrew and John. All 
are deceased except the first-named, most all of 
them dying in 1854, during the cholera scourge. 
In 1829 the father of our subject emigrated 
with his family to Marion County and located in 
Odin Township, on the same section where his son 
is now residing. A few years later the land was 
opened up and Mr. Andereck entered three hun- 
dred and twenty acres from the Government. In 
that early day neighbors were few and far between 
and our subject had for his playmates the children 
of the Indians which inhabited the country. 
Isaac Andereck gave some attention to farming, 
but spent the greater part of his time in stock- 
raising, in which occupation he was more than 
ordinarily successful and accumulated a handsome 
property, so that at his decease, which occurred in 
1851, he was enabled to provide handsomely for 
all his children. The mother of our subject passed 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



353 



away in 1854, aged seventy-four years. In his 
religious belief the elder Mr. Andereck was a Bap- 
tist, and in politics was a Jackson ian Democrat. 

Alexander Andereck received a fair education 
in the subscription schools, and when attaining his 
majority settled on the forty-acre tract of land 
which had been given him by his father and where 
he still resides. He was married in 1846 to Miss 
Margaret, the daughter of Essex and Sarah (Gor- 
man) Stanford, natives of South Carolina. Mrs. 
Andereck was born in Tennessee and accompanied 
her parents on their removal to Jefferson County 
in 1828. By her union with our subject eight 
children have been born, two of whom died in in- 
fancy. Those living are: John, a minister of the 
Baptist Church in Juda, Wis.; Isaac, residing in 
Centralia, this state; William, pastor of the First 
Baptist Church in Danville, 111.; Martha, Mrs. 
William Sutherland; Jacob, living in Centralia, 
and Andrew, engaged in farming in Odin Town- 
ship. 

Mr. and Mrs. Andereck are devoted members of 
the Baptist Church, in which denomination our 
subject has been Treasurer for over forty years. 
In politics he is an ardent Democrat and served 
his fellow-townsmen as Deputy Sheriff and Bailiff 
for sixteen years, and for twelve years was Con- 
stable. 



ILTON P. HESTER, one of the early set- 
tlers of Marion County, now living on the 
edge of Centralia, came to Illinois in the 
spring of 1839, and during the fifty-five 
years which have since passed has always resided 
in this locality. He has witnessed the growth and 
development of the county, and has watched with 
interest its progress and advancement. In the 
work of public improvement he has ever borne his 
part, and his name is inseparably connected with 
the record of its upbuilding. 

Mr. Hester was bom in Clark County, Ind., 
June 4, 1813, and was the eleventh in order of 
birth in a family of twelve children, whose parents 
were John M. and Susanna Hester. Both were na- 



tives of Germanj 1 , and from the Keystone State 
emigrated to Kentucky, thence to Indiana. Our 
subject was reared to manhood in Clark County, 
and in the common schools of the neighborhood 
received but a limited education, for the privileges 
of that day were meagre. At length he determined 
to seek a home in Illinois, and in the spring of 
1839 came to Marion County, as before stated. 

In the autumn of the following year, Mr. Hester 
was united in marriage with Miss Christina Copple, 
and they began their domestic life upon a farm 
which is still his home. The city of Centralia 
had not then sprung into existence, and he had to 
go to market at St. Louis. When he reached this 
county he had only $8.62^ in money, and after the 
expenses of the wedding ceremony were met, his 
cash capital consisted of only $5.25. This he spent 
in purchasing provisions for the new home. The 
young couple experienced many of the hardships 
and difficulties of pioneer life, but by perseverance 
overcame their trials. Mr. Hester first purchased 
a claim for which he promised to pay $200. Later 
he bought other land from time to time, until he 
became owner of over six hundred acres. He still 
has about a quarter-section just south of Centralia 
and almost an entire section near Sandoval. 

By their marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Hester became 
the parents of eight children: David N.; Julia, 
who was married and died leaving a son, Milton 
Young, now of Salem; William A., a resident of 
Jefferson County; John, of Montgomery County, 
Kan.; Sarah E., wife of Harvey Young, of Marion 
County; Isaac, who is living in Arizona; Marion, 
of Clinton County; and Mary, who completes the 
family. For his second wife. our subject chose 
Martha Johnson, by whom he had four children: 
Ella M.; Carrie B., wife of Mark Anthony, of 
Streator, 111.; U. A. V.; and Lillian, who is a 
teacher in Meudota, 111., and a graduate of the 
State Normal School of Normal. The mother of 
this family died in the winter of 1884. The eld- 
est son was a cavalryman during the late war and 
served for four years. 

In his political views, Mr. Hester was in early 
life an old-line Whig, and cast his first Presiden- 
tial vote for Gen. William Henry Harrison. He 
became a Republican in 1856, and his last vote 



354 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



was cast for Gen. Benjamin Harrison, the illustri- 
ous grandson of the Tippecanoe hero. He and his 
family belong to the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
with which he has held membership for nearly 
seventy years. He is a conscientious Christian 
gentleman, and his honorable, upright life has won 
him the high regard of all. 



sjj^ ALVIN M. BROWN. It is 
'(( Y. bncf biographical sketch to render full 
^^^/ justice to prominent men, and yet there 
are some who are so intimate and clearly identi- 
fied with the county's welfare, and whose names 
are so familiar to all, that it is only justice to dwell 
upon what they have done and the influence of 
their career upon others, not as empty words of 
praise, but the plain statement of a plain truth. 
To this class belongs Calvin M. Brown, who is an 
agriculturist of indisputable ability, and who has 
won great success in pursuing this his favorite oc- 
cupation. He is now the proud possessor of over 
eight hundred acres of valuable land, located on 
section 31, Spring Garden Township, Jefferson 
County, where he has made his home for many 
years. 

Our subject is one in a large family of chil- 
dren comprising the household of Stephen and 
Elizabeth (Spoon) Brown, and was born in Wash- 
ington County, 111., December 24, 1827. His 
brothers and sisters are, De Witt Clinton and Will- 
iam Henry Harrison, deceased; Irene, Mrs. Henry 
Cochran; Naomi, Mrs. Mills II. Cochran, now de- 
ceased; Minerva A., the wife of G. G. Sweeten; 
Benjamin Franklin, who died when in the Mexi- 
can War; Stephen N., also deceased; Jasper, whose 
death occurred while a soldier in the late war; 
and Elizabeth, the widow of James Sweeten. 

The father of our subject was born in Guilford 
County, N. C., August 25, 1795, and continued to 
reside in his native state until reaching his twenty- 
fifth year, when he emigrated to Tennessee and 
lived there a year prior to coming to Illinois. His 
first location in this slate was made in Washing- 
ton County, and after a few years' residence there, 



in 1830 came to this county and made his home 
in Elk Prairie Township, where he spent the re- 
mainder of his life. When taking up his abode 
in this county, he was the third settler to take up 
Congress land in this section, which was at that 
time abounding in game and wild animals. He 
was a man of honorable character, intelligence 
and usefulness, and his fellow-men held him in 
good repute. He was a strong Whig in politics 
and lived to be seventy-five years of age. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Brown, the mother of our sub- 
ject, was, like the father, a native of Guilford 
County. N. C., and came of Pennsylvania Dutch 
parents. She lived to be sixty-six years of age. 
The paternal grandfather of our subject died dur- 
ing the infancy of Stephen Brown, and, so far as 
is known, no record remains of the early history 
of the family except they were of Scotch-Irish 
descent. 

Calvin M. Brown, of this sketch, spent his early 
life in Jefferson and Franklin Counties, and when 
a lad of eighteen years became a soldier in the 
Mexican War, enlisting in 1846 and serving four- 
teen months, or until peace was declared. Soon 
after returning home he started out in life on his 
own account, and was married April 9, 1851, to 
Miss Ann Eliza, daughter of E. H. and Cynthia 
(Freeman) Foster, natives of Tennessee. Mrs. 
Brown was born in Franklin County, this state, 
and of the eight children of whom she has become 
the mother only three are living, viz.: S. E.; Mar- 
tha P., now Mrs. R. L. Kirk; and Melissa, who is 
at home. 

Soon after their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Calvin 
Brown came to Spring Garden Township, locat- 
ing on Government land, for which they paid 
$1.25 per acre. Our subject immediately began 
the work of clearing and improving his property, 
upon which he has spent his entire life, and is 
now recognized as one of the most extensive and 
successful farmers of Jefferson County. Although 
beginning farming on a small scale, he so managed 
affairs that he was enabled to accumulate property 
very rapidly, and is now the owner of eight hun- 
dred acres which are clear of encumbrance. 

Mr. Brown has always been deeply interested 
in the welfare of his community and has rendered 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



355 



his township efficient service as Supervisor, in 
which capacity he has served for many years. He 
has aided greatly in raising the standard of 
scholarship in this part of the county, and for 
more than thirty years has been School Director. 
In politics he is an ardent Democrat, and socially 
is a member of Williams Lodge No. 242, 1. 0. O. F., 
of Spring Garden. 



1 EV. JESSE PORTER SPROWLS, D. D. The 
influence wielded by a gentleman of up- 
right character and noble life is immeasura- 
)ble, and particularly so if he has a cultured 
mind and genial manners. There is no profession 
affording a wider scope for the exercise of the no- 
blest attributes of character than that of the min- 
istry, and he who labors to promote the spiritual 
welfare of mankind is justly entitled to a high 
rank among his fellow-men. Such an one is the 
subject of this sketch, who is pastor of the Cum- 
berland Presbyterian Church of Salem, and through 
whose efforts new life has been infused into the 
church, the membership increased and the good 
accomplished largely enhanced. A man of earnest, 
practical nature, he is greatly beloved, not alone 
by his parishioners, but also by the members of 
other denominations. 

From the genealogical record of the Sprowls 
family we learn that our subject's grandfather, 
James Sprowls, was born in the North of Ireland, 
of Scotch-Irish descent, and emigrating to Amer- 
ica, settled in East Finley, Washington County, 
Pa., where his son, Cyrus, was born January 23, 
1815. The latter grew to manhood upon a farm, 
and in the county of his birth married Miss Pha-be 
J., daughter of Jeremiah Post, and a native of the 
same county. A prominent man in his community, 
he held both township and county offices, and was 
always an earnest advocate of all measures origi- 
nated in behalf of the people. He and his wife 
were members of tlj Methodist Episcopal Church, 
in which he served as Class-leader and Steward. 
He was called from earth, passing away in August, 
1880. His wife preceded him many years, and 



died in July, 1849. There were three children in 
the family: Jesse P., Mary A., and a half-brother, 
Milton R. 

In East Finley, Washington County, Pa., the 
subject of this sketch was born March 11, 1845. 
He was educated at Waynesburg College, Waynes- 
burg, Pa., graduating from that institution in 1868. 
It had been his intention to enter the legal pro- 
fession, but realizing and responding to a higher 
call he decided to devote his life to the preaching of 
the Gospel. He entered the Andover Theological 
Seminary, Andover, Mass., after completing his 
literary studies, and was graduated from that col- 
lege in 1871. His first charge was at Lebanon, 
Ohio, where his pastorate commenced October 1, 

1871, and continued until January, 1883. He 
then removed to Nashville, Tenn., where he be- 
came pastor of the First Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church. His labors in that city were crowned 
with most gratifying success, but a severe attack 
of nervous prostration caused him to resign his 
charge in October, 1887. Believing that his health 
would be benefited by removing to a smaller 
place, he came to Salem in 1887, and has since 
been pastor of the church here. 

The lady whom Mr. Sprowls married April 16, 

1872, was formerly Miss Elizabeth N. Widney, who 
is a highly accomplished lady, being a graduate of 
the Female Seminary at Waynesburg, Pa. Her 
parents were Dr. John R. and Elizabeth (Boggs) 
Widney, the former a native of Baltimore, Md., a 
graduate of the Jefferson Medical College of Phil- 
adelphia and for many years a practitioner in . 
Pennsylvania. Mr. and Mrs. Sprowls are the par- 
ents of two children, Carl Widney and Harold 
Leigh. 

Socially Mr. Sprowls is a member of the Masonic 
order, and is Chaplain of the blue lodge and chap- 
ter of Salem. He is also identified with the Nash- 
ville Commandery No. 1, K. T., of Nashville, Tenn., 
and filled the office of Grand Prelate of the Grand 
Commandery of the state of Tennessee in 1885-86. 
He is also a member of the Royal Arcanum. Dur- 
ing the years 1889-91 he filled the Chair of Hebrew 
and the Evidences of Christianity in the Waynes- 
burg (Pa.) College, in which responsible position he 
rendered distinguished service. In the spring of 



356 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD 



1883 the degree of D. D. was conferred upon him 
by the Cumberland University of Lebanon, Tenn. 
One of the most active workers and prominent 
ministers in his denomination, Dr. Sprowls is 
recognized as an influential factor in its progress, 
and in all the assemblies and synods of the church 
his advice is consulted and his opinion on impor- 
tant subjects referred to. Frequently he has been 
offered a professorship or the presidency of some 
educational institution connected with the de- 
nomination, but with the exception above men- 
tioned he has always declined the proffered honor. 
In the denominational periodicals he maintains a 
deep interest, and is an occasional contributor of 
articles connected with the work of the church. 
Both in the pulpit and in private life he is a faith- 
ful and earnest champion of the truths of Chris- 
tianity, and by his honorable life and kindly deeds 
has proved himself to be a consistent disciple. To 
the poor he is a friend, and the destitute never 
appeal to him in vain. 



C= :< 



&jjh NDREW J. INGLETT. Perhaps nowhere 
(@/L|[J in the county are stronger evidences of 

II It good taste to be seen than on the fine 
<^j farm of the gentleman above named. 
The dwelling is a roomy structure, presenting an 
appearance of home cheer and unpretentious pros- 
perity. The various outbuildings are conveniently 
arranged and arc adequate for their respective 
purposes, while fields and gardens are neatly kept 
and thoroughly cultivated. Mr. Inglett is at present 
residing on section 12, Bald Hill Township, Jeffer- 
son County, where he has one of the finest estates 
in southern Illinois, comprising three hundred and 
twenty acres of finely improved land. 

The immediate progenitors of our subject were 
John and Clarinda (McLaughlin) Inglett, natives 
respectively of England and Maine. The father 
resided in the Mother Country until reaching his 
wenty-fifth year, when he set sail for America, and 
on landing here made his way directly to Illinois 



and located in Shawneetown. There he met and 
married Miss Lambert, who died very soon after 
their union, and some years later Mr. Inglett was 
married to the mother of our subject, the cere- 
mony being performed in January, 1842. 

John Inglett enlisted as a soldier in the Mexi- 
can War and died in 1847, while in the service. 
His estimable wife survived him many years, pass- 
ing away in .November, 1875. Andrew J. pursued 
the usual course of study in the common schools 
of Jefferson County, and being possessed of natural 
intelligence and a desire to be well informed, has 
kept himself well posted regarding the events that 
are transpiring in the world. He was born No- 
vember 15, 1842, just fourteen miles from where 
he now makes his home. 

In August, 1862, our subject enlisted as a mem- 
ber of Company II, One Hundred and Tenth Illi- 
nois Infantry, and was mustered into service at 
Louisville, Ky. He participated with his regiment 
in engagements at Maulden Hill and Perryville, 
that state, during which conflict they were under 
the command of General Buell and later were 
transferred to Rosecran's corps. Mr. Inglett was 
captured at Rock House, Tenn., but was soon 
afterward parolled, and his term of service having 
then expired he returned home. 

Soon after arriving home our subject was mar- 
ried, in Nashville, Washington County, after which 
he went to St. Glair County, where he farmed for 
a year and then removed to Perry County, where 
he made his home for a short time. In 1865 we 
find him in this county, where he now ranks 
among the prominent and wealthy farmers and is 
the owner of three hundred and twenty acres of 
land, which has been accumulated solely through 
his own efforts. 

The lady who became the wife of our subject 
April 3, 1863, was Miss Susan A.,. daughter of 
William and Emily (Youngblood) Wilson, natives 
respectively of South Carolina and Georgia. By 
their union Mr. and Mrs. Inglett have become the 
parents of the following eight children: John W., 
at home; Charles P., who married Annie E. Man- 
nen and resides in this county; George E., who 
also resides with his parents; Linnie L., the wife of 
William Dalby, of this county; Daniel O., Lettie 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



359 



P., Raymond J. and Lyda E., who make their 
homes under the parental roof. 

Not only has Mr. Inglett pursued his chosen 
culling with energy and brought to bear upon it 
a high degree of intelligence, but he has manifested 
an almost equal amount of zeal for the public 
welfare. lie may be counted upon to bear a part 
in every worthy enterprise which is promulgated 
in the neighborhood, being particularly interested 
in the advancement of the cause of education. 
This is recognized by his fellow-citizens, who have 
bestowed upon him the olHce of School Director. 
He has also served as Highway Commissioner, and 
in politics votes the straight Democratic ticket. 



ENJAMIN F. RODGERS, M. D., who is one 
of the prominent physicians and surgeons 
of Marion County, was born in York. York 
County, Pa., September 13, 1829. He is 
the son of Joseph and Mary (Hamilton) Rodgers, 
the former of whom was born in Fairfax County, 
Va., in 1783. His father, the grandfather of our 
subject, was named John Rodgers, and served as 
Major of his regiment during the Revolutionary 
War. 

Joseph Rodgers was reared on his father's farm 
near Fairfax Courthouse, Va., and at the latter's 
death, when a division of the property was made, 
he was found to be the owner of a large number 
of slaves. From Virginia he went to Hagerstown, 
Md., where he married, and soon thereafter re- 
moved to York, Pa., where he became one of the 
wealthy agriculturists of the county. In 1836 he 
came further west, this time locating near Circle- 
ville, Ohio, where he followed his former occupa- 
tion. While residing in the above place his death 
occurred, March 6, 1847. He was a soldier in the 
War of 1812, and was present at the battle of 
Utah Springs. 

On his father's side our subject is descended 
from John Rodgers. whom it will be remembered 
was a martyr and burned at the stake. He also 
traces his ancestry back to another John Rodgers, 



cutler to their majesties of England, and to the 
Rodgers of early United States navy fame. The 
family is remarkable for longevity, their average 
life being ninety-two years. 

The mother of our subject was born in Hagers- 
town, Md., and was the daughter of Robert Ham- 
ilton, who was the younger son of the Duke of 
Hamilton, and a native of County Armagh, Ire- 
land. Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Rodgers were mar- 
ried in 1811, and became the parents of a family 
of eleven children, five of whom are living, 
namely: Mary A., the wife of Gottlieb Diffenderfer, 
of Lancaster County, Pa.; Sarah, the wife of Jacob 
Godfrey Smith, of Hagerstown, Md.; Henry II., the 
proprietor of an hotel in Trenton, Tenn.; Benja- 
min, of this sketch, and Charlotte J., the wife of 
William T. Anderson, a farmer of Patoka Township. 

Our subject grew to mature years and received 
a good education in Circleville, Ohio. Having 
decided to become a physician, in 1848 he began 
his professional studies, reading medicine with Dr. 
Samuel Porter. In October of the succeeding year 
he came to Belleville, this state, and after remain- 
ing in that place for a twelvemonth went to Ste- 
phensburg, Ilardin County , Ky., where hecon tinned 
to make his home until 1856. In that year he re- 
turned to Illinois, locating in Jacksonville, where 
he was residing at the outbreak of the Civil War. 

In September, 1861, Mr. Rodgers organized Bat- 
tery K, Second Illinois Light Artillery, of which 
he was elected Captain, and with it was sent to the 
front. In January, 1862, he was put in command 
of the mortar boats, and on going to Ft. Donelson, 
participated in the battle at that place. After the 
surrender of the fort he was ordered to take his 
battery to Columbus, Ky., and his was the first 
battery to arrive after the evacuation by the enemy: 
Later, after the completion of some minor engage- 
ments and expeditions, Captain Rodgers was or- 
dered by General Dodge to take command of 
Captain Moore's company, together with his own 
battery, and proceed to Clarkton, Mo., and wipe 
out the guerrilla band. He surprised the enemy 
in camp on the morning of December 25, 1862, 
and by killing, capturing and wounding about 
eighty-four of their number, succeeded in routing 
their forces. While on this expedition Joe Stock- 



360 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



ton, afterward Gen. Joe Stockton, served under 
Captain Rodgers, with five companies from the 
Board of Trade of Chicago, forming the Seventy- 
second Regiment. 

After the evacuation of Memphis, in Jnne, 1862, 
our subject was ordered with his battery to that 
city, and was one of the first to arrive. There 
they remained in camp until the following No- 
vember, when they joined and participated in the 
expedition to Oxford, Miss. Returning to Mem- 
phis, March 6, 1863, they made that place their 
headquarters until May 9, when they were ordered 
to Vicksburg, and took part in the siege, which 
lasted forty-two days. During that time our sub- 
ject was placed on the staff of General Lauman,of 
the Fourth Division, Sixteenth Army Corps. 

After the surrender of Vicksburg, Captain Rod- 
gers went to Jackson, in besieging which city Gen- 
eral Lauman acted through a mistaken order and 
consequently his division was repulsed and four 
hundred and thirty-five of his men were killed in 
seventeen minutes. That General was retired, and 
General Crocker of Iowa was placed in command. 
Our subject was placed upon his staff as Chief of 
Artillery, and soon thereafter went with the divis- 
ion to Vicksburg, where they arrived July 27, 

1863, and recruited their forces until the following 
September, when they were ordered to Natchez, 
Miss. lu May, 1864, the entire division went to 
Atlanta, Ga., with the exception of Company K, 
which was retained at Natchez. General Gresham, 
of the Fifty-third Indiana, took command of that 
post, and Captain Rodgers was placed on his staff 
also as Chief of Artillery. 

During the summer of 1864, while General 
Crocker was in command of the forces at Natchez, 
expeditions were made to Fayetteville, Miss., Sicilv 
Island and Ilarrisburg, La. In August, 1864, Gen- 
eral Crocker was ordered to the front, and General 
Brayman of Illinois succeeded him as post com- 
mander at Natchez. Our subject was still retained 
on his staff, and to his other duties was added that 
of Ordnance Officer. He remained in that city as 
executive officer until mustered out, December 31, 

1864. The Captain was very popular with officers 
and privates alike, and was mustered out with a 
clear and meritorious record. 



November 3, 1848, Dr. Rodgers and Miss Mary 
C. Thiell were united in marriage. The lady is the 
daughter of Casper Thiell, who is editor of the 
Ohio Eagle, published at Lancaster. By this union 
were born seven children, four of whom are living, 
viz.: Clara, Mi's. J. E. McNeill, of Patoka; Kate, 
Mrs. W. R. Smith, also of that city; Maggie, the 
wife of Charles Stephenson, of the above city, and 
Inez, Mrs. George Webster, residing in Indianapo- 
lis, Ind. Those deceased are, Ida, Emma and 
Adele. 

Dr. Rodgers has been engaged in the practice of 
medicine in Patoka for twenty-six years. He ranks 
high among the medical fraternity, and is highly 
regarded by all who know him. Socially, he is a 
prominent member of William A. Smith Post, G. 
A. R., of which he is Commander. In his political 
relations he is a stanch Republican. 



JUDGE WILLIAM P. WHITE. For nearly 
forty years a resident of Centralia, Mr. 
White has been closely identified with its 
growth and an unceasing contributor to 
its material development. He has been Justice of 
the Peace for a number of years, and at the pres- 
ent time is a member of the Board of Education. 
He is a prominent real-estate and insurance agent 
in the city, representing the Caledonia Company 
of Scotland. 

Our subject was born near Rochester, Monroe 
County, N. Y., January 4, 1827, and is the son of 
George K. White, a native of England, who came 
to America about 1820 and made location in the 
above county in New York. He was married in 
the Old Country to Miss Elizabeth Warrant, who 
died shortlj' after making her home in the United 
States. Their family included two children, Mrs. 
Elizabeth Whitney, who lives near Madison, Wis., 
and George, who resides in Ionia County, Mich. 

George K. White was again married, the lady of 
his choice being Miss Eunice Goff, a native of 
Vermont. He continued to reside in Monroe 
County, where he carried on his business of a shoe 
merchant, until about 1830, when he removed with 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



361 



his family to Seneca County, Ohio, and was there 
the proprietor of a shoe store until 1844. We 
later find him a resident of Kent County, Mich., 
where his death occurred in 1856; his good wife 
had preceded him to the better land, dying in 
Seneca County, Ohio, in 1840. While a resident of 
Michigan the elder Mr. White was engaged in 
business and also took a very active part in local 
affairs, serving for many years as Justice of the 
Peace. He was a thorough Christian and was a 
Deacon in the Baptist Church for over forty years. 
The mother of our subject was likewise connected 
with that society. 

W. P. White had one sister, Louisa, who is now 
deceased. His mother had been married to Gil- 
man Brown prior to her union with George White, 
and by him reared a family of three children. Our 
subject was a lad of five 3'ears when his parents 
removed to Ohio, and in Seneca County he re- 
ceived his schooling. In 1844 he went to Ionia 
County, Mich., where he taught one term of school; 
he also attended one term of school, and altogether 
lived in Ionia County four years. In 1848 he 
came farther west, to Illinois, and locating in Will 
County, engaged in carpentering, which trade he 
had thoroughly mastered, and later spent two 
years in attendance at the high school in Plain- 
field. 

While a resident of the above place Mr. While 
was united in marriage with Miss Elvira, the 
daughter of Dr. Erastus White. The latter was 
born in New York, and was a prominent physician 
in Plainfield. In 1855 our subject removed to 
Piano, this state, and in 1857 came from there to 
Centralia. He purchased a farm in Brookside 
Township, Clinton County, about four miles west 
of the city, and this he improved and resided upon 
until 1878, when he moved into the city and be- 
gan contracting and building, which occupation he 
followed until his election to the office of Justice 
of the Peace in the spring of 1893. He still owns 
his valuable farm of three hundred acres, which is 
under an admirable state of cultivation and de- 
voted mostly to raising grain and fine grades of 
stock. 

To Mr. and Mrs. White were born five children, 
only two of whom are living, George and Rosa. 



The former is carrying on the old homestead, and 
Rosa is now the wife of J. II. Jones, and makes her 
home in Terre Haute, Ind. The children who are 
deceased are, William, F'red and Frank. 

Our subject has voted with the Republican party 
since its organization, and keeps himself thor- 
oughly posted on local and national affairs. He has 
been Supervisor for six years, and has filled many 
important positions within the gift of his fellow- 
citizens. He was Chairman of the Republican 
Central Committee of his township while living in 
Clinton County. He is an active member of the 
Baptist Church, and is now filling the office of 
Deacon. 



J^l\ ELPHUS E. DRUM, local editor of the 
||V Sentinel, at Centralia, is especially fitted 
I la for the position which he holds, and 
through his efforts the business of the 
paper has greatly increased. Mr. Drum was born 
July 30, 1854, in Greene County, this state, and 
is the son of John and Theodosia (Mclvin) Drum, 
the former of whom is also a native of the above 
county, and was born in 1835. 

The father of our subject was a farmer by occu- 
pation, and at his death, which occurred in July, 
1891, left a valuable estate. He was an ardent 
Democrat in politics, and in his religious belief 
was a Missionary Baptist. His wife preceded him 
to the better land, dying in September, 1889; she 
was likewise a Baptist in religion. 

Melphus E., of this sketch, was the eldest in the 
parental family of eight children, his brothers and 
sisters being named respectively, Finis, William, 
Henry, Milus, John, Albert and Rufus. Of those 
who are living, John and Albert are engaged in 
farming in the state of Oregon, and Rufus resides 
in Bushnell, 111. 

The early life of our subject was passed on his 
father's farm, and his education was conducted 
in the common and high schools of Greenfield. 
When reaching his majority he entered the Gazette 
office at Carrollton, and for three years served an 
apprenticeship at the printer's trade. At the end 



362 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



of that time, being fully qualified to conduct a 
paper of his own, young Drum went to Carlyle, 
this state, and purchased the plant of the Constitu- 
tion and Union from his old employer, T. D. Price, 
now of the Gazette. Mr. Drum then formed a 
partnership with II. Case, an old newspaper man, 
to whom he sold his interest in June, 1880. He 
then edited and published the Carlyle News for 
the succeeding two years with fair success. 

After disposing of the News, our subject came 
to Centralia, in 1883, and accepted a position on 
the Weekly Democrat. In November of that year, 
the Daily Times was established by J. R. Caskey, 
by whom our subject was offered the position of 
foreman of the composing room, and later was 
made local editor. The following February the 
plant was sold to the proprietors of the Sentinel, 
and Mr. Drum being thus thrown out of work 
went to Odin and conducted the Journal for 
three years. In 1887 he returned to Centralia 
and formed one of the editorial staff of the Senti- 
nel, with which paper he is still connected. 

November 26, 1881, Melphus E. Drum and Miss 
Ida B., daughter of William S. and Annie (Mc- 
Gurdy) Marriott, were united in marriage. Mr. 
and Mrs. Marriott were natives of Canada, and 
were residing in Carlyle at the time of their 
daughter's marriage. The union of our subject 
and his wife has been blessed by the birth of one 
daughter, Helen V. In politics Mr. Drum is an 
active, enterprising Republican. Socially, he be- 
longs to Camp No. 397, M. W. A., at Centralia. 



JOSEPH DROLL is proprietor of a well 
known summer resort of Marion County, 
having an elegant and commodious resi- 
dence on section 13, Brookside Township, 
just outside the city limits of Centralia. He was 
born in Baden, Germany, June 24, 1827, and is a 
son of Casper Droll. His father was born in Baden 
and was the only son of Joseph Droll, Sr., a Ger- 
man farmer. Upon the old homestead he was 
reared and there married Theresa Myer, daughter 



of Philip Myer, by whom he had seven children. 
Barney, who resides in St. Louis County, Mo., and 
Joseph are the only ones living in this country. 
The parents both spent their en tire lives in Baden, 
where the father followed farming, and with the 
Roman Catholic Church they hold membership. 

Our subject spent his boyhood and youth in his 
native land, and after acquiring his education in 
the village school of Steinbock and attaining to 
mature years, he was there married to Elizabeth, 
daughter of Leopold Rheinbold, who was also a 
farmer of Baden. Mr. Droll then purchased a 
house, and his father gave him some land, which 
he operated for three years, when he determined 
to try his forture in America. In 1853 he sailed 
for the New World, and in January, 1854, landed 
in New Orleans, after a voyage of two months. He 
then made his way to St. Louis. He had neither 
friends nor acquaintances in this country, but 
after a time he made arrangements to carry on 
a boarding house for the railroad contractors at 
Big Muddy, where he remained until July of the 
same year. 

Mr. Droll then came to Centralia, where he car- 
ried on a boarding house for the men on the Illi- 
nois Central Railroad. After a time he became 
proprietor of the Centralia House, and at length 
opened his present establishment. He first pur- 
chased three acres of land, for which he paid #500, 
and afterward bought an adjoining tract of three 
acres. He set out two acres in grapes and planted 
about two hundred apple and peach trees. He 
erected a fine house, which he now conducts as a 
beer garden and summer resort. In it is a fine 
hall 40x60 feet, which is one of the most popular 
resorts in the county. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Droll were born four children, 
but only one is now living, Mary, wife of Law- 
rence Hoffman, of Centralia, by whom she has 
four children, Joseph, Ida, Lena and Elizabeth. 
When our subject and his wife came to Centralia, 
the town was very small and none of its present 
inhabitants were then living within its borders. 
He has been prominently identified with many of 
its leading interests and enterprises. He was one of 
the first stockholders of the Centralia Fair Asso- 
ciation, the Centralia Mining and Manufacturing 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



Company, and the gas company. He is also a 
stockholder in the Centralia Iron and Nail Works, 
the Exchange Bank, and the St. Louis Insurance 
Company. In politics he is a Democrat, and so- 
cially is an Odd Fellow, belonging to both the 
subordinate lodge and encampment. He is now 
serving as Past Grand of the local lodge. Mr. 
Droll is now recognized as one of the substan- 
tial citizens of Centralia, a position which he has 
attained through his own well directed efforts, for 
when he came to Centralia he had no capital. 



ICHAEL J. HELM was in 1890 elected 
Sheriff of Marion County, carrying every 
township with the exception of three, 
and that, too, against a most popular op- 
ponent and an older politician. Mr. Helm is the 
son of John Helm, who was born in Fayette 
County, this state, in 1835, and who in turn was 
the son of Jesse Helm, a native of North Caro- 
lina. The latter reared a family of eight chil- 
dren: John, Josiah, Wiley, Carroll, Needham, 
Tabitha, Augusta and Drupina. The lady who 
became the mother of these children was Miss 
Dollie Burkett, who came from South Carolina to 
Illinois with her parents in a very early day. 

The maiden name of our subject's mother was 
Mary Jane Justice. She was a native of this coun- 
ty and the daughter of Michael and Sarah (Wil- 
kins) Justice, the former a native of Tennessee, 
and the Jatter born in Illinois. Mr. Justice came 
to Illinois in 1838, locating near Foxville, in Haines 
Township. He was the son of Ezra Justice and 
has the following sons residing in Marion County: 
Abraham, Robert and Larkin. Another son, Ben- 
jamin, makes his home in Iowa, and Joseph died 
of wounds received in the Civil War. 

The parents of our subject, John and Mary 
Jane (Justice) Helm, were married in Marion 
County and located in Haines Township, where 
they improved a raw tract of land. They reared 



a family of eight children, of whom those living 
besides our subject are 'Squire Benjamin, Anna 
D., Noah S., Atkie Gertrude and Ernest. They 
are devout members of the Christian Church, and 
in the congregation at Williams' Grove the father 
holds the positions of Elder and Trustee. John 
Helm has alwaj-s been a stanch Democrat in poli- 
tics, and at all times takes an , active part in the 
various enterprises calculated to prove of benefit 
to the community. 

Michael J. Helm, of this sketch, was born Octo- 
ber 4, 1859, in Haines Township, Marion County. 
He attended the district school near his home and 
also was a student for some time in the academy 
at Savannah, Mo. He began to make his own 
way in the world when reaching his twelfth year 
by working out on farms. While residing in Mis- 
souri, he held a position in a warehouse for some 
time, and on returning to this county, when nine- 
teen years of age, attended school until reaching 
his majority. 

In March, 1881, Mr. Helm was united in mar- 
riage with Miss Belle Retta, daughter of Samuel 
P. and Clara (Kinney) Hill. The father was a 
son of William Hill, whose parents were among 
the earliest settlers in Marion County. Mr. Hill 
was a prominent farmer in this section and died in 
1893, while residing in Missouri, whither they had 
removed. Mis. Hill is still living and makes her 
home in Haines Township. 

Mrs. Helm was born in May, 1864, and after her 
union with our subject located with him in the 
above township, where they were engaged in farm- 
ing pursuits until the spring of 1 87. That year 
they took up their abode in Salem, with whose 
interests Mr. Helm is prominently identified. Of 
the four children born of their marriage, two are 
living, Ida Ethel and Dora Edith. Mrs. Helm de- 
parted this life in 1888, greatly mourned by a host 
of old-time friends. 

The lady to whom our subject was married in 
December, 1890, was Miss Lola D., the daughter 
of Oliver J. and Anna (Chew) Hays, old resi- 
dents of Stevenson Township, Marion Count}', 
where they still reside. Mrs. Helm was born in 
luka Township in 1866, and by her union with 
our subject has become the mother of two daugh- 



364 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



ters, Clara and Ula. She is a thoroughly good 
woman and is prominently identified with the 
Christian Church. 

Socially, Mr. Helm is an Odd Fellow, and has 
occupied all the chairs of his lodge. A life-long 
Democrat, he has always taken an active part in 
politics, and when only twenty-one years of age 
was elected Constable of Haines Township, serv- 
ing a term of four years. At the expiration of 
his term of oflice he was re-nominated, much 
against his will, and was elected with an over- 
whelming majority, being the only candidate for 
any office elected on the Democratic ticket, every- 
thing else going to the People's party. In 1886 
he was a candidate for Township Assessor, defeat- 
ing one of the most popular Republicans in the 
county. 

Mr. Helm, who was a ver}' intimate friend of 
W. Scott Matthews, secured the latter's nomina- 
tion through the convention for Sheriff, to which 
position he was elected in the spring of 1886. 
Mr. Matthews was then subjected to great pressure 
by older politicians to appoint a deputy from 
the county seat. Hut he made answer that he 
knew a good man when he saw him and made 
his appointment accordingly, choosing our subject 
as his assistant. The latter discharged the duties 
of his position in a most acceptable manner and, 
indeed, has the best record of any deputy in the 
history of Marion County. 

In the spring of 1890 Mr. Helm received the 
nomination on the Democratic ticket for the re- 
sponsible position of Sheriff, and although there 
were three candidates in ttie field, secured the 
election by one of the largest majorities of later 
years. After being installed in his new office, 
Mr. Helm appointed as his deputy his opponent 
in the Democratic Convention. Since his incum- 
bency of the office of Sheriff, Mr. Helm has con- 
ducted affairs in such a worthy manner that even 
those who are opposed to him in politics say of 
him that he is the best Sheriff this county has 
ever had. Although he devotes the greater part 
of his time to his official position, yet our sub- 
ject has found opportunity to superintend the 
operations of his fine farm of two hundred acres, 
located in Salem and Ilaines Townships. He is 



also a stockholder in the Centralia Railroad, and 
is liberal in his contributions to all public enter- 
prises. He is pre-eminently a self-made man and 
is now favorably spoken of as a candidate for the 
office of County Treasurer. 



IREDILL WALTON, the owner and occupant 
of two hundred and forty-eight acres of excel- 
lent farming land in Foster Township, is a 
native of Marion County and was born November 
10, 1838, in Patoka Township. He is the son of 
George II. and Mary (Terry) Walton, the former 
of whom was born in Virginia in 1801. When four 
years old George was taken by his parents to Gal- 
latin, Tenn., where they were large slave holders. 
There he grew to mature years and received such 
schooling as the times afforded. 

In 18 19 George II. Walton came on a prospecting 
tour to Illinois, but did not decide at once to locate 
here. Returning to Gallatin, Tenn., he removed 
his family to Union, Franklin County, Mo., where 
he lost all his earthly possessions by a flood. In 
1837 he came to Marion County and entered 
eighty acres of land, on which he carried on his 
farming operations until his decease, in July, 
1852, from cholera. His wife, son, daughter and 
son-in-law also died the same year from that 
dread disease. 

The parental family included seven children, 
four of whom are living, namely: Agnes F., Nancy 
B., Joel T. and our subject. Joel T. was teaching 
school on the outbreak of the Civil War, but on 
the call for more volunteers, in August, 1862, he 
joined Company D, One Hundred and Eleventh 
Illinois Infantry, and after minor expeditions and 
skirmishes went to the front and participated in 
the battles of Resaca, Dallas, Kenesaw Mountain 
and Atlanta. He was captured at the latter place 
and taken a prisoner to Andersonville, where he 
was held in confinement until the close of the war. 

The parents of our subject dying when he was 
a lad of thirteen years he went to live with an 
elder sister, with whom he remained until the fall 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



365 



of 1858, in the meantime working out on neigh- 
boring farms during the summer. In the winter 
months he attended the district school and gained 
such an education as the times afforded. In 1859, 
having purchased a small tract of land, he engaged 
in farming on his own account, and a year later 
was enabled to buy his sister's interest in the old 
homestead, which he subsequently traded for his 
present fine estate. 

July 1, 1858, Iredill Walton was united in mar- 
riage with Miss Louisa, the daughter of Andrew 
Foster, and to them has been born a family of 
eleven children, all of whom are living and bear 
the respective names of Arthur Monroe, Elizabeth 
R., Rachel C., Lillian A., Orville T., Effie J., Abba, 
William, Edna N., Delia L. and Robert L. 

Mr. Walton is a stanch Democrat in politics and 
for the past ten years has been Treasurer of the 
School Board in Foster Township. He was also 
the incumbent of that position for 'the same length 
of lime while residing in Patoka Township. He 
has been School Director, Assessor and Clerk of 
his township for a term of one year each, and on 
numerous occasions has served as Road Commis- 
sioner. Mr. Walton acted as guardian for four 
years of the family of the late David Nichols, of 
Foster Township. He is regarded as one of the 
foremost men of this section of Marion County 
and commands the respect of all with whom he 
comes in contact. His family are all members of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, and in the con- 
gregation near his home our subject has been 
Class-leader, and for about fifteen years has filled 
the responsible office of Steward. 



JOHN S. HARVEY, SR., who for over twelve 
years has been Justice of the Peace in Odin 
Township, Marion County, is at present re- 
siding on section 32, where he has a well 
cultivated farm of one hundred acres. He is a na- 
tive of the Empire State, having been born in 
Broome County, October 3, 1812. He is the son 
of Solomon and Polly (Stearns) Harvey, natives 



respectively of Rhode Island and Massachusetts. 

The paternal grandfather of our subject was a 
soldier in the Revolutionary War, and later par- 
ticipated in the conflict of 1812. The father of 
Mrs. Polly Harvey, John Stearns, was captain of a 
regiment during the Revolutionary War, and also 
fought in the War of 1812. He was a farmer by 
occupation, and located on the Western Reserve in 
Ohio, where lie became very wealthy, and on his 
death, which occurred at the remarkable age of 
ninety-four years, his children inherited valuable 
farms. He was prominent in his locality, and for 
many years was Justice of the Peace. 

Solomon Harvey received his education in the 
common schools, and remained with his parents 
until ready to establish a home of his own. He 
was married in the Bay State, after which the 
young couple removed to Broome County, N. Y., 
where they entered land from the Government. 
In 1816 the elder Mr. Harvey disposed of his 
property in New York, and going to Ohio was one 
of the first to locate in Brunswick Township, Me- 
dina County. There he purchased a small tract 
of timber land and made his home among the In- 
dians, whose children were our subject's only play- 
mates. The father died while on a visit to this 
state, when in his eighty-sixth year. He was a 
Jacksonian Democrat in politics, and was well 
known and respected by all who knew him. 

John S. Harvey, of this sketch, was educated in 
the common schools of Ohio, and remained on the 
home farm until reaching his seventeenth year, 
when he engaged as traveling salesman. Then go- 
ing to Akron he engaged in the mercantile busi- 
ness in 1836 on his own account, and for five 
years carried on a very flourishing trade. Janu- 
ary 16, 1840, he was married to Miss Sarah B., 
daughter of Dr. Jesse P. and Phebe (Gerard) Car- 
penter. The father of Mrs. Harvey was the son 
of Joseph and Bethia (Babcock) Carpenter; and 
her mother was the daughter of John and Sarah 
(Church) Gerard. 

The wife of our subject was born in Milton, Vt., 
May 12, 1816. Her father, who was a prominent 
physician, practiced medicine for a half-century. 
He moved to Akron, Ohio, in 1843, where he died. 
To Mr. and Mrs. Harvey has been born a family 



366 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



of seven children, namely: George P., Carrie C., 
Mary M., Jennie, John S., Jr., Sarah T. and Will- 
iam C., the latter of whom is deceased. 

After selling out his stock in Akron, our subject 
was engaged in manufacturing stoves and castings 
in that city for several years. Later finding a 
better home for that branch of business in Cincin- 
nati, he moved his stock of goods thither and con- 
tinued to reside there until his removal to Illinois, 
in 1861. On locating in this state Mr. Harvey 
purchased land where he now lives in Marion 
County, and owns at the present time one hun- 
dred acres of as finely improved land as is to be 
found within the limits of the county. Mr. and 
Mrs. Harvey are devoted members of the Congre- 
gational Church. Socially, the former is a Mason, 
belonging to the lodge at Centralia, and in poli- 
tics always votes with the Democratic party. 



OSCAR V. PARKINSON. One of the most 
prominent mercantile establishments of Cen- 
tralia is that of Parkinson & Hartman, at 
No. 106 East Broadway. Since the formation of 
the present partnership, February 1, 1889, the 
house has enjoyed a lucrative trade, to which they 
are justly entitled by the uniform fairness of their 
business transactions and the courtesy displayed to 
customers. They carry in stock a complete assort- 
ment of dry goods, carpets, cloaks, etc., and oc- 
cupy two floors, the first being devoted to general 
merchandise, and the second to carpets and cloaks. 
Steady employment is given to nine clerks and a 
cashier. 

The success attained by this mercantile house is 
largely due to the efforts of the senior partner, 
who although still a young man, lias had long and 
varied experience in business and is thoroughly 
competent to successfully carry on a large enter- 
prise. Mr. Parkinson has spent his entire life in 
Centralia, where he was born June 25, 1861. He 
is of Scotch-Irish descent. His great-grandfather 
was a native of Scotland, whence he emigrated to 
the United States and settled in South Carolina, 
where the grandfather, Hugh Parkinson, was born. 
From that state the latter removed to Illinois, and 



located in Centralia during the latter part of the 
'50s. With the assistance of his sons he built the 
old South Town (now the Johnson) Mill, and pre- 
vious to that he established a mill at Walnut Hill, 
Marion County. He remained a resident of Cen- 
tralia until his death. 

William M. Parkinson, our subject's father, was 
born in Tennessee, and was a young man when lie 
came to Marion County and settled at Walnut 
Hill. At that place he engaged in the milling 
business, which was carried on under the firm 
name of Hugh Parkinson & Sons. In this county 
he married Miss Sarah A. Cunningham, daughter 
of Mathew Cunningham, a native of Ireland. He 
emigrated to this country while quite a young man. 
First locating in South Carolina, he afterward re- 
moved to Marion Count}', 111., being one of its 
earliest settlers. During the Civil War Mr. Parkin- 
son enlisted as a private in the Union army and 
afterward was promoted to the rank of Captain of 
Company B, Eighth Louisiana Colored Regiment. 
He died in the hospital at Milliken's Bend, La., at 
the age of thirty-two years. In politics he was a 
Republican, and served as Alderman and in other 
positions of trust. In religious connections he was 
identified with the Covenanter Church. At his 
death he left a wife and two children, Oscar V. 
and Zettie F., all of whom -are residents of Cen- 
tralia. 

The only son of the family, Oscar V., received a 
good education in the public schools and the Cin- 
cinnati Business College. Upon leaving school he 
entered the employ of W. McKnight, and contin- 
ued as a clerk in his dry-goods store for about 
twelve years. Later, entering business for himself, 
he formed a partnership with W. II. Cullimore, 
the firm title being Parkinson & Cullimore. Six 
months later A. D. Bailey purchased Mr. Culli- 
more's interest, and after eighteen months Mr. 
Bailey's interest was bought by E. A. Hartman, 
whose connection with the firm still continues. 
For several years the firm has occupied the M. C. 
Kell Building, where they have fitted up one of 
the most elegant and complete establishments of 
the city. 

In 1887 Mr. Parkinson was united in marriage 
with Miss Mora E. Bumgardner, who was born and 







*^ 7 




PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



reared in Salem, 111., receiving an excellent educa- 
tion in the schools of that place and of St. Louis. 
The father of Mrs. Parkinson, Benjamin F. Bum- 
gardner, was at the time of her marriage a resident 
of St. Louis, and for eighteen years held the posi- 
tion of mail agent on the Ohio & Mobile Railroad. 
He is now engaged in business at Trinidad, Colo. 
Mr. and Mrs. Parkinson are the parents of two 
children, Charles B. and Benjamin W. 

Politically a Republican, Mr. Parkinson has for 
years been an active worker in his chosen party at 
Ccntralia, and for one term served as Alderman. 
Socially he is identified with the Knights of Honor, 
in which he has been Trustee; also with the Knights 
of Pythias, and is at the present time Chancellor- 
Commander of that fraternity. He and his wife 
are prominent members of the Presbyterian Church, 
in which he officiates as an Elder. 



PEAVLER, a worthy pioneer of 
Jefferson County, is one of the largest land 
owners of Spring Garden Township, of 
which he is an old settler, and no man within its 
limits is more highly esteemed than he. For many 
years he has been engaged in farming, and is well 
known as the owner of four hundred and fifty 
acres of land, which is situated on section 22. He 
likewise owns a mercantile establishment in Spring 
Garden Village which he purchased in 1893, but 
does not carry on the store himself, having en- 
gaged the services of a competent manager. 

Like many of the best residents of this county, 
our subject is a native of Tennessee, and was born 
in Sullivan County January 27, 1813. His par- 
ents, Jacob and Margaret (Stewart) Pcavler, reared 
a family of nine children, of whom he is the only 
jnember now living. The father was a Virginian 
by birth and a farmer by occupation. After re- 
moving to Tennessee, he left his family and en- 
listed in a Virginia regiment to seive during the 
War of 1812. His regiment was stationed at Nor- 
folk, which was threatened by the British, and 
while there Mr. Peavler contracted an epidemic 



which was raging among the soldiers, and from 
the effects of which he died while in the service. 
His good wife survived him five years, and on her 
decease the family became scattered. Grandfather 
Peavler emigrated from Germany to this country 
in an early day and settled in Virginia, where he 
remained until his death. 

Gabriel Peavler was a lad of ten 3 7 ears when he 
went to Kentucky and was bound out to learn the 
trade of a brick-layer and manufacturer. He re- 
mained there for about six years, after which he 
went to Clark County, Ind., and engaged in the 
brick business on his own account. Remaining 
there only a short time, however, he then removed 
to Greene, and later to Marion County, that state, 
and was employed in laying the brick on the state 
road from Indianapolis to Vandalia, 111. He re- 
mained in the Hoosier State until thirty-seven 
years of age, being engaged at various times at 
his trade, in farming, and conducting a grocery 
store. 

In 1850 Mr. Peavler came to Illinois, and for 
about six years made his home near York, in Clark 
County. In 1856 he came to Jefferson County 
and made his home in Spring Garden Township, 
where he has since continued to reside. His first 
purchase of land here consisted of two hundred 
and eighty acres of unimproved property, which 
he lived upon and cultivated for a few years. In 
1866 he erected a store in Spring Garden and en- 
gaged in the mercantile business for about ten 
years. This enterprise, however, did not interfere 
with his farming pursuits, as he still owned and 
managed his fine estate and also engaged in brick 
making. 

In 1869 Mr. Peavler disposed of his mercantile 
business, and purchasing more land, engaged ex- 
tensively in stock-raising, now owning four hun- 
dred and fifty acres. In the fall of 1893 he again 
opened a store in Spring Garden, which is con- 
ducted by a man and his wife, who have been en- 
gaged by our subject to carry on the business. 
November 27, 1834, he was united in marriage 
with Miss Nancy, daughter of Alexander and Su- 
sannah (Turner) McKinney, who were Virginians 
by birth. Mrs. Peavler was one in a famity of 
fifteen children, and by her union with our subject 



370 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



lias become the mother of twelve children, only 
four of whom are living: W. Taylor, who makes 
his home in Iowa; G. N. Elmer, residing in North 
Dakota; Jane, the wife of James William Fitzger- 
ald; and Nancy Frances, Mrs. G. W. Wills, the 
two last-named being residents of Spring Garden 
Township. 

In early life Mr. Peavler voted the Whig ticket, 
and since the organization of the Republican party 
has been a stanch adherent of its principles. So- 
cially he has been for many years a member of 
Williams Lodge No. 242 I. O. O. F. He is in all 
respects a sincere, straightforward man of excel- 
lent habits and kindly disposition, and besides be- 
ing one of the representative citizens of his town- 
ship, also has the honor of being one of the oldest 
residents in this part of Jefferson County. 



HOMAS S. MARSH ALL, Cashier of the Salem 
National Bank, is a noted representative 
citizen, and a member of a family whose 
history was prominently identified with the up- 
building of this portion of Marion County. His 
father, Benjamin Franklin Marshall, was born July 
9. 1828, in Lincoln County, Tenn., and was the 
son of James Marshall, a native of Virginia. 

Grandfather James Marshall came to Illinois 
about 1834, and locating in Salem, was one of the 
prominent merchants of the place for over a quarter 
of a century. Later removing to Texas, he died 
at Ft. Worth, in 1881. The mother of our subject, 
whose maiden name was Miss Harriet Regina Jen- 
nings, was born December 24, 1831, near Walnut 
Hill, Marion County, this state. She was the daugh- 
ter of Charles W. and Maria (Davidson) Jennings, 
the former of whom was the son of Israel Jen- 
nings, one of the pioneers of this section. 

The parents of our subject were married in 1850, 
after which event they made their home in Salem. 
On the outbreak of the Mexican War, Benjamin F. 
Marshall was made Second Lieutenant of the First 
Illinois Infantry, and after going to Ft. Leaven- 
worth, Kan., marched with his regiment across the 



great American desert to Santa Fe , N. Mex. He 
remained in the army during the entire period of 
the war, being in the regiment with General Mar- 
tin, Judge Snyder, of Belleville, and John A. Logan. 

Returning home the father of our subject en- 
gaged in the mercantile trade for a number of 
years, and in the meantime, having carried on his 
law studies, was admitted to the Bar. Mr. Mar- 
shall was engaged in the practice of his profession 
until- the commencement of the Civil War, when 
he was elected Quartermaster, with the rank of 
First Lieutenant of the One Hundred and Eleventh 
Illinois Infantry, which was organized at Camp 
Marshall, on the Salem fair grounds. 

B. F. Marshall participated in all the battles of 
his regiment until before Florence, Ala., when he 
was obliged to leave the service on account of ill- 
health. Returning home he began the practice of 
law in partnership with Haynie & Gilbert, the firm 
name being Haynie, Marshall & Gilbert. The first- 
named gentleman was subsequently Adjutant-Gen- 
eral of the state, and Mr. Gilbert is now a member 
of the law firm of Green & Gilbert, of Cairo. 

In 1867 the father of our subject organized the 
Salem National Bank, of which he was unanimously 
chosen Cashier. He remained in that capacity for 
twenty-four years, or until his decease, which oc- 
curred March 14, 1891. He was a devoted mem- 
ber of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and aided 
greatly in the extension of religious work in the 
county. Socially, he was a Master Mason, and as 
an ardent temperance man was Treasurer of the 
Royal Templars' lodge, and voted the Prohibition 
ticket. He occupied the positions at different 
times of County Clerk, Circuit Clerk and County 
Judge. He was a very quiet, unassuming man, 
generous to a fault, and in the community where 
he so long made his home occupied a high position 
among its best residents. Mr. Marshall was always 
interested in schools, and when a member of the 
Board aided very materially in the erection of the 
fine school edifice. 

The parental family included seven children, all 
of whom are deceased with the exception of Oscar 
S. and our subject. The latter was born August 
19, 1864, in Salem, where he was graduated from 
the high school with the Class of '78. Later he en- 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



tered the Southern Illinois Normal, and in 1881, 
when receiving his diploma, was the youngest stu- 
dent to complete the course of study in the insti- 
tution, and was made valedictorian of his class. In 
the fall of that year it was his intention to enter 
Harvard or Yale, but on returning home during 
vacation he entered his father's bank, and was 
soon appointed Assistant Cashier, which position 
he held until the death of his father, when he was 
made Cashier. The bank has a paid-up capital of 
$50,000, and has had an exceptionally prosperous 
career, and is one of the most reliable in the state. 
October 26, 1887, Thomas S. Marshall was united 
in marriage with Miss Ella M., daughter of Capt. 
James S. and Millie (Green) Jackson. Mrs. Mar- 
shall was born February 9, 1870, in Salem, and 
completed her education in the high school of the 
city, being graduated in 1887. By their union 
have been born two daughters, Eugenia Jackson 
and Mary Louise. Mr. and Mrs. Marshall are de- 
vout members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
and in the congregation at Salem our subject is 
Trustee and Steward. He has been Superintendent 
of the Sunday-school for ten years and is very 
active in all the work of the church. He was 
President of the Epworth League for two years, 
and in 1893 was elected a delegate to the National 
League Convention, but was not permitted to at- 
tend. 

Mr. Marshall is a very prominent man in this 
community, and besides being a School Director, 
was a member of the City Council for four years. 
He is a Mason of high standing, and is connected 
with Marion Lodge No. 130, Salem Chapter No. 64, 
and Cyrene Commandery No. 23. He is Treas- 
urer of the blue lodge and chapter, and a member 
of the Royal Templars. He has been Treasurer 
and Vice-Councilor of the Grand Council, and is 
at present Grand Councilor of the state. In poli- 
tics he votes the Prohibition ticket, and in 1892 
was candidate for State Treasurer. He was a del- 
egate to the National Prohibition Convention held 
at Indianapolis, Ind., to which body his wife was 
also a delegate, and also represented his party in 
1892 at Cincinnati. He is Treasurer of the Salem 
Building and Loan Association, with which he has 
been connected since its organization. He is like- 



wise Director of the Salem National Bank, and as 
one of the prominent and representative citizens 
of the county, we are pleased to herewith present 
his sketch to our readers. 






eHARLES MILES, whose sketch now claims 
attention, is one of the highly esteemed 
gentlemen of Centralia, where he form- 
erly carried on a prosperous business as a black- 
smith. He was born across the water in Wales, 
June 20, 1820, and is the son of James Miles, who 
was born, reared and married in the above place. 

Mrs. Celia (Williams) Miles, the mother of our 
subject, also hailed from Wales, and reared a large 
family of eight children, three of whom are living. 
James Miles was a shoemaker in his native country 
and resided there until his decease, in 1825. His 
good wife survived him many years, dying in 
Wales in 1874, when in her seventy-fourth year. 

Charles, of this sketch, learned the trade of a 
blacksmith in Wales, and on coming to America, 
in 1850, first located in New Jersey, where he was 
engaged at his trade for about six months. Then 
going to Pottsville, Pa., he remained there only 
six weeks, when we next find him in Pittsburg. 
After numerous attempts to find a good opening 
for his line of work, Mr. Miles went to Cincinnati, 
Ohio, and made his home in that city until 1856, 
when he came to Centralia. 

While residing in the Queen City, our subject 
was married to Miss Mary, the daughter of David 
Jones, also a native of Wales, who came to America 
eleven years prior to the sailing of Mr. Miles. After 
his advent into this city, our subject engaged to 
work in the shops of the Illinois Central Railroad, 
and was in that company's employ for two years. 
Then joining a colony going to Pike's Peak, he 
entered the gold mines, but at the expiration of 
eleven months returned to Centralia. 

Five children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Charles Miles, three of whom are deceased. Celia 
lives at home with her father. Charles A., who 
is carrying on the Centralia Cider Mills, mar- 



372 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



ried Minnie Augustus and had three children, 
David and two deceased, Ruth and Ethel. Mr. 
Miles always votes with the Republican party, and 
during the late war was made foreman of the black- 
smith shops at Memphis, Tenn., in the navy yards 
of the Government. 

Charles Miles is a member of the Baptist Church 
and lias been a Deacon of that denomination for 
the past twenty years. He is one of the oldest 
residents of the city, and by its citizens is looked 
upon with great respect. He owns a twenty-seven- 
acre fruit farm in Centralia Township, upon which, 
besides cultivating the smaller fruits, he raises 
many bushels of fine apples. 



JD. WILLIAMS, who is a leading citizen of 
Mt. Vernon and a representative of one of 
the honored families of this locality, claims 
Illinois as the state of his nativity, for be 
was born in Pike County, September 24, 1841. He 
is now engaged in the real-estate business as a 
member of the firm of Williams Brothers, and is the 
eldest in a family of three children who grew to 
mature years. His grandfather, John Williams, 
was a native of Virginia and a lineal descendant 
of Roger William?. At one time he was an exten- 
sive slave-holder and became very wealthy. His 
last days were spent in Adams County, 111. 

Rev. W. T. Williams, father of our subject, was 
born in Mt. Sterling, Montgomery County, Ky., 
May 29, 1810. He was a fine classical scholar, who 
mastered Greek and other languages, and was for 
sixty years a minister, preaching for thirty years 
in the Methodist Church, and for the same length 
of time in the Christian Church. In 1838 he came 
to Illinois, and after filling pastorates at various 
places located on a farm north of Mt. Vernon, 
where he died November 19, 1891, in his eighty- 
first year. No one in southern Illinois ever did 
more to elevate his fellow-men than Mr. Williams, 
whose whole life was devoted to doing good. He 
had seven brothers and four sisters, all of whom 
grew to manhood and womanhood. Archibald, a 



lawyer of ability, served in the State Legislature 
and State Senate of Illinois, was a Member of Con- 
gress, and was appointed United States District 
Judge at Topeka, Kan., where he died in 1863. 
Wesley was the first Justice of the Peace and first 
County Clerk of Hancock County, 111.; Robert was 
a lawyer and served in the Legislature and State 
Senate; Washington was a Congregational minis- 
ter and died in Adams County, 111., in 1893, at the 
age of eighty-two years, and Joseph was a promi- 
nent physician of Kentucky. 

The mother of our subject bore the maiden 
name of Mary A. Westcott, and was born within 
thirteen miles of Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1833. Her 
father, John D. Westcott, was a leading merchant; 
he was noted for his piety, and for many years was 
Class-leader in the Methodist Church. His son, 
John W., was a prominent minister of the Methodist 
Church South, was a member of the Illinois Legisla- 
ture, and is now living in Xenia, 111. James West- 
cott has served as Sheriff of Jefferson County, and 
W. B. is a commission merchant of St. Louis. 

When six years of age J. D. Williams came to 
Jefferson County, and was reared upon his father's 
farm near Mt. Vernon. His education was ac- 
quired in the public schools, and at the age of 
eighteen he began teaching, which profession he 
followed until 1865. In the fall of that year he 
was elected Surveyor of Jefferson County and 
served three terms. In 1873 he was elected 
County Superintendent of Schools and filled the 
ottice thirteen years, since which time he has been 
engaged in the real-estate business. No higher 
testimonial of his faithfulness to public duty could 
be given than his long continuance in ottice. He 
discharged his duties with a promptness and fidel- 
ity which not only secured his re-election, but won 
the high commendation of all concerned. 

November 1, 1888, Mr. Williams married Mrs. 
Nancy W. Hensley, a widow, who was born in 
Hardinsburg, Ky., and is a daughter of William 
Clark, who graduated from Georgetown College 
and became a Christian minister of some note. Our 
subject is a Prohibitionist in politics, and is an 
Elder in the Christian Church. 

The only daughter of the Williams family, Mary, 
was born in 1854, and is now the wife of R. A. 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



373 



Morrison, who served as a soldier of the late war 
and now carries on farming two miles north of 
Mt. Vernon. 

W. T. Williams, the junior member of the firm 
of Williams Brothers, was bora in Greene County, 
111., February 6, 1846, and was only a year old 
when the family came to Jefferson County. In the 
usual manner of farmer lads he was reared. His 
early education was supplemented by study in an 
academy of Mt. Vernon, which was then taught by 
Col. Robert Ingersoll, who was then living in that 
city. At the age of seventeen Mr. Williams began 
teaching, and followed that pursuit until twenty- 
four years of age, when, in 1872, he was elected 
County Surveyor. This position he has contin- 
uously (Hied, covering a period of five terms. He 
has never been defeated for office and is one of 
the most popular olh'cials of the county. 

In 1870 W. T. Williams wedded Miss Irena B. 
.larell, a native of Mt. Veruon, and to them have 
been born seven children: Fannie, wife of Prof. 
J. D. McMeen, Principal of the Waltonville schools; 
Willie 1$., who is a deputy in his father's office; 
George, Maud, Mary, Albert and Gertrude. 

W. T. Williams is a Democrat in his political 
affiliations, and in his social relations is a Mason. 
The firm of Williams Brothers is conducting a 
most extensive real-estate business at Mt. Vernon. 
They are men of excellent business and executive 
ability and their foresight and sagacity, combined 
with industry and enterprise, have made them 
leaders in their line. 



llj_^ ON. NORMAN H. MOSS, one of Mt. Ver- 
Ijji, non's leading attorneys, who occupies a 
M? prominent position at the Bar of Jefferson 
((J3^ County, and is now serving as City Attor- 
ney, was born in Shiloh Township, four miles 
southwest of this place, March 25, 1856. His father, 
Capt. John R. Moss, was born in the same town- 
ship May 13, 1830. The grandfather, Ransom 
Moss, was born in Virginia May 7, 1798, and mar- 
ried Anna Johnson, who was born in Virginia 



May 6, 1798, within ninety miles of the city of 
Washington. She was a daughter of Rev. Lewis 
Johnson, a Methodist minister, who removed from 
Virginia to Tennessee, and in 1819 came to Illi- 
nois, locating four miles northwest of Mt. Ver- 
non April 28. The journey was made by team 
and he took up his residence near the old Moss 
homestead, so that the grandparents of our subject 
soon became acquainted, and on the 6th of July, 
1 822, they were married. She was his second wife. 
His death occurred August 2, 1835, and Mrs. Moss 
died in 1890, at the age of ninety-two. A short 
time before her death a picture of herself and four 
generations of her descendants was taken. She 
left one hundred and ninety-four descendants in 
all. 

Captain Moss, father of our subject, has followed 
farming and stock-raising throughout the greater 
part of his life, but a short time since removed to 
Mt. Vernon, where he is extensively engaged in 
the real-estate business. In the fall of 1861 he 
entered the army as Captain of Company C, Six- 
tieth Illinois Infantry, and served until -the 19th 
of December, 1862, when he resigned, and was 
discharged on account of failing health. The 
next year he was appointed enrolling officer for 
Jefferson County, preparatory to the draft, and is 
known as the "hero of Ft. Shipley." In the edge 
of Wayne County those opposed to the draft 
gathered and prepared to defend themselves. 
This retreat was known as Ft. Shipley, and it was 
a part of Captain Moss' duty to break up this 
gathering. For this purpose he called for one 
hundred soldiers, but as they did not reach him as 
soon as he wished he called for volunteers, and 
about one hundred good and true men responding, 
they stormed Ft. Shipley. This was in 1864 and 
the Captain had been appointed Provost-Marslml 
of the Eleventh District. When the war was over 
he returned home and engaged extensively in 
the breeding of fine stock. In 1879 he imported 
from Canada the first Cotswold sheep brought to 
Jefferson County. He served his township for 
several years as Supervisor, and in 1879 was 
elected to the Lower House of the Legislature of 
Illinois on the Greenback ticket. At the next 
election he was defeated, and in 1890 was nomin- 



374 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



ated by the People's party for State Senator, but 
the party was not strong enough to carry the dis- 
trict. Throughout life he has been an advocate 
of temperance principles and is a member of the 
Royal Templars of Temperance. For forty years 
he has been a member of the Methodist Church 
and has lived a consistent Christian life. 

On the 30th of January, 1850, Captain Moss 
married Miss PermeliaC., daughter of Rev. George 
W. Allen, one of the pioneers of Jefferson County, 
and a local Methodist preacher. His wife was a 
sister of Joel and Joseph Pace, who were very 
prominent in this county. The Moss family num- 
bered three sons and three daughters: Angus, an 
extensive stock dealer; Norman II., of this sketch; 
Addie, wife of Dr. John T. McAnally; Anna, wife 
of Ernest W. Neal, a traveling salesman ; Harry 
C., who is Principal of the high school in Marissa, 
St. Clair County, and a graduate of the Southern 
Illinois Normal College of Carbondale; and Sarah 
Grace, at home. 

Mr. Moss, whose name heads this record, supple- 
mented his early education acquired in the com- 
mon schools by study in the Southern Illinois 
Normal University. He afterward studied law 
and was admitted to the Bar in March, 1882. In 
1884 he was elected by the County Board to fill 
an unexpired term as State's Attorney, but in the 
election which followed he was defeated, for the 
county is overwhelmingly Democratic, and he is 
a strong Republican. He has often been the choice 
of his party for official honors. In 1886 he was 
the candidate for County Judge, and although he 
did not win election, his great popularity reduced 
the Democratic majority one-half. In 1888 he was 
again nominated for the office of State's Attorney 
and received the largest vote of any Republican 
on the ticket, leading Harrison and Fifer. In 
1890 he was appointed Census Supervisor for the 
Eighth District, embracing twenty counties in 
southern Illinois. In -1892 lie was nominated for 
Congress in the Nineteenth District and made a 
thorough and systematic canvass, and again he 
greatly reduced the opposing majority. On the 
temperance issue he was made City Attorney, his 
one object being to suppress the liquor traffic. 

In September, 1889, Mr. Moss married Mary C. 



McAnally, of Carbondale. She was graduated 
from the Southern Illinois Normal University, was 
a lady of superior education and culture, was for 
some years a teacher, and is now a member of the 
Board of Education of Mt. Vernon. She and 
Mrs. Dr. Plummer were elected to the Board, and 
j when their election was contested they took the 
case to the Supreme Court and won a victory for 
woman suffrage, this being a test case. To Mr. and 
Mrs. Moss has been born a son, Robert Allyn, who 
was named in honor of Professor Allyn, of the 
Southern Illinois Normal. Both Mr. and Mrs. 
Moss hold membership with the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church. Socially, he is a Royal Arch Mason, 
is a member of the Royal Templars of Temper- 
ance, having filled all the offices of that lodge, 
and was a delegate to the national convention in 
Buffalo in 1894. He is Past Chancellor of the 
Knights of Pythias lodge, is Past Captain of Gen. 
Lew Wallace Camp No. 142, S. V.,and was a dele- 
gate to the national encampment at Minneapolis 
in 1891. Mr. Moss is ever found on the side of 
right and order and is prominent in church, po- 
litical and social circles. His many excellencies of 
character and sterling worth have gained for him 
the high regard of all. 



Jf||'' J. HARTLEY carries on general farm- 
^r i ' n ^ an( ^ fruit-growing on section 16, 
IJ Is Grand Prairie Township, where he has 
%jjl one of the finest fruit farms of Jefferson 
County. He was born August 6, 1846, in this 
county, and is a representative of one of the pio- 
neer families of the community. His father, Hugh 
S. Hartley, was born March 11, 1806, in Monon- 
gahela County, Va., and in 1822 removed with his 
parents to Clark County, Ind. On attaining his 
majority he served an apprenticeship to the shoe- 
maker's trade, which he followed until the year 
1839. He married Miss Nancy Huckleberry, a 
daughter of Abraham Huckleberry, and to them 
were born nine children, four of whom died in 
early life. Those still living are Jolin W,, who is 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



375 



engaged in the hotel business in Decatur, 111.; 
J. E., a fruit-grower residing in Grand Prairie 
Township; Martha J., who makes her home with 
her brother J. R.; William A., a school teacher of 
Walnut Hill; and A. J., of Grand Prairie Town- 
ship. 

In 1840 Hugh Hartley located on section 33, 
Centralia Township, Marion County, but after a 
year took up his residence on section 16, Grand 
Prairie Township, Jefferson County, where he had 
purchased two hundred acres of land. This he at 
once began to improve and cultivate, and in an 
early day he also practiced medicine to some ex- 
tent. He was a member of the Methodist Church 
and was a charter member of the Odd Fellows' 
lodge which at an early day was organized at 
Walnut Hill. When Centralia was laid out the 
lodge was removed to that place. He served as 
School Director and School Trustee for some years 
and was a leading and influential citizen of the 
community, highly respected by all who knew him. 
He passed away September 10, 1871, and his wife 
was called to her final rest January 10, 1892. 

A. J. Hartley, whose name heads this sketch, 
acquired his education in the common schools, 
which he attended through the winter season, 
while in the summer months he worked upon a 
farm. He remained at home until twenty-four 
years of age, when, on the 22d of September, 1870, 
he was united in marriage with Miss Martha L., 
daughter of Eli Copple, a wealthy fanner residing 
near Centralia. Four children grace this union, 
Edward A., Gracie B., Ada A. and Bertha A., and 
all are yet at home. 

The young couple began their domestic life 
upon a rented farm on section 4, Grand Prairie 
Township, but in the spring of 1871 removed to 
their present farm, Mr. Hartley purchasing three 
hundred and six acres of valuable land. He built 
upon it a good residence and a small barn, but in 
the spring of 1887 the latter was replaced by a 
very large barn. This was struck by lightning in 
November, 1892, and in the fire, the barn, horses, 
machinery, hay and grain were all destroyed. The 
barn which he has since built is 42x62 feet and is 
one of the finest in the county. The land is well 
tilled and the rich and fertile fields yield to the 



owner a golden tribute. He is also extensively 
interested in fruit-growing, making a specialty of 
strawberries, apples and peaches. 

Mr. Hartley holds membership with Irvington 
Lodge No. 381, 1. O. O. F.,and is a member of the 
Farmers' Mutual Benefit Association and the 
Farmers' Protective Association. He formerly 
afliliated with the Democratic party but now is 
one of the active workers in the Populist part}-. 
In 1885 he was elected Supervisor, was re-elected 
in 1886 and served on some of the most important 
committees, lie has served as Assessor two terms, 
as Collector one term, Town Clerk one term and 
for fourteen years was School Treasurer. In the 
spring of 1893 he was elected on the Populist 
ticket as Justice of the Peace. His public duties 
were ever discharged with promptness and fidelity, 
for he was always true to the trust reused in him. 
He holds membership with the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church and has led an honorable, upright life, 
which has gained for him the high regard of all 
with whom he has been brought in contact. Mr. 
Hartley was a candidate for Supervisor in the 
spring of 1894, but he and his opponent receiv- 
ing the same number of votes, it was decided by 
a draw, which resulted in Mr. Hartley's defeat. 



M. FINLEY, M. D. This noted physician 
of Salem traces his lineage to one of seven 
brothers who emigrated to America from 
the North of Ireland prior to the Revolutionary 
War. Settling in Virginia, they were the found- 
ers of the family in the United States and gave 
to their descendants the heritage of an honorable 
name. All served in the war with England, ren- 
dering distinguished service on behalf of the Col- 
onies. It is worthy of note that all were profes- 
sional men, cultured and energetic. 

Grandfather Michael Finley removed from the 
Old Dominion to Tennessee and settled in the 
vicinity of Adairville, where he and his wife 
reared a family of eleven children, some of whom 
are now living in Bond County, 111. One of the 
sons, at the age of nineteen years, took an active 
part in the battle of New Orleans and fired over 



376 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



the breastworks seventeen times. He assisted in 
carrying the British dead and wounded from the 
field, and was for a time detailed for duty at the 
headquarters of Gen. Andrew Jackson. 

The father of our subject, the Rev. William 
Finley. was born in Tennessee, November 30, 
1800, and was reared upon a farm. In that state 
he married Elizabeth Ilutchings, who was born in 
Tennessee in 1798. Her father, John Hutchings, 
was a native of England and ran away from home, 
crossing the ocean to America. He was sold in 
South Carolina for his passage money. Afterward 
he went to Tennessee, and establishing his home at 
Goodrich, there remained until the great age of 
one hundred and four years, when he passed away. 
His occupation was that of a farmer. 

In 1819 the parents of our subject removed from 
Tennessee to Illinois and settled on Pleasant Prai- 
rie, Bond County, where the father entered a tract 
of unimproved land. In that early day wolves 
were numerous and other wild animals abounded, 
many of which furnished meat for the table of the 
pioneers. A man of earnest and pious nature, 
William Finley studied for the ministry with no 
other light than that of a hickory bark fire, but 
his industry was rewaided and he became the pos- 
sessor of a wide range of information, being espe- 
cially well informed upon topics connected with 
religion, lie entered the ministry of the Cumber- 
land Presbyterian Church, and continued to preach 
until his death, forty years later. 

Coming to Salem in the year 1844, William 
Finley organized the Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church about a year later, and also organized the 
Bethel Church in Stevenson Township, from which 
there have been two offshoots. He also assisted in 
the establishment of the churches at Omega and 
Kinmundy. As the pioneer preacher of Cumber- 
landism, he became widely and favorably known 
throughout Marion County, and such was his 
piety, his earnest nature and kindly disposition 
that 

"None knew him but to love him, 
None named him but to praise." 

Though a man of small frame, he was well pro- 
portioned and had a good physique. A man of 
tireless and indomitable energy, no danger ap- 



palled him; no hardship daunted his spirit. Fre- 
quently in meeting his appointments he was obliged 
to swim creeks, after which he would wring the 
water out of his clothes, remount and proceed 
upon his journey. At one time he reached home 
frozen to his saddle and it was necessary to un- 
loose, the saddle, take both into the house and 
thaw them out. Until a few years before his death 
he stood at the head of his denomination, and 
during his active ministerial career received more 
members into the church than any other preacher 
of that faith in the state. His death occurred No- 
vember 23, 1870, and his wife passed away six or 
seven years previous to his death. 

There were seven children in the family, three 
of whom are now living. Joel K., an attorney of 
San Francisco, Cal., married Marada Tulley, and 
they are the parents of live children: Jennie Edge- 
worth, Americus V., Douglas, Joel K., Jr., and 
Belle. Dicey is the wife of E. Hull, of Salem. 
Dr. Finley. of this sketch, was born at Pleasant 
Prairie, Bond County, 111., January 26, 1829, and 
at the age of fourteen years came to Salem. His 
education was secured in the schools of Bond 
County, Salem and Ilillsboro, this state. At the 
age of sixteen years he began to work upon a 
farm, receiving $8 per month. The following year 
he commenced to teach school at Bethel and for 
the seven years following he alternately taught 
and attended school. 

At the age of twenty-four years our subject was 
ordained to the ministry of the Cumberland Pres- 
byterian Church, and for a number of years fol- 
lowed that profession. In 1859, he was graduated 
from the Eclectic Medical College of Cincinnati, 
and such was his proficiency that he stood seventh 
in a class numbering fifty-two students. Opening 
an office at Salem, he has since conducted an ex- 
tensive and profitable practice covering this point 
and the country adjoining. He is the oldest prac- 
titioner at this place in point of time, having fol- 
lowed his profession here for thirty-Bve successive 
years. 

The Doctor's marriage occurred in 1851 and 
united him with Miss Lucy Houts, who was born 
in White County, 111., May 12, 1844. Her par- 
ents, the late John C. and Nancy (Spillman) Houts, 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



379 



came to Salem in 1844, and remained here until 
death. The Doctor and his wife are the parents 
of one child, Mary Ida, who is the wife of D. D. 
Shumway, of Taylorville, 111. There are three 
grandchildren, Glenn Finley, Hiram M. and Doris 
D., who are the pride and delight of the grand- 
parents. Mrs. Shumway, who received a good 
education in the high school at Salem, is an ac- 
complished and talented lady. 

As members of the Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church, the Doctor and his wife are prominent in 
religious enterprises, and he has been a frequent 
contributor to religious journals. In bis profes- 
sion he is a disciple of the Eclectic school, of which 
he was one of the pioneers in the county. For 
many years he favored the Democratic party, but 
for twelve years or more he has supported the Pro- 
hibition platform, and in the interests of that 
cause has made many speeches in this section. He 
has filled a number of important local positions, 
and was Justice of the Peace for a long time. 
During the period of his residence in Salem he has 
been a witness to its advancement and a contrib- 
utor to its progress, and while gaining a front 
rank among professional men, has also assisted in 
gaining for the city a prominent place among the 
flourishing towns of the county. 



JOSEPH HANKE, Mayor of the city of 
Trenton, is one of the most successful busi- 
ness men of the present day, and as such 
is worthy of honorable mention in this 
volume. A record of his life fully illustrates 
what may be accomplished by determined will and 
perseverance, for through his own efforts he has 
become one of the wealthy men of Clinton County, 
and is well and favorably known throughout this 
portion of the state. 

Like many of the best citizens of Illinois, our 
subject was torn in Bohemia January 30, 1820, 
and is the son of Francis and Maria Ann (Walter) 
Hanke. lie attended the model schools of his 
country until reaching his fourteenth year, at 
which time he was apprenticed to learn the mer- 
cantile business. He spent several years of his 
10 



life as clerk in a store and thus accumulated sev- 
eral hundred dollars, with which he went into 
business for himself. 

In 1850, imbued with the spirit of adventure, 
Mr. Hanke set sail for the New World, and after 
landing on American shores spent several weeks 
in the east, then went to St. Louis, where he pur- 
chased a horse, wagon and stock of goods and 
began business as a traveling merchant, selling 
his wares throughout St. Clair and Clinton Coun- 
ties. In 1854 he came to Trenton, when this now 
thriving place boasted only a postoffice and a 
few houses. He opened a store of general mer- 
chandise, which he has conducted up to the pres- 
ent time. His interest in this line, however, did 
not occupy all his time, and he entered and 
sold several tracts of land, and a year after com- 
ing here laid out an addition to the town. Thirty- 
four years ago he built the business house which 
he is still occupying, and which is one of the old- 
est and most reliable establishments of its kind in 
the place. Mr. Hanke is a man whose talents al- 
lowed him to conduct various lines of business, 
and besides being one of the leading merchants 
of the city, he has given material aid toward 
the promotion of the Trenton Coal Mine, which 
is one of the leading industries of the coun- 
ty. He is also interested in a grist mill, and 
from his various occupations reaps a handsome 
income. 

Joseph Hanke is one of the representative men 
of Clinton County, and by his energy and public 
spirit has aided greatly in the development of his 
adopted home. In politics he is a Republican of 
the progressive order. He was a meml>er of the 
first Board of Trustees of the town, and was Post- 
master during Lincoln's administration from 1861 
to 1865. In 1874 he was elected Supervisor of 
Sugar Creek Township, and has been re-elected to 
that position continuously to the present time. 
In recognition of his superior qualities as an ex- 
ecutive, he was made Chairman of the Financial 
Committee, and has always been intimately asso- 
ciated with the finances of Clinton County. At 
the time he took his place as a member of the 
Board the moneyed affairs of the county were in 
a very unsatisfactory condition, but through his 



PORTRAIT AttD BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



business ability and energy things soon began to 
look brighter and Clinton soon occupied an en- 
viable position in this direction among her sister 
counties. 

For many years Mr. Hanke held the position of 
Police Magistrate of Trenton, and has also been 
the incumbentof the responsible position of Mayor 
of the city, discharging the duties of every office 
which he has been called upon to fill in a most 
satisfactory manner. His wife, whom he married 
in September, 1877, bore the maiden name of Miss 
Elizabeth Kupferle, and was the daughter of 
Charles L. Kupferle. Their union has resulted in 
the birth of six children: Erwin J., Emma, Her- 
man, Adolph, Hugo and Robert. Mr. Hanke has 
a very fine wine cellar, which contains twenty- 
two casks, each holding from three hundred and 
fifty to five hundred gallons. His vineyard con- 
tains eight acres, and from that is derived his 
wines, which find a ready sale in this and adjoin- 
ing states. 



JAMES E. FURGERSON, who is one of the 
leading and wealthy citizens of Ml. Ver- 
non, is called the " father of the Methodist 
Church," a name which indicates the ac- 
tive part which he takes in church and benevo- 
lent work, and also gives some suggestion of his 
honorable and well spent life. A native of Ten- 
nessee, Mr. Furgerson was born in Sumner County, 
August 1, 1819. The grandfather, Edward Fur- 
gerson, was a native of Virginia, and in that state 
the father, Nelson Furgerson, was probably born. 
The latter first came to southern Illinois in 1819, 
but in 1822 he returned to Tennessee, where he 
died in 1825. He was a blacksmith by trade and 
ca*ne of a family of Irish origin, yet little is 
known of his ancestry. He married Roxibode 
Tyler, a native of Tennessee, and a daughter of 
John Tyler, who was born in the same state and 
who came to Illinois in 1818, his death occurr- 
ing in Jefferson County. 

Our subject is the eldest of four brothers and 
two sisters. He was only six years old when 



his father died, and at the age of thirteen he was 
bound out to learn the blacksmith's trade, but 
after two years he was crippled. The man with 
whom he served his apprenticeship then offered to 
pay his doctor bill and give him a suit of clothes. 
Mr. Furgerson accepted the offer, but supposed he 
would soon have to seek a home in the poor 
house. This, however, seemed to be the turning 
point in his eventful life, for at that time he be- 
gan to improve in health and commenced to 
prosper. He followed the blacksmith's trade for 
some years, and after coming to Mt. Vernon, in 
1836, followed that pursuit for one year. He then 
returned to Tennessee, where he continued to 
make his home until 1852, when he again came to 
Mt. Vernon and established a little store near his 
Grandfather Tyler's _place, hauling his goods by 
team from St. Louis. In 1859, he came to Mt. 
Vernon, and forming a partnership with Captain 
Stratton, built the first flouring mill in the place. 
They operated both a flouring and woolen mill, 
and for many years were the leading merchants 
of the city. Their partnership continued until 
the cyclone of 1888, when their buildings were 
destroyed, and soon afterward the connection was 
discontinued. Of late years, Mr. Furgerson has 
largely given the care of his business interests 
into other hands, but each day pays a visit to his 
two stores and to his extensive farm close by. 

In 1840, Mr. Furgerson married Miss Sarah S. 
Venture, and to them were born four children 
who grew to mature years. James N., who served 
for four years in the Civil War, now follows farm- 
ing near Mt. Vernon; Frank L., who was a Cap- 
tain in the Union arm}', resides in this city; 
John L., who offered his services but was rejected 
on account of his eyesight, now follows farming 
near this city; and Mary Jane died at the age of 
nineteen. The mother of this family passed away 
in 1850, and in 1852 Mr. Furgerson wedded Mar- 
guerite E. Westcott, who died in 1858. In 1859, he 
married Sarah F. Allen, and to them have been 
born the following children: Belle, who is the wife 
of Charles Lindeley, of St. Louis; Emma, wife of J. 
Hill Williams, who is in partnership with. Mr. Fur- 
gerson in the dry-goods business; Leona, Anna, 
Cora and Maud, at home; and George Edward, 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



381 



who was burned to death when eleven years of 
age. His clothes caught fire and death resulted 
from the injuries thus sustained. Mr. Furgerson 
and all of his family are members of the Method- 
ist Church, with which he has been connected 
for fifty-eight years. His long and faithful serv- 
ice in the cause of the Master lias been pro- 
ductive of much good and has made his life well 
worthy of emulation. Through the legitimate 
channels of business he has won a handsome 
property and is now one of the substantial, as 
well as one of the highly respected and prominent 
citizens of the community. 



(eT~ 



ANIEL R. WEBB. The subject of this 
sketch is an agriculturist of prominence, 
who, notwithstanding the reverses and 
discouragements that almost invariably 
attend the career of bread winners throughout the 
world, has come boldly to the front, and with the 
push and energy characteristic of him has sur- 
mounted all difficulties. He is at the present writ- 
ing a prosperous farmer and stock-raiser on section 
35, Bald Hill Township, Jefferson County, where 
he is held in the highest esteem by his neighbors 
and friends. 

Our subject was born June 26, 1838, in Frank- 
lin County, this state, and was the fourth in order 
of birth of a family born to Edward T. and Re- 
becca (Boswcll) Webb. The father was born in 
the above county, and Mrs. Webb was a native of 
Kentucky. In 1855, Edward Webb moved to 
Kansas, but returned the succeeding year to this 
state. Subsequently he made another trip west, 
and died in Kansas in 1866. The wife and mother 
departed this life in Franklin County. 

Daniel R., of this sketch, spent his boyhood and 
youth in attending school during the winter sea- 
son, and performing the duties of a farmer lad in 
the summer months. When reaching his majority 
he purchased property of his own and began farm- 
ing, which occupation has since been his life work. 



August 7, 1861, he enlisted in the Union army, 
joining Company H, Fourth Kansas Infantry, and 
was mustered into service at Ft. Leavenworth. 
Shortly afterward the Third and Fourth Kansas 
Regiments were consolidated and called the Tenth, 
of which our subject was a member for a period of 
four years, lacking seven days. With the excep- 
tion of a few months in the winter of 1861-62, 
when he was in the hospital, our subject was in 
active service during that entire period. His field 
of operation was mostly in Missouri, fighting the 
guerrillas. 

Mr. Webb was discharged at Montgomery, Ala., 
and mustered out of service at Ft. Leavenworth, in 
September, 1865. After the close of the war he 
was in the employ of the Government, feeding 
Government stock in Kansas for two months, when 
at the end of that time he came to Jefferson Coun- 
ty and located near where he is at present resid- 
ing. That he has been successful as a farmer is 
evident from the fact that he now owns two hun- 
dred acres of valuable land, which his industry 
and energy have placed under a high state of cul- 
tivation. 

February 11, 1866, Daniel R. Webb was united 
in marriage with Miss Martha A., daughter of 
William and Mary (Hartley) Fitzgerald, natives 
respectively of Indiana and Kentucky. The six 
children born of their union are, William H., who 
is married and resides in California; Mary I., who 
is at home; Oliver O., who is unmarried; Cora A., 
who is now the wife of James Hamilton, a promi- 
nent young physician of this county; Walter Scott 
and Addie Pearl, both at home. Mrs. Webb de- 
parted this life February 14, 1881. 

The lady whom our subject chose as his second 
companion, and to whom he was married June 8, 
1882, was Miss Elnora, daughter of Josiah and 
Hannah L. (Boswell) Hamilton. The former was 
born in Ohio, and Mrs. Hamilton was a native of 
this county. To our subject and his wife has 
been born one son, Edward Raymond. They are 
both members of the Baptist Church and rank 
among the best residents of this section. Politi- 
cally, Mr. Webb is a stanch Democrat, and his in- 
terest in educational affairs has led him to be 
placed on the School Board as Director, which 



382 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



position he has held for twelve years. He has 
also been School Trustee and Highway Commis- 
sioner. 



HOMAS H. AND JETER C. UTTERBACK, 
editors and publishers of the Marion County 
Republican, began the publication of their 
paper in Salem in 1893. They are conducting a 
paying business, and the paper is a neat, well reg- 
ulated sheet, containing much useful information 
and local matter of interest to its readers. 

Thomas H. Utterback was born October 23, 1858, 
in Richland County, this state, and received a fine 
education in the public schools. He began to 
make his own way in the world when attaining 
his seventeenth year, his first employment being 
as a farm hand. After some time thus occupied, 
he attended school at Claremont, and soon there- 
after began teaching school. In the meantime, 
having carried on his law studies, he in 1884 
moved to Osceola, Neb., where he began the prac- 
tice of his profession, and where lie resided until 
1891, at which time he made his home in Girard, 
Kan. 

In 1893 Thomas H. Utterback came to Salem, 
and in company with his brother, purchased the 
paper from Mrs. Belle C.' Johnson. March 3, 
1887, he was united in marriage with Miss Katie, 
daughter of John and Elizabeth (Huffman) Eckert, 
residents of Nebraska. The lady was born MaylO, 
1862, and received her education in the schools of 
Brown County, Kan. By this union they became 
the parents of one child, a daughter, Nita, who is 
now deceased. Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Utterback 
are active members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. In social affairs the former is a promi- 
nent Mason, and politically he is a strong Repub- 
lican. 

Jeter C. Utterback, who is the youngest member 
of his parents' family now living, was born Au- 
gust 8, 1872, in Jasper County, this state. He 
completed his education in the Newton High 
School, after which he learned the printer's trade 
in the office of the Newton Mentor. Later he went 
to Carterville, Mo., where he engaged to work on 



the Free Press; he was afterward employed on the 
Mattoon Journal, and lastly in the office of the St. 
Louis Post-Dispatch. 

The subjects of this sketch are the sons of B. 
C. W. and Nancy A. (Hinman) Utterback, the father 
born in Kentucky in 1833, and the mother in In- 
diana in 1837. Our subjects' paternal grandfather, 
Thomas Utterback, was likewise a native of the Blue 
Grass State, and was a prominent and influential 
citizen of his community. He came to Illinois in 
1836 and made location in the northeastern por- 
tion of Richland County, where he was one of the 
earliest residents and where he continued to live 
the rest of his days. Mrs. Nancy Utterback was 
the daughter of Titus Hinman, a native of Ohio, 
who came to Illinois during pioneer times and 
also made his home in the above county. 

The parents of our subjects were married in 
Richland County January 1, 1856, and there made 
their home until 1878, when they took up their 
abode in Newton, with whose interests they are 
still identified. They reared a family of ten chil- 
dren, seven of whom are now living, viz.: Eva, 
Hester, Charles C., Albert L., Milton T., Thomas H. 
and Jeter C. They are active members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and in political af- 
fairs the father is a strong Prohibitionist. 



*p LBERT WATSON, State's Attorney of Jef- 
(@O| ferson County, and one of the leading 
]/n*i members at the Bar of southern Illinois, 
(^U/ now makes his home in Mt. Vernon, his 
native city. He was born within a block of the 
Court House Square April 15, 1857, and comes of 
a family of English origin. His great-grandfather, 
John Watson, was born on the Isle of Man, and 
in company with a brother emigrated to America, 
locating in Virginia in his early manhood. There 
the grandfather, Dr. John W. Watson, was born 
January 10, 1777. He removed with his family 
to Kentucky, and about 1821 came to Illinois, lo- 
cating three-quarters of a mile north of Mt. Ver- 
non, where he improved a farm, as well as contin- 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



383 



uing the practice of the medical profession. He 
was a man much in advance of the average pio- 
neer a man of fine education and broad views, 
and by reason of his ability he was recognized as 
a leader in the community. He possessed great 
force of character, was respected by all who knew 
him, and was a most successful physician. He 
married Frances Pace, sister of Joel and Joseph 
Pace, twin brothers, who were among the very early 
pioneers of Jefferson County, and who were mem- 
bers of the extensive Pace family in Illinois. Joel 
Pace was a man of good business ability, and 
served as one of the first Circuit and County Clerks 
of Jefferson County. He was for many years a 
leading merchant, while his twin brother devoted 
his life to the more quiet pursuits of an agricult- 
urist. Both accumulated a considerable fortune 
and attained to an advanced age, the latter dy- 
ing at the age of eighty-three. They were sons 
of Joel Pace, Sr., a soldier of the Revolutionary 
War, and the family traces its ancestry in America 
back two hundred years, and there arc records in 
England of four hundred years ago. One of the 
family was a Member of Parliament and a General 
in the British army. Joseph Pace, a brother of 
Mrs. Watson, was a soldier of the War of 1812, 
and was a prominent figure in the early settlement 
of Jefferson County. He served as Probate Judge 
and filled other important positions. From the 
earliest days of the settlement of the Watson and 
Pace families in Jefferson County, their represent- 
atives have been prominent in the affairs of the 
community. Dr. Watson died here June 3, 1845. 
Joel F. Watson, father of our subject, became 
partially paralyzed in early life, and this led to 
his being educated for a teacher in the Mt. Vernon 
Academy, a school of note in that day. When his 
studies were completed he became an assistant 
teacher in the institution, and later taught coun- 
try schools. In 1842 he was elected County Clerk, 
which position he held for sixteen years, a fact 
which indicates his fidelity to duty. In 1842 he 
also began merchandising with his father-in-law, 
and continued that business until 1877, when he 
retired from active life. He also served as Master 
in Chancery for two years. He has accumulated a 
handsome property and still supervises his inter- 



ests. He married Sarah M. Taylor, daughter of 
the Rev. W. H. Taylor (who for more than fifty 
years was a Methodist minister) and a sister of 
Hon. A. F. Taylor, the present Mayor of Mt. Ver- 
non. She died in March, 1851, and Mr. Watson 
afterward married Mrs. Sarah E. Pace, a widow 
of Salem. Walter, the eldest son, is a promi- 
nent physician of Mt. Vernon and a leading poli- 
tician. He is serving as a member of the Illinois 
Democratic State Central Committee. Howard, 
the second son, is a merchant of St. Louis. 

Albert Watson is the youngest of the brothers. 
He acquired his education in the public and high 
schools of Mt. Vernon, and was graduated from 
McKendree College in June, 1876. He then taught 
a country school for two years, and in March, 
1878, became a student in the law office of C. H. 
Patton, being admitted to the Bar in 1880. He 
then formed a partnership with his preceptor, 
which was continued until 1884, since which time 
he has been alone in practice. In 1881 he was 
elected City Attorney, but after six months re- 
signed. In May, 1890, he was appointed Master in 
Chancery for Jefferson County, which office he 
held for two years, and in the fall of 1892 was 
elected State's Attorney, a position he is holding at 
the present time. Mr. Watson is recognized as 
one of the most prominent attorneys of this part 
of the state, and has already won a reputation 
which might well be envied by many an older 
practitioner. 

On the 12th of August, 1880, was celebrated the 
marriage of our subject and Mary E. Way, daugh- 
ter of a former grain merchant of Mt. Vernon, who 
died in Alabama in 1883. Her brother, Rev. Warren 
Wade Way, is a minister in the Protestant Episco- 
pal Church, and her brother Frank is storekeeper 
for the Air Line Railroad, with headquarters at 
Princeton, I nd. Har sister, Winnefred, is a stu- 
dent in St. Agatha College, Springfield, 111. Mrs. 
Watson is a graduate of St. Mary's College of 
South Bend, Ind. She now has four children: 
Marena, born July 10, 1881; Joel F., September 6, 
1883; Alice E., September 15, 1887; and an infant, 
born November 10, 1893. 

Mr. Watson is a prominent member of the 
Knights of Pythias, is Past Chancellor of Jefferson 



384 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



Lodge No. 121, and is its present representative to 
the Grand Lodge. Like most of his branch of the 
family, he is a Democrat in politics. On both 
sides he comes from leading and influential families, 
and their honorable record has been undimmed by 
him. 



JOHN J. FYKE, M. D., who is engaged in the 
practice of his profession at Odin, is a na- 
tive of Marion County, having been born 
in Raccoon Township, November 17, 1842. 
He is the son of J. A. and Margaret (Wilson) Fyke, 
natives respectively of Tennessee and Marion 
Count}', this state. 

The paternal grandparents of our subject, John 
and Betsy (Matthews) Fyke, were born in North 
Carolina, where they grew to mature years and 
were married. Later they removed with their 
family to Tennessee, where they followed farming 
for some time. In 1836 the grandfather came on 
a prospecting tour to this state, and purchasing 
land in Monroe County, returned to Tennessee for 
his family. He was never permitted to live here, 
as his death occurred before his plans could be car- 
ried out. 

J. A. Fyke, the father of our subject, was born 
in Tennessee in 1812, and spent his early life on 
his father's farm in Robinson County, where he 
received a good education. When reaching mature 
years, and having learned the trade of a carpenter, 
he traveled as a journeyman, plying his trade 
through most of the southern states, and while at 
Vicksburg aided in laying the first rail over which 
later ran one of the first railroads in the United 
States. In 1839, coming to Marion County, he 
continued to work at his trade and had the honor 
of building the first houses erected on Tennessee 
Prairie. 

In the spring of 1841, and while residing in the 
above county, the elder Mr. Fyke was married to 
Miss Margaret, daughter of John Wilson. Mrs. 
Fyke was born October 22, 1822, and was the first 
white child born in Marion County; her parents 
were very early settlers here and resided at Wal 



nut Hill. Educational advantages were very lim- 
ited in this locality in that day and Mrs. Fyke 
was not permitted to go to school, but being of a 
studious turn of. mind and througli her desire for 
learning, she read books which would be liable to 
increase her store of knowledge and in that way 
acquired a good education. 

The father of our subject started out in life 
poor in this world's goods, but so industriously 
did he apply himself to the various departments 
of his work that at his death he was the possessor 
of four hundred broad acres of the best land in 
Marion County. In early life he followed his 
trade of a cabinet-maker, but for a number of 
years prior to his decease was an agriculturist. He 
was a member of and an earnest worker in the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, with which he was 
connected for over half a century. He was very 
popular in local affairs and for thirty years served 
as the efficient Justice of the Peace of his locality. 
He was a stanch Democrat in politics and kept 
himself well posted on all of the issues of the 
hour. He departed this life January 8, 1892. His 
good wife still survives and makes her home on the 
old homestead. 

Of the twelve children born to Mr. and Mrs. 
J. A. Fyke, our subject is the eldest. Mary mar- 
ried Andrew Snyder; Matthew A. is practicing 
law in Kansas City, Mo.; Samuel R. is a farmer 
of Raccoon Township; Josiah is living on the 
home place; Charles A. is also an attorney of Kan- 
sas City; and our subject completes the list of 
those living. 

J. J. Fyke, of this sketch, completed his educa- 
tion in McKendree College, soon after which he en- 
tered the Chicago Medical College in Chicago. 
Later he went to St. Louis, where he attended lec- 
tures, and was graduated from the Eclectic Medi- 
cal College with the Class of '77. He had previ- 
ously read medicine with Dr. Davenport, of Salem, 
and in 1866 practiced in Odin. Since receiving 
his diploma Dr. Fyke has continued to make his 
headquarters in Odin, and he now has a large and 
paying practice, which extends over the greater 
part of the county. 

The lady to whom Dr. Fyke was married was 
Miss Minerva, daughter of Thomas and Eliza 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



385 



(Chadwell) Phillips. She was born in Tennessee 
and accompanied her parents on their removal to 
Marion County in 1854. By her union with our 
subject she became the mother of three sons, Edgar 
E., Hurley and Emmet, the two latter of whom are 
twins. The eldest son has followed in the foot- 
steps of his father and is practicing medicine in 
Centralia. He was graduated from the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons in 1889, and in the win- 
ter of 1893-94 took a post-graduate course at the 
same institution. He is rapidly building up a fine 
patronage and is Pension Examiner of Marion 
County. He owns sixty acres of fine land near 
Odin, the greater portion of which is devoted to 
an apple orchard. Socially Dr. Edgar Fyke is a 
prominent Mason and a Knight of Pythias. 

Our subject and his estimable wife are members 
in good standing of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, and in the congregation at Odin the Doc- 
tor holds the position of Trustee. Socially he is a 
member of the Odin Lodge No. 503, A. F. & A. M., 
and in politics is a stanch Democrat. He takes 
great interest in educational affairs, and has been a 
member of the School Board for a number of 
years. He has also done good work as Alderman 
of Odin, and at all times is ready to do what 
he can to further the interests of the community. 
Harley and Emmet Fyke, the younger sons of our 
subject, are wide-awake, enterprising young men 
and are at present editors and proprietors of the 
Odin Journal. 



JOSEPH C. QUINN. Examples of unremit- 
ting zeal, strict integrity and financial suc- 
cess may be met with in every agricultural 
district in our country. Especially is this 
the case in Jefferson County, where the farmers are 
almost invariably well-to-do and enterprising. As 
a representative of this class we mention the name 
of Mr. Quinn, the owner and occupant of a valua- 
ble farm located on section 24, McClellan Town- 
ship. Here he engages in general farming and 



stock-raising, and is especially successful in the 
latter branch of agriculture. 

The parents of our subject were Washington and 
Mary (Robinson) Quinn, the former of whom was 
born in South Carolina, and was three years of age 
when his parents removed to Virginia. There he 
resided until reaching his thirteenth year, when he 
went to Tennessee, and seven years later came to 
Illinois, locating at Shawneetown, where he re- 
mained for a twelvemonth and then came to this 
county. In the meantime his parents had come to 
Illinois and located on land near where the father 
of our subject is at present residing. 

Washington Quinn has been a resident of Jeffer- 
son County since 1839, and although now well ad- 
vanced in years, is in the enjoyment of good 
health. He is a quiet, unassuming man, and has 
never aspired to prominence, preferring to devote 
his attention exclusively to his private affairs. The 
maternal grandparents of our subject were natives 
of Missouri, and died when Mrs. Quinn was quite 
young. 

Joseph, of this sketch, attended the common 
schools of Jefferson County, and aided his father 
in the care of his farm until reaching his eigh- 
teenth year. Being desirous of obtaining a good 
education he taught school the following year, and 
with the money thus earned went to Carbondale, 
this state, and attended one term in the normal. 
Returning home at the end of that time he began 
farming on his own account, which occupation he 
has since followed. In connection with the raising 
of the cereals he devotes considerable time to 
stock-raising, and each year buys and ships large 
numbers of animals. 

October 12, 1875, Miss Laura, the daughter of 
James E. and Mary Z. (Daniels) Bradley, became 
the wife of our subject. Her parents were eastern 
people, and Mrs. Quinn was the recipient of a fine 
education. In April, 1883, our subject was married 
to Miss Lou E., daughter of John and Lucy Jones, 
natives of Georgia. Their union has been blessed 
by the birth of five children, as follows: Robert M., 
Daisy May, William, Alvin C. and Julia Agnes. 

Mrs. Quinn, a lady of worth, is a valued member 
of the United Brethren Church and is ever ready 
to assist in religious work or benevolent enter- 



386 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



prises of her vicinity. Our subject takes a deep 
interest in both local and national politics and al- 
ways votes with the Democratic party. He Las 
filled many important positions within the gift of 
his fellow-citizens, and has been Township Clerk, 
Town Collector, Supervisor and Justice of the 
Peace. He acted as foreman of the United States 
Grand Jury in 1893. Mr. Quinn is very popular 
wherever known, and as one of the leading citizens 
of his township it gives us pleasure to here present 
a history of his life. 



WILLIAM J. HOFSOMMER has spent his 
entire life in Clinton County and is an 
honored member of one of its pioneer 
families. Though still a young man, he has 
achieved noteworthy success as an agriculturist 
and is now actively engaged in tilling the soil of 
his farm, situated on section 16, Breese Township. 
His real-estate possessions are extensive and valua- 
ble, including the one hundred and sixty acres of 
improved land upon which he resides, one hun- 
dred and sixty acres in Wade Township, forty 
acres of timber land in St. Rose Township, three 
lots in the village of Breese and the store build- 
ings occupied by Hoffman <fe Helwig, and the 
butcher and harness establishments. 

The father of our subject, Casper Ilofsommer 
was born in Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany, and was 
orphaned by his father's death when a boy of 
twelve. About 1840 he emigrated to America, and 
in St. Louis followed the occupation of a peddler 
and also drove a wagon for the William Lemp Brew- 
ing Company. Afterward lie engaged in peddling 
between St. Louis and Carlyle, but changed his 
occupation in 1855, when he settled on Beaver 
Prairie, near Krogtown. His home was a pioneer 
log cabin and his land was unimproved, but prior 
to selling it he had materially enhanced its value 
by the introduction of many improvements. 

At the time of settling in Breese Township in 
1858, the land was all wild prairie, and neighbors 
were comparatively few. Mr. Hofsommer, however, 
has always been energetic and persevering, and 



soon succeeded in placing the land under excellent 
cultivation. After gaining a competence he re- 
tired, with his wife, to the village of Breese, where 
their declining years are now being quietly passed. 
They are now (1894) seventy-four and sixty-two 
years of age respectively, and are enjoying good 
health, notwithstanding their advanced years. In 
politics the father is a Republican, and in religion 
is a member of the Evangelical Church, to which 
he is a liberal contributor. 

The mother of our subject bore the maiden 
name of Catharine Dunkel and was a native of 
Almitzhausen, Germany. She had eleven children, 
of whom seven are now living, namely: William 
J., Casper C.; Catharina^ wife of F. Koch; Georgi- 
ana, who married Otto Koch; Emil, of whom men- 
tion is elsewhere made; Reinhardt and August, of 
St. Louis. William J. was born in Wade Town- 
ship, Clinton County, January 12, 1857, and re- 
ceived the rudiments of his education in the pa- 
rochial schools of Breese. Later he- was a student 
in the Christian Brothers' College of St. Louis, and 
also spent a winter in McKendree College, at Leba- 
non-, this state. 

After completing his education Mr. Hofsommer 
embarked in the mercantile business at Breese, in 
which lie continued for some six years alone, after- 
ward had a partner, and still later was alone. 
After an experience of sixteen years in the mer- 
cantile business he disposed of the stock and set- 
tled on section 16, Breese Township, where he still 
resides. Upon his farm he raises wheat, corn and 
oats, also devotes some attention to stock-raising 
and recently started a dairy. In 1892 he built a 
two-story residence, with stone foundation, hand- 
somely decorated, conveniently arranged and con- 
taining all the modern conveniences, including a 
steam-heating plant. This residence is the finest in 
the township and one of the most elegant in the 
county. The furnishings are such as harmonize 
perfectly with the structure, being quiet yet ele- 
gant, and reflecting upon every hand the refined 
tastes of the family. 

The lady who presides with grace over this 
beautiful home was formerly Miss Fredericke Hel- 
wig. She was born in St. Louis and is the daugh- 
ter of the late Conrad Helwig, a cooper by trade 




RES. OF HENRY WINKELER, SEC. 25., GERMANTOWN TR, CLINTON CO., ILL. 




RES. OF WILLIAM J. HOF50MM ER , SEC. IG., BREEo E TP., CLINTON CO., ILL. 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



and for many 3 r ears a resident of Breese. Her ed- 
ucation was received in the parochial schools of 
the village, and she remained with her parents un- 
til she left their home for that of her husband in 
1878. Five children have blessed this union, three 
living, Charles, Lilly and Olga. The deceased are 
William and Edgar. 

In religious belief Mr. and Mrs. Hofsommer are 
identified with the Lutheran Church, and he is a 
member of the Concordia Society of Breese. A 
strong Republican in political belief, he has served 
as a member of the Village Board of Breese and 
has held other local offices of trust. For some 
years he was Secretary, also for a time President 
of the Breese Future Coal Mining Company, in 
which he was formerly a Director and is now a 
stockholder. 



jl/_KNRY WINKKLER. Clinton County is 
if))) greatly indebted for its present wealth and 
/4V^^ high standing to the sturdy, intelligent 
(^f|) and enterprising tillers of the soil, who 
have been instrumental in developing its valuable 
agricultural resources. As a worthy member of 
the farming population, who has contributed his 
quota to its advancement, we take pleasure in pre- 
senting to the readers of this volume a brief re- 
view of the life of Henry Winkeler. The power 
of honesty and integrity is well illustrated in his 
quiet, unpretentious life, and both as farmer and 
citizen he ranks high among the residents of Ger- 
mantown Township. Upon his place on section 
25, he engages both in general farming and in the 
raising of stock, and has met witli success in both 
departments of agriculture. 

The father of our subject, Albert Winkeler, was 
born in Germany and emigrated thence to Amer- 
ica about 1849, coming direct to Clinton County. 
Here, in 1850, he married Miss Christina Wellen, 
a native of Germany, who accompanied her par- 
ents to the United States in childhood and settled 
with them in Clinton County, the family being 
numbered among the pioneers of this part of Illi- 



nois. Her parents continued to reside here until 
their death, at which time they left three children: 
Mrs. Winkeler; John, a farmer in Aviston, Clin- 
ton County; and Andrew, a resident of Damians- 
ville, this county. 

The union of Albert and Christina Winkeler re- 
sulted in the birth of eight children, three of whom 
died in infancy. The others are: Henry, our sub- 
ject; Bernard, a resident of St. Louis, Mo.; Annie, 
who married Albert Hegel and at her death left 
three children; Joseph, whose home is in Bartelso; 
and Frank, whose home adjoins that of Henry. 
The subject of this sketch was born December 19, 
1851, in Clinton County, 111. In boyhood he at- 
tended the district schools, but, ambitious to gain 
a higher education than the neighborhood afforded, 
he entered Christian Brothers' College in St. Louis, 
Mo., where he remained for two and one-half years. 
Afterward he taught school for three 3'ears, and 
with the money thus earned paid his tuition in 
the St. Francis Normal School of Milwaukee, Wis., 
from which institution he was graduated in 1877. 

After completing Ins studies, Mr. Winkeler 
taught school for three years at Mishawaka, Ind., 
and at the same time filled the position of Choir 
Director of the music department of the St. Joseph 
Parish Church. While residing in Indiana he was 
united in marriage, July 16, 1878, with Miss Jo- 
hanna Opgenorth, a native of Germany. They are 
the parents of six living children: Joseph, Barney, 
Frank, Nettie, Christina and Leo. Those deceased 
are: Albert, Simon, Mary and Albert J. In 1880 
Mr. Winkeler took charge of the school and choir 
at Damiansville, this county, and there remained 
for eight years, having in his school between sev- 
enty and eighty pupils. 

In 1885 Mr. Winkeler purchased his present 
farm on section 25, Germantown Township, but 
on account of poor health he removed to this 
place in 1888. Here he has since devoted his at- 
tention to general farming pursuits, in which oc- 
cupation he has been as successful as he was in the 
profession of a teacher. He has for many years 
been a devoted and prominent member of the 
Catholic Church, with which his family is also 
identified. Politically a Democrat, he has been 
elected upon the ticket of that party to a number 



390 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



of important local positions. For two years he 
served as Highway Commissioner, and for the past 
three years lie has been Township School Trustee. 



Jfj^ HARLES E. JENNINGS. This gentleman 
(JK n is one of the most prominent lawyers of 
^^^/ Salem and is serving with efficiency in the 
office of State's Attorney. Not only is he influential 
in the legal fraternity of Marion County, but 
throughout southern Illinois as well, for he is 
versed in law, mentally gifted and courteous. He 
possesses the social qualities which give him pop- 
ularity in the best society and the manly charac- 
ter which insures the respect of those who know 
him. Since his election to his present position he 
has manifested a commendable zeal for the welfare 
of the citizens and a thorough knowledge of the 
intricacies of the law. 

The ancestry of Mr. Jennings is worthy of spe- 
cial mention, inasmuch as for many generations 
representatives of the family have been identified 
witli the development of various parts of the 
United States, being invariably public-spirited and 
progressive citizens. His great-grandfather, Israel 
Jennings, whom it is supposed was born in Mary- 
land, went to Kentucky when young, and in 
Maysville, that state, married Miss Mary Waters 
about 1800. In 1818 he came to Illinois and set- 
tled six miles southeast of Centralia. The coun- 
try was sparsely settled, its only inhabitants being 
straggling bands of Indians and a settlement of 
squatters at Walnut Hill. Until 1827 this part of 
the state formed a part of Jefferson County. En- 
tering land from the Government, Israel Jennings 
continued to make his home there until his death, 
which occurred in 1860. 

The first wife of Israel Jennings died in 1844 
and he afterward married again, but had no chil- 
dren by his second union. The children born of 
liis first marriage were, Israel, Jr., deceased, who 
married and is survived by eleven children; 
Charles W., who is also deceased, five of his chil- 
dren surviving him; William W., a resident of Al- 
vin,Tex.; Mrs. Ann McElwain, who is the mother 



of four children; Mrs. Mary White, who is usually 
known as "Aunt Polly;" and John, who died at 
the age of maturity. 

In Marion County there was in early days no 
citizen more prominent than Israel Jennings, who 
was one of the largest land owners ever in this 
section of the state. A man of firm Christian 
principles, he was for years prominently connected 
with the Methodist Episcopal Church. In his early 
manhood he was prominent in politics as a Demo- 
crat, and in 1827 was elected to the State Legisla- 
ture at Vandalia (then the capital), and was a 
member of the House at the same time with Peter 
Cartwright. For many years, beginning in 1834, 
he was Postmaster at Walnut Hill. He was a 
slave-holder and owned the only male slave ever 
held in this county. 

So early in the history of Illinois did Israel 
Jennings come hither that he found neither stores 
nor railroads in Marion County. He opened a 
store and gave dry goods and groceries in ex- 
change for farm products. The latter he hauled 
to St. Louis and in his wagons brought back the 
supplies for his store. His banking business was 
also done in St. Louis. Salt was hauled from 
Shawneetown. At the time of coming to the 
county he had two young lady daughters, who 
were taken ill during one of his trips to Sliawnee- 
town. One of the girls died, and there being no 
lumber in the vicinity, a white oak tree was cut 
down, hollowed out, and in that rude coffin the 
remains were buried on the home farm. As time 
passed by Mr. Jennings, his wife and another 
daughter were laid to rest in that family burial 
ground. He was a man of rather eccentric charac- 
ter, and ten years before he died, purchased a me- 
tallic cottin for himself, which was kept in the house 
until his demise. 

The grandfather of our subject, Charles W. 
Jennings, was born in Kentucky, and accompany- 
ing his father to Illinois, settled within a half-mile 
of the latter's residence, making a permanent 
home upon the farm. He married Miss Maria 
Davidson and their union resulted in the birth of 
the following children: Sarah, who married and is 
now deceased; Josephus W., who is deceased; Mrs. 
Harriet Marshall; Mrs. Maria E. Bryan, the widow 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



391 



of the late Judge Bryan; Mrs. Nancy Davenport; 
Zeddock C.; Mrs. America Stites, deceased; and 
Mrs. Docia Van Antwerp, of Sedalia, Mo. Grand- 
father Jennings died August 20, 1872, while his 
wife passed away at Salem April 3, 1885. They 
were devoted members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. Though for a time he was a partner in 
the lumber business with Capt. R. D. Noleman at 
Centralia, yet his principal occupation was that of 
farming, in which he met with such success that at 
the time of his death he owned one thousand acres 
of valuable land. 

Josephus W. Jennings, our subject's father, was 
born on the old homestead October 29, 1827, and 
was reared upon the farm. In boyhood he at- 
tended the district schools and also conducted 
his studies in the Salem school. Entering the 
mercantile business lie carried on a store at Walnut 
Hill until 1856, when he moved to a farm one and 
one-half miles northwest of Walnut Hill, where his 
death occurred November 20, 1890. He married 
Miss Amanda Couch, who was born in this county 
January 8, 1834, and was a daughter of Minton 
and Mary (Beard) Couch. Her parents occupied a 
farm near Salem, and both are now deceased, his 
death occurring at the age of forty-four. Their 
children are, Mrs. Jennings; Robert, who lives at 
Marissa, this state; Porter, who is a resident of 
Eden. 111.; and Milton, who makes his home with 
our subject's mother. 

After their marriage the parents of our subject 
resided at Walnut Hill for three years, and after- 
wards settled permanently upon section 26, Cen- 
tralia Township, Marion County, where lie engaged 
in farming and stock-raising. They are the par- 
ents of nine children, as follows: Mary R., who 
married I. N. Baldridge; (They with their four 
children live near Walnut Hill. C. E., of this 
sketch; Frank E., who is married and lives in 
this county; Daisy, who married O. V. Kell, of 
Centralia, and is the mother of two children; Hon. 
W. Sherman, who for five years has been County 
Judge of and is at present a member of the Legis- 
lature from Hernando County, Fla., and makes his 
home in Brooksville; Elizabeth, who is Assistant 
Postmaster at Centralia; Nannie, Eva and Thomas 
I., who reside with their mother. 



In the public affairs of this section J. W. Jen- 
nings took a prominent part as an advocate of 
Democratic principles. In 1850 he was chosen 
Coroner, served as Associate Judge for four years, 
was Deputy Internal Revenue Assessor during 
the war under Peter Smith, Deputy Sheriff under 
Capt. Joseph Schultz, officiated as Justice of the 
Peace and frequently was chosen delegate to coun- 
ty and congressional conventions. For years he 
was Supervisor of Centralia Township and served 
as Chairman of the Board. In religious connec- 
tions he and his wife were members of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church. 

The subject of this sketch was born at Walnut 
Hill January 7, 1855, and received his primary 
education in the schools of this place. Later he 
entered .the Illinois Agricultural College, at Irv- 
ington, and was graduated in the scientific course 
with the Class of '75. For two years he was en- 
gaged in teaching school in Walnut Hill, after 
which, having resolved to enter the legal profes- 
sion, he entered the Union College of Law in Chi- 
cago, graduating from that institution in June, 
1878. Coming to Salem lie formed a partnership 
with S. L. & J. E. Bryan, under the firm name of 
Bryan, Jennings & Bryan, which connection con- 
tinued until the death of Judge Bryan. Since 
then Mr. Jennings has practiced alone. 

May 5, 1880, occurred the marriage of C. E. 
Jennings and Daisy Martin. The bride was the 
youngest daughter of Gen. James S. and Jane (El- 
ston) Martin, of Salem, and was born June 29, 
1860. She is accomplished and cultured, her ed- 
ucation having been conducted in the Wesleyan 
College at Cincinnati and the Jacksonville Fe- 
male Seminary. In addition to broad knowledge 
upon miscellaneous subjects, she is especially gifted 
as a musician and is a talented pianist. Two chil- 
dren have blessed this union, Hazel D. and an in- 
fant who was born September 5, 1888, and died 
January 15, 1889. 

Though not a member of any denomination Mr. 
Jennings is an attendant at the services of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, to which his wife be- 
longs. Socially he is identified with the Independ- 
ent Order of Odd Fellows, the Modern Woodmen 
of America, the Knights of Honor and the Masonic 



392 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



order and has served as Master of the blue lodge. In 
politics a Democrat, he has been prominent in the 
councils of that party and has frequently served 
as its delegate to county and state conventions. 
In 1885 he was appointed Master in Chancery and 
served for four years in that position. In 1888 he 
was chosen State's Attorney and four years later 
was re-elected to the office. He has also occupied 
the responsible position of President of the City 
"Board of Education of Salem, in which he has 
been instrumental in promoting the standard of 
education and advancing the interests of the pub- 
lic schools. 



JOHN W. HATCH. Patoka Township is a 
rich agricultural center, and the men who 
conduct its farming interests are enterpris- 
ing, self-reliant and shrewd business men. 
Among these the subject of this sketch occupies 
no unimportant place. He was born at Hanging 
Rock, Ohio, December 19, 1836, and is the son of 
Thomas and Catherine (Kehoe) Hatch. 

The father of our subject was born in Bethle- 
hem, N. H., August 3, 1797, and was the son of 
John Hatch. He was a lad of nine years when he 
accompanied his parents on their removal to 
Wheelersburg, Ohio, the journey being made over- 
land with wagons. He remained in the latter 
place for ten years, in the meantime securing such 
an education as could be obtained in the schools 
near his home. After leaving the "temple of learn- 
ing" the father of our subject began working for 
one of the Kanawha salt companies on the Ohio 
River, and was thus occupied for about eight 
years. 

Upon reaching his twenty-seventh year Thomas 
Hatch established a home of his own and was mar- 
ried to Miss Sophia A. Ela, August 5, 1824. The 
young couple made location on a farm on the Lit- 
tle Scioto River, where his wife died in 1834. He 
took for his second wife Miss Catherine Kehoe 
July 16, 1835, and later removed to Hanging Rock, 



at which place they remained for four years. Later 
the father made his way to Portsmouth, the same 
state, and after a year's residence there finally lo- 
cated on a farm three miles from that place, where 
he spent the remainder of his life. The elder Mr. 
Hatch was very prominent in public affairs, and 
during his active years was Director of the Scioto 
Infirmary for some time. 

By his first marriage the father of our subject 
had five children, two of whom are living: Samuel 
G., who resides in Vernon, Marion County; and 
Ruby G., widow of John H. Barrett, of Scioto 
County, Ohio. 

The mother of our subject was born in Win- 
chester, Va., January 27, 1795, and was a daughter 
of John Kehoe, a native of Ireland and a man of 
fine literary talents. Our subject, who was the 
only child born of this marriage, was reared on 
his father's farm near Portsmouth, Ohio, and re- 
ceived a good education in the public schools of 
the county. On attaining his majority he went to 
western Tennessee and there engaged in merchan- 
dising, remaining for about a year and returning 
at the end of that time to Ohio. Mr. Hatch was 
married three years later, after which event he 
made his home near Portsmouth for about eigh- 
teen months. 

In the fall of 1864 our subject came to this 
county and located on three hundred and seventy 
acres of land, the gift of his father, to which he 
has added from time to time until he now owns 
seven hundred acres of valuable land. During the 
first two years of his residence in Marion County 
our subject was engaged in teaching school, but 
afterward gave his undivided attention to the 
cultivation of his fine estate. In October, 1881, 
Mr. Hatch rented his farm and with his family 
moved into the city of Patoka, it being his desire to 
give his children every opportunity for obtaining 
a good education. After nine years spent in the 
city he returned to his country home and resumed 
farming, giving special attention to stock-raising 
and fruit-growing. 

December 11, 1862, Mr. Hatch of this sketch and 
Miss Flora E., daughter of Eliphaz Hayward, were 
united in marriage. Their union has been blessed 
by the birth of four children, two of whom are 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



393 



living, viz.: Floyd E., who married Miss Clara 
Nichols; and Frank II.; the latter resides at home 
with his parents and is at present attending Mc- 
Kendree College. Carrie E. and Mary C. are de- 
ceased. 

Mrs. John W. Hatch is of English and French 
extraction. Her father, who came of good old 
English stock, was married in Iron ton, Ohio, in 
1836, to Miss Marie E. Cadot. She was the sec- 
ond of the four children horn and reared by the 
Ohio fireside and was educated in the public 
schools of her native place. She was only ten 
years of age when her father died. The first rep- 
resentatives of the Cadot family in America came 
hither as early as 1635 and later founded the 
town of Easton, Mass., in which place there are 
many of that name still residing. It is said that 
the family at their centennial in 1878 numbered 
over seven hundred people. On'the maternal side 
of the house Mrs. Hatch is descended from a no 
less remarkable family than that of Claudius Cadot, 
one of the company of Frenchmen who landed at 
Gallipolis, Ohio. Monsieur Cadot died in 1796. 

In social affairs our subject is a prominent Ma- 
son, and in politics always votes with the Repub- 
lican party. With his family he is a devoted mem- 
ber of the Methodist Episcopal Church and is 
looked upon as one of the lepresentative men of 
the county. 



SQUIRE FARMER, senior member of the 
firm of S. Farmer & Son, is engaged in 
carrying on a successful trade as a general 
merchant in Patoka. Their establishment 
is fitted out with a full line of dry goods, gro- 
ceries, hats, caps, boots, shoes, etc., and its owners 
are conducting affairs in such a manner as to win 
the respect and esteem of the entire community. 
Squire Farmer was born March 24, 1832, in 
Fayette County, this state, and is the son of Ben- 
jamin and Zillah (Morris) Farmer. The father was 
born in South Carolina, but grew to man's estate 
in Caldwell County, Ky., whither his parents had 
removed and where he was educated. When old 
enough to be of assistance he aided his father in 



the work of cultivating the home farm, and re- 
mained under the parental roof until reaching his 
twenty-second year. Then, commencing in life on 
his own responsibility, he operated a farm in Ken- 
tucky for a year, and at the end of that time, in 
1829, came to Illinois and located in Fayette 
County, where he was residing at the time of his 
decease, in 1843. 

The mother of our subject, who was likewise a 
native of South Carolina, was the daughter of 
Jacob Morris, a farmer in that state. Her father, 
although starting in life without means, later be- 
came a very wealthy man, and spent his last days 
in the Blue Grass State. Benjamin and Zillah 
Farmer were married about 1820, and by their 
union was born a family of five children, only 
two of whom are living, viz.: our subject and 
Aaron R., a farmer of Marion County. Those de- 
ceased are, Morris, Absalom and Benjamin. The 
last-named son met his death during the late war 
at Atlanta, Ga., while with Sherman on the march 
to the sea. He was a member of the One Hundred 
and Eleventh Illinois Infantry, and served as a 
Union soldier. 

Squire Farmer, of this sketch, was reared to ma- 
ture years on his father's farm in Fayette County, 
and received a fair education in the district schools. 
After his father's death he continued to reside 
with his mother, and cultivated the home farm un- 
til his marriage, which occurred April 10, 1850, at 
which time Miss Nancy Phelps became his wife. 
Their union was blessed by the birth of the fol- 
lowing four children: Sarah, who married Calvin 
Vail, of Patoka; Morris, who resides in the state of 
Washington; Zerah S., who is a farmer of Marion 
County, and Nancy, the widow of John Kennedy, 
of Indiana, who now lives in South Dakota. 

After the death of his first wife our subject was 
married, November 10, 1864, to Mrs. Mary (Foster) 
Smith, the widow of William Smith, who was killed 
during the late war. Mrs. Farmer is the daughter 
of Hilliard Foster. To Mr. and Mrs. Farmer have 
been born two children, Alice, the wife of William 
Archer, who resides in St. Louis, and C.Virgil, who 
is engaged in business with his father. 

In 1871, Mr. Farmer opened up a general mer- 
chandise store in Patoka, associating with him in 



394 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



business his son, C. Virgil. They carry a complete 
line of carefully chosen goods, suited to the grow- 
ing needs of the people of the section over which 
their trade extends, and which is unsurpassed both 
in quality and reasonableness of price, in social af- 
fairs our subject is a member of the Independent 
Order of Good Templars, being connected with 
Patoka Lodge No. 297. He is greatly interested 
in the temperance movement, and at the polls al- 
ways casts a Prohibition ballot if there is a candi- 
date in the field. With his family he is a leading 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 



1|/ EANDER C. JOHNSON is one of the most 
I (() intelligent and practical members of the 
/I* -^ farming community, who is building up 
and carrying on the agricultural interests of Shiloh 
Township, Jefferson County. He was born Febru- 
ary 20, 1835, at Vernon, Jennings County, Ind., 
and is the son of the Rev. John T. and Rachael 
(Prather) Johnson. The former was born in Gal- 
latin, Sumner County, Tenn., August 13, 1805, 
and was a son of Lewis Johnson, who was born 
and reared in Louisa County, Va., and was there 
married to Frankie (Stone) Winn, widow of John 
Whin. 

The grandfather of our subject was but nine- 
teen years of age when he was married, and in 
the spring of 1819 he came with his family to Illi- 
nois, purchasing land and locating in this county. 
Besides superintending the operations of his 
farm, he was a preacher of considerable note and 
had charge of a Methodist Episcopal Church in 
Jefferson County. His son, John T., joined the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, of which he con- 
tinued a faithful and earnest member until his de- 
cease. The father of our subject began preaching 
the Gospel in 1825, and after traveling for sev- 
eral years over the vast circuits of southern Illi- 
nois he was transferred to Indiana, where. October 
27, 1828, he was married. 

After traveling for many years in the Hoosier 
State, the parents of our subject came to Illinois 



with their only surviving child and located on a 
part of the old homestead, where they passed away 
after an active and useful life. The Rev. Mr. 
Johnson was a genial, companionable man, and as 
a preacher was plain, but lucid and sympathetic, 
lie was likewise a good business man, a desirable 
neighbor and a kind-hearted friend. 

Mrs. Rachael Johnson was born in Clark Coun- 
ty, Ind., December 25, 1807, and was a daughter 
of William Prather, who was born in Maryland and 
located in Clark County in 1799. Later he re- 
moved to Jennings County, that state, of which 
place he was one of the early settlers, and was 
there elected Judge in 1816. The mother of our 
subject departed this life January 30, 1894, in this 
county, after having reared a family of four chil- 
dren, of whom Leander C. is the only surviving 
member. 

Our subject came to this county with his par- 
ents when a lad of eight years, his father at that 
time locating on a quarter-section of land, which 
was his share of the home farm. Here our subject 
grew to maturity and received a fair education. 
February 17, 1862, he enlisted in Company C, 
Sixtieth Illinois Infantry, which regiment was ac- 
counted one of the foremost in the United States 
Volunteer service. He acted in the capacity of 
fifer of his company, and with it passed through 
all the battles in which it engaged, and was on 
guard and fatigue duty at Cairo. He was at Cor- 
inth when that city was evacuated, went with 
Sherman's army on the march to the sea, and par- 
ticipated in all the engagements from Chatta- 
nooga to Atlanta. 

When mustered out of service at Louisville 
July 31, 1865, Mr. Johnson returned home and 
assumed the management of the home farm, his 
father being too old at that time to carry on the 
work. He has since remained on the home farm, 
which comprises one hundred and sixty acres of 
the finest farming land in the county. 

Miss Martha J. Piper and our subject were 
united in marriage August 8, 1860. Mrs. John- 
son is the daughter of Elijah Piper, one of the 
influential citizens of the county, and is widely 
known as having been Sheriff twice. He was a 
representative citizen, honest and upright in all 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RKCORD. 



395 



his transactions, and as such had many friends 
throughout his section. 

Of the seven children who came to bless the 
home of Mr. and Mrs. Johnson, six are living, 
viz.: Ida A., now the wife of Angus Moss, a 
farmer of Shiloh Township; Laura E., who mar- 
ried William C. Blair, the present Police Judge of 
Mt. Vernon; Eva R., Mrs. Harry O. Goodale, of 
that city; Mary E., the wife of John II. Barnes, of 
Howell, Ind.; Ruth A., Mrs. Frank B. Menzer, of 
Mt. Vernon; and Martha W., who resides at home. 
Charles E. died at the age of three years. 

Our subject is a Grand Army man, and as such 
is a member of Coleman Post No. 508, at Mt. 
Vernon. He is a Republican in politics, and for 
eight years held the office of Constable. The fam- 
ily are all members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church and occupy a pleasant home, which is 
made bright and cheerful by the estimable wife 
and accomplished daughter. 



JL_ ON. JAMP:S S. JACKSON, whose service 
|f)j) and official position in the Union army 
^^ won for him the title of Captain, by which 
(fjjjj) he is familiary known, is a member of an 
old Virginian family. His grandfather, John Jack- 
son, was born in the Old Dominion, but removed 
thence to Kentucky, where William, the father of 
our subject, was born April 6, 1798. The latter 
enlisted in the War of 1812 and was severely in- 
jured while in the service, his thigh being broken. 
He married Sarah Mayhall, who was born in Ken- 
tucky about 1810, being a daughter of Timothy 
Mayhall, who was a soldier in the War of 1812, 
and served under General Harrison in the Army of 
the Northwest. 

After his marriage William Jackson continued to 
reside in Kentucky until 1850, when he mo,ved to 
Salem. Previous to coming hither he was bereaved 
by the death of his wife, who passed away October 
20, 1844. He was three times married, and was 
the father of sixteen children, two of whom were 
born of his first union (both deceased), seven by 



his second wife (four surviving), and seven by his 
third marriage (William, Stanley, Hortense and 
Robert L., now living). Of the second marriag 
the surviving children are, James S., of thi 
sketch; Edward J., of Salem; Paschal H., a residen 
of California; and Sallie W., a widow living nea 
luka. The mother of these children was a devou 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church and 
sincere Christian woman. Politically the fathc 
was a Republican. Two of the sons served in the 
Civil War, our subject and Edward J., who were 
officers in the same company. 

In Franklin County, Ky., James S. Jackson was 
born September 15, 1831. He received his school- 
ing in the home locality and learned the trade of 
a blacksmith in Louisville. In 1851 he came to 
Salem and worked at his trade until the outbreak 
of the Rebellion. He raised a company of men 
here and at luka and of this he was elected Cap- 
tain, it being known as Company G, Twenty- 
second Illinois Infantry. The regiment was or- 
ganized at Belleville, marched to St. Louis, from 
there to Bird's Point, and participated in the fol- 
lowing battles: Belmont, Ft. Pillow, Corinth, Stone 
River and Chickamauga. In the engagement last 
named he was acting Major of the regiment, and 
the enemy falling upon them from the rear, sepa- 
rated him and thirty of his comrades from the 
other Union soldiers and they thus fell into the 
hands of the Confederates. 

Under the charge of Captain Baber. of Com- 
pany A, Fifth Texas Regiment, Longstreet's Corps, 
our subject was taken to the rebel camp at Atlanta 
and from there to Libby Prison. He remained in 
that place from September 19, 1863, until March 1, 
1865, and suffered greatly during the entire pe- 
riod, being afflicted with rheumatism and also 
having the yellow fever. At the time the prisoners 
tried to dig out he was sick and barefooted and 
consequently could not accompany them in their 
desperate attempt to gain freedom. In the Chick- 
amaugua room at Libby Prison may be found to- 
day a plate containing his name, rank, regiment, 
etc., placed upon the plank where he slept while in 
prison. At the time of his release he was sent to 
Annapolis, Md., and there was honorably dis- 
charged March 12, 1865, His sufferings had per- 



396 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



manently impaired his strength and vigor, and 
upon coming home he was reduced to one hundred 
and forty pounds' weight. He now weighs two 
hundred and fifty pounds, but for the last eighteen 
years has been paralyzed so that he requires the 
constant attendance of a man, and since 1879 has 
been obliged to use a wheeled chair. 

Upon returning home the Captain was elected 
County Clerk and served for one term, after which 
he engaged in the practice of law. In 1872 he 
was chosen State's Attorney and filled that posi- 
tion for one term. March 4, 1873, he was stricken 
with paralysis, but served the remainder of his 
term as State's Attorney. He was elected to 
the State Legislature, and represented his district 
in that body during the session of 1878-79, his 
family in the meantime occupying a room in the 
state house. His daughter was the first girl ever 
appointed page- in Illinois, and was introduced to 
President Hayes by Governor Cullom as his little 
pet. During the speech of the President she sat 
upon the knee of General Sherman. 

May 13, 1869, the Captain married Millie Green, 
a native of Greene County, Ohio, and a daughter 
of Dr. D. K. and Zerelda (Winans) Green, who 
were born in the Buckeye State. Her father was 
the son of Dr. J. N. Green, while her mother was a 
daughter of Dr. John M. Winans, who was a min- 
ister as well as a physician. Two sons and two 
sons-in-law were also doctors. The parents of Mrs. 
Jackson moved to Illinois in 1854 and settled at 
Salem during the following year, where Dr. Green 
practiced medicine and conducted a large drug 
business. He died in October, 1881; his wife still 
survives. They had six children, of whom these 
survive: J. M., a farmer; Josie; Mrs. Jackson; H. 
F., a druggist; and Judd. Mrs. Green was a mem- 
ber of the Christian Church. Her father, Dr. 
Wiuans, was an Abolitionist prior to the war and 
was ranked as Major; he was captured by Forrest 
and soon exchanged. In 1862 he was elected 
State Senator, also served as Mayor of Salem and 
as a member of the State Medical Board during 
the war. 

Mrs. Jackson was born July 13, 1850, and re- 
ceived her education in the schools of Salem. She 
is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 



Her union has resulted in the birth of two daugh- 
ters, of whom the only one now living is Ella M., 
wife of Thomas S. Marshall. The Captain is iden- 
tified with the Masonic fraternity and the Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows and is also a mem- 
ber of the Grand Army of the Republic. 



JW. ARMSTRONG, M. D. This gentleman, 
who is one of the prominent physicians and 
surgeons of Marion County, is engaged in 
the practice of his profession in Centralia- 
He is a native of Ohio and was born in Muskin- 
gum County, near Zanesville, August 18, 1856. 
He is a son of Alexander Armstrong, a prominent 
farmer and stock-raiser of the above county, 
where also his father, James Armstrong, the 
grandfather of our subject, was one of the early 
pioneers. 

The maiden name of our subject's mother was 
Sarah Bowden. She was born in Pennsylvania 
and was a daughter of William Bowden. Al- 
exander Armstrong removed from Muskingum 
County, Ohio, where he had been residing for a 
number of years, to Wayne County, this state, in 
1868. Mr. Armstrong is still living, making his 
home in Wayne County, where he is leading a re- 
tired life. 

The parental family included eight children, of 
whom five are living, namely: Lida, Nova, Paul 
F., Dicy M., and J. W., of this sketch. The latter 
lived to the age of twelve years in his native 
county, and then, his parents removing to Wayne 
County, this state, he accompanied them hither, 
and completed his education in the normal school 
at Lebanon, Ohio. For ;i number of years there- 
after he was engaged in teaching school, and in 
1882, being desirous of following a professional 
life, entered the Indiana Medical College at Indi- 
anapolis, from which institution he was graduated 
with honors with the Class of '85. 

After receiving his degree as Doctor of Medi- 
cine, our subject returned to this state, and for six 
years was engaged in the practice of his profession 



LIBRARY 

OF I HE 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



at Jefferson ville. In 1892 he came to Centralia, 
where he is rapidly building up a fine practice, 
which extends far beyond the corporate limits of 
the city. 

June 10, 1885, Dr. Armstrong was united in 
marriage with Miss Lou Karr, a native of Wayne 
County, this state, where her father, G. M. Karr, is 
a prominent fruit-grower. She was given a fine 
education in the schools of tier native place, and 
by her union with Dr. Armstrong has become the 
mother of one daughter and two sons, viz.: Merle, 
Frank and Carroll. 

In politics the Doctor always casts his vote for 
Republican candidates, and while residing in Wayne 
County held the office of County Clerk for two 
years. He occupies a high place among his medi- 
cal brethren and is prominently connected with 
the Southern Illinois Medical Society; the Wayne 
County Medical Society, of which he was Presi- 
dent for some time, and the Marion County Med- 
ical Society. He is a Modern" Woodman of Amer- 
ica and a Mason, belonging to the lodges of botli 
societies in Centralia. The Doctor and his wife 
are devoted members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. 



APT. 8. THOMPSON MAXKY, one of the 
representative citizens and prominent resi- 
dents of Jefferson County, has distinguished 
himself in the various walks of life as a brave sol- 
dier in the late war, a prominent civilian, an able 
minister and a successful agriculturist. At pres- 
ent he resides on section 18, Mt. Vernon Township, 
where he is cultivating two hundred and twenty 
acres of the old homestead. 

The Captain is a descendant of good old Eng- 
lish stock, his ancestors having been natives of 
Wales. Later they emigrated to France, and were 
in that country at the time of the persecution of 
the Huguenots, to which religious body they be- 
longed. At that time three brothers, John, Hora- 
tio and Justinian, came to America and located 
first in Maryland. They soon afterward separated, 
however, one remaining in the above state, another 
going to Maine and the third removing to Vir- 
11 



ginia. In the latter state Justinian settled, was 
there married and reared a family of several sons 
and daughters, among whom was a son named 
Jesse, who served as a soldier in the Revolutionary 
War. He later emigrated to Tennessee and made 
his home among the Indians, by whom he was 
scalped and left for dead. Although horribly 
mangled, his iron constitution enabled him to fully 
recover. His death did not occur until twenty 
years later, at which time his sons and 'daughters 
were grown and settled in homes of their own. 
They were: Edward, William, Walter, John, Emily 
and Susan. 

William, the second son of Jesse Maxey, was 
born in Virginia, where lie grew to manhood and 
married Emily Allen. Later they emigrated to 
Tennessee with their family, and owned a planta- 
tion, which was worked by slaves. William Maxey 
was shortly thereafter converted in the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, and so devout was he that he 
liberated his slaves. He came to Illinois in 1816, 
but remained here only a short time when he 
went to Missouri and thence returned to Tennes- 
see. In the spring of 1818, however, he again 
came to this county, this time being accompanied 
by the families of James Johnson, John Wilkerson, 
James Davis, Henry and Burchett Maxey, all of 
whom have descendants living in the county. 

Upon coming to Jefferson County William 
Maxey located in Monroe Prairie Township, but 
one year later he came to Shiloh Township. His 
family numbered ten children, as follows: Burchett, 
Clarissa, Bennett N., Elihu, Harriet, Vilinda, 
Charles II., Joshua C., William M. A. and Jehu G. 
D. William M. A. Maxey was born in Tennessee 
in 1812, and was a lad of six years when his par- 
ents removed to this state. After reaching mature 
years he married Miss Edna Owen, and they made 
their first home on a farm near the present site of 
the village of Idlewood. In 1846 they purchased 
the farm now owned and occupied by our subject, 
on which they resided until the time of their de- 
cease, the mother dying in 1880, and the father 
five years later. They were both active members 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, in which de- 
nomination the father was a minister for many 
years. He was also a physician of considerable 



400 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



note and practiced medicine very successfully for 
nearly a half a century. 

The family of Dr. and Mrs. William M. A. 
Maxey included ten children, seven of whom grew 
to mature years. Simeon W. is a resident of Wash- 
ington, where he is a member of the State Horti- 
cultural Society and served as a Commissioner to 
the World's Fair in 1893; S. Thompson is our sub- 
ject; John V. makes his home in this county; Har- 
riet J. married J. F. Satterfleld, of Mt. Vernon; 
Sarah C. is Mrs. Sanford Hill, also of that city; 
William C. is a practicing physician in Idaho; and 
H. Nelson is also living in that state, where he 
is prominent in political circles. The other three 
members of the family died when young. 

Capt. S. T. Maxey was born in this county in 
1834 and was here given a good education in the 
common schools. A few months after the first 
gun was fired upon Ft. Sumter, he enlisted in the 
Union army, in June, 1861, as a member of Com- 
pany H. First Illinois Cavalry, and served one 
year, when he was discharged. Returning home, he 
aided in raising a company, of which he was com- 
missioned First Lieutenant, which position he held 
but a few months when he was promoted to be Cap- 
tain. . On the consolidation of his company with 
another he returned home and raised eighty re- 
cruits for the Sixth Illinois Cavalry, in which he 
also enlisted as a private in February, 18(54. Four 
months later, however, he was commissioned 
Second Lieutenant and soon afterward was ap- 
pointed Captain, which position he held until the 
close of the war. He participated in many of the 
hard-fought battles in which the Western army 
engaged, and remained in the service until Decem- 
ber, 1865. 

The lady whom our subject married March 
16, 1873, was Miss Sarah C., daughter of John B. 
Piercy, and a niece of Thomas Moss. To them 
were born four children, Olena M., Edna A., Mary 
B. and Ruby. The latter died in infancy. Captain 
Maxey in addition to owning the old homestead is 
also the proprietor of two hundred and twenty 
broad acres, located in Mt. Vernon Township, 
where he devotes himself to agricultural pursuits. 

In 1866 Captain Maxey was ordained a minister 
in the Methodist Episcopal Church, and for a pe- 



riod of eleven years traveled in the interest of the 
Southern Illinois Conference. At the expiration 
of that time he retired from the ministry, although 
he is still active in all kinds of religious work. He 
is the present County Secretary of the State Board 
of Sunday-school work. In politics he is a stanch 
Republican, and as might be expected, is a promi- 
nent Grand Army man. He lias been an Odd Fel- 
low since 1855, in which order he stands very high. 



!EO D. SHOUPE, senior editor and pro- 
prietor of the Carlyle Constitution and Union, 
is a native of Illinois, having been born in 
Belleville, St. Clair County, on the 24th of Novem- 
ber, 1837. His father, Abram Shoupe, is a native 
of Pennsylvania, and came to Belleville, St. Clair 
County, 111., in 1831. Two years later he married 
Miss Catherine Tannehill, a native of Kentucky. 
Both parents are now living and reside with the 
subject of this sketch in Carlyle. On the 8th of 
May, 1894, they passed the sixty-first milestone of 
their wedded life. Their family numbered eight 
children. 

In Belleville and St. Louis, Theodore learned 
the printer's and carpenter's trades, which he fol- 
lowed alternately until 1861. Removing at that 
time to Tamaroa, Perry County, 111., he published 
the True American for a few months. In 1871 he 
moved to New Athens, St. Clair County, this state, 
and for more than three years edited and published 
the New Athens Era, and also served as Deputy 
Postmaster. After selling out the Era office, he 
wnt to St. Louis and worked at the case in the 
office of the Republican until 1881. 

On the 4th of July, 1881, Mr. Shoupe purchased 
a half-interest in the Constitution and Union of Car- 
lyle, in connection with R. D. Moore, and together 
these two gentlemen conducted the journal for 
four years, when Mr. Moore sold his interest to R. 
H. Norfolk. After the death of that gentleman, in 
1892, Mr. Shoupe purchased the other half-interest, 
and at present, with his eldest son, is engaged in 
editing and conducting that journal, in politics 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



101 



he has always been a Democrat, and cast his first 
Presidential vote for Stephen A. Douglas in 1860. 
The marriage of Mr. Slioupe occurred in 1858, 
and united him with Miss Louisa G. Moore, a na- 
tive of St. Clair County, this state. This lady is 
actively identified with the Baptist Church, and is 
a member of an honored pioneer family of Illinois. 
By this union there arc seven children living, two 
sons and five (laughters. Socially, Mr. Slioupe is 
a member of the Knights of Honor. 



PRANK H. SCHROEDER, a resident of Bar. 
telso, is the son of one of the pioneers of 
Clinton County whose name was the same 
as that borne by our subject. The father was 
born in Hanover, Germany, and there grew to 
manhood, emigrating thence to the United States 
and proceeding direct to Cleveland, Ohio. There he 
met and married Katrina Beckman, and the two 
bound themselves to work for one year in Cleveland 
in order to secure the money necessary to pay 
their fare to Illinois. Coining to Clinton County, 
they rented land, but such was their frugality, 
energy and industry that they were not obliged 
long to remain tenants of land belonging to others. 
They purchased a farm, which is still in the fam- 
ily, and added to the original tract until at one 
time they owned two hundred and seventy acres 
in Germantown Township. This property the fa- 
ther bequeathed to his children at the time of his 
demise, and not only did he leave them land, but 
also what is more priceless the heritage of a good 
name and an honorable life. 

Ten children were born to the union of Frank 
II. and Katrina Schroeder, of whom we note the 
following: Mary, Conrad, Katie and Henry are 
deceased; Elizabeth married P. Klinekorte; Timo- 
dia died in childhood; Frank II. is the next in 
order of birth; Agnes, the wife of Frank Moliter, 
lives on the old homestead; Joseph is a resident 
of Germantown; and Herman died in boyhood. 
The father of this family was an active member 
of the Catholic Church and took an interest in 



every praiseworthy enterprise. He took an es- 
pecial interest in the promotion of the commu- 
nity in which he resided, and its development was 
greatly enhanced by his efforts. 

The subject of this biographical sketch has spent 
his entire life in Clinton County, having been 
born here in 1846. In the common schools he 
gained a good education, and upon the home 
farm he acquired a practical knowledge of agri- 
culture. Upon arriving at man's estate he estab- 
lished domestic ties, and was united in marriage 
in April, 1872, with Miss Elizabeth, daughter of 
John Dierker. Mr. and Mrs. Schroeder were the 
parents of nine children, viz.: Annie, the wife of 
William Usselmann; Frank, who died in child- 
hood; Mary, John, Sophia; Paul, deceased; Rosa, 
Henry and George. 

Adjoining Bartelso, and to the west, lies the 
farm owned by Mr. Schroeder, which formerly 
consisted of one hundred and sixty acres, but has 
been increased in extent until it now comprises 
three hundred acres. In 1891 he purchased prop- 
erty in town, and erecting a residence here, rented 
his farm to tenants and removed to Bartelso. In 
this place he has since engaged in business as a 
dealer in grain and manufacturer of brick. In re- 
ligious connections he and his wife are members 
of the Catholic Church. In politics he is a Dem- 
ocrat. While a resident of Germantown Town- 
ship, he served as Road Overseer for two years 
and as Highway Commissioner for three years. 



EDWARD R. LIST. The subject of this 
sketch was born October 12, 1870, on the 
farm of his grandfather, A. M. Woodward, 
situated one mile west of Odin. His father, W. B. 
List, was a native of Kentucky and served through 
the war in the Union army as a member of the 
Second Illinois Cavalry. Shortly after the close of 
the Rebellion he was united in marriage, October 
3, 1867, with Miss Clementina, daughter of A. M. 
Woodward, of Odin, this state. 

Although a young man, the subject of this sketch 
has for some time been an active worker in the 



402 



PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD. 



ranks of the Republican party and is at present 
editor of the Neivs, the organ of that political or- 
ganization in Odin. February 24, 1892, he mar- 
ried Miss Adele Roll, daughter of Andrew Roll, of 
Sandoval, this state. 



yiLLIAM S. DEAN is meeting with more 
than ordinary success as one of the indus- 
trious and wide-awake farmers and fruit- 
growers in Marion County. Besides having sixty 
acres of farming land he owns twenty acres which 
are devoted entirely to fruit-raising, Mr. Dean mak- 
ing a specialty of strawberries. His property is 
favorably located on section 5, Odin Township, 
and is one of the best equipped and most intelli- 
gently cultivated in the township. 

Our subject is the son of G. L. and Irena 
(Wheeler) Dean, the former of whom was the sou 
of Nathan and Mary (Thayer) Dean, natives of 
Massachusetts, where also the father of our subject 
was born. The grandfather was a farmer by occu- 
pation and emigrated to Ohio in 1813, making the 
journey overland, his destination being Athens 
County. There he purchased and improved a val- 
uable farm. He was a patriot in the Revolutionary 
War, during which time lie formed one of the 
famous Boston tea party. 

The father of our subject was born in 1799, and 
although too young to engage in the War of 1812, 
he had a brother who participated in that conflict. 
He was reared to mature years on his father's farm, 
and after his marriage made civil engineering a 
study and later aided in the survey of the National 
pike road in Ohio. He also followed the trade of 
a carpenter to some extent, and in 1850 removed 
with his family to Iowa, where his decease occurred 
in 1855, his good wife surviving him until Feb- 
ruary, 1890, when she too passed away. 

In the parental family there were twelve chil- 
dren, three of whom died young. Those who 
grew to mature years but are now deceased are, 
Sarah, Lesette, Mary E., Cynthia and Fannie. 
Those who survive beside our subject are, George, 



Susan and Charlotte. The parents were members 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and in bis po- 
litical relations the father was a Whig. 

W. S. Dean, of this sketch, remained under the 
parental roof until reaching mature years, in the 
meantime being educated, first in the district 
school's near his home, and later in the Denma