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, *l,LEN COUN" 


3 1833 01103 1660 





Douglas and 
Franklin Counties 


Containing Portraits, Biographies and Genealogies 
of well known Citizens of the Past and Present 

Together with Portraits and Biographies 
of all the Presidents of the United States 






y HE greatest of English historians, Macaulay, and one of the most brilliant writers of the 
I Q present century, has said: "The history of a country is best told in a record of the lives of its 
v2/ people." In conformity with this idea, the Portrait and Biographical Record of this 
county has been prepared. Instead of going to musty records, and taking therefrom dry statistical 
matter that can be appreciated by but few, our corps of writers have gone to the people, the men 
and women who have, by their enterprise and industry, brought the county to a rank second to none 
among those comprising this great and noble state, and from their lips have the story of their life 
struggles. No more interesting or instructive matter could be presented to an intelligent public. 
In this volume will be found a record of many whose lives are worthy the imitation of coming 
generations. It tells how some, commencing life in poverty, by industry and economy have 
accumulated wealth. It tells how others, with limited advantages for securing an education, have 
become learned men and women, with an influence extending throughout the length and breadth of 
the land. It tells of men who have risen from the lower walks of life to eminence as statesmen, and 
whose names have become famous. It tells of those in every walk in life who have striven to 
succeed, and records how that success has usually crowned their efforts. It tells also of many, very 
many, who, not seeking the applause of the world, have pursued "the even tenor of their way," 
content to have it said of them, as Christ said of the woman performing a deed of mercy — ' 'They have 
done what they» could. ' ' It tells how that many in the pride and strength of young manhood left 
the plow and the anvil, the lawyer's oflice and the counting-room, left every trade and profession, 
and at their country's call went forth valiantly "to do or die," and how through their efforts the 
Union was restored and peace once more reigned in the land. In the life of every man and of every 
woman is a lesson that should not be lost upon those who follow after. 

Coming generations will appreciate this volume and preserve it as a sacred treasure, from the 
fact that it contains so much that would never find its way into public records, and which would 
otherwise be inaccessible. Great care has been taken in the compilation of the work, and every 
opportunity possible given to those represented to insure correctness in what has been written, and 
the publishers flatter themselves that they give to their readers a work with few errors of consequence. 
In addition to the biographical sketches, portraits of a number of representative citizens are given. 

The faces of some, and biographical sketches of many, will be missed in this volume. For this 
the publishers are not to blame. Not having a proper conception of the work, some refused to give 
the information necessary to compile a sketch, while others were indifferent. Occasionally some 
member of the family would oppose the enterprise, and on account of such opposition the support of 
the interested one would be withheld. In a few instances men could never be found, though 
repeated calls were made at their residences or places of business. 

Chapman Publishing Co. 

December, 1899. 














V^HE Father of our Country was born in West- 
f C moreland County, Va. , February 22, 1732. 
v2/ His parents were Augustine and Marj- (Ball) 
Washington. The family to which he belonged 
has not been satisfactorily traced in England. 
His great-grandfather, John Washington, emi- 
grated to Virginia about 1657, ^^'^ became a 
prosperous planter. He had two sons, Lawrence 
and John. The former married Mildred Warner, 
and had three children, John, Augustine and 
Mildred. Augustine, the father of George, first 
married Jane Butler, who bore him four children, 
two of whom, Lawrence and Augustine, reached 
maturity. Of six children by his second mar- 
riage, George was the eldest, the others being 
Betty, Samuel, John Augustine, Charles and 

Augustine Washington, the father of George, 
died in 1743, leaving a large landed property. 
To his eldest son, Lawrence, he bequeathed an 
estate on the Potomac, afterwards known as Mt. 
Vernon, and to George he left the parental resi- 
dence. George received only such education as 
the neighborhood schools afforded, save for a 
short time after he left school, when he received 
private instruction in mathematics. His spelling 
was rather defective. Remarkable stories are 
told of his great physical strength and develop- 
ment at an early age. He was an acknowledged 
leader among his companions, and was early 
noted for that nobleness of character, fairness and 
veracity which characterized his whole life. 

When George was fourteen years old he had a 
desire to go to sea, and a midshipman's warrant 
was secured for him, but through the opposition 
of his mother the idea was abandoned. Two 

years later he was appointed surveyor to the im- 
mense estate of Lord Fairfax. In this business 
he spent three years in a rough frontier life, 
gaining experience which afterwards proved very 
essential to him. In 1751, though only nineteen 
I years of age, he was appointed Adjutant, with the 
rank of Major, in the Virginia militia, then being 
trained for active service against the French and 
Indians. Soon after this he sailed to the West 
Indies with his brother Lawrence, who went there 
to restore his health. They soon returned, and 
in the summer of 1752 Lawrence died, leaving a 
large fortune to an infant daughter, who did not 
long survive him. On her demise the estate of 
Mt. Vernon was given to George. 

Upon the arrival of Robert Dinwiddle as Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of Virginia, in 1752, the militia 
was reorganized, and the province divided into 
four military districts, of which the northern was 
assigned to Washington as Adjutant- General. 
Shortly after this a very perilous mission, which 
others had refused, was assigned him and ac- 
cepted. This was to proceed to the French post 
near Lake Erie, in northwestern Pennsylvania. 
The distance to be traversed was about six hun- 
dred miles. Winter was at hand, and the journey 
was to be made without military escort, through 
a territory occupied by Indians. The trip was a 
perilous one, and several times he nearly lost his 
life, but he returned in safety and furnished a full 
and useful report of his expedition. A regiment 
of three hundred men was raised in Virginia and 
put in command of Col. Joshua Fr^', and Maj. 
Washington was commissioned Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel. Active war was then begun against the 
French and Indians, in which Washington took 


a most important part. lu the memorable event 
of July 9, 1755, known as "Braddock's defeat," 
Washington was almost the only officer of dis- 
tinction who escaped from the calamities of the 
day with life and honor. 

Having been for five years in the military serv- 
ice, and having vainly sought promotion in the 
royal army, he took advantage of the fall of Ft. Du- 
quesne and the expulsion of the French from the 
valley of the Ohio to resign his commission. Soon 
after he entered the Legislature, where, although 
not a leader, he took an active and important 
part. Januarj' 17, 1759, he married Mrs. Martha 
(Dandtidge) Custis, the wealthy widow of John 
Parke Custis. 

When the British Parliament had closed the 
port of Boston, the cry went up throughout the 
provinces, ' ' The cause ot Boston is the cause of 
us all! " It was then, at the suggestion of Vir- 
ginia, that a congress of all the colonies was 
called to meet at Philadelphia September 5, 
1774, to secure their common liberties, peaceably 
if possible. To this congress Col. Washington 
was sent as a delegate. On May 10, 1775, the 
congress re-assembled, when the hostile inten- 
tions of England were plainly apparent. The 
battles of Concord and Lexington had been fought, 
and among the first acts of this congress was the 
election of a commander-in-chief of the Colonial 
forces. This high and responsible ofiice was con- 
ferred upon Washington, who was still a member 
of the congress. He accepted it on June 19, but 
upon the express condition that he receive no sal- 
ary. He would keep an exact account of ex- 
penses, and expect congress to pay them and 
nothing more. It is not the object of this sketch 
to trace the military acts of Washington, to whom 
the fortunes and liberties of the people of this 
country were so long confided. The war was 
conducted by him under every possible disadvan- 
tage; and while his forces often met with reverses, 
yet he overcame every obstacle, and after seven 
years of heroic devotion and matchless skill he 
gained liberty for the greatest nation of earth. 
On December 23, 1783, Washington, in a parting 
address of surpassing beauty, resigned his com- 
mission as Commander-in-Chief of the army to the 

Continental Congress sitting at Annapolis. He 
retired immediately to Mt. Vernon and resumed 
his occupation as a farmer and planter, shunning 
all connection with public life. 

In Februarj', 1789, Washington was unani- 
mously elected President, and at the expiration 
of his first term he was unanimously re-elected. 
At the end of this term many were anxious that he 
be re-elected, but he absolutely refused a third 
nomination. On March 4, 1797, at the expiration 
of his second term as President, he returned to his 
home, hoping to pass there his few remaining 
years free from the annoyances of public life. 
Later in the year, however, his repose seemed 
likely to be interrupted by war with France. At 
the prospect of such a war he was again urged to 
take command of the army, but he chose his sub- 
ordinate officers and left them the charge of mat- 
ters in the field, which he superintended from his 
home. In accepting the command, he made the 
reservation that he was not to be in the field until 
it was necessary. In the midst of these prepara- 
tions his life was suddenly cut off. December 12 
he took a severe cold from a ride in the rain, 
which, settling in his throat, produced inflamma- 
tion, and terminated fatally on the night of the 
14th. On the 18th his body was borne with mili- 
tar>' honors to its final resting-place, and interred 
in the family vault at Mt. Vernon. 

Of the character of Washington it is impossible 
to speak but in terms of the highest respect and 
admiration. The more we see of the operations 
of our government, and the more deeply we feel 
the difficulty of uniting all opinions in a common 
interest, the more highly we must estimate the 
force of his talent and character, which have been 
able to challenge the reverence of all parties, 
and principles, and nations, and to win a fame as 
extended as the limits of the globe, and which we 
cannot but believe will be as lasting as the exist- 
ence of man. 

In person, Washington was unusually tall, erect 
and well proportioned, and his muscular strength 
was great. His features were of a beausiful sym- 
metry. He commanded respect without any ap- 
pearance of haughtiness, and was ever serious 
without being dull. 



nOHN ADAMS, the second President and the 
I first Vice-President of the United States, was 
Q) born in Braintree (now Quincy) Mass., and 
about ten miles from Boston, October 19, 1735. 
His great-grandfather, Henry Adams, emigrated 
from England about 1640, with a family of eight 
sons, and settled at Braintree. The parents of 
John were John and Susannah (Boylston) 
Adams. His father, who was a fanner of limited 
means, also engaged in the business of shoe- 
making. He gave his eldest son, John, a classical 
education at Han-ard College. John graduated 
in 1755, and at once took charge of the school at 
Worcester, Mass. This he found but a "school 
of affliction," from which he endeavored to gain 
relief by devoting himself, in addition, to the 
study of law. For this purpose he placed himself 
under the tuition of the only lawyer in the town. 
He had thought seriously of the clerical profes- 
sion, but seems to have been turned from this by 
what he termed ' ' the frightful engines of ecclesi- 
astical councils, of diabolical malice, and Calvin- 
istic good nature," of the operations of which he 
had been a witness in his native town. He was 
well fitted for the legal profession, possessing a 
clear, sonorous voice, being ready and fluent of 
speech, and having quick perceptive powers. He 
gradually gained a practice, and in 1764 married 
Abigail Smith, a daughter of a minister, and a 
lady of superior intelligence. Shortly after his 
marriage, in 1765, the attempt at parliamentary 
taxation turned him from law to politics. He 
took initial steps toward holding a town meeting, 
and the resolutions he offered on the subject be- 
came very popular throughout the province, and 
were adopted word for word by over forty differ- 
ent towns. He moved to Boston in 1768, and 
became one of the most courageous and promi- 
nent advocates of the popular cause, and was 
chosen a member of the General Court (the Leg- 
islature) in 1770. 
Mr. Adams was chosen one of the first dele- 

gates from Massachusetts to the first Continent- 
al Congress, which met in 1774. Here he dis- 
tinguished himself by his capacity for business 
and for debate, and advocated the movement for 
independence against the majority of the mem- 
bers. In May, 1776, he moved and carried a res- 
olution in Congress that the Colonies should 
assume the duties of self-goverimient. He was a 
prominent member of the committee of five ap- 
pointed June 1 1 to prepare a declaration of inde- 
pendence. This article was drawn by Jefferson, 
but on Adams devolved the task of battling it 
through Congress in a three-days debate. 

On the day after the Declaration of Independ- 
ence was passed, while his soul was yet warm 
with the glow of excited feeling, he wrote a letter 
to his wife, which, as we read it now, seems to 
have been dictated by the spirit of prophecy. 
"Yesterday," he says, "the greatest question 
was decided that ever was debated in America; 
and greater, perhaps, never was or will be de- 
cided among men. A resolution was passed 
without one dissenting colony, 'that these United 
States are, and of right ought to be, free and in- 
dependent states.' The day is passed. The 
Fourth of July, 1776, will be a memorable epoch 
in the historj' of America. I am apt to believe it 
will be celebrated by succeeding generations as 
the great anniversar>' festival. It ought to be 
commemorated as the day of deliverance by 
solemn acts of devotion to Almighty God. It 
ought to be solemnized with pomp, shows, games, 
sports, guns, bells, bonfires and illuminations 
from one end of the continent to the other, from 
this time forward forever. You will think me 
transported with enthusiasm, but I am not. I 
am well aware of the toil and blood and treas- 
ure that it will cost to maintain this declaration 
and support and defend these States; yet, through 
all the gloom, I can see the rays of light and 
glory. I can see that the end is worth more than 
all the means, and that posterity will triumph, 



although you and I may rue, which I hope we 
shall not." 

In November, 1777, Mr. Adams was appointed 
a delegate to France, and to co-operate with Ben- 
jamin Franklin and Arthur Lee, who were then 
in Paris, in the endeavor to obtain assistance in 
arms and money from the French government. 
This was a severe trial to his patriotism, as it 
separated him from his home, compelled him to 
cross the ocean in winter, and exposed him to 
great peril of capture by the British cruisers, who 
were seeking him. He left France June 17, 
1779. In September of the same year he was 
again chosen to go to Paris, and there hold 1 im- 
self in readiness to negotiate a treaty of peace and 
of commerce with Great Britain, as soon as the 
British cabinet might be found willing to listen 
to such proposals. He sailed for France in No- 
vember, and from there he went to Holland, where 
he negotiated important loans and formed im- 
portant commercial treaties. 

Finally, a treaty of peace -n-ith England was 
signed, January 21, 1783. The re-action from the 
excitement, toil and anxiety through which Mr. 
Adams had passed threw liim into a fever. After 
suffering from a continued fever and becoming 
feeble and emaciated, he was advised to go to 
England to drink the waters of Bath. While in 
England, still drooping and desponding, he re- 
ceived dispatches from his own go\-ernment urg- 
ing the necessity of his going to Amsterdam to 
negotiate another loan. It was winter, his health 
was delicate, yet he immediately set out, and 
through storm, on sea, on horseback and foot, he 
made the trip. 

February 24, 1785, Congress appointed Mr. 
Adams envoy to the Court of St. James. Here 
he met face to face the King of England, who 
had so long regarded him as a traitor. As Eng- 
land did not condescend to appoint a minister to 
the United States, and as Mr. Adams felt that he 
was accomplishing but little, he sought permis- 
sion to return to his own countrj', where he ar- 
rived in June, 1788. 

When Washington was first chosen President, 
John Adams, rendered illustrious by his signal 
services at home and abroad, was chosen Vice- 

President. Again, at the second election of Wash- 
ington as President, Adams was chosen Vice- 
President. In 1796, Washington retired from 
public life, and Mr. Adams was elected President, 
though not without much opposition. Sen-ing 
in this office four j-ears, he was succeeded bj' Mr. 
Jefferson, his opponent in politics. 

While Mr. Adams was Vice-President the 
great French Revolution shook the continent of 
Europe, and it was upon this point that he was 
at issue with the majority of his countrymen, led 
by Mr. Jefferson. Mr. Adams felt no sympathy 
with the French people in their struggle, for he 
had no confidence in their power of self-govern- 
ment, and he utterly abhorred the class of atheist 
philosophers who, he claimed, caused it. On the 
other hand, Jefferson's sympathies were strongly 
enlisted in behalf of the French people. Hence 
originated the alienation between these distin- 
tinguished men, and the two powerful parties were 
thus soon organized, with Adams at the head of 
the one whose sympathies were with England, 
and Jefferson leading the other in sympathy with 

The Fourth of July, 1826, which completed the 
half-century since the signing of the Declaration 
of Independence, arrived, and there were but 
three of the signers of that immortal instrument 
left upon the earth to hail its morning light. 
And, as it is well known, on that day two of 
these finished their earthl}' pilgrimage, a coinci- 
dence so remarkable as to seem miraculous. For 
a few days before Mr. Adams had been rapidlj' 
failing, and on the morning of the Fourth he 
found himself too weak to rise from his bed. On 
being requested to name a toast for the cus- 
tomary celebration of the day, he exclaimed 
"Independence forever!" When the day was 
ushered in by the ringing of bells and the firing 
of cannons, he was asked by one of bis attend- 
ants if he knew what day it was ? He replied, 
' ' O yes, it is the glorious Fourth of July — God 
bless it — God bless you all!" In the course of 
the day he said, "It is a great and glorious 
daj'." The last words he uttered were, "Jeffer- 
son survives." But lie had, at one o'clock, 
resigned his spirit into the hands of his God. 



^HOMAS JEFFERSON was born April 2, 
I C 1743, at Sliadwell, Albemarle County, Va. 
\y His parents were Peter and Jane (Ran- 
dolph) Jefferson, the fomier a native of Wales, 
and the latter born in Ivondon. To them were 
born six daughters and two sons, of whom Thomas 
was the elder. When fourteen years of age his 
father died. He received a most liberal educa- 
tion, having been kept diligently at school from 
the time he was five years of age. In 1760 he 
entered William and Mary College. Williams- 
burg was then the seat of the Colonial court, and 
it was the abode of fashion and splendor. Young 
Jefferson, who was then seventeen years old, lived 
somewhat expensively, keeping fine horses, and 
going much into gaj^ society; yet he was ear- 
nestly devoted to his studies, and irreproachable in 
his morals. In the second year of his college 
course, moved by some unexplained impulse, he 
discarded his old companions and pursuits, and 
often devoted fifteen hours a day to hard study. 
He thus attained very high intellectual culture, 
and a like excellence in philosophy and the lan- 

Immediately upon leaving college he began the 
study of law. For the short time he continued 
in the practice of his profession he rose rapidly, 
and distinguished himself by his energy and 
acuteness as a lawj-er. But the times called for 
greater action. The policy of England had awak- 
ened the spirit of resistance in the American Col- 
onies, and the enlarged views which Jefferson had 
ever entertained soon led him into active politi- 
cal life. In 1 769 he was chosen a member of the 
Virginia House of Burgesses. In 1772 he mar- 

ried Mrs. Martha Skelton, a very beautiful, 
wealthy, and highly accomplished young widow. 

In 1775 he was sent to the Colonial Congress, 
where, though a silent member, his abilities as a 
writer and a reasoner soon become known, and he 
was placed upon a number of important com- 
mittees, and was chairman of the one appointed 
for the drawing up of a declaration of independ- 
ence. This committee consisted of Thomas Jef 
ferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger 
Sherman and Robert R. Livingston. Jefferson, 
as chairman, was appointed to draw up the paper. 
Franklin and Adams suggested a few verbal 
changes before it was submitted to Congress. On 
June 28, a few slight changes were made in it by 
Congress, and it was passed and signed July 4, 

In 1779 Mr. Jefferson was elected successor to 
Patrick Henry as Governor of Virginia. At one 
time the British officer Tarleton sent a secret 
expedition to Monticello to capture the Governor. 
Scarcely five minutes elapsed after the hurried 
escape of Mr. Jefferson and his family ere his 
mansion was in possession of the British troops. 
His wife's health, never very good, was much 
injured by this excitement, and in the summer 
of 1782 she died. 

Mr. Jefferson was elected to Congress in 1783. 
Two years later he was appointed Minister Pleni- 
potentiary to France. Returning to the United 
States in September, 1789, he became Secretarj' 
of State in Washington's cabinet. This position 
he resigned January i, 1794. In 1797, he was 
chosen Vice-President, and four years later was 
elected President over Mr. Adams, with Aaron 



Burr as Vice-President. In 1804 he was re- 
elected with wonderful unanimit^•, George Clin- 
ton being elected Vice-President. 

The earh- part of Mr. Jefferson's second ad- 
ministration was distiu-bed bj- an event which 
threatened the tranquiUity and peace of the Union; 
this was the conspiracy of Aaron Burr. Defeated 
in the late election to the Mce-Presidency, and 
led on by an unprincipled ambition, this extraor- 
dinary man formed the plan of a military ex- 
pedition into the Spanish territories on our south- 
western frontier, for the purpose of forming there 
a new republic. This was generallj- supposed 
to have been a mere pretext; and although it has 
not been generally known what his real plans 
were, there is no doubt that they were of a far 
more dangerous character. 

In 1809, at the expiration of the second term 
for which Mr. Jefferson had been elected, he de- 
termined to retire from political life. For a period 
of nearly forty years he had been continually be- 
fore the public, and all that time had been em- 
ploj-ed in offices of the greatest trust and respon- 
sibility. Ha\-ing thus devoted the best part of 
his life to the sen-ice of his country-, he now felt 
desirous of that rest which his declining j-ears re- 
quired, and upon the organization of the new ad- 
ministration, in March, 1809, he bade farewell for- 
ever to public life and retired to Monticello, his 
famous countrj- home, which, next to Mt. Vernon, 
was the most distinguished residence in the land. 

The Fourth of July, 1S26, beingthe fiftieth an- 
niversary' of the Declaration of American Inde- 
pendence, great preparations were made in everj- 
part of the Union for its celebration as the nation's 
jubilee, and the citizens of Washington, to add to 
the solemnitj' of the occasion, invited Mr. Jeffer- 
son, as the framer and one of the few sur\-i%-ing 
signers of the Declaration, to participate in their 
festivities. But an illness, which had been of 
several weeks' duration and had been continuallj- 
increasing, compelled him to decline the invita- 

On the 2d of July the disease under which he 
was laboring left him, but in such a reduced 
state that his medical attendants entertained no 
hope of his recover}'. From this time he was 

perfectly sensible that his last hour was at hand. 
On the next daj-, which was Monday, he asked 
of those around him the da}' of the month, and 
on being told it was the 3d of Jtily, he ex- 
pressed the earnest wish that he might be per- 
mitted to breathe the air of the fiftieth anniver- 
sar}'. His prayer was heard — that day whose 
dawn was hailed with such rapture through our 
land burst upon his eyes, and then they were 
closed forever. And what a noble consummation 
of a noble life! To die on that day — the birth- 
day of a nation — the day which his own name 
and his own act had rendered glorious, to die 
amidst the rejoicings and festi\'ities of a whole 
nation, who looked up to him as the author, un- 
der God, of their greatest blessings, was all that 
was wanting to fill up the record of his life. 

Almost at the same hour of his death, the kin- 
dred spirit of the venerable Adams, as if to bear 
him company, left the scene of his earthly honors. 
Hand in hand they had stood forth, the cham- 
pions of freedom ; hand in hand, during the dark 
and desperate struggle of the Revolution, they 
had cheered and animated their desponding coun- 
tr}'men; for half a century they had labored to- 
gether for the good of the countr}-, and now hand 
in hand they departed. In their lives they had 
been united in the same great cause of Ubert}', 
and in their deaths they were not divided. 

In person Mr. Jefferson was tall and thin, rather 
above six feet in height, but well formed; his eyes 
were light, his hair, originally red, in after life be- 
came white and silver}', his complexion was fair, 
his forehead broad, and his whole countenance 
intelligent and thoughtful. He possessed great 
fortitude of mind as well as personal courage, and 
his command of temper was such that his oldest 
and most intimate friends never recollected to 
have seen him in a passion. His manners, though 
dignified, were simple and unaffected, and his 
hospitalit}' was so unbounded that all found at 
his house a ready welcome. In conversation he 
was fluent, eloquent and enthusiastic, and his 
language was remarkably pure and correct. He 
was a finished classical scholar, and in his writ- 
ings is discernible the care with which he formed 
his st}-le upon the best models of antiquity. 



(Tames MADISON, "Father of the Consti- 

I tution," and fourth President of the United 
(2/ States, was born March i6, 1757, and died 
at his home in Virginia June 28, 1836. The 
name of James Madison is inseparably connected 
with most of the important events in that heroic 
period of our country during which the founda- 
tions of this great repubhc were laid. He was 
the last of the founders of the Constitution of the 
United States to be called to his eternal reward. 

The Madison familj' were among the earlj' emi- 
grants to the New World, landing upon the shores 
of the Chesapeake but fifteen j-ears after the settle- 
ment of Jamestown. The father of James Madison 
was an opulent planter, residing upon a verj' fine 
estate called Montpelier, in Orange County, Va. 
It was but twenty-five miles from the home of Jef- 
ferson at Monticello, and the closest personal and 
political attachment existed between these illustri- 
ous men from their early youth until death. 

The early education of Mr. Madison was con- 
ducted mostly at home under a private tutor. At 
the age of eighteen he was sent to Princeton Col- 
lege, in New Jersey. Here he applied himself to 
study with the most imprudent zeal, allowing him- 
self for months but three hours' sleep out of the 
twenty-four. His health thus became so seriously 
impaired that he never recovered any vigor of 
constitution. He graduated in 1 77 1 , with a feeble 
body, but with a character of utmost purity, and 
a mind highly disciplined and richly stored with 
learning, which embellished and gave efiiciency 
to his subsequent career. 

Returning to Virginia, he commenced the study 
of law and a course of extensive and systematic 
reading. This educational course, the spirit of 
the times in which he lived, and the society with 
which he associated, all combined to inspire him 
with a strong love of liberty, and to train him for 
his life-work as a statesman. 

In the spring of 1776, when twenty-six years of 

age, he was elected a member of the Virginia Con- 
vention to frame the constitution of the State. The 
next year (1777), he was a candidate for the Gen- 
eral Assembly. He refused to treat the whisky -lov- 
ing voters, and consequently lost his election; but 
those who had witnessed the talent, energy and 
pubhc spirit of the modest young man enlisted 
themselves in his behalf, and he was appointed to 
the Executive Council. 

Both Patrick Henry and Thomas Jefierson were 
Governors of Virginia while Mr. Madison re- 
mained member of the Council, and their apprecia- 
tion of his intellectual, social and moral worth 
contributed not a little to his subsequent eminence. 
In the year 1780 he was elected a member of the 
Continental Congress. Here he met the most il- 
lustrious men in our land, and he was immediately 
assigned to one of the most conspicuous positions 
among them. For three years he continued in Con- 
gress, one of its most active and influential mem- 
bers. In 1784, his term having expired, he was 
elected a member of the Virginia Legislature. 

No man felt more deeply than Mr. Madison the 
utter inefficiency of the old confederacy, with no 
national government, and no power to form trea- 
ties which would be binding, or to enforce law. 
There was not any State more prominent than 
Virginia in the declaration that an efficient na- 
tional government must be formed. In Januarj', 
1786, Mr. Madison carried a resolution through 
the General Assembly of Virginia, inviting the 
other States to appoint commissioners to meet in 
convention at Annapolis to discuss this subject. 
Fi\-e States only were represented. The conven- 
tion, however, issued another call, drawn up by 
Mr. Madison, urging all the States to send their 
delegates to Philadelphia in May, 17S7, to draft 
a Constitution for the United States, to take the 
place of the Confederate League. The delegates 
met at the time appointed. Ever>' State but 
Rhode Island was represented. George Washing- 



ton was chosen president of the convention, and the 
present Constitution of tlie United States was then 
and there formed. There was, perhaps, no mind 
and no pen more active in framing this immortal 
document than the mind and the pen of James 

The Constitution, adopted by a vote of eighty-one 
to seventy-nine, was to be presented to the several 
States for acceptance. But grave solicitude was 
felt. Should it be rejected, we should be left but a 
conglomeration of independent States, with but 
little power at home and little respect abroad. Mr. 
Madison was elected by the convention to draw up 
an address to the people of the United States, ex- 
pounding the principles of the Constitution, and 
urging its adoption. There was great opposition 
to it at first, but at length it triumphed over all, 
and went into effect in 1789. 

Mr. Madison was elected to the House of Repre- 
sentatives in the first Congress, and soon became 
the avowed leader of the Republican party. While 
in New York attending Congress, he met Mrs. 
Todd, a young widow of remarkable power of fas- 
cination, whom he married. She was in person 
and character queenly, and probaby no lady has 
thus far occupied so prominent a position in the 
very peculiar society which has constituted our 
republican court as did Mrs. Madison. 

Mr. Madison served as Secretarj^ of State under 
Jefferson, and at the close of his administration 
was chosen President. At this time the encroach- 
ments of England had brought us to the verge of 
war. British orders in council destroyed our com- 
merce, and our flag was exposed to constant insult. 
Mr. Madison was a man of peace. Scholarly in 
his taste, retiring in his disposition, war had no 
charms for him. But the meekest spirit can be 
roused. It makes one's blood boil, even now, to 
think of an American ship brought to upon the 
ocean by the guns of an English cruiser. A 
young lieutenant steps on board and orders the 
crew to be paraded before him. With great non- 
chalance he selects any number whom he may 
please to designate as British subjects, orders them 
down the ship's side into his boat, and places them 
on the gundeck of his man-of-war, to fight, by 
compulsion, the battles of England. This right 

of search and impressment no efforts of our Gov- 
ernment could induce the British cabinet to re- 

On the 1 8th of June, 1812, President Madison 
gave his approval to an act of Congress declaring 
war against Great Britain. Notwithstanding the 
bitter hostility of the Federal party to the war, the 
country in general approved; and Mr. Madison, 
on the 4th of March, 181 3, was re-elected by a 
large majorit}', and entered upon his second term 
of office. This is not the place to describe the 
various adventures of this war on the land and on 
the water. Our infant navy then laid the found- 
ations of its renown in grappling with the most 
formidable power which ever swept the seas. The 
contest commenced in earnest by the appearance 
of a British fleet, early in February, 18 13, in 
Chesapeake Bay, declaring nearly the whole coast 
of the United States under blockade. 

The Emperor of Russia offered his services as 
mediator. America accepted; England refused. 
A British force of five thousand men landed on the 
banks of the Patuxet River, near its entrance into 
Chesapeake Bay, and marched rapidly, by way of 
Bladensburg, upon Washington. 

The straggling little city of Washington was 
thrown into consternation. The cannon of the 
brief conflict at Bladensburg echoed through the 
streets of the metropolis. The whole population 
fled from the city. The President, leaving Mrs. 
Madison in the White House, with her carriage 
drawn up at the door to await his speedy return, 
hurried to meet the ofiicers in a council of war. 
He met our troops utterly routed, and he could not 
go back without danger of being captured. But 
few hours elapsed ere the Presidential Mansion, 
the Capitol, and all the public buildings in Wash- 
ington were in flames. 

The war closed after two years of fighting, and 
on February 13, 18 15, the treaty of peace was 
signed at Ghent. On the 4th of March, 18 17, his 
second term of office expired, and he resigned the 
Presidential chair to his friend, James Monroe. 
He retired to his beautiful home at Montpelier, and 
there passed the remainder of his days. On June 
28, 1836, at the age of eighty-five years, he fell 
asleep in death. Mrs. Madison died July 12, 1849. 





(Tames MONROE, the fifth President of the 
I United States, was born in Westmoreland 
G) County, Va., April 28, 1758. His early life 
was passed at the place of his nativity. His an- 
cestors had for many years resided in the province 
in which he was born. When he was seventeen 
years old, and in process of completing his educa- 
tion at William and Mary College, the Colonial 
Congress, assembled at Philadelphia to deliberate 
upon the unjust and manifold oppressions of Great 
Britain, declared the separation of the Colonies, 
and promulgated the Declaration of Independence. 
Had he been born ten years before, it is highly 
probable that he would have been one of the 
signers of that celebrated instrument. At this 
time he left school and enlisted among the pa- 

He joined the army when everything looked 
hopeless and gloomy. The number of deserters 
increased from day to day. The invading armies 
came pouring in, and the Tories not only favored 
the cause of the mother country, but disheartened 
the new recruits, who were suflBciently terrified 
at the prospect of contending with an enemy 
whom they had been taught to deem invincible. 
To such brave spirits as James Monroe, who went 
right onward undismayed through difficulty and 
danger, the United States owe their political 
emancipation. The young cadet joined the ranks 
and espoused the cause of his injured country', 
with a firm determination to live or die in her 
strife for liberty. Firmly, yet sadly, he shared in 
the melancholy retreat from Harlem Heights 
and White Plains, and accompanied the dispirited 
army as it fled before its foes through New Jersey. 
In four months after the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, the patriots had been beaten in seven 
battles. At the battle of Trenton he led the van- 
guard, and in the act of charging upon the enemy 
he received a wound in the left shoulder. 

As a reward for his bravery, Mr. Monroe was 
promoted to be captain of infantrj', and, having re- 
covered from his wounds, he rejoined the army. 
He, however, receded from the line of promotion 
by becoming an officer on the staff" of L,ord Ster- 
ling. During the campaigns of 1777 and 1778, 
in the actions of Brandywine, Germantown and 
Monmouth, he continued aide-de-camp; but be- 
coming desirous to regain his position in the 
army, he exerted himself to collect a regiment for 
the Virginia line. This scheme failed, owing to 
the exhausted condition of the State. Upon this 
failure he entered the office of Mr. Jefferson, at 
that period Governor, and pursued with consid- 
erable ardor the study of common law. He did 
not, however, entirely lay aside the knapsack for 
the green bag, but on the invasion of the enemy 
served as a volunteer during the two years of his 
legal pursuits. 

In 1782 he was elected from King George 
County a member of the Legislature of Virginia, 
and by that body he was elevated to a seat in the 
Executive Council. He was thus honored with 
the confidence of his fellow-citizens at twenty- 
three years of age, and having at this early period 
displayed some of that ability and aptitude for 
legislation which were afterward employed with 
unremitting energy for the public good, he was 
in the succeeding year chosen a member of the 
Congress of the United States. 

Deeply as Mr. Monroe felt the imperfections of 
the old Confederacy, he was opposed to the new 
Constitution, thinking, with many others of the 
Republican party, that it gave too umcli power to 
the Central Government, and not enough to the 
individual States. Still he retained the esteem 
of his friends who were its warm supporters, and 
who, notwithstanding his opposition, secured its 
adoption. In 1789 he became a member of the 
United States Senate, which office he held for 


four years. Every month the Hne of distinction 
between the two great parties which divided the 
nation, the Federal and the Republican, was 
growing more distinct. The differences which 
now separated them lay in the fact that the Repub- 
lican party was in sympathy with France, and 
also in favor of such a strict construction of the 
Constitution as to give the Central Government as 
little power, and the State Governments as much 
power, as the Constitution would warrant; while 
the Federalists sympathized with England, and 
were in favor of a liberal construction of the Con- 
stitution, which would give as much power to the 
Central Government as that document could pos- 
sibly authorize. 

Washington was then President. England had 
espoused the cause of the Bourbons against the 
principles of the French Revolution. All Europe 
was drawn into the conflict. We were feeble and 
far away. Washington issued a proclamation of 
neutrality between these contending powers. 
France had helped us in the struggles for our 
liberties. All the despotisms of Europe were now 
combined to prevent the French from escaping 
from a tyranny a thousand-fold worse than that 
which we had endured. Col. Monroe, more mag- 
nanimous than prudent, was anxious that, at 
whatever hazard, we should help our old allies in 
their extremity. It was the impulse of a gener- 
ous and noble nature, and Washington, who could 
appreciate such a character, showed his calm, se- 
rene, almost divine, greatness, by appointing that 
very James Monroe who. was denouncing the pol- 
icy of the Government, as the minister of that 
Government to the Republic of France. Mr. 
Monroe was welcomed by the National Conven- 
tion in France with the most enthusiastic dem- 

Shortly after his return to this country, Mr. 
Monroe was elected Governor of Virginia, and 
held the ofSce for three years. He was again 
sent to France to co-operate with 'Chancellor Liv- 
ingston in obtaining the vast territorj^ then known 
as the province of Louisiana, which France had 
but shortly before obtained from Spain. Their 
united efforts were successful. For the compara- 
tively small sum of fifteen millions of dollars, the 

entire territory of Orleans and district of Loui- 
siana were added to the United States. This was 
probably the largest transfer of real estate which 
was ever made in all the history of the world. 

From France Mr. Monroe went to England to 
obtain from that country some recognition of out 
rights as neutrals, and to remonstrate against 
those odious impressments of our seamen. But 
England was unrelenting. He again returned to 
England on the same mission, but could receive 
no redress. He returned to his home and was 
again chosen Governor of Virginia. This he soon 
resigned to accept the position of Secretary of 
State under Madison. While in this office war 
with England was declared, the Secretary of War 
resigned, and during these trying times the 
duties of the War Department were also put upon 
him. He was truly the armor-bearer of President 
Madison, and the most efficient business man in 
his cabinet. Upon the return of peace he re- 
signed the Department of War, but continued in 
the office of Secretary of State until the expira- 
tion of Mr. Madison's administration. At the 
election held the previous autumn, Mr. Monroe 
himself had been chosen President with but little 
opposition, and upon March 4, 18 17, he was in- 
augurated. Four years later he was elected for 
a second term. 

Among the important measures of his Presi- 
dency were the cession of Florida to the United 
States, the Missouri Compromise, and the famous 
" Monroe doctrine." This doctrine was enun- 
ciated by him in 1823, and was as follows: ' ' That 
we should consider any attempt on the part of 
European powers to extend their system to any 
portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our 
peace and safety," and that "we could not view 
any interposition for the purpose of oppressing or 
controlling American governments or provinces 
in any other light than as a manifestation by 
European powers of an unfriendly disposition 
toward the United States. ' ' 

At the end of his second term, Mr. Monroe re- 
tired to his home in Virginia, where he lived un- 
til 1830, when he went to New York to live with 
his son-in-law. In that city he died, on the 4th 
of July, 1831. 




(TOHN QUINCY ADAMS, the sixth President 

I of the United States, was born in the rural 
\Z/ home of his honored father, John Adams, in 
Quincy, Mass., on the nth of July, 1767. His 
mother, a woman of exalted worth, watched over 
his childhood during the almost constant ab- 
sence of his father. When but eight years of 
age, he stood with his mother on an eminence, 
listening to the booming of the great battle on 
Bunker's Hill, and gazing out upon the smoke 
and flames billowing up from the conflagration of 

When but eleven years old he took a tearful 
adieu of his mother, to sail with his father for Eu- 
rope, through a fleet of hostile British cruisers. 
The bright, animated boy spent a year and a-half 
in Paris, where his father was associated with 
Franklin and Lee as Minister Plenipotentiary. 
His intelligence attracted the notice of these dis- 
tinguished men, and he received from them flat- 
tering marks of attention. 

John Adams had scarcely returned to this 
country, in 1779, ere he was again sent abroad. 
Again John Quincy accompanied his father. At 
Paris he applied himself to study with great dil- 
igence for six months, and then accompanied his 
father to Holland, where he entered first a school 
in Amsterdam, then the University at L,eyden. 
About a year from this time, in 1781, when the 
manly boy was but fourteen years of age, he was 
selected by Mr. Dana, our Minister to the Rus- 
sian court, as his private secretary. 

In this school of incessant labor and of ennobl- 
ing culture he spent fourteen months, and then 
returned to Holland, through Sweden, Denmark, 
Hamburg and Bremen. This long journey he 
took alone in the winter, when in his sixteenth 
year. Again he resumed his studies, under a pri- 
vate tutor, at The Hague. Then, in the spring of 
1782, he accompanied his father to Paris, travel- 
ing leisurely, and forming acquaintances with the 
most distinguished men on the continent, examin- 

ing architectural remains, galleries of paintings, 
and all renowned works of art. At Paris he 
again became associated with the most illustrious 
men of all lands in the contemplation of the 
loftiest temporal themes which can engross the 
human mind. After a short visit to England he 
returned to Paris, and consecrated all his energies 
to study until May, 1785, when he returned to 
America to finish his education. 

Upon leaving Harvard College at the age of 
twenty, he studied law for three years. In June, 
1794, being then but twenty-seven years of age, 
he was appointed by Washington Resident Min- 
ister at the Netherlands. Sailing from Boston in 
July, he reached London in October, where he 
was immediately admitted to the deliberations of 
Messrs. Jay & Pinckney, assisting them in nego- 
tiating a commercial treaty with Great Britain. 
After thus spending a fortnight in London, he 
proceeded to The Hague. 

In July, 1797, he lefl; The Hague to go to Por- 
tugal as Minister Plenipotentiary. On his way to 
Portugal, upon arriving in London, he met with 
despatches directing him to the court of Berlin, but 
requesting him to remain in London until he 
should receive his instructions. While waiting 
he was married to an American lady, to whom he 
had been previously engaged — Miss Louisa Cath- 
erine Johnson, a daughter of Joshua Johnson, 
American Consul in London, and a lady en- 
dowed with that beauty and those accomplish- 
ments which eminently fitted her to move in the 
elevated sphere for which she was destined. He 
reached Berlin with his wife in November, 1797, 
where he remained until July, 1799, when, hav- 
ing fulfilled all the purposes of his mission, he so- 
licited his recall. 

Soon after his return, in 1802, he was chosen 
to the Senate of Massachusetts from Boston, and 
then was elected Senator of the United States for 
six years, from the 4th of March, 1804. His rep- 
utation, his ability and his experience placed 


him immediately among the most prominent and 
influential members of that body. 

In 1S09, Madison succeeded Jefferson in the 
Presidential chair, and he immediately nominated 
John Quincy Adams Minister to St. Petersburgh. 
Resigning his professorship in Harvard Col- 
lege, he embarked at Boston in August, 1809. 

While in Russia, Mr. Adams was an intense 
student. He devoted his attention to the lan- 
guage and history of Russia; to the Chinese trade; 
to the European system of weights, measures and 
coins; to the climate and astronomical observ^a- 
tions: while he kept up a famiHar acquaintance 
with the Greek and Latin classics. In all the 
universities of Europe, a more accomplished 
scholar could scarcely be found. All through 
life the Bible constituted an important part of his 
studies. It was his rule to read five chapters 
every da3\ 

On the 4th of March, 1817, Mr. Monroe took 
the Presidential chair, and immediately appointed 
Mr. Adams Secretary of State. Taking leave of 
his numerous friends in public and private life in 
Europe, he sailed in June, 18 19, for the United 
States. On the iSth of August, he again crossed 
the threshold of his home in Quincy. During the 
eight j-ears of Mr. Monroe's administration, Mr. 
Adams continued Secretary of State. 

Some time before the close of Mr. Monroe's 
second term of office, new candidates began to be 
presented for the Presidency. The friends of Mr. 
Adams brought forward his name. It was an 
exciting campaign, and party spirit was never 
more bitter. Two hundred and sixty electoral 
votes were cast. Andrew Jackson received ninetj-- 
nine; John Quincy Adams eighty-four; William 
H. Crawford fortj'-one; and Henr3- Clay thirty- 
seven. As there was no choice by the people, 
the question went to the House of Representa- 
tives. Mr. Clay gave the vote of Kentucky to 
Mr. Adams, and he was elected. 

The friends of all the disappointed candidates 
now combined in a venomous and persistent as- 
sault upon Mr. Adams. There is nothing more 
disgraceful in the past historj' of our countn,- than 
the abuse which was poured in one uninterrupted 
stream upon this high-minded, upright and pa- 

triotic man. There never was an administration 
more pure in principles, more conscientiously de- 
voted to the best interests of the countrj-, than 
that of John Quincy Adams; and never, perhaps, 
was there an administration more unscrupulously 
and outrageously assailed. 

On the 4th of March, 1829, Mr. Adams retired 
from the Presidency, and was succeeded by An- 
drew Jackson. John C. Calhoim was elected 
Vice-President. The slavery question now be- 
gan to assume portentous magnitude. Mr. Adams 
returned to Quincy and to his studies, which he 
pursued with unabated zeal. But he was not 
long permitted to remain in retirement. In No- 
vember, 1830, he was elected Representative in 
Congress. For seventeen years, or until his death, 
he occupied the post as Representative, towering 
above all his peers, ever ready to do brave battle 
for freedom, and winning the title of "the Old 
Man Eloquent." Upon taking his seat in the 
House, he announced that he should hold him- 
self bound to no party. Probably there never 
was a member more devoted to his duties. He 
was usually the first in his place in the morning, 
and the last to leave his seat in the evening. 
Not a measure could be brought forward and es- 
cape his scrutiny. The battle which Mr. Adams 
fought, almost singly, against the pro-slavery 
party in the Government was sublime in its 
moral daring and heroism. For persisting in 
presenting petitions for the abolition of slaverj', 
he was threatened with indictment by the grand 
jury, with expulsion from the House, with assas- 
sination; but no threats could intimidate him, and 
his final triumph was complete. 

On the 2ist of Februarj', 1848, he rose on the 
floor of Congress with a paper in his hand, to 
address the speaker. Suddenly he fell, again 
stricken by paralysis, and was caught in the arms 
of those around him. For a time he was sense- 
less, as he was convej^ed to the sofa in the ro- 
tunda. With reviving consciousness, he opened 
his eyes, looked calmly around and said ' ' This 
is the end of earth;' ' then after a moment's pause 
he added, " I am content." These were the last 
words of the grand ' ' Old Man Eloquent. ' ' 



Gl NDRKW JACKSON, the seventh President 
LA of the United States, was born in Waxhaw 
I I settlement, N. C, March 15, 1767, a few 
da3-s after his father's death. His parents were 
poor emigrants from Ireland, and took up their 
abode in Waxhaw settlement, where they lived 
in deepest poverty. 

Andrew, or Andy, as he was universally called, 
grew up a very rough, rude, turbulent boy. His 
features were coarse, his form ungainly, and there 
was but very little in his character made visible 
which was attractive. 

When only thirteen years old he joined the 
volunteers of Carolina against the British invasion. 
In 1 78 1, he and his brother Robert were captured 
and imprisoned for a time at Camden. A British 
officer ordered him to brush his mud-spattered 
boots. "lam a prisoner of war, not your serv- 
ant," was the reply of the dauntless bo3\ 

Andrew supported himselfin various ways, such 
as working at the saddler's trade, teaching school, 
and clerking in a general store, until 1784, when 
he entered a law office at Salisburj-, N. C. He, 
however, gave more attention to the wild amuse- 
ments of the times than to his studies. In 1788, 
he was appointed solicitor for the Western District 
of North Carolina, of which Tennessee was then 
a part. This involved many long journeys amid 
dangers of every kind, but Andrew Jackson never 
knew fear, and the Indians had no desire to re- 
peat a skirmish with "Sharp Knife." 

In 1 791, Mr. Jackson was married to a woman 
who supposed herself divorced from her former 
husband. Great was the surprise of both parties, 
two years later, to find that the conditions of the 
divorce had just been definitely settled by the 
first husband. The marriage ceremony was per- 
fonned a second time, but the occurrence was 
often used by his enemies to bring Mr. Jackson 
into disfavor. 

In Januarj', 1796, the Territory of Tennessee 
then containing nearly eighty thousand inhabi- 
tants, the people met in convention at Knoxville 
to frame a constitution. Five were sent from 
each of the eleven counties. Andrew Jackson 
was one of the delegates. The new State was 
entitled to but one member in the National House 
of Representatives. Andrew Jackson was chosen 
that member. Mounting his horse, he rode to 
Philadelphia, where Congress then held its ses- 
sions, a distance of about eight hundred miles. 

Jackson was an earnest advocate of the Demo- 
cratic party, and Jeiferson was his idol. He ad- 
mired Bonaparte, lo^•ed France, and hated Eng- 
land. As Mr. Jackson took his seat, Gen. Wash- 
ington, whose second term of office was then 
expiring, delivered his last speech to Congress. 
A committee drew up a complimentary address in 
reply. Andrew Jackson did not approve of the 
address, and was one of the twelve who voted 
against it. He was not willing to say that Gen. 
Washington's administration had been "wise, 
firm and patriotic. ' ' 

Mr. Jackson was elected to the United States 
Senate in 1797, but soon resigned and returned 
home. Soon after he was chosen Judge of the 
Supreme Court of his State, which position he 
held for six years. 

When the War of 18 12 with Great Britain com- 
menced, Madison occupied the Presidential chair. 
Aaron Burr sent word to the President that there 
was an unknown man in the West, Andrew Jack- 
son, who would do credit to a commission if one 
were conferred upon him. Just at that time Gen. 
Jackson offered his services and those of twenty- 
five hundred volunteers. His offer was accepted, 
and the troops were assembled at Nashville. 

As the British were hourly expected to make 
an attack upon New Orleans, where Gen. Wil- 
kinson was in command, he was ordered to de- 



scend the river with fifteen hundred troops to aid 
Wilkinson. The expedition reached Natchez, 
and after a delay of several weeks there without 
accomplishing anything, the men were ordered 
back to their homes. But the energy Gen. Jack- 
son had displayed, and his entire devotion to the 
comfort of his soldiers, won for him golden opin- 
ions, and he became the most popular man in the 
State. It was in this expedition that his tough- 
ness gave him the nickname of "Old Hickory." 

Soon after this, while attempting to horsewhip 
Col. Thomas Benton for a remark that gentleman 
made about his taking part as second in a duel 
in which a younger brother of Bentoii's was en- 
gaged, he received two severe pistol wounds. 
While he was lingering upon a bed of suffering, 
news came that the Indians, who had combined 
under Tecumseh from Florida to the Lakes to ex- 
terminate the white settlers, were committing the 
most awful ravages. Decisive action became nec- 
essary. Gen. Jackson, with his fractured bone 
just beginning to heal, his arm in a sling, and 
unable to mount his horse without assistance, 
gave his amazing energies to the raising of an 
army to rendezvous at Fayettesville, Ala. 

The Creek Indians had established a strong 
fort on one of the bends of the Tallapoosa River, 
near the center of Alabama, about fifty miles be- 
low Ft. Strother. With an army of two thousand 
men, Gen. Jackson traversed the pathless wilder- 
ness in a march of eleven days. He reached their 
fort, called Tohopeka or Horse-shoe, on the 27th 
of March, 1814. The bend of the river enclosed 
nearly one hundred acres of tangled forest and 
wild ravine. Across the narrow neck the Indians 
had constructed a formidable breastwork of logs 
and brush. Here nine hundred warriors, with 
an ample supply of arms, were assembled. 

The fort was stormed. The fight was utterly 
desperate. Not an Indian would accept quarter. 
When bleeding and dying, they would fight those 
who endeavored to spare their lives. From ten 
in the morning until dark the battle raged. The 
carnage was awful and revolting. Some threw 
themselves into the river; but the unerring bul- 
lets struck their heads as they swam. Nearly 
every one of the nine hundred warriors was 

killed. A few, probably, in the night swam 
the river and escaped. This ended the war. 

This closing of the Creek War enabled us to 
concentrate all our militia upon the British, who 
were the allies of the Indians. No man of less 
resolute will than Gen. Jackson could have con- 
ducted this Indian campaign to so successful an 
issue. Immediately he was appointed Major- 

Late in August, with an army of two thousand 
men on a rushing march, Gen. Jackson went to 
Mobile. A British fleet went from Pensacola, 
landed a force upon the beach, anchored near the 
little fort, and from both ship and shore com- 
menced a furious assault. The battle was long 
and doubtful. At length one of the ships was 
blown up and the rest retired. 

Garrisoning Mobile, where he had taken his 
little army, he moved his troops to New Orleans, 
and the battle of New Orleans, which soon ensued, 
was in reality a very arduous campaign. This 
won for Gen. Jackson an imperishable name. 
Here his troops, which numbered about four 
thousand men, won a signal victory over the 
British army of about nine thousand. His loss 
was but thirteen, while the loss of the British was 
twenty-six hundred. 

The name of Gen. Jackson soon began to be 
mentioned in connection with the Presidency, 
but in 1824 he was defeated by Mr. Adams. 
He was, however, successful in the election of 
1828, and was re-elected for a second term in 
1832. In 1829, just before he assumed the reins 
of government, he met with the most terrible 
affliction of his Hfe in the death of his wife, whom 
he had loved with a devotion which has perhaps 
never been surpassed. From the shock of her 
death he never recovered. 

His administration was one of the most mem- 
orable in the annals of our country — applauded 
by one party, condemned by the other. No man 
had more bitter enemies or warmer friends. At 
the expiration of his two terms of oSice he retired 
to the Hermitage, where he died June 8, 1845. The 
last years of Mr. Jackson's life were those of a de- 
voted Christian man. 



|ARTIN VAN BUREN, the eighth Presi- 
dent of the United States, was born at Kin- 
derhook, N. Y., December 5, 17S2. He 
died at the same place, July 24, 1862. His body 
rests in the cemeterj' at Kinderhook. Above it is 
a plain granite shaft, fifteen feet high, bearing a 
simple inscription about half-way up on one face. 
The lot is unfenced, unbordered or unbounded 
by shrub or flower. 

There is but little in the life of Martin Van 
Buren of romantic interest. He fought no battles, 
engaged in no wild adventures. Though his life 
was stormy in political and intellectual conflicts, 
and he gained many signal victories, his days 
passed uneventful in those incidents which give 
zest to biography. His ancestors, as his name indi- 
cates, were of Dutch origin, and were among the 
earliest emigrants from Holland to the banks of 
the Hudson. His father was a farmer, residing 
in the old town of Kinderhook. His mother, also 
of Dutch lineage, was a woman of superior intel- 
ligence and exemplary piety. 

He was decidedl}' a precocious boy, developing 
unusual activity, vigor and strength of mind. At 
the age of fourteen, he had finished his academic 
studies in his native village, and commenced the 
study of law. As he had not a collegiate educa- 
tion, seven years of study in a law-ofiice were re- 
quired of him before he could be admitted to the 
Bar. Inspired with a lofty ambition, and con- 
scious of his powers, he pursued his studies with 
indefatigable industr>'. After spending sixj^ears 
in an office in his native village, he went to the city 
of New York, and prosecuted his studies for the 
seventh year. 

In 1803, Mr. Van Buren, then twenty-one years 

of age, commenced the practice of law in his na- 
tive village. The great conflict between the Fedei al 
and Republican parties was then at its height. 
Mr. Van Buren was from the beginning a politi- 
cian. He had, perhaps, imbibed that spirit while 
listening to the many discussions which had been 
carried on in his father's hotel. He was in cordial 
sympathy with Jefferson, and earnestly and elo- 
quently espoused the cause of State Rights, though 
at that time the Federal party held the supremacy 
both in his town and State. 

His success and increasing reputation led him 
after six years of practice to remove to Hudson, 
the county seat of his county. Here he spent 
seven years, constantly gaining strength by con- 
tending in the courts with some of the ablest men 
who have adorned the Bar of his State. 

Just before leaving Kinderhook for Hudson, Mr. 
Van Buren married a lady alike distinguished for 
beauty and accomplishments. After twelve short 
years she sank into the grave, a victim of con- 
sumption, leaving her husband and four sons to 
weep over her loss. For twenty-five years, Mr. 
Van Buren was an earnest, successful, assiduous 
lawyer. The record of those years is barren in 
items of public interest. In 1812, when thirty 
years of age, he was chosen to the State Senate, 
and gave his strenuous support to Mr. Madison's 
administration. In 181 5, he was appointed At- 
torney-General, and the next year moved to Al- 
bany, the capital of the State. 

While he was acknowledged as one of the most 
prominent leaders of the Democratic party, he had 
the moral courage to avow that true democracy did 
not require that ' 'universal sufiirage' ' which admit;- 
the vile, the degraded, the ignorant, to the right 



of governing the State. In true consistency with 
his democratic principles, he contended that, while 
the path leading to the privilege of voting should 
be open to ever}' man without distinction, no one 
should be invested with that sacred prerogative 
unless he were in some degree qualified for it by 
intelligence, virtue, and some property interests in 
the welfare of the State. 

In 1 82 1 he was elected a member of the United 
States Senate, and in the same year he took a 
seat in the convention to revise the Constitution of 
his native State. His course in this convention 
secured the approval of men of all parties. No 
one could doubt the sing'^^ness of his endeavors to 
promote the interests of i— classes in the com- 
munity. In the Senate of the United States, he 
rose at once to a conspicuous position as an active 
and useful legislator. 

In 1827, John Quincy Adams being then in the 
Presidential chair, Mr. Van Buren was re-elected 
to the Senate. He had been from the beginning 
a determined opposer of the administration, adopt- 
ing the ' 'State Rights' ' view in opposition to what 
was deemed the Federal proclivities of Mr. Adams. 

Soon after this, in 1828, he was chosen Governor 
of the State of New York, and accordingly resigned 
his seat in the Senate. Probably no one in the 
United States contributed so much towards eject- 
ing John Q. Adams from the Presidential chair, 
and placing in it Andrew Jackson, as did Martin 
Van Buren. Whether entitled to the reputation 
or not, he certainly was regarded throughout the 
United States as one of the most skillful, sagacious 
and cunning of politicians. It was supposed that 
no one knew so well as he how to touch the secret 
springs of action, how to pull all the wires to 
put his machinery in motion, and how to organize 
a political army which would secretly and stealth- 
ily accomplish the most gigantic results. By these 
powers it is said that he outwitted Mr. Adams, Mr. 
Clay, and Mr. Webster, and secured results which 
few then thought could be accomplished. 

When Andrew Jackson was elected President 
he appointed Mr. Van Buren Secretary of State. 
This position he resigned in 1831, and was im- 
mediately appointed Minister to England, where 
be went the same autumn. The Senate, however, 

when it met, refused to ratify the nomination, and 
he returned home, apparently untroubled. Later 
he was nominated Vice-President in the place of 
Calhoun, at the re-election of President Jackson, 
and with smiles for all and frowns for none, he 
took his place at the head of that Senate which had 
refused to confirm his nomination as ambassador. 

His rejection by the Senate roused all the zeal 
of President Jackson in behalf of his repudiated 
favorite; and this, probably, more than any other 
cause secured his elevation to the chair of the 
Chief Executive. On the 20th of May, 1836, Mr. 
Van Buren received the Democratic nomination 
to succeed Gen. Jackson as President of the United 
States. He was elected by a handsome majority, 
to the delight of the retiring President. ' 'Leaving 
New York out of the canvass," says Mr. Parton, 
"the election of Mr. Van Buren to the Presidency 
was as much the act of Gen. Jackson as though 
the Constitution had conferred upon him the power 
to appoint a successor." 

His administration was filled with exciting 
events. The insurrection in Canada, which 
threatened to involve this country in war with 
England, the agitation of the slavery question, 
and finally the great commercial panic which 
spread over the country, all were trials of his wis- 
dom. The financial distress was attributed to 
the management of the Democratic party, and 
brought the President into such disfavor that he 
failed of re-election, and on the 4th of March, 
1 84 1 , he retired from the presidency. 

With the exception of being nominated for the 
Presidency by the "Free Soil" Democrats in 1848, 
Mr. Van Buren lived quietly upon his estate until 
his death. He had ever been a prudent man, of 
frugal habits, and, living within his income, had 
now fortunately a competence for his declining 
years. From his fine estate at Eindenwald, he 
still exerted a powerful influence upon the politics 
of the country. From this time until his death, 
on the 24th of July, 1862, at the age of eighty 
years, he resided at Lindenwald, a gentleman of 
leisure, of culture and wealth, enjoying in a 
healthy old age probably far more happiness than 
he had before experienced amid the stormy scenes 
of his active life. 



President of the United States, was born 
at Berkeley, Va., February 9, 1773. His 
father, Benjamin Harrison, was in comparatively 
opulent circumstances, and was one of the most 
distinguished men of his day. He was an inti- 
mate friend of George Washington, was early 
elected a member of the Continental Congress, 
and was conspicuous among the patriots of Vir- 
ginia in resisting the encroachments of the British 
crown. In the celebrated Congress of 1775, Ben- 
jamin Harrison and John Hancock were both 
candidates for the office of Speaker. 

Mr. Harrison was subsequently chosen Gov- 
ernor of Virginia, and was twice re-elected. His 
son William Heurj-, of course, enjoj'ed in child- 
hood all the advantages which wealth and intel- 
lectual and cultivated society could give. Hav- 
ing received a thorough common-school educa- 
tion, he entered Hampden Sidney College, where 
he graduated with honor soon after the death of 
his father. He then repaired to Philadelphia to 
study medicine under the instructions of Dr. Rush 
and the guardianship of Robert Morris, both of 
whom were, with his father, signers of the Dec- 
laration of Independence. 

Upon the outbreak of the Indian troubles, and 
notwithstanding the remonstrances of his friends, 
he abandoned his medical studies and entered the 
army, having obtained a commission as Ensign 
from President Washington. He was then but 
nineteen years old. From that time he passed 
gradually upward in rank until he became aide 
to Gen. Wayne, after whose death he resigned 
his commission. He was then appointed Secre- 
tarj' of the Northwestern Territory. This Terri- 
tory was then entitled to but one member in Con- 

gress, and Harrison was chosen to fill that position . 
In the spring of 1800 the Northwestern Terri- 
tory was divided by Congress into two portions. 
The eastern portion, comprising the region now 
embraced in the State of Ohio, was called ' ' The 
Territory northwest of the Ohio. ' ' The western 
portion, which included what is now called Indi- 
ana, Illinois and Wisconsin, was called "the Indi- 
ana Territory." William Henry Harrison, then 
twenty-seven years of age, was appointed by John 
Adams Governor of the Indiana Territory, and 
immediately after also Governor of Upper Loui- 
siana. He was thus ruler over almost as exten- 
sive a realm as any sovereign upon the globe. 
He was Superintendent of Indian Affairs, and 
was invested with powers nearly dictatorial over 
the then rapidly increasing white population. The 
ability and fidelity with which he discharged 
these responsible duties may be inferred from the 
fact that he was four times appointed to this 
office — first by John Adams, twice by Thomas 
Jefferson, and afterwards by President Madison. 

When he began his administration there were 
but three white settlements in that almost bound- 
less region, now crowded with cities and resound- 
ing with all the tumult of wealth and traflBc. 
One of these settlements was on the Ohio, nearly 
opposite Louisville; one at Vincennes, on the 
Wabash; and the third was a French settlement. 

The vast wilderness over which Gov. Harrison 
reigned was filled with many tribes of Indians. 
About the year 1806, two extraordinary men, 
twin brothers of the Shawnee tribe, rose among 
them. One of these was called Tecumseh, or 
"the Crouching Pai.ther;" the other Olliwa- 
checa, or "the Prophet." Tecumseh was not 
only an Indian warrior, but a man of great sagac- 



ity, far-reaching foresight and indomitable perse- 
verance in an}' enterprise in which he might en- 
gage. His brother, the Prophet, was an orator, 
who could sway the feelings of the untutored In- 
dians as the gale tossed the tree-tops beneath 
which they dwelt. With an enthusiasm unsur- 
passed by Peter the Hermit rousing Europe to the 
crusades, he went from tribe to tribe, assuming 
that he was specially sent by the Great Spirit. 

Gov. Harrison made many attempts to con- 
ciliate the Indians, but at last war came, and at 
Tippecanoe the Indians were routed with great 
slaughter. October 28, 1812, his army began its 
march. When near the Prophet's town, three 
Indians of rank made their appearance and in- 
quired why Gov. Harrison was approaching them 
in so hostile an attitude. After a short confer- 
ence, arrangements were made for a meeting the 
next day to agree upon terms of peace. 

But Gov. Harrison was too well acquainted 
with the Indian character to be deceived by such 
protestations. Selecting a favorable spot for his 
night's encampment, he took everj' precaution 
against surprise. His troops were posted in a 
hollow square and slept upon their arms. The 
wakeful Governor, between three and four o'clock 
in the morning, had risen, and was sitting 
in conversation with his aides by the embers 
of a waning fire. It was a chill, cloudy morning, 
with a drizzling rain. In the darkness, the In- 
dians had crept as near as possible, and just then, 
with a savage yell, rushed, with all the despera- 
tion which superstition and passion most highly 
inflamed could give, upon the left flank of the 
little army. The savages had been amply pro- 
vided with guns and ammunition by the English, 
and their war-whoop was accompanied by a 
shower of bullets. 

The camp-fires were instantly extinguished, as 
the light aided the Indians in their aim, and 
Gen. Harrison's troops stood as immovable as 
the rocks around them until day dawned, when 
they made a simultaneous charge with the baj-o- 
net and swept everything before them, completely 
routing the foe. 

Gov. Harrison now had all his energies tasked 
to the utmost. The British, descending from the 

Canadas, were of themselves a very formidable 
force, but with their savage allies rushing -like 
wolves from the forest, burning, plundering, scalp- 
ing,, torturing, the wide frontier was plunged into 
a state of consternation which even the most vivid 
imagination can but faintly conceive. Gen. Hull 
had made an ignominious surrender of his forces at 
Detroit. Under these despairing circumstances. 
Gov. Harrison was appointed by President Madi- 
son Commander-in-Chief of the Northwestern 
Army, with orders to retake Detroit and to protect 
the frontiers. It would be diiEcult to place a man 
in a situation demanding more energj', sagacity 
and courage, but he was found equal to the 
position, and nobly and triumphantly did he meet 
all the responsibilities. 

In 1816, Gen. Harrison was chosen a member 
of the National House of Representatives, to rep- 
resent the District of Ohio. In Congress he proved 
an active member, and whenever he spoke it was 
with a force of reason and power of eloquence 
which arrested the attention of all the members. 

In 1 8 19, Harrison was elected to the Senate of 
Ohio, and in 1824, as one of the Presidential Elec- 
tors of that State, he gave his vote for Henry 
Clay. The same year he was chosen to the Uni- 
ted States Senate. In 1836 his friends brought 
him forward as a candidate for the Presidency 
against Van Buren, but he was defeated. At the 
close of Mr. Van Buren's term, he was re-nom- 
inated by his party, and Mr. Harrison was unani- 
mously nominated by the Whigs, with John Tyler 
for the Vice-Presidency. The contest was very 
animated. Gen. Jackson gave all his influence to 
prevent Harrison's election, but his triumph was 

The cabinet which he formed, with Daniel Web- 
ster at its head as Secretary of State, was one of 
the most brilliant with which any President had 
ever been surrounded. Never were the prospects 
of an administration more flattering, or the hopes 
of the country more sanguine. In the midst of 
these bright and joyous prospects. Gen. Harrison 
was seized by a pleurisy-fever, and after a few 
days of violent sickness died, on the 4th of April, 
just one month after his inauguration as President 
of the United States. 



(TOHN TYLER, the tenth President of the 
I United States, and was born in Charles 
(2/ City County, Va., March 29, 1790. He was 
the favored child of afiiuence and high social po- 
sition. At the early age of twelve, John entered 
William and Mary College, and graduated with 
much honor when but seventeen years old. After 
graduating, he devoted himself with great assi- 
duity to the study of law, partly with his father 
and partly with Edmund Randolph, one of the 
most distinguished lawj'ers of Virginia. 

At nineteen years of age, he commenced the 
practice of law. His success was rapid and as- 
tonishing. It is said that three months had not 
elapsed ere there was scarcely a case on the 
docket of the court in which he was not retained. 
When but twenty-one years of age, he was almost 
unanimously elected to a seat in the State Legis- 
lature. He connected himself with the Demo- 
cratic party, and warmly advocated the measures 
of Jefferson and Madison. For five successive 
years he was elected to the Legislature, receiving 
nearly the unanimous vote of his county. 

When but twenty-six years of age, he was 
elected a Member of Congress. Here he acted ear- 
nestly and ably with the Democratic part}-, oppos- 
ing a national bank, internal improvements by 
the General Government, and a protective tariff"; 
advocating a strict construction of the Constitu- 
tion and the most careful vigilance over State 
rights. His labors in Congress were so arduous 
that before the close of his second term he found 
it necessary to resign and retire to his estate in 
Charles City County to recruit his health. He, 
however, soon after consented to take his seat in 
the State Legislature, where his influence was 
powerful in promoting public works of great 
utility. With a reputation thus constantly in- 
creasing, he was chosen by a very large majority 
of votes Governor of his native State. His ad- 
ministration was a signally successful one, and his 
popularity secured his re-election. 

John Randolph, a brilliant, erratic, half-crazed 
man, then represented Virginia in the Senate of 
the United States. A portion of the Democratic 
party was displeased with Mr. Randolph's way- 
ward course, and brought forward John Tyler as 
his opponent, considering him the only man in 
Virginia of sufficient popularity to succeed 
against the renowned orator of Roanoke. Mr. 
Tyler was the victor. 

In accordance with his professions, upon tak- 
ing his seat in the Senate he joined the ranks of 
the opposition. He opposed the tariff, and spoke 
against and voted against the bank as unconsti- 
tutional; he strenuously opposed all restrictions 
upon slavery, resisting all projects of internal im- 
provements by the General Government, and 
avowed his sympathy with Mr. Calhoun's view 
of nullification; he declared that Gen. Jackson, 
by his opposition to the nullifiers, had abandoned 
the principles of the Democratic party. Such 
was Mr. Tyler's record in Congress — a record in 
perfect accordance with the principles which he 
had always avowed. 

Returning to Virginia, he resumed the practice 
of his profession. There was a split in the Demo- 
cratic party. His friends still regarded him as a 
true Jeffersonian, gave him a dinner, and show- 
ered compliments upon him. He had now at- 
tained the age of forty-six, and bis career had been 
ver>' brilliant. In consequence of his devotion to 
public business, his private affairs had fallen into 
some disorder, and it was not without satisfac- 
tion that he resumed the practice of law, and de- 
voted himself to the cultivation of his plantation. 
Soon after this he removed to Williamsburg, for 
the better education of his children, and he again 
took his seat in the Legislature of Virginia. 

By the southern Whigs he was sent to the 
national convention at Harrisburg in 1839 to nom- 
inate a President. The majority of votes were 
given to Gen Harrison, a genuine Whig, much 
to the disappointment of the South, which wished 



for Henry Clay. To conciliate the southern 
Whigs and to secure their vote, the convention 
then nominated John Tyler for Vice-President. 
It was well known that he was not in sympathy 
with the Whig party in the North; but the Vice- 
President has very little power in the Govern- 
ment, his main and almost only duty being to 
preside over the meetings of the Senate. Thus it 
happened that a Whig President and, in reality, 
a Democratic Vice-President were chosen. 

in 1841, Mr. Tyler was inaugurated Vice- 
President of the United States. In one short 
month from that time. President Harrison died, 
and Mr. Tyler thus found himself, to his own 
surprise and that of the whole nation, an occu- 
pant of the Presidential chair. Hastening from 
Williamsburg to Washington, on the 6th of 
April he was inaugurated to the high and re- 
sponsible ofEce. He was placed in a position of 
exceeding delicacy and difficulty. All his long 
life he had been opposed to the main principles of 
the party which had brought him into power. 
He had ever been a consistent, honest man, with 
an unblemished record. Gen. Harrison had se- 
lected a Whig cabinet. Should he retain them, 
and thus surround himself with counselors whose 
views were antagonistic to his own ? or, on the 
other hand, should he turn against the party 
which had elected him, and select a cabinet in 
harmony with himself, and which would oppose 
all those views which the Whigs deemed essen- 
tial to the public welfare ? This was his fearful 
dilemma. He invited the cabinet which Presi- 
dent Harrison had selected to retain their seats, 
and recommended a day of fasting and prayer, 
that God would guide and bless us. 

The Whigs carried through Congress a bill for 
the incorporation of a fiscal bank of the United 
States. The President, after ten days' delay, re- 
turned it with his veto. He suggested, however, 
that he would approve of a bill drawn up upon 
such a plan as he proposed. Such a bill was ac- 
cordingly prepared, and privately submitted to 
him. He gave it his approval. It was passed 
without alteration, and he sent it back with his 
veto. Here commenced the open rupture. It is 
said that Mr. Tyler was provoked to this meas- 

ure by a published letter from the Hon. John M. 
Botts, a distinguished Virginia Whig, who se- 
verely touched the pride of the President. 

The opposition now exultingly received the 
President into their arms. The party which 
elected him denounced him bitterly. All the 
members of his cabinet, excepting Mr. Webster, 
resigned. The Whigs of Congress, both the 
Senate and the House, held a meeting and issued 
an address to the people of the United States, 
proclaiming that all political alliance between the 
Whigs and President Tyler was at an end. 

Still the President attempted to conciliate. He 
appointed a new cabinet of distinguished Whigs 
and Conservatives, carefully leaving out all strong 
party men. Mr. Webster soon found it necessary 
to resign, forced out by the pressure of his Whig 
friends. Thus the four years of Mr. Tyler's un- 
fortunate administration passed sadly away. No 
one was satisfied. The land was filled with mur- 
murs and vituperation. Whigs and Democrats 
alike assailed him. More and more, however, he 
brought himself into sympathy with his old 
friends, the Democrats, until at the close of his 
term he gave his whole influence to the support 
of Mr. Polk, the Democratic candidate for his 

On the 4th of March, 1845, President Tyler re- 
tired from the harassments of office, to the regret 
of neither party, and probably to his own unspeak- 
able relief The remainder of his days were 
passed mainly in the retirement of his beautiful 
home — Sherwood Forest, Charles City County, 
Va. His first wife, Miss Letitia Christian, died 
in Washington in 1842; and in June, 1844, 
he was again married, at New York, to Miss Julia 
Gardiner, a young lady of many personal and 
intellectual accomplishments. 

When the great Rebellion rose, which the 
State Rights and nullifying doctrines of John C. 
Calhoun had inaugurated. President Tyler re- 
nounced his allegiance to the United States, and 
joined the Confederates. He was chosen a mem- 
ber of their Congress, and while engaged in 
active measures to destroy, by force of arms, the 
Government over which he had once presided, he 
was taken sick and soon died. 



(Tames K. polk, the eleventh President of j 

I the United States, was born in Mecklenburgh 
Q) Countj', N. C, November 2, 1795. His 
parents were Samuel and Jane (Knox) Polk, the 
former a son of Col. Thomas Polk, who located 
at the above place, as one of the first pioneers, in 
1735. In 1806, with his wife and children, and 
soon after followed bj' most of the members of the 
Polk famil)', Samuel Polk emigrated some two or 
three hundred miles farther west, to the rich val- 
ley of the Duck River. Here, in the midst of the 
wilderness, in a region which was subsequently 
called Maur>- County, they erected their log huts 
and established their homes. In the hard toil of 
a new fann in the wilderness, James K. Polk 
spent the early years of his childhood and youth. 
His father, adding the pursuit of a survej'or to 
that of a farmer, gradually increased in wealth, 
until he became one of the leading men of the 
region. His mother was a superior woman, of 
strong common sense and earnest piety. 

Very earty in life James developed a taste for 
reading, and expressed the strongest desire to ob- 
tain a liberal education. His mother's training 
had made him methodical in his habits, had taught 
him punctuality and industrj% and had inspired 
him with lofty principles of morality. His health 
was frail, and his father, fearing that he might not 
be able to endure a sedentarj- life, got a situation 
for him behind the counter, hoping to fit him for 
commercial pursuits. 

This was to James a bitter disappointment. He 
had no taste for these duties, and his daily tasks 
were irksome in the extreme. He remained in this 
uncongenial occupation but a few weeks, when, 
at his earnest solicitation, his father removed 
him and made arrangements for him to pros- 
ecute his studies. Soon after he sent him to Mur- 
freesboro Academy. With ardor which could 
scarcely be surpassed, he pressed forward in his 

studies, and in less than two and a-half years, in 
the autumn of 18 15, entered the sophomore class 
in the University of North Carolina, at Chapel 
Hill. Here he was one of the most exemplary of 
scholars, punctual in everj- exercise, never allow- 
ing himself to be absent from a recitation or a 
religious service. 

Mr. Polk graduated in 1818, with the highest 
honors, being deemed the best scholar of his class, 
both in mathematics and the classics. He was 
then twenty -three years of age. His health was 
at this time much impaired by the assiduity with 
which he had prosecuted his studies. After a 
short season of relaxation, he went to Nashville, 
and entered the office of Felix Grundy, to study 
law. Here Mr. Polk renewed his acquaintance 
with Andrew Jackson, who resided on his planta- 
tion, the "Hermitage," but a few miles from 
Nashville. They had probably been slightly ac- 
quainted before. 

Mr. Polk's father was a Jeffersonian Republican 
and James K. adhered to the same political faith. 
He was a popular public speaker, and was con- 
stantly called upon to address the meetings of his 
party friends. His skill as a speaker was such 
that he was popularly called the Napoleon of the 
stump. He was a man of unblemished morals, 
genial and courteous in his bearing, and with that 
sympathetic nature in the joys and griefs of oth- 
ers which gave him hosts of friends. In 1823, 
he was elected to the Legislature of Tennessee, 
and gave his .strong influence toward the election 
of his friend, Mr. Jackson, to the Presidency of 
the United States. 

In January, 1824, Mr. Polk married Miss Sarah 
Childress, of Rutherford County, Tenn. His 
bride was altogether worth}' of him — a lady of 
beauty and culture. In the fall of 1825 Mr. Polk 
was chosen a member of Congress, and the satis- 
faction he gave his constituents may be inferred 



from the fact, that for fourteen successive years, 
or until 1839, he was continued in that ofiSce. He 
then voluntarily withdrew, only that he might 
accept the Gubernatorial chair of Tennessee. In 
Congress he was a laborious member, a frequent 
and a popular speaker. He was always in his 
seat, always courteous, and whenever he spoke 
it was always to the point, without any ambitious 
rhetorical display. 

During five sessions of Congress Mr. Polk was 
Speaker of the House. Strong passions were 
roused and stormy scenes were witnessed, but he 
performed his arduous duties to a very general 
satisfaction, and a unanimous vote of thanks to 
him was passed by the House as he withdrew on 
the 4th of March, 1839. 

In accordance with Southern usage, Mr. Polk, 
as a candidate for Governor, canvassed the State. 
He was elected by a large majority, and on Octo- 
ber 14, 1839, took the oath of ofiice at Nashville. 
In 1841 his term of office expired, and he was 
again the candidate of the Democratic party, but 
was defeated. 

On the 4th of March, 1845, Mr. Polk was in- 
augurated President of the United States. The 
verdict of the country in favor of the annexation 
of Texas exerted its influence upon Congress, 
and the last act of the administration of President 
Tyler was to affix his signature to a joint resolu- 
tion of Congress, passed on the 3d of March, ap- 
proving of the annexation of Texas to the Union. 
As Mexico still claimed Texas as one of her 
provinces, the Mexican Minister, Almonte, im- 
mediately demanded his passports and left the 
country, declaring the act of the annexation to be 
an act hostile to Mexico. 

In his first message. President Polk urged that 
Texas should immediately, by act of Congress, be 
received into the Union on the same footing with 
the other States. In the mean time. Gen. Taylor 
was sent with an army into Texas to hold the 
country. He was first sent to Nueces, which the 
Mexicans said was the western boundary of Tex- 
as. Then he was sent nearly two hundred miles 
further west, to the Rio Grande, where he erected 
batteries which commanded the Mexican city of 
Matamoras, which was situated on the western 

banks. The anticipated collision soon took place, 
and war was declared against Mexico by President 
Polk. The war was pushed forward by his ad- 
ministration with great vigor. Gen. Taylor, 
whose army was first called one of ' ' observation, ' ' 
then of "occupation," then of "invasion," was 
sent forward to Monterey. The feeble Mexicans 
in every encounter were hopelessly slaughtered. 
The day of judgment alone can reveal the misery 
which this war caused. It was by the ingenuity 
of Mr. Polk's administration that the war wa.'s 
brought on. 

' ' To the victors belong the spoils. ' ' Mexico 
was prostrate before us. Her capital was in our 
hands. We now consented to peace upon the 
condition that Mexico should surrender to us, in 
addition to Texas, all of New Mexico, and all of 
Upper and I,ower California. This new demand 
embraced, exclusive of Texas, eight hundred 
thousand square miles. This was an extent of 
territory equal to nine States of the size of New 
York. Thus slavery was securing eighteen ma- 
jestic States to be added to the Union. There 
were some Americans who thought it all right; 
there were others who thought it all wrong. In 
the prosecution of this war we expended twenty 
thousand lives and more than $100,000,000. Of 
this money $15,000,000 were paid to Mexico. 

On the 3d of March, 1849, Mr. Polk retired 
from office, having served one term. The next 
day was Sunday. On the 5th, Gen. Taylor was 
inaugurated as his successor. Mr. Polk rode to 
the Capitol in the same carriage with Gen. Tay- 
lor, and the same evening, with Mrs. Polk, he 
commenced his return to Tennessee. He wa.'. 
then but fifty-four years of age. He had alwaj-s 
been strictly temperate in all his habits, and his 
health was good. With an ample fortune, a 
choice library, a cultivated mind, and domestic 
ties of the dearest nature, it seemed as though 
long years of tranquillity and happiness were be- 
fore him. But the cholera — that fearful scourge 
— was then sweeping up the Valley of the Missis- 
sippi, and he contracted the disease, dying on the 
15th of June, 1849, in the fifty-fourth year of his 
age, greatly mourned by his countrymen. 



G7ACHARY TAYLOR, twelfth President of 
j, the United States, was born on the 24th of 
/2 November, 1784, in Orange County, Va. 
His father. Col. Taj-lor, was a Virginian of 
note, and a distinguished patriot and soldier of 
the Revolution. When Zacliary was an infant, 
his father, with his wife and two children, emi- 
grated to Kentucky, where he settled in the path- 
less wilderness, a few miles from Louisville. In 
this frontier home, away from civilization and all 
its refinements, young Zachary could enjoy but 
few social and educational advantages. When 
six years of age he attended a common school, 
and was then regarded as a bright, active boy, 
rather remarkable for bluntness and decision of 
character. He was strong, fearless and self-reli- 
ant, and manifested a strong desire to enter the 
army to fight the Indians, who were ravaging the 
frontiers. There is little to be recorded of the 
uneventful years of his childhood on his father's 
large but lonely plantation. 

In 1808, his father succeeded in obtaining for 
him a commission as Lieutenant in the United 
States army, and he joined the troops which were 
stationed at New Orleans under Gen. Wilkinson. 
Soon after this he married Miss Margaret Smith, 
a young lady from one of the first families of 

Immediately after the declaration of war with 
England, in 1812, Capt. Taylor (for he had then 
been promoted to that rank) was put in command 
of Ft. Harrison, on the Wabash, about fifty miles 
above Vincennes. This fort had been built in the 
wilderness by Gen. Harrison, on his march to 
Tippecanoe. It was one of the points of at- 
tack by the Indians, led by Tecumseh. Its garri- 
son consisted of a broken company of infantry, 
numbering fifty men, many of whom were sick. 

Early in the autumn of 181 2, the Indians, 
stealthily, and in large numbers, moved upon the 

fort. Their approach was first indicated \iy he 
murder of two soldiers just outside of the stockade. 
Capt. Taylor made every possible preparation to 
meet the anticipated assault. On the 4th of Sep- 
tember, a band of forty painted and plumed sav- 
ages come to the fort, waving a white flag, and 
informed Capt. Taylor that in the morning their 
chief would come to have a talk with him. It 
was evident that their object was merely to ascer- 
tain the state of things at the fort, and Capt. 
Taylor, well versed in the wiles of the savages, 
kept them at a distance. 

The sun went down; the savages disappeared; 
the garrison slept upon their arms. One hour 
before midnight the war-whoop burst from a 
thousand lips in the forest around, followed by 
the discharge of musketry and the rush of the 
foe. Every man, sick and well, sprang to hi:^ 
post. Ev^eiy man knew that defeat was not 
merely death, but, in the case of capture, death by 
the most agonizing and prolonged torture. No 
pen can describe, no imagination can conceive, the 
scenes which ensued. The savages succeeded in 
setting fire to one of the block-houses. Until six 
o'clock in the morning this awful conflict con- 
tinued, when the savages, baffled at every point 
and gnashing their teeth with rage, retired. 
Capt. Taylor, for this gallant defense, was pro- 
moted to the rank of Major by brevet. 

Until the close of the war, Maj. Taylor was 
placed in such situations that he saw but little 
more of active service. He was sent far away 
into the depths of the wilderness to Ft. Craw- 
ford, on Fox River, which empties into Green 
Bay. Here there was little to be done but to 
wear away the tedious hours as one best could. 
There were no books, no society, no intellectual 
stimulus. Thus with him the uneventful years 
rolled on. Gradually he rose to the rank of 
Colonel. In the Black Hawk War, which re- 



suited in the capture of that renowned chieftain, 
Col. Taylor took a subordinate, but a brave and 
efficient, part. 

For twenty-four years Col. Taylor was engaged 
in the defense of the frontiers, in scenes so re- 
mote, and in employments so obscure, that his 
name was unknown beyond the limits of his own 
immediate acquaintance. In the year 1836, he 
was sent to Florida to compel the Seminole Indi- 
ans to vacate that region, and retire beyond the 
Mississippi, as their chiefs by treaty had prom- 
ised they should do. The services rendered here 
secured for Col. Taylor the high appreciation of 
the Government, and as a reward he was ele- 
vated to the high rank of Brigadier-General by 
brevet, and soon after, in May, 1S38, was ap- 
pointed to the chief command of the United 
States troops in Florida. 

After two years of wearisome employment 
amidst the everglades of the Peninsula, Gen. Tay- 
lor obtained, at his own request, a change of 
connnand, and was stationed over the Department 
of the Southwest. This field embraced lyouisiana, 
Mississippi, Alabama and Georgia. Establishing 
his headquarters at Ft. Jessup, in lyouisiana, he 
removed his family to a plantation which he pur- 
chased near Baton Rouge. Here he remained 
for five years, buried, as it were, from the world, 
but faithfully discharging every duty imposed 
upon him. 

In 1846, Gen. Taylor was sent to guard the 
land between the Nueces and Rio Grande, the 
latter river being the boundarj- of Texas, which 
was then claimed by the United States. Soon 
the war with Mexico was brought on, and at Palo 
Alto and Resaca de la Palma, Gen. Taylor won 
brilliant victories over the Mexicans. The rank 
of Major-General by brevet was then conferred 
upon Gen. Taylor, and his name was received 
with enthusiasm almost everywhere in the na- 
tion. Then came the battles of Monterey and 
Buena Vista, in which he won signal victories 
over forces much larger than he commanded. 

The tidings of the brilliant victory of Buena 
Vista spread the wildest enthusiasm over the 
country. The name of Gen. Taylor was on 
every one's lips. The Whig party decided to 

take advantage of this wonderful popularity in 
bringing forward the unpolished, unlettered, hon- 
est soldier as their candidate for the Presidency. 
Gen. Taylor was astonished at the announce- 
ment, and for a time would not listen to it, de- 
claring that he was not at all quaUfied for such 
an office. So little interest had he taken in poli- 
tics, that for forty years he had not cast a vote. 
It was not without chagrin that several distin- 
guished statesmen, who had been long years in 
the public service, found their claims set aside in 
behalf of one whose name had never been heard 
of, save in connection with Palo Alto, Resaca de 
la Palma, Monterey and Buena Vista. It is said 
that Daniel Webster, in his haste, remarked, " It 
is a nomination not fit to be made. ' ' 

Gen. Taylor was not an eloquent speaker nor a 
fine writer. His friends took possession of him, 
and prepared such few communications as it was 
needful should be presented to the public. The 
popularity of the successful warrior swept the 
land. He was triumphantly elected over two 
opposing candidates, — Gen. Cass and Ex-Presi- 
dent Martin Van Buren. Though he selected an 
excellent cabinet, the good old man found himself 
in a very uncongenial position, and was at times 
sorely perplexed and harassed. His mental suf- 
ferings were very severe, and probabl}' tended to 
hasten his death. The pro-slavery party was 
pushing its claims with tireless energy; expedi- 
tions were fitting out to capture Cuba; California 
was pleading for admission to the Union, while 
slavery stood at the door to bar her out. Gen, 
Taylor found the political conflicts in Washington 
to be far more trying to the nerves than battles 
with Mexicans or Indians. 

In the midst of all these troubles, Gen. Taylor, 
after he had occupied the Presidential chair but 
little over a year, took cold, and after a brief 
sickness of but little over five days, died, on the 
9th of July, 1850. His last words were, "I am 
not afraid to die. I am ready. I have endeav- 
ored to do my duty." He died universally re- 
spected and beloved. An honest, unpretending 
man, he had been steadily growing in the afiec- 
tions of the people, and the Nation bitterly la- 
mented his death. 












I II.LARD FILIyMORE, thirteenth President 
of the United States, was born at Summer 
Hill, Cayuga County, N. Y., on the 7th of 
January, 1 800. His father was a farmer, and, owing 
to misfortune, in humble circumstances. Of his 
mother, the daughter of Dr. Abiathar Millard, of 
Pittsfield, Mass., it has been said that she pos- 
sessed an intellect of a high order, united with 
much personal loveliness, sweetness of disposi- 
tion, graceful manners and exquisite sensibilities. 
She died in 1831, having lived to see her son a 
young man of distinguished promise, though she 
was not permitted to witness the high dignity 
which he finally attained. 

In consequence of the secluded home and limited 
means of his father, Millard enjoyed but slender 
advantages for education in his early years. The 
common schools, which he occasionally attended, 
were very imperfect institutions, and books were 
scarce and expensive. There was nothing then 
in his character to indicate the brilliant career 
upon which he was about to enter. He was a 
plain farmer's boy — intelligent, good-looking, 
kind-hearted. The sacred influences of home 
had taught him to revere the Bible, and had laid 
the foundations of an upright character. When 
fourteen 3'ears of age, his father sent him some 
hundred miles from home to the then wilds of 
lyivingston County, to learn the trade of a clothier. 
Near the mill there was a small village, where 
some enterprising man had commenced the col- 
lection of a village librarj'. This proved an in- 
estimable blessing to young Fillmore. His even- 
ings were spent in reading. Soon every leisure 
moment was occupied with books. His thirst for 
knowledge became insatiate, and the selections 
which he made were continually more elevating 
and instructive. He read history, biography, 
oratory, and thus gradually there was enkindled 

in his heart a desire to be something more than a 
mere worker with his hands. 

The young clothier had now attained the age 
of nineteen years, and was of fine personal appear- 
ance and of gentlemanly demeanor. It so hap- 
pened that there was a gentleman in the neigh- 
borhood of ample pecuniarj' means and of benev- 
olence, — ^Judge Walter Wood, — who was struck 
with the prepossessing appearance of young Fill- 
more. He made his acquaintance, and was so 
much impressed with his ability and attainments 
that he advised him to abandon his trade and de- 
vote himself to the study of the law. The young 
man replied that he had no means of his own, 
no friends to help him, and that his previous edu- 
cation had been very imperfect. But Judge Wood 
had so much confidence in him that he kindly 
oifered to take him into his own office, and to 
lend him such money as he needed. Most grate- 
fully the generous offer was accepted. 

There is in many minds a strange delusion 
about a collegiate education. A young man is 
supposed to be liberally educated if he has gradu- 
ated at some college. But many a boy who loi- 
ters through university halls and then enters a 
law office is by no means as well prepared to 
prosecute his legal studies as was Millard Fill- 
more when he graduated at the clothing-mill at 
the end of four years of manual labor, during 
which everj- leisure moment had been devoted to 
intense mental culture. 

In 1823, when twenty-three years of age, he 
was admitted to the Court of Common Pleas. 
He then went to the village of Aurora, and com- 
menced the practice of law. In this secluded, 
quiet region, his practice, of course, was limited, 
and there was no opportunitj- for a sudden rise in 
fortune or in fame. Here, in 1826, he married a 
lady of great moral worth, and one capable of 


adorning any station she might be called to fill, — 
Miss Abigail Powers. 

His elevation of character, his untiring industry, 
his legal acquirements, and his skill as an advo- 
cate, gradually attracted attention, and he was 
invited to enter into partnership, under highly ad- 
vantageous circumstances, with an elder member 
of the Bar in Buffalo. Just before removing to 
Buffalo, in 1829, he took his seat in the House of 
Assembly of the State of New York, as a Repre- 
sentative from Erie County. Though he had 
never taken a very active part in politics, his vote 
and sympathies were with the Whig party. The 
State was then Democratic, and he found himself 
in a helpless minority in the Legislature; still the 
testimony comes from all parties that his courtesy, 
ability and integrity won, to a very unusual de- 
gree, the respect of his associates. 

In the autumn of 1832, he was elected to a 
seat in the United States Congress. He entered 
that troubled arena in the most tumultuous hours 
of our national history, when the great conflict 
respecting the national bank and the removal of 
the deposits was raging. 

His term of two years closed, and he returned 
to his profession, which he pursued with increas- 
ing reputation and success. After a lapse of two 
years he again became a candidate for Congress; 
was re-elected, and took his seat in 1837. His 
past experience as a Representative gave him 
strength and confidence. The first term of service 
in Congress to any man can be but little more 
than an introduction. He was now prepared for 
active duty. All his energies were brought to 
bear upon the public good. Every measure re- 
ceived his impress. 

Mr. Fillmore was now a man of wide repute, 
and his popularity filled the State. In the year 
1847, when he had attained the age of forty- 
seven years, he was elected Comptroller of the 
State. His labors at the Bar, in the Legisla- 
ture, in Congress and as Comptroller, had given 
him very considerable fame. The Whigs were 
casting about to find suitable candidates for Presi- 
dent and Vice-President at the approaching elec- 
tion. Far away on the waters of the Rio Grande, 
there was a rough old soldier, who had fought 

one or two successful battles with the Mexicans, 
which had caused his name to be proclaimed in 
trumpet-tones all over the land as a candidate for 
the presidency. But it was necessary to associate 
with him on the same ticket some man of repu- 
tation as a statesman. 

Under the influence of these considerations, the 
names of Zachary Taylor and Millard Fillmore 
became the rallying-cry of the Whigs, as their 
candidates for President and Vice-President. The 
Whig ticket was signallj'^ triumphant. On the 
4th of March, 1849, Gen. Taylor was inaugurated 
President, and Millard Fillmore Vice-President, 
of the United States. 

On the 9th of July, 1850, President Taylor, 
about one year and four months after his inaugura- 
tion, was suddenly taken sick and died. By the 
Constitution, Vice-President Fillmore thus be- 
came President. He appointed a very able cabi- 
net, of which the illustrious Daniel Webster was 
Secretary of State; nevertheless, he had serious 
difficulties to contend with, since the opposition 
had a majority in both Houses. He did all in his 
power to conciliate the South; but the pro-slavery 
party in the South felt the inadequacy of all 
measures of transient conciliation. The popula- 
tion of the free States was so rapidly increasing 
over that of the slave States, that it was inevitable 
that the power of the Government should soon 
pass into the hands of the free States. The fa- 
mous compromise measures were adopted under 
Mr. Fillmore's administration, and the Japan ex- 
pedition was sent out. On the 4th of March, 
1853, he, having served one term, retired. 

In 1856, Mr. Fillmore was nominated for the 
Presidency by the "Know-Nothing" party, but 
was beaten by Mr. Buchanan. After that Mr. 
Fillmore lived in retirement. During the terri- 
ble conflict of civil war, he was mostly silent. It 
was generally supposed that his sympathies were 
rather with those who were endeavoring to over- 
throw our institutions. President Fillmore kept 
aloof from the conflict, without any cordial words 
of cheer to one party or the other. He was thus 
forgotten by both. He lived to a ripe old age, 
and died in Buffalo, N. Y., March 8, 1874. 



r7RANKI.TN PIERCE, the fourteenth Presi- 
r3 dent of the United States, was born in Hills- 
I ' borough, N. H., November 23, 1S04. His 
father was a Revolutionary soldier, who with his 
own strong arm hewed out a home in the wilder- 
ness. He was a man of inflexible integrity, of 
strong, though uncultivated, mind, and was an un- 
compromising Democrat. The mother of Frank- 
lin Pierce was all that a son could desire — an in- 
telligent, prudent, affectionate, Christian woman. 

Franklin, who was the sixth of eight children, 
was a remarkably bright and handsome boy, 
generous, warm-hearted and brave. He won 
alike the love of old and young. The boys on 
the play-ground loved him. His teachers loved 
him. The neighbors looked upon him with pride 
and affection. He was by instinct a gentleman, 
always speaking kind words, and doing kind 
deeds, with a peculiar, unstudied tact which 
taught him what was agreeable. Without de- 
veloping any precocity of genius, or any unnatural 
devotion to books, he was a good scholar, and in 
body and mind a finely developed boy. 

When sixteen years of age, in the year 1820, 
he entered Bowdoin College, at Brunswick, Me. 
He was one of the most popular young men in 
the college. The purity of his moral character, 
the unvarj'ing courtesy of his demeanor, his rank 
as a scholar, and genial nature, rendered him a 
universal fa\^orite. There was something pe- 
culiarly winning in his address, and it was evi- 
dently not in the slightest degree studied — it was 
the simple outgushing of his own magnanimous 
and loving nature. 

Upon graduating, in the year 1824, Franklin 
Pierce commenced the study of law in the office 
of Judge Woodbury, one of the most distinguished 

law^'crs of the State, and a man of great private 
worth. The eminent social qualities of the young 
lawyer, his father's prominence as a public man, 
and the brilliant political career into which Judge 
Woodbury was entering, all tended to entice Mr. 
Pierce into the fascinating yet perilous path of 
political life. With all the ardor of his nature he 
espoused the cause of Gen. Jackson for the Presi- 
dency. He commenced the practice of law in 
Hillsborough, and was soon elected to represent 
the town in the State Legislature. Here he 
served for four years. The last two years he was 
chosen Speaker of the House by a very large 

In 1833, at the age of twenty-nine, he was 
elected a member of Congress. In 1837, being 
then but thirty-three years old, he was elected to 
the Senate, taking his seat just as Mr. Van Buren 
commenced his administration. He was the 
youngest member in the Senate. In the year 
1834, he married Miss Jane Means Appleton, a 
lady of rare beauty and accomplishments, and one 
admirably fitted to adorn every station with which 
her husband was honored. Of the three sons who 
were born to them, all now sleep with their par- 
ents in the grave. 

In the year 1838, Mr. Pierce, with growing 
fame and increasing business as a lawyer, took up 
his residence in Concord, the capital of New 
Hampshire. President Polk, upon his accession 
to office, appointed Mr. Pierce Attorney-General 
of the United States; but the offer was declined 
in consequence of numerous professional engage- 
ments at home, and the precarious state of Mrs. 
Pierce's health. He also, about the same time, 
declined the nomination for Governor by the 
Democratic party. The war with Mexico called 



Mr. Pierce into the anny. Receiving the appoint- 
ment of Brigadier-General, he embarked with a 
portion of his troops at Newport, R I., on the 
27th of May, 1847. He took an important part 
in this war, proving himself a brave and true sol- 

When Gen. Pierce reached his home in his na- 
tive State, he was received enthusiastically by the 
advocates of the Mexican War, and coldly by his 
opponents. He resumed the practice of his pro- 
fession, very frequently taking an active part in 
political questions, giving his cordial support to 
the pro-slavery wing of the Democratic party. 
The compromise measures met cordially with his 
approval, and he strenuously advocated the en- 
forcement of the infamous Fugitive Slave L,aw, 
which so shocked the religious sensibilities of the 
North. He thus became distinguished as a 
' ' Northern man with Southern principles. ' ' The 
strong partisans of slaverj' in the South conse- 
quently regarded him as a man whom they could 
safely trust in office to carr>^ out their plans. 

On the 12th of June, 1852, the Democratic con- 
vention met in Baltimore to nominate a candidate 
for the Presidency. For four days they contin- 
ued in session, and in thirty-five ballotings no one 
had obtained a two-thirds vote. Not a vote thus 
far had been thrown for Gen. Pierce. Then the 
Virginia delegation brought forward his name. 
There were fourteen more ballotings, during which 
Gen. Pierce constantly gained strength, until, at 
the forty-ninth ballot, he received two hundred 
and eighty-two votes, and all other candidates 
eleven. Gen. Winfield Scott was the Whig can- 
didate. Gen. Pierce was chosen with great una- 
nimity. Only four States — Vermont, Massachu- 
setts, Kentucky and Tennessee — cast their elec- 
toral votes against him. Gen. Franklin Pierce 
was therefore inaugurated President of the United 
States on the 4th of March, 1853. 

His administration proved one of the most 
stormy our country- had ever experienced. The 
controversy between slaver>' and freedom was 
then approaching its culminating point. It be- 
came evident that there was to be an irrepressible 
conflict between them, and that this nation 
could not long exist ' ' half slave and half free. ' ' 

President Pierce, during the whole of his admin- 
istration, did everything he could to conciliate the 
South; but it was all in vain. The conflict evers- 
year grew more violent, and threats of the disso- 
lution of the Union were borne to the North on 
every Southern breeze. 

Such was the condition of afiairs when Presi- 
dent Pierce approached the close of his four- 
years term of ofl5ce. The North had become 
thoroughly alienated from him. The anti-slaverj' 
sentiment, goaded by great outrages, had been 
rapidly increasing; all the intellectual ability and 
social worth of President Pierce were forgotten in 
deep reprehension of his administrative acts. The 
slaveholders of the South also, unmindful of the 
fidelitj' with which he had advocated those meas- 
ures of Government which they approved, and 
perhaps feeling that he had rendered himself 
so unpopular as no longer to be able to accepta- 
blj' ser\-e them, ungratefully dropped him, and 
nominated James Buchanan to succeed him. 

On the 4th of March, 1857, President Pierce re- 
turned to his home in Concord. His three chil- 
dren were all dead, his last surviving child hav- 
ing been killed before his eyes in a railroad acci- 
dent; and his wife, one of the most estimable and 
accomplished of ladies, was rapidlj' sinking in 
consumption. The hour of dreadful gloom soon 
came, and he was left alone in the world without 
wife or child. 

When the terrible Rebellion burst forth which 
divided our country into two parties, and two 
only, Mr. Pierce remained steadfast in the prin- 
ciples which he had always cherished, and gave 
his sympathies to that pro-slaverj' party with 
which he had ever been allied. He declined to 
do anything, either by voice or pen, to strengthen 
the hand of the National Government. He con- 
tinued to reside in Concord until the time of his 
death, which occurred in October, 1869. He was 
one of the most genial and social of men, an hon- 
ored communicant of the Episcopal Church, and 
one of the kindest of neighbors. Generous to a 
fault, he contributed liberally toward the allevia- 
tion of suffering and want, and many of his 
towns-people were often gladdened by his material 




(Tames BUCHANAN, the fifteenth President 
I of the United States, was born in a small 
Q) frontier town, at the foot of the eastern ridge 
of the Alleghanies, in Franklin County, Pa., on 
the 23d of April, 1791. The place where the 
humble cabin home stood was called Stony Bat- 
ter. His father was a native of the north of Ire- 
land, who had emigrated in 1783, with little prop- 
erty' sa\e his own strong arms. Five years after- 
ward he married Elizabeth Spear, the daughter 
of a respectable farmer, and, with his young bride, 
plunged into the wilderness, staked his claim, 
reared his log hut, opened a clearing with his 
axe, and settled down there to perform his obscure 
part in the drama of life. When James was eight 
years of age, his father removed to the village of 
Mercersburg, where his son was placed at school, 
and commenced a course of study in English, 
Latin and Greek. His progress was rapid, and 
at the age of fourteen he entered Dickinson Col- 
lege, at Carlisle. Here he developed remarkable 
talent, and took his .stand among the first scholars 
in the institution. 

In the year 1809, he graduated with the high- 
est honors of his class. He was then eighteen 
years of age; tall and graceful, vigorous in health, 
fond of athletic sports, an unerring shot, and en- 
livened with an exuberant flow of animal spirits. 
He immediately commenced the study of law in 
the city of Lancaster, and was admitted to the 
Bar in 1812, when he was but twenty-one years 
of age. 

In 1820, he reluctantly consented to run as a 
candidate for Congress. He was elected, and for 
ten years he remained a member of the Lower 
House. During the vacations of Congress, he 

occasionally tried some important case. In 1831 
he retired altogether from the toils of his profes- 
sion, having acquired an ample fortune. 

Gen. Jackson, upon his elevation to the Presi- 
denc3% appointed Mr. Buchanan Minister to Rus- 
sia. The duties of his mission he performed 
with ability, and gave satisfaction to all parties. 
Upon his return, in 1833, he was elected to a seat 
in the United States Senate. He there met as 
his associates Webster, Clay, Wright and Cal- 
houn. He advocated the measures proposed by 
President Jackson, of making reprisals against 
France to enforce the payment of our claims 
against that countrj', and defended the course of 
the President in his unprecedented and wholesale 
removal from office of those who were not the 
supporters of his administration. Upon this 
question he was brought into direct collision with 
Henry Clay. He also, with voice and vote, ad- 
vocated expunging from the journal of the Senate 
the vote of censure against Gen. Jackson for re- 
moving the deposits. Earnestly he opposed the 
abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia, 
and urged the prohibition of the circulation of 
anti-slavery documents by the United States 
mails. As to petitions on the subject of slavery, 
he advocated that they should be respectfully re- 
ceived, and that the reply should be returned 
that Congress had no power to legislate upon the 
subject. " Congress," said he, "might as well 
undertake to interfere with slavery under a for- 
eign government as in any of the States where it 
now exists. ' ' 

Upon Mr. Polk's accession to the Presidency, 
Mr. Buchanan became Secretary of vState, and ae 
such took his share of the responsibility in the 



conduct of the Mexican War. Mr. Polk assumed 
that crossing the Nueces by the American 
troops into the disputed territory- was not wrong, 
but for the Mexicans to cross the Rio Grande 
iuto Texas was a declaration of war. No candid 
man can read with pleasure the account of the 
course our Government pursued in that movement. 

Mr. Buchanan identified himself thoroughly 
with the party devoted to the perpetuation and 
extension of slavery, and brought all the energies 
of his mind to bear against the Wilmot Proviso. 
He gave his cordial approval to the compromise 
measures of 1850, which included the Fugitive 
Slave Law. Mr. Pierce, upon his election to the 
Presidency, honored Mr. Buchanan with the mis- 
sion to England. 

In the year 1856, a national Democratic Con- 
vention nominated Mr. Buchanan for the Presi- 
dency. The political conflict was one of the most 
severe in which our country has ever engaged. 
All the friends of slavery were on one side; all 
the advocates of its restriction and final abolition 
on the other. Mr. Fremont, the candidate of the 
enemies of slavery, received one hundred and 
fourteen electoral votes. Mr. Buchanan received 
one hundred and seventy-four, and was elected. 
The popular vote stood 1,340,618 for Fremont, 
1,224,750 for Buchanan. On March 4, 1857, 
the latter was inaugurated. 

Mr. Buchanan was far advanced in life. Only 
four years were wanting to fill up his three-score 
years and ten. His own friends, those with 
whom he had been allied in political principles 
and action for years, were seeking the destruc- 
tion of the Government, that they might rear 
upon the ruins of our free institutions a nation 
whose corner-stone should be human slavery. In 
this emergency, Mr. Buchanan was hopelessly 
bewildered. He could not, with his long-avowed 
principles, consistently oppose the State Rights 
party in their assumptions. As President of the 
United States, bound by his oath faithfully to 
administer the laws, he could not, without per- 
jury of the grossest kind, unite with those en- 
deavoring to overthrow the Republic. He there- 
fore did nothing. 

The opponents of Mr. Buchanan's administra- 

tion nominated Abraham Lincoln as their stand- 
ard-bearer in the next Presidential canvass. 
The pro-slaver}' party declared that if he were 
elected and the control of the Government were 
thus taken from their hands, they would secede 
from the Union, taking with them as they retired 
the National Capitol at Washington and the 
lion's share of the territory' of the United States. 

As the storm increased in violence, the slave- 
holders claiming the right to secede, and Mr. 
Buchanan avowing that Congress had no power 
to prevent it, one of the most pitiable exhibitions 
of governmental imbecility was exhibited that the 
world has ever seen. He declared that Congress 
had no power to enforce its laws in any State 
which had withdrawn, or which was attempting 
to withdraw, from the Union. This was not the 
doctrine of Andrew Jackson, when, with his hand 
upon his sword-hilt, he exclaimed: "The Union 
must and shall be preserved!" 

South Carolina seceded in December, i860, 
nearly three months before the inauguration of 
President Lincoln. Mr. Buchanan looked on in 
listless despair. The rebel flag was raised in 
Charleston; Ft. Sumter was besieged; our forts, 
navy-yards and arsenals were seized; our depots 
of military stores were plundered, and our cus- 
tom-houses and post-offices were appropriated by 
the rebels. 

The energy of the rebels and the imbecility of 
our Executive were alike marvelous. The na- 
tion looked on in agon}', waiting for the slow 
weeks to glide away and close the administration, 
so terrible in its weakness. At length the long- 
looked-for hour of deliverance came, when Abra- 
ham Lincoln was to receive the scepter. 

The administration of President Buchanan was 
certainly the most calamitous our country has ex- 
perienced. His best friends can not recall it with 
pleasure. And still more deplorable it is for his 
fame, that in that dreadful conflict which rolled 
its billows of flame and blood over our whole 
land, no word came from his lips to indicate his 
wish that our country's banner should triumph 
over the flag of the Rebellion. He died at his 
Wheatland retreat, June i, 1868. 



61 BRAHAM IvINCOIvN, the sixteenth Presi- 
Ll dent of the United States, was born in Hardin 
/ I Count}-, Ky., February 12, 1809. About 
the year 1780, a man by the name of Abraham 
m Lincohi left Virginia with his family and moved 

into the then wilds of Kentucky. Only two years 
after this emigration, and while still a young man, 
he was working one day in a field, when an Indian 
stealthily approached and killed him. His widow 
was left in extreme povertj' with five little chil- 
dren, three boys and two girls. Thomas, the 
youngest of the boys, and the father of President 
Abraham Lincoln, was four years of age at his 
father's death. 

When twenty-eight years old, Thomas lyincoln 
built a log cabin, and married Nancy Hanks, the 
daughter of another family of poor Keiituckj- 
emigrants, who had also come from Virginia. 
Their second child was Abraham l,incoln, the sub- 
ject of this sketch. The mother of Abraham was 
a noble woman, gentle, loving, pensive, created 
to adorn a palace, but doomed to toil and pine, and 
die in a hovel. "All that I am, or hope to be," 
exclaimed the grateful son, "I owe to my angel- 
mother. ' ' When he was eight years of age, his 
father sold his cabin and small farm and moved 
to Indiana, where two years later his mother died. 
As the years rolled on, the lot of this lowly 
family was the usual lot of humanity. There 
were joys and griefs, weddings and funerals. 
Abraham's sister Sarah, to whom he was tenderly 
attached, was married when a child of but four- 
teen years of age, and soon died. The family 
was gradually scattered, and Thomas Lincoln 
sold out his squatter's claim in 1830, and emi- 
grated to Macon County, 111. 

Abraham Lincoln was then twenty-one years 
of age. With vigorous hands he aided his father 
in rearing another log cabin, and worked quite 
diligenth- at this until he saw the famih' com- 
fortably settled, and their small lot of enclosed 
prairie planted with corn, when he announced to 

his father his intention to leave home, and to go 
out into the world and seek his fortune. Little 
did he or his friends imagine how brilliant that 
fortune was to be. He saw the value of educa- 
tion and was intensely earnest to improve his 
mind to the utmost of his power. Religion he 
revered. His morals were pure, and he was un- 
contaminated by a single vice. 

Young Abraham worked for a time as a hired 
laborer among the farmers. Then he went to 
Springfield, where he was employed in building 
a large flat-boat. In this he took a herd of swine, 
floated them down the Sangamon to Illinois, and 
thence by the Mississippi to New Orleans. What- 
ever Abraham Lincoln undertook, he performed 
so faithfully as to give great satisfaction to his 
employers. In this adventure the latter were 
so well pleased, that upon his return they placed 
a store and mill under his care. 

In 1832, at the outbreak of the Black Hawk 
War, he enlisted and was chosen Captain of a 
company. He returned to Sangamon Count}', 
and, although only twenty-three years of age, was 
a candidate for the Legislature, but was defeated. 
He soon after received from Andrew Jackson the 
appointment of Postmaster of New Salem. His 
only post-ofTice was his hat. All the letters he 
received he carried there, ready to deliver to those 
he chanced to meet. -He studied surveying, and 
soon made this his business. In 1 834 he again 
became a candidate for the Legislature and was 
elected. Mr. Stuart, of Springfield, advised him 
to study law. He walked from New Salem to 
Springfield, borrowed of Mr. Stuart a load of 
books, carried them back, and began his legal 
studies. When the Legislature assembled, he 
trudged on foot with his pack on his back one 
hundred miles to Vandalia, then the capital. In 
1836 he was re-elected to the Legislature. Here 
it was he first met Stephen A. Douglas. In 1S39 
he removed to Springfield and began the practice 
of law. His success with the jury was so great 


tliat he was soon engaged in almost every noted 
case in the circuit. 

In 1854 the great discussion began between Mr. 
Lincoln and Mr. Douglas on the slavery ques- 
tion. In the organization of the Repubhcan party 
in Illinois, in 1856, he took an active part, and at 
once became one of the leaders in that party. 
Mr. Lincoln's speeches in opposition to Senator 
Douglas in the contest in 1858 for a seat in the 
Senate, fonn a most notable part of his history. 
The issue was on the slaver)' question, and he 
took the broad ground of the Declaration of In- 
dependence, that all men are created equal. Mr. 
Lincoln was defeated in this contest, but won a 
far higher prize. 

The great Republican Convention met at Chi- 
cago on the 1 6th of June, i860. The delegates 
and strangers who crowded the city amounted to 
twenty-five thousand. An immense building 
called ' ' The Wigwam, ' ' was reared to accommo- 
date the convention. There were eleven candi- 
dates for whom votes were thrown. William H. 
Seward, a man whose fame as a statesman had 
long filled the land, was the most prominent. It 
was generally supposed he would be the nomi- 
nee. Abraham Lincoln, however, received the 
nomination on the third ballot. 

Election day came, and Mr. Lincoln received 
one hundred and eighty electoral votes out of two 
hundred and three cast, and was, therefore, con- 
stitutionally elected President of the United States. 
The tirade of abuse that was poured upon this 
good and merciful man, especially by the slave- 
holders, was greater than upon any other man 
ever elected to this high position. In February, 
1 86 1, Mr. Lincoln started for Washington, stop- 
ping in all the large cities on his way, making 
speeches. The whole journey was fraught with 
much danger. Many of the Southern States had 
already seceded, and several attempts at assassi- 
nation were afterward brought to light. A gang 
in Baltimore had arranged upon his arrival to 
"get up a row," and in the confusion to make 
sure of his death with revolvers and hand-gren- 
ades. A detective unravelled the plot. A secret 
and special train was provided to take him from 
Harrisburg, through Baltimore, at an unexpected 

hour of the night. The tram started at half- past 
ten, and to prevent any possible communication 
on the part of the Secessionists with their Con- 
federate gang in Baltimore, as soon as the train 
had started the telegraph-wires were cut. Mr. 
Lincoln reached Washington in safety and was 
inaugurated, although great anxiety was felt by 
all loyal people. 

In the selection of his cabinet Mr. Lincoln gave 
to Mr. Seward the Department of State, and to 
other prominent opponents before the convention 
he gave important positions; but during no other 
administration had the duties devolving upon the 
President been so manifold, and the responsibilities 
so great, as those which fell to his lot. Knowing 
this, and feeling his own weakness and inability 
to meet, and in his own strength to cope with, 
the difficulties, he learned early to seek Divine 
wisdom and guidance in determining his plans, 
and Divine comfort in all his trials, both personal 
and national. Contrary to his own estimate of 
himself, Mr. Lincoln was one of the most cour- 
ageous of men. He went directly into the rebel 
capital just as the retreating foe was leaving, with 
no guard but a few sailors. From the time he 
had left Springfield, in 1861, however, plans had 
been made for his assassination, and he at lasl 
fell a victim to one of them. April 14, 1865, he, 
with Gen. Grant, was urgently invited to attend 
Ford's Theatre. It was announced that they 
would be present. Gen. Grant, however, left the 
city. President Lincoln, feeling, with his char- 
acteristic kindliness of heart, that it would be a 
disappointment if he should fail them, very re- 
luctantly consented to go. While listening to 
the play, an actor by the name of John Wilkes 
Booth entered the box where the President and 
family were seated, and fired a bullet into his 
brain. He died the next morning at seven 

Never before in the history of the world was 
a nation plunged into such deep grief by the death 
of its ruler. Strong men met in the streets and 
wept in speechless anguish. His was a life which 
will fitly become a model. His name as the 
Savior of his country will live with that of Wash- 
ington's, its Father. 



Gl NDREW JOHNSON, seventeenth President 
LJ of the United States. The early life of An- 
/ I drew Johnson contains but the record of pov- 
erty , destitution and friendlessness. He was born 
December 29, 1808, in Raleigh, N. C. His par- 
ents, belonging to the class of "poor whites" 
of the South, were in such circumstances that they 
could not confer even the slightest advantages of 
education upon their child. When Andrew was 
five years of age, his father accidentally lost his 
life, while heroically endeavoring to save a friend 
from drowning. Until ten years of age, Andrew 
was a ragged boy about the streets, supported by 
the labor of his mother, who obtained her living 
with her own hands. 

He then, having never attended a school one 
day, and being unable either to read or write, was 
apprenticed to a tailor in his native town. A gen- 
tleman was in the habit of going to the tailor's 
shop occasionally, and reading to the boys at 
work there. He often read from the speeches of 
distinguished British statesmen. Andrew, who 
was endowed with a mind of more than ordinary 
ability, became much interested in speeches; 
his ambition was roused, and he was inspired with 
a strong desire to learn to read. 

He accordingly applied himself to the alphabet, 
and with the assistance of some of his fellow- 
workmen learned his letters. He then called upon 
the gentleman to borrow the book of speeches. 
The owner, pleased with his zeal, not only gave 
him the book, but assisted him in learning to com- 
bine the letters into words. Under such difficul- 
ties he pressed onward Isboriously, spending usu- 
ally ten or twelve hours at work in the shop, and 
then robbing himself of rest and recreation to de- 
vote such time as he could to reading. 

He went to Tennessee in 1826, and located at 

Greenville, where he married a young lady who 
possessed some education. Under her instructions 
he learned to write and cipher. He became 
prominent in the village debating society, and a 
favorite with the students of Greenville College. 
In 1828, he organized a working man's party, 
which elected him Alderman, and in 1830 elected 
him Mayor, which position he held three years. 

He now began to take a lively interest in 
political affairs, identifyinghimself with the work- 
ing-class, to which he belonged. In 1835, he 
was elected a member of the House of Represent- 
atives of Tennessee. He was then just twenty- 
seven years of age. He became a very active 
member of the Legislature, gave his support to 
the Democratic party, and in 1840 "stumped the 
State," advocating Martin Van Buren's claims to 
the Presidency, in opposition to those of Gen. 
Harrison. In this campaign he acquired much 
readiness as a speaker, and extended and increased 
his reputation. 

In 1 84 1, he was elected State Senator; in 1843, 
he was elected a Member of Congress, and by suc- 
cessive elections held that important post for ten 
years. In 1853, he was elected Governor of Tenn- 
essee, and was re-elected in 1855. In all these 
responsible positions, he discharged his duties 
with distinguished ability, and proved himself the 
warm friend of the working classes. In 1857, Mr. 
Johnson was elected United States Senator. 

Years before, in 1845, he had warmly advocated 
the annexation of Texas, stating, however, as his 
reason, that he thought this annexation would 
probably prove "to be the gateway out of which 
the sable sons of Africa are to pass from bondage 
to freedom, and become merged in a population 
congenial to themselves." In 1850, he also sup- 
ported the compromise measures, the two essen- 



tial features of which were, that the white people 
of the Territories should be permitted to decide 
for themselves whether they would enslave the 
colored people or not, and that the free States of 
the North should return to the South persons who 
attempted to escape from slavery. 

Mr. Johnson was never ashamed of his lowly 
origin: on the contrary, he often took pride in 
avowing that he owed his distinction to his own 
exertions. "Sir," said he on the floor of the 
Senate, "I do not forget that I am a mechanic; 
neither do I forget that Adam was a tailor and 
sewed fig-leaves, and that our Savior was the son 
of a carpenter. ' ' 

In the Charleston-Baltimore convention of 1 860, 
he was the choice of the Tennessee Democrats for 
the Presidency. In 1861, when the purpose of 
the Southern Democracy became apparent, he took 
a decided stand in favor of the Union, and held 
that "slavery must be held subordinate to the 
Union at whatever cost. ' ' He returned to Tenn- 
essee, and repeatedly imperiled his own life to 
protect the Unionists of that State. Tennessee 
having seceded from the Union, President Lincoln, 
on March 4, 1862, appointed him Military Gov- 
ernor of the State, and he estabUshed the most 
stringent military rule. His numerous proclama- 
tions attracted wide attention. In 1864, he was 
elected Vice-President of the United States, and 
upon the death of Mr. Lincoln, April 15, 1865, 
became President. In a speech two days later he 
said, "The American people must be taught, if 
they do not already feel, that treason is a crime 
and must be punished; that the Government will 
not always bear with its enemies; that it is strong 
not only to protect, but to punish. * * The 
people must understand that it (treason) is the 
blackest of crimes, and will surely be punished. ' ' 
Yet his whole administration, the history of which 
is so well known, was in utter inconsistency with, 
and in the most violent opposition to, the princi- 
ples laid down in that speech. 

In his loose policy of reconstruction and general 
amnesty, he was opposed by Congress, and he 
characterized Congress as a new rebellion, and 
lawlessly defied it in everj'thing possible to the ut- 
most. In the beginning of 1868, on account of 

"High crimes and misdemeanors," the principal 
of which was the removal of Secretary Stanton in 
violation of the Tenure of OflSce Act, articles of 
impeachment were preferred against him, and the 
trial began March 23. 

It was very tedious, continuing for nearly three 
months. A test article of the impeachment was 
at length submitted to the court for its action. It 
was certain that as the court voted upon that ar- 
ticle so would it vote upon all . Thirty-four voices 
pronounced the President guilty. As a two-thirds 
vote was necessary to his condemnation, he was 
pronounced acquitted, notn'ithstanding the great 
majority against him. The change of one vote 
from the not guilty side would have sustained the 

The President, for the remainder of his term, 
was but little regarded. He continued, though 
impoteutly, his conflict with Congress. His own 
party did not think it expedient to renominate 
him for the Presidency. The Nation rallied with 
enthusiasm, unparalleled since the days of Wash- 
ington, around the name of Gen. Grant. Andrew 
Johnson was forgotten. The bullet of the assassin 
introduced him to the President's chair. Not- 
withstanding this, never was there presented to a 
man a better opportunity to immortalize his name, 
and to win the gratitude of a nation. He failed 
utterly. He retired to his home in Greenville, 
Tenn. , taking no very active part in politics until 
1875. On January 26, after an exciting struggle, 
he was chosen by the Legislature of Tennessee 
United States Senator in the Forty-fourth Congess, 
and took his seat in that body, at the special ses- 
sion convened by President Grant, on the 5th of 
March. On the 27th of July, 1875, the ex-Presi- 
dent made a visit to his daughter's home, near 
Carter Station, Tenn. When he started on his 
journey, he was apparently in his usual vigorous 
health, but on reaching the residence of his child 
the following day, he was stricken with paralysis, 
which rendered him unconscious. He rallied oc- 
casionally, but finally passed away at 2 A. M., 
July 31 , aged sixty-seven years. His funeral was 
held at Greenville, on the 3d of August, with 
every demonstration of respect. 



HtYSSES S. GRANT, the eighteenth Presi- 
dent of the United States, was born on the 
29th of April, 1822, of Christian parents, in 
a humble home at Point Pleasant, on the banks 
of the Ohio. Shortly after, his father moved to 
Georgetown, Brown County, Ohio. In this re- 
mote frontier hamlet, Ulysses received a common- 
school education. At the age of seventeen, in 
the year 1839, he entered the Military Academy 
at West Point. Here he was regarded as a solid, 
sensible young man, of fair ability, and of sturdy, 
honest character. He took respectable rank as a 
scholar. In June, 1843, he graduated about the 
middle in his class, and was sent as Lieutenant of 
Infantry to one of the distant military posts in the 
Missouri Territory. Two years he passed in these 
dreary solitudes, watching the vagabond Indians. 

The war with Mexico came. Lieut. Grant was 
sent with his regiment to Corpus Christi. His 
firgt battle was at Palo Alto. There was no 
chance here for the exhibition of either skill or 
heroism, nor at Resaca de la Palma, his second 
battle. At the battle of Monterey, his third en- 
gagement, it is said that he performed a signal 
service of daring and skillful horsemanship. 

At the close of the Mexican War, Capt. Grant 
returned with his regiment to New York, and 
was again sent to one of the militarj- posts on the 
frontier. The discoverj^ of gold in California 
causing an immense tide of emigration to flow to 
the Pacific shores, Capt. Grant was sent with a 
battalion to Ft. Dallas, in Oregon, for the protec- 
tion of the interests of the immigrants. But life 
was wearisome in those wilds, and he resigned 
his commission and returned to the States. Hav- 
ing married, he entered upon the cultivation of a 
small farm near St. Louis, Mo., but having little 

skill as a fanner, and finding his toil not re- 
munerative, he turned to mercantile life, entering 
into the leather business, with a younger brother 
at Galena, 111. This was in the year i860. As 
the tidings of the rebels firing on Ft. Sumter 
reached the ears of Capt. Grant in his counting- 
room, he said : ' ' Uncle Sam has educated me 
for the army; though I have served him through 
one war, I do not feel that I have yet repaid the 
debt. I am still ready to discharge my obliga- 
tions. I shall therefore buckle on my sword and 
see Uncle Sam through this war too. ' ' 

He went into the streets, raised a company of 
volunteers, and led them as their Captain to 
Springfield, the capital of the State, where their 
services were offered to Gov. Yates. The Gov- 
ernor, impressed by the zeal and straightforward 
executive ability of Capt. Grant, gave him a desk 
in his ofiice to assist in the volunteer organiza- 
tion that was being formed in the State in behalf 
of the Government. On the 15th of June, 186 1, 
Capt. Grant received a commission as Colonel of 
the Twenty-first Regiment of Illinois Volunteers. 
His merits as a West Point graduate, who had 
served for fifteen years in the regular armj-, were 
such that he was soon promoted to the rank of 
Brigadier-General, and was placed in command at 
Cairo. The rebels raised their banner at Padu- 
cah, near the mouth of the Tennessee River. 
Scarcely had its folds appeared in the breeze ere 
Gen. Grant was there. The rebels fled, their 
banner fell, and the Stars and Stripes were un- 
furled in its stead. 

He entered the service with great determina- 
tion and immediately began active duty. This 
was the beginning, and until the surrender of 
Lee at Richmond he was ever pushing the enemy 


with great vigor and effectiveness. At Belmont, 
a few days later, he surprised and routed the 
rebels, then at Ft. Henry won another victory. 
Then came the brilliant fight at Ft. Donelson. 
The nation was electrified by the victory, and the 
brave leader of the boys in blue was immediately 
made a Major-General, and the miUtary district 
of Tennessee was assigned to him. 

Ivike all great captains, Gen. Grant knew well 
how to secure the results of victory. He imme- 
diately pushed on to the enemies' lines. Then 
came the terrible battles of Pittsburg Landing, 
Corinth, and the siege of Vicksburg, where Gen. 
Pemberton made an unconditional surrender of 
the city with over thirty thousand men and one 
hundred and seventy-two cannon. The fall of 
Vicksburg was by far the most severe blow which 
the rebels had thus far encountered, and opened 
up the Mississippi from Cairo to the Gulf. 

Gen. Grant was next ordered to co-operate with 
Gen. Banks in a movement upon Texas, and pro- 
ceeded to New Orleans, where he was thrown 
from his horse, and received severe injuries, from 
which he was laid up for months. He then 
rushed to the aid of Gens. Rosecrans and Thomas 
at Chattanooga, and by a wonderful series of 
strategic and technical measures put the Union 
army in fighting condition. Then followed the 
bloody battles at Chattanooga, Lookout Moun- 
tain and Missionary Ridge, in which the rebels 
were routed with great loss. This won for him 
unbounded praise in the North. On the 4th of 
February, 1864, Congress revived the grade of 
lieutenant-general, and the rank was conferred 
on Gen. Grant. He repaired to Washington to 
receive his credentials and enter upon the duties 
of his new office. 

Gen. Grant decided as soon as he took charge 
of the army to concentrate the widely-dispersed 
National troops for an attack upon Richmond, 
the nominal capital of the rebellion, and endeavor 
there to destroy the rebel armies which would be 
promptly assembled from all quarters for its de- 
fense. The whole continent seemed to tremble 
under the tramp of these majestic armies, rushing 
to the decisive battle-field. Steamers were crowd- 
ed with troops. Railway trains were burdened 

with closely-packed thousands. His plans were 
comprehensive, and involved a series of cam- 
paigns, which were executed with remarkable 
energy and ability, and were consummated at the 
surrender of Lee, April 9, 1865. 

The war was ended. The Union was saved. 
The almost unanimous voice of the nation de- 
clared Gen. Grant to be the most prominent in- 
strument in its salvation. The eminent services 
he had thus rendered the country brought him 
conspicuously forward as the Republican candi- 
date for the Presidential chair. 

At the Republican Convention held at Chicago, 
May 21, 1868, he was unanimously nominated 
for the Presidency, and at the autumn election 
received a majority of the popular vote, and two 
hundred and fourteen out of two hundred and 
ninety-four electoral votes. 

The National Convention of the Republican 
party, which met at Philadelphia on the 5th ot 
June, 1872, placed Gen. Grant in nomination for 
a second term by a unanimous vote. The selec- 
tion was emphatically indorsed by the people five 
months later, two hundred and ninety-two elect- 
oral votes being cast for him. 

Soon after the close of his second term, Gen. 
Grant started upon his famous trip around the 
world. He visited almost every country of the 
civilized world, and was everywhere received 
with such ovations and demonstrations of respect 
and honor, private as well as public and official, 
as were never before bestowed upon any citizen 
of the United States. 

He was the most prominent candidate before 
the Republican National Convention in 1880 for 
a renomination for President. He went to New 
York and embarked in the brokerage business 
under the firm name of Grant & Ward. The 
latter proved a villain, wrecked Grant's fortune, 
and for larceny was sent to the penitentiary. 
The General was attacked with cancer in the 
throat, but suffered in his stoic-like manner, never 
complaining. He was re-instated as General of 
the Ann3% and retired by Congress. The cancer 
soon finished its deadly work, and July 23, 1885, 
the nation went in mourning over the death ol 
the illustrious General. 



RUTHERFORD B. HAYES, the nineteenth 
President of the United States, was born in 
Delaware, Oliio, October 4, 1S22, almost 
three months after the death of his father, Ruther- 
ford Hayes. His ancestrs^ on both the paternal and 
maternal sides was of the most honorable char- 
acter. It can be traced, it is said, as far back as 
1280, when Ha3'es and Rutherford were two 
Scottish chieftains, fighting side by side with 
Baliol, William Wallace and Robert Bruce. Both 
families belonged to the nobility, owned extensive 
estates, and had a large following. Misfortune 
overtaking the family, George Hayes left Scotland 
in 1 680, and settled in Windsor, Conn. His son 
George was born in Windsor, and remained there 
during his life. Daniel Hayes, son of the latter, 
married Sarah Eee, and lived from the time of 
his marriage until his death in Simsbury, Conn. 
Ezekiel, son of Daniel, was born in 1724, and was 
a manufacturer of scythes at Bradford, Conn. 
Rutherford Hayes, son of Ezekiel and grandfather 
of President Hayes, was born in New Haven, in 
August, 1756. He was a farmer, blacksmith and 
tavern-keeper. He emigrated to Vermont at an 
unknown date, settling in Brattleboro, where he 
established a hotel. Here his son, Rutherford 
Hayes, the father of President Hayes, was bom. 
He was married, in September, 18 13, to Sophia 
Birchard, of Wilmington, Vt., whose ancestors 
emigrated thither from Connecticut, they ha\'ing 
been among the wealthiest and best families of 
Non\'ich. Her ancestrj' on the male side is 
traced back to 1635, to John Birchard, one of the 
principal founders of Norwnch. Both of her grand- 
fathers were soldiers in the Revolntionarj- War. 

The father of President Hayes was an industri- 
ous, frugal, yet open-hearted man. He was of a 

mechanical turn of mind, and could mend a plow, 
knit a stocking, or do almost anything else that 
he chose to undertake. He was a member of the 
church, active in all the benevolent enterprises 
of the town, and conducted his business on Chris- 
tian principles. After the close of the War of 
181 2, for reasons inexplicable to his neighbors, he 
resolved to emigrate to Ohio. 

The journey from Vermont to Ohio in that day, 
when there were no canals, steamers, or rail- 
ways, was a very serious affair. A tour of in- 
spection was first made, occupying four months. 
Mr. Hayes decided to move to Delaware, where 
the family arrived in 181 7. He died July 22, 
1822, a victim of malarial fever, less than three 
months before the birth of the son of whom we 
write. Mrs. Hayes, in her sore bereavement, 
found the support she so much needed in her 
brother Sardis, who had been a member of the 
household from the day of its departure from 
Vermont, and in an orphan girl, whom she had 
adopted some time before as an act of charity. 

Rutherford was seven years old before he went 
to school. His education, however, was not neg- 
lected. He probably learned as much from his 
mother and sister as he would have done at 
school. His sports were almost wholly within 
doors, his playmates being his sister and her asso- 
ciates. circumstances tended, no doubt, to 
foster that gentleness of disposition and that del- 
icate consideration for the feelings of others which 
were marked traits of his character. 

His uncle, Sardis Birchard, took the deepest 
interest in his education; and as the boy's health 
had improved, and he was making good progress 
in his studies, he proposed to send him to college. 
His preparation commenced with a tutor at home; 


but he was afterwards sent for one year to a pro- 
fessor in the Wesleyan University in Middletown, 
Conn. He entered Kenyon College in 1838, at 
the age of sixteen, and was graduated at the head 
of his class in 1842. 

Immediately after his graduation he began the 
study of law in the oflSce of Thomas Sparrow, 
Esq., in Columbus. Finding his opportunities 
for study in Columbus somewhat limited, he de- 
termined to enter the Law School at Cambridge, 
Mass., where he remained two years. 

In 1S45, after graduating at the Law School, he 
was admitted to the Bar at Marietta, Ohio, and 
shortly afterward went into practice as an at- 
torney-at-law with Ralph P. Buckland, of Fre- 
mont. Here he remained three years, acquiring 
but a limited practice, and apparently unambitious 
of distinction in his profession. 

In 1849 he moved to Cincinnati, where his am- 
bition found a new stimulus. For several years, 
however, his progress was slow. Two events 
occurring at this period had a powerful influence 
upon his subsequent life. One of these was his 
marriage with Miss Lucy Ware Webb, daughter 
of Dr. James Webb, of Chillicothe; the other was 
his introduction to the Cincinnati Literary Club, 
a body embracing among its members such men 
as Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase, Gen. John 
Pope, Gov. Edward F. Noyes, and many others 
hardly less distinguished in after life. The mar- 
riage was a fortunate one in every respect, as 
everybody knows. Not one of all the wives of 
our Presidents was more universally admired, 
reverenced and beloved than was Mrs. Hayes, and 
no one did more than she to reflect honor upon 
American womanhood. The LiteraryClub brought 
Mr. Hayes into constant association with young 
men of high character and noble aims, and lured 
him to display the qualities so long hidden by his 
bashfulness and modesty. 

In 1856 he was nominated to the oSice of Judge 
of the Court of Common Pleas, but he declined to 
accept the nomination. Two years later, the of- 
fice of City Solicitor becoming vacant, the City 
Council elected him for the unexpired term. 

In 1861, when the Rebellion broke out, he was 
at the zenith of his professional life. His rank at 

the Bar was among the first. But the news of 
the attack on Ft. Stunter found him eager to 
take up arms for the defense of his country. 

His military record was bright and illustrious. 
In October, 1861, he was made Lieutenant- Colo- 
nel, and in August, 1862, promoted Colonel of 
the Seventy-ninth Ohio Regiment, but he refused 
to leave his old comrades and go among strangers. 
Subsequently, however, he was made Colonel of 
his old regiment. At the battle of South Moun- 
tain he received a wound, and while faint and 
bleeding displayed courage and fortitude that 
won admiration from all. 

Col. Hayes was detached from his regiment, 
after his recovery, to act as Brigadier-General, 
and placed in command of the celebrated Kanawha 
division, and for gallant and meritorious services 
in the battles of Winchester, Fisher's Hill and 
Cedar Creek, he was promoted Brigadier-General. 
He was also breveted Major-General, "for gallant 
and distinguished services during the campaigns 
of 1864, in West Virginia." In the course of his 
arduous services, four horses were shot from un- 
der him, and he was wounded four times. 

In 1864, Gen. Hayes was elected to Congress 
from the Second Ohio District, which had long 
been Democratic. He was not present during the 
campaign, and after the election was importuned 
to resign his commission in the army; but he fi- 
nally declared, ' ' I shall never come to Washing- 
ton until I can come by way of Richmond." He 
was re-elected in 1866. 

In 1867, Gen. Hayes was elected Governor of 
Ohio, over Hon. Allen G. Thurman, a popular 
Democrat, and in 1869 was re-elected over George 
H. Pendleton. He was elected Governor for the 
third term in 1875. 

In 1876 he was the standard-bearer of the Re- 
publican party in the Presidential contest, and 
after a hard, long contest was chosen President, 
and was inaugurated Monday, March 5, 1877. 
He served his full term, not, however, with satis- 
faction to his party, but his administration was an 
average one. The remaining years of his life 
were passed quietly in his Ohio home, where he 
passed away January 17, 1893. 



(Tames a. GARFIELD, twentieth President 
I of the United States, was born November 1 9, 
Q) 1 83 1, in the woods of Orange, Cu3'ahoga 
County, Ohio. His parents were Abram and 
Eliza (Ballon) Garfield, both of New England 
ancestrj', and from families well known in the 
early history of that section of our country, but 
who had moved to the Western Reserve, in Ohio, 
earlj' in its settlement. 

The house in which James A. was born was 
not unlike the houses of poor Ohio farmers of 
that day. It was about 20 x 30 feet, built of logs, 
with the spaces between the logs filled with clay. 
His father was a hard-working farmer, and he 
soon had his fields cleared, an orchard planted, 
and a log barn built. The household comprised 
the father and mother and their four children, 
Mehetabel, Thomas, Marj' and James. In May, 
1823, the father died from a cold contracted in 
helping to put out a forest fire. At this time 
James was about eighteen months old, and 
Thomas about ten years old. No one, perhaps, 
can tell how much James was indebted to his 
brother's toil and self-sacrifice during the twenty 
years succeeding his father's death. He now 
lives in Michigan, and the two sisters live in Solon, 
Ohio, near their birthplace. 

The early educational advantages young Gar- 
field enjoyed were very limited, yet he made the 
most of them. He labored at farm work for 
others, did carpenter work, chopped wood, or did 
anything that would bring in a few dollars to aid 
his widowed mother in her struggles to keep the 
little family together. Nor was Gen. Garfield 
ever ashamed of his origin, and he never forgot 
the friends of his struggling childhood, youth and 
manhood; neither did they ever forget him. 
When in the highest seats of honor, the humblest 
friend of his boyhood was as kindly greeted as 
ever. The poorest laborer was sure of the sym- 
pathy of one who had known all the bitterness of 

want and the sweetness of bread earned by the 
sweat of the brow. He was ever the simple, 
plain, modest gentleman. 

The highest ambition of young Garfield until 
he was about sixteen years old was to be cap- 
tain of a vessel on Lake Erie. He was anxious 
to go aboard a vessel, but this his mother strongly 
opposed. She finally consented to his going to 
Cleveland, with the understanding, however, that 
he should try to obtain some other kind of em- 
ployment. He walked all the way to Cleveland. 
This was his first visit to the city. After making 
many applications for work, and trying to get 
aboard a lake vessel and not meeting with suc- 
cess, he engaged as a driver for his cousin, Amos 
Eetcher, on the Ohio & Pennsylvania Canal. 
He remained at this work but a short time, when 
he went home, and attended the seminary at 
Chester for about three years. He then entered 
Hiram and the Eclectic Institute, teaching a few 
terms of school in the mean time, and doing other 
work. This school was started by the Disciples 
of Christ in 1850, of which body he was then a 
member. He became janitor and bell-ringer in 
order to help pay his way. He then became both 
teacher and pupil. Soon " exhausting Hiram," 
and needing a higher education, in the fall of 1854 
he entered Williams College, from which he grad- 
uated in 1856, taking one of the highest honors of 
his class. He afterwards returned to Hiram Col- 
lege as its President. As above stated, he early 
united with the Christian, or Disciples, Church at 
Hiram, and was ever after a devoted, zealous 
member, often preaching in its pulpit and places 
where he happened to be. 

Mr. Garfield was united in marriage, Novem- 
ber II, 1858, with Miss Lucretia Rudolph, who 
proved herself worthy as the wife of one whom 
all the world loved. To them were born seven 
children, five of whom are still living, four boys 
and one girl. 



Mr. Garfield made his first political speeches in 
1856, in Hiram and the neighboring villages, and 
three years later he began to speak at county 
mass-meetings, and became the favorite speaker 
wherever he was. During this year he was 
elected to the Ohio Senate. He also began to 
study law at Cleveland, and in 1861 was admitted 
to the Bar. The great Rebellion broke out in the 
early part of this year, and Mr. Garfield at once 
resolved to fight as he had talked, and enlisted to 
defend the Old Flag. He received his commission 
as Lieutenant-Colonel of the Forty-second Regi- 
ment of Ohio Infantry August 14, 1861. He 
was immediately put into active service, and be- 
fore he had ever seen a gun fired in action, was 
placed in command of four regiments of infantry 
and eight companies of cavalry, charged with the 
work of driving out of his native State the able 
rebel officer, Humphrey Marshall, of Kentucky. 
This work was bravely and speedily accomplished, 
although against great odds, and President Lin- 
coln commissioned him Brigadier- General, Janu- 
ary ID, 1862; and "as he had been the youngest 
man in the Ohio Senate two years before, so now 
he was the youngest General in the army." He 
was with Gen. Buell's army at Shiloh, in its 
operations around Corinth and its march through 
Alabama. He was then detailed as a member of 
the general court martial for the trial of Gen. 
Fitz-John Porter. He was next ordered to re- 
port to Gen. Rosecrans, and was assigned to the 
"Chief of Staff." The militarj' histor>' of Gen. 
Garfield closed with his brilliant services at Chick- 
amauga, where he won the rank of Major-General. 

Without an effort on his part. Gen. Garfield 
was elected to Congress in the fall of 1862, from 
the Nineteenth District of Ohio. This section of 
Ohio had been represented in Congress for sixty 
year's mainly by two men — Elisha Whittlesey and 
Joshua R. Giddings. It was not without a strug- 
gle that he resigned his place in the army. At 
the time he entered Congress he was the youngest 
member in that body. There he remained by 
successive re-elections until he was elected Presi- 
dent, in 1880. Of his labors in Congress, Senator 
Hoar says: "Since the year 1864 you cannot 
think of a question which has been debated in 

Congress, or discussed before a tribunal of the 
American people, in regard to which you will not 
find, if you wish instruction, the argument on 
one side stated, in almost every instance better 
than by anybody else, in some speech made in 
the House of Representatives or on the hustings 
by Mr. Garfield." 

Upon January 14, 1880, Gen. Garfield was elect- 
ed to the United States Senate, and on the 8th of 
June, of the same year, was nominated as the 
candidate of his party for President at the great 
Chicago Convention. He was elected in the fol- 
lowing November, and on March 4, 188 1, was 
inaugurated. Probably no administration ever 
opened its existence under brighter auspices than 
that of President Garfield, and every day it grew 
in favor with the people. By the ist of July 
he had completed all the initiatory and prehmi- 
nary work of his administration, and was prepar- 
ing to leave the city to meet his friends at Will- 
iams College. While on his way and at the 
depot, in company with Secretary Blaine, a man 
stepped behind him, drew a revolver, and fired 
directly at his back. The President tottered and 
fell, and as he did so the assassin fired a second 
shot, the bullet cutting the left coat sleeve of his 
victim, but inflicting no further injury. It has 
been very truthfully said that this was ' ' the shot 
that was heard around the world. ' ' Never before 
in the history of Jihe nation had anything occur- 
red which so nearly froze the blood of the people 
for the moment as this awful deed. He was 
smitten on the brightest, gladdest day of all his 
life, at the summit of his power and hope. For 
eighty days, all during the hot months of July 
and August, he lingered and suffered. He, how- 
ever, remained master of himself till the last, and 
by his magnificent bearing taught the country 
and the world one of the noblest of human les- 
sons — how to live grandly in the very clutch of 
death. Great in life, he was surpassing!}- gjeat 
in death. He passed serenely away September 
19, 1883, at Elberon, N. J., on the very bank of 
the ocean, where he had been taken shortly be- 
fore. The world wept at his death, as it rarely 
ever had done on the death of any other great 
and noble man. 



E HESTER A. ARTHUR, twenty-first Presi- 
dent of the United States, was born in Frank- 
lin County, Vt., on the 5th day of October, 
1830, and was the eldest of a family of two sons 
and five daughters. His father was the Rev. Dr. 
William Arthur, a Baptist clergyman, who emi- 
grated to this country from County Antrim, Ire- 
land, in his eighteenth year, and died in 1875, in 
Newtonville, near Albany, after a long and suc- 
cessful ministry. 

Young Arthur was educated at Union College, 
Schenectady, where he excelled in all his studies. 
After his graduation he taught school in Ver- 
mont for two years, and at the expiration of that 
time came to New York, with $500 in his pocket, 
and entered the office of ex -Judge E. D. Culver 
as a student. After being admitted to the Bar, he 
formed a partnership with his intimate friend and 
room-mate, Henrj' D. Gardiner, with the inten- 
tion of practicing in the West, and for three 
months they roamed about in the Western States 
in search of an eligible site, but in the end re- 
turned to New York, where they hung out their 
shingle, and entered upon a successful career al- 
most from the start. Gen. Arthur soon after mar- 
ried the daughter of Lieut. Herndon, of the 
United States Navy, who was lost at sea. Con- 
gress voted a gold medal to his widow in recog- 
nition of the braverj^ he displayed on that occa- 
sion. Mrs. Arthur died shortly before Mr. 
Arthur's nomination to the Vice- Presidency, leav- 
ing two children. 

Gen. Arthur obtained considerable legal celeb- 
rity in his first great case, the famous Lemmon 
suit, brought to recover possession of eight slaves 
who had been declared free by Judge Paine, of 
the Superior Court of New York City. It was in 

1852 that Jonathan Lemmon, of Virginia, went to 
New York with his slaves, intending to ship them 
to Texas, when they were discovered and freed. 
The Judge decided that they could not be held by 
the owner under the Fugitive Slave Law. A howl 
of rage went up from the South, and the Virginia 
Legislature authorized the Attorney-General of 
that State to assist in an appeal. William M. 
Evarts and Chester A. Arthur were emplo3-ed to 
represent the people, and they won their case, 
which then went to the Supreme Court of the 
United States. Charles O' Conor here espou.sed 
the cause of the slaveholders, but he, too, was 
beaten by Messrs. Evarts and Arthur, and a long 
step was taken toward the emancipation of the 
black race. 

Another great sen-ice was rendered by Gen. 
Arthur in the same cause in 1S56. Lizzie Jen- 
nings, a respectable colored woman, was put off 
a Fourth Avenue car with violence after she had 
paid her fare. Gen. Arthur sued on her behalf, 
and secured a verdict of $500 damages. The next 
day the company issued an order to admit colored 
persons to ride on their cars, and the other car 
companies quickly followed their example. Be- 
fore that the Sixth Avenue Company ran a few 
special cars for colored persons, and the other lines 
refused to let them ride at all. 

Gen. Arthur was a delegate to the convention 
at Saratoga that founded the Republican party. 
Previous to the war he was Judge-Advocate of 
the Second Brigade of the State of New York, 
and Gov. Morgan, of that State, appointed him 
Engineer-in-Chief of his staff. In 1861, he was 
made Inspector- General, and soon afterward be- 
came Quartermaster-General. In each of these 
oflaces he rendered great service to the Govern- 


ment during the war. At the end of Gov. Mor- 
gan's term he resumed the practice of law, form- 
ing a partnership with Mr. Ransom, and then 
Mr. Phelps, the District Attorney of New York, 
was added to the firm. The legal practice of this 
well-known firm was very large and lucrative, 
as each of the gentlemen composing it was an able 
lawyer, and possessed a splendid local reputa- 
tion, if not, indeed, one of national extent. 

Mr. Arthur always took a leading part in State 
and city politics. He was appointed Collector of 
the Port of New York by President Grant, No- 
vember 21, 1872, to succeed Thomas Murphy, 
and he held the office until July 20, 1878, when 
he was succeeded by Collector Merritt. 

Mr. Arthur was nominated on the Presidential 
ticket, with Gen. James A. Garfield, at the 
famous National Republican Convention held at 
Chicago in June, 1880. This was perhaps the 
greatest political convention that ever assembled 
on the continent. It was composed of the lead- 
ing politicians of the Republican party, all able 
men, and each stood firm and fought vigorously 
and with signal tenacity for his respective can- 
didate that was before the convention for the 
nomination. Finally Gen. Garfield received the 
nomination for President, and Gen. Arthur for 
Vice-President. The campaign which followed 
was one of the most animated known in the his- 
tory of our country. Gen. Hancock, the stand- 
ard-bearer of the Democratic party, was a popular 
man, and his party made a valiant fight for his 

Finally the election came, and the country's 
choice was Garfield and Arthur. They were in- 
augurated March 4, 1881, as President and Vice- 
President. A few months only had passed ere 
the newly-chosen President was the victim of the 
assassin's bullet. Then came terrible weeks of 
suffering — those moments of anxious suspense, 
when the hearts of all civilized nations were 
throbbing in unison, longing for the recovery of 
the noble, the good President. The remarkable 
patience that he manifested during those hours 
and weeks, and even months, of the most terrible 
suffering man has ever been called upon to en- 
dure, was seemingly more than human. It was 

certainly godlike. During all this period of 
deepest anxiety Mr. Arthur's every move was 
watched, and, be it said to his credit, that his every 
action displayed only an earnest desire that the 
suffering Garfield might recover to serve the re- 
mainder of the term he had so auspiciously be- 
gun. Not a selfish feeling was manifested in 
deed or look of this man, even though the most 
honored position in the world was at any moment 
likely to fall to him. 

At last God in his mercy relieved President 
Garfield from further suffering, and the world, as 
never before in its history over the death of any 
other man, wept at his bier. Then it became the 
duty of the Vice-President to assume the respon- 
sibilities of the high office, and he took the oath 
in New York, September 20, 1881. The position 
was an embarrassing one to him, made doubly so 
from the fact that all eyes were on him, anxious 
to know what he would do, what policy he would 
pursue, and whom he would select as advisers. 
The duties of the ofiice had been greatly neglected 
during the President's long illness, and many im- 
portant measures were to be immediately decided 
by him ; and to still further embarass him he did 
not fail to realize under what circumstances he 
became President, and knew the feelings of many 
on this point. Under these trying circumstances. 
President Arthur took the reins of the Govern- 
ment in his own hands, and, as embarrassing as 
was the condition of affairs, he happily surprised 
the nation, acting so wisely that but few criticized 
his administration. He served the nation well 
and faithfully until the close of his administra- 
tion, March 4, 1885, and was a popular candidate 
before his party for a second term. His name 
was ably presented before the convention at Chi- 
cago, and was received with great favor, and 
doubtless but for the personal popularity of one 
of the opposing candidates, he would have been 
selected as the standard-bearer of his party for 
another campaign. He retired to private life, car- 
rying with him the best wishes of the American 
people, whom he had served in a manner satisfac- 
tory to them and with credit to himself. One 
year later he was called to his final rest. 



?\ twenty -second President of the United States, 
\Z/ was bom in 1837, in the obscure town of 
Caldwell, Essex Countj^ N. J., and in a little 
two-and-a-half-story white house, which is still 
standing to characteristically mark the humble 
birthplace of one of America's great men, in 
striking contrast with the Old World, where all 
men high in oiEce must be high in origin and 
born in the cradle of wealth. When the subject 
of this sketch was three years of age, his father, 
who was a Presbyterian minister with a large 
family and a small salary, moved, by way of the 
Hudson River and Erie Canal, to Fayetteville, N. 
Y., in search of an increased income and a larger 
field of work. Fayetteville was then the most 
straggling of country villages, about five miles 
from Pompey Hill, where Governor Seymour 
was born. 

At the last-mentioned place young Grover com- 
menced going to school in the good, old-fashioned 
way, and presumably distinguished himself after 
the manner of all village boys — in doing the 
things he ought not to do. Such is the dis- 
tinguishing trait of all geniuses and independent 
thinkers. When he arrived at the age of four- 
teen years, he had outgrown the capacity of the 
village school, and expressed a most emphatic de- 
sire to be sent to an academy. To this his fa- 
ther decidedly objected. Academies in those 
days cost money; besides, his father wanted him 
to become self-supporting by the quickest pos- 
sible means, and this at that time in Fayetteville 
seemed to be a position in a country store, where 
his father and the large family on his hands had 

considerable influence. Grover was to be paid 
$50 for his services the first year, and if he proved 
trustworthy he was to receive $100 the second 
year. Here the lad commenced his career as 
salesman, and in two years he had earned so good 
a reputation for trustworthiness that his employ- 
ers desired to retain him for an indefinite length 
of time. 

But instead of remaining with this firm in 
Fayetteville, he went with the family in their re- 
moval to Clinton, where he had an opportunity 
of attending a High School. Here he industri- 
ously pursued his studies until the family re- 
moved with him to a point on Black River known 
as the "Holland Patent," a village of five or six 
hundred people, fifteen miles north of Utica, N. Y. 
At this place his father died, after preaching but 
three Sundays. This event broke up the family, 
and Grover set out for New York City to accept, 
at a small salarj^ the position of under-teacher 
in an asylum for the blind. He taught faithfully 
for two years, and although he obtained a good 
reputation in this capacity, he concluded that 
teaching was not his calling in life, and, revers- 
ing the traditional order, he left the city to seek 
his fortune, instead of going to the city. He first 
thought of Cleveland, Ohio, as there was some 
charm in that name for him; but before proceed- 
ing to that place he went to Buffalo to ask advice 
of his uncle, Lewis F. Allan, a noted stock- 
breeder of that place. The latter did not speak 
enthusiastically. "What is it you want to do, 
my boy?" he asked. "Well, sir, I want to study 
law," was the reply "Good gracious!" remarked 
the old gentleman; "do you, indeed? Whatever 



put that into your head ? How much money 
have you got?" "Well, sir, to tell the truth, I 
haven't got any." 

After a long consultation, his uncle offered him 
a place temporarily as assistant herd-keeper, at 
$50 a year, while he could look around. One 
day soon afterward he boldly walked into the of- 
fice of Rogers, Bowen & Rogers, of Buffalo, and 
told them what he wanted. A number of young 
men were already engaged in the office, but Gro- 
ver's persistency won, and he was finally per- 
mitted to come as an office boy and have the use 
of the law librar}', receiving as wages the sum of 
$3 or $4 a week. Out of this he had to pay for his 
board and washing. The walk to and from his 
uncle's was a long and rugged one; and although 
the first winter was a memorably severe one, his 
shoes were out of repair, and as for his overcoat he 
had none; yet he was, nevertheless, prompt and 
regular. On the first day of his service there, his 
senior employer threw down a copy of Black- 
stone before him, with a bang that made the dust 
fly, saying "That's where they all begin." A 
titter ran around the little circle of clerks and 
students, as they thought that was enough to 
scare young Grover out of his plans; but in due 
time he mastered that cumbersome volume. 
Then, as ever afterward, however, Mr. Cleve- 
land exhibited a talent for executiveness rather 
than for chasing principles through all their 
metaphysical possibilities. "Let us quit talking 
and go and do it," was practically his motto. 

The first public office to which Mr. Cleveland 
was elected was that of Sheriff of Erie County, 
N. Y., in which Buffalo is situated; and in such 
capacity it fell to his duty to inflict capital punish- 
ment upon two criminals. In 1881 he was 
elected Mayor of the City of Buffalo, on the 
Democratic ticket, with especial reference to bring- 
ing about certain reforms in the administration 
of the municipal affairs of that city. In this of- 
fice, as well as in that of Sheriff, his performance 
of duty has generally been considered fair, with 
possibly a few exceptions, which were ferreted 
out and magnified during his Presidential cam- 
paign. As a specimen of his plain language in 
a veto message, we quote from one vetoing an 

iniquitous street- cleaning contract: "This is a 
time for plain speech, and my objection to your 
action shall be plainly stated. I regard it as the 
culmination of a most bare-faced, impudent and 
shameless scheme to betray the interests of the 
people and to worse than squander the people's 
money." The New York Sun afterward very 
highly commended Mr. Cleveland's administra- 
tion as Ma3-or of Buffalo, and thereupon recom- 
mended him for Governor of the Empire State. 
To the latter office he was elected in 1882, and 
his administration of the affairs of State was 
generally satisfactory-. The mistakes he made, 
if any, were made very public throughout the na- 
tion after he was nominated for President of the 
United States. For this high office he was 
nominated July 11, 1884, by the National Demo- 
cratic Convention at Chicago, when other com- 
petitors were Thomas F. Bayard, Roswell P. 
Flower, Thomas A. Hendricks, Benjamin F. 
Butler, Allen G. Thurman, etc.; and he was 
elected by the people, by a majority of about a 
thousand, over the brilliant and long-tried Re- 
publican statesman, James G. Blaine. President 
Cleveland resigned his office as Governor of New 
York in January, 1885, in order to prepare for 
his duties as the Chief Executive of the United 
States, in which capacity his term commenced at 
noon on the 4th of March, 1885. 

The silver question precipitated a controversy 
between those who were in favor of the continu- 
ance of silver coinage and those who were op- 
posed, Mr. Cleveland answering for the latter, 
even before his inauguration. 

On June 2, 1886, President Cleveland married 
Frances, daughter of his deceased friend and part- 
ner, Oscar Folsom, of the Buffalo Bar. In the 
campaign of 1888, President Cleveland was re- 
nominated by his party, but the Republican candi- 
date, Gen. Benjamin Harrison, was victorious. 
In the nomination of 1892 these two candidates 
for the highest position in the gift of the people 
were again pitted against each other, and in the 
ensuing election President Cleveland was victori- 
ous by an overwhelming majority. Since the 
close of his second term, he has resided in Prince- 
ton, N. J. 



QENJAMIN HARRISON, the twenty-third 
jC\ President, is the descendant of one of the 
L^ historical families of this country. The first 
known head of the family was Maj.-Gen. Harrison, 
one of Oliver Cromwell's trusted followers and 
fighters. In the zenith of Cromwell's power it be- 
came the duty of this Harrison to participate in 
the trial of Charles I., and afterward to sign the 
death warrant of the king. He subsequently 
paid for this with his life, being hung October 13, 
1660. His descendants came to America, and 
the next of the family that appears in historj' is 
Benjamin Harrison, of Virginia, great-grandfa- 
ther of the subject of this sketch, and after whom 
he was named. Benjamin Harrison was a mem- 
ber of the Continental Congress during the years 
1774, 1775 and 1776, and was one of the original 
signers of the Declaration of Independence. He 
was three times elected Governor of Virginia. 

Gen. William Henry Harrison, the son of the 
distinguished patriot of the Revolution, after a 
successful career as a soldier during the War of 
1 8 12, and with a clean record as Governor of the 
Northwestern Territory, was elected President of 
the United States in 1840. His career was cut 
short by death within one month after his in- 

President Harrison was born at North Bend, 

Hamilton County, Ohio, August 20, 1833. His 
life up to the time of his graduation from Miami 
University, at Oxford, Ohio, was the uneventful 
one of a countrj' lad of a family of small means. 
His father was able to give him a good education, 
and nothing more. He became engaged while at 
college to the daughter of Dr. Scott, Principal of 
a female school at Oxford. After graduating, he 
determined to enter upon the study of law. He 
went to Cincinnati and there read law for two 
years. At the expiration of that time young Har- 
rison received the only inheritance of his life — his 
aunt, dying, left him a lot valued at $800. He 
regarded this legacy as a fortune, and decided to 
get married at once, take this money and go to 
some Eastern town and begin the practice of law. 
He sold his lot, and, with the money in his pocket, 
he started out with his young wife to fight for a 
place in the world. He decided to go to Indian- 
apolis, which was even at that time a town of 
promise. He met with slight encouragement at 
first, making .scarcely anything the first year. 
He worked diligently, applying himself closely to 
his calling, built up an extensive practice and 
took a leading rank in the legal profession. 

In i860, Mr. Harrison was nominated for the 
position of Supreme Court Reporter, and then be- 
gan his experience as a stump speaker. He can- 


vassed the State thoroughly, and was elected by 
a handsome majority. In 1862 he raised the 
Seventeenth Indiana Infantry, and was chosen its 
Colonel. His regiment was composed of the raw- 
est material, but Col. Harrison employed all his 
time at first in mastering military- tactics and drill- 
ing his men, and when he came to move toward 
the East with Sherman, his regiment was one of 
the best drilled and organized in the army. At 
Resaca he especially distinguished himself, and 
for his bravery at Peachtree Creek he was made 
a Brigadier-General, Gen. Hooker speaking of 
him in the most complimentary terms. 

During the absence of Gen. Harrison in the 
field, the Supreme Court declared the office of 
Supreme Court Reporter vacant, and another 
person was elected to the position. From the 
time of leaving Indiana with his regiment until 
the fall of 1864 he had taken no leave of absence, 
but having been nominated that year for the same 
office, he got a thirty-day leave of absence, and 
during that time made a brilliant canvass of the 
State, and was elected for another term. He then 
started to rejoin Sherman, but on the way was 
stricken down with scarlet fever, and after a most 
trying attack made his way to the front in time to 
participate in the closing incidents of the war. 

In 1868 Gen. Harrison declined a re-election 
as Reporter, and resumed the practice of law. In 
1876 he was a candidate for Governor. Although 
defeated, the brilliant campaign he made won for 
him a national reputation, and he was much sought 
after, especially in the East, to make speeches. 
In 1880, as usual, he took an active part in the 
campaign, and was elected to the United States 
Senate. Here he served for six years, and was 
known as one of the ablest men, best lawj-ers and 
strongest debaters in that body. With the ex- 
piration of his senatorial term he returned to the 
practice of his profession, becoming the head of 
one of the strongest firms in the State. 

The political campaign of 1S8S was one of the 
most memorable in the history of our country. 
The convention which assembled in Chicago in 
June and named Mr. Harrison as the chief stand- 
ard-bearer of the Republican party was great in 
every particular, and on this account, and the at- 

titude it assumed upon the vital questions of the 
day, chief among which was the tariff, awoke a 
deep interest in the campaign throughout the 
nation. Shortly after the nomination, delegations 
began to visit Mr. Harrison at Indianapolis, his 
home. This movement became popular, and from 
all sections of the country societies, clubs and 
delegations journeyed thither to pay their re- 
spects to the distinguished statesman. 

Mr. Harrison spoke daily all through the sum- 
mer and autumn to these visiting delegations, 
and so varied, masterly, and eloquent were his 
speeches that they at once placed him in the fore- 
most rank of American orators and statesmen. 
Elected by a handsome majority, he served his 
country faithfully and well, and in 1S92 was nom- 
inated for re-election; but the people demanded a 
change and he was defeated by his predecessor 
in office, Grover Cleveland. 

On account of his eloquence as a speaker and 
his power as a debater. Gen. Harrison was called 
upon at an early age to take part in the dis- 
cussion of the great questions that then began to 
agitate the country. He was an uncompromising 
anti-slaverj' man, and was matched against some 
of the most eminent Democratic speakers of his 
State. No man who felt the touch of his blade 
desired to be pitted with him again. With all 
his eloquence as an orator he never spoke for ora- 
torical effect, but his words always went like bul- 
lets to the mark. He is purely American in his 
ideas, and is a splendid type of the American 
statesman. Gifted with quick perception, a logi- 
cal mind and a ready tongue, he is one of the 
most distinguished impromptu speakers in the 
nation. Many of these speeches sparkled with the 
rarest eloquence and contained arguments of great 
weight, and many of his terse statements have 
already become aphorisms. Original in thought, 
precise in logic, terse in statement, yet withal 
faultless in eloquence, he is recognized as the 
sound statesman and brilliant orator of the day. 
By his first wife, Caroline (Scott) Harrison, he 
had a son and daughter. In 1896 he married 
Mrs. Mary (Scott) Dimmick, and they, with their 
daughter, reside in Indianapolis, Ind., where he 
has made his home since early manhood. 



pCJlLLIAM McKINLEY, who was inaugu- 

\ A / rated President of the United States in 1897, 
V Y was born in Niles, Ohio, January 29, 1843. 
The family of which he is a member originated 
in the west of Scotland, and from there removed 
to the north of Ireland. According to the fam- 
ily tradition, James and William McKinley emi- 
grated to this country from Ireland and founded 
the two branches of the family in the United 
States, one settling in the north, the other in the 
south. At the time of their arrival, James was 
twelve years of age. He settled in York County, 
Pa., where he married and spent his remaining 

David, son of James, and the great-grandfather 
of William McKinley, was born May 16, 1755, 
and three times enlisted in the service of the 
colonies during the Revolutionary War, serving 
seven months after his first enlistment in June, 
1776, spending six months at the front in 1777, 
and again in the following year serving eight 
months. December 19, 1780, he married Sarah 
Gray, who was born May 10, 1760, and died 
October 6, 1814. For fifteen years he lived in 
Westmoreland County, Pa., and thence removed 
to Mercer County. One year after the death 
of his first wife he married Eleanor McLean 
and about the same time settled in Colum- 
biana County, Ohio, but afterward made his home 
in Crawford County, where he died August 8, 

James, grandfather of William McKinley, was 
born September 19, 1783, married Mary (or 
"Polly" ) Rose, and with his family moved to New 
Lisbon, Ohio, in 1809. Their eldest son, Will- 
iam, Sr., was born in Mercer County, Pa., 
November 15, 1807, and in 1827 married 
Nancy Allison, a woman of noble and strong 
character and consistent Christian life. For some 
years he was engaged as manager of iron fur- 
naces at different places. From Niles he re- 

moved to Poland, because of the educational ad- 
vantages offered by Poland Academy. In 1869 
he established his home in Canton, and here he 
died November 24, 1892. His widow lives at 
the family residence in Canton, and with her are 
her daughter, Miss Helen, and two orphan 

Of the family of nine children, William, Jr., who 
was seventh in order of birth, was born during 
the residence of his parents at Niles, Ohio, Jan- 
uary 29, 1843. His boyhood years were spent 
in that place and Poland, where he studied in the 
academy. At the age of seventeen he entered 
Allegheny College, but illness caused his return 
to Poland, and on his recovery he did not return 
to college, but taught a country school. At the 
opening of the Civil War, though only eighteen 
years of age, he immediately wanted to enlist. 
As soon as he could overcome the objections of 
his mother, he enlisted, in May of 1861, as a 
private in Company E, Twenty-third Ohio In- 
fantry. The regiment was commanded by Col. 
W. S. Rosecrans, who afterward, as general, led 
his forces on many a bloody battle field, and the 
first major was Rutherford B. Hayes, afterward 
President of the United States. As a gallant 
soldier Mr. McKinley soon won promotion, serving 
for a time as commissary sergeant, later was pro- 
moted to the rank of second lieutenant for gal- 
lantry at Antietam, and then won his way up- 
ward until, at the close of the war, he was pro- 
moted to major by brevet. July 26, 1865, after 
more than four years of hard service, he was 
mustered out with his regiment. 

With Judge Charles E. Glidden, of Mahoning 
County, Mr. McKinley began the study of law, 
which he afterward carried on in the Albany 
(N. Y.) Law School, and in 1S67 was admitted 
to the bar. Beginning the practice of his pro- 
fession in Canton, he soon became prominently 
known among the able attorneys of the city. His 


first connection with political affairs was in i86g, 
when he was elected prosecuting attorney of Stark 
County, and this office he held for two years. 
In 1876 he was nominated for Congressional 
honors and was elected to the Forty-fifth Con- 
gress, afterward by successive re-elections serv- 
ing for fourteen years. In March of 1890 he in- 
troduced the celebrated McKinley tariff bill, 
which was passed and became a law. In the fol- 
lowing year, 1891, he was elected governor of 
Ohio, and two years afterward was re-elected to 
that high office, which he filled in such a manner 
as to command the respect not only of his own 
party — the Republican — but his political op- 
ponents as well. The connection of his name 
with the tariff bill and his prominence in the Re- 
publican party, together with his force and elo- 
quence as a speaker, brought him into national 
fame. In the campaign of 1892, for a period of 
more than three months, he traveled over a 
territory' extending from New York to Nebraska, 
making speeches in the interest of the Republi- 
can platform. Those who heard him speak, 
whether friends or opponents of his political 
opinions, cannot but have admired his logical 
reasoning, breadth of intellect, eloquence of speech 
and modesty of demeanor. During the campaign 
of 1894 he made three hundred and seventy-one 
speeches and visited over three hundred towns, 
within a period of two months, addressing perhaps 
two million people. 

The tariff issue and all the intricate questions 
of public revenue that are interwoven with it, 
constitute the most complicated problems with 
which a statesman has to deal. To master them 
in every detail requires an intellect of the high- 
est order. That Major McKinley thoroughly un- 
derstands these questions is admitted by all who 
have investigated his official utterances on the 
subject, beginning with the speech on the Wood 
tariff bill, delivered in the house of representatives 
April 15, 1878, and closing with his speech in 
favor of the tariff bill of 1890, which as chairman 
of the ways and means committee he reported to 
the house and which was subsequently passed and 
is known throughout the world as the McKinley 
tariff bill of 1890. He opposed the Wood bill be- 
cause of a conviction that the proposed measure 

would, if enacted, prove a public calamity. For 
the same reason, in 1882, he advocated a friendly 
revision of the tariff by a tariff commission, to be 
authorized by congress and appointed by the 
president. In 1884 he opposed the Morrison 
horizontal bill, which he denounced as ambiguous 
for a great public statute, and in 1888 he led the 
forces in the fight against the Mills tariff bill. 

As governor of Ohio, his policy was conserva- 
tive. He aimed to give to the public institutions 
the benefit of the service of the best man of the 
state, and at all times upheld the legitimate rights 
of the workingmen. Recognizing the fact that 
the problem of taxation needed regulation, in 
his messages of 1892, 1893 and 1894, he urged 
the legislature that a remedy be applied. In 
1892 he recommended legislation for the safety 
and comfort of steam railroad employes, and the 
following year urged the furnishing of automatic 
couplers and air-brakes for all railroad cars used 
in the state. 

When, in 1896, the Republican party, in con- 
vention assembled at St. Louis, selected a man to 
represent their principles in the highest office 
within the gift of the American people, it was not 
a surprise to the public that the choice fell upon 
Major McKinley. The campaign that followed 
was one of the most exciting in the history of 
the country since the period of reconstruction. 
Especial interest centered in the fact that the 
point at issue seemed, not, as in former days, 
free trade or protection, but whether or not the 
government should declare for the free coinage of 
silver. This question divided the voters of the 
country upon somewhat different lines than the old- 
time principles of the Republican and Democratic 
parties and thus made the campaign a memorable 
one. The supporters of the gold standard main- 
tained that silver monometallism would precipi- 
tate a panic and permanently injure the business 
interests of the country, and the people, by a 
large majoritj', supported chese principles. 

January 25, 1871, Major McKinley was united 
in marriage with Miss Ida Saxton, who was born 
in June, 1847, the daughter of James A. Saxton. 
Their two children died in 1874, within a short 
time of each other, one at the age of three years 
and the other in infancy. 







BIOGRAPHY alone can justly represent the progress of local history and portray with accuracy 
the relation of men to events. It is the only means of perpetuating the lives and deeds of 
those men to whom the advancement of a city or county and the enlightenment of its people 
are due. The compilers of this work have striven to honor, not only men of present prominence, 
but also, as far as possible, those who in years gone by labored to promote the welfare of their com- 
munity. The following sketches have been prepared from the standpoint of no man's prejudice, 
but with an impartial aim to render justice to progressive and public-spirited citizens and to collect 
personal records that will be of value to generations yet to come. 

To be forgotten has been the great dread of mankind from remotest ages. All will be forgotten 
soon enough, in spite of their best works and the most earnest efforts of their friends to preserve the 
memory of their lives. The means employed to prevent oblivion and to perpetuate their memory 
have been in proportion to the amount of intelligence they possessed. The pyramids of Egypt were 
built to perpetuate the names and deeds of their great rulers. The exhumations made by the 
archaeologists of Egypt from buried Memphis indicate a desire of those people to perpetuate the 
memory of their achievements. The erection of the great obelisks was for the same purpose. 
Coming down to a later period, we find the Greeks and Romans erecting mausoleums and 
monuments, and carving out statues to chronicle their great achievements and carry them down the 
ages. It is also evident that the Mound-builders, in piling up their great mounds of earth, had but 
this idea — to leave something to show that they had lived. All these works, though many of them 
costly in the extreme, give but a faint idea of the lives and character of those whose memory they 
were intended to perpetuate, and scarcely anything of the masses of the people that then lived. The 
great pyramids and some of the obelisks remain objects only of curiosity; the mausoleums, 
monuments and statues are crumbling into dust. 

It was left to modern ages to establish an intelligent, undecaying, immutable method of 
perpetuating a full history — immutable in that it is almost unlimited in extent and perpetual in its 
action; and this is through the art of printing. 

To the present generation, however, we are indebted for the introduction of the admirable 
system of local biography. By this system every man, though he has not achieved what the world 
calls greatness, has the means to perpetuate his life, his history, through the coming ages. 

The scythe of Time cuts down all; nothing of the physical man is left. The monument which 
his children or friends may erect to his memory in the cemetery will crumble into dust and pass 
away; but his life, his achievements, the work he has accomplished, which otherwise would be 
forgotten, is perpetuated by a record of this kind. 

To preserve the Hneaments of our companions we engrave their portraits; for the same reason 
we collect the attainable facts of their history. Nor do we think it necessary, as we speak only 
truth of them, to wait until they are dead, or until those who know them are gone; to do this we 
are ashamed only to publish to the world the history of those whose lives are unworthy of public 

%, .f: 

d^i^,:c^ J( JO. iyc<!r/^. 


governor of Kansas. Of the many men 
who were attracted to Kansas during the 
days of its early struggles, there is none whose 
name is more indissolubly associated with its his- 
tory than that of Charles Robinson, and certainly 
there is none whose memory is more worthy of 
perpetuation in the annals of the state. He was 
born in Hardwick, Mass., July 21, 18 18, a de- 
scendant of Rev. John Robinson, the illustrious 
pastor of the Pilgrim Fathers. From his parents, 
Jonathan and Huldah (Woodward) Robinson, he 
inherited superior intelligence and originality of 
thought. The opposition to slavery, which was 
one of his marked characteristics, came to him 
from his father, who as early as 1840 broke off 
from party affiliations and became associated with 
the champions of liberty, who gathered under the 
standard of James G. Birney. Ever afterward 
he was outspoken in his belief that the institution 
of slavery was in violation to all of God's laws. 
He was not spared to see the colored race made 
free (for he died in i860), but his life was one of 
the many that lent its influence toward securing 
that great end. The mother, too, possessed great 
force of character, combined with a gentle, mild 
disposition, and while the care for the physical 
well-being of her six sons and four daughters 
consumed much of her time, she gave careful 
thought also to their mental training and im- 
planted in their hearts principles of honor and 
integrity. She was spared to an advanced age, 
dying in 1869, surrounded by and ministered to 
by her family, in whose success her happiness 
was consummated. 

When a boy Charles Robinson was a student 

in select and private schools, and Hopkins and 
Amherst Academies, and subsequently attended 
Amherst College for two years. He was obliged 
to leave college on account of trouble with his 
eyes, and he walked forty miles to Keene, N. H., 
to consult a celebrated oculist. Dr. Twichell. 
While his eyes were being treated he became so 
impressed with the greatness of the medical pro- 
fession that he determined to take it for his life 
work. Accordingly he entered Dr. Twichell' s 
office as a student, and after a year with him en- 
tered the office of Dr. Gridley, of Amherst, with 
whom he gained considerable practical expe- 
rience. He attended medical lectures at Wood- 
stock, Vt., and Pittsfield, Mass., receiving the 
degree of M. D. from the latter place in 1843. 
During the same year he succeeded Dr. Garrett 
at Belchertown, Mass., which at that time was a 
prosperous and aristocratic town. From the first 
he was successful in his profession, but constant 
attention to his professional duties undermined 
his health and forced him to relinquish his prac- 
tice. In 1845 he removed to Springfield, where 
he and the famous author. Dr. J. G. Holland, 
opened a hospital. While residing in that city, 
January 17, 1846, his first wife, Sarah (Adams) 
Robinson, died; the two children born of their 
marriage died in infancy. At the solicitation of 
his brother Cyrus he removed to Fitchburg, 
Mass. , and continued to practice there until fail- 
ing health demanded a complete change of cli- 

When the first news was received of the dis- 
covery of gold in California, a party of fifty men 
from Boston and Roxbury (the first from Massa- 
chusetts) decided to seek the far west. He ac- 


companied them as phj'sician for a colony. They 
arrived in Kansas City April lo, 1849, and on 
the loth of May started from that town, with ox 
and mule teams, following the Kansas River 
route. On the next day, while he was riding 
ahead of his party, he ascended Mount Oread 
(named after Oread school in the east). There 
he paused, viewing with liveliest interest and 
admiration the beautiful landscape that lay 
stretched before him, forming what is now the 
southwestern part of the city of Lawrence. In 
his journal he wrote that if the land were open 
to settlement he would go no further. However, 
he pursued his way toward the setting sun, little 
dreaming that, in later years, the reading of the 
journal in which this sentiment was written 
should have caused the Emigrant Aid Society to 
select him as its leader, to return to this very 
spot and labor for the success of the free-state 
party here. 

After a weary but uneventful journey the party 
reached Sacramento August 17, 1849. After ex- 
perimenting as a miner for two weeks Dr. Rob- 
inson became interested in a restaurant, in which 
business he was successful until he lost all by the 
Sacramento River flood. He also published the 
Miners' and Settlers' Tribune until elected to the 
legislature. During the controversy between the 
speculators and squatters on the Sutter claim he 
upheld the rights of the squatters, and this 
brought upon him the revengeful enmity of the 
speculators, by whom he was shot through the 
body a little below the heart, but owing to his 
vigorous constitution he soon recovered and was 
thrown into a prison ship. While there he was 
elected to the legislature, in which he served for 
one term, meantime forming the acquaintance of 
John C. Fremont, whose election to the United 
States senate he favored, but which was not ac- 
complished. July I, 1851, he left San Francisco 
for the east. On the night of the 4th the ship 
' 'Union' ' was wrecked after being out three days. 
The passengers, provisions and gold dust were 
saved by means of the life boats, in which they 
were taken to a barren rock, on the coast eighty 
miles south of San Diego. There they remained 
two weeks, then went to San Diego, where they 

embarked on board ship. They landed on the 
shore at the mouth of a dry ravine. They formed 
a company of forty men, of which the doctor was 
second in command, and they guarded the gold 
dust in relays often. Captain Day and Dr. Rob- 
inson stopped at Acapulco for the purpose of 
seeing the American consul and arranging to get 
the proper papers for salvage in New York and 
Philadelphia. The ship proceeded on its course 
and left Captain Day and the doctor to take an- 
other ship two weeks later. He was also delayed 
two weeks at Aspinwall, on the east side of the 
isthmus, making nearly two months on the waj'. 
At the isthmus Dr. Robinson was employed as 
physician by the steamer "Crescent," which had 
on board a large number of sick laborers from 
the Panama Railroad, then in process of construc- 
tion. The steamer reached Havana on the day 
of the execution of Lopez. Arriving at Belcher- 
town, September 9, 1851, the next year he began 
the publication of the Fitchburg News, an anti- 
slavery paper, which he conducted for two years, 
but, having frequent calls for professional service, 
he sold his paper and re-entered the profession. 

On the repeal of the Missouri compromise Dr. 
Robinson was sent to Kansas, June 28, 1854, to 
prepare the way for northern settlers. For this 
work his experience in California admirably qual- 
ified him. The subsequent portion of his life was 
a part of the history of Kansas. He became the 
real leader of the free-state forces. His position 
made his life in daily peril from pro-slavery men, 
and more than once he narrowly escaped. At 
one time when going east on a boat he became 
involved in a controversy with Gens. Joe Shelby 
and Donaldson, but he was so determined in the 
stand he took, the men had not the courage to kill 
him, as they had planned. In 1855 the free-state 
men were driven from the polls. He was one of 
the first to repudiate the authoritj^ of the bogus 
laws and was chosen delegate to the convention 
which met at Topeka to formulate new laws and 
a state government. From May 11 to Septem- 
ber II, 1856, he was held a prisoner near Le- 
compton, charged with treason. During what 
was known as the Wakarusa war, in November, 
1855, when Lawrence was besieged by eleven 


hundred pro-slaverj' men and there were only six 
hundred men to defend it, he was chosen major- 
general of the forces and assisted iu the defense 
of the city. 

On the adoption of the free-state constitution 
Dr. Robinson was chosen governor of the pro- 
posed state. The legislature met twice in 1856. 
On the adoption of the Wyandotte constitution 
he was elected governor of Kansas, and when 
the state was admitted to the Union, January 29, 
1861, he assumed the duties of office, holding the 
position until January, 1863. The position was 
a most trying one. The progress of the Civil 
war, the hostility of Indians, the strife between 
different elements of the citizenship, made the 
governor's oflBce no sinecure. It would have 
been impossible for a man to fill the position 
without making enemies; in fact, any man of 
force of character and great will power always 
meets with opposition, and Governor Robinson 
was no exception to the rule. But he allowed 
no criticism to deter him, when once his mind 
was resolved upon a certain course of action he 
believed to be just and right. To his faithful 
work amidst the most trying circumstances, and 
in the face of greatest danger to life, he pursued 
his way, undaunted by threats, undismayed by 
hardships. His retirement from the gubernato- 
rial chair did not mean his retirement from public 
life. The people appreciated his worth as an offi- 
cial. In 1864 he was elected to the state senate, 
and two years later was honored by re-election. 
Later he was made a member of the house of rep- 

Throughout his entire life Governor Robinson 
was interested in educational matters. On com- 
ing to Kansas he organized the first free school 
and paid the teacher, Edward Fitch, who opened 
a school in January, 1855, i" the rear room of 
the Emigrant Aid Building on the banks of the 
Kansas River, at the north end of Massachusetts 
street, Lawrence. The next teacher was Miss 
Kate Kellogg, who came as one of the family in 
March, 1855, remaining here until .she returned 
east in September of that year to marry Dr. 
Temple. Shortly after his arrival here Governor 
Robinson pre-empted a claim to the tract where 

he had stood, some years before, en route to Cal- 
ifornia. From that unimproved stretch of ground 
he evolved a beautiful homestead "Oak Ridge," 
comprising sixteen hundred acres. He located 
the first site of a college where the original 
structure of the Kansas State University stands. 
To the founding of the college he gave nineteen 
acres and his wife twenty-one acres, and after- 
ward they donated gifts of money, besides assist- 
ing in other ways. For years before his death 
he was a regent of the university, and his will 
provided that, at the death of his wife, their 
beautiful homestead should become the property 
of the institution in which they were so deeply 

For some years Governor Robinson was inter- 
ested in railroad enterprises, and was a director 
of the Leavenworth, Lawrence & Galveston Rail- 
road. During the latter part of his life he gave 
some time to literary work, and wrote a complete 
account of the condition of Kansas during the 
'50s, which he published under the title of "The 
Kansas Conflict." It is a work replete with facts 
and showing a thorough knowledge of the con- 
dition of the state during the most troubled period 
of its history. As an addition to the history of 
that period it is invaluable. While he was a 
Whig and Republican in early manhood, in later 
life he became independent, and during the fa- 
mous campaign of 1872 supported Horace Gree- 
ley, of whom he was a warm admirer. His life 
was prolonged to an advanced age. He died 
August 17, 1894, having lived to see the wonder- 
ful progress of the state and its advancement of 
material wealth and educational resources. His 
life is ended, its record complete. He who reads 
it ma3' emulate with eagerness the strict integrity, 
the force of will, the adherence to principle and 
the lofty honor that leaves the pages of the life 
record untarnished and undimmed. 

is a member of a family that has furnished 
many distinguished men to our country. 
Among these may be mentioned Hon. Abbott 
Lawrence, minister to England; Hon. Amos 


A. Lawrence, in whose honor the city of Law- 
rence, Kans., was named, and who donated 
$10,000 to the State University at its opening; 
and Hon. Timothy Dwight, president of Yale 
College, and one of the most prominent educators 
in the land. Benjamin Lawrence, a native of 
Windsor, Conn., became a pioneer of Middle- 
bury, Vt. , where his subsequent life was spent. 
His two sons, Myron and Edwin, were successful 
attorneys, the latter being for thirteen years 
judge of the district court in Washtenaw County, 
Mich. The former, who was born in Middle- 
bury May 18, 1799, graduated from the college 
in that city, and then studied law with M. A. K. 
Doolittle, a graduate of Yale. He made his 
home in the residence of Mr. Doolittle, and there 
met Miss Clarissa Dwight, a teacher, who was 
boarding with Mr. Doolittle' s family, and whom 
he married in 1824. On his admission to the bar 
he began to practice at Northampton, Mass., 
where his ability soon placed him in the front 
rank of attorneys. Recognizing his iitness for 
public oflSce, his fellows-citizens frequently chose 
him to represent them in offices of trust and 
honor. For several terms he was a member of 
the Massachusetts state senate, of which body he 
was president from 1838 to 1840. During twenty- 
seven years of his life he was either representa- 
tive or senator. His career in the lower and 
upper house was one that reflected the highest 
credit upon his moral worth and his extensive 
knowledge. With the broad vision of a states- 
man he looked forward to the future, and advo- 
cated measures that would have not merely a 
present, but a future, bearing on the welfare of 
the state. In his advocacy of temperance prin- 
ciples he was steadfast. Both by precept and by 
example he gave his influence for prohibition. 
In 1852, when the temperance issue was in the 
ascendency, he was nominated for governor, but, 
his health being poor, he declined the nomina- 
tion. Had he been able to make the race there 
is every reason to believe that he would have 
been elected. He was a member of the Congre- 
gational Church, adhering to the religion of his 
forefathers. Fraternally he was connected with 
the Masons. In political belief he favored the 

Whig party. He was a warm personal friend 
and great admirer of Daniel Webster, and two 
weeks after that great statesman passed away he 
answered his death summons, November 7, 1852. 

The wife of Senator Lawrence was born in 
Belchertown, Mass., a daughter of Col. Henrj' 
Dwight, and a descendant of the old family of 
that name, for years prominent among the Pil- 
grims at Dedham, Mass. Colonel Dwight, a 
native of W^arren, Mass., was a man of great 
prominence and blameless life, and during the 
Revolutionary war commanded a regiment as 
colonel. Mrs. Lawrence was educated in Hop- 
kins and Deerfield Academies, and a ladies' 
boarding school at Hartford, Conn. Not only 
was she a woman of splendid education, but of 
great- executive force as well, and in the town 
where she made her home her position was very 
high. She was born November 25, 1799, and 
died August 21, 1869, leaving a son and two 
daughters. The son, Mark D., who was a mer- 
chant, died in Philadelphia August 23, 1884. 
One of the daughters, Sophia Dwight, became 
the wife of Samuel Goddard, and died in Massa- 
chusetts March 15, 1893. 

The only surviving member of the family is 
Mrs. Robinson. She bore the maiden name of 
Sara Tappan Doolittle Lawrence. Her educa- 
tion, which was thorough, she acquired in the 
Belchertown classical school, Miss Smith's pri- 
vate school and New Salem Academy. At her 
father's home in Belchertown, October 30, 1S51, 
she was united in marriage to Dr. Charles Rob- 
inson, whose helpmate and companion she re- 
mained until his death. Like him, she was 
brave and fearless, hence was fitted for life in the 
west during its dark days. When her husband 
was arrested at Lexington, Mo., and taken to 
Lecompton to be tried for treason by the pro- 
slavery party, she went east, carrying the official 
proceedings of the congressional committee of 
investigation, and safely delivered them to the 
proper parties. From there she joined her hus- 
band in prison, and remained with him until he 
was released. Her knowledge of early life in 
Kansas and her literary ability qualify her for 
work as an author, and her work, ' ' Kansas, Its 


Kxterior and Interior," is one of the most com- 
plete of its kind ever published. It was pub- 
lished in 1856, with nine editions of one thou- 
sand each, and a revised edition was published 
in 1899, with appendix. As a descriptive work 
it is unsurpassed, and the detailed accounts of 
the character of the new territory and the strug- 
gles of the free-state men possess an undying in- 
terest for all who love the state. 

\ A / leading physician of Lawrence and coro- 
V V ner of Douglas County, was born in Troy, 
Miami County, Ohio, October 5, 1834, a son of 
James W. and Julia (Renshaw) Leonard, natives 
respectively of Rutland, Vt. , and Philadelphia, 
Pa. His grandfather, Joseph Leonard, who was 
a member of a pioneer family of New England, 
spent his entire life in Vermont, with the excep- 
tion of the period of his service in the Revolu- 
tionary war; his wife passed away in Massachu- 
setts when within six months of one hundred years 
old. For some years James W. Leonard was 
foreman of large iron works in Phoenixville, Pa., 
but in 1834 settled in Troy, Ohio, and for some 
time cultivated a farm near that village. In 
1851 he removed to Albion, Ind., where he con- 
tinued farm pursuits until his death, at the age of 
seventy-five years. His wife, who was of Scotch 
descent and a woman of estimable character, died 
at sixty-four years. They were the parents of 
seven children, four of whom attained mature 
years and two are now living. 

The education of Dr. Leonard was begun in 
Troy public schools and further prosecuted in 
the college of Xenia, Ohio, from which he grad- 
uated in 1856. Later he taught two terms of 
school and in 1858 began to study medicine under 
Dr. D. W. C. Denney, of Albion, Ind. The fol- 
lowing year he entered Jefferson Medical College, 
where he carried on his studies for two years. 
Returning to Albion, he formed a partnership 
with Dr. Denney, with whom he remained until 
the latter entered the army. In 1862 he ma- 
triculated in the Cincinnati College of Medicine 

and Surgery, from which he graduated in 1863, 
with the degree of M. D. In 1865 he entered 
Rush Medical College in Chicago, and the fol- 
lowing year was given the degree of M. D. by 
that institution. Afterward he frequently re- 
turned to Rush for the purpose of conducting 
post-graduate work. The continuous practice of 
his profession in Albion in the course of time 
undermined his health and he felt the need of a 
change of climate and surroundings. For this 
reason in 1883 he came to Lawrence and here he 
carried on a drug business, starting the City 
drug store, as a member of the firm of Leonard 
& Hamlin. At the same time he also gave some 
attention to practice. In April, 1898, he sold 
the store in order that he might devote himself 
exclusively to professional work. 

In Phoenixville, Pa., Dr. Leonard married 
Miss Sarah A. Place, who was born there and re- 
ceived an academic education. They are the 
parents of four children, namely: E. W., who is 
a business man in Kansas City; J. R., editor of 
the Strong City Demck, at Strong, Kans. ; O. P., 
a merchant tailor in Lawrence; and Ella M., at 

During his residence in Indiana Dr. Leonard 
was for eight years surgeon for the Baltimore & 
Ohio Railroad. Politically he has always been a 
Republican. On that ticket, in 1893, he was 
nominated for count}' coroner and received a good 
majority at the election. In 1895 and 1897 he 
was re-elected, his third term to expire in Jan- 
uary, 1900. Fraternally he is a Mason, identified 
with Lawrence Lodge No. 6, A. F. & A. M. 
He is identified with the Lawrence Medical So- 
ciety, and prior to his removal west was active 
in the work of the American Medical A.ssocia- 
tion. In religion he is a member of the Baptist 
Church, and is serving upon the board of trus- 
tees of the same. 

HON. H. MILES MOORE. The life of 
General Moore has been inseparably asso- 
ciated with the history of Kansas. Full of 
incidents, stirring and exciting, it possesses that 



interest which attaches to all lives presenting the 
spectacle of a man who stands for a principle, 
and who, alike in prosperous and in adverse 
environments, preserves the independence of 
thought and action and the patriotic spirit char- 
acteristic of a true son of the land of the free. 
From boj'hood a believer in the Declaration of 
Independence, and firm in his adherence to the 
truth that "all men are created free and equal," 
he saw that the system of slavery was a menace 
to our country, and therefore gave his whole be- 
ing to secure its overthrow. When Kansas was 
the theater of deepest interest and the fate of the 
state regarding slavery was at a critical point, 
he came here, and from that time afterward he 
was vitally connected with the free-state move- 
ment. In politics, first an ardent Whig and 
later a Democrat, he held to the maxim that 
"He serves his party best who serves his country 
best," and with him partyism was absorbed in 
patriotism. More than once his close connection 
with the anti-slavery cause brought him in peril 
of his life. Often he was shot at bj' those who 
realized that his death would be of advantage to 
the pro- slavery movement. Three times, during 
the days of border warfare, he was taken bj^ ene- 
mies and led out to be hanged, but each time his 
connection with the Masonic fraternity saved his 
life. Those were perilous days for the prominent 
men of Kansas, and none perhaps was in greater 
danger than he. Through perils, seen and un- 
seen, he walked from day to day, until finallj^ 
the crisis was passed, and Kansas, no longer the 
"bleeding state," could turn its attention to the 
development of farms and fields, to the improve- 
ment of cities and towns. 

The Moore family was first represented in 
America by several brothers from Ireland. Miles 
Moore, a grandson of one of these original emi- 
grants, was the son of a colonel in the war of 
1812, and was himself a man of patriotic spirit. 
He engaged in the mercantile business at Brock- 
port, N. Y., where he died at thirty-one years of 
age. In Monroe County, that state, he married 
Irene Smith, who was bom in Connecticut, and 
who, like himself, died in the prime of life. 
There were only two children born of the union, 

and one of these died in infancy. The other, who 
forms the subject of this article, was born in 
Brockport September 2, 1826, and was reared in 
the home of his grandfather, Deacon Levi Smith, 
a veteran of the war of 18 12 and the son of a 
Revolutionary soldier. 

When nineteen years of age H. Miles Moore 
graduated from Union College, Schenectady, 
N. Y., with the degree of A. B. He then trav- 
eled for a year, after which he studied law with 
Selden & Jewett, of Clarkson, N. Y., and later 
with C. M. Lee and L. Farrar, of Rochester, that 
state. While in the latter city he was a member 
of the Rochester Union Grays, nearly all of 
whom attempted to enlist in the Mexican war, 
but, the desired quota having been obtained, 
they were rejected. In 1S48 he was admitted to 
the bar, and soon afterward went south, where 
he owned interests. In a previous trip in the 
south he had purchased land in Louisiana, and re- 
turning to that state he engaged in the practice 
of law, and also took charge of his plantation. 
After having made a visit to Weston, Mo., in 
the fall of 1849 he decided to locate in that 
place, and the spring of the following year found 
him a resident there. He opened a law office, 
engaged in practice, and also had charge of the 
editorial work of the Weston Reporter. 

The excitement incident to the passage of the 
Kansas-Nebraska Bill spread throughout the 
country, and both slavery supporters and op- 
ponents were induced to come to Kansas. In 
June, 1854, ^^r. Moore came to the then terri- 
tory. He belonged to what might be termed the 
"fighting" element of his party, hence he 
brought upon himself the enmity of southern 
sympathizers, but, on the other hand, he won 
the esteem of anti-slavery men, among whom he 
soon wielded great influence. Three times he 
was elected attorney-general of Kansas condi- 
tional upon its admission to the Union as a state. 
He was a member of the first territorial legisla- 
ture in 1857, and was afterward again chosen to 
serve in this position, besides one term later in 
the state legislature. He also served as city at- 
torney for six years, and as United States com- 
missioner and assistant United States attorney. 



General Moore was a member of the original 
town company of lyeaven worth, and, as its secre- 
tary, he drew up the first paper organizing the 
same. This he still has in his possession, to- 
gether with many other relics of those pioneer 
days. The company consisted of thirty mem- 
bers, three of whom (himself one of the three) 
were chosen to select a name for the new town. 
He selected the name Leavenworth, in honor of 
the fort near by. The others preferred the name 
of Douglas, but he was successful in securing the 
name he desired. The lots comprising the origi- 
nal plat of the town were bought at a cost of 
$24,000, each of these lots having a government 
patent. Adjacent property was sold in blocks, 
after which the town company was disbanded 
and the partnership dissolved. The first gov- 
ernor, A. J. Reeder, promised to locate the capi- 
tal here, but failed to keep his promise. The 
neighboring towns in the county were settled by 
hard-working, persevering men, who gave this 
section the high reputation it has since retained. 

With that typical western man, General Lane, 
our subject was always in deepest sympathy. In 
186 r he served as judge advocate, with the rank 
of lieutenant-colonel, on General Lane's staff, 
after which he was transferred to the Fifth Kan- 
sas Regiment as acting colonel. During a part 
of the war he was appointed and served as com- 
missary of subsistence, with the rank of captain, 
his commission coming from Abraham Lincoln. 
Prior to the Rebellion he served as colonel, and 
later was general, of the free state army organi- 
zation. Since the close of the war he has engaged 
in the practice of law, and held various ofiBces. 
He has maintained a deep interest in every move- 
ment for the upbuilding of Leavenworth, which he 
has seen grow from a few inhabitants to its present 
large population. Active in educational work 
he served as a member of the school board for 
many years, and did all within his power to pro- 
mote the interests of the public schools. He has 
also beeii generous in contributions to religious 
enterprises and philanthropic movements, and is 
active in the work of the Episcopal Church, to 
which he belongs. In the early days he became 
identified with the State Historical Society, and 

has since acted as one of its trustees. During 
his residence in Weston he was made a Mason, 
and is now connected with Leavenworth Lodge 
No. 2, A. F. & A. M. He is a member of Kan- 
sas Commandery of the Military Order of Loyal 
Legion, and Custer Post No. 2, G. A. R., in 
which he has served as a department aide. 

In Madison, Wis., General Moore married 
Harriet E. Van Valkenburg, of New York, a 
descendant of Dutch ancestry. While visiting 
in Lockport, N. Y., she was thrown from a car- 
riage and fatally injured, dying soon afterward. 
His second marriage took place in Leavenworth 
September 15, 1857, and united him with Miss 
Linnie F. Kehoe, who was born at Laurel Hill, 
Fairfax County, Va., and was reared in Wash- 
ington, D. C, graduating from Georgetown 
Convent. The two children born of the first 
marriage are deceased. Of the second marriage 
one child is now living, Harry Miles Moore, who 
is engaged in the drug business at Galena, Kans. 

As one of the pioneers of Leavenworth, the 
name of General Moore deserves to be placed in 
the archives of history; but still more is he de- 
serving of remembrance when we consider his 
long and active connection with movements for 
the development of the city. Personally he is a 
man of decided and inflexible traits of mind, as 
his past history proves. Possessing a strong 
mind and determined will, he has, under every 
circumstance, had the courage of his convictions, 
and has never deviated from the course his con- 
science mapped out for him. He is a fine con- 
versationalist, with the courtesy and agreeable 
manners that make him popular with all. Well 
informed along all lines, he is especially familiar 
with local history, and whenever questions arise 
regarding facts in the history of early days, he is 
always referred to as an authority. With the 
thoughtfulness of a man who looks into the 
future he has carefully preserved letters, jour- 
nals, papers, etc., together with his personal 
recollections in writing, concerning event- 
ful days when the fate of Kansas trembled in the 
balance. These data, if compiled and published, 
would fill a volume, and would form an import- 
ant addition to the history of that period. 



NON. THOMAS CARNEY, second governor 
of Kansas, was intimately identified with 
the history of this commonwealth during the 
exciting days prior to and during the Civil war. 
In fact, for some years his life history was the 
history of the state itself, so inseparablj' was he 
associated with public measures. An ardent sup- 
porter of Republican principles and a man of great 
patriotism, he did all within his power to pro- 
mote the interests of his party, his state and his 
country, in each of which he attained distinction. 

In Delaware County, Ohio, Mr. Carney was 
born August, 20, 1824. When he was four years 
of age his father, James Carney, died, leaving the 
widowed mother, poor, and with four small chil- 
dren. For this reason, his opportunities were 
meagre; in fact, he had none except such as he 
made for himself. His early life was spent in 
the hardest kind of work, after he was old enough 
to be of assistance on the farm. From the time 
he was eleven until he left home, he was the 
teamster of the family, and conveyed the prod- 
ucts of the farm to Newark, thirty-six miles dis- 
tant, using as a means of transportation a yoke 
of oxen. When nineteen years of age, with$3.5o 
in his possession and buoyed by the hope of youth, 
he left the home farm. He attended school in 
Berkshire, Ohio, for six months, meantime work- 
ing for his board. Afterward he secured employ- 
ment in a retail dry-goods house in Columbus, 
where he remained for two years, then became 
clerk in a wholesale dry-goods house in Cincin- 
nati. While with the retail firm he received $50 
and his board the first year and $100 and board 
the second year. He remained in Cincinnati for 
twelve years, but his health became impaired by 
his close attention to business, his success as a 
member of the firm of Carney, Swift & Co., hav- 
ing been secured only at the expense of his phy- 
sical strength. 

Realizing that he must seek another climate, 
in 1857 Mr. Carnej' visited the west. In the 
spring of 1858 he commenced business in Leaven- 
worth, Kans., where, in partnership with Thomas 
C. Stevens, he opened the first exclusively whole- 
sale house in the city and founded a business that 
for years was of immense value to local interests. 

On the retirement of Mr. Stevens in 1866, the firm 
name was changed to Carney, Fenlon & Co. 
Two years later the firm established the house of 
E. Fenlon & Co., in St. Louis, which business 
later merged into the house of Carney, Garrett, 
Fenlon & Co., and later was changed to Carney, 
Fenlon & Co. The subsequent retirement of Mr. 
Fenlon caused another change in the business, 
which was afterward conducted by Mr. Carney 
alone until it was sold. He also started the 
wholesale shoe house of Carney, Storer&Co., 
which firm in 1873 was dissolved, and succeeded 
by Thomas Carney & Co. In 1875 the business 
was sold and the one to whom its success was 
due retired, in a measure, Trom participation in 
business affairs. 

The connection of Mr. Carney with affairs ot 
state dates from the fall of i85i, when he was elec- 
ted to the lower house of the legislature. Sep- 
tember 17, 1862, when the Republicans met in 
state convention, he was nominated for governor, 
and on the 4th of November was elected, receiv- 
ing ten thousand and ninety votes, about twice 
the number received by his opponent. January 
12, 1863, he took his seat as governor, and from 
that time until the close of his term he gave his 
undivided attention to public affairs. He found 
the state in a discouraging condition. It was 
utterly without credit, and without means to carry 
on its government or protect its citizens from 
guerillas, Indians and the calamities incident to 
war. Along the eastern and southern borders 
the confederates hovered, while on the west were 
murderous bands of Indians. The life of every 
settler was in peril. The general government, 
immersed in civil war, had no time to devote to 
the welfare of a remote state. Hence, the wel- 
fare of the people devolved entirely upon the gov- 
ernor. Finding that he would be obliged to de- 
pend upon his own resources, he investigated the 
situation thoroughly. The state had no mone}-, 
no arms and no ammunition, but this did not dis- 
courage him. On visiting the menaced regions 
he found that the people were beginning to 
seek places of greater safety, and he foresaw 
the probability that the region would become a 
desert, unless decisive steps were immediately 



taken. He raised a force of one hundred and 
fifty men and employed them as a patrol along 
the border, so that no hostile movement could be 
made without detection and the people would 
thus have time to rally to the necessary points for 
defense. The patrol was hired by the governor 
and paid out of his private means, he giving $i 
a day for a man and horse, the United States gov- 
ernment furnishing the rations. He put the men 
in the field and kept them there, at a cost to him- 
self of more than $10,000. At the same time he 
was a captain in the home guard and often on 
duty in that capacity. Through his patrol he 
preserved the border from invasion, but, at a later 
period, he was notified by the commander of the 
federal forces to abolish the patrol, as the regu- 
lar troops would be able to care for the safety of 
the state. He carried out the order, and within 
three days Quantrell made his raid into Kansas, 
Lawrence was in ashes and one hundred and 
eighty persons were foully murdered. During 
the existence of the patrol, the arrangements 
were such that the difierent members could speak 
with each other every hour, but the militia were 
scattered in squads over a distance of twenty-five 
miles, and when Quantrell marched into Kansas, 
he easily escaped their notice. He moved stealth- 
ily. No one knew of his approach except one 
man who lived along the line of march. He saw 
the guerillas, mounted a and hurried to- 
ward Lawrence to warn the inhabitants, but his 
horse fell and the rider's neck was broken. Thus 
the sole witness of the invasion was silenced. It 
is worthy of mention, as showing the governor's 
generous disposition, that he made a gift of $500 
to the widow of this man, and he also gave $1,000 
for the relief of the people of Lawrence. 

The entire oificial career of Governor Carney 
was a stormy one. Occurring, as it did, at a 
time when the nation was rent asunder by inter- 
nal .strife, when the state itself was a financial 
and political wreck, the situation called for a man 
of great discretion, foresight, energy and force of 
character. That he met the demands of the .sit- 
uation is recognized by all. Through his in- 
strumentality the state was placed upon a firm 
basis financially. He sacrificed himself for the 

interests of the state, and gave generously of 
time, of means and of influence, to promote the 
prosperity of the commonwealth. During the 
first year of his administration, the house ac- 
cepted the grant of congress giving land for the 
agricultural college and located said college at 
Manhattan, Riley County; also provided for the 
establishment of an asylum for insane at Osa- 
watomie, for the building of a penitentiary at 
Leavenworth, the establishment of a state normal 
school at Emporia, and the Kansas State Univer- 
sity at Lawrence (to which he made a personal 
contribution of $5,000). December 10, 1863, a 
brick building on Kansas avenue, Topeka, was 
leased to the state for a temporary capitol. Dur- 
ing 1864 the house appointed commissioners to 
locate a blind asylum in Wyandotte County, and 
a deaf and dumb asylum in Olathe; grand juries 
were abolished and a bureau of immigration es- 

January 9, 1865, Governor Carney retired from 
the chair of chief executive, in which he was suc- 
ceeded by Samuel J. Crawford. June 4, 1866, 
he was elected a director in the Kansas City, 
Lawrence & Fort Gibson Railroad Company, of 
which James H. Lane was first, and William 
Sturges the second president. In 1865 and 1866 
he served as mayor of Leavenworth, during which 
time he was interested in and contributed toward 
the building of the railroads here. He was inter- 
ested in the organization of the First National 
Bank of Leavenworth, of which he officiated as 
a director for several years. With other enter- 
prises, both local and state, he continued to be 
identified, and, while giving much time and 
thought to private business aff"airs, nevertheless 
found opportunity to identify himself with every 
project for the public welfare and advancement. 
His death, the result of apoplexy, occurred July 
28, 188S, in the town of which he had long been 
an honored citizen and to whose development he 
had contributed perhaps as much as any of its 
prominent pioneers. His name is inseparably as- 
sociated with the history of the state he loved so 
well. Those who watched his official career, 
amid all the perplexities of war times, when great 
responsibilities were thrust upon him, under the 



most adverse and trying circumstances, agreed 
that he proved himself to be equal to every emer- 
gency, the man for the place; and, whatever may 
have been individual opinions as to his decisions 
and actions, it was the verdict of all that his ad- 
ministration was the means of establishing the 
credit of the state upon a sound financial basis and 
advancing its educational and general interests 
in a manner most gratifying to every loyal cit- 

During his residence in Ohio, Governor Carney 
married Miss Rebecca Ann Canaday, who was 
born in Kenton, that state, and died in Leaven- 
worth, September 25, 1895. They were the par- 
ents of five sons, namely: Edwin L-; William 
W., both of Leavenworth; Harry C, of Butte, 
Mont. ; Charles T. , of Meeker, Colo. ; and Frank, 
who died in infancy. 

gEN. EDWARD RUSSELL. The life his- 
tory of General Russell was closely con- 
nected with the history of Kansas from a 
very early period of its development and progress. 
Of stanch patriotic principles, he was ever loyal 
to the Union, and during the exciting days prior 
to the war he stood firm in his allegiance to the 
government. Every reformatory movement en- 
listed his sympathies and his co-operation; he 
was a stalwart friend of civil service and other re- 
forms, to all of which he gave his firm allegiance. 
Descended from Puritan ancestors (one of whose 
descendants, ex-Governor Russell of Massa- 
chu,setts, was his own cousin), he inherited 
qualities that contributed to his success in life. 
His life was brought to a close August 14, 1898, 
with a rounded completeness that comes to few 
lives, and he was followed to his grave by the 
esteem of hosts of friends and personal associates. 
Capt. Daniel Russell, who was of English and 
Scotch descent, served as a captain in the Revo- 
lutionary war and was disabled while at the 
front. Returning to Massachusetts, he settled 
on a farm near Boston and there remained until 
death. His son, David Moore Russell, was born 
in New Hampshire, and there married Mary 
Flint, who was born in the suburbs of Boston. 

Mr. Russell was a son of Moore Russell and 
grandson of Peltier Russell, both of whom served 
in the Revolution, the latter as an ofiicer. While 
David M. Russell was living at Plymouth, N. H., 
his son, Edward, was born, February 9, 1833. 
Two years later the family settled in Gainesville, 
Sumter County, Ala. , prior to the removal of the 
Choctaw Indians to their present reservation in the 
Indian Territory. The father became a large 
land owner in Alabama and Mississippi, and gave 
his attention to the management of his vast es- 
tates. He also owned large interests in copper 
mines in Michigan. The war coming on he lost 
all of his fortune, and the cares and excitement 
occasioned by the distressing condition of affairs 
caused his death in 1864. His wife died in Ala- 
bama in 1875. They had only two children, 
both sons, the younger of whom, David Moore 
Russell, is now a planter in Mississippi. 

When eleven years of age Edward Russell was 
placed in an academj' at Meriden, N. H., and 
there prepared for college. He entered Yale at 
seventeen years of age and studied there for a 
year, after which he was a student in Williams 
College in Massachusetts for a year. An attack 
of measles so injured his eyesight as to render the 
completion of his education impossible. For a 
time afterward his winters were spent in the 
south, and his summers in the north and west. 
During this time he was a close observer of the 
relative advantages of slave and free labor, and a 
close student of the slavery question. The re- 
sult was that, in 1856, upon coming to Kansas, 
he placed himself on the side of the Union, as 
against slavery. In the spring of 1857 he set- 
tled at Elwood, Doniphan County, Kans., where 
he afterward had charge of the Advertiser, 
which was published in the interests of the town 
company. September 25, 1859, he married Miss 
Ionia Blackstone, great-great-great-granddaugh- 
ter of William Blackstone, the famous author of 
Blackstone's commentary on law; also of George 
Fox, the famous leader of the Quakers; and a 
third cousin of ex-President Rutherford B. 
Hayes. Her father, Ebenezer Blackstone, was 
born in Smithfield, Ohio, and was a son of Will- 
iam Blackstone, a dry-goods merchant of Phila- 



delphia, and later a resident of Smithfield; he 
married Miss Ann Price, whose mother was a 
daughter of George Fox. William's father, Eb- 
enezer, was born in England, where his father, 
William Blackstone, was a leading attorney and 
writer upon law. The various branches of the 
family were allied with the Society of Friends. 
Ebenezer Blackstone, Jr., engaged in the dry- 
goods business in Middletown, Guernsey County, 
Ohio, where his daughter, Ionia, was born. 
About 1854 he removed to St. Joe, Mo., where 
he built and operated the first steam ferry on the 
then upper Missouri, the charter for which he 
held for thirty years, meantime running the 
ferry between St. Joe and Elwood. During the 
Civil war the government chartered two of his 
boats and converted them into iron-clads, using 
them at St. Louis until the war closed. Of 
one of these boats he was commissioned captain. 
At the close of the war he returned to St. Joe, 
where he engaged in dealing in farm lands and 
city real estate. He adhered to the Republican 
party and in religion upheld the doctrines of the 
Quaker Church. When he died, January 10, 
1888, he was seventy-five years of age. His 
was a busy life. During the Pike's Peak excite- 
ment the tide of emigration westward was so 
great that he ran three ferries and several flat 
boats, and employed one hundred men, besides 
forty men who got out timber in the woods. 

The marriage of Ebenezer Blackstone united 
him with Mary A. Hayes, a native of Middle- 
town, Ohio, and a daughter of Thomas Hayes, 
who removed from Pennsylvania to Ohio in a 
very early day. His father, Thomas, Sr., was a 
soldier of the Revolution, and a pioneer of Ohio, 
where he cleared large tracts of land. Mrs. 
Blackstone died at St. Joe, April 12, 1893, when 
seventy-five years of age. She was a woman of 
deeply religious character and an earnest member 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church. In her fam 
ily were five children, viz.: Mrs. Annie E. Ells- 
worth, of Cripple Creek, Colo.; Ionia; Rebecca 
Susan, wife of Benjamin Fleming, of St. Joe, Mo 
Frank T., a farmer in Howell County, Mo.; and 
Ella, wife of B. F. Saunders, of Salt Lake City 
who is known as the ' ' cattle king ' ' of the west 

At the time her parents came west, Mrs. Rus- 
sell accompanied them. She was educated in 
the Sacred Heart Convent and the Presbyterian 
Female College in St. Joseph. Educated in the 
Quaker faith, she has always adhered to its doc- 
trines, though not a member of the society. 
During the Civil war she experienced all the 
perils common to the times, and stood guard over 
her own fireside. Having befriended a jaw- 
hawking captain, the latter was the means of 
saving her considerable loss. To her marriage 
four children were born. The eldest, Percj' 
Blackstone, was educated in Williams College and 
the University of Kansas, and is now pro- 
prietor of a plantation in Mississippi, his home 
being in Memphis, Tenn. Formerly he had 
charge of the building of the Great Eastern irri- 
gation canal, which his father projected and 
which rendered possible the opening to settle- 
ment of thousands of acres on the Arkansas 
River between Deerfield and Hartland. The 
second son, Edward Flint Russell, is a farmer in 
Jefferson County, Kaus. The older daughter, 
Mary R. , was educated in Elmira College in New 
York and became the wife of Arthur Peabodj', 
late of Lawrence, now deceased. The youngest 
child, Ella, is a student in the high school of 

In the contest over the Lecompton constitution, 
pending the vote, August 3, 1858, by order of 
congress, it was then that Mr. Russell made his 
first canvass in the interests of the abolition of 
slavery. At that time his county ( Doniphan) was 
almost equally divided between the free state and 
slavery advocates. In the spring of 1859, with 
A. L. Lee and D. Webster Wilder, he began the 
publication of the Elwood Free Press, which he 
assisted in publishing for a year. In the spring 
of 1 86 1 he moved his family on the blufis of the 
Missouri, one mile west of Wathena, and there 
planted an orchard. In 1862 he served as a 
member of the legislature, and as chairman of 
the committee on ways and means he spent 
much time in endeavoring to place the state upon 
a safe financial basis by means of better laws of 
taxation. He was re-elected to the legislature of 
1863 and again served as chairman of the ways 



aud means committee. While a member he cast 
the deciding vote in favor of I^awrence as the 
place to establish the State University. In the 
spring of 1863 he was appointed quartermaster- 
general of Kansas, and this position, with 
the rank of colonel, beheld until the close of the 
war. He was called upon to provide for the mi- 
litia secured to protect the border counties from 
sudden invasion by Confederates or Indians. As 
acting paymaster, he reluctantly paid off the de- 
tachments at Olathe and Paola, in accordance 
with the instructions of the government. Im- 
mediately afterward, through the neglect of some 
one at General Ewing's headquarters in Kansas 
City, Quantrell's raid was rendered possible. He 
paid off the men and the latter dispersed. A few 
days later, in August, 1864, Quantrell secretly 
approached Lawrence and in a short time many 
lives were lost and the city in ruins. General 
Russell was returning to Lawrence when he saw 
some soldiers leaving. He succeeded in escaping 
observation and, by taking another road, entered 
the city unobserved, just after the raid. From 
1863 to 1 864 he was a member of the board of en- 
rollment, and in 1864 was chairman of the state 
Republican central committee. He was a mem- 
ber of the legislature in 1865 and voted against 
the re-election of United States Senator Lane. 

In April, 1865, General Russell removed to 
Leavenworth, where he embarked in the real- 
estate and conveyancing business, and in this he 
continued until 1874. He was one of the pro- 
jectors of the Leavenworth Coal Company, that 
has since become one of the most prosperous con- 
cerns of Kansas. In 1872 he was elected auditor 
of Leavenworth County. The following year 
Gov. Thomas A. Osborn appointed him superin- 
tendent of insurance, and this position he held 
until December, 1874. After ten or more years 
in Leavenworth he moved to Lawrence, and con- 
tinued in the building and real-estate business 
until his death, although during the last nine 
years of his life his health was so poor that he 
was unable to engage actively in business. His 
connection with public affairs extended over 
many years, and brought him into intimacy with 
all the prominent men of Kansas. He served as 

a member of the legislature from Doniphan, 
Douglas and Leavenworth Counties, and in each 
instance his service was most satisfactory. He 
belonged to the first territorial legislature, and 
hence was identified with Kansas history from its 
territorial days. A man of broad knowledge and 
deep insight into national issues, their causes, 
and their results, he was a frequent contributor 
to newspapers and periodicals and kept posted 
concerning every problem brought before the 
people. From boyhood he held membership in 
the Presbyterian Church, of which for many 
years he was a ruling elder. He died August 
14, 1898, and his remains were interred in Mount 
Muncie Cemetery at Leavenworth. 

SEN. JAMES H. LANE. The life of this 
remarkable man was inseparably associated 
with the history of Kansas during the crit- 
ical period when its fate, as a free or slave state, 
hung in the balance. Whatever may be said of 
his faults and mistakes, it cannot be denied that 
he was for years the leading free-state advocate 
in the territory, and to his influence, more than 
to that of any other man, the success of the free- 
state movement was due. He was a man of 
powerful ambitions, and, like Cardinal Woolsey, 
he might have justly attributed much of the dis- 
appointment and sorrow of his last days to that 
attribute of mind which had been his guiding 
star during all the active years of his tempestu- 
ous life. At the same time he was a man of great 
personal courage, undaunted in the face of any 
foe, and one to whom the word "fear" had no 
existence. He was also a remarkable orator, 
perhaps the most eloquent man in the west dur- 
ing the early days, and his stirring, eloquent 
speeches won, both in the east and west, thou- 
sands of converts to the free-state cause. Many 
men who for years have been among the best 
citizens of Kansas were led to cast in their fort- 
unes with the people here, through hearing him 
describe the condition of affairs in the territory. 
The passing of the Union Pacific Railroad 
through the state was almost wholly the result 
of his judicious management. At all times loyal 


to his country, he was especially devoted to the 
state of his adoption, and in seeking its glory his 
own happiness was to be found. 

General Lane was born in Lawrenceburg, Ind., 
June 22, 1814. He was of Scotch-Irish descent 
on his father's side, and through his mother was 
connected with the Foote family of Connecticut. 
At the time of the Mexican war he was engaged 
in the practice of law. He enlisted as a private 
in the Third Indiana Infantry and raised a com- 
pany, of which he was made captain. Later he 
was chosen colonel of the regiment, which he 
commanded in the brilliant campaign of General 

After the close of the war he was chosen lieu- 
tenant-governor of Indiana, and in 1852 was 
elected to congress, also during the same year 
was an elector-at-large on the Democratic ticket. 
He supported the Nebraska bill, the passage of 
which rendered the re-election of its northern 
Democratic supporters very doubtful. Realizing 
that his political future in Indiana was hazardous, 
he decided to cast his lot with the territory whose 
interests he had warmly espoused. In April, 1855, 
he settled on a claim adjoining Lawrence, which 
continued to be his home until his death. Dur- 
ing that year he was chairman of the executive 
committee of the Topeka convention, which in- 
stituted the first state government in Kansas, and 
subsequently he was president of the Topeka con- 
stitutional convention, also was elected major- 
general of the free-state troops. In 1856 he was 
elected to the United States senate by the legisla- 
ture, which met under the Topeka constitution, 
but the election was not recognized by congress. 
In 1857 he was president of the Leavenworth 
constitutional convention, and was also elected 
major-general of the Kansas troops by the terri- 
torial legislature. The legislature of 1861, which 
convened in pursuance of the constitution under 
which Kansas was admitted to the Union, elected 
him to the United States senate. In June, 1861, 
he was made brigadier-general of volunteers and 
commanded the Kansas brigade in the field for 
four months. Again, in December, he was nomi- 
nated brigadier- general, with a view to com- 
manding an expedition in the southwest, but the 

plan was abandoned and he resigned. After the 
adjournment of congress, in July, 1862, he was 
commissioned to superintend the enlistment of 
troops in the west. 

Upon first coming to Kansas, General Lane 
hoped to organize a national Democratic party 
within the borders of the territory, and with this 
object in view he and others of similar faith 
met in Lawrence July 27, 1855. He was made 
president of the meeting, which passed resolu- 
tions indorsing the Kansas-Nebraska bill and the 
platform of the national Democratic convention 
held in Baltimore in 1852. This movement, 
from which he had hoped so much, touched no 
responsive chord in the hearts of the people, and 
came to naught. Realizing that he could hope 
for no change in that party, he allied himself 
with the free-state anti-slavery Republican forces, 
and from that time forward adhered with the zeal 
of an enthusiast to these principles. When the 
Lecompton constitution was about to be thrust 
upon the people against their will, he called a 
public meeting almost at the very doors of the 
convention and denounced the authors of the 
constitution as tyrants. With all of his energy 
he opposed the admission of the state under slav- 
ery rule, and created such a sentiment that the 
secretary of the territory, in the absence of the 
governor, was forced to accede to his demands. 
He persevered until the legislature was convened 
and the threatened disaster was averted. 

In 1864-65 General Lane was re-elected to the 
United States senate. In that body he sided with 
President Johnson regarding the freedman's bu- 
reau and civil rights bill. This action on his 
part disappointed his constituents and caused 
many of them to oppose him strongly. In June, 
1866, he returned to his home in Lawrence, but 
found that those who had formerly yielded him 
homage no longer looked up to him as the ac- 
knowledged leader in public affairs. Ill and dis- 
heartened, he started to return to Washington, 
but his illness became so serious that at St. Louis 
his physician advised his return home, as he 
was threatened with softening of the brain. June 
29 he reached the farm of his brother-in-law, 
Captain McCall, near Leavenworth. On the ist 



of July, while riding with his brother-in-law and 
another gentleman, he alighted at one of the farm 
gates and, exclaiming, "Good-bye, gentlemen," 
discharged a revolver in his mouth. The ball 
passed out near the center of the cranium. He 
lingered until the nth, when he passed into the 
great beyond. 

General Lane's wife, who died in Lawrence in 
1883, was a granddaughter of General Arthur 
St. Clair, who was born in Roslyn Castle, a 
grandson of the earl of Roslyn, and studied medi- 
cine in Edinburgh, coming to America before the 
Revolutionary war, in which he took a promi- 
nent part. Of the children of General Lane and 
his wife, a son and daughter died in Lawrence; 
Mrs. Anna Johnson resides in Kansas City, and 
Thomas is living in St. Paul, Minn. 

alone through his prominence in the politi- 
cal life of Lawrence, but also by reason of his 
identification with its commercial interests, Mr. 
BowersoCk is recognized as one of the most influ- 
ential citizens of the city. Many of the most im- 
portant business enterprises of the town owe their 
origin or their subsequent growth to his energy. 
At this writing he is president of the Lawrence 
National Bank, president of the Bowersock Mil- 
ling Company (which owns one of the largest mills 
in Kansas), president of the Griffin Ice Company 
(which is engaged in the manufacture of artificial 
ice and sells that product as well as natural ice), 
president of the Kansas Water Power Company, 
president of the Lawrence Gas and Electric Light 
Company, and vice-president of the Lawrence 
Consolidated Barb Wire Company. He was in- 
strumental in the organizing of the Commercial 
Club and served as its president for many years. 
Born in Columbiana County, Ohio, September 
19, 1842, the subject of this article is a son of I. 
Bowersock and Adaline (McDonald) Bowersock, 
natives respectively of Pennsylvania and New 
York. The former, who was of Holland-Dutch 
and Scotch descent, accompanied his parents to 
Columbiana County, Ohio, in boyhood and set- 
tled upon a farm. About 1850 he removed, over- 
land, to Iowa, settling in Iowa City, where for 

years he engaged in the mercantile business. He 
is now living retired, in Iowa. By his marriage 
to Miss McDonald, who was a member of a New 
York family of Revolutionary stock, he had two 
children, Justin D. and Mrs. F. R. Stewart, of 
Fostoria, Ohio. The family lived for some time 
in Wood County, Ohio, where our subject atten- 
ded school. In 1863 he began in the mercantile 
business in Iowa City, where he continued until 
his removal to Kansas in 1877. During his res- 
idence in Iowa he was engaged in farming and 
was a large shipper of stock and grain to Chicago 
and the east. For several years he was an officer 
in the local and state lodges of the Good Temp- 
lars, and assisted in the organization of many 
lodges of this order. After coming to Lawrence 
he built the Lawrence paper mills, rebuilt the 
water power, built the elevators and organized 
all of the companies that utilize the water power. 
At the same time he became interested in bank- 
ing and organized the Douglas County (now the 
Lawrence National) Bank, of which he has since 
been president. 

While the extensive business interests of Mr. 
Bowersock have necessarily consumed much of 
his time, he has never neglected his duties as a 
citizen, but has kept in touch with national prog- 
ress and has ever been ready to aid in public af- 
fairs. The people have signified their apprecia- 
tion of his worth by electing him to offices of re- 
sponsibility, in all of which he has endeavored to 
promote the welfare of his constituents. In pol- 
itics he has allied himself with the Republican 
party, the principles of which he upholds. In 
1881 and 1883 he was elected mayor of Lawrence. 
Under his administration the city was released 
from an indebtedness of $100,000 to the state. In 
1887 he became a member of the house of repre- 
sentatives, and during his term was instrumental 
in securing the passage of the Quantrell raid re- 
lief bill. His service in the lower house was em- 
inently satisfactory to his constituents and 
brought him into prominence among the public 
men of the state. In 1895 he was elected to the 
state senate to succeed Judge Thatcher, deceased. 
Three years later he was elected, by a majority of 
two thousand, to represent the second district of 




Kansas in the United States congress. B3' his 
ability and courtesy in the administration of his 
official duties he has made himself deservedly 
popular with the people, and is regarded by all 
as an able officer, as well as a genial friend and 
honorable gentleman. He finds time, aside from 
his various interests, to superintend his farming 
property, and to serve as president of the Mer- 
chants' Athletic Club. He is also president of 
the board of trustees of Plymouth Congregational 

The marriage of Mr. Bowersock took place in 
Iowa City in September, 1866, and united him 
with Miss Mary C. Gower, whose father, James 
H. Gower, was an early settler of that city, a 
leading banker and merchant there, and one of 
the most active in the establishment of the Uni- 
versity of Iowa. Mr. and Mrs. Bowersock are 
parents of four daughters and two sons. The lat- 
ter are graduates of the law department of -the 
University of Kansas and one also graduated 
from Harvard College. Both are now engaged 
in active professional practice, one being in Kan- 
sas City, the other in Lawrence. 


senting to the readers of this volume the 
biography of Judge Usher, we areperpetuat- 
S ing the life record of one who was once prominen t 

"* in the public affairs of our countrj' and who 

occupied many positions of honor and trust. 
Throughout his long and eventful career he main- 
tained the integrity of character and firmness of 
convictions that were among his most conspicuous 
traits. At a time when our nation was passing 
through the darkest crisis of its existence, when 
the perpetuity of the Union was threatened and 
gloom shrouded the future like a heavy pall, he 
stood by the side of President Lincoln as a mem- 
ber of his cabinet and upheld him in every 
decision, supported him in every crisis. To that 
great statesman and leader he remained faithful 
to the last, and when the assassin's bullet termi- 
nated the remarkable career of the martyred 
president, he stood by his side as the tide of life 
ebbed slowly out into eternity. 

Judge Usher was born in New York, the sou of 
Nathaniel Usher, M. D., a practicing physician 
in that state. He received an excellent education 
in youth and was admitted to the bar at Albany. 
Desiring to seek a western location, he went to 
Indiana, where he opened an office in Terre 
Haute. There and in Illinois he often met Abra- 
ham Lincoln, of whom he was ever a warm friend 
and admirer. He took a prominent part in politics 
and upon the organization of the Republican 
party became an advocate of its principles. For 
a time he served in the Indiana legislature, later 
was a candidate for congress, and under Gov- 
ernor Morton held office as attorney-general of 
Indiana. When Mr. Lincoln became president 
he chose Judge Usher as first assistant secretary 
of the interior, and when Secretary Smith re- 
signed, Judge Usher was chosen to occupy his 
seat in the cabinet. He continued to serve as 
secretary of the interior until after the death of 
Lincoln, but resigned under President Johnson. 

After leaving Washington, Judge Usher came 
to Kansas and established his home in Lawrence, 
where he erected a beautiful residence on Ten- 
nessee street. From the time of his removal to 
Kansas until his death he held the position of 
general solicitor for the Union Pacific Railroad, 
an office of the greatest responsibility, but one 
which he filled with recognized efficiency. Dur- 
ing the latter part of his life he spent his winters 
in Florida, where he had a winter home on the 
Indian River at Sharp's Landing. He died in a 
hospital at Philadelphia, April 13, 1S89, at the 
age of seventy-six years. His death removed 
from earth one who had possessed the confidence of 
the people, and whose integrity of character, both 
during and after our great national conflict, and 
whose fidelity to duty, private and public, was 
never questioned. 

In Rockville, Ind., Judge Usher married Miss 
Margaret A. Patterson, sister of Judge Chambers 
Patterson, who at the time of his death had for 
eighteen years held the office of judge of courts 
in Indiana. Besides this brother, she had two 
sisters, one of whom died in Terre Haute, Ind., 
the other in New York, so that of the family she 
alone survives. She was a daughter of Gen. 



Arthur and Margaret (Chambers) Patterson, na- 
tives respectively of Ireland and western Virginia. 
Her grandfather, James Patterson, brought the 
family to America and some years afterward 
settled near Washington, Pa. , where he became 
an extensive farmer. General Patterson, who 
commanded a body of troops in the American 
army during the war of 1812, winning distinction 
as a general, settled at old Fort Vincennes, and 
after that post was abandoned he laid out Rock- 
ville, the county seat of Park County, Ind. He 
was a very prominent Democrat. At one time 
he came within one vote of being elected to the 
United States senate, and it is said that the vote 
he lacked had been bought by his opponent. He 
was a warm friend of President Madison and 
other notable men of his day. While visiting in 
Saratoga, N. Y., he died there. His wife was a 
daughter of Col. David Chambers, a colonel in 
the Revolutionary war and afterward the owner 
of a large plantation in Virginia, where he died. 
He had a brother, Maj. Benjamin Chambers, 
who served under General Braddock at the time 
of the French and Indian war, and was killed at 
Braddock' s defeat. 

Mrs. Usher was born in a log house at Vin- 
cennes, Ind., April 15, 1818. The home of her 
infancy was a primitive structure, built more for 
defense than for comfort, and was surrounded by 
a huge stockade intended as a protection against 
the Indians. When quite young she was taken 
by her parents to Rockville. At twelve years of 
age she entered a school in Louisville, Ky., and 
after two years there became a pupil in a Catholic 
school at Bardstown, Ky. She is a woman of 
charitable disposition, and has always been kind 
to the needy and a friend to the suffering. Since 
the death of her husband she has continued these 
helpful charities. Her heart is especially tender 
toward friendless children, and many a poor waif 
or orphan has been clothed and educated by her, 
and given a start in the world through her timely 
aid. She attends the Presbyterian Church and 
contributes toward its maintenance. Since her 
husband's demise she has continued to occupy 
their home in Lawrence and has maintained a 
supervision over their property interests. Of her 

four sons, Arthur died in Lawrence; John P. 
lives in Kansas City; Linton is a cattleman in 
New Mexico; and Samuel C, a graduate of the 
Lawrence schools, is with his mother. 

U\ To this gentleman, often alluded to as the 
r \ "father" of the Congregational Church in 
Lawrence, belongs the distinction of being the 
oldest minister, in point of years of active service, 
in the entire state of Kansas. To write his 
biography is to write a history of the Plymouth 
Church. This congregation was organized in 
September, 1854, under the supervision of the 
Home Missionary Society of New York, who 
sent Rev. S. Y. Lum as missionary. Services 
for some time were held in private houses or 
stores and in the St. Nicholas Hotel. In the 
spring of 1856 a church building was commenced 
(40 X 65) of limestone, but this was not com- 
pleted until 1862. It was situated on Louisiana 
and Pinckney streets, and cost $8,000. 

Meantime four young gentlemen had been 
studying theology in Andover Seminary in 
Massachusetts, from which they graduated in 
1857 with the degree of B. D. It had been their 
custom to meet regularly in their rooms and plan 
for their future work in the west. They were 
pledged to take 'up work in a new and difficult 
field, and were known as the Andover- Kansas 
band. They carried out their plans, one going to 
Leavenworth, another to Emporia and the third 
to what is now Kansas City. The fourth young 
man, who forms the subject of this sketch, came 
to Lawrence, arriving here December 2, 1857. 
He found an uncompleted church, with a mem- 
bership of twenty-two. Immediately taking up 
the work here, under his efficient ministrations 
the congregation grew and met with continuous 
prosperity until the time of the Quantrell raid. 
He had been so outspoken in his denunciation of 
slavery that he was a marked man among pro- 
slavery sympathizers. When the mob entered 
the city they first passed along Massachusetts 
street, and as his home was on New York street, 
four blocks away, he was warned in time to 



escape and fled to the river, thus saving his life. 
The church, however, was not so fortunate; six- 
teen of the members were killed and all suffered 
heavy losses financially. This proved a serious 
blow to the little flock, and when the survivors 
met in the church, the second day after the raid, 
they were a sorrowful band and faced a gloomy 
future. However, the period of depression in 
time gave way to a period of hope and prosperity, 
which has continued to the present. In 1868, 
the congregation having grown rapidly, a new 
edifice was begun. The structure that was 
erected was, at the time of building, one of the 
largest and finest of its kind in the state, costing, 
with pipe organ, about $45,000. It occupies a 
splendid location on Vermont street, between 
Warren and Berkeley, and is the home of an 
earnest, busy congregation, numbering more 
than five hundred members. 

The Cordley family is of English origin. The 
doctor's father, James, and grandfather, Richard, 
were natives of Lincolnshire. The former was 
engaged in business in Nottingham, but in 1833 
brought his family to America, spending ten 
weeks in the voyage from Hull to Quebec, thence 
going to Whitehall and Utica, and by canal, 
after two weeks, to Buffalo, from there to 
Detroit, and thence by ox-teams and wagons to 
the frontier, settling near Hamburg, Livingston 
County, Mich. By care and constant toil he im- 
proved one of the finest estates in his section, 
the property being made more valuable by the 
Cordley lake. He died in 186S, at the age of 
eighty j'ears, having spent his last daj's with his 
son in Lawrence. He was a firm believer in 
abolition and became identified with the Repub- 
lican party on its organization. In his native 
land he had been connected with the Church of 
England, but after settling in Michigan he 
became a member of the Congregational Church. 
He built the first schoolhouse in his vicinity and 
was interested in educational work. The farm 
which he owned is now the property of de- 

The wife of James Cordley was Ann Minta, 
who was born in Ropsley, Lincolnshire, where 
her father, Thomas Minta, was proprietor of a 

farm of six hundred acres and was a very pros- 
perous and prominent man. The history of the 
Minta family in England dates back to about 
1700, when an Italian family of that name was 
forced to flee from Italy for political reasons and 
sought a home in England. All who bore the 
name were respected and honorable. Thomas 
Minta died in 1816. His daughter, Ann, was 
educated in the Grantham boarding school and 
was a woman of fine mind. She died in 1886, 
when nearly ninety years of age. Of her ten 
children six sons attained manhood. Christopher 
M., the eldest, graduated from Andover Theo- 
logical Seminary and entered the Congregational 
ministry in Massachusetts, dying while pastor at 
Lawrence, that state. James, who is a manu- 
facturer of organs, resides in Crawford County, 
Pa. John died in Ann Arbor. William, a 
teacher, died in Michigan, and Charles died at 
the old homestead. 

Dr. Cordley was born in Nottingham, England, 
September 6, 1829. He was a child of four years 
when the family came to America. From boy- 
hood he was ambitious to acquire knowledge, 
and, by his personal efforts, he secured the 
money necessary for his college education. In 
1850 he entered the University of Michigan, from 
which he graduated with the degree of A. B. in 
1854. Three years later he received the degree 
of A. M. Immediately after leaving the univer- 
sity he entered Andover, where he took the com- 
plete course, graduating in 1857. From that 
time until 1875 he was in charge of the church in 
Lawrence, Kan. In 1875, being overworked 
here and feeling the need of a change, he 
accepted a call to Flint, Mich., where he 
remained for three years. He then spent six 
years as pastor of the church at Emporia, Kans. , 
and while there superintended the building of 
a handsome stone edifice. From Emporia he 
returned to Lawrence, it being understood that it 
was to be only a vacation, but he has continued 
here to the present. Since his return here the 
parsonage was built, at a cost of almost $5,000. 
In 1873 he received the degree of D. D. from the 
University of Kansas. 

May 19, 1859, in Hamburg, Mich., Dr. Cordley 


married Mary Minta Cox, who was born in Not- 
tingham, England, a daughter of John and Eliza- 
beth (Minta) Cox. Her father was a business 
man of Nottingham, where he died. He had 
ten children, of whom two daughters alone sur- 
vive. When fourteen years of age Mrs. Cordley 
came to the United States with relatives. She 
was educated in the Ypsilanti Ladies' Seminary, 
where she completed the course. In all the work 
started by her husband she has been ready to 
assist and her counsel and sympathy have been of 
the greatest encouragement to him. They had 
an adopted daughter, who married W. E. Griffith 
and died at Lawrence when thirty years of age, 
leaving two sons, Richard Cordley and Alfred 
M., who were left by their mother with their 

For twenty years Dr. Cordley was a member of 
the school board of Lawrence, and from 18S5 to 
1891 he served as its president. He was a mem- 
ber of the building committee at the time of the 
erection of the high school and Central school, 
and has always been interested in educational 
work. The University of Kansas, too, received 
the impetus of his support in the early days, when 
its friends were far less numerous than now. He 
was one of the founders of Washburn College, 
Topeka, he and the three other young men of the 
Andover- Kansas band having conceived the idea 
of such a school and aiding in starting it in 1858. 
From that time to this he has been a trustee. In 
1 87 1 he was elected president of the college, but 
declined, preferring to remain iu the ministry. 
From 1867 to 1872 he was a regent of the State 
Agricultural College at Manhattan. He was also 
president of the board of trustees of Dunlap 
Academy, and a member of the board of directors 
of Chicago Theological Seminary. During the 
war he was mustered into the Third Kansas 
Militia and served at the time of Price's raid, 
after which he was mustered out. He is now a 
member of Washington Post No. 12, G. A. R., 
of which he held the office of chaplain for many 
years. His wife is a charter member of the 
Ladies' Circle, G. A. R. Several times he has 
been moderator of the Congregational Association 
in Kansas, of which he is the oldest member now 

living. During 1891 he was one of six hundred 
delegates to the International Council of the Con- 
gregational Church in London, where he read a 
paper on the liquor traffic. His wife accompanied 
him on this trip and they spent three months 
abroad, visiting Great Britain, France and Bel- 
gium, and returning via Antwerp to New York. 

gEN. JOHN N. ROBERTS, a resident of 
Lawrence for the past thirty years, was born 
at Mecca, Trumbull County, Ohio, July 3, 
1838, of parents who in early life moved from 
near Hartford, Conn., to Trumbull County, 
Ohio. He is of Scotch descent, and traces his lin- 
eage to a Scotch Highlander, Major Roberts, an 
officer in the British army, who came to this 
country in the seventeenth century. His grand- 
father served in the Revolutionary war as a mem- 
ber of a body of dragoons known as the Scotch 
Highlanders. Mr. Roberts is skilled in the man- 
ufacture of engines and machinery, having learned 
his trade in his father's factory in Ohio. This 
knowledge of machiner}^ he has turned to good 
account as a manufacturer, to which occupation 
he has given his entire business life, and in which 
he has met with gratifying success. 

In April, 1861, in response to Lincoln's first 
call for troops, he enlisted as a private in the 
Nineteenth Ohio Infantry, and with this regi- 
ment was mustered into the army at Columbus, 
Ohio, for ninety days. This regiment was as- 
signed to the army under command of General 
McClellan, and served in western Virginia, taking 
part in the battles of Rich Mountain and Beverlj' 
Ford, where the Confederate General Garnett was 
killed and his army captured. Upon being mus- 
tered out by reason of expiration of term of serv- 
ice he assisted in organizing the Sixth Ohio Cav- 
alry, which in October, 1861, was mustered into 
service for three years. In this regiment he was 
commissioned first lieutenant of Company G. In 
August, 1863, he was transferred and promoted 
to be captain of Compan}' D, same regiment, and 
in November, 1864, was commissioned major of 
the regiment. 

Upon the organization of the Cavalry Corps, 



Army of the Potomac, commanded first by Gen- 
eral Stoneman, then by General Pleasanton, and 
during the last eighteen months of the war, bj- 
the matchless Phil Sheridan, the Sixth Ohio 
Volunteer Cavalry was assigned to that organi- 
zation and served therein until the close of the 
war, taking part in the many battles and raids 
which have made that organization famous and 
the name of Phil Sheridan immortal. June 21, 
1863, Mr. Roberts was \'ery severely wounded 
while taking part in a cavalrj^ charge at Upper- 
ville, Va. , but remained in the army until the 
winter of 1864-65, when, by reason of the expira- 
' tion of his term of service, and on account of the 
trouble he was having with his wound, he retired 
from the army. 

About two j'ears after leaving the army he was 
married at Warren, Ohio, to Miss Emily S. Sut- 
liff, the daughter of an attorney; Mr. and Mrs. 
Roberts have one child, a daughter, Belle Bran- 
don, now the wife of H. 1,. Armstrong, who re- 
sides at Topeka, Kans. 

Mr. Roberts was elected as the candidate of the 
Republican party to the legislature and served 
during the regular session of 1885 and the special 
session of 1886. In 1889 he was appointed adju- 
tant-general of Kansas and held that office for four 
years. He is a member of the Masonic order, a 
charter member and first commander of Washing- 
ton Post No. 12, G. A. R. , Department of Kan- 
sas, and a companion of the first class of the mil- 
itary order of the Loyal Legion of the United 

HON. DUDLEY C. HASKELL, deceased, 
was long one of the most conspicuous figures 
in the public life of Kansas. Thoroughly 
conversant with political economy and the social 
problems of his age, his recognition as a political 
leader was a tribute to his intelligence and ability. 
In 1872, 1875 and 1876 he was elected to the 
Kansas house of representatives, and during the 
last session served as speaker, for which difiicult 
position he was peculiarly adapted. While always 
adhering with steadfastness to the fundamental 
principles of the Republican party, he never dis- 
played narrow partisanship, but was broad and 

liberal in his views, and impartial in his rulings. 
In the fall of 1876 he was elected to congress 
from the second congressional district, receiving 
a majority of forty-six hundred and eighty. In 
1878 he was re-elected by a larger majority than 
before. Again in 1880 and 1882 he was returned 
to his seat in congress, in which body he was 
serving at the time of his death, December 16, 
1S83. Though participating in general legisla- 
tion, his most lasting service as congressman was 
in connection with his work as a member of the 
committee on Indian aflFairs. It was due to his 
efforts that an Indian school was established in 
Lawrence. This school, known as Haskell In- 
stitute, bears his name and is a permanent monu- 
ment to the forethought of its projector. 

Born in Springfield, Vt., March 23, 1842, Dud- 
ley C. Haskell was a son of Franklin Haskell 
and a brother of John G. Haskell, of Lawrence. 
At the age of thirteen he came to Kansas with 
his mother. He was of heroic mould, showing 
from earliest boyhood a fearless spirit and a love 
for his country, and hence he was fitted for life 
on the frontier, during the period days of border 
warfare. In Lawrence he could have few advan- 
tages, for the town was new and its schools poor, 
being provided with none of the facilities of the 
present day. He first studied in a building where 
Miller's hall now stands and afterward attended 
the first public school in Lawrence, held in the 
basement of the Unitarian Church. His father 
died in January, 1857, and in the fall of that year 
he entered school in Springfield, Vt., but re- 
turned in 1858 aud began in business. In the 
spring of 1859 he went to Colorado, where he 
prospected and mined, meeting with many rough 
experiences, and finding but little gold. At the 
opening of the Civil war he returned to Kansas 
and enlisted in the service, being for a year 
master of transportation in the quartermaster's 
department and spending most of the time in 
southwestern Missouri, western Arkansas, south- 
eastern Kansas and the Indian Territory. Owing 
to the presence of bushwhackers, for whom the 
timbered regions afforded excellent protection, 
the most constant vigilance was required, and as 
master of transportation his position was a most 



responsible one. He was also chief of forage 
parties whose dutj' it was to scour the country 
for supplies, a very hazardous service. He was 
present in the battles of Newtonia, Mo., Cane 
Hill and Prairie Grove, Ark. In positions of 
danger he was as calm and collected as when at 

Upon the completion of a long campaign, in 
January, 1863, Mr. Haskell left the service and 
entered Williston Seminary, at East Hampton, 
Mass. , where he completed his education. L,ater 
he entered Yale College, where he completed the 
scientific course in November, 1865. On his re- 
turn to Lawrence he engaged in the mercantile 
business, continuing until the fall of 1876, when 
he began his life as a public official in the lower 
house of congress. He was a man possessing 
many attractive traits of character. His sym- 
pathies were always on the side of the people, 
hence he was popular with them. Nor did he 
ever betray a confidence reposed in him or prove 
himself unworthy of his high office. When the 
occasion demanded public speech it proved him 
the possessor of eloquence, that ' 'gift of the gods' ' 
so desirable to one in public life. As a speaker, 
he was strong, forcible and convincing, and the 
effect of his logical arguments was heightened by 
his commanding presence and fine physique. 

At Stockbridge, Mass., in December, 1865, 
Mr. Haskell married Miss Hattie M. Kelsey, 
who, with their two daughters, survives him. 

|5^ELSON O. STEVENS. Among those who 
yl have acted in the capacity of traveling audi- 
I Ui tor of the southern Kansas division of the 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad system, 
few have filled the position so efficientl}' and none 
has held it so long as did Mr. Stevens. It was 
in 1884 that he became connected with the com- 
pany in this office, which he held for eight years 
and four months, a much longer period than it 
has ever been held by any other man. The posi- 
tion was one of great responsibility, and taxed 
both the mental and physical powers of a man. 
The division included, at the time he resigned, 
eleven hundred miles, and during the entire time 

of his service there were three days and three 
nights of every week that he never took his 
clothes off, but had to snatch a little rest and sleep 
now and then as he had a moment's leisure. 
Four times he presented his resignation to the 
company, feeling that the work was a heavier 
burden than he could bear, but each time they 
refused to part with him, believing him to be too 
valuable an officer to lose. Finally, however, 
his fifth resignation was accepted, January 1,1893, 
since which time there have been four traveling 
auditors in his former division. 

A son of Capt. James T. Stevens, late of Law- 
rence, the subject of this sketch was born in 
Princeton, 111., May 11, 1854. He was thirteen 
years of age at the time the family left Illinois for 
Kansas, settling in the city of Lawrence. He 
graduated from the high school in 1873 and later 
from McCauley's Commercial College. After- 
ward he became local editor and business man- 
ager of the Spirit of A'ansas, which position he 
held until he was elected county clerk in 1879. 
He filled this office with such efficiency that, in 
1881, he was re-elected by double the majority 
he had ever received, and continued in office until 
January, 1884. Just prior to his election as 
county clerk, in September, 1879, he was elected 
secretary of the Kansas Valley Fair, and filled the 
position until after the fair held that fall, when he 
resigned. Shortly after he retired from the 
county clerk's office he became traveling auditor 
of the Santa Fe road. Since his retirement from 
the latter position he has given his attention to the 
supervision of his various property and moneyed 
interests, and has recently been devoting consid- 
erable attention to the oversight of the building 
of his elegant residence, a fine structure with 
modern appointments, on the corner of Louisiana 
and Pinckney streets. At this writing he is treas- 
urer of the Lawrence Commercial Club, and sec- 
retary and treasurer of the Lawrence Vitrified 
Brick and Tile Company. 

In politics Mr. Stevens has always been a mem- 
ber of the Republican party, and believing in its 
principles, he has always zealously advocated 
them. He is identified with the Plymouth Con- 
gregational Church and a member of its choir. 


His marriage, in Lawrence, March 22, 1882, 
united him with Miss Lucetta Duncan, who was 
born in this city, daughter of Wesley H. Duncan, 
a poineer of 1855 in Kansas. Mr. and Mrs. Stev- 
ens have two children, Lois E. and Myra. 

HON. G. R. GOULD, mayor of Lawrence, 
was born in Kenosha, near Racine, Wis., 
September 10, 1843, and was the only son 
among three children, whose father died when 
the son was three years of age. Left an orphan 
at a very early age he was obliged to become 
self-supporting at a time when most boys are at- 
tending school. He was reared on a farm near 
Brighton, Rock County, and began to work as 
soon as he was large enough to push a plow. 
During two winters he attended school, but with 
that exception he had no educational advantages 
whatever, and the broad knowledge he has ac- 
quired is the result of self-culture. 

In 186 1, at Janesville, he enlisted as a private 
in Company A, Thirteenth Wisconsin Infantry, 
and was at once ordered west, going to Fort 
Leavenworth, Fort Scott, Lawrence and Fort 
Riley. In 1862 he joined the army of the Cum- 
berland, and served successively under Sherman, 
Logan, McPherson and Thomas. He took part 
in the battle of Lookout Mountain and the sec- 
ond engagement at Fort Donelson, and, being 
sent to head off Hood, fought in the three days' 
battle at Decatur, Ala., where the regiment saw 
some hard service. Later he took part in various 
campaigns. Finally he was sent to Indianola, 
Tex., and remained there until 1865. He was 
mustered out in January, 1866, after a service of 
four and one-half years. 

Returning to Lawrence in the spring of 1866, 
Mr. Gould became identified with this growing 
town. At first he was a member of the firm of 
Wilson & Gould, which set out a nurserj^ west 
of town. After two 3'ears he was employed as 
manager of Fish Brothers' wagons, and in time 
became a partner of A. C. Fish in the wholesale 
and retail wagon business, which he conducted 
prosperously for six years. He then embarked 
in the agricultural implement business, at the 

same time handling wagons and carriages, and 
representing the Mitchell & Lewis Wagon Com- 
pany, the J. I. Case Threshing Machine Com- 
pany, and also carrying Moline plows and Janes- 
ville machines. At Nos. 924-926 Massachusetts 
street he erected a two-story building, 50x117, 
which he now occupies. In point of years of 
business experience he is the oldest implement 
and wagon dealer in the city. 

In Rock County, Wis., in November, 1866, Mr. 
Gould married Miss Mary A. Macomber, who 
was born in Pennsylvania, but was reared in 
Wisconsin. The}' have three children, G. R., 
Jr. , who is engaged in the agricultural implement 
business at Baxter Springs, Kans. ; Ada S., wife 
of E. S. Meade, of Lawrence; and Grace, who is 
with her parents. 

Politically Mr. Gould has always been a Re- 
publican. For four terms he represented the 
third ward in the common council, for four years 
served as a member of the school board, and for 
a similar period was city treasurer. In 1897 he 
was elected mayor by seven hundred majority, 
taking the oath of office in May, 1897, for two 
years. He was re-elected in April, 1899. Dur- 
ing his administrations many improvements, es- 
pecialh' in curbing, have been made. In the fall 
of 1 866 he became a member of Lodge No. 4, 
I. O. O. F., with which he is still connected, and 
he is also a past ofiScer in the encampment. He 
is a member of Washington Post No. 12, G. A. R. 
His wife is identified with the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, and he is a Sunday-school teacher 
in the Lutheran Church, toward which denom- 
ination he inclines. 

HENRY JANSEN, a resident of Leavenworth 
since 1866, is in charge of an insurance and 
steamship agency at No. 210 South Fourth 
street, and represents the North American, Com- 
mercial Union, New Hampshire and Manchester 
insurance companies. He was born November 
29, 1839, under the Danish flag, in Schleswig- 
Holstein, now a part of the German empire. He 
was the younger of two children born to the 
union of Hans J. and Tepke (Pahl) Jansen, the 



former a native of Schleswig-Holstein and a 
farmer and gardener there, where he died at sev- 
enty-two years of age. In religion he was of the 
Lutheran faith. His older son, Prof. Christian 
H. Jansen, -Ovas a school teacher in the old coun- 
try and died there. 

At sixteen years of age Henry Jansen began to 
teach school and continued teaching until 1862, 
when he enlisted in the Second Company, Fif- 
teenth Danish Infantry, and continued to serve 
in it for two years, when he was honorably dis- 
charged. In the fall of 1865 he came to America 
and settled in Scott County, Iowa, where he re- 
mained until the following year. The year 1866 
found him in Leavenworth, his present home. 
He became manager of the Turner Hall, which 
position he held for five years, and then turned 
his attention to the insurance business, in which 
he has since engaged. In national politics he is 
a Democrat. From 1889 to 1893 he served as 
city treasurer, and in 1894 he was president of 
the board of police commissioners of Leaven- 
worth. Since 1866 he has been identified with 
the Turn Verein, and for a time was its secretary. 
Fraternally he is connected with the Knights of 

In Leavenworth Mr. Jansen married Miss 
Emily Kumm, who was born in Germany and 
died in this city in 1888. Afterward he was mar- 
ried in Fort Worth, Tex. , to Mrs. Mary F. Joyce, 
of Toledo. By his first marriage he has two 
daughters and a son, viz.: Mrs. Augusta Feller, 
of Leavenworth; Mrs. Mamie Cerletti, also of 
this city; and Harry, who in 1898 enlisted in 
Company C, Twentieth Kansas Infantry, and has 
since served as corporal, being now stationed at 
Manila, in the Philippine Islands. 

the Civil war, when Kansas, by virtue of its 
position and previous history, became the 
centre of an exciting train of incidents, simultane- 
ous, yet not directly connected, with the con- 
flicts in the east, one of the principal figures in 
military circles was Colonel Moonlight, who, 
through his valor and mastery of the art of war, 

rose to the rank of colonel and was made a brevet 
brigadier-general. His name is inseparably as- 
sociated with the war history of Kansas, and he 
did much to secure for the Union a success in 
arms that contributed toward the fall of the con- 

A Scotchman by birth (born in Forfarshire, 
near Arbroath), the subject of this sketch was 
early thrown upon his own resources, and, being 
obliged to earn his own livelihood, he developed 
qualities of self-reliance and determination that 
were noticeable in his subsequent military career. 
At the age of fourteen he came to America, where 
he worked for his board while he attended school. 
In 1854 he enlisted in the Fourth Artillery and 
served as an orderly sergeant in the Florida war. 
He fought Indians in Florida, Texas and Kansas, 
and was mustered out at Fort Leavenworth in 
1858. Afterward he engaged in farming in 
Kickapoo Township. When the Civil war began 
he raised a battery and was assigned to Lane's 
brigade. In time he was commissioned colonel. 

The name of Colonel Moonlight is written on 
nearly every page of the history of the war in 
Kansas, Missouri and the trans- Mississippi coun- 
trj'. One incident, which shows his bravery in 
battle, is as follows: When Price, with aboxit 
fifteen thousand men, made his last raid in south- 
western Missouri in 1864, Colonel Moonlight, 
with one regiment, marched to Mound City, Lynn 
County, just within the Kansas border. Early 
one morning he hastened out of Mound City and 
found Price and his army stretched out in line. 
Forming his regiment on a mound, disobeying 
orders, he launched it at the enemy, himself at 
the head of his men. It was apparently a reck- 
less thing to do, yet it accomplished its object and 
proved his wisdom and foresight. Price's army 
was cut in two and was so demoralized that it 
lost heart and soon became disintegrated. 

After the war was over Colonel Moonlight be- 
came prominent in the politics of Kansas. In 
1868 he was elected secretary of state. He had 
hitherto been a Republican, but, dissatisfied with 
the action of the Republican party in the impeach- 
ment of Andrew Johnson, he transferred his al- 
legiance to the Democracy. However, the Demo- 


^C?M^^^' 1. 



crats were in the miiioritj- in Kansas, and he was 
therefore defeated in his candidacy for offices on 
that ticket, with the exception of an occasional 
election to the legislature. He was the Demo- 
cratic candidate for governor and was defeated 
when John A. Martin ran for a second term. He 
was also defeated for congress in the first district 
bj' Case Broderick. He was offered the Candida - 
cj^ for governor in 1 8S2 but refused, and George 
Click was nominated. At the election Glick was 
successful, being the first Democrat who was ever 
elected governor of Kansas. Colonel Moonlight 
was appointed adjutant-general under that ad- 
ministration. When Cleveland became president 
in 1884 he was appointed governor of Wyoming, 
and under the second administration of Cleveland 
he was chosen minister to Bolivia. On his return 
from South America, in March, 1898, he settled 
upon a ranch near Leavenworth. He passed away 
February 7, 1899, at Leavenworth. His wife 
died March 7, 1894. They left three daughters 
and a son. The oldest daughter is the wife of 
Bennett Brown, of Huntington, Ark., superin- 
tendent of the Missouri, Kansas & Texas Coal 
Company there. Another daughter is the wife 
of E. E. Murphy, of Leavenworth; and the third 
is the wife of J. C. Haussermann, first lieutenant 
in the Twentieth Kansas Volunteers, now at 
Manila. The son, Walter Moonlight, is also a 
member of the Twentieth Kansas Volunteers, in 
service in Manila, during the Spanish-American 

^OL. D. R. ANTHONY. From the time of 
I ( his settlement in Leavenworth, in June, 
\J 1857, to the present day, Colonel Anthony 
has been inseparably connected with the history 
of the city. In fact, it would be impossible to 
give an accurate account of the one without fre- 
quent allusion to the other. As mayor during 
the exciting days of the war, he was placed in a 
peculiarly trying position, and one which called 
for courage, determination, thorough familiarity 
with state and city laws, and a wise judgment. 
These qualities he has posses.sed in an unusual 
degree. Of later years (since May, 187 1,) he 

has been best known as the owner and editor of 
the Leavenworth Times, which is one of the most 
influential dailies in the state. 

Daniel Read Anthony was born in Adams, 
Mass., August 22, 1824, a son of Daniel and 
Lucy (Read) Anthony, and a brother of Susan 
B. Anthony, widely known through her connec- 
tion with the cause of woman's suffrage. His 
paternal grandfather, Humphrey Anthony, was 
a Quaker, and a descendant of John Anthony, 
who came from Wales to Massachusetts in 1 646. 
The maternal grandfather, Daniel Read, was a 
soldier in the Revolutionary war, serving in the 
division that, under Arnold, marched in midwin- 
ter from New England to Quebec, suffering 
untold hardships. He also fought under Stark 
at Bennington, Vt.,whereBurgoyne was defeated. 

At thirteen years of age the subject of this 
sketch attended an academy at Union village in 
New York. Afterward he worked in his father's 
cotton mill and store at Battenville, and later in 
his flour mill. When twenty-three years of age 
he removed with the family to Rochester, N. Y. , 
where he taught for two winters and then en- 
gaged in the insurance business. In July, 1854, 
he visited Kansas with the first colony sent out 
by the New England Emigrant Society, under 
the leadership of Eli Thayer. During that visit 
he assisted in founding the city of Lawrence, 
which at that time contained only one house. 
Returning to Rochester in the fall of 1854, he 
remained there until his removal to and settle- 
ment in the new and growing town of Leaven- 

When the Civil war began he was commissioned 
lieutenant-colonel of the First Kansas Cavalry, 
and commanded his troops at the battle of the 
Little Blue, in November, 1861, in which he won 
a victory over a force of guerillas of four times 
his number. During the following year he was 
principally on duty in Tennessee, Kentucky, 
Mississippi and Alabama. On resigning his com- 
mission he resumed the duties of his office .as 
postmaster at Leavenworth, to which he had 
been appointed by President Lincoln in April, 
1 86 1, and which he filled for five years. In 1863 
he was elected mayor by a large majority. His 



rule was characterized by a vigorous policy that 
brought him both friends and enemies.- Many 
of the most permanent improvements in the city 
were made during his term, and the growth in 
population was never so marked as then. 

At Edgartown, Mass., January 21, 1864, oc- 
curred the marriage of Colonel Anthony to Miss 
Annie E. Osborn, daughter of one of the leading 
whaling merchants of Massachusetts. They 
have two children living: Maude, wife of Capt. 
E. M. Koehler, U. S. A., now stationed at Fort 
Grant, Ariz.; and Daniel R., Jr. , postmaster at 
Eeavenworth, having been appointed to the office 
by President McKinley. 

In 1868 Colonel Anthony was president of the 
Republican state convention and served as presi- 
dential elector, casting one of the three votes of 
Kansas for General Grant. In 1870 he was 
elected to the city council by a large majority, 
and during 1870 and 1871 was chairman of the 
Republican state central committee. In 1871 he 
was re-elected to the council and took a very 
prominent part in the "railroad war," which 
finally was compromised by the agreement of the 
railroad to build a union depot in Eeavenworth 
and make certain improvements on the levee. 
From 1872 to 1874 he served as mayor of Eeaven- 
worth, and in the fall of 1873 was elected to the 
legislature. April 3, 1874, President Grant 
appointed him postmaster at Eeavenworth, which 
office he held under that administration, and also 
under President Hayes, having been again ap- 
pointed March 22, 1878. 

Perhaps it is as a journalist that Colonel An- 
thony is best known to the people of Kansas. In 
January, 1861, he established the Eeavenworth 
Conservative, the first issue of which contained 
the news of the admission of Kansas into the 
Union, and with these papers he rode on horse- 
back to Eawrence, where (that city having no 
telegraph lines then) he was the first to bring the 
great news to the members of the legislature in 
session. He sold the paper in July, 1862, and in 
March, 1864, purchased the Bulletin, which he 
sold in 1868. In May, 1871, he bought the 
Times, with which the Conservative had previously 
been united, and in November of that year he 

again purchased the Bulletin, which he merged 
into the Tiines. In January, 1876, he purchased 
the Commercial, which he united with the Times, 
thus acquiring complete control of all the morn- 
ing papers of Eeavenworth. He has since given 
his attention principally to journalistic work, a 
field in which his vigorous mind finds abundant 
scope for activity. 

For the last thirty years Colonel Anthony has 
been one of the leaders of the Republican party 
of Kansas, and it is said of him that he has exer- 
cised a more potential influence in the ranks of 
his party than any other man in the state. Prob- 
ably the strongest point in his character is his 
intrepid courage, in both public and private 
integrity. He has never truckled to anything he 
believed to be wrong, and therefore stands to-daj' 
in a unique position among the great men of 
Kansas. In the various political whirlwinds that 
swept over the state he was among the very few 
men who stood firm and steadfast for the princi- 
ples of the Republican party and sound money. 

life history of this citizen of Eawrence is 
one of interest. Full of incidents, it pos- 
sesses the fascination which attaches to all lives 
that present the spectacle of small beginnings 
and large achievements, of success wrested from 
adverse circumstances, and of a high and noble 
character maintained both in peace and in war. 
He has always been strong in his attachment to 
the Republican party, yet he has never shown 
any partisan narrowness, and has endeavored in 
every official position to exemplify the maxim, 
' ' He serves his party best who serves his coun- 
try best." 

Born near Rochester, Monroe County, N. Y., 
October 25, 1836, the subject of this review is a 
son of William and Margaret (Schuyler) Stern- 
bergh, both natives of New York state. His 
mother was a granddaughter of Gen. Philip 
Schuyler, who served as one of the colonial gov- 
ernors of New York, and also gained fame in the 
Revolutionary war. William Sternbergh was a 
farmer and also a large contractor on the Erie 



canal, and died in 1863. Twice married, by his 
first wife he had five children, all deceased, while 
by his second marriage he had twelve children, 
four of whom are living, viz. : Anna S. , who is 
eighty-nine years of age, and resides near Roch- 
ester; Mrs. Maria Quinby, of Rochester; James 
H., a wealthy manufacturer of Reading, Pa.; 
and Thomas J., the youngest of the entire fam- 
ily. The last-named was reared in Saratoga 
Springs from the age of nine years, and attended 
the common .schools and academy there. His 
studies were directed toward civil engineering, 
and he was fortunate in having excellent pre- 
ceptors in this occupation. When he was nine- 
teen years of age he had charge of the laying of 
the plans for the Hoosac tunnel, which he built 
at North Adams, Mass. About the same time 
he did the engineering for the Troy & Boston 
road, and ran the Saratoga & Sacket's Harbor 

During the year 1857 Mr. Sternbergh arrived 
in Lawrence, Kans. , and here he engaged in the 
surveying of the town site, after which he became 
cashier of Ed Thompson's bank. At the opening 
of the Civil war he balanced up all the accounts in 
the bank and closed the books. Then, having 
adjusted his business affairs, he prepared for 
service in the army of the Union. He assisted in 
raising Company D, Second Kansas Infantry, 
and was offered the captaincy, but refused it, ac- 
cepting, however, a commission as first lieutenant. 
At the expiration of four and a-half months the 
regiment was honorably discharged, and he then 
became an aide on General Mitchell's staff, with 
the rank of captain of engineers. He was pres- 
ent at the battle of Springfield, Mo., as a member 
of the Second Kansas Regiment. In June, 1863, 
he resigned and returned home, where he bought 
a one-half interest in the hardware store of A. 
Storm & Co. Shortly after his return occurred 
the memorable massacre by Quantrell's men. 
His store was burned and he suffered heavy 
losses. He had rooms at the Eldredge house 
and surrendered to Quantrell, whom he knew 
personally. With Mr. Sternbergh were former 
acting governor Hugh Walsh, Messrs. Spicer, 
Babcock, Horton and R. S. Stevens, the latter 

afterward a member of congress from New York. 
Quantrell told them to keep together and he 
would put a guard around them. This he did, 
marching them to the City hotel. While on 
the way Bill Anderson rode up and shot twice at 
Mr. Sternbergh, but missed him both times. On 
reaching the City hotel the party were in safety, 
as that hotel was not burned. 

After the raid Mr. Sternbergh rebuilt the store 
and resumed business. At the time of the Price 
raid he was captain of the rifle company that 
aided in protecting Lawrence. In 1863 he was 
elected to the state legislature, and during 1864 
received an appointment as United States assessor 
of internal revenue for the entire state of Kansas, 
which position he held until 1869. In 1868 he 
was elected mayor of Lawrence, and during his 
term instituted a number of important improve- 
ments. He also served for one term as council- 
man from the third ward. On selling out his 
business in Lawrence he opened in northern 
Franklin County some of the first coal mines in 
the state, and also opened mines in the Indian 
Territory. In 1872 he was on the plains engaged 
in government surveying. In 1S73 he went to 
Texas, where he helped to build fifty miles of the 
Sunset route. Later he was a contractor for 
public works in Galveston, where he remained 
until 1876, and then returned to Lawrence. 
From 1878 to 1880 he served as county surveyor, 
and from 1880 to 1S82 was deputy county clerk. 
In 1880 he had charge of the engineering work 
on the Central Kansas Railroad from Leaven- 
worth to the Jefferson County line. From 1882 
to 1886 he acted as general manager of the plant 
in Reading, Pa., owned by his brother. On his 
return to Lawrence he resumed contract survey- 
ing and engineering, and at the same time held 
the office of city engineer. The latter position 
he still holds, having filled it for some years with 
efficiency, and he also served as street commis- 
sioner for two years. He is the owner of consid- 
erable property in Lawrence, including the resi- 
dence which he built in 1866 and has since 
occupied. At one time he owned Oak Hill, but 
disposed of it to the city for a cemetery. In ad- 
dition to his other positions, he served as justice 


of the peace for two terms. Fraternally he is 
identified with the blue lodge, chapter, command- 
ery and Scottish Rite degrees of Masonry. He 
is a charter member of Washington Post No. 12, 
G. A. R., and his wife is connected with the 
Ladies of the G. A. R. 

November 16, 1864, in Lawrence, occurred the 
marriage of Mr. Sternbergh to Miss Emma R. 
Enos, who was born in Middlebury, Vt., a 
daughter of Horace and Mary (Conant) Enos, 
natives respectively of Leicester and Brandon, 
Vt. Her father, who was a son of Perley Enos, 
a tanner in Addison County, himself engaged in 
tanning for some years. In March, 1855, he be- 
came one of the first settlers in Lawrence and en- 
gaged in farming, also in dealing in furs, etc. 
He died in 1870. His wife, who was a daughter 
of Luther Conant, a farmer of Brandon, died in 
1879, at the age of sixty-three. They had two 
children, Mrs. Emma R. Sternbergh and Mrs. 
Helen Marsh, of Omaha. Mrs. Sternbergh was 
reared in Lawrence and is identified with the 
Episcopal Church of this city. By her marriage 
to our subject one son was born, Horace Enos 
Sternbergh, a student in Lafayette College at 
Easton, Pa., class of 1901. 

HON. HENRY M. GREENE. The record 
of this family in America is a most honora- 
ble one, and the present representatives have 
done much to add to the prestige of the name. 
The subject of this sketch is a direct descendant 
of Gen. Nathaniel Greene, of Revolutionary re- 
nown, and Roger Williams, the founder of Prov- 
idence, R. I., and is in the seventh generation in 
collateral descent from Nathaniel Greene, one of 
the most distinguished representatives of the fam- 
ily in America. His grandfather, Rowland 
Greene, who was a Quaker preacher, about 1806 
began making itinerant journeys to the wilder- 
ness of Ohio, and afterward aided in establishing 
Quaker churches and missions on the frontier. 
His ministerial and missionary work was done 
without thought of recompense or remuneration; 
he supported himself by the practice of medicine, 
in which he was more than ordinarily successful. 

Elisha Harris Greene, our subject's father, 
was born in Scituate, R. I., in 1800, and devoted 
a large part of his life to the cause of religion, 
working particularly as a colporteur and lecturer, 
meantime supporting himself and family by the 
cultivation of his farm. In 1837 he became a 
pioneer of Illinois. Twenty years later he came 
to Kansas, having been led by his devotion to 
the anti-slavery cause to ally himself with the 
free-state movement in Kansas. He settled near 
Twin Mounds, Douglas County, and took an 
active part in the exciting events connected with 
border warfare days. While in Illinois he was 
ciated with such men as Owen Lovejoy and Levi 
Spencer, and after settling in the west he became 
identified with other leading Abolition workers. 
His enthusiasm in the cause brought upon him 
hardships and persecution, but his ardor never 
diminished. Even in peril of his life he main- 
tained his firmness of principles. He took stock 
in the underground railroad, and in other ways 
endeavored'to aid the cause of liberty. His life 
was spared to witness the triumph of the princi- 
ples he had espoused with such earnestness. He 
died at Lecompton in 1884. 

The lady who became the wife of Elisha Harris 
Greene was Lucy, daughter of John Stacey, who 
was a builder of ships engaged in the West Indies 
trade. She was born in Saco, York County, Me., 
and was given a good education, afterXvard teach- 
ing for several years in the schools of Providence, 
R. I. She possessed not only an amiable dispo- 
sition, but also great force of character and Chris- 
tian earnestness, and was a cultured vocalist, 
having studied under that eminent composer, 
Lowell Mason. The impress of her teachings 
has been felt in the lives of her children. She 
died in May, 1877. Of her sons, Henry M. was 
the oldest. The second, William W., a young 
man of great promise, died while serving as 
county clerk of Livingston County, 111. Thomas 
W., who graduated with honors from Shurtlefi" 
College, Upper Alton, 111., in 1857, and from 
Rochester Theological Seminary, held pastorates 
in Baptist churches at Litchfield and Bunker 
Hill, 111.; Fort Scott and Junction City, Kans.; 
and Denver, Colo. In 1876 he removed to Cali- 


fornia and soon afterward was elected president 
of California College, but was obliged to resign 
the position on account of ill health, and died 
suddenly at a mountain resort in that state. 
Throughout the west he was known as an elo- 
quent speaker, able man and devoted minister. 
Albert R., who possesses ability as a writer, has 
written much for the press, and his articles have 
a general interest. Under President Harrison he 
was appointed United States inspector of land 
offices, and when Cleveland was elected he was 
urged to remain, but resigned. On the inaugura- 
tion of President McKinley he was immediately 
re-appointed to the position, in which he is serv- 
ing with great credit, making his home at Le- 
compton. During the Rebellion he was a soldier 
in the Ninth Kansas Infantry. Three daughters 
and one son died in childhood and another daugh- 
ter, Anna, died in L,ecompton when a young lady. 
Born in Norwich, Conn., October 14, 1833, the 
subject of this sketch was only four years of age 
when the family removed to Illinois. In 1850 
they settled near Metamora, Woodford County, 
that state, where he attended a few terms of com- 
mon school. His education, however, was mainly 
self- acquired. He was a diligent, ambitious and 
clever student. When eight years of age he was 
reading RoUin's history. In 1854 he went to 
Wisconsin and entered land on the site now occu- 
pied by West Eau Claire, surveying pine woods 
on the Eau Claire and Black Rivers, but return- 
ing to Illinois in 1856. During that year he 
canvassed his county for Fremont. He was sec- 
retary of the first Republican organization in 
Woodford County and was active in local affairs. 
From the time of his immigration to Kansas, in 
1857, he has been prominent and interested in 
politics. During the Civil war he was lieutenant- 
colonel of the ill-fated Second Kansas Militia, 
which was overpowered by Shelby's advance near 
Westport, Mo., at the battle of the Big Blue. 
During the retreat of the command, while at- 
tempting to form a line to check the pursuers, 
he was severely wounded in the head and right 
hip, from the effects of which he never recovered. 
For seventy-two hours he lay on the field. Mean- 
time it was reported that he was dead and funeral 

services were held for him in Wyandotte. He 
finally, by crawling slowly, managed to reach a 
farmhouse a mile distant, and there he asked for 
something to eat. He presented a melancholy 
sight, with face covered with blood and dust and 
hair matted with blood from the wound in his 
head. It happened that the farmer was a Union 
man, and he gave him the kindest treatment, 
conveying him to Westport, where he was taken 
to a surgeon. On telling the surgeon who he 
was, he was told that Colonel Greene had just 
been buried, but he succeeded in convincing the 
man of his identity after a time. His wounds 
were treated, the balls extracted, and he was 
given the best attention possible. It was, how- 
ever, some time before he was able to resume his 
former activity in public affairs, and eventually 
the wound in the hip resulted in paralysis. 

In the spring of 1S65 Colonel Greene was in- 
terested in the establishment of the Lane Univer- 
sity, named in honor of General Lane, and situ- 
ated on the site of the old territorial capitol. He 
was a member of the first board of trustees and 
Rev. Solomon Weaver acted as the first president.. 
He took an active part in promoting the welfare 
of the college and served as its financial agent for 
a time. For some years he was a minister in the 
United Brethren Church and one of the leading 
men of the denomination. In 1869 and 1873 he 
was a delegate to the general conferences of the 
denomination. At the latter meeting a discussion 
arose regarding secret societies. Believing that 
the members of the convention displayed a spirit 
entirely too narrow to be in harmony with the 
broad spirit of the Lord, he and others withdrew 
from the church. In the spring of 1880 he was 
admitted to the Topeka presbyterj', and during 
the same year accepted a pastorate at Lacygne, 
Kans., but resigned in July, 1881, in order to 
accept the appointment, tendered by Governor 
St. Joljn, as superintendent of the asylum for 
imbecile children, recently started in Lawrence. 
Under his able supervision the school was estab- 
lished upon a firm basis. In 1886 it was removed 
to Winfield and a large building erected. He 
remained at its head until the fall of 1888, when 
he resigned, desiring to return to Lawrence in 



order that his children might have better school 
advantages. The institution had been made a 
success. A large addition had been built, but 
even with it there was scarcely room to accom- 
modate the children who were patients there. 

On returning to Lawrence Colonel Greene took 
editorial charge of the Daily Journal and contin- 
ued at its head for eighteen months. At the 
same time he also preached in the Presbyterian 
Church at Perry for a year and the church at 
Media for six months. On resigning from the 
Journal he became editor of the Daily Record. As 
a journalist he has had few superiors. His keen, 
forcible and clear articles always attracted atten- 
tion. He brought the paper into prominence 
and made it a literary success. It was said of 
him that he was one of the most brilliant writers 
in Kansas. When the paper was sold in 1892 he 
retired from the field of journalism. 

In 1876 Colonel Greene was elected to the state 
senate, where he was chairman of the committee 
on education, and in 1879 cast the deciding vote 
for Ingalls as United States senator. Much of his 
time in the senate was given to the upbuilding of 
the schools. As at that time there existed some 
schools where German only was used, he secured 
the passage of a bill making it compulsory to 
teach English in all district schools, thus forcing 
all the new settlers of the state to gain familiarity 
with the English language. He became inter- 
ested in the free silver movement and stumped 
the county in its interests. Owing to the failure 
of the Republican party to declare for it, he 
identified himself with the People's party, and 
became active upon its committees. As a speaker 
he was one of the most prominent Populists in 
the state and did much to arouse an interest in 
the currency question. In June, 1898, he at- 
tended the second congressional convention held 
in Olathe. At the Douglas County convention 
his name had been presented as a candidate for 
congress, and when the congressional convention 
met he and St. John were candidates, either one 
being willing to withdraw in favor of the other, 
and against Peters. St. John made a speech and 
was followed by Colonel Greene. The latter, at 
the close of his address, was seized by a paralytic 

stroke and sank to the floor. He was carried 
out of the hall and conveyed to his home, but 
many weeks elap.sed before he recovered suf- 
ficiently to sit up. He is still an invalid, but 
passes his time cheerfully and quietly, and may 
be seen, on pleasant days, sitting on his porch 
overlooking the Kaw River and enjoying the 
society of his family and his friends. He is a 
member of Washington Post No. 12, G. A. R., 
and served on the national commander's staff 
one term. Fraternally he is connected with 
Halcyon Lodge No. 18, I. O. O. F.; Lawrence 
Lodge No. 6, A. F. & A. M.; and Lawrence 
Chapter No. 4, R. A. M. 

January 24, i860, in Osage County, Kans. , 
Colonel Greene married Miss Margaret Monogue, 
a native of New York. They became the parents 
of nine children, but suffered a deep bereavement 
in the death of their daughters, Lucy Harris, 
Caroline Harris, Florence and Henrietta B., 
within two months of one another. The sons 
are living and all but the youngest are engaged 
in business in Lawrence. They are named as 
follows: Edward E., Henry M., Jr.; Hiel B., 
Frederick H. and Charles K. 

who holds the chair of diagnosis in the 
homeopathic medical department of the 
Kansas City University, is a talented and suc- 
cessful physician and surgeon of Lawrence, 
where he has been engaged in professional work 
since 1895. In 1896 he became connected with 
the Kansas City University as instructor of bac- 
teriology and histology in the medical depart- 
ment, but has since been transferred to the chair 
of physical diagnosis. For of broad- 
ening his professional knowledge and thereby 
rendering his advice more valuable to his pa- 
tients, he went abroad in October, 1898, spending 
seven months in the University of Edinburgh 
and (at the same time) six months in the Royal 
Infirmary, where he did special clinical work, 
devoting himself principally to surgery and diag- 
nosis. Prior to his return to the United States 
he spent some time in the hospitals of London. 


He is in touch with the latest developments of the 
science of medicine and few are better prepared 
for professional work than he. Under appoint- 
ment by Mayor Gould he served as city physi- 
cian of L,awrence in 1897 and 1898. He is a 
member of the Douglas County Medical Society 
and has been very active in the work of the Kan- 
sas State Homeopathic Medical Society, of which 
he was secretary in 1898. 

Dr. Oatman was born in Benton County, Mo., 
April 9, 1870. His father, Adolphus G. Oatman, 
a native of Dundee, 111., was first lieutenant in a 
company in the One Hundred and Eighth Illinois 
Infantry during the Civil war. Afterward he en- 
gaged in the cattle business in Benton County, 
Mo. In 1876 he removed to Denver, Colo., 
where he engaged in the manufacture of soap. 
In 1880 he came to Lawrence and has since en- 
gaged in growing fruits, owning land that adjoins 
the city. He married Mary A. Ransom, who 
was born in Tecumseh, Mich., and was a daugh- 
ter of Rev. Halsey Ransom, a Methodist Episco- 
pal minister, who died in Bennington, Vt., in 
1867, aged fifty-six years. Dr. Oatman's pater- 
nal grandfather, James R. Oatman, was born in 
Indiana and became a pioneer lumber merchant 
of Dundee, 111., but after some years removed to 
Missouri, where he carried on a lumber and real- 
estate business. Later he followed mercantile 
pursuits in Denver, Colo. His death occurred in 
Lawrence in 1899, at eighty-four years of age. 

The next to the oldest of five children, our 
subject was educated in the schools of Denver 
and Lawrence. In 1886 he entered the Uni- 
versity of Kansas, where he first took a course in 
the arts and afterward in pharmacy, graduating 
in 1 89 1 with the degree of Ph. G. One year 
was devoted to special work, after which he was 
employed as a registered pharmacist. From 
boyhood it had been his ambition to become a 
physician, and in 1893 he entered the junior 
class in Hahnemann Medical College, from which 
he graduated in 1895, with the degree of M.D. 
During both years of his study at Hahnemann, 
he also acted as tutor in bacteriology and his- 
tology. After graduating he returned to Law- 
rence. Fraternally he is a member of Lawrence 

Lodge No. 6, A. F. & A M., the Modern Wood- 
men and Fraternal Aid, and is examining physi- 
cian for the two latter orders. In politics he is a 
Republican and in religion is identified with the 
Baptist Church. 

HON. MATTHEW RYAN, SR., who long 
held a position among Leavenworth's most 
honored and influential citizens, was a 
pioneer of 1857. His life was a very active one, 
filled with experiences of an exciting nature on 
the plains of the great west. Identified with the 
cattle industry, his business required his frequent 
presence at frontier posts, and in his long trips 
across the plains he encountered Indians, some of 
whom were hostile. He began life in the west 
under very different circumstances and conditions 
from those of the present day, but bravely over- 
came every obstacle that he encountered, and in 
time became independent and prosperous. Every- 
one who knew him at all intimately admired him 
for his many good qualities. He was especially 
helpful to struggling and penniless young men, 
and many a youth owed his start in life to him. 
Personally he was considerate, conscientious, 
trustworthy, and possessed a keen sense of honor. 
Born in Johnstown, County Kilkenny, Ire- 
land, August 30, 1819, the subject of this memoir 
was a son of Michael Ryan, a merchant of Johns- 
town, who brought his family to America in 
1832, and settled in Maryland, but a few years 
later located in Cincinnati, Ohio. His active life 
was devoted to the mercantile business. When 
advanced in years he joined his son in Leaven- 
worth, and here his death occurred in 1872, at 
eighty-two years of age. Besides his son, he had 
a daughter, Mrs. Mary Draper, now living in 
Leavenworth. At the time the family came to 
the United States, Matthew Ryan was a boy of 
thirteen. From that time he was self-supporting, 
and had no opportunity to attend .school; how- 
ever, in tlie great school of experience he gained 
a broad education, thereby becoming a well-in- 
formed man. When a youth he learned the 
butcher's trade in Cincinnati. At eighteen 
years of age he became a member of the firm of 
King & Ryan, butchers and stockmen, which 



connection continued almost three years. After- 
ward he engaged in the same line of business for 
himself, shipping to southern ports. In 1856 
the death of his son, Richard, a bright boy of 
seven years, caused him to grow discontented 
with Cincinnati, and to desire a change of loca- 
tion. As soon as he could sell out his interests 
there he removed to Kansas. Here he started 
the first packing house in Leavenworth and was 
given the government contracts for supplying 
the forts with beef He continued engaged in 
the packing business until 1876. Meantime, as 
a member of the firm of Russell, Ryan & Hens- 
ley, he carried on a wholesale mercantile busi- 
ness in Leavenworth for several years. 

When the Pike's Peak excitement drew large 
crowds of emigrants to the mountain regions in 
1859, the. firm of Russell, Morehead, Ryan & 
Hensley opened a wholesale business in Denver, 
with which Mr. Ryan was connected for a num- 
ber of years. In early days he made several 
trips across the plains with oxen. At one time 
he went west as far as Salt Lake City, and during 
the journey encountered hostile Indians, but 
avoided a conflict. In 1S70 he bought several 
hundred acres in Leavenworth County, but this 
propertj' he afterward sold. 

Accompanied by his sons. Matt and Jepp, in 
1876 Mr. Ryan went to the Pacific coast and en- 
gaged in trailing cattle extensively from Oregon 
and Washington to Cheyenne, Wyo., handling as 
many as thirty thousand head in a season. In 
this enterprise he was very successful. With his 
sons, in 1883, he started a cattle ranch on the 
north side of the Yellowstone River in Montana, 
about seventy miles north of the Custer battle- 
field. Of the cattle company formed he served 
as the president, but the active management of 
the business devolved mainly upon his sons, who 
remained in Montana to superintend the work. 

Almost every enterprise for the benefit of 
Leavenworth and the development of its resources 
received the sympathy and active assistance of 
Mr. Ryan. His influence was felt in the 
development of the city's industries. He con- 
structed the Ryan and Richardson cold stor- 
age plant on Cherokee street, which was the 

first and is still the largest ice plant in the 
city. His last work was in 1892, when he built 
the Rj'an block, on the corner of Fourth and 
Cherokee streets; this is the largest and one of 
the finest business buildings in the place. For 
some years he acted as president of the German 
National Bank, and after it was consolidated 
with the First National Bank he became a di- 
rector of the latter institution, with which he 
was connected until his death, and since then one 
of his sons has represented the family in the bank. 
He was one of the organizers and promoters of 
the Leavenworth Coal Company, and in time 
became the largest stockholder and president of 
the company, with which he was connected as 
such until his death. His familj' still own and 
operate the coal mine. An active promoter of the 
Leavenworth Glucose Company, he was its presi- 
dent for some years. 

Having been so intimately identified with 
business affairs, Mr. Ryan had little time for 
participation in public aS'airs, and, while he served 
for one term in the state legislature, he refused 
further nomination, preferring to give his atten- 
tion wholly to private pursuits. However, he 
did not lack in public spirit. No one was more 
desirous than he to promote the welfare of his 
city and state, but his method of doing this was 
by the advancement of business interests, rather 
than by the formulation of laws or participation 
in politics. During the war he was a member of 
a company of militia that was called into service 
at the time of the Price raid in Kansas. From 
the organization of the Catholic Church in 
Leavenworth he was identified with it, and took 
a leading part in its work, remaining one of its 
most liberal and prominent members until he 
passed from earth, in its faith, June 20, 1893. 

The marriage of Mr. Ryan was solemnized in 
Cincinnati in 1844 and united him with Miss 
Mary Beresford, who was born and educated in 
that citj', and is an estimable lady, and a faithful 
member of Sacred Heart Roman Catholic Church. 
The family of which she is a member is connected 
with that of Lord Beresford, of England. Her 
grandfather, Richard Beresford, emigrated from 
England to America in 1819 and settled in Cin- 



cinnati, where he became owner of a large shoe 
store. Her father, Samuel Beresford, had one of 
the largest packing houses in Cincinnati and was 
a leading business man of that city, where he 
died in 1S76, aged eighty-two; his wife was 
Elizabeth Bestwick, born in Lancashire, Eng- 
land, and died in Cincinnati in 1849, at fifty-four 
years of age. Of their eleven children, only three 
are now living. Mr. and Mrs. Ryan became the 
parents of the following-named children : Samuel, 
who died in Leavenworth, in 1859, when thir- 
teen years of age; Richard, who died in 1856, at 
seven j'ears; Matthew, Jr., deceased; Kate, Mrs. 
Dennis Sheedy, who died in Denver in 1895; 
Jephtha; Alexander, who died at twenty-four 
years; Mrs. Mary Loftus, of New York City; 
Thomas and Ethan, of Leavenworth. 

presenting to the readers of this volume the 
biography of Mr. Caldwell, we are perpetu- 
ating the life work of one of the most honored 
and influential residents of Kansas. Throughout 
a long and honorable career, both in public life 
and private business affairs, he has maintained 
the energy and integrity characteristic of him 
from early years. Alike in every office he has 
held, from a local position of minor responsibility 
to the important office of United States senator, 
he has sacrificed personal interests for the general 
welfare and has ever striven to promote the pros- 
perity of the people of his state. In business 
circles, too, he has wielded an important influ- 
ence, and, as president and manager of the Kan- 
sas Manufacturing Company, for years stood at 
the head of one of the most important enterprises 
of the west. Upon the organization of the First 
National Bank of Leavenworth he became a de- 
positor of the new institution and later was inter- 
ested as a stockholder. In January, 1897, he 
was chosen president of the bank, and this office 
he has since efficiently filled, his business ability 
and conservative spirit fitting him for its man- 
agement. As a financial institution, this bank is 
one of the oldest and largest in the country, 
ranking as the one hundred and eighty-second in 

the list of national banks in the United States, 
and as the first among those west of the Missouri 

The Caldwell family was founded in America 
by Alexander Caldwell, Sr. , a native of Ireland, 
who brought his family to New Jersey, where he 
cultivated a farm and operated a stone quarry. 
He was accidentally killed in his quarry. His 
son, James, was born in County Donegal, Ireland, 
and settled in Huntingdon County, Pa., where 
for years after 1830 he was proprietor of the 
"Matilda" furnace, a charcoal furnace named in 
honor of his wife. During the Mexican War he 
enlisted, and became captain of Company M, 
Second Pennsylvania Volunteers. During the 
battle in front of the City of Mexico, in Septem- 
ber, 1847, he was mortally wounded and died 
five days after the city was captured. He was 
forty or more years of age. His wife, who had 
died in 1842, was Jane Matilda Drake, a native 
of Huntingdon County, Pa., and daughter of 
James Drake, who was proprietor of Drake's 
Ferry across the Juniata River, ten miles below 
Huntingdon. The family descended, in collat- 
eral line, from Sir Francis Drake, of England. 

The .subject of this sketch was the oldest of 
four children, of whom he and one sister alone 
survive. He was born in Huntingdon County, 
Pa., March i, 1830, and had only limited ad- 
vantages in his boyhood. When his father en- 
listed in the Mexican war he was a boy of 
seventeen, living in Columbia, Lancaster County, 
Pa. He left his position in the store where he 
was clerking and, overtaking his father at Pitts- 
burg, Pa., prevailed upon him to take him into 
Company M as a private. With the other sol- 
diers he marched to the front, and participated 
in various battles with the Mexicans, among 
them those of National Bridge, Pueblo, Contreras, 
Cherubusco and Castle of Chapultepec, and skir- 
mishes adjoining the City of Mexico. For a 
time he was a clerk in the commissarj- depart- 
ment. On his return to Pennsylvania he was 
employed in a bank in Columbia. During the 
years that followed he gained a thorough knowl- 
edge of the banking business and rose to a posi- 
tion of influence in local financial circles. 



The spring of 1861 found Mr. Caldwell in 
Leavenworth, Kans., where he took contracts for 
the transporting of army supplies to the militarj^ 
posts west of the Missouri River. His business 
was very large and was conducted under the 
name of A. Caldwell & Co. To carry on the 
work he employed five thousand teams, sixty 
thousand head of oxen, and gave employment to 
more than five thousand men. He continued in 
the transportation of military supplies until 1870, 
after which, the railroads having been built, the 
teaming business declined. Meantime, he had 
become interested in railroad building. In 1866 
he had the contract for the building of the Mis- 
souri Pacific from Kansas City to Leavenworth. 
In 1869 he extended the line to Atchison, and 
afterward served as president of the road until it 
was sold. He and his associates organized the 
Kansas Central Railroad Company and built its 
line from Leavenworth to Miltonvale, Kans. 
Afterward he served as vice-president of the com- 
pany. The road was originally narrow gauge, 
but was afterward changed to the standard 
gauge, and was one hundred and seventy miles 
long. It was sold to Commodore Garrison, who 
in turn sold it to the Missouri Pacific Railroad 
Company, by whom it was sold to Jay Gould, and 
finally to the Union Pacific. 

In 187 1 Mr. Caldwell was elected to the United 
States senate to succeed Senator Ross, the suc- 
cessor of Senator Lane. He served in the ses- 
sions of 1872 and 1873, but resigned his seat in 
1874. In politics he was originally an old-line 
Whig, and upon the disintegration of that party, 
became a Republican. It was through his influ- 
ence that a bill was passed requiring that one 
term annually of the United States court should 
be held in Leavenworth. He was also instrumen- 
tal in securing an appropriation for the estab- 
lishment of the United States military prison 
(now the United States penitentiary) at Fort 

From 1874 to 1888 the Kansas Manufacturing 
Company, with Mr. Caldwell as its president and 
manager, ranked among the most important 
business establishments in the west, and furnished 
employment constantly to almost four hundred 

men. The annual products of the factory aggre- 
gated nearly seven thousand wagons, and these, 
known as the Caldwell wagons, were sold over 
the entire western country, from the Mississippi 
River to the Pacific coast. After 1 888 the busi- 
ness was gradually closed down, although the 
company is still in existence, its affairs not hav- 
ing been entirely settled. 

During bis residence in Columbia, Pa., Mr. 
Caldwell married Miss Pace Heise, member of a 
family that has been identified with the history of 
that city since 1728. They are the parents of 
two children, Mrs. Minnie Taylor, of Leaven- 
worth, widow of Dr. S. F. Taylor; and Emily, 
wife of H. C. Graef, of New York City. Mr. 
Caldwell is still a stockholder in the Columbia 
(Pa.) National Bank. He is identified with the 
Aztec Association that was organized in the Cit}^ 
of Mexico in 1847 and whose few surviving mem- 
bers, in their meetings, dwell with pleasure and 
pride upon those days long ago, when they 
assisted in protecting the interests of the United 
States from the encroachments of Mexico. 

Mr. Caldwell has spent almost his entire active 
life in Kansas and is imbued with the spirit of 
western push and progress. The success with 
which he has met may be attributed to his wise 
judgment and force of character that has never 
been daunted by obstacles. Withal, he has been 
essentially a progressive, loyal [citizen, stanch in 
his support of movements for the benefit of his 
fellow-citizens or for the development of his 
home city, in whose growth and progress he 
has taken just pride. 

which this narrative sketches began at 
Hunt's Mills, N. J., January i, 1809, and 
closed at Leavenworth, Kans., February 2, 1881. 
The intervening years were filled with experi- 
ences that fall to the lot of an army officer, some 
of which (especially incidents during the Civil 
war) were exciting and thrilling, and proved that 
he possessed the mettle of a soldier. During his 
long and active life he met many of the greatest 
men of our country. Appointed to the United 



States Military Acadeni}- at West Point from New 
Jersej-, he was a student in that school from July 
I, 1824, to July I, 1829, and was a classmate of 
Gen. Robert E. Lee and Gen. Joseph E. John- 
ston, while in the class of 1828 was Jefferson 
Davis. Upon graduating he was breveted second 
lieutenant of the Fourth Artillery. He served in 
the garrison at Fort Columbus, N. Y., in 1830- 
31; at Fort Hamilton, N. Y., 1831-32; in the 
Black Hawk expedition in 1832; again at Fort 
Columbus 1832-33; Fortress Monroe, Va., 1833; 
in Creek Nation, 1833-34; back at Fortress Mon- 
roe, 1834; upon engineer's duty from September 
I, 1834, to June 8, 1836; again in the Creek Na- 
tion, in 1836; commissioned first lieutenant of the 
Fourth Artillery August 15, 1836; in the Florida 
war 1836-38; in the Cherokee Nation, 1838, 
while the Indians were being removed west; in 
garrison at Fort Columbus, 1S38; again in the 
Florida war, 1838-39; back to Fort Columbus 
and then in the Camp of Instruction near Tren- 
ton, N. J.; in northern territory during the Can- 
adian border disturbances of 1839-41; at Buffalo, 
N. Y., in 1841-42; at Fort McHenry, Md., 1842- 
44; Carlisle Barracks, Pa., 1844-45; Fort Mc- 
Henry, 1845-46; at Fortress Monroe, in 1846, 
and then in the Mexican war, 1846-48. 

From January 18, 1846, to March 2, 1855, he 
was captain of the Fourth Artillery. Meantime, 
from 1848 to 1850, he engaged in frontier duty at 
Fort Brown, Tex. The year 1850 found him at 
Fort Leavenworth, Kans., where he remained 
until 1855. March 2, 1855, he was commissioned 
major and paymaster in the army. About the 
same time he was transferred to Fort Snelling, 
Minn., where he remained for two years. Re- 
turning to Fort Leavenworth in 1857 he took 
part in the Utah expedition, and was in the de- 
partment of Utah until 1861 as chief paymaster. 
During the Civil war he was chief of the pay dis- 
trict embracing Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado and 
the Indian Territory, and was aide-de-camp to 
Major-General Curtis, in charge of the artillery 
and defense of Fort Leavenworth during the 
Price raid in 1S64. For faithful and meritorious 
service during the war he was breveted lieutenant- 
colonel March 13, 1865. In 1877 he was pro- 

moted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel and dep- 
uty paymaster-general and was serving as chief 
paymaster of the department when, in 1879, he 
was placed on the retired list of the army, after a 
service of fifty years. 

From the time of the first sale of lots in Leav- 
enworth, Colonel Hunt was interested in this city, 
buying land here and improving real estate. His 
residence on Twenty-first and Shawnee streets 
stood on a ten-acre tract. At Cambridgeport, 
Mass., August 23, 1830, he married Ann Maria 
Noble, who was born in Boston, Mass., October 
14, 1809, a daughter of George Noble, and a 
descendant of George Noble, an Englishman, 
who was an officer in the British army during the 
Revolutionary war. In 1843 Colonel Hunt and 
his wife embraced the Catholic faith. He was 
baptized in the archbishop's home, March 8, 1843, 
by Rev. H. B. Coskerj-, and was confirmed in 
the Baltimore Cathedral June 8, by Archbishop 
Eccleston. His wife was baptized in the same 
faith at Fort McHenry, June 27 of that year. 
She died in Leavenworth, June 7, 1889, and was 
buried in Mount Muncie Cemeterj'. 

Of the children of Colonel Hunt we note the 
following: Franklin Eyre, Jr., in 1859 became 
connected with his father as paymaster's clerk of 
the Utah department. Two years later he re- 
turned to Leavenworth, where he was similarly 
employed until the retirement of his father in 
1879; he is now engaged in the real-estate 
business in Leavenworth. Mary Ellen married 
Edward Carroll and died in this city September 
8, 1892. Frederick Ralph, who was a business 
man of Leavenworth, died here December 15, 
1 891. James John McCown, the youngest of 
the family, is represented on another page. 

In recognition of his long and honorable con- 
nection with the United States Army, when Col- 
onel Hunt passed away it was ordered that he 
should be given a military funeral and that 
military honors should be paid to him, as the 
last tribute of respect to his memory. The 
funeral services were held in the family resi- 
dence Sunday morning, February 5, 1881. The 
handsome casket was draped with national flags, 
while floral decorations in profuse abundance 



proved the affectionate esteem in which the dead 
ofBcer had been held. The services were con- 
ducted by Lieutenant Dodge, and were attended 
by General Pope and several others who were 
high in the army, while the honorary pall- 
bearers were Majors J. D. Bingham, D. L. 
Magruder, George Bell, William R. Gibson, J. J. 
Coppingerand Charles McClure. From the fam- 
ily home the remains were conveyed to Mount 
Muncie Cemetery for interment, where the last 
rites were performed and the last bugle-call 
sounded over the new-made grave. 

RIPLEY W. SPARR. It would be impossi- 
ble to write a complete history of Lawrence 
and omit mention of Mr. Sparr, whose con- 
nection with the city commenced in the early 
period of its settlement. His long life of useful- 
ness and industry has had a direct bearing upon 
the progress of his city, and his voice has been 
heard, directly or indirectly, upon many of the 
questions affecting the administration of local and 
national affairs, while his unflinching integrity 
has secured for him the full and complete confi- 
dence of all who know him. He is a man of 
broad information and intelligence, possessing 
clear and concise opinions upon all important 
questions, and having, under all circumstances, 
the courage of his convictions. 

A resident of Kansas since March 25, 1857, 
and of Lawrence since 1859, Mr. Sparr was born 
in Rush County, Ind., July 6, 1832, a son of John 
and Mary Ann (Guthrie) Sparr, natives of Bote- 
tourt County, Va. His paternal grandfather, 
John Sparr, was born in Baden, Germany, in 
1748, and on coming to America first settled in 
Pennsylvania, but afterward removed to Virginia, 
where he engaged in farming. In 1778 he en- 
listed in the American army, and continued in 
service until the close of the Revolution. The 
Guthrie family was founded in America in 1775 
by William Guthrie, a native of Scotland, born 
in 1752, who, after crossing the ocean, settled 
upon a farm in Maryland. From there he went 
to Virginia. He, too, was a Revolutionary sol- 
dier, serving from 1779 to 1783. '"His son, John 

Guthrie, who was a farmer in Virginia, also ren- 
dered valiant service in defense of his country. 
Mary Ann Sparr, the daughter of John Guthrie, 
was a woman of noble character and gentle dis- 
position, a faithful member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, and exemplifying in her life 
the depth of her religious experiences. Her death 
occurred in November, 1872, when she was 
eighty -two. Of her eleven children all but two 
attained maturity, and one son and two daugh- 
ters are now living. 

During his residence in Virginia the father of 
our subject was sheriff of his county, and also 
proved himself a true patriot by his valor in the 
war of 18 1 2. In 1829 he removed to Indiana and 
began to clear a farm in Rush County. In addi- 
tion to agricultural pursuits he had the contract 
for building a part of the national road from 
Columbus to Indianapolis. In 1833 he traveled 
on horseback through the southwestern territo- 
ries into Texas, then a province of Mexico, and, 
without a single companion, explored those re- 
mote wilderness regions, occupying one year in 
the trip. In 1837 he moved to Delaware Coun- 
ty, Ind., settling seven miles from Muncie, where 
he died March 21, 1843, at fifty-eight years of 

When a boy the subject of this sketch had few 
advantages. His attendance at the public school 
did not exceed one year altogether. In 1854 he 
entered the Iowa Wesley an University at Mount 
Pleasant, where he was a student for eight 
months, and later taught school during one 
winter term. Afterward he engaged in the manu- 
facture of brick in Iowa. On coming to Kansas 
he took up a claim in Franklin County and gave 
his attention to its improvement for two years. 
May, 1859, found him in Lawrence, where he 
engaged in the manufacture of brick until 1867, 
meantime manufacturing almost all of the brick 
used in the early building of the town, and hav- 
ing the largest and most important plant here. 
During the war, at the time of Price's raid, he 
served in the Third Kansas Militia. 

In 1867 Mr. Sparr turned his attention to rail- 
road contracting, and continued mostly in that 
business until 1887 — making it a financial sue- 



cess. During 1887 he retired, to a large extent, 
from the contracting business. The following 
year he started the Douglas County State Bank 
with a capital of $50,000, of which he continued 
to be president until 1896, when it was merged 
into the Lawrence National Bank. On the con- 
solidation of the two banks he was made vice- 
president and manager of the consolidated inter- 
ests, and has since given his attention largely to 
the financial interests of the bank. As vice- 
president and manager of the Lawrence National 
Bank, he is closely identified with one of the 
strongest financial institutions in the state, a bank 
that has a capital stock of $100,000, with depos- 
its aggregating more than $700,000. 

In politics Mr. Sparr is a free-coinage Demo- 
crat, believes in tariff for revenue only, isopposed 
to trusts of all kinds, condemns the oppression of 
the masses by the greed of ambitious capitalists, 
and holds mankind to be superior to money. He 
is a consistent member of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, with which he has been identified 
for many years. He is connected with Washing- 
ton Post No. 12, G. A. R., of Lawrence, also the 
orders of Masons and Odd Fellows in this city. 
From 1864 to 1866 he served as a member of the 
town council. However, the nature of the busi- 
ness in which he so long engaged required his 
presence in dififerent points and prevented him 
from accepting local ofiices in his home town. 
He is vice-president of the board of trustees of 
Baker University in the town of Baldwin, and a 
member of the executive committee of the board. 

The first marriage of Mr. Sparr united him 
with Mary, daughter of Jesse Critchfield, of 
Leavenworth, Kans. , in April, 1862. She was 
born in Fulton County, 111., January 25, 1S40, 
was a woman of culture, a faithful member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and died in Law- 
rence, April 19, 1877. Her parents were Jesse 
and Elizabeth (Bass) Critchfield, the latter's 
mother being a member of the celebrated Spen- 
cer family in Harrison County, Ind. Jesse 
Critchfield was born in Sono County, N. C, 
April II, 1793, and was a son of Richard Critch- 
field, whose father was John Critchfield, of Berk- 
shire, England. The only child born of Mr. 

Sparr's first marriage, C. W. Sparr, was born in 
Lawrence August 5, 1864, and is employed in 
the Lawrence National Bank; in 1886 hemarried 
Alice Miller, of Wisconsin, by whom he has one 
child, Helen, born August 5, 1890. 

December 20, 1883, Mr. Sparr married Mrs. 
B. W. Milton, daughter of Mortimer and Mary 
A. (Washington) Mcllhany. Her father was a 
son of Maj. James Mcllhany, of Loudoun County, 
Va., a soldier in the Revolutionary war. Her 
mother, a woman of fine culture and noble bear- 
ing, was a daughter of Edward Washington, of 
Fairfax County, Va., who was a cousin of Gen. 
George Washington. Mrs. Sparr was born in 
Loudoun County, Va., January 10, 1839, and in 
girlhopd accompanied her parents to Montgom- 
ery County, Mo., where she became the wife of 
Dr. George R. Milton, of Winchester, Va. Dr. 
Milton joined the Confederate army with the 
rank of major, and was promoted to be colonel 
after the battle of Lexington, Mo., but was soon 
afterward obliged to resign his commission on 
account of poor health ; he died in 1865, leaving 
two sons, Herbert and Fairfax Milton. After 
the death of Dr. Milton his widow taught music 
in several colleges in Missouri. A sincere Chris- 
tian, she is actively identified with the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, and has always been foremost 
in works of charity. Refined and cultured, gen- 
erous and kind-hearted, she is respected and loved 
by all who know her, and shares with her hus- 
band in the esteem of the people among whom 
they have so long made their home. 

I life record of this pioneer of 1855 in Leaven- 
G) worth is full of interest. He was born in 
Woodstock, Vt., February 22, 1822, and de- 
scended from the Powers and Richardson fami- 
lies who crossed the ocean in the "Mayflower," 
and was also related to Israel Putnam, of Revo- 
lutionary fame. The first of the Richardson 
family to settle in America were Thomas and 
Samuel Richardson, and their older brother, 
Ezekiel, the last-named having come with Gov- 
ernor Winthrop, while the others crossed in 



1635. lyots were assigned them in Maiden in 
1638, and in 1642 they were among the seven 
who settled Woburn. Thomas died in Woburn 
in 1650. He and his wife, Mary, had a son, 
Nathaniel, who was born in Woburn in 1650 
and died there in 17 14. He fought in King 
Philip's war and was wounded in the great 
swamp fight in 1675. His son, Nathaniel, Jr., 
was born in Woburn in 1673 and died there in 
1728. By his wife, Abigail, daughter of Israel 
Reed, he had a son, Israel, who was born in 
Woburn in 1710 and died in Brookfield, Mass., 
in 1740. Capt. Israel Richardson, a son of 
Israel, Sr. , was born in Brookfield (Spencer), 
Mass., in 1736, and was a gunsmith and black- 
smith by trade. In 1781 he moved from New 
Salem, near Hardwick, to Vermont, and bought 
six hundred acres near the present site of Wood- 
stock. It is said that he was a captain in the 
Revolution and fought at White Plains and 
Monmouth. He died near Woodstock in 1800. 
By his marriage, in 1759, to Susanna Forbush, 
he had a son, Jason, who was born at New 
Salem in 1761, and removed in 1781 to Vermont, 
where he had a blacksmith's shop, hotel and 
large farm. In 1784 he married Mary, daughter 
of Dr. Stephen Powers, who moved from Middle- 
boro, Mass., to Woodstock, Vt., in 1774. Jason 
Richardson died in Woodstock in 1805. His 
wife died in Pontiac, Mich. Their oldest child, 
Susanna, born in 1785, became the wife of a 
cousin, Israel Putnam Richardson, and they had 
three daughters and one son, the latter of whom, 
Gen. Israel Bush Richardson, was killed during 
the Civil war. The second daughter, Lydia 
Drew Richardson, was born in 1786, married Dr. 
Lyman Paddock, of Barre, Vt., and died in 1867. 
The third child and eldest son was Noah F. 
Richardson, born in 1788. The other sons were 
John Drew (born 1790), John Powers (1792), 
Origen Drew (1795) and Israel Bush (1800). 
Origen Drew was the most prominent member of 
the family. Settling in Michigan when young, 
he became one of its early lieutenant-governors. 
In 1854 he removed to Nebraska, where he was 
a successful attorney and the compiler of the 
statutes of the state. By his marriage to Sarah 

P. Hill, of Rhode Island, he had six children, 
viz.: George, who died at two years; Sarah, 
who married Z. B. Knight, of Pontiac, and now 
lives in Omaha; Lyman, who lives in Omaha; 
Origen and Julia, who died in Pontiac; and Cor- 
nelia, wife of George Ingersoll Gilbert, a lawyer 
of Omaha. 

The children of Noah F. and Polly Richard- 
son were Mary, Jason Powers, George, Ann, 
Jane, Charles, Fllen, Lyman, Edward, Susan , 
Annette, Lydia, Ellen and Marcella. Of these 
Charles was drowned in Lake Superior, and 
Lyman was shot and burned to death by rebel 
raiders. Jason Powers, who was the oldest son, 
forms the subject of this article. When he was 
nineteen years of age, in 1841, he accompanied 
his parents to Michigan and settled with them 
on a farm, where they remained until their death. 
At an early age he studied civil engineering and 
assisted in surveying the copper regions of Lake 
Superior. In 1849 he went to California via 
Cape Horn, and from San Francisco proceeded 
up the American, Feather and Yuba Rivers, 
where he engaged in mining for a number of 
years. He also carried on a general store in 
San Francisco, but a disastrous fire caused the 
loss of his entire stock of goods and left him with 
only $5.00. However, his mining enterprises 
were more successful. In 1853 he returned to 
Michigan via Panama and New York City, and, 
settling in Pontiac, engaged in the agricultural 
implement business with H. W. Lord. 

In Pontiac, August 2, 1855, occurred the mar- 
riage of Mr. Richardson to Miss Mary King, 
who was born in Hinckley, Medina County, 
Ohio, August 5, 1832. The wedding trip of the 
young couple was made, via St. Louis, on the 
steamer "New Lucy," to the city of Leaven- 
worth, Kans. In this then frontier town Mr. 
Richardson opened a wholesale grocery, on 
Main street, between Delaware and Cherokee, 
where he carried on general jobbing until he 
sold out in 1861. During the perilous times of 
border warfare, he, while being conservative, 
believed thoroughly in the free-state cause. His 
support of these principles brought upon him the 
wrath of some of the pro-slavery advocates, who 



took him from Leavenworth to Weston in a boat 
in chains; however, he had influential friends 
among the pro-slavery men, and through their 
assistance he was released and afterwards left 
unmolested. While he was held b)' southern 
sympathizers, his wife remained in Leavenworth, 
in spite of threats, and took care of their 

After 1 86 1 Mr. Richardson engaged in farm- 
ing. He owned a section of land near Lawrence, 
which he operated for some years and then sold 
at a good profit. Afterward he bought and im- 
proved a farm of three hundred and twenty 
acres in Salt Creek Valley. In 1872 he pur- 
chased two hundred and forty acres six miles 
south of Leavenworth and upon this place he set- 
tled, afterward giving his attention to its im- 
provement and cultivation. He identified him- 
self with local interests and held a prominent 
position among the agriculturists of Leaven- 
worth County. In the various enterprises in 
which he engaged he was unusually successful; 
this, too, in spite of hardships and obstacles of 
many kinds. His early life in the far west and 
his pioneer experiences in Leavenworth were of 
a stirring nature, but his later years were quietly 
spent, in the enjoyment of the comforts his in- 
dustry rendered possible. Prior to the war he 
identified himself with the Democrats, but after- 
ward adhered to Republican principles. In re- 
ligion he was a Universalist. His death occurred 
June 23, 1882, from the effects of sunstroke. 

Mrs. Richardson is a daughter of Henry and 
Jane (Dunlap) King, natives respectively of 
Wyoming County, N. Y., and Connecticut. 
Her grandfather King, a soldier in the Revolu- 
tionary war, married a sister of Hon. Stephen 
Hopkins, the famous Quaker who signed the 
Declaration of Independence. He was a pioneer 
in the western part of New York and planted the 
first orchard there. Later he went to Ohio and 
then to Indiana, where he entered land for all of 
his fourteen sons. Henry King, who served in 
the war of 1812, afterward engaged in farming 
in Medina County, Ohio, and from there moved 
to Milford, Mich., where he died at fifty-seven 
years. His wife, whose parents died soon after 

they settled in Ohio, died in Fulton, Stark 
County, when forty- three years of age. They 
were the parents of five daughters and one son, 
of whom all are dead except two daughters. 

After the death of her husband, Mrs. Richard- 
son left the farm in the care of one of her sons 
and established her home in Leavenworth, where 
she resides on Walnut street, between Sixth and 
Seventh. She is a member of the First Presby- 
terian Church of Leavenworth and a contributor 
to charitable enterprises, one who is kind and 
helpful to the poor and needy. Nine children 
were born of her marriage to Mr. Richardson, 
namely: George C, who is engaged in the fruit 
and cold storage business in Leavenworth ; Mrs. 
Anna R. Davis, of Saginaw, Mich. ; William K. 
and Frederick H., who are now in Alaska; 
Helen, who died at three months of age; Charles 
L., who has charge of the old homestead near 
Leavenworth; Jason Powers, Jr., who resides 
upon and cultivates the farm in Salt Creek Val- 
ley; Martha L. and Mary (twins), the former 
residing with her mother, the latter deceased. 

record of the Petherbridge family, both in 
America and in England, is one that is re- 
markable for the honesty, uprightness and 
ability of its members. The first to settle in the 
new world was John Petherbridge, who came 
from Nottingham, Devonshire, about 1787 and 
established his home in Philadelphia, Pa., where 
for many years he carried on a large and prosper- 
ous business as ship- builder. He was noted for 
his large-hearted generosity. He gave the lot on 
which old Ebenezer Church in Philadelphia was 
built and contributed liberally to the erection of 
the edifice. The deed specified that the lot must 
always be used for church purposes, and if at any 
time it was perverted to other uses, it should be- 
come the property of his heirs. In time the lot 
was utilized for other purposes, but the then head 
of the family, his son Richard, never claimed it. 
The records also show that he collected almost 
all the funds used in the building of the First 
Methodist Church in Camden, N. J. 



Twice married, the eldest son of John Pether- 
bridge was John, Jr. , the first dentist in Balti- 
more, Md., where he built up a large practice. 
He was well known, not only as a successful 
dentist, but also as an active worker in the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. He had four sons 
and two daughters. The oldest son, John (3d), 
as a prominent physician of Trappe, Md., was 
known throughout his entire section of the state, 
not only for his skill in ministering to the sick 
and suffering, but also for his earnest labors 
as a local preacher. He was a man of brilliant 
intellect and deep piety, and left a son who fol- 
lows in his father's footsteps. One son, Richard, 
died in early manhood; another, Edward, who 
was major in an artillery regiment during the 
Civil war, died in Baltimore, Md. ; Charles, who 
carried on a boarding school in Richmond, was a 
man of cosmopolitan knowledge and a local 
preacher in the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
The Petherbridge family have been identified 
with the Methodist Church ever since it was 
started by John Weslej', and an Englishman 
once remarked that ' 'You cannot find a Pether- 
bridge in England who is not a Methodist." 

John Petherbridge (ist) had two sons. Of the 
older, John, mention has been made. The 
younger, Richard Whatcoat Petherbridge, was 
born in Philadelphia, and named for one of the 
first bi.shops in the Methodist denomination. He 
was a man of broad culture and deeply interested 
in eastern educational institutions, especially 
that of Pennington Seminary. In his familj' 
there were three sons and six daughters: Odell, 
Annie, John, R.E., Emily, Sarah, Mary, Hen- 
rietta and Helen. Odell, Annie and Helen died in 
early childhood. John was a surgeon in the 
Civil war with the rank of brigadier-general, 
but died soon after its close. Emily is the wife 
of Dr. A. M. Cory, of New Providence, N. J., 
who as acting assistant surgeon during the Civil 
war, rendered heroic service on the general medi- 
cal staff; Sarah resides in Trenton, N. J., with 
Henrietta (now Mrs. Caminade) ; and Mary (now 
Mrs. A. G. Cox) lives in Middletown, Del. 

The younger son of Rev. R. W. Petherbridge, 
and the father of our subject, R. E. Petherbridge, 

was born in Pemberton, N. J., and educated at 
Pennington Seminary, Pennington, N. J., and 
Fort Edward Institute, N.J.; he chose farming 
as an occupation, and after i860 became a resi- 
dent of Kansas. For some time he made his 
home in Atchison County, but after a few years 
moved to Eeavenworth County and bought land 
in High Prairie Township, where he continued 
to reside until his death in November, 1895, at 
the age of fifty-eight years. Politically he was 
a Republican. He married Theodosia Connell, 
who was born near Lexington, Ky., the oldest 
daughter of Hon. Jesse Connell, a native of Ken- 
tucky. Coming to Leavenworth County in the 
early '50s Mr. Connell was one of the first to im- 
prove a farm here; he took an active interest in 
political affairs and for several terms was a mem- 
ber of the state legislature. He was a stanch 
Democrat and fraternally a member of the 
Masonic order. His death occurred in Bates 
County, Mo., in February, 1892. His daughter, 
Mrs. Petherbridge, is living near Boling, Leaven- 
worth County. Of her five children, Mary is the 
wife of John F. Hull, of Winchester, Kans. ; 
Jesse Connell, the subject of this sketch, is the 
oldest son; L- C. is engaged in mining in Boze- 
man, Mont.; R. M. is a farmer and school 
teacher at Boling; and Nellie R. is the wife of 
Louis P. Jennins, of High Prairie. 

In Kansas, where he was born March, 30, 
1866, the subject of this sketch received a com- 
mon-school education. At the age of eighteen 
he began to teach school, and spent five years 
teaching in Leavenworth and Jefferson Counties. 
In 1889 he entered the law department of the 
University of Michigan, from which he gradu- 
ated June 25, 1891, with the degree of LL.B. 
Locating for practice in Leavenworth, Kans., he 
was for one year deputy county attorney under 
Hon. John H. Atwood, after which he served 
as police judge of Leavenworth City for six 
months. Since then he has given his attention 
closely to the practice of law. Within the past 
few years he has made remarkable progress in 
his profession. He is recognized as one of the 
most scholarly men and best lawyers in his town. 
At the Leavenworth bar he is rapidly taking a 

EmjUI^^^ ^ V 





front rank. Gifted by nature with energy, 
ability and keen perceptive faculties, coupled 
with an excellent constitution and fine physique, 
he has added to these gifts by diligeut study, and 
hence his success has been constant. In all of 
his professional work he is keenly alive to the in- 
terests of the people, and has been a stanch 
friend to them in every movement affecting their 

In Tonganoxie, this county, Mr. Petherbridge 
was made a Mason and is now a member of 
Leavenworth Lodge No. 2, A. F. & A. M.; 
he also belongs to Ivanhoe Lodge No. 14, K. P., 
and the Turn Verein. Inthe Democratic party he 
is a favorite campaign speaker and does much in 
behalf of his party and its candidates throughout 
the state. He is connected with the alumni of 
his alma mater, the University of Michigan. 

NGN. HORACE J. SMITH. It would be 
impossible to write a history of Ottawa and 
omit prominent mention of the name of 
Smith. Not without justice he holds an influential 
position among the business men and financiers 
of his city. To his discrimination in business is 
added a high character as a man, a progressive 
spirit as a citizen, and a philanthropy that has 
stamped his life indelibly upon the pages of the 
history of his home town. Necessarily, a man 
of such attributes will be a power for good in his 
community and will stand foremost among his 

Of Scotch- Irish descent, the family of our sub- 
ject has long been connected with American his- 
tory, and his grandfather, on his mother's side, 
Jeremiah Meacham, a native of Connecticut, re- 
moved to Susquehanna County, Pa., in 1800, 
where he died. Horace, son of Silas Smith, was 
born in Cooperstown, N. Y. , and engaged in the 
practice of the dental profession in Montrose, 
Pa. , where he died; he married Marilla Meacham, 
a daughter of Jeremiah Meacham. She was born 
in Litchfield, Conn., and died in Montrose, Pa. 

The youngest of five children who attained 
mature years, our subject was born near Mont- 
rose, Pa., January 27, 1838. His boyhood years 

were spent in Susquehanna County. In 1856 he 
settled in Oregon, Ogle County, 111., where he 
took one course of study in Mount Morris Semin- 
ary. For four years he served as deputy circuit 
clerk under his brother, Mortimer W. Smith. In 
i860 he was elected county treasurer, assuming 
the duties of the ofiice in January, 1861. The 
following year he raised a company for the war 
and was made first lieutenant of Company K, 
Ninety-second Illinois Infantry. Later the regi- 
ment was mounted and after six months he was 
made captain of Company B, serving under Gen. 
Smith D. Atkins, of Freeport, 111. Among the 
battles in which he bore a part were Chickamau- 
ga, Mission Ridge, the campaign from Resaca 
to Atlanta, including the battles of Macon and 
Waynesboro, Ga. , and with Sherman to the sea; 
thence north to Bentonville and Greensboro, wit- 
nessing the surrender of Johnston. During the 
Georgia campaign and the march to the sea he 
served as assistant-adjutaut-general on the staff of 
Gen. Smith D. Atkins. After the surrender he re- 
turned to his company and with them proceeded 
to Concord, N. C, remaining there until ordered 
home at the close of the war. He was mustered 
out July 4, 1865, and honorably discharged in 
Chicago, 111. After a short visit in Ogle County 
he went to Chicago and for six months was em- 
ployed there. 

In the spring of 1866 Captain Smith came to 
Kansas, settling in the then new town of Ottawa 
and opening the first hardware store in Franklin 
County. He continued in this business for four 
years. In 1872 he organized the Ottawa sav- 
ings institution, of which he was cashier for 
three years. In 1S75 Mr. Smith and A. M. Blair 
bought the stock of the First National Bank and 
he was chosen cashier of the institution, and in 
1884 was promoted to the presidency, which po- 
sition he has since held. The bank is on the 
corner of Second and Main streets, and is not 
only the oldest, but also the largest capitalized 
bank in the county. The conservative policy 
adopted by its president has added much to its 
strength and its reputation as a safe and solid 
financial institution. 

On the Republican ticket, in 18S9, Captain 



Smith was elected a member of the lower house 
of the legislature, in which he served as a mem- 
ber of the banking committee and as chairman of 
the committee on cities of the second class. Sev- 
eral times he has been a member of the city 
council and once held the office of ma3'or. He 
is a member of the Kansas Commandery of Loyal 
Legion and George H. Thomas Post No. i8, 
G. A. R. In Masonry he belongs to Ottawa Lodge 
No. 128, A. F. & A. M.;- Franklin Chapter, 
R. A. M., and Tancred Commandery No. 11, 
K. T. , in which he served as eminent commander 
for four terms. 

In Ottawa, in 1867, occurred the marriage of 
Captain Smith to Miss Mary F. Ward, who was 
born in Muskingum County, Ohio, and came to 
Franklin County, Kans., in 1859. They are the 
parents of five children: Minnie E.; Ella W., 
wife of Charles B. Voorhis; Grace L. ; Jay 
Ward, a student in Phillips Academy at An- 
dover, Mass. ; and Horace Eugene, all of whom 
are now living in Ottawa. 

Ha.skell family, which has been represented 
in Douglas County ever since the days of 
the free-state colonization, was founded in Amer- 
ica by Roger Haskell, who was born in England 
in 1813, and settled at Beverly, Mass., in 1632. 
From that place his son, Roger (2d), removed to 
Norwich, Conn., in 1708, accompanied by Roger 
(3d), who at the time was a small boy. Elijah, 
son of Roger (3d), removed from Norwich to 
Tolland, Conn., in 1781, and there died, leaving 
his widow, Sarah (Read) Haskell, with the care 
of thirteen children, the j'oungest only four years 
of age. During the Revolutionary war four of 
her sons enlisted in the colonial service, and two 
died in defending our country. After the close 
of the war she removed from Tolland to Weth- 
ersfield, Windsor County, Vt. , accompanied by 
five sons and three daughters. In that place her 
son, Gideon, resided at the time our subject's 
father, Franklin, was born. The latter married 
Almira Chase, daughter of John Chase, of 
Wethersfield, a soldier in the Revolution, and 

originally from Sutton, Mass. He descended 
from Aquilla Chase, who settled in Newbury- 
port, Mass., with the Massachusetts Bay Colony, 
about the time that the Haskells came to Ameri- 
ca, and whose descendants have since been 
prominent in public affairs. 

When the city of Lawrence, Kans., was found- 
ed in September, 1854, by the first free-state 
company, one of the party who came west was 
Franklin Haskell. He settled upon a quarter- 
section of land adjoining the city, and there he 
died January 27, 1857. His wife continued to 
make the place her home until she passed from 
earth in 1876. Of their children, Charles A., 
who was master of transportation in the quarter- 
master's department during the Civil war, died 
in Lawrence in 1868; Elizabeth P., Mrs. French, 
also died in Lawrence; and Hon. Dudley C, 
who was a member of congress and a man of 
great influence in public life, died in December, 

In Milton, Chittenden County, Vt., the sub- 
ject of this sketch was born February 5, 1832. 
His education was begun in the common schools 
of Vermont. In 1849 he entered the Wesleyan 
Academy at Wilbraham, Mass., where he con- 
tinued (with the exception of the period devoted 
to labor for his support) until 1854. Afterward 
he was a student in Brown University at Provi- 
dence, R. I. In 1855 he entered an architect's 
office at Boston, Mass., where he remained for 
two years, meantime preparing himself for his 
chosen profession, architecture. The death of 
his father made it necessary for him to come 
west. At the time his necessitated change of 
plans seemed fatal to his prospects, as a prosper- 
ous career was opening up to him in the east, 
and Kansas, a new and undeveloped country, 
could, he thought, oflTer but little to one in his 
line of work. Contrary to his expectations, he 
was successful from the first. For a time he had 
the only office in the then territory of Kansas, 
and from that date to this, excepting during the 
Civil war, he has practiced his profession, first 
in Lawrence, later in Topeka. During this en- 
tire period his connection has been close with all 
work of an important public nature. The major- 



ity of the state buildings have been constructed 
under his oversight and from his plans, and more 
than once he has been called to neighboring 
states upon work of a responsible nature. The 
original plans for the state capital were drawn by 
him, and he has since been in charge of changes 
made in the building, including the construction 
of the senate chamber in 1885. He was also en- 
gaged as architect of the State University of 
Kansas, the insane asylums at Topeka and Osa- 
watomie, the reform school at Topeka and the 
reformatory at Hutchinson. Besides these, he 
has been architect for, and connected with the 
construction of, schools, colleges, churches, 
court-houses, hotels, opera houses and business 
buildings in this and other states; also has exe- 
cuted a large number of commissions for the 
government, mainly schools and agency build- 
ings in Indian reservations. The United States 
court-house and postofEce at Topeka, which was 
planned at Washington, was erected under his 
supervision. In 1874 and 1875 he had charge of 
the building of agency and public buildings at 
Tallequah and Grand Saline for the Cherokee 

When the Civil war began Mr. Haskell was 
made deputy quartermaster-general of Kansas, 
under Gen. G. W. Collamore, and in this capac- 
ity outfitted the First, Second and Third Kansas 
Regiments with such supplies as the state fur- 
nished, until ready to be mustered into the 
United States service. He was commissioned 
first lieutenant and regimental quartermaster of 
the Third Regiment. In the spring of 1862 the 
Third and Fourth were consolidated and called 
the Tenth Regiment, of which he was retained as 
quartermaster. In June, 1862, he was made 
captain and assistant quartermaster of volunteers 
under commission of President Lincoln, and was 
assigned to duty on the staff of Brigadier-General 
James G. Blount. As chief quartermaster of the 
army of the frontier he was with Gen. James H. 
Lane, General Blount and Gen. John McNeil, 
ending his field service on the frontier at Fort 
Smith, Ark., December 31, 1863, by an order 
from General Schofield to report for duty at St. 
Louis. In February, 1864, he was assigned to 

duty at Little Rock, Ark., as chief purchasing 
agent of the department of Arkansas and the 
Fifteenth army corps, at the same time being 
given charge of the supplies at Little Rock. In 
addition to his other duties, while at Little Rock 
he built a hospital with accommodations for one 
thousand beds, also erected recuperating stables, 
army repair shops, warehouses, and a pontoon 
bridge across the Arkansas River at Little Rock. 
After having been in service, without furlough, 
for four years and five months, he was honorably 
discharged in November, 1865. In June, 1866, 
he was commissioned by President Johnson 
brevet major and quartermaster United States 
volunteers, for "efficient service during the 
war," the rank dating from March, 1865. Dur- 
ing the administration of Governor S. J. Craw- 
ford he was quartermaster-general of Kansas, 
with the rank of colonel. In 1866 he was 
elected architect of the state house, and in this 
capacity designed the capitol, and during the 
next four years erected the east wing. When 
the office of state architect was created in 1891 
he was elected to the position, and continued in 
charge during the existence of the board with 
whom he served. In 1895 he was appointed 
architect of the board of trustees of the state 
charitable institutions, and held the office during 
the period of the then existing board. By reason 
of long-continued membership in the American 
Institute of Architects, he will, after 1900, be- 
come a life member of the organization. He is 
a member of the board of directors of the State 
Historical Society. 

In the work of the Plymouth Congregational 
Church of Lawrence Colonel Haskell has been 
deeply interested, and its various organizations 
receive his assistance. For many years he has 
been a member and secretary of the executive 
committee of the State Home Missionary Society 
of the Congregational denomination, and has 
frequently served as delegate to its state and na- 
tional conventions. Three times he was elected 
president of the State Sunday-school Association, 
and for many years served upon its executive 

The marriage of Colonel Haskell, December 


22, 1859, united him with Mary Elizabeth Bliss, 
daughter of Luther Burt Bliss, of Wilbraham, 
Mass., a descendant, through her mother, of 
John Adams, of Wilbraham, and Aseph King, 
who was a Revel utionarj^ soldier from Enfield, 
Conn. The two daughters born of this union 
are Harriet Bliss, wife of William McDonald, 
professor of history in Bowdoin College, Me., 
and Mabel Bliss, who resides with her parents. 

All enterprises having for their object the good 
of Lawrence or .Douglas County find in Colonel 
Haskell an advocate and friend, ready to give 
substantial aid and influence to the movement. 
His entire life has been marked by the deeds of a 
patriotic, public-spirited citizen; and, not only as 
an early settler of the county and a man whose 
energies were devoted to its development, but 
still more as a leader in public aifairs and the 
promoter of large business projects, his name is 
entitled to remembrance in histor}'. 

HON. JOHN P. HARRIS, president of the 
People's National Bank of Ottawa and post- 
master of this city, was born in Marietta, 
Ohio, July 24, 1839, being a son of Asa and 
Eliza (Fulcher) Harris, natives respectively of 
Dutchess County, N. Y., and Pennsylvania. 
His grandfather, George Harris, a native of York 
state, and a cooper by trade, removed with his 
family to Ohio, settling near Marietta in 18 17, 
and followed his chosen occupation there until 
his death. At the time of the removal of the fam- 
ily to Ohio, Asa Harris, who was born in 181 1, 
was a child of six years. In bo3'hood he learned 
the wagon-maker's trade, and this occupation he 
followed in Marietta. Coming west to Iowa in 
1853 he established his home on an unimproved 
farm near Centreville, Appanoose County, where 
he remained for six years. In 1859 he came to 
Kansas, and located a claim near Centropolis, 
Franklin County, where for many subsequent 
years he carried on farm pursuits. Finally retir- 
ing to Ottawa, he died in this city in 1884. He 
was a Republican and an Abolitionist, and dur- 
ing the days of the underground railroad he had 
a station at his place in the village of Marietta. 

His sympathies were on the side of the Union, 
and no one was more gratified than he at the 
downfall of slavery. After coming to Kansas he 
identified himself with the growing interests of 
this state, and always lent substantial assistance 
to enterprises for the benefit of his county. He 
was chosen to occupy the oflfices of county treas- 
urer and county superintendent of public instruc- 
tion, in both of which positions he discharged 
every duty with promptness and fidelity. In 
religious connections he was a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. By his marriage 
to Miss Eliza Fulcher, who died in Marietta, 
Ohio, he had three sons: John P.; Milo R., who 
was a soldier in the Civil war and is now engaged 
in the lumber business in Ottawa; and Asa, who 
died in boyhood. 

When a boy our subject became familiar with 
frontier life in the west. His life in Iowa gave 
him a taste of existence in newly settled locali- 
ties, where comforts were few and harships many. 
In May, 1859, he accompanied the family to 
Kansas, and has since made his home in Frank- 
lin County, of which he is a pioneer. Two years 
after his arrival here the Civil war began, and 
the entire nation was darkened by the cloud of 
strife. Nowhere was there more excitement than 
in Kansas, which had for years been one of the 
centres of the struggle between the north and the 
south. W^ith the zeal of youth and the ardor of 
a patriot, Mr. Harris resolved to offer himself to 
his country's cause. In November, 1861, his 
name was enrolled in the First Kansas Battery, 
and for eighteen months he engaged in duty on 
the frontier, taking part in numerous engage- 
ments in the west. In 1863 he was transferred 
to Tennessee, where much of his subsequent 
service was spent. With General Thomas he 
took part in the battle of Nashville in the fall of 
1864. At the expiration of his term he was 
mustered out, as a non-commissioned ofiicer, at 
Nashville, in December, 1864. 

At the time of entering the army Mr. Harris 
had no thought that on his return he would find 
a city had sprung up on the present site of Otta- 
wa; but so he found it, and in 1866 he settled 
here. For some time he engaged in the freight- 



ing business, but the completion of the railroad 
to the west in 1868 rendered freighting unprofit- 
able, and he abandoned it. When his father re- 
tired from the county treasurer's office he suc- 
ceeded him, serving from 1868 to 1872. In 1874 
he settled on a farm ten miles southwest of Otta- 
wa, where, with his brother, M. R., he owned 
thirteen hundred and twenty acres, and engaged 
in the stock business for three years. Returning 
to Ottawa in 1877 he became president of the 
People's National Bank, and he has since been 
at the head of this institution. The bank was 
organized in 1874, and has since been one of the 
solid financial institutions in the countj'. Much 
of his success is due to his business judgment 
and the conservative policy he has pursued in the 
matter of investments, etc. 

A man of versatile ability, Mr. Harris is not 
only able to engage in the banking business suc- 
cessfully, but he has also wielded an influence in 
public affairs. Few Republicans in Franklin 
County have been more prominent than he, and 
his services to his party have been invaluable. 
In 1876 he was elected to the state senate, and 
during the four years that he served he repre- 
sented the interests of his constituents with abil- 
ity, at the same time taking a deep interest in 
general state legislation. He was not a candidate 
for re-election, but retired at the close of his first 
term. He has several times been a member of 
the city council of Ottawa, and once served as its 
mayor. In 1896 he was the Republican candi- 
date for congress, but, owing to the fusion of 
the free silver tickets, he was defeated (as was 
also the state ticket), though he lost by only 
three hundred votes. . As a partial return for his 
services to his party he was tendered the office 
of postmaster in December, 1898, and accepted 
the position, his son, Ralph A., being deputy 
postmaster. Public-spirited and progressive, he 
is disposed at all times to aid worthy enterprises. 
By his intelligence and force of character he has 
not only advanced his personal success, but has 
aided iu the progress of the city with whose 
progress his own life has been inseparably con- 

Mr. Harris is a charter member of George 11. 

Thomas Post No. 18, G. A. R. , and in 1895 was 
department commander of Kansas, with the rank 
of general. He is a member of Franklin Lodge 
No. 18, A. F. & A. M., Ottawa Chapter, 
R. A. M., and Tancred Commandery No. 11, 
K. T. His marriage took place in Farmington, 
111., and united him with Sarah E. Zook, who 
was born in Pennsylvania, and removed to Illi- 
nois with her father, David Zook. Mr. and Mrs. 
Harris are the parents of two sons. The older, 
Ralph A., who was educated at the Northwestern 
University at Evanston, 111., was for ten years 
teller of the People's National Bank. The other 
son, Fred M., is a graduate of the University of 
Kansas, and is a practicing attorney at Ottawa, 
this state. 

made his home upon a farm in Palmyra 
Township, Douglas Countj', since 1868, 
and is the owner of four hundred and forty acres 
of valuable, well-improved land here, besides 
three hundred and twenty acres in Miami Coun- 
ty, Kans. He is a man of prominence in public 
affairs, wielding an influence in behalf of meas- 
ures for the public good. While he has been 
active in the Republican party he has displayed 
no narrow partisanship, but has been inclined 
toward liberal views. From 18S8 to 1892 he 
represented his district in the state senate, dur- 
ing which time he drafted and presented the bill 
providing for the present interest laws of the 
state; also the law authorizing Chancellor Snow 
to distribute the material necessary to kill the 
pest known as the chinch bug: the primary elec- 
tion laws of the state, and laws relative to official 
bonds for a given sum opposite the name of the 

Near Ripley, Brown County, Ohio, Mr. How- 
ard was born July 24, 1840. His father, Cyrus, 
was born in the same place December 9, 181 2, 
and in early life was a boatman, but from middle 
age devoted himself to farm pursuits. Though 
he started in the world for himself without means, 
and had not even the assistance of a good educa- 
tion, yet such was his energy and ability that 
at the time of his death he left property worth 



$60,000. In politics he was first a Whig, later 
a Republican, and was active in local affairs, al- 
though he never desired office for himself. When 
he was sixty-four years of age he was clubbed to 
death near his home by robbers who wanted to 
secure his money. His wife, who bore the 
maiden name of Mary Stephenson, was born in 
Brown County, Ohio, in 1814, and died there at 
seventy-two years of age. Both were members 
of the New Light or Christian Church. They 
were the parents of four children, one of whom 
died in infancy, Alfred at fifty years of age, and 
Louisa when twenty-three. 

The paternal grandfatherof our subject, Abner 
Howard, was born at Briar Ridge, Va. , and 
migrated to Kentucky about 1800. During the 
war of 18 12 he served under General Harrison. 
Though he had no education, he was a shrewd, 
smart, capable man, quick to avail himself of 
favorable opportunities. He owned the first 
horse-tread mill in his section of country. His 
occupation was farming, in which he met with 
success. In religion he was a Methodist, and 
politically voted with the Democrats until the 
formation of the Republican party. His death 
took place at eighty -three years of age. Our 
subject's mother was a daughter of James and 
Isabelle (Kirkpatrick) Stephenson. The latter 
was born in Virginia, and was one of two daugh- 
ters, whose father was killed by the Indians in 
1791, while on his way from Wheeling, W. Va., 
to Kentucky. James Stephenson was born in 
Delaware, of English descent. Fort Stephenson 
was named in honor of his brother. Col. Mills 
Stephenson, who was colonel of a regiment. The 
latter was a brave soldier, and served in the war 
of 181 2; also was present at the defeat of St. 
Clair in 1791, when he was only eighteen years 
old. His father, a native of Delaware, served as 
a captain in Washington's army during the 
Revolutionary war, and some years afterward, 
about 1790, settled in Kentucky. James Ste- 
phenson's father, a captain in Washington's 
army, witnessed the surrender of Cornwallis at 

The education of our subject was obtained in 
country schools and Ripley high school. The 

descendant of patriotic soldiers, it was but natural 
that the opening of the Civil war should find hin' 
fired with enthusiasm in behalf of the Union. 
July 9, 186 1, he enlisted in the Fourth Inde- 
pendent Ohio Cavalry, and was with McPherson 
as body guard for two j'ears, remaining in the 
service for three years. He was slightly wound- 
ed at Utica, Miss., May 12, 1863, during the ad- 
vance on Vicksburg. Shortly after his return 
home he was elected sheriff, being the first Re- 
publican that ever held the office in his native 
county. He had never been in court until he 
went as sherifi", consequently had a very dim 
conception of the duties of his office, but, al- 
though he lacked experience, he soon proved 
himself a capable officer. At the expiration of 
his term, in 1867, he came to Kansas and bought 
the farm where he has resided since 1868. 

May 12, 1866, Mr. Howard married Miss 
Lizzie M. King, of Brown County, Ohio. She 
died in 1883, leaving two sons, James Harvey, a 
farmer in Miami County, Kans., and Alfred Ste- 
phenson, a student in the Kansas law school in 
Lawrence. In 1890 Mr. Howard married Miss 
Katie Grow, of Brown County, Ohio. To this 
union three children were born, one of whom 
died in infancy, the others being William Te- 
cumseh and Lannes Dassaix. Fraternally Mr. 
Howard is connected with the Masons and Odd 
Fellows. He is a public-spirited citizen, and has 
done much to promote the welfare of the people 
of his community, where he rightly ranks as an 
honorable and able man. 

(lOHN W. PARCELS, president of the Jewett 
I Milling Company of Eudora, Douglas Coun- 
(2/ ty, was born in Wabash County, Ind., May 
13, 1843, a son of Rev. James and Lucy (East- 
man) Parcels, natives respectively of Virginia and 
Vermont. His father settled in Indiana in 1842, 
and continued to make his home in that state 
until 1863, when he moved toFairbury, Living- 
ston County, 111., spending the remainder of his 
life there. While he supported himself and fam- 
ily by means of farming, he gave much of his 
time to ministerial and missionary work in the 


Methodist Episcopal Church, in which he was a 
licensed preacher. However, while he traveled 
considerably and labored with the greatest self- 
sacrifice for the cause of Christ, he never asked 
any remuneration for his services, but was con- 
stantly giving from his private means for the sup- 
port of churches in which he was interested. He 
died at eighty years of age and his wife when 
seventy-six. They were the parents of eight 
children, of whom five are living, namely: John 
W.; Martha, wife of William H. H. DeLong; 
Julia, Mrs. Clark Cozzens; Frank, ofTopeka, 
Kans. ; and Edward M., of Littleton, Colo. 

When a boy our subject became familiar with 
milling. While working at his trade in Mont- 
gomery County, Ind., in 1863, he enlisted in 
Company B, One Hundred and Sixteenth In- 
diana Infantry, in which he served for nine 
months, meantime receiving promotion to the 
rank of sergeant. His regiment was assigned to 
the Fourteenth Army Corps and served under 
General Thomas in the army of the Cumberland. 
At the expiration of his term of service, in 1864, 
he went to Fairbury, 111., where he followed his 
trade for six years. In 1870 he came to Kansas 
and accepted a situation as head miller with the 
Smucker Milling Company of Lawrence, and later 
with the Pierson Milling Company. Associated 
with S. S. Jewett, in 1894, they purchased the 
property of the Kaw Valley Milling Company 
and organized the Jewett Milling Company, of 
which he is president and general manager. Hav- 
ing made a thorough study of the milling busi- 
ness from his youth, he is familiar with all of its 
details and is equipped with the scientific and 
practical knowledge so indi.spensable to success 
in his occupation. 

On the Republican ticket Mr. Parcels was elec- 
ted to the city council of Eudora, in which capa- 
city he was a supporter of all measures for the 
public good. For six years he was a member of 
tlie board of education, during which time he took 
an active part in the management of the schools 
of his home town. Fraternally he is past grand of 
Halcyon Lodge, I. O. O. F. , of Lawrence, and 
is connected with Washington Post No. 112, 
G. A. R. He is a member of the English Luth- 

eran Church of Lawrence. December 24, 1881, 
he was united in marriage with Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Daniel Miles, of Indiana. One child blesses 
their union, a son, Byron M. 

EEORGE W. KAUFMANN. The prosperity 
of a place is dependent upon the growth and 
development of its business interests, and it 
is consequently a matter of the highest impor- 
tance that these should be in the hands of reli- 
able, efficient business men, who will use their 
influence, not alone for their personal advantage, 
but also for the benefit of the city. It may safely 
be said of the subject of this sketch that he has 
acted his part as a citizen of Leavenworth and 
has done all within his power to promote local 
interests. While much of his time is given to 
the management of his grocery, he has found 
time, as a member of the city council, to aid in 
enterprises that will promote Leavenworth's 

The entire life of Mr. Kaufmann has been 
spent in Leavenworth and he is now engaged in 
business at No. 222 West Seventh street, on the 
site where stood the house in which he was born 
in 1867. His father, William Kaufmann, emi- 
grated from Germany to America and settled in 
Joliet, 111., but after a short time, in 1858, came 
to Leavenworth, Kans. , where several years later 
he opened a grocery. He was the incorporator 
of the National Soap Company, which he carried 
on for seven years. From the time of his re- 
moval to this city until his retirement a few years 
ago, he was actively identified with the interests 
of the place, and took a leading part, not only 
in business matters, but also in politics. He 
married Mary Kauffmann, a native of Germany, 
but a resident of Leavenworth from girlhood. 
They are still living in this city, and are now 
advanced in years. They have but two children, 
Anna and George W. 

When a young man, our subject served an ap- 
prenticeship to the machinist's trade, but did not 
follow the occupation. For .several years he was 
a partner in the National Soap Company. In 
1 89 1 he opened a grocery business, which he has 



since successfully carried on. Besides his store, 
he is the owner of considerable real estate, in- 
cluding a residence on Chestnut street. In 1887 
he married Ida, daughter of J. H. Rothenberger. 
They have two children, Henry William and 

In politics a Republican, Mr. Kaufmann was 
elected on this ticket in 1 897 to represent the 
third ward in the city council and two years later 
he was re-elected for another term. He has 
taken an active part in the work of the council 
and has served as chairman of the fire and 
market committees and a member of other com- 
mittees. His service in the council has been en- 
tirely satisfactory to the people of the third ward. 
Every matter for the benefit of the city receives 
his aid, and all public-spirited projects find him 
at the front. Fraternally he is connected with 
King Solomon Lodge No. 10, A. F. & A. M., 
and Leavenworth Court No. 10, F. of A., in 
both of which lodges he has held ofiices. 

pQlLLIAM HUGHES. During the entire 

I A / psi'io'i since the earliest settlement of Kan- 
YV sas, Mr. Hughes has been identified with 
itshistory. Fond of the stirring and adventurous, 
scenes of pioneer life, he was fitted to aid in the 
task of transforming the uninhabited prairie with 
its raw, undeveloped land, into the home of a 
busy, industrious and contented people. When, 
in 1855, he came to Kansas, he secured employ- 
ment in Lawrence. The next year he bought a 
team and began freighting over the plains to 
Fort Union, N. M., but after having made two 
trips he turned his attention to other work. In 
1858 he rented forty acres from Captain Parks, 
chief of the Shawnee Indians, and four years later 
he commenced to buy land from Indians, his first 
purchase being two hundred acres of raw land. 
Afterward he continued to add to his property 
until at one time he was the owner of eleven hun- 
dred acres, but he has disposed of six hundred 
acres, and now owns five hundred, on which he 
has for j-ears engaged in raising stock and feed- 
ing cattle for the market. He is a lover of good 
horses and has several head on his place. In 1867 

he built a .substantial brick residence, which was 
the finest -farm house built up to that time in 
Douglas County, and which is still one of the 
best in Eudora Township. 

Born in Wales, April 9, 1833, our subject is a 
son of Samuel Hughes, a native of Wales, who 
crossed the ocean in 1839 and settled near Pitts- 
burg, Pa., there engaging in farm pursuits. He 
met with an accident in 1844 and died from its 
effects at the age of sixty years. His wife, who 
bore the maiden name of Elizabeth Edwards, was 
born in Wales and died in Pittsburg in 1844. 
They were the parents of ten children, seven of 
whom are living, viz.: Samuel, of Arizona; Will- 
iam; Sallie, widow of Charles Taylor; Elizabeth; 
Annie; Lewis C, who was governor of Arizona 
under President' Cleveland and is now editor of the 
Arizona Star; and Thomas, also of Arizona. 

At the time the family emigrated to America 
our subject was six years of age. Left an orphan 
at an early age, he became a ward of the wife of 
Gen. William Robinson, a wealthy citizen of 
Pittsburg. He remained in the east until after 
attaining his majority, when, at the opening of 
Kansas for settlement, he cast in his lot with the 
pioneers of this then territory. He arrived in 
Lawrence March 15, 1855, with fifty cents in his 
pocket; but, though lacking money, he did not 
lack perseverance and determination, and subse- 
quent years brought him a large degree of pros- 
perity, as well as considerable prominence. Dur- 
ing the border wars he was associated with John 
Brown in the battles of Black Jack and Osawato- 
mie and was also with Captain Vigerrton at Fort 
Saunders and Titus. At the time oftheQuan- 
trell raid he was one of the party that captured 
Skeggs, one of the most daring of the raiders. 
His sympathies were strongly on the side of the 
Union and he never hesitated to declare his opin- 
ions openly without fear of consequences. Ac- 
tive in Republican local politics, he assists the 
campaigns in Eudora Township and works for 
the party candidates. Believing firmly in the 
advantages of a good education, he has given his 
family liberal advantages, besides helping several 
orphans, and has also aided the schools of his 




August 28, 1858, Mr. Hughes married Ellen J. , 
daughter of Alexander and Jane (McWilliams) 
Robinson, of Sharpsburg, Pa. Thej- have two 
sons: William R., ex-county clerk of Custer 
County, Okla., and now clerk of the district 
court ; and Thomas J. , a stock-raiser of that county. 
Fraternally Mr. Hughes is connected with Law- 
rence Lodge No. 4, I. O. O. F. He has been 
prominent in connection with fairs, aiding the 
Bismarck and the Kansas state fairs, and he has 
also given liberal contributions to other worthy 
enterprises. He organized the first Sunday- 
school in the Kaw Valley and maintained it per- 
sonally for ten years. 

Ki chancellor of the University of Kansas, 
I * has been connected with this institution 
during the entire period of its history, and 
the record of his life is, in its vital points, a his- 
tory of the university. No one has labored more 
untiringly than he to promote its advancement 
and broaden the scope of its influence. When, 
in 1866, he was elected a member of the faculty 
and came west to accept the chair of mathematics 
and natural science, he found himself one of a 
faculty of three, in charge of a school of fifty-five 
students. As the years passed by he contributed 
to the rapid growth of the school, to the success 
of which his reputation as an instructor added 
not a little. In 1870 he was transferred to the 
chair of natural history, the university having 
increased by that time to an attendance of two 
hundred and twenty-seven, while the faculty had 
nine members. He occupied three rooms in the 
main building, soon after its erection in 1S72, 
continuing there until 1886, when Snow Hall 
was completed, and for four years he had charge 
of recitations in that building. When, in 1889, 
he was elected president of the faculty and placed 
in charge of the educational work, there was an 
attendance of five hundred and eight students, 
with thirty-three instructors. In 1890 he was 
made chancellor, which responsible position he 
has since filled with the greatest efficiency. Tlie 
subsequent growth has been most gratifying. In 


1891 the preparatory department was cut off, 
since which time the number of accredited high 
schools has increased from sixty-four to one 
hundred and forty-seven. During the last term 
C 1 898-99) there was an attendance of one 
thousand and eighty-seven students, and the 
faculty now numbers .sixty-nine members, 
among whom are many instructors of national 

The work of Chancellor Snow has been not 
only in the direction of increasing the attendance 
at the university, but he has endeavored to en- 
large the facilities and broaden the advantages 
offered to the students. Realizing the need of 
suitable buildings for various purposes, he has 
striven to secure the funds necessary for their 
erection, and in this work he has been remark- 
ably successful, having enlisted the sympathy of 
many men of large means and philanthropic 
spirit. In 1895 the Physics building was erected 
by a state appropriation, and three years later 
the Fowler building, with every facility for in- 
struction in engineering, was erected, a gift from 
George A. Fowler, of Kansas City. The most 
valuable private endowment was one of $95,000, 
given by an uncle of Chancellor Snow, William 
B. Spooner, a wealthy merchant of Boston, whose 
wife was Lucy Huntington. This generous gift 
rendered possible the magnificent Spooner library, 
a modern, fire-proof building, provided with 
every facility and containing a fine collection of 

For a period of twenty-five years Dr. Snow 
devoted his vacations to the collection of material 
for the museum of natural history which is now 
a part of the university. In 1885 the state leg- 
islature, in appreciation of his labors, appropri- 
ated the sum of $50,000 to be expended in the 
erection of a building in which this splendid col- 
lection might be preserved. This building was 
completed in 1886 at an expense of $50,000 and 
named Snow Hall, in honor of Chancellor Snow. 

As many as eighty lineal ancestors of Chancel- 
lor Snow came to America between 1620 and 
1640. Three ancestors took part in the Revolu- 
tion and many participated in the colonial wars. 
His father, Benjamin Snow, was born in West- 



moreland, N. H., and became a merchant and 
manufacturer of paper at Fitchburg, Mass., also 
president of a savings bank there and a director 
in the RoUstone National Bank. He died in that 
town when seventy-five years of age. His 
father, Benjamin Snow, Sr., was a native of 
Lunenburg, Mass., and for some years engaged 
in the mercantile business at Westmoreland, 
N. H., but, when his son was eleven years old, 
removed to Fitchburg, Mass. , where he died in 
his eighty-ninth year. He married Alfreda Hall, 
a descendant of Richard Warren, who came in 
the "Mayflower," and also of George Hall, who 
came from Devonshire, England, in 1636, settled 
in Taunton , Mass. , was one of the proprietors of 
the first iron works in this country, served as 
chairman of the board of selectmen and was one 
of the founders of the Pilgrim Congregational 
Church. The father of Benjamin Snow, Sr. , was 
Lieut. Silas Snow, who was born in Lunenburg, 
Mass. , and became an early settler of Fitchburg. 
His father, William, was asonof Zerubabel, who 
was the son of John, and grandson of Richard 
Snow, who emigrated from England in 1640 and 
three years later settled in Woburn, Mass. 

The mother of Chancellor Snow was Mary, 
daughter of David and Ruth Baldwin (Hunting- 
ton) Boutelle, and a member of the family to 
which belonged ex-Governor Boutwell, of Massa- 
chusetts. David Boutelle, who died at ninety- 
three years, was a son of David, Sr. , whose father, 
James, was a son of James (4th). The latter's 
father, James Csd), was a son of James (2d), the 
son of James Boutelle (ist), the founder of the 
family in America, and one of the original set- 
tlers of Reading, Mass. David Boutelle, Sr. , en- 
listed from Leominster, Mass., in the Revolu- 
tionary war; he married a daughter of Lieut. 
Luke Richardson, who enlisted in the colonial 
army as a private and was promoted to the rank 
of lieutenant. 

Dr. Christopher Huntington, father of Ruth 
Baldwin Huntington, was a descendant of Simon 
Huntington, who was born in Norwich, Eng- 
land, and started with his wife and three children 
to America, but died on the ocean. His wife, 
Margaret (Baret) Huntington, came on with the 

children and settled at Norwich, Conn., where 
their homestead is in the hands of their descend- 
ants. Her son, Christopher (ist), was the first 
town clerk of Norwich, Conn., and, with the ex- 
ception of two terms, the ofiice has since been 
held by descendants. Deacon Christopher Hunt- 
ington (2d) was the first white male child born 
in Norwich, Conn. His son, Christopher (3d), 
was the father of Christopher (4th), a physician, 
whose son, Christopher (5th), also a physician, 
was the great-grandfather of Chancellor Snow. 
Christopher Huntington (ist) married Ruth 
Rockwell, from whom Gen. U. S. Grant was a 
direct descendant. 

Chancellor Snow also traces his lineage to 
Capt. James Leonard, of Pontypool, Wales, who 
settled in Taunton, Mass., in 1652 and died in 
1 69 1. His descendants were iron workers, and 
also took an active part in the Indian wars. 
One of the ancestors was John Prescott, a native 
of Yorkshire, England, a noted Indian fighter, 
of Lancaster, Mass. Other ancestors were Capt. 
Nathaniel Wilder, who was killed by Indians at 
Lancaster; Capt. Peter Joslin, whose first wife 
and four children were massacred by savages; 
and Rev. Thomas Carter, who came from Eng- 
land in 1635, and was the first minister at Wo- 
burn, Mass.; his son, Samuel Carter, graduated 
from Harvard College in 1660. 

Of the family of Benjamin Snow, Jr., compris- 
ing six children, only two are living. One son, 
Benjamin, died in Lawrence when twenty-eight 
years of age. Francis Huntington Snow was 
born in Fitchburg, Mass., June 29, 1840, and 
graduated from the high school of his native 
town. In 1858 he matriculated in Williams Col- 
lege, from which he graduated, as valedictorian 
of the class of 1S62, with the degree of 
A. B. While in college he was president 
of the Lyceum of natural history and the 
Philologian Literary Society. In 1865 the 
degree of A. M. was conferred upon him by 
his alma mater. In 1862 he accepted the 
principalship of the Fitchburg high school, and 
later was his father's chief clerk for a year. In 
1864 he entered Andover Theological Seminary, 
at Andover, Mass. , from which he graduated in 



1866, and was licensed to preach in the Congre- 
gational denomination. Immediately afterward 
he accepted a chair in the University of Kansas, 
then being established, and at once began his 
long and honorable connection with one of the 
greatest institutions of the west. 

At Andover, Mass., July 8, 1868, Chancellor 
Snow married Miss Jane Appleton Aiken, who 
was born in Lowell, Mass., and was a namesake 
of her aunt, the wife of President Franklin Pierce. 
Her father, John Aiken, descended from Edward 
Aiken, who was born in the north of Ireland, of 
Scotch lineage, and settled in Londonderry, 
N. H. Her mother, Mary M., was a daughter of 
Jesse Appleton, D.D., president of Bowdoin Col- 
lege, whose ancestry can be traced to 141 4 
in England. The first of the Appletons in this 
country was Samuel Appleton, who came from 
Waddingfield, England, in a very early day. 
The family took an honorable part in the Revo- 
lutionary and Indian wars. One of the ancestors 
was Samuel Symonds, an early governor of 
Massachusetts colony. Mrs. Snow received an 
excellent education, attending Abbot Female 
Academy in Andover. Of her marriage six 
children were born, five of whom are living. The 
eldest, William Appleton Snow, graduated from 
the University of Kansas with the degree of B. S. , 
later received the degree of M. S., and is now an 
instructor in Leland Stanford, Jr., University in 
California. The oldest daughter, Martha Boutelle 
Snow, graduated from the University of Kansas 
in 1898, and is the wife of William Harvey 
Brown, a graduate of the University of Kansas, 
class of 1888, a pioneer of Salisbury, South 
Africa, and a participant in many of the exciting 
events in Rhodesia, concerning which he has 
written in his "On the South African Frontier," 
published by Scribner in 1899. The second 
daughter, Mary Margaret, who was educated in 
the University of Kansas, is the wife of Ermine 
C. Case, a professor in the Wisconsin State Nor- 
mal at Milwaukee. The youngest children are 
Edith Huntington and Frank Lawrence Snow. 
The former is a student in the university, and 
the latter is now in South Africa with his sister, 
Mrs. Brown. 

Since 1889 Chancellor Snow has been an ex- 
officio member of the state board of education. His 
interest in educational work is broad and endur- 
ing, and the high standing of Kansas as an educa- 
tional centre is not a little due to his wise efforts. 
Frequently he has contributed to scientific jour- 
nals, about one hundred articles from his pen hav- 
ing been published, mainly in Kansas. He is a 
member of the Cambridge Entomological Society 
and has acted as an editor of "Psyche," the organ 
of that society. The university educational exhibit 
at the World's Fair, which attracted considerable 
notice and revealed the high standing of Kansas 
in educational work, was made under his super- 
vision. He is a director of the Museum of Natu- 
ral History and a director of the University Ex- 
perimental Station established for the destruction 
of chinch bugs. He was one of the founders of 
the Kansas Academy of Science, of which he is 
a life member. The National Educational Asso- 
ciation numbers him among its members, and he 
is also connected with the North Central Asso- 
ciation of Colleges and Secondary Schools. He 
is a fellow of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, and a member of the 
Delta Ypsilon, of the national society of which 
he was recently president. 

In 188 1 the degree of Ph. D. was conferred 
upon Chancellor Snow by Williams College. At 
the time of his inauguration as chancellor, in 
1890, announcement was made that the degree 
of D. D. had been conferred upon him by Prince- 
ton College. While he was ordained to the 
ministry, his work has been mainly in the line of 
educational effort, although during the first two 
years of his residence in Lawrence he preached 
every Sunday for Congregational Churches 
in Lawrence and vicinity. For twenty-five years 
he has been the teacher of a Bible class in Ply- 
mouth Congregational Church, and during much 
of the time he has served as a trustee and dea- 
con. He is in sympathy with the principles of 
the Republican party and usually votes that 
ticket. His descent from pioneer fighting stock 
entitles him to admission in the Society of 
American Wars and he is a prominent member 
of the same. 



In summing up the life and character of Chan- 
cellor Snow, it may be said that he is one of the 
best-known educators in the United States. His 
mental powers are of an unusually strong and 
vigorous order. His wide experience, his habits 
of comprehensive reading, his insight into human 
nature and his love for the young, qualify him to 
stand at the head of an institution that is accom- 
plishing so much in the moulding of the charac- 
ters of the young men and women of Kansas. 

30HN H. JOHNS, chief engineer and super- 
intendent of construction at the National 
Military Home, Leavenworth, was born in 
Cincinnati, Ohio, June 5, 1847, a son of James 
H. and Elizabeth (Fetters) Johns. His father, 
who was born in Philadelphia, removed from 
there to Cincinnati in 1838, and in the latter city 
he began carpentering and building. After a 
time he was recognized as one of the leading 
architects of the place and was employed in the 
construction of many important buildings. His 
death occurred in Cincinnati in 1876, when he 
was seventy-four years of age, having survived 
his wife eight years. He was a son of David 
Johns, who was a soldier in the war of 18 12, and 
whose father served in the colonial army during 
the Revolution. In the family of James H. 
Johns there were eight children, but onlj' four 
of these are now living, one, William H. , being 
a civil engineer in Silver Star City, Mont., and 
Samuel F. , a builder and contractor in Cincin- 
nati, while the only daughter living is the wife 
of Maj. William Thompson, of the National 
Soldiers' Home at Hampton, Va. 

For years, during his early manhood, the sub- 
ject of this sketch was engaged in civil and me- 
chanical engineering in Cincinnati, and he con- 
tinued to reside in that city until 1885, when he 
accepted his present position as chief engineer 
and superintendent of construction at the Na- 
tional Military Home in Leavenworth. When 
he was seventeen years of age he enlisted in 
Company C, One Hundred and Thirty-ninth Ohio 
Infantry, and served on detached duty until the 
close of the Civil war, having charge of the guard 

of prisoners in southern Maryland. He has al- 
ways been a patriotic, public-spirited citizen, and 
in politics has been identified with the Republican 
party. By his marriage, in 1869, to Miss Mary 
Porter, of Cincinnati, he has three children, viz.: 
Elizabeth, wife of George Williams, of Kansas 
City; Ruth and Grace. 

Fraternally Mr. Johns is a member of Leaven- 
worth Lodge No. 2, A. F. & A. M., and is past 
grand of Cincinnati Lodge No. 3, I. O. O. F. 
For years he has been connected with the Grand 
Army and interested in its welfare and reunions. 
He is, in point of years of active connection with 
the Soldiers' Home, the oldest employe here, 
having accepted his present position when the 
Home was first established, and has since had 
charge of the construction of all the buildings. 

(Joseph H. HARRISON, a retired farmer of 
I Wakarusa Township, Douglas County, 
(2/ was born in Alabama, December 22, 1828. 
He is descended from one of five brothers who 
came to America prior to the Revolutionarj- war 
and settled in different parts of thecountr)', his an- 
cestor going to the south. His father, Jesse, who 
was a millwright and for some years worked in 
cotton mills, removed to Missouri in 1829 and 
engaged in carpentering. As the locality in 
which the family settled was on the frontier, 
whither as yet few pioneers had made their waj-, 
the advantages for obtaining an education were 
very meagre, and hence our subject had few op- 
portunities to attend school. Most of his time 
was given to assisting in the clearing of the farm. 
At the time of the Mexican war he volunteered 
under Col. N. B. Holden, but he was so young 
that the officers refused to accept him. For a 
time he was employed in freighting for the gov- 

In 1854 Mr. Harrison came to Kansas and 
took up one hundred and sixty acres where he 
now resides, and he has a government patent for 
the land. When he arrived in Lawrence June 4, 
the first cabin in the town was being built, and 
this building stood until verj' recently. He has 
witnessed the growth of the place from a hamlet 



with one house to a large, prosperous city, the 
seat of the state university, the home of an intel- 
ligent people, and the center of wide commercial 
interests. After building a log house on his 
land he began to improve the place, and engaged 
in general farming here. With a few colts and 
cattle he embarked in the stock business, and in 
time became the owner of valuable stock. After 
he had accumulated some means he bought an 
eighty-acre tract south of his original quarter- 
section, and built a neat farm house, which, 
standing on an elevation, occupies a fine location. 
The land is improved with all the accessories of 
a modern farm, and he has a garden and vine- 
yard, in addition to other improvements. 

Prior to the war Mr. Harrison was a stanch 
free-state man. He incurred the dislike of pro- 
slavery advocates and twice his horses were 
stolen from him, but each time he recovered 
them. Formerly a Democrat, he now votes 
with the Populists. He has filled the offices of 
road overseer and school director. During the 
Civil war he engaged in freighting for the gov- 
ernment between Kansas and New Mexico. 
At one time he was a member of the Grange. 
By his marriage to Mrs. Martha A. Randolph 
eight children were born, but only two are now 
living, viz.: Joseph M., who since his father's 
retirement has had charge of a portion of the 
home farm; and Lucy J., who married Seigel 
Rose, and lives on a part of the old homestead. 

fgUSTAV A. GRABBER, member of the firm 
I— of Graeber Brothers, of Lawrence, is a man 
VJ of striking and original personality, and for 
years has been a conspicuous figure in his home 
town. A resident of Lawrence from boyhood he 
started the first boat house here, and continued 
its keeper for fourteen years, during which time 
not a single accident occurred. During the ex- 
istence of the Lawrence Boat Club he was also 
employed as its keeper. He was instrumental in 
getting the first racing shell on the river. As a 
swimmer and diver he has no superior, and in 
boating he is also an expert. On three after- 
noons in succession he shot over the dam in a 

boat, a most hazardous undertaking, and one 
which no one else has ever attempted. Often he 
dived for the large fish that came up to the foot 
of the mill race, and in this he soon excelled. 
He constructed a hook attached to a short line, 
and with this he would dive and feel his way to 
the place he knew the large fish to be. When 
he touched the fish, he would, quick as a flash, 
with a downward stroke, hook it usually down 
from the top of the back; then would come the 
struggle, which always ended fortunately for 
him, although he had some narrow escapes. In 
this way he caught fish weighing from twenty- 
five to eighty pounds each, his best record as to 
number being nine fish in twelve minutes. His 
boat house was a fine one, furnished with an 
equipment of row boats and sail boats. In addi- 
tion to this work he started the first mandolin 
club and the second skating rink in Lawrence. 
In his rink he employed steam power for grind- 
ing the skates, and had other improvements of a 
modern nature. Upon selling out his boat busi- 
ness, in June, 1895, he engaged with his broth- 
ers, Albert and Carl, in the plumbing, heating 
and gas-fitting business, under the firm name of 
Graeber Brothers. They have their ofiice and shop 
at No. 728 Massachusetts street, and are prepared 
to do thorough work in their line, the two broth- 
ers being practical plumbers (while our subject 
gives his attention to the general management of 
the business). The firm had the contract for the 
plumbing system at Haskell Institute, the Fow- 
ler building in the University of Kansas, as well 
as some of the finest residences in the city. 

Carl Graeber, our subject's father, was a son 
of Johan Graeber, a shoemaker, who served in the 
war of 1S12-15, taking part of the battles of Leip- 
sic and Waterloo, and died in Germany May 5, 
1866, at the age of seventy-four. The latter's 
father was a soldier under Frederick the Great. 
In Bartenstein, East Prussia, Germany, where 
he was born in 1825, Carl Graeber learned the 
trade of a shoemaker. For three and one-hatf 
years he was a member of the Thirty -fifth Regu- 
lar Infantry, serving his time mostly on the 
French line. May 19, 1852, he set sail from 
Hamburg for America,,landing on the loth of 



July. He proceeded via Chicago to LaSalle, 111. , 
where he followed his trade. In 1857 he came 
to Kansas and secured a claim, after which he 
returned for his family. His first home in Kan- 
sas was eight miles south of Clinton. In 1861 
he came to Lawrence to work at his trade, leaving 
his family at Franklin. August 20, 1863, cir- 
cumstances arose which made it necessary for 
him to return home for a short time. Thus he 
fortunately escaped the Quantrell massacre of 
the next day, in which his employer was shot. 
Shortly afterward he brought his family to Law- 
rence, and here he has since followed his trade. 
While in Illinois he was married, at Chicago, to 
Miss Apolonia Braun, who was born in Hesse- 
Darmstadt, and came with her mother to Ameri- 
ca. They became the parents of six children: 
Gustav A., who was born in Illinois February 
27, 1855; Otto, of Pueblo, Colo.; Albert and Carl, 
of Lawrence; Laura and Minna, at home. Dur- 
ing the Price raid the father served as a member 
of Company B, Seventeenth Kansas Militia. 

Our subject is a charter member of the Frater- 
nal Aid Association. He was married in St. 
Joe, Mo., to Miss Margaret Eyre, who was born 
in England, and by whom he has one son, 

QrOF. GEORGE B. PENNY. There is no 
L/ department connected with the University of 
fS Kansas more popular than the school of fine 
arts, which was organized under the immediate 
supervision of Professor Penny, and of which he 
is the dean. He was called to the university in 
1890, having been elected dean of the school of 
music, a department for which his long and thor- 
ough course of preparation, as well as natural 
gifts, admirably qualified him. Two years after 
taking this chair he organized the school of fine 
arts, which now has an attendance of two hun- 
dred and twenty-five students. This school is 
not the result of a spasmodic effort, but of calm, 
deliberate and intelligent thought. Teachers 
have been selected with the greatest care, differ- 
ent courses have been established and made self- 
sustaining, and the work placed upon a practical 
and systematic basis. Instruction is given in 

pianoforte, pipe organ, voice and violin, drawing 
and painting, elocution and oratory. Besides his 
other work, he gives lectures on the history of 
the fine arts, acts as instructor on the pipe organ, 
and superintends the four years' theoretical 
course in harmony and composition. Concerts 
are frequently given in the city of Lawrence, the 
high character of which shows the advance made 
by the pupils. 

At Haverstraw on the Hudson, N. Y. , the 
subject of this sketch was born June 30, 1861, a 
son of Rev. Joshua and Sarah Janet (Barlow) 
Penny. His father was born at Moriches, L. L, 
March 17, 1815, the oldest of the ten children of 
Joseph and Sally (Moore) Penny, the latter 
the daughter of a prominent merchant of River- 
head, L. I. In a very early day the Penny fami- 
ly settled in Connecticut and later removed from 
thereto Long Island. Rev. Joshua Penny, who 
was a Protestant Methodist minister, continued 
active in the work of his profession until his 
voice failed, while he was filling a pastorate at 
Tompkins Cove, N. Y. He then engaged in the 
lumber business at Haverstraw, after which he 
was interested, successively, in general merchan- 
dising and the manufacture of brick. At the 
time of his death, in 1890, he was residing in 
New York City. During his entire life he con- 
tinued prominent in his denomination, and at 
Garnerville, near his home, he erected a Method- 
ist Episcopal house of worship from his private 
funds and supplied the pulpit. 

The mother of Professor Penny was born in 
Haverstraw, N. Y., in 1840, and was the third 
child of Jonathan and Melissa (Gurnee) Barlow, 
the latter a daughter of Hon. Abraham Gurnee, 
who served his state as representative and sena- 
tor. Jonathan Barlow was born in Delaware 
County, N. Y., in 1811, became a manufacturer of 
the Essex sewing needle, and died at Haver- 
straw. His father, William Barlow, was born at 
Sackville, N. B., in 1782, but spent his life 
principally as a farmer in New York state. He 
was a man of splendid physique and attained a 
great age. His wife bore the maiden name of 
Abigail Robertson. The genealogy of the Bar- 
low family is traced to Jonathan Barlow, who 


crossed the ocean in the ship, ' ' Thomas and 
William," to Halifax, settling in New Bruns- 
wick in 1774. He was closely related to Rev. 
Samuel Rogers, of Rhode Island. During the 
Revolution or short!}' afterward he moved to 
Walton, Delaware County, N. Y., his sympathy 
with the colonial cause having led him to remove 
from a British province; for, although he was of 
English birth, born twenty miles from York, he 
did not side with England in the war, but was a 
stanch patriot and a believer in independence. 
He became the owner of one of the finest farms 
in Delaware County and a prominent man in its 
early history. Mrs. Sarah J. Penny is still liv- 
ing and makes her home in New York. She is 
the mother of five children, viz.: George B.; 
Alice, wife of Gustav Oberlander, of Indianapo- 
lis, Ind.; lyaura, of New York; William, who is 
connected with the Shoe and Leather Bank in 
New York; and Charles, a lumber merchant of 
that city. 

The education of our subject was begun in the 
private school of Lavalette Wilson, A. M. , at Hav- 
erstraw and the Hackettstown (N. J.) Collegiate 
Institute. He entered Cornell with the class of 
1884, remaining until the sophomore year, when 
he left school for a year and devoted himself to the 
study of music, which he had previously pursued 
for several years. From boyhood he had 
evinced musical talent and had made rapid prog- 
ress in the art. When nineteen years of age he 
began to give concerts, in which much of the 
best work was done by himself. In 1885 he 
graduated from Cornell with the degree of B. S., 
and was one of the commencement orators. 
After graduating he became professor of music in 
Girton College and Dalhousie University, Hali- 
fax, N. S., but after two years resigned and re- 
turned to New York City, becoming a member 
of the faculty of Metropolitan College of Music 
on Fourteenth street. Soon he was called from 
there to the chair of music in the State Normal 
School at Emporia, Kans., and in 1890 he re- 
signed this position in order to become a profes- 
sor in the University of Kansas. He has had the 
advantage of study abroad, as well as under the 
best masters in this country. In 1886 he studied 

in England and France, and again in 1888. In 
April, 1896, accompanied by his wife, he sailed 
for Europe, where he studied Greek and Roman 
art, and in Greece and Italy, archaeology, and 
made a special study of the galleries of Europe. 
His visit to the Island of Sicily, rich in its speci- 
mens of Greek art, was especially interesting and 
profitable. During the winter of 1899- igoo. 
Professor Penny will conduct the Egyptian sec- 
tion of an oriental party of about three hundred 
persons, principally from New England. The 
tour will include all of the Mediterranean coun- 
tries. He is identified with the National Educa- 
tional Association, holds membership with the 
Psi Ypsilon of Cornell, also with the Knights of 
Pythias, and is a vestryman in Trinity Episcopal 
Church of Lawrence. 

In Tarrytown, N. Y., January 6, 1891, Profes- 
sor Penny married Miss Beulah Ray White, who 
was born in that city and educated in the Ladies' 
Institute there. Her father was Judge Robert 
F. White, of Tarrytown, and her mother was a 
member of the old and prominent family of 
Dixous there. Professor and Mrs. Penny have 
two sons, Carl and Vernon. 

resentative of the intelligence and integrity 
of the people of Leavenworth, the subject of 
this sketch occupies no ordinary position. He 
is favorably known in his home citj', and is 
especially prominent among the pioneers, of 
whom he is one. In recognition of his ability 
and trustworthiness, he has frequently been 
called upon to fill local positions of trust and re- 
sponsibility, and the duties of these positions he 
has discharged with fidelity and to the satisfac- 
tion of all. In politics a Republican, he has for 
many years been a strong believer in, and advo- 
cate of, the course adopted by his party, and 
among its members in Leavenworth he has long 
wielded an important influence. 

Born in Somerset County, Pa., February 15, 
1834, the subject of this sketch is a sou of James 
and Julia Ann (Graham) Johnson, natives of 
Pennsylvania. When he was three years of age 



he was taken to Illinois by his parents, and his 
father was afterward engaged extensively in the 
shipment of merchandise by flat boats to St. Louis 
and New Orleans. The family of which he is a 
member consisted of seven children, namely: 
Isabella G. , now the widow of Martin Eichelber- 
ger, and a resident of Pennsylvania; Robert, de- 
ceased; Catherine, Mrs. Shafer, who died in 
Illinois; George G. , an artist, who died in Cleve- 
land, Ohio; Thomas L.; James J., a major of the 
First Arkansas Cavalry in the Civil war and now 
a resident of Lewiston, Fulton County, 111.; and 
Capt. W. S. , who was wounded seriously during 
his service in the First Arkansas Cavalry and is 
now living in Washington, D. C. 

The education acquired by our subject was 
such as the common schools of Illinois afforded. 
After leaving school he learned the printer's 
trade, which he followed for some years. March 
20, 1857, found him in Kansas, with whose sub- 
sequent history he has been identified. He wit- 
nessed the struggle for supremacy between the 
free-state party and the pro-slavery men, and 
aided the former in its efforts to gain the victory. 
For a long time he was connected with the press, 
being for years local editor of the Herald in 
Leavenworth, as well as local editor of the paper 
started by United States Senator Ross. After- 
ward he was employed as mail agent from Kansas 
City to Ellis on the Union Pacific and from 
Leavenworth to Miltondale on the narrow gauge. 

The Republican party has always had in 
Captain Johnson a stanch advocate and friend. 
Upon the ticket he was three times elected to 
represent the third ward in the council, and for 
four years he held the ofiice of clerk of the 
criminal court, also served as deputy clerk of 
the district court for two years. Recognizing his 
ability to fill positions of responsibility, his party 
in 1872 elected him to the state senate of Kansas 
and for two years he held the office, which he 
filled with credit to himself and to the satisfaction 
of his constituents. At one time he was a can- 
didate for probate judge. For two terms he was 
president of the town council and acting mayor 
of the city. In 1897 he was nominated unani- 
mously for mayor by the Republican party in its 

convention, but, owing to an independent Repub- 
lican running, he failed to be elected. Since 
1893 he has been justice of the peace. Governor 
Humphrey appointed him police commissioner, 
but he returned the commission, not desiring the 
office. The same governor appointed him notary 
public August 26, 1892, and Governor Morrill 
re-appointed him to the office four years later. 
January 9, 1897, he was chosen to succeed to the 
office of police judge upon the death of Judge 
Aller, and this office he held until the Papulists 
came into power. He usually attends the county 
and state conventions of his party, and his influ- 
ence is felt among its leaders throughout the 
^tate. It is doubtful if there are many citizens 
who take a keener interest in public affairs than 
does he, and certainly no one is more deeply in- 
terested in the success of Republican principles. 

For more than thirty years he has been identi- 
fied with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
and has been presented with the veteran's badge 
in recognition of his many years of membership 
in the order. He is the sole survivor in Leaven- 
worth of those who organized the Leavenworth 
Typographical Union No. 45 in 1858. By de- 
scent and education, he is a believer in the Pres- 
byterian faith. During the Civil war he was in 
Illinois. With an intense desire to assist the 
government, he at once threw his energies into 
securing the enlistment of men. He raised a 
company of one hundred and fifteen men and re- 
ceived from Governor Oglesby the commission 
as captain of Companj' B, One Hundred and 
Fifty-sixth Illinois Infantry, also acted as ranking 
captain of the regiment. From Chicago, where 
he was mustered in, the command was ordered 
to the south, and served principally in Missouri, 
Arkansas and Tennessee. During his term of 
service he was once wounded; this, however, was 
but a slight wound. Since the establishment of 
the Grand Army of the Republic he has been 
one of its members and interested in its work. 

February 18, 1864, occurred the marriage of 
Captain Johnson to Miss Mary Margaret Piper, 
of Canton, Fulton County, 111. Seven children 
were born of their union, four of whom are living, 
viz. : Paul B., proprietor of the Bell steam laundry 




iu Leavenworth; Thomas Lee, a graduate of the 
United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, now 
an ensign in the navy and on the "Massachu- 
setts" during the siege of Santiago in 1898; 
Edith E. , a teacher in the Oak street school; and 
Ortha Belle, who is librarian in the high school. 
All are graduates of the Leavenworth high 

HON. SAMUEL A. RIGGS, judge of the 
fourth district of Kansas, has resided in 
Lawrence since the spring of 1859, and has 
been one of the influential attorneys and public 
men of this city. He traces his ancestry to Miles 
Riggs, who came from Wales to America, and 
settled at Plymouth, Mass., crossing the ocean 
in the "Mayflower," or one of the boats that fol- 
lowed shortly afterward. He died at Roxbury, 
Mass. His sons removed to Connecticut, and 
later one of them, Edward, settled in what is now 
New Jersey. From him the line is traced through 
Miles, Edward and Joseph, to Joseph (2d), who 
located in Washington County, Pa., prior to 
1790. His son, Stephen, in 1795 married Annie 
Baird, of Fayette County, Pa., and in 1799 
moved to Mercer County, Pa., thence in 1806 to 
Franklin County, Pa., and in 1809 settled on a 
farm four miles west of Steubenville, Jefierson 
County, Ohio. 

Of the eleven children of Stephen Riggs, 
Joseph was born in Washington County, Pa., 
July 2, 1796. He went to Ohio in 1809, when 
Jefferson County was a wilderness and the sur- 
rounding country was wholly unimproved. 
Pittsburg, Pa. (then called Fort Pitt), had a 
population of only one thousand, including 
suburbs. After returning from service in the 
war of 18 1 2 he started out for himself. In 1817 
he went down the Ohio on a flat boat as far as 
Manchester, Adams County, then walked to 
West Union, the county seat, where he secured 
employment as clerk in a bank. In 1824 he was 
elected auditor of the county, to which he was 
three times re-elected. In 1831 he was elected 
state senator. In 1833, immediately after the 
close of the session of the senate, he removed to 
Hanging Rock, Lawrence County, Ohio, where 

he was engaged in manufacturing iron, and built 
the first rolling mill there. In 1835 he removed 
to Portsmouth, Ohio, where he was interested in 
rolling mills at first, but later engaged in the 
mercantile business, continuing the latter until he 
died, July 28, 1877. He had served as a member 
of the city council for many years, and also as 
surveyor of that city. He was a ruling elder 
in' the Presbyterian Church more than thirty 

December 8, 1819, Joseph Riggs married Re- 
becca G., daughter of Rev. William Baldridge. 
She was born near the Natural Bridge in Vir- 
ginia, February 18, 1801. Her father was the 
third son of Alexander Baldridge, who migrated 
from the north of Ireland to North Carolina. 
WilHam was born March 6, 1763, and graduated 
with honors from Dickinson College at Carlisle, 
Pa. In 1 791 he was licensed to preach, and be- 
came pastor of two congregations in Rockbridge 
County, Va. In 1809 he took charge of congre- 
gations in Adams County, Ohio. He was one 
of the pioneer ministers in the Associate Re- 
formed (now the United Presbyterian) Church, 
which he assisted in founding. He died suddenly 
in 1830. His daughter, Mrs. Riggs, died April 
3, 1862. Of her twelve children, Mrs. Rebecca 
A. Kendall resides in San Francisco, Cal.; Mary 
died in infancy; Eliza, deceased, was the wife of 
L. N. Robinson, who commanded Battery L of 
the First Ohio Light Artillery; Mrs. Robert 
Dunlap, Jr., died in Pittsburg, Pa.; Martha, 
who resides in Florida, is the wife of Maj. J. V. 
Robinson, who was major of the Thirty-third 
Ohio Infantry during the Civil war; James W. 
was killed in a railroad accident in 1857; S. B. 
is engaged iu the real-estate business in Emporia, 
Kans.; Samuel A. is the subject of this sketch; 
Joseph E. is also a resident of Kansas; Charles 
H. makes his home in Pittsburg, Pa. ; Alexander 
Brown, a highly cultured man, is a professor in 
Lane Theological Seminary in Cincinnati, Ohio, 
and pa.stor of a Presbyterian Church there; 
Emma, the youngest of the family, died at three 
years of age. 

The subject of this sketch was born in Law- 
rence County, Ohio, March i, 1S35. In 1851 



he entered an academy at Marietta, where he 
prepared for Marietta College, and in the latter 
institution remained until the second term of the 
junior year. Next he studied in Washington 
and Jefferson College, from which he graduated 
in 1856 with the degree of A. B., later receiving 
the degree of A. M. Afterward he studied law, 
and in 1858 graduated from the Cincinnati Law 
School, and was admitted to the Hamilton Coun- 
ty bar. In the spring of 1859 he came to Kan- 
sas, where for twenty-five years he was a mem- 
ber of the firm of Riggs & Nevison. From 1859 
to 1861 he was county attorney; from 1861 to 
1866 served as district attorney in a district of 
eight counties containing one-fourth of the entire 
population of the state. In 1866 he was elected 
to the state senate on the Republican ticket, 
where he was one of a committee of three that 
revised the statutes of the state, reporting what 
was called the general statutes of 1868, the same 
being adopted as reported. For one term he was 
a member of the house, and was the author of 
the Riggs railroad bill, placing railroads under a 
board of commissioners. In 1868 he was ap- 
pointed United States district attorney, which 
office he held for three years. In 1870 he left 
the Republican party. Two years later he was 
a candidate for congress on the liberal Republican 
ticket, and in 1S85 was the Democratic candidate 
to succeed Hon. Dudley Haskell, deceased. 
During the Greeley campaign he was a member 
of the liberal Republican national committee, 
and served as delegate to the convention that 
nominated Greeley for president. In 1896 he 
was a delegate to the convention in Chicago that 
nominated Bryan for president, and during that 
convention he was a member of the committee 
on organization. In the fall of 1896 he was 
elected, on the Democratic ticket, judge of the 
fourth district of Kansas, embracing Douglas, 
Franklin and Anderson Counties. His election 
was remarkable, as the district usually gives a 
Republican majority of one thousand. In Janu- 
ary, 1897, he took the oath of office to serve for 
four years. He has been a member of the state 
Democratic central committee, and in various 
ways has promoted the success of his party. For 

some years he has been connected with the 
University of Kansas as a lecturer in the law 

In Pittsburg, Pa., December 31, 1 861, Judge 
Riggs married Kate Doane Earle, daughter of 
Henry and Jane (Kirkpatrick) Earle. Her 
grandfather, William Earle, a native of New 
Jersey, was a merchant in Pittsburg. His 
father, Richard Earle, was a descendant of a 
nobleman of England. Her father, who was 
born in Pittsburg, was a wholesale and retail 
merchant, and a prominent citizen of Pittsburg. 
His wife was a daughter of David Kirkpatrick, 
who was born near Belfast, Ireland, of Scotch 
descent, and settled in Pennsylvania. Mrs. 
Riggs was one of ten children, four of whom are 
living. Three of her brothers, William, James 
and Albert, served with distinction in a Pennsyl- 
vania regiment during the Civil war. She was 
educated in Pittsburg and Patapsco Institute at 
Ellicott's Mills, Md. , from which she graduated. 
By her marriage to Judge Riggs, one child was 
born, Henry Earle Riggs, who graduated from 
the University of Kansas in 1886, then for six 
years was chief engineer of the Toledo, Ann Ar- 
bor & North Michigan Railroad, and is now a 
successful sanitary engineer in Toledo. Judge 
Riggs is a Congregationalist, while his wife is 
identified with the Episcopal Church. They 
occupy a residence on Union avenue, which he 
built in 1864. 

|~LMORE W. SNYDER. Those public-spir- 
Iv) ited citizens whose sound judgment has 
L promoted the industrial growth of their 
community and whose energy has brought an in- 
creased prosperity to every line of local activity 
deservedly occupy positions of prominence among 
their associates. Among the men to whom Leav- 
enworth is indebted for its high standing in the 
galaxy of western cities, mention especially be- 
longs to Mr. Snyder, who is president of the 
Manufacturers' National Bank and also president 
of the Leavenworth Terminal Railway and Bridge 
Company. While there are many reasons for 
which he is entitled to distinctive mention, doubt- 
less the greatest work of his life has been his 



connection with the planning and building of the 
bridge immediate!)- across the river from the city 
of Leavenworth. The building of such a struc- 
ture had long been realized to be a necessity, but 
it remained for him and Vinton Stillings, together 
with a few other progressive citizens, to project 
the plans and carry forward the movement to a 
successful completion, by which means new ter- 
ritory for commerce was opened up to Leaven- 
worth, and the importance of the city, from a 
business standpoint, greatly increased. 

A resident of Leavenworth since 1883, Mr. 
Snyder was born in Wayne County, N. Y., No- 
vember 23, 1850, and is the older of the two sur- 
viving sons of Col. James W. and Sarah A. 
(O'Neill) Snyder, natives of Wayne County, 
where they still reside. His only brother, Ches- 
ter W., is president of the Clifton State Bank at 
Clifton, Kans., but makes his home in Topeka, 
Kans. His father, a farmer by occupation, raised 
a company during the summer of 1862 and was 
mustered into the army as its captain, it being 
Company A, Ninth New York Artillery. He 
took part in various battles, among them those 
of Cedar Creek and Winchester, and served until 
the close of the war, retiring with a colonel's 
commission. Afterward he gave his attention 
to farming and the grain business. He is con- 
nected with the Masons and the Grand Army of 
the Republic. 

Mr. Snyder was educated in Union Seminary. 
His first position was that of bookkeeper for a 
manufacturing firm in Rochester, N. Y., where 
he remained for five years. The year 1878 found 
him in Kansas, where, with his brother, he en- 
gaged in the banking and grain business at Clif- 
ton, the firm being Snyder Brothers. In 1879 the 
firm established the Clifton State Bank, of which 
our subject became president and with which he 
remained identified until his Leavenworth inter- 
ests absorbed his entire attention. His first 
business enterprise in Leavenworth was as a 
member of the firm of Snyder & Denton, grain 

The Manufacturers' National Bank of Leaven- 
worth was organized in August, 1888, with J. C. 
Lysle as its first president. In December of the 

same year Mr. Snyder became connected with the 
bank, and at the same time he was made its pres- 
ident, which position he has since filled. Under 
his judicious and conservative management the 
institution has been placed upon a solid financial 
footing and has gained prestige among the banks 
of the state, as well as the confidence of its large 
list of depositors. The capital stock of the bank 
is $150,000, the surplus $30,000, and the depos- 
its average about $300,000; semi-annual divi- 
dends have been declared regularly since his 
presidency began. Under his supervision the 
Manufacturers' National Bank building was 
planned and erected in 1889; this is considered 
the finest ofiice building in Leavenworth, and is 
as large as any in the city. 

Through the efforts of Mr. Snyder the oft- 
di.scussed plan of building a bridge across the 
Missouri at Leavenworth was again taken up and 
agitated. In 1892 he interested Vinton Stillings 
in the movement, and a company was formed 
with a capital stock of $600,000, of which he was 
the president from the first, and in which he and 
Mr. Stillings were the principal stockholders. 
The bridge was completed and opened to the 
public January i, 1894. It is of steel, with two 
fixed spans and one draw span, and has a total 
length of eleven hundred and ten feet. Over it 
three roads enter the city, viz. : Chicago, Burling- 
ton & Quincy; Rock Island; and Great Western. 
There are also adequate accommodations for foot 
passengers and vehicles. In addition to the 
bridge itself, the company built a terminal depot 
and storehouses. The enterprise was one of great 
magnitude and required judgment, energy and 
ability on the part of its projectors. The capital 
stock proved none too large for so vast an under- 
taking, involving large expenditures of money in 
the purchase of material and employing of men. 
The successful completion of the bridge speaks 
volumes for the ability of the men to whom its 
building was due. 

In Brandon, Vt., in 1877, Mr. Snyder married 
Miss Fannie M. Benson, daughter of Lafayette 
Benson, a merchant of Brandon, where she was 
born ; but subsequently a merchant at Gardner, 
111., where he died. Mrs. Snyder was educated 


in the Evanston Female Seminary at Evauston, 
111. She is a refined and cultured lad)-, and is 
popular in Leavenworth's social circles. She 
assisted in the organization of the Leavenworth 
Public Library Association, of which she was 
chosen the first president. She is an active mem- 
ber and treasurer of the Art League. The two 
sons of Mr. and Mrs. Snyder are: Charles E., who 
is connected with the Manufacturers' National 
Bank; and Ira B. 

The business interests of Mr. Snyder have been 
of such a nature that he has had little leisure for 
participation in politics. He has always been a 
Republican in party principle and has served as 
chairman of the county central committee. For 
four years he represented the first ward in the 
city council, and was president of the council one 
year. The nomination for mayor, which has 
been offered him, he declined. He is interested 
in educational matters and has been a member of 
the school board. In 1896 he was his party's 
nominee for the state senate, and, although op- 
posed by a fusion ticket in which the opposing 
parties had combined, he came within one hun- 
dred and thirty votes of being elected. He is a 
member of the State Bankers' Association and 
was its vice-president in 1898. While living in 
Rochester, N. Y., he was made a Mason, and he 
is now connected with Leavenworth Lodge No. 2, 
A. F. & A. M.; Leavenworth Chapter, R. A. M.; 
Leavenworth Commandery No. i, K. T. ; and 
Abdallah Temple, N. M. S. 

ICHAEL D. GREENLEE, general secre- 
tary of the Fraternal Aid Association, is 
one of the most popular citizens of Law- 
rence, and has a host of friends throughout the 
west. He was born near Springboro, Crawford 
County, Pa., October 27, 1850, a son of Michael 
and Rebecca Howard (Conover) Greenlee, na- 
tives respectively of Crawford County, Pa., and 
Cayuga County, N. Y. His paternal ancestors 
were of Scotch lineage and were driven from 
their native land by the Catholics, five brothers 
coming to America and settling in different lo- 
calities. " Robert Greenlee married a Miss Cham- 

berlain and they made their home on a farm in 
Spring Township, Crawford County, where he 
died at seventy-four years of age. His son, 
Michael, died October 11, 1850. Of his two 
children, the older, George W., died at fourteen 
years of age. The younger is the subject of this 
article. The mother was a second time married, 
by which union she had four children; of these 
two are living, both in California. She makes 
her home with her oldest son in Lawrence. She 
was a daughter of David Conover, who was born 
in New Jersey in April, 1797, and descended 
from Holland-Dutch ancestors, whose name was 
orginally Schoenhoven. David was a son of 
Andrew Conover, of New Jersey, whose wife, 
after his death, married a man who served as 
paymaster of the Colonial army during the Revo- 
lution, being stationed at Philadelphia, where he 
died. David Conover settled in New York, 
thence moved to Crawford County, Pa., and later 
to the vicinity of Jackson, Mich., but the malaria 
was so prevalent at the latter place that he re- 
turned to Pennisylvania. His trade was that of a 
coverlet weaver, but much of his time was given 
to farming. 

When a lad of sixteen, the care of his motlier 
and her four small children devolved upon Mr. 
Greenlee. He reluctantly gave up his cherished 
hope of securing an education, and turned his 
attention to the support of the family. In No- 
vember, 1 87 1, he was forced by failing health to 
seek a change of climate, and came to Eudora, 
Kans. The first day the Missouri Pacific Rail- 
road Company opened its office there, January i, 
1872, he entered as a clerk, and as such contin- 
ued until the fall, when he was made agent at 
Eudora. During the years that followed his 
duties increased greatly. The Santa Fe coming 
through the town doubled his labors, while he 
was also appointed to act as agent for two ex- 
press companies and the Western Union Tele- 
graph Company. The work proved too heavy 
for him and his health became undermined by 
the strain. January i, 1878, he resigned his po- 
sition, and traveled for a time, visiting Colorado 
and his old home in Pennsylvania. Afterward 
he was employed as manager for a grain firm, 


later was bookkeeper and assistant postmaster at 
Eudora until March, 1884. His next position 
was that of deputy county clerk, which he held 
for four years. In 1887, on the Republican 
ticket, he was elected county clerk by a majority 
of eleven hundred. At the expiration of his 
term, in 1889, he was again elected, on an inde- 
pendent ticket, by a majority of about one 
thousand. He held the office from January; 
1888, to January, 1892, after which, not wishing 
to again become a candidate, he began to travel 
for the Fraternal Aid Association in Nebraska, 
remaining with the association at that time for 
eighteen months. Later he traveled in Oregon 
and Washington, in the interests of the Order of 
Knights and Ladies of Security, establishing so- 
cieties there, also in Kansas, Missouri, and the 
Indian Territory, and opening the work for the 
association in Illinois, where he established the 
first lodges of the order in the state. 

In 1897 Mr. Greenlee renewed his connection 
with the Fraternal Aid Association, becoming 
adjuster and organizer, and traveling in the in- 
terests of the order wherever needed. On the 
resignation of the general secretary. May i, 1898, 
he was tendered this position by the advisory 
board, without any solicitation on his part, a fact 
which proves that his promotion was due en- 
tirely to merit. In February, 1899, ^^ the bien- 
nial session of the order, he was elected to the 
position, by acclamation, for two years, with an 
increase of salary. He has reorganized the entire 
system of keeping reports and cash accounts, and 
during the year 1898 wrote more business, with 
less per capita cost to members, than had been 
secured any preceding year. Eleven states and 
two territories are now represented in the asso- 
ciation, namely: Kansas, Nebraska, Missouri, 
Colorado, Iowa, California, Washington, Ore- 
gon, lUinois, Indiana, Michigan, Oklahoma and 
Indian Territory; of all of which field Mr. Green- 
lee, by virtue of his position as superintendent of 
organization, has charge. The number of mem- 
bers was more than doubled in 1898, the aggre- 
gate membership, January i, 1899, being twenty 
thousand five hundred and fifty-nine. At the 
beginning of 1898 there were but thirteen thou- 

sand three hundred and fifty-seven members. 
The order is beneficiary, with a graded assess- 
ment; $31,219,000 protection in force, January 

1, 1899; $132,500 paid losses in 189S; while the 
death rate showed a reduction from 4.29 to 2.74 
in 1897. The office of the association is in the 
Merchants' Bank building. 

The general officers of the association are: 
Lewis A. Ryder, M. D., North Topeka, general 
president, and M. T. Shearer, Abilene, Kans., 
general past president; S. H. Enyeart, Tulare, 
Cal., general vice-president; M. I^ Greenlee, 
general secretary; C. O. Anderson, Arcadia, 
Kans., general treasurer; A. J. Anderson, M. D. , 
Lawrence, general medical examiner; W. B. 
Wood, M. D., Orange, Cal., assistant general 
medical examiner; Emily Mobley, Grand Island, 
Neb., general chaplain; Mrs. Cora Hoyer, Den- 
ver, Colo., general guide; C. F. Young, Los 
Angeles, Cal., general observer; and Duval 
Jackson, Newkirk, Okla., general sentinel. The 
trustees are: John Sullivan, Kansas City, Mo., 
J. R. Craig, Beatrice, Neb.; and Hon. H. E. 
Don Carlos, Vinita, I. T. The special features 
recommending the association are reliability, 
simplicity, reserve fund, restricted territory, and 
refusal to admit persons engaged in hazardous 
occupations. In addition to the death benefits, 
there are also sick and total disability benefits, 
which features recommend the order to many 

As general secretary, Mr. Greenlee supervises 
the publication of the Fraternal Aid, the official 
paper of the organization, which is mailed to 
every member free of charge and is one of the 
most complete papers of its kind published. He 
assisted in instituting Athens Council No. 3, in 
Lawrence, which was the first council instituted; 
although on the reorganization at Topeka, the 
councils in that city were recorded as Nos. i and 

2, while the one in Lawrence was recorded as 
No. 3. Besides his connection with this order, 
Mr. Greenlee is identified with the Court of 
Honor, Knights and Ladies of Security, Modern 
Woodmen of America, Doric Lodge No. 83, A. 
F. & A. M., of Eudora, in which he is 
master, Adah Chapter No. 7, Eastern Star, in 

I go 


which he is past patron, and Zerbal Lodge of Per- 
fection No. 5, A. A. S. R. In national politics 
he is independent, supporting such principles as, 
after thoughtful consideration, seem for the best 
welfare of the country, rather than following 
blindly whatever doctrines may be promulgated 
by any party. He is a member of the Baptist 
Church, in which he serves as a deacon. En- 
dowed by nature with many winning attributes, 
with tact, a genial disposition, frank manner and 
sympathetic qualities, he has the faculty of gain- 
ing the friendship of all with whom he has busi- 
ness or social relations. Of polite and compan- 
ionable manners, he is the life of every social 
circle he enters. He is a man of generous im- 
pulses, sanguine in temperament, whole-souled 
and open-hearted. The confidence that he wins 
at the first is never abused by him. In action he 
has ever been honorable, in life upright. His 
integrity and worth as a man have won for him 
the respect of the people of his city and the mem- 
bers of the order with which his name is insepar- 
ably identified. 

CVSAAC L. HOOVER, a farmer and stock- 
I raiser of Marion Township, Douglas County, 
X was born in Willow Springs Township, this 
county, March 19, 1859, a son of Isaac B. and 
Mary Ann (Longnecker)Hoover, natives of Penn- 
sylvania. His paternal grandfather, John Hoover, 
who was born in Bedford County, Pa., was 
for years engaged in the ministry of the German 
Baptist (Dunkard) Church, and spent his active 
life in what was known as Morrison's Cove be- 
tween the mountains. In early days our sub- 
ject's father moved to Wayne County, Ind., 
where he took up a tract of unimproved land. 
From there, in 1855, he came overland to Kansas, 
settling on Cottonwood River in Lyon County, 
where he took up government land. Holding 
his claim there, the next year he moved to 
Douglas County and settled on Chicken Creek, 
in what is now Willow Springs Township. 
There he took up a claim of one hundred and 
sixty acres, which he cleared and improved, be- 
coming in time a successful farmer. He also 
purchased eighty acres in Marion Township, 

where he engaged in stock-dealing and farming. 
At the time of the slavery struggle he was in- 
tensely strong in his abolition sentiments. At 
the time of Quantrell's raid he saved his horses 
by hiding them in the woods, so that he incurred 
no heavy losses. Besides the management of his 
farm, he owned an interest in a threshing outfit, 
which he superintended. All during his life he 
was active in the work of the German Baptist 
Church, in which for some years he officiated as 
a deacon. His death occurred August 21, 1866, 
and resulted from cholera, a disease that, then 
as now, was very uncommon in Kansas. His 
wife died of the same disease August 24, three 
days after his death. They had six children, 
viz.: Joseph C. ; Henry, of Ottawa; Isaac L.; 
John L., a farmer of Douglas County; Benjamin, 
a merchant of Lawrence; and Anna Mary, wife 
of R. A. Willis. 

A life-long resident of Douglas County, our 
subject early became familiar with the work of 
farming in this part of the west. When seven 
years of age he was taken into the home of J. C. 
Metsker, with whom he remained until attaining 
his majority. In 1879 he purchased his present 
farm, which by degrees he has transformed into 
one of the best farms in the township, making 
desirable improvements and adding to the estate 
which now comprises three hundred and twenty- 
five acres. In addition to general farming he 
raises hogs and feeds cattle for the market. In 
1880 he donated land for School District No. 4, on 
which to build a new school building. Not only in 
educational, but in other matters, he has done his 
part. For several years he has been a deacon in 
the German Baptist Church and isnow ofiiciating 
as an elder, besides which he has for some time 
been superintendent of the Sunday-school. He 
has also been president of the Missionary board 
of the Northeastern District of Kansas for several 
years, and is still serving in that capacity. In 
1879 he married Mary E. Stutsman, by whom he 
has eight children: Charles O. , Bert Omer, Wegie 
Malinda, Clarence Martin, Lloyd Emerson, Otis, 
Earl, Jesse Jason and Clifford Carroll. 

Mrs. Hoover's father, John W. Stutsman, was 
born in Ohio in 1830 and in a very early day 



came to Kansas, but after a few years removed to 
Elkhart County, Ind. , where he remained for 
seven years. In 1870 he returned to Kansas, 
settling in Marion Township, Douglas County, 
where he followed farm pursuits. In religion he 
was a Dunkard. His ancestors were Germans, 
who settled in Pennsylvania at an early day and 
later migrated to Ohio. He died in Douglas 
County in 1898, aged sixty-seven. By his mar- 
riage to Malinda Weybright, who was born in 
Indiana, he had eight children, viz.: IdaL., wife 
of Samuel M. Miller; Mary E., Mrs. Hoover; 
William M., who carries on the home place; 
Sabina C; Elijah A.; Sarah E., wife of Edward 
Shively; Lucy M., who married Edward Brunk; 
and Zora Lucretia, wife of J. F. Metsker. 

Gl MOS G. HONNOLD is one of the veterans 
LI of the Civil war now residing in Lawrence. 
I I He was born near Adamsville, Muskingum 
County, Ohio, in 1837, a son of John E. and 
Mary (Fell) Honnold, natives respectively of 
. Loudoun County, Va., and Pennsylvania. His 
grandfather, Jacob Honnold, who was the son of 
a German, was born in Virginia, and removed to 
Ohio when his son, John E., was three years of 
age. Settling in Muskingum Countj' he re- 
mained there until his death at an advanced age. 
John E. Honnold cleared a farm from the woods, 
and continued to reside on it until his death, dur- 
ing the Civil war. He was held in high respect, 
and held numerous local offices of trust. His 
wife, who was a daughter of Amos Fell, died 
in Lawrence, Kans. They were the parents of 
four children, of whom Gilbert died in boyhood. 
S. H., who served in the One Hundred and Six- 
tieth Ohio National Guard during the Civil war, 
is now living in Olathe, Kans. H. F., who was a 
member of Company E, Ninety-seventh Ohio 
Infantry, was wounded, November 25, 1863, in 
the battle of Missionary Ridge, and was afterward 
transferred to the signal corps. He died at the 
hospital in Chattanooga in the spring of 1865. 

In September, 1862, the subject of this sketch 
enlisted in Company E, Ninety-seventh Ohio In- 
fantry, to which his brother, H. F., belonged. 

Enlisting at Zanesville, Ohio, he was ordered to 
Covington, Ky., and was assigned to the army of 
the Cumberland. After the battle of Perry ville 
his regiment followed Grant through Kentucky 
to Nashville, and participated in the battle of 
Murfreesboro, then crossed the mountains to the 
front of Chattanooga, and unfurled the first col- 
ors over Chattanooga. After the fight at Orchard 
Knob its proceeded to Missionary Ridge, where 
the division broke the line and crossed the ridge 
at Bragg' s headquarters, making a heroic dash 
some distance beyond. It was a desperate at- 
tempt. Bullets were hurled thick and fast in 
their midst. Mr. Honnold was wounded in the 
hip and the left arm, and while several other 
bullets passed through his clothing one shot 
penetrated his canteen, another his haversack, 
and still another struck his gun. His brother 
was with him at the time and was also wounded. 
About one o'clock that night Mr. Honnold 
was removed from the battlefield and taken to an 
unfinished church, but it was not until the fourth 
day after the engagement that his wounds were 
dressed. About a month later he was given a 
furlough of thirty days. His father came down 
for him and his brother and took our subject 
home, but the father contracted a cold on the 
journey and died from pneumonia soon after- 
ward. After his father's death Mr. Honnold 
rejoined his regiment at Charleston, Tenn., and 
soon entered upon the Atlanta campaign, although 
he was still disabled and really unfit for military 
service. Under Sherman's orders those who 
were weak were sent to the rear, and he was 
therefore detailed as clerk and orderly for the 
ordnance officer of the division. He participated 
in the march through Georgia, where he was 
often in the thickest of the fights. From Atlanta 
he returned to Pulaski to hold Hood back while 
Thomas prepared to hold Nashville. He took 
part in the battle at Spring Hill and was at 
Franklin, where a fierce battle was fought from 
3:30 p. m. until dark. Later he was in the three 
days' battle at Nashville, where Hood's army 
was crushed and driven back to Alabama. Next 
he was ordered to Knoxville, then to Camp 
Nashville, and was mustered out June 10, 1865. 



During his service he had manj' hair-breadth 
escapes and was often in the hottest places of the 
battles. At Huntsville he was offered the rank 
of ordnance sergeant of the regiment, but de- 
clined, as he carried about an ounce of rebel 
lead and was hardlj' able to ride, much less per- 
form the duties of the ofEce tendered him. 

After some years on a farm in Ohio Mr. Hon- 
nold came to Kansas, in October, 1869, seeking a 
suitable location. January i, 1870, he located 
in L,awrence, where he engaged in the insurance 
business, then became clerk in the county treas- 
urer's office, serving for six years. In 1879 he 
was elected register of deeds, and by re-election 
served until 1886. For two years he was deputy 
clerk of the district court. In 1887 he was ap- 
pointed city clerk by the mayor and council, and 
has held the office since, serving by appointment 
until it was made an elective office. In 1898 and 
1899 he was elected to the position. For some 
years he was a member of the .school board. He 
assisted in organizing the Fraternal Aid Asso- 
ciation, to which he still belongs, as he does to 
the Ancient Order of United Workmen and 
Washington Post No. 12, G. A. R., in which he 
has been an aide on the staff of the department 
commander. In 1866 he married Miss Mary J. 
Domer, who was born in Ohio, and died in Law- 
rence in 1894. He has three children living, 
Arri B., Edna M. and Rosa B., the eldest of 
whom is a graduate of the Lawrence high school. 

3UDGE JOHN CHARLTON, deceased, for- 
merly a resident of Lawrence, was born in 
Kidderminster, Worcestershire, England, 
January 20, 1827, a son of Joseph and Jane 
(Winter) Charlton, also natives of that country. 
His father, who was a weaver of Brussels carpets, 
brought the family to America and settled at 
West Farms, N. Y., where he followed his trade. 
Later he removed to Princeton, 111., and there 
carried ou a grocery business until he retired. 
The last eleven years of his life were passed in 
the home of his son, John, at Lawrence, and he 
died, at eighty -four years of age, while visiting in 
Topeka. Of his five children, John was next to 

the oldest. He received in England an educa- 
tion that fitted him for the general business pur- 
suits of life. When he was eleven he began to 
assist his father, and thus became familiar with 
the weaving of Brussels carpets. At the time 
the family came to America he was seventeen 
years of age. He resided for a time in Phila- 
delphia. Later he took charge of a bank note 
establishment for the firm of Toppan, Carpenter 
& Co. (now the American Bank Note Company) 
in the Trinity building. New York City. 

In 1857 he went to Princeton, 111., where he 
successfully carried on a drug business for ten 
years. . In 1867 he established his home in Law- 
rence, Kans., and engaged in the fire and life in- 
surance business, and from 1889 until his death 
served as justice of the peace. For eleven years 
he was president of the school board, but finally 
refused to serve longer and retired. In politics 
he was a Republican, and in religion an active 
member of the Plymouth Congregational Church. 
A lover of good books, much of his leisure time 
was .spent in reading, and he was particularly 
fond of Charles Dickens, whom he considered in- 
imitable as a delineator of character. In Odd 
Fellowship he was prominent. He was one of 
the leaders in Lodge No. 4, at Lawrence, served 
as grand representative to the sovereign grand 
lodge several times, and at Wichita, in October, 
1876, was elected grand master of the Grand 
Lodge of Kansas, in which responsible position he 
won the confidence of the entire state member- 
ship. He was also connected with the encamp- 
ment. In Masonry he served as master and sec- 
retary of Acacia Lodge No. 9, A. F. & A. M., 
was past officer in Lawrence Lodge No. 4, 
R. A. M., and past eminent commander in 
DeMolay Commandery No. 4, K. T. 

In Philadelphia, Pa., May 18, 1847, occurred 
the marriage of Judge Charlton to Miss Martha 
Curtiss, and fifty years later. May 18, 1897, they 
celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of their mar- 
riage, at their pleasant home in Lawrence, where 
they were the recipients of the congratulations 
of relatives and friends. Less than two years 
after this memorable celebration, he passed away 
from earth, February 27, 1899. Mrs. Charlton 




was born in Worcestershire, England, a daughter 
of Daniel and Ann (Allen) Curtiss. Her father, 
who was a weaver of Brussels carpets, settled in 
Philadelphia in 1831 and followed his trade 
there. His last years were spent in Connecti- 
cut, where he died at fifty years of age. His 
wife died in New York City. In religious be- 
lief they were Methodists, conscientious in the 
observance of all denominational doctrines. They 
were the parents of four children, two of whom 
are living. One son, Theodore, who enlisted in 
an Illinois regiment during the Civil war, died 
from the eiiects of the hardships and exposure 
of the campaign. Mrs. Charlton was the oldest 
of the four children and was reared in Phila- 
delphia, where she resided until her marriage. 
Like her husband, she is a devoted Christian and 
a member of Plymouth Church. She is a mem- 
ber of the Eastern Star and Rebekah Lodge, and 
is interested in various movements for the aid of 
the city and the welfare of the people. In her 
family there are seven children: Mrs. Emma J. 
Meade, of Kansas City, Mo. ; Mrs. Mary Stewart, 
of Lawrence; Mrs. Ada Good, of Topeka, Kans. ; 
Harry Curtiss, of Minneapolis, Kans. ; Mrs. Kate 
Ewing, of Decatur, 111.; Edwin L. , who is his 
father's successor in business; and Mrs. Margaret 
Forsythe, of Kansas City, Mo. 

are very few citizens of Kansas, either of 
the present or the past, whose names are 
more indissolubly associated with the history of 
the state than is that of Governor Anthony. In 
presenting to the readers of this volume a sketch 
of his life we are perpetuating the memory of 
one of the most noted men the state has ever 
had; and one who accomplished much in the ad- 
vancing of progressive measures and the devel- 
oping of agricultural resources. There are many 
reasons for which he is deserving of mention in 
the annals of the state. He was the first man in 
Kansas who ever dared to declare prohibition 
doctrines from a political rostrum, his work in 
this direction antedating that of the famous tem- 
perance advocate. Governor St. John. While he 

was a Republican in politics and a stanch sup- 
porter of party principles, he at the same time 
believed in the prohibition amendment and did 
all in his power to promote its success. Largely 
through his instrumentality the National Mili- 
tary Home at Leavenworth was established; he 
continued to agitate the measure until it was 
finally passed. His connection with the Centen- 
nial Exposition at Philadelphia proved most 
helpful to the interests of his state. For about 
six months he gave almost his entire time to se- 
curing an adequate representation for Kansas at 
the Exposition; and, as president of the board of 
centennial managers, he succeeded in drawing 
the attention of people, not only of our own 
countrj', but of others as well, to the magnificent 
and diversified opportunities offered by our great 
western state, to the end that the population of 
the state was greatly swelled and its importance 
augmented. Then was begun that era of growth 
concerning which Senator Hoar of Massachu- 
setts, in a speech in the United States senate, 
said: "There is no other instance on the face of 
the earth, unless it be some neighboring state, 
where a territory has grown up in fortj'-two 
years containing such a population, such wealth, 
such value of agricultural lands, such vast agri- 
cultural products." 

The life herein sketched began at May field, 
Fulton County, N. Y., June 9, 1824, and closed 
at Topeka, Kans., August 5, 1896. Governor 
Anthony was a son of Benjamin and Anna An- 
thony, who were earnest members of the ortho- 
dox Quaker society. He was the youngest of 
five children and was only five years of age when 
his father died, leaving his family in straightened 
circumstances. Four years later he accompanied 
his mother to Greenfield, N. Y., where he at- 
tended school in the winter and worked for 
farmers in the summer. At the age of sixteen 
he began an apprenticeship to the tinner's trade 
under his uncle, who lived in Union Springs, 
N. Y. On the completion of his time he opened 
a small hardware store in Medina, N. Y., where, 
working from fourteen to sixteen hours a day, 
he laid the foundation of those industrious, self- 
reliant and determined traits so noticeable in his 



character in later 3'ears. In Park Church, Sj^ra- 
cuse, N. Y., December 14, 1852, he married Miss 
Rosa Iv5'on, who was born in Perryville, Madison 
County, that state. Her father, Andrew J. Lyon, 
was a member of a Puritan family of Massachu- 
setts, and a nephew of Mary Lyon, the founder 
of Mount Holyoke Seminary in Massachusetts. 
He was born in New York, but in middle life re- 
moved to Madison, Wis., where he died. His 
wife, who bore the maiden name of Abbie Lamb, 
was the daughter of a Frenchman, who accom- 
panied Lafayette to America and served in the 
Revolutionary war. 

At the beginning of the Civil war Mr. An- 
thony was engaged in the commission business 
in New York state. When the call was made, 
July 2, 1862, for three hundred thousand more 
soldiers the governor of New York organized 
the state and placed the subdivisions in charge 
of committees, Mr. Anthony, Ex-Governor 
Church and Noah Davis, Jr., being the commit- 
tees of Orleans, Niagara and Genesee Counties. 
Mr. Anthony organized the Seventeenth New 
York Independent Battery of Light Artillery and 
at once became its captain. His military history 
is presented in the records of the Loyal Legion, 
as follows: "Reported at Camp Barry, Washing- 
ton, D. C, September, 1862; assigned to the 
army for the defense of Washington, December, 
1862; attached to King's division at Centerville 
in the summer of 1863; later attached to Second 
Corps; July 4, 1864, reported to General Grant 
at City Point, and assigned to Eighteenth Army 
Corps of the James; later assigned to Twenty- 
fourth Army Corps, and took part in the Appo- 
mattox campaign; participated in assault and 
capture of Petersburg; thence to Appomattox, 
remaining until after surrender; returned to 
Richmond April 29, 1865." 

After the close of the Civil war Mr. Anthony 
closed out his business interests in the east. In 
November, 1865, he settled in Leavenworth, 
Kans. His remaining years were intimately as- 
sociated with the progress of this state. He was 
editor of the Leavenworth Daily Bulletiji and the 
Leavenworth Daily Conservative for two and one- 

half years, and editor and publisher of the Kan- 
sas Farmer for six years. In the latter position 
it was his aim to teach diversified farming, econ- 
omy in management, improvement in live stock 
and higher regard for home and social life; es- 
pecially criticising the carelessness of those who 
at the end of the season left the plow in the fur- 
row and the mowing machine at the fence corner. 
His work in this direction was most helpful, and 
now no farmers stand higher than do those of 

In December, 1867, Mr. Anthony was appointed 
assistant assessor of internal revenue, and was 
made collector of internal revenue July 11, 1868. 
At the close of his term as collector his accounts, 
when balanced, showed a variation of only three 
cents, a fact which shows his methodical and sys- 
tematic manner of keeping his books. For three 
years he was president of the state board of agri- 
culture. At the close of the Centennial, in No- 
vember, 1876, he was elected governor of Kansas, 
a position which he filled with great credit to 
himself. Meantime he had become well known 
throughout the country and his ability as a 
speaker caused him to be in frequent demand. 
In 1877 the governors of thirty states visited 
New York. At a banquet given at that time the 
most prominent of these governors responded to 
toasts. Of all the addresses given none was ap- 
plauded so much as that of Governor Anthony 
and none was so complimented by the public 
press. As a speaker he was unsurpassed for 
strong, logical argument. Those who heard him 
when in his prime pronounce him the strongest 
speaker of his state. As a writer, too, he was 
forceful and logical. While his education had 
been very limited, by self-culture he had acquired 
a broad fund of valuable knowledge, and was a 
thorough student of ancient and modern classics. 

A man possessing firm convictions and the 
courage to proclaim them naturally has enemies. 
The public actions of Governor Anthony, though 
guided by the loftiest and most patriotic motives, 
were sometimes misunderstood, and brought upon 
him the enmity of those whose opinions were dif- 
ferent. But, even when he knew the frank ex- 



pression of his opinions would react adversely to 
himself, he stood firm to his views. As an illus- 
tration of this it may be said that when he was a 
candidate for congress he was asked by the old 
soldiers if he would work for service pensions. 
He was bitterly opposed to service pensions, and, 
of course, would not make the promise. The 
consequence was that he met with defeat in his 

In 1 88 1 he was appointed general superintend- 
ent of the Mexican Central Railroad and served 
for two years. In 1885 he represented Leaven- 
worth County in the legislature. In 1889 he was 
appointed a member of the board of railroad com- 
missioners, and in 1892 was re-elected, serving 
until the Populists came into power the next 
year. May 5, 1892, he was the Republican nom- 
inee for congress, but was defeated by W. A. 
Harris. In 1895 Governor Morrill appointed 
him superintendent of insurance, an office which 
he was holding at the time of his death, August 

5, 1896. In April, 1890, he established his home 
in Ottawa, where his widow is still living. Their 
son, George H., who is a graduate of the Chester 
(Pa.) Military Institute, is now traveling freight 
agent for the Wisconsin Central Railroad; he is 
married and has two daughters. 

In 1879 Mr. Anthony joined Custer Post No. 

6, of Leavenworth, and was afterward prominent 
in that post of the Grand Army. He was a char- 
ter member of the Kansas Commandery of the 
Loyal Legion; memberof council of Kansas Com- 
mandery, 1887-88; and commander of Kansas 
Commandery, 1893-94. I" ^^ the years of his 
life in Kansas his voice was heard at the camp 
fires and on the rostrum in behalf of the survivors 
of the war. His parentage and early education 
made him a Republican; later years but intensi- 
fied his devotion to his party. He took an active 
part in every campaign in Kansas, and not his 
voice only, but his pen as well, was consecrated 
to the cause in which he believed. During the 
long period of his public service no criticism was 
ever uttered touching his integrity and his honor; 
both were unassailed and unimpeachable. Nor 
was his loyalty to his country and his state ever 
questioned; by every act, in every address, in all 

his writings, he emphasized loyalty and aimed to 
draw together, in service as patriots, all those 
who owned Kansas as their home and the star- 
spangled banner as their flag. 

HON. JOEL GROVER, deceased, who was 
one of Douglas County's most prominent 
pioneers, was born at Springwater, Living- 
ston County, N. Y., August 5, 1825. He was 
educated in the Temple Hill Academy, at Gene- 
seo, N. Y. , under Horatio N. Robinson, the cel- 
ebrated mathematician, and graduated with hon- 
ors from that institution. His tastes inclined 
him toward agriculture, and on leaving the acad- 
emy he turned his attention to farming, first in 
New York and afterward in Iowa. In 1851 he 
went to California, where he engaged in the pur- 
chase of stock and in running pack trains from 
Sacramento to the mines. After two years on 
the Pacific coast he returned to New York, vis- 
ited relatives there for a short time, and then 
came to Kansas. The passage of the Kansas and 
Nebraska bill awoke his anti-slavery instincts 
and prompted him to fall in with the tide of free- 
state men moving to Kansas. He came with 
what is known as the second party and arrived on 
the present site of Lawrence September 13, 1854. 
One of the first outbreaks in Kansas was the 
removal of a tent by some pro-slavery men. This 
Mr. Grover and others resisted and took the tent 
from a wagon, setting it up on the spot it had 
occupied before, and at the same time preparing 
for its defense. On the next evening, as the out- 
come of this little aff'air, the first military com- 
pany of Lawrence was organized, and Mr. Grover 
was made its captain. He was one of the most 
active free-state men and participated in all of the 
conflicts of those days. He was one of those who 
volunteered to go to Shawnee Mission to defend 
Governor Reeder in canvassing the vote on the 
election of March 30, 1855, and was in the pro- 
slavery caucus until they passed a resolution ex- 
cluding all who did not sympathize with their 
principles. Although alone among a large party 
of bitter political opponents he made a strong 
speech, denouncing their action in the face of 


such men as Dr. Stringfellow, B. F. Stringfellow, 
Messrs. Atchison, Richardson, and all the noted 
southern leaders of that place and period. On 
the conclusion of his speech the caucus adjourned 
informally in the midst of great excitement. 
With his compau}' he aided to defend Lawrence 
during the Wakarusa war of 1855, at which time 
he was promoted to the rank of colonel and placed 
in command of one of the forts. His commission 
as colonel of the Sixth Regiment of the First Bri- 
gade of the Kansas State Militia bears date of 
November 27, 1855, and is signed by James H. 
Lane, then general, commanding theFirst Brigade. 
In 1856 he was a member of the safety committee. 
After the raid of Lawrence, May 21, 1856, he 
rode to Kansas City in the night, took a steamer 
from there and carried to St. Louis the first in- 
telligence of the burning and sacking of Law- 
rence, which brought out an extra issue of the 
Missouri Democrat. Pursuing his way he brought 
the first news to Alton and also to Chicago, where 
his report preceded the pro-slavery reports. He 
spent two weeks organizing a company in Chicago 
and returned via the Missouri River to Leaven- 
worth. All of the company but him were dis- 
armed at Lexington and afterward turned back 
at Leavenworth, being refused the liberty to land. 
However, on the return of the boat from Weston 
with the men on board, Mr. Grover, having se- 
cured the pledge of some Leavenworth men to 
protect the company, was on the wharf to assist 
in the work, but the Leavenw^orth men failed to 
keep their promises. He was overpowered and 
driven to the boat, but was allowed by the cap- 
tain to get off at Kansas City, from which point 
he escaped to Kansas. He commanded his com- 
pany and participated in the battles of Franklin, 
Fort Saunders, Fort Titus, and others of the free- 
state engagements. During the Price raid he 
also had command of a company. 

In 1854 ^It"- Grover located a claim three miles 
southwest of Lawrence and afterward he im- 
proved it. In 1858 he was elected a county com- 
missioner and served in that position for four 
years. He also held office as school director, 
trustee, etc. In 1867 he was elected a member 
of the legislature, and the following year was re- 

elected, making one of the most efficient members 
of that body. In 1869 he was chosen county 
commissioner and was made chairman of the 
board, to which he was re-elected in 187 1. For 
years he was a director of the St. Louis, Law- 
rence & Western Railroad Company. 

October 13, 1857, he married Miss Emily J. 
Hunt, by whom he had seven children : Frank 
G., Helen A., Charles R., Cora E., Ernest J., 
Lillie F. and Jay G. His death occurred July 
28, 1879, and brought forth many testimonials as 
to his worth as a citizen and his value as a friend. 
With other pioneers of Kansas, his name deserves 
to be perpetuated in the annals of his state. 

Mrs. Grover was born in Medway, Mass., Sep- 
tember I, 1839, a daughter of George W. and 
Nancy (Adams) Hunt. She was one of six chil- 
dren, of whom four survive: Charles W., of To- 
peka, Kans. ; Emily J.; George, of Lawrence; 
and Augusta, wife of George B. Hall, of Solomon, 
Kans. Her grandfather, Joel Hunt, was born in 
Holliston, Mass., November 25, 1782, and was a 
prominent and successful business man. George 
W. Hunt, a native of Mil ford, Mass., born March 
14, 1808, was a cabinet-maker by trade, and after 
he married his father established him in business 
in Lowell, Mass., where he became an influential 
citizen and a deacon in the Congregational Church. 
About 1844 he moved to Fitchburg, Mass., where 
he was proprietor of two extensive furniture ware- 
houses. In 1854 he was a member of what was 
known as the third party to settle in Kansas. 
Returning east in the fall he spent the winter 
there, and in the spring came to Kansas again. 
He had the contract for the woodwork of the free- 
state hotel. In the spring of 1856 he went east 
and brought his family to Kansas, arriving in 
Kansas City May 21, the day of the sacking of 
Lawrence. Coming through on the stage coach, 
the stage was overhauled, the trunks of the party 
ransacked and valuables taken, after which the 
travelers were allowed to proceed. He was a 
friend of Eli Thaj-er, one of the prominent workers 
in the Emigrant Aid Society. In 1854, and again 
in 1855, he conducted parties to Kansas. He 
continued to reside in this state until his death, 
which took place March 25, 1870. His mother. 



Clara (Metcali) Hunt, was a daughter of Major 
Metcalf, who is supposed to have been a soldier 
in the Revolutionary war. The mother of Mrs. 
Grover was born March 17, 18 13, and died April 
II, 1896. When Mrs. Grover was a girl she 
came west with Governor Robinson and his wife 
in 1855, and remained with them until her mother 
and other members of the family made the journey 
west. During the troublesome days in Kansas 
she retained her courage and cheered others by 
her spirit. When Lawrence was burned in 1856, 
all of the wearing apparel of the family, except 
such as was in use at the time, was destroyed in 
the burning of Governor Robinson's house. 
More than once she was in peril, but in the midst 
of every adversity she retained her calmness of 
spirit and brave demeanor, thus inspiring others 
to greater courage. She has witnessed the many 
changes in Lawrence in the past forty-five years 
and is devoted to the welfare of the city in which 
the entire active part of her life has been passed. 


It assume the duties of president of a univer- 
LJ sity, to be responsible for its upward growth, 
for the welfare of its students and its influence 
upon their lives, is to accept a position calling 
for more than ordinary powers of mind and heart. 
But far greater ability is required of the man who 
becomes the head of an institution burdened by 
debt, distressed by obligations, with diminishing 
attendance and discouraged trustees and faculty. 
To such a position as this Dr. Murlin was called 
when he was elected to the presidency of Baker 
University in Baldwin. Fortunately, he was by 
nature and education adapted for his responsible 
ofiSce, and he entered upon its duties with enthu- 
siasm and that ardor which anticipates success. 
For such a man as he success could be the only 
outcome. It has been his privilege to see the 
debt wiped out, the institution brought to a high 
position among western universities, and the last 
year (i 898-1 899) close with an attendance of 
five hundred and sixty-eight, the largest in the 
history of the school. 

Dr. Murlin was born near Neptune, Mercer 

County, Ohio, November 16, 1861. His father, 
Orlando Murlin, was born in Ohio and was of 
English and Scotch-Irish descent. He remained 
on a farm until forty years of age, when he en- 
tered the Methodist Episcopal ministry, and con- 
tinued to preach the Gospel until he died, at 
sixty-two years. During the Civil war he served 
for three years as a private. He married Esther 
Hankins, who is descended from the Bigelow 
family of New England, and is still living in 
Ohio. Of the five children born to their union, 
Lemuel Herbert was next to the youngest. The 
father being a preacher in pioneer districts, the 
problem of educating the children on his meagre 
salary became a perplexing one to the patents. 
Desiring to relieve them of the burden of his 
education, our subject determined to earn the 
necessary money himself. At the age of fourteen 
he entered a drug store as clerk, continuing his 
studies by night. Two years later he graduated 
from the Convoy public school, after which he 
was engaged as instructor in the same school. 
Later he took charge of the boys' department of 
the Fort Wayne (Ind.) College, and by means 
of this, together with such other work as he could 
find to do, he worked his way through college, 
graduating in 1886. After serving for one year 
as pastor of Trinity Church in Fort Wayne and 
as a teacher in the college, he entered De Pauw 
University, where he took the regular four years' 
course, at the same time having charge of the 
Knightsville church. From the college of liberal 
arts he was graduated in 1891 and from the 
theological school the next year. 

Upon the completion of his literary course he 
was selected, over many competitors, as instruc- 
tor in his alma mater, but at the close of the first 
session he resigned his position in order to accept 
an appointment as pastor of the Methodist Church 
at Vincennes, Ind. While filling that pastorate 
he married Miss Ermina Fallass, Ph. D., precep- 
tress and professor of modern languages in Cor- 
nell College, Iowa. At the close of his third 
year in Vincennes, in August, 1894, he was 
elected to the presidency of Baker University. 
This came as a complete surprise to him, as he 
was not even aware there was a vacancy in the 


office or that his name was before the board for 
consideration until he received bj' wire the news 
of his election. 

During his administration Dr. Murlin has 
shown himself to be genial and courteous as a 
man; careful, conservative yet progressive as 
president; and scholarl3' and helpful as an in- 
structor. However, it is perhaps his executive 
ability that is his most noticeable trait of charac- 
ter. When he began as president, in September, 
1894, the university was struggling beneath an 
indebtedness of $16,000. Eiforts had been made 
to meet the debt, but had always resulted in fail- 
ure, the amount raised being only sufficient to 
meet the interest and make needed repairs upon 
buildings. In March, 1898, the conference re- 
quested Dr. Murlin to devote all of his time to 
the raising of $13,000 to wipe out the interest- 
bearing indebtedness. He did as requested, and 
in June began the work. Five months after the 
campaign was begun, on the 15th of November, 
the total amount had been raised. It was a glo- 
rious victory for him and the institution. On 
the 2d of December Judge Case placed in his 
hands interest-bearing securities aggregating 
$6, 152, to form the nucleus of the librarj- fund, and 
since that time two wills have been drawn up in 
favor of the university, and other gifts are being 

Both as pastor and president Dr. Murlin has 
had many duties, but he has yet found time for 
study, and has devoted his summer months to 
.special and professional researches. He has 
studied Hebrew under Dr. Harper, of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago, and psychology and philoso- 
phy under Dr. William Romaine Newbold, of the 
University of Pennsylvania, and Dr. Hall of 
Clark University. In 1891 he was elected to 
membership in the American Institute of Chris- 
tian Philosophy. In 1895 he was made a liiember 
of the American Branch of the Society for Psychi- 
cal Research, composed of the leading psycholo- 
gists in the world. At this writing he is presi- 
dent of the Kansas Association of College Presi- 
dents. In 1 897 the University of Denver conferred 
upon him the degree of S. T. D., and Cornell 
College tendered the degree of D. D. Believing 

that the mind is capable of its greatest achieve- 
ments only as the result of constant culture, he 
has continued to be a student and has availed 
himself of the best advantages offered both by 
America and by Europe in those studies which 
he has made his specialties. During the summer 
of 1899 Dr. Murlin, accompanied by his wife, 
visited Europe for the purpose of continuing the 
study and research which he had mapped out for 
himself, returning to his duties as president of the 
university in September. 

EOL. S. J. CHURCHILL, assistant adjutant- 
general of the department of Kansas, G. A. R. , 
was one of the brave men who fought for the 
extinction of slavery and the freedom of a race. 
He wears a medal of honor which was volun- 
tarily awarded by congress for most distinguished 
gallantry in the battle of Nashville, Tenn., 
December 15, 1864. In that engagement he 
commanded one gun (a twelve-pound Napoleon) 
and a gun detachment of eight men. When the 
enemy's batteries opened fire upon his gun, com- 
pelling the men of his detachment to seek shelter, 
he stood at his post alone, and amid a perfect 
rain of shot and shell, loaded and fired eleven 
shots before relief came. The rebel batteries 
were silenced and beaten back and the Union 
forces took an advanced position, thus assisting 
in the final victory at that battle. 

Born in Rutland, Vt., November i, 1842, our 
subject is a son of Samuel Sumner and Polly 
(Richardson) Churchill, natives of Vermont, and 
members of old and prominent families there. 
His grandfather, Amos Churchill, who lived to 
be ninety-seven years old, was a descendant of 
English ancestors who settled in Massachusetts. 
Samuel S. Churchill died on a Vermont farm at 
forty-four years, and his wife when fifty -six. 
They were the parents of eight daughters and 
two sons who attained mature years, of whom 
three daughters and one son survive. Our subject 
was two years of age when his father and only 
brother died. He was the youngest of the family 
and was reared on the home farm, attending com- 
mon schools and an academj-. In the spring of 


1 86 1 he went to Illinois, intending to teach school, 
but, instead, at the first call for three hundred 
thousand soldiers, he enlisted, August 6, 1861, 
as a private in Battery G, Second Illinois 
Light Artillery, and was mustered in at Camp 
Butler, after which he was sent to Kentucky. 
He took part in the battle of Fort Donelson and 
was with the first troops that entered Columbus, 
K}'. Thence he marched to Hickman, Ky., and 
Union City, Tenn. , where the Union force sur- 
prised the Confederates, captured the guns and 
then proceeded to Trenton, Tenn. He joined 
Grant's expedition at Lagrange and marched 
further south, going as far as Coffeyville, where 
the Confederates in the rear cut oif supplies. 

Returning to Memphis, the regiment after- 
ward took part in the Vicksburg campaign and 
the battles of Champion Hills, Jackson and 
Black Water Bridge, thence went to Jefferson Bar- 
racks, Mo., and from there pursued Price, serving 
under Gen. A.J.Smith. Their next engagements 
were at Franklin and Nashville, where they 
assisted in securing the annihilation of Hood's 
forces. In January, 1864, our subject veteran- 
ized and was promoted to the rank of corporal. 
He then went to New Orleans, thence to Mobile 
and took part in the siege of that city, later was 
at Forts Spanish and Blakely, then went to 
Montgomery, Ala., remaining there until mus- 
tered out. He was honorably discharged at 
Springfield, 111., September 5, 1865. Though 
he had borne an active part in nineteen battles, 
he was never seriously wounded. His principal 
engagements were as follows: Fort Donelson, 
February 16, 1862; Union City, March 31, 1862; 
Coffeyville, Miss., December 5, 1862; Siege of 
Vicksburg, 1863; Brownsville, Miss., October 
14, 1863; Tupelo, Miss., July 14, 1864; Oldtown 
Creek, Miss., July 15, 1864; Hurricane Creek, 
August 14, 1864; Nashville, Tenn., December 
15-16, 1864; Siege of Fort Spanish, Mobile and 
Fort Blakely from March 27 to April 12, 1865. 
His last promotion was to be quartermaster-ser- 
geant, but at the captain's request he retained 
his place at the gun and left others to distribute 

While at home on a furlough our subject was 

married, in Rutland County, Vt., May 4, 1864, to 
Miss Adelia A. Holmes, daughter of Pliny and 
Vesta (Caldwell) Holmes. Soon after the war was 
over he settled in Jackson County, Mo., twenty 
miles southeast of Kansas City, settling in 1866 
upon property he had purchased in December 
1865. He was the first Union man in his town 
and at first naturally had considerable prejudice 
to overcome. He assisted in building up a school 
and aided other local enterprises. In 1879 he 
came to Lawrence, Kans. From 1878 to 1881 he 
represented, in Missouri and Kansas, the H. B. 
Scott & Co. Barb Wire Manufacturing Company 
ofjoliet, 111. In 1881 he began as a wholesale 
dealer in barb wire and nails, with office and 
storerooms on Massachusetts street. He built up 
a large trade and continued until 1887. He also 
assisted in organizing the Organ Mountain Min- 
ing and Smelting Company, of which he was 
vice-president and treasurer, but the enterprise 
was not a success. Later for several years he 
carried on a wholesale and retail grocery busi- 
ness, but finally traded the business for real 
estate and retired. For two years he was deputy 
clerk of the district court, since which time he 
has engaged in assessing property for the city 
and has also done considerable official clerical 
work. In 1890 he took the census. For one 
term he served in the city council from the first 
ward, and has been active on county committees 
and in conventions of the Republican party. 

The first wife of our subject died in Missouri, 
leaving four children, namely; May, wife of A. 
L. Sloan, who is a civil engineer at San Bernar- 
dino, Cal.; Frank H., who died January 8, 
1891; Winnifred G., wife of James Owen, an 
attorney at Cripple Creek, Colo.; and Lena 
Blanche, who died July 8, 189S. The second 
marriage of Colonel Churchill occurred at Coun- 
cil Grove, Kans., uniting him with Miss Louana 
Grant, who was born near Cooperstown, Otsego 
County, N. Y., and received her education in 
Starkey Seminary and Albion (Mich. ) College. 
She was the youngest of three children, one of 
whom, Solon E. Grant, was a captain in a Michi- 
gan regiment during the Civil war and died about 
1879. Among her relatives were several who 


attained national fame during the war of the re- 
bellion. Her father, Rev. Jacob Grant, a native 
of Herkimer County, N. Y., graduated from 
Hamilton College and entered the Baptist minis- 
try, in which he continued until he died, at Lodi, 
N. Y. He was the son of a Revolutionary hero, 
who received a medal for bravery in that conflict. 
Her mother, Louana, was a daughter of Major 
Cloughandwas born in Madison, N. Y. , but died 
when her daughter and namesake was only three 
weeks old. Both Colonel and Mrs. Churchill 
are members of the official board of the Method- 
ist Episcopal Church, and he has also officiated 
as class-leader, chorister and Sunday-school su- 
perintendent. Fraternally he is identified with 
the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Modern 
Woodmen of America and Washington Post No. 
12, G. A. R., in which he is past commander. 
Several times he has been aide on the staff of the 
department commander. In 1898, at the Wichita 
encampment, he was appointed assistant adjutant- 
general of the department of Kansas, G. A. R. 
In this position he has discharged every duty 
with efficiency. 

It is said that Colonel Churchill is one of the 
finest penmen in Kansas. When he was in the 
army he did the writing for his company, making 
out the muster and pay rolls and the monthly 
reports. He took great pains with his work and 
thus acquired a precision and accuracy of pen- 
manship that is universally admired. On ac- 
count of his skill as a writer he has been em- 
ployed by the state to write commissions for the 
officers of the Kansas regiments. 

Department- Commander, D. W. Eastman, in 
his report to the department encampment at 
Hutchinson, April 26, 1899, said, in referring to 
Colonel Churchill: "I would especially call at- 
tention to the report of Assistant Adjutant-Gen- 
eral Churchill, and of his work during the year. 
The books under his charge are models of neat- 
ness and correctness. He has been faithful and 
painstaking in all his work. Not an unpleas- 
ant word has passed between us, and we part 
with the ties of comradeship firmly welded." 

The committee to whom the report of Colonel 
Churchill to the Hutchinson Encampment was re- 

ferred made the following report: "To the De- 
partment of Kansas, G. A. R.: We the under- 
signed committee on report of Assistant Adju- 
tant-General Churchill, do most respectfully re- 
port that, after giving said report a careful con- 
sideration, and because of the faultless and thor- 
ough manner of its preparation and the methodi- 
cal arrangement of the valuable information it 
contains, do unhesitatingly approve the same. 
It contains all that a painstaking mind can sug- 
gest and, because of its completeness, furnishes a 
model for all future officers occupying this impor- 
tant station. We recommend this Department 
pass a vote of thanks to our gallant Assistant 
Adjutant-General for the efficiency he has shown. 
"Respectfully submitted in F. C. &!,." 

W. H. Fletcher, 

F. P. Cochran, J- Committee. 

W. F. Hendry, 

AJ. DANIEL C. JONES, M. D., sur- 
geon of the western branch of the National 
Soldiers' Home, at Leavenworth, is a de- 
scendant of colonial settlers of Virginia, whose 
names were intimately associated with the early 
history of the Old Dominion. His father, Eph- 
raim B. Jones, removed from Virginia to Ohio 
and later to Illinois, where he engaged in farm- 
ing and stock-raising until his death, in 1876. 
He was a man of intelligence and upright charac- 
ter and was a leader in his community. His 
father, Hon. John Jones, went from Virginia to 
Ohio, where he became an influential attorney 
and judge of the courts, attaining a success that 
made his name influential throughout his county. 
By the marriage of Ephraim B. Jones to Martha 
Clark, who was born in Virginia and died in Illi- 
nois in 1875, seven children were born, of whom 
four are living, namely: Daniel C; O. S., of 
Paris, 111.; Sarah, wife of J. H. Shawhan; and 
Helen, widowof Joseph Johnson, of Indianapolis, 
Ind. Major Jones was born in Athens County, 
Ohio, January 5, 1838, and was reared near Paris, 
111., where he studied in the public schools and 
academy. He began to read medicine under a 



physician of Paris, and later matriculated in Rush 
Medical College, where he took the complete 
course of study, graduating in 1862. Before 
graduating he had enlisted in the Union army, 
his name being enrolled August 10, 1861, as a 
member of Company A, Seventh Illinois Cavalry, 
in which he was first sergeant. In 1862, after 
having received his degree of M. D., he was ap- 
pointed assistant surgeon of the Second Illinois 
Cavalry, and in 1864 was made surgeon, with 
the rank of major. As such he served until the 
close of the war, and afterward was stationed at 
the post in San Antonio, Tex., for six months. 
He was present in all of the engagements of the 
army of the Mississippi, under General Grant, 
the most important of these battles being Vicks- 
burg and Corinth, and remained with the regi- 
ment at the front without furlough or change. 
In one battle he was slightly wounded. 

After receiving his honorable discharge from 
the army, in 1866, Major Jones entered the Ohio 
Medical College at Cincinnati, from which he 
graduated in 1867. Returning to Paris, 111., he 
opened an office and began a general practice. In 
1868 he came to Kansas, settling in Junction City, 
where he carried on practice until 1875. He then 
moved to Topeka, where he built up a reputation 
as a skillful physician and surgeon, continuing 
in that city until he accepted the position of sur- 
geon at the Soldiers' Home in Leavenworth in 
1895. In the Home he has full charge of the 
surgical and medical department, with three as- 
sistants under him. His thorough acquaintance 
with his profession and his success in its practice 
admirably qualify him for the responsibilities of 
his position and enable him to satisfactorily dis- 
charge every duty. 

Active as a member of the Republican party. 
Major Jones has given his influence to party 
principles in the various cities where he has made 
his home. In 1893 ^^ was elected mayor of To- 
peka, which office he filled to the satisfaction of 
all. It has been his custom to attend such con- 
ventions of the party as his professional duties 
will allow, and he has been an interested specta- 
tor in a number of national, as well as many state 
and local, conventions. He is connected with 

the American Public Health Association, the 
Eastern District Medical Society and the Kansas 
State Medical Society, and has officiated as 
president of the two last-named. Fraternally he 
holds membership in Topeka Lodge No. 17, 
A. F. & A. M., Topeka Chapter, R. A. M., and 
Palestine Commandery, K. T., at Paris, 111. 
While in the army, in 1864, he was united in 
marriage with Miss Jane E. Austin, of Illinois, 
who died in 1885, leaving two daughters: Mar- 
tha; and Adelia, wife of William F. Hixon, of 

qOHN W. SPRATLEY. In reviewing the 
I history of any community there are always a 
G) few names that stand out pre-eminently 
among others, because those who bear them are 
men of superior ability, energy, judgment and 
intelligence. Such men add to the prosperity of 
a town and increase its commercial importance. 
To this class belongs J. W. Spratley, president 
of the Union Savings Bank of Leavenworth, and 
one of the large cattle-dealers of the west. Stand- 
ing, as he does, at the head of a large financial 
institution, he wields an influence that is by no 
means limited to his home town. The success of 
the bank is, in a large measure, due to his saga- 
cious judgment and the sound business policy he 
has adopted in its management. Since its or- 
ganization in January, 1890, he has held the of- 
fice of president, and has also been a member of 
the board of directors. During the nine years 
that the bank has been in existence it has earned, 
besides paying dividends, a large surplus, 
amounting at the present time, to $i 1,000, and 
is one of the substantial concerns of Kansas. The 
recipient of the patronage of many of the 
ness men, as well as large numbers of private 
citizens of Leavenworth, its deposits on the last 
day of June, 1899, were $410,111.34, with a capi- 
tal stock of $30,000, and undivided profits $10,- 
000, surplus $11,500, while its loans and dis- 
counts reached the gratifying figure of almost 

The life which this narrative sketches began 
in Surry County, Va., January 23, 1834, upon 
the plantation of Junius Nicholas Spratley, of 


whose six children only two are living. One son, 
who was his father's namesake, took part in the 
Civil war, and afterward settled in Leavenworth, 
Kans. , where he died. The subject of this arti- 
cle was left fatherless at an earl)- age. At fifteen 
he went to Alabama and remained in the vicinity 
of Mobile until May, 1856, when he came to the 
then new town of Leavenworth. In the fall he 
returned to the south, not, however, with the in- 
tention of remaining, for the spring of 1857 found 
him once more in Kansas. Securing employment 
as clerk he entered at once into western activi- 
ties. During the winter of 1860-61 he visited at 
his old Virginia home, and after his return 
started a flour mill and also embarked in the 
manufacture of lumber. His sawmill adjoined 
the government reservation, and during the war 
he was kept constantly busy in filling govern- 
ment contracts, but at the close of the conflict he 
turned the business over to his brother. 

The industry with which Mr. Spratley has 
been most intimately identified, and in which he 
has been very successful, is that of dealing in cat- 
tle. Shortly after the close of the Civil war he 
purchased and began to improve large tracts of 
land. Some of this he sold at handsome profits. 
A portion he retained in his possession, in order 
to furnish range for his cattle. He now owns 
farms in different parts of the county, where he 
feeds cattle, which from time to time he ships to 
eastern markets. His specialty has been the 
Shorthorns and Herefords, with both of which he 
has been successful. Besides his land in Kansas, 
he is the owner of a farm near Smithville, Clay 
County, Mo., where he raises fancy cattle. 

It would be impossible for one so long identi- 
fied with a city to feel no interest in its welfare, 
and we find that Mr. Spratley has, during more 
than forty years of his residence in Leavenworth, 
done all within his power to advance its material 
welfare. He has been especially helpful in broad- 
ening its power as a financial center. The bank 
he helped to organize has been an important 
agency in the growing prosperity of the place. 
During the panic of 1893 it maintained its credit 
unimpaired and retained then, as it has ever 
done, the confidence of its patrons. Giving his 

attention to his cattle business and banking in- 
terests, Mr. Spratley has little time to participate 
in public affairs, but he keeps posted concerning 
the national problems, and in politics is a Demo- 
crat. In fraternal relations he is connected with 
the Endowment Rank, Knights of Pythias. 

In Platte County, Mo., Mr. Spratley was 
united in marriage with Miss Emma Cockrill, 
who was born in that county, a member of the 
family to which- Platte County owed not a little 
of its progress. She was reared in the home of 
her parents, Clinton and Mary (Coates) Cockrill, 
and in girlhood became connected with the Chris- 
tian Church, of which she has since been a mem- 
ber. The only son of Mr. and Mrs. Spratley is 
J. W. Spratle}', Jr., who is teller of and a director 
in the Union Savings Bank. In 1886 Mr. Sprat- 
ley was elected treasurer of Leavenworth County 
on the Democratic ticket, and at the expiration 
of the term was re-elected, serving until 1890. 

0ILLWYN PARKER, cashier and paymaster 
at the National Military Home in Leaven- 
worth, was born in Parkersville, Chester 
County, Pa., in 1840, a son of Wistar and Abigail 
(Jackson) Parker, both of Quaker descent and 
faith. His grandfather, John Parker, was a 
Quaker preacher and the ancestors, who came 
from England, were also prominent in that so- 
ciety. The history of the family in this country 
dates back to 17 10, when William and John Penn 
deeded to John Parker a tract of land now em- 
braced in the town of Parkersville. Mrs. Abigail 
Parker died in Harford County, Md., in 1873, at 
the age of seventy-two. She had long survived 
her husband, who was a lifelong resident of 
Chester County, Pa., and died there at forty- 
nine years. They were the parents of eight chil- 
dren, but onlj' three of these are now living, the 
two daughters being Mary, wife of Dr. S. T. 
Brown, of Germantown, Pa., and Ellen, who 
married Dallas Reeve, of Trenton, N. J. 

The boyhood days of our subject were passed 
principally in Westchester, Pa., and his educa- 
tion was largely acquired in a boarding school. 
For several years he was deputy recorder of deeds 



of Chester County, later became recorder. In 
1 86 1 he enlisted in Company A, First Pennsyl- 
vania Reserve Infantry, and was detailed as 
secretary to Generals Reynolds, Sykes and Craw- 
ford, serving in a clerical capacity, and as an 
orderly on General Reynolds' staff. He was with 
the regiment at Fredericksburg, Gettysburg and 
in the seven days battle before Richmond, and 
was slightly wounded in the first-named engage- 
ment and for a few hours was a prisoner. His 
regiment was a part of the third division, fifth 
army corps, under Generals Reynolds, Meade, 
Sykes and Warren. In July, 1864, he became a 
clerk in the war department at Washington, 
where he remained for two years. During that 
time he was called upon by President Lincoln and 
Secretary Stanton to write out three proclama- 
tions of great importance. The last of these was 
drafted just before the election of 1864 and called 
for three hundred thousand volunteers, but was 
not issued until after the election. He also drew 
up the proclamation granting amnesty to any 
Confederates who wished to enter the Union 

After leaving the war department Mr. Parker 
spent a short time in southern Texas, returning 
to Westchester in 1866. In a convention pre- 
sided over by Gen. John R. Brooke he was nomi- 
nated for recorder of deeds, and was later elected, 
filling the ofiSce until he removed to Harford 
County, Md., in 1870. For six years he was 
engaged in farming and stock-raising there, after 
which he returned to Westchester, Pa., and 
shortly afterward was appointed appraiser in the 
United States custom house at the Centennial 
Exposition. Coming to Kansas in 1877 ^^ en- 
gaged in the loan business at Paola, representing 
Smedley Darlington. He remained in Paola un- 
til 1888, when he was appointed chief clerk, 
cashier and paymaster at the National Military 
Home, which appointment he still holds. In 
politics he has always supported the Republican 
party and has been active in local and state 
affairs; however, he is not a partisan, but inclined 
to be independent in principle and favors any 
measure for the benefit of the people. While re- 
siding in Maryland he took a leading part in the 

campaign of 1875 and was a delegate to the state 
convention which nominated J. Morrison Harris 
for governor. 

In 1869 Mr. Parker married Carrie L., daugh- 
ter of Henry Taylor McClellan, who was for forty- 
eight years superintendent of the Allegheny iron 
furnace at Altoona, Pa. They are the parents of 
two children: Henry W., who is a-ssistant to 
Colonel Ayleshire, chief quartermaster, with the 
rank of first lieutenant, on General Wilson's 
staff at Matanzas, Cuba; and Sylvester C. Fra- 
ternally Mr. Parker is connected with the 
Knights of Honor. He has served as quarter- 
master of the Union Veterans' Legion and for 
some time held office as senior vice and acting 
commander of McCasslan Post No. 117, G. A. R. 
He has full charge of all financial matters in the 
treasurer's ofiice at the Soldiers' Home and dis- 
charges his responsible duties with accuracy and 

WIGHT BYINGTON, who at the time of 
his death was past grand commander and 
grand recorder of the grand commandery 
of Knights Templar of Kansas, was a man 
aim in life was to do good, and in his demise, 
which occurred October 11, 1894, his wife lost a 
devoted companion, and the community a citizen 
who could illy be spared. Born in Norwich, 
Chenango County, N. Y., February 20, 1831, he 
was a lineal descendant of Puritan stock. His 
father, Frederick, was a native of Connecticut, 
and his mother of Massachusetts. About 1816 
they removed to Norwich, N. Y., where they 
were married April 27, 1827. When Dwight 
was four years of age his father died. He was 
reared under the care of his mother, and was 
educated in Norwich and Oxford Academy. In 
early life he engaged in various pursuits and ac- 
quired a knowledge of telegraphy, which he 
afterward followed in the west. Believing that 
there were better chances for a young man in the 
growing west, he went to Terre Haute, Ind., 
where he was employed as operator by the Terre 
Haute & Alton Railroad. Later he was made 
agent at Charleston, 111., and in 1861 promoted 
to train dispatcher. In 1862 he was called to 



Jefiferson Barracks, Mo., by Major Smith, and 
placed in charge of the military telegraph service 
during the remainder of the war. Two j^ears 
after he went to Jefferson Barracks he was trans- 
ferred to Pilot Knob, then to Helena and Little 
Rock, Ark., and in 1864 was made manager, 
with headquarters in Leavenworth. He was the 
last man mustered out of the service in this de- 
partment in 1866. 

After the expiration of his army service Mr. 
Byington was employed in Leavenworth by the 
Missouri Pacific Railroad as operator and agent. 
The road at that time was uncompleted, and he 
had his office in a box car. During those days 
he had many interesting experiences. He once 
took a ride in the steamer "Hensley," Capt. W. 
S. Burke, from Leavenworth down to the mouth 
of the Kaw and up to Lawrence. When the first 
engine was brought by boat to the Kaw River, 
he went down to see it tried. The track had 
been laid to the river bank, and when the engine 
started it was run up a .short distance and back, 
then was taken out of sight. Returning, it got 
out of the control of the engineer, plunged over 
the bank of the river and was imbedded in the 
quicksand, where it remains to this daj'. 

For twenty years Mr. Byington was in the 
employ of the Missouri Pacific Railroad. Dur- 
ing eighteen and one-half years he was ticket 
agent and in all of that time he was absent from 
duty on!}' three and one-half weeks. Nor was 
there, in the entire period, a discrepancy of a 
penny in his accounts. Owing to poor health, 
he was finally obliged to give up active employ- 
ment. From Major Smith he received the gift 
of a very fine pocket telegraph instrument, and 
this he often used when on his trips in charge of 
government lines during the war; it is now in 
the possession of Mrs. Byington, who highly 
prizes it as a token of the esteem in which he 
was held. 

In the Masonic order Mr. Byington took high 
rank. He became a member of the fraternity in 
Leavenworth, in June, 1864, belonging to King 
Solomon Lodge No. 10, A. F. & A. M, In 
1S66 he served as junior warden, in 1868 as 
senior warden, and in 1869 as worshipful master. 

From 1873 to 1876 he was deputy grand master. 
In 1865 he became a member of Leavenworth 
Chapter No. 2, and was high priest in 1868 and 
1869. In 1866 he assisted in organizing the 
Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Kansas and was 
elected grand king in 1876 and grand high priest 
in 1877. In 1865 he received the degrees of 
royal, select and super-excellent master in Leav- 
enworth Council No. i, and was honored with 
the office of illustrious master in 1877 and 1878. 
He also assisted in organizing the Grand Council 
of Kansas, and was afterward grand master in 
1880 and 1 88 1, and was a delegate from the 
Grand Council of Kansas to the convention at 
Detroit, Mich., and took a deep interest in the 
organization of the General Grand Council. In 
1868 he helped to organize the Grand Command- 
ery of Knights Templar of Kansas, and was 
chosen eminent commander in 1874. He was 
elected grand captain general at the annual con- 
clave in 1877, and deputy grand commander in 
1879. In 1880 he represented the Grand Com- 
mandery in the grand encampment in Chicago, 
the largest assembly of Knights Templar that 
was ever gathered in any city or country. 

Among Masons throughout the country Mr. 
Byington was well known and held in the high- 
est esteem. When he died there were many 
tributes paid to his memory by his host of 
friends. He was buried with Masonic honors 
and his funeral brought together the largest con- 
course of people ever seen at a similar service in 
Leavenworth. In the hearts of those to whom 
he was known, his memory is honored for his 
upright life and noble character. 

RS. EMILY J. BYINGTON, who is en- 
gaged in the real-estate business in Leaven- 
worth, was born in Oxford, N. Y., in 1835, 
a daughter of Levi and Laura (Humphrey) 
Eggleston. Her father was an expert machinist 
and at the time of his death was a member of the 
oldest firm of hardware merchants in Chenango 
County. Through her mother she is of English 
descent, but the family has been identified with 
American history for many generations. Her 



education was obtained in Oxford Academy, with 
the alumni association of which she has since 
been identified. She was given the benefit of the 
best advantages of the day and locality. Prior to 
the origin of the Morse system of telegraphy, she 
attended a lecture, in which was demonstrated 
the result of electricity when put under control 
by wire and keys. 

When twenty years of age Miss Eggleston be- 
came the wife of Dwight Byington. They had 
an only child, a son, deceased, who was buried 
at Litchfield, 111. 

In 1865, being desirous of getting a home, Mrs. 
Byington began to clerk. She succeeded in ac- 
complishing her aim, and at the same time dis- 
played the possession of so much business ability 
that she has since continued identified with the 
business interests of Leavenworth. In 1873 she 
bought a small house, which she has since en- 
larged to its present commodious size. In 1883 
she embarked in the real-estate business, in which 
she has since successfully engaged. During the 
boom of 1887 and its subsequent collapse, others 
were more or less injured financially, but by the 
exercise of good judgment she came out ahead. 
It has always been one of her principles that all 
should live within their incomes, and in her ad- 
dress before the students of Leavenworth College, 
in February, 1899, she made that thought one of 
her principal points. She is fond of literary work 
and shows a decided talent for it. She delivered 
an address at the memorial .service held in honor 
of Mrs. Harriet C. Cushing, founder of Cushing 
hospital and one of the founders of the Home for 
the Friendless, in Leavenworth. 

In 1896 Mrs. Byington was a delegate to the 
biennial convention of Women's Clubs held in 
Louisville and two years later she attended as a 
delegate a similar gathering in Denver. She was 
one of the originators of the Saturday Club, with 
which she has been identified for twenty years. 
In the Alantean Club of Topeka she is an hon- 
orary member, and is also a life member of the 
Art League of Leavenworth. Identified with By- 
ington Chapter No. 177, Order of Eastern Star, 
she holds office as past worthy matron of the 
chapter. Her various fraternal and social con- 

nections afford her an outlet for her energies and 
an agreeable relaxation after the cares of busi- 
ness. She laid out the Byington subdivision to 
Leavenworth and now owns a number of resi- 
dences in the city. Matters calculated to pro- 
mote the welfare of the people, either morally or 
intellectually, receive her sympathy and support. 
The public library is one of the worthy causes in 
which she is interested. She has also taken a 
warm interest in the work of the Home for the 
Friendless, and has been a member of the home 

3EPP RYAN, president of the Ryan Brothers 
Cattle Company, president of the Leaven- 
worth Coal Company, and a director of the 
First National Bank of Leavenworth, was born 
in the city of Leavenworth, November 24, 1858, 
a son of Matthew Ryan, Sr. His education was 
obtained principally in St. Mary's College in 
Kansas. From an earlj' age he has been inter- 
ested in the cattle business. Associated with his 
older brother and their father, in 1876 he began 
trailing cattle from Oregon, Idaho and Washing- 
ton to Cheyenne, Wyo., and this business they 
conducted upon an extensive scale, handling as 
many as thirty thousand cattle in a single season. 

The Ryan Brothers Cattle Company, organized 
in 1883, located a ranch on the Musselshell 
River, one hundred and ten miles northwest of 
Miles City, Mont., and seventy miles from Cus- 
ter's battlefield. From that time until 1897 the 
subject of this sketch spent almost his entire time 
in Montana, where he was extensivelj- engaged 
in the cattle business. While he conducted the 
business upon a large scale, and was prosperous, 
yet he had his share of misfortunes. During the 
severe winter of 1886- 1887 the firm lost more 
than fifteen thousand head of cattle. However, 
thej- continued the business upon as large a .scale 
as before, and in addition to the raising of cattle, 
also engaged in the breeding of saddle and thor- 
oughbred horses, being the largest producers of 
saddle horses in Montana. 

During all the years that Mr. Ryan had the 
superintendence of the ranch he made his home 
in Miles City, Mont. In 1891 he opened a hard- 



ware store in that place, where he built up an 
extensive business and continued at the head of 
the establishment uutil 1898, when he sold out. 
In 1894 he was elected mayor of Miles Cit3^ 
which position he held one term. He was very 
popular among the people of Miles City and his 
departure was greatly regretted; the local paper 
alluded to him in terms of the highest praise and 
the people united in testifying to his worth as a 
citizen. In November, 1897, his brother, Mat- 
thew Ryan, Jr., died. The two had always been 
engaged in business together, Matthew having 
charge of their Leavenworth interests, while our 
subject superintended the cattle business in 
Montana. The latter' s plans were changed by 
the death of his brother and his return to Leav- 
enworth was rendered necessary. Here he has 
since had the supervision of the Ryan estate, 
while his brother, Ethan, has acted as vice- 
president of the company and manager of the 
Montana ranch. 

Besides their interests in Montana, Ryan 
Brothers are also extensively engaged in cattle 
raising near Tombstone, Cochise County, Ariz., 
Eldorado, Kans., and Chickasaw Nation, I. T. 
Ryan Brothers Cattle Company also own a farm 
of one thousand acres, stocked with cattle, and 
situated seven miles .south of Leavenworth. Mr. 
Ryan is vice-president of the Lost Horse Mining 
and Milling Company, operating a gold mine in 
San Bernardino County, Cal., of which company 
his brother, Thomas, is the president. The 
Leavenworth Coal Company, of which he is 
president, are the oldest coal operators in the 
state, and have a shaft seven hundred and ten 
feet deep, mining a twenty-three inch vein, with 
a capacity of thirty thousand. In addition to his 
other enterprises he is president of the Ryan 
Brothers Cattle Company and a director in the 
First National Bank. During his residence in 
Montana he was actively identified with the Mon- 
tana Cattle Growers' Association. 

On South Broadway, Leavenworth, stands the 
beautiful and elegantly furnished home of Mr. 
Ryan. He was married in Leavenworth, in Jan- 
uary, 1883, to Miss Addie Carr, daughter of E. 
T. and Margaret Carr; she was born in Leaven- 

worth and received excellent advantages in girl- 
hood. Her charming manners and tact enable 
her to preside graciously over her elegant home. 
The children of Mr. and Mrs. Ryan are Lee M. 
and Samuel. 

A great deal of credit is due Mr. Ryan for the 
energy he has displayed in business matters and 
for the liberal manner in which he has supported 
all enterprises calculated to develop and add to 
the progress of his native town. He is a man of 
enterprise, joined with sound common sense, and 
in his stock-raising projects has exhibited excel- 
lent judgment. In fact, it is doubtful if any citi- 
zen of Leavenworth is better versed than he in 
the details of the stock business. 

in Leaksville, Rockingham County, N. C, 
a son of William C. and Caroline Frances 
(Barnett) Stevens, and a descendant, on the pa- 
ternal side, of a pioneer family of New Hamp- 
shire, while the Barnetts were early residents of 
Virginia and many of their members took part in 
the Revolutionary war. In 1834 the family re- 
moved to Peoria County, 111. , and soon afterward 
the mother died, after which the father married 
again. He became one of the most extensive 
and prosperous farmers of his section and lived to 
be a very aged man. 

In a private school our subject obtained a good 
knowledge of the English language and laid the 
foundation of the education which was afterward 
broadened by travel and self-culture. August 
25, 1850, at the age of twenty years and two 
months, he married Miss Lizzie Flint. Soon 
afterward he rented a farm at Princeton, but a 
year later sold his property and purchased an in- 
terest in a furniture store in the town, which 
business he conducted for several years, making 
money rapidly, but losing through unfortunate 
investments. In 1857 he disposed of the store 
and resumed farming, and soon had three farms 
well improved and stocked. 

At the opening of the Civil war he determined 
to enlist in defense of the Union. October, 1861, 
found his name enrolled as a member of Company 



C, Fifty-seventh Illinois Infantry. A short time 
afterward he was made sergeant-major, and 
served in the Army of the Tennessee, participa- 
ting in the battles of Pittsburg Landing, Corinth 
and Stone River. He was always to be found in 
the thickest of the fights, leading others on to 
victory. In 1863 he was transferred to the One 
Hundred and Forty-sixth Illinois Infantry and 
commissioned captain; serving as such, mostly in 
Tennessee and Alabama, until the close of the 
war, when he was mustered out, July 5, 1865, at 
Springfield, 111. 

Returning home. Captain Stevens found farm- 
ing in a stagnant condition, owing to the influ- 
ence of the war. Believing conditions would be 
more favorable in the west, he sold his Illinois 
property and came to Kansas in November, 
1867. Settling in Lawrence, he first built a 
tannery and engaged in tanning, but lost all he 
had invested. His next venture was in the real- 
estate and insurance business, in which he was 
so successful that within three years he had re- 
trieved his losses to some extent. In January, 
1872, he and I. S. Kalloch issued the first num- 
ber of the Spirit of Kansas, a paper devoted to the 
general interests of the farming people. After 
a year he bought out his partner and ran a few 
months alone, when he took Hon. E. G. Ross into 
partnership, but after a year he again became 
editor and sole proprietor. Under his manage- 
ment the paper increased in circulation and popu- 
larity, and was generally conceded to have no 
superior of its kind. He continued its editor for 
years, but finally sold the paper. 

Politically Captain Stevens was always a 
stanch Republican. He was connected with the 
Masons, Odd Fellows and Grand Army. In 
1873 he became identified with the Grange move- 
ment and for several terms he served as master 
of his Grange. In 1877 and 1878 he was lecturer 
of the Kansas State Grange. In this capacity he 
made a general canvass of the state, organizing 
granges, strengthening old organizations and ad- 
vancing the movement. Through his pointed, 
logical and practical lectures he did much to 
awaken the people to a realization of their op- 
portunities and the state's needs as an agricult- 

ural community. For two hundred days he 
engaged in lecturing, without asking for any 
remuneration whatever. In religion he was a 
Congregationalist. His wife died in 1887, and two 
years later, while he was serving as justice of the 
peace, he also passed away. They were the pa- 
rents of five children: Mrs. Eva Griesa, of Law- 
rence; Nelson O., of this city; James B., profes- 
sor of vocal music in Boston, Mass.; Carrie F., a 
teacher in the public schools of Lawrence; and 
William C, professor of botany in the University 
of Kansas. 

HON. MARTIN SMITH. The pioneers of 
Leavenworth will be held in grateful re- 
membrance long after they shall have 
passed from earth. The hardships and priva- 
tions which they endured during the early days 
of the settlement of Kansas entitle them to spe- 
cial recognition. Among these early settlers 
mention belongs to Mr. Smith, who came to 
Leavenworth June 8, 1857, and is still an active 
business man of this city. During the entire 
period of his residence here he has maintained a 
deep interest in the welfare of his city and state, 
and has contributed his quota toward the devel- 
opment of each. Through his service as a mem- 
ber of the state senate he has also had a connec- 
tion with the making of the laws of the state and 
the sustaining of its broad educational and phil- 
anthropic institutions. 

At No. 305 Delaware street Mr. Smith is en- 
gaged in the real-estate and insurance business. 
As an underwriter he draws up policies ensuring 
against fire and tornado, also against the destruc- 
tion of plate glass by accident. The companies 
he represents are as follows: Liverpool, London 
& Globe; Firemen's Fund of San Francisco; 
German-American of New York; North British 
& Mercantile; Orient of Hartford; Glens Falls of 
Glens Falls, N. Y. ; Hamburg-Bremen; Sun of 
London (the oldest insurance company in the 
world); American- Central of St. Louis and Mil- 
waukee. He owns residence property in Leaven- 
worth, and also a farm of one hundred and forty 
acres in Platte County, Mo. He has acted as 
president of a number of building and loan asso- 


ciations until their shares matured and were paid 
off. Other enterprises have received his attention 
from time to time. 

On New Year's day of 1832 Mr. Smith was 
born in Rhenish Prussia, Germany, a son of 
John and Marj' (Wagner) Smith, also natives of 
that vicinity. His paternal grandfather, a farmer, 
was seventy-one years of age at the time of his 
death, and his wife was ninety-seven. When a 
young man John Smith entered the Prussian 
army and served in the Napoleonic wars, up to 
and including the battle of Waterloo. He was 
second lieutenant of his company, and received, 
for bravery, the order of the iron cross. Before 
Frederick William died he issued an order that 
each and every one who was a participant in 
these wars, who was qualified for office, should 
be given the preference. In this way John Smith 
was given the office of general superintendent of 
public roads, his territory covering a very large 
area. He continued in the office until he died at 
eighty-seven years, and retaining his mental and 
physical faculties was able to attend to every 
duty up to the last. He death resulted from an 
attack by a mad bull. His wife died at sixty- 
six years. Of their six children three are living, 
Martin being next to the youngest, and the only 
one in America. One of the sons, John, was a 
lieutenant in the revolution in Baden and was a 
man of splendid qualities, whose rise from the 
ranks was merited. 

When fourteen the subject of this sketch en- 
tered a college at Bern-Kassel. Afterward he 
became superintendent of twenty-five men in the 
building of a twelve-mile macadam road, which 
work occupied one year. He then served a two 
years' apprenticeship to the machinist's trade in 
Burkenfeld, after which he traveled in Germany 
for eight months. He was drafted into the army 
and accepted, but, before regularly entering the 
army, came to America in order to escape mili- 
tary oppression. In 1852 he took passage on the 
sailing vessel " Fitzpatrick," at Hamburg, and 
after a voyage of six weeks arrived in New 
York, friendless, and with only $32. He found 
employment as a machinist, and during the two 
years he remained in New York he saved $800, 

by working overtime, in addition to his regular 
salary. With this money he started west. He 
traveled through difi"erent parts of the country, 
and for eighteen months worked in New Orleans. 
While there he and seventeen others joined 
Walker's second expedition to Honduras, where 
he had many thrilling experiences. While he 
was in prison, Walker was taken out and shot. 
During the night he and four comrades made 
their escape, and traveled inland to a smalltown, 
where they secured employment in the building 
of four iron houses. With the money thus 
earned they were able to pay their way back to 
New Orleans. From there he proceeded to St. 
Louis and thence to Leavenworth. His earlj^ 
life here was no less perilous than had been his 
experiences in Honduras. Border warfare made 
existence a constant menace. He was a free- 
state man, and consequently encountered the 
dislike of southern sympathizers. For a time he 
worked in a blacksmith shop on Second street. 

In 1862 Mr. Smith was made chief of the vol- 
unteer fire department, which position he held 
for eight years. Prior to this he had organized 
the Leavenworth Hook and Ladder Companj' 
No. I , of which he was foreman. While acting 
as chief he organized the paid fire department, 
and bought the first and second steamers in the 
town. During the war he was captain of Com- 
pany G, First Kansas Militia. In 1863 he start- 
ed in the fire insurance business, and now has 
the oldest business of the kind in Leavenworth, 
if not, indeed, in the entire state. In this city 
he married Lizzie, daughter of George Galloway, 
who removed from Kentucky to Platte County, 
Mo., in 1854. They are the parents of four 
children, namely: Mrs. Mary Oliver; Florence; 
Jessie; and Martin J., a graduate of the high 
school, and now connected with his father in 

Formerly a Republican, upon the passage of 
the prohibitory bill Mr. Smith transferred his 
allegiance to the Democratic party. He has 
been active in county and state conventions and 
upon committees. For ten years he was a mem- 
ber of the school board, and for six years repre- 
sented the fourth ward in the city council, dur- 

.^ «^ 




ing which time he served as president of the France, and during the religious persecutions of 
council. In spite of being frequently urged to Charles and James II. of England, large numbers 
candidate for mayor, he has always of Protestants sought refuge from persecution in 
America. Among these was Henry Harris, a 

become ; 

declined. In 1869 and 1S70 he served as a mem 
her of the state senate, to which he was elected 
by a large majority, and in the work of which 
he bore an honorable part. Since then, however, 
he has invariably refused nominations for senate 
and legislature. For .several years he was presi- 
dent of all of the sixty-three Personal Liberty 
Clubs in the state of Kansas, through the in- 
fluence of which Click was elected. Fraternalh* 
he is connected with the Knights of Pythias, and 
has served ofHcially in the lodge and encampment 
of Odd Fellows, besides being a member of the 
grand lodge and the grand encampment. 

labors to secure the progress of his country, 
striving to bring out its latent resources; 
who seeks to promote the cause of justice and 
morality; and who, both as a public official and 
as a private citizen, is interested in the advance- 
ment of commerce and education, such a man be- 
comes a public benefactor, and his name should 
be inseparably linked with that of his county and 
state. This, in brief, is the character and this 
the reputation of United States Senator Harris, 
who is known far beyond the limits of his home 
county of Leavenworth, having, by his close 
identification with public affairs, gained for him- 
self a name as a progressive, public-spirited citi- 

The life of any man may be better understood 
when his ancestral history is presented. In 
studying the ancestry of the Harris family, it 
becomes evident to all that the talents possessed 
by Senator Harris are his by inheritance. The 
family has for generations been honorably and 
actively identified with public affairs in America, preacher, who in 1691 came from Gla- 
morgan, Wales, to Virginia, obtaining, with 
others, from William and Mary of England, a 
grant of ten miles square of crown lands, on the 
south bank of the James River, some miles above 
the great falls, now Richmond, Va. His only 
son, Edward, had eight sons and five daughters. 
The tenth child, Nathan, born in 17 16, married 
Catherine Walton, of Brunswick County, Va., 
in 1737, and they became the parents of fourteen 
children, viz.: Walton, Nathan, Isaac, David, 
Elias, Rowland, Herbert, Gideon, Howell, John 
Henry, Catherine, Martha, Elizabeth and Ann. 
The oldest child, Walton, was born in Brunswick 
County, Va., in 1739. He married Rebecca 
Whoever Lanier, a granddaughter of Elizabeth Washing- 
ton, a first cousin of Gen. George Washington. 
Their children were: Buckner, Samp.son, Joel, 
Augustine, Edwin, Nathan, Simeon, Walton, 
Elizabeth, Littleton and Jephtha V. Of these chil- 
dren, Augustine became the father of Judge Iver- 
son L. Harris, of the United States district court. 
Senator Harris of Tennessee descended from 
West, the twelfth child of Edward Harris. The 
honorable position held by the many representa- 
tives of the family shows that the old saying 
"blood will tell," is true. The members of the 
family have sought the frontier, pushing south 
to Georgia and Mississippi, and west to the 
regions beyond the Mississippi. They have 
served in both of congress, have served as 
governors of states, have sat on the bench and 
reached eminence at the bar, and in every posi- 
tion have left the impress of their individuality 
upon their states. 

The father of Senator Harris was William A. 
Harris, a descendant of Augustine Harris. He 
was born in Fauquier County, Va., in 1805, and 

among their most prominent representatives of was given a classical education. He became a 

the nineteenth century having been United States 
Senator Isham G. Harris of Tennessee and Judge 
Iverson L. Harris of Georgia. After the revoca- 
tion of the edict of Nantes bv Louis XIV. of 

prominent attorney and for ten years practiced 
law in Page County, Va. Twice he was elected 
to the state legislature of Virginia. In 1S41 he 
was made a presidential elector. At the same 


time he was elected to congress, and served as a 
member of the twenty seventh and twenty-eighth 
congresses. For several years he was editor of 
the Washington Spectator, afterward known as 
the Constitution. In 1845 he was appointed by 
President Polk as charge d'affaires at Buenos 
Ayres, which position he held until 1851. After 
the election of James Buchanan to the presi- 
dent's chair he became editor and proprietor of 
the Washington Union, a daily newspaper. He 
resigned the editorship to accept the position of 
printer to the senate, in which capacity he con- 
tinued for two years. In 1854 he moved to Pike 
County, Mo., where he bought. a farm two miles 
south of Bowling Green. During the Civil war 
he was appointed judge advocate general of the 
Trans- Mississippi department of the Confederate 
army. His death occurred while the war was 
still in progress, March 28, 1864. He was a man 
of vigorous mind, and was admirably versed in 
the principles of wise statesmanship and public 
policy, while as a diplomat his tact and con- 
servative judgment were at the service of his fel- 
low-citizens. The prominence to which he rose 
illustrated the laws of heredity and of merit. 

In 1840 he married Frances Murray, who died 
in Missouri at sixty-four years of age. Of their 
six children, all but two are now living. Mur- 
ray Harris, the second son, is a graduate of the 
Kansas State University and is now a civil en- 
gineer connected with the Texas Pacific Rail- 
road; Charles Harris, the third son, is a farmer 
and stock-raiser in Missouri; and Ella H. is the 
wife of William H. Abrams, land commissioner 
for the Texas Pacific Railroad Company. The 
eldest son is he whose name introduces this article. 
He was born in Loudoun County, Va., October 
29, 1S41, and was reared in the Old Dominion, 
remaining with his parents until he entered 
Columbia College at Washington, D. C, from 
which he graduated with the class of 1859. Two 
years later he graduated from the Virginia Mil- 
itary Institute at Lexington, where he had been 
under the military training of "Stonewall" Jack- 
son. At the opening of the Civil war he became 
a lieutenant under Jackson, and afterward was 
promoted to the rank of captain, and adjutant- 

general of Wilcox's brigade, Longstreet's divi- 
sion, and chief ordnance officer of Gen. D. H. 
Hill's division. 

At the close of the war Mr. Harris came to 
Kansas, and was employed as a civil engineer in 
the construction of the Union Pacific Railroad 
from Leavenworth to Lawrence. After the com- 
pletion of the road he was made resident en- 
gineer, with headquarters at Wyandotte (now 
Kansas City), Kans. , and remained in that posi- 
tion until the road reached the Colorado line. In 
1868 he was appointed land agent for the rail- 
road companies, having charge of and selling the 
Delaware and other Indian reservations, which 
were purchased from the Indians by the railroad 
companies. He continued in that capacitj' until 
the land was disposed of, meantime making his 
home in Lawrence, where he resided until 1884. 
During the intervening years he had purchased a 
tract of three hundred and seventy-five acres of 
the reservation land, and this he developed into 
a fine stock farm, erecting on the property a 
mansion, where he has resided since 1884. The 
place is one of the best-improved and most valu- 
able in I,eavenworth County, and is stocked with 
thoroughbred Shorthorn and imported cattle, 
brought from Scotland and Canada. 

During the period of his residence in Lawrence, 
Mr. Harris was acting mayor of the city and for 
several years president of the city council. He 
was elected congressman-at-large to the Fifty- 
third Congress and served for one term. In 1896 
he was chosen to represent the third senatorial 
district in the state senate, and his splendid record 
in that position led to his election to the United 
States senate the following year. In the state 
senate he took an active part in promoting meas- 
ures for the benefit of his constituents and also 
served as chairman of the railroad committee. 
Since taking his seat in the United States senate 
he has been influential in bringing about a settle- 
ment between the Union Pacific and Central 
Pacific Railroads and the national government, 
by which the government obtained the full amount 
of the railroad indebtedness. He has also served 
on the Nicaragua canal committee. He ad- 
vocates the construction and ownership of the 


canal by the United States government at the 
earliest possible date, in preference to private cor- 

In 1863 Senator Harris married Miss Mary A. 
Lionberger, daughter of John Lionberger, of 
L,uray, Page County, Va. She died in 1894, 
leaving five children. The eldest. Page Harris, 
is assistant general manager of the Texas Pacific 
Railroad at Dallas, Tex. Frances is the wife of 
H. L. Patteson, of Kansas City. Isabella mar- 
ried William M. Byrne, of New York City. Bessie 
is the wife of Hughes F. Findle}-, of Dallas, Tex. 
The youngest child, Craig Harris, when but fif- 
teen years of age, enlisted in the First District of 
Columbia Regiment during the Spanish-Ameri- 
can war and was made sergeant of his company, 
with which he served during the memorable 
Santiago campaign. Afterward he received an 
appointment to the United States Military Acad- 
emy at West Point. The present wife of Senator 
Harris was Mrs. Cora M. Mackey, of Pittsburgh, 

Lawrence, the owner of large tracts of ranch 
land in Kansas, was born on Vesey street. 
New York City, March 26, 1837, a son of Philip 
C. and Cornelia T. (Wiley) Allendorph. His 
grandfather, Henry, was born near Red Hook, 
Dutchess County, N. Y., and engaged in farm 
pursuits in that county. The family was estab- 
lished in America by the great-grandfather Allen- 
dorf (as the name was then spelled) , who crossed 
the ocean from Holland and settled near the Hud- 
son. During the Revolutionary war he took up 
arms in the cause of independence. Born near 
Rhinebeck, Dutchess County, Philip Allendorph 
was a young man when he went to New York 
Citj', and there he became interested in a furni- 
ture business on Canal street. Upon selling the 
business he returned to his old home and engaged 
in farming. In 1855 he settled in Buffalo, Scott 
County, Iowa, where he bought a tract of land 
and improved a farm. Eight years later he went 
to Dayton, N. J., and afterwards spent three 
years at Elizabeth City, the same state. For 
four 3'ears he was employed in the naval depart- 

ment of the custom house in New York City. 
His last days were spent in the home of his son, 
Charles Wesley, with whom he remained until a 
year before his death, when he removed to his 
daughter's, Mrs. Dr. Merry, in Iowa City, where 
he died in 1880. His wife, who died in her son's 
home, in 1895, was born on Dye street, New 
York City, and was the daughter of a Scotchman, 
who settled in New York and had contracts there 
for the stone cutting on the custom house, Mer- 
chants' Exchange and other public buildings. 

Isabella, who married H. S. Merry, M. D., and 
died in Iowa City, Iowa; Philipine Augusta, 
wife of J. B. Gruman, of Westwood, Bergen 
County, N. J. ; and Charles Wesley, of Lawrence, 
comprised the family of Philip C. Allendorph. 
The son, who was the youngest of the family, 
graduated in 1855, with the degree of A. B., 
from the New York Free Academy, now the Uni- 
versity of the City of New York. Afterward he 
began civil engineering. For six months he 
assisted the county surveyor of W^estchester 
County, N. Y. Late in 1855 he went to Rock 
Island, 111., and secured employment on the 
Rock Island & Peoria Railroad, which he helped 
to survey, the present General Wheaton at the 
same time working as rodman. In 1856 he was 
rodman in the survey of the Sheffield & Savan- 
nah Railroad in Illinois. The next year he was 
employed on the Peoria & Hannibal Railroad 
survey, the Illinois River Railroad (later the 
Peoria, Pekin & Jacksonville road) , and from 
April, 1857, to April, 186 r, was rodman, division 
engineer and first assistant engineer on the Jack- 
sonville, Alton & St. Louis road. From 1860 
until the outbreak of the war he was connected 
with the survey of the Tonica & Petersburg Rail- 
road. When the war began he recruited twenty 
men, expecting to form a company and enter the 
service, but family reasons caused him to change 
his plans. From March, 1863, to May 15, 1864, 
he was divi.sion engineer on the Morris & Essex 
Railroad in New Jersey, and from the latter date 
to December 15, 1865, he was with the St. Louis, 
Jacksonville & Chicago Railroad as assistant en- 

Going to Missouri, Mr. Allendorph was ap- 



pointed chief engineer of the Osage Valley & 
Southern Kansas Railroad, which position he 
held from February i, 1866, to August, 1868. 
The construction work was completed from Boon- 
ville to Tipton, Mo., but the survey was made 
through to Kansas. The road is now incorpor- 
ated in the Missouri Pacific. From October i, 
1868, to the ist of December of the same year, 
he was division engineer on the Peoria, Pekin & 
Jacksonville Railroad, then held a similar posi- 
tion on the Danville, Urbaua, Bloomington & 
Pekin Railroad until July, 1870. His next posi- 
tion was as first assistant engineer on the Indian- 
apolis, Bloomington & Western road. In 1871, 
as chief engineer, he made the preliminary sur- 
vey of the Pekin & Mississippi Railroad, which, 
however, was never built. He then was elected 
chief engineer of the Chicago, Pekin & South- 
western Railroad, which position he held until 
April, 1873. In 1872 he was appointed chief en- 
gineer of the Peoria, Pekin & Jacksonville 
road, after which he held a similar position in the 
survey and construction of the Peoria & Spring- 
field Railroad. At the same time he was chief 
engineer of the Dakota Southern road, locating 
and constructing from Sioux City to Yankton. 
On the suspension of railroad work in 1873 
Mr. Allendorph went to Brooklyn, N. Y., and 
bought a one-half interest in the wholesale and 
retail tea and coffee business owned by his 
brotherin-law, J. B. Gruman, with whom he 
continued for five years. At the same time he 
also carried on a wholesale house on Water street, 
New York. During this period he had his resi- 
dence in Elizabeth, N. J. In 1878 he disposed 
of his interests in the east and came to Kansas, 
where for six years he carried on a mercantile 
business in Lawrence. He built the Allendorph 
block, and was the owner of five stores in a row. 
Much of his time since coming to Kansas has 
been devoted to the cattle business. He had 
traded for four thousand acres in the south-east- 
ern part of Riley County, Kans. This he 
fenced and has used for a cattle ranch, leasing 
additional land until the ranch comprised twelve 
thousand acres, but some years since he turned 
the four thousand acres over to his son. Near 

Winfield, Cowley County, he now owns a ranch 
of sixteen hundred acres in a bod3-, two hundred 
of which are planted in corn, while the remainder 
is devoted to the pasturage of his five hundred 
head of steers. In addition he owns four hun- 
dred and eighty acres of irrigated land (with an 
unlimited freerangeof buffalo grass land) in Kear- 
ney County, near Lakin, where he has four hun- 
dred head of cattle and raises alfalfa for feed, oper- 
ating the place himself. He also owns farms in 
Pratt and Riley Counties, Kans., land in Texas 
and valuable propertj^ in Lawrence. Since com- 
ing west he has given some attention to civil 
engineering. He was assistant engineer of the 
branch of the Missouri Pacific, from Butler, Mo. 
to Emporia, Kans. He was assistant engineer 
from Kansas City to the Piatt River in Nebraska, 
in the location and construction of the Kansas 
City, Wyandotte & Northwestern Railroad, and 
is now engineer in charge of the Winner Electric 
Railway from Lawrence to Topeka. In politics 
he is a Republican, and fraternally belongs to the 
Select Friends and Fraternal Aid Association. 

In Jerseyville, 111., September 6, 1865, Mr. 
Allendorph married Miss Martha Stelle, a mem- 
ber of a New Jersey family that removed to Illi- 
nois during pioneer days. They have three sons 
and one daughter, namely: Arthur, a cattle- 
man at Alma, Kans.; Eugene W. , who gradu- 
ated from the Kansas City Dental College, and is 
now proprietor of the Western dental depot, in 
that city; DeWitt, who is at home; and Cornelia, 
wife of Rev. George D. Rogers, pastor of the 
Baptist Church of Lawrence. Mrs. Allendorph 
was one of four children, the others being Mrs. 
Mary A. Randolph, of Jerseyville, 111.; Mcore, 
on the old homestead; and Cretie, of Jerseyville. 
Her father, Jacob K. Stelle, a native of Somerset 
County, N. J., settled in Jersey County, 111., in 
1837, and there he engaged in farming until he 
was advanced in years. He was a deacon in the 
Baptist Church for forty years. His death oc- 
curred in Jerseyville in 1878. His father, John, 
who was born in New Jersey, died in Illinois 
while visiting his son, Jacob. The Stelle family 
is of French lineage but has been represented in 
America from an early period. The wife of 



Jacob K. Stelle was Eliza J. Coniptoii, who was 
born in Somerset Count)-, N. J. , daughter of Moore 
Compton, a farmer there. She is still living and 
makes her home in Jersejville. In religion she 
has long been a faithful adherent of the Baptist 

ARSHAEL M. JEWETT. A resume of 
the life of Mr. Jewett shows that he is a 
representative type of a western man, thor- 
oughly imbued with the spirit of western push and 
enterprise. He has led the adventurous life of a 
frontiersman, and has experienced not only the 
usual hardships of the pioneer, but during early 
days was often in the greatest danger from the In- 
dians of the plains and from the pro-slavery men, 
whose hatred he aroused by his open espousal of 
the free-state movement. Much of his time was 
spent on the plains between Leavenworth and 
Denver, and, including the trips made in wagons, 
he rode across the country forty-six times. Some- 
times when alone, and sometimes when with 
others, he was attacked by the red men, and more 
than once he was wounded by their arrows and 
narrowly escaped with his life. He has lived and 
braved the hardships of a frontier existence until 
he has seen the old method of transportation by 
ox-teams replaced by the swift steam cars; he 
has seen the Indians gradually drifting further 
westward before the approaching wave of immi- 
gration and civilization; he has seen the country 
dotted over with ranch houses and heids of cat- 
tle and sheep replace those of buffalo and deer. 
The smoke from factories rises where once he 
could discern only the camp fires of Indians or 
white immigrants. In all of this wonderful trans- 
formation that has been wrought he has borne a 
part, and, as a pioneer, his name deserves to be 
perpetuated in the annals of the west. 

In a very early day the Jewett family was es- 
tablished in Rowley, Mass., and later generations 
founded Jewett City, Conn. One of the name, 
Charles Jewett, was a very prominent temper- 
ance worker and wrote man\- works upon that 
subject. Eleazer, a brother of Charles, was born 
in Jewett Cit}-, and became a pioneer manufactur- 
er of cut nails, operating a large plant at Nor- 

wich, Conn., and employing several hundred 
men. He was employed by the government of 
Portugal to superintend the erection of mills, but 
lost his health while in that country and died 
shortly after his return home, in 1839. His wife, 
Mrs. Mary Aim (Russell) Mount, was a daugh- 
ter of Capt. Laban Russell, of Rye, N. Y., and a 
descendant of early settlers of Nantucket, Mass. 
By her first husband, Captain Mount, she had 
two children, Caroline, who married Henrj' 
Spring, of Olney, 111., and Mary, wife of Capt. 
Peter E. Le Fevre. The latter was a prominent 
ocean captain, and commanded the "North Star," 
"Ariel," "Magnolia" and "Vanderbilt," owned 
by Commodore Vanderbilt. Our subject was the 
second of three sons born to his parents, his 
brothers being: Washington, who died in boyliood, 
and Laban Russell Jewett, of Norwich, Conn., 
who at one time was first officer on the steamship 
"Vanderbilt," later for fourteen years was a 
commander in the English merchant marine serv- 
ice between London and the East Indies, and is 
now engaged in the coal and mercantile business. 
Mrs. Mary A. Jewett died at the home of her 
daughter, Mrs. Le Fevre. 

The subject of this sketch was born in Jewett 
City, Conn., in 1831. When eight years of age 
he was taken by his mother to Rye, N. Y., his 
father having died recently. Afterward he was 
given a home with his grandmother, but at the 
age of fourteen he went to Olney, III., and from 
that time he was practically self-supporting. He 
was employed as clerk in a store and later be- 
came a partner of his brother-in-law, Henry 
Spring. Wishing to try his fortune in the new 
west, he came to Leavenworth, October 20, 1855, 
in company with James L. Byers, bringing a 
stock of groceries and hardware from St. Louis 
on the boat "Ben Bolt." The firm of Byers & 
Jewett opened a store in Leavenworth, which 
they carried on until 1857, and then turned their 
attention to the real-estate business. 

The first trip across the plains that Mr. Jewett 
made was in October, 1858, when he formed a 
company of six men and traveled to the point 
where Denver now stands. Building a cabin, 
the men spent the winter on Cherry Creek. He 


was captain of the company', which consisted be- 
sides himself, of Richard E. Whitsett, Gen. Will- 
iam H. H. Larimer, of Pittsburgh, Pa., William 
H. H. Larimer, Jr., now of Kansas Cit.v, Charles 
Lawrence and his nephew, Fulsom Darsett. 
They were among the first white men to build a 
cabin on the present site of Denver, and thej' 
laid out and incorporated the town of Denver, Mr. 
Jewett becoming the owner of a share in thecom- 
panj'. Indians were numerous and the remoteness 
of the few white men from others made their situ- 
ation not a little dangerous. In the spring of 1859 
Mr. Jewett left the party and traveled, on horse- 
back, seven hundred miles to Leavenworth, mak- 
ing the distance in twenty-two days. In May of 
the same year he returned to Colorado with a 
freighting outfit, loaded with provisions and mer- 
chandise, and arrived safely in Denver, where he 
sold his goods, wagons and horses. Buying fresh 
horses he rode back to Leavenworth. In the fall 
of 1859 he went back to Denver, with an outfit of 
eighteen wagons, loaded with merchandise and 
provisions, which he sold to prospectors, realiz- 
ing a handsome sum. Returning to Leavenworth 
the third time on horseback, he spent the winter 
here and in the spring of i860 went across the 
plains with twenty six wagons and three hundred 
and twelve oxen. Afterward he followed freight- 
ing between the Missouri River and Colorado, 
Salt Lake, Santa Feand other points. During the 
Civil war he was employed by the government in 
providing provisions for the western forts. In 
the winter of 1863-64 he killed sixteen hundred 
and thirty-seven head of buffalo on the plains of 
northwestern Kansas; and the skins of these he 
sold in Leavenworth. 

As has already been intimated, Mr. Jewett had 
frequent encounters with the Indians and was 
wounded several times. The most troublesome 
were the Kiowas, Cheyennes and Sioux. During 
1865, while riding from Valverde to Leaven- 
worth, alone, he was attacked by seventeen In- 
dians known as "dog" soldiers, and he had a hard 
fight with them, but made his escape. When on 
a return trip from the west, with one hundred 
and four wagons and only forty-one men, he was 
attacked in the Platte River bottom bv Indians, 

and was corraled for several hours, but finall}' 
drove the red men awa}'. An Indian shot him 
in the arm, but he had the satisfaction of killing 
the one that wounded him. In 1869 he settled 
down to farm life in Leavenworth County, and 
afterward engaged in stock-raising. In 1896 he 
bought a farm near Leavenworth from John W. 
Loar, and upon the one hundred and sixty acres 
comprising this place he has since made his home, 
engaged in general farming and stock-raising. 
In the summer of 1898 his residence was destroyed 
by fire. 

In 1S65 Mr. Jewett made the trip across the 
plains from Valverde to Leavenworth and here 
married Sarah Burr, a sister of H. S. and E. 
Burr. She died in 1S97, leaving two sons, Ed- 
mond R. and Harry S. During the border war- 
fare days Mr. Jewett was an outspoken Union 
man. In 1857 he was one of the party who cap- 
tured the Kickapoo cannon at Kickapoo which 
had been stolen by the pro-slavery party from the 
government arsenal at Liberty. He was with 
John Brown in his camp at Tabor, Iowa. So 
pronounced was he in his defense of the free- 
state cause that he brought upon himself the en- 
mity of those of different views and at one time a 
reward was ofTered for his scalp by the pro-slav- 
ery party. In spite of all these, and other dan- 
gers, he continued his fearless defense of prin- 
ciples he believed to be right. He has always 
been a man of patriotic character, progressive 
and public spirited motives, and has cherished a 
warm affection for the country where the active 
years of his life have been passed. 

nOHN ALBERT HERNING, proprietor of 
I the Lawrence canning factory, is at the head 
Q) of one of the important industries of Doug- 
las County. The material used in the canning 
business is of the choicest grade, much of it be- 
ing raised on his farm of three hundred and fifty 
acres in the Kaw River bottom, but in addition 
to this he also buys from gardeners and growers. 
The Kaw Valley brand is known throughout the 
west and shipments are made, in carload lots, to 
points between the Missouri River and the coast. 



In the factor}^ there is floor space of an acre. 
The plant is operated by steam, modern improve- 
ments have been introduced, and there is a ca- 
pacity of fifty thousand cans a day. The prod- 
ucts are tomatoes, peas, sweet corn, beans and 
also various kinds of fruits. During the busy 
season more than two hundred hands are 
employed. In the winter months he devotes his 
attention to feeding cattle and usually has about 
one hundred head on his place, where he has a 
silo with a capacity of six to eight hundred tons. 
Mr. Herning was born at Vinland, Palmyra 
Township, Douglas County, April 2, 1868, a son 
of Michael and Sarah A. (Eberhart) Herning, 
natives respectively of Wurtemberg, Germany, 
and Butler County, Pa. His father, who was 
third among five children, was a son of Joseph 
Herning, who brought the family from Germany 
to Holmes County, Ohio. In youth he learned 
the builder's trade. Coming to Kansas in 1859, 
he settled near Vinland, where he improved a 
farm of one hundred acres. He was a free-state 
man and in politics voted with the Republican 
partj'. He died on his farm March 20, 1S73, at 
the age of thirty-five, and was the first man 
buried in Stony Point Cemetery, which he had 
laid out and platted in lots. During the Civil 
war he took part in the campaign against Price 
and fought at the Big Blue. 

In Douglas County, January 21, 1864, Michael 
Herning married Miss Sarah A. Eberhart, 
daughter of Joseph Eberhart, a native of West- 
moreland County, Pa., and granddaughter of 
Christian Eberhart, who was born in Lehigh 
County March 9, 1772, thence was taken by his 
parents to Westmoreland County in 1773 and 
died there upon a farm. He was a son of Paul 
Eberhart, who was born on the ocean in 1727, 
when the family were en route to America. Paul's 
father, Michael, a native of Wurtemberg, crossed 
on the ship, "Friendship," and in March, 1727, 
settled in what is now Lehigh County, where he 
became a large farmer and active worker in the 
German Reformed Church. Joseph Eberhart, 
who was a tailor in youth, became a local preacher 
in the Lutheran Church and a colporteur in the 
employ of the American Tract Society. In 1S25 

he settled in Mercer County, Pa., twenty years 
later went to Armstrong County, and in order to 
secure a home for his sons finally decided to lo- 
cate in Kansas. April 13, 1854, he brought his 
family as far west as Kansas City, where they re- 
mained until July. He then proceeded to Doug- 
las County, Kans., and took up a claim three 
miles east of the present site of Lawrence, later 
removing to a claim at what is now Willow 
Springs. There he built a log house and began 
the task of improving a farm. Later he bought 
a farm in Palmyra Township, where his last days 
were spent. During the early days of his resi- 
dence here he preached very frequently, there 
being a scarcity of ministers at that time, but he 
never sought any renumeration for his services. 
Being himself a stanch free-state man, he en- 
deavored to secure eastern immigrants to Kansas, 
hoping their presence might aid the anti-slavery 
movement. For his activity in this direction he 
incurred the hatred of the pro-slavery party, who 
resolved to hang him. A night was set for the 
deed, but he learned of it and managed to escape. 
He died in November, 1S82, when almost eighty- 
three years of age. 

The marriage of Joseph Eberhart united him 
with Catherine Kistler, who was born in West- 
moreland County, Pa., in 1805, and died in Kan- 
sas December 21, 1885. She was a faithful, in- 
dustrious woman, whose sole aim was to promote 
the happiness and welfare of her husband and 
children. She was a daughter of Jacob Kistler, 
a farmer of Pennsylvania. In her family there 
were thirteen children, namely: Mary Ann, who 
was first married to a Mr. Hemphill and later 
became the wife of William Bierly, and died in 
Vinland, in February, 1898; Obadiah, formerly 
a farmer, now living in Baldwin City, Kans.; 
Mrs. Priscilla Barnhart, who died near Ottawa, 
in February, 1899; John, who died in Pennsyl- 
vania; Joseph, who was accidentally killed at 
eighteen years of age; Henry S., who served in 
Company C, Tenth Kansas Infantry, and is now- 
living in Willow Springs Township, Douglas 
County; Lewis J., who was in the Kansas miHtia 
during the Price raid and now lives near Vinland; 
Andrew, who enlisted in aKausas regiment, was 


taken prisoner at Independence, Mo., finall}' re- 
ceived an exchange and returned to his regiment, 
and is now living near Vinland; Paul C, of 
Lawrence, who was captured while serving in 
the Union armj', but later was paroled and dis- 
charged; Catherine Elizabeth, who died at the 
old homestead; Sarah A.; Susannah Lydia, who 
was twice married and died at the old home; and 
Mrs. Rebecca L. Hemphill, who lives near Vin- 

Three years after the death of her husband, 
Mrs. Sarah A. Herning settled in Lawrence. 
She was a second time married, becoming the 
wife of John Lagerquist, a native of Sweden, who 
died in 1885. Of this union one son was born, 
Frank Abraham, now at home. To her first mar- 
riage the following-named children were born: 
Joseph Edwin, of Wellington, Kans., an engineer 
on the Santa Fe road; John Albert, of this sketch; 
Grace Elizabeth, who married Eben Baldwin, 
owner of a large farm near Lawrence; Rebecca 
Lucinda, wife of Frank Charles Endacott, of 
Lawrence; and Mary Catherine, wife of William 
Endacott, who is foreman in the Lawrence collar 
factory. The Endacott brothers were born in 
England and are members of an old family of 
Devonshire. Their father, John Endacott, was a 
son of James Endacott, a farmer of Devonshire. 
For three hundred years back there has been a 
John Endacott in every generation. Belonging 
to the same family was John Endacott, who came 
to America in the "Mayflower," and was the 
first governor of Massachusetts. The father of 
the Endacott brothers was born in Moreton, Eng- 
land, and became heir to Gidley Mill castle, 
which he still holds. He has two brothers in 
the United States, one of whom is a Methodist 
Episcopal minister in Leavenworth County, 
Kans. He married Marie Pedlar, a native of 

The ancestry of the Eberhart family is traced 
to Eberhard the Noble, a Wurtemberger, whose 
parents belonged to the royal family. A man of 
remarkable abilitj', he established the still flour- 
ishing kingdom of Wurtemberg, where he 
reigned forty-six years, and died June 5, 1325. 
From him descended a long line of rulers and 

dukes, the last ruler of Wurtemberg being Leo- 
pold Eberhard, who was deposed from the throne 
in a struggle between Catholics and Protestants, 
and was succeeded by Duke Charles Augen. 

For fourteen years our subject was connected 
with the Watkins Mortgage Company, after 
which he turned his attention to the canning 
business, and since 1894 has been proprietor of 
the Lawrence canning factor}-. From January, 
1S95, to January, 1S99, he was a director in the 
Watkins Bank, in which he is still a stockholder. 
Politically he is a Republican. He is connected 
with the lodge and Rebekah degree of Odd Fel- 
lows, and is a member of the English Lutheran 
Church, in which he is a deacon. 

F'ew of the residents of Baldwin were more 
closely identified with its early history 
than was Dr. Martin, w-ho is remembered as a 
public-spirited, enterprising man, and one to 
whom the village owed not a little of its early 
growth. Every project for its improvement re- 
ceived his assistance, and not a few plans that 
aided its development originated in his fertile 
brain. From the time that he began in professional 
practice here in 1857, until the date of his death 
forty-one years afterward, the place had no citi- 
zen more devoted to its welfare than he. For 
two years he officiated as mayor of Baldwin. He 
was one of the organizers of the Baldwin Bank , 
in which he afterward held stock. Other local 
industries and interests received the impetus of 
his timely encouragement. 

Dr. Martin was born in New York state March 
29, 1822, a son of Agrippa and Rhoda (Durham) 
Martin, the latter of Spanish extraction. He 
was the youngest of six children, four of whom 
became farmers and two physicians. His father, 
who was a farmer, removed to Illinois in an early 
day and settled near Freeport, in what was after- 
ward known as Martin's settlement. After hav- 
ing completed the common school studies, in 
1849 our subject began to read medicine with his 
brother in Freeport, and later he attended Rush 
Medical College in Chicago, from which he 


graduated in 1851. Opening an office in Nora, 
Jo Daviess County, 111., he remained there for 
two 3'ears, and then returned to Freeport to en- 
gage in practice with his brother. From Free- 
port he came to Kansas in 1856, and the follow- 
ing year opened an office in Baldwin, where for 
nearly forty years he carried on a large general 
practice, covering the entire section of surround- 
ing country. In 1895 he was thrown from his 
buggy and crippled to such an extent that gen- 
eral practice was no longer possible, but he con- 
tinued his office practice until he died, Septem- 
ber 10, 1898. He was prominent in the blue 
lodge of the Masonic fraternity, and aided other or- 
ganizations having for their object the ameliora- 
tion of the sufferings of mankind and the eleva- 
tion of the race. 

August 5, i860, Dr. Martin married Miss Cor- 
nelia J. Clayton, daughter of William and Alice 
Clayton, who were pioneers of Kansas. Mrs. 
Martin died August i, 1895, a few years prior to 
her husband's death. They were the parents of 
four daughters, namely: Alice, who married 
W. H. Robinson, of Arkansas City, Kans. ; Jen- 
nie, wife of J. W. Jenkins, a farmer of Douglas 
County; Josephine and Maude. At the time of 
his death Dr. Martin left to his daughters a com- 
fortable residence in Baldwin and one hundred 
and sixty acres of improved land near the town. 

HON. JOHN D. EDMOND, who was mayor 
of the city of Leavenworth, 1S97-99, was 
born in Vergennes, Addison County, Vt., 
August 29, 183S, a son of William and Eliza Ann 
(Vail) Edmond. His paternal grandfather, Hon. 
David Edmond, a native of Newtown, Conn., and 
a graduate of Yale College, was one of the most 
famous lawyers of New England and was espe- 
cially influential in the public life of Vermont, of 
which state he served as attorney -general for 
fourteen years. As selectman, member of the state 
legislature, and for many years the mayor of 
Vergennes, he proved himself a most progressive, 
public-spirited citizen, and did much to advance 
the welfare of his fellow-citizens. At the time 
President Monroe visited Vermont he gave the 
address of welcome. He stood at the head of the 

Vermont bar and was connected with Daniel \\'eb- 
ster in the management of several cases. To 
great natural ability he added a broad education, 
thorough knowledge of mankind, and tact, re- 
sources and energy. He was active in the 
Masonic fraternity and a member of the Congre- 
gational Church. He was a brother of Hon. 
William Edmond, the first judge of the supreme 
court of Connecticut, and a brave soldier in the 
Revolutionary war, in which other members of 
the family also bore a part. Their father, Robert 
Edmond, was born in County Tyrone, Ireland, of 
Scotch descent, and emigrated to America, set- 
tling in Newtown, where he reared a large family. 
His great-grandson. Judge William Edmond 
Curtis, of New York City, was the father of Hon. 
William Edmond Curtis, Jr., who held office as 
assistant treasurer under President Cleveland's 
second administration. 

The marriage of Hon. David Edmond united 
him with Harriet Lavergne Ducasse, of West- 
field, Conn., daughter of John and Mary (Whit- 
ing) Ducasse, and a lineal descendant of Admiral 
Ducasse, who defeated Admiral Benbow, of the 
English navy, in the seventeenth century, this 
being the only instance of the defeat of the Eng- 
lish fleet by the French navy. Her father, Capt. 
John Ducasse, was a captain in the French artil- 
lery of Louis XVI's life guard, but resigned his 
commission and came to America to assist the 
colonies in gaining their freedom,. with the un- 
derstanding that, should he ever return to France, 
his commission would be given back to him. He 
accompanied General Lafayette to America, 
where he was commissioned major of artillery, 
and was in command at the battles of Saratoga 
and other engagements. Until the close of the 
Revolution he continued a brave officer of the 
colonial army, and at its close retired as colonel 
of artillery in the continental line. When the war 
ended he went to the West Indies to visit an 
uncle, Governor Ducasse, who was at the head 
of one of the islands, and while there he died of 
yellow fever. While in America he had marritd 
a daughter of Capt. William Whiting, a lintal 
descendant of Rose Standish. He left only one 
child, Harriet Lavergne Ducasse. 


Reared in Vermont, the father of our suljject 
was sixteen when he went south. He engaged 
in thecottonbrokeragebusiness with Judge Will- 
iam Henry Hitchcock, of Mobile, Ala., until the 
failure of his health forced him to return to the 
north. His death occurred in Vermont when he 
was thirtj'-eight 3'ears of age. He had not taken 
an active part in public affairs, but he was a pub- 
lic-spirited citizen and a man of business ability. 
In politics he was a Whig. His wife was a 
daughter of James and Harriet (Thomas) Vail, 
of Troy, N. Y. James Vail acted as private sec- 
retary to his uncle, Aaron Vail, the first Ameri- 
can consul to Bordeaux, France, and a wealths- 
shipowner and merchant, who finally lost all of 
his property and died in France, his familj^ later 
returning to the United States. While James 
Vail was on a vacation trip to England the war 
of 1S12 broke out and he was taken prisoner. 
Afterward he was put on parole, but could not 
leave the country. While there he met and mar- 
ried Miss Thomas. After the war closed he re- 
turned to the United States and settled in Troy, 
N. Y., where he engaged in the mercantile busi- 
ness until his death. His brothers, George and 
Henr}-, were also successful dry-goods merchants. 
Our subject's mother died in Norwich, Conn., at 
seventy-six years of age, and was buried at her 
old home in Vermont. She had two sons: Henry 
Vail, who died in New Hampshire in 1891; and 
John D., of this sketch. 

When an infant of three months our subject 
was taken to Mobile, Ala., and when six years 
old he was brought back to Vergennes, where his 
father died three years later. At thirteen years 
of age he entered Williston Seminary, in East- 
hampton, Mass., and afterward clerked in a store 
in Vergennes for eighteen months, then went to 
Washington, D. C, where he was engaged as 
clerk in a hardware store for twelve years. Dur- 
ing this time he also carried on business for him- 
self under the firm name of John D. Edmond & 
Co. At the close of the war he went to Norwich, 
Conn., but one year later went to Chicago, and 
in 1870 settled in Leavenworth, Kans. For eleven 
years he was traveling salesman for J. F. Rich- 
ards & Co., and for eight years he traveled for 

the Wyeth Hardware Company, of St. Joseph, 
Mo., making a total of eighteen years and ten 
months as traveling salesman. His territory in- 
cluded northern Kansas, southwestern Nebraska 
and northwestern Missouri. Upon quitting the 
road he became interested with a nephew, John 
D. Edmond, 2d, and under the firm title of John 
D. Edmond, ist and 2d, the two carried on a 
hardware business in Logan, Phillips County, 
Kans. , for three years. 

May 25, 1876, in Leavenworth, occurred the 
marriage of Mr. Edmond to Miss Mary Johnston 
Thompson, who was born in Harrisonburg, Va., 
a daughter of Robert and Elizabeth Ann (Yount) 
Thompson, both natives of the Shenandoah Val- 
ley. About 1S55 Mr. Thompson brought his 
family to the territory of Kansas and settled in 
Leavenworth, but during the war he returned to 
Virginia, joined Lee's army, and served with the 
Confederates until he was killed. His wife reared 
their children in Leavenworth, and now makes 
her home with her son-in-law, Mr. Edmond. 

In the progress of his home town Mr. Edmond 
has always shown a deep interest. For one term 
he represented the second ward in the city coun- 
cil, and for four years he was a member of the 
board of education. In 1897 he was elected 
mayor on the Democratic ticket by a plurality of 
more than six hundred. He filled the ofiice eiB- 
ciently, giving his entire attention to the dis- 
charge of oflBcial duties, but at the end of his term 
of ofiice declined a renomination. In 1859 he 
assisted in the organization of the National Ri- 
fles at Washington, D. C, which afterward be- 
came famous. During the Civil war he served 
as orderly sergeant of Compan}^ C, District of 
Columbia Militia. He is a member of the Sons 
of the American Revolution of the State of Con- 
necticut. He was a Mason in St. John's. Lodge 
No. II, A. F. & A. M., of Washington, D. C, 
and joined by dimit King Solomon Lodge No. 
10, A. F. & A. M., of Leavenworth, in which he 
is past master; is a member of Leavenworth 
Chapter No. 2, R. A. M.; Leavenworth Council 
No. I, R. & S. M. ; Leavenworth Commandery 
No. I, K. T.; Abdallah Temple, N. M. S.; and 
for six terms served as a member of the Masonic 


board of trustees, during all of which time he 
was president of the board. He is also a mem- 
ber of the thirty-second degree Consistory at To- 
peka. The United Commercial Travelers number 
him among their members. He is a member of 
the Episcopal Church. 

qONATHAN AKERS, yardmaster at the 
I state penitentiary of Kansas, and a respected 
(2/ citizen of Lawrence, was born in Putnam 
County, Ind., August i6, 1839, a son of Jonathan 
and Catherine (Mead) Akers. Of a family of 
eleven children, only three besides himself are 
now living, viz.: John M., a retired farmer liv- 
ing in Bluifton, Iowa; Mrs. Grace Elza, also of 
Bluffton; and Matilda, widow of John Kirkpatrick, 
of Lawrence, Kans. The father, a native of Craw- 
ford County, Ky., engaged in farming there and 
acquired a number of slaves in connection with 
other property. However, being opposed to the 
institution of slavery, in 1S36, prior to his re- 
moval from the state, he gave all of the negroes 
their freedom. On his arrival in Indiana he 
settled in Owen County, on the Eel River, but 
after a very short time he removed to Putnam 
County, and there made his home until he died, 
in 1843. 

At the time of his father's death our subject 
was only four years of age. He was taken into 
the home of his sister, Elizabeth, wife of Hiram 
Anthis, of Madison County, 111., and there he re- 
mained until sixteen years of age, when he started 
out in the world for himself. For four years he 
found employment as a farm hand, after which 
he engaged in lumbering on the Mississippi from 
Stillwater, Minn., to St. Louis, Mo., and way 
points. In July, 186 1, he enlisted in Company 
D, Second Illinois Cavalrj-, which rendezvoused 
at Camp Butler, and was sent from there to the 
front, afterward participating in the battle of Bel- 
mont, the taking of New Madrid, and numerous 
skirmishes. On account of disability, in Jan- 
uary, 1863, he was mustered out of the service. 
After his health had been regained Mr. Akers 
resumed lumbering on the river, which he con- 
tinued for three years. In 1866 he was united 

in marriage with Miss Amanda J. Lawrerce, a 
native of Madison County, 111., and the daughter 
of Thomas Lawrence, who was a prominent 
farmer there. After his marriage he was elected 
to the office of constable, which he filled for four 
years, at the same time acting as deputy sheriff. 
Following this he operated a rented farm in 
Madison County for two years. In 1871 he came 
to Lawrence, Kans., where he secured employ- 
ment with the Union Pacific Railroad, and for the 
next thirteen years he was employed as foreman 
in the construction work of the Union Pacific and 
Santa Fe Railroad systems, from Kansas City to 
Denver. In 1S85 he was appointed guard at the 
state penitentiary, which position he held until 
the spring of 1893. During the following two 
years he was street commissioner of Lawrence. 
February i, 1897, he was appointed yardmaster 
of the state penitentiary, in which capacitj' he 
has since been retained. In politics he was a Re- 
publican until 1896. In 1885 he was elected a 
member of the city council of Lawrence, but after 
one year resigned, because the duties of his po- 
sition at the penitentiary required his entire time. 
In 1S95 he was again elected to the board, where 
he served for two years. 

Of the seven children of Mr. and Mrs. Akers 
four are living, nameh": Oliver, who is a con- 
ductor of the Denver & Gulf Railroad, and re- 
sides in Denver: Warren E., who is connected 
with the Missouri Pacific Railroad and is stationed 
at Leavenworth; Neva Maude and Jessie, both at 

HON. E. F. CALDWELL, A. B., LL. B., 
postmaster of Lawrence and one of the most 
prominent citizens of this city, is a member 
of an old family of which John Caldwell Calhoun 
was an illustrious representative — a family that 
had several members in the Revolutionary war 
and that descended from Scotch-Irish ancestors. 
His father, James Allen Caldwell, whose father, 
John, was a soldier in the war of 1812 and a 
large stock farmer in Kentucky, was born near 
Danville in iSiS and removed to Indiana in 1850, 
his intense hatred of slavery impelling him to 
refuse to take any slaves or ally himself in any 



way with a movement he believed to be unjust. 
During the Civil war he attempted three times to 
enlist in the Union army, but on account of a 
broken leg he was rejected each time. He gave 
his attention to the management of a farm and 
also owned a blacksmith's shop and wagon works 
near Rockville. In 1870 he settled on a farm 
near Carlyle, Allen County, Kans., where he was 
e.Ktensively engaged in farming and stock-raising 
until his death, in 1S96, at seventy-eight years of 
age. In politics he was a Republican and in re- 
ligion a Presbyterian. His wife, who was born 
near Danville, Ky., was a daughter of Godhart 
Smick, of German descent, a soldier in the war 
of 181 2 and an extensive farmer and stockman of 
Kentucky, where he died at the advanced age of 
ninety-three. His daughter, Mrs. Mary Cald- 
well, died in 1881, when sixty-four years of age. 
She was the mother of six sons and two daugh- 
ters, of whom the oldest son, John G., enlisted 
at eighteen years in an Indiana regiment and 
served as a non-commissioned officer during the 
Civil war; he now makes his home in Albu- 
querque, N. M. Belle F. lives in Carlyle, Kans.; 
Delilah died at eighteen years; David Knox is 
living near Carlyle; Thomas Jefferson is a Meth- 
odist Episcopal minister in Kansas; Henry Clay 
is a merchant and deputy postmaster at Carlyle; 
Eldie Franklin, the subject of this sketch, was 
next in order of birth; and the youngest is Mor- 
ton, who is farming near the old Kansas home- 

The subject of this article was born in Parke 
County, Ind., near Rockville, September 6, 1859. 
When a boy he assisted on the ranch in Kansas, 
breaking prairie, herding cattle, etc. Owing to 
losses of cattle, his father met with heavy re- 
verses, and when he was ready to start out in 
life he had no money nor means to secure a col- 
lege education. He, however, was not discour- 
aged, and came to Lawrence September 8, 1879, 
with $10 in his pocket. Po.ssessing considerable 
literary ability he turned this talent to financial 
account and by means of it worked his way 
through college, where he spent six years, during 
four of which he was manager of the University 
i^^-zwzf', a college publication. In June, 1885, he 

graduated, with the degree of A. B., as valedic- 
torian of his class, which had been his ambition 
when he left the farm. Before graduating he had 
contracted for the Lawrence Daily Journal and at 
once assumed charge. After conducting it for a 
short time the Lawrence Journal Company was 
organized and he became solicitor for the new 
company. He continued as such until the ist of 
November, when he was appointed advertising 
agent for the Southern Kansas Railroad, with 
headquarters in Lawrence. He filled this posi- 
tion for two years, when the office was removed 
to Topeka. He then resigned and returned to 
the/(?«/v/rt/ as solicitor. His next enterprise was 
to assist in raising funds to take the Cyclone 
Flambeau Club to Washington, D. C. He ac- 
companied the club to Washington as one of the 
managers and attended the Harrison inaugura- 
tion ceremonies, where the club won first prize 
for its display of fireworks. After their return 
the captain of the club, E. F. Goodrich, was 
postmaster, and Mr. Caldwell became deputy 
May 21, 1889, serving until May i, 1894. Mean- 
time he read law evenings and in 1890 entered 
law school, from which he graduated in 1892, 
with the degree of LL. B., delivering the law 
oration at the commencement exercises of the 

On the Republican ticket, in June, 1894, Mr. 
Caldwell was nominated for the legislature and 
was elected by a good majorit}'. During the 
session of 1895 he was chairman of the committee 
on state affairs, and was frequently called to the 
chair to preside over the house as a committee of 
whole. He championed the university appro- 
priation raising the income of the institution 
from $75,000 to $100,000 a year; also the irriga- 
tion bill appropriating funds for the development 
of western Kansas, and other important legisla- 
tion that session. After his retirement from the 
House he engaged in the practice of law until 
July, 1898, when he became postmaster at Law- 
rence. Much of his time has been given to lit- 
erary work. He has published a number of 
illustrated papers and pamphlets on Kansas and 
the west, among them a history of Lawrence in 
the early days, from the pen of Dr. Richard Cord- 


ley. His latest undertaking was the compiling 
and publication of an illustrated edition of Law- 
rence that was greatly admired for artistic work. 
His attention is now wholly given to his duties 
as postmaster and the superintendance of that 

At Lawrence, in October, 1885, Mr. Caldwell 
married Miss Mary Viola McFarlaud, who was 
born in Ohio and died in Lawrence in 18S7, 
leaving a daughter, Kate May. 

Since the organization of the Commercial Club 
Mr. Caldwell has been one of its members, and 
since 1893 has served as secretary. He is iden- 
tified with the University Exten.sion Club and 
has been chairman of the executive committee of 
the Alumni Association. He assisted in organ- 
izing the Republican League of Kansas and was 
its president in 1897. In the Presbyterian Church 
he is an active worker and has served as a trustee. 
A charter member of the Phi Delta Theta Col- 
lege Fraternity, he has been its president and 
representative. In the Knights of Pythias he is 
past chancellor and its representative in Grand 
Lodges. He is connected with the Odd Fellows 
and Daughters of Rebekah. He was one of the 
founders of the Fraternal Aid Association and 
has been prominent in its work. As a citizen he 
is influential and popular among the people of 
Lawrence, and is actively identified with many 
enterprises in the building up of that city. 

EAPT. RICHARD L. IGEL, who has made 
his home in Leavenworth since 1872, and is 
now at the western branch of the 
National Military Home, was born in the king- 
dom of Wurtemberg, Germany, March 29, 1839. 
His father, Louis F. Igel, who was a pharmacist 
by occupation, w-as one of the highly respected 
citizens of his native place. Accumulating a 
hand,some property he retired from business 
while still comparatively young, but subsequent 
misfortunes, involving the loss of a large amount 
of capital, led him to come to America in 1851 
and open a drug store in Madison, Ind. After a 
number of years in that city, in 1858 he moved his 
stock of drugs to Cape Girardeau, Mo., where he 

was successfully engaged in business until his 
death in 1863. He was the son of a successful 
druggist, so that our subject represents the third 
generation who have followed the same line of 

When the family came to the United States 
Captain Igel was a boy of twelve years. He 
learned the druggist's trade under his father and 
continued in Madison until the outbreak of the 
Civil war. He then enlisted for ninety days in 
the Sixth Indiana Infantry, of which he was 
chosen hospital steward. After he had been hon- 
orably discharged from that regiment he joined 
the Thirty second Indiana Infantry, and was 
chosen corporal of his company. For one year 
he served on detached dutj' under the surgeon- 
general, after which he was returned to his regi- 
ment as second lieutenant. The death of his 
father in 1863 caused him to resign his commis- 
sion and return home. He took charge of his 
father's store at Cape Girardeau, Mo., where he 
made his home until he came to Kansas in 1872. 
His first position in this city was as clerk in a 
wholesale drug house, where he continued until 
1879. Later he engaged in the drug business 
for himself. In May, i8go, he was appointed 
druggist at the National Soldiers' Home, which 
position he has since efficiently filled. He has 
engaged in the drug business for forty years and 
is familiar with its every detail, while his knowl- 
edge of medicine and surgery is also broad and 
thorough. He is a registered pharmacist, and a 
member of the Kansas State Pharmaceutical As- 
sociation. The Kansas Commandery of the Loyal 
Legion and Custer Post No. 120, G. A. R., num- 
ber him among their members and enable him to 
frequently renew his associations with those who, 
like him, fought for the preservation of the Union 
during the dark days of the '60s. Fraternally he 
is connected with Concordia Lodge No. 8, K. P. 
He has in his possession a thirty pound mortar 
made of brass in Germany, which bears the date 
of 15 16, and has been in the family for several 
hundred years. Tradition says that this mortar 
was the possession of the alchemist at the mon- 
astery Kaltenbrunn in Wurtemberg, whose ro- 
mantic career was investigated by the immortal 



Goethe, and employed by him as the subject for 
his famous character in the celebrated drama of 

The marriage of Captain Igel took place in 
1S63, and united him with Emma, daughter of 
Charles F. Schuessler, M. D., surgeon of the 
Sixth Indiana Infantry from Madison, lud., dur- 
ing the Civil war. They are the parents of five 
children, namely: Leonora, wife of Frederick 
Harper, United States assayer at Helena, Mont.; 
Carl, who is connected with the United States 
mail service; Richard L., Jr., who is hospital 
steward of the United States penitentiary at Fort 
Leavenworth; Louisa, a teacher in the public 
schools of Helena, Mont.; and Lena. 

GlDOLPH C. GRIESA. There is no finer 
I I land for nursery purposes than that which 
J 1 lies in eastern Kansas. Hence a large num- 
ber of men have been able to secure a success in 
the business that would have been impossible 
elsewhere. Among the prosperous nurserymen 
of Lawrence is the subject of this sketch, who 
with his brother, Theodore E., started Mount 
Hope nursery in 1878. For five years they oc- 
cupied a location three miles west of the city, but 
in 1883 bought their present site, where they 
have seventy acres in one body, besides eighty 
acres adjoining the city, using, with their rented 
land, about two hundred acres for nursery pur- 
poses. Shipments of their luirsery stock are 
made to all points in the Missouri Valley and the 
west, and one hundred and fifty salesmen are 
employed in different parts of this territory. The 
packing house, 40x80, two stories, has twelve 
thousand square feet of space. A two-inch pipe 
line brings water from the city water works. The 
office is on the corner of Missouri and Elliott 

The father of our subject, Charles Heury, son 
of Charles Henry Griesa, was born in Prussia, 
Germany, and in youth learned the cabinet-mak- 
er's trade. In 1853 he came to America and set- 
tled in Lima, N. Y. Two years later the family 
joined him. He resided for a time in Naples, 
N. Y., then in North Cohocton, where he en- 

gaged in the furniture and undertaking business 
until his death in 1879, at seventy-two years. 
The business which he established is conducted 
by his son, Charles A. The mother of our sub- 
ject bore the maiden name of Henrietta Scholl; 
she was born in Leubeke, in the province of 
Westphalia, Germany, and died in New York 
in 1889, aged seventy-two. Her father, Charles 
Scholl, was a saddler and harness-maker. In the 
family of Henry and Henrietta Griesa, there were 
seven children who attained mature years, viz. : 
William F., a commission merchant in Naples, 
N. Y.; August H., a nurseryman and fruit- 
grower of Lawrence; Adolph C; Mrs. Rachael 
Boone, of Lawrence; Charles A.; Mrs. Augusta 
Lyon, of Naples; and Theodore E., of Lawrence. 

A native of Bielefeldt, Prussia, born March 
29, 1847, our subject was a boy of eight years 
when his mother brought him to this country, 
making the trip in seven weeks from Bremen to 
New York via the sailer "Atlanta." He attended 
the public schools and academy of Naples, N.Y., 
and for some years worked on a farm in the sum- 
mer and attended school during the winter. In 
1869 he joined his brother, August H., in Law- 
rence, and for nine years the two continued in 
the nursery business together, after which their 
partnership was dissolved, and our subject be- 
came connected with his younger brother. In 
everything pertaining to his chosen business he 
maintains a deep interest. He always attends the 
meetings of the American Association of Nurs- 
erymen, and has frequently served on commit- 
tees in connection with the same. He has also 
been actively identified with the Western Asso- 
ciation of Wholesale Nurserymen, and is a life 
member of the Kansas State Horticultural So- 

Since coming to Lawrence Mr. Griesa has been 
a member of Lawrence Lodge No. 6, A. F. & 
A. M. He is also connected with the Knights 
and Ladies of Security. In the Plymouth Con- 
gregational Church he is a member of the board 
of trustees. Politically he votes with the Repub- 
lican party. He was married in this city to Miss 
Eva Stevens, who was born in Princeton, 111., a 
daughter of Capt. James Stevens, who served as 



a captain of an Illinois regiment during the Civil 
war, and in 1867 settled in Lawrence. Mr. and 
Mrs. Griesa have four children: Mabel C, a 
graduate of the Lawrence high school, and now 
a student in the University of Kansas; Ora N., 
who will graduate from the high school class of 
1900; William Stevens and Edna E. 

^"HEODORE GRIESA was born in Naples, 
f C Ontario Count}', N. Y., January 7, 1S59, a 
v2/ son of Charles Henry and Henrietta (Scholl) 
Griesa. When he was an infant his father re- 
moved with the family to North Cohocton, Steu- 
ben County, the same state, and there he was 
educated in the public schools. After the death 
of his father in 1879 he engaged in building in 
his hometown, but in the fall of 1880 joined his 
older brothers in Kansas. For four years he was 
engaged as traveling salesman for his brother, 
A. C, after which the two formed a partnership 
under the firm title of A. C. Griesa & Bro. , es- 
tablishing the Mount Hope nursery, of which 
they have since been the proprietors, and which 
is one of the largest and finest in the entire state. 
While he maintains the general supervision of 
the entire business, he has several foremen to 
assist him. During the busj' season employment 
is furnished to more than one hundred men. 
Agents represent the company in Tennessee, 
Kentucky, Arkansas, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, 
Iowa, Nebraska and Colorado, and shipments 
are made of the nursery .stock through the entire 
western country. Being connected with the city 
water works, twenty-five acres of the nursery are 
irrigated by this means. Every modern improve- 
ment is to be found here, and the brothers are 
quick to seize upon every advantage in order to 
promote the growth of the business. 

The marriage of our subject took place in Bos- 
ton, Mass., and united him with Miss Myra P. 
Scott, of Dorchester, that state, who was born in 
Kennebunk, Me., and graduated from the high 
school of Dorchester. Thej' are the parents of 
three children, Scott, Charles and Murray. 

In politics Mr. Griesa is a Republican, and on 
that ticket he was elected treasurer of Wakarusa 

Township, an office which he filled for two terms. 
Fraternally he is connected with the Ancient 
Order of United Workmen and the Knights and 
Ladies of Security. His wife is an active mem- 
ber of the Plymouth Congregational Church and 
the Fraternal Aid. He is a member of the Doug- 
las County Horticultural Society, the State, 
American and Western Associations of Nursery- 
men, and endeavors to keep in touch with the 
latest developments made in horticulture and 

pCjlLLIAM R. GREEN. In the eastern part 
\A/ of Grant Township lies one of the valua- 
V V ble farms of Douglas County. It is owned 
and occupied by Mr. Green. At the time he pur- 
chased the property the land was partly under 
cultivation, and he completed its improvement, 
and now farms one hundred and forty-three acres 
of the finest bottom land, on which he raises corn, 
wheat and potatoes. In the early days, when 
traveling was done by stage, his house was used 
as one of the hotels on the stage route. As a 
farmer he has been successful. In addition to 
the raising of cereals and vegetables he gives 
considerable attention to the raising of Poland- 
China hogs, and in former years, when horses 
brought good prices, he had a number on his 
place, but the subsequent depreciation in price 
caused him to give up this branch of agriculture. 
The first of our subject's ancestors in America 
was his great-grandfather, James, whose son, 
Thomas, was the father of Robert Green. The 
last-named was born in New York, where he fol- 
lowed agricultural pursuits until liis death at 
forty years of age. By his marriage to Margaret 
Woods, of Washington County, N. Y., he had 
four sons and two daughters, of whom the follow- 
ing survive: J. W., who has been dean of the law 
department of the University of Kansas ever since 
that department was established; Anne, wife of 
C. D. Warner, of Coeur d'Alene, Idaho; and 
William R., who was born in Cambridge, Wash- 
ington County, N. Y. The education of our sub- 
ject was such as to prepare him for the responsi- 
bilities of life. He attended Williston Seminary 
at Hampton,, for two years, after 

2 3° 


which he spent a year in Eastman's Business Col- 
lege at Poughkeepsie, N. Y. For eight j'ears 
after completing his education he engaged in 
farming on the home place, but later sold the 
propert}' and turned his attention to the manage- 
ment of a foundry and machine shop, which he 
conducted for five years. After a year in Cali- 
fornia he came to Kansas and purchased the farm 
where he has since made his home. Here he gives 
his attention to farming, dairying and stock-rais- 

In national politics Mr. Green is a Republican, 
but in local affairs he is independent, favoring 
such measures as will best conduce to the welfare 
of the people. While he has not sought office for 
himself, at the solicitation of his friends he has 
consented to serve as member of the school board 
and township treasurer, and holds the latter of- 
fice at this writing. When twenty-one years of 
age he joined the Masonic order at Cambridge, 
N. Y. He is now identified with the Ancient 
Order of United Workmen, the Woodmen of the 
World, and the Knights and Ladies of Security. 
March lo, 1886, he married Sallie J. Attee, who 
was born in Cincinnati, Ohio. Both he and his 
wife attend the United Presbyterian Church and 
contribute to its maintenance. 

jg\lCHOLASS. CLARKE, proprietor of a liv- 
I / ery and sales stable at Lawrence and a resi- 
I/d dent of this city .since 1869, was born in 
Rushville, Schuyler County, 111., April 14, 1845, 
a son of Rev. John and Ann (O'Hearn) Clarke. 
His grandparents, John and Eleanor Clarke, 
were natives of Ireland, and settled in Lancaster, 
Pa., where he followed the tanning business; his 
wife was ninety-nine at the time of her death. 
Rev. John Clarke was born in Lancaster and re- 
ceived his education at Pittsburgh, after which, as 
a minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
he labored in Ohio and Indiana, and in 1843 ac- 
cepted a pastorate at Rushville, 111., where he 
became the owner of a large farm. Later he was 
stationed at Quincy, Adams County, and War- 
saw, Hancock County. He was prominent in 
public affairs and was one of the men who met 

at Bloomington, 111., and organized the Republi- 
can part}'. He represented Schuyler County, 
while Abraham Lincoln represented Sangamon 
County. He was a personal friend of the latter, 
who frequently visited him in his home, and he 
was also a cotemporary of Bishop Simpson and 
other noted divines of his denomination. Pos- 
sessing broad knowledge and an extraordinary 
command of language, he was in demand as a 
writer of articles for journals, religious and secu- 
lar. The last years of his life were spent in De- 
troit, Mich., where he died May 18, 1896. His 
wife, who was of Scotch- Irish descent, was born 
in 1813 and died in Illinois in 189 1, aged seventy- 
eight years. Of their twelve children who at- 
tained maturity four are now living. One son, 
Thomas, who was a member of the One Hundred 
and Nineteenth Illinois Infantry, died during the 
Red River expedition. Another son, Albert, 
enlisted in a cavalry company, and was captured 
by Quantrell's men near Independence, Mo., but 
was soon paroled and afterward entered the Tenth 
Missouri Infantry, in which he rose to the rank 
of major; he died in Kearney, Neb. A third 
brother, James F., lives in Portland, Ore., while 
Ancil H. is in Rushville, 111. 

The subject of this sketch was the seventh 
among nine sons. He received his education in 
public schools and Wesleyan Universitj-, at Bloom- 
ington, 111. His first work was in connection 
with railroad contracting on the Chicago, Bur- 
lington & Quincy Railroad. In 1869 he came to 
Kansas, and for three years farmed in Douglas 
County, after which he settled in Lawrence, buy- 
ing a lot that had an old frame building on it. 
Here he began the transfer business, and later he 
opened a livery stable and dealt in horses. After 
some years he built a two story barn, 50x117, 
which he still utilizes for his fine horses. Since 
the organization of the Lawrence Building and 
Loan Association he has been one of its directors. 
Reared in the faith of the Republican party, 
when that political organization was in its infancy, 
it is natural that he should be a stanch adherent 
of its principles. He served for two terms as 
councilman from the first ward, then refused fur- 
ther nomination until the spring of 1899, when 





he was again elected to the council. He is now 
doing excellent work as chairman of the com- 
mittee on streets and allej'S. The Commercial 
Club numbers him among its members. Fra- 
ternall}' he is connected with the Modern Wood- 
men, the Ancient Order of United Workmen and 
the lodge of Odd Fellows, in which he is past 
grand; and also a member of the Lodge of Re- 
bekahs, as is also his wife. 

The marriage of Mr. Clarke, in Lawrence, 
united him with Miss Luc)- J. Patterson, who was 
born iu Findla)', Ohio, and in 1855 accompanied 
her father, William, to Lawrence, where Mr. Pat- 
terson became one of the foremost attornejs of 
the city; he was injured at the blowing up of 
Hunt's Mills, and after lingering in poor health 
for a 3'ear he died in 1858. His wife died in 
Lawrence in iSgo. During the Quantrell raid 
they were burned out and suffered the loss of all 
their personal property. Mr. and Mrs. Clarke 
became the parents of three children (triplets), 
one of whom died at the age of twelve months. 
The others, Mary P. and Helen M., were among 
the honor students in the high school graduating 
class of 1899, and are now students in the Uni- 
versity of Kansas. They are unusually bright 
and capable, and have hosts of warm friends 
among the young people of Lawrence. The 
family are connected with the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church. 

HON. JAMES S. EMERY. The life of Judge 
Emery was so intimately connected with 
the earl}' history of Lawrence that it would 
be impossible to present the record of one without 
frequently alluding to the other. He belonged 
to that large and intellectual class of eastern citi- 
zens who, coming to Kansas in territorial days, 
assisted in laying the foundations of the common- 
wealth broad, deep and solid. Reared under the 
beneficent influences of New England schools 
and religious institutions, these men were fitted 
to go forth and open up a new colony in a ter- 
ritory that, largely through their influence, was 
made to stand for the abolition of slavery. 

In January, 1854, a year after his admission 
to the bar of New York City, Judge Emery was 

in Boston and, attending a citizens' meeting 
held to protest against the admission of Kansas 
as a slave state, he became deeply interested in 
the matter. A party was being organized to set- 
tle in Kansas, with Governor Robinson as the 
leader. He joined the company, and from that 
time until his death was associated with the 
history of this part of the great west. Governor 
Robinson, by reason of having crossed the plains 
in 1848 with John C. Fremont, was familiar with 
the west and was a safe leader for the party of 
one hundred and twenty-three who put them- 
selves under his guidance. Of the company, the 
majority were from Massachusetts, although 
some were from Rochester, N. Y., and other 
points along the route westward. 

September 14, 1854, Judge Emery arrived at 
what is now Lawrence. He entered a claim to 
one hundred and sixty acres adjoining the pres- 
ent site of the university. His first home in 
Kansas cost him $25 and was built on government 
land for which he paid $1.25 an acre. For a time 
his attention was given to the improvement of 
his claim and to surveying and drawing up con- 
tracts. The political conditions of Kansas were at 
that time most unsettled. Villages and counties 
were operated under bogus laws, which he and 
other free settlers refused to acknowledge, and 
hence never brought suits under them. In No- 
vember, 1855, he served in the defense of Law- 
rence in one of the four forts around the town. 
It was at this time that John Brown and his 
four .sons made their first appearance in Law- 
rence, and Mr. Emery served in the same fort 
with them. Under the " squatter " sovereignty, 
he was superintendent of the first school started 
in Lawrence. He built the first permanent build- 
ing in the town, and subsequently erected others. 
After he had been here little more than a year 
he was appointed magistrate or justice of the 
peace under the Kansas and Nebraska bill, his 
commission as such, November 8, 1854, being 
the first of the kind issued by Governor Reeder, 
and it is now in the hands of the State Historical 
Society of Topeka. 

Shortly after the opening of the Civil war, 
October 5, i86i,our sul)jcct was commissioned 



a colonel iu the Kansas militia by Governor Rob- 
inson. The following year he was elected to 
represent his district (then known as the thirty - 
sixth) in the state legislature, and November 3, 
1863, was re-elected to that body. During his 
term of office a contest arose between Lawrence 
and Emporia respecting the location of the Uni- 
versity of Kansas. Governor E.skridge led the 
Emporia faction and Judge Emery the Lawrence 
party. The matter was finally settled by the lo- 
cation of the university in Lawrence, by a vote 
of fifty-one to fifty. The university received an 
endovv'uient of $10,000 from Amos Lawrence, in 
whose honor the city of Lawrence was named. 
March i, 1864, Judge Emery received from Gov- 
ernor Carney appointment as regent of the uni- 
versity, and filled the position for four years. In 
March, 1874, Governor Osborn again appointed 
him regent, and he served for three years. From 
President Lincoln, March 18, 1864, he received 
the appointment of United States district attorney 
for Kansas. 

During the service of Senator Henry M. Teller 
as secretary of the interior. Judge Emery was ap- 
pointed, March 3, 1885, chairman of the board of 
visitors to the Indian Industrial school (now the 
Haskell In.stitute). In August, 1888, he was 
appointed by Governor Martin a delegate to the 
first convention of the Inter-state Deep Water 
Association. This meeting, which convened in 
Denver, was the first in the interests of a deep 
water harbor on the Gulf. To the cause of irri- 
gation he devoted the best efforts of his life, 
traveling thousands of miles to deliver lectures 
in support of the plan. He heartily believed in 
irrigation, and, could his wi.shes be consulted, 
without doubt he would rather be remembered 
for his work in behalf of irrigation than for any- 
thing else he accomplished in his life. In his 
opinion the opening up of vast areas of unpro- 
ductive land through the medium of irrigation 
would not only be of especial benefit to the 
poorer classes, but would react to the advance- 
ment of all interests and peoples. In 1893 he 
was appointed a delegate to the International Ir- 
rigation Convention held in Los Angeles, and 
was afterward appointed every year until his 

death. In everything pertaining to that move- 
ment he was considered an authority- and his 
advice was often sought in matters bearing upon 
the subject. In 1899 Governor Stanley ap- 
pointed him a member of the Trans- Mississippi 
Congress, held in Wichita, Kans. 

The characteristics noticeable in the life of 
Judge Emerj' were his by inheritance. He came 
of an old Maine family, and was a son of Ira and 
Sarah (Stanley) Emery, natives of York County, 
that state. Through his mother he was a 
descendant of English ancestors. As early as 
1800 his father became a pioneer at Industry, 
Me., where he continued to reside until his 
death at an advanced age; his wife died when 
more than eighty years of age. Of their twelve 
children all but two attained maturity and five 
are now living, three daughters being residents 
of Lawrence. Judge Emery was born at Indus- 
try, Me. , on the 3d of July, 1826. He graduated 
from Colby University in 185 1, with the degree 
of A. B., and later received the degree of A. M. 
He paid his own expenses while in college 
by teaching and engaging in manual labor. 
Afterward he studied law in Troy and New York 
City, and was admitted to the bar in January, 
1853. In Brandon, Vt., November 6, 1851, he 
married Miss Mary Rice, only child of Pliny and 
Maria (Whitcomb) Rice. Ira, the only son 
of Judge and Mrs. Emery, died at the age of 
fourteen. The daughters, Agnes and Sarah, are 
graduates of the University of Kansas. The 
family are members of the Congregational Church 
of Lawrence. 

Judge Emery was a fluent speaker, and ex- 
pressed his thoughts clearly and forcibly. His 
logical reasoning and eloquence rendered him an 
interestnig orator. Throughout the roughening' 
influences of pioneer life he never lost his love for 
books and his interest in education. He was fre- 
quently called upon to deliver addresses before 
various universities and before the Kansas His- 
torical Society (of which he was a member), as 
well as other historical societies. As a pioneer 
of Lawrence he is one of those to whom the 
present generation owes a largedebt of gratitude, 
owing, as it does, all its advantages for a higher 



degree of culture and for the refinements of life 
to the brave men who endured privations and 
hardships, and opened the way for a high civili- 
zation in the west. He died June 8, 1899, after 
an illness of four months. To the last his mind 
was unimpaired by the flight of time, and he was 
able to look back over hi.s busy and useful life, 
and rejoice, not only in the success he» had at- 
tained, but also in the high position he held as 
a man and a citizen. 

rTDWARD JAMESON. No man has done 
Kft) more for the advancement of the real estate 
L_ of Leavenworth than has Mr. Jameson. His 
prompt business habits, superior financial talent 
and tact in the management of affairs have brought 
him into prominence, not only in his city, but 
also in the state. His efforts have not been solely 
for personal aggrandizement, but also for the bene- 
fit of others and for the development of local re- 
sources. At a time when real estate was low 
and values depreciated, he never lost his belief 
in a "prosperous future; and the fact that better 
times dawned for Kansas was due not a little to 
his energy, sagacity and wise judgment. 

Mr. Jameson was born in Hunsen worth, near 
Blanchland, County Durham, England, April 21, 
1849, a son of Thomas and Elizabeth (Clennell) 
Jame.son. His grandfather, Thomas Jameson, 
Sr., was born in Glasgow, Scotland, and moved 
with his family to Blanchland, County of Durham, 
England, and developed the Jameson lead mines. 
He was a member of the family to which belonged 
Jameson, the celebrated artist. Thomas Jame- 
son, Jr., was engaged in farming until his death, 
at thirty-two years. In religion he was identi- 
fied with the Church of England. He married a 
daughter of Alexander Clennell, a mine operator 
and farmer, whose father, Alexander, Sr. , was a 
native of Gla.sgow. Mrs. Elizabeth Jameson died 
in England in 1895, leaving a son, Edward, and 
a daughter, Mrs. Mary Bamboro, of County Dur- 
ham, England. The son, our subject, studied 
architecture under Mr. Harrison, of Houghton- 
on Spring, County of Durham. In iS83hecame 
to the United States and settled in Leavenworth, 

where, as architect and superintendent, he made 
plans for many of the principal buildings erected 
in the city. After two years he drifted into the 
real-estate business, in which he has since suc- 
cessfully engaged. 

Under the personal direction of Mr. Jameson 
the following additions have been laid out to 
Leavenworth: Fenn's Broadway addition; Fenn's 
fair ground addition; Morris addition; Cleveland 
Park addition; Evans' addition, and others. He 
has also bought and sold farms in every part of 
Kansas and in other states. In 1894 he with others 
organized the Kansas State Real Estate Associa- 
tion, of which he has since been the president and 
which was the means of .starting better times in 
Kansas. With the organization of the Kansas 
Million Club he was also actively connected and 
served as its secretary. This club shipped a train- 
load of farm produce and fruit to Chicago during 
the fall of 1895, and exhibited the same along the 
entire route eastward, afterward giving the mayor 
of Chicago a carload of apples to be distributed 
among the poor people of that city. This proved 
a splendid advertisement for the state and attract- 
ed considerable immigration. 

The various property enterprises originated by 
Mr. Jameson engross his attention, to the exclu- 
sion of all other interests. He has never been a 
politician, although he is a pronounced Republi- 
can and has served as chairman of the county Re- 
publican committee. However, while not a pol- 
itician, he is a very progressive citizen, and no 
enterprise for the advancement of the cit\' is pro- 
posed that fails to meet with his hearty approval. 
While in Durham, England, he was made a Ma- 
son. The close attention which he gives to his 
business affairs, however, has prevented him from 
identifying himself with fraternal associations in 
the United States. 

In Sunderland, Durham, England, Mr. Jame- 
SDU married Miss Jane A. Stephenson, a member 
of the family to which belonged George Stephen- 
son, the inventor of locomotives. They arc the 
parents of three children: Arthur E., Frederick 
W. and Loui,se. The elder son, a graduate of the 
Art Students' League of New York City, has 
since 1895 been an artist on the New York Sioi- 



day Journal. The younger son graduated from 
high school in 1S99, and was captain of the high 
school cadet company. 

0AMUEL H. CARMEAN, who held the office 
Nk of sheriff of Douglas County for four terms 
V^ and was recognized as one of the most vigil- 
ant and fearless men ever in the office, was first 
elected to the position in 1871, and his term was 
so satisfactor}' that he was re-elected in 1873, 
without opposition. At the beginning of his 
first term he established his home in Lawrence 
and here he has since resided. After the close of 
his second term he returned to the cattle busi- 
ness, in which he had previously engaged. In 
1883 he was nominated for sheriff by acclamation 
and was elected. Again, in 1885, he received 
the nomination by acclamation, and gained the 
election, serving until January, 1888, when he 
retired. While he held the office a train was 
held up at Muncie, on the Union Pacific road. 
One of the desperadoes, McDaniels, was caught 
in Kansas City and brought to the Lawrence jail 
for safe keeping; but, during the absence of Mr. 
Carmean, he and three othei's knocked the jailer 
down and succeeded in effecting an escape. Pur- 
suit was at once instituted, and after two days' 
hunt McDaniels was found, but was wounded in 
the capture and died in jail soon afterward. 

Mr. Carmean was born near Chillicothe, Ross 
County, Ohio, March 2, 1832, and was next to 
the oldest of seventeen children, fourteen of whom 
attained mature years and seven are now living. 
Three of the sons took part in the Civil war. 
Pierson, who was a non commissioned officer in 
the Fourteenth Iowa Infantry and was wounded 
at Pittsburg Landing, first came to Kansas in 1856 
and is now living in Miami County. Joshua, 
who was also a member of the Fourteenth Iowa, 
is living at Leon, that state. David enlisted in 
Iowa and was wounded in the battle of Atlanta; 
he now resides at Mediapolis, Iowa. 

Foster Carmean, our subject's father, was a 
son of Pierson Carmean, who was born in Mary- 
land, probably of French descent. The former 
accompanied the famil}' to Ross County, Ohio, 

and engaged in farming and raising stock on 
Paint Creek. Removing to Iowa in 1842, he 
settled fifteen miles north of Burlington, and en- 
gaged extensively in farming there until his 
death at sixty-two years. He married Elvine 
Heizer, who was born in Ross County, and 
died in Iowa at seventy- two years. Her father, 
who was born in Virginia, of German ancestry, 
settled in Ross County, Ohio, and married a 
Miss Ware, whose father was a Revolutionary 
soldier and an early settler of Ohio from Virginia. 

When ten years of age our subject accom- 
panied his parents to Iowa. His education was 
begun in the public school and continued in Yel- 
low Springs College, after which he taught two 
terms of school. At Northfield, Iowa, April 17, 
1856, he married Miss Lydia Jane Gray, who was 
born in New Milford, Pa. , a daughter of Elisha 
Perkins Gray, and a granddaughter of Thomas 
Gray, both natives of Connecticut. Her father 
from New London, Conn., removed to New 
Milford, Pa., where he engaged in merchandis- 
ing, but after some time settled on a farm near 
Portage, Kalamazoo County, Mich., where he 
died at fifty years. He married Haimah Belknap, 
who was born near Batavia, N. Y., and died 
in Michigan. Her father, John Belknap, was 
a native of New York, of English descent, and in 
an early day removed to Pennsylvania, where he 
owned and operated a sawmill. Mrs. Carmean 
was one of four children, of whom she and her 
sister, Mrs. Charlotte Gray, of Lawrence, alone 

In 1859 Mr. Carmean settled at Baldwin, 
Douglas County, Kans., where he opened a gen- 
eral store and also became interested in the stock 
business. During the war he had the contract to 
furnish beef for the Sac and Fox Indians. Early 
in the war Governor Robinson commissioned him 
captain of a company of militia, but it was dis- 
banded before the Price raid. He was quarter- 
master of the Third Kansas Regiment of militia, 
which was mustered into service to defend the 
state against Price. After the war he gave his 
attention to the cattle business until he was elected 
sheriff and after his retirement from that office he 
resumed dealing in stock. For one term he served 



as cit}' marshal. In politics he is a Republican 
and has been a member of the county committee 
of his party. Fraternally he is 'connected with 
Palmyra Lodge No. 33, A. F. & A. M., at Bald- 
win City; the Knights of Honor; Select Friends; 
Eastern Star (to which his wife also belongs); 
and Washington Post No. 12, G. A. R., his wife 
being a member of the Ladies of the G. A. R. In 
religion he is a Presbyterian and has officiated as 
an elder in his church. He and his wife have 
four children, namely: Charles K., who is en- 
gaged in the live stock commission business in 
St. Joe, Mo. ; Cyrene, wife of F. D. Connor, of 
Clifton, Ariz.; Fannie, who married C. M. 
Spaulding, of Sacramento, Cal.; and Arthur W., 
who graduated from the Lawrence Business Col- 
lege and is interested in business with his brother 
at St. Joe. Besides caring for and educating 
their own children, Mr. and Mrs. Carmean took 
into their home a boy, Emerson E. McClure, who 
is now in Kansas City. 

QOSIAH S. FLETCHER was one of the 
I highly respected residents of Willow Springs 
(2/ Township, Douglas County, where he owned 
an improved farm of one hundred and sixty 
acres. He was born in Bethel , Me. , February 2 1 , 
1833, and was a member of one of the pioneer 
families of New England, dating the ancestry 
back to one of two brothers who came from Eng- 
land one hundred and fifty years ago. His father, 
Ephraim Fletcher, a native of Massachusetts, 
was reared on a farm in Worcester County and 
there engaged in agricultural pursuits during 
the greater part of his life. He was well informed 
concerning the national problems of his day and 
in politics coincided with Whig principles. 

Reared and educated in Massachusetts, our 
subject had only such advantages as, in the early 
part of the century, fell to the lot of a farmer's 
son. Being studious, he gained considerable 
knowledge in a brief attendance at an academy, 
where, though unable to complete the regular 
course of study, he nevertheless laid a solid 
foundation upon which he built in later years by 
self-culture. In earlv manhood he went to 

McLean County, 111., where he secured employ- 
ment on a farm, remaining there for two years. 
At that time public attention w^s being drawn 
toward Kansas, owing to the conflict between the 
pro slavery and free-state parties. In the spring 
of 1857 he came w-est, joining his fortunes with 
the northern element here. He pre-empted a 
claim, began its improvement, and by persever- 
ance acquired a valuable homestead. During his 
last years, however, he was so crippled by rheu- 
matism that he delegated to others the task of 
planting, plowing and harvesting, although he 
maintained a supervision of the place until a 
short time before his death. 

By his marriage, April 14, 1858, to Miss Mary 
Crosby, who died October 21, 1891, Mr. Fletcher 
had five children, namely: Frank L., a farmer of 
Coffey County, Kans. ; George F., who is engaged 
in farming and stock-raising in Colorado; John, 
who died at twenty years; James, who resides 
with his parents; and Clara, who lives in Ford 
County, this state. March 28, 1S93, he married 
Mrs. Eliza J. Cantrell, of Baldwin. From i860 
until his death Mr. Fletcher was a member of 
the Presbyterian Church and for many years 
served as an officer of the same. His interest in 
school matters continued during the entire period 
of his residence in Kansas. Recognizing the 
value of public schools, in which even the poorest 
child may hope to obtain a good education, he 
did all within his power to promote the welfare 
of the schools within his district, and after 1859 
was a member of the board of directors. For two 
terras he held office as justice of the peace, having 
been elected to that office on the ticket of the 
Republican party. 

Mr. Fletcher had been in ill health for about 
three months, but his death, which occurred 
August 20, 1S99, was quite unexpected by his 

pi ATRICK CUMMINGS, one of the earliest 
ly of the pioneers of Lecompton , was born in 
ts County Tipperary, Ireland, August 10, 
1834, a .son of Patrick and Nora (Horan) Cum- 
mings, and the only one of their six children to 
come to America. He passed the years of youth 



on his father's farm and acquired his education in 
the national schools. In 1851 he determined to 
come to America, and the 27th da_v of December 
found him in New Orleans, a stranger, without 
mone}-. He hired out to work on the Polk 
plantation, twenty-five miles up the river, where 
he was employed in digging ditches. After 
three months he returned to New Orleans and 
for nine months was employed in driving a 
truck, after which for six months he was em- 
ployed at corporation work. Afterward he came 
up the river to St. lyouis, but not liking that city, 
he proceeded, by water, to Louisville, Ky., where 
he was engaged in teaming for four months. 
Later he engaged in railroad work and in build- 
ing plank roads on the Indiana side of the river 
at New Albany. He remained at New Albany 
about one year, after which he worked on the 
Albany & Salem road from New Albany to 
Michigan City, his work being grading and 
track laying. From Michigan City he went to 
Dubuque, Iowa, and afterward to Lansing, the 
same state, where he worked for a month. On 
account of his employer getting into trouble 
through killing a man, he failed to be paid for 
his work. He then went to Peoria, 111., where 
he freighted between that place and Elmwood. 
This occupied his attention for six months, after 
which he returned to St. Louis. From there he 
worked his way west to Kansas City, and in com- 
pany with two other men, went to Leavenworth, 
intending to drive a government team across the 
plains to California. 

While at Leavenworth waiting for a team Mr. 
Cummings found the town so rough that he con- 
cluded to return to Kansas City. A short time 
later the territorial capital was located at Le- 
compton, and he and his comrades decided to 
come to this place. He walked the entire dis- 
tance from Kansas City, and on his arrival was 
given work by Wilson Shannon on the capitol 
building. After seven months' work he asked 
for his wages, intending to take a trip to Cali- 
fornia, but being unable to collect the amount 
due him he was obliged to remain in Lecompton. 
Here he worked at various occupations for some 
time. Afterward for seven years he and his wife 

lived on a farm owned by Lyman Evans, a bach- 
elor, his wife keeping house for Mr. Evans, while 
he assisted in the cultivation of the farm, situated 
on the river east of Lecompton. In return for 
his services he was given half of all the stock 
and all of the produce raised on the place. In 
1870 he bought his present farm, three and one- 
half miles south of Lecompton, on the southwest 
quarter of section 15, township 12, range iS. 
He built a house, made other improvements and 
brought the one hundred and twenty acres under 
e.Kcellent cultivation, making of the tract a fine 
farm. With his wife, he now owns two hundred 
and eighty acres of valuable land. 

November 15, 1862, Mr. Cummings married Bridget Anderson. They became the par- 
ents often children, nine of whom are living, all 
at home, viz.: James, Joseph, William, Thomas, 
John, Nora, Maggie, Mary and Ellen. The 
family are identified with the Roman Catholic 

OSES C. HARVEY. While Leavenworth 
County is the center of an important busi- 
ness in the raising and feeding of stock, 
there is probably no one in the entire county 
who has engaged in the industry more extensive- 
ly than has Mr. Harvey, of Fairmount Town- 
ship. He has been exceptionally fortunate in 
his undertakings, but his good fortune is not 
-simply the result of "luck"; it comes from his 
energy, perseverance, determination and sound 
judgment. There is no department of the stock 
business with which he is not familiar; hence his 
judgment in matters pertaining to the same is 
regarded as sound and sagacious. 

Mr. Harvey was born in Pettis County, Mo., 
October 12, 1855, and spent the years of boyhood 
and youth upon the home farm in that county, 
his education being obtained in common schools. 
Upon gaining his majority he came to Kansas 
and for a half year worked on the large stock 
farm in Leavenworth County which he now 
manages. Next he went to Colorado, where he 
was employed on ranches for more than two 
years. As a cowboj' on the range he later 
worked in Wyoming and Dakota for four years. 



Returning finall}' to Leavenworth County, he 
engaged in buying and shipping stock to Denver, 
Colo., having as partner Mr. Usher, the owner of 
the ranch on which Mr. Harvey now lives. In 
the spring of 1884 he rented the ranch and has 
since engaged in the stock business here. The 
place consists of more than two thousand acres, 
and is devoted to the pasturage of stock. Besides 
his interests here he is the owner of a ranch near 
Pomona, Franklin County, Kans., consisting of 
two thousand acres, which his nephew manages 
for him. 

December 5, 1883, occurred the marriage of 
Mr. Harvey to Miss Alice A. Brantner, of 
Arapahoe County, Colo. They have three 
children, Nancy Grace, Ada Jennie and Moses 
C, Jr. The family spend the greater part of 
each year in Lawrence, in order that the children 
may have the excellent educational advantages 
of that city. Though not a partisan nor in- 
terested in politics, Mr. Harvey recognizes his 
duty as a citizen and takes an interest in local 
and national elections. In politics he is a stanch 
Democrat. Fraternally he is connected with the 
Woodmen of the World; King Solomon Lodge 
No. 10, A. F. & A. M., of Leavenworth, and has 
attained the thirty-second degree of Scottish Rite. 

St. John the Evangelist Church of Law- 
rence, was born in Zistersdorf, Lower Aus- 
tria, a son of Frederick W. and Theresa (Schredl) 
Groener, and a descendant, through his paternal 
ancestors, of an old family of Holland. His fa- 
ther, who was born on the Rhine in Germany, 
learned the baker's trade and worked as a jour- 
neyman in Germany, France and Switzerland. 
After his marriage he settled in Zistersdorf, where 
he carried on a bakery until the time of the 
Austro-German war, in 1866. The hatred be- 
tween the two races was so great that he felt it 
expedient to leave home. He came to America 
in 1880, accompanied by all of his family except 
Rudolph. Locating in Alton, 111., he began 
gardening, and in that city he remained until his 
death. His wife, who was a daughter of Frank 

and Mary Schredl, who were members of old 
Austrian families, was born in Russbach, Austria, 
and is now living in the home of her son in 
Lawrence, Kans. Of her fourteen children, two 
daughters and one son are living, one daughter 
being in Illinois, while the other resides with her 

In the town where he was born September 10, 
1864, Father Groener was reared until ten years 
of age. He then entered a gymnasium in Moravia , 
where he took an eight years' course in classics, 
graduating in the spring of 1S81. He then came 
to America and entered a college at Teutopolis, 
111., where he remained until the completion of 
his English course. Next he matriculated in St. 
Meinrad (lud.) Seminary, where he spent two 
years in the study of philosophy and four years 
in the study of theology, receiving the minor 
orders in 18S6, and in 1887 those of sub-deacon 
and deacon. February 26, 1888, he was ordained 
to the priesthood in Vincennes, Bishop Chataid 
officiating, and was assigned to the Leavenworth 
diocese. He was secretary of this diocese, chap- 
lain in St. John's hospital and second assistant at 
the cathedral. From there, in 189 1, he was 
transferred to the pastorate of the Holy Family 
Church in Eudora, Kans., where he remained for 
eighteen months. In September, 1892, he was 
assigned to his present pastorate and has since 
devoted himself assiduously to his responsible 
position as rector of the Catholic Church. The 
congregation in Lawrence was organized prior to 
the war, the first services being held at the house 
of B. Donnelly, in October, 1857, by Father 
Magee. In i860 a building, 25x50, was erected 
on Vermont street, and this was occupied for 
church purposes until 1871, when an edifice, 
45x90, was completed on Kentucky street at a 
cost of $10,000. At the time of the Ouantrell 
raid Bishop Miege was in the city for the pur- 
pose of confirming a number of members, and he 
remained to perform the last rites over the bodies 
of twelve or more of the members who had been 
killed in the raid. 

The congregation is large, enthusiastic and act- 
ive, and the various .societies are doing excellent 
work. In addition to the resident membership 



the services are attended bj' the Cathohc Indians 
from Haskell Institute and b\^ Catholic students 
in the universit}'. Under the supervision of the 
rector ever}' department of work is making prog- 
ress and the church is alive to the needs of the 
hour. Father Groener is a thoughtful, earnest 
student of the most profound authors, and the in- 
fluence which he wields over his congregation is 
that of a noble, cultured. Christian gentleman. 

the first settlers on the Shawnee Indian 
reservation in Douglas Count}', was born in 
Washington Count}', Pa., December 8, 1829, a 
son of DeGras and Anne (Jackson) Jennings, 
natives respectively of Pennsylvania and New 
Jersey. The maternal grandfather, Richard 
Jackson, came to this country from England and 
served for seven years in the American array 
during the Revolutionary war. The paternal 
grandfather, William Jennings, was also a native 
of England, and for years was captain of a mer- 
chant vessel ; one of his sons was Israel Jennings, 
of whom William Jennings Bryan is a lineal de- 
scendant. De Gras Jennings was a practicing 
physician, also a large farmer and sheep-raiser; 
he died in Washington County, Pa., in 1838, and 
his wife died in the same place. They had eleven 
children, but only the following survive: Mrs. 
Ann Silcox; A. Jackson; and Thomas S., of 
Washington Couuty, Pa. 

When seventeen years of age our subject began 
to learn the carpenter's trade, which he followed 
for four years. Later he attended Oberlin Col- 
lege, Ohio, and also engaged in teaching school. 
In the spring of 1856 Samuel Wood came from 
Kansas to Oberlin, in search of young men who 
would volunteer to assist the free-state movement 
in the west, and among the sixty who responded 
to the call our subject was one. In March, 
1857, he came to Kansas, and after a few days in 
Lawrence and Franklin he took up a claim in 
Johnson County, settling on the land known as the 
George Rogers farm. The next year he sold the 
place and took up his present farm of one hundred 
and sixty acres of raw land, on the Shawnee In- 

dian reservation, in Eudora Township. He built 
his first house on the reservation in Johnson 
County. When he settled at his present place 
there were few in the neighborhood, and he has 
witnessed the gradual development of this region 
made since he came in 1857. Though he began 
without means, he has been a very successful 
farmer and stock-raiser. 

In 1862, at Fort Leavenworth, our subject en- 
listed and was mustered into the service as second 
lieutenant, with authority to recruit a company 
for the Twelfth Kansas Infantry. After the com- 
pany was recruited he was mustered in at Paoli, 
Kans., as first lieutenant of Company E Twelfth 
Kansas Infantry, and commissioned by Governor 

At the time of the Ouantrell raid in 1863 the 
mob surrounded our subject's house and called 
for him, but his wife told them he was in the 
army, and they then departed. Had he been at 
home, undoubtedly he would not have escaped 
with his life. In 1864 he was elected captain of 
his company and as such served until the close 
of the war, being connected with the western 
division of the army. On the 30th of May, 1864, 
at the battle of Jinkins Ferry, Saline River, Ark., 
the brigade, consisting of the Twelfth Kansas 
Infantry (in which Captain Jennings commanded 
Company E,) and one other regiment, charged 
and took a rebel battery, in which action the 
colonel was wounded and lost the use of an arm, 
and the lieutenant-colonel lost a leg. Upon being 
honorably discharged from the volunteer service 
the captain passed the required examination for 
an assignment in the regular army, but his wife 
opposed his enlistment with such earnestness that 
he abandoned the plan and returned to farm life. 

Formerly a Republican, Captain Jennings is 
now a Populist. In 1870 he was elected to the 
legislature on the Republican ticket, and served 
with efiBciency in that body. He was at other 
times a candidate for senator and sheriflF. He 
has been chairman of the county convention and 
a delegate to state conventions. At the time of 
the starting of the Farmers' Alliance in Johnson 
and Wyandotte Counties he acted as organizer. 
He is a stockholder in and vice-president of the 



Eudora State Bank. Fraternall}- he i.s connected 
with Eiidora Lodge No. 42, I. O. O. F. , in which 
he holds the jewel of twenty-five years of con- 
tinuous membership. At this writing he is a 
member of the Johnson County Grange. Inter- 
ested in educational matters, he contributed to 
the erection of Hesper Academy, and took a part 
in the organization of Hesper school district No. 
5, which was the fifth school district organized in 
the county; Hesper Social Lyceum, connected 
with it, was organized in 1857. It has been 
transferred to the Hesper Academy and is still 
in active operation. Captain Jennings was one 
of the organizers and wrote the constitution and 
by-laws. He has also given to religious enter- 
prises, especially to the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, with which his family are identified. In 
Eudora Post No. 333, G. A. R., he is the senior 
commander of the post. In 1857 he married 
Rose A. McCartney, by whom he has a daughter, 
Belle T., now the wife of C. H. Daugherty. They 
also reside at the old homestead. 

HAMES A. LANE, M. D. There are few of 
I the physicians and surgeons of Leavenworth 
Q) who have attained a distinction so merited 
as that which years of successful practice have 
brought to Dr. Lane. Not alone in his home 
city, but in other towns as well he is known as a 
skillful physician, whose accuracy in diagnosis 
and skill in treatment bring him the confidence 
of his patients. By study, observation and ex- 
perience he has acquired a thorough knowledge 
of his profession, and his services as an instructor 
have been utilized by medical colleges. In mi- 
croscopy, bacteriology, and in sanitary measures 
he has for years been a leader, as in other de- 
partments of thought related to his profession. 

Dr. Lane was born in Rio, Columbia County, 
Wis., November 20, 1853, a son of Henry and 
Mary (Rutherford) Lane, natives respectively of 
western Pennsylvania and Ireland. The former 
grew to manhood near Pittsburgh and from there 
removed to Stark County, Ohio, where he mar- 
ried Miss Rutherford, whose parents were from 
the north of Ireland and of the Presbyterian faith. 

After his marriage he settled in Wisconsin, where 
he improved a stock farm. In 1868 he removed 
to Mirabile, Caldwell County, Mo., where he 
engaged in farming and stock-raising and was 
also prominent in local aifairs. When seventy 
years of age he went on a hunting expedition to 
Idaho, where he was taken sick and died. The 
family of which he was a member originally set- 
tled in Virginia and were well-known Indian 
fighters. His wife died in Wisconsin in 1866, 
leaving five children, of whom James was the 

When the family settled in Missouri the sub- 
ject of this sketch was about thirteen years of 
age. His high-school course was completed at 
Cameron, Mo. In 1874 he came to Leaven- 
worth and entered the State Normal School, from 
which he graduated in 1876. He had previously 
taught in Missouri and after the close of his nor- 
mal course he resumed teaching, which he fol- 
lowed in Kansas. For one year he was principal 
of the North Leavenworth colored school, then 
for one year principal of the Morris school, and 
for a similar period he held the chair of natural 
science and mathematics in the Kansas State 
Normal at Paola. Taking up the study of med- 
icine, he took the course in one of the most 
famous institutions in our country, Jefferson 
Medical College, in Philadelphia, from which he 
was graduated in 188 1, with the degree of M. D. 
Soon after graduating he returned to the west, 
and since 1881 has engaged in practice in Leaven- 
worth, where he has his office in the Manufactur- 
er's National Bank block. For three years he 
was in partnership with his former preceptor. 
Dr. S. F. Neeley, and since then has practiced 

During his course in Jefferson Medical College 
Dr. Lane was assistant demonstrator of anatomy, 
and he also took a special course of study. F^r 
ten years he was professor of histology and mi- 
croscopy in the Kansas City Medical College at 
Kansas City, Mo. When the Medico-Chirurgical 
College was established in Kansas City he was 
elected to the chair of the principles of surgery, 
which position he still fills. His influence has 
done much toward placing this institution upon 



a solid basis and giving it a reputation through- 
out the west. He was also active in the estab- 
lishment of the Leavenworth Hospital Associa- 
tion, with which he has since been connected. 
For years he has been surgeon for the Missouri 
Pacific and the Kansas Northwestern railroads. 
For several terms he has been county physician, 
also served as city physician and as a member of 
the board of health. 

The various medical organizations of the west 
have enlisted the interest of Dr. Lane. He has 
been president of the Eastern Kansas Medical 
Society and is now president of the Leavenworth 
City and County Medical Society and the Kansas 
State Medical Society. In the American Med- 
ical Association, of which he is a member, he 
has served as chairman of the judicial council. 
He is connected with the International Associa- 
tion of Railway Surgeons, the Missouri Valley 
Medical Society, the Western Surgical and 
Gynecological Association; the State Sanitary 
Association, of which he is vice-president; the 
Leavenworth Academy of Science, of which he is 
president; is an associate fellow of the Kansas 
City Academy of Medicine, and an honorary 
member of the Tri-State Medical Association, 
Jackson County Medical Society, Missouri State 
Medical Society, and the Illinois State Medical 
Society. He is also vice-president of the Com- 
mercial Club of Leavenworth. 

Recreation is a necessity with all active minds. 
Dr. Lane finds his recreation in hunting and in 
athletic sports. He is an active member of the 
different gun clubs, is one of the state team, and 
holds a number of first medals for rifle, shotgun 
and revolver. He is also a member of a fishing 
club. By his connection with these clubs he 
finds a needed relaxation from the heavy respon- 
sibilities of professional work. 

In Paola, Kans. , Dr. Lane married Miss Hat- 
tie Kennedy, of Buffalo, who was his classmate 
in the Kansas State Normal School and who 
came to Leavenworth with her brother-in-law. 
Prof. John Wherrell, then the president of the 
school, and now a practicing physician in Kansas 
Citj'. Mrs. Lane graduated from the normal 
school, and is a lady of splendid education and 

culture, with literary tastes. She is prominent 
in societ}- and in local organizations, and is now 
president of the Library Association, the Art 
League and the Leavenworth Federation of 
Clubs. The three children of Dr. and Mrs. 
Lane are Lillian May, Jennie B. and James A. 
Jr. , all of whom are students in the Leavenworth 

cestry of the Thomas famil}' is traced to 
Lewis Walker Thomas, a native of York- 
shire, England, and an ofiicer in the army of 
William of Nassau, Prince of Orange. While 
engaged in his official duties he went to Wales 
and there he became a member of the Society of 
Friends. About 1700 he emigrated to America 
and settled upon a valuable tract of land in 
Chester County, Pa., within twenty miles of Phil- 
adelphia. His grandson, Daniel Walker Thomas, 
born about 1757, was a barrister and married 
Sarah Ellis, daughter of an English naval officer 
in the Revolutionary war, who was taken pris- 
oner during one of the battles of that war, but 
continued faithful to the British government. 
His fate is uncertain. Some traditions represent 
him as dying in prison, while others state that he 
returned to England and died there. 

During the early life of Daniel Walker Thomas 
he was very prosperous and accumulated a for- 
tune in the practice of his profession at Winches- 
ter, Va., where he located shortly after his mar- 
riage. When advanced in years he was made 
liable for a security debt of $40,000, which he 
paid. Immediately afterward he was a severe 
sufferer by an extensive fire, which destroyed his 
library, papers, etc., and left him a poor man. 
He took up his abode in the home of his eldest 
son, Jacob R. , father of M. Shaw Thomas, M. D. 
Jacob R. Thomas was born in Winchester 
in 1783 and was educated for the law, but pos- 
sessed a peculiar faculty of mind toward mechan- 
ics and a genius for invention. He was the 
inventor of a flax spring machine and reel attach- 
ment, which is still in use in portions of Maryland. 
After his marriage he removed to Baltimore, 
where he was proprietor of the Globe Inn, then 


the leading hotel of that city. During the build- 
ing of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad he erected 
a hotel at Ellicott Mills, the then terminus of 
the road . Still later, when P'rederick became the 
terminus, he kept a hotel at that place, and after- 
ward, when it reached Point of Rocks, he in- 
vented a packet to run by horse power (the 
horses being placed in the vessel), and this packet 
made successful trips on the Chesapeake & Ohio 
canal. He was in the midst of a most useful 
career when he died, at Point of Rocks, in 1835. 

The marriage of Jacob R. Thomas united him 
with Miss Shaw, who was a lady of remarkable 
beaut}' and accomplishments, as well as of noble 
Christian character and an earnest member of the 
Presbyterian Church. She was a descendant 
of ancestors who were strict members of the 
Presbyterian Church in the north of Ireland. 
Among the eight children of this union was 
Moses Shaw Thomas, who was born in Baltimore, 
Md., January 3, 1830. He was educated in Vir- 
ginia, where he went after the death of his father. 
His medical studies were carried on in the Uni- 
versity of Maryland, at Baltimore, from which 
he graduated. For two years he practiced his 
profession in the Shenandoah Valley, of Virginia. 
In iS56hecame to Kansas and settled in Leaven- 
worth, where he built up a good practice. Just 
prior to the Civil war he was employed by the 
United States government as a surgeon at Fort 
Leavenworth. In the fall of 1861, being a Vir- 
ginian and sympathizing with the southern cause, 
he went to Richmond and enlisted in the Confed- 
erate army as a surgeon (with rank of major), 
in which capacity he served in Virginia until the 
close of the war, being attached to Lee's army. 
At the end of the war he returned to Leavenworth 
and afterward engaged in practice, becoming 
known as a skilled surgeon and reliable physician. 

Dr. Thomas was a man of fine character, and, 
though reserved and dignified, won innumerable 
friends in all of his dealings, for he was the soul of 
honor. In his professional work no mercenary 
consideration was ever allowed to enter. His aim 
was to do all that could be done for his patient, 
whether that patient lived in a palatial residence 
or in a cabin. Regardless of race or creed, re- 

gardless of heat or cold, sunshine or rain, night 
or day, he answered every summons for his assist- 
ance. Added to his great surgical skill, trained 
by long experience, and his profound medical 
knowledge, were personal qualities of gentleness, 
.sympathy and painstaking care. 

Originally a whig, about 1853 Dr. Thomas 
allied himself with the Democratic party, to 
whose principles he ever afterward adhered. He 
became a Roman Catholic at the age of eighteen 
and continued in that faith until his death. In 
Leavenworth, April 22, 1869, he married Alice 
A., daughter of Malcolm Clark, and a graduate 
of the Academy of the Sisters of the Sacred Heart 
at St. Joseph, Mo. The four children born of 
this union are: F. Miege Thomas, M. D.; Moses 
Shaw, a member of the First Arizona Territorial 
Regiment, stationed at Albany, Ga.; Theodore 
C, of Atchison, Kans.; and Genevieve. 

The death of Dr. Thomas occurred July 9, 1896, 
and two days later his body was laid to rest, after 
appropriate services in the Cathedral, which was 
crowded with friends desirous of paying the last 
tribute of respect to his memory. The Leaven- 
worth County Medical Society, of wliich he was 
a member, passed resolutions, bearing testimony 
to his skill as a physician, his patriotism as a citi- 
zen, his high sense of honor as a man, and his 
high character as a friend, husband and father. 
Not only members of his own church, but peo- 
ple of every religious faith, united in lauding the 
character of the man who for so many years had 
been one of Leavenworth's most respected citi- 

r~ MIEGE THOMAS, M.D., of Leavenworth, 
fQ was born in this city March 22, 1870, the 
I ' eldest son of M. Shaw Thomas, M. D. In 
youth he was given the best educational ad- 
vantages which the state afforded. After having 
studied in the high school for three years, in 1890 
he entered the medical department of the Uni- 
versity of Louisville, Ky., and continued the 
studies of the regular course in that institution, 
from which he graduated in 1893, with the de- 
gree of M. D. In September of the same year 
he entered the New York Pohxlinic, where he 



took a post-graduate course of nine months, and 
at the same time acted as house surgeon in the 
New York Polyclinic Hospital. 

Returning to Leavenworth in June, 1894, Dr. 
Thomas began the practice of his profession, 
which he has since conducted in this cit}-. His 
medical studies did not cease with the awarding 
of his degree. He has ever been a student, de- 
sirous of keeping thoroughly posted concerning 
every advance made in therapeutics, and by ob- 
servation, experience and the reading of the best 
medical journals, is in constant touch with the 
latest developments in the science. In the diag- 
nosis of disease he has proved himself to be very 
skillful, thus being enabled intelligently to sug- 
gest and apply the most effective remedial agen- 
cies. In August, 1895, he was appointed sur- 
geon of the new United States penitentiary at 
Leavenworth, and this position he has since filled. 
He is a member of the Leavenworth County Med- 
ical Societv. 

^HEODORE C. THOMAS, who was one of 
I C the soldiers of the Spanish-American war, 
VJ*/ was born in Leavenworth in 1873, a son of 
Dr. M. Shaw Thomas. After graduating from 
the high school of this city in 1892 he entered the 
emplo}' of Fred Harvey, becoming manager of 
an eating house in Leadville, on the Colorado 
Short Line. Afterward he was for more than 
three years connected with the Santa Fe eating 
house at Topeka. Upon the organization of 
Troop H, First United States Cavalry (known 
throughout the world as Roosevelt's Rough 
Riders) he enlisted and was mustered into the ser- 
vice at Tampa, Fla., June 15, 1898. 

When it was seen that not all of the troops 
would be needed in Cuba, a division of forces was 
effected, and some were ordered to remain in 
Florida, while others had the coveted privilege 
of going to the front and seeing active service. 
Six hundred of the Rough Riders were ordered to 
Cuba, the remainder were held at Tampa. Mr. 
Thomas was one of those who were retained in 
Florida. How well and bravely those fought who 
went to the front is a matter of history; but few 
realize that those who were kept behind and 

who were obliged, in keen disappointment, to 
witness the departure of their comrades for the 
seat of war, also had hardships to endure, with 
none of that glory which came to their comrades 
at the front. 

After honorable service Mr. Thomas was mus- 
tered out at Montauk Point, September 15, 1898. 
He returned to Kansas and has since been sec- 
retary and treasurer of the Thomas Fuel and 
Ice Company, of Atchison, which is engaged in 
jobbing Santa Fe coal and also in manufactur- 
ing ice. 

ALCOLM CLARK, one of the original pro- 
prietors of Leavenworth, was born in Ed- 
inburgh, Scotland. When a young man 
he accompanied relatives to Toronto, Canada, 
and from there about 1848 removed to Missouri, 
becoming a pioneer farmer of Weston. During 
his residence there he married Mrs. Elizabeth 
(Hampton) Owens, formerl}^ of South Carolina, 
but then of Missouri. They became the parents, 
among other children, of a daughter, Alice, who 
is now the widow of Moses Shaw Thomas, M. D., 
of Leavenworth. Mr. Clark was one of the orig- 
inal proprietors of Leavenworth and it was at his 
suggestion the town was named in honor of his 
friend, Colonel Leavenworth. 

Intimately identified with the early history of 
Kansas, of which he was a pioneer, it was the fate 
of Mr. Clark, as of all stanch free-soilers, to en- 
counter opposition and arouse enmity on the part 
of slavery advocates. He was a man of kind 
heart, but nevertheless very determined in char- 
acter, and when once convinced of the justice of 
a cause steadilj' maintained allegiance to it, in 
spite of threats and danger. Among his fellow- 
citizens he was prominent and influential. At a 
meeting in Leavenworth, April 30, 1855, of the 
Delaware Squatters' Association, he was chosen 
moderator. Among those present was a Scotch- 
man, Mr. McCrea, whom Mr. Clark had be- 
friended in former years in Missouri, but who 
repaid that kindness with basest treachery. 

During the course of the meeting Mr. McCrea 
repeatedly interfered with the proceedings. He 
was justly reprimanded by the moderator and 



was respectfully requested either to leave the meet- 
ing or to desist from his unjust interference. 
However, he refused to do as requested, although, 
not being a squatter on the Delaware trust lands, 
the matters before the convention did not affect 
his personal interests. Finalh% when a resolu- 
tion was passed, he pronounced it a gross fraud. 
Mr. Clark denied the assertion, but was inter- 
rupted by the most violent language from Mr. 
McCrea. The moderator, becoming exasperated, 
started towards his opponent, who at once fired 
upon him and killed him. 

In many ways Mr. Clark aided the early growth 
of Leavenworth. Largely through his efforts 
Bishop Meige was induced to remain here, Mr. 
Clark deeding to him lands that lie opposite the 
Cathedral. Not only religious, but educational 
and commercial enterprises received his encour- 
agement and assistance. As one of the first 
settlers of Leavenworth, and as one of the martyrs 
of the free-state agitation, his name should be 
perpetuated in the annals of the city. 

ARSHALL G. LAHUE, one of the repre- 
sentative ranchmen of Lecompton Town- 
ship, Douglas County, was born in Christian 
County, 111., June 6, 1862, a son of Carrington 
and Catherine (Bruebeck) Lahue. He was one 
of seven children, five of whom survive, viz.: 
Margaret, wife of Weslej' Kitchin, of Washing- 
ton, D. C; Sabrina, who married A. B. Morlan, 
of Geary County, Kans.; Charles P., a prominent 
farmer of Lecompton Township; Angie, wife of 
W. H. Nace, of Geary County; and Marshall G. 
The father, who was born in Harrison County, 
Ind., February 2, 1825, removed, three years 
after his marriage, to Missouri, settling in Mer- 
cer County, but after two years he went to Chris- 
tian County, III. During the fourteen years of 
his residence there he became one of the well- 
known farmers of his section. In 1868 he re- 
moved to Kansas, and settled three miles south 
of the village of Lecompton, where he spent the 
remainder of his life, with the exception of two 
years in western Kansas, he having moved there 
with the intention of making his home, but the 

scarcity of rain determined him to return to Le- 
compton. His death occurred March 22, 1SS9. 
He was a regular contributor to and supporter of 
the Christian Church, and aided in charitable 
movements. For manj- years he acted as a mem- 
ber of the school board. His wife, who was a 
member of an old Virginia family, was born in 
Augusta County August 15, 1826, and removed 
to Indiana with her parents in 1842; she now 
makes her home with our subject on the old 
homestead in Lecompton Township. 

After having completed the studies of the com- 
mon schools our subject began for himself as a 
farmer, and for two years cultivated rented land. 
When his younger brother had attained his ma- 
jority the two were given charge of the home 
farm, the father retiring from active work. The 
brother met his death through an accident, and 
soon afterward the father died, after which our 
subject took entire charge of the farm, which he 
has since superintended. He is a progressive 
farmer and one of the substantial men of his 
township. In politics he is a stanch supporter 
of the Republican party. Fraternally he is a 
member of Lecompton Lodge No. 413, I. O. O. F., 
and Lecompton Lodge No. 155, Fraternal Aid 
Association. He is one of the rising young 
farmers of the county and has many friends 
among his acquaintances here. 

RUFUS KLINKENBERG. The farm owned 
and cultivated by this gentleman lies in the 
northern part of Stranger Township, Leaven- 
worth County, and consists of one hundred and 
seventy acres of improved land. In addition to 
the raising of cereals he has given attention to 
the stock business, and on his farm has a number 
of Short-horn cattle. At the time of his mar- 
riage, when twenty-three years of age, he pur- 
chased this property and here he has since made 
his home. 

Born in Holland July 19, 1855, our subject 
is a son of Nicholas Klinkenberg, who was born 
and reared in Hanover, Germany, and thence 
removed to Holland and secured employment at 
the carpenter's trade. For thirty years he made 



his home in that country. In the spring of 1871 
he came to the United States and settled in 
Leavenworth County, Kans. , purchasing a small 
farm that is now occupied by his widow. Here 
he died March 5, 1889, at sixty-eight years of 
age. In politics he was a Democrat, but never 
took an active part in public affairs. During his 
residence in Holland he became a member of the 
Dutch Reformed Church, and to its doctrines 
ever afterward adhered. For twelve years he 
served as an elder of his congregation. At the time 
of his death he left eighty acres in land and a 
number of head of fine stock. 

The mother of our subject, a native of Holland, 
bore the maiden name of Klasina Walters, and 
from childhood has been a faithful member of the 
Dutch Reformed Church. She is now living on 
the homestead and is seventy-five years of age. Of 
her seven children (all born in Holland) we note 
the following: Hebo is a farmer of this county; 
Jennie is the widow of Charles Haug; Rufus was 
third in order of birth; Gertrude, John W. H., 
Walter and Henry complete the family. The 
children were brought to America in 187 1 and 
have since lived in this county. 

Our subject takes an active interest in educa- 
tional affairs. In politics he is a Democrat. He 
has represented the local lodge, Knights of 
Pythias, in the grand lodge and has served as 
district grand chancellor. He married Augusta 
Kaiser, who was born in Germany. They have 
eleven children, viz. : Ferdinand, Henry, Amelia, 
Paulina, Bertha, William, Walter, Louisa, Ed- 
ward, Ruth and Carlton (twins.) 

pioneer of Douglas County and for years 
one of the well-known railroad men in the 
state, was born in Albany, N. Y., November 15, 
1 84 1, a son of William and Margaret (Culliton) 
Fitzpatrick. He was one of a large family, of 
whom only three survive, viz.: James, of Willow 
Springs, Mo.; Thomas, whose home is in Boul- 
der, Colo.; and Catherine, wife of Gilbert B. 
Kirk, of Topeka, Kans. His "father, who was 
born, reared and married in Queens County, Ire- 

land, brought his wife to America immediately 
after their marriage, and settled in Albany, N. Y. , 
where he engaged in railroad work. Some years 
later he removed to Tioga County, Pa., remain- 
ing there until 1867, when he migrated to Kan- 
sas and settled in Kanwaka Township, Douglas 
County, on the farm now occupied by our sub- 
ject's widow. Here he, in connection with his 
sons, followed farming up to the time of his 
death, July 23, 1S97. 

At the outbreak of the Civil war our subject 
enlisted in the engineering department of the 
service and was engaged in bridge building and 
railroad construction during the entire period of 
hostilities. After the war he engaged in railroad 
work in Tioga County, Pa. In 1866 he married 
Miss Jane Moonej', who was born in Count}' 
Meath, Ireland, a daughter of Andrew and Julia 
(Lamb) Mooney. Her father, who was a native 
of County Meath, came to America with his 
family in 1852, and settled in Corning, N. Y., 
where he died two years later. After his death 
his widow removed to Tioga County, Pa., and 
there resided until her death, which occurred in 

The year after his marriage our subject brought 
his wife to Kansas and settled on his father's 
farm, in which he owned an interest. However, 
he did not engage in agricultural pursuits, but 
gave his attention almost wholly to railroad 
work. He was employed in the construction of 
the Kansas Pacific Railroad, having charge of 
the laying of the track, and completing it into 
Denver, Colo. Afterward he was made road- 
master on the division of the road running into 
Denver, in which cit}' he had his headquarters. 
Shortly afterward he took charge of track con- 
struction of a railroad in Illinois, where he was 
employed for fifteen months. His next position 
was that of roadmaster on the Northern Pacific 
Railroad, with headquarters at Fargo, N. Dak., 
where he remained for three years. He then 
accepted a position with the Missouri, Kansas & 
Texas Railroad, at Fort Scott, Kans., where he 
was retained as roadmaster for one year. Later 
he went to Atchison, Kans., where he served in 
the same capacity for the Missouri Pacific Rail- 



road. With the latter road he continued for ten 
years, during four of which he was located at 
Concordia, Kans. In 1895 he accepted a position 
as general roadmaster on the Kansas City, Fort 
Scott & Memphis Railroad, with headquarters at 
Kansas City, where he remained for two years. 
He then accepted the position of roadmaster 
with the Denver & Gulf Railroad, having his 
headquarters in Trinidad, Colo., which position 
he continued to hold for fifteen months, until his 
death, March 3, 1898. 

Fraternally Mr. Fitzpatrick was a member of 
Lawrence Lodge No. 7, A. O. U. W. ; Camp No. 
798, Woodmen of the World, the blue lodge and 
chapter of Masonry, having a short time before 
his death withdrawn from Chapter No. 45, 
R. A. M., in Concordia, intending to place 
his membership either in the Lawrence or Kansas 
City chapter, but his death prevented. In re- 
ligion he was of the Roman Catholic faith. Suc- 
cessful in his business ventures, at the time of his 
death he left his family the home farm of nine 
hundred and sixty-five acres, besides other pos- 
sessions of value. He and his wife were the 
parents of seven children, namely: Margaret, 
wife of H. M. Barber, who assists in the man- 
agement of the home farm; Mary, who married 
Dr. W. R. Priest, a prominent physician and 
surgeon of Concordia, Kans.; William, who as- 
sists in taking charge of the homestead; James, 
who is connected with the Fort Scott & Memphis 
Railroad; Charles and Francis, who are pursuing 
their studies in St. Mary's College, at St. Mary's, 
Kans. , and Kirk, who is a pupil in the district 

0ANIEL MARK HILL owns and occupies a 
farm of two hundred acres at Big Springs, 
one of the most delightful locations, not 
only of Douglas County, but of eastern Kansas 
as well. On the land are thirty-one mineral 
springs possessing health-restoring mineral prop- 
erties that will at some future day without 
doubt make the place a noted health resort. 
Nor is the presence of the springs the only claim 
which the place has to public notice. Those 
interested in the early history of the state regard 

it as an historic landmark, for it was the site of 
the first territorial convention and served as the 
headquarters of "Jim" Lane during the exciting 
days of border ruffian warfare. 

Mark Hill (for by his middle name our sub- 
ject is best known) was born in Bedford County, 
Pa., August 4, 1836, a son of Jacob and Rosina 
E. (Byer) Hill. He was one of eleven children, 
five now living, viz.: Margaret, wife of Louis 
Kellerraan, a retired stockman of Burlington, 
Kans. ; William, who is with the Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company and resides at Bard, Pa., 
where he is an extensive holder of farming lands; 
Daniel Mark; Anna, wife of Ellis Miner, who is 
engaged in the wholesale dry-goods business 
at Heppner, Ore.; and Kate, wife of Samuel 
Zike, who is engaged in the hotel and livery 
business in Nebraska. Jacob Hill was born in 
Bedford County, Pa., where he early became 
prominent in political life, although he was 
educated for the Lutheran ministry. He was a 
power in his party and filled many offices in his 
section of the country. 

When our subject was nine years of age his 
father died and he was taken into the home of an 
older brother, a farmer and business man of Bed- 
ford County, who owned a farm of four hundred 
acres, also a sawmill, blacksmith's and shoe- 
maker's shop. He was fourteen when he began 
teaming for his brother and became so expert in 
his work that he could drive six horses with a 
single line; his skill as a driver caused his asso- 
ciates to say: "Show Hill a knot hole and he 
will drive the team through." In 1854 he mar- 
ried Miss Delilah, daughter of John Boone, who 
was a great-nephew of Daniel Boone. After his 
marriage he continued teaming and also engaged 
in farming. In 1S62 he left the business in the 
care of his brother and visited Iowa with a view 
to locating there. After a year he came to Kan- 
sas and spent some months, then returned to 
Iowa. His brother sold out in the east and lo- 
cated in Anderson, while our subject, settling at 
Weston, Iowa, became the leading business man 
of the town, where he operated a brick yard, a 
shoe store, a meat market and a general con- 
tracting business. In 1867 he disposed of his 



business there and came to Kansas, settling at 
Cherry Mound, Anderson Count3s where he em- 
barked in farming and the stock business. On 
account of his wife's ill health he came to Doug- 
las County in 1869 and settled in Lecompton 
Township, two miles south of the village of Le- 
compton, where he planted and carried on a fruit 
farm, also engaged in raising sheep and cattle. 
Some ten years later he removed to Jefferson 
County and for four years was foreman of the 
Elliott farm of nine hundred and sixty acres, 
meantime clearing the farm of mortgage. From 
there he returned to Douglas County and bought 
his present farm in Lecompton Township. 

By his marriage Mr. Hill had seven children, 
namely: William, a prominent business man of 
Oklahoma City; Charles, who is with the Poehler 
Mercantile Company in Lawrence; George, a ris- 
ing young business man of Kelso, Wash.; Jesse 
B., who is a partner of his brother in Kelso; 
Frederick, who is in the Klondike; Anna, wife of 
C. T. Spencer, a farmer of Douglas County; 
and Lulu, who married E. M. Duncan and re- 
sides upon a farm in this count}-. The wife and 
mother died in July, 1897. Sli^ was an earnest 
worker in the United Brethren Church and was 
highly esteemed by all who knew her. Mr. Hill 
has contributed to the support of the church and 
also to other worthy movements. He is a sup- 
porter of the Republican party and, had he so 
desired, might have been elected to any of the 
local offices, but be prefers to devote himself to 
his private interests. 

QJERY REV. T. J. DOWNEY, pastor of the 
\ / Sacred Heart Roman Catholic Church of 
V Leavenworth, has held his present pastorate 
since August, 1885, when he organized the parish 
and congregation and at first held services in the 
school building. In 1886 work was begun upon 
the church building, which was constructed of 
brick, with two floors and basement, the first 
floor being used for the school and the .second for 
the church. The parsonage, a substantial build- 
ing, was erected in 1895. The membership of 
the church comprises about one hundred families, 

while the school has an attendance of one hun- 
dred and fourteen pupils, who, under the direc- 
tion of Sisters of Charity from the Cathedral, are 
instructed in the various branches up to and in- 
cluding the sixth grade. The church has the 
various societies to be found in all progressive 
congregations, and these have proved of great 
assistance to the pastor. 

Father Downey was born in Paris, Ky., No- 
vember 17, 1 85 1, the third among eleven chil- 
dren, all but one of whom are living, eight of 
these being in Clinton County, Mo., while one is 
engaged in the lumber business in Kansas City, 
Kans. John Downey, father of the family, was a 
native of Ireland, a son of Michael Downey, a 
farmer. In 1848 he and four brothers, having 
lost everything in the famine of those years in 
their country, sought a new home in America. 
They landed in New Orleans and settled in Ken- 
tucky, where they learned the stonemason's trade 
and worked together as contractors. In 1857 
John migrated to Plattsburg, Clinton County, 
Mo., where the others later joined him. Each 
settled upon farm land and with the aid of oxen 
broke the prairie soil and improved the land. 
All but one are now dead. John, who was a 
county official and a man of influence in his lo- 
cality, was a stanch free-state' man and during 
the war was a non-commi.ssioned officer in a Mis- 
souri Federal regiment of Home Guard. He 
died September 13, 1898, when seventy-three 
years of age. His wife, Johanna, was a daugh- 
ter of John McQuinn, a farmer in Ireland, and is 
now living on the old homestead in Clinton Coun- 
ty, Mo. 

In 1870 the subject of this sketch, having pre- 
viously gained a country-school education, en- 
tered the Seminary of Assumption in Topeka, 
Kans., where he was a student for two and one- 
half years, during which time he was also a 
teacher of mathematics in the same institution. 
Next he spent eighteen months as a student in 
St. Benedict's College, Atchison, and while there 
taught private classes. Afterward he spent five 
years in Salesianum Seminary in Milwaukee, 
Wis., where he took a complete course in philos- 
ophy and theology. During that time he as- 



sisted in defrajiiig his expenses by teaching the 
classics. In the cathedral in Leavenworth, July 
5, 1879, he was ordained to the priesthood by 
Bishop L. M. Fink, O. S. B. He was appointed 
chaplain at St. Mary's Academj', where he re- 
mained for three months. Afterward he was made 
pastor of St. Ignatius' Church in Fort Leaven- 
worth, and at the same time had charge of a mis- 
sion at Delaware for almost three and one half 
years; also attended the state penitentiary, the 
military prison and the county poor farm, where 
he gratuitously ministered to the spiritual needs of 
the inmates. The pressure of so much work, 
with its attending responsibilities, broke down 
his health, and he was obliged to seek a field 
where duties would be lighter. He was trans- 
ferred to Holy Cross Church in Pottawatomie 
County, where he remained for two years and 
three months, meantime regaining his health. 
From Holy Cross he returned to Leavenworth, 
where he has established and built up the Sacred 
Heart Church. He is also dean of Leavenworth 
and president of the diocesan school board. He 
has done much toward maintaining the schools at 
a high standard and has been deeply interested in 
educational work, realizing the importance of a 
good education in preparing for the responsi- 
bilities of life. 

EHARLES PILLA. Among our German- 
American citizens who have been success- 
ful since settling in Kansas mention be- 
longs to Mr. Pilla, the well-known business man 
of Eudora. Mr. Pilla was born in Rhenish Ba- 
varia, Germany, February 19, 1830, and received 
a good education in the German language. At 
nineteen years of age he came to the United 
States, arriving in New York March 26, 1S49. 
For fourteen years he remained in the vicinity of 
that city, and during ten years of the time he was 
employed as clerk and bookkeeper for the pub- 
lishing house of E. Walker & Sons. In 1865 
he came to Kansas for the purpose of entering 
into partnership with his brother F. L., who had 
started a small store in Eudora. The title of the 
firm became Pilla Brothers, which continued 
until his brother's death in 1871. 

Being thus left sole proprietor of the store Mr. 
Pilla continued the business alone. In 1872 he 
enlarged the building and increased the quantity 
of stock carried. His store is now the largest of 
its kind in Eudora. In connection with the 
mercantile department, for some years he carried 
a stock of drugs, but this is now discontinued. 
Besides his mercantile interests he has engaged 
in farming in Douglas and Johnson Counties, 
where he owns large tracts of farm lands; and, 
while these places are operated by tenants, he 
nevertheless maintains an active supervision of 
the land and directs its management. 

Upon the organization of the State Bank of 
Eudora, in which he was interested, Mr. Pilla 
was elected its president in 1893 a position 
which he has filled with the greatest efficiency. 
As a member of the firm of Pilla & Statler he 
also carries on a brick manufacturing business. 
In 1894 he erected a beautiful residence on a hill 
overlooking the village and commanding a fine 
view. At the time of the erection of the sweet 
corn factory, in 1883, he was one of the principal 
contributors to the same and became a stock- 
holder in the compan\-. He is a stockholder and 
director of the Eudora Creamery Company, and 
was a stockholder in the Leis chemical works, of 
Lawrence, Kans. When the Kimball plow fac- 
tory was started in Lawrence he assisted in the 
organization of the company controlling the 
plant, but the enterprise did not prove successful. 
All movements of a progressive character where 
the benefit accruing to the people is unquestion- 
able have received the impetus of his encour- 
agement and practical aid. 

Since attaining his majority Mr. Pilla has al- 
ways been a stanch Republican. As mayor of 
Eudora, and as a member of the city council, also 
as a school director, he has been able to greatly 
promote local projects, and has given an impetus 
to the welfare of his town and fellow- townsmen. 
In 187 1 he received appointment as postmaster, 
and continued to fill the office until 1885. Prior 
to this, from 1865 to 187 1, he served as assistant 
postmaster, having practically the entire charge 
of the office. Fraternally he is a member of 
Doric Lodge No. 83, A. F. & A. M; Lawrence 



Conimander5' No. 4, K. T.; and Eudora Lodge 
No. 28, I. O. O. F. , in which he is past grand. 
In religion he worships with the German Evan- 
gelical Church. He was married September 10, 
1865, to Alice B. Smith, daughter of Paul and 
Catherine Smith. She was born on Staten Is- 
land and died in Eudora, January 15, 1899, 
leaving three daughters: Alvena E., wife of 
John E. Dolisi; Louisa P., wife of Spencer J. 
Lawson ; and Molvie E. , who has had charge of 
the home since her mother's death. 

HON. HARVEY W. IDE. Since coming to 
Leavenworth in 1857 Judge Ide has occu- 
pied a position of prominence among the 
people of this city. Both at the bar and on the 
bench, he has proven himself to be a man of 
sound judgment, keen intuition, close discrimina- 
tion and clear reasoning faculties, which quali- 
ties, joined with determination of character, al- 
most invariably bring success. He is interested 
in all enterprises for the benefit of Leavenworth, 
with whose progress he has been identified from 
its early days, and to whose growth he has been 
a contributor. 

Judge Ide was born in Saratoga County, 
N.Y., April 19, 1833, a son of Rodman and Elvira 
(Herrick) Ide, also natives of Saratoga County. 
His paternal grandfather migrated from New 
England to that county and engaged in farming 
there for y^ars, but finally removed to James- 
town, N. Y., and there died. The maternal 
grandfather, Thomas Herrick, served in the 
Revolutionary war, and afterward engaged in 
farming in New York. He lacked but little of 
having rounded out a full century when death 
removed him from the sphere of his activity. 

While engaged in farming in York state Rod- 
man Ide served as justice of the peace and town- 
ship trustee for some years. In 1847 he removed 
to Wisconsin and settled upon a raw tract of land 
near Janesville, Rock County, where heimproved 
a farm. After settling there he held luimerous 
minor offices. Fraternally he was a Mason and 
in religion a Methodist. At the time of his 
death, in 1872, he was sixty-eight years of age. 

His wife, who was born in 181 1, died in Wiscon- 
sin in 1886. Of their eleven children all but one 
attained years of maturity and five are living. 
The brothers and sisters are named as follows: 
Sarah J., widow of Isaac Howe, of northern 
Wisconsin; Harvey W. ; Thomas H., who died 
in Janesville, Wis.; Polly, wife of G. W. Cox- 
head, living near Edgerton, Wis.; Stephen C, 
who died near Janesville; Frances, who was a 
school teacher, but died in young womanhood; 
Pliu}', a mechanic, of Janesville; Elvira, Mrs. 
Fessenden, who lives in Wisconsin; Isaac, who 
graduated from Rush Medical College, and after- 
ward engaged in practice at Stevens Point, Wis., 
where he died in 1887; and Fremont, who resides 
in Edgerton, Wis. 

The subject of this sketch was educated prin- 
cipally in New York, although after coming 
west he had the advantage of a course of study 
in Milton Academy (now Milton College). 
When seventeen years of age he began to teach 
near Rockford, III., and in that occupation he 
continued for some years, meantime giving his 
leisure hours to the .study of law. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar at Janesville in 1856, when 
United States Senator J. R. Doolittle was judge. 
After practicing for one year in Wisconsin, the 
Kansas excitement began and many northern 
men removed to this state in order to cast their 
fortunes in with the free-state movement. April 
16, 1857, he arrived in the then frontier town of 
Leavenworth. Here he at once began the prac- 
tice of law, and from the start met with gratify- 
ing success in his profession. 

The first office held by Judge Ide in his new 
home was that of city attorney, to which he was 
elected in 1861 and which he filled for one term. 
In 1863 he was elected a member of the state 
legislature, and his service of one term in that 
body was characterized by fidelity to the inter- 
ests of his constituents and his party. When 
Leavenworth and Wyandotte Counties were the 
first judicial district he was elected district attor- 
uey and at the close of a term was re-elected, 
when the district was divided and an attorney 
elected for each county. While he was filling 
this position the present Justice Brewer was dis- 



trict judge. When Judge Ide wa.s elected dis- 
trict judge, in 1868, Justice Brewer was chosen 
prosecuting attorney. In 1872 he was re-elected 
district judge, serving until Januarj- 1S77. 

On his retirement from the bench, Judge Ide 
resumed the practice of law, to which he gave 
his attention exclusively for some time, but of 
late years his business interests have to some 
extent encroached upon his professional work. 
During the Price raid he served as lieutenant in 
a company of militia. For two terms he was 
chosen to serve as a member of the school board, 
of which he was president continuousl}' after his 
first year, but before the end of the second term 
he moved from the ward and resigned the posi- 
tion. He is the owner of property in different 
parts of the state, has also engaged in the real- 
estate business in Leavenworth and erected a 
business house on Cherokee street, besides his 
residence on Seventh street. He is a member of 
the First Congregational Church, in which he 
officiates as a trustee. Politically he is a Re- 

In Waverly, Mo., Judge Ide married Miss 
Mary Johnson, who was born in Brunswick, Me., 
and was a school teacher prior to her marriage. 
She died in Leavenworth, leaving three chil- 
dren. Lizzie v., a graduate of Rockford (111.) 
Female Seminar}', is the wife of L. A. Knox and 
resides in Leavenworth; Mary A., who is the 
wife of C. J. Schmelzer, is also a graduate of the 
seminary at Rockford, and now a resident of 
Kansas City, Mo.; and Harvey J. died in boy- 
hood. Mrs. Mary Ide was a daughter of Ebe- 
nezer M. and Elizabeth Johnson, natives of Con- 
necticut, the latter a daughter of a physician 
who served in the war of 181 2. Mr. Johnson 
was a merchant in Brunswick, Me., and after 
retiring from business he removed to Ohio, set- 
tling near Springfield, where his last years were 
spent. His death occurred when he was visiting 
Judge Ide in 1862. In Leavenworth Judge Ide 
was united in marriage to Miss Ella Catlin, who 
was born in Connecticut and in 1863 came to 
Leavenworth with her father, Shelden G. Catlin, 
who was a wholesale jobber in shoes. She died 
in 1879, leaving a daughter, Ella C, who is now 

attending the School of Dramatic Art in New 
York City. The present wife of Judge Ide, 
whom he married in Chillicothe, Mo., in 1S86, 
was Mrs. Lottie G. (Giltner) Phillips, who was 
born in Indiana and accompanied her parents to 
Chillicothe, where her father was a merchant and 
her first husband an attorney. 

was born near Pembroke, Genesee County, 
N. Y., January 15, 1822, a descendant 
of a prominent English famil}- and a relative of 
Roswell Pettibone, for whom Roswell P. Flower 
was named. His father, John R., and grand- 
father, Roger Pettibone, natives of Vermont, 
served respectively in the first and second wars 
with England, the father being a commissioned 
officer. By occupation he was a carpenter and 
builder and also a farmer. In 1829 he settled at 
Ypsilanti, Mich., where he engaged in contract- 
ing. In 1836 the Huron River was swollen by a 
spring freshet and was about one-half mile wide. 
One day, with three companions, he crossed in a 
boat to get .some tools. When making the return 
trip he was drowned while endeavoring to save 
a woman's life. His wife, who bore the maiden 
name of Susanna Hovey, was born in Vermont 
and died in Michigan. They were the parents 
of twelve children, nine of whom grew to matur- 
ity, but Milton alone survives. He was reared 
in Michigan and, being fourteen years of age 
when his father died, from that time he assisted 
in caring for his mother until she died eight 
years later. He was employed at the cooper's 
trade until 185S, when he came west to assist in 
making a free state of Kansas. His brother 
John had come in 1856, and at the same time he 
had determined to come as soon as arrangements 
could be made. Settling at Wellsville, Franklin 
County, he cleared and improved a farm of one 
hundred and sixty acres. 

At the opening of the Civil war our subject 
volunteered in Company D, Second Missouri 
State Militia, which was composed of seven com- 
panies from Kansas that went into Missouri to 
fight bushwhackers and guard Kansas from 



guerillas. While at Independence with onlj- a 
few men he was attacked at night b}' a very 
large force, and was wounded, taken prisoner, 
but soon paroled and mustered out at Kansas 
City two weeks later, after a service of seven 
months. Next he was commissioned captain of 
Company E, Tenth Kansas Militia, by Governor 
Carnej', and at the time of the Price raid took 
part in the battle of Westport and aided in driv- 
ing the Confederates out of Kansas. 

After the war Captain Pettibone resumed 
farming. In 1873 he settled in Lawrence. For 
two years he owned a farm on Mud Creek, but 
traded it for city propert}-, and improved a place 
at No. 472 Lincoln street. His first vote was 
for Whig candidates. From the organization of 
the Republican party he was identified with it. 
He is a member of Washington Post No. 12, 
G. A. R. For manj' years he has been chairman of 
the board of trustees of the Pilgrim Congrega- 
tional Church. 

In Michigan, Captain Pettibone married Al- 
mira E. Putnam, who was born in New York 
and died in Michigan; both of her children are 
also deceased. The second marriage of the cap- 
tain took place in Washtenaw County, Mich., 
and united him with Mrs. Eleanor (Vought) 
Bacon, a native of New York, and the widow of 
Hiram A. Bacon, who was a farmer in Michi- 
gan. By her first marriage she had two sons. 
One died in' childhood; the other, Philip G. V. 
Bacon, is engaged in the lumber business in 
Texas. Her marriage to Captain Pettibone re- 
sulted in the birth of three children, namely: 
Ahuira Eliza, who is married and lives in North 
Lawrence; Mrs. Nellie Wilkins, of Portland, 
Ore. : and Charles, in North Lawrence. Mrs. 
Pettibone is the only survivor of the twelve 
children of Philip G. and Leah (Manning) 
Vought, natives respectively of New York and 
New Jersey. Her grandfather, Capt. John 
Vought, a native of New Jersey, and an ofiicer 
in the Revolutionary war, settled in Schenec- 
tady, N. Y. Philip G. Vought settled in Wash- 
tenaw County, Mich., in 1834, and afterward 
carried on farming there. He married a daugh- 
ter of Samuel Manning, a farmer of New Jersey. 

Enterprises pertaining to the welfare of Law- 
rence always receive the S5mpathy and co-oper- 
ation of Captain Pettibone. For two terms he 
served as a police officer of the sixth ward, and 
for one term represented the sixth ward in the 
city council. During his residence in Franklin 
County he held the office of county commissioner 
for one term, also served on the school board 
during the entire period of his residence in that 
county and aided in building the first school 
there. For some time he held office as justice of 
the peace, resigning when he removed from the 

HON. JOSEPH J. COX came to Kansas in 
1869 with his parents and settled on a farm 
in the eastern part of Wakarusa Township, 
Douglas County. This property he operated for 
a time and also bought and cultivated a farm of 
one hundred and sixty acres near the homestead. 
For eight years he served as a member of the 
school board, of which he was president and 
treasurer. In the fall of 1884 he was the Repub- 
lican nominee as representative of the thirteenth 
district in the legislature and was elected by a 
fair majority. Two years later hewas elected by 
twice as large a majority as he had received be- 
fore. In the session of 1885 he served as a mem- 
ber of various committees. In the session of 
1887 he was chairman of the committee on state 
affairs and a member of three other committees. 
With his colleague he secured the passage of a 
bill appropriating nearly f 400, 000 for the Quan- 
trell sufferers. During the extra session of 1886, 
at the time of the redistricting of the state, he 
served on the legislative apportionment com- 
mittee. He supported John J. Ingalls for the 
United States senate in 1885. After the session 
of 1887 he settled in Lawrence. He was given 
the contract to build the north and south wings 
of the state capitol, at a cost of $500,000; also a 
second contract for the roofing of the capitol and 
the building of the dome, at a cost of over $250,- 
000. The completion of both contracts took his 
entire time from 1887 to 1893, and he has since 
engaged in general contracting. He has had the 
contract for some of the business blocks in 



Topeka, the new Fort Bliss at El Paso, Tex., a 
detached ward in the Osawatomie insane asyhini, 
the Santa Fe hospital at Topeka, a large pump- 
ing .=;tation in Topeka, several bridges the 
Kaw River, a number of buildings at the Haskell 
Institute, the Br3-ding & Lansing Railroad, 
some work at the Universit)' of Kansas, and 
numerous residences in Topeka and Lawrence. 
Without doubt he is one of the most successful 
contractors in the state. 

Mr. Cox was born in Seymour, Jackson 
County, Ind., October 9, 1853, a son of Richard 
A. and Margaret (Cosand) Cox. His father, 
who was born near Goldsboro, N. C. , April 4, 
1820, was a son of Isaac, and grandson of Rich- 
ard Cox, whose ancestors, from England, were 
among the earliest settlers of North Carolina. 
Richard Cox removed from that state to Illinois 
about 1824 and died there. At the time of his 
removal his son, Isaac, also came north, wishing 
to free himself from the influences of slavery. 
He settled in the midst of the woods in Indiana, 
where he cleared a farm. He was a leader in the 
Society of Friends. Politically he adhered to 
Whig principles until the organization of the 
Republican party, which he then joined. He 
died in 1862, at the age of about si.xty-two years. 
He married Milicent Parker, who was born near 
Goldsboro, N. C, a daughter of Isaac Parker, 
who was of English descent; he moved to Indiana 
prior to 1824 and afterward engaged in farming 
and also was a minister in the Friends' Society. 
He died when seventy-five years of age. 

Richard A. Cox was the third among ten chil- 
dren. Of his brothers, Benjamin came to 
Kansas and was a prosperous farmer here, but 
later removed to Tulare, Cal. He himself re- 
moved from Bartholomew County, Ind., to Jack- 
son County, the same state, and from there, in 
1869, settled in Douglas County, Kans., buying a 
farm of one hundred and seventy-six acres. In 
1890 he retired from business cares and has since 
made his home in Lawrence. He was among the 
first Quakers to settle in Douglas County and is 
identified with that society in Lawrence. In 
Washington County, Ind., he married a daughter 
of Benjamin Cosand, who was born, reared and 

married in North Carolina, and was a pioneer in 
Washington County, Ind., where he was a 
prominent worker in the Friends' Society. The 
Cosand family is of English descent. Mrs. Mar- 
garet Cox was born in Pasquotank County, 
N. C, and died in Douglas Count3% Kans., in 
1879, aged sixty-two. Of her five children three 
sons are living. Charles resides on a farm in 
Douglas County and Albert L. lives in Lawrence. 
In Lawrence, November 25, 1872, Mr. Cox 
married Miss Belle T. Trueblood, who was born 
in Salem, Ind., a daughter of William N. and 
Isabelle (Albertson) Trueblood, natives of North 
Carolina. Her father, who was of English de- 
scent, was a farmer and extensive miller, and 
took a leading part in the work of the Society of 
Friends. His wife, who was also a member of 
an English Quaker family, was the daughter of a 
phj'sician who moved from North Carolina to 
Indiana. The only child of Mr. and Mrs. Cox 
is Flora Margaret, a graduate of the high school 
and a student in the University of Kansas. The 
family are identified with the Society of Friends. 
Fraternally Mr. Cox is connected with the 
Ancient Order of United Workmen, Acacia 
Lodge No. 9, A. F. & A. M.; Lawrence Chap- 
ter No. 4, R. A. M.; DeMolay Commandery No. 
4, K. T., and Abdallah Temple, N. M. S., 
at Leavenworth. 

pCjlLLIAM R. CARTER came to Kansas in 
\ A / March, 1870, and after a short time in 
YV Topeka, in June of the same year settled 
in Lawrence. Here, for many years, he was 
foreman for O. P. Smith, a large contractor, who 
erected a number of buildings for the state, also 
built Washburn and Bethany colleges at Topeka. 
In 1883 he began contracting and building, 
which he has since followed, and, in addition, he 
has drawn plans and specifications for buildings. 
He had charge of the carpentering in the first 
buildings erected at Haskell Institute, built the 
Merchants' Bank, Chancellor Snow's residence, 
depots for the .Santa Fe road along the line in 
Kansas, the Hiawatha National Bank, Hiawatha 
Academy, the academy at Oswego, Kans., and 
numerous residences and business houses. 



The Carter family is one of the oldest in Sussex 
Count)', England, where successive generations 
have lived as far back as the record can be traced. 
Thomas Carter, who was a brickla3-er and con- 
tractor, was the first of the name to settle in 
America. He crossed the ocean in 1850, and 
established his home on a farm in Grant Count)-, 
Wis. His son, Richard, who was born in Eng- 
land, was a clerk at Brighton, Sussex Count)-, 
for some years. He did not accompany his father 
to America, but remained at Brighton, and there 
he died at seventy-six years. He married Sarah 
Beeching, who was born at Cowfold, Sussex 
County, a daughter of William Beeching. She 
died in 1851, leaving two children, but the 
daughter, Elizabeth, died at the age of twelve 
years. The son, who is the subject of this 
sketch, was born in Brighton January 30, 1845. 
He was six years old when he lost his mother. 
His education was obtained in the Brighton 
schools and St. John's College at Hurstpier 
Point. Afterward he was apprenticed to an 
architect and builder, and served for four years, 
later following his trade in his native land for 
five years. 

In 1869 Mr. Carter came to America. For a 
year he worked at his trade in Lancaster, Grant 
County, Wis. From there he came to Kansas, 
and has since built up a large business in con- 
tracting. The accuracy of his work and his close 
attention to every detail has made him prominent 
as a contractor, and has won for him the confi- 
dence of the people. Politically a Democrat, his 
attention is given closely to his business affairs, 
and he has therefore never identified himself with 
politics, nor has he sought office of any kind. He 
is a charter member of the Fraternal Aid Asso- 
ciation, and belongs to Lawrence Lodge No. 6, 
A. F. & A. M., and Lodge No. 4, I. O. O. F., 
in which he has been a trustee for many years. 
In his native land he became identified with the 
Church of England, and still adheres to that 
faith, being now identified with the Episcopal 
Church of Lawrence, and for years a member of 
its board of vestry. 

In Lancaster, Wis., occurred the marriage of 
Mr. Carter to Miss Alice E. Carter, who was 

born in England, and accompanied her parents 
to Wisconsin in girlhood. Of their union six 
children were born. The eldest, Richard W., 
graduated in civil engineering from the Uni- 
versity of Kansas in 1894, and is now engaged in 
his chosen profession at Trenton, N. J. The 
other children are Bessie, Edwin, Alfred, Anna 
and Frances. 

EURDON GROVENOR, a resident of Law- 
rence since 1S57, and, in point of years of 
business activity, the oldest lumber dealer 
in Kansas, traces his ancestry to the Grosvenor 
family, who crossed the channel with William 
the Conqueror and were given Cheshire County. 
The founder of the family in England was Gilbert 
Le Grosvenor, a Norman nobleman and a 
nephew of the noted Norman conqueror. The 
name meaus "the great hunter." After 1066 
the family was prominent in the wars of England 
and a number of the name joined the ranks of 
the Crusaders who marched to the Holy Land. 
From the same ancestor descended the Earl of 
Westminster. In 1685 John Grosvenor came 
from Cheshire County to America and settled in 
Roxbury, Mass., where he died in 1691. The 
family coat-of-arms may still be seen on the stone 
that marks his resting place. His son, Ebenezer, 
and grandson, Caleb, made their home at Pom- 
fret, Conn., in which town the great-grandson, 
Moses, was born and spent his entire life. Next 
in line of descent was Willard, who was born in 
Pomfret, became a farmer in Suffield, and later 
settled at West Springfield, Mass., where he 
died. Willard's son, Gurdon (our subject's 
father), was born in Suffield, where he followed 
farming and the transfer business. He died at 
forty-one years. His wife, Maria, a native of 
Suffield, was a daughter of Capt. Seth Phelps, 
who served in the Indian wars in Ohio shortly 
after the Revolution and also, under General 
Scott, was a captain in the war of 18 12. His en- 
tire life, with the exception of the period of his 
military service, was spent in Suffield, where he 
died. His father, Aaron, who was born in 
the same town, was a son of Timothy Phelps, a 
native of Northampton, Mass., whose father. 



Nathaniel, born in Windsor, Conn., was a son of 
Nathaniel, Sr., a native of England. The latter 
was a son of William Phelps, who was born in 
Tewksbury, England, in 1599, and in 1630 
brought his famib- to America, settling in Massa- 
chusetts, but soon moving to Windsor, Conn. 
His father, William, Sr., lived and died in 
Tewksbur}^ and was a son of James Phelps, born 
in that place in 1520. Capt. Seth Phelps married 
Phoebe, daughter of Rev. John Hastings, and 
granddaughter of Rev. Joseph Hastings, who 
were among the pioneer Baptist clerg}'men in 
Suffield, Conn., and were very active in building 
up that denomination in their locality. Mrs. 
Maria Grovenor died in Connecticut at fifty years 
of age. She had one son by her marriage with 
Mr. Grovenor, Gurdon, who forms the subject 
of this article. Maria Grovenor afterward mar- 
ried Warren Lewis, by whom she had two 
children, John and Mary Lewis. Gurdon was born 
in Suffield, Conn., September 13, 1830, and was 
reared on a farm. After completing his education 
he taught school for five years. In October, 1857, 
he came to Lawrence, via the Missouri River to 
Wyandotte, and thence to Lawrence. He started 
a grocery, which he conducted until 1863. Mean- 
time, in 1859, he embarked in the lumber busi- 
ness, and after selling his grocery he gave his 
entire attention to his lumber trade, having a 
large yard on Massachusetts and Warren streets. 
During the Quandrell raid, in common with all 
the business men of the city, he suffered heavy 
losses, his residence being burned to the ground, 
but, in some miraculous way, his store, which 
was set on fire, was saved from destruction. In 
1866 he located his yard at Massachusetts and 
Berkeley streets, where it has since remained. 
He assisted in organizing the Merchants' Na- 
tional Bank, in which he has since been a di- 
rector. In May, 1899, on account of the failing 
health of Mr. Grovenor and his son, he sold his 
entire lumber business to Funnell & Co. of 

In Suffield, Conn., Mr. Grovenor married 
Ellen M. Crane, who was born in Washington,, and died in Lawrence, Kans. They had 

three children, Charles P., John C. and Fanny 
M., only one of whom is living, Charles P., who 
was interested in business with his father. The 
second marriage of Mr. Grovenor took place in 
Monson, Mass., and united him with Miss L. 
Maria Bliss, who was born in Wilbraham, Mass., 
and is a member of an old family of the state, 
For more than twenty-five years our subject has 
been a member of the Baptist Church, in which 
he has been deacon for many years, has served 
as chairman of the board of trustees, was a 
member of the building committee, and has also 
for years been a trustee of the Baptist state con- 
vention, of which he has twice been chosen 
president. For more than a quarter of a century 
he has been a trustee of Ottawa University, and 
has several times been president of the board, 
of which he was the oldest member until his res- 
ignation in June, 1899. 

The first presidential ballot cast by Mr. Grove- 
nor was in favor of Winfield Scott. Since the 
organization of the Republican party he has sus- 
tained its principles by his vote. Several times 
he has been a member of the city council, once 
held office as county commissioner, and for three 
terms (1865, 1870 and 1871) was mayor of the 
city. He has been a member of the school 
board, and was interested in the erection of 
Central building, the first schoolhouse built in 
the city. 

0SGOOD A. COLMAN, who is engaged in 
agricultural pursuits in Douglas County, 
began farming in Kanwaka Township in 
1871. Seven years later he purchased his pres- 
ent farm in the same township, where he has 
since engaged in general farming and stock-rais- 
ing. He is the owner of one hundred and eighty 
acres of land, all improved and under cultivation. 
Notwithstanding the limited advantages he had 
in his youth he has become one of the well-to-do 
farmers of his locality, and has proved himself a 
useful and honorable citizen. A Republican in 
politics, he has been a leader in local matters, 
but has never sought office for himself, several 
times refusing nominations offered him. How- 


ever, he has consented to serve as school director, 
which office he has filled since 1889 in district 
No. 15. 

Our subject's father, E. A. Colman, was born 
in Ashby, Mass., and in early manhood moved 
to Boston, where he learned and afterward fol- 
lowed the paper manufacturing business. He 
was successful and furnished employment to sev- 
eral men. In 1854 he sold out and moved to 
Douglas County, Kans. , settling in Lawrence. 
On Christmas day of that year he took up a 
quarter-section of land, on which he made some 
improvements and remained for two j'ears. In 
1856 he sold the place and opened in Lawrence a 
general store, which he carried on for one and 
one-half 3-ears. Upon selling the store, he pur- 
chased a farm in Kanwaka Township, and there 
remained until 1894, when he disposed of the 
property and went to California. There he died 
in 1898, at eighty-four years of age. He was a 
man of intelligence and kept posted concerning 
public affairs. In politics he was stanchly Re- 
publican. For several years he served as justice 
of the peace, and several times was a delegate to 
county and state conventions. During the Civil, 
war he served as lieutenant of the first colored 
regiment organized in Kansas, and was commonly 
known b}- the title of captain. His ancestors 
were early settlers of Massachusetts, and one of 
them was killed in the battle of Bunker Hill. By 
his marriage to Mary J. Wendell, a native of 
Marblehead, Mass., he had fourteen children, 
but the only survivors are: C. T.; Osgood A. ; 
Mary, Mrs. J. R. Topping, of Kanwaka Town- 
ship; and William A., also of this township. Of 
those deceased, Charles Jack.son Colman enlisted 
in May, 1861, as a private, and was advanced to 
a first lieutenancy in the fall of 1862. He was 
killed at the battle of Poison Springs, April 14, 
1864, while commanding a companj- of the First 
Kansas colored troops. 

Born in Boston, Mass., in 1850, our subject 
was four years of age when his parents came west 
to Kansas. He had only such advantages as the 
early schools of Douglas County afforded. For 
a time he clerked in a store owned by George 
Ford, in Lawrence, after which he turned his at- 

tention to his present occupation— agriculture. 
In 1875 he married Miss Flora R. Richardson, 
who was the first graduate of the University of 
Kansas, and daughter is the first gradu- 
ate's child who will have completed the university 
course. The children of Mr. and Mrs. Colman 
are: Alice, Nellie, Minnie, Fred, Clara, Asa and 

GILBERT GRIFFIN. In the .spring of 1878 
LA Mr. Griffin rented a farm of one hundred 
/ I and sixty acres in Eudora Township, Doug- 
las County. Three years later he bought the 
property, to which he has since added by the 
purchase of an eighty-acre tract. Giving his at- 
tention closely to general farming and stock- 
raising, he has met with gratifying success, 
which is especially praiseworthy when it is noted 
that, at the time of coming to his present place, 
he had nothing but one team and a few head of 
stock. He was the first charter member of the 
Farmers' Alliance, in the organization of which 
he took a very active part, and afterward he 
served as vice-president and then as president of 
the society for several years. For four terms he 
was treasurer of school district No. 44 and was 
the first to agitate the question of erecting a school 
building in the district. The People's party re- 
ceives his support and he always advocates its 
principles by his influence and his vote. 

In Niagara County, N. Y., Mr. Griffin was 
born January 31, 1844, a son of James and Jane 
(Brazee) Griffin, natives of the same locality. 
His paternal grandfather, William Griffin, carried 
on a cooper factory and an extensive milling busi- 
ness. James Griffin was a farmer during much 
of his life, but did not confine his energies to 
that occupation. He was also engaged in the 
grocery business in Niagara County. He was 
active iu the local ranks of the Democratic party. 
In 1867 he removed from his native place to Polo, 
Ogle County, 111., where he engaged in farming 
until his death, in 1873, at the age of sixty-seven 
years. His wife had died it New York ten years 
prior to his demise. They were the parents of 
eight children, five of whom are living, namely: 
Ann, wife of H. M. Carter; Eliza Jane, who 

/^^ff// ///// //// 


r / 



married William Newell: Sarah, Mrs. William 
Lower}' ; Carrie, wife of Samuel Debolt; and Al- 

Until twenty-one years of age our subject re- 
mained with his father, meantime obtaining his 
education in common schools and in the academy' 
at Gasport, Niagara County. In 1865 he went 
to Michigan, where he followed photography for 
a year. In 1866 he settled in Polo, 111., where 
the following four years were spent in farming. 
In 1870 he came, overland, to Kansas, and set- 
tled in Lawrence, where he engaged in teaming 
for four years. In 1874 he rented a farm on 
Wakarusa Creek, and two years later purchased 
one hundred and twenty acres at Bellevue Corner, 
remaining there until he moved to his present 
property in the spring of 1S78. 

November 24, 1869, Mr. Griffin married Jean- 
nette Lawson, of Polo, Ogle County, 111. She 
died in 1886, leaving three children, namely: 
Mary, wife of S. F. McGleget; Charles and 
Eugene. The second marriage of Mr. Griffin 
united him with Miss Emma Lawson, a sister of 
his first wife, a ladj- of estimable character, who 
shares with him the regard of acquaintances. 

ATTHEW RYAN, JR. For years closely 
associated with the business interests of 
Leavenworth, Mr. Ryan is remembered as 
one of the most capable and successful business 
men this city has ever had. Although at the 
time of his death he was only in the prime of his 
mental and ph}'sical vigor, he had already gained 
a success not always enjoyed by men whose lives 
are prolonged to three score and ten years. In 
his character were combined qualities which 
almost invariably bring their possessor prosperi- 
ty — wise judgment, energy', determination and 
keen foresight. These qualities, however, depict 
only one side of his nature. In disposition he was 
large-hearted and sympathetic, helpful to those 
less fortunate, and genial and companionable. 
His partner, George C. Richardson, described 
him as a very magnanimous man, and certainly 
this quality of magnanimity was one of his most 
striking characteristics. 

The history of the Ryan family appears in Ihe 
sketch of Matthew Ryaii, Sr. , father of the sub- 
ject of this sketch. It was in 1857 that the fam- 
ily became established among the pioneers of 
Leavenworth, and from that day to this its mem- 
bers have been prominent in business and in pub- 
lic life. Matthew, Jr., was born in Cincinnati, 
Ohio, November 13, 1851. When he was a boy 
of fourteen he began to assist his father and soon 
was given full charge of the cattle business. In 
partnership with George C. Richardson he es- 
tablished the largest cold storage plant in Leaven- 
worth, this being located at No. 519 Cherokee 
street. He also became identified with other 
local industries. As a director in the First Na- 
tional Bank he was associated with one of the 
foremost financial institutions in the west. He 
was president of the Leavenworth Coal Company 
and the Ryan Brothers Cattle Company for years, 
and until his death. His time was so closely 
given to his varied business interests that he had 
no leisure, even had he the inclination, to engage 
in public affairs, and, aside from voting the Dem- 
ocratic ticket, he took no part in politics. 

In Leavenworth occurred the marriage of Mr. 
R3'an to Miss Dacotah Skinner, who was born in 
Prairie du Chien, Wis., a daughter of Archibald 
and Anna E. (Swinehart) Skinner, and a grand- 
daughter of Morris Skinner, a farmer of Penn- 
sylvania. Her father was born in western Penn- 
sylvania and became a pioneer of Prairie du 
Chien, and later of Kansas. In 1864 he settled 
in Lawrence, Kans., where he engaged in ihe 
hotel business and also had charge of his farm 
near the town. He died at the age of seventy- 
two. He was of remote Scotch descent, and 
traced his ancestry to Revolutionary soldiers. 
His widow is still living and makes her home 
with her daughter, Mrs. Ryan, besides whom 
she has two children, P. N., of Portland, Ore.; 
and Mrs. S. M. Kelsey, of Los Angeles, Cal. 
Mrs. Ryan was reared and educated in Lawrence 
and received her education in the university there 
and in St. Mary's Convent at Leavenworth. She 
is the mother of four children, namely: Grace, 
wife of Eugene Burr, of Leavenworth; Mary L. , 
who is attending a seminary in Chicago; Clarence 



R. and Anna Florence. Mrs. Rjan is actively 
identified with the Presbyterian Church. 

While in the midst of his business activities, 
when fortune had rewarded his efforts and domes- 
tic happiness and warm friendships blessed his 
life, Mr. Ryan was suddenly called from earth. 
When riding, November 29, 1897, his horse 
.stumbled and threw him, injuring him in such a 
way as to cause death. This sudden catastrophe 
was mourned as a heavy loss to the citizenship 
and business circles of Leavenworth, and the 
sympathies of a host of warm personal friends 
were extended to the family, thus suddenly be- 
reaved of husband and father. 

(Tames gray, clerk of the first judicial dis- 
I trict of Kansas, is one of the most popular 
O citizens of Leavenworth, and also one of its 
leading politicians. While he was born near 
Woodstock, Canada, his life has been almost 
wholly passed in Leavenworth County, where his 
parents settled in his very early childhood. His 
father and grandfather, both of whom were named 
Andrew Gra}', were natives of Kilmarnock, a 
town twelve miles from Ayr, in Ayrshire, Scot- 
land, and both came to America, settling in Can- 
ada. The former, a farmer by occupation, was 
one of the pioneers of Kansas, and in 1858 settled 
in Kickapoo Township, Leavenworth County. 
After a time he removed to the James Stone 
farm, three miles south of Leavenworth. In 
1869 he purchased property on the Delaware res- 
ervation in Stranger Township, and here he has 
since made his home. He is now (1899) sixty- 
seven years of age. He has always been a stanch 
patriot, devoted to the Union, and during the 
Civil war he joined the army that defended the 
state in the Price raid. By his marriage to Mar- 
garet Robertson, who was born in Scotland, he 
had seven children. Five are still living, viz. : 
Matthew G., who lives in Stranger Township; 
William, who lives near Woodstock, Canada; 
James; Alexander, a stock-dealer and merchant 
at Ordway, Colo.; and Mrs. James P. Dillon, 
who occupies the old homestead in Stranger 

James Gray was two years of age when his 
parents removed to, and he grew to man- 
hood in Leavenworth Count}-, meantime attend- 
ind district schools in High Prairie and Stranger 
Townships, and, in 1879, graduating from Skill- 
man's Commercial College. During the time of 
the great Leadville boom he went to that city, 
and for two years engaged in prospecting in Col- 
orado. After his marriage he went to Wichita, 
Kans., where he engaged in the grocery business, 
remaining for two years. His connection with 
politics dates from 1888. During that year he 
was appointed under-sheriff, a position that he 
filled for a period of four years. From S. F. 
Neeley he received an appointment as traveling 
deputy United States marshal, with headquarters 
in Leavenworth. During his term of service in 
this office he participated in settling the Coxey 
strikes and the railroad strikes on the Santa Fe. 
While holding the position, in 1895, he was nom- 
inated for citj- clerk and was the only candidate 
on the Democratic ticket who was elected. He 
served for two years, and during his last year in 
office he was nominated for district clerk and was 
elected by a fair majority. January 11, 1897, he 
took the oath of office as district clerk, and the 
following year was re-elected by a good majority, 
to serve until January, 1901. He is one of the 
leading Democrats of the county, and has wielded 
a large influence in the ranks of his part}-. March 
2, 1881, he married Miss Gretta Hazlewood, who 
was born in St. Clairsville, Ohio, and died in 
Leavenw-orth, November 5, 1897, leaving one 
son, Malcolm Melville. 

(lOSEPH B. CUNNINGHAM. A position 
I among the leading farmers of Douglas Coun- 
Q) ty is held by the subject of this sketch, who 
for years has owned and occupied a valuable 
farm in Lecompton Township. While he has 
engaged in general farming he has devoted his 
attention principally to the stock business, his 
specialty being the breeding of thoroughbred 
swine, and through his judicious management of 
affairs he has become comfortably well off. A 
man of vigorous constitution, he is fitted by 



nature, as well as by inclination, for the arduous 
duties of farm life. In the educational, religious 
and business affairs of his township he has been 
active, and, being a man of sterling integrity-, 
has won the confidence of his associates. 

Born in Tuscarawas Count}-, Ohio, October 18, 
1839, ^It"- Cunningham earlj- began to make his 
wa3' in the world. In 1856 he settled in Johnson 
County, Iowa, where he married and engaged in 
farming. After eight years in that state he came 
to Kansas, spending a short time in Lawrence, 
and thence removing to Lecompton Township. 
For years he has been deeply interested in Lane 
University, and at this writing he is chairman of 
its executive board, in which position he is 
largely responsible for its management. His 
name appears prominently on the honorary mem- 
bership roll of Zetgathean Literary Societ}', the 
continued prosperity of which is due in no small 
measure to his encouragement. When its days 
were less sunny than now, he opened his purse 
to tide it over difficulties. The society library is 
largely made up of books presented by him, and 
it was principally through his efforts that its 
spacious hall was finished and furnished. Each 
of his four sons was for years influential in its 

Of the children of Mr. Cunningham, F. M. is 
deceased. The others are as follows: Lester B., a 
farmer in Wabaunsee and Pratt Counties; H. L. , 
who is engaged in the grocery business at 
Ottawa; F. B., a farmer in Douglas County; 
MaryE., wife of William Zellers, a farmer of 
Wabaunsee County; and Katie V., who is at 

HON. JOHN McKEE is one of the oldest 
settlers of Leavenworth, having come here 
in the spring of 1855. He was born in St. 
Louis, Mo., August 31, 1827. His father, Stew- 
art McKee, came from Belfast, Ireland, to 
America when about twenty-two years of age, 
landing in New York and going from there to 
New Jersey, but worked his way until he 
reached St. Louis, where he followed the mill- 
wright's trade. In 1834 he removed to Grant 
County, Wis., and built a mill there. Politic- 

ally he was a Democrat. By his marriage to 
Miss Fine, of St. Louis, he had seven sons, of 
whom two are now living, John and Henry E. 
The boys were reared on the farm and worked in 
the mill and lead mines in the vicinity. They 
were educated at St. Louis University. 

In 1852 the subject of this sketch returned to 
St. Louis, and in the spring of 1855 came to 
Leavenworth, and with his brother Henry en- 
gaged in surveying and civil engineering. In the 
fall of 1857 he was appointed city treasurer of 
Leavenworth, and the next year was elected 
to the position, serving for two terms. In the 
fall of i860 he was chosen city marshal, filling 
the office for a year, after which he was deputy 
county treasurer for two years. In 1863 he was 
elected sheriff, which office he filled for four years, 
from January, 1864, to January, 1868. In the 
fall of the latter year he was elected state senator, 
and during his term introduced the present reg- 
istration law for cities of the first class, which 
became a law at that session of the legislature, 
and which, with slight modifications, remains in 
force at this time. He is a Republican, with 
which political party he has been identified since 
the commencement of its existence, having pre- 
viously been an active Jree-state man when that 
was the vital issue in Kansas and the country. 

In 1868 Mr. McKee was appointed receiver for 
Carney & Stevens, and conducted their business 
until it was closed out. For three years he was 
city treasurer under Mayor Fortesque, after 
which he was postmaster under President Ar- 
thur, serving from April, 1883, until the election 
of President Cleveland, and for six months after 
his inauguration. Later he was interested in the 
manufacturing business in Leavenworth until he 
retired in 1892. In 1858 he built the residence 
at No. 517 Chestnut street, where he has since 
made his home, and he also erected in 1868 a 
business house on Delaware street that at the 
time of its erection was one of the finest in the 
town. Fraternally he is a member of Leaven- 
worth Lodge No. 2, A. F. & A. M.; Leaven- 
worth Chapter No. 2, R. A. M.; Leavenworth 
Commandery No. i, K. T.; and Abdallah Tem- 
ple, N. M. S. October 7, 1858, he married Jo- 



sepbine E. S. Lewis, of Potosi, Wis. The}- had 
teu children, three of whom died in infancj-. 
The others are: Stewart (a practicing physician 
in Leavenworth), Syrena (who served as deputy 
city treasurer for about ten years continuously 
under Mayors Hacker, Dodsworth, Hook and Ed- 
mond), Josephine Eugenia, Madge, Rose T., John 
and Lydia. 

GlUGUSTUS H. GRIESA, proprietor of the 
LI Kansas home nursery, in Wakarusa Town- 
I I ship, Douglas County, was born in Biele- 
feld, Germany, in January, 1845, a son of Charles 
and Henrietta (Schall) Griesa. His father, who 
was a cabinet-maker, brought the family to 
America in 1853 and settled in Lima, N. Y., 
thence removed to Naples, and later to Cohoc- 
ton, where he remained until his death. Of his 
eleven children one died in Germany and one 
when crossing the ocean. Seven are now living, 
three being in western New York and four in 
Kansas. The education of our subject was be- 
gun in Germany and completed in New York. 
For a time he taught German in a select school 
in Naples. He remained with his parents until 
twenty-one years of age. From 1857 to 1867 he 
worked in a nursery in Naples, from which place 
he came to, being the first of the family 
to seek a home in this state. He brought with 
him some nursery stock, which he planted in 
Kanwaka Township, four miles west of his pres- 
ent homestead. He bought forty acres of slightly 
improved land, with a small log cabin. Later 
one of his brothers joined him and remained in 
partnership with him for ten years. 

In 18S0 Mr. Griesa purchased property at the 
northwestern limits of Lawrence, to which he 
moved his nursery and on which he has since 
resided. The land had been used previously for 
raising corn and wheat. Since his partnership 
with his brother was dissolved, in 1879, he has 
been alone. In 1880 he commenced to erect the 
nursery buildings now on the place. His nur- 
sery covers over one hundred acres of his own 
land, besides what he leases. Of late years he 
has made a specialty of experimenting in new 
fruits. He has originated the Kansas, Lawrence 

and Cardinal raspberries, the Mele strawberry, 
Catalpa umbrella tree, and the Superb apricot. 
In the growth of the latter he has been remark- 
ably successful. Many horticulturists have de- 
clared it to be the choicest fruit they ever tasted, 
and the Massachusetts Horticultural Society ten- 
dered him a first-class certificate on it. All of 
the brands are recognized by his competitors gen- 
erally as being of the highest order. The Kansas 
raspberry is recognized from New Mexico to 
Minnesota and from Oregon to Maine as the 
hardiest varietj' of that fruit grown. The Cardi- 
nal, which is not so well known, is even hardier 
than the Kansas, and, having passed through the 
extremely hard winter of 1898-99 without the 
least injurj^, may be said to be able to stand the 
coldest weather. He cultivates only the best 
varieties of peaches and apples, discarding all that 
are not up to the high standard he has established. 
While this plan has entailed heavy expense, yet 
he adheres to the plan of maintaining, notwith- 
standing expense, a high standard of fruit. He 
grows all kinds of trees and shrubbery adapted 
to this climate. One of the finest of his trees is 
the umbrella catalpa, which he originated, and 
shipments of which are made to distant states. 
His sales are mostly in wholesale lots, through 
agencies, selections being made from the cata- 
logues which he issues annually. 

In 1880 Mr. Griesa built a substantial farm 
house. In 1S92 he remodeled and enlarged the 
residence, making of it a comfortable home. He 
also has three tenant houses, occupied by his 
men. He furnishes steady employment to five 
men, besides which he hires from thirty to forty 
men by the season. To aid in the work he has 
six horses of his own, and in the spring hires a 
number of others. In addition to his chosen oc- 
cupation he is a taxidermist of no mean skill, 
and his collection of mounted birds is worthy of 
study by all interested in ornithology. Among 
other rare specimens he has one eagle measuring 
seven and one-half feet from tip to tip of wings. 

Mr. Griesa was formerly a Republican, but is 
now a Prohibitionist. He attended the national 
Prohibition convention at Pittsburgh, where Mr. 
Levering was nominated for president, but as the 



platform adopted by that convention did not en- 
tirely represent his views, he gave his support to 
George Bently, whose platform stood for woman 
siifiFrage as well as the remonetization of silver. 
He assisted in the organization of the Congrega- 
tional Church of his township, in which he was 
for years Sunday-school superintendent, and is 
still a leading worker. In July, 1869, he married 
Amelia, daughter of Lewis Beebee, of Lima, 
N. Y., who was identified with the establishment 
of the Lima Seminary as one of its founders. In 
that institution the members of his family wei^ 

At the silver wedding anniversary of Mr. and 
Mrs. Griesa the following poem was read by 
Rev. A. M. Richardson: 

Once on a time, when skies were bright, 
And Cupid's wings were plumed for flight, 
A youth and maiden, blithe and fair. 
Became a happy, wedded pair. 

They made their home on Kansas .soil 
Resolved to test the fruits of toil. 
An humble home— no outward sign 
Proclaimed the wealth within enshrined. 

With patient hearts and willing hands, 
They labored long on house and lands. 
The heavens smiled, the earth, caressed, 
Gave forth the treasures she posse.ssed. 

Rare fruits and flowers and golden grain 
Bedecked the hills, adorned the plain. 
The social board with plenty spread, 
Gave ample proof of daily bread. 

But, strange to tell, there came a day 
Its inmates longed to hie away 
To broader fields, and settle down 
Anear to market and the town. 

Hither they came— before our eyes. 
Behold this stately mansion rise! 
Its pleasant rooms, in bright array, 
The mistress' taste and skill display. 

While trees and shrubs and fruitful fields. 
Show what the master's labor yields. 
A bonnie home! whose peace and love 
Give foretaste of the Home above! 

How swift the years have flown away, 
That bring this silver wedding day! 
We give you joy — that all these years — 
'Mid sun and storm, 'mid smiles and tears — 

The chain of love has stronger grown 
Binding each heart fast to its own. 
No changes can your souls divide! 
You still are bridegroom and his bride! 

The echoes of your marriage bells. 

In richer, sweeter music swells. 

Than when in youth's fair bridal morn. 

They chimed the vows that made you one! 

The silver threads that crown your brows, 
Like silken ties, hold fast those vows, 
More sacred still, as life moves on, 
Until tlie heavenly home is won. 

We wish you joy! dear, precious friends! 
What e'er the lot our Father sends. 
May coming years bring peace and rest. 
And all that makes life rich and blest. 

While gifts of boundless love and grace 
Find in your hearts a larger place. 
May this, your silver wedding's date 
Its golden glory celebrate. 

L.-iWRENCE, July 21), 1894. 

ITDWARD E. MURPHY, member of the 
1^ board of directors of the Modern Woodmen 
L_ of America for Kansas, was appointed to 
this position in July, 1899, and in addition has 
also officiated as assistant head counsel of the 
order, and from July, 1895, to July, 1899, served 
as state deputy. Under his supervision the work 
was greatly promoted and its success enhanced. 
He has traveled over the entire district, deliver- 
ing addresses, organizing camps and forwarding 
the work of the fraternitj\ When he became 
state deputy in 1895 the order had eleven thou- 
sand members in Kansas; now there are more 
than forty-three thousand, which remarkable 
growth is largely due to his wise management. 
He was a charter member of Leavenworth Camp 
No. 367, in which he has held the various offi- 
ces, and at the head of which he stood for eight 
years. His home is at No. 411 Chestnut street, 

The grandfather of Mr. Murphy was Arthur 
Murphy, a native of County Kerry, Ireland, who 
brought his family to America and settled in Mas- 
sachusetts, where he died. He had two sons in 
the Civil war. One, Thomas, was on board the 



"Monitor" during its celebrated battle with the 
' 'Merrimac;' ' the other served in the army. The 
father of our subject, Hon. John C. Murphj', 
was born in County Kerry, Ireland, and learned 
the trade of plasterer and bricklayer in Worcester, 
Mass. , where he carried on a large business. In 
1858 he came to Leavenworth and began con- 
tracting and building. For many years he was 
foreman for the government at Forts Sill and 
Lyon, and in the state penitentiary at Leaven- 
worth. In 188 1 he went to Denver, Colo., later 
engaged in cattle-raising in New Mexico and 
Arizona. During the Cleveland administration 
he was postmaster at Duncan, Ariz. In 1897 he 
returned to Leavenworth, where he died in Au- 
gust, 1898, at the age of sixty-six years. For one 
term he was a member of the Kansas state legis- 
lature, and was the author of the mechanics' lien 
law. During the war he was a commissary ser- 
geant in the militia. His wife, Margaret (born 
in Connecticut, and died in Leavenworth in 
1S79), was a daughter of Edward Costello, a na- 
tive of Ireland, who settled in Connecticut and 
later was employed as a corder in Fox's woolen 
mills at Worcester, Mass. He died at seventy- 
two years, while visiting in Leavenworth. 

The family of Hon. John C. and Margaret 
Murphy consisted of the following-named chil- 
dren: Edward E.; Winnifred, who died in Leav- 
enworth; Fannie, of this city; Henry, who was 
connected with the Missouri, Kansas & Texas 
Railroad at Sedalia, Mo., and died therein 1890, 
when twenty-six years of age; Maggie, Mrs. R. 
Springer, of Leavenworth; Mrs. Mollie Williams, 
of this city; Hampton, who died in infancy; and 
John C, who is second lieutenant of Company C, 
Twentieth Kansas Volunteers, now in service at 
Manila, Philippine Islands. The eldest of the 
family, our subject, was born in Worcester, Mass., 
May 14, 1853. In 1859 he was brought to 
Leavenworth, the family traveling from St. Louis 
on the Steamer ' 'Sky Lark. ' ' When he was 
fourteen his father removed to a farm six miles 
south of Leavenworth, in Delaware Township,and 
there he remained until twenty-one years of age. 
After returning to Leavenworth in 1874, he was 
employed by different business houses, also was 

for nine months on a government survey in the 
Indian Territory. He was one of the earliest let- 
ter-carriers in Leavenworth, there being but five 
carriers in the town at the time he became con- 
nected with the postofEce. After holding the po- 
sition for seven years he resigned and accepted a 
situation as city circulator of the Leavenworth 
Slaiidard. In 1883 and 1884 he was weigh clerk 
at the penitentiarj' coal shaft, under Governor 
Glick. In 1884 he obtained a contract for an 
output of coal and traveled through Kansas, sell- 
ing to local dealers. In 1887 he became a deputy 
under John J. Roche in the ofRce of register of 
deeds, after which he was deputy to Sheriff 
Churchill, later turning his attention to the insur- 
ance business. In 1893 he was appointed deputy 
revenue collector of the first division under R. B. 
Morris, and served for almost four years, resign- 
ing to accept the position of state deputy of the 
Modern Woodmen of America. 

In Leavenworth Mr. Murphy married Agnes, 
daughter of Col. Thomas Moonlight. She is a 
graduate of the Leavenworth high school and an 
intelligent and refined woman, with artistic abil- 
ity. She has filled the office of secretary of the 
Art League and of the Orphan Asylum, and is a 
director in the Leavenworth Hospital Associa- 
tion. The four children of Mr. and Mrs. Mur- 
phy are: Thomas Moonlight, Edward Eramett, 
Jr., Margaret and Bryan. 

Mr. Murphy is past master workman of the An- 
cient Order of United Workmen and has six times 
been elected to the supreme lodge of the order. 
He is grand vice-chancellor of the Knights of Py- 
thias of Kansas, past grand of Lodge No. 27, 
I. O. O. F. , past chief of the Degree of Honor, 
member of the Royal Neighbors, Leavenworth 
Lodge No. 2, A. F. &A. M., Knights and Ladies 
of Security, Fraternal Aid Association, Select 
Knights, Code of Honor, Royal Fraternity and 
United Commercial Travelers. With his wife 
he holds membership in the Episcopal Church, of 
which he is a vestryman. He is one of the local 
leaders of the Democracy, and has been a mem- 
ber of the state central committee, the executive 
committee of the state central committee, the 
county central committee (of which he has been 



chairman) and the city central committee (of 
which he is now chairman). He has also served 
as chairman of the congressional committee of his 
party. Though active in politics, he has never 
sought office for himself. He is an energetic, 
enterprising man, and the success which he has 
gained in life is due entirely to his own unaided 

From the time that he came to Leavenworth 
(April, 1S58), Mr. Wulfekuhler has been 
identified with the business interests of the city 
and has assisted in developing its commercial re- 
sources. Quietly but energetically he has pur- 
sued his chosen business calling, and by judg- 
ment and energy he has acquired a competence. 
He has made many friends during the more than 
forty years of his residence in Leavenworth, and 
has gained the confidence of his business asso- 
ciates through the reliability of his transactions. 
With his brother, Frederick William, he is pro- 
prietor of the wholesale grocery house of Rohlf- 
ing & Co., which is one of the oldest and largest 
concerns of its kind in Leavenworth. 

The house in which^ Mr. Wulfekuhler was 
born, August 9, 1834, stood in Osnabriick, prov- 
ince of Hanover, Germany, and was built genera- 
tions ago by one of his ancestors; it is still stand- 
ing, and is the property of one of the family. 
His father and grandfather, both of whom bore 
the name of Christopher, occupied the old home- 
stead, and were well known in their part of the 
province. Christopher Wulfekuhler, Jr., mar- 
ried Charlotta Wissman, a native of Versraold, 
Prussia, and a daughter of William Wissman. 
They were the parents of three sons and three 
daughters, of whom the two surviving sons are 
Henry William and Frederick William, and the 
two surviving daughters still reside in Germany. 

In 1854, when nineteen years of age, our sub- 
ject came to America on the sailing vessel "Her- 
man," which crossed from Bremen to New Or- 
leans in forty-two days. He was the first of the 
family to settle in the United vStates. He trav- 
eled up the Mississippi to St. Louis, where he 
clerked until 1858. On coming to Leavenworth 

he started in business on Cherokee street with 
Mr. Rohlfing as Rohlfing & Wulfekuhler. In 
i860 he bought out Mr. Rohlfing, who went to 
Denver, Colo., and opened a wholesale and retail 
grocery, but died in that city in September of the 
same year. The business at Leavenworth has 
since been owned and conducted b)- our subject 
and his brother, and they also freighted with mule 
and ox-trains across the plains until the comple- 
tion of the Union Pacific Railroad. The grocery 
business is a large one, and the trade extends 
throughout Kansas and Missouri, the stock of 
goods occupying three large buildings. 

In addition to his interest in the grocery, Mr. 
Wulfekuhler owns stock in the Globe Canning 
Company, and is interested in the Leavenworth 
National Bank, the Manufacturers National Bank 
and the Union Savings Bank, and he also owns 
numerous farms in this state. During the Civil 
war he was a member of the home militia. At 
the close of the war he returned to his old home 
in Germany and spent two years there. While 
abroad he also visited the exposition at Paris. 
He adheres to the Lutheran faith, which was the 
religious belief of his ancestors. In politics he is 
a Republican. The residence which he owns at 
No. 722 Oak street was built by himself in 1868. 
He was married in Leavenworth to Miss Louisa 
Rohlfing, a native of Prussia. The children born 
of their union are named as follows: Otto and 
Albert, who assist their father in business; Eu- 
gene, who was connected with the Manufactur- 
ers' National Bank of Leavenworth, and died in 
this city in 1897, at twenty-seven years of age; 
and Louis H., a graduate of the University of 
Kansas and the Columbian Law School in Wash- 
ington, D. C. , and now a member of a prominent 
law firm of Leavenworth. 

0ANIEL R. ANTHONY, JR., postmaster of 
Leavenworth, was born in this city August 
22,1870, and is a son of Col. D. R. Anthony, 
Sr. After having acquired the rudiments of his 
education in local public schools, he entered 
Michigan Military Academy at Orchard Lake, 
Mich., from which he graduated on the coniple- 



tion of the regular course. In 1 891 he graduated 
from the State University of Michigan. Upon 
his return home he became connected with the 
Leavenworth Times, and has since held the posi- 
tion of business manager. 

Reared in the faith of the Republican party, 
Mr. Anthony has always adhered to its princi- 
ples and has taken an active part in its affairs. 
As a delegate to county and state conventions 
he has rendered good service, and he is now 
state committeeman for his district. In recogni- 
tion of his service for his party, as well as his 
ability to fill a responsible position with honor 
and efficiency. President ]\IcKinley appointed 
him postmaster of Leavenworth July 8, 1898, 
and this office he has since held, filling it to the 
satisfaction of the people of the city. His double 
duties as postmaster and as business manager of 
the paper make his life a very busy and active 
one, and leave him little leisure for outside mat- 
ters. However, he is always foremost in enter- 
prises for the benefit of the city and the promotion 
of the welfare of the people. 

In June, 1897, Mr. Anthony married Bessie, 
daughter of Paul E. Havens, of Leavenworth. 
They have one daughter, Eleanor. 

[ILLIAM SMALL. The prominent posi- 
tion held by Mr. Small in the business 
circles of Leavenworth and of Kansas 
has come to him as the result of his excellent 
judgment and great energy. During the long 
period of his connection with the business inter- 
ests of Leavenworth he has built up a mer- 
cantile establishment that is one of the most 
complete in the entire state; and, at the same 
time, he has gained an enviable reputation 
for accuracy of business methods and sagacity of 
judgment. The firm of William Small & Co. 
occupies a four-story building, 48x125, at Nos. 
413-415 Delaware street, where a large trade in 
dry goods has been successfully conducted. 

In addition to his identification with the dry- 
goods business, Mr. Small was one of the 
organizers, and is now president of, the Leaven- 
worth & Mexico Agricultural Company, which 

owns eleven hundred acres in the Isthmus of Te- 
hauntepec. The company has improved, from 
the forest primeval, a coffee plantation on which 
is raised coffee, besides other tropical productions. 
The superintendent of the plantation is a practical 
man, and his successful management of the place 
has greatly increased its value. The headquar- 
ters of the company are in Leavenworth. 

Mr. Small was born and reared in Hamilton, 
Ontario. His parents, William and Mary J. 
(Harkness) Small, were natives respectively of 
Dundee, Scotland, and County Tyrone, Ireland, 
but spent their lives principally in Canada, where 
he was employed as a bookkeeper in Hamilton. 
They had only two children, and the younger of 
these, James, died in St. Paul, Minn., so that 
William is now the sole survivor of the family. 
When he was thirteen he became an apprentice 
to the dry-goods trade, at which he served for 
three years. In 1866 he removed from Hamil- 
ton to St. Louis, Mo., where he was employed 
as a wholesale and retail dry-goods clerk, being 
for some time with what is now the William 
Barr Dry-Goods Company. 

Coming to Leavenworth in 1871, Mr. Small 
filled a position as clerk in the dry-goods store of 
Leibenstein Company and after the failure of that 
firm he was with H. Saunders, later Wea\'er & 
Saunders. About 1880 he became a partner in 
the firm of Weaver & Small. Three years later 
the firm was changed to Small, Ram.say & Vories, 
and afterward to Small & Vories, finally Mr. 
Small became the sole proprietor. He conducted 
the business alone for two years. In August, 
1893, the admission of others to the business 
caused the name to be changed to William 
Small & Co. 

While in Canada Mr. Small married Miss 
Zephy Steele, who was born in Edinburgh, Scot- 
land. Fraternally he is a member of the Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows; Modern Wood- 
men of America; Knights of Pythias, in which he 
is past chancellor; and Knights of Honor, in 
which he was formerly dictator. In matters po- 
litical he has been allied with the Republican 
partj'. He is a member of the First Presby- 
terian Church of Leavenworth. In conclusion it 




may be said of him that he is a man whose 
success has been gained by perseverance, deter- 
mination and tireless energy. In youth he was 
taught habits of self-reliance, which afterward 
proved invaluable to him. By his apprenticeship 
to the dry-goods business he was grounded in 
the fundamental principles of the business. He 
is known for sound and careful judgment as a 
business man and for a progressive spirit as a 

family was founded in America by Andrew 
Moore, who came from England and settled 
in Poquonock, Conn., being married there Feb- 
ruary 15, 1671, to Sarah, daughter of Samuel 
Phelps, and granddaughter of William Phelps, 
the first representative of the Phelps family in 
America. He continued to reside in Connecticut 
and died at Windsor November 29, 1719. In 
his family the eighth child was Benjamin, who 
was born in Windsor, Decembers, 1693, and died 
at Poquonock, February 23, 1732. His marriage 
united him with Emma, daughter of Nathaniel 
Phelps, whose father, George Phelps, came to 
this country in an early day. 

Next in line of descent was Lieut. Joseph 
Moore, who was born in Simsbury, Conn., July 
21, 1720, and during the Revolutionary war 
served as lieutenant in Captain Buttolph's Eight- 
eenth Connecticut Troops. During the battle of 
Long Island he was taken prisoner and confined 
in the prison ship "Jersey," in New York Har- 
bor, where he died November 3, 1776. He had 
married Mary, daughter of Thomas and Miriam 
(Buell) Stevens, and granddaughter of Peter 
Buell, whose father, William Buell, came to 
America at an early date. Gen. Don Carlos 
Buell, of Civil war fame, belonged to the same 

Samuel, son of Lieutenant Moore, was born in 
Simsbury, Conn., May 24, 1764, and died in 
Portage County, Ohio, November 3, 1816, he 
having been a farmer in Ohio from 1806 until his 
death. He married Eunice, daughter of Capt. 
Isaac and Susanna (Root) Gillett. The captain 
was born March 5, 1744, and served in the Revo- 

lutionary army as a captain. He was a son of 
Deacon Isaac, son of Isaac, son of Nathan, whose 
father, Nathan Gillett, Sr., settled in Dorchester, 
Mass., in 1630 and afterward served in the 
Pequod war. 

Samuel, son of Samuel Moore, Sr. , was born 
in Granby, Conn., and served in the war of 1812, 
he being then eighteen years of age. In 1806 he 
had accompanied his parents to Portage County, 
Ohio. He was the third among his parents' 
children. His brother, Mark, was one of the 
first to enlist in the war of 1812, and was sent to 
Detroit, where he was taken prisoner. Later he 
was exchanged and returned home, but died one 
month later as a result of exposure. Samuel 
Moore, Jr., improved a farm of two hundred and 
twenty-five acres on the western reserve, and 
there resided until his death, meantime frequent- 
ly serving as an oSicial. 

On Christmas day of 18 17 Samuel Moore, Jr., 
married Elizabeth Keyes, who was born in Mid- 
dlesex, N. Y., a daughter of Amaziah and Nancy 
(Crafts) Keyes. Her father was born in Ply- 
mouth, Mass., August 13, 1771, and married a 
daughter of Maj. Edward Crafts, who was born 
in Boston October 12, 1746, and served through- 
out the Revolutionary war as a major. In 1763 
he enlisted as a private in Paddock's artillery 
company of Boston. His brother, Thomas, was 
first a lieutenant and afterward colonel of a regi- 
ment of which Paul Revere was lieutenant-col- 
onel. Just before the Revolution Edward Crafts 
entered the continental service, enlisting at Wor- 
cester April 19, 1775, as a private. He took part 
in the battle of Bunker Hill, after which he was 
made captain in Colonel Gridley's regiment, and 
at the close of the war was breveted major. 
From Worcester he removed to Murrayfield (now 
Chester), Hampden County, Mass., where he be- 
came a large farmer. In 1792 he settled in Mid- 
dlesex, Ontario County, N. Y. During the jour- 
ney his daughter, Hannah, fourteen years of age, 
was captured by Indians. As soon as she was 
missed, her brother, Edward, twenty-three years 
of age, started in pursuit and after following the 
Indians for more than a week succeeded in rescu- 
ing her. Major Crafts died in New York April 



II, 1806. His wife died in Auburn, Ohio, De- 
cember 17, 1832. She bore the maiden name of 
Eliot Winship, and was a daughter of John 
and Bethia Winship, and a granddaughter of 
Edward and Rebecca (Barshaw) Winship. She 
was named for the "apostle" EHot, the missionary- 
among the Indians. 

Amaziah Kej-es was a son of Abijah Keyes, 
who was born September 17, 1746, a son of 
Oliver and Rebecca (Patterson) Keyes, and a 
grandson of Thomas and Elizabeth (Howe) 
Keyes. Thomas Keyes was a son of Elias and 
Sarah (Blanford) Keyes, and a grandson of 
Robert Keyes, who with his wife, Sarah, resided 
at Watertown, Mass., in 1633. 

The family of which the subject of this sketch 
is a member consisted of nine sons and one daugh- 
ter. Of these, Mark M., M. D., who was the 
oldest of the family, is living in Wesley ville. Pa. ; 
Homer H., D. D., who was chaplain of the 
Third Kansas Infantry during the Civil war, now 
resides at Chautauqua, N. Y., and is a noted 
Methodist divine. Amaziah, M. D., deceased, 
was captain of Company D, Second Kansas 
Cavalry; Samuel died in Mantua, Ohio; Halsey 
G. died in Mantua when twenty-two years of 
age; Elizabeth is the wife of George H. Fair- 
banks, a minister of the Congregational Church 
in Cleveland; Francis died in Kansas; Mortimer 
G., M. D., deceased, was a physician in Cleve- 
land, Ohio; Walter Watson resides on the old 
homestead. Horace Ladd Moore, who was next 
to the youngest of the ten children, was born in 
Mantua, Portage County, Ohio, February 25, 
1837. He was educated in Hiram College when 
James A. Garfield was a teacher there and was 
ever afterward a firm friend and admirer of that 
great statesman. When eighteen years of age he 
began to teach school. 

In June, 1858, Mr. Moore came to Kansas, 
and after a short time in Atchison County came 
to Lawrence, where he studied law in the ofiBce 
of Christian & Lane, the latter one of the most 
prominent men of Kansas. He would have been 
admitted to the bar in June, 1861, but on the 
14th of May prior to this he enlisted as a private 
in Company D, Second Kansas Infantry, and was 

mustered in at Kansas City for three months. 
He joined General Lyon at Springfield, Mo., and 
took part in the battles of Forsythe, Wilson's 
Creek and Shelbina. He was mustered out at 
Leavenworth as corporal, October 31, 1861. The 
following day he re- enlisted and assisted in rais- 
ing Company D, Second Kansas Cavalry, of 
which he was commissioned second lieutenant 
December 11, 1861. He was promoted to be 
first lieutenant May i, 1862, and was commis- 
sioned lieutenant-colonel of the Fourth Arkansas 
Cavalry by Secretary of War Stanton, in Feb- 
ruary, 1864. He was mustered out June 30, 
1865, at Little Rock, Ark. While a member of 
the Second Kansas he took part in the battles of 
Cane Hill, Prairie Grove, Van Buren, Reed's 
Hill, Fort Smith and Devil's Backbone. 

In 1867 a battalion of four companies of the 
Eighteenth Kansas Cavalry organized for service 
on the plains against the Indians, and he was 
commissioned major. The campaign lasted about 
four months and included one battle on Prairie 
Dog Creek with the Cheyennes in northwestern 
Kansas. In the fall of 1868 a regiment known 
as the Nineteenth Cavalry, consisting of twelve 
companies, was organized by order of the secretary 
of war. Gov. S. J. Crawford resigned his office 
to take command of the regiment and Mr. Moore 
was mustered in as lieutenant-colonel. Upon the 
resignation of Governor Crawford in Januarj', 
1869, our subject was made colonel of the regi- 
ment and commanded the last Indian campaign 
for Kansas. A winter campaign was conducted 
and the plains Indians forced back to their reser- 

After the war Colonel Moore engaged in the 
mercantile business, having charge of a grocery 
in Lawrence until 1876, when he embarked in a 
similar business at Trinidad, Colo. As a mem- 
ber of the firm of Moore, Bennett & Co., he was 
connected with stores in Las Vegas, Otero, 
Trinidad, Albuquerque and San Marcial, mak- 
ing his home part of the time in Las Vegas and 
for a time in Albuquerque. In 1882 he sold out 
and returned to Lawrence. For two years he 
served as county treasurer. In 1892 he was 
Funston's opponent for congress, being the candi- 



date of the Democratic and People's parties. The 
election was in doubt, and was contested by 
Colonel Moore. After a long contest he was 
seated, in August, 1894, and served in the Fiftj'- 
third Congress, after which he was not a candi- 
date for re-election. Since then he has been re- 
tired from business, though still superintending 
his various interests. Politically he was a Re- 
publican until the candidacy of Horace Greeley, 
after which he allied himself with the Democrats; 
but at the time of Garfield's candidacy he sup- 
ported him for personal reasons. He is a Knight 
Templar Mason, is a member of Washington 
Post, G. A. R., the Sons of the Revolution and 
contributes to the Congregational Church, of 
which his family are members. 

At Mantua, Ohio, September 16, 1864, Colonel 
Moore married Esther Amelia, daughter of Capt. 
Samuel and Jane (Deming) Harmon. Her fa- 
ther, who was born in Suffield, Conn., in 1808, 
was a son of Alexander, and grandson of Deacon 
Samuel Harmon, whose father, Samuel, was an 
early settler of Connecticut. Colonel and Mrs. 
Moore had four children, two of whom are living. 
Samuel A., who was educated in the University 
of Kansas, is engaged in the shoe business in 
Atchison. Frank H., a graduate of the Uni- 
versity of Kansas and Columbia College, D. C, 
is a practicing attorney of Kansas City. During 
the summer of 1899 Colonel and Mrs. Moore 
made a tour of Europe. 

(TOSEPH M. RAYMOND, a prosperous farmer 
I of Douglas County, is engaged in cultivat- 
(2/ ing three hundred acres in Kanwaka Town- 
ship and is known as one of the enterprising 
farmers of this region. In former years he made 
a specialty of the fruit business, but now gives his 
attention largely to general farming. One of 
the most noticeable improvements of his farm is 
the substantial barn, which is the work of his 
own hands. In 1896 he cut timber in the woods 
and with the help of a hired man erected a frame 
barn, with a stone basement, which, when com- 
pleted, made one of the best buildings of the kind 
in the township . 

In Reed Township, Seneca County, Ohio, Oc- 
tober 6, 1837, our subject was born, a son of 
William and Alatha (Murray) Raymond, natives 
respectively of Steuben County, N. Y., and Fair- 
field County, Ohio. His father, who was a son of 
George, and a grandson of Daniel (son of Daniel, 
Sr. ,) had very few educational opportunities, 
and never attended school but nineteen days in 
his life. He was seventeen years of age when 
the family settled in Ohio, they being the third 
family to settle in Reed Township, where they 
improved land from the dense forest. He was 
there at the time the Chippewa and Delaware 
Indians started west. From his youth he was 
an active worker in the Methodist Church. In 
politics he was first a Whig, later a Republican. 
He had three brothers (triplets), Abraham, Isaac 
and Jacob, who became large, robust men, Abra- 
ham being, in manhood, six feet tall; Isaac, five 
feet eleven and three-fourths iiiclies; and Jacob, 
five feet eleven and one-half inches. 

By the marriage of William Raymond to Miss 
Murray, which was solemnized near Tiffin, Seneca 
County, seven children were born, namely: 
Henrietta, who died at two years; George, of 
Gibsonburg, Ohio; Joseph M.; James, a farmer 
living on the old homestead; Susannah, who died 
at eighteen years; William Jepperson, a traveling 
salesman with headquarters in Topeka; and Han- 
nah A., wife of Frederick Pfeiffer, of Paulding 
County, Ohio. 

The schools in our subject's boyhood days were 
not graded as now, and the instruction was mea- 
gre and crude, but he obtained sufficient educa- 
tion to enable him to successfully teach several 
terms of boarding school, "boarding round" as 
was the custom then. August 13, 1862, he en- 
listed in the Union army, becoming a member of 
Company I, One Hundred and First Ohio Infan- 
try, which took part in the battles of Perryville, 
Ky., October 8, 1862; Liberty Gap, Tenn.; 
Chickamauga (where he was taken prisoner, but 
soon paroled) ; and all the engagements of the 
Atlanta campaign from June 10, when he rejoined 
his regiment, to its close, including Jonesboro 
and Lovejoy. From the loth of June to the 27th 
there was not a moment, night or day, when the 



whistle of bullets through the air could not be 
heard. On the 27th, in a charge, the Union 
forces lost two thousand men in one hour. Al- 
though he was in the thickest of the fight he did 
not receive a scratch. At the conclusion of the 
Atlanta campaign, General Sherman arranged 
his army for the march to the sea, sending a 
detachment (including the One Hundred and 
First Ohio Infantrj') to join General Thomas at 
Nashville. This small force successfully with- 
stood Hood's whole army at Franklin, Tenn. 
(where Crockett was killed November 30, 1864), 
taking many prisoners, killing and wounding 
thirteen of the rebel generals and safely joining 
General Thomas at Nashville the next day. 
Mr. Raymond was introduced to Presideut Hayes 
as a soldier of the Cumberland army, and he asked 
him at once if he was in the battle of Franklin. 
He answered that he was, and President Hayes 
promptly said, "I consider that the hardest- fought 
battle of the war. ' ' December 1 5 General Thomas 
demoralized Hood's army. Mr. Raymond was 
honorably discharged at Cleveland, Ohio, June 
13, 1865. Returning home he carried on the farm 
for two years. 

In 1854 Knott Crockett came to Kansas, and, 
by pre-emption and purchase, secured two hun- 
dred and forty acres in Douglas County. At the 
opening of the Civil war he determined to offer 
his services to his country. He returned to his 
father's home in Ohio and enlisted with Mr. Ray- 
mond in the same company. During the war he 
was killed. Having been a great friend of Mr. 
Raymond, the latter came to Kansas and took Up 
the work where his comrade had left off. He 
broke ground, planted crops, erected buildings 
and planted the seeds from which sprang all the 
trees now on the place. In 1874 he was eaten 
out by the grasshoppers and returned to Ohio, 
where he remained for six years. In 188 1 he 
came back to Kansas, but soon went to Missouri 
and started a lumber yard at Bolivar, where he 
remained for five years. On again coming to 
Kansas he completed the improvements on his 

Ardently supporting the Republican party, Mr. 
Raymond has been a delegate to its conventions 

and has served as township clerk and in other 
positions. As chairman of the building commit- 
tee he was one of the prime movers in securing 
the erection of the Congregational Church in his 
vicinitj'. He has been chairman of the board of 
trustees and is now officiating as deacon. At 
different times he has been Sunday-school super- 
intendent. Prior to coming to Kansas he was a 
member of the Methodist Church, but since then 
has been an active Congregationalist. At one 
time he was master of the Grange in his town- 
ship. In Masonry he has attained the rank of 
Knight Templar. He was instrumental in the 
organization of the Good Templars and is a mem- 
ber of the Royal Arcanum. 

The marriage of Mr. Raymond, in Seneca 
County, Ohio, solemnized at the homestead of 
his grandfather, April 7, 1868, united him with 
Miss Hila K. Bennett, daughter of Abraham 
Bennett, a native of Steuben County, N. Y. 
They are the parents of two sons now living, 
and lost two children in infancy. William Mur- 
ray, who took the complete course in the Uni- 
versity of Kansas, is now in charge of the adver- 
tising department of the Sedalia Democrat. Fred- 
erick Newton, who is also a graduate of the state 
university, is city passenger agent in New York 
for the Chicago & Alton Railroad. 

many thousands who responded to the call 
for men to defend the Union none has a 
record more honorable than that of Captain Car- 
penter. In the warfare against the guerillas on 
the frontier he accomplished some brave and dar- 
ing feats. When men were called upon for some 
achievement more than ordinarily hazardous he 
was always the first to respond and was always 
to be found, in the front, leading his men on to 
gallant victory. As a cavalry officer he was un- 
surpassed, often defeating from five to ten times his 
own number, and apparently with little loss to 
his command. Though taken ill during the latter 
part of the Price raid he recovered sufficiently to 
continue on the frontier until the close of the 



A resident and business man of Lawrence, Cap- 
tain Carpenter was born in Portage, W3'omiug 
County, N. Y., October 20, 1828, a son of Nicho- 
las C. and Miranda (Boggs) Carpenter. His 
grandfather, Zachariah Carpenter, was born of 
English parentage and served as an officer under 
Washington in the Revolution. He was a black- 
smith and died in Orange County, N. Y. In 
that county, near Goshen, occurred the birth of 
Nicholas C. Carpenter, who became a pioneer of 
the Genesee Valley, but was twice driven from 
there by the Indians. When his son, Robert, 
was three years of age he settled in Farmersville. 
His last years were spent in Lawrence and he 
died in his son's home at eighty years of age. 
His wife, who was a member of the family to 
which belonged Governor Boggs, of Missouri, 
was born in New York, daughter of Robert 
Boggs, a farmer of Cattaraugus County. Of her 
three children (all sons), our subject was the 
only one that lived to maturity. He attended 
the public schools in Cattaraugus County and 
Sandusky Seminary. From sixteen to twenty- 
four years of age he taught school. In October, 
1855, he settled in Sparta, Monroe County, Wis., 
where he engaged in lumbering. He also built 
and operated a tannery in that town, and carried 
on a real-estate business. 

In October, 1861, our subject was commis- 
sioned first lieutentant of Company A, Third 
Wisconsin Infantry, which company he assisted 
in raising, but refused to accept the captaincy. 
He was assigned first to the department of Mis- 
souri, then to that of Kansas, and served as 
provost-marshal at Tro}', Doniphan County, 
Kans., until August 15, 1862, after which he was 
ordered to Leavenworth and the field. His first 
battle was at Plattsburg, but he had previously 
participated in many skirmishes. He joined the 
army in the field just after the battle of Newtonia, 
in October, 1862, was at Cane Hill, November 
28, Prairie Grove, December 7, 1862, and March 
3, 1863, was commissioned captain, after which 
he served as such, although most of the time he 
had seven companies under him. During the 
Price campaign, in October and November, 1864, 
he had some exhausting marches and his health 

was seriously impaired by hardships and exposure. 
Soon after he was placed in command of the post 
at Fort Scott. In addition to the impairment 
of his general health, his eyes were so seriously 
affected that, while commanding at Fort Scott, 
he had to be led to and from the post. While 
there he found things in an unfortunate con- 
dition, but as soon as his eyes grew better, with 
the aid of his company he caused a revolution in 
matters and brought about peace and order. 
Absolutely without fear he was always at the 
front in every desperate undertaking; he was the 
leader of his men and inspired them with much of 
his own enthusiasm and courage. For weeks he 
went without rest and sleep, and in 1865 he ap- 
plied for a discharge. Without any order but his 
own request. Governor Solomon mustered him 
out, but the department would not let him go, 
General Dodge stating, in a personal interview, 
that he could not spare him, and promising his 
work would be limited to a general superintend- 
ence. He was stationed at Marysville, Marshall 
County, and had charge of the escorting of trains 
across the plains, between the Missouri River 
and Denver. March 9, 1865, he was commis- 
sioned captain of Company L, Third Wisconsin 
Cavalry, by Governor Lewis. However, his 
health continued to grow worse, and his second 
resignation, August 11, 1865, was accepted by 
General Sherman. His colonel spoke of him in 
the highest terms, saying that he was the peer of 
any soldier for courage, fidelity and skill. 

After leaving the army Captain Carpenter 
.spent months in the hospital at St. Louis and 
for two years he was unable to do work of any 
kind. He had come for the first time to Law- 
rence in August, 1865, and as soon as he was able 
to engage in work once more he returned to this 
city. He followed various lines of business, in- 
cluding that of dealer in hides and leather, from 
which he drifted into the manufacture of harness. 
From 1870 he was in partnership with Adam 
Brueggen until the latter's death in 1877, after 
which he was in partnership with F. Gnef kow 
until February, 1887. Since then he has con- 
tinued the manufacture of harness, the sale of 
saddlery, hides and furs, his location being on 



Massachusetts street. From 1882 to 1898 he was 
treasurer of the Kansas Fruit Vinegar Compan)-, 
which had a large business here. In religion he 
is a Presbyterian. 

In Missouri Captain Carpenter married Miss 
Mary E. Dodge, who was born in Papinsville, 
that state. She was an eye witness of the first 
fight with the guerillas and some of the bullets 
struck the house where she lived. Her father, 
Jonathan, who was from Vermont, went to the 
gold fields of California and died there. Her 
mother v»'as a daughter of Rev. Dr. Austin, a 
Presbyterian minister and a relative of Dr. Storrs, 
of New York. The family was among the first 
to establish the mission at Papinsville, settling 
among the Osage Indians there. Her mother 
died in 1896. Her uncle. Dr. Leonard Dodge, 
makes his home in Papinsville and is the most 
influential citizen of the town. Captain and Mrs. 
Carpenter have two sons, namely: James R. and 
Walter Storrs, both graduates of the Lawrence 
high school. The older son is with his father in 
business, and the younger is traveling salesman 
for the American Tobacco Company. 

HON. P. P. ELDER, vice-president of the 
Ottawa Publishing Company and a pioneer 
of 1857 in Franklin County, was born in 
Somerset County, Me., September 30, 1823, a 
son of Isaac and Mary (Quint) Elder. The El- 
der family is of Scotch- Irish lineage. In an earlj' 
day some of that name crossed the ocean from 
the north of Ireland. From 1717 they were 
identified with the history of Cumberland County, 
Me. There the paternal grandfather was bom 
and reared, and from there he accompanied a 
company of soldiers to engage in the service of 
his country during the Revolutionary war. As a 
private in General Stark's army he endured all 
the hardships and perils incident to that memora- 
ble struggle. In the battle of Bennington he was 
wounded in one eye, but with that exception es- 
caped unharmed. 

Born and reared in Cumberland County, Isaac 
Elder removed from there to Somerset County 
and cleared a farm in the midst of the woods. In 

addition to agricultural pursuits he engaged in 
the lumber business for many years. He con- 
tinued to make his home in Maine until his death, 
which occurred in 18 48, at seventy years of age. 
His wife, who also spent her entire life in Maine, 
was the daughter of a Revolutionary hero, who 
took part in the battle of Bennington and other 
engagements. In a family of eight children, all 
of whom reached mature years, the subject of 
this article is the only one now living. One of 
his brothers, Alva, who was a soldier in a Maine 
regiment during the Civil war, came to Kansas in 
1868 and died in Franklin County in July, 1898. 

The first thirty j'ears" in the life of Mr. Elder 
were passed in Maine. His education was ob- 
tained in Farmington Academy and Maine Wes- 
leyan University at Reedfield. From sixteen un- 
til twenty-four years of age he taught school, af- 
ter which he bought a farm near his old home 
place and engaged in agricultural pursuits. While 
he had never traveled to any extent, his- mind 
had broadened by reading, and he kept posfed 
concerning the issues before the people. ;, Not 
everyone who had tra\^el^d the length and brealdth 
of our country was^aJamiliar with its problems 
as he, althouglx^^rfiiad* never been out of New 
England. H^svag'ajways opposed to the institu- 
tion of slavgry',. wljfch he regarded as a menace to 
the prosperity 'of a nation. In 1844, upon attain- 
ing his majority, he began to identify himself with 
publi^'Saifs, and cast one of the sixteen votes 
foi;,^bolition principles in the old town. From 
tlj^t'time onward he was pledged to the abolition 
of slavery and gave his support to men of similar 
belief. When the question arose as to whether 
Kansas should be a free or slave state he decided 
to come west and cast in his fortunes with the 
free-state people. Coming to Franklin County 
in 1857, he took up a claim and at the same time 
became a member of the state militia. Eighteen 
months later he brought his family to the west. 
The family settled on the farm near Ohio City, 
which he had entered for $1.25 an acre. 

Shortly after Abraham Lincoln became presi- 
dent he appointed Mr. Elder agent to the Osage 
and Seneca Indians at Fort Scott, a position that 
he filled for four years. Meantime he recruited a 



regiment of Osage Indians and kept that tribe 
and other Indian nations on the side of the Union, 
his work in that line being invaluable. He re- 
signed as agent April 30, 1865. On his return to 
Franklin County he settled in Ottawa, which 
had recently been organized and in which he 
built the first substantial house in 1865-66, haul- 
ing the material for the residence from Kansas 
City and Lawrence. In 1866 he established the 
banking firm of P. P. Elder & Co. , which con- 
tinued in business for five years. In the fall of 
1871 he organized the First National Bank of Ot- 
tawa, of which he was president for two years, 
and then sold his interest. Since then he has de- 
voted himself largely to the cattle business. For 
more than thirty years he handled and fed more 
cattle than anyone in the county, and at onetime 
he owned twelve hundred acres of land, the most 
of which was in one body. 

Mr. Elder has been closely identified with terri- 
torial and state politics. In 1859 he was elected 
clerk of the territorial house. The following year 
he was elected to the territorial council, which 
met at Lecompton and adjourned to Lawrence, 
where the session was held. The second session 
opened at Lecompton January i, 1861, and ad- 
journed to Lawrence as usual. Under the Wyan- 
dotte constitution Mr. Elder was elected to the 
state senate and served in the first session that 
met at Topeka, under the proclamation of Gov- 
ernor Robinson, in March, 1861. In 1868 he 
was chosen to fill a vacancy in the state senate. 
In 1875, 1876 and 1877 he served as a member of 
the house, in which he was chairman of the com- 
mittee on ways and means, and was elected 
speaker in January, 1878. In 1870 he held the 
chairmanship of the Republican state central 
committee. In the fall of the same j-ear he was 
elected lieutenant-governor of Kansas and served 
as president of the senate for two years. While 
he was serving as a member of the house of 
representatives in 1883 the first railroad bill be- 
came a law, and he was a member of the last con- 
ference committee. In 189 1 he was elected to 
the "alliance" house of representatives, and was 
unanimously chosen to act as speaker. 

While identified closely with the history of the 

.state. Governor Elder (for by this title he is best 
known) has never neglected or been indifferent to 
the welfare of Ottawa, his home city. From the 
time of its start to the present he has been one of 
its most progressive citizens. Its progress has 
been ever near to his heart. Measures for the 
advancement of the city or the prosperity of the 
people have always been given his aid and sym- 
pathy. As mayor of the city he labored to pro- 
mote its prosperity and enlarge its business 
interests. Largely to his efforts was due the 
building of the first railroad to Ottawa. He 
organized a company, of which he was president, 
and which built a railroad (now a part of the 
Santa Fe system) from Ottawa to Olathe, thus 
making a short cut to Kansas City. Through 
his negotiations the machine shops were located 
in Ottawa. He is interested in the gas company 
here and in other enterprises calculated to pro- 
mote the prosperity of the place. In 1896 he 
founded the Ottawa Times, of which he was editor 
and proprietor, but after two years, by consolida- 
tion, Xhe. Republican- Times was tsiahlished. This 
paper is owned by the Ottawa PubUshing Com- 
pany, of which he is vice-president. It is one 
of the leading daily papers of the state, and much 
of its popularity is due to his concise, keen and 
pointed editorials, which frequently appear in its 

During his residence in Maine, in 1845, Gov- 
ernor Elder married Catharine, daughter of 
Daniel Felker, a farmer of that state. They are 
the parents of two children: Aldama P., who is 
engaged in business in Ottawa; and Lena E., 
wife of E. E. Fuller, also of this city. 

^LBERT A. ALLEN, M. D., D. D. S., of 
LJ Ottawa, was born in Jerseyville, Jersey 
n County, 111., a son of A. A. and Elizabeth 
(Close) Allen, natives respectively of New Jer- 
sey and Jersey County, 111. His paternal grand- 
father, who was a member of an old family of New 
Jersey, became a pioneer of Michigan, settling in 
Oakland, where he followed the trade of tanner 
and currier until his death. The maternal grand- 
father, George Close, owned boats that plied the 



waters of the Mississippi and engaged in the 
steamboat business until his death, which oc- 
curred in Illinois. 

The father of our subject was a physician 
whose skill and knowledge brought him a large 
practice. He practiced in Janesville, Wis. , and 
Jersej'ville, 111., and from the latter place, in 
April, 1859, brought his family to Kansas, set- 
tling on- a claim in Allen County near what is 
now the village of Kincaid. There, in addition to 
farming, he practiced his profession. During the 
Civil war he offered his services to the Union army, 
but at the earnest request of his neighbors, who 
felt the county could ill afford to lose his services 
as a physician, he gave up his plan of entering the 
army. In religion he was a Baptist and fraternal- 
ly was connected with the Masons. He continued 
to reside near Kincaid until his death, which oc- 
curred in 1893, at sixty-four years of age. His 
widow is still living on the homestead. Of their 
four children two are living. Our subject, who 
was the eldest of the four, was born July 31 , 1852, 
and was less than seven years of age when the 
family moved to Kansas. Hence his life has been 
identified almost wholly with this state. He at- 
tended the academy at Geneva, Kans., after 
which he taught one term of school. For his 
life calling he first selected dentistry, which he 
studied in Leavenworth under Dr. J. K. Merrick. 
In 1879 he opened an office in Osborne, of which 
place he was the first regular practicing dentist. 
After two years he removed to Linn County, and 
was one of the first to put up a business block in 
Blue Mound, where he erected a large double 
store, with the intention of using a part of the 
building as a drug store. 

In the mean time Dr. Allen had become inter- 
ested in the study of medicine, which he carried 
on in the Kansas City Homeopathic Medical Col- 
lege, taking two full courses of lectures. He then 
engaged in the practice of medicine at Lincoln 
Center, Lincoln County, where he remained for 
three years. In 1889 he came to Ottawa and has 
since given his attention principally to the medical 
profession, although to some extent he practices 
dentistry. Politically he is a Democrat, but has 
never been active in party affairs. He was mar- 

ried in Allen Count}' to Miss Hattie C. Martin, 
who was born in Ogle County, 111., a daughter of 
Freeman Martin, a wealthy farmer now residing 
in Allen County, Kans. They are the parents 
of three daughters, Elizabeth Mathilda, Lillian 
Frances and Bessie Lou, all of whom possess 
musical ability and are being given excellent ad- 
vantages in that art. 

r" RANK P. FITZ WILLIAM, a practicing at- 
ry torney of Leavenworth, has spent his life in 
I this city, where he was born June 7, 1873. 
He was reared here and his education was ob- 
tained in the public schools. After graduating 
from the high school in 189 1 he began the study 
of law in the office of Mr. Wheat, where he con- 
tinued until he was admitted to the bar in June, 
1894. From his father, the late ex-Senator 
FitzWilliam, he inherited powers of mind that 
enable him to master the most intricate problems 
connected with the law. He is well posted in 
everything that pertains to the profession. His 
studies did not cease with his admission to the 
bar; he has been a constant student, ever eager 
to broaden his knowledge of law in its many 

Upon the Democratic ticket, in April, 1896, 
Mr. FitzWilliam was elected justice of the peace, 
and served for two years in that capacit)', after 
which he was not a candidate for re-election, but 
resumed the practice of law. In the fall of 1898 
he was nominated for representative of the 
seventh district in the legislature on the straight 
Democratic ticket. Notwithstanding the fact 
that the district is largely Republican, he re- 
ceived such stanch support that he tied his op- 
ponent, F. B. Dawes. However, the vote of the 
few soldiers in Cuba enabled Mr. Dawes to se- 
cure the seat. In a subsequent contest at the 
same election for prosecuting attorney it was 
shown that eighty votes had not been counted, 
which mistake would have elected Mr. FitzWil- 
liam by over twenty-five votes. The record 
made by Mr. FitzWilliam was the best ever made 
in this district by a Democrat. He has served as 
a member of the city and county committees of 




his party and in other wajs has promoted Demo- 
cratic principles. In religion he is a member of 
the First Presbj'terian Church. 

gENJAMIN B. MOORE, deceased, was a 
pioneer of 1S54 in Leavenworth County, 
and long held a position among the most 
honored and influential business men of Alex- 
andria Township. His early years were spent 
in Fauquier County, Va., where he was born 
August 2, 1820, and where for a time he was 
employed as an overseer, but, foreseeing the 
development of the great western plains, he early 
came to Kansas. The first employment he se- 
cured was with Mr. Russell in freighting across 
the plains, and he was given charge of the out- 
fitting and starting of trains running to Salt Lake 
City. Later he came to Alexandria Township 
and superintended Mr. Russell's large sawmill 
on the Big Stranger, where he often had as many 
as one hundred men under him. An excellent 
judge of timber, he could estimate very closely 
the quantity in any tree, and was equally expert 
in judging as to quality. He took up one hun- 
dred and sixty acres of the finest bottom land 
here, and then began the improvement of the 
property. In this work he was aided by the 
sympathy and appreciation of Mr. Russell, who 
assisted him both materially and by advice. He 
continued in the employ of Russell, Majors, 
Waddell & Co. , until their partnership was dis- 
solved in the spring of iS6i, after which he gave 
all of his time to the cultivation of his land and 
to the buying and selling of farm property. From 
the beginning of his agricultural ventures he 
invested in stock. Aided by his industrious and 
energetic wife he prospered as a farmer, and 
while he was managing his landed investments 
his wife took care of the chickens and the cows, 
thus assisting him greatly in getting a start. 
Unlike many men he made his brains earn more 
than his hands, and used intelligence in every 
business enterprise. Not only was he energetic 
and persevering, but economical as well, and in 
all his dealings he was strictly honest and fair. 
Generosity was one of his leading attributes of 

character. As an instance of his kindness of 
heart, it may be stated that, meeting his former 
employer, Mr. Russell, when on a visit to New 
York, he learned that Mr. Russell had lost ever>'- 
thing and was almost destitute, but thought he 
saw a favorable opening, and stated that if he 
had $400 or $500 he could make another start. 
Immediately upon his return home Mr. Moore 
sent him $500 as a gift. 

Actively interested in local politics as a Demo- 
crat Mr. Moore cared nothing for ofiice, but con- 
sented to serve as one of the county commission- 
ers. He was a member first of High Prairie 
Lodge No. 25, A. F. & A. M., and later of 
Easton Lodge No. 45. His death occurred 
August 19, 1898, and his funeral was attended 
by members of the Masonic lodges of Leaven- 
worth and Easton. He was twice married; 
first, January 10, 1850, to Cecelia A. Tansell, 
who died February 27, 1854. Three children 
were born of their union: Susan C, who is the 
wife of Rev. J. O. Forsman; Robert W., de- 
ceased; and Mary Frances, Mrs. Alfred Rhodes. 
February 9, 1857, Mr. Moore was united in mar- 
riage with Caroline Aldridge, of Muskingum 
County, Ohio. Her father, Azel Aldridge, was 
born in Baltimore of English parentage, and was 
a millwright by trade. He married Catherine 
Flesher, whose father came from Germany, and 
settled in Ohio when the Indians were still 
numerous there. Mrs. Moore was one of seven 
children, and the youngest of three now living. 
To her marriage three children were born, name- 
ly: Charles O., a farmer in Alexandria Town- 
ship; Henry S., deceased; and Virginia Louise, 
wife of Dr. W. B. Wood, formerly of Leaven- 
worth County, but now living in California. 

EHARLES O. MOORE, who is engaged in 
farming in Alexandria Township, Leaven- 
worth County, was born in the township 
where he now resides, March 30, 1859, and is a 
son of Benjamin B. and Caroline Moore. He 
was educated in the district schools here, and 
also attended school in Platte City, Mo. When 
his education was completed he began to assist 



in the cultivation of the home farm, and has 
since been connected with agricultural interests. 
When about twenty-one he settled upon a farm 
in High Prairie Township, but later returned to 
Alexandria Township, and settled upon the 
place which he now occupies. He cultivates 
eighty acres in his home place, and also rents 
one hundred and sixty acres in High Prairie 

In political views Mr. Moore is a supporter of 
Democratic principles. Fraternally he is con- 
nected with Easton Lodge No. 45, A. F. & A. M. ; 
Topeka Consistory No. i, Scottish Rite, and 
Abdallah Temple, N. M. S., of Leavenworth. 
As a citizen he favors all measures for the benefit 
of the people of his county, and is actively iden- 
tified with various enterprises calculated to ad- 
vance the interests of his township. His first 
marriage took place October 3, 1881, and united 
him with Miss Ida McCune, daughter of Adam 
McCune. Two sons were born of that marriage, 
Claude L- and Raymond A. His second mar- 
riage occurred January 3, 1893, and united him 
with Octavia Adams, daughter of Ross Adams, 
of Leavenworth County. This union has been 
blessed by two children, Ernest M. and Caro- 
line L- 

HON. F. P. FITZ WILLIAM, deceased, for- 
merly a well-known citizen of Leavenworth 
and a member of both the lower and the 
upper houses of the legislature, was born in 
Washington County, Pa. He was a son of 
Francis FitzWilliam, who descended from Earl 
Fitz William of England, and was a farmer of 
Pennsylvania, where he took part in the early 
whisky riots of that state. In Washington and 
Jefferson College (the college which James G. 
Blaine attended) our subject received his classi- 
cal education, and afterward he read law with 
Judge Montgomery, of Washington, Pa. Ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1855, he remained in his 
home state for two years. At that time consid- 
erable excitement was being aroused in behalf of 
Kansas. Its destiny, as free or slave .state, lay 
in the hands of its people; consequently thou- 
sands from both north and south cast their for- 

tunes in with the territory, hoping their influ- 
ence might count for the cause they espoused. 
In 1855 a free state constitution was framed at 
Topeka and in 1857 a pro-slavery constitution 
was drawn up at Lecompton, but neither became 
operative. The struggle between free-soilers 
and slave-state supporters continued until finally 
the war settled, forever, the great problem that 
had so long confronted our country. 

It was during the height of the political agita- 
tion, in 1857, that Mr. FitzWilliam came to 
Kansas. He opened an ofiice in Leavenworth, 
where he continued to reside for twenty years, 
or until his death, in 1877. ^^ 1865 he was a mem- 
ber of Governor Carney's staff, with the rank of 
lieutenant-colonel. In politics he supported the 
Democratic party. He was a member of one of 
the first senates that met after the admission of 
Kansas into the Union, and he also served in the 
assembly, besides holding the local offices of 
county and city attorney. 

The marriage of Mr. FitzWilliam in June, 1868, 
united him with Eliza Clay Jackson, who was 
born in Bowling Green, Ky., a daughter of John 
Jackson, and a member of a Virginian family to 
which belonged General " Stonewall " Jackson. 
She was reared in Kentucky and graduated from 
the seminary in that state. She is now living at 
the family residence, where her son F. P., and 
daughter. Miss Elizabeth, also reside. Her other 
daughters are, Mrs. E. L. Carney and Mrs. Omar 
M. Abernathy, both of Leavenworth. 

(] OHN W. CRANCER. Not only as a pioneer 
I of Leavenworth, but also as one of its pro- 
(2/ gressive and enterprising business men, Mr. 
Crancer is well known in the business circles of 
this city. Since he arrived in Leavenworth, 
February 22, 1857, he has witnessed many 
changes in the town and has been personally 
interested in its development. Through his 
efficiency as a business man he has not only 
promoted his own success, but the prosperity of 
the city as well. Since 1884 he has been the pro- 
prietor of a large wholesale hardware establish- 
ment, and has built up a trade that extends 



through this state and into Colorado and Okla- 
homa. On the corner of Delaware and Third 
streets he has a building with a frontage of fort)'- 
eight feet and three stories in height, besides 
which he has two warehouses of four floors each, 
on Delaware and Cherokee streets respectively, 
the total floor space aggregating thirty-two 
thousand feet. 

John W. Crancer was reared in St. Louis and 
when fifteen years of age was apprenticed to the 
tinner's trade, which he followed for some years 
in that city. For a time he was employed as 
bookkeeper with the firm of L. F. Hastings & 
Co., and it was while in this position he decided 
to engage in business in Leavenworth with 
Stewart Hastings, firm of Crancer & Hastings. 
With a capital of $700 he embarked in business 
here. They opened a small shop on Cherokee 
street, between Main and Second, and began 
to manufacture tinware in a building eighteen 
feet square. They also sold stoves and house 
furnishing goods. 

One year after coming to Leavenworth Crancer 
& Hastings built a two-story structure 24 x 75, 
on Delaware, between Fourth and Fifth, and in 
that building the firm of Crancer & Hastings 
carried on business. In 1861 he bought his 
partner's interest and continued alone. After a 
time he built a store across the street from his 
former location. In the meantime he became 
interested in a business of which he had pre- 
viously known nothing. He was asked to make 
a cornice for which he was furnished plans. At 
once giving his attention to the work, within a 
day he had put himself in possession of the de- 
tails. Soon he had the cornice completed. His 
estimate of the first cost was within a few dollars 
of the exact amount, and the work still stands, 
although more than thirty-five years have passed 
since its completion. Afterward he was given 
work of a similar nature throughout the state, 
including some important contracts in Leaven- 
worth and throughout the state. In order to 
carry on the business with a better understand- 
ing he went to New York City, where he found 
two cornices. These were the only shops in the 
entire country besides his own. While con- 

ducting this business he continued the manu- 
facture of tinware and also had contracts for 
roofing, etc. When he first settled in Leaven- 
worth there were more than seventy-five tinners in 
the town, but the business changed in subsequent 
years, by the introduction of machinery, etc., 
and now there are only about six, these being em- 
ployed simply for repair work. It was this fact 
that caused him to turn his attention to the hard- 
ware business. He bought out John F. Richards 
and has since built up a large wholesale trade, 
which is conducted under the firm name of J. W. 
Crancer & Co., the other member being his son, 
Edwin W., who is general manager of the busi- 

The marriage of Mr. Crancer, in St. Louis, 
united him with Miss Mary Nichols, who was 
born in Manchester, England, and is an estimable 
lady, and an active member of the Episcopal 
Church. Five children were born of this union, 
four girls and Edwin W. In addition to his 
business interests Mr. Crancer has been con- 
nected with mining enterprises in Colorado, and 
is also the owner of a stock farm of eleven 
hundred acres in Tonganoxie Township. The 
only offices he has ever consented to hold have 
been those of an educational nature, and as school 
director he was instrumental in promoting the 
welfare of the city schools. Prior to the presi- 
dential campaign of 1896 he was a Democrat, but 
when that party declared for free silver in its 
platform he left it and has since been independent. 

Gl LFRED H. SLATER is one of the enter- 
Ll prising business men of Franklin County. 
/ I In 1895 he opened a general store at Nor- 
wood, Hayes Township, and has since built up a 
large trade, having by fair dealings and courteous 
manners won the confidence of the people of his 
locality. His sales amount to about $7,000 per 
annum, and his trade extends all through the 
surrounding country. The store and residence 
which he occupies were erected on property that 
he purchased after coming here. He is also the 
owner of one hundred and sixty acres of pasture 
land, which he uses for the grazing of stock. In 



addition to the management of his store he buys 
Uve stock, which he feeds and then ships, having 
been engaged in the shipping business since 
1883. He is a stockholder in the Ottawa Re- 
publica7i ajid Times, and is interested in all 
enterprises aiming at the promotion of the coun- 
ty's welfare. 

William Slater, our subject's father, was born, 
reared and educated in England, and engaged in 
farming there. At thirty years of age he came 
to America and settled in Putnam County, 111., 
thence removed to Grundy Count}-, the same 
state, where his son, Alfred, was born June 30, 
1857. In religion he was a Baptist. Until the 
time of Horace Greeley's candidacy he was a 
Republican, but after that he adhered to Demo- 
cratic principles. His first wife died in England, 
leaving a son, John. After settling in Illinois he 
married Hypatia Hume, by whom he had three 
sons, Alfred H., William and Edward H., all 
residents of Hayes Township. In the spring of 
1882 the father came to Kansas and settled in 
Franklin County, where he died. In financial 
matters he was successful, and on leaving Illinois 
sold his farm of two hundred acres for $75 an 
acre, investing some of this money in the pur- 
chase of five hundred acres in Hayes Township. 

After leaving grammar school our subject 
attended a normal school for four years. After 
coming to Kansas his father gave into his charge 
the care of the farm property, and he engaged in 
stock-raising there, buying and feeding on a 
large scale. Since 1895 he has also been pro- 
prietor of a_ store. As clerk of the school board 
he has done all within his power to advance edu- 
cational matters in his locality, and was one of 
those who succeeded in having district No. 97 
established. Active in the Democratic party, he 
has served as delegate to county and congres- 
sional conventions. His business has been such 
as to prevent his attendance at the state conven- 
tions. For seven years he served as township 
trustee, and for two years each he filled the ofiice 
of treasurer and clerk. Had he the time to en- 
gage in politics actively he would undoubtedly 
be one of the leaders of his party in the county. 
In the Christian Church he has served as clerk and 

deacon, and he assisted largely in the erection of 
the house of worship owned by this congregation 
in Norwood. He is a member of the Fraternal 
Aid Association. September 2, 1884, he married 
Alice Dell Halej', by whom he has two children, 
Walter Gay and Gertrude. 

pGJlLUAM W. ERASER, a hero of the Civil 
lAi war, and since 1869 a resident of Ottawa, 
VV was born in Ayr, Ayrshire, Scotland, 
March 7, 1844, a son of James and Jean (Doug- 
las) Eraser. His grandfather, Simon Eraser, 
was born in the highlands of Scotland, and was 
a direct descendant of one of the same name 
who fought under Wallace. He had a brother 
who was killed at Montreal while serving in the 
French and Indian war. After having been for 
some years superintendent of a coal mine in 
Ayrshire, in 1858 James Eraser brought his fam- 
ily to America and settled in Alton, 111., where 
he died at the age of sixty-three years. His 
wife, who died in the same city at fifty-five years, 
was the daughter of a Scotchman who served in 
the British army and died in India. James and 
Jean Fraser were the parents of ten children, of 
whom our subject was sixth in order of birth. 
One son, James, who was a sergeant in Company 
I, Ninety-seventh Illinois Infantry, was killed at 
Vicksburg. Three sons are now living, one of 
these being John, of Milwaukee, who served iu 
Company G, Ninety-seventh Illinois Infantry, 
during the Civil war. 

The subject of this sketch accompanied the 
other members of the family to America in 1858, 
taking passage at Liverpool on the sailing vessel 
"Richard Robinson," and arriving in New York 
after a voyage of twenty-one days. Afterward 
he attended school in winters and worked on a 
farm during summer months. August 4, 1864, 
he enlisted in what was afterward known as 
Company I, Ninety-seventh Illinois Infantry; 
was mustered into service at Camp Butler, near 
Springfield, 111., October 8, and from there 
marched to Covington, Ky., Lexington, Cynthi- 
ana, Nicholasville and Louisville, and thence by 
boat to Memphis. December 20 the company 



left Memphis for Vicksbiirg. He took part in 
the charge at Haines' Bluff under General Sher- 
man, December 30-January i, where the Thir- 
teenth army corps was repulsed. At Arkansas 
Post his regiment occupied the extreme left, and 
was the first regiment to place its colors on Fort 
Hindman. The regiment went down the river 
to Young's Point, opposite Vicksburg, and was 
for three days engaged in digging on the canal 
across the point where the Mississippi now flows. 
The active campaign against Vicksburg com- 
menced April 16, 1863, with the corps under 
Gen. John A. McCleruand in the advance, and 
crossed the Mississippi at Bruinsburg, reaching 
Port Gibson, Miss., on the morning of May i. 
The Ninety-seventh made two charges. In the 
first they captured two pieces of artillery; in the 
second they were repulsed. The battle of Cham- 
pion Hills occurred May 16, and the next day 
was the battle of Big Black River, where the 
Ninety-seventh Illinois and the Nineteenth Ken- 
tucky, supported by the Forty-eighth Ohio, 
captured three regiments and their colors, two 
batteries, one of four guns and one of five guns. 
The battle of Vicksburg commenced May ig. In 
the first charge twenty-seven of Mr. Fraser's 
regiment were killed and wounded, among the 
killed being his brother, James. May 22, two 
men from each company volunteered to make an 
assault, as a forlorn hope, on a certain point of 
the enemy's works. They were ordered to leave 
their money and watches, if they had any, with 
their comrades. John G. Miller and W. W. 
Fraser volunteered from Company I, and with 
Edwin Lowe, of Company K, succeeded in 
reaching a point so close as to prevent the Con- 
federates from having a flank fire on the charg- 
ing column, and made it possible for the Union 
men to take and hold the fort for three hours. 
General Lawler, commander of the brigade, and 
Gen. A. J. Smith, commander of the division, 
wrote to Secretary Staunton in regard to the 
three men who showed such remarkable bravery, 
and the secretarj- granted them three months' 
furlough with six months' pay. Lowe was pro- 
moted to sergeant and color bearer, while our 
subject was promoted to corporal and one of 

eight color guards. John G. Miller was killed 
November i, 1864, while Edwin Lowe fell in a 
charge that resulted in the capture of Mobile. 

Thirty-two years after the battle of Vicksburg 
Mr. Fraser received the following letter from the 
record and pension office in Washington City: 

"S/'r: I have the honor to inform you that, by 
direction of the president and in accordance with 
the act of congress approved March 3, 1863, 
providing for the presentation of medals of honor 
to such oHicers, non-commissioned officers and 
privates as have most distinguished themselves in 
action, the assistant secretary of war has awarded 
you a medal of honor for most distinguished gal- 
lantry in action at the battle of Vicksburg, Miss., 
May 22, 1863, while a member of a volunteer 
storming party upon the enemy's works. The 
medal has been forwarded to you to-day by regis- 
tered mail. Upon receipt of it, please advise this 
office thereof. 

"Very respectfully, 

(Signed) "W. C. Ainsworth, 
"Col. U. S. A., ChiefRecord and Pension Office." 

In addition to the medal of honor Mr. Fraser 
was also awarded a ribbon of the pattern pre- 
scribed and established by the president under 
the provision of the joint resolution of congress, 
approved May 2, 1896, to replace the ribbon to 
which the medal of honor was attached, and a 
knot to be worn in lieu of the medal. He also 
received from Washington a certificate of mem- 
bership of the Medal of Honor Legion of the 
United States. This certificate is highly artistic, 
having on the left the army medal of honor in 
perfect colors of the medal, and underneath a 
battle scene on land. On the right is the naval 
medal of honor in colors and underneath a naval 
engagement, while above is a fac-simile of the 
knot of ribbon to be worn in lieu of the medal. 
At the bottom is the seal of the legion. The 
document reads as follows. "In the name and by 
the authority of the Medal of Honor Legion of 
the United States, to all whom these presents 
shall come, greeting: Know ye that William W. 
Fraser, having received a medal of honor for dis- 
tinguished gallantry in action, in accordance 
with the act of congress, and having rendered 



faithful service in maintaining the honor, integ- 
rity and supremacy of the United States, was re- 
ceived as a companion of the first class of the 
Medal of Honor Legion of the United States of 
America, on the second day of May, Anno 
Domini, eighteen hundred and ninety-six. 

"In testimony whereof, the names of the com- 
mander and adjutant and the seal of the order 
are hereunto affixed. Given at Washington, 
D. C. , this ninth day of June, in the year of our 
Lord, 1897." 

(Signed) Nelson A. Miles, Commander. 
John Tweedale, Adjutant. 

There being only five other medals of the kind 
in the state, the honor conferred upon Mr. Fraser 
is no common one, and it is natural that he 
should prize his medal of honor above any other 
earthly possession. Just before his furlough of 
three months he took part in the battles along 
the Mississippi to New Orleans, and accom- 
panied General Banks on the Red River expedi- 
tion. After the surrender of General Lee his 
regiment was sent with others along the gulf 
coast to the Rio Grande River to menace the 
French usurpation under Maximilian. He was 
mustered out at Galveston, Tex., and honorably 
discharged at Camp Butler, August 19, 1865. 
Afterward he attended Shurtleff College in Alton, 
111., for six months, and then clerked in a cloth- 
ing store in that city. In the spring of 1869 he 
settled in Ottawa, where for sixteen years he 
conducted a grocery business. In 1885 he built 
a brick store, two stories, 25x80, and in 1886 he 
opened a dry-goods business here, which he has 
since carried on successfully. In politics he is a 
Democrat. He is a member of the Veterans' 
Association of the Ninety-seventh Illinois In- 
fantry and George H. Thomas Post No. 18, 
G. A. R. He is past commander of the Select 
Knights, past master workman of the Ancient 
Order of United Workmen, a past officer in the 
lodge and encampment of Odd Fellows, and a 
member of Franklin Lodge No. 18, A. F. & A. M., 
at Ottawa, having been made a Mason in Alton 
more than thirty years ago. He was married in 
Alton to Miss Jennie Rutledge, who was born in 
Durham, England, and came to America with 

her father, John Rutledge, settling in Alton. 
Mr. and Mrs. Fraser have two children: Mrs. 
Ethel Woodlief, of Brookfield, Mo.; and Jean, 
at home. 

ELAUDE L. COWDERY, M. D. The fam- 
ily represented by this prominent business 
man of Ottawa is of English descent, but 
was identified with the early history of New 
England, and some of its members took part in 
the Indian and Revolutionary wars. From its 
original form of Coudray the name was changed 
to its present spelling. Elijah Cowdery was born 
in New Haven, Conn., and moved to Trumbull 
County, Ohio, where he spent his remaining 
years upon a farm. His son, Lyman, a native 
of Trumbull County, went south in early man- 
hood, driving in a two-wheeled gig from Ohio 
to Columbus, Ga. There he opened a general 
store, his goods having been shipped from the 
north to Savannah and from there conveyed by 
teams to Columbus, four hundred and fifty miles 
distant. He was the youngest of thirteen sons, 
the eldest of whom, Lester, had in youth gone 
south and settled at Columbus, so that the two 
brothers never met until the youngest arrived in 

At the opening of the Civil war Lyman Cow- 
dery was drafted into the Confederate army; but 
he refused to take up arms against the people of 
the north, with whom he was in sympathy, so he 
was assigned to the commissary department. As 
soon as possible he left the south and went to 
New York City, where he engaged in business 
until the close of the war. When peace was de- 
clared, in 1865, he returned to Georgia by the 
first steamer that sailed for Savannah. When off 
Cape Hatteras this ship was wrecked and one 
hundred and fifty-six persons were drowned. He 
was among those who perished in the wreck. At 
that time he was forty-five years of age. Twice 
married, his first wife was Sarah Lewis, daughter 
of Judge Ulysses Lewis, who was born in Mil- 
ledgeville, Ga., and removed to Russell County, 
Ala. , where he was district attorney. He was a 
descendant of Welsh ancestors who settled in 
Virginia. His daughter, Sarah, was born in 



Alabama and died there prior to the war. After- 
ward her sister, Jennie, became the wife of Mr. 
Cowderj', and some years after his death was 
married to Mr. Murdock, a large and prominent 
planter; she died in Alabama in 1880. 

The two children of Lyman Cowdery were born 
of his first marriage. The danghter, Mrs. Sallie 
Freeny, resides in Columbus, Ga. The son, who 
forms the subject of this article, was born in 
Columbus in April, 1856. After his father's 
death he was sent north and received his educa- 
tion in Warren Academy, in Warren, Ohio, re- 
turning to Columbus after a few years, and grad- 
uating from the Columbus high school in 1S74. 
Two years later he graduated from the Atlanta 
Medical College, with the degree of M. D. His 
health being poor he went to Denver, Colo., 
hoping that the change of climate might prove 
beneficial. After a year he returned to Alabama, 
and married Ida Lucas, daughter of William 
Lucas, who was a prominent planter near Mont- 
gomery and died during a visit in Ottawa. 

In 1877 Dr. Cowdery settled in Ottawa, and as 
a member of the firm of Becker & Cowdery em- 
barked in the drug business. In 1890 he sold 
out to his partner and opened a drug store on 
the north side, where he owns his store building 
and has built up a fine trade. He is a member 
of the board of health and formerly served upon 
the school board. Fraternally he is connected 
with the Knights of Pythias, Modern Woodmen, 
Lodge No. 128, A. F. & A. M., and Chapter No. 
7, R. A. M. In the Episcopal Church he is an 
active worker and a member of the vestry. He 
is a charter member of the Kansas Pharmaceuti- 
cal Association and a member of the Chautauqua 
Association. A Democrat in politics, he has 
served on the city central committee and as a 
member of the county committee. His first wife 
died in Ottawa, leaving two sons, Claude L. and 
Clifford M., both at home. Afterward he was 
married in this city to Alice, daughter of Samuel 
Barnett, who was twice elected treasurer of 
Franklin County and was a prominent farmer of 
this county, where he died in 1897. Mrs. Cow- 
dery was born in Ottawa and received her educa- 
tion in the high school of this city, from which 

she graduated. Both Dr. and Mrs. Cowdery 
have many friends among their acquaintances 
and are respected for their worth of character 
and for their interest in all enterprises for the ad- 
vancement of Ottawa. 

I^EORGE C. RICHARDSON, oneof Leaven- 
\y^ worth's influential business men, is a mem- 
vU ber of the firm of Ryan & Richardson, 
wholesale dealers in fruits. Matthew Ryan, Jr., 
his partner, to whose keen business acumen and 
untiring energy their success was in no small 
degree due, is now deceased, so that the responsi- 
bility of managing and carrying forward the 
large business lies entirely with the junior mem- 
ber of the firm. That he has proved equal to the 
emergency the continued success of the enter- 
prise indicates. In the firm's cold storage house 
at Nos. 515-521 Cherokee street there is a stor- 
age capacity of two hundred cars or thirty-five 
thousand barrels, it being the largest cold stor- 
age plant in the city. One hundred thousand 
barrels of apples are handled annually, the busi- 
ness extending through all the northern and 
southern states; for many years the apples have 
been marketed in New York City and exported to 
London, Liverpool and Hamburg. 

In 1897, in partnership with Mrs. Dacotah S. 
Ryan, the widow of Matthew Ryan, Jr., Mr. 
Richardson organized the Missouri Valley Or- 
chard Company, of which he is president and 
manager, and Mrs. Ryan secretary and treasurer. 
The company purchased eight hundred acres of 
land twenty-two miles southwest of Leaven- 
worth, on the Kansas City & Northwestern 
Railroad, and here they have planted forty thou- 
sand apple trees, which, as soon as they are in 
bearing condition, will prove a very profitable in- 
vestment for the owners. In 1896 Mr. Richard- 
son erected in South Leavenworth an ice manu- 
facturing plant, with a capacity of sixty tons, 
about one-half of whose product is distributed 
through central and southern Kansas. In 1897 
he built a pork-packing house and leased it to 
Wilke & Co. , who have since carried on business 



Mr. Richardson was born in Leavenworth 
November 14, 1856, and was the second white 
child born in this city, and now the oldest native- 
born citizen here. His parents were Jason P. 
and Mary (King) Richardson, who came to 
Leavenworth in 1855. Mr. Richardson engaged 
in the general merchandise business and resided 
here until his death; his widow is still living, in 
Leavenworth. In 1876 our subject entered Barre 
(Vt.) Academy, where he was a student for two 
years. On his return to Leavenworth he gradu- 
ated from Skillman's Business College. In 1878 
he was given employment at $1.56 a day with 
Havens & Co., of Leavenworth. After about 
two years he was taken into the firm, being given 
a one-third interest in the business. In 1882 
their mill was destroyed by a mill-dust explosion 
and burned to the ground. Afterward, with 
A. B. Havens, as Havens & Richardson, he 
started a canning factory, which he conducted for 
a year. His next venture was the purchase of a 
flour mill at Waldron, Mo., but the high water 
in 1883 damaged the mill to such an extent as to 
impair its usefulness. 

In 1886 the firm of Richardson, Simon & Co. 
embarked in the fruit business in Leavenworth, 
also established a branch at Wichita, Kans., and 
handled and packed all kinds of domestic and 
foreign fruits. In 1891 Mr. Ryan and Mr. Rich- 
ardson entered into partnership, and the firm of 
Ryan & Richardson afterward carried on a whole- 
sale apple business. As Mr. Ryan was occupied 
with his extensive cattle interests in Arizona, 
Montana and other western points, and also had 
important coal interests, much of the management 
of the business fell upon Mr. Richardson. How- 
ever, in spite of the many other enterprises that 
demanded Mr. Ryan's time he was ever ready to 
counsel and assist Mr. Richardson, who feels that 
he owes much to his partner's excellent judg- 
ment and shrewd foresight. November 26, 1897, 
Mr. Ryan met with an accident that resulted in 
his death three days later. According to the 
terms of the will, his wife was the sole legatee 
and the business was continued the same as before. 

Mr. Richardson is a Republican in his views, 
but has always been averse to politics and takes 

no part in public affairs. He is connected with 
the Knights of Honor and the Catholic Mutual 
Benefit Association. On the 3d of August, 1899, 
at the fifth annual convention held at Detroit, 
Mich. , he was elected president of the National 
Apple Shippers' Association, besides which he is 
active in the work of the Kansas State Horti- 
cultural Society. His marriage, which took place 
in Leavenworth, united him with Miss Anna 
Draper, who was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, a 
daughter of George and Mary (Ryan) Draper, 
and a niece of Matthew Ryan, Sr. Five children 
were born of this union, but one son, George, 
died at the age of sixteen months. The others 
are: Helen May, Mabel Draper, Matthew Ryan, 
Jr., and Amanda Parker. The family occupy an 
attractive residence on North Broadway. 

gEORGE W. SNYDER, who is one of the 
energetic and capable farmers of South 
Centropolis Township, Franklin County, 
was born in Richland County, Ohio, June 12, 
1838. He is a son of John and Elizabeth (Mag- 
ner) Snyder, natives respectively of Pennsylvania 
and Ohio, and the parents of six children, all 
living. About 1830 his father settled in Ohio, 
and afterward was extensively engaged in farm 
pursuits in that state. The years of his boyhood 
and youth our subject spent in the vicinity of his 
birthplace. His education was such as common 
schools afforded, and gave him the necessary 
knowledge which is fundamental to all success. 

When thirty years of age Mr. Snyder deter- 
mined to seek a home in the west, believing that, 
with cheaper land, he might be better able to get 
a start in the world. Accordingly in 1868 he 
came to Kansas and bought one hundred and 
sixty acres of raw prairie land in Franklin 
County. At once he commenced the work of 
improving the place. After a time he brought 
the land into good condition. On this place he 
has engaged in raising farm products and stock. 
By adding to his original purchase he has be- 
come the owner of four hundred acres, half of 
which is planted in corn. As a farmer he has 
prospered, and the fine improvements on his 

C^rec^uc^ Oz, (/^'-i^'cr-cr/Uf 



farm speak volumes for his thrift and energy. 
He is never happier than when at work, and 
may be seen daily busying himself in the various 
details of farm management, superintending his 
property, planning improvements and looking 
after the crops and the stock. 

September 29, 1864, Mr. Snyder married Miss 
Martha J. Billow, by whom he has four children: 
Harry C; Irvin W. ; Maude, wife of Levi Burns; 
and Lillie, at home. The family stand high in 
social circles in their part of the county, and 
have many friends, who have been won bj' their 
refinement and genial dispositions. They hold 
membership in the Lutheran Church at Ottawa. 
In educational matters Mr. Snyder has always 
been interested, desiring to aid the public schools 
in every way possible, and his school tax is 
larger than that of any other man in the 

HON. PAUL R. BROOKS, a pioneer of 1854 
in Lawrence, is one of the most prominent 
men of the city. On the organization of the 
Watkins National Bank, in April, 1888, he was 
elected cashier and a director, in which capacities 
he has since officiated. The bank has a capital 
stock of $150,000 and occupies one of the finest 
bank buildings in the entire state. Under his 
conservative yet energetic management a profit- 
able financial system has been established and 
safe investments have been made. In addition to 
his responsible position as cashier and manager 
of the bank he acts as trustee for the Jewett es- 
tate in Lawrence, and as administrator and ex- 
ecutor for several valuable estates. 

Between 1630 and 1640 Thomas Brooks, a 
Puritan, came from England and settled in Con- 
cord, Mass. From him descended Solomon 
Brooks, who was born in Lincoln, Mass., and 
served as a minute man at Concord and Lexing- 
ton, also took part in the battle of Bunker Hill. 
He filled three different terms of enlistment in 
the American army. Afterward he removed to 
Temple, N. H., thence to New Ipswich, N. H., 
and later joined his children in York County, 
Me., where he died at eighty-five years. His 

son, Jeremiah, who was born at Temple, N. H., 
served in the war of 1812, and later engaged in 
merchandising in York, Me., where he died in 
1881, at the age of ninety. He was a prominent 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. His 
wife, Eveline, was born in York, a daughter 
of Theodore Parsons, who it is thought served 
in the Revolutionary war. By occupation he 
was a farmer; he died in Maine at seventy-five 
years, and his daughter passed away in 1893, at 
ninety years. They were descendants of English 
ancestors who were among the earliest settlers of 
what is now York County, Me. 

The subject of this sketch was born in York, 
Me., July 22, 1834. He was one of twelve chil- 
dren who attained mature years, of whom three 
sons and five daughters survive. One son, Al- 
bert G., who came to Kansas in i860 and served 
in the Second Kansas Infantry during the Civil 
war, is now connected with the Gulf Railroad in 
Denver, Colo. Another son, Jeremiah, came to 
Lawrence in 1872 and still lives in this city. 

After completing an academic education, in 
1851, our subject went to Boston, where he 
clerked in a dry goods store for three years. In 
September, 1854, he came to Kansas, making his 
way to Leavenworth by boat. As there was then 
no road across to Lawrence he returned to Kan- 
sas City by boat, and from there made his way 
to Lawrence, arriving here in September. He 
and his cousin, Daniel H. Brooks (who died here 
in the spring of 1855) had heard of this place as 
"Yankeetown," so were led by curiosity to in- 
vestigate the town. The two opened the first 
store in the first building erected in Lawrence, 
this being a log cabin on Massachusetts street. 
During the winter they bought goods in Kansas 
City and hauled them to Lawrence. In 1855, 
when near what was known as the Quaker mission, 
the cousin lost the trail and from exposure caugh 
a cold that resulted in his death. Our subject 
then continued the business alone. Several times 
he went to St. Louis for goods. He soon moved 
into a log building which was the first postoffice 
and which stood on Massachusetts, across the 
street from the old building. He was appointed 
deputy -postmaster. In 1857 ^^ embarked in the 



boot and shoe business and located in a frame 
luilding, where he remained until i860. 

Before a charter had been secured for Lawrence 
a city government was organized in 1856 and Mr. 
Brooks was elected a member of the citj- council. 
Governor Walker, objecting to the establishment 
of a city government without his consent, brought 
troops here from Leavenworth with the avowed 
purpose of dispersing the council, but nothing fur- 
ther came of it. After a year the charter was se- 
cured and the first regular city council was chosen. 
In the fall of 1858 Mr. Brooks was elected to the 
territorial legislature on the free state ticket. 
The legislature first met at Lecompton, but ad- 
journed to Lawrence. It was again called to Le- 
compton by the governor, but again adjourned to 
Lawrence, and here the session was held which 
declared for the abolishment of slavery in Kansas. 
From i860 until after the Ouantrell raid Mr. 
Brooks engaged in the real-estate business. Dur- 
ing the war he was quartermaster of the Third 
Kansas Regiment, which was mustered into 
service for defense against Price, and in the field 
he was brigade quartermaster. In September, 
1863, he was appointed city clerk, and in the fol- 
lowing November was elected to fill a vacancy. 
By re-election he served five full terms, and was 
renominated for a sixth term, but declined. At 
the time of the Quantrell raid his home on Ken- 
tucky street was burned, August 21, 1863. He 
and his wife were visiting in Maine; had he been 
at home he would probabh- have lost his life, as 
he was one of the first men for whom the gang in- 
quired. The county clerk was killed in the raid, 
and Mr. Brooks, returning at once to Lawrence, 
was appointed county clerk, which office he held 
until 1874. For three years afterward he was 
agent of the Leavenworth, Lawrence & Galveston 
Railroad, and later was for four years deputy 
county treasurer. In the fall of 188 1 he was 
elected couuty treasurer on the Republican ticket 
and was re-elected in 1883, being nominated b}- 
both the Republicans and the Democrats, at the 
same hour, on the same day. In October, 1886, 
he retired from the treasurer's oflBce, after which he 
was deputy under his successor, Col. H. L. Moore. 

Since then he has had the management of the 
Watkins National Bank. He has always been a 
leader among the Republicans of Lawrence and 
has frequently served as chairman of the Douglas 
County central committee. He was married in 
this city, October 3, 1858, to Mary A., daughter 
of Rev. Alanson Boughton, a Baptist minister of 
New York. She was born in Cayuga County, 
that state, and came to Lawrence in 1857 with a 
married sister. 

Fraternally Mr. Brooks is connected with the 
blue lodge and chapter of Masonry and is a mem- 
ber of Washington Post No. 12, G. A. R. He is 
familiar with the history of Lawrence from its 
earliest days. There are only five persons in the 
cit}' who came here before he did. All of the 
early movements for the advancement of the town 
received his co-operation. He aided in securing 
the location of the University of Kansas and the 
Haskell Institute in this city. All educational 
and philanthropic movements have received the 
impetus of his encouragement. Few now living 
in Lawrence are as familiar with its history as he, 
and certainly no one takes a more vital interest in 
its progress. Some years before the war he be- 
came identified with a militia organized by Gen- 
erals Robinson and Lane, for the purpose of 
building the forts to defend Lawrence in case of 
attack, and he was chosen first lieutenant of a 
company. When the first raid was made on 
Lawrence his store was robbed, and two loads of 
goods on the way here from Kansas City were 
captured. At that time, when the forces were in 
forts here, they were accustomed to call on him 
for requisitions of coffee and sugar, and in return 
provided him with what was known as protection 
scrip, but the value of the goods, amounting to 
about $600, he never received. He remembers 
vividly the struggles of pioneer days and the 
perils of border warfare and pro- slavery raids, and 
often contrasts with pleasure those times with the 
present day, when Lawrence is one of the educa- 
tional centers of the west, a city beautiful in ap- 
pearance, active in commerce, substantial in 
finances, and elevated in the character of its 



r\AUL E. HAVENS. The family represented 
ly by this influential citizen of Leavenworth 
jkj) was founded in America by William Havens 
of Wales, who crossed the ocean and settled at 
Portsmouth, R. I., in 1636. Capt. Daniel 
Havens, the great-grandfather of Paul E., was 
born on Long Island February 5, 1750, and mar- 
ried Elizabeth Bostwick, whose birth occurred 
March 26, 1755. During his active life he fol- 
lowed the sea. He died at Sag Harbor, N. Y. , 
while still a young man. His son, Paul Havens, 
was born at Sag Harbor October 7, 1777, and 
married Anne Kennedy, who was born December 
2, 1778; she was a daughter of Robert Kenned}', 
a Revolutionary soldier, born September 18, 
1748. C. D. P. Havens, son of Paul and Anne 
Havens, was born November 3, 1808. In 1832 
he married Eleanor, daughter of Philip R. Frey, 
and a descendant of Swiss ancestry. 

In 1688 Henry Frey, a native of Switzerland, 
settled on the present site of Palatine Bridge, 
New York, becoming the first settler in that 
region of the Mohawk Valley. His son, Henry, 
was born September 15, 1712, and had a son. Col. 
Henry Frey, whose birth occurred September 23, 
1735. The last-named was an officer in the 
French and Indian war, serving under Sir William 
Johnson. He married Elizabeth, a sister of Gen. 
Nicholas Herkimer, and their only daughter was 
the mother of Eliza Cockburn, the wife of Judge 
Alfred Conkling; their only son was Philip 
Rockell Frey, father of Mrs. Eleanor Havens. 

Paul E. Havens was born in the town of 
Ephrata, Fulton County, N. Y., May 4, 1839. 
When he was eight years old his father died. Six 
years later he became clerk in a store at Elmira, 
N. Y. , and continued there until 1856, when he 
came as far west as Iowa . For two years he was 
employed in Davenport. In July, 1858, he came 
to Leavenworth. About that time the territorial 
judges appointed terms of their courts to be held 
in each settled county, and he was appointed a 
deputy clerk of the court for Jefferson County, 
under Judge Samuel D. Lecompte, the chief 
justice of the supreme court of the territory and 
judge of the first judicial district. On the 
adoption of the state constitution he was elected 

clerk of the district court for Jefferson County. 
At the next general election he was chosen to 
succeed himself in the office. In 1861 he was 
elected a member of the house of representatives 
from the eighth district, comprising the counties 
of Shawnee, Jefferson and Jackson. 

During 1863 Mr. Havens established his per- 
manent home in Leavenworth. Here he at first 
engaged in the insurance business as local agent 
and as secretary of a local marine insurance com- 
pany, which carried on a prosperous business 
until traffic was transferred from the Missouri 
River to the railroads, which reached Leaven- 
worth in 1866. In 1868 he became a.ssociated 
with H. L. Newman in the banking business, 
under the firm name of Newman & Havens. 
This business was discontinued by limitation in 
1874, Mr. Newman removing to St. Louis. Mr. 
Havens was one of the projectors of the Kansas 
Central Railway, an enterprise inaugurated by 
local capital, for the building of a railroad to 
Denver, and he served as a director and as secre- 
tary and treasurer of the company until the road 
was sold to Jay Gould in 1883. He was also 
interested in the construction of the railroad 
between Leavenworth and Atchison, now a part 
of the Missouri Pacific Railway. In connection 
with his brother, A. B. Havens, in 1876 he em- 
barked in the milling business, which was suc- 
cessfully conducted until the property was totally 
destroyed by fire in March, 1882. 

In the organization of the Leavenworth Na- 
tional Bank in 1S83 Mr. Havens took a warm 
interest and active part, and he has served as its 
president from the date of its organization. The 
capital of the bank was originally $100,000, but 
after a year was increased to $150,000. Its 
career has been very prosperous. It has paid 
regular dividends of ten per cent. -per annum 
and accumulated, in addition, a surplus and un- 
divided profits aggregating over $200,000. This 
highly gratifying result is largely due to the 
wisdom and business ability of its able officials, 
who have guided the finances of the bank in safe 
channels that have proved profitable. 

From 1887 to 1897 Mr. Havens was vice- 
president of the Leavenworth Light & Heating 



Company, but duriug the latter year he disposed 
of his interest in the company. In 1890 he was 
elected vice-president of the Leavenworth Citj' 
and Fort Leavenworth Water Company, and on 
the death of L. T. Smith was chosen his suc- 
cessor in the presidency, which position he still 
holds. Enterprises for the benefit of the city 
have always received his supportand co-operation. 
Politically he is a Republican. 

In December, 1S60, Mr. Havens married Miss 
Matilda Moore, of Wooster, Ohio. Their sur- 
viving children are Eleanor and Elizabeth, who 
is the wife of Daniel R. Anthony, Jr., the present 
postmaster of Leavenworth and business manager 
of the Leavenworth Times. 

(lOHN NAVARRE MACOMB, of Lawrence, 
I is the oldest living representative, in the 
O direct line of descent, of a prominent pioneer 
family of America. He was born in Detroit, 
Mich., 22 September, 1843. His father. Col. 
John N. Macomb, was born in New York City 9 
April, 18 1 1 , and passed the years of his boyhood 
in Newark, N. J., where he received his early 
education. Later he spent one year in Hobart 
(then Geneva) College, in New York. He was 
graduated from the United States Military 
Academy at West Point i July, 1832. His 
whole life, from his appointment as a cadet in 
September, 1S28, was spent in the army. He 
was a lieutenant in the Fourth Artillery and for 
some years aide-de-camp to his uncle, Maj.-Gen. 
Alexander Macomb. In the year 1838 he was 
transferred to the corps of Topographical Engi- 
neers, of which he remained a member until it 
was merged into the Corps of Engineers in 1863. 
Afterward he continued with the enlarged corps 
until I July, 1882, when he was placed upon the 
retired list, fifty years from the day he was 
graduated from West Point. For eighteen years, 
from 1838, he was connected with the topograph- 
ical survey of the great lakes, having charge of 
that work a large part of the time. In 1856 he 
was placed in charge of surveys in New Mexico 
and adjacent country, having for their object the 
building of a transcontinental railroad. During 

the first two years of the Civil war he was one of 
the engineers connected with the Army of the 
Potomac. Afterward he was in charge of fortifi- 
cations at Portsmouth, N. H., and the improve- 
ment of the western rivers, with headquarters at 
Cincinnati, Ohio, and later at Rock Island, 111. 
In 1877 he was placed in charge of river improve- 
ments in New Jersey, with headquarters at Phila- 
delphia, and remained in charge of this work 
until his retirement in 1882. He was frequently 
selected to serve as a member of boards appointed 
to examine and report upon engineering works. 

Colonel Macomb received several substantial 
tokens of the appreciation in which his services 
were held by the residents ^of Detroit, Buffalo, 
Cleveland and other cities, among which may be 
mentioned a very handsome silver service and a 
Jurgeusen watch. 

On 7 March, 1838, Colonel Macomb married 
Czarina Macomb, who was born at Fort Johnson, 
Charleston Harbor, S. C, 21 October, 1810, and 
the subject of this sketch is the only living child 
of that marriage. 

In 1850 Colonel Macomb married Nanny, 
daughter of Commodore John Rodgers, and they 
had five children, viz.: Montgomerj' Meigs, ot 
the Seventh Artillery; Augustus Canfield, of the 
Fifth Cavalry, both now in Porto Rico; Mrs. 
Thomas W. Peters, Christina and Nanny. He 
made his home after his retirement in Wash- 
ington, D. C, in which city he died 16 March, 

John Navarre Macomb, the colonel's father, and 
grandfather of the subject of this sketch, was 
born in Detroit, Mich., 7 March, 1774, and was 
a merchant in New York City for several years. 
In November, 1810, he was traveling from Lisbon 
to London on the English packet " Princess Char- 
lotte," when the ship was attacked by a French 
privateer. The captain requested all passengers 
to go below, but Mr. Macomb asked permission to 
remain on deck and assist in defending the ship. 
While working a gun he was struck by a ball and 
died soon afterward in Falmouth Harbor, 9 
November, 1810. He was buried in the church- 
yard at that place. He left a wife and seven 
children, of whom Colonel Macomb was the 



youngest. His wife, who bore the maiden name 
of Christina Livingston, was born in New York 
City 26 September, 1774, and grew to woman- 
hood in that city, where she was married to Mr. 
Macomb 29 March, 1797. After she became a 
widow she made her home in Newark, N. J., 
where she reared her children. She died at 
Esperanza, N. Y., at the home of her daughter, 
Mrs. Jane E. Rose, 24 August, 1841. 

Alexander Macomb, great-grandfather of the 
subject of this sketch, was born in Ireland 27 
July, 1748, and was brought to America by his 
father in 1752. His early life was spent in 
Albany, N. Y. About 1769 his father, John 
Macomb, moved to Detroit, accompanied by the 
family. The sons were engaged principally in 
merchandise and real-estate transactions. On 4 
May, 1773, Alexander Macomb married Catherine 
de Navarre, daughter of Robert de Navarre and 
Marie Lothman dit Barrois. Of their ten chil- 
dren John Navarre Macomb was the oldest and 
Gen. Alexander Macomb the seventh. Alex- 
ander Macomb lived in Detroit until 1786, when 
he moved to New York City. He owned and 
resided in the house at No. 47 Broadway that 
was occupied by General Washington at the time 
of his inauguration. He and his family were 
present at the inauguration ball, and some of the 
articles of dress and ornamentation worn on that 
occasion are now in the possession of their de- 
scendants. In 1788-89 he was a member of the 
New York legislature. A merchant by occupa- 
tion, the fluctuations caused by the war of 18 12 
and losses of vessels and cargoes wrecked him 
financially. After his death congress granted his 
widow about $30,000 in consideration of these 
losses. About 1792 he bought from the State of 
New York the large tract of land in the Adiron- 
dack region known as Macomb's purchase, con- 
taining nearly four millions of acres. In 1820 he 
moved to Georgetown, D. C, where he died 19 
January, 1831. His first wife died in New York 
City 17 November, 1789. In 1791 he married 
Mrs. Jane Rucker, ncc Mar.shall, by whom he 
had seven children. 

The father of Alexander Macomb was John 
Macomb, who came from Ireland in 1742 and 

established himself in New York, where he held 
an official position under the colonial govern- 
ment. From 1755 to 1769 he made his home in 
Albany, and thence moved to Detroit. He was 
descended from the MacCoonibies of Scotland, an 
ancient and honorable family who moved from 
that country to Ireland during the early part of 
the seventeenth century. 

Gen. Alexander Macomb, the maternal grand- 
father of our subject, was born in Detroit 3 April, 
1782. He married at Belleville, N. J., 18 July, 
1803, Catherine Macomb, who was born in 
Detroit 30 October, 1787, a daughter of William 
and Sarah Jane (Dring) Macomb. She died at 
Georgetown, D. C, 10 September, 1822. After- 
ward General Macomb married in Georgetown, 
26 May, 1826, Mrs. Harrie't Wilson, daughter of 
Rev. Stephen B. Balch, D. D. 

The military career of General Macomb was 
very brilliant. In 1798 he entered the militia, 
but, desiring more active service, he entered a 
regiment of New York cavalry in 1799. Ability, 
a fine physique and prepossessing manners ad- 
vanced him rapidly. He was appointed lieu- 
tenant of dragoons and assigned to Philadelphia 
on recruiting service. With the recruits he went 
to the southwestern country and joined General 
Wilkinson's expedition into the Cherokee coun- 
try, remaining for one year. When the corps of 
dragoons disbanded a corps of engineers was 
formed and he was made first lieutenant, after 
which he returned to West Point. He was ap- 
pointed judge advocate in the trial of Colonel 
Butler, and in the handling of that case exhibited 
marked ability. In 1805 he was made captain of 
engineers and had charge of the erection and 
repairing of fortifications on seaboard. In recog- 
nition of meritorious service, in 1808 he was pro- 
moted to be major. When the second war with 
England broke out he was made lieutenant- 
colonel and engaged in the organization of the 
army. Soon after his promotion to the rank of 
colonel he took command of the third regiment 
of artillery and marched to the frontier. In 
active service he displayed his ability as a com- 
mander and realized the fullest confidence of his 
superiors. When England decided to put an end 



to the war by a decisive campaign General 
Macomb was in command of a small force at 
Plattsburg, N. Y., where he met and put to flight 
the newly re-enforced army of experienced men, 
consisting of fourteen thousand regulars and 
many others who had served under Wellington. 
To meet these soldiers he had only fifteen hun- 
dred regulars, and some scattering militiamen 
hastily gathered from the neighborhood. His 
force was unable to cope successfully with the 
whole strength of the enemy, but by good 
generalship he diverted a large part of the English 
forces and completely routed the others, taking 
more prisoners than he had men. His signal 
victory caused the greatest rejoicing and led to 
his promotion to be major-general. He was 
awarded a gold medal commemorative of the 
battle of Plattsburg, the thanks of congress, and 
was presented with a handsome sword by the 
state of New York. 

At the close of the war of 1812 General Ma- . 
comb was given command of the troops at Detroit. 
In 1 82 1 he was called by President Monroe to 
Washington, D. C, and was made chief of the 
corps of engineers. Upon the death of General 
Brown, in February, 1828, he was appointed 
commanding general, and filled the office to the 
day of his death, 25 June, 1841. 

The father of Catherine, wife of Gen. Alex- 
ander Macomb, was William Macomb, a brother 
of the first Alexander. He was born in Ireland 
in 1 75 1 and was brought to America by his 
father, living in Albany, N. Y., until 1769, when 
he went to Detroit with the family. He was a 
partner in business with his brother, Alexander. 
He purchased from the Indians the principal 
islands in the Detroit River. The original deed 
is still in possession of his descendants. It is on 
parchment, and signed by sixteen of the chiefs, 
among them the celebrated Tecumseh. Portions 
of Grosse Isle, the larger of the group, remain 
in possession of and are occupied by some mem- 
bers of the family at the present day. One 
island, Belle Isle, is part of the City park of 
Detroit and is noted for its beautiful scenery. He 
also owned the farm afterward conveyed by his 
widow and her children to General Cass, upon 

which a large portion of the city of Detroit is 
now situated. William married Sarah Jane Dring 
in 1780. She was a descendant of a Huguenot 
family driven out of France by the revocation of 
the Edict of Nantes. His death occurred in 

Robert de Navarre, the father of Catherine de 
Navarre, was born in Villeroy, Brittany, France, 
in 1709. He was sent by the French government 
as sub-intendant and royal notary to Fort Pont- 
chartrain in Detroit, where he arrived in 1730, 
and took charge of his office. From him are de- 
scended the numerous and illustrious members 
of the Navarre family in America. In Detroit, 
10 February , 1734, he married Marie L,othman 
dit Barrois, daughter of Francis and Mary Ann 
(Sauvage) Lothman dit Barrois. He died in 
Detroit, 24 November, 1791. His wife died 20 
December, 1799. 

The Lothman family originated in Holland, 
but moved from there to the province of Berry, 
France; hence the name Barrois, a corruption of 
Berrois. Willibrord Lothman, the grandfather 
of Marie Lothman dit Barrois, was sent to 
Canada in 1665 as secretary, counselor and 
general agent of the East India Company. He 
was a great linguist and official interpreter of the 
Portugese language. 

Robert de Navarre was a son of Francois de 
Navarre, who in 1695 married Jeanne Pluyette. 
They resided in the parish of Villeroy, diocese of 
Meaux, in Brittany, France. Francois was a 
son of Antoine de Navarre, who in 1665 married 
Marie Lallemant. Antoine was a son of Jean de 
Navarre, who in 1623 married Susanna le Clef. 
Martin, father of Jean, married in 1593 Jeanne 
Lefebre. The father of Martin was Jean, who 
married Perette Barat. Jean was a son of 
Antoine de Bourbon, Due de Vendome, who be- 
came king of Navarre in 1554. The son of 
Antoine de Bourbon, Henry III. of Navarre, was 
crowned king of France in 1589, under the title of 
Henry IV. The noble family of Bourbon, which 
became a royal family of France, was descended 
from the Baron of Bourbonnais Adhemar, or 
Aimar, who was invested with that barony in the 
latter part of the ninth century. The barony 



was a rich district, located in the center of France. 
In 1272 Beatrix (of Bourbon) of Burgundy, 
daughter of John of Burgundy and Agnes of 
Bourbon, heiress of the Bourbon barony, married 
Robert, count of Clermont, the sixth son of Louis 
IX. (St. Louis) of France. Their son, Louis, 
became duke of Bourbon in 1372. In 1488, by 
the death of John II., the direct line of Bourbon 
ended; the collateral line began with John's 
brother, Peter, lord of Beaujeu, who married 
Anne, sister of Louis XL Peter died in 1503, 
leaving only a daughter, Susanne, who in 1505 
married Charles of Montpensier. At his mar- 
riage Charles took the title of Duke of Bourbon. 
He was killed in an assault upon Rome in 1527. 
The fourth in descent from Peter's brother James 
was Louis, count of Vendome. His great-great- 
grandson, Antoine de Bourbon, in 154S married 
Jeanne D'Albret, heiress of Navarre, and became 
king of Navarre in 1554, as before stated. 

Philip Philip Livingston, father of the wife of 
the first John Navarre Macomb, was born in New 
York City 8 June, 1741, and died in 1781. He 
was a son of Philip Livingston (1716-1778), a 
signer of the Declaration of Independence and a 
member of the continental congress. Philip 
Philip Livingston was a member of the Society of 
the Cincinnati. Tracing this branch of the 
family, Robert, the first lord of the American 
manor, was born in Scotland in 1654 and emi- 
grated to the United States, where he died in 
1728. His son, Philip, was father of Philip, the 
signer of the Declaration of Independence. While 
of immediate Scotch descent, the family traces 
its lineage to Livingius, a Hungarian nobleman, 
who came to Scotland in the suite of Margaret, 
queen of King Malconi III., about 1068. The 
genealogy can be traced direct to King Edward 
III. of England and James I. of Scotland, prior 
to which it is a matter of history. 

On the death of James I. of Scotland, in 1437, 
Sir Alexander Livingstone of Calendar was ap- 
pointed by the estate of the kingdom one of two 
joint regents during the minority of James II., 
being himself made keeper of the king's person, 
while his associate, Crichton, received the office 

of chancellor. Later he was appointed to the 
judiciary of Scotland and ambassador to England. 
He died in 1449. He was the ancestor of a 
numerous race. His son, James, became the 
first Lord Livingstone. Alexander, the fifth 
lord, through whom the New York branch of the 
family was descended, was one of the guardians 
of Mary Queen of Scots, being appointed to that 
ofiicein 1543. In 1548 he accompanied his royal 
ward to France and died there in 1553. His 
daughter, Mary, was one of four Marys who 
were playmates and maids of honor to the queen. 
In 1600 Alexander, the seventh Lord Livingstone, 
was created the first earl of Linlithgow, a title 
which descended to the fifth earl, who in 1713 
was made an earl of the United Kingdom. Two 
years later he joined with the earl of Mar in sup- 
porting the cause of the first pretender, for which 
he lost his earldom, and it has not since been 
restored to his descendants. 

The first earl of Linlithgow had four brothers, 
the third of whom, in 1625, was made a baron of 
Nova Scotia, which title descended to the eleventh 
baron, Sir Alexander Livingstone, in 1853. 
Three other titles, with estates, were conferred 
upon enterprising young sons of the house of 
Livingstone: the earldom of Calendar in 1641, 
which in the course of descent became merged 
with that of Linlithgow; the earldom of New- 
burgh in 1660, which is now extinct, and the 
viscountship of Kilsythe in 1661, which was 
forfeited by the heir in the rebellion of 1715. 
John Livingstone, son of the fifth Lord Living- 
stone, guardian of Mary of Scots, was slain in 
the battle of Pinkiefield in 1547. He was suc- 
ceeded by a son, Alexander, the first of three 
generations of ministers of the Scottish church. 
The second was William, whose son. Rev. John, 
was the father of Robert, the first lord. The last- 
named emigrated to America about 1675 and in 
1686 received from Governor Dongan a grant of 
a large tract of land, which in 1715 was con- 
firmed by royal charter of George I., erecting 
the manor of Liviugstoa, embracing a portion 
of the present counties of Dutchess and Columbia, 
in New York, This tract is still known as the 



I,ivingston manor. Robert Livingston, the first 
lord of the manor, married Alida, daughter of 
Philip Pietersen Schuyler. 

The family of Livingston was very prominent 
in the founding and development of the United 
States, from the early colonial days to the period 
of quiet prosperity after the war of 1812. Its 
members occupied high positions in the various 
legislative bodies and in the army. They con- 
tributed greatly to the success of the struggle of 
the colonies with the mother country. They 
were first among the jurists and clergymen. 
They were successful business men. They pro- 
moted the development of commerce, agriculture 
and manufactures, and their influence was always 
exerted for the amelioration and betterment of 
the condition of the people. 

Having carried the three principal lines of 
ancestry of the family back to noble and royal 
origin, where it is, of course, a matter of historj', 
we will take up the life of the subject of this 
sketch. John Navarre Macomb, the third of the 
name, was but two and one-half years of age 
when he lost his mother. His father's sister, 
Mrs. Jane E. Rose, who resided at Esperanza, 
N. Y., took charge of him. His education was 
begun in private schools and completed in Hobart 
College at Geneva, N. Y., from which institution 
he was graduated in 1861. Returning to the 
farm, he spent the next ten years there in the 
routine of farm work. In the autumn of 1870 
his aunt lost her husband by death and the next 
summer the aunt and nephew moved from 
Esperanza to Branchport, a small village a mile 
distant, in Yates County, where he resided until 
1892. In 1892 he came to Kansas and settled in 
Cofieyville, but the next year removed to Law- 
rence, in order that his only child, John Navarre 
Macomb, might have university advantages. He 
purchased a fine residence on the corner of Ken- 
tucky and Adams streets, and here he has since 
made his home. 

Mr. Macomb's political afiBliations have always 
been with the Republican party. His first vote 
was cast for Abraham Lincoln. In Masonic circles 
he has been very active. He has been a mem- 
ber and the presiding ofiicer of Milo Lodge, No. 

108, F. & A. M.; of Penn Yan Chapter, No. 100, 
R. A. M.; of Ontario Council, No. 23, R. & S. 
M., and of Jerusalem Commandery, No. 17, 
K. T. , all of Penn Yan, N. Y. ; also a member of 
Zabud Council, No. 4, of Topeka, Kans. He is a 
life member of the Scottish Rite bodies of the 
Valley of the Genesee, in Rochester, N. Y., and 
a member of those of the Valley of Lawrence, 
and a member of Topeka Consistory, No. i, of 
Topeka, Kans. He was created a Sovereign 
Grand Inspector General and made an honorary 
member of the Supreme Council of the thirty- 
third degree of the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction 
of the United States on 19 September, 1882. 
From 1889 to 1891 he was Grand Master of the 
Grand Council of R. & S. M. of New York. 
For four years he was District Deputy Grand 
Master of the twenty-first Masonic district in the 
Grand Lodge of New York. He is also a mem- 
ber of the Order of the Palm and Shell. He 
was an earnest worker in the Order of Patrons 
of Husbandry, having been master of the Grange 
at Branchport, N. Y., as well as of the Grange of 
Yates County, N. Y. For several years he has 
served as president of the Douglas Count}' Hor- 
ticultural Society. He is a member of Lawrence 
Chapter, Sons of the American Revolution. 

Mr. Macomb is an active and prominent mem- 
ber of the Protestant Episcopal Church. He 
was one of the incorporators of St. Luke' s Church 
at Branchport, N. Y., a vestryman and warden 
from its organization in 1866 to 1893, and always 
during that period a lay delegate, representing 
that church in the convention of the diocese of 
Western New York. He was a lay deputy from 
that diocese to the general convention in 1880 
and 18S3. Since coming to Kansas he has been 
a vestryman of Trinity Church, Lawrence, and 
has represented that and St. Paul's Church, 
Cofieyville, in the diocesan convention. 

He has been for many years a trustee of the 
General Theological Seminary in New York City, 
and in 1892 and 1893 served in the same capacity 
in DeVeaux College at Suspension Bridge, N. Y. 

20 Maj', 1874, Mr. Macomb married Mrs. Julia 
Louisa Wheeler, widow of B. H. Wheeler, of 
Litchfield County, Conn., and daughter of Peter 




Righter, of Poughkeepsie, N. Y., where she was 
born. Their only child, John Navarre Macomb, 
the fourth of the name, was born at Branch- 
port, N. Y., 24 Januar}', 1877. 

John Navarre Macomb, Jr. , the fourth of the 
name, spent the first sixteen years of his life 
in Branchport, N. Y. In 1893 he was graduated 
from the Coffeyville (Kans.) high school and the 
same autumn entered the Kansas State University 
at Lawrence. He was graduated in 189S, receiv- 
ing the degrees of B. S. and M. S. at the same 
time. Since that time he has been engaged in 
mining and railroad engineering in southeastern 
Kansas and Oklahoma. He represented the 
diocese of Kansas in the general convention of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church in Washington, 
D. C, in 1898. He is a member of Lawrence 
Lodge No. 6, A. F. & A. M., and of the Scottish 
Rite bodies in Lawrence, Kans. 

prominent property owners and public men 
of Leavenworth County is Mr. Medill, who 
is the representative of the sixth district in the 
state legislature. He has for years been an active 
worker in the Republican party and has taken an 
interest in its legislation and served as delegate 
to many of its conventions, but he never accepted 
candidacy for office until 1898. At that time, 
without solicitation on his part, he was nomi- 
nated for representative. The fact that the party 
had a close fight on its hands induced him to ac- 
cept the nomination, in the hope that he might 
help snatch a victory from the Democrats. Al- 
though under ordinary circumstances the Demo- 
crats would have won by four hundred majority, 
he was elected by a majority of two hundred and 
forty, running six hundred ahead of his ticket, 
a fact which shows his high standing in the lo- 
cality. He was successful in carrying three town- 
ships that usually gave Democratic majorities. 
As representative he has served as a member of 
four committees of importance, being on the ju- 
diciary, mines and mining, roads and highway 
and labor committees, and has taken a special 
interest in matters pertaining to his home county. 

In the house in Alexandria Township where 
he now resides, Mr. Medill was born December 
27, 1865. The Medill family descended from 
three brother who emigrated to America, two of 
whom settled in Canada, while Joseph located in 
Ohio. They come from the same family as the 
late Joseph Medill of the Chicago Tribune. 
James, our subject's father, was born in Ohio in 
1824. He continued to reside in Jefferson County 
until 1853, after which he spent four years trad- 
ing on the Mississippi. In 1857 he came to Kan- 
sas and for seven years made his home in Leav- 
enworth. He then settled upon a farm in Alex- 
andria Township, where he successfully followed 
agricultural pursuits. In 1894 he retired and re- 
turned to Leavenworth, where he remained until 
his death, July 3 of that year. Politically he 
was a Republican, and fraternally a Knight 
Templar Mason. In religion he was connected 
with the Presbyterian Church. 

In the public schools and Lawrence Business 
College our subject obtained an excellent educa- 
tion. He afterward spent two years in Colorado. 
Upon his return to Leavenworth County he re- 
sumed work on the home farm, and in 1889 as- 
sumed the entire control of the property, which 
he has since conducted. His specialty is the 
stock business, and the farm of four hundred and 
eighty acres is in pasture for the stock or for the 
raising of grain to be used as feed. During the 
winter he feeds large numbers of cattle, princi- 
pally Shorthorn Durhams. As a stock-raiser he 
has been unusually successful, and is considered 
an authority in this business. He owns one hun- 
dred and sixty acres in Stranger Township, 
within a mile of Tonganoxie, also farmland in 
High Prairie Township and real estate in Leav- 
enworth, his total possessions aggregating seven 
hundred and twenty acres, most of which is 
rented. He has large and important investments, 
which require his close attention. Fraternally 
he is connected with the Modern Woodmen of 
America and the blue lodge of Masonry. 

June 4, 1890, Mr. Medill married Monica, 
daughter of James Morgan, of Leavenworth. 
They are the parents of four children: James 
Sherman, William Harold, George Tabor and 



Joseph McKee. Prior to her marriage Mrs. Me- 
dill was a teacher in the schools of Leavenworth 
Count}', and her intimate knowledge of educa- 
tional matters has led to her election twice to 
serve as a member of the school board of her dis- 
trict, in which capacitj- she has given efficient 

I nent stockman of Lincoln Township, Frank- 
Qj lin Count}', residing in the suburbs of Ot- 
tawa, was born near Princeton, Bureau County, 
111., August 3, 1848, a son of Abram and Sarah 
(Baggs) Stratton. He was one of six children, 
four of whom are living. Of these, Eliza is the 
wife of Sylvester S. Newton, police judge of 
Wyanet, 111., and the owner of large farm hold- 
ings in Bureau County. The oldest son, Lemuel 
N. Stratton, D. D., for many years held pastor- 
ates in New York and Illinois, also officiated as 
president of Wheaton Theological Training 
School, and took an active part in the work of 
the Congregational denomination; he is now liv- 
ing retired from the ministry at Wheaton, 111. 
The youngest son, Abram M., is a farmer and 
fruit-grower of Carlton, Ore. Samuel Fay Strat- 
ton, deceased, was for years professor of natural 
science and chemistry in Wheaton College and 
also labored in the Congregational ministry. 

Abram Stratton, Sr. , was born in Dutchess 
County, N. Y., February 18, 1805, a son of Ab- 
raham and Eunice (Mann) Stratton, and died in 
Bureau County, 111., August 28, 1877. The J?ec- 
ord of Bureau County, 111. , speaks of him as fol- 
lows: "At a large meeting of old settlers of Bu- 
reau County in 1865, the oldest settler was called 
for and requested to come forward and take a seat 
on the platform; and Mr. Stratton responded, a 
hale, hearty man of some sixty or sixty-five 
years." The mother of Mr. Stratton died when 
he was five and his father, a farmer, passed away 
nine years later. When nearly grown he left the 
Hudson Valley. In 1829 he traveled on foot, 
with his knapsack on his back, in this way mak- 
ing the long journey west to Illinois, guided, 
after he left Detroit, by nothing except Indian 
trails. Between Detroit and Chicago he met the 

pony mail carrier who made trips once in two 
months, carrying the mail between the two front- 
ier towns. At that time Chicago was known as 
Fort Dearborn, and was garrisoned by troops 
that guarded the trading post and the annuity 
office established for the benefit of the Indians, 
who were very numerous in that locality. 

After staking a claim in Bureau County Mr. 
Stratton spent the winter of 1829-30 in Peoria. 
In the summer of 1830, from some point near St. 
Louis, guided by a pocket compass, he started to 
return to New York, and eventually reached his 
old home. After a short visit he came west via 
the Erie Canal to BuSalo, then by the lakes to 
the mouth of the St. Joseph River in Michigan 
(for at that time boats were seldom run to Fort 
Dearborn). Patiently he towed his goods around 
the lake during a stormy November, and finally, 
buying an ox-team and making a sled, he started 
from Chicago in a December snowstorm over the 
trackless prairies and through pathless woods, 
disturbed by packs of wolves or wandering Indi- 
ans, but buoyed up by high hopes and firm re- 
solves. In the courage he exhibited there is a 
lesson well worthy of emulation by the present 
generation who, though never called upon to en- 
dure the hardships he passed through as a pio- 
neer, may nevertheless learn from him lessons of 
determination and perseverance in the midst of 
adversity. And, indeed, no one but a man of 
great courage would have penetrated, as he did, 
the depths of the forests where the foot of white 
men had seldom trod, and the prairies buried be- 
neath snow where cold and exhaustion and peril 
waited upon the intrepid traveler. The one who 
plunged into those deep wastes of dreariness 
could hope to hear few sounds save the fierce 
howling of hungry wolves, and he could hope to 
see few faces except those of savage Indians. The 
conscious sympathy of comrade and fellow-worker 
was not for him during those long trips between 
his old and his new home. 

Shortly after his settlement in Bureau County 
Mr. Stratton established a home of his own. Oc- 
tober 16, 1831, he married Miss Sarah Baggs, 
this being the second marriage in the then coun- 
ty of Putnam, of which Bureau was a part. In 



the first list of jurors drawn at Hennepin, the 
county seat, his name appears. During the early 
days of the county (which was settled by three 
New England colonies) all disputes were settled 
by arbitration, and he was a member of the board 
of arbitrators. So honorable was he, so upright 
in life, so genial in association, so hospitable to 
visitors, and so kind in his home, that he won 
universal affection. For years he was one of the 
county's most prominent men. In the latter part 
of 1876 he was stricken with paralysis and sank 
into a dreamless sleep. He was buried in Forest 
Hill Cemetery at Wyanet. The funeral was at- 
tended by a vast throng of frieuds, for no man 
ever lived in the county who was more widely 
known or sincerely loved. His name and his 
memory are inseparablj' associated with the an- 
nals of Bureau County. Standing at the head of 
his newmade grave, Rev. T. J. Pomeroj', of 
Wyanet, said. "Kind-hearted and genial, faith- 
ful and resolute, he had many friends and warm 
friends. Of a judicial turn of mind, he carefully 
turned all facts over before deciding any case, 
and his conclusions were generally so accurate 
that his opinions had great weight with his fel- 
lowmen. He was a man of fidelity. He de- 
lighted to show how accurately he could keep his 
promises. Integrity and honesty are the words 
that best describe his modest and unobtrusive 

In the early settlement of America two Strat- 
ton brothers arrived in New England in 1730. 
They were Scotch Presbyterian ministers. The 
one from whom this branch descends went to 
Long Island and the records of the church there 
show a faithful pastorate. He is said to have 
had two children, a son and daughter. The son, 
Abraham (our subject's great-grandfather), 
moved to New Jersey, but did not remain in that 
state permanently. He settled in Schoharie 
County, N. Y., but soon afterward was drowned 
in Schoharie Creek, September 11, 1797, while 
attempting to cross on horseback. 

The wife of Abram Stratton was in every way 
fitted to endure with him the hardships of front- 
ier life, for she was a woman of wonderful cour- 
age, and never evinced the least fear, even in the 

midst of exciting encounters with Indians. She 
was born in Urbana, Ohio, April 19, 1814, a 
daughter of John and Rebecca (Thomas) Baggs. 
Her grandfather. Rev. John Thomas, was said to 
be one of the eloquent ministers of the Bap- 
tist denomination in his day; he removed from 
Ohio to Illinois, where he amassed considerable 
property. In religion Mrs. Stratton was first 
connected with the Methodist Church, but not 
feeling satisfied with the lack of firmness shown 
by the church at the time of the slavery agita- 
tion, she affiliated with the Wesleyan Church, to 
which she afterward belonged. For some years 
she was a teacher in the Sunday-school, having 
about twenty-five in her Bible class. When ad- 
vanced in years she was afflicted with paralysis, 
and for many years she was helpless, but she en- 
dured this affliction with the same cheerful equa- 
nimity she had displayed in the days of her pio- 
neer privations. Her death occurred September 
18, 1898. 

The education of our subject was acquired at 
Oberlin (Ohio) College, Carlton College, in 
Northfield, Minn., and Wheaton (111.) College, 
from the last of which he graduated in June, 1876. 
After his graduation he purchased an interest in 
a hardware and farm implement business at 
Wyanet, where he remained for four years. On 
selling his business interests in that town he be- 
came a member of the firm of Hudson & Strat- 
ton, dealers in hardwood lumber at Kalamazoo, 
Mich., where he did a successful business for 
eight years. Following this he went to the Wil- 
lamette Valley in Oregon, and for four years was 
cashier of the McMinnville National Bank. At 
the expiration of four years he was obliged to 
come to Kansas to superintend his real-estate in- 
terests, he having acquired farm lands in central 
Kansas while he was living in Kalamazoo. Re- 
signing his position in the bank he settled in 
Rush County, Kans. After two years he re- 
moved to Franklin County in order that his chil- 
dren might have the benefit of the Ottawa 
schools. He is engaged in raising registered 
Jersey and Shorthorn cattle and Poland-China 
hogs. On all matters pertaining to the stock 
business he is well informed. In politics he is a 



Republican. He is an active member of the Con- 
gregational Church and holds office as superin- 
tendent of the Sunday-school. 

The marriage of Mr. Stratton to Miss Calista 
L. Thompson occurred May 13, 1884. She is a 
member of an Illinois family, and a daughter of 
Lucius G. Thompson, M. D., a retired physician 
of Lacon, Marshall County, 111., who was for 
more than fifty years engaged in practice in that 
place. He had three brothers, Corwin C, Bur- 
ton and Charles, all of whom were prominent 
lumber dealers; the first-named was for years one 
of the largest wholesale lumber merchants in 
Chicago. Two children comprise the family of 
Mr. and Mrs. Stratton: Baird L., born April 4, 
1885; and Grace Marion, December 21, 1886. 

Ir spring of 1887 Mr. Wolf came to Franklin 
U County and purchased two hundred and 
eighty-seven acres of land in Lincoln Township. 
By subsequent purchases he has become the 
owner of a farm of four hundred and fifty-five 
acres, where he has made a specialty of raising 
registered stock. To-day he is one of the best- 
known breeders of Shorthorn cattle in his part of 
Kansas, and he owns one of the most valuable 
farms in his county, bearing, among other im- 
provements, a comfortable residence and the 
finest barn in the state. He is connected with 
Star Lodge No. 27, Select Knights of Ottawa. 
In religion he is a Methodist, and has served his 
church as steward and trustee, also for a number 
of years held the ofiice of Sunday-school superin- 

In Fairfield County, Ohio, the subject of this 
sketch was born July 12, 1851, a son of Ezra and 
Barbara (Spangler) Wolf. He was one of twelve 
children, six of whom are living, namely: Salem, 
who is engaged in the drug and hardware busi- 
ness in Adelphi, Ross County, and has served 
his district in the lower house of the Ohio legis- 
lature; Samuel, a farmer of Fairfield County; 
William, who is a retired farmer in Baldwin, 
Kans. ; Morris, a dentist in Parsons, Kans.; John, 
who is engaged in farming in Allen County, 

Kans. ; and Charles Franklin. Ezra Wolf was 
born in Frederickstown, Pa., January i, 1804. 
When he was a boy he accompanied his father to 
Fairfield County, Ohio, where the latter entered 
land and followed the blacksmith's trade. Here 
the youth grew to manhood, married and settled 
upon a farm. His education was largely self- 
acquired, but, being a broad reader, he became a 
well informed man. In politics he supported the 
Democratic party. He filled a number of count}' 
and township offices and was frequently selected 
as delegate to county conventions. For years he 
was trustee, class-leader and steward in the 
Methodist Church. Much of his time was given 
to the stock business, in which he was successful. 
He remained on the home place up to his death, 
in 1876. 

The mother of our subject was born in Fair- 
field County, Ohio, September 6, 1810. She was 
a daughter of Col. Salem Spangler, a prominent 
citizen of Fairfield County, having come there 
from New England and entered land in early 
days. His ability as a leader brought him to the 
front. Several times he was elected to the legis- 
lature, and he was asked to accept the nomination 
for governor of Ohio, but, as he was advancing 
in years, he decided it would be unwise to permit 
his name to be used. He was a member of the 
building committee that built the Ohio state 
house. Other matters pertaining to his county 
and state received his stanch support, and he was 
easily recognized as one of the eminent men of 
his day. During the Revolutionary war he bore 
the rank of colonel. 

When sixteen years of age our subject began 
to teach school. He had previously attended 
common schools, but later, feeling the need of 
more advanced studies, he entered the academy 
at Pleasantville, Ohio, where he remained for a 
time. He continued to teach until 1878. Dur- 
ing this time he married Miss Mary A. Abbott, 
the ceremony being performed August 26, 1873. 
Mrs. Wolf's father, John Abbott, is a descendant 
of one of the oldest American families, and traces 
his lineage to Morris Abbott, who was lord mayor 
of London in 1638. For many years John Abbott 
engaged in the mercantile business in Clearport, 



Ohio, but some years since he removed to a farm 
in Fairfield County, where he is now living re- 
tired. His wife bore the maiden name of Ellen 

From 1873 to 1878 Mr. Wolf devoted his win- 
ters to teaching and his summers to farming in 
Allen County. He then returned to Fairfield 
County, where he was employed as salesman in 
a general store in Clearport. In 1884 he deter- 
mined to come west and the fall of the year found 
him settled at Humboldt, Allen County, Kans. , 
where he became interested in the stock business. 
From there he came to Franklin County and es- 
tablished his home on his present farm. He and 
his wife have four children: Ortho Olden, who 
was born June 4, 1874, and is a graduate of the 
Chicago Veterinary College; Frank E., who was 
born January 9, 1876, and is now an instructor 
in the Baldwin (Kans.) Commercial College; 
Retta E., born March 7, 1882, and Max A., 
August 19, 1887. 

[""RANK O. HETRICK, mayor of Ottawa, and 
r3 member of the board of trustees of Ottawa 
I ' University, is one of the successful profes- 
sional men of his city. He was born in Mans- 
field, Ohio, October 5, 1859, and is a son of the 
late Isaac Hetrick, the loved and honored pioneer 
Baptist preacher of Franklin County. From 1867 
he has made his home in Kansas. In 1878 he 
graduated from the Ottawa high school, after 
which he took up the study of dentistry under 
Dr. W. J. Newton, gaining an accurate knowl- 
edge of the profession in this way. He started in 
business for himself in 1880, since which time he 
has taken special courses in dentistry and has 
made it his aim to keep abreast with every devel- 
opment made in the profession. His marriage, in 
Appanoose, this county, united him with Miss 
Hattie St. John, who was born in Franklin 
County in i860, being a daughter of M. St. John, 
of Ottawa. 

Interested in all public enterprises. Dr. Het- 
rick has always supported plans for the benefit of 
his home town and county. In April, 1899, he 
was elected mayor, for a term of two years. In 
this position he has ably guided the affairs of the 

city, advancing its interests and striving to 
increase its commercial importance. He is a 
member of the Ottawa Gun Club, and, when his 
business duties permit, he is fond of taking an 
outing where he may enjoy hunting and other 
sports. Fraternally he is connected with the In- 
dependent Order of Odd Fellows. 

At the time of the erection of the Baptist 
Church Dr. Hetrick was chairman of the build- 
ing committee, and since 1894 he has been a 
member of the board of trustees. For twelve 
years he was connected with the primary depart- 
ment of the Sunday-school, in which work he 
was peculiarly successful and which he greatlj' 
enjoyed. At this writing he is Sunday-school 
superintendent. He was a charter member of 
the first-formed Y. M. C. A., and atone time offi- 
ciated as its president. Everything pertaining 
to his profession enlists his sympathy and atten- 
tion. For many years he has been a member of 
the State Dental Association, of which he was 
elected president in 1892 and also served as treas- 
urer for six years. The National Dental Asso- 
ciation numbers him among its members. Fre- 
quently he has contributed articles to the dental 
journals, and in other ways he has promoted pro- 
fessional progress. 

REV. ISAAC HETRICK was born in the 
suburbs of Baltimore, Md., June 15, 1810, 
a son of Jacob and Sarah (Lemon) Hetrick, 
natives respectively of Germany and England. 
His father for some years engaged in farming 
near Baltimore, but in 1S12 removed to Richland 
County, Ohio, settling ten miles from Mansfield, 
where he improved a farm and remained until 
his death at eighty-six j'ears. His wife was a 
member of a prominent English family, her father 
having been for many years a member of the 
house of commons in England, of which he was 
speaker for sixteen years. 

From the age of two years Isaac Hetrick was 
reared in Ohio. During his early years of man- 
hood he was a farmer in Ohio and for twenty 
years he held office as justice of the peace, also 
served for two terms as a member of the Ohio leg- 
islature at the time that James A. Garfield be- 


longed to the state senate. When thirtj'-five 
years of age he moved into the city of Mansfield, 
where he engaged in mercantile pursuits and ac- 
cumulated a competency. He was converted when 
forty years of age and became a member of the 
First Baptist Church of Mansfield. Five years 
later he began to preach, and in time devoted 
himself almost exclusively to Christian work. In 
1865 he was regularly ordained to the ministr)- 
of the Baptist denomination. To this work he 
devoted himself with zeal and fidelity. Believing 
thoroughly that the Lord had called him to preach 
the Gospel, he gave himself wholly to it, and 
was the means of helping hundreds of men and 
women in their Christian experiences. Much ot 
his means was given to the spread of the Gospel. 
His work was of a most self-sacrificing nature. 
He gave no thought to himself nor to any remu- 
neration for his work, but labored tirelessly in the 
cause of Christ, content if he could help the lives 
of his associates and lead them into higher spirit- 
ual joys. In September, 1867, he came to Kansas, 
where he was instrumental in organizing congre- 
gations at Greenwood, Rehamah, Antioch, Appa- 
noose, Centropolis and Maple Grove, and at four 
of these places he erected church buildings. For 
twenty years he was pastor of the churches at 
Appanoose and Greenwood, preaching at Green- 
wood until within two months of his death and 
at Appanoose until two years before he died. No 
record was kept of the number of baptisms or 
weddings at which he officiated, but it is known 
that during one year he had more than two hun- 
dred baptisms. Though offered $1,000 in an- 
other pastorate, he steadfastly clung to his two 
country churches, although they were able to pay 
him only $400 a year. He was the most sacri- 
ficing of men, generous to a fault, always thinking 
of others before himself. In mind he was origi- 
nal, having firm convictions of his own and 
thinking for himself. His most successful work 
was in the building up of weak congregations and 
in evangelizing. He was chosen to act as mod- 
erator of the Miami Baptist Association. His 
last years were spent in Ottawa, where he died in 
1 89 1, aged eighty-two years and six months. 
The first wife of Isaac Hetrick was Sarah 

Zeigler and his second wife Elizabeth, daughter 
of Peter Black, of Indiana. She died when her 
son, Dr. F. O. Hetrick, was two years of age, 
and of her seven children four are now living, 
two being in Greenwood, Franklin County, and 
one in Ottawa. The third marriage of Mr. Het- 
rick united him with Mrs. Elizabeth CParamore) 
Rowland, who was born in Ohio. This union 
was childless, Mr. Hetrick's twelve children hav- 
ing been born of his first two marriages. He had 
two sons in the Civil war. One of these, Michael, 
a member of an Ohio regiment, was captured by 
the Confederates and starved to death in Ander- 
sonville. The other, Samuel, served from the 
opening to the close of the war, and afterward 
died in Texas. 

ARCENA ST. JOHN, who came to Kan- 
sas in 1856, was born at Linden Hill, Cat- 
taraugus County, N. Y., a son of Jasper 
and Julia A. (Reynolds) St. John, natives re- 
spectively of Saratoga and Dutchess Counties, 
N. Y. His paternal grandfather, Marcena St. 
John, who was born in Connecticut, became an 
early settler of Saratoga County, N. Y., and 
thence removed to Yates Count}', where he made 
his home upon a farm until his death. He was 
the descendant of French ancestors who emigra- 
ted to England and at the time of the "May- 
flower" settled in New England. Jasper St. 
John, who was a tanner by trade, built a tannery 
in Cattaraugus County, and remained there until 
1S46. He then removed to East Townsend, Hu- 
ron County, Ohio, and built a tannery, which he 
ran for ten years. Afterward he engaged in the 
manufacture of boots and shoes, in connection 
with the tanning business. In 1859 he came to 
Kansas and settled at Centropolis, where he prob- 
ably tanned the first leather ever tanned in 
Franklin County. He manufactured shoes to be 
used in the Pike's Peak region, also tanned a very 
fine grade of harness leather. In later years he 
turned his attention to farm pursuits. During 
1864 he established his home in Centropolis, 
where he acted as postmaster. At the time of 
Price's raid he served in the state militia. In re- 
ligion he was a Baptist, and in that faith died 



when eighty-five years of age. His wife, who, 
at eighty-six years, is Hving at Centropolis, is a 
daughter of William Reynolds, who was born on 
the Hudson in New York and served in the war 
of 1812. The Reynolds family is of English 
descent. Of eight children (five now living) our 
subject is the eldest. He had two brothers, An- 
drew and Henry H., who served in the Civil 
war, the former being sergeant in the First Kan- 
sas Battery, the latter a member of the Eleventh 
Kansas Infantry. 

On the homestead where he was born April 
20,1831, the subject of this sketch passed the 
years of early boyhood. He accompanied his 
parents to Ohio in 1846, where he learned the 
shoemaker's trade. When he became of age he 
entered into partnership with his father. In 
April, 1856, he came to Kansas, with Col. S. N. 
Woods, but after a few months in Lawrence re- 
turned to Ohio. Again, in April, 1858, became 
to Kansas, settling on a claim in what is now 
Appanoose Township, Franklin County, and im- 
proving one hundred and sixty acres. In 1862 
he entered the state militia as lieutenant, and re- 
mained with it until the militia refused to leave 
the state. He then enlisted in Company M, 
Eleventh Kansas Cavalry, in which he served as 
a corporal. Among the battles in which he took 
part were those at Lexington, Little Blue, Big 
Blue, Westport, Newtonia and Weber's Falls. 
At the close of the war his regiment was sent 
against the Indians on the frontier, and contin- 
ued in the service until November, 1865, when 
he was mustered out as sergeant. 

Returning to Centropolis, Mr. St. John re- 
sumed farming. He remained on his home place 
until 1884, when he came to Ottawa and became 
interested in dental work with his son-in-law, 
Dr. Hetrick, having charge of plate work and the 
mechanical part of dentistry for the latter. He 
is a member of the Grand Army of the Republic. 
A Baptist in religion, he was prominent in the 
upbuilding of the Sunday-school and church at 
Appanoose. For many years he was secretary 
of the County Sundaj'-school Association, to 
which he devoted much time and thought. At 
this writing he is deacon of the Ottawa church. 

He was married in Huron County, Ohio, to Miss 
Viola A. Stanton, who was born in Cattaraugus 
County, N. Y., a daughter of G. R. Stanton, 
M. D. Of the five children born to their union, 
two daughters are living, one of whom is with 
her parents, while the other is the wife of Dr. F. 
O. Hetrick. 

ITdWIN M. SHELDON, who for some years 
r3 has been at the head of one of the im- 
|_ portant enterprises of Ottawa, came to this 
city in January, 1870, and for two years held a 
position as deputy register of deeds under his 
brother, Herbert F. Sheldon. During the sena- 
torial session of 1872 he was journal clerk of the 
state senate. On the Republican ticket, in the 
fall of 1872, he was elected clerk of the district 
court, which office he filled from January, 1873, 
to January, 1875. Upon retiring from office he 
bought a soap factory which had been started in 
the spring of 1874 and which he has since con- 
ducted, manufacturing both laundry and toilet 
soaps. He is also to some extent interested in 
farming. For some years he has affiliated with 
the Populists, being in sympathy with the prin- 
ciples of this party. In 1885-86 he served as a 
member of the city council, in which capacity he 
aided in promoting projects for the benefit of the 
city. He is president of the Ottawa Mutual 
Loan and Savings Institution and secretary of 
the Franklin County Fair Association, with 
which for fifteen years he has been connected as 
secretary or assistant secretary. 

When in middle life Seth Sheldon removed 
from his farm near Pawlet, Vt., to Chautauqua 
County, N. Y. He was accompanied by his son, 
Tichenor, who afterward engaged in farming 
near Sherman and died there at seventy-seven 
years of age; he married Lucinda Brown, who 
was born near Boston and died at Sinclairville, 
N. Y. She was a descendant of a New England 
family that was represented in the Revolutionary 
war. The subject of this article was born in 
Chautauqua County, N. Y. , March 18, 1847, 
and was the youngest of five children, the others 
being as follows: Milton Brown, who died in 
New York; Hon. Herbert F. Sheldon, state 


senator from this district; Roj-alE., a merchant 
in Chautauqua County; and Fannie, who died in 
Ottawa in 1871. 

In local schools and Westfield Academy our 
subject obtained an excellent education. When 
he left home it was to join his older brother in 
Kansas, where he has since made his home. 
Since coming to Ottawa he married Miss Emma 
A. Elder, who was born in North New Portland, 
Me., and in 1868 came to Ottawa with her father, 
Alva. Mrs. Sheldon is a member of the Presby- 
terian Church, and Mr. Sheldon has also been an 
active worker in this denomination, having 
served as president of the board of trustees for 
ten years, and as chairman of the building com- 
mittee at the time of the erection of the house of 
worship. They are highly respected by the 
members of the church, and also stand high in 
social circles of the city. Their only son. Royal 
E., is engaged in business in Ottawa, being a 
member of the firm of Sheldon & Williams, 
jobbers. Fraternally Mr. Sheldon is connected 
with Ottawa Lodge No. 128, A. F. & A. M., in 
which he is past secretary. 

(Tames H. ransom, who has been a suc- 
I cessful business man, came to Kansas in 
O 1868 and has since been identified with the 
growing interests of this state, his home having 
been in Ottawa for some years past. He is a 
member of a pioneer family of New England. 
His great-grandfather Ransom, who was a Revo- 
lutionary soldier, removed to New York and set- 
tled in Otsego County. From there the grandfather 
went to Chautauqua County, settling upon a 
farm. The father, Willard Ransom, was born in 
Otsego County, graduated from the Cincinnati 
Eclectic Medical College, and practiced his pro- 
fession in Chautauqua County until he died, at 
eighty-two years. Like his father he held mem- 
bership in the Methodist Episcopal Church. He 
married Marietta Briggs, who was born in Chau- 
tauqua County, her father, James Briggs, having 
moved there from Vermont; her entire life was 
spent in that county, where she died in advanced 
years. Of the four children of her marriage. 

James H., the eldest, was born in Harmony 
Township, Chautauqua County, in November, 
1836; Miranda is the wife of A. L- Lewis, of New 
York; John lives in Toledo, Ohio; and Mary 
married H. J. Cook, of New York. 

In 1856 the subject of this sketch left home 
and went to Illinois, where he taught school and 
traveled through different parts of the state. He 
then returned to New York, from there went to 
Pennsylvania, and in 1862 found employment in 
the oil regions. For a time he engaged in freight- 
ing and boating at Pithole City, after which he 
took contracts for sinking wells, and also carried 
on a hardware business in Pithole City. In 1868 
he left the east and settled in Kansas. For a year 
he conducted a business at Burlington, after 
which for several years he ran a flour and saw 
mill in Clinton, Douglas County, and subsequently 
settled on a farm north of Clinton. At the time 
of the building of the Lawrence & Carbondale 
Railroad he furnished all of the timber for 
bridges and all the ties used on the road. Later 
he became interested in the coal business at Car- 
bondale, where he owned and operated two coal 
mines, and supplied the railroad with coal. 

Removing to Lawrence in 1875, Mr. Ransom 
opened a wholesale and retail coal business. 
After three years he located in Williamsburg and 
bought the mines of the Williamsburg Coal Min- 
ing Company, which he afterward operated for 
some years. In the fall of 1886 he moved to Ot- 
tawa and started a retail coal business, later ad- 
ding the ice business, and continuing both until 
he sold to Mr. Bennett. His interest in the mines 
has been continued to the present, and he owns 
one thousand acres of coal land, with a shaft and 
twenty-inch vein. About 1880 he started the 
town of Ransomville, three miles from Williams- 
burg, and was appointed the first postmaster of 
the place, besides which he carried on a general 
mercantile store and engaged in shipping grain 
and stock from the town. He has continued rail- 
road contracting, his principal contracts being 
on the Santa Fe and its branches. Besides his 
other property he owns a farm of more than two 
hundred acres near Princeton. Politically a Re- 
publican, he has served as a member of the coun- 




ty and state central committees, and has been in- 
fluential in the work of his partj-. 

In Chautauqua Count}', N. Y., Mr. Ransom 
married Miss Eunice Glidden, daughter of Dan- 
iel Glidden, who was born in Vermont and en- 
gaged in farming near Harmony, Chautauqua 
County. She was born and reared there and died 
in Ottawa, leaving a son and daughter. The 
former, Willard Ransom, graduated from Cornell 
in 1899 with the degree of M. E. The daughter, 
Myra, is the wife of B. D. Bennett, of Ottawa. 

LIVER J. FARNSWORTH. In reviewing 
the life of Mr. Farnsworth we find in him 
one of the best-known stock-raisers and 
dairymen of Leavenworth County. When he 
came to Kansas in 1872 he bought the property, 
consisting of three hundred and twenty acres, on 
section 18, High Prairie Township, where he 
has since resided. At that time the land was 
fenced, but bore no other improvement. Under 
his personal supervision it has been transformed 
into a finely improved estate, with a substantial 
residence and first-class farm buildings. Stock- 
raising is the principal business, and the grain 
and hay raised are used entirely for feed. The 
herd of one hundred head of cattle includes Short- 
horns and Herefords, among them some fine 
milch cows. Shipments of milk are made regu- 
larly to Kansas City. The entire place is man- 
aged in a manner that proves the thrift and 
energy of the owner, and no detail is so small as 
to be neglected or overlooked by him. 

The first member of the Farnsworth family of 
whom there is a record was Roger de Farnsworth, 
1297, who lived in Lancashire, near Liverpool, 
England. Joseph, of Dorchester, Mass., came 
to this country in the Dorchester company in 
1628, and died in 1659. He had ten children. 
The first generation in America was represented 
by Matthias, a farmer of Lynn, Mass. By his 
marriage to Mary Farr, of Lynn, he had, among 
his children, a son, Matthias, Jr., born in 1649, 
who married Sarah Mutting and died in the In- 
dian war in 1693. The representative of the 
third generation in America was Josiah, born 

February 24, 1687. He was taken prisoner by 
Indians and carried to Canada. By his marriage 
to Mary Pierce he had ten children, of whom the 
seventh, Thomas, born April i, 1731, married 
Elizabeth Tuttle, in 1753, and served in the bat- 
tle of Lexington during the Revolutionary war. 
It is thought that he was a minister. He was 
twice married and had eleven children. The 
fifth generation was represented by Thomas, Jr. , 
who was born at New Ipswich, N. H., May 29, 
1768, and married Demis Ladd, who was born in 
New Hampshire in 1769. Both died at Alden, 
N. Y., he in 1852 and she in 1863. Their chil- 
dren were as follows: Jerry, who was born in 
September, 1791, and died in 1792; Laura, who 
was born February 6, 1793, and married Paul 
White, by whom .she had ten children; Linda, 
who married David Robinson and had nine chil- 
dren; Thomas, Jr., who was born at Williams- 
town, Vt. , May 20, 1797; Rachel, who married 
Dr. Martin and died in 1840; Jerry (2d), who 
was born in 1801, and married Eliza Bassett; 
Ozel and Ozel (2d); Lemuel, born in 1809; 
Alonzo, 1811; Alvira, 1813; and Marshall, 1815. 
The sons became farmers and were good citizens 
and prosperous men. The greater number of 
them lived to old age. 

Thomas Farnsworth, the third of that name, 
married Sophia Udell, who was born at Stratford, 
Vt., October 8, 1803, a daughter of Oliver Udell. 
They had five children, viz.: Louisa, born Jan- 
uary 22, 1825; Eleanor Maria, September i, 1827; 
Homer L., 1831; OHver J., 1837; and Carrie, 
July 30, 1840. The eldest, Louisa, became the 
wife of Mathew Patterson, who was born in 181 2; 
their daughter, Lucy Harriet, who was born in 
1863, was married in 1888 to Merton Minot, and 
their marriage resulted in the birth of two sons, 
Brewster (deceased), and George. The second 
daughter, Eleanor Maria, was married in 1850 to 
Dr. John Dennison, who was born in 181 9; their 
daughter, Flora Ellen, born in June, 1852, be- 
came the wife of Christopher Dunhart, who was 
born in 1843, and they became the parents of two 
children, Clarence, born in April, 1878, and Flen- 
nie, born in 1889, the latter representing the ninth 
generation of the family in America. The third 



member of the family, Homer I,. , was born at 
Alden, N. Y., in 1831, and died at Sweetland, 
Iowa, in 1862. The 5'oungest of the family, 
Carrie, was married July 7, 1863, at Alden, N.Y., 
to Joseph E. Ewell, who was born January 16, 
1839; they have one child, Florence Josephine, 
born August 7, 1871. 

When twentj'-one j'ears of age Thomas Farns- 
worth (_3d) drove from Vermont to the Erie canal 
in New York. For nineteen years he followed 
the tanner's trade, but defective hearing caused 
him to retire from that occupation, after which 
he engaged in farming. He was an old-line 
Whig and active in local politics. At the time 
of his death he was ninety-seven years of age. 

In Erie County, N. Y., where he was born in 
1837, our subject received his education. At 
twenty years of age he went to Columbus, Ohio, 
and remained there for four years, engaging in 
mercantile pursuits. On his return to the home 
place in New York he a.ssumed its management, 
and remained there for nine years. In 1868 he 
went to Clifton, W. Va., where he engaged in 
the manufacture of salt; but not finding the busi- 
ness profitable he traded for a stock of dry goods 
and groceries, and started in business at Middle- 
port, Ohio, just across the river from West Vir- 
ginia. In 1872 he sold his store and came to 
Kansas, since which time he has resided on his 
present farm. He has been interested in Repub- 
lican politics and has attended county and state 
conventions of his party. While he has never 
accepted nomination for political office he has al- 
ways been willing to work in the interests of the 
schools, and for twenty years has been a member 
of the school board, of which he is the present 
treasurer. He has been interested in the build- 
ing of the school in the eighth district, which is 
one of the best school houses in the county; the 
interior of the building is made attractive by 
painted walls and wainscoting, and everything is 
done to make the surroundings pleasant and com- 
fortable for the children. 

Twice married, Mr. Farnsworth's first wife 
was Malvina Mountz. After her death he was 
married, in April, 1871, to Elizabeth Nichols, 
and they have four children, John T., Nellie F., 

Pearl and Myrtle. Their daughter Pearl was 
married to Clarence L. Faulkner April 14, 1897, 
and they have one son, Oliver K., born Decem- 
ber 17, 1898. In religious belief Mr. Farnsworth 
is a firm believer in Christian Science. He is a 
very conscientious man, honest in every transac- 
tion and striving in his life to carry out the 
teachings of the golden rule. 

HON. GEORGE J. BARKER, ex-member of 
the senate and legislature of Kansas, is one 
of the most prominent attorneys of Law- 
rence. He is of New England birth and lineage, 
and a descendant of "Mayflower" ancestry. His 
father, Hon. Cyrus G. Barker, was born in Con- 
necticut and reared in Hampden County, Mass., 
where he engaged in farm pursuits for some years. 
About 1844 he removed to Rock County, Wis., 
and settled at Somerville, but later went to Clin- 
ton Junction and continued agricultural pursuits, 
djdng there in 1868. He was one of the largest 
land owners of his county and much of his prop- 
erty is now owned by his son, J. C. Barker, who 
is mayor of Clinton Junction. A pioneer of that 
section, he was known among all the people for 
miles around and stood high as a citizen. At 
various times he was elected to local offices and 
also served in the legislature. He married Eliza 
King, whose father removed from Connecticut to 
Massachusetts, where she was born. Her ances- 
tors were Congregationalists and pioneers of New 
England. Of her four children, one daughter 
died at the age of sixteen and another after mar- 
riage. The youngest of the family, our subject, 
was born in Hampden County, Mass., November 
6, 1842. He was educated at Allen's Grove Acad- 
emy, where he prepared for Beloit College. In- 
stead, however, of taking a course in college he 
became a student of law in the Chicago Law 
School, from which he graduated in 1865, with 
the degree of LL-B. He remained in Chicago 
until 1867, when he came to Lawrence and be- 
came a member of the firm of Akin & Barker. 
Later he was with other attorneys, being for 
a time identified with the law firm of Barker, 
Gleed & Gleed, with offices in Topeka and Law- 



rence. He was afterward a member of the firms, 
Barker & Poehler, and Barker, Poehler & Pearse, 
since which he has been alone. 

As attorney for the Western Farm Mortgage 
Trust Company of Lawrence, operating in Col- 
orado, Mr. Barker had an office on Curtis street, 
Denver, where he remained for two years, mean- 
time becoming president of the company. Besides 
his private practice he has been attorney for the 
Santa Fe Railroad. For two terms he held the 
office of prosecuting attorney, during the exist- 
ence of the prohibition law, and he made it his 
business to see that the law was enforced. In the 
celebrated Kunkle case he was attorney for the 
defendant, who was acquitted. For twenty years 
he has been connected with the Hillman case, 
one of the most interesting in the civil history of 
the United States, and a case that has been pro- 
tracted for a longer period than any other, in 
which the widow sued the insurance companies 
for the recovery of insurance money. The al- 
leged killing took place March 17, 1879, after 
which there were six trials, one of these lasting 
sixty days. He was one of the original attorneys 
when the case was brought into court in 18S0, 
and mastered its many intricacies and the count- 
less points of law involved. 

The first vote of Mr. Barker was cast for Abra- 
ham Lincoln, and he has since continued to sup- 
port Republican principles. He has attended the 
state conventions of the party and has served on 
the executive committee of the state central com- 
mittee. For one term he was mayor of Lawrence, 
for several years city and county attorney, also 
served as president of the city council, and as 
state senator from 1886 to 1890. During his 
term in the senate he secured the passing of the 
Quantrell raid bill, which secured to the citizens 
of the county $,-^00,000 for the sufferers from that 
raid. In 1896 he was elected to represent the 
fourteenth district in the state legislature and 
served in the session of .1897 and the special ses- 
sion of iSgS. 

In Allen's Grove, Wis., Mr. Barker married 
Lucena, daughter of Sidney Allen, the first set- 
tler of that place. She was born in Rochester, 
N. Y., and died in Lawrence, Kans., in 1886, 

leaving three daughters, Mrs. Ann E. Spencer, 
oflola, Kans., Lucena Allen and Fannie, The 
present wife of Mr. Barker was Mrs. Emma (De- 
land) Dinsmore, widow of Frank Dinsmore (who 
was superintendent of schools in Lawrence, and 
a daughter of B. F. and Harriet (Bowen) Deland, 
natives of Chautauqua County, N. Y. Her fa- 
ther was for some years a farmer in New York, 
but removed to the copper regions of Michigan. 
She is a graduate of the Ohio Wesleyan College 
and is a woman of culture and broad knowledge. 
She is the only woman who has ever been a mem- 
ber of the school board in Lawrence. By her 
marriage to Mr. Dinsmore she had four children, 
Paul, Kate, Edna and Frances. In religious be- 
lief she is a Presbyterian and takes a warm inter- 
est in the work of that church, which Mr. Barker 
also attends. Fraternally he is connected with 
Lawrence Lodge No. 9, A. F. & A. M., Law- 
rence Chapter No. 4, R^ A. M., and DeMolay 
Commandery, K. T. 

I AFAYETTE P. BALDWIN, who is one of 
It the well-known farmers and stock-raisers 
li2f of Douglas County, residing in Kanwaka 
Township, was born in Delaware County, Ohio, 
September 6, 1850, a son of Israel C. and Lucy 
J. (Preston) Baldwin. He was one of five chil- 
dren, of whom he and his brother, Alvah S., of 
Delaware County, Ohio, are the only survivors. 
His father, who was a native of New York state, 
born in 1806, while still a young man removed 
to Ohio, settling in Delaware Count}', where he 
married and engaged in farming. In the fall of 
1859 he came to Kansas and established his home 
in Douglas County, five miles west of Lawrence, 
where he bought a section of land. He gave his 
attention closely to the development of his land 
and made of it a valuable farm. Engaged in 
agricultural pursuits, his last years were passed 
busily and prosperously. His death occurred 
upon the old homestead in 1881. 

The education of our subject was obtained in 
common schools. On approaching manhood the 
management of the homestead devolved largely 
upon him, and thus qualities of industry, self- 



reliance and perseverance were early developed in 
his character. In 1874 he married Miss Marga- 
ret Pierson, who was born in Indiana and came 
to Kansas in 1854 with her father, Thomas Pier- 
son, settling in Kanwaka Township, Douglas 
County. The four children born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Baldwin are named: L,aetta, Thomas, Earl and 
Eugene (deceased). After our subject'smarriage 
he was given one hundred and sixty acres of 
land by his father. To the cultivation of this 
property he gave his attention, increasing its 
value by the erection of a substantial farm house. 
He continued to reside there until after the death 
of his father, when he purchased the home resi- 
dence and one hundred and twentj- acres of the 
place. Removing to it, he has since resided here. 
He has given his time largely to the cattle busi- 
ness, in which he has been exceptionally suc- 
cessful. In his labors as a tiller of the soil and 
as a stock-raiser he has displayed practical com- 
mon sense, discrimination and an ability to work 
to a good advantage, and the success that has 
followed his efforts proves that he was fortunate 
iu the selection of an occupation. His forefathers 
were Democrats, and he is equally stanch in his 
allegiance to this party. 

I C in Ottawa in 1867, was identified with the 
[2 growing interests of this city from that time 
until his death. He was a descendant of Deacon 
John and Sarah (Fisher) Crawford, who came to 
the new world in 1754 and settled upon a farm in 
Warren, Knox County, Me. Although unfamiliar 
with general farming (having been a shepherd in 
his native land) he was industrious and met with 
considerable success. For years he served as a 
deacon in the Baptist Church. His son, Capt. 
James Crawford, was a sea captaiu and part 
owner of the steamer "Speedwell," which was 
seized by the French. John Crawford, son of 
Capt. James and Margaret (Rivers) Crawford, 
was born in Warren in 1803 and engaged in 
farming iu his native county until he died in 
1870. He married Mahala Russell, a native of 
Warren, and a daughter of Rufus and Mary 

(Fisher) Russell, both of whom died in 1819. 
Levi Russell, father of Rufus Russell, was of 
English descent and a member of a Puritan fam- 
ily. He moved from Plymouth, Mass., to Maine, 
where he died. During the Revolutionary war 
he served in the colonial army. His wife was 
Hannah Simmons, of Duxburj^ Mass. The 
grandfather of Mary (Fisher) Russell, James 
Fisher, was born in 1760 and died in 1834. Dur- 
ing the Revolution he was sent to America as a 
British soldier, but deserted and joined the 
American ranks; for, being from Scotland, his 
sympathies were on the side of the struggling 
colonies. After the war ended he settled in War- 
ren, Me., and married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Archibald Robinson, a son of Dr. Moses Robin- 
son , who was of Scotch-Irish lineage and settled 
first in Cushing, Me., but later became a pioneer 
of Warren. Archibald Robinson married Mar- 
garet Watson. 

The family of which our subject was a mem- 
ber consisted of nine children, of whom Mrs. 
Luella Burdett and Mrs. Margaret Colbath (both 
of New Hampshire) alone survive. Levi Rus- 
sell, who was the third of the family, was born in 
Warren, Me., June 6, 1834, and was reared on 
the home farm, attending Warren Academy and 
afterward teaching. In Thomaston, Me., he was 
apprenticed to house and ship carpentering, and 
for three years was employed on a ship plying 
between New York and Liverpool. During this 
time he had several dangerous trips, once being 
nearly shipwrecked in a storm. During one win- 
ter he visited Cuba and frequently his ship 
anchored in New York and New Orleans. After 
the Portland fire he engaged in building there 
for a year. In the fall of 1 867 he came to Ottawa, 
where he engaged in contracting and building, 
among his contracts having those for the Baptist 
Church, second ward school, Horace J. Smith's 
block, the new building of the Ottawa Uni- 
versity and some of the finest blocks and houses 
in the city. After the Chicago fire he engaged 
in contracting in that city in 1871-72, but with 
that exception continued to make Ottawa his 
home until his death. He built several houses 
in the city and became the owner of farm lands 



near by. For years he was a member of the 
board of education and the city council. In 1872 
he was made a trustee of Ottawa University, 
which position he held continuously (except one 
year when away) until 1896, and for fourteen 
years he served as secretary of the board. At 
the same time he was a member of the executive 
committee. Fraternally he was a Mason. Dur- 
ing almost his entire life he was a trustee and 
deacon in the Baptist Church. In addition to his 
constant work for the university and church he 
was also foremost in the temperance cause, and 
it was largely due to his efforts that Ottawa was 
able to have prohibition several years before it 
was made a state law. In the temperance cause 
he was an indefatigable worker and he was also 
active in the p'-osecution of the violators of the 
law. Through this means he did not a little 
toward making Ottawa one of the most desirable 
residence towns in the state. For years he taught 
a Sunday-school class, and in other ways he did 
all within his power to promote the cause of the 
church. When the new building at the university 
was erected he was one of the most generous con- 
tributors toward it, and at other times the uni- 
versity received other benefactions from him. He 
was a thoughtful reader and thinker, and pos- 
sessed clear-cut convictions upon all important 
questions. Politically he was a stanch Republi- 
can (casting his first vote for Fremont and Day- 
ton) and always remained steadfast to those prin- 
ciples. His death occurred April 18, 1897, in 
the city where for so long he had been an hon- 
ored and influential citizen. 

September 26, 1866, Mr. Crawford married, in 
Warren, Me., Miss Inez J. Kalloch, who was 
born in that town, a daughter of I,ermond and 
Sarah (Robinson) Kalloch. Her grandfather, 
Benjamin Kalloch, who was born in 1785, served 
in the war of 18 12, and died in 1838; he married 
Esther Libby, who was born in 1787 and died in 
1832. She was a daughter of Nathan and Eliza- 
beth (L,ermond) lyibby, the former born in 1761, 
and died in 1837. Nathan was a son of Maj. 
Hatevil Libby, who was a major of militia in the 
Revolutionary war; he was born in 1737 and died 
in 1820. His wife, who was Jane (Watson) 

Libby, was born in 1735 and died in 1819. Ben- 
jamin Kalloch was a son of Alexander Kalloch, 
who was born in 1740, served as a lieutenant in 
the Revolutionary war, and was the first to raise 
the stars and stripes over Warren, where he died 
in 1826. His forefathers were Scotch-Irish; his 
father, Finlay Kalloch, came to America from the 
north of Ireland about 17 19 and after his mar- 
riage to Mary Young removed to Portsmouth, 
N. H., thence to Warren, Me., in 1735. Eliza- 
beth Lermond was a daughter of Alexander and 
Mary (Harkness) Lermond, the latter of Welsh 
descent. The former, who was born in London- 
derry in 1707, came to America with his parents 
in 1 7 1 9 ; he owned mills at Warren, where he died 
in 1790. Lermond Kalloch was born in 18 10 
and died in 1893; his wife was born in 18 16 and 
died in 1863. She was a daughter of Lewis and 
Eunice (Fairbanks) Robinson, the latter a daugh- 
ter of John and Eunice (Payson) Fairbanks and 
a granddaughter of Capt. Samuel Payson, of 
Revolutionary fame. John Fairbanks was also 
an officer in the colonial army. Lewis Robinson 
was a son of Andrew Robinson, of Scotch de- 
scent. Lermond Kalloch was a prominent farmer 
living in Warren and was active in religious 
affairs, being for many years a deacon in the 
Baptist Church. He had only two children, Mrs. 
Crawford (the wife of the subject of our sketch) 
and Elmus N. The latter, who was a sergeant 
in Company I, Twentieth Maine Infantry, during 
the Civil war, and remained in the army until 
peace was declared, died in Fort Scott, Kans., in 
August, 1887. 

Mr. and Mrs. Crawford were the parents of 
three children. Clarence Buck, who graduated 
from Brown University in June, 1887, died in 
October of the same year, when twenty years of 
age, being accidentally killed while boarding a 
train at Auburudale, Mass. His death, in the 
dawn of manhood, when every prospect was 
bright and his future seemed rich with hope, was 
a severe blow to the family. He was a member 
of the Phi Beta Kappa and Delta Kappa Epsilon. 
The only daughter, Inez Mabel, graduated from 
Ottawa University in 1892 with the degree of 
A. B., and afterward taught in Grand Island 



(Neb.) College for some time, but is now agent 
for the Mutual Life Insurance Compan}- of New 
York in Ottawa. Prominent in social life, she 
was the leader in organizing the local chapter of 
Daughters of the Revolution and was for two 
years president of the M. P. M. Club, the oldest 
ladies' literary club here. The only living son, 
Ralph Kalloch, is a member of the class of 1901, 
Ottawa University. 

pQlLLIAM H. WILLIAMS, who is the 
\ A / owner of fourteen hundred acres, is recog- 
V Y nized as one of the most extensive and suc- 
cessful stockmen of Harrison Township, Frank- 
lin County. He was born in Phoenixville, Pa., 
December 2, 1845, ^ son of William and Ellen 
(Cohn) Williams, natives respectively of Wales 
and England. His father came to the United 
States in 1S44 and twelve years later established 
his home in Kansas, taking up a claim in Cen- 
tropolis Township, Franklin County, and in 
March, 1857, moving his family to the place. 
There he built up a large and important stock 
business, and in time came to be one of the 
largest shippers in the county. His shipments 
were not limited to this country alone, but he 
also .shipped beef cattle to Liverpool, England, 
although the most of the shipments were made 
to Buffalo and New York City. For years he 
raised horses, mules and cattle on a large scale, 
and there was no branch of the stock business 
with which he was unfamiliar. At the time of 
his death he owned five hundred acres of land, 
all of which he had improved and increased in 
value. He died in 1884, at the age of seventy 
years, and his wife passed away when fifty-two 
years of age. They left three sons, William H., 
M. T. and Richard. 

Coming to Kansas in 1855, our subject settled 
with his parents in Centropolis Township in 1857, 
and he has since been interested in farming and 
stock-raising. In 1879 he began feeding cattle 
on a farm of his own in Centropolis Township, 
and in this way he secured a start in the stock 
business. In 1885 he sold that farm and moved 
to Cutler Township, where he bought twenty 

hundred and seventy acres, formerly owned by 
C. C. Cole, and on it he engaged in the stock 
business imtil his removal to Harrison Township 
in 1893. He is one of the large land owners of 
this township. His attention is given closely to 
the buying, feeding and shipping of cattle and 
hogs, and he is considered a thoroughly ex- 
perienced and successful stockman. He is inter- 
ested in movements beneficial to his township. 
From the age of twenty-one until the Chicago 
convention he was a Democrat, but when the 
Democrats inserted in their platform a plank ad- 
vocating the free coinage of silver he left the 
ranks of that party and has since affiliated with 
the Republicans. He has never been active in 
local elections, nor has he sought official positions. 
In 1871 Mr. Williams married Miss Phoebe E. 
Foster, who died, leaving three children: Eliza- 
beth, wife of W. L. McCandless; William, who 
is married and lives in Peoria Township, and 
Alice. His present wife bore the maiden name 
of Eva Randall and was born in Indiana. 

j YMAN REID. On the corner of Elm and 
It Third streets stands what is without doubt 
li2f the finest residence in Ottawa. It was 
erected by Mr. and Mrs. Reid in 1898-99 and is 
constructed of buff colored brick, of a style of 
architecture that is modern and imposing. With- 
in may be found every modern convenience and 
improvement, while the whole is furnished with 
an elegance and harmony that reflect the tastes 
of the inmates. The charming eSect is height- 
ened by well-kept grounds and the various ap- 
purtenances of a model home. Indeed, it may be 
safely said that few places in eastern Kansas are 
more beautiful than this. 

A citizen of Ottawa since October i, 1875, Mr. 
Reid was born at Mount Pleasant, Jefferson 
County, Ohio, on the 4th of July, 1852. His 
father, William, who was born at Reidville, Pa. , 
moved by wagons to Ohio, and became a manu- 
facturer at Mount Pleasant, where he met with 
large success. For years he served as school di- 
rector and justice of the peace, and was also a 
director of the First National Bank of Mount 



Pleasant. In politics he was a Republican and 
an Abolitionist, and in religion adhered to Pres- 
byterian doctrines. He married Rachel S. 
Mitchell, who was born at Scott's Ridge, Bel- 
mont Count}', Ohio, the daughter of a farmer 
and pioneer of that count}', and a sister of J. J. 
Mitchell, who is prominently connected with the 
Chicago & Alton Railroad in St. Louis; and also 
of William H. Mitchell, vice-president of the Illi- 
nois Trust and Savings Bank of Chicago (whose 
son, John J. Mitchell, is president of that famous 
banking institution). 

The family of William and Rachel S. Reid con- 
sisted of four sons and four daughters, of whom 
two sons and three daughters are living. One of 
the sons, G.W., died in Baltimore, Md.; another, 
William H., is second vice-president of the Illi- 
nois Trust and Savings Company of Chicago. 
The youngest son, Lyman, was born and reared 
at Mount Pleasant, where he obtained his rudi- 
mentary education. Afterward he attended 
Mount Union College for two years and the Pitts- 
burgh (Pa.) Commercial College. The years 1871 
and 1872 he spent in Chicago in business, after 
which he returned to college. For some 3'ears 
his health was poor, and, hoping that travel 
might prove beneficial, he came west in 1875, 
visiting his sister, wife of Rev. D. C. Milner, in 
Ottawa. He gained in health so rapidly that he 
decided to remain in that city. He accepted a 
position as bookkeeper for the Forest mills, 
which during that year (1875) carried on an im- 
mense business in the purchase and shipment of 
castor beans. During 1875 Franklin County 
was the banner county in the United States in the 
size of its castor bean crop, there being about two 
hundred thousand bushels raised here, which 
sold at $2.50 a bushel. Almost all of that enor- 
mous crop was bought by the Forest mills, and 
Mr. Reid had charge of its purchase and ship- 
ment. After having remained in the same posi- 
tion for two years he engaged in the hardware 
business on Main street, being a member of the 
firm of Robinson & Reid for three years and Reid 
& Holliday for two years, after which he sold his 
interest in the store. In 1884 he became book- 
keeper at the Excelsior mills and continued in 

that capacity until June i, 1898, when he re- 
signed. In politics he favors the principles for 
which the Republican party .stands. Fraternally 
he is connected with the lodge and encampment 
of Odd Fellows. 

In Freeport, Pa., Mr. Reid married Miss Ida 
M. Warden, who was born in Pittsburgh, Pa., 
and received her education in Mount Union Col- 
lege. Her father, Joseph L. Warden, was for 
years an oil refiner in Freeport, but retired from 
business in favor of the Standard Oil Company. 
He died in Philadelphia. His brother, William 
Warden, was associated with William Rockefeller 
in the starting of the now famous Standard Oil 
Company. Mr. and Mrs. Reid are identified 
with the Presbyterian Church, in the work of 
which they take a warm interest. They became 
the parents of two children, but only one is now 
living, Joseph Warden Reid, who is a student in 
Phillips Academy at Andover, Mass., prepara- 
tory to a course in Yale College. As a pianist 
and vocalist Mrs. Reid has exhibited superior 
talent, and her voice, often heard in solos, has 
won the admiration of all for its sweet and pure 
tones, as well as for the thorough knowledge of 
music displayed. 

stock and farm interests of Franklin County 
have a prominent representative in Mr. 
Woodlief, who has resided in Ottawa Township 
since 1877. Previously a resident of large cities, 
but tiring of metropolitan life, became to Kansas 
during the year named, with a view to purchasing 
a homestead. He visited his present place for 
the first time by night and was taken through 
the house, but it was impossible to make a thor- 
ough investigation of the property by lamp 
light. However, he saw enough to convince 
him this was the place he wanted, and in about 
twenty minutes he decided to buy. Returning 
to town, he closed the transaction. The place 
not only possesses scenic attractions, but is also of 
historical interest, as it was here that the bor- 
der ruffians commenced their depredations. 
They robbed J. T. Jones (then the owner of the 
place) and burned the dwelling. Afterward Mr. 



Jones erected the present commodious stone resi- 
dence, in which have been entertained many of 
the noted men of the past forty years, among 
them Horace Greeley and Abraham Lincohi. 
The land lies on the old Santa Fe trail and of re- 
cent years a pbstofEce and station named Wood- 
lief have been established on the farm on the line 
of the Santa Fe Railroad. 

In Clermont County, Ohio, Mr. Woodlief was 
born December 27, 1839. His father and grand- 
father, both named R. Y. Woodlief, were natives 
of Virginia and farmers there, owning land near 
Richmond. Their ancestors came to Virginia 
from England early in the eighteenth century 
and were planters. They are descended from a 
long line of English ancestry. The father, who 
was an old-line Whig and later a Republican, 
served as constable and justice of the peace. 
He was a class-leader and trustee in the Method- 
ist Church. Near Knoxville, Tenn., he married 
Susan Sanders, by whom he had seven children, 
five now living, William H. being the fifth and 
the only one in Kansas. The last years of the 
father's life were spent near Cincinnati, Ohio. 

In public schools, Milford Seminary and the 
Ohio State University at Delaware, Ohio, our 
subject obtained his education. In Cincinnati he 
learned the painter's trade. Subsequently secur- 
ing a position as teacher in Hamilton County, he 
successfully passed the required examination and 
was given a first-class certificate in Cincinnati, 
after which he taught for eight months. The 
war then broke out and his school was selected as 
headquarters for the ofiicers of Camp Dennison. 
August 6, 186 1, he enlisted in Company G, First 
Ohio Cavalry, and saw active service with the 
army of the Cumberland, taking part in the bat- 
tles of Shiloh, Corinth, Champion Hills, Stone 
River, Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain, and the 
march to and siege of Atlanta. He also took part 
in Kilpatrick's raid around Atlanta and other im- 
portant engagements. He received a few wounds, 
though none of which was serious. After a short 
time in the ranks he was made orderly sergeant, 
four or five months later became second lieutenant 
and in a year was promoted to the captaincy, 
which position he held until his resignation in 

October, 1864. He resigned owing to the fact 
that he had been assigned to another company 
than his own and he felt that to be an injustice 
to the company. The company had been poorly 
officered and suffered misfortune, but he put 
them into shape, and, as the first lieutenant de- 
veloped into an excellent commissioned officer, 
he desired to give him an opportunity to prove 
his ability. 

Returning to Ohio, Captain Woodlief engaged 
in the mercantile business at Withamsville and 
in farming and in contracting. Later for five 
years he carried on a cigar factory at the above 
place and Miamiville. In 1873 he took a mail 
contract, which business he has continued to 
some extent ever since, having done city work in 
all of the larger cities except Chicago and New 
York. In 1877 he came to Kansas and bought 
nine hundred and sixty acres in Franklin County, 
and now owns a thousand and forty acres in one 
body, besides a farm of two hundred and forty 
acres near by. The most of this land is now 
in tame grass. The stock industry has been his 
principal business. He keeps on his place from 
one to three hundred head of Shorthorn cattle. 
He keeps on hand about two thousand head of 
Angora goats for sale and breeding purposes. 
At one time he kept from one hundred to one 
hundred and fifty head of horses and mules, but 
at present does not handle many. 

A prominent Republican, Mr. Woodlief has 
been township trustee and served one term in the 
state legislature, where he was interested in se- 
curing the passage of the bill to build the Locust 
street bridge in Ottawa and also aided other 
needed legislation. He is a member of the Ma- 
sonic order, having attained the Royal Arch de- 
gree, and George H. Thomas Post, G. A. R., 
of Ottawa. In the year 1864, in Ohio, he mar- 
ried Rose, daughter of Benjamin Archer, a farmer 
and at one time county treasurer of Clermont 
County, Ohio. They have five children: Maude, 
wife of James Brazier, residing on the home 
farm; Benjamin, an engineer on the Chicago, 
Burlington & Ouincy Railroad, living in Brook- 
field, Mo.; William, who spends his time largely 
in the buying and selling of stock and is now in 




Nebraska; Archer, who is engaged in railroading 
in Brookfield; and Cassie, who is the only mem- 
ber of the family born in Kansas. Mrs. Wood- 
lief died in 1883, and he married his present wife, 
Mrs. Lulu (Allen) Riggs, October 13, 1892. 

JTbEN BALDWIN. The success which has 
1^ attended the efforts of Mr. Baldwin since he 
L. came to Douglas County proves that this 
section of Kansas offers abundant opportunities 
to an energetic, progressive man. In the summer 
of 1867 he bought a farm in Kanwaka Township, 
but soon sold the property, and bought one hun- 
dred and ?■ .ty acres in Wakarusa Township, 
where he has since resided. The place was but 
slightly improved and it required constant labor 
on his part to effect the improvements desired. 
From the first he was interested in the stock bus- 
iness, beginning on a very small scale and grad- 
ually adding to his herd, at the same time im- 
proving the grade of his stock. He now manages 
over eight hundred acres, almost all of which is 
in the Kaw bottom, and about six hundred acres 
are devoted to cereals. He makes a specialty of 
Galloway cattle, twenty of which are eligible to 
registry. He has also engaged in the breeding 
of Clydesdale horses, and carries thirty or forty 
head of mules which are used in his contracts for 
railroad grading. On his farm are situated the 
club house and lake owned by the Lake View 
Fishing and Shooting Association. Through his 
efforts he has had established the station of Lake 
View, which has a store and a telegraph, express 
and post-office. 

Mr. Baldwin was born in Woodville, Sandusky 
County, Ohio, March 15, 1842. His father, 
William, a native of New York, learned the 
blacksmith's trade in youth and when a young 
man went to Ohio, where at first he followed his 
trade, but later cleared and improved a farm, also 
conducted a hotel. He was a Democrat of the 
Jacksonian t3-pe and took an interest in local af- 
fairs. In religion he was connected with the 
United Brethren Church. By his marriage, in 
Ohio, to Caroline Kelsey, he had four children: 
Elizabeth, who married Joseph A. Harpel, of 

Olympia, Ore.; Eben; Helen, wife of R. W. Gor- 
rill, whose sketch appears elsewhere in this vol- 
ume; and Virginia, wife of Charles H. Taylor, a 
farmer at Eskridge, Wabaunsee County. 

After attending Elm Grove Institute for three 
years our subject assumed the management of the 
home place; his father having died when he was 
a boy of eight years, the responsibilities of life 
were early thrust upon him. He remained at 
home until August, 1867, when he came to Kan- 
sas and settled in Douglas County. His means 
were limited at the time, but through his judi- 
cious management he has become one of the most 
prosperous men of his county. In addition to 
farming and stock-raising he has also engaged 
extensively in railroad contracting. In 1886 he 
began railroad tax work for the Santa Fe Rail- 
road and has since done all of the work of that 
kind for the road in Kansas, except on its branch 
in southern Kansas. He has also had charge of 
the grading for the Chicago, Rock Island & Pa- 
cific road in this state, being associated in these 
contracts with his brother-in-law, Mr. Gorrill, 
and employing four gangs of men. 

In 1887 Mr. Baldwin erected the fine residence 
which he now occupies. About the same time he 
built a granary for corn and hay, which utilized 
twenty-eight thousand feet of lumber in its build- 
ing. His stone barn, built in 1879, has a capac- 
ity of eighty tons of hay, and contains in the 
basement a stable with stalls for thirty head of 
horses. All the modern improvements may be 
found on his farm and in his house. From his 
private gas plant the gas is generated for lighting 
the residence and also for cooking purposes. He 
is a stockholder and director in the Merchants 
National Bank, at Lawrence, and in the Lawrence 
Vitrified Brick and Tile Company. In earlier 
life a Republican, he is now independent in poli- 
tics. For six years he served as township trustee 
and for two years, under appointment by Gover- 
nor Humphrey, he held the position of state house 
commissioner. In religion he is connected with 
the Baptist Church. Fraternally he is a member 
of Lawrence Lodge No. 6, A. F. & A. M.; Law- 
rence Chapter No. 4, R. A. M. ; DeMolay Com- 
mandery No. 4, K. T. ; Topeka Council; Abdal- 



lah Shrine, N. M. S., of Leavenworth, and is also 
associated with the Commercial, Athletic and 
Topeka Clubs. 

At Sandusky, Ohio, Mr. Baldwin married Ette, 
daughter of Enoch and Catharine Nichols, of 
Erie County, Ohio. To this marriage were born 
fivechildren: William E., deceased; Helen M., 
wife of Alexander C. Mitchell, of Lawrence; 
Carrie, who died in infancy; Virginia, wife of 
James Mitchell, of Lawrence; and Carrie (2d) 
deceased. The second marriage of Mr. Baldwin 
united him with Grace Herning, daughter of 
Michael and Sarah A. Herning, of Lawrence. 
They have a daughter, Mary. 

I are very few of the residents of Franklin 
(2/ County who have been identified with its 
history for a longer period than the subject of 
this article; nor are there many who have been 
more intimately identified with public aflTairs. 
In April, 1856, he came to Kansas. His first lo- 
cation in Franklin County was at Centropolis, 
but he soon removed to Minneola, one mile dis- 
tant, which was subsequently for a time the 
county seat. In the spring of 1862 he established 
his headquarters at Ohio City. When Ottawa 
was started, in August, 1864, he was one of its 
first settlers, and from that day to this has been 
connected with the advancement of the city. 

The Robbins family is of German extraction. 
Benjamin Robbins, a native of Connecticut and a 
pioneer of Ohio, served with valor in the Revo- 
lutionary war. His son, Joseph Robbins, also a 
native of Connecticut, served in the war of 1812, 
and afterward devoted himself to farm pursuits 
in Ohio, where he died at ninety-one years of 
age. He married Mehitable Hurlburt, who was 
born in Massachusetts and died in Ohio. They 
became the parents of seven sons and three 
daughters, of whom all but one son attained ma- 
turity, and six sons and one daughter are still 
living. Three sons took part in the Civil war, 
James M., Theodore and Charles L. The first 
named, who was a member of the First Kansas 
Battery, came to Kansas in 1856 and is now a 

farmer in Franklin County; Theodore, who was 
a member of an Ohio regiment, is now living in 
Seneca County, Ohio. 

The seventh in order of birth among the ten 
children was Charles L. , who was born in La- 
Grange, Ohio, June 22, 1833. In youth 
he went to Michigan and from there to McHenry 
Countj', 111., where he worked on a farm for a 
year. After spending six months in Kenosha, 
Wis. , he came to Kansas, arriving in Lawrence 
April 18, 1856, having made the trip from Wis- 
consin to Ohio, then by boat from Cincinnati to 
St. Louis, and from there to Kansas City also by 
boat. The party of which he was a member was 
led by Colonel Wood, who had gathered the 
company in Ohio. At St. Louis they met a 
Rhode Island company who accompanied them, 
increasing their number to one hundred and 
forty. On reaching Kansas City they hired 
teams and wagons to convey the women and 
children to Lawrence, while the men walked. 

Desiring to secure a timber claim, Mr. Rob- 
bins came into Franklin County and located land. 
He returned to Lawrence on the night Sheriff 
Jones was shot. Coming back to Centropolis, he 
began to make improvements on his property, 
but soon enlisted in Captain Shore's company, in 
which he served until October, 1856, taking part 
in the battles of Franklin, Fort Titus, Prairie 
City, Bull Creek and Middle Creek. Governor 
Geary, when appointed, disbanded the company. 
Mr. Robbins then returned to Centropolis, but 
was ill for several months, as a result of the 
campaigning. In January, 1858, the governor of 
Kansas appointed him sheriff of Franklin Coun- 
ty, which position he filled until January, i860, 
being the first man in the office. Having made 
several arrests which incurred the displeasure of 
certain parties, he was defeated for the nomina- 
tion in 1859. During the term of court held 
in the county (1858) there were forty indict- 
ments and he had to make all the arrests. Soon 
after the expiration of his term he was appointed 
deputy sheriff. In the fall of 1S61 he was nomi- 
nated and elected sheriff, and by re-election 
served until 1866, holding the office during the 
perilous times of the Civil war. He was a mem- 



ber of the Tenth Kansas State Militia, belonging 
first to Company A and later to Company C and 
Company K, and at the battle of Westport served 
as sergeant. From 1866 to 1870 he engaged in the 
livery business and during two years of this time 
was county assessor. In 1869 he was re-elected 
sheriff and served for one term. In 1870 he 
opened a grocery in Ottawa, which he conducted 
until the spring of 1889, and during ten years of 
that time served as county commissioner, hold- 
ing the ofSce longer than anyone else had ever 
occupied it. Since 1889 he has served, by suc- 
cessive re-elections, as justice of the peace. In 
the various positions he has held his service has 
been characterized by integrity', energy and faith- 
fulness to every duty, and has won him an enviable 
reputation as an official. He has always been 
active in the Republican party and has led in its 
councils in his home city. Fraternally he is con- 
nected with the Independent Order of Odd Fel- 
lows and has been noble grand of the lodge and 
an officer in the encampment. 

In Centropolis Judge Robbins married Miss 
Mary Brundage, October 4, 1858, who was born 
in Westmoreland County, Pa., and in 1856 ac- 
companied her father, Aaron Brundage, to Doug- 
las County, Kans. She died at Ohio City in 1869. 
Of her three children, Emma died at fourteen 
years; Milton is engaged in business in Los 
Angeles, Cal., and Fannie is the wife of M. T. 
Ferguson and lives in Ottawa. 

Gl MASA T. SHARPE. During the period of 
LI his connection with the history of Ottawa, 
/ I Mr. Sharpe acquired a reputation that was 
not limited to his city or county, but extended 
throughout the state. With his interests politi- 
cally centered in the Republican, he gave his 
time, his thought and his influence to advance its 
welfare and promote its progress in the state 
where he lived. Both personally and through 
the medium of his paper he did much to secure 
the success of his party. However, he was not a 
narrow partisan, but a man of broad views, ever 
conceding to others that liberality and freedom of 
opinion which he demanded for himself. One of 

his most important works was in connection with 
the State Board of Charities, of which he was 
appointed a member by Governor Anthony and 
re-appointed by each governor until failing health 
forced him to resign in 1889. His service in this 
appointment was most valuable and reflected 
credit upon his intelligence and wise judgment. 
He assisted in the building up of all the state 
charitable institutions except the Osawatomie 
Asylum. After fifteen years of constant service 
as treasurer of the board, when his accounts were 
balanced and audited, they were not even one 
cent out, which fact goes to show that he was a 
methodical and accurate business man. 

Mr. Sharpe was born in Watertown, N. Y., 
December 16, 1843. His father, Artemus Trow- 
bridge Sharpe, was born in Pomfret, Conn., in 
18 12, and removed to Watertown, N. Y., where 
he was a teacher of the violin and voice culture. 
From there he went to Wabasha, Minn., where 
he was a pioneer farmer. In 1873 he settled in 
Ottawa, where he lived until his death, in 1895. 
During his residence in Watertown he married 
Helen May Trowbridge, who was born in that 
city in 1822 and died in Minnesota. They were 
the parents of four children who attained matur- 
ity. One of these, Edward, was a soldier in a 
Minnesota regiment during the Rebellion, and 
now resides in Franklin County, Kans. The 
next to the youngest of the family, our subject, 
was educated in New York and Minnesota and 
studied law in St. Paul. For a time he was mail 
agent for the Northern Packet Companj^ on the 
"City of St. Paul" and the "Phil Sheridan," 
which ran between St. Paul and Dubuque. From 
187 1 to 1873 he edited the Wabasha Herald, after 
which he sold out. In 1873 he came to Ottawa 
and established the Republican, in the publication 
of which he became known as one of the most 
prominent journalists in the state. He built the 
Republican block, which has a frontage of twen- 
ty-five feet. In addition to his city property he 
owned an eighty- acre farm three miles northwest 
of Ottawa. He was a man of sincere Christian 
life and a faithful member of the Congregational 
Church. When he passed away, August 18, 
1890, it was recognized that his church, his 



part}' and his home town had met with a great 
loss, and his fellow-citizens united in testifying 
to his worth as a man and his kindness as a 

For more than twentj' years Mr. Sharpe was 
blessed by the companionship of a lady of noble 
character, one whose admirable qualities make 
her much beloved by her friends. Miss H. Ro- 
sella Moon was born in Gerry, Chautauqua 
County, N. Y., adaughter of John B. and Alzina 
(Babcock) Moon, natives, respectively, of Troy 
and Black River Falls, N. Y. Her grandfather, 
John Moon, was born in York state, member 
of an old family of New England and of English 
descent, and for some years he cultivated a farm 
in Chautauqua County, N. Y., where he died. 
Her father, John B., moved in 1849 to Janesville, 
Wis., and became the owner of a farm in Rock 
County. He is now living in Chicago. His 
wife was a daughter of Thomas Babcock, a farmer 
in New York; she died in Janesville, leaving five 
children. Mrs. Sharpe, who was next to the 
oldest of the family, was reared in Janesville and 
was one of the first graduates from the high 
school in that city. Afterward she taught for 
eight years, becoming principal of a school and 
gaining a high rank among the teachers of her 
locality. At one time she accompanied a num- 
ber of teachers on the "Phil Sheridan" to the 
Teachers' Association convention in St. Paul, 
and it was while on this boat that she first met 
Mr. Sharpe. They were married in Janesville 
on the 1st of December, 1869, and their mar- 
riage was blessed by five children, but the eld- 
est, Artemus A., and the youngest, John Moon, 
died in 1886, when thirteen and two years of 
age, respectively. Frances Louise has made a 
specialty of the violin, which she studied under 
the celebrated Jacobson of the Chicago Conserva- 
tory of Music; she is now engaged in teaching 
music, in which she has been very successful. 
The two living sons are Amasa Trowbridge, of 
New Orleans, and George Anthony, of Ottawa. 
Mrs. Sharpe is a member of the Baptist Church 
and is an active worker in various societies con- 
nected with that denomination. She is also a 
member of the Woman's Columbian Club. Hav- 

ing associated for so many years with her hus- 
band in his plans and hopes, and having gained 
from him a broad knowledge of public affairs, 
which knowledge she has enlarged by general 
reading, it is but natural that she should continue 
her interest in matters relating to the progress of 
the state and nation, and should keep well in- 
formed concerning the problems confronting our 
country to-day. 

GlLVIN H. WRIGHT, M. D., general sur- 
LA geon in charge of the Atchison, Topeka & 
I I Santa Fe Railroad hospital at Ottawa, was 
born in Brookline, N. H., March 23, 1867, a son 
of Moses and Etta (Gardner) Wright, natives of 
New Hampshire. He is descended from a 
colonial family of New England. His great- 
grandfather, Timoth}' Wright, served with valor 
in the Revolutionary war and afterward made his 
home in New Hampshire until his death, when 
ninety-eight years of age. Timothy Wright, Jr., 
son of this Revolutionary soldier, was a large 
owner of city propertj' and country estates, and 
made his home in New Hampshire. In the state 
where he was reared Moses Wright followed the 
trade of mechanic and woodworker, living the 
quiet and useful life of a private citizen. 

The eldest of four children born of the two 
marriages of his father. Dr. Wright grew to man- 
hood amid the surroundings familiar to his 
ancestors for several generations. From an early 
age he was interested in hospital work, and 
through his employment as nurse laid the founda- 
tion of his subsequent professional experience 
and knowledge. It was his ambition in boy- 
hood to become a physician and surgeon. The 
study of anatomy, and physiology was his favorite 
among those comprising his curriculum. As 
soon as circumstances permitted he entered the 
medical department of the University of Vermont, 
and there he took the complete course of lectures, 
graduating in 1890 with the degree of M. D. 
He has since taken two post-graduate courses, 
one of these being in New York. 

In 1890 Dr. Wright entered the service of the 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad Company, 
with which he has since been connected. He was 



first assigned to the Carthage mines in New 
Mexico, but in the fall of 189 1 was transferred to 
the Ottawa hospital as surgeon, which position 
he has since successfully filled, having entire 
charge of the hospital. Surgery is his specialty 
and in it he is well grounded and thoroughly in- 
formed concerning every detail. His study of 
two years under Maj. J. M. Banister, M. D., of 
Fort Leavenworth, was of great assistance to 
him in the broadening of his surgical knowledge. 
Besides his hospital work he has built up a gen- 
eral professional practice, which extends through 
this part of Franklin County. He is a member 
of the Kansas State and American Medical 
Associations, and keeps in touch with every 
organization and movement connected with the 

Prior to leaving New England Dr. Wright was 
married in Burlington, Vt., to Miss Olive San- 
born, who was born in Amesbury, Mass., and by 
whom he has two children. Fay and Alvin. 
Fraternally he is connected with the Knights of 
Pythias, and in Masonry is identified with Frank- 
lin Lodge No. 18, A. F. & A. M.; Chapter No. 
7, R. A. M.; Tancred Commandery, K. T.; 
Topeka Consistory, and Abdallah Temple, 
N. M. S. In politics he is not active, but he 
keeps informed concerning the principles adopted 
by various political organizations, and votes with 
the Republican party. In religion he is con- 
nected with the Congregational Church. 

(S\ MBROSE BIGSBY. Of the farms on the 
f I California road there is none that attracts 
/ I more attention than does the homestead 
owned and occupied by Mr. Bigsby. It is situ- 
ated on section 28, Wakarusa Township, Douglas 
County. Noticeable among its improvements 
are the commodious brick residence erected in 
1894 and the substantial barn, 40x50, built in 
1S98. From a large windmill water is pumped 
into tanks to be used in the barn, while the water 
used in the house is supplied by a pump fifty- 
three feet deep. The appearance of the property 
proves the, owner to be a man of energy and 
thrifty qualities. While he had many difficulties 

to overcome during the first ten years of his life 
in Kansas, being a practical farmer he finally 
gained success, and his life is an example of what 
may be accomplished by energy and ability. 

In Montgomery County, N. Y., Mr. Bigsby 
was born November 17, 1839. His father, Will- 
iam, a native of York state, engaged in farming 
there until 1844, when he moved to Hartford, 
Wis., and engaged in the manufacturing busi- 
ness. He continued there until his death, in 
1875. During the existence of the Whig party 
he voted for its principles, and afterward became 
a Republican. He was an upright, honorable 
man, and stood high in his community. By his 
marriage to Sarah Lighthall, who was born in 
Pennsylvania and reared in New York, he had 
four children, of whom our subject, the oldest, 
was the only one who attained maturity. He 
had few opportunities to obtain an education, 
and the information he now possesses was mostly 
acquired by experience. When twenty 5-ears of 
age he became brakeman on a construction train. 
Nine months later he was made conductor and 
ran on the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul road 
for nine years. 

Coming to Kansas in i868, Mr. Bigsby and his 
father-in-law bought two hundred acres of land 
on section 28, but they could not agree as to the 
best method of operating the land and after a year 
divided the property, our subject taking forty 
acres where his house now stands. Until he 
could get a start he followed other occupations 
in addition to farming. As he succeeded he 
added to his land until he now has two hundred 
acres, all of which (except twentj- acres of timber) 
is excellently adapted for farming. He bought 
a half interest in a threshing machine, which he 
ran successfully for a number of years. After- 
ward he turned his attention to raising cattle and 
hogs, in which he was at one time engaged ex- 
tensively, but now has only about forty head of 
cattle and one hundred and fifty hogs. For three 
years after coming here his home was a building 
12x12, but as soon as possible he erected a resi- 
dence that was better adapted to the comfort of 
the family. 

April 13, 1861, Mr. Bigsby enlisted in Com- 



pan}' B, First Wisconsin Infantrj', which was one 
of the first to respond to the call for seventy-five 
thousand men. Later he re-enlisted, but was 
taken ill with typhoid fever and honorably dis- 
charged. He is now a member of Washington 
Post No. 12, G. A. R., at Lawrence. In politics 
he votes with the Republicans. His marriage. 
May 3, 1863, united him with Lucretia Conant, 
of Hartford, Wis. They have four children: 
George William, a carpenter in Lawrence; Guy 
Ambrose, a farmer of Kanwaka Township; Sarah 
Belle, and Sarah Abigail. 

r^P.V JOHN W TTDTTT-JgRnr), who resides 
MT in Wellsville, Franklin County, was born in 
y\ Pike County, Pa., February 18, 1S55, a son 
of George W. and Florence R. (Edwards) Foulk- 
rod, natives of Pennsylvania. On the paternal 
side he descends from Adam Foulkrod, who in 
1734 came from Strasburg, Germany, to eastern 
Pennsylvania and whose descendants were sub- 
sequently prominent in that state. At the open- 
ing of the Civil war George W. Foulkrod offered 
his services to defend the Union, enlisting in 
Company G, Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania Infantry. 
He served with valor on sharply contested battle- 
fields, strewn with the dead bodies of thousands 
who were loyal unto death to the convictions 
which they cherished. At the battle of Gettys- 
burg he was shot, but further information than 
that the family were never able to secure, and his 
body fills an unknown grave. His wife died in 
Brooklyn, N. Y., in 1868, leaving three sons, 
Walter, John W. and George Eugene, who were 
between ten and fifteen years of age. 

In 1870, while in Indiana, our subject took ad- 
vantage of an opportunity to drive a team 
through to Kansas. Arriving at Rantoul, Frank- 
lin County, he worked as a farm hand for several 
months. He then went to Pomona and broke 
prairie land. In the fall he drove a team through 
to Texas, and after a short time started to walk 
back to Kansas. He spent the winter in the 
Indian Territory and in the spring returned to 
Franklin County, where he worked as a farm 
hand until 1876. He then rented a farm at 

Greenwood for a year. While there he united 
with the Baptist Church. Returning to Rantoul, 
he rented a farm and for three years engaged in 
feeding cattle. Selling out in 1879, he began to 
preach, but did not engage in regular pastoral 
work until after he studied in the Baptist Univer- 
sity at Ottawa. For two years he was a student 
in that institution, but lack of means prevented 
him from completing the course of study. He 
began to teach school, in which work he con- 
tinued for twelve years, meantime preaching as 
opportunity offered. He finally gave up teaching 
in order to devote himself entirely to ministerial 
work. In 1881 he accepted the pastorates at 
Wellsville, New Hope and Bethel, to which he 
ministered for four years. Next he accepted a 
call to North Ottawa. In 1894 and 1895 he 
preached in Canton, S. Dak. He then returned 
to Wellsville and has since made his home here, 
meantime preaching at Gardner, Johnson County, 
seventeen miles east of this town. 

After coming to Mr. Foulkrod married 
Miss Mattie Curtis, a native of Indiana, who was 
brought to Kansas by her parents in childhood. 
Seven children were born of their marriage, four 
of whom are living: Florence, Laura, Lulu and 
John E., the daughters being students in the local 
schools, while the son is a bright and promising 
boy of five years. 

As a Republican Mr. Foulkrod has maintained 
an interest and taken a part in local affairs. He 
has served as clerk of the village. Fraternally 
he is connected with Wellsville Lodge No. 356, 
A. F. & A. M., and Wellsville Lodge No. 135, 
I. O. O. F. 

QHARLES L. CONGER, who is a general 
I C merchant of Hesper, Douglas County, was 
Vj born at this place in 1862, a descendant of 
an early family of New York, and a son of John 
and Eliza (Cole) Conger, natives of the latter 
state. His father, who was born near Rochester, 
made his home there for years, engaging in a 
general mercantile business, although in youth 
he had followed the weaver's trade. In 1858 he 
moved his stock of dry goods to Kansas, and tak- 
ing up a claim at what is now Hesper, he sold 



his goods here. After a time he embarked in 
the dairy business, in which he continued until 
the time of his death. He owned four hundred 
and eighty acres of land and was one of the most 
extensive farmers of Eudora Township. Fratern- 
ally he was a charter member of Eudora Lodge 
No. 42, I. O. O. F., in which he served as treas- 
urer for some years. His death occurred on his 
farm in January, 1872, when he was fifty-two 
years of age. He was survived by his wife for 
many years, her death taking place on the home- 
stead in 1897, when she was seventy-six years of 
age. They were the parents of four children, 
namely: George, deceased; Theron, who lives in 
Oklahoma; Mary, whose home is in Colorado; 
and Charles L. 

Within a mile of his present home the subject 
of this sketch was reared and educated, gaining a 
common-school education in the district schools, 
while he afterward fitted for business life in the 
Lawrence Business College. At eighteen years 
of age he began the cultivation of a farm near 
Hesper, where he remained for eighteen years. 
In 1898 he purchased the store and stock of A. 
B. Nicol, at Hesper, since which time he has 
carried on a general mercantile business, and at 
the same time he holds the office of postmaster at 
Hesper. In politics he is inclined to be inde- 
pendent, giving his support rather to the man 
than the party. For some time he was active in 
the Ancient Order of United Workmen, belong- 
ing to the lodge at Eudora. Like his father he 
has assisted in building up this part of the coun- 
ty and in extending its business interests. He 
was married in 1881 to Minerva, daughter of 
William Coate, of Eudora, and they have two 
children living, Evelyn and Erie. 

HENRY H. RODGERS, a farmer and stock- 
raiser residing on section 22, Ottawa Town- 
ship, Franklin County, was born in Fay- 
ette County, Ohio, March 29, 1841, a son of 
William H. and Lucinda (Miners) Rodgers. 
His father, who was a native of Kentucky, re- 
moved to Ohio in boyhood and there for years 
engaged extensively in farm pursuits. During 

1849 ^^ settled in Shelby County, 111., where he 
became the owner of a valuable farm and contin- 
ued to reside until his death, in 1895. During 
the existence of the Whig party he advocated its 
principles and later voted with the Republicans. 
In religion he was a Presbyterian. He was twice 
married, both times in Ohio. By his first wife 
he had six children, namely: W. R., of Ottawa, 
Kans. ; Henry H.; Harvey, a farmer of Ottawa 
Township; James, deceased; Sadie E.; and Har- 
din, of Ottawa Township. 

At the age of eight years our subject accom- 
panied the family to Illinois. His educational 
advantages were limited and his present knowl- 
edge has been largely acquired by experience 
and observation. When twenty-two years of age 
he started out for himself, since which time he 
has engaged in farming. At first he cultivated 
land in Illinois, but in 1867 he came to Kansas 
and was among the first to settle on the Ottawa 
reservation, where he bought one hundred and 
sixty acres from the Indians. Of this tract only 
twelve acres had been broken, the remainder 
being timber or prairie land. On the place stood 
a small cabin that had been occupied by Indians; 
no other improvement had been made. It re- 
quired great effort on the part of Mr. Rodgers to 
get the place under cultivation, and only those 
who have had similar experiences can appreciate 
his struggle. However, he gradually put his 
plans into operation, and, as time went by, met 
with an increasing prosperity. He added to his 
property until he now owns two hundred and 
eighty acres in one body and well watered, which 
adapts it for stock purposes. When horses 
brought good prices he gave considerable atten- 
tion to raising them, but now devotes himself 
principally to raising good graded cattle. In- 
stead of raising general farm products, his land is 
in grass and grain for feed. 

In politics Mr. Rodgers is a Republican. He 
has served as road overseer and school director, 
and gives thoughtful attention to educational 
matters, desiring that his district shall have as 
good a school as possible. His religious connec- 
tions are with the Presbyterian Church. Octo- 
ber 16, 1862, he married Hannah C. Tull, of 111- 



inois, who was reared on a farm adjoining the 
one owned by the father of Mr. Rodgers. Con- 
sequently the two were acquainted from child- 
hood. They became the parents of four children 
namely: Annie, wife of H. A. Davis, a farmer of 
Green wood^Township, Franklin County; William 
M., who lives in Piatt County, 111.; John, who 
resides in Waverly, Coffey County, Kans.; and 
Nettie B., who married J. W. Ferris, of Waver- 
ly, Kans. Mrs. Hannah Rodgers died in 1890. 
Not wishing to remain on the home farm after 
she had passed away, he rented the place and 
went to Waverly, Kans., where he still owns 
property. Later he was married in that place to 
Mrs. Elizabeth (Blair) Williams, formerly of 
Ohio. However, he had always been actively 
employed, and life in Waverly did not suit one 
of his energetic nature, so after four years there 
he returned to his farm, since which time he has 
superintended the property. 

0AVID E. MUNDEY, who has been one of 
the leading citizens of Linwood for years, 
has been especially active in local Republi- 
can politics and has been one of the influential 
workers in his party. At various times, notably 
in 1884 and 1898, he has "stumped" Leaven- 
worth County in the interests of the party ticket. 
Frequently he has been selected to serve as a 
member of the county central and other commit- 
tees, and he has been a delegate to county, con- 
gressional and state conventions. In 1884 he 
was his party's candidate for county superin- 
tendent of schools, and, although not elected, he 
ran ahead of his ticket. He was nominated for 
the legislature in the fall of 1898, but was defeated 
by eleven votes. Upon the incorporation of Lin- 
wood as a city of the third class, in 1897, li^ was 
chosen to act as the first mayor, and in 1898 was 
made a member of the city council. In the 
spring of 1899 he was elected mayor for the sec- 
ond time, and is now the incumbent of this office. 
He was a warm adherent of the plan of incorpor- 
ating the town and has favored all other meas- 
ures which he believed would benefit the place. 
As a result he has won a reputation as a public- 

spirited citizen, whose loyalty to his home town 
no one doubts. Realizing the value of excellent 
educational facilities he has labored in the inter- 
ests of the schools. At one time he was a mem- 
ber of the county examining board and also 
president of the Teachers' Association. 

Mr. Mundey is of French descent. His pa- 
ternal grandfather came from France and settled 
in Hagerstown, Md., where he taught school for 
several years. His last years were spent in 
Mansfield, Ohio, where he died. His son, Henry 
Mundey, followed the merchant tailoring busi- 
ness in Shelby, Ohio, where he died in 1864, at 
the age of fifty-two years. By his marriage to 
Sarah Livensparger he had eight children, of 
whom five are now living, namely: Joseph, 
Frank, John, David E. and Thaddeus. Our sub- 
ject was born in Seneca County, Ohio, in 1854, 
and was educated in Richland County, the same 
state, where he attended the Shelby high school. 
After completing his studies he engaged in teach- 
ing school for nine years. In 1879 he came to 
Kansas and for one year he taught in Lyon 
County. He then came to Leavenworth as a 
teacher in the schools of the county, in which 
work he continued for fifteen years. In 1881 he 
became a teacher in Linwood, where he was em- 
ployed for eight years. Poor health finally 
obliged him, in 1894, to retire from his work as 
teacher, and he then settled on a small farm in 
the city limits, where he has since resided, devot- 
ing his time largely to market gardening and the 
raising of fruits. He has set out about two hundred 
trees and is making his occupation a profitable 
one. Besides his gardening interests he acts as 
agent for a number of well-known fire insurance 
companies, having all of the local business in this 
line. Fraternally he is chancellor of Linwood 
Lodge No. 108, K. of P., and served as its first 
representative to the grand lodge of the state. 
He is also a member of the Fraternal Aid Asso- 
ciation. August I, 1899, Mr. Mundey assumed 
the duties of deputy United States internal rev- 
enue collector for the northern half of eastern 
Kansas, to which he was appointed in July. 

The marriage of Mr. Mundey in 1881 united 
him with Nellie, daughter of James A. Adams, 





who settled in Lawrence in 1858 and afterward 
became a prominent farmer of Reno Township, 
Leavenworth County. Mrs. Mundey was born 
in Lawrence and grew to womanhood in Reno 
Township, where she was educated. The chil- 
dren of Mr. and Mrs. Mundey are: Harry D., 
Clarence Leroy, Eva Alice and William Arthur. 

ClOL. JOHN J. BAKER. During the spring 
\C of 1868 Colonel Baker came to Kansas and 
\J purchased three hundred and twenty acres 
of the Delaware Indian reserve land, in what is 
now Sherman Township, Leavenworth County. 
His means being limited, at first he farmed on a 
very small scale, but gradually, as his means in- 
creased, he bought stock, made improvements 
and built necessary buildings. He is still living 
on the same place, which comprises one hundred 
and sixty acres of land and bears all the improve- 
ments of a modern estate. He took an active 
part in the organization of the Farmers' Grange 
and for some time served as its president. 

The Baker family originated in Germany, 
where the name was Becker. About 1721 Jacob 
Becker emigrated from Germany to America and 
settled in Lancaster County, Pa., where he died 
in 1801. The great-grandfather of our subject 
was a soldier in the Revolutionary war and his 
great-uncle, Henry Becker, was a colonel in the 
continental army during the same conflict. 
With Jacob Becker came three brothers and one 
sister to America, all of whom settled upon farms 
in Pennsylvania. His grandson, Benjamin 
Baker, was born in Lanca.ster County, Pa., in 
1794, and at one year of age was taken to Canada 
by his parents, afterward remaining in that coun- 
try until 1826, when he returned to the States. 
For a time he made his home in Erie County, 
N. Y., but later removed to Michigan, where he 
died in 1861. By trade a tanner, he built up a 
large business in Erie County and became well- 
to-do. He was a son of Benjamin Baker, Sr., 
who removed from Lancaster County, Pa., to 
Canada in 1795 and there engaged extensive! j^ 
in farming. He died in Canada in 1852, when 
eighty-nine years of age. Benjamin Baker, Jr. 

married Nancy Hershey, who was born near 
Hagerstown, Md., and died in Sturgis, Mich., 
August 20, 1878, aged eighty-seven. Of their 
nine children, one son and three daughters are 
now living, the latter being Melinda, Anna M. 
and Sophia. 

Colonel Baker was born in Markham, a suburb 
of Toronto, Canada, January 29, 1824. When a 
very small child he was taken by his parents to 
Clarence, Erie. County, N. Y., where later he 
was educated in the common schools. At the 
age of seventeen years he began to learn the tan- 
ner's trade, which he followed for eight years. 
In 1848 he opened a retail boot and shoe store at 
Waukau, Wis., and he continued in that place 
until 1854, when he went to Sturgis, Mich., the 
home of his parents. There he engaged in gen- 
eral farming. In 1862 he organized a company 
of infantry at Sturgis and July 28 was made cap- 
tain of Company E, Nineteenth Michigan Infan- 
try, with which he went to the front. He was 
promoted to be major of his regiment June 27, 
1864, and was made lieutenant-colonel October 
28, 1864, which office he held until his honorable 
discharge, aftertwo years and ten months of serv- 
ice. He took command of the regiment May 
25, 1864. His regiment was assigned to the sec- 
ond division, third brigade, twentieth army 
corps, under Gen. Joseph Hooker, and accompa- 
nied Sherman on the Atlanta campaign from 
Chattanooga to Atlanta, thence marched with 
him to the sea, taking part in the memorable en- 
gagements of that time. July 20, 1864, he was 
wounded at Peach Tree Creek, Ga., and at 
Thompson's Station, Tenn., was taken prisoner 
March 5, 1863, with most of his regiment. 
He was confined in Libby prison for nearly three 
months, after which he was exchanged and sent 
to Columbus, Ohio. In that city the regiment 
was re-organized during the latter part of May, 
1863, and from there was ordered to the front, 
joining the old corps. For disability and by rea- 
son of his services being no longer required he 
was mustered out May 15, 1865. Returning to 
Sturgis he resumed farm pursuits. 

From Michigan Colonel Baker came to Kansas 
in the spring of 1S68 and has since resided upon 



a farm in Sherman Township, Leavenworth 
County. He takes an interest in public affairs 
and alwa5-s votes the Republican ticket. At one 
time he was identified with the Masonic frater- 
nity. He is a member of McDaniel Post No. 
256, G. A. R., at Bonner Springs, and was at 
one time its commander. In Buffalo, N. Y., 
June 3, 1847, he married Ann M., daughter of 
John and Eliza Beam, of Willoughby, Black 
Creek, Canada. They had three children, 
Theoda, Orpha (deceased) and Hervey J. The 
last named, who has a farm near the old home- 
stead, married Lulu Armstrong, by whom he has 
three children, Orpha, Nannie and John J., the 
latter named in honor of his grandfather. 

RICHARD STEPHENS, who was for twenty 
years prior to his death an influential citizen 
of Baldwin, Douglas County, was born at 
St. Agnes, Cornwall, England, June 30, 1S20. 
He was reared in a mining community and early 
became familiar with a miner's work. When 
nineteen years of age he came to the United 
States and settled in Pennsylvania, but after a 
time removed to Illinois and engaged in mining 
near Galena. His next location was at Eagle 
River, Wis., which at that time was a small vil- 
lage. After a year he went back to Illinois. In 
1849 he crossed the plains to California, where 
he engaged in mining and met with success. Re- 
turning a year later to Illinois, in 185 1 he again 
went to the Pacific Coast. He shipped as a pas- 
senger on the "North America," which was 
wrecked on the ocean. However, he managed 
to save his life and a portion of his effects, and 
reaching the shore, hired a Mexican with a mule 
to convey his luggage sixty miles to Acapulco. 
On arriving in that city he was entertained by 
the Spaniards, who, won by his excellent sing- 
ing, showed the utmost friendliness toward him. 
He remained with them until another steamer 
came along, when he proceeded to California and 
resumed mining, with, however, less success than 
on his former visit. After two years he decided 
to return home and accordingly made his way 
back to the east. 

In the fall of 1857 Mr. Stephens came to Kan- 
sas. At old Palmyra (now Baldwin) he opened 
a small hotel, which he conducted for several 
years. In 1861 he retired from the hotel busi- 
ness and began to deal in real estate, also en- 
gaged in loaning money, following the two lines 
of business until his death, which occurred De- 
cember 28, 1879. His marriage, which took 
place June 9, 1845, united him with Miss Sophia, 
sister of William H. Gill, in whose sketch the 
family history appears. She was born in Eng- 
land October 12, 1825, and is a sincere member 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, to which her 
husband also belonged. They were the parents 
of eleven children, one of whom died in infancy. 
The others are named as follows: Thomas C, 
who died at twenty-six years; Mary E., wife of 
John P. Brown, of Indiana; Sophia, who resides 
with her mother; Elizabeth J., wife of John C. 
Henderson, of British Columbia; Emma, who 
married William H. Reed, of Council Grove, 
Kans.; John R., a farmer in Oklahoma; William 
A., an undertaker and furniture dealer of El 
Dorado Springs, Mo. ; Charles E. , who is a prac- 
ticing physician in Elmo, Kans.; James H., pro- 
prietor of a mercantile establishment in Pierce 
City, Mo.; and Kathlene, who married W. O. 
Fuller, a journalist in Rockland, Me. In the 
various communities where they reside the mem- 
bers of the family have gained a high standing 
and the esteem of their associates. 

WALTER H. OLIN, superintendent of the 
city schools at Ottawa, was born at Wal- 
nut Grove, on the banks of the Sacramento 
River, in California, August 7, 1862. He de- 
scends in a direct line from John Olin, of Wales, 
who came to America at the age of about four- 
teen, and three years later settled in the vicinity 
of East Greenwich, R. I. His son, John, and 
grandson, also named John, were born in Rhode 
Island, whence the latter moved to Shaftsbury, 
Vt. Ezra, son of the third John, was born in 
Rhode Island March 23, 1772, and at the age of 
three and one-half years removed with his par- 
ents to Vermont, his later years being spent on a 



large farm near Sliaftsbury, where, during the 
Revolution, General Stark defeated the British. 
Arvin, son of Ezra, was born at Shaftsburj' Julj' 
13. i797> and taught school in Vermont. At 
the close of his first term he married one of his 
pupils, Betsey Bennett, daughter of a farmer. 
Afterward he walked to York state, took up a 
tract of land, cut logs for a house, and sent for 
his wife. She was given $20 by her father, and, 
accompanied by her brothers, made the trip 
through the forests to her new home, where, with 
her husband, she endured all the hardships of 
frontier life, far from the refining influences of 
civilization. In time they met with remarkable 
success, and their farm became one of the finest 
in that section of country. Late in life they 
moved from Genesee County, N. Y., to Portage 
County, Ohio, where they bought farm property. 
At the time of his death he was more than 
seventy years of age. 

Nelson, son of Arvin Olin, was born in Gene- 
see County, N. Y., and at an early age began 
farming near the homestead in Portage County, 
Ohio, but, being seized with the western fever, 
in 1850 he went to Clinton County, Iowa, where 
he improved a section of land. June 3,1860, a 
cyclone swept over that part of Iowa, destroying 
crops, buildings and fences, and sweeping ruin 
and death over a strip of country two and one- 
half miles wide and forty miles long. His house 
was blown away, and of everything within it 
all that was left was a salt cellar and pepper 
box, which are now cherished as mementoes of 
the disaster. 

Fortunately, the family sought refuge in the 
cellar, and so escaped with their lives. The 
mother's health being affected by the catastrophe, 
the father decided to remove to California. Ac- 
cordingly he made the trip via New York and 
Panama, and settled at the fork of the American 
River, near Sacramento. In those days each 
township had its vigilance committee, and he 
served as a member of the one in his township. 
Through the determination of himself and asso- 
ciates the confederacy was prevented from show- 
ing its colors, and the state was held for the 
Union. Often his life was in danger, but he 

continued to uphold the Union without thought 
of results, led simply by a desire to support the 
cause of justice. During his residence in the 
west he suffered from the Sacramento River 
flood. In 1866 he returned east, settling on the 
old home place near Kent, Ohio, where his wife 
died the same year. In 1S70 he again started 
west. He spent one season in Galesburg, Kala- 
mazoo County, Mich., and in 1871 settled in 
Douglas County, Kans., where he bought a 
farm. During 1874 he embarked in the cheese 
business, but the grasshoppers destroyed the 
crop, and the experiment was a failure. In 1877 
he removed to a new farm near Eldorado, Butler 
County, and later settled on his present farm, 
near Eudora, Douglas County. 

The first wife of Nelson Olin was Harriet 
Holley, who was born at Gainesville, Wyoming 
County, N. Y., December 18, 1827, a member of 
an old family of New England, some of whom 
(among them. Marietta Holley "Josiah Allen's 
wife," and the inventor of the present water sys- 
tem) have acquired national reputation. Her 
father, Solomon Holley, was born in Vermont, 
became a pioneer of Wyoming County, N. Y., 
and Brimfield, Portage County, Ohio, later 
moved to Lowmoor, Iowa, and thence to Rock- 
ford, 111., where he died. The family of Nelson 
and Harriet Olin consisted of four children: 
N. E. , a dealer in musical merchandise at Kent, 
Ohio; Oscar E., principal of the academic de- 
partment in Buchtel College, at Akron, Ohio; 
Arvin S., who occupies the chair of pedagogy in 
the State University of Kansas; and Walter H., 
of this sketch. By the second marriage of Nel- 
son Olin eight children were born, five of whom 
are living, viz.: C. F., who is yard inspector for 
the Santa Fe road at Dodge City, Kans.; Pearl, 
a student in St. Louis, Mo. ; Mary, Anson and 

When the subject of this sketch was four years 
of age the family returned east from California 
to Ohio. The year 1870 was spent in Michigan, 
and in 187 1 he arrived in Kansas. For some 
years he attended school near Vinland, and 
afterward studied in Butler County. His first 
^.xperience as a teacher was when eighteen years 



of age. Desirous of more extended information 
than he could obtain in grammar schools he left 
no stone unturned in his efforts to gain an educa- 
tion. By cutting corn he earned money with 
which to buy high school books, and entered the 
high school at Eldorado. Two weeks later the 
county superintendent prevailed upon him to 
take a six months' school ten miles from town. 
He consented, and while teaching continued to 
study, and graduated with the high school class 
of 1884. Afterward he resumed teaching. In 
the spring of 1886 he entered the Agricultural 
College at Manhattan, where he completed the 
four years' course in three j'cars, and graduated 
in 1889 with the degree of B. S. The money 
necessary for his college course he had earned 
unaided. Afterward he was principal of the 
Wabaunsee school and instructor in the normal 
institute. In the fall of 1890 he was elected 
principal of Waverly school in Coffey County, 
and while there married the primary teacher in 
the school, Miss Winnie E. Cotton. In the 
summer of 1891 he carried on graduate work at 
the Agricultural College, and continued each 
summer until 1894, when he received the degree 
of M. S. In 1891 he accepted the superintend- 
ency of the Osborne school, where he remained 
for five years, and after 1894 he began to take 
charge of normal institutes as instructor and 
conductor. In 1896 he was elected principal of 
the Ottawa high school, and two years later was 
promoted to be superintendent of the cit)' schools, 
with thirty teachers and sixteen hundred and 
fifty enrolled pupils under his charge. He is 
thoroughly prepared for successful work as in- 
structor. His knowledge of pedagogy is broad 
and profound, and he has made of it a science. 
Few educators have a more thorough grasp of 
their work than he. After graduating from col- 
lege he was undecided as to whether to enter 
normal school or take the state examination. In 
order to test his ability he tried the latter, and 
was successful, receiving a certificate, and pass- 
ing a most creditable examination. In 1898 he 
was given a state certificate for life. 

At Wabaunsee, Kans., November 27, 1890, 
Professor Olin married Miss Winnie E. Cotton, 

who was born in that town, and was educated 
there and in Manhattan Agricultural College, 
afterward engaging in educational work until 
her marriage. She is a fine musician, and has 
made a specialty of the study of this science. In 
social and musical circles she occupies an influ- 
ential position. She is identified with the 
M. P. M. Club and the Baptist Church. Be- 
sides her two children, Winnifred Helen and 
Walter Eugene, she cares for an adopted nephew, 
Josie Cotton Olin. Her father, William F. Cot- 
ton, was born in Rutland, Vt. , a son of William 
Cotton, who traces his ancestry to Cotton Mather 
and John Cotton, of "Mayflower" fame, and in 
whose honor Boston was named. In 1856 W. 
F. Cotton settled on a claim near Wabaunsee, 
Kans., where he has since engaged in farming. 
For two terms he was a member of the state leg- 
islature, and during the Civil war he served in 
the Kansas militia. For some years he was an 
attorney, but, preferring outdoor work, he gave 
up his practice in favor of agricultural pursuits. 
His wife, Ellen M. Genn, was born in Foxcroft, 
Me., a daughter of a sea captain who engaged in 
tke whaling business. The Genn family descends 
from "Mayflower" ancestors. Mr. and Mrs. 
Cotton were the parents of five children, four of 
whom are living: Mrs. Kate Brown, of Tongan- 
oxie, Kans.; William Lincoln, on the old home- 
stead; Mrs. Olin; and Mrs. Mabel Smith, of 

[~REEMAN TYLER, who for years cultivated 
ly a farm in Hayes Township, Franklin County, 
I ^ is now living in Ottawa, retired from active 
labors. He was born in Lawrenceville, St. Law- 
rence County, N. Y. , in 18 19, a son of Asa and 
Fannie (Tupper) Tyler. He descends from one 
of three brothers who came to America in a very 
early day, one of whom settled in Portsmouth, 
N. H. , while the others went further south. His 
father, a native of New Hampshire, removed to 
New York and there engaged in farming and 
coopering. During the war of 1812 he served in 
the American army. Of his six children the 
eldest, Freeman, was educated in New York and 
Ohio. He was thirteen years of age when the 



family established a home in Ohio, where, schools 
being poor and few, he had very meagre advan- 
tages. His time was almost wholly given to 
farm work and he assisted in clearing a large 
tract of land. When he was fifteen his father be- 
gan to manufacture barrels to hold tallow, and in 
this work he helped during the winter months, 
when little could be done in the field. As there 
was a demand for flour barrels they also manu- 
factured these, going into the woods and cutting 
the timber, from which they shaved the staves 
by hand. At one time they took a contract to 
furnish one thousand barrels; soon afterward 
their cooper was taken sick and the father fa- 
vored abandoning the contract entirely, but our 
subject insisted that the work must be completed, 
so he made the barrels himself and filled the con- 
tract. That was his first experience in manufac- 
turing flour barrels alone. From that time he 
followed coopering for thirty years. 

In 1845 Mr. Tyler settled in Illinois. After 
some years there he moved to Wisconsin in order 
that his children might have the advantage of the 
schools at Beloit. Upon his return to Illinois, 
after six years in Beloit, he turned his attention 
from coopering to farming, believing the latter 
occupation would be more beneficial to his health, 
then by no means good. From Illinois he came 
to Kansas in the fall of 1880 and bought two hun- 
dred and forty acres in Franklin County, where 
he made valuable improvements and engaged in 
farming and stock-raising. On that place he 
made his home until the fall of 1899, when, hav- 
ing disposed of the property, he removed to Ot- 
tawa. In politics he is a Democrat. Though 
eighty years of age he is strong and robust, and, 
were his sight good, would show little signs of 
his advancing years, but an attack of la grippe 
greatly impaired his sight and left his eyes in 
weak condition. 

While in Ohio Mr. Tyler married Harriet Sex- 
ton. They are the parents of six children, all 
living, namely: Albert, a farmer of Franklin 
County; Frank A., who lives in Rockford, 111.; 
Anna E., widow of Francis Waid; D. C, a phy- 
sician at Clifton, Washington County, Kans. ; 
Rovelle P. ; and Hattie, widow of Frank Ringer. 

The youngest son, Rovelle P., who conducted 
the home farm from 1887 to 1899, was born in 
Roscoe, Winnebago County, 111., in 1854, and 
was reared to farm pursuits, which he has always 
followed. In 1880 he accompanied his father to 
Kansas. He settled in Lyon Count}-, where he 
cultivated two hundred acres that he still owns, 
but now rents. In 18S7 he came to Franklin 
County to take charge of the home place, and 
afterward engaged in general farming and feed- 
ing cattle and hogs. Like all of the family he 
is a Democrat. He has served as delegate to 
county and state conventions, has served as treas- 
urer of the school board and now holds the oflice 
of township treasurer. 

QOHN W. SCOTT, a contractor and builder, 
I has his ofiice at No. 407 South Main street, 
(2/ Ottawa. Not onlj' is he an expert carpen- 
ter, but a fine cabinet-maker as well, his work in 
both departments exhibiting a cultivated taste 
and wise judgment. The various residences and 
public buildings for which he has held the con- 
tract have been completed in a manner satisfac- 
tory to all concerned, and have given him a posi- 
tion among the leading men in his occupation in 
this city. 

A son of Cyrus and Elizabeth (Metcalf) Scott, 
the subject of this sketch was born in McCon- 
nellsville, Morgan County, Ohio, October 7, 1850. 
His grandfather, John Scott, was one of the early 
settlers of Morgan County, where Cyrus Scott 
engaged in farm pursuits until his death, at the 
age of seventy. Elizabeth Metcalf was born in 
Morgan County, to which her father, Abraham, 
had removed from New England. She is still 
living and makes her home in Ohio. Of her ten 
children seven grew to mature years and three 
sons and one daughter still survive. The oldest 
of the family is the subject of this sketch. He 
was reared on the home farm and at the age of 
sixteen began to learn the carpenter's trade. 
When twenty-one years of age he went to Min- 
nesota and took a claim in Cottonwood County, 
remaining there for two years, when the grass- 
hoppers ruined his crops. Afterward he worked 



at his trade for two years in that county, and 
then went to Norwalk, Iowa, where he was sim- 
ilarly employed. For seven years he engaged in 
carpentering and cabinet-making in Trenton, 
Mo. In 1884 he came to Ottawa, where, after 
one year as an employe, he began to take con- 
tracts of his own. 

In Morgan County Mr. Scott married Frances 
Murduck, who was born there and died in Otta- 
wa in August, 1897, leaving three children, 
Mabel, Gertrude and Earl. Hoping that a change 
of climate might benefit his wife, whose health 
was delicate, in 1888 Mr. Scott went to Califor- 
nia and settled in the San Gabriel Valley, where 
he engaged in contracting, erecting some of the 
finest buildings in that vicinity. In 1896 he re- 
turned to Ottawa, where he has since made his 
home. Among his contracts have been thoseforthe' 
First National Bank building, residenceof A. M. 
Blair, Santa Fe hospital, the residences of H. A. 
Dunn, W. B. Kiler and others that are among 
the most substantial in the city. In politics he 
always votes the Republican ticket. At one time 
he was active in the Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows, but his membership has been allowed to 
lapse. He is connected with Franklin Lodge 
No. 18, .\. F. & A. M., of Ottawa. 

EHARLES W. OLDROYD, who has served 
acceptably as county treasurer of Franklin 
County and city assessor of Ottawa, came to 
Kansas in 1880 and has made his home in Ottawa 
since 1881. He was born in Shreve, Wayne 
County, Ohio, September 17, 1838, a son of 
Henry and Hannah K. (Ebright) Oldroyd. His 
paternal grandfather, Charles Oldroyd, was born 
near Huddersfield, England, where he engaged 
in the manufacture of woolen cloth. Nine years 
after the birth of his son, Henry, he brought his 
family to America and settled near Harrisburg, 
Pa., where he resumed the manufacture of wool- 
ens. After settling in Wayne County, Ohio, he 
engaged in farming, remaining there until his 
death at the age of almost seventy. 

The active years of Henry Oldroyd were passed 
in Wayne County, Ohio, where he carried on a 

farm. He died there in 1892, when eighty-three 
years of age. From boyhood he was identified 
with the Methodist Episcopal Church. He took 
a warm interest in building up missions and es- 
tablishing churches, and was one of the leaders 
in his own congregation. During the existence 
of the Whig party he voted that ticket. After- 
ward he became a Republican. His wife, who 
was born near Harrisburg, Pa. , was a daughter 
of George Ebright, a native of Pennsylvania and 
of German descent; late in life he removed, via 
team and wagon, over the mountains to Ohio, 
where he died. Mrs. Oldroyd is still living in 
Shreve and is now eighty-eight years of age. Of 
her five sons that attained mature years, E. G. , 
who resides in Shreve, was a member of the 
Fourteenth Iowa Infantry in the Civil war and 
was seriously wounded in the head at Shiloh, 
but soon recovered and returned to his regiment. 
A. B. , who lives near Shreve, was a member of 
the same company and regiment as his older 
brother, Charles W. W. F. , who belonged to 
the One Hundred and Eighty sixth Ohio Infan- 
try, died in Ohio. The youngest son, T. B., is 
engaged in the furniture business in Arkansas 
City, Kans. 

Reared on the home farm, our subject attended 
a neighboring school, which was held in a log 
building fitted up in pioneer style. In 1858 he 
began to learn pharmacy in Wooster, Ohio. At 
the first call for volunteers, in April, 1861, he 
enlisted in Company C, Sixteenth Ohio Infantry, 
being mustered in as corporal for three months. 
Ordered to West Virginia, he there took part in 
skirmishes with the enemy. He was mustered 
out August 18, and on the 2d of September en- 
listed in the same company and regiment for 
three years, being made first sergeant, later pro- 
moted to be second and then first lieutenant. His 
service was principally in Kentucky and Tennes- 
see. At a battle in the rear of Vicksburg, in the 
winter of 1862-63, a brigade made a charge on 
that city, and he was taken prisoner and con- 
veyed to Jackson, Miss., where he was kept for 
three months. When finally released he returned 
to Camp Chase, Ohio, and remained there for one 
year on parole. On being exchanged he rejoined 



his regiment at Matagorda Ba3% Tex., thence 
went to New Orleans, from there up the Red 
River after Banks' expedition, and late in the 
fall of 1864 was mustered out at Columbus, Ohio. 

Settling in the last-named city, Mr. Oldroj'd 
engaged in the sale of photographic supplies. In 
1868 he returned to Wayne County, where he 
carried on a farm for ten years. During 1880 he 
settled in Franklin County, Kans. , on a farm two 
and one-half miles south of Ottawa, but the fol- 
lowing year established his home in the city. 
Here he opened a coal, feed and wood business, 
and also engaged in buying and shipping grain. 
In 1890 he became deputy county treasurer under 
D. C. Hanes. The latter dying during the first 
year of office, the county commissioners appointed 
Mr. Oldroyd to fill the vacancy that year. He 
then continued as deputy under John F. Lamb 
for one year and J. L- Henderson for four years. 
In the fall of 1895 he was nominated for the office 
on the Republican ticket and was elected, serving 
from October, 1896, to 1898. Since then he has 
been city assessor. In 1883 he established his 
home on the raw prairie, which he has since 
transformed into a beautiful place, with fine trees 
and gardens. The location is No. 623 West 
Second street. 

In Wooster, Ohio, in 1865, Mr. Oldroyd mar- 
ried Miss S. C. Wilhelm, who was born in that 
city, a daughter of John and Rachel (Heplar) 
Wilhelm, natives of Northumberland County, 
Pa. Her father, who was a carriage manufac- 
turer, was one of the first settlers of Wooster and 
was interested in its early start. He died there 
when seventy-four years of age. In religion he 
wasconnected with the German Reformed Church. 
He and his wife were the parents often children, 
five of whom are living. Three of their sons took 
part in the Civil war as members of an Ohio regi- 
ment. Mr. and Mrs. Oldroyd have a son and 
daughter now living: John H., who is a mem- 
ber of the insurance firm of Miller & Oldroyd; 
and Gertrude N., a graduate of Ottawa high 
school and in 1898 of Ottawa University. The 
younger son, Elmer G., died at seventeen years 
of age. 

A Republican in politics, Mr. Oldroyd has been 

secretary of the county central committee. He 
is serving his second term as vice-president of the 
school board. Fraternally he is past officer in 
Franklin Lodge No. 18, A. F. & A. M.; past 
officer in Lodge No. 203, A. O. U. W. ; member 
of the Knights and Ladies of Security; and for 
two terms commander of George H. Thomas 
Post No. 18, G. A. R.; also a member of the 
Sixteenth Ohio Veterans' Association. In re- 
ligion he is a member of the Methodist Episcopal 

ROBERT H. PEARSON, a pioneer of Doug- 
las County, owns and occupies a farm of two 
hundred and forty acres in Palmyra Town- 
ship. He was born in Yorkshire, England, 
April I, 1828, ason of William and Fannie (Hall) 
Pearson, natives of England. When a young 
man his father learned the cabinet-maker's trade. 
In 1832 he came to America and settled in Alle- 
gheny, Pa., where he was employed at carpen- 
tering and finishing work in a shop. He re- 
mained there until 1S65, when he came to Kan- 
sas and built a residence in Baldwin. During 
the existence of the Whig party he upheld its 
principles, and afterward took an active part in 
the Republican party. For many years he was 
connected with the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
Although he lived to be eighty-four years of age 
he was active up to the day before his death. He 
had a brother, James, who served under Welling- 
ton at the battle of Waterloo. He was the father 
often children, but six of these died at an early 
age. The four who attained maturity were 
named as follows: Ann, Mrs. George Lovett, de- 
ceased (born October 18, 1826); Robert H.; 
Richard (April 17, 1830), who died in Franklin 
County at the age of sixtj'-six years; and Eliza 
(February 23, 1839), who is the wife of William 
Feltwell and lives in Philadelphia, Pa. The 
younger of the two sons came to Kansas in 1855, 
settled in Douglas County and afterward resided 
here. During the Civil war he served in the 
Union army, being connected, at different times, 
with Illinois and Kansas regiments. 

When a young man our subject learned the 
trade of a coach-body builder. For a short time 



he worked at his trade in Milwaukee, later was 
employed in St. Louis and in Keokuk, Iowa. In 
the winter of 1851-52 he went to California and 
engaged in placer mining in the southern mines, 
meeting with fair success. In April, 1854, ^^ 
started back east. Having heard of Kansas and 
learning that lands here were coming into the 
market, he decided to seek a home in this then 
territory. Near where Baldwin now stands he 
secured a claim, May 15, 1854. It was by no 
means easy to hold the claim, as pro-slavery men 
made repeated efforts to drive him away; how- 
ever, he had as much courage and more determi- 
nation than they, so succeeded in holding the 
property until i860, when he sold it. About the 
same time he purchased his present property, 
which he has since placed under cultivation. In 
early days he belonged to Shore's Rough and 
Ready Pioneer Company and took an active part 
(1855) in defending the city of Lawrence from 
demolition by foreign invaders. The battle of 
Black Jack was fought on his farm and he took 
part in it, as well as participating in other skir- 
mishes. For a time he was a member of Nugent's 
Regiment, Missouri Home Guard, but was trans- 
ferred from it to the Ninth Kansas Infantry, 
where he served for several months, when by 
reason of the muster out of the company and by 
way of favor no objection to his being re-enlisted 
is known to exist. 

In spite of obstacles Mr. Pearson has had more 
than ordinary success. The task that lay before 
him when he came to Kansas was not an easy 
one. He took up a timber and a squatter's 
claim, and was forced to defend his rights by the 
aid of his gun, against as many as five or six men 
at one time. In the end, however, troubles of 
that kind gave way to prosperity. He is now 
the owner of two hundred and forty acres. The 
Republican party receives his vote and influence. 
He has never cared for office and has held none 
excepting that of school director or road overseer. 
For thirty years or more he has been a member 
of Baldwin City Lodge No. 31, I. O. O. F., in 
which he has passed all of the chairs. He is also 
a member of the Grand Army Post at Baldwin. 

The first marriage of Mr. Pearson, September 

23, 1855, united him with Miss Catherine Ann 
Basinger. Their wedding was the first ever sol- 
emnized in Palmyra Township, and their oldest 
son, William F., was the first white child born 
there. Mrs. Pearson was born in Kentucky, 
February 27, 1837, but resided in Kansas from 
the fall of 1854, and died here December 4, 1878, 
when about forty years old. Of the children 
born to this union, three died at an early age. 
The others are as follows: William F. (born 
August 10, 1856), a machinist in Wellsville, 
Kans. ; George Arthur (March 22, 1859), who is 
engaged in farming in Oklahoma; Ann Jane (Oc- 
tober 4, i860), now Mrs. Charles Stover; R. 
Siegel (March 31, 1862), a farmer of Pomona, 
Kans.; Edward (August 2, 1865), who resides on 
the home farm; Fannie (October 22, 1867), wife 
of Hardin Cavender; Elizabeth (March 22, 1869), 
a nurse in Topeka, Kans. ; Nettie (February 24, 
1871), wife of Walter Scott; and Fred H. (Octo- 
ber 3, 1873), a farmer in Palmyra Township. 
February 7, 1884, Mr. Pearson married Rosella 
Harris, of Palmyra Township. She was born in 
Chautauqua County, N. Y., and has resided in 
Kansas since 1880. 

r~ DWARD B. MERRITT. Few residents of 
rp Lansing have been more closely identified 
L with its business interests than has Mr. 
Merritt, who is the proprietor of a general mer- 
cantile store and has built up a large trade in this 
place. A man of great industrj', undoubted in- 
tegrity, and more than ordinary intelligence, he 
has become recognized as one of the leading bus- 
iness men of his town, and the store which he 
owns and conducts is the largest in Leavenworth 
County, outside of the city of Leavenworth. 

Mr. Merritt was born in Platte County, Mo., 
April 25, 1857, a son of Charles and Jane (More- 
lock) Merritt. He was reared on a farm and re- 
ceived his education in country schools. In 1877 
he came to Leavenworth, where he secured em- 
ployment as a clerk, but after a short time he 
became interested in farming in the southern 
part of the county. In the fall of 1878 he en- 
tered Whittier College at Salem, Iowa, where he 




took the studies of the fall and winter terms. 
Later he taught school for three years in Leaven- 
worth and Wyandotte Counties. 

In 1882 he opened a general store in Lansing, 
beginning on a very small scale, but increasing 
his stock from time to time as his enlarging trade 
rendered advisable. In 1895 he established a 
branch at Soldier, Kans., where he built up a 
large trade. He owns a fine residence in Lansing 
and is one of the most prosperous business men 
of the town. In politics a Republican, he has 
been actively connected with local affairs, has 
been one of the political leaders of the village, 
and under the Harrison administration filled the 
ofiice of postmaster. Personally he is a man of 
very independent character, never afraid to speak 
his convictions, but possessing under all circum- 
stances the courage of his opinions. November 
4, 1885, he married Miss Verlena Timberlake, 
daughter of J. Harvey and Lavina (Holdon) Tim- 
berlake, of Lansing, Mich. They have three 
children: Delia T., Ollie T. and Edna T. 
■ In fraternal relations Mr. Merritt is connected 
with Nine Mile Lodge No. 49, A. F. & A. M. ; 
Leavenworth Chapter No. 2, R. A. M.; Ancient 
Order of United Workmen, Modern Woodmen of 
America, Knights of Pythias and the Fraternal 
Aid Association. For six years he was master in 
the blue lodge of Masonry and he has also been 
chancellor commander in the Knights of Pythias. 

P^ICHOLAS GENTRY, a farmer and stock- 
ry raiser of Wakarusa Township, Douglas 
lis County, was born in Boone County, Mo., 
August 31, 1840, a son of Beverly and Olive 
(Hern) Gentry. His paternal great-grandfather, 
a native of England, came to this country and 
settled in Kentucky, where succeeding genera- 
tions resided. From that state at an early age 
Beverly Gentry moved to Mis.souri and improved 
a farm in Boone County, where he married. In 
politics he was first a Whig and later a Demo- 
crat. Of his ten children five are living, viz.: 
Eliza, widow of Green Sweezer, of Wakarusa 
Township; Susan, widow of Daniel Farmer and a 
resident of Jefferson County, Kans.; Elizabeth, 

who married J. J. Allen, then of Douglas County, 
but now a resident of Jefferson County; Nicholas; 
and Eveline, who married Madison Thompson 
and now lives in Wichita. 

The education of our subject was acquired 
principally by self-culture. He was about six- 
teen when his parents removed from Missouri to 
Kansas and he was afterward connected with the 
freighting across the plains. When with his 
father he freighted for him to all of the old towns 
along the trail. He crossed the plains six times, 
made five trips as far west as Pike's Peak, and has 
been all through New Mexico. At the opening 
of the Civil war he went to Fort Leavenworth 
for the purpose of enlisting in the army, but as 
the government needed teamsters he was placed 
in the quartermaster's department and sent to 
New Mexico. For three months he drove a 
company wagon in the regular army, being with 
the Second Dragoons. After his return to Kan- 
sas he began freighting for the government, in 
which he continued until 1866. He then settled 
upon a farm in Lecompton Township, Douglas 
County. About 1887 he purchased one hundred 
and sixty acres where he has since resided, on 
section 22, Wakarusa Tovi'nship. He has added 
to his residence and in 1898 erected a large barn. 
His specialty has been the raising of wheat and 
he also has some stock. During the existence of 
the Grange he was one of its active members and 
he is now connected with the Fraternal Aid 
Association. In politics he is a Democrat. 

In Douglas County, August 10, 1865, Mr. 
Gentry married Ca