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THE following work wat undertaken^ and nearly 
iomfilitedj during M. de la Fikcksre's laef residence 
in Switzerland* where it wa« originally intended Jbr 



MANY celebrated writers hare offered excellent trea« 
«ites to the public, some on the character of a tme christian, and 
otben on the duties of a good pastor. It were to be wished, 

- that these two objects might be so closely united, as to fall under 
the same point of view: and to effect such an union is the de- 
sign of this work, in which may be seen, at one view, what were 
the primitive christians and the apostolic pastors ; and what they 
are required to be, who are called to follow them in the progress 
of piety. 

As example is more powerful than precept, it was necessary 
that some person should be singled out, who was both an excel- 

- lent christian, and an eminent minister of Jesus Christ. The 
'person we fix upon is St. Paul, in whom these two characters 

were remarkably united, and a sketch of whose wonderous Por- 
trait we endeavour to exhibit in the following pages. When this 
apostle is considered as a christian, his diligence in filling up the 
duties of his vocation, his patience in times of trial, his courage 
in the midst of dangers, his perseverance in well-doing, his faith, 
his humility, his charity, all sweetly blended together, constitute 
him an admirable model for every christian. And when we re- 
gard him as a dispenser of the mysteries of God, his inviolable at- 
tachment to truth, and his unconquerable zeal, equally distant 
from fanaticism and indifference, deserve the imitation of evsry 
minister of the GospeL 

A 2 

t THK AVTHOR'S preface* 

The Holy Scriptures furnish materials injabundance for th* 
present work. The Acts of the Apostles from chapter viii. con- 
taining little else than a narration of the labours of St, Paul, or sat 
abndgement of his sermons and apologies. The new Testament, 
besides the Acts, contains twenty-two different books, fourteen of 
which were composed by this Apostle himself, with aU the frank- 
ness suited to the epistolary style, and all the personal detail, into 
which he was obliged to enter, when writing in an uncommon va- 
riety of circumstances, to Ms friends^ his brethren and his sphitval 
children . It is on such occasions, that a man is most likely to dis- 
cover, what he really is : and it is on such occasions that the moral 
painter may take an author in the most interesting positions, in or- 
der to delineate, with accuraqr* his sentiments, his circumstances, 
and his couduct. 

Let it not be said, that in proposing this Apostle as a model 
to christians, we do but cast discouragements in the Way of those, 
who are at an immense distance behind him, with respefct b«ch to 
^<ice and diligence. The masterly skill, that Raphad and Ru- 
bens have discovered in their fMcces serves not to discourage mod- 
em paintei^, who rather labour to form themselves by such grand 
models. Poets and orators 'are not disheartened by those ehtf» 
d'oeu'ores of poetry and eloquence, which Homer and Vii^, De- 
mosthenes and Cicero, have transmitted to posterity : why then 
should we be discouraged by considering th6 feMihent virtues and 
unwearied labours ofthis great apostle ? The greater the excd- 
lence of the pattern proposed, the less likely is the laboured copy 
to be incomplete. 

It is granted, that all the faithful arenot called t» b« minis- 
ters, and that all ministers are not appointed, like St. Paul, (• 
establish new churches : but it is maintained, that all christians^ 
in their different states, are to be filled with the piety of that 
Apostle . If the most inconsiderable trader among us is not 
allowed to say, <* 1 deal only in trifling articles, aiid therefor* 
«' should be indulged with a false balalftcfe**....if such a mdef is 
required to be as just In his shop, as k judgfc on his ttfbrihal ; 
*nd if the lowest volunteer in aift army Is feallfcd to show >as 
much valour in hre humble post, as a genertilofliciSr infcii more 
f lalted station ; the sariie kind of l-eaSonfng may be applied to 
the christian church : so that her youngest communicant is not 
^ertniued-^ say, ** my yo»th/or the weakjMsi of my sex, «• 





^ cittet me from ezerdsuig the charity, the hnmiUty, the ditt* 
* ge&ce, and the zeal, which the iciiptttres prescrihe." 

It should be laid down as an Ineontrorertible troth, that th» 
tame zeal which w»3 manifested by St. Pstiil, fof the glory of 
CrOD, and the same diarity, that he displayed, as an apostle, ia 
the very exteasiTe scene of Vk labours, a minister is called tf»ex» 
erase, as a pastor, in his parish, and a private person, as father of 
» ^unily, in his own house. Nay, even every woman, in propor- 
tion to her capacity, and as the other duties of her station per- 
mit, should feel the same ardrar to promote the salvadon of 
her children and domestics, as St. Paul once discovered to pro* 
mote that of the ancient Jews and Gentiles. Observe in the 
harvest-fidd, how it fares with the labourers, when they are 
threatened with an impetuous shower. All do not bind and 
bear the weighty sheaves. ' Every one is occupied according t» 
their rank, theh: strength, their age, . and thdr sex ; and all 
are in action, even to the little gleaners. The true church 
resembles this field. The faithful of every rank, age, and sei^ 
have but one heart and one mind. According to their state, 
and the degree of their faith, all are animated to labour is 
'the cause of God, and all are endeavouring to save either com** 
munities, families, or Individuals, from the wrath to come J 
as the reapers and gleaners endeavour to secure the rich sheavett 
and even the single ears of grain, from the gathering storm. 

If, in the course of this work, some truths are proposed, 
which may appear new to the christian reader, let him can- 
didly appeal, for the validity of them, to the Holy ScriptnrcSf 
and to the testimony of reason, supported by the most ro- 
spectable authorities, such as the confessions of faith adopted 
by the purest churches, together with the works of the most 
celebrated pastors and {n-ofcssors, who have explained such 

Among other excellent ends proposed in publishing tho 
following sheets, it is hoped, that they may bring back bigot- 
ed divines to evangelical moderation, and either reconcile, or 
bring near to one another, the orthodox professor, the i 
feet christian, and the sincere desist* 

THEr • • 


lit -ncm 



THE great apostle of the gentiles bore «o 
rtsemblatice tothose, who reject the aerrice ofGody 
till they are rendered incapable of gratifying their 
unruly passions* He was mindfal of his Creator 
from his early youths and as an observer of religious 
rites outstripped the most exact, and rigid professors 
of his time : so that the regularity of his conduc^t 
the fenrour of his devotion, and the vivacity of his 
zeal) attracted the attention of his superiors in every 
place* Observe the manner in which he himself 
speaks on this subject, before the tribunal of Fes« 
tus 5 *< My manner of life, from my youth, which 
was at th6 first amoilg my own nation at Jerusalem! 
know all the Jews, which knew me from the begin- 
ning, (if they would testify) that after the straitest sect 
«f our religion I lived a pharisee.'' Having occasion 
afterwards to mention the same circumstances, in 
his epistle to the Galatians, he writes thus : << Ye 
have heard of my conversation in time past, how I 
profited in the Jews* religion above many my equals 
in mine own nation, being more exceedingly zealous 
ofthe traditions of my fathers." And to what anextra- 
ordiufiry pitch of excellence he had carried his mQr-^ 


alily, may be inferred from 'the following short but 
solemn declaration, which was made in the presence 
of persons, who were very well competent to have 
convicted him of falsehood, had there been found the 
least blemish in his outward conduct : " Men and bre- 
thren, I have lived in all good conscience before God, 
unto this day." Such was the early piety of St. 
Paul ; and such was the righteousness, in which he 
trusted, when through ze^l for the church and state, 
of which he was a member, he persecuted christians 
as disturbers of the public peace. 

As we have- seen the beautiful side of this apos- 
tle's early character, let us now consider his defeclsu^ 
As a member of the Jewish church, he was inspired 
with zeal, but that zeal was rigid and severe : as a 
member of society his manners were probably cour- 
teous, but on some occasions his behaviour was ty- 
ranical and inhuman : in a word, he possessed the 
whole of religion, except those essential parts of it^ 
humility and charity* Supercilious and impatient) 
he would bear no contradiction* presuming upon 
his own sufficiency, he gave himself no time to com* 
pare his errors with truth i and hence, covering his 
cruelty with the specious name of zeal, he breathed 
out << threatenings and slaughter against the disciples 
of the Lord." He himself, speaking of this part of 
his character, makes the following humiliating con- 
fession. ^< I was a blasphemer, and a persecutor and 
injurious. I verily thought with myself, that I ought 
to do many things contrary to the name of Jesus of 
NazaretJ^. Which thing I also did in Jerusalem, 
and many of the saints did I shut up in prison, having 
received authority from the chief prie«ts ; and when 
they were put to death, I gave my voice against 
them. And I punished them oft in every syna- 
gogue, and compelled them to blaspheme ; and be- 
ing exceedingly mad against them, I persecuted them 
even unto strange cities." 

. Nevertheless, this rigid pharisee, who carried his 
lOHy to bigotry, and his zeal to. fury, had an up- 

YHe p«&irftAit or st. yatta. ii 

rigkt heart in the sight of God. ^l obtained mer- 
^9" says he after his conversion) " because I did 
it ignorantlf in unbelief," imagining, that when I 
persecuted the disciple» of Jesus, I was opposing a 
torrent of the most dangerous errors* 

Fietf is that knowledge #f God and the various re» 
latiops he stands in to man, which leads us to adorey 
to Ipve, and to obejr him, in public and in private* 
This great virtue is the first trait in the moral cha- 
racter of St. Paul ; and it is absolutely necessary to 
the christian character in general, since it is that 
parent of all virtues, to which God has given the pnn 
mise of the present life^ and of that, which is to 
come. JBut it is more particularly necessary to 
those, who consecrate themselves to the holy minis« 
try 9 since being obliged by their office, to exhibit be- 
fore their flock an example of piety, if they them- 
selves are destitute of godliness, they must necessa- 
rily act without any confotmity to the sacred cha- 
racter, they have dared to assume* 

If Quintilian, the heathen, has laid it down as ft 
general principle, that it is impossible to become 
a good orator, without being a good man ; surely no 
one will deny, that piety should be considered as tho 
firsU qualification essential to a christian speaker* 
Mons. Rvques, in his Evangelical Pastor, observesi 
that *^ The minister by his situation, is a man re- 
•' tired from the world, devoted to God, and called 
« to evangelical holiness." " He is," continues hci 
*< according to St. Paul, a man of God i. e. a person 
<< entirely consecrated to God ; a man of superior 
^< excellence ; a man, in some sense, divine : and to 
« answer, in any degree, the import of this appeila- 
« tion, it is necessary, that his piety should be illus- 
« trious, solid, and universal." Without doubt this 
pious aulhor had collected these beautiful ideas 
from the writings of St. Paul, who thus addresses 
Titus upon the same subject : " A minister must be 
blameless, as the steward of God ; not self-willed, 
not soon angry, not given to wine, no striker, not 

ft imtB^MtTEAXT 0r^r«#4M* 

given to filthy lucres ^ut alover^of liospitaliif) a 
lover of good mea, soberi justy holy, lempejrftte.* 
holding fast the fiiithful word, that he may he able, 
t)y sound doctrine, both to exhort and to convince, the 
gainsayers* He mustuse sound speecbi thsft cannot 
be condemned : in doctrine shewing uneorfuptnessy 
gravity, sincerity ; that he, who is of the contrary 
part may be ashamed, having no evil thing to say oi 

A pastor without piety disgraces the holy profes- 
sion, which he has made choice of, most probably 
from the same temporal motives, which influence 
others to embrace the study of the law, or the pro- 
fession of arms* If those, who were called to serve 
tables, were to be men of honest report, full of the 
Holy Ghost and wisdom) it is evident, that the:same 
dispositions and graces should be possessed, in a 
more eminent degree, by those, who are called to 
minister in holy things. ^^ When thou art convert* 
ed," said Christ to Peter, ^^strengthen thy brethren." 

No sight can be more absurd, than that of an im- 
penitent infidel engaged in calling sinners to repen- 
tance and faith. Even the men of the world look 
down with Contempt upon a minister of this des- 
cription, whose conduct perpetually contradicts his 
discourses, and who, while he is pressing upon 
others the necessity of holiness, indulges himself in 1 

the pleasures of habitual sin. Such a preacher, far ^ 

from being instrumental iii effecting true conver- * 

sions among his people, will generally lead his hear- )- 

ers into the same hypocrisy, which distinguishes his '- 

own character : since that, which was said in ancient J 

times, holds equally true in the present day, <' Like -^ 

people, like priest." Lukewarm pastors make care- / 

less christians; and the worldly preacher leads his 
worldly hearers as necessarily into carnal security, 
as a blind guide conducts the blind into the ditch. 
And to this unhappy source may be traced the de- 
generate manners of the present age, the reproach 



under which our holy religion labours, and the en- 
cjpeasing triumphs of infidelity. 

^^ The natural man, saith St. Paul, recei velh not the 
things of the spirit of God ; for they are foolishness 
unto him ; neither can he know them, because they 
arc spiritually discerned.'* Now, if a minister, who 
is destitute of scriptural piety, is counted unable to 
comprehend the doctrines of the Gospel, how much 
less is he able to publish and explain them ? And 
if those, who live accoK^ling to the vain customs of 
the world, have not the righteousness of the phari* 
sees, with what propriety can they be called, I will 
not say, true ministers, but even pious deists ? 

Though every candidate for the sacred ministry 
may not be in circumstances to declare, with St. 
Paul, ^* I have lived in all good conscience before 
God unto this day ;" yet all who aspire to that im- 
portant office, should at least, be able to say with 
sincerity ; "Herein do I exercise myself, to have al- 
ways a conscience void of offence, toward God and 
toward man." Such were the morals and the con- 
duct of a Socrates and an Epictetus : and worship- 
pers like these," coming from the east and from the 
west," shall enter into the kingdom of heaven, 
" whiie the children of the kingdom shall be cast out 
into outer'darkness." 



IT has been made sufficiently plain, under the 
preceding article, that St. Paul was possessed of a 
good degree of piety from his very infancy. Ha- 
ving been brought up in the fear of God by his fa- 
ther, who is supposed to have been a zealous phari*- 
see, he was afierwards instructed at the feet of 




Gamaliel, a pious doctor of the Law, to whose wi«* 
dom und moderation St. I.uke has borne an hoiioirr- 
able testimony. And so greatly had he profited in 
his youth by these inestimable privileges, that 
" touching the righteousness, which is of the Law, 
he was blameless." ^ But t^is piety was not suffi- 
cient under the new Tt^sfament. 

To become a christian, and a tme minister of the 
Gospel, it is necessary to have, not only the piety of 
a sincere deist, or of a devout Jew, as St. Paul had 
before his conversion, but also those higher degrees 
of piety, which that apostle possessed, after he had 
received the gift of deep repentance toward God and 
llvmg faith in Jesus Christ. The basis of piety, 
among the Jews, was a knowledge of Gcd, as Crea- 
tor, Protector, and Rewarder : but, in order to have 
christian piety, it is necessary, that to this know- 
ledge of God, as Creator, &c. should be added 
that of God the Redeemer, Cod the Destroyer of 
all our evils, God our Saviour; or in other words, 
the knowledge of Jesus Christ. " 1 his is life eter- 
nal, that they might kfiow Thee, the only true 
God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent." 
But who can truly know, I will not say his 
^aviour^ but merely his need of a Saviour, without 
first becoming acquainted with his own heart, and re* 
cciving there a lively impression both of his sin and 
his danger ? A student in theology, who has not 
yet submitted himself to the maxim of Solon, know 
thyself ; and who has never mourned under that 
sense of our natural ignorance and depravity, which 
forced Socrates to confess the want of a divine in- 
structor ;....a candidate, 1 say, who is wholly unac- 
quainted with himself, instead of ea^*erly soliciting 
ihe im|Xisiuon of hands, should rather seek after a 
Hue understanding of the censure, which Christ 
f>nce passed upon the pastor of the Laodicean church : 
'i rhou kill wi etched, ar^d miserable, and poor, and 
biUid, unu nuked," 


If €1 young man st)&aliinto the mimstry Mrithout 
this knowledge, far from being able to preach the 
. t^^ospel, he will not even comprehend that first 
evangelical principle, ** Blessed are the poor in spi- 
rit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven." And in- 
stead of devoutly offering up to (M)d the pray era 
of an assembled congregation, he will constantly be- 
«gin the sacred office by an act of hypocrisy, in say- 
► ing.#.." Almijghty Father, we have erred and stray- 

\ cd from thy ways lili^ lost sheep. We have of- 

fendeda gainst thy holy Laws. There is no heaHh 
in us. But Thou O Lord, have >mercy upon us, 
miserable sinners.'* After making these confes- 
sions in public, when he is interrogated in private 
respecting that misery and condemnation, under a 
sense of which he so lately -appeared to groan, be 
will not scruple immediately to contradict, what be 
has BO plainly expressed : thus discovering to every 
impartial observer, that when he prays in public, 
he prays, either as a child, who understands not 
what he repeats ; or as a deceiver, who appears 
to believe, what he really gives no credit to, and that 
merely for the sake of enjoying the pension of a 
mini»ter, and bis rank in society. 

What is here said of ministers, is equally appli- 
cable to xhrisiians in general. If uny one dares to 
^ approach the sacramental table, theve to make a 

profession of being redeemed from eteinal death 
by the death of Christ, before he isdeeply humbled 
under a sense of the condemnation due to his sin : 
can such a one be said to perform an act of piety ? 
Is he not rather engaged in performing an act of 
fe vain ceremony and presumptuous disbimulation in 

the presence of God ? The feigned humiliation of 
such a communicant, would restmble that of a re- 
bel subject, who, without any consciousness that 
his actions had merited death, shouki cast himself, 
• from motives of interest, at the feet of his prince, 
And affect to rejoice under a sense of that undeserved 

}$ tnE PORTRAIT •T ST. FAt^l. 

ckmency, which permitted him to live. All oair 
professions of faith in Christ are tinctured, more 
or less, with hypocrisy ; unless preceded by that 
painful conviction of past errors, whence alone can 
rordially flow those humiliating confessions, with 
which we are accustomed to begin our sacred ser- 

The true Christian, and consequently, the true 
minister, is constrained to cry out, with St. Paul, 
when he discovered the purity of Jehovah's Law 
and the greatness of his own guilt : " The law is 
spiritual," and demands an obedience correspon- 
flent to its nature; "but I am carnal, sold under 
sin : for what I would, that I do not ; but what I 
hate, that I do. I know, that in me, that is, in my 
flesh, dwelleth no good thing. O wretched man, 
that I am ! who shall deliver me from the body of 
this death." 

In this manner the true penitent, weary and 
heavy laden, makes his approaches to the Saviour; 
and while he continues to implore his grace and fa- 
vour, an incomprehensible change takes place in 
his soul. His groans are suddenly turned into songs 
of deliverance, and he is enabled to adopt the tri- 
umphant language of the great apostle : " I thank 
God, through Jesus Christ our Lord ; for the law 
of the spirit of life in Christ Jesus hath made me 
free from the law of sin and death. There is there* 
fore now no condemnation to them, which are in 
Christ Jesus, who walk not after the flesh, but after 
the spirit." 

Every true follower of Christ, therefore, and es-r 
pecially, every true minister of the Gospel, has re- 
ally expericDced the evil of sin, the inability of man 
to free himself from such evil, and the efficacy of that 
remedy, which endued the first christians with so 
extraordinary a degree of purity, power, and joy- 
And in testimony of the virtue of this sovereign re- 
medy, every - such follower has a right to declare 


«rUh bis liappf predeceisors, << We give thanks uii- 
lo the Father) who hath made us meet to be parta- 
kers of the inheritance of the saints in light : who 
huth delivered us from the power of darkness, and 
hathtmnsVikted us into the kingdom of his dear Son ; 
. in whom We have redemption through his blood, 
even the forgiveness of sins.'* 

When a^reacher is poasessad of christian piety ; 
or in other yords, when he has made his peact 
with X^od, by tliat dce% repentance which enables us 
to die unto sin, and by that living faith which unites 
us to^Chrial, he naturally invites the world to em- 
brace a Sawour, who has Wix>ught for him so won- 
derful a deliverance t and thiii invitation he enforces 
with all that power atid warmth, which must ever 
accompany deep sensibility* After having believ- 
ed with^he heart to the obtaining of righteous- 
ness, he is prepai*ed to -confess with his lips, and to 
testify of his salvation : crying out as sincerely as 
Simeon, but in a sense far more compleat, ^^ Lord, 
now lettest Thou thy servant depart in peace ; for 
according to thy word, mine eyes have seen ihy sal- 
vation." " Here," saya Mr. Ostervald, " may be 
'* applied, what was spoken by our blessed Lord«...'^ 
" A good man, out of the good treasure of his heart, 
bringeth forth good things," '* Erasmus speaks the 
" same thing.. ..Nihil potentius ad extandos bonos 
", affectus, quam piorum affectuum fontem habere 
*< in pectore. Si visme flere, dolendum est, &c. i. c. 
** following the idea, of the author. You will never 
** win others over to a religious life, unless you 
^' yourself are first possessed of piety. This inspires 
^ thoughts, dispositions, and words, which nothiag 
^^ else can produce. It is this, that animates the 
** voice, the gesture, and every action of the chrig- 
" tian preacher* When h^is thus grounded in pieiy, 
*' it is difficult to conceive with what facility, and 
** with what success he labours, still enjoying an un- 
^' speakable sweetness in himself* Then it is, that 
B 2 


^ he is truly sensible of his vocation ; then he speak» 
•* in the cause of God, and then only he is in a pro- 
" per situation to affect others." 

It appeared ?o necessary to the fathers^ who com- 
posed the synod of Bet^ne, that every minister 
should be possessed of solid piety, that they believed 
it impossible for a man to be a good catechist with- 
out it. After recommending it to pasters to explain 
among the youth, the Lord's prayer and the Apos- 
tltb' creed, they add : " This will be abundantly 
" more effectual, if first of all, we are careful that 
<* Jesus Christ may arise in our own hearts. The 
*' fire, with which we should then be animated, 
^^ would soon stir up and warm the docile minds of 
^^ children. Oiherwise, that which reason alone 
*' draws from books, and is taught by other men, is 
** no more than a human work, and will be ineffec- 
** tual, till the great master, the Holy Spirit itself, 
" becomes of the party, creating, renewing, and 
" regenerating to a celestial and eternal life." 



1. THE experimental knowledge ©f our mi- 
sery as sinners, and of our salvation, as sinners re- 
deemed, is the portion of every believer under 
the Gospel. If we are destitute of this two- fold 
knowledge, we are yet in a state of dangerous igno- 
rance, and are denominated cliristians in vain : for 
christian humility has its source in the knowledge 
of our corruption, as ciirisiian charity ilows from a 
knowledge of the great salvation, which Christ has 
procured for us : and if these two graces are not re- 
'iiident in our hearts, our religion is but the shadow 
of Christianity. 


9. As there are some persons, whose physiog** 
1101x17 is strongly marked, and who have something 
peculiarly striking in the whole turn of their coun- 
tenance ; so there are some, the traits of whose mo- 
ral character are equally striking, and whose conver- 
sion is distinguished by uncommon circumstances. 
Such was the apostle Paul* But a train of won- 
derful occurrences is by no means necessary to con- 
version. £or example. ...It is not necessary, that all 
belierers should be actually cast to the earth : or 
that groaning beneath the weight of their sins, and 
under the conviction of a twofold blindness, they 
should continue in prayer for three days aCnd nights, 
without either eating or drinking. But it is absloute- 
ly necessary, that they should be sensible of an ex- 
treme sorrow for having offended a gracious God ; 
that they shoitld condemn themselves and their vices 
by an unfeigned repentance ; and that confessing 
the depravity of their whole heart, they should 
abandon themselves to that sincere distress which 
refuses all consolation, except that which is from 
above. Neither is it necessary, that they should 
hear a voice from heaven, that they should see a 
light brighter than the Sun, or behold, in a vision, 
the minister chosen to bring them consolation in the 
name of the Lord Jesus. But it is ab'^olutely ne- 
cessary, that they should hear the word of God, 
that they should be illuminated by the Gospel, and 
receive directions from any messenger sent for their 
relief; until, placing their whole confidence in God 
through a gracious Redeemer, they feel a new and 
heavenly nature produced within them. This sin- 
cere repentance and this living faith, or, which is 
the same thing, this christian piety, is strictly re- 
quited of every believer under the New Testament. 

3-. Christian piety constitutes the great difference^ 
that is observed between true ministers and unwor- 
thy pastors. The latter preach, chiefly, either in 
order to obtain benefices, or to preserve them ; or^ 

perhftpsy to relieve one another in the discharge of 
those dutieS) which they esteem heavy and painfull 
But the desire of cofiuaftunicatiog to sinners that 
spiritual knowledge, which is more precious than 
rubiesi is the grand motive for preaching with the 
true ministers of God. Th^y publish Christ, like 
St« Paul, fi^m sentiment and inclination ; exposing 
themselves even to persecution on account of preach- 
ing the gospel, like those faithful Evangelists, who, * 
when commanded to teach no more in the name of 
Jesus, answered with equal respect and resolution ; 
" Whether it be right in the sight of God, to hear- 
ken unto you more than unto God, judge ye ; for 
we cannot but speak the things, which we have seen 
and heard." 

4* It is worthy of observation, that St. Paul sup- 
plicates not only for all public teachers, but for every 
private believer ip the church, the highest degree 
of grace and christian experience. ^' I cease not," 
saith he to the Ephesians, *' to make mention of you ^ 

in my prayers ; that the God of our Lord Jesus 
Christf the Father of glory, may give unto you ihe | 

spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of '■ 

him : the eyes of your understanding being enlight- 
ened, that ye may know, What is the hope of his 
calling, and what the riches of the glory of his in« 
heritance, in the saints : and what is the exceeding 
greatness of his power to us-ward, who believe.*' 
And the same end, which this apostle proposed to i 

himself in his private supplications, St. John also 
proposed -to himself in writing his public epistles.*.* 
" That which we have seen and heard declare we 
unto you, that ye also may have fellowship with us ; 
and truly our fellowship is with the Father, and with 
his Son Jesus Christ. And. these things write we 
unto you, that your joy may be full." As though 
he had said, we write, if haply we may excite yoa 
to seek after higher degrees of (aith, charity, and 
^l3^di«nce> '< that being rooted and^roundedin lov^ 


yt may be able to comprehend vriih all saints, the 
love of Christ, which passeth knowledge ; that ye may 
be filled with the all fulness of God." The atten- 
tive reader will easily perceive, that what was once 
the subject of St. Paul's most ardent prayer, is at 
this day considered, by nominal christians in gene- 
ral, as a proper subject for the most pointed rail- 

5. Those ministers, who are not yet furnished 
with christian experience, and who are not seeking 
after it, as the pearl of great price, held out to us in 
the Gospel, are not yet truly converted to the chris- 
tian faith : and (I repeat it after Mr. Ostcrvald) be- 
ing destitute of christian piety, far from being in 
circumstances to preach the Gospel, they are not 
able ^ven to comprehend it. These are they, *' who 
having a form of godliness, deny the power there- 
of." And the greatest eulogium, that can be pro- 
nounced upon such characters, is that, with which 
St. Paul honoured the unbelieving zealots of his 
time : " I bear them record, that they have a zeal 
for God ;" but that zeal is unaccompanied with any 
true knowledge, either of man's weakness, or the 
Redeemer's power : " For they, being ignorant of 
God's righteousness, and going about to establish 
their own righteousness have not submitted them- 
selves unto the righteousness of God. For Christ 
is the end of the Law for righteousneas to every one 
that believeth." 

6, Whoever has not experienced that conviction 
of sin, and that repentance, which is described by 
St. Paul in the seventh chapter of his epistle to the 
Romans, though, like Nicodemus, he may be a 
doctor in Israel, yet he shall never see the kingr 
dom of God. Totally carnal, and satisfied ta con- 
tinue so, he neither understands nor desires that 
regeneration, which the Gospel proposes and insists 
Mpon. He endeavours not to fathom the sense of 
those important words : " Verily, verily, I say unm 


Uiee, except a man be born again, he cannot see 
the kingdom of God*" He considers thpsc, who 
are born of the spirit as rank enthusiasts, and dis- 
dains to make any serious enquiry respecting the 
foundation of their hope. If his acquaintance with 
the letter of the scripture did not restrain himi he 
would tauntingly address the artless question of Ni« 
codemus to every minister, who preaches the doc- 
trine of regeneratiottf..." How can a man he born, 
when he is old ? Can he enter the second lime into 
his mother's womb and be born?" And unless he 
-was withheld by a sense' of politeness, he would 
rudely repeat to every zealous follower of St- Paul 
the ungracious expression of Festus...." Thou art 
beside thyself; much" mystic *' learning doth make 
thee mad." 

7. On the contrary, a minister, who is distin- 
guished by the second trait of the character ot St. 
Paul, at the same time proportionably possesses every 
disposition necessary to form an evangelical pastor : 
since it is not possible for christian piety to exist 
without the brilliant light of truth, and the burning 
zeal of charity. And every minister, who has thij 
light and this love, is enriched with those two pow- 
erful resources, which enabled the first christians 
to act as citizens of heaven, and the first ministers 
as ambassadors of Christ. 






" I AM come," said the good shepherd} 
*♦ that my sheep might have life, and that they 
might have it more abundantly. I am the light 
of the worid. I am the way, the truth, and the 
life. I am the vine; ye are the branches." The 
faithful minister understands the signification of 
these mysterious expressions. He walks in this 
way, he follows this light, he embraces this truthi 
and enjoys this life in all its rich abundance. Con- 
stantly united to his Lord, by a humble faiths a 
lively hope, and an ardent charity, he is enabled to 
say, with St. Paul ; " The love of Christ constraineth 
me ; because.wc thus judge that if one died for all 
then were all dead : and that he died for all, that theyi 
which live, shotfld not henceforth live unto them- 
selves, but unto him, who died for them, and rose 
again. We are dead, and our life is hid with Christ 
in God.. When Christ, who is our life, shall ap- 
pear, then shall we also appear with him in glory. 
For if we have been planted together in the lik«- 
ness of bis death, we shall be also in the likeness of 
his resurrection. Knowing that Christ, being raised 
f^Fom the dead, dieth no more ; b\it liveth unto God : 
we likewise reckon ourselves to be dead indeed unto 
sin, but alive unto God, through Jesus Christ our 

This living faith is the source, from whence all 
the sanctity of the christian is derived, and all the 
power of the true minister : it is the medium, through 
which that sap of grace and consolation, those streams 
of peace and joy, are perpetually flowing, which 
enrich the believing soul, and make it fruitful in 
every good work ; or, to speak without a metaphor, 
from this powerful grace proceeds that love of God 



and man, which influences us to think and act, either 
as members, or as ministers, of Jesus Christ. The 
character of the christian is determined according to 
the strength or weakness of his faith. If the faith 
of St. Paul had been weak or wavering, his portrait 
would have been unworthy of our contemplation : 
he would necessarily have fallen into doubt and dis- 
couragement ; he might probably have sunk into sin, 
as St. Peter plunged inta the sea ; he must, sooner 
or later, have lost his spiritual vigor ; and have made 
the same appearance in the church, as those minis- 
ters and christians, who are influenced by the max- 
ims of the world. The eff'ects of faith are still truly 
mysterious, though our Lord has explafhed them 
in as intelligible a manner, as their nature will 
permit. " He that abideth in me," by a living 
faith, " and in whom I abide," by the light of my 
word and the power of my spirit, " the same bring- 
eth forth much fruit ; for without me ye can do no* 
tiling. If any man abide not in me, he is cast forth 
as a branch, and" being " withered, is cast into the 
fire and burned. Herein is my father glorified, that," 
united to me as the branches to the vine, " ye bear 
much fruit ; so shall ye be my disciples." 

Penetrated with these great truths, and daily 
cleaving more firmly to his living head, the true 
minister expresses what the natural man cannot re- 
ceive, and what few pastors of th« present age are 
able to comprehend, though St. Paul net only expe- 
rienced it in his own heart, but openly declares it in 
the following remarkable passage : *' I am crucified 
with Christ : nevertheless, I live ; yet, not I, but 
Christ liveth in me : and the life, which 1 now live 
in the flesh, I live by the faith of the Son of God, 
who loved me, and gave himself for me." 




EVERY professor of Christianity is acquaint- 
ed with the honour, which our Lord conferred upon 
the apostle Paul, in not only calling him to a par- 
licipation of the christian faith, but by appointing 
him also to publish the everlasting Gospel. A just 
sense of this double honour penetrated the heart of 
that apostle ^ith the most lively gratitude....** I give 
thanks," saith he,** to Christ Jesus our Lord, for that 
he counted me faithful^ putting me into the ministry ; 
who yrfks before a blasphemer) and a persecutor, and 
injujHious.. But I obtained mercy because I did it 
ignorantly in unbelief ; and the grace of our Lord 
was exceeding abundant in me, with faith and lovCf 
which is in Christ Jesus. Howbeit, for this cause 
I obtained mercy, that in me first Jesus Christ might 
shew forth all jong-suSering, for a pattern tm them, 
which should hereafter believe on him to everlasting 
life." The evangelical ministry to which St, Paul 
was immediately called, is in general the same, 
through every age enlightened by the Gospeli and 
consists in publishing the truth after such a manner, 
• that the wicked majr be converted, and the faithful. 
edi£ed« The commission which the great apostle re- 
ceived from Christ, contains, essentially, nothing 
more than the acknowledged duty of every minister 
of the Gospel. Leave out themiraculous appearance 
of oi^r Lord ; pass over the circumstance of a com** 
mission given in an extraordinary manner ; aubsti-^ 
tujte the word sinnera for that of gentiles, and inst^ 
of JewS) read hypocritical p)-ofessort ; ap^^ou 
will perceive, that, with these immateriajJrfterations, 
Hie commission of St. Paul is the jpraimission of 



every faithful minister in the church. Observe the te- 
nor of it. In person, or by my ambassadors, in a man- 
ner either extraordinaiy , or ordinary, « I appoint thee 
a minister, and a witness of those things which thou 
hast seen," or expenenced, « and of thosfc things, 
in the which I will appear to thee ^ and I will deliver 
thee from the hands of the people, and from the gen* 
tiles," i. e. from the hands of hypocritical professors, 
and from ignorant sinners, « unto whom I now send 
thee, to open their eyes, and to turn them from the 

^ darkness of error, to the light of truth, and from 
the power of Satan to God." i. e. from sin, which 
is the image of Satan, to holiness, which is the image 
of God, " that they may receive forgiveness of sins, 
and an inheritance among them, which are sanctifi- 
ed, by faith that is in me." Such was the: office 
to which St. Paul was appoiilted, more especially 
among the gentile nations ; and such, without doubt, 
is the office of every pastor, at least, within the 
limits of his particular parish. As for taking t^\e 
ecclesiastical habit, reading over some pages of a li- 
turgy,solemnizing marriages, baptizing infants,keep- 
iiig registers, and receiving stipends, these things 
are merely accidental : and every minister shouM 
be able to say with St» Paul, " Christ sent me not, 
principally, " to baptize, but to preach the Gospel." 
It is evident from various passages in the differ- 
ent offices of our church,, that our pious reformers 
were unanimously of opinion, that Christ himself ap- 
points, and, in some sort, inspires all true pastors; that 
He commits the flock to their keeping, and that their 
principal care is the same with that of the first evan- 
gelists, namely, " the conversion of souls." And 
truly, the same Lord, who appointed his disciples as 
apostles, or occular witnesses ofhis resurrection, has 

'^ also Eippointed others as pastors, or witnesses of a 
^condary order, and suffragans of the first evange- 
lists, jf the witnesses of a higher order were per- 
mitted to ^^(^ Christ after his resurrection, those of 


« secondary. order have felt the efficacy of his re- 
tiurrection) " being raised together with him," or 
regenerated through the reception of a ^' lively hope^ 
by the rising again of Christ from the dead. So 
that every true minister, who bears his testimony to 
the truths of the Gospel, whether it be from the pul- 
pit, or before tribunals, is supported by his own 
particular experience of Christ's resurrection, as 
well as by a conviction founded upon the depositions 
of the first witnesses. Now this conviction, and 
this experience, are by no means confined to the minis- 
tering servants of God ; but the hearts of the faith- 
ful, in their several generations, have been influenc- 
ed by them both ; if it be true, that they have con- 
stantly stood prepared, to seal with their blood these 
two important truths, Jesus Christ ^' died for our 
sins, and rose again for our justification." Millions 
of the laity have been called to give this last proof 
of their faith, and, beyond all doubt, it is abundant- 
iy more difficult to bear testimony «f the truth upon 
a scaffold, than from a pulpit. 

If St. Paul and the other apostles are considered 
as persons of a rank far superior to ours, they them- 
selves cry out, " O sirs ! we also are men of like 
passions with you." If it be said, that God inspired 
the apostles with all the wisdom and zeal necessary 
to fulfil the duties of their high vocation ; it may be 
replied, that our churches implore for their establish- 
ed pastors the same wisdom and zeal, grounding 
such prayers upon the authority of many plain pas- 
sages of Holy Scripture. " Now unto him, that is 
able to do exceeding abundantly above all, that we 
ask or think, according to the power that worktth in 
us, unto him be glory in the church, by Christ Je- 
sus, throughout all ages, world without end." 

Moreover, it is an error to suppose, that the 
apostles needed no augmentation of that divine light, 
by which spiritual objects are discerned. St» Paul 
who was favoured with an extraordinary inspiration, 


and that sufficient to compose sacred books, in which 
infallibility is to be found, writes thus to believers : 
Now we see through a glass darkly ; but then face 
to face. Now 1 know in part ; but then shall I know, 
feven as also I am known. An humble, but happy 
confession I which, on the one hand, will not suffer 
us to be discouraged, when we are most sensible of 
our inadequate light, and teaches us, on the other, 
how necessary it is to make incessant application to 
the Father of lights : equally guarding us against the 
pride of some, who imagine themselves to have ap- 
prehended all the truth ; and the wilful ignorance 
of others, who pronounce spiritual knowledge to be 
altogether unattainable. 

Now if the apostle Paul could but imperfectly dis- 
cern the depths of evangelical truth, and if angels 
themselves " desire to look into these things ;" who 
ean sufficiently wonder at the presumption of those 
men, who are so far persuaded of their own infalli- 
bility, that they regard all truths, which they are un- 
able to fathom, as the mere reveries of fanaticism I 
But, turning our eyes, at present, from the perni- 
cious error of these self-exalted christians, let us 
consider a subject, in which we are more interested, 
than in the extraordinary vocation of St. Paul to tho 
holy ministry. 



« THE harvest truly is plenteous, but the la- 
bourcrsare few: pray ye, therefore, the Lord of the 
harvest, that He will send forth labourers into his har- 
vest*" Retaining in memory these remarkable words 
of our Lord, the conscientious man is incapable of 
thrusting himself into the holy ministry, without be- 

THE PdiflRAlT ©F ST. FAt/JL, 2^ 

ing first duly called thereto by the Lord of the har- 
vest, thfe great ** Shepherd and Bishop of souls*" 

The minister of the present age is not ordinarily 
called to the holy ministry, except by carnal mo- 
tives, such as his own vanity, or iiis peculiar taste 
for a tranquil and indolent life. Perhaps his voca- 
tion to the ministry is principally from his father or 
mother, who have determined, that their son shall 
enter Into holy orders. Very frequently, if the can- 
didate for holy orders had' sincerity enough to dis- 
cover the real inclination of his heart, he mighjt 
make his submissions to the dignitaries of our church, 
and say ; "Put me, I pray you, into one of the priest's 
offices that I may eat a piece of bread." 

It is not thus with the real believer, who conse- 
crates himself to the holy ministry. He is not ig- 
norant, that " ChVist glorified not himself to be made 
ati high priest :" and he is perfectly assured, that no 
man has a right to take upen himself the sacerdotal 
dignity, " but he that is called of God," either in an 
extraordinary manner, as Aaron and St. Paul, or, at 
least, in an ordinary manner, as Apollos and Timo- 
thy. As it is a matter of the utmost importance, to 
understand by what tokens this ordinary vocation to 
the holy minsitry may b6 discovered, the following 
reflections uppn so interesting a subject may not e 
altogether superfluous. 

Ifayourigman of virtuous manners is deeply pene- 
trated with this humiliating truth..^.** All have sinned 
and come short of the glory of God." If, further, he 
is cfTectually convinced of this consolatory truth.... 
" Go/1 so loved the world, that he gave his only-be- 
gotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should 
not perish but have everlasting life." If his natural ta- 
lents have been strengthened by a liberal education ; 
if the pleasure of doing good is sweeter to him than 
all the pleasures of sense ; if the hope of " convert- 
ing sinners from the error of their way," occupies 
his mhid moVie agreeably than the" idea of acquiiiiig 
c 2 

30 VbE portrait 07 ST. PAUI/« 

all the advantages of fortune ; if the honour of puW 
lishing the Gospel is superior, in his eyes, to the 
honour of becoming the ambassador of an earthly 
prince : In short, if by a desire, which springs from 
the fear of God, the love of Christ, and the concern 
he takes in the salvation of his neighbour, he is led to 
consecrate himself to the holy ministry ; if, in the or- 
der of providence, outward circumstances concur 
with his own designs ; and if he solicits the grace 
and assistance of God with greater eagerness than 
lie seeks the outward vocation from his superiors in 
the church by the imposition of hands ; he may 
then satisfy himself, that the great High-Priest of the 
christian profession has set him apart for the high 
office to which he aspires* 

When, after serious examination, any student in 
theology discovers in himself the necessary disposi- 
tions mentioned abo? e ; then, having received im- 
position of hands, with faith and humility, from the 
pastors, who preside in the church, he may solidly 
conclude, that he has been favoured with the ordinary * 
♦ocaiion* Hence, looking up to the source of the im- 
portant office, with which he is honoured, he can adopt 
with propriety the language of St. Paul : " I thank 
Christ Jesus, our Lord, for that he hath counted me 
failhful,putting me into the minbtry. Though I preach 
the gospel, 1 have nothing to glory of ; for necessity 
is laid upon me, yea, woe is unto me if I preach not 
the Gospel :" for then I should be found unfaithful 
to my vocation. " God was in Christ reconciling 
the world unto himself, and hath committed unto us 
the word of reconciliation. Now then we are am- 
bassadors' for Christ." And, if he becomes not 
like that " wicked and slothful servant, who refused 
to adminiiterto the necessities of his master's hous- 
ho!f!,he will be able at all times to say : ** There- 
fore, seeing we have this ministry, as we have re- 
ceived mercy, we faint not^ but have renounced the 
hidden things of dishonesty, not walking in crafii- 


nets nor handling the word of God deceitfullf » bat 
by manifescation of the truth commendiBg ourselves 
to every man's conscience in the sight of God.*' 

A person of thisdescription^ searching the depths 
of the human heart, of which he has acquired a com- 
petent knowledge by the study of his own, meditat- 
ing with attention upon the proofs, and with hu- 
mility upon the mysteries of our holy religien, giv- 
ing himself up to the study of divine things, and 
above all, to prayer and to good works ; such a pas* 
tor may reasonably hope to grow in grace and in 
the knowledge of that powerful Saviour, whom he 
earnestly proclaims to others* Nor is it probable 
that such a one will labour altogether in vain* Gra- 
dually instructed in the things, which concern the 
kingdom of God, he will become like the father of a 
family, bringing forth out of his treasures things new 
and old : and whether he speaks of the old man, the 
earthly nature, which he has put off with such ex- 
treme pain, or the new man, the heavenly nature, 
which he has put on with equal joy, he will speak 
with a conviction so powerful, and a persuasion so 
constraining, that the careless must necessarily be 
\alarmed, and the faithful encouraged* 



THE true christian called to become a disci- 
ple of the blessed Jesus, rather than refuse the offer- 
ed privilege, renounces his all. If this token of de- 
votion to Christ is discernable in the character of eve- 
ry true christian, it is still more conspicuous in the 
charactei* of every true minister* Such a person> 
inwardly called by the grace of God to a state of dis* 


cipleship with Christ,' and outwardly consecrated tli 
such a state by the imposition of hands, gives him* 
self unreservedly, up to the service of his condescend- 
ing master. He withstands no longer that perma* 
nent command of our exalted I^ord, to which his 
first disciples shewed so cheerful a submission, 
]Pollow me. Nor is he discouraged, while Christ 
continues, "If any man will come after me, let him 
deny himself, take up his cross, arid follow me. No 
man having put his hand to the plough, and looking 
back, is fit for the kingdom of God. pe, that loveth 
father and mother, son or daughter, more than me, 
is not worthy of me. He that findeth his life shall 
lose it : and he that loseth his life, for my sake shall 
find it." If there be found any pastor who cannot 
adopt the solemn appeal of the first noinisters of 
Christ, " Lo we have left all and followed Thee," 
that man is in no situation to copy the example of 
his forerunners in the christian chuixh, and is altoge- 
ther unworthy the character he bears : since with- 
out this detachment from the world, and this devo- 
tion to the Son of God, he flatters himself in vain, 
that he is either a true minister, or a real member, 
of Jesus Christ. 

Observe the declaration of one, whose attachment 

to his divine master deserves, tobe had in everlasting 

remembrance : " Those things which were gain to 

me, I counted loss for Christ. Yea, doubtless, and 

I count all things but loss^ for the excellency of the 

knowledge of Christ Jesus my Lord ; for whom I 

have-^saftered the loss of allthings, and do- count 

them but dung, that I may win Christ, and be 

* found in him, having the righteousness which is of 

"God by faith. For none of us," true christians or 

'true ministers," liveth to himself, or dieth to hini- 

' sfelf :" but " whether we live, we live unto the 

Lord ; and whether we die, we die unto the Lord." 

Professing to be, either a minister, or a believer, 
' of the Gospel, without this entire devotion to Jes»4» 


Christ, is to live in a state of the most dangerous hj- 
pocrisf : it is neither more nor less, than sayiag. 
Lord I Lord ! without having a firm resolution to 
do, what our gracious master has commanded. 



THE ministers of the present age are fuN 
feished in a manner suitable to their design. As thef 
are more desirous to please than to convert iheir 
hearers, so thef are peetiliarly anxious to embellish 
the inventions of a seducing imagination* They are 
continually seeking after the beauty of metaphorsi 
the brilliancy of antithesis, the delicacy of descrip- 
tion, the just arrangement of words, the aptness o( 
gesture, the modulations of voice, and every other 
studied ornament of artificial eloquence. While the 
true minister, effectually convinced of the excellence 
of the Gospel, relies alone, for the effect of his pub* 
lie ministry, upon the force of truth, and the assist- 
ance of his divine master. 

Observe the manner in which St. Paul expresses 
himself upon this subject ; " We having the same 
spirit of faith, according as it is written, I believed, 
and therefore have I spoken ; we also believe, and 
therefore speak. And I, brethren, came not with 
excellency of speech, or of wisdom, declaring unta 
you the testimony of God : for I determined not to 
know any thing among you, save Jesus Christ, and 
him crucified. And my speech and my preaching 
was not with enticing words of man's wisdom, but 
in demonstration of the Spirit, and of power : that 
your faith should not stand in the wisdom of men, 
but in the power of God. For the weapons of our 


warfare lire not carnal^ but mighty^ through God, 
to the pulling down of strong holds : casting down 
imaginations, and every high thing that exalteth it- 
self against the knowledge of God, and bringing in- 
to captivity every thought to the obedience of 

The true minister, following the example of St. 
Paul, after having experienced the power of these 
victorious arms, exiiorts every soldier of Christ to 
provide himself with the same spiritual weapons. 
** Finally, my brethren, be strong in the Lord, and 
in the power of his might. Puton the whole armour 
of God, that ye may be able to stand. For we wres- 
tle not merely against flesh and blood, but against 
principalities, against powers, against the rulers of 
the darkness of this world, against spiritual wicked- 
ness in high places. Wherefore take unto you the 
whole armour of God, that ye may be able to with- 
stand in the evil day, and having done all, to stand. 
Stand, therefore, having your loins girt about with 
truth, having on the breast-plate of righteousness, 
and your feet shod with the preparation of the 
Gospel of peace : above all, taking the shield of 
faith, wherewith ye shall be able to quench all 
the fiery darts of the wicked. And take the helmet 
of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which 
is the word of God." And, that you may per- 
form heroical service with these arms, " pray 
always with all prayer and supplication in the 

So long as the faithful minister, or servant, of 
Christ wears and wields these scriptural arms, 
he will be- truly invincible. But no man can gird 
himself with these invisible weapons, except he be 
born of the Spirit ; nor can any christian soldier em- 
ploy them to good purpose, unless he be first 
endued with all that divine power, which flows 
from the love of God and man : he must feel, 
at least, some sparks of that fire of charity, which 


warmed the bosom of St. Paul, when he cried out«..« 
<' Whether we be beside ourselves, it is to God i or 
whether we be sober, it is for your cause. For the 
love of Christ'' and of souls ^< constraineth us." 

« From the time, that the eyes of St. Paul 
« were o^^ened to a perception of the Gospel," 
says Mons. Romilly, pastor of a church in Ge- 
neva, ." we find him no longer the same per- 
^< son. He is another man, he is a new crea- 
" ture, who thinl^s no mote but on Gospel truths ; 
'< who hears nothing, who breathes nothing but the 
'^ Gospel ; . who speaks on no other subject, who at- 
*' tends to no other thing but the voice of the Gos- 
(^ pel ; who desires all the world to attend with him 
^< to the same voice, and wishes to communicate his 
<< transports to all mankind. From this happy pe- 
<* riod, neither the prejudices of flesh and blodd, nei- 
** ther respect to man, nor the fear of death, nor 
<^ any other consideration is able to withstand him 
« in his course. He moves on with serenity in a 
" path sown thick with reproaches and pain. What 
^ has he to fear, he despises the maxims of the 
« world, nay the world itself ; its hatred as w?ll as 
<< its favour, its joys as well as its sorrows, its mean- 
<< ness as well as its pomp. Time is no longer an 
" object with him, nor is his economy regulated by 
*' it. He is superior tp*every thing ; he is immortal. 
« Though the universe arms itself against him, 
" though hell opens its abysses, though affliction 
" assaults him on every side, he stands immoveable 
" in every storm, looking with contempt upon 
*< death, coj^scious that he can never die. Supe- 
" rior to all his enemies, he resists their united at- 
" tempts with the arms of the- Gospel, opposing to 
«« time and liell> eternity and heaven." 




THE armour of God, described in the pre- 
ceding article, is common to all christians : but the 
true minister is girded with weapons of a peculiar 
temper. As a christian his sword is the word of 
God in general ; but, as a minister, it is especially 
those parts of the Gospel, by which he is invested 
with authority to preach the word of God, and to 
perform the functions of an ambassador of Jesus 
Christ. " Go," said our blessed Master to his first 
disciples, « and preach the Gospel to every crea- 
ture. He, that believeth" my doctrine " shall be 
saved : but he thiat believeth not, shall be damned. 
AU power is given unto me in Heaven and in earth. 
Go ye, therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing 
them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, 
and of the Holy Ghost ; teaching them to observe 
all things, whatsoever I have commanded you. 
And lo, I am with you alway, even unio the end 
of the world. Verily, verily I say unto you, he, 
that receiveth whomsoever I send, receiveth me ; 
and he, that r^cM^eH^h me, receiveth Him that sent 
me. Verify t say unto you, whatsoever ye shall 
bind on ear^, shall be bound in Heaven ; and 
whatsoever ye shall loose on earth," according to the 
spirit of my Gospel, " shall be loosed in Heaven." 
Behold, from whence the ministers of Christ 
have authority to absolve true penitents, and to ex« 
cMimunicate obstinate sinners. An authority, 
which some have called the power of the cler- 
gy ; a power, which unrighteous pastors, so much 
abuse, and which the faithful never presume to ei^- 
crcise, but with the utmost solemnity r a power, 
whiclH nevertheless, belongs to tbem of divine 


right, and which can be denied them with no more 
reason, than they can refuse the sacramental cup to 
the people. Such, at least, is the judgment of ma- 
ny excellent and learned divines, among whom may 
be reckoned Mons. Ostervald, and Mons. Roques. 
It may however be enquired, with propriety, in this 
place....Can ecclesiastics be justified in still making 
use of their authority in these respects, unless they 
do it with prudence and impartiality ? And would 
it not become them to exercise the ecclesiastic dis* 
cipVme, in an especial manner, upon unworthy pas* 
tors, following the maxim of St» Peter ; " The time 
is come, that judgment must begin at the house of 
God ?" 

Invested with the authority, which Christ has con- 
ferred upon him, the true minister is prepared to de- 
nounce the judgments of God against obstinate sin- 
ners, to console the dejected, and to proclaim the 
promises of the Gospel to every sincere beliercr, 
with an energy unknown to the worldly pastor, and 
with a power, which is accompanied by the seal of 
the living God. Thus, when such a minister clear- 
ly discerns the profound malice of another ElymaSf 
he is permitted to say, with the authority of an am- 
bassador of Jesus Christ ; ** O full of all subtilty# 
and all mischief, thou child of the Devil, thou enemy 
of all righteousness, wilt thou not cease to pervert 
the right ways of the Lord ? Behold ! the hand 
of the Lord shall be upon thee.'* But the true 
minister is careful never to abuse this awful power. 
*' We can do nothing," says St. Paul, " against the 
truth , but for the truth ; I write these things being 
absent, lest being present, I should use sharpness, 
according to the power, which the Lord hath given 
me to edification, and not to destruction." The de- 
nunciation of vengeance is to the minister of Christ, 
what the executionof judgment is to the Godoflovpf 
liift painful and Orange work. 



The good pastor, conscious that the ministra- 
tion of mercy exceeds in glory the ministration of 
condemnation, places his chief glory and pleasure 
in spreading abroad the blessings of the new cove- 
nant. He knows, that the promises are yea, and 
amen, in that beneficent Redeemer, who gave the 
following charge to his first missionaries : « Into 
whatsoever house ye enter, first say, Peace be to 
this house. And if the son of peace be there, your 
peace shall rfest upon him : if not, it shall turn 
to you again." The wishes and prayers of a minis- 
ter, who acts and speaks in conformity to the in- 
tent of this benign charge, really communicates 
the peace and benediction of his gracious master to 
those, who are meet for their reception : and ac- 
cording to the degree of his faith, he can write to 
the faithful of distant churches, with the confidence 
of Sc. Paul.... I am persuaded that " when I come 
unto you, I shall conie in the fulness of the bless- 
ing of the Gospel of Christ. Whenever he sa- 
lutes his brethren, his pen or his lips become the 
cliannel of those evangelical wishes, which flow 
from his heart ; " Grace be unto you, and peace, from 
God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ. 
The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love 
of God, and the communion of the Holy Ghost be 
with you all." Thus the true minister approves 
himself a member of the " royal priesthood," a priest 
of the most High, « after the order of Melchisedec," 
who blessed the Patriarch Abraham : or rather, a, 
ministering servant of the son of God, who was mani- 
fested in the flekh, that " in him all the families of 
the earth might be blessed," 

Great God I grant that the whole company of 
christian pastors maybe men after thine own heart* 
Leaving to the ignorant those compliments, which a 
slavish dependence has invented, may thy minist^ers 
perpetually cany about them the love, the gravity, 
fuid the apostolic authority, which belong to their 


ft&cred character. Maf all the benedictions, which 
thou hast commissioned them to pronounce, cause 
them still to be received, in every place " as angels 
of God." Far from being despised as hypocrites, 
shunned as troublesome guests, or feared as men of 
a covetous and tyrannical disposition, may that mo- 
ment always be esteemed a happy one, in which 
tl^ey enter any man's habitation : and whenever they 
mfike their appearance upon these charitable occa* 
sions, jxxay those, who compose the" family, each 
seeking, to give the first salute, cry out...." How 
beautiful are the feet of them, that preach the Gos- 
pel of peace.** 

.The power, of pronouncing exhortations and 
blessu)g& U not the exclusive privilege of pastors^ 
but belongs to all experienced believers. The Pa* 
triarcbs.had a right to bless their children $ and Ja- 
cob blessed not only his tpna and grandsons, but al- 
fio the king of Egypt himself* If the followers of 
Christy then, are deprived of' th|» consolatory powefi 
the children of ancient Israeli were more highly pri- 
vileged than jthe niem)3iera of thfs christian church, 
whp; are caUcd» ncv?rthekf s,' >o receive more pre- 
cious benedictions, and to be, as our Lord expresses. 
it,j«'' the' salt pf the earth," and "ihe light of the 
worldi" When ,St. Paul. writes to believers: " Dc* 
sire spiritual gifts ; but rather that ye muy prophesy i 
for be that prophesicth, speaketh unto men to edifi- 
cation, to exhortation, and comfort :" he doubtless 
excites them to ask of God that overflowing charity, 
and that^ patriarchal authority, without which, it 
is impossible for them fully to comply with the fol- 
lowing apostolic injunctions...." Bless and curse not 
^..•knowing.that ye are thereunto called, that ye 
should inherit, a blessing"....and, without a high de- 
gree of which, they cannot. sincerely obey those dis- 
tinguished precepts of our blessed Lord...." Love^ 
your enemies, do gopd to them that bate you, and 
pray for them, which despitefuUy use you and ^r- 
»ecute you/' 





THE true penitent, having renounced him- 
self for the honor of following hi« exalted Lord, 
stands faithfully in his own vocation, whether it be 
secular or ecelesiastic. He is prepared, upon all 
occasions, to perform the will of his gracious Mas* 
ter : and if he is commissioned to act as a ministet 
of Christ, after furnishing himself with "the whole 
armour of God," he will expose himself, without 
fear, to the most threatening dangers, that he may 
compel sinners to come into the marriage-supper of 
llie Lamb. " I rejoice," saith St. Paul, " in my 
sufferings for the body of Christ, which is the 
church, whereof I am made a minister, according 
to the dispensation of God, which is given to me 
for you, to fulfil the word of God ; even the mys^ 
lery, which hath been hid from ages, but which is 
now made manifest to his saints ; to whom God' 
would make known, what is the riches of the glory 
of this mystery among the gemiles ; which is Christ 
in you, the hope of glory : whom we preach, warn* 
ing every man, and teaching every man in all wis* 
dom, that we may present every man perfect inr 
Christ Jesus ; whereunto I also labour, striving ac- 
cording to his working, which workelh in me migh- 
tily. For I would that ye knew what great conflict I 
have for you," and for all those among whom the 
word of God is preached, "that their hearts might 
be comforted, being knit together in love, and un- 
to all riches of the full assurance of understanding 
to the acknowledgment of the mystery of God, and 
•f the Father, and of Christ; in whom are hid aU 
the treasures of wisdom and knowledge." 


Such are the great ideasi which the Apostle 
Paul entertaine4 of the ministry he had received : 
aod obser^yp.the assiduity, with which he discharg- 
ed the duties of so important an office. t*.^' Ye know/' 
says he, speaking. to the; pastors, to whom he com- 
mitted the care of one of his flocks^ ^^from the first 
day, that I came into Asia^ after what manner I 
have been, wiih you at all seasons, scrvipg the Lord 
with all humility qf mind, and with many tears and. 
tcmptatious : and how I kept back nothing that was. 
prontaVkle unto you, but have shewed you, and have 
taught you publicly, and from house to house, tes- 
tifying both to the JewS) and aUo to the Greeks, re- 
pentance . toward .God, and faith toward our Lord 
Jesus Ghost. A\ herefore I take you to record this 
day, that. I am p^re from the blood of all men* 
For I have not shunned to declare unto you ail the 
•counsel of God. Take heed therefore unto your- 
selves ; for X know this, that after my depkrting 
shall grievous wolves" unfaithful pastors " enter in 
Ainong you, not sparing the flock. Therefore watch 
and riemember, that by the space of three years I 
ceased not to warn every one night and day with 
tears.*' In every place he discharged the obliga- 
lipns of a minister with the same application and 
2eal, travelling from city to city, and from church 
to church, bj^aring testimony to ^* the redemption 
that is in Je&us," and declaring the great truths of 
the Gospel. When the synagogues were shut 
against himi he preached in the schools of philo- 
sophers, upon the sea-shore, on ship-board, and even 
in prisens : and while he dwelt a prisoner in his 
own house at Rome, '^ he received all, that came in 
unto him, to whom he expounded and testified the 
Kingdom of God^ persuading them concerning 
Jesus, both out of the Law of Moses and out of the 
Prophets, from morning till evening.*' 

Thus the Son of God himself once publicly la- 
l^oured for the conversion of sinners^ sometimes go- 


ing through " all Galilee, teaching in their synaH 
gogues, and preaching the Gospel ;" and at othei* 
times instructing the multitudes, who either fol- 
lowed him into the fields,* or resorted to the house, 
where he lodged : »* for there were many coming 
and going, and they had no leisure so much as to 
eat." And when through the pleasure of bringing 
the Samaritans acquainted with spiritual truth, he 
disregarded the necessities of nature, his disciples?, 
requesting him to partake of the food they had pre- 
pared, received from him this memorable answer : 
I' I have meat to eat, that ye know Botof..*.my meat 
is to do the will of him, that sent me, and to finish 
his work," that is, to enlighten and save sinners. 

Thus St. Paul was diligently and daily occupied 
in fulfilling the duties of his apostolic vocation : 
and thus every minister of ihe Gospel is called to 
labour in his appointed sphere. It remains to be 
kno^n, whether all, who do not labour, according 
to their ability, are not condemned by the following 
general rule : 'i if any will not work, neither should 
he eat :" For these words signify, applied to the pre- 
sent case, that they who will not labour as pabtors, 
should by no means be permitted to eat the bread 
of pastors ; an evangelical precept this, which de- 
serves ihi: strictest attention, as the bread of pas- 
tors is, in seme sort, sacred bread, since^it is that, 
Hhlch the piety of the public has set apart for the 
support of those, who have abandoned every world- 
ly pursuit, that they might dedicate themselve* 
£i eely aud fully t« the service ©f the church. 





THE minister of the present age is but sel- 
dom engaged in publishing to his people the truths 
of the Gospel ; and still more rarely in supplicating 
for them the possession of those blessings, which 
the Gospel proposes- It is chiefly before men, that 
he lifts up his hands, and affects to pour out a pray- 
er from the fulness of his heart ; while the true 
minister divides his time between the two important' 
and refreshing occupations of preaching and pray- 
er ; by the former, making a public offer of divine 
grace to his hearers, and by the latter, soliciting 
for them in secret the experience of that grace- 
Such was the manner of the blessed Jesus himself, 
who after having reproved his disciples for the low 
degree of their faith, retired either into gardens, of 
vipon mountains, praying that their " faith might not 
fail." The good pastor, who constantly imitates 
the example of his divine master, is prepared to 
adopt the following language of St. Paul, in address- 
ing -the flock, upon which he is immediately ap- 
pointed to attend : " For this cause I bow my kneet 
unto the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, of whom 
the whole family in Heaven and earth is named, 
that he would grant you, according to the riches of 
his glory, to be strengthened with might by hi^spi- 
rit in the inner man ; that Christ may dwell in your 
hearts by faith ; that ye being rooted and grounded 
in love, may be filled with all the fulness of God. 
And this I pray, that your love may abound yet 
more and more in knowledge, and in all judgment $ 
that ye may approve things, that are excellent; that. 
ye may be sincere and without offence till the day 

4^ ni portVait OF sr.' paul. 

of Christ ; being filled with the fruits of righte- 
ousness, which are by Jesus Christ, unto the glo- 
ry and praise of God." By prayers like these, thc^ 
Apostle Puul was accustomed to wat^r, withpiit 
ceahing, the heavenly seed, which lie had so widely 
scattered through the vineyard of his Lord, manifest- 
ing an encreasing attachment to those, among whom 
he had at apy time published the tidings of salvation,; 
and breathing out, in all his epistles to dists^n^t 
churches, the most earnest desire, that Ood ^oul4 . 
fulfil in them ''all the good pleasure of his goodo'essi , 
and the work of faith with power ; that the name 
of the Lord Jesus Christ might be glorified in (hem^ 
and they in him," 

Pastors, who pray thus for their (locks, pray not^ 
in vain. Their fervent petitions are heard : sinners . 
are converted, the faithful are edified, and thanks- 
giving is shortly joined to supplication. Thus the . 
same apostle....".! thank my God always on your be- 
half for the grace of God, which is given you by Je- 
sus Christ ; that in every thing ye are enriched by 
hiin, in all utterance, and in all knowledge. So that 
ye^come behiwdin no gift, waiting for the coming of 
our Lord Jesu^ Christ- Having heard of your faith 
in the Lord Jesus, and your love unto all the saints, 
I cease not to give t^hanks for you*" 

Worldly ministers have no experience of the 
hojy joy, that accompanies these secret sacrifices 
of praise and thanksgiving. But this fan by no 
means be considered, as matter of astonishment. 
Is their ^t^achmqnt lo Christ as sincere as that of 
his faithful ijiinisters? ^re they as solicitous for 
the salvation of their hearers? Do they teach and 
pres^iq}! ^vitjhi c^u.^1 zeal ? Do they pray with the same 
ardour and perseverancei 




THE worldly minister has neither the cou* 
rage, nor the tenderness of the true pastor. He 
is fearful of publishing those truths, which are 
calculated to alarm the careless sinner; and he 
knows not, in what manner to apply the promises of 
the Gospel, for the relief of thobe, who mourn. If 
ever he attempts to descant upon the consolatory 
truths of the Gospel, he only labours to explainj 
what is nearly unintelligible to himself ; and all his 
discourses on subjects of this nature are void of 
that earnest persuasion, and that unction of lovci 
which characterize the ministers of Christ. On 
the other hand, his dread of giving offence will not 
suffer him to address sinners of every rank, with the 
holy boldness of the Prophet Samuel : If ye will 
not obey the voice of the Lord, but rebel against 
the commandment of the Lord, then shall the hand 
of the Lord be against you. If ye still do wickedly, 
ye shall be consumed." The faithful pastor, on 
the contrary, conscious that the harshest truths of 
the Gospel are as necessary, as they are offensive, 
courageously insits upon thtm, in the manner of St. 
Paul...." Thinkest thou, O man, that dost such 
things, that thOu shall escape the judgment of 
God:" Know this, that " after thy hardness and 
impenitent heart thou treasurest up unio thyself 
wrath against the day of wrath, and revelation of 
the righteous judgment of God: for indignation 
and wrath, tribulation and anguish shall be upon 
every soul of man, that doeih evil. If e\ery trans- 
gression" ^nder the first covenant "received a just 
recoropence of reward, h#w shall we escape if w* 


neglect s» great salvation, which at the first began 
to be spoken by the Lord, and was confirmed unto 
us by them, that heard hi'm. This ye know, that 
no unclean person, nor covetous man hath any in- 
heritance iti the kingdom of Christ and of God : ,let 
no man deceive you with vain words ; for because 
of these thmgs cometh the wrath of God upon the 
children of disobedience. . See that ye refuse not 
him that speaketh : for if they escaped not, who, re- 
fused him, that spake on earth," viz. the propheJ 
IVtoses ; " much more shall not wc escape,, if we 
turn away from him, that speaketh frpii^ Heaven,.',' 
viz. The Saviour Jesus Chfjjit. " Wherefore let u» 
serve God acceptably, with reverence and godly 
fear : for our God is a.consumingfire." , 

. But though the true minister courageously an- 
nounces the most severe declarations of th^ word to 
the unbelieving and the ^nxpenitent ; yet he U never 
so truly happy, as when he invUes the poor in spirit 
to draw forth the riches of grace from the treasurjc 
of God's everlasting^ love. ** God hath nQt>" saith 
St. Paul, << appointed us to wrath ; but to obtain 
salvation by our Lord .Jesus. Chrjat. This is. a 
faithful saying, and worthy of all acceptation,, .that 
Christ Jesus came into the worjd to save .pinners* 
Ye are not conie unto the mpuntj, ,^h^t bufped with 
fire, nor unto blacknesGi, and dajrkncss, and tempests 
But ye are come unip mount Sion, anfl untp the city, 
of the living God, and to. Jesus,, the Mediator of the 
new covenant, and to the blood of sprinkling, that 
speaketh better ibings than that of Abel, Haying- 
therefore, brethren, boldness to enter in^o the hor^ 
li^st by the blood of Jesus, and having an High 
Priest over the House of Godi let us draw near with 
a true heart, in full assurance of jfeUhi If, when, 
we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the 
death of his Son, much more, being, reconciled, we 
shall be saved by his life. tie,, that spared, not his. 
^wn Son, but delivered him up for us all, how shall 


he not with him also freeljr ^ive us all things ? Who 
shall lav any thing to the charge of Cod's elect ? It 
is God that justifieth : who is he, that condemn- 
cth ? It is Christ that died, yea, rather that is risen 
again, who is even at the right hand of God, who 
also niaketh intercession for us.'* 

When these exhilarating declarations are found 
insufficient *' to revive the hearts of the contrite, the 
evangelical preacher fails not to multiply them, in 
the most sympathizing and affectionate n\anner« 
"I say unto you," continues he, "all manner of sia 
and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto men : for the 
blood of Jesus Christ cleanseth from all sin. And 
by him all, who believe, are justified from all things, 
from which ye could not be justified by the law of 
Moses* There is therefore n6w no condemnation to 
tjiem, which are in Christ Jesus : for where sin 
abounded, grace did much more abound." 

Such are the cordials, which the faithful evan- 
gelist administers to those, who are weary and heavy- 
laden : precious cordials, which the worldly pastor 
can never effectually apply ; which he either em- 
ploys out of season, or renders useless by such ad- 
ditions of his own, as are contrary to the spirit of the 



THERE is no evil disposition of the heart, 
with which the clergy are so frequently reproached, 
as pride. And it is with reason, that we oppose this 
sinful temper, especially when it appears in pastors, 
since it is so entirely contrary to the spirit of the 
Gospel, that the apostle Paul emphatically terms it, 
** The condemnation of the Devil." 


There is no amiable disposition, which our Lord 
more strongly recommended to his followers, than 
lowliness of mind. From his birth to his death, he 
gave himself a striking example of the most pro- 
found humility, joined to the most ardent charity* 
After having washed the feet of his first disciples, 
i. e. after he had taken the place of a slave, at their 
feet, he addressed them as follows^.." Know ye, 
what I have done unto you ? Ye call me Master, and 
Lord : and ye say well : for so I am. If I then, 
your Lord and Master, have washed your feet ; yc 
also ought to wash one another's feet. For I have 
given you an example, that ye should do as I have 
done to you. Verily, verily, I say unto you, the 
servant is not greater than his Lord : neither he, 
that is sent, greater than he that sent him." Again he 
says to the same effect,..," Ye know, that the princes 
of the Gentiles exercise dominion over them, and 
they, that are great, exercise authority upon them. 
But it shall not be so among you : but whosoever 
will be great among you, let him be your minis- 
ter : and whosoever will bechiefamongyou,let him 
be your servant : even as the Son of man came not 
to be ministered unto, but to minister." 

Real Christianity is the school of humble charity^ 
in which every true minister can say, with Christf 
according to his growth in grace, "Learn of me, 
for I am meek and lowly in heart ; and ye shall find 
rest unto your soul*" And unhappy will it be for 
those, who, reversing Christianity, say, by their ex- 
ample, which is more striking than all their dis- 
courses, " Learn of ua to be fierce and revengeful, 
at the expence of peace both at home and abroad." 
They, who receive the stipends of ministers, while 
they arc thus endeavouring to subvert the religion 
they profess to support, render themselves guiltyi 
not only of hypocrisy, but of a species of sacrilege. 

It is supposed, that St* Peter had the pre-emi- 
nence among the apostles, at least by his age : it is 


certaioy that he spake in the name of the other apos* 
ties; that he first confessed Christ in two public 
orations ; that our Lord conferred particular favours 
upon him ; that he was permitted to be one of the 
three witnesses of hib Master's transfiguration and 
agony ; and that, on the day of Pentecost, he proved 
the power of his apostolic commission, by intro- 
ducing three thousand souls at once into the king* 
dom of Christ* Far, however, from arrogating, 
upon these accounts, a spiritual supremacy over his 
brethren, he assumed no other title but that, which 
was given in common to all his fellow labourers in 
the ministry ; '* The elders, which are among you," 
says he, << I exhort, who am also an elder : Feed 
the flock of God, which is among you, taking the 
•versight thereof, not for filthy lucre, but of a 
ready mind : neither as being lords over God's he* 
ritage, but being ensamples to the flock*" A piece 
of advice this, which is too much neglected by those 
prelates, who distinguish themselves from their bre- 
thren, yet more by an antichristian pride, than by 
those ecclesiastical dignities to which they have 
made their way by the intrigues of ambition. 

All pastors should seek after humility with so 
much the greater concern, as some among them, 
seduced with the desire of distinguishing them* 
selves as persons of eminence in the church, after 
making certain ecclesiastical laws contrary to the 
word of God, have become persecutors of those, 
-who refused submission to their tyrannical authority. 
Observe here the injustice of some modem philo- 
sophers, who misrepresenting the christian religion^ 
a religion which breathes nothing but humility and 
love, set it forth as the cause of all the divisions, 
persecutions, and massacres, which have ever been 
fomented or prepetrated by its corrupt professors. 
Disasters, which, far from being the produce of real 
phristianityi have their principal source in the vices 


so .THE POarHAlT OF ST. PAtfL. 

of a siipereHiQi»s, mrchftritable, aad aintitbristsaM 
clergy. « 

The chtrrch wiil always be exposed to tikt^e Utk* 
pntations, tril every eeclesiastic shaii imitate Stu 
Paul 9 as h^ imitated Christ. That ftpofsli)e,'«<?eF 
anxicftis to tread in line steps of hi9 dini^ino Mftst^ 
w^iS pecuUanly distinguisbed by his humility lx> 
God and in«n. Ever ready to confers hi« own 
niklive poverty, and to magnify the rtchea of f^naee, 
he criea out.^^.^^ Who is aiifficie»t for these thitiga ?^ 
who is properiy qualified to disobange an tire Kine* 
ttona of the boiy tninistvy : <<'Siaeh trust have W« 
throng Christ to <k>d*ward : mat that ire are mtth^ 
cient of ourselvea K> t^ink ^aay ^hin^ aso^our^^ 
selves ; but oar sufUcfeney is of "God, who tflao haib 
made ns eihkt nvinistepa of tlie new Testamei^t ; not 
of the letter, t^t of the spirit ; for the letter kiHoih, 
but ^he sp!Ht give«h life. Who i^ Fsml, and wlio 
is Apollos, but nvfAfftters by whom ye believed, even 
as the Lord^ave to every m»nl I have planted, 
A polios watered : Un God gave the increetse^ So 
then, neither is he ths^ pla^fteth-any lhii»g^ fiettber 
he that watereth t but God that givetb t4ie inerease. 
I am the least of the aposl^les, that &m not meet to 
be called an^apost^k ; but by the grace of God I am 
what 1 am. God hath ahinedin mir hearts to gtv# 
the Hght of the fctKwi^dge of the glory of God, m 
the face of Jesus Christ s b4rt we have this treasure 
in earthen vesseltrthat the esfceHency of the power 
may be of God, aiid not of uls/' 

ff the humility of St. Pa«l is strikingly evident 
In these i*eiiia«irkable passages, itisstilltnore strongly 
expressed in those that fotJow. ^« Ye s€e,br^hren, 
that net many wise men aft-er the flesh,^ not mati^ii 
mighty, not many, noble are ealled. 'fiut God hath 
choaen the foolish things of ihQ world to confound 
the wise, and the weak tWf^s of the W€>rki to con- 
found the things ^bioh are mighty jittidbaae things 


of the world, dsad tbings, which are despised hath 
God chosen, yea, and things which are not, to bring 
to naught tbdBgs, that ape ; that no flesh should 
glory in his presence. Unto me, who am less than 
the least of ail sakits, vfho am nothing, who am the 
chief of sinners, is this g<ac« given, that 1 should 
preach the nusearchable riches. of Chri^it. ** 

Reader, if thou hasi that opinion of thyself, which 
is expressed in the foregoing passages, thou art an 
humble christian. Thon canst truly profess thyself 
the servant of all those who salute thee $ thou art 
such already by thy charitable intentions, and art 
seeking occasions of demonstrating, by actual ser- 
vices, that thy tong^ is the organ, not of an insi- 
dious politeness, but of a sincere heart. Like a 
true disciple of Christ, who concealed himself, 
when the multitude would have raised him to a 
throne, and who presented himself, when they came 
to drag him to his cross, thou hast a sacred plea- 
sure tti humbling thyself befoi'e God and man, and 
art anxious, without hypocrisy or affectation, to take 
the lowest place among thy brethren. 

The humble christian, convinced of his wants 
and his weakness, feels it impossible to act like those 
proud and bashful poor, who will rather perish in 
their distress, than soilcit the assistance of their 
brethren. St. Paul had nothing of this false modes- 
ty about him* Penetrated with a deep sense of his 
own un worthiness and iilsuSiciency, after implor- 
ing for himself the graciot»s assistance of God, he 
thus humbly solicits the prayers of all the faithful ; 
♦* Brethren^ pray for us. 1 beseech you, brethren, 
for the l^rd Jesus Christ*s sake, and for the love 
of the Spirit, that ye strive togethei' in your pray- 
ers for me. Pray always for all saints > and for me, 
that utterance may be given me, that I may open 
my mouth boldly, to make known the mystery of 
the Gospel, for which I am an ambassador in 
hoads: that therein 1 may speak boldly as 1 ought 


to speak : You also" continuing " to help by prayer 
for us, that for the gift bestowed upon us by the 
means of many persons^ thanks may be given on our. 

Thus humility, or poverty of spirit, which is set 
Ibrth by Christ as the first beatitude, leads us, by 
prayer, to all the benedictions of the Gospel, and 
%o that lively gratitude, which gives birth to thanks- 
giving and joy* Lovely humility ! penetrate the 
hearts of all christians, animate every pastor, give 
peace to the church, and happiness to the universe* 



IT is dlfiicult for a proud man to confess him- 
self in an error : but they, who are possessed of 
humility and love, can make such acknowledgments 
with cheerfulness. When St. Paul was called 
upon to justify his conduct before the tribunal of the 
Jews, the same spirit of resentment which animated 
his persecutors, suddenly seized upon the more 
passionate of his judges, when the High Priest, 
still more exasperated than the rest, commanded 
those, who stood near Paul <' to smite him on the 
mouth." It was in that moment of surprize and 
indignation, that the apostle, unacquainted with the 
author of so indecent a proceeding, and not imagin- 
ing, that the president of an august assembly could 
so far forget his own dignity, as to act with so re- 
prehensible an impetuosity, gave. this sharp reply to 
so unjust an order ; ^^ God shall smite thee, thou 
whittd wall: for bitttit thou to judge me after the 


LaW) aa»d commandest me tb be 9fithten contfarjr 
to Hie L<w?" Immediately thorse, wh6 stood by, r^ 
proaching^ htm with his apparent disresfrectfuf oaf- 
riage, inqaired with the mmoit indignation, ** Re- 
yn^ffsi thou God's Ingh Prcist?" Here the apostle 
far from- justifying his own conduct, in resentin{^ 
the f^roriif of a jadge, who had degraded hi lAself by 
iHt ftct of the most flagrant injasfice, Im mediately 
aekfXywIedged his en^or : and lest the example lie 
indf gtVen <ihoiikl enc<yirrage amypersAwto withhold 
^e respect due to a rtia^trtrte, stiW frforre respectal- 
ble by his oE&ce than blameabile by his ri^rous pro- 
ceedings, he endeavoured to liia-ke ifistant repara- 
tion for his ittvotaniary offence by citing a pertinenft 
passage from the law, answering, ^hh all meefo- 
jiess ; '^ I wist not, brethren, thut he was the high 
Priest : for it i» written. Thou shail not speak evil 
of the ruler of thy people/* 

There is another instance of the indiscretion and 
candour of this Apostle. Paul attd' Barnabas going 
forth to publish the Gospel^ took for their compa- 
fma John Mark, the nephew «f Barnabas. Thart 
young evangelist^ however, staggered by the dangers, 
whieh those apostles were constantly •bitged to enl^ 
dounter, forsook them in Pamphiliu in the midst of 
tktelr painful laboctrs* Bat afterwards, repenting of 
his former irresohHi^ny he offered to^ asccompsmy 
them in afiother jotimey. Barnabas^ who had chav 
rky- eooQgh U> hope all things of his i^ephew, 
irjsiiefd to afford hi>m a^^soGdnd trial : while Pau), 
mb^e prudence taught hinA to fear every thing from 
ayoungmao^, who had already given an indisputable 
proof of Kis incoBsistancy, reliised bts consent* At 
letig^ the two Apostles<» unable- to decide the mat>- 
ter to theii^ mutiial satisfactiron, took the reftohition 
of separating one froon atiotheiv Paul went to preach 
Che- Gospel in Syria with Srlas; while Barnabas, 
accompanied by his nephe#, proceeded to proclaim 
Christ in Ibe isle of Cyprus. Thus the separations 

£ 2 

54 TBE'P^llTRAIY #7 SV« PAVL* 

cf tnie christians ithli^ut producing any schism in 
Use churchy frequentif tend to the propagation of 
the Gospeh * 

Time alone could determine, whether Barnabas 
was deceived by an abundance of charity > or St* Paul 
through an exeess of prudence. The event turned 
the balance in favour of the judgment of Barnabas i 
the conduct of John Mark on this second mission 
was irreproachable. From that time St. Paul with 
hisusual candour, forgettingthe former instability of 
Mark, placed the utmost confidence in him, received 
him with joy as the companion of his labours, re- 
voked the order he had formerly given respecting 
him, and recommended him to the churches as a 
faithful minister. Thus much may be inferred 
from the following passage in his epistle to the C0I09- 
sians : ^' Aristarchus my fellow-prisoner salluteth 
you, and Marcus, sister's son to Barnabas, touching 
whom ye received commandments ; if he come unto 
you, receive him." 

Thus the sincere followers of Christ are ever 
anxious to repair their involuntary faults : faults 
which we, as well as the apostles, are always exposed 
|Q the commission of, and which should constrain 
us to say, with St. Paul : Now we know things and 
persons in part. This imperfection in our know- 
ledge will sometimes produce errors, in our judg- 
ment, and those errors may probably influence our 
eonduct. But, if in these failings there is no mixture 
of malice; if we sia through ignorance, and in the 
integrity of our hearts ; G^ imputes not to us those 
errors; provided that we are always prepared, like 
St. Paul, to coufess and repair them. To err is 
the lot of humanity ; obstinacy in error is the 
character of a Demon : but humbly to acknowledge, 
and anxiously to repair an error, is to exhi^t a vir- 
tue more rave and valuable -than iimoa^3|P itself, 
when accompanied with any degree of cki^eit an4 


Th€y» who gire the portraiCs of legendary lainUy 
generally pM»t them without. a single failii^. Bui 
they, who wish faithfully to imitate the sacred au* 
thora* arfe obliged to employ ahadea>aa well as lightS} 
even in their most cekhrated pieces. If this pact 
of th« poortrai t of S t . Paul should not appear brilliantf 
it wtU .aervet. 9X leasts to manifest the reality of the 
orig^naly the Isberalityof the Apastle» and the hde- 
iity of the .painti&n 



WHILEthe spirit of the world is confessedly 
a spirit of particular interest, pride, and division, the 
spirit of true religion is manifested, among its sin- 
cere professors, as a spirit of concord, humility, and 
brotherly love. The true minister, animated in an 
especial manner by this divine spirit, losing sight 
of his own reputation and honour, is unweariedly 
engaged in seeking the glory of God, and the edifi- 
cation of his neighbour. Perfectly satisfied with the 
lowest place, and distinguished as much by conde- 
scension to his brethren as by respect to his superiors^ 
be is ever on his guard against that spirit of party, 
which is continually seeking to disturb the union of 
the church, whether it be by too great a fondne&a 
for particular customs, by an obstinate zeal for any 
system of doctrines, or by too passionate an attach- 
ment to some eminent teacher. 

Without persecuting those, who are led by so 
dangerous a spirit, the good pastor employs every 
effort to re-unite them under the great Head of ^ he 
church. Arguing against the folly of those who 
are ready to separate them&eWes from the company 

«f their bretkf^ikf Ke^udecs up the lang^ge of 6t« 
Fdul, aiMlsaiys: *« Ofottli^H christians, who hat% 
bewitched f<y«i tMU; foa skoald not obey the truth, 
brfor^ ^hase iffestJe^a^ Christ haeh been etietemty 
*et Wrtfh, «rueipled anwng you ? Are ye to fooMsh ? 
h^virt^ hegim in the Spirit, are ye now ntade pc(r4 
fstt b)|^ the flesh ? Ye h»ire Hideed,' been called \itit6 
-Mb^yt only utte not Khefty as an dccaisioft to the 
ftesh, but by love serve one another. For aH the 
Law is fulfilled in one word, even in this ; Thoii 
shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. But if yebtttf 
and devour one another, take heed that ye be not 
consumed one of another. Now the works of the 
flesh are manifest," among which are these^ 
" hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife, «fedi^ 
tions and heresies : of the which I tell you beforei 
as I have also told you in time past, that they, which 
do such things^ shall not inherit the kingdom of God. 
But the fr«it of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, long* 
.-suffevingf gentleness, faith, meekness, temperance. 
If we live in the Spirit, let us walk in the Spi« 
rtt. Let us not be desirous of vain glory, provok« 
k)g one another, envying one iiQOther. There i^ 
cfne body, and one Spirit, even as ye are called in 
•otie h^e of your calling ; one Lord, one faith, one 
ibaptism, one God and Father of all, who is above 
•aH, and through all, and in you all. Endeavour," 
therefore, *' to keep the unity of the Spirit in the 
.bond of peace." 

When the people seek to honour a true minister 
by placing him at the head of any party in the 
church,* 1^ refuses the proffered dignity with a 
4iit»mble and holy indignation. His soul i« con« 
stantly penetrated with those sentimente, under the 
inQueUce of< which the apostle Paul thus nobly ex« 
pressed himself : ^ I seek not mine own profit^ but 
the profit of many, that they may be sayed^ I be» 
stfech you, bretfhen, by the name t>f otir Lord Jf 
sus^hidsl,, Ibait ye aU^ speak the lame tlimgi and 

Ihut there be no divisions among you ; but that ye 
be perfectly joined together in the same mind* For 
it hath been declared unto me^ that there are con- 
tentions among you :" and ^' that every one of you 
saith, I am of Paul, and, I of ApoUos, and, I of 
Cephas, and, I of Christ." But, " Is Christ di- 
vided? was Paul crucified for you ? or were ye bap- 
tized in the name of Paul ? Who is Paul but a 
minister by whom ye believed ? Therefore let no 
man glory in men, whether Paul, or Apollos, or 
Cephas ;" but rather in " our Lord Jesus Christ, of 
whom the whole family in Heaven and earth i« na- 

By such exhortations, it is, and by maintaining, 
at the same time, a conduct conformable to the 
nature of such exhortations, thatevery faithful mi- 
nister endeavours to engage christians of all denomi- 
nations, to walk together ^' in love, as Christ also 
walked, proving what is acceptable unto the Lord, 
and submitting one to another in the fear of God," ^ 
till the arrival of that -promised period, when the 
whole company of the faithful shall be of one heart 
aikl one mind* 

But after all these exertions, foi* the extirpation 
of a sectarian spirit from the church, they, who 
content themselves with the exterior of Christian- 
ity, as the Pharisees were contented with the cere- 
monies of the mosaic worship, will, sooner or 
later, accuse every evangelical pastor of attempting 
to form a particular sect. 

When modern pharisees observe the strict 
union, which reigns among true believers, a union, 
which every faithful minister labours to establish 
among his people, at well by example as by precept ; 
when they behold penitent sinners deeply sensible 
of their guilt, and frequently assembling together 
for the purpsse of imploring the blessipgs of ^^ wis* 
dom, righteousness, sanctificaiion, and redemp- 
tion ;" they immediately take the alarm, and cry 

58 THE I^ORT&AIT 01 ST. FAUt. 

out«..*'< These men does exceedingly trouble our 
city, teaching customs, which are not lawful for us 
to receive," and maintaing such a conduct as U 
most inconvenient for us to follow. 

Happy are those cities in which the fminister of 
Christ is able to discover a Nicodemus, a Gamaliel, 
or some worshippers possessed of as much, candour as 
the Jews of Rome, who desired to hear what the 
persecuted Paul had to offer, inbehalf of that newly- 
risen sect, which was every where spoken against. 
Till this amiable candour shall universally prevail 
among the nominal members of the church, true 
Christianity, even in the centre of Christendom, will 
always find perverse contradiction, and sometimes 
cruel persecutiont 



THE minister of the present day labours 
chieRy with a view to his own advantage and ho» 
nour. He endeavours to please, that he may be 
admired of men. *' He loves the chief seats in sy« 
nagogues," public greetings, and honourable titles : 
thus tacitly challenging, by his unreasonable pre- 
tensions to the respect aixd homage of men, a part 
of that glory, which is due to God alone. 

A totally different character is maintained bjr 
the true minister. His dkscoarses, h»s actions, 
his look, his deportment, all agree to say, '^ Nol 
unto us, O Lord, not u»to us, bat uato- thy Ham« 
give glory, for thy mercy, and for thy truth'&sake." 
If the arm of the Omnipotent enables him to per* 
form any extraordinary work, which tl>e multitude 
do not immediately re£er to, the " Author of every 

«IE POftTBAIT cyr ST. PAVX. 59 

good and perfect gift,** he cries out with St. Peter, 
« W^y loe*^ ye so earnestly on us, as though by 
cmr own po^relr op holiness" we had performed what 
appears to excite yom* sfstonishmcnt ? •* The God 
<>f otrrfbitheis hath," upon this occasion, **glorffied 
his Scfn Jesus : and the faith, which is by him,'* 
h^th elfbdted this extraordinary work in the pre- 
stnce of yoti all. Oti all occasions he can say 
^th the ^reat Apostle r « Do I seek to please 
men ? if 1 yet pleased men," unless for their edifi- 
cation," 1 should itot be the servant of Christ. With 
me it is ?i very smsdl thing, that I should be judged 
of you; or of man's judgment. But as we were 
afloMrd c^ God to be put m trust with the Gospel, 
even so we speak, not as pleasing men, but Gcd, 
who trieth our heurts. Neither at any time used 
we flattering words, as ye know : nor of men sought 
we glory, neither of you, nor yet of others." By 
snch a conduct he distinguishes himself, as a faith- 
ful ambassador of the blessed Jesus, who expressed 
himself in the Wiowin^ lowly terms, to those, who 
had reproached him with a spirit of self-exaltation :" 
" I do nothing of myself, but as my father hath 
tiiught me, 1 speak these things. I seek not mine 
own glory ; there is one, that seeketh and judgelh. 
If I honcmr myself, my honour is nothing. It is 
my Father, that honoureth me ; of Whom ye say, 
that He IS your God. 

There may be peculiar cases, in which a mi- 
mstriag servant of God may be allowed to call upon 
christians, for a public testimony of their apprciba- 
tion ; and when this is refused, he is justified in 
modestly calling their attention to every past proof 
of his integrity and zeal. Thus St. 'f*aul, as a pro- 
per means of maintaining his authorhy among the 
Corinthians, Who had manifested an unjust partial- 
ity toward teachers of a very inferior order, enter- 
ed into a long detail of these revelations and labours, 
which gave him a more than ordinary claim to the 

respect of every church* But whenever he com- 
mended hinuself, he did iOwith the utmost reluc-^ 
tancC} as one constrained b^ the peculiarity of hts 
circumstances to act in immediate contrariety to 
hii real disposition* Henccy whenever he recounts 
the particular favours, with which God had ho- 
noured him, he speaks in the third person^ as of 
another n^an : ^< Of such a one will I |^ory$ yet of 
myself I will not glory, but in mina inhrmittes* 
For we dare not make ourselves of the number of 
those, who commend themselves, measuring them« 
selves by themselves," without any reference to 
the excellent graces and endowments of others. 
<<But he that glorieth, let him glory in the Lord. 
For not he, that commendeth himself is approved, 
but whom the Lord commendeth. . 

Nothing affords greater satisfaction to false 
apostles, than commendation and praise ;. while the 
true minister shrinks with horror from those very 
honours, which they assume all the forms of Pro-* 
tens to obtain. When the multitude, led by their 
admiration of a faithful preacher, follow him with 
unsuitable expressions of applause, he meets them 
with unfeigned indignation, arrests their impious 
plaudits, and rejects their idolatrous adulations, 
crying out with St. Paul...." Sirs ! why do ye these 
things f we also are men of like passions with you, 
and preach unto you, that ye' should turn from 
these vanities unto the living God." We are nei- 
ther the way, the truth, nor the life : but we point 
you to that way, which the truth has discovered, 
and through which eternal life may be obtained, 
entreating you to walk therein with all simplicitly 
and meekness. And remember, that instead of 
affecting in our discourses that vain wisdom, which 
the world so passionately admires, we faithfully 
proclaim Christ : and, to humble us the more be- 
fore God and man, "we preach Christ crucified*" 


By tills humble carriage the ministering disciples 
«f Christ are principally known. hy this they 
copy the amiable example of John the baptist, 
who cheerfully humbled himself, that Christ 
might be exalted, crying out in the language 
of that self-renouncing teacher....^^ Behold the 
Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the 
world;! There standeth one among you, whom 
ye know not, whose shoes latchet we are not wor- 
thy to unloose. We baptize with water : but he 
baptizeth with the Holy Ghost." Beware then of 
enteTtaining too high an idea of our ministry ; 
and remember, that "He must increase** in your 
estimation, " but we must decrease.** 

After beholding John the baptist, who was ac^ 
counted greater than any of the prophets, abasing 
himself in the presence of Christ; and after hear- 
ing St. Paul, who was far superior to the Baptist, 
exclaiming in the humility of his soul....** I live 
not ; but Christ liveth in me**... .how can we suffi- 
ciently express our astonishment at the conduct of 
those titularapostles, who either set up a vain phi- 
losophy in the place of Christ, or employ the cross 
of their Lord, as a kind of pedestal, for the sup- 
port of those splendid monuments, by which their 
pride is endeavouring to perpetuate the memory of 
their eloquence. Self-conceited orators 1 When 
shall we rank you with the faithful ministers of the 
humble Jesus ? When shall we behold the charac- 
ter you have assumed, and the conduct ycu main- 
tain sweetly harmonizing with each other ? When 
shall we hear you addressing your flocks, with the 
unaffected simplicity and condescension of the 
great apostle : " We preach not ourselves, but 
Christ Jesus the Lord*, and,** far from elevating 
ourselves above you, on account of the commission 
we have received, " ourselves your servants for 
Jesus sake.'* Then we might with propriety sa- 
iute you, as humble imitators of St. Paul, as zea- 



lous rhinlslersof the Gospel, and as failhftil serv- 
ants of that condescending Saviour, who ^ came 
not to be niinistered unto but to minisler. 



TRUE christians are distinguiJihed from 
Jews, Mahometans, and all other worshippers, by 
that spirit of universal love, which is the chief or- 
nament and glory of their profession. But among 
evangelical pastors this holy disposition appears in n 
more eminent degree. They feel fbt the incon- 
biderate, and the sinful, that tender compassion, 
of which Christ has left us an example. Thetr 
conduct answers to that beautiful description of 
charity, with which St. Paul presenled the Cori-n- 
thian church, and which may be considered as -an 
emblematical representation of his own character, 
from the time of his conversion to the christian 
faith. Universal love is that invigorating sap, which, 
passing from the true vine into its several branches, 
renders them fruitful in every good work. But this 
divine principal circulates through chosen ministers, 
with peculiar force, and in more than ordinary abun-, 
dance, as so many principal boughs, by which a 
communication is opened between the root and the 
lessee' branches. 

The faithful pastor entertains an affecting re- 
mtnibrance benevolent expressions, which 
the gobd Shepherd addressed to the apostle Peter, 
and in ihe person of that apostle to all his suc- 
cessors in the ministry, repeating them even to the 
third time: ^'Lovest thou me? Feed my Sheep." 
As though he had said, the greatest proof youca* 


possibly give of your unfeigned attachment to me, 
is, to cherish the $oals, which I have redeemed, , 
and to make them the objects of your tenderest re- 
gard. Such is the affccuonate precept, which every 
faithful minister has received together with his sa- 
cred commission^ and to which he yields a more 
ready and cheerful obedience, from a firm depend- 
onoe upon the iibiliowmg solemn declaration of his 
gracious Master..-^^ When the Son of man shaU 
come in hi& glory, he shall say" to all the children 
of k>ve, " Verily J say urvto you, inasmuch as ye have 
ck)ne good unto one of the iQast of these my bre- 
thren,** whether their wanU were corporeal or spiri- 
tual, " ye hare done it omo^Jine*** 

The love of the evangelical pastor, like that oC 
St* P^ul, is unbounded. God^ saith th$t charitable 
apostle, ^^ vill have all men to be saved, and to come 
unto the knowledge of the truth : I exhort, there* 
fore, that supplications, prayer^ intercessions, and 
gWing of thanks, be made for all men : for this is 
good and acceptable in the sight of God our Sa- 
viour." But not cont^^nt with submitting to the ex- 
hortation of St. Paul,witbrespectto theduty of uni- 
versal prayer, he endeavours to copy the example 
of that apostle, in labouring for the salvation of all 
n^en : " I am made all things to all men, that i 
nughl by all means save some." Being by regeae- 
ration '^ a partaker of the <divin^ nature^" he bears a 
lovely, though imperfect resemblance to his Hea- 
v«nJyj Parent, whose chief perfection is Love. Like 
the High Priest of his profession, he breathes no* 
thing but cliartty ; and like the Father of lights, he 
makes the sun of beneficence to rise upon all men. 
To describe this lesser sun in its unlimited course, 
and to point out the admirable variety, with which 
it distributes its light and its heat, is to delineate 
with precision the character of a faithful pastor* 




THE universal love of the true minibter 
manifests itself in a particular manner, according to 
the different situations of those, who are the objects 
of it. When he finds the whole conduct of profes- 
sing christians conformable to the nature of their 
sacred profession, *' he loves' them with a pure heait 
fervently ;" and giving way to the effusions of a 
holy joy, he expresses his affection in words like 
these : " Brethren, we are comforted over you, in 
all our affliction and distress, by your faith : for 
now we live, if ye stand fast in the Lord." And 
" what thanks can we render to God for you, for 
all the joy, wherewith we joy for your sakes before 
•God r* In these expressions of St. .Paul an as- 
tonishing degree of affection is discovered. " Now 
we live*'* though he had said. We have a two- 
fold life, the principal life which we receive im- 
mediately from Christ, and an accessory life, which 
we derive from his members, through the medium 
of brotherly love. And so deeply are we interested 
in the concerns of our brethren, that we are sensibly 
affected by the variations they experience in their 
spiritual state, through the power of that christian 
sympathy, which we are unable to describe. Thus 
when sin has detached any of our brethren from 
Christ, and separated them from the body of the 
faithful, we are penetrated with the most sincere 
distress: and, on the contrary, whenever they 
become more affectionately connected with us, and 
more intimately united to Christ, our common Head, 
our spirits are then <ensib1y refreshed, and invigo- 
rated with new degrees of life and joy. 

Reader, dost thou ui\derstand this language I 
Hast thou felt the power of this christian sympathy ? 


Or has thy faith never yet produced these genuine 
sentiments of brqtherly love ? Then thou hast spo- 
ken as a person equally destitute of sensibility and 
Xsuthf whenever thou hast dared to say.«./* 1 believe 
in the communion of saints." 




WHEN a minister, after having been made 
instrumental in the conversion of sinners, perceives 
their faith decreasing, and their love growing cold, 
he feels for them, what the Redeemer felt, when he 
wept over Jerusalem. Not less concerned for the 
remissness of his believing hearers, than St. Paul 
was distressed by the instability of his Galaiian and 
Corinthian converts, he pleads with them in the 
same affectionate tenns : " Ye know," ye who are 
the seals of my ministry, " how I preached the 
Gospel unto you at the first. And ye despised me 
not, but received me as an Angel of God. Where is 
then the blessedness ye spake of? for I bear you i^e- 
cord, that if it had been possible, ye would have 
plucked out your own eyes, and have given them to 
me. Am 1 therefore become your enemy, because 
I tell you the truih ? My little children, of whom I 
travail in birth again, until Christ be formed in 
you," I tell you with sorrow, that after all my con- 
fidence in you, " I stand in doubt of you. Our 
mouth is 9pen unto you, our heart is enlarged. Ye 
are not straitened in us, but ye are straitened in 
your own bowels* *Now for a recompence in the 
same, (I speak as unto my children) be ye also en- 
larged. Be ye not unequally yoked together with 
unbelievers ; for what fellowship bath righteousness 
with unrighteousness ? or what part hath he that 
E 2 


beliereth, with an infidel ? Wherefore come out 
from among ihem, and be ye separate^ saith the 
Lord, and touch not the unclean thing ; and I will 
receive you, and will be a Father unto you, and ye 
shall be my sons and daughters, saith the 'Lord 
Almighty. We beseech you," therefore brethren, 
" that ye receive not the grace of God in vain." 

This lajiguage of the christian pastor is almost 
unintelligible to the minister, who is merely of 
man's appointing. Having never converted a sin- 
gle soul to Christ, lie has neither spiritual son nor 
daughter, and is entirely unacquainted with that 
painful travail, which is mentioned by St. Paul. 
His bowels are straitened towards Christ and his 
members, and having closely united himself to the 
men of the world, he considers the assembly of the 
faithful as a company of ignorant enthusiasts. But, 
notwithstanding the spiritual insensibility of these 
ill-instructed teachers, who never studied in the 
school of Christ, there is no other token, by which 
either sincere christians, or true ministers can be 
discerned, except that fervent love, which the Ga- 
latians entertained for St. Paul, before their falling 
away, and which that Apostle ever continued to en- 
tertain for them. " By this," saith our Lord, " shall 
all^men know, that ye are my disciples, if ye have 
love one to another." 



ST. PAUL, like his rejected master, wa* 
persecuted even to death by the Jews, his country- 
men, whil'2 he generously exposed himself to in- 
numerable hardships, in labouring for their good* 


These furious devotees, inspired with envf, re- 
venge, and a persecuting zeal, hunted this Apostle 
from place to place, as a public pest« And when 
the Gentiles, on a certain occasion, had rescued 
him out of their hands, forty of the most hardened 
among them engaged themselves, by an oath, nei- 
ther to eat nor drink, till they had assassinated him. 
But nptwithstanding the most indubitable proofs 
of their bloody disposition towards him, his fer- 
vent charity threw a veil over their cruelty, and 
made^him wish to die for his persecutors. " I de- 
clare," saith he, *' the truth in Christ, my consci- 
ence also bearing me witness in the Holy Ghost, 
that I have great heaviness and continual sorrow 
in my heart : for I could wish, that myself were 
accursed from Christ for my brethren, my kinsmen 
according to the flesh." As though he should say s 
*' It is written, cursed is every one that hangeth on 
a tree :" "Thus Christ himself became " accursed" 
for us, and I also would lay down my life for my 
brethren, " that I may have fellowship with him in 
his suiTerings being made conformable unto his death, 
and fining up that, which is behind of the afRictions 
of Christ in my flesh, for his body's sake, which is 
the church." It is by expressions so charitable, 
and by actions, which demonstrate the sincerity ^of 
those expressions, that christians avenge themselves^ 
of their enemies, and work upon the hearts of their 

If the sentiments of every sincwe disciple of 
Christ are expressed in the preceding language of 
St, Paul, how deplorable then must be the state of 
those christians, whose anxiety, either for their 
own salvation, or for that of their nearest relations, 
bears no proportion to that f agei concern, which this 
Apostle manifested for the salvation of his bitter- 
est persecutors 1 And if'good pastors feel so ardent 
a desire to behold all men actuated by the spirit of 
Christ, Without excepting even their most mali- 


cto(U) eBemfes. what shall we say to those minis* 
tersy who never shed a single tear, nor ever breath- 
ed one ardent prayer> §ov the conversion of thehr 
parishioners, their friends^ or their families ? 



THOUGH the true minister takes a peculiar 
interest in every thing, that concerns the salvation 
of his countrymen, yet his christian benevolence is 
far from being confined within the narrow limits of 
a particular country. He desires to bear the name 
of his Saviour to the ends of the earth ; and if he 
is not able to do this by his personal addresses, he 
will do it, at least, by his earnest wishes and liis 
constant prayers. If providence has not yet fixed 
him in a particular church, he writes, in the man- 
ner of St. Paul, to the inhabitants of the most dis- 
tant countries...." I would not have you ignorant, 
brethren, that T* consider myself as " a debtor both 
to the Greeks and to the Barbarians ; both to the 
wise and the unwise. And " as much as in me is, 
I am ready to preach the Gospel to you, that are at 
Rome," where error and impiety have fixed their 
throne. ** For I am not ashamed of the Gospel of 
Christ : for it is the power of God unto salvation to 
every one, that belicveth." If he writes to stranger- 
converts, whose faith is publicly spoken of in the 
world, he declares his sincere attachment to them, 
and his longing desire to afford them every spiritual 
assistance, in terms like these...." God is my wit- 
ness, whom I serve with my spirit in the Gospel 
of his Son, that without ceasing I make mention 

THK POJll^ilAIT or ST. PA0t. 69 

of you always in my prayers. Making request, if 
by any means, I might have a prosperous journey 
by the will of God, to come unto you. For 1 long 
to .see you, that I mdy impart unto you some spi- 
ritual gift, to the end ye may be established : that 
is, that I may be comforted together with you, by 
the mutual failh both of you and me." 

If the Apostle Paul, when he knew the Romans 
no othierwise than by report, expressed so ardent a 
desire to see them, for the sole purpose of inciting 
them to seek after higher degrees of faith and piety ; 
'What must be the disposition of those ministersy 
wbo feel no desires of this nature even for the 
members of their own flock ? And in how great an 
error are those christians, who frequently assemble 
together, either in their own houses, or in more 
public places, for the very purpose of mutually for- 
getting the rstraints of piety, losing their minds by 
frivolous conversation, and debasing their minds by 
puerile amusements ! Further, if the new nature 
of the regenerate excites in them that lively con- 
cern for the salvation of their neighbours, which 
St. Paul expressed for the salvation of those, who 
inhabited the remotest parts of the earth, is it be* 
coming in the faithful to stifle the motions of that 
commendable zeal, which christian charity alone 
can inspire ? And if tjiere are to be found among 
us dignified teachers, who, far from seconding a 
steal so necessary in our day, are rather disposed 
to extinguish the first sparks of it, wherever they 
are discernable ; whom may they be said to take 
for their model, Paul the Apostle, or Saul the Pha- 
risee ; doubtless Saul, the agent of a bigotted sect, 
and the open persecutor of the faithful. 

70 T H* IP OR TRA IT or » 1» P A V t* 



THOUGH our Lord came principally to save 
tbe '^ souls*' of sinners, yet he was by no means 
unmindful of their " bodies/' " He went about 
doing good/' in the most unlimited sense, daily re- 
lieving, with equal care, the corporeal and spiritual 
maladies of the people- Thus when he bad di9tri. 
buted the word of God to those, who were hun- 
gering and thirsting after righteousness, he express- 
ed an anxious concern for the support of those 
among his followers, who were sensible of no other 
wants, except such as were of a temporal nature : 
" 1 have compassion on the multitude, because they 
have now been with mc three days, and have no- 
thiug to cat**.... and not content with barely ex- 
pressing bis concern for their corporeal necessities, 
hje wrought an astonishing miracle for their imme- 
diate rehef. The true minister cheerfully imitates 
the conduct of his gracious Master, by a strict and 
affectionate attention to the spiritual, and temporal 
wants of his people. " James, Cephas, and John," 
saith St. Paul, " gave to me and Barnabas the right 
hand of fellowship, that we •should go unto the" 
heathen : pnly they would that we should remem- 
ber the poor ; the same which I also was forward 
tp do.*' 

\V hen the liberality of St. Paul toward his neces- 
sitous brethren was restrained by his own excessive 
indigence, he employed the most effectual means to 
procure for them the generous benefactions of 
their wealthier companions in the faith of the Gos- 
pel. The following passages extracted from his 
epistles may serve as sufficient proofs of this. " Bre- 
theren 1 cannot but inform you of " the grace of God, 
bestowed on the churches of Macedonia ; how that 

in ^ -great tria! of affliction, the abundance of their 
joy. and tti«ir deep poverty abotinded unto the riches 
of t!ieir liberality. For to their power, I bear re- 
cord, yea, and beyond their power, they were wil- 
ling of themselves ; praying ub with much entreaty, 
that we would receive the gift, and take upon us 
the fellowship of the ministering to the saints—* 
Therefore as ye abound in faith, in utterance, in 
knowledge, in all diligence^ and in your love to us, 
see that ye abound in this grace also. I speak by 
occasion of the forwardness of othert, and to prove 
the sincerity of your love. For ye know the grace 
of our Lord Jesus X^hrist, that though he was rich, 
yet for your sakes he became poor, that ye through 
bis poverty might be rich. Wherefore shew ye, 
1>efore the churches, the proof of our love, and of 
our boasting on your behalf.-' 

Not yet contetrt with these earnest solicitations 
in behalf of the poor, the Apostle thus proceeds 
to enforce his importunities. ^ I thought it neces- 
sary to exhort the brethren, that they should go be- 
fore unto you, and make up before-hand your boun- 
ty, that the same might be ready, as a matter of 
i)ounty, and not asof covetou^ness. But this I say, 
he, that soweth sparingly, shall reap also sparingly ; 
and he, that soweth bountifully, shall reap also 
bountifully. God loveth a cheerful giver. And 
God is ab4e to make all grace abound toward you ; 
that ye always having all sufficiency in all things, 
may abound to every good work : as it is written, 
he irath dispersed abroad ; he hath given to the 
poor ; his righteousness remaineth for ever. Now 
ha that minisiereth seed to the sower, both minister 
bread for your food, and multiply your seed sown, 
and increase the fruits of your righteousness :" 
that ye may be " enriched in every thing to allboun- 
tifulness, which causes through us thanksgiving to 
God. For the administration of this service not 
only supplieth the want of the saints, but is abuu- 

73 THE PORTEAiT or $T— 9AUL* 

dant also by many thanks$civings unto God : while 
by the experiment of this ministTalion they glorify 
God for your professed subjection unto the gospel 
oC Christy ^an<l for your U^ral diiitribution unto, 
them, and unto all mjen." Who c.oiUd possibly re- 
fuse any thing to a godly minister pleading the 
•cause of the poor, vfiih all this apostolicdlgnlty, 
simplicity, and zeal I i 

After having obtained alms for the poor^ the 
Apostle Paul cautiously avoided all suspicion of ap- 
propriating any part of them to the relief of his own 
necessities ; and was equally c^ireful, that th^y were 
never misemployed through tlie unfaithfulness ojf 
those, who were appointed to distribute them. One 
of our brethren, adds the Apostle, " chosen of the 
churches" accompanies us in our journey "with this 
grace, which is administered by us to the glory of 
vthe same Lord, and declaration of your ready mind : 
avoiding this, that no man should blame us in this 
-abundance, which is administered by us : provid- 
ing for honest things npt only in the sight of the 
Lord, but also in the sight of men.'* Mentioning 
again his favourite employment, he writes to a dis- 
tant church...." Now 1 go unto Jeriisalem to minis- 
ter unto the saints. For it hath pleased them of 
Macedonia and Achaia to make a certain contribu- 
tion for the poor saints, which are at Jerusalem. 
When therefore I have performed this, and have 
sealed unto them this fruit, I will come by you 
into Spain. Now I beseech you, brethren, that ye 
strive together in your prayers for me, that I may 
be delivered from them that do not believe in Ju- 
dea ; and that the service, which I have for Jeru- 
salem, may be accepted of the saints. 

Thus to wait upon the churches, and particu- 
larly thus to attend upon the poor, is to merit th^ 
name of a faithful minister* 

tBK Vf^HKAIf er SY« VAVL. 75 



TO solicit alms for those> who are destitiite 
of food and raiment, and at the same time to with- 
hold the w^rd of God from those, *^ who hunger and 
thirst after righteousness/' is to manifest an nnhappf 
incon»stenoy of > character. Such inconsistencies, 
howeter> are freqaenily diHCOverablei even among 
pastors, who pique themselves upon their disposition 
to wprkn>f benevolence and charitf. 

Man has an immortal bouK This soul, which 
i» properly himself, is rendered, by sin so totally 
ignorant and so completely miserable, that she seeks 
to enrich herself with the vanities ofthc world, and 
to gratify her inclinations with the pollutions of sin. 
In pity to the soul in this state of wretchedness, the 
truths of the Gospel are proposed by a compassion- 
ate God, as a sacred remedy adapted to the nature 
of her innumerable wants ; ihey illumine the blind 
with spiritual light and knowledge ; they clothe the 
i^ked with the robe of righteousness ; they feed the 
bungiry ; they heal the sick ; they burst ihe cap- 
ttveV bands ; they give eternal life to those, who 
are dead in trespasses and sin : in a word, they 
make us panakers of the great salvation of God. 
To publish this Gospel then, or to procure the 
preaching of it to sinners, is undoubtedly to give 
them an important proof of the most excellent cha- 
rity : while, on the other hand, to refuse them the 
word of God, or to avoid any occasion of adminis- 
tering it, is absolutely or occasionally to deny them 
those spiritual alms and a^sibtances, which the Sa- 
viour of the world has appointed for their daily re- 
lief. The pastor, who acts in this unbecoming man* 
neri ire&embles a physician, or an almoner, who, 




having received a charge from his prince to siippljr 
the poor with food, or the sick With medicine, not 
only refuses to acquit himself of his acknowledged 
duty with diligence and impartiality, but strenuously 
opposes those who endeavour to supply his lack of 
Service. Such a minister seems to maintain a sys- 
tem as absurd and cruel, as would be that of 
either ofthose characters just alluded to, who should 
pretend, that no one had authority to jidmini^tet* 
alms to the poorj or medicine to the sick, except 
snch as received pensions from the prince for that 
purpose ; and that even these would act in a dis- 
orderly manner, if they should davt to distribute 
alms or remedies except on the sabbath day^ and 
then only during particular hours. 

So long as any pastor seeks his own glory, do 
long he will be subject to some degree ofthat con- 
temptible jealousy, which will not suffer him to be- 
hold with pleasure the more abundant and suc- 
cessful labours of his brethren. But, the faiths 
fui minister of Christ, whose chief desire is the 
prosperity of the church, is actuated by a totally 
different spirit. Though he has a peculiar satis- 
faction in beholding the success of his own spiritual 
labours ; yet, when he hears the Gospel published^ 
by others, and even by such as are apparently influ- 
enced by unworthy rtiolives, he greatly rejoices in 
their success. His charity, which neither envies an- 
other's prosperity, nor seeks his own particular ad- 
vantage, expresses itself, upon so delicate a subject, 
in the language of .St. Paul....*' Some indeed preach 
Christ, even of envy and strife, supposing to add af- 
fliction 10 my bonds. What then ? notwithstanding, 
every way, whether in pretence, or in truth, Christ 
is preached ; and I therein do rejoice, yea, and I ifrill 

influenced by envy, or rendered insensible by 
llveir lukewarmness, wordly ministers absolute 
bi^'angers to the generous pleasure here mentioned 


by the Apostle : nor have they the least idea of act* 
ing in a criminal manner, when they will not per- 
mit the truths of the Gospel to be freely declared 
by all) who are disposed to announce them* 

The good pastor, by whatever name he may be 
distinguished, lives only to publish the Gospel, and 
-to convert the souls comraitied to his charge : to 
restrain him then from attending to these important 
labours, is to force him aside from the true end of 
his calling, and must appear to every enlightened 
mind a greater act of cruelty , than to withhold the rich 
fvom giving alms, or to detain an expert swimmer 
firom saving his drowning brethren. If such a pas- 
lor^ in any period of his life has acted like a monopo- 
list of the Gospel, and, by denying to the poor in 
.^pirity what was freely given for their support, has 
caused in any place a famine of the word ; he be- 
-lieve& himself abundantly more culpable than those ' 
avaricious merchants, who, by forming a monopo* 
ly of grain in the East Indies, caused a grievous fa- 
jnine in that country, by which an innumerable 
multitude of its inhabitants perished. Those cove- 
tous men denied to the bodies of their neighbours a 
perishable nourishment ; but he has withheld from 
the souls of his brethren that precious manna, which 
might have preserved them to everlasting life. Such 
WAS the crime of those, whom our Lord addressed in 
the following words...." Woe unto you, Scribes and 
Pharisees, Hypocrites 1 for ye shut up the kingdom 
of Heaven against men : for ye neither go in your- 
selves, neither suffer ye them, that are entering, 
to go in. Observe St. Paul's sentiments of such cha- 
racters. With respect to those JewS) " who both 
killed the Lord Jesus, and their own Prophets, and 
have persecuted us i they please not God, and are 
contrary to all men, forbidding us to speak to the 
Gentiles, that they might be saved/' filling up by 
this means the measure of their sin ; " for the wrath 
is come upon them to the uttermost.*' 


If the character, which the Appstle her€: dti- 
scribes was odious in a Jew, without doubt- it is 
more so in a christian, and slill doubly detestable 
i^n a, n^inistcr of the Gospel, whose heart should 
continually be animated with a fervent desire for 
the conversion of sinners, and the salvation of all 
marikifid* , Was it possible for those who arc dia- 
Jtinguished by this trait of the character of Anti- 
christ to discover the turpitude of their own cod- 
duct, they would acknowledge themselves abun- 
dantly more guilty than the robber, who should 
force away from a famished pauper the morsel of 
bread he bad begged in his distress^ They would 
{xronounce, without any hesitation, that the foster- 
mother, who neglects the infant she has undertaken 
io cherish, and prevents her charitable neighbours 
fi-om affording it any nourishment, is still more ex- 
cusable than the pastor, who^ not content with re*- 
fusing to feed the flock of Christ, endeavours to 
scatter his sheep, wherever they are found feedii^g, 
Keeking out accusations against those, who have 
led them to a refreshing pasture, and studying by 
every means to withdraw the Gospel from those pe^ 
nitent sinners, who, '' as new-boYn babes, desire 
the sincere milk of the word, that they may grow 

Happy will be the age, in which christian pas- 
tors shall no longer be found, like the Scribes in 
the days of_St. Paul, labouring to fill up the mea- 
sure of their iniquities ! Then truth and piety shali 
no longer be restrained by the fetters of prejudice 
and bigotry I Then the faithful shall worship God, 
and publish the Gospel, with as much freedom, as 
the dissipated indulge themselves in the sporu of 
the age, or the malevolent in slandering their 
neigbours ! 





CHARITY avoids all appearance of haugti- 
tiBess, and is never seen to act in an unbecoming 
manner. On the contrary, full of courtesy, she 
fears lest she should give offence to any ; and, full 
of benevolence, she labours for the edification of all. 
Hence the charitable pastor cannot act otherwise 
than with a holy condescension towards all men, 
and especially toward the ignorant and poor, with 
whom the ministers of the present age will scarcely 
deign to converse : and, without ever slipping his 
foot into the pit of error, he sometimes approaches 
it, with a happy mixture of compassion and pru- 
dence, for the relief of those, who are unable to 
extricate themselves from it. " Though I am free 
from all men," writes St. Paul, " yet I have made 
myself servant unto all, that I might gain the more. 
Unto the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might 
gain the Jews, : to them, that are without law, as 
without law, that I might gain them, that are 
without" a witten "law. To the weak became I 
as weak, that I miglit gain the weak s I am made 
all things to all men, that I might by ail means 
save some. And this I do for the Gospel's sake. 
All things are lawful for me,*' continues he, " but 
all things are not expedient ; all things are lawful 
for me, but all things edify not. When ye sin 
against the brethren" by wounding " their weak 
conscience, ye sin against Christ. Wherefore if 
meat make my brother to offend, I will eat no flesh, 
while the world standeth, lest I make my brother 
|o offend. Whether therefore, ye eat or drink, 
or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of 
God* Even as I please ail men in all things, not 
G 2 

78 TU£ POUTR^IT or ST* FAS)i.r 

seeking mine own profit, but the profit of many, 
that they may be saved." 

Behold that sweet prudence nf charity, which 
our Lord recommended to his disclpJes, when he 
pointed out the folly of putting new wine into such 
bottles, as were unable to resist the force of the 
ferraenp{i^ liqvior« And of Lin's affecttoiiate dis- 
cretion hn himself gave them a striking example, 
when he said ; *•*' \ have many things to say uiMU> 
you, but ye canoot bear them now." If thisooQ- 
descending carriage was lovely in the bles&ed 
Jesus, it will ever appear amdable in his humble 
imitators, v/bq can say, with the Apostle Paiil) to 
the vireaker members of the chVifchs " We haVe 
fed you with milk, aad not with meat ; foi* hitherto 
ye were rvot abie to bear it." 

Special care is, howevers to be taVen, thskt this 
charitable condescension may never betray the in- 
terests of truth and virtue. < " Abitain," saith St. 
Paul, " from all appearance of evil. Be ye follow- 
ers of nae, even as I slso ani of CJirist." For 
'* hei4;ia do 1 exercise myself to have gvlwaya a eon- 
scifsiice void of offence toward Go<l and toward 
meo." And " our rejoicing is this, the teslimoqy 
of our conscience, that in simplicity ajid godly siii- 
. cerity, aigt with fleshly wistloin, but by tbe gt^ace 
of ,Uocl, ^ve have bad our conversation in the world, 
aixl more abundaiuly to you ward, among whom 
we hcLve laboured m the Ciospel." 

If tiieie exist pastors, who lack this owwle^^cn- 
sion toward the poor, or who are desUUii« o{ fh^t 
humble charily, which- can familial i:e«J 'itself with 
the m<>st i^iMirafit, for their ediaca^ion Qwd com- 
fort : if there are minii^tersto be fou;nd, who- ai'e 
eyer.nieaijly complai^avit to the richr and Kvtoare 
void 01 holy rebolution in tlise pre<ie<M:e of thegcwtt^ 
tnstea^bof couducting themseh^swith thfii .snianig- 
led haimiliiy and dignity, which are. smtaWc^Ho'the 
chaiacier .th4iy,svk^iain..Mn%ay the ^ne aiMl the'iaU^^r 


be convinced of the grievous error, into which 
they are fallen, while they contemplate this oppo- 
site trait in the character of St. Paul. 

Upon what consideration i» founded the humi- 
liating distinction, which is generally made be- 
tween the rich and the poor i Was Christ manifested 
IB a state 6S earthly gr&ndeur ? Did he not chiefly 
asscctate with the poor i Far from flattering th^ 
richf did he .fiot. iniSiDualei that they would, with 
the utmost difficulty, enter into the kingdom of 
God ? Did he not afBrni^ it were better for a man 
tot.h^ cast into the «ea with a millstone about his 
neck, than t0 olfend the poorest believer I Did he 
m^t declare, that he would consider the regard 
shewn to the meanest of his followers, as though 
he himself had been the immediate object of it ? 
When St.J^inttsasssKreQiis,/that*^^' he whoconverteth 
a sinner from tlie ei'ror of his. way," performs the 
the best of sdl possible good works, because, by 
preventicrg a muititude of sin&, he places ihe soul 
in the road to every virtue. ...can this deelaralion be 
tuppd»edt<> tose any of its. force, when applied to 
the soul of a poor man f Are nut the lowest of men 
unmortai as ihe mou elevaced ? Did not Christ 
.hun^bie himself to the death o^* the cro^^s for the 
poor, as well ai the rich ? *^ Hath not God chosen 
ihe pour q€ tlAs world, rich in fai^h, and heirs of 
the Kingdom i" And, Anally, were the angels less 
ready to convey the soul of perishing Lazarus to 
Paradise^ than that of wc«hhy Abraham ? Perish 
theft for ever that unchrisiian prejudice, which 
dishonours the poor, nourislK?^ the pride of the 
: Tich^ and >ead:i us to tiDe ^violation of that great coni- 
.mand, by which we becon^ as guiliy, as though 
. we had trans^ve%se<k the wliole Law, the spirit of 
whieh is love. And Jet) u^ remember, it is only 
' OB t of the t« ins of iso despicable a partiality, that the 
' engaging condescension, of whiieh St. Paul^ has left 
ufi so kively jGQ e^a«iyple>^eanfK>ssi<bly be produced. 




« CHARITY rejoiccth in the truth." These 
two amiable companions are closely united together, 
and mutually sustain each other. It is possible, 
however, when an error has the suffrages of many 
persons respectable on account of their wisdom, 
their age, their rank, their labours, or their piety, 
that a sincere christian may be tempted to sacri- 
fice truth to authority, or rather to a mistaken cha- 
rity. But the enlightened pastor, putting on the 
resolution of St. Paul, will never suffer himself to 
be imposed upon by the appearance eitfher of per- 
sons, or things : and though he should see him- 
self standing alone on the side of evangelical truths, 
he will not fear, even singly, to act as their modest 
and zealous defender* 

In these circumstances a luke-warm minister 
loses all his courage. Behold his general plea for 
the pusillanimity of his conduct....'* I am alone, 
*' and -what success can I expect in so dif&cult an 
<' undertaking ? The partisans of this error are 
" persons, whom I both love and honour. Some 
<' of them have shewn me great kindness, and others 
" have sufficient creditjto prejudice the world against 
" me. Moreover, it would be looked upon as pre- 
<< sumption in me, who am weaker than a reed, to 
<' oppose myself to a torrent, which bears down the 
"strongest pillars of .the rchurch." Such is the 
manner, in which he apologizes for the timidity of 
his conduct in those situations, where his love of 
truth is publicly called to. the test : not consider- 
ing, th^t to reason thus, is to forget, at once, the 
omnipotence of God, the force of truth, and the 
unspeakable worth of those souU, wlHch error may 
poison and destroy. 


On the contrary, the faithful minister, who, 
on all occasions^ rejoices in the. truth, " conferring 
not with flesh and blood," courageously refuses 
to bear the yoke of any error, .that must evidently 
be accompanied with evil conleqBences. In the 
most trying situations of this nature he imitates the 
Conduct, of the gi-eat apostle, who, wheahesav 
a shameful error making its way into the church, 
4>laced himself in the gap, and gave way to the 
.^motions of .his honest zeal, as related in the fo^ 
lowing passage :..*." Fahe brethren camp in privily 
to spy out our liberty, which we. have in Christ 
Jesus, t^at they might bring us into bondage. To 
whom we gave place by subjection, no not for an 
hour ; that the truth of the Gospel might continue 
with you. And when Peter was come to Antioch, 
I withstood him to the face, because he was to be 
blamed. For before that certain came from 
James, he did \eat with the Gentiles : but when 
they were come, he withdrew and separated him- 
self fearing them, which were of the circumci- 
sion. And the other Jews dissembled likewise 
with him, insomuch that Barnabas also," under 
the specious pretence of not offending his neigh- 
bour, '* was carried away with their dissimulaiioiv 
But when I saw, that they walked not uprightly 
according to the truth of the Gospel, I said unto 
Petev before ,tliem all, if thou being a Jew, livcst 
after the manner of the Gentiles, and not as do 
the Jews, why compellest Ihouj the Gentiles to 
livens do the Jews?" 

This reasonable reprimand is, perhaps, one of 
jthe greatest proofs, which St. Paul ever gave of the 
upi;ightnes& of hisiat^ntion^ i^nd the steadiness of jaki 
resolution^ . . . 

Ye men of integrity !. ye^. who have proved 
)iow much it C;osts tp defend, thje rights of truth 
.ipfaen it stands ^opposed to that deference, which 
foi^descending love oblige 91 u^.\9 ^\\G^i vw a thou- 


sand instances^ to respectable authority- , you alone 
are able to make a proper judgment of the hol|r 
violence) which was exercised by St* Paul upon 
this occasion. But whatever they may be called 
to endurC) in so honourable a cause, happf are 
those christians) and doubly happy tho&e pa8tor»> 
who have so great a love for tiMith) and so true« 
love for their brethren that they are ready at all 
times, with this faithful apostle, to sacrifice to the 
interests of the Gospel, every inferior conyiderar 
tion> every servile fear, and every worldly hope* » 



THERE is no kind of calumny which 
the incredulous have not advanced, in order to ren- 
der Christianity either odious, or contemptible. 
According to the notions of these nven, to adopt 
•the maxims of evangelical patience, argues a want 
of sensibility ; and to regulate our conduct, accord- 
ing to the dictates of christian prudence, is to act 
the hypocrite. 'VVhat we have to sayj in this 
place, will chiefly respect the latter charge- 
It has been asserted by modern inMelsi that 
the gemlenes and forbearance, which the Gospel 
requires of its professors, must necessarily make 
them the dupes of designing men, and lead the ni 
unreluctantly into the snares of their perseGUto£S» 
But to draw this inference from some few passages 
of scripture, understood in too literal a sense^ is to 
set truth at variance with itself) merely for the 
purpose of charging christians with all the eviU 
whicbi it i» presttmed, they might hav^ avoided 


by iHTudeAce, or have orercome hf resolution. The 
example of our Lord, and that of St. Paul, might 
have rectified the ideas of cavillers upon this point.. 
When Christ exhorted his disciples to be "harm- 5 
less as -doves,*' he admonished them at. the same 
time to be "wise as serpents :'* and of this harm- 
less wisdom he himeslf gave a striking example, 
when he was interrogated by the Jews, respecting 
tbe lawfulness of paying tribute unto Cesar. Well 
acquainted with the diffet^nt sentiments of that 
people, with regard to the Roman yoke, without 
dlrecUy combating the prejudices of any party, 
he returned a satisfactory answer to all parties, by 
an inference drawn from "the image and super- 
scription'' borne upon their current coin...." Ren- 
der unto Cesar the things, that are Cesar's^ and 
unto God the things, that are God's." 
n The sincere^ ehristian, and the faithful minister, 
have frequent occasion, for this happy prudence, as 
well as St. Paul, who, more than once, employed 
it with success. The Jews, irritated against this 
apostle, sought occasion to destroy him, on ac- 
count of the zeal, with which he published the Gos- 
pel among the Gentiles. Hoping to soften the pre- 
judiees, they entertained against his conduct, ho 
recounted to them^ how Jesus, being raised from 
the dead, and appearing to him in an extraordinary 
manner, bad expressly sent him to the Gentiles ; 
when the Jews, more irritated than before^ would 
have torn him to pieces, had he not been rescued 
out of tfadr hands by the Roman garnson. By this 
means Paul was preserved for a more peaceful 
hearing. And on the morrow, when he stood be- 
f<wc the Jewishcouncil, perceiving that the assem- 
bly was composed^ partly of sadducees, who say 
there is " n^ resurrection, neithe^r angel, nor spi- 
rit i'* and partly of pharisees, who believe equally 
in the existence of spirits and the resurrection of 
the^dy ; he immediately availed himself oft hi« 

drcutn^talkte^ an& cried ont....^ Men and brethr^n^ 
I am a pbame«» ibe son of a phartsee ; of the hof>e 
and rq&orrection *of the dead I am called in quei« 
Iron." A«« though he had 9aid«.*«The great cause 
<rf the violerrt persecution, ih»l is now raised^ 
agaims met i^f tfa^t I -preach iesus and tiie restir- 
reotiofK OutrftUhersf ynde«d, were no^ absolutely • a'hfe ta oome ; but the important doc* 
trifle of ^1^ resurrection, and th< jud^^ent, that 
ikhall follow, is now d\ii¥ionur8ted ; since God ha* 
given an incotiie^tible proof of- it, in> raising ^p hi4 
Son Xesus from the dead* i And i tfty«e)f liave been 
an eye witness of hti» resurrection, to whom he 
has appeared two*cvtral tim«S) once as 1 journeyed 
to DamuM^us, and afterwards a$ i prayed in the - 
temples But when I nvenuouedthissecoi^d appear- 
ance of a risen Saviour^ my incredulous aoctiser» 
began vehemently to cry ottt, ** Away with svch a 
fellow from the earth. By this jus^i eKposition of 
the fact and by 'his prudefit selection of iherebtip- 
tion of Christ from among the other great doctrines / 
of Christianity, St. Paul happily caused a division 
to take place among his judgt^s. And the event - 
an5\\ered his expectation : lor ** the scribes, that 
were of the pharisees part, arose« saying; We 
iVnd no evil in this man : but if a spirit,'' i. e. a 
man risen from the dead, ** or an aiigel hath spo- 
kfcn to him, let us not fight against Cod." There ' 
is still- another instance of the wisdom of the ser- 
]^nt, reccrticilin^ itself with the innocence of the 
dove, in tlie conduct of thi<i Apostle, when mai^king 
the dispositioii of his Athenian Judges^, he took ad- 
vantaj^e of their taste for novelty by annoiiiKting to 
them The unknown Ood, to whom they tead already 
erected an altar. 

1 his christian prudence, equally distant from the 
duplicity of hypocrites and the biU[)iaity of kiiatS) 
merits a place among the traits which characterize 
this great Apostle^ not only becau&c - it is woi»thy 


of cmr itnitation, but also because it has been indi- 
reetly represented, by a modern Celsus, as mere 
cunniR^ and artifice. The author here alluded tO| 
who deserve* rather to be called a great poet than a 
faithfol painter, having disfigured this trait of St. 
Paul's character, with a pencil dipt in the gall of 
prejudice ; we gladly take this occasion of setting 
forth the injustice of his imputations, so illiberally 
cast, both upon Christianity itselfi and the most 
eminent of its defenders. This witty philosopher, 
yiYio has sdd so many good things against the? spi- 
rit of persecution, never perceived, that he . him- 
self was actuated by an intolerant spirit : so true it 
is, that the most sagacious are liable to be blinded 
by pa&slon or prejudice. The same spirit of per- 
secution, which excited the Athenians to discounter 
nance the justice of Aristides, as a dangerous sin- 
gularity, and to punish the piety of Socrates, as a 
species of atheism, led the author of the philoso- 
phical dictionary to represent the prudence of St. 
Paul, as the duplicity of an hypocrite. 

Had this severe judge occupied the seat of 
Ananias, he might perhaps, v^ith an affected libe- 
rality, have overlooked the peculiarities of the 
Apostle's creed ; but, in the end, his innate detes- 
tation of piety would have assisted him, according 
to the general custom of persecutors, to feign some 
just cause for treating him with the utmost rigor. 
And this he has done in our day, as far as his cir- 
cumstances would permit ; since, not being able to 
disgrace him by the hand of a public executioner, 
he has studied to do it with his pen, by ravishing 
from him, not only his reputation for extraordinary 
piety, but even his claim to common honesty. 

Persecutor I whoever thou art, be content that 
thy predecessors have taken away the lives of the 
righteous, and spare them what they prefer infinite- 
ly before life itself) ^ The testimony of a good con* 
scienter ' 


ft& 9Bj;. PQ»TRAIt 07 ST* FiMfrb# 



THOUGH perfectly insensible to the warm 
tmotions of brotherly love, the worldly pastor fre- 
quently repeats, in his public discourses, those aiTec- 
tibnate expressions, which Sow .so cordiallf from 
the lips of faithful ministersy '< My dear brethren in 
Christ !" These expressions from the pulpit are al<* 
inost unavoidable, upon some occasions) but, in 
general, they are to be regarded in ao. other %ht 
than the civil addressea of a haughty person, who 
concludes his epistles by assuring his corteapoa* 
dents, that he considers it an honour to subscribe, 
himself their obedient servant* But while the 
worldly nainister affects a degree of ben^volencet 
which he cannot feel, the goojd paator^ out of the 
abundance of a heart overflowing with christiaik 
charity, addresses his brethren with the utniost af- 
fection and regard, not only without any danger oi 
feigning what be has not e^cperieoced, but even 
without a possibility of expreasing the ardour of hie 
brotherly love. His exhortations to the faithful^ 
like those of St. Paul, are seasoned with an unction 
of grace, and accompanied with a flow of tender- 
ness, which frequently give them an. aatonUhing. 
effect upon his brethren, and which always evince 
the interest he takes in the concerns of the church* 
' " Rebuke not an elder," says St. Paul, " but entreat 
him as a father, and the younger men as brethren ; 
the elder women as mothers, the younger assise 
ters,. with all purity.*' Such was the exhortation of 
this apostle to a young minister, nor was hia ex- 
ample unsuitable to his counsel* ** I beseech, you 
bVethren, by the merci<|S of Cod, that yp present 
your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptably, to 

God* Deorif brlmedy be not overcome of evil, 
bot overomne evil, vkb good^ I write not these 
things to shame fouj but as my beloved sons I warn 
you* I) the pnsoner of the Lord, beseech yout 
tliftt je walk worthy of the vocatton, wherewith fe 
are cidled. If there be aoy consolation in Christ, 
if a»y coiBfort of lore^ if any fellowship pf thie 
»]nrit, if «ny bowels and mercies^ ^Ifil ye my joy, 
that ye be lUue^minded, being accord. * My 
teioved, work out your own salvation with fear and 
trend^ling, We beseech you, brethren, and exhort 
yotaby the Lord Jesus, that as ye have received of 
us, how ye ought to walk, and to please G^d, so y^ 
woaki abound taore and more* ll»oagh I might be 
much bold ia Christ, to enjoin thee that which is con- 
venient, ftt Ayr \ov€^ salce I rathef beseech thee, be* 
jnig auch an one as Paul the aged, and nqw also a 
tprisoner of f esus Christ* I beseech thee for my 
•onOnesimus, whom I have beg^^ten in my bonds i 
who ii^ time past was to thee unprofitable, but now 
^rofitabie to tlice and to me, whom I have sent 
jigain* Thou therefore receive him that is mine 
own bowels. Yea, bi*other, let me have joy of thee 
in the Lord : refresh my bowels in the Lord/' 
Such was the tenderness and affection, with which 
St. Paul was accustomed to address his believing 
brethren. But the language of this Apostle was 
very different when he spoke of himself, and of that 
body of sin, which consLrained bim to cry out, *< O 
wretched man that 1 am.^* 

It is the character of too manj persons to be' 
severe toward the failings of others, while they 
shew the utmost lenity toward themselves, with 
respect both to their infirmities ^nd tlieir vices. 
Al^^ys ready to pAaoe the faults of their neigh- 
bours in an odious tight, and their own in the most 
Cavourable point of view, they seem to be made up 
4>f nothing, but partiali^ and self-love ; wiiile the 
iTtte joinii^er neaervea his gire^itast indulgenpe £or 


othert, and exercises the greatest severity toward 
himself, i^^ll thiogjs are lawful for me," writes 
St. Paul, :♦< but I will not be brought under the 
power of any. Know ye not, that they which run 
'in a race,: run all, but one receivcth. the prize? 
And every one, that striveth for the ma«ery, is 
temperate in all things : now they do it to obtain ik 
corruptible crown, but we an incorruptible. I there- 
fore so run, not as uncertainly ; so fight I, not as one 
that beateth the air 2 But I keep under my body 
•and bring it into subjection : lest that by any 
means, when I have preached to others, I myself 
should be a cast-'away.'' 

One reflection naturally finishes this trait of the 
character of St. Paul. If this spiritual man, if this 
great Apostle, thought himself obliged to use such 
strenuous efforts, - that he might not be rejected be- 
fore God at the last ; in how great danger are those 
careless pastors and christians, who, far from ac- 
customing themselves to holy acts of self-denial, 
satisfy their natural desires, without any apprehen- 
sion, and treat those as enthusiasts, who begin to 
imitate St. Paul, by regarding their baptismal vow, 
and renouncing their sensual appetites. 



THE charity of the true minister bears fto 
resemblance to that phantom of «i virtue, that mean 
complaisance, that unmanly pliancy, that unchris- 
tian cowardice, or that affected generosity, which 
the ministers of this day delight to honour with the 

iiATAe irf cibaritf * Aticotdkig to these intiiflicient 
judges, to be tliaritable^«.a« onl^ to give stmit tri* 
iiiiig alms tmt of our abutidant superfluhieBy to tele* 
i*ale the most dangerous errors, without daring to 
lift up the standard of truth, and to behold the over^ 
fio^lfigs of vice, without attempting to oppose the 
tfare^aienlhgtorrdit. Such would be the mistaken cha- 
vity of a Surgeon, who, to spare die mortifying arm of 
Ills ^4eAd, should sufPbr the gangrene to spread orer 
bis whole body; Such was the charity of the high 
'pnesit Eli toward Hophni and Phinehas ; an impt* 
^MLS charity, which permitted him to behold their 
shameful debaucheries with too favourable an eye : 
a fiitid charity, which opened that abyss of evil, 
-which finally, swallowed them up, and into which 
they dragged with them their father, their chil- 
dren, the people of Israel, and the church, over 
which they had been appointed to preside. 

The good pastor, conscious, that he shall save 
Ha soul from death, if he can but prevail with a sin- 
ner to forsake his evil way, uses every effort to ac- 
complish so important a work* And among other 
probable meahs, which he employs on this occa- 
sion, he tries the force of severe reprehension, re- 
buking the wicked with a holy authority ; and, if 
it be necessai^y, returning to the charge with a spark 
of that glowing zeal, with which his Master was in- 
fluenced, when he forced from the temple those in- 
famous buyers and sellers, who had profaned it with 
their camal.merchandize. Thus St. Paul, on receiv- 
ing information, that scandalous errors had been dis- 
covered in the conduct of a member of the Corinthian 
church, immediately wrote to that churchi irithe^ 
ibllowing severe and solemn manner....** It is re- 
ported, that there is fornication among you. And ye 
mre puffed up, and have not rather monrned, that he, 
that hath done this deed, might be taken away 
from among you. Know ye not, that a little leaven 
^ len^fietli thi^ whole lump," and that tht plague in 


B S 1 


any mogle member of a^ society is «uf!kient to ii>« 
feet the whole company ? ** Purge out therefore 
the old leavenv" and ** put away from among your- 
selves that wicked person. If any man that is cal- 
led a brother be a fornicator^ keep not convpany 
with such an one« no not. to eat. Be not. deceived : 
fornicators shall not inherit the kingdom of God. 
Know yenoty that your.bodies are the members of 
Christ? Flee fornication" therefore) and avoid the 
company of fornicators. " For ye are bought with 
a price : therefore glorify God in your body s^<l in 
your spirit, which are God^s," Further, ^ I ve- 
rily, as absent in body, but present in spirit, have 
judged already concerning" the lascivious person, 
that is among you, ^' to deliver such a one unto Sa- 
tan for the destruction of the flesh, that the spirit 
may be saved in the day of bur Lord Jesus." 

When the true minister has passed the severest 
censures upon sinners, and beholds those censures 
attended with the desired efFecl, he turns to the 
persons he lately rebuked with testimonies of that 
unbounded charity, that " beareth all things," and 
*' bopeih all things.*' More ready,' if possible, to 
relieve the dejected than to humble the -presump- 
tuous, after having manifested the courage of a lion, 
he puts on the gentleness of a lamb, consoling and 
encouraging the penitent offender, and never ceas- 
, iag to intercede for him, till his pardon is obtained 
both from God and man. Thus St. Paul, who had 
so sharply rebuked the Corinthians in his first epis- 
tle, gave them abundant consolation in his second, 
and exhorted them to receive with kindness the per- 
MQSif whom he had before enjoined tl'iem to excom- 
municate. It is easy to recognize the tenderness of 
Christ in the following language of this benevolent ' 
Apostle. " I wrote unto you" my first epistle "out 
of much affliction and anguish of heart, with many 
tears, not that ye should be grieved, but that yc 
migtitknow the love, which I have more abundantly 



unto you* Great is my glorying of you, I aixi filled 
vf Uh comfort, I am excecdinf^joy ful in all our trtbu- 
[:. .lation» God, thatcomfiorteth them, that are cast 

j down, comforted us by the coming of Titus" my 

j mesftenger, " when he told us your earnest desire, 

your mourning, and your ferirent mind toward me. 
\ Eor.timugli I made you sorry with a letter, I do 

not repent, thQugh 1 did repent. Now I rejoice, 
pot that, ye were made sorry, but that ye sorrowed 
to repentance* For ye were made sorry after 
a godly manner....For behold, what carefulness it 
wrought- in you ? what clearing of yourselves ! 
what" holy " indignation I what fear I what vehe- 
ment desire i what zeal ! what revenge I In all 
things ye have approved yourselves to be clear in 
.this matter." Moreover, •' we were comforted in 
your comfort* Yea, and exceedingly the more 
joyed we for the joy of Titus, because his spirit 
was refreshed by you all. And his inward affection 
is more abundant toward you, whilst he remember- 
. eth the obedience of you all, and how you received 
him," together with my reproof, "with fear and trem- 
bling. I rejoice therefore, that I have confidence 
in you in all things." And with respect to the per- 
• son, who has caused so much distress, " Sufficient 
to such a min is this punishment, which was in- 
flicted of many. So thai" now " ye ought rather 
to forgive him, and comfort him, lest perhaps such 
a one should be swallowed up with overmuch sor- 
row. Wherefore, I beseech you, that ye would 
confirm your love toward him. To whom ye for- 
give any thing, I forgive also ; nay, 1 have already 
li»rgiven him, for your sakes, as in the presence of 

Great God ! appoint over thy flock vigilant, cha- 
ritable, and courageous pastors, who may discern 
^he sinner through all his deceitful appearances, and 
separate him from thy peaceful . fold, whether he 
be ao unclean goat, or a ravenous wolf. Permit not 

tiiy nifnisters to cdnfoand the jart with the ihijnst, 
r«nd«Ting eontemptibte the toost sacred mysteries, 
hy adtnittrng tb them persons with whom virtu- 
ous heathens would Mush toconvetse* • Touch the 
hearts of those pastors, who harden thy rebellious 
people, by holding out tokens of thy favour to those) 
who are the objects of thy wrafth : and permit nb 
longer the bread of life, which they carelessly diss^ 
tribute t& all, who chuse to profiftue it, to become 
in their unhallowed hands the bread of d«i^h. DH- 
caver to them the impiety of offering their holy 
things to the dogs : and awaken, in them a holy 
fear of becoming accomplices with those hypo- 
critical monsters, who press into thy temple tocru- 
tafy the Son afresh ; and who, by a constant profa- 
nation of the symbols of our holy faith, add to their 
other abominations the execrable act of ei^ing and 
drinking their own damnation, and that with as 
much composure, as some among them swallow 
down the intoxicating draught, or utter the most 


BEFORE we proceed to the consideration 
of another trait of the character of St. Paul, it wilt 
be necessary to refute an objection to which tht 
preceding trait may appear liable. * Dare you,' it 
may be asked, ' propose to us, as a model, a man, 
^ who could %Vc'ike Elymas with blindness, and ddi* 
* verip to Satan the body of a sinner I* 

Answer. The excellent motive, and the happy 
success of the Apostle's conduct, in both these in« 
stSHVces, entirely justify him. He considered aiEic- 
tioa not only as the crucible, in which God is fre- 
quently pleased to purify the just, but as the last 
ivmedy to be em^oyod for the restoration of obsti* 


nate sinners* Behold the reascni} why the chaiitjr 
of the primitive church demanded in behalf of God, 
that the rod should not be spared, when the impietj 
of men was no longer able to be restrained by gen* 
tier means ; determining, that it was far better to be 
brought to repentance, even by the sharpest suffer- 
ings, than to live and die in a sinful state* To ex* 
ercise this high degree of holy and charitable seve- 
rity toward a sinner, was, in some mysterious man- 
ner, << to deliver up his body to Satan," who was 
looked up6n as the executioner of God's righteous 
vengeance in criminal cases««*.Thus Satan destroyed 
the first bom of Egypt, smote the subjects of Da- 
vid with the pestilence, and cut off the vast army of 
Sennacherib. St. John has thrown some light upon 
this profound mystery, by asserting, " There is a 
sin unto death i** and the case of Ahab is fully in 
point ; for when that king had committed this sin» 
a ^irit of error received immediate orders to lead 
him forth to execution upon the plains of Ramoth- 
Gllead. This awful doctrine is further confirmed 
by St. Luke, when he relates, that in the same in- 
stant, when the people, in honour of Herod, " gate 
a shout) saying, It is the voice of a God and not 
of a man ; the angel of the Lord smote him, because 
he gave not God the glory : and he was eaten up of 
worms, and gave up the ghost." The punishment 
thus inflicted, by the immediate order of God, was 
always proportioned to the nature of the offence. 
If the sin was not unto death, it was followed by some 
temporary afBiction as in the cases ofElymas and the 
incestuous Corinthian. If the crime committed was 
of such a nature that the death of the sinner became 
necessary, either for the salvation of his soul, for 
the reparation of his crime, or to alarm those, who 
might probably be corrupted by his pernicious ex- 
ample, he was then either smitten with some incu- 
rable disease, as in the case of Herod ; or struck 
with immediate death, as in the case of Ananias and 

m TH« PORTftAlT Of ST. MVL. 

Sapphiray who souglit to Tail their hypocrisy vntki 
appearances of piety^ and their double dealing ^ith 
a lie. Had M» Voltaire considered the christiah' 
church, as a well regulated species of thc«c racy, 3ie 
would hare seen the folly of his whole reasonia^ 
with respect to the authority of that churchy in its 
primhire stat^* And convinced, that God has <a 
much greater right tb pronounce by his ministers 
a just sentence of corporeal punishmenty aiYd e^en 
•death itself, than any temporal prince can claim to 
prionounce such sentence by his officers s that 
darttig philosopher, instead of pointing his sait^asms 
ftgninst an institution &o reasonable and holy, would 
have bcfeti constrained to tremble before the ludgQ 
of ail the earth. 

Finally* It is to be obserwd, that when this 
kind of jurisdiction was exercised in the church, the 
followers of Christ, not having any magistrates of 
their own religion, lived under the govemnaent of \ 

those heathen!^ rulers, who tolerated those very 
crimes, which were peculiarly offensive to the pune i 

spirit of the Gospel* And on this account God was .j 

pleased to permit the mos^ eminent among his peo- 
ple, on some extraordinary occasions, to exercise , 
that terrible power, which hujnbied the ofifending 
church of Cc«4nth, and overthi^w the sorcerer Eiy- 
mas in his wkked career. If it be enqufred..««Wh«t 
would become of mankind, were the clergy oi thi& 
4lay possessed of the extraordinary power of Sc« 
Paul ? We answer;*.. The terrible manner, in which 
Bt* Paul sometimes exercised the authority hfe knd 
tvceived, with respect tx> impenitent sinners^ is not 
left %s an exanq^e to tlte tcdesiasttcs of the present 
day, unless they should come (which is ^dmost im-* 
possible) into sinliaf circunjstances, amd a/ttain to 
<qual degrees of dtsoemment^ faitH} amd charityi 
witii tills AposMeiirmself* 

TK.P»mT&AIT OT S7» FAUX. 9«. 



IF <^ chtrity uekcth riot her own ;" and if it 
is reqoiredy that the conversation of the fiutfaful 
should '^ he without covetoHsness" ; it becomes the 
tFae minister^ in an especial manner, to maintain 
an ui»dght and dishiterested conduct in the world* 
Though it be true, that << they which wait at the 
altar are partakers with the altar ;*' yet nothing is 
so detestable to the faithful pastor, as the idea of en- 
riching himself with the sacred spoils of t|iat altar* 
Observe how St. Paul expresses himself upon this 
subject. << We brought nothing into this world, and 
is it certain we can carry nothing out." Having, 
therefore^ ^ food and raiment, let us be therewith 
contsnt* But they, that will be rich^ fall into temp-^ , 
tation anda.snare, and into many foolish and hurtful ; 
lusts, which drown men in perdition. For the love ! 
of money is the root of all evil : which while some 
have coveted after, they have erred from the f&ith, 
and pierced themselves through with many sorrows. ' 
. But thou, O man of God," who art set apart as a . 
minister of the everlasting Gospel, *^ flee these 
things ; and follow after righteousness, godliness, ; 
faith, love, patience, meekness." With regard to / 
niy«elf, *« I have learned, in whatever state I am, *; 
therewith to be content* Every where, and in: sdl ^ 
things, I am instructed, both to be full and to be / 
hungry,' both to abound and to suffer need. Nei- / 
ther at any time used we flattering words, as ye j 
know, nor a cloak of covetousness ; God is wit-i 
ness. For ye remember our labour' and travel, be-f 
cause we would not be chargeable unti^ any of you^ 
Ye are our witnesses, and God also, how holily, an^ 
justly, and unblameably, we behaved ourselve^ 
among you, that believe. Behold the third tim^ 

f6 TJ1« PORTRAIT or ».T. PAUL. 

I am ready to come to yon ; and I will not be bur* 
densome to you ; for I seek not yours, but you ; 
for the children ought not to lay up , for the pa- 
rents, but the parents for the children. And 
I will very gladly spend and be spent for you." Be- 
hold the disinterestedness of the faithful shepherd, 
who is ever le<s ready to receive food and clothing 
from the flock, than to labour for its protection and 
support ! Behold tlie spirit of Christ ! And let the 
pastor, who is influenced by a different spirit, draw- 
that alarming inference from his state, which he u 
taught to do by the following expression of St. 
Paul : ^' If any man hath not the spirit of Christ, 
he is none of his." 

Happy would be the christian xhurch, were it 
blessed with disinterested pastors ! Avaricious mi- 
nisters, who are more taken up with the concerns 
of earth, than with the things of Heaven, who 
are more disposed to enrich their families, than to 
supply the necessities of the poor, who are itiore 
eager to multiply their beneflices, or to augment 
their salaries, than to improve their talents, and en- 
crease the number of the faithful....Such mtnistersi 
instead of benefitting the church, harden the im- 
penitent, aggravate their own condemnation, and 
force infldeis to believe, that the holy ministry is 
used, by the generality of its professors, as a com- 
fortable means of securing to themselves the pe- 
rishable bread, if not the .fading honours^ of the 
present life. 

THE F©*T*Ar1? 6T ST* FJl«L. 97 



SUCH is the diftintere^tedness of the true 
minister^ linit though he might elaim a subsistence 
froiD the sacred ofikey to which he has been so* 
leinnly consecrated, yet h^ generously chooses to 
sacrifice his rights, when he caniK)t enjoy them with- 
out giving some occasion for reproach. To supply 
his daily wantS) he is not ashamed to labour with 
has own hands, when he is called to publish the Gos- 
pel,' either among the poor, or in those countries, 
where the law has no tappointed him a maintenance, 
as among' heathen nations and savage tribes : nor 
will he refuse to do this, when his lot falls among a 
slothfol people, animating them to diligence in their 
several vocsctions by his prudent condescension, that 
the Gospel, may not be blamed. In such circum- 
stances, if his own patrimony is insufficient for his 
support, no disciple of Jesus will blush to follow the 
example of St« Paul, who gives the following repre- 
sentation of his own conduct in cases of a like na- 
ture-r.,*' Have I committed an offence in abasing 
myself, that you might be exalted, because I have 
preached to you the Gospel of God freely ? When 
I was present with you and wanted, Iwas chargeable 
to no man : in all things 1 have kept myself from be- 
ing burdensome unto you, and so will I keep my- 
self. As the truth of Christ is in me ; no man shall 
stop me of this boasting in the regions of Achaia. 
Wherefore? because I love you not? God know- 
eth- But that? 1 may cut off occasion from them, 
that desire occasion,*' and who would not fail to re- 
present me as a self-interested person, were they 
able to charge me with the enjoyment of my just 


fight among you. " I have coveted no man's silver, 
or gold, or apparel : ye yourselves knovr, that these 
hands have ministered unto my necessities, and to 
them that were with me. I have shewed you all 
things, how that so laboi^ring ye oug^ht to support 
the weak ; and to remember the words of our Lord 
Jesus, how he said, It is more blessed to give than 
to receive. Ye know, how ye ought to follow us : 
for we behaved not ourselves disorderly among you, 
neither did we eat any man's bread for nought ; but 
wrought with labour and travail night and day, that 
we might not be chargeable to any of you : not be- 
cause we have not power, but to make ourselves an 
ensample unto you. For even, when we were with 
you, this we commanded you, that if any man would 
not work, neither should he eat. For we hear, that 
there are some, which walk among you disorderly, 
working not at all, but are busy-bodies." Happy 
were those times of christian simplicity, when the 
Apostles of Christ thought it no disgrace to fbllow 
some useful occupation, for the relief of their tem- 
poral necessities.... when, instead of eating the bread 
of idleness, they cast their nets alternately for fishes 
and for men... .when they quitted the tabernaclesi 
in which they were wont to labour, for the sacred 
recreation of setting before sinners " a building of 
God, an house not made with hands, eternal in the 
Heavens." Of how much greater value were the 
nets of St. Peter, than dogs of the chase ; and the 
working implements of St. Paul, than those tables 
of play, at which many of his unworthy successors 
are now seeking amusement I 

But notwithstanding all the circumspection ancl 
prudence of the faithful pastor, even though he 
should think it necessary to preach industry by ex- 
ample, as well as by precept ; yet if his exhorta- 
tions are more frequent than those of his lukewarni 
brethren, he will be reproached, by the irreligious 
part of the world, as an indirect advocate for indo- 


lencc. The enemies of piety and tfutb arc sUIl 
ready to renew the old objection of Pharaoh against 
the service of God: " Wherefore do ye let the peo- 
ple from their works ? The people of the land arc 
many, and you make them i-est fiom their hur- 
den9« They be idle ; therefore they cry, saying, us go and sacriiice to our (>od. Let there more 
work be laid upon the men, and let them not regard 
rain words." Such is the erroneous judgment, 
which is generally formed respecting the most zeal- 
ous servants of God : but while they feel the bitter- 
ness of these unmerited reproaches, they draw 
more abundant consolation from theencouraginglan- 
guage of their gracious Master..*." Dlessed are ye, 
when men shall say all manner of evil against you 
falsely, for my sake. Rejoice and be exceeding 
glad, for great is your reward in Heaven : for so 
persecuted they the Prophets, which were before 

The declared adversaries of religion, are not, 
however, the only persons, who accuse a laboriout 
minister of diverting the people from their business, 
by the too frequent returns of public exhortation 
and prayer ; there are others, not wholly destitute 
of piety, who frequently add weight to these un- 
just accusations. Stich are the half converted, who 
not yet understanding the inestimable worth of (hat 
bread, which nourishcth the soul to everlasting life, 
are chiefly engaged in labouring for the bread v^ hich 
perishetb. Men of this character, engaging them- 
aeJves in a vast variety of earthly concerns, inces- 
santly disquiet themselves in vain, and consider those 
hours as running to waste, in which a zealous pas- 
tor detains them from worJcUy cares and frivolous 
enjoyments. While he is engaged in teaching, that 
one thing only is absolutely needful, they are grasp- 
ing at every apparent good, that solicits their affec- 
tions : and while he is insisting upon the necessity 
of choosing " that good part, which shall not be tl- 

10# »HX POttTEAST OF ST. VAtfL, 

ken away/' these formal professors are ready to rea- 
son with him, as Martha with J«su8.»fDo6t thou not 
know, how greatly we are cumbered with a multi- 
plicity of vexatious concerns ; and cairest thou not 
that our assistants and dependants are detained fvom 
their necessary avocations by an indolent atten- 
dance upon thy ministry ? 

These false sentiments, with respect both to the 
ministers and the word of God^ which too i^ne ral- 
ly prevail amon^ nominal christians, have their 
source in that direct opposition, which must always 
subsist between the grand maxim of the children of 
God» and the distinguishing principle of worldljr 
xneni«..<< Seek ye first the Kingdom of God aqd'hlli 
righteousness,'* saith the blessed Jesus^ <^ and all 
these things,*' which arc further necessary to your 
welfare, '^ shall be added unto ypu :*' No, replies th^ 
prince of this world ; se0k ye first the enjoyments 
of time and sense, and all other tilings, that 2kVt 
needful to your well-being, shall be added over and 
above. From these two opposite principles resulta 
that entire contrariety, which has been observed la 
all ages between those, who are laying up treasures 
upon earth, and those, who have set their affeqtiona 
upon things that are above. Happy are the faitjifcvl 
and' doubly happy the pastors, who, eonstaiUly Imi- 
tating the great Aposilo, according to *heir several 
vocations, pray and labour at the same time, both 
for their daily bread, and the bread of etprnal life ! 
In thus observing the two-fold command of MoseS) 
and of Christ, some reasonable hope may be enter- 
tained, that their good works will at length overcome 
the aversion of their enemies, as those of the first 
christians overcame the deep-rooted prejudices of 
the heathen world. 




SOME ministers have carried their disinter- 
estedness to SO high a pitch, that they have refused 
to enter into the marriage state, merely with this 
view ; that, being free from all superfluous care and 
expense, they might consecrate their persons more 
entirely to the Lord, and their possessions less re- 
servedly to the support of the poor, whom they con- 
sidered as their children, and adopted their heirs* 
But all pastors are not called to follow these rare ex- 
amples of abstinience and disinterested piety. 

When we examine into the life of a celebrated 
man, we generally enquire, whether he passed his 
days in a state of marriage or celibacy, and what it 
was, that determined his choice to the one or the 
other of these states. Such an enquiry is peculiarly 
necessary with respect to St. Paul, as many of the 
faithful, in the earliest ages of the church, deluded 
by the amiable appearance of celibacy, embraced the 
monastic lire..r.a state, to which the clergy and the 
religious of the Romish churrh still dedicate them- 
selves : whence those disgraceful accusations, which 
divers philosophers have preferred against the 
chnstian religion, as destructive of society in its 
very origin, which is the conjugal bond. But, leav- 
ing the reveries of legend, if we seek for Christianity 
in the pure Gospel 6f Christ, we shall find this ac- 
cusation to be totally groundless : since one view of 
the christian Legislator, in publishing that Gospel, 
was to strengthen the nuptial tic, by declaring, that 
^n immodest glance is a species of adultery, by re- 
voking the permission formerly given to the hus- 
• 4 2 

102 THE PORTfilArr 0» ST. ?At3L. 

band to put away his wife for ?iny temporary cause 
of dissatisfaction, and by absolutely forbidding di- 
vorce, except in cases of adultery. Nay, so far did 
this divine Lawgiver carry Ws condescension Irt'hon- 
TioMtT of the marriage state, that h« iff^s preseht at 
onfe of those solemn feasts, which were usually 
held upon such occasions, attended by the holy rlr- 
gin and his twelve disciples : and not content with 
giving this public testimony of his respect fof jio 
honourable an institution, he accompanied it with 
the first miraculous proof of his almighty power. 

St, Paul, it is true, passed the whole of his life 
in a state of celibacy ; but he never enjoined it to 
any person : and if he occasionally recommended it 
to son^e, to whom it was indifferent, whether they 
married or not, it was chiefly on account of the dist 
tress and persecution of tliose times. To engage 
the most pious persons ordinarily to liv^ in a state 
gf celibsicy, is not less contrary to nature and reaiion» 
than to the spirit of the Gospel. This is lo Qppgse 
the propagation of the best christians, and the most 
faithful subjects : it is to suppose, that those per- 
sons, who join example to prtcept in the cause of 
virtue, and who for that very reason are peculiarly 
qualified for th^ education of children, are the only 
persons in the world, who ought to have none. The 
absurdity of this Opinion constrained the Apostle 
Paul publicly lo combat it, by declaring to the He- 
brews, that *♦ Marriage, aiid the bed undefijed^ aric 
honourable among all rnen," He further affirmed^ 
that ** a Bishop must be the husband of one wife; 
one that ruleth well his o^wp house, having his chili- 
dren iu subjection with ^U gvavity." And if h^ 
wished the Corinthians to continue in the siate^ 
which he himself had chosen, on account of the pe- 
culiar advantage* accruing fron> if, at that season, 
to the persecuted members of the christian church; 
** nevertheless to avoid fornication," he cpunselled, 
that « every man should have his own wife^ and 

«* every wiwiia» herewn liusb«nd.*' I wUl, salth h« 
lo Tinvjthy, *' thai the ]HHinger w^^inen marry, bear 
ehitdren, and guide tbe i^se." And ksUy, he 
cautioAcd ihe same christian Bishop against the er*' 
ror oi those, wl>o, inthe last times, should ^< depart 
fixH^ the faUli, giving heed to the doctrines of Dc- 
vilsi" and ferbidding* lo marry j earnestly exhorting 
hi^ fomi^ successor, fo guard the brethren against 
a doctrine, so fatal lo the ehurch in particular, and 
so destructive of society in general. 

Bitt itmay be urged... .If St. Paul really enter* 
taiBed such high ideas of marriage, and repi^esented 
k a^ the mo&t perfect emblem of that strict union, 
which subsists betwixt Christ and his church ; why 
did he not recommend it by his example I I an- 
swer....A!though St. Paul was never married, yet 
he expressly asserted his right to that privilege, as 
weU as St. Peter and some others of the Apostles ; 
Intimating, at the same time, that prudence and 
charity inclined him to foi»ego his right in that re- 
spect. When a man is perpetuaMy dialled to travel 
iiom place to place, prudence requires, that he 
should not encumber him«elf with those domestic 
cares, which must occawon many unavoidable de- 
lays in jthe prosecution of his business i or it he de- 
rives his maintenance from the generosity of the 
poor, charity should constrain him to burden them 
as little as possible. This zealous Apostle could 
not prevail upon himself tt) expose a woman and 
children tothose innumerable dangers, which be was 
constanily obliged to encounter. The 6ist peril, 
from which he made his escape, was that, which 
compelled him to tlcs<;end from the wall of Damas- 
cus in a basket } now if a family had shared with 
him the same danger, what an addition would they 
have made to his afflictfon and his care I Is it not 
evident, that, in such circumstances, every man, who 
i? not obliged tp mari'y fropn reasons either physical 
or moral, is called to- imitate the example ef this 


disinterested Apostki from the same mottTes of 
prudence and charity ? This indefatigable^ preacher* 
always on a mission, judged it advisable to continue 
in a single state to the end of his days ; but) had he 
been fixed in a particular church ; had he there felt* 
how much it concerns a minister* neither to tempt 
others, nor be tempted himself; and had he knowni 
how much assistance a modest, provident, and pious 
woman is capable of affording a pastor, by inspect- 
ing the women of his fiock**».he would then proba" 
ly have advised every resident pastpr to enter into 
the marriage state, provided they should fix upo^ 
regenerate persons, capable of edifying the church, 
in imiiation of Phebe, a deaconess of Cenchrea, 
and Persis, who was so dear to St. Paul on account 
of -her labours in the Lord ;or copying the example 
of those four virgins, the daughters of Philip, who 
edified, exhorted, and consoled the faithful by their 
pious discourses* 

The christian doctrine on this point may be re- 
duced to the following heads. U In times of great 
trouble, and grievous persecutions, the followers of 
Christ should abstain from marriage, unless obliged 
thereto by particular and powerful reasons. 2. The 
.faithful, who mean to embrace the nuptial state, 
should be careful, on no account, to connect them- 
selves with any persons, except such as are re- 
markable for their seriousness and piety. 3« If a 
man is married before he is converted ; or if, being 
converted, he is deceived in choosing a woman, 
whom he supposed to be pious, but discovers to be 
worldly ; instead of separating himself from his 
wife, in either of these cases, he is rather called 
to give all diligence in bringing her acquainted 
with the truth, as it is in Jesus. 4. Missionaries 
ought not to marry unless there be an absolute ne» 
cessity. 5. A Bishop or resident pastor, is usually 
called to the marriage state. Lastly. A minister 
«f the Xivospeli who is able to live in a state of cell* 



bacy '^ for the Kiitfdora of Hearen's sake/' that ha 
■nay have no other care^ except that of pveaching 
iha Gosf^el, and attending upon the members of 
Christ's mystacalbody ; such a one ta undoubtedly 
called to continue in a Mngle state. For^ having 
obtained the gift of continence, h« is dispensed 
from caraaHy giving children to the church, ba« 
eaiifie he begets her spiritual sona and daughters s 
and such a onei instead of being honoured as tha 
head of a particular honshoid^ should be counted 
worthy of double honour, as a spiritual father in 
hh LcMTd'a family. 



THE passions are the springs, by which wa 
arc usually actuated. Reason alone is too weak to 
put us in moiion, so oftejn as duty requires ; but 
when love, that sacred passion of the feitlhful, cornea 
in to its assistance, we are then sweetly constrained 
to act in conformity to the various relations we sus- 
tain in civil and religious life. Thus the God of 
nature has rooted in the hearts of mothers a fond 
affeciioB, which keeps ihem anxiously attentive to 
Che wants of their children ; and thus the spirit of 
God implants in the bosom of a good pastor that 
ardent charity, which excites him to watch over hit 
flock with the most affectionate and unwearied at* 
tention. The love of a father to his son, the attach- 
ment of a nurse to her foster-child, the tender af- 
fection of a mother to her infant, are so many em^ 
blems employed in the Holy Sctiptures, to set 
forth the sweetness and ardour of that christian lovi» 
which animates the true ministerto the performance 


of his several duties. " You know," says St. Paul, 
** how we exhorted^ and comforted, and charged 
every one of you, as a father doth his children*... 
Wc were gentle among you, even as a nurse cherish- 
eth her children : so, being afTectionately desirous of 
you, we were willing to have imparted unto you, not 
the Gospel of God only, but also our own souls, be* 
cause ye were dear unto us. God is my record, how 
greatly I long after you all, in the bowels of Jesus 
Christ. Receive us; for ye are rn our hearts to 
die and live with you." Worldly pastors can form 
no idea of that ardent charity, which dictates such 
benevolent language, and accompanies it with ac* 
tionS) which demonstrate its sincerity. This is 
one of thote mysterious things; which are per- 
fectly incomprehensible to the natural man, and 
which frequently appear to him as the extremest 
folly. This fervent love improves us into new crea- 
tures, by the sweet infiuence it maintains over all 
our tempers. This holy passion deeply interests the 
faithful pastor in the concerns of his fellow-chris- 
tians, and teaches him to rejoice in the benefits they 
receive, as though his own prosperity was insepara- 
bly connected with theirs. " I thank my God," 
writes the great Apostle to the benefactor of his 
brethren, <* making mention of thee always in my 
prayers, hearing of thy love and faith, which thou 
hast toward the Lord Jesus, and toward all saints ; 
that the communication of thy faith may become ef* 
fectual, by the acknowledging of every good thing, 
which is in you in Christ Jesus. For we have 
great joy and consolation in thy love, because the 
bowels of the saints are refreshed by thee, brother." 
The sorrow and the joy of this zealous imitator of 
Christ were generally influenced by the varying 
states of the faithful. When any, who had once run 
well, were seen loitering by the way, or starting 
^side from the path of life, he expressed the most 
sincere affliction oo their,iLccount..t.There are some, 


^< of whom I iiave told you often, and now tell you 
even weepings that they are the enemies of the cross 
of Christ*" On the other hand, the progress of be* 
lievers was as marrow to his bones, and as the balsam 
of life to his heart*. ..^^ We are glad, when we are 
weak and ye are strong ; and this also we wish, even 
your perfection. My brethren, dearly beloved and 
longed for, my joy and crown, stand fast in the 
Lord, my dearly beloved. Be blameless and harm- 
less, the sons of God without rebuke, holding forth 
the word of life : that I may rejoice in the day of 
Christ, that 1 have not run in vain, neither .laboured 
in vain." 

Reader, whoever thou art, permit me to ask thee 
one important question* Art thou acquainted with 
that ardent charity, that influenced the Apostle 
Paul Mf his christian love was like a rapid and deep 
river ; is thine, at least, like a running stream, 
whose waters fail not I Do thy joys and thy sorrows 
flow in the same channel and tend to the same 
point as the sanctified passions of this benevolent 
man ? J^elate the chief causes of thy satisfaction 
and thy displeasure, and 1 will tell thee, wheiheri 
like Demas, thou art a child of this pn&sent world, 
or a fellow-citisen of Heaven with St* Paul* 



WHEN the church la ihreattned with a 
storm, the worldly pastor has no fears except for 
himself and his relations. But the true minister, 
if he is at all dibquietcd with fear, when the Lord's 
vessel is driven with the ^inds, or appears to bo 

m ram boktrAit or sr. fa«l» 

io danger through the indttci^et condoot of fahe' 
or uDloTtng brethren, ht feels mcithle^s for his owti> 
safety, than fior the sociirtty of hi& c6int>slRion& iti 
tnbulation* He fesra especidlly for the westk of the 
fiockt and lor those of the&ithfu), w1k> ai^«)cpoSed 
to violent temptation: and these generous fearsy^ 
which equally prove his holy seal and his brotherly 
love, without robbing him of all his joy, afford him 
{reqnent opportuinties of exercising his faith^ his 
resignation, and his hope* ** We were troobled," 
s«uth St. Paul, ** on c?very side ; without were fight- 
ingst within were fears. I fear, lest by any means, 
as the serpent beguiled Eve through his subtilty, so 
your minds should be corrupted fronr the sim- 
plicity that is in Christ. I fear, lest when I come, 
I shall not find you such as 1 would. When we 
eould no longer forbear, we sent Timothy to esta- 
blish you, and ,to comfort you concerning your 
faith, that no man sbotild be moved by these affiic- 
tions : for yourselves know, thect we are appointed 
thereunto. For verily, when we were With you, 
we' tc^d you before, that we should suffer Jt rib ula- 
tion ; even as it came to pass. For this cause, 
when I could no longer forbear, I sent to know your 
faith, lest by some means the tempter have tempt- 
ed you, and our labour be in vain." 

Though these " fightings without," and these 
" fears within," are always painful to the flesh, yet 
they are as constantly beneficial to the soul. If 
they subject the true minister for a season to the 
keenest affliction, they prepare him in the end for 
" strong consolation." Observe the manner, in 
which the great Apostle expresses himself upon 
this point...." We would not, brethren, have you 
ignorant of our trouble, which came to us» in Asia, 
that we were pressed out of measure, above strength, 
insomuch that we despaired even of life. We had 
the sentence of death in ourselves, that we should 
not trust in ourselves, but in God which raiseth the 

dead : ifho delivered us from so great a death, and 
doth deliver : in whom we trust, that he will yet 
deliver us- I would ye should understand, bre- 
tbren» that the thingS) which, happened unto mct 
have fallen out rather i^ito the furtherance of the 
Gospel, so that my bonds in Christ are manifest 
in all the palace, and in all other places : and many 
of the brethren ia the Lord, waxing confident by 
my bonds, are much more bold to speak the word 
without fear." Hence, " we glory in tribulations ; 
knowing that tribulation worketh patience, and pa- 
tience, experience ; and experience, hope : and hope 
maketh not ashamed, because the love of God is 
shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Ghost which 
is ^iven unlo us* Blessed be God, the Father ©f 
mercies, and the God of all comfort; whocomferteth 
us in our tribulation, that we maybe able to comfort 
them which are in any trouble, by the comfort 
wherewith we ourselves are comforted of God» 
For as the sufferings of Christ abor.nd in us, so 
our consolation also aboundeth by Christ." 

If those who are honoured with a-commission to 
publish the Gospel were fully convinced how gra- 
cious and powerful a Master they serve, instead of 
being alarmed at the sight of those labours and dan- 
gers, which await them in the exercise of their 
ministry, they would stsind prepared to run all ha>. 
zards in his service ; as courageous soldiers, who 
iight under the eye of a generous prince, are ready 
to expose their lives for the augmentation of his 
glory. Can it become good pastors to manifest less 
toncern for the salvation of their brethren, \han mer- 
cenary warriors for the destruction of their prince's 
ibes ? And if the Romans generously exposed them- 
selves to death, in preserving the life of a fellow-citi- 
xen, for the trifling reward of a civic wreath, how 
Hiuch greater magnanimity should a christian pas* 
tor discover in rescuing the souls of his brethren 
from a state of perdition, for the glorious reward of 
a never-fading crown ? 

lit Irsfe p^ffttHUfT (^ fr. F^tri. 


^H«:CRAirD StJBJi;GT or ttlS 4^L0&YIl»Gy AIIB Tll« 

THE dispoftitiOD of ^a^tiiful paater k, k 
every respect^ diaikietricalljr opposite to that 4ii « 
worldly Biinister* If jxm observe the convei«atioft 
of an eccleuatftky who Is infiueiiced by $he spirit 
of the world) you will hear bim istimaliBg either 
that he has, or that he Wimld not be sorry to haspct 
the ;»ecedeticy tunong bis bfethreOf to live in ^ 
state ef affluence and spl6ndoV| and lo secure to 
himaelf such distinguished ^ipjiointnients as would 
inereaae bdth his dignity and his inoomot without 
ikiaiQlng>any e»traordinai7 addition to hb pastoral 
lalMrars: you will jfind him anxious to be admitted 
into the best cotapaniesy and oecn^onaliy foraung 
fnrties for the chase or sooie other vahi amuse- 
ment. While the true pastor cries out in the sel^ 
renoundng language of the great AposUe : << God 
Ibrbidythat I should glory^ save in the cross of our 
•Lord Jesus Christ by whom (he world b crucified 
•UBloine, and I unto the world.** 

If ^e minister, who is really ^rmed to preside 
in the churchy was aingled out from amo^ his bre«- 
Afajren^ •and placed in an Apostolic chaiv, he would 
hedome the mcHre humble for his e&akatiQn »•»•» 
4f such a one was illighted and viUfied \>y lalse 
^Apostles, he would not appeal^ for .the honour of 
•hb character, to the superiority of histalents, his 
^ank) or his mission ; but rather to the superiority 
of hislabourst his dangersiand his.suffering?* Tbusy 
4it least, St. Paul defendingthe dignity of his char 
•racter against the unjust insinuations of his adveiv 
taaries in -the miaistty....^^ Are they ministers of 
Christ? (I speak as a fool). lam. more/' <Bttt in 

T^ft I'QIkTRfViT' or ft7« P4F^i^» 111 

what manner did he attempt to prove this ? Was it 
by saying, I have a richer benefioenhan the gene- 
rality of ministers ; I am a doctor, a professor of di- 
yimt^y I bear the mitre, ami dwell ii^ aa cpis«opai 
palace ? No : instead of this, he used the following 
apostolic language. <' In labours I am more abun- 
^bAt, in strtpeaabqve measure), in prrisons inore fre- 
^MSity ift deaths oft. In jottrneyings often, ia pen 
Vila IB tike city, m perils, in the wikbfBess, ia penla 
IB (ke sea, in perils, by tbe heathen^ in pcriUamong 
Mae bvethren s in weftrineas and pakrfiilDeBftt ia 
waDchtngt often, in hmiger and thirst) In fasUnga 
o&en, iQ cold and nakedtoeaa* Besides these thingf^ 
that are without, that which cometh upon me daily^ 
the care of all the churches. Who is weak, and I 
am not weak ? who is offended and I burn not ? If I 
most needs glary, I wiil glory in the things, which 
coocero mine inlirmitieis* From henceforth let na 
main trouble 9m : for I bear ip Biy body the marka 
erf the Lard Jesus.*' Such are the appeals of holy 
prelates. But for a man to glory iti having obtained 
a deanery, a professor's chair, or a bishoprick, is in 
reality to boast of his unfaithfiilness to his vocation, 
and to prove himself unworthy of the rank, to which 
he has been injudiciously raised. 

Ye wlio preside over the household of God, 
learix of the Apostle Paul to manifest your real su- 
periority. Surpass your inferiors in humility, in 
charity, in zeal, in your painful labours for the saU 
vatton of sinners, in your invincible courage to en-* 
counter those dangers, which threaten your bre** 
three, and by your unwearied patience in bearing 
those persecutions, which the faithful disciples of 
Christ are perpetually called to endure from a cor# 
rupt world. Thus shall you honourably replace the 
first christian prelates, and happily restore the church 
to its primitive dignity. 




" C H ARITY is not easily provoked ;** but oi> 
the contrary thtnketh no evil* Full of patienQO ai^ 
meekness, Christ distmgHished himself by his abun- 
dant love to those from whom he received the most 
cruel treatment. Thus also the mimsters of Christ 
are distinguished, v/ho, as they are more or less 
courageous antl indefatigable in the work of the mi- 
nistry) are enabled to adopt the following declaration 
of St. Paul with more or less propriety ; ^ Being 
reviled) we bless ; being persecuted, we suffer it ; 
being defamed, we entreat : we are made as the 
filth of the world, and are as the off-scouring of all 
things unto this day, Giving no offence in any- 
thing, . that the ministry be not blamed s but in all 
things approrving ourselves, as the ministers of God 
in much patience, in af&ictions, in necessities, in 
distresses, in stripes, in imprisonments, in tumults, 
in labours, in watchings, in fastings, by purene^s by 
knowledge, by Ion g-sufft^ ring, by kindness, by the 
Holy^ Ghost, by love unfeigned, by the word of 
truth, by the power of God, by the armour of righte- 
ousness on tlie right hand and on the left," which 
enables us to attack error and vice, while it shields 
us from their assaults; " by honour and dishonour; 
by evil report and good report ; as deceivers, and 
yet true ; as unknown, and yet well known ; as dy* 
ing, and behold, we live ; as chastened, and not 
killed , as sorrowful, yet always rejoicing ; as poor, 
yet making many rich ; as having nothing, and yet 
possessing all things." 

far from being discouraged by the trials, which 
befal him, the true minister is disposed in such cir- 
cumstances to pray with the greater fervency ; and 


according to the ardour and constancy of hiaprajersy 
such are the degrees of fortitude and patience, to 
which he attains* <^ We have not received)" saith 
St. Paul, ^< the spirit of iwndage again to fear ; but 
we have received the spirit of adoption, whereby 
we cry, Abba, Father. The Spirit itself," amidst 
all OUT distresses, "beareth witness with our spirit^ 
that we are the children of God. Likewise the Spirit 
also helpeth our infirmities. For we know not what 
we should pray for as we ought : 1>ut the Spirit it* 
self maketh intercession forus with groanings which 
cannot be uttered. I besought the Lord thrice 
that this trial might depart from me. And be 
said unto me, my grace is sufficient for thee : fbr 
my strength is made perfect in weakness. There* 
lore I take pleasure in infirmities, in reproaches^ iti 
necessities, in persecutions, in distresses, for Christ^s 
sake : for when I am weak, then I ami strong. I can 
do all things through Christ, which strengtheneth 

What an advantage, what an honour is it, to la- 
bour in the service of so gracious and powerful a 
Master ! By the power, with which he controuls the 
world, he overrules all things " for good to them, 
that love'him.** Their most pungent sorrows are 
succeeded by peculiar consolations ; tlie reproach 
of the cross prepares them for the honour^ of a 
crown ; and the flames in which they are sometimes 
seen to blaze, become like that chariot of fire, which 
conveyed Elijah triumphantly away from the fury 





SUPPORTED by a strong persuasion, that 
God and truth are on his side, the faithful minis- 
ter is carried above all those disheartening fears, 
l¥hich agitate the hearts of worldly pastors* De- 
pending upon the truth of that solemn prediction ; 
" They will deliver you up to the council, and ye 
shall be brought before governors and kings for my 
sake) for a testimony against them and the gen- 
tiles. ;" he expects in times of persecution to ap- 
pear' before magistrates, and possibly before kings, 
for the cause of Christ and his Gospel. Nor is he 
afflicted at such a prospect. Relying on the pro-, 
mise of that compassionate Redeemer, who once 
appeared for him. before Annas and Caiaphas, He- 
rod and Pontius Pilate, without anxiously preme- 
ditating what he shall answer, and resting assured, 
that wisdom shall be given him in every time of 
need, he cries out with the holy determination of 
thePsalmist: *' I will speak of thy testimonies also 
before kings, and will not be ashamed." 

When be is brought as a malefactor before the 
judge; while; his accusers> actuated by malicious 
zeal, agree to say....*^ we have found this . man a 
pestilen.t fellow, a mover of sedition among the peo- 
ple," and one of the ringleaders of a new and dan- 
gerous sect ; he justifies himself by answering..** 
The witnesses, who appear against me this> day, 
neither found me trampling under foot the autho- 
rity of my superiors, nor sowing the seeds of sedi- 
tion among the people ; " neither can they prove the 
things whereof they now accuse me. But this I 
confess, that after the way, which they call heresy, 
so worship I the God of my fathers, believing all 
th'mgs, which are written in the Law and the Pro- 


phetsi ^nd have hope toward God) which they 
themselves allow,. that there shall be a resurrection 
of the deady both of the just and unjust*" And 
Supposing bis accusers are not only deists, but pro- 
fessors of tht: christian faith, he will add : This 
nlso I confess, that in conformity to those princi- 
ples, which pretended philosophers term supersti- 
tious, and which lukewann christians call enthusi- 
astic, I believe not only " in God the Father Al- 
mighty ,'' but also in Jesus Christ his only Son^ 
whom I acknowledge to be '* King of Kings, and 
Lord of Lords," and who, after having suffered for 
. our sins, rose again for our justification* Further ; 
I joyfidly subscribe to that confession of iuth, which 
is frequently in your own mouths.«./^I believe in 
the Holy Ghost," who regenerates and sanctifies 
every true member of the holy catholic church : 
and I participate with those members the common 
advantages of our most holy faith, which are an 
humble consciousness ** of the forgiveness of sins," 
a lively hope of " the resurrection of the body," 
and a sweet anticipation of "everlasting life* And 
herein do I exercise myself, to have always a con- 
science void of Qffence toward God and toward 
men." If his judge already pejudiced against him, 
should unbecomingly join issue with his accnsersy 
and charge him with extravagance and fanaticism ; 
he will answer after St. Paul, with all due respect, 
«* I am not mad : but speak forth the words of truth 
and soberness. And I would to God, that not only 
thou, but also all who hear me this day were alto- 
gether such as I am, except these l^onds. 

After a pastor has had experience of these dif- 
ficult trials, he is then in a situation to confirm 
younger ministers in the manner of St. Paul•...*•l^ 
know, whom I have believed and I am persuaded, 
that he Is able to keep, that which I have commit- 
ted unto him, against that day> At my first answer^ 
no man stood with me ; but all men forsook me ; 

tl^ . TOM raiTBAIT 09 #T. PATIL. 

NotwirtwtBndiag the Lond stood with me, and 
strengthened me ^ that by me the presching migiit 
be fully known, and thst aU the Gentiles might 
liear" the Cos|M5l i ** and I was delivered out oi 
the mouth of the lion. And the Lord shaU deli«- 
v«r me from erery evil work« and will prescire 
me unto his HeaveiUy Kingdom : to whom b^ glory 
lor ever and eren" 

Behold the ineonineniences and dangers, to 
which not only christian pastors, but all, who follow- 
the steps of the Apostle Paul, will be exposed lA 
every idace, where the bigoted or the incredulous 
occupy the first posts in church or state I And 
whether we are calied to endure torments, or only 
to uifier reproach in the cause of truth, let us en- 
deavomr to support the sufferings, that shaU fall to 
our lot, with that reaolutton and meekness, of 
whkh Su Panl and his adorable Master hare left 
us saeh memorable exampies* 



PERSUADED, that « all, who win Fw god 
ly tti Christ Jesus,'* and particularly his ministers 
^ shall suiTer persecution)*' the good pastor looks 
for opposition from every tjtrarter : and whenever 
he sirfTers for the testimony he bears to the truths 
of the Gospel, he suffers not only with resolution, 
but with joy. 

The more theOod of this degenerate world ex- 
alts himself in oppositi<m to truth, the more he dis- 
poses every sincere heart for the reception of it» 
The Gospel is ^^t everlasting rock, upon which 


the church is founded, and against which the gates 
oC Hell can never prevail : and though this rock is 
assailed by innumerable hosts of visible and invisible 
enemies, yet their repeated assaults serve only to 
demonstrate, with increasing certainty, its unsha- 
ken firmness and absolute impenetrability. A clear 
sight of the sovereign good, as presented to us in 
the Gospel, is sufficient to make it universally de- 
sirable* The vail of inattention, however, conceals 
in a great measure this sovereign good, and the 
mists of prejudice entirely obscure it. But by the 
inhuman conduct of the persecutors of Christianity, 
their false accusations, their secret plots, and their 
unexampled cruelty, these mists are frequently dis- 
sipated, and these vails rent in twain from the top 
to the bottom. Error is by these means unwit- 
tingly exposed to the view of the world ; while 
every impartial observer attracted by the charms of 
persecuted truth, examines into its nature, ac- 
kowledges its excellence, and at length triumphs 
in the possession of that inestimable pearl, which 
he once desptsedv Thus the tears of the faithful 
andthe blood of confessors have been generally found 
to scatter and nourish the seed ofthe Kingdom. 
. Ye zealous defenders of truth I let not the seve- 
rest persecutions alarm your apprehension or wea- 
ken your confidence ; since every trial of this kind 
must necessarily terminate in your own advantage, 
as well as in the establishment and glory of the 
christian faith. Error,always accompanied with con- 
tradictions, and big with absurd codsequences, w411 
Shortly appear to be supported by no other prop, than 
that of prejudice orpassion, or the despotism of a usur- 
ped authority, which renders itself odious by the 
very means employed for its support. The more the 
partisans of every false doctrine sound the. alarm 
against you, the more they resemble a violent mul- 
titude opposing the efforts of a few, who are labour- 
ing to extinguish the fire that consumes their neigh« 

U8 TBE iM>llT&AI'C QV ST. PJU7t* 

bouFs' halMtatiQn&: the difierent coDdpct of the <met 
ftad the other must» sooner or later, manifest the in- 
cendiaries. Error may be compared to a vessel o£ 
clay» and truth to a vase of mas^y gold. In vain is^ 
calumny endeavouring to render the truth contempti-^ 
ble by overheaping it with every thing that is a^« 
Bunftble ; In vain would prejudice give error an 
amiable appearance by artfully concealing its de^ 
fects : for when ever the hand of persecution shall 
furiously hurl the latter against the former} tiie 
solid gold will sustain the shock, unhurt^ while the 
varnished clay shall be dashed m pieces. The ex< 
perience> however, of seventeen age&ha» not been 
sufficient to demonstrate to persecutors si truth so 
evident ; nor are the;e wanting inexperienced be- 
lievers in the church, who are ready to call it in 
question, and who, '^when persecution ariseth be- 
eauaeof the word," are unhappily observed to loso 
their christiaa resolution. But, ^' why do the hea- 
then rage and tbe peoipie imftgine a vain thing, the 
kifigs of the earth stand up^ and the rulera take 
counsel together against the Lord, and against hla 
asoiated ? He thait dwelleth in Heaven Sthall laugh 
them to scorn^" and make their malice serve to the 
accompltshmeat of his great designs. 

Thus the Jews^ia crucifying Christ, contributed 
to lay the grand foundation of the christian church ^ 
and afterwards by persecuting the Apostle Paul to 
death, gave him an opportunity of bearing the 
torch to Rome, and even iQto the palaces of its.env- 
perors. And it was from Rome itself, as from the 
jaws of a devouring lion, that he comforted the 
faithful who were ready to £ekint at his afiiictions, 
and eacouraged them to act in conibrmity to their 
glorious vocation. ^' I suffer trouble as an evil do« 
er, even unto bgods ; but the word of God is not 
bomd. Therefiore I endure all thintga for the elects' 
sake» that they may also obtain the salvation, which 
i« in Christ Jesas> with eternal glory. It is a faiths 

fnl s«yi0g; ^r if we^4ead with htiny ve dmH 
•aiso live with htm : if we suffer, fre shall ai«o reign 
<mthhim: if -we dewy him, he also wHl deny .««• 
Be not thofu thctef<»e ashamed of the tevtimony of 
our Lord, nor of me <hia prwoacr : but he thou puw 
taker of the affiictiefns of the Gospd, according to 
the power of God : ^ho hath called us accordnig 
to his own purpose awd groce, Which was given as 
in Christ Jesus, who hath abolished death, and 
iiath brought life and immortality to light through 
the Gospel i whereunto I am appohited a preacher, 
and an Apostle, for the which cause I also suffer 
these things ; nevertheless, I am not ashmned^ 
Thou, therefore, enduFe hardness, as a good eok 
dier df Jesus Christ. 

H^pyis the faithful mtnister of Chiist amid 
Till the severe afiaictions to which he is sometimes 
exposed I Though « troubled on every aide," yet 
he is** not distressed ;•' though « perplexed," yet 
"•Tiot in despair ;" though " persecuted," yet «Bot 
ibrsaken :" though " catitdown," yet " not destroys 
cd;" AH the violent attaoks of his enemies must 
finally contribute to the honour of his triumph, 
•while thcir^ftagrant injustice gives double lustre te 
the giorious cause, in which he suffers. 



A PASTOR must sooner or later, convert 
sinners, if he sincerely and earnestly calls them to 
repentance toward God, and faith in our Lord Jesus 
Christ. Nevertheles, though .filled with indigna- 
tion against sin, withxompassion toward the impe^^ 

13# .TME^omTHAlT Ot ST. rAUL* 

nitenty afMl Wttk grvfttlin^e to Chiist, he ahould^aik^ 
St. Paul, iii' propdrdon to his.. strength, wt%^le 
with Goi>1!>y pfayer, with sintiersby exhortati(»i|> 
and with th< fl«^h by al^tiifence ; yet even thet^ as 
much unequal to :that' Apostle, as he was iineqaattc^ 
his Master, he may reasoniably despair of fre^ 
quently beholding the happy effects of his evange* 
licallabours. Dot, if he canAdt adopt thelbito\r« 
ing apostolic latigvag;^ t << Thanks be onto Godt 
who always causeth us to tdiiiifiph m Christ, and 
maktth mamfe«^) the savour of his i^Bowiedge by 
us in every plac6 i-' he- will, at least, be able to 
say in his little sphere**.-'* We are unto. G^od a: 
sweet savour of Chiist, in tliem, that are sayed, 
and in them, that perish : to the one.we Jtre. the 
savour of death unto death ; and to the other, the 
savour of life unto life." If he has not, like St^ 
Paul, planted new vines, he is engaged, with Appol* 
los, in watering those, which' are already planted; 
he is rooting up some withered cumberers of the 
ground, he is lopping off some unfruitful branches^ 
and propping up those tender sprigs, which, the 
tempest has beaten down* 

He would be the most unhappy of all faithful 
ministers, h^d he not some in his congregation, to 
whom he might with propriety addresshimself in the 
following terms : " Do we need epistles of commenda- 
tion to you? Ye are manifestly declared to be the epis* 
tie of Christ, ministered by us, written not with ink, 
but with the Spirit of the living God ; not in tables 
of stone, but in* fleshly tables of the heart* Are 
not ye my work in the Lord ? If I be not an Apos* 
tie unto others, yet doubtless I am to you; for the 
seal of mine Apostleship are ye in the Lord* For 
though ye ha^e ten thousand instructers ia Christ, 
yet have ye not many fathers : for in Christ Jesus 
have I begotten you through the Gospel. 

When a minister of the Gospel, after labouring 
for several years in the saine place, is unacquainteii 



with any of his flocki to whom he m^ht modestly 
hold the preceding language; it is to be feared, 
that he has laboured too much like the generality 
of pastors in the present day s since the word of 
God) when delivered with earnestness and without 
adulteration) is usually <^ quick and powerful* and 
^harper than any two-edged sword, piercing even 
to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of 
the joints and marrow. He that hath my word^ 
let him speak my word faithfully : what is the chaff 
to the wheat ? saith the Lord. Is not my word like 
a fire ; and like a hammer, that breaketh the rock 
in pieces ? Behold I am against theip, that cause 
my people to err by their lies and by their light- 
ness I therefore they shall not profit this people at 
all, saith the Lord*" 

Those ministers, who are anxious so to preach, 
and so to conduct themselves, as neither to trouble 
the peace of the formfl, nor to alarm the fears of 
the impenitent, are undoubtedly the persons pecu- 
liarly alluded to in the following solemn passage of 
Jeremiah's prophecy : " Mine heart within me is 
broken, because of the prophets; all my bones 
shake, because of the Lord, and because of the 
words of his holiness. For both prophet and priest 
s|re profjEine ; yefi, ip my house have I found their 
wickedness, saith the Lord. They walk in lies," 
either actually or doctrinally : " they strengthen 
fdio the hands of evil doers, that none doth return 
from his wickedness. From the prophets of Jeru- 
salem is prophaneness gone forth into ali the land. 
They speak a vision of their own beavt, and not 
out of the mouth of the Lord. They say unto 
them that secretly despise me, The. Lord hath 
sAid, ye shall have peace : and they say unto every 
one, th^t walketh after the imagination of his own 
heart. No evil shall come upon you. I have not 
sent these prophets, yet they ran : I have not spo- 
J^eD to them, yet they prophesied. Biit if they 


had stood in my counsel, and had cau8e4 tny peo- 
ple to.l\e»r my words* then they should hAVB turn- 
ed them from their evil way, and from the evf! of 
thjeir doings." 

/ Behold the reason, why hoithitig can1k> mucl^ 
ai&tGt a faithfuLminister, as not to behold froth tltneT 
to tim«4 unfeigned conversions effected dmong ih^ 
people by m«af>8 of his mihtstry* The husband-*^ 
mant after having diligently prepared and plenti-' 
fully sowed his fields, is sensibly afflicted*, wh^ri he 
sees the hopes of his harvest all swept away at'once' 
by a furious storm ; but he feels not ^o lively i' 
sorrow as the charitable pastor, who aftei^ hltving 
liberally scattered around him the ^seed^ of wl». 
dom and piety, beholds his parish overruh with the 
noxious weeds of vanity and vice. If Nabals^ ate 
still intoxicated; if Cains are stilt implacable ; if 
Ananiases are still deceitful, and Sapphiras still' 
prepared to favour their d^eit; if Marthas are 
stiU cumbered with earthly cares ; if Dinahs are 
still exposing themselves to temptation, even to the 
detriment of their honour, and to the loss of that 
little relish « which they once discovered for piety ; 
and if the formal still continue to approach Goiy 
with their lips while their hearts are far from 
him... .a good pastor at the sight of these things is 
pierced through with many sorrows, and feels, in 
a degree, what Elijah, felt, when, overburdened 
with fatigue and chagrin, " he sat down under a 
juniper tree, and said ; it is enough ; now, O Lord, 
lake away my life : for I am not better than my 
fathers." - 

Indifferencer in amatterof so great importance, 
is one of the surest marks by which an unworthy 
pastor may be discerned. Of what consequence 
is it to a worldly minister, whether the flock, about 
which he takes so little trouble, is cotnposed of 
sheep or goats ? He seeks not so much to benefit 
his people, as to discharge the more exterior duties- 


of his office in $uch a way, as may not incur ihe 
ensure of his supcriont in the church, who, pos- 
sibly, are noi a whit less lukewarm than himself. 
And if a tolerable parly of his unclean fiock do 
but disguise themselves three or four times^ in a 
ye^r, for the purpose of making their appearance 
al the Sftarwaentttl table, he is perfectly Batislied 
\yjth the good order of his parish ; especially, when 
U)^ ipost detestable vices, such as extortion, thefti 
adulteiyi .or mjucder, are not openly practiced in 
it. This outwieird kind of decency, which is so sa- 
tisfaciovy to the worldly minislert and x^hich is 
Qfdinaipily.eSecjted by the constraining force of the 
civilJaws, rather than by the truths of the Gospel, 
affords the faithful pastor but little consolation. 
He i»^&ollcitous to see his people hungering and 
thirsting ^fter righteousness, working out their 
saWatioo with fear and trembling, and engaging in 
aU the. duties of Christianity, wiih as much eager^ 
ness, as the children of the world pursue their 
shanteful pleasure^ or trifling amusements : and if 
hbe. ha&notyet enjoyed this satisfaction, he humbles 
himself before God, and anxiously enquires after 
the reason of so great an unhappiness. He is con« 
scions, that if his ministry is not productive of 
good fruit, the sterility of the word must flow from 
one or other of the following causes....either he 
dqc^ not publish the Gospel in its full latitude and 
purity, in a manner sufficiently animating, or in 
simplicity and faith : perhaps he is not careful to 
second his zealous discourses by an exemplary con- 
duct : perhaps he is negligent in imploring the 
blessuig of God upon his public and pnvate la- 
bours : or probably his hearers may have con- 
ceived inveterate prejudices against him, which 
make them inattentive to his most solemn exhorta- 
tions ; so that instead of being received among 
them as an ambassador of Christ, he can apply to 
himself the proverb, formerly cited by his rejected 

124 tUE POK-rHAII^ OF St.PAUt. 

Master : "No prophet is accepted in his own counr 
try," where he is accustomed to be seen without 
ceremony, and heard without curiosity. If the fault 
appears to be on his own sides he endeavours to 
apply the most speedy and efficacious remedies^ 
redoubling his public labours, and renewing his scr 
cret supplications with more than ordinary feFvoujc 
of spirit. But if, aTter repeated trials, he is cot\^ 
vinced, that his want of success chiefly flows fi'om 
the invincible hatred, of his flock to the truths of 
the Gospel, or from the sovereign contempt, 
which his parishioners manifest both for his person 
and his labours ; he is then justified in following 
the example of his unerring Master, who rcfur 
sed to exercise his ministry in those places wher« 
prejudice had locked up the hearts of the people 
against the reception of his evangelical precepts. 

When, in such a situation, a pastor is fearful of 
following the example of our Lord, lest he should 
be left destitute of a maintenance, in how depIora« 
ble a state must he drag through the wearisome 
days of a useless life I If every sincere christian 
is ready to take up his cross, to quit friends and 
Jjossessions, to renounce life itself,^ on account of 
the Gospel ; can we consider that minister, as a 
man really consecrated to the service of Christi 
■who has not resolution sufficient to give up a house, 
a garden, and a salary, when the welfare of his 
own soul and the interests of the church requires 
such a sacrifice ? 

When a preacher of the Gospel coiiiits less' 
upon the promises of his Master, than upon the 
revenues of his benefice, may we not reasoiiabl^ 
conclude, that he is walking in the footsteps of Ba- 
laam, rather than of St. Paul? And is it fot* such a 
man, to declare the statutes of the Lord, or to re* 
cite the words of his covenant ? Attempting to pub- 
lish, before he eff*ectually believes, the truths of the 
Gospel ? And has he nQ^ a_ front of brass^ when> 


with the dispdsiiions of a Demas, he mounts the 
pulpit> to celebrate the bounty of that God, nvho* 
supplies the liltle wants of ^^ sparrows, who feeds 
the young tayens that call upon him/' opening his 
hand and filling Kail things with living plenteous- 
riess?V L^tsuchaone consider, ihat the character 
of a virtuous preceptor, or an honest tradesman, is 
abundantly more honourable than, that of a merce- 
nary priest. ' 

Ingeneral, it may be reatsonably supposed) that if 
a pastor faithfully exerciseshis ministry in any place, 
to which he has been appointed by the providence 
of Godt he will either benefit those among whom 
he is called to labour, or his hardened hearers will| 
at length, C^nite to drive him from among them, as 
the inhabitants of Nazareth forced Jesus away from 
their ungrateful city. Or if he should not be for- 
cibly removed from his post, as was the case of our the country of the Gadarenes, yet believing 
it incumbent upon him to retire from such a part, 
he will seek out some other place in his Master's 
vineyard, that shall better repay the pains of culti- 
vation ; whatever such a removal may cost him in 
the judgment of the world. And, indeed, such a 
mode of conduct was positively prescribed by our 
Lord to his first ministers, in the following solemn 
charge : " Into whatsoever city or town ye shall en- 
ter, enquire who in it is worthy. And whosoever 
shall not receive you, nor hear your words ; when," 
slighted and reproached by its unworthy inhabitants, 
ye are constrained to 1^ depart out of that house or 
city»" shake off the dust of your feet, as a testimony 
against those, who prefer the maxims of the world 
before the precepts of the Gospel. 

If any pastor refuses to adopt this method of 
proceeding, after patience haa^had its perfect work; 
if he still fears to give up an establishment, as the 
ftons-in-law of Lot were afraid of forsaking their 
possessions in Sodomy he theA acts in direct oppo- 
L 3 

126 f Hr pdRTicArr ot rr. pAtrt. 

siCiioB tor the ccmiinand of Christ ; he obstinately be- ' 
capies the place of a minister, against whom, rttTy 
probably, less prejudice might be entertained^ add 
whose mtniBtry, of eonsequencd would be more' 
likely to produce some salutary effect ; he loses his 
thne in casting pearls befove ssrine ; and instead of 
convening his parishioners, he only aggravaies 
the condenmatioti due to their obduracy* 

The faithful pastor, however, ii not soon dtscoa- 
- raged, though ' he beholds no beneficial conse- 
quences of his ministry* His unboimded ohadty - 
suffers, hopes, and labours long, without fainting. 
The more sterik the soil appears, whidi he is called 
to cultivate, the more he waters it, both with^Ms 
tears and with the sweat of his brow ; the more he im- 
plores for it " the dew of Heaven," and the infiti- 
ences of that divine Sun, which spreads light and 
life through every part of the church*. It is not, 
therefore, (let it be repedted) till after patience has 
had its perfect work> that a conscientious minister 
takes the final resolution of quitting his post, in or- 
der to seek out some other situation, iu which his 
labours may be attended with greater profit* 



FIE, who isnotj^et prepared to die for hi* 
Lord, has not yet received '* that perfect love,**- 
which " casteth out fear ;** and it is a matter of 
doubt, whether any preacher is worthy to appear 
in a pTiIpit, whose confidence in the tiMlths of the 
Gospel is not strong enough to dispose hitn, in ceV- 
tain bitiuiti >ns, td seal those truths with hisblood« If 
he reaUy shrinks fi*om the Idea of dying in the caUlse 


of christiaaUyt isit for publUh a'Suriour, 
vrho 16 << the reaurreolioo and the li£e^" And may 
he not be said to play with hi9 c^Mis^i^ce^ his au- 
ditors^ and hiB God^ if, while he is the slave of sin 
andfetirf he |»reftents.himself as a witaesA of the sal- 
vation of tfaa^ omntpoteftt Redteemer, who*^Uhcough 

. death, has destroyed him, that had the power of 
death ;" and who»r bjr his resucrectiom has ^^ deli. 
vctgA them, iieho through fear of death, were all 
theip lifi>tlmc subject to bonda^i^. I*ove," tn the 
lafi^age: of Solomon, << is stroog as death :" but 
the true minister glows with that fervent love to 
Christ and hts brethren, which is abundantly 

.'Stronger' than those fears of death, which would 
prevent him^, in times of persecution, from the 
faithful discharge of his ministerial functions. 
Sucii was the love of St. Paul, when he cried out to 
those, who would Itave dissuaded him from the dan- 
gerous path of duty ; " What mean ye to weep, and 
to break mine heart I for I am ready, not to be 
bound only, but also to die at Jerusalem for the 
name of the Lord Jesus* And now, behold, I go 
bound in. the spirit unto Jerusalem, not knowing 
the things that shall befal me there : save that the 
Holy Ghost witness^th in every city, saying, that 
bonds and afflictions abide me* But none of these 
things move me, neither count I my life dear unto 
myself, so that I may finish my course with joy, and 
the miniUry which I have received of the Lord Je- 
sus* For I know, that this shall turn to my salvation, 
through your prayer, and the supply of the Spirit of 
Jesus Christ : according to my earnest expectation, 
that Christ shall be magnifiod in my body, whether 
it be by life or by death. For me to live is Christ, 
and to die is gain. And if I be offered upon the 
sacrifice and service of your faith, I joy and rejoice 
with you all." 

Thus ^^ The good shepherd giveth his life for 
the sheep : but hi that is an hireling, and not the 


t)liephi9rd>.dteth,tbe Vi^olf coming, and leaveth the 
s]|^«ep, jsnd fleeth ; and the wolf catcheth thetn) and 
SQattereth ths sheep.*' tiappy is that churcht whose 
pastor is prepared to tr^ad hi the steps of '' the 
great shepherd and bishop of souls !" St. Paul 
WQuldnot have been ashamed to acknowledge such 
a one, a^ his companion and fellow^labourej in the 
W4>rk of the Lord* . 



WHATEVER desire the faithful pastor may 
hare to be with Christ, and to^rcst from his labours ; 
yet he endures with joy his separation from the per- 
son of his Saviour, through the sacred pleasure he 
experiences in the service of his members* The 
sweet equilibrium, in which his desire was sus- 
pended between life and death, is thus eitpressed 
by the Apostle Paul : " We know, that if our 
earthly house of this tabernacle were dissolved, we 
have a building of God, an house not made with 
hands, eternal in the Heavens* For in this we 
groan earnestly ; desiring to be clothed upon with 
our house, which is from Heaven : knowing that 
whilst we are at home in the body, we are absent 
from the Lord. Yet, what I shall choose, I wot 
not* Fop I am in a strait betwixt two, having a 
desire to depart, and to be with Christ ; which is 
far better : nevertheless to abide in the fiesh is more 
needful for you- And having this confidence, I 
know, that I shall abide and continue with you ally 
for your furtherance and joy of faith." 

It is chiefly, when believers have the unconquer- 
able love of St*Pattl; ^^ that all things work togetheir 

thu poktrait of ST. fAVU t29 

for their good.*' Whether they lire, or whether* 
they die, every occurrence turns out a matter of fa*. 
vour. If they live; it is, that they tnay support 
their companions in tribulation, and insui*clo them* 
selves a greater reward, by malntainiiig fork longer 
season, the victorious fight of faith... .if they die ; 
it is, that they niay i*est from thefr labours, attd come 
to a more perfect enjoyment of their Miaster*s pre- 
sence. "Blessed are the dead, which die in the 
Lord : they rest from their labours, and their works 
do follow them." And in the mean-time, blessed 
are the living,, who live in the Lord : for they are 
honourably engaged in those important conflicts^ 
which win daily add to their spiritual strength, and 
augment the brlUtaiicy of their final triumph. 




LIVING or dying the faithful servant of 
Christ never acts unworthy of his character. 
** "Blameless and harmless in the midst of a crooked 
^nd perverse generation, a child of God, wjthout 
rebuke, he shines," to the end of his course, " as 
a light in the world." He beholds death, whether 
it be natural or violent, always without fear, and ge- 
nerally with pleasure, regarding it as a itiessenger 
appointed for his safe conduct into that glorious 
State, where they rejoice together, who have con- 
tinued faithful to the end^ He is anxious only, 
that his Lord may find him occupied in the grand 
business, he was commissioned to perform : and 
the nearer his hour approaches, the more earnest he 
is, that he may finish his ministry with joy* If he 


is no longer able to exhort the brethren in person, 
he writes to them in the manner of St. Peter : " I 
will not be negligent to put you always in remem- 
brance of these things," the doctrines, precepts^r 
threatenings^ and promises of the Gospel, '* though 
)ce know them, and be established in the present 
truth. Yea, I think it meet, as long as I am in this 
tabernacle, to stir y6u up by putdng you in re*>^ 
membrance ; knowing, that shortly Imust piH^€ 
this tabernacle, even as our Lord Jesus Chrttthal^' 
shewn me." He desires at such a. seaspuy 'to ad« 
dress the faithful, and especially youn^g ministers^ 
as St. Paul addressed the Corinthians andiTimo-^ 
thy : ^ My beloved brethren, be ye atedfsst^ un* 
moveable, always aboundiog in the w^irk of the 
Lord ; forasmuch as ye know that your labour is 
pot in vain in the Lord. Thou," Timothy, " hast 
fully known my doctrine, manner of life, purpose, 
faith, long-suffering, charity, patience, persecu- 
tions, afflictions, which came unto me at Antioch, at 
Iconium, at Lystra ; what persecutions I endured ; 
but out of them all the Lord delivered me. Yea, 
and all, that will Uye godly in Christ Jesus, shall 
suffer persecution. But watch thou in all things, 
endure afflictions, do the work of an evangelist) 
niake full proof of thy ministry ; for I am now 
ready to be offered, and the time of my departure 
is at hand." 

Thus triumphantly St. Paul advanced toward, 
the end of bis course. And thus the faithful mints- 
te:r, pouring fresh oil into his lamp as the night 
advances, goes forth to meet his approaching God, 
whom his fjiith already considers as a faithful 
Judge, and bis hope as a muniQ^ent Re warder. 




THE living fatth, that sustains a good pas^ 
tor, or a believer ir Christj amid all the difficulties 
smd afflictions of life, causes him more especially to 
tiiu^ph at the approach of death in all its terrific 
ap^avaaces. Ever filled with an humble confidence 
iivhun« who is the Resurrection and the Life, he 
frequently expresses the assurance of his victorious 
faith, atthisscdemn season, in the manner of St. 
Paul : *< Thatiksbe unto God, which always causeth 
u» to triemph in Christ. Knowing, that he^ who 
r^scd up the Lord Jesus, shall raise up us also by 
Jesus, and shall present us with you ; therefore, we 
faixU not x but though our outward man perish, yet 
the inward man is renewed day by day. For our 
light affliction, which is but for a moment, worketh 
out for us a far more exceeding and eternal weight 
of glory." Thus holding up the shield of faith, to 
quench the fiery darts of the wicked one, and to re* 
ceive the piercing arrows of the angel of death, he 
expects his last hour without fear or impatience ; 
cheerfully leaving the time, the place, the manner, 
and the circumstances of this concluding trial, to 
the disposal of that God, whose wisdom, goodness, 
and power, are all combined to insure him the vic- 
tory. Whether he is called by the providence of 
Godt in a chamber, or upon a scafll'old, to taste the 
bitter Clip, of which bis master drank so deeply, he 
prepares himself to accompany a sufferiftg Saviour, 
encouraged with the hope, that he shall not be 
tempted above his strength, and that, if he suffers 
and dies with the King of glory, he shall also rise 
and reign together with him. 

is: -no. pom-rmArr of st. paui.. 

A: fiesgtl tht hl3l sliaft is thrown, whether by . 
a(xif2e:rr. bj dEscas^ or bj the handof an execi)- . ^ 
ticcer ;* cf Iit:> coaseqcencc ; the true chmtiaOy . ■[ 
prepared 5br aH ereaU, sc^s and subivts to the Qf- .. ! 
derct pr»: IT fence He recdres the mortal ^w^ ,, 
ciziicr w.-*i Luasblc n»Zgiiation, or with holj joy^ Ifi ^y 
llbe first cose. *iis sod is sweetlj disengaged fromi^s ", 
carthlT taiseriMcIe, while he breathes oat the sup-' ' 
plicaicrr largnage of happ^ Simeon : " Ix>rd,~ bow. ./ 
lettcst then ihj sen^nt depart in peace» for mine J.^ 
cres hare seen thj ssJTatioo.** But in the second ' ' 
case^ he learcs the world in a stale of hoTy tnumpUf ^^ 
crfing out in the fullest assurance of ^^ 
p craoas ion takes plsce of sight, and without the 
help of Tision 1 endure as seeing him that is inTisible j^ 
as effcctoally sastained, as though contemplatiRg ^! 
with Stephen an open HeaTen, I saw the Son' of 
Man standing at the right hand of God, ready to 'i\ 
sare and glorify my soul. Of these two matiners ]'. 
of holy dying, the most enriable appears to have 
been the lot of St. Paul, if we may judge from the ^ 
anticipated triumph he describes in several of his 
epistles, and particularly in the last he addressed to 
Timothy from Rome, where he received the crown 
of martyrdom. I desire to depart and to be with 
Christ, for whom I have suffered the loss of all 
things, and do count them but dung, that I may 
know him and the power of his resurrection, and the 
fellowship of his suffering^, being made conformable 
unto his death* I have fought a good fight, I have 
finished my course, I have kept the faith. Hence- 
forth there is laid up for me a crotrn of righteous- 
ness which the Lord, the righteous Judge shall give 
xne at that day i to whom be glory for ever and 
ever. Who shall separate us from the love of 
Christ? Shall tribulation, or distress, or persecution, 
or the sword ? Nay, in all these things we arc more 
than conquerors through hini, lh?it loved u?. f9V 


I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor 
Arfgels, nor principalities, lior powers, nor ihiogs 
present, nor things to come, nor height nor depth, 
nor any other creature shall be able to separate 
us from the love of God, which is in Christ Je- 
tus» O death where is thy sting? O grave, where 
is thy victory ? Thanks be to God, who giveth us 
the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ.*' 

Thus the great Apostle went forth to meet his 
last trial, counting it aa honour to suffer in the 
cause of truth, and rejoicing in hope of the glory 
of God. The enemies of Christianity rendered him 
at last conformable to Christ in his death; but 
while they severed his head from his body, they 
united his happy spirit more intimately to that ex- 
alted Jesus, who had once met him in the way, and 
who now was waiting to receive him, at the end of 
hi? course* Happy are the faithful, who, like this 
laithfol Apostle, live unto the Lord ! yet happier 
they, who, like him, are enabled to die unto the 
Lord 1 " Their works do follow them," while " they 
rest from their labours," and wait, in peace, the re* 
surrection, and the sublime rewards of the rigli* 














TJifl essence of painting consists in n hap^ 
py vBix^ur^ pf light and shade, from the contrast of 
which an admirable effect is produced, and the 
animate figure made to rise from the canvass. 
\Jpon this principle we shall oppose tp the portrait 
oTSt* Pat)li that of lukewarm ministers and false 
apostles, whose gloomy traits will formm a back«» 
ground peculiarly adapted to set off the character- 
of ari eraagelical pastor. 

If the primitive cjiurch was disturbed and mis*. 
Ijed by lanfaithful ministers, it m^y be. reasoi\i^bly 
presumed, vhat, in tbv^ more degenerate period o£ 
i^exiatjBnce, the church of Gon. must b^mjiserably 
overrule with te»i:her$ of t]3^ same character. There 
is, however, no. small number of ministers, who- 
i^rm > kind of medium hetimeen zealous pastors, 
and i^^ a#ostl$j$«. These irresolute evangeUsta^ 

13$ TBB ^ORimACT or ST. YAUXj. 

<tfe siaecnpc to « caum pmrt. Thcf kave som^ 
4eMre alter the thw^ of God, but ase abwidaBtly 
laorr joiicitoos fortte Umigs of the «oild x TJiey 
Jorm 9Dod molotiDos io the cmse of \MMr^t- 
Jiiumfedgcd Master, tai are timkl and v^fakkfnl, 
-wbcR called upon actoai aecrice* : They mniom^" , 
'UQuraactoated bf a moneafarf zeal, but^geBttcaliy ' 
ludtteDccd bjr servUe ^ar. - Tfaoy faa«e no aaqieH* 
cnce- of that ardent affsctmi and tfaat*'in«|iiolblb 
COonige* with which St. P^id waaaidant€sd*"!ri|^- 
viadom is stfll canal; thef ntitt eoafersatfa^idi 
andhhiod. * Sad^waaAaneOf wiuiipefals(U>tisr^gh 
an nonunlf wcakness^-latlK iiApioos «Dli6ilidsotis 
of h» people. Sach was Jonaby when he re&riseii 
Co exercise his ministiy at Nineveh^ Tfaatthrs 
prophet was po s sesa d 4>f. n conhdence in Gon^ ahd 
a desire for the salvadon of his felow«creatur^&9 
we have eTerjr reason to beliere : but we find, tfalt 
neither the one, nor the cither, was su£Bcittitfy 
powerful to engage him in a service, which appear- 
ed I^lf to eadsnger hisrcpataticni ameng'jnen. 
8uch were also the Apostles before thej were en- 
dued with power from on high* To every- pastor 
of this character, that expression oi Chrvstj whieh 
itfts once addressed to the most <!o«rageom man 
among his dkcipies, may be consldeTod as pooidiar-^ 
\y applicable t ** Thou art aB oifeQce unto me, for 
thou savourest not the things that be o^God>i but 
those) that be of men**' . .^ - 

Ltikewarmiiess^^lse prudence and titnidityyaffe 
the chief chaFacteristics, by* which mini^ters'Of ihW 
class tn^ bb distinguished. Perceirrbg the ejccel- 
Itonce of- the Gospel 'in affiobscurepointof rite Wt all d 
having little expeHtfnc4$ of fts'aSK)itis^ng-eil^ct&, 
they c««not possibly discover' that veUgtous tteiil, 
which is' indispensibly necessary to 4heichaic«^eer 
they affVott©: sustain*. »: » . . . > . /. <: ' 
^ rhe p«»Qi^ Bishop>Ma«siM^ ^tes ^e foilns^ing 
-•-preist ntafcioW' «f theiie 'unqualitied ^^taachacis,^ and 

THE i»ORrRArr Of STi^^iri..' 139 

^'w^^^eff^idmy ibdcomktgt iiiqre:cioiTilpt atnong nv, 

\ff because tke-^^ead of miitisHtrs' is :d«ily^ bccomifig-. 

Mnt^Mdr ;tQnd4bJBiaiMd' there laitefemnd'aiiiong' os 

, f Vfi(sr;ii(|wstdlkti unrtn^ - wlieeioptKMie i Ihtanbhtts, . . as 

-^^^mobraseii -^ill, 'tottotfaerentfof vi6&< ^Por the 

\^(iik«it /pauirt, i»e bedi6id «he'inokjedmlto98thcr;at 

-H<e|iat do their '^n^ fotthewaAt-^f-heariag iiior& 

:^(fb^lientl)r irhdmy tkuadetiDg jfoiosa, which actaMil*^ 

r^^^^idd^twkhilie spirif' (^.<^dD,, woAld/eff^tuallf 

i1^^«se^heittfoohi .their dwftil shstnber* - The wMt 

.^f:«rf !zieal^ M ^cleaidy diBcemi^e amol^ pMtorS) is 

< ^oehiefif^ nwiDg to-tbat basep timliBff winch is not 

m^mgdycno^h'tonaink^ aresokite sti^od against 

i-^MtamtHbn pi«ejtidii[re, and Which regard* the worth*' 

:^ Jes* appdrdbation'Of men^ beycnd thetr etemid in- 

^;^^terests>> That snost needs* be a worldly and 

Hrtcrlmtnal ' i^sideratlon, which makes us more 

%;**? sA&idus far onr own glory, than for the gk>ry of 

^^ISoD.' That must truly be fleshly wisdom) which 

i^ can represent religious zeal under the hlse ideas 

'*hci' excess, in^^9<^retiom and temeritv: a pi^text 

^'this, which nearly extinguishes eiFery spark of 

^ ^cal in the generality of ministers* This want of 

>^f courage they honour with the specious names of 

' <*: iDoden^on and pruden ce« U nde r pretence of jiot 

^ ** carvying their afeal to an excess^ they arc content 

' ^f- to hkentiircly destitute X)f it. And while they are 

^ solicitous to shun the rocks of imprudence and 

- ^f.predpitation) ihey run, without fear, upon the 

,5^ sands of indolence and cowardice. They desire 

. VU} become useful to sinners,' and at the sametimet 

• '^.tOAbe^ had in estimation by them. They long^ 

^.to> maolStet such a teal as the world is disposed 

Z^^.to applaud* They are anxious so to oppose the 

M pniMdons; o£mefx» that they may yet secure their 

^' praises ; so to condemn the vices they lovct that 

'-'^tbeyJmiys^ttbie approved by those they con- 

LM.deniBii .JBuQ.whe^]^ we. probe,. a. wound t» the bot* 

<< Let- «» Wl <{aQri#e 9Ur«»}<ref»^i^Mt^%»ii ih^^^ 

«< converted the worU,i9 became^^'ii^^iiljQ^^ 
«f it hiibeeaiiiejlli'ib^ diadmr^ ^eilt $i^jpf d i&^f:- 

HCfafwty ami the miIviiI)0« hi'%^^4 4^^^^$^^ 
« iA&my iwre negatddd by^ the np^ylle «i^ e^«ifkl^' 
<« indtSer^ncev whife he fiBed up^ihe^^rtJlMo^]^^ 
*i hnportaqt ioffiee* lie kticfw < k ImtM^^^iM^'^'lt^^' 
<< please men, ^nd to ftave them s to be t))e c^vM^*^' 
w the world) and the Msraot ef C^riM. N^^^v^n^^it^' 
«less, there are manf among «i«, whp aM se^i' 
^ ing to unite these diferenl sernees^ iiM#ii:& the- 
•< apostle believed to he irreconcileaWe**' ■ - ?^^- 
MonB. £U)qiics agrees vfith the pirns bishop' 1^' 
Gondemnlftg those miaktet^? v^^ho neglect tx) ^t^ ' 
the example of St. PauU " The little fwety, that i»- 
^ to be iam\d among mmistera^" eays this^xc^ent 
vriter, ^ is the moat e&ictttal obatacle to the piS>- ^ 
<4 grass of theOospeK By piety^I mean tbat•8itoi:<e^re • 
^vnd ardent love for reltgioni which deeply ii«li>- 
*^ reals a man in all its concerns, a« weUasinevei^ 
*♦ thing, that respects the glory of <Jod, and arfotr*' 
<< Lord Jesus Christ* If thi4i divine love wasfound 
^ reigniDg in the hearts ' of those who proclaim.' 
*♦ Christ ; if every preacher of the<iiispel was en- 
« abled to say with the sincerity of Pcter» hoi^dii' 
^ thoti knowest all things ; Ihou knowest that I love- - 
*Kh«e t thbu knowest, thai I havft no ambition but * 
"for thy glory, and that my-highest pleasure' con* 
<^ sists in beholding the increase of thy kiagdom^.V^r 
^ wc jshouH then perteiire the word of God inthfeir-' 
^ hands, like a two-edged sword, cutting asunder* 
** the very deepest roots of sio« But as the Gospel' 
^^is preached more through conteatioii^ jthroMgh; 
^ vain glory, and through the desire of getting ^ 

TttJi 'IKNIT«A|T or- iT* FAUL*"^ 141 

^.irn lii:4^iU 9^9iL to a^vfoiee llie glory of God ; 
*^ hence it is, that ministtrrs f»U into various errors^ 
^tgji^ii^ <iTi4eiit prools of ihitt indoknee and un- 
««5^$n^eri^ which afford matt^ pf scandal rather . 

,:)<Mc>n^:0»t^vval4 speak» the same language in 
hln ^ Third; ^o^rce of the cor|*uption which ixigns 
a^oim8i^hn»ii2^xkU'* " A great p^iirtof oiir ecclesias- 
•*?ao?»" .«a5^ .thifi writerj "inay be jusUy charged 
•'^MfUh.the:corruption pf the people^ since there arc 
*^ w^Q^ them f^^Yr who oppose the re-establish- . 
^^'laeBt of a holy disqipiine, wbile others render 
*^ th^ j^xercise of it totally useless^ by an ill-timed 
^ Bp{mt^9% and a shameful indulgence." 

<^ I esi^pt thosf ," continues this venerable pas- 
tor, •♦ who ought to' be excepted. But, on a genc- 
*^ ?alr \ktWy in ;wh^t do ecclesiastics differ from 
^^ Oi^er men ? Do they distinguish themselves by 
** an i^x^mplavy Hit, I Their exterior, indeed, is 
*f somewhat different : They lead a more retired 
^iife ; they, in some degree, save appearances; 
^' though all do not^o thus fan But, beyond this, 
<( ai-e they not equally attached to the world ; as 
*'* much engaged with earthly things, as wholly ta- 
*< ken up with secular views, as constantly actuated 
^^ by interest and passion as the generality of man- 

Christian prudence requh*ed, that these por* 
Iraits of lukewarm ministers should be exhibited, 
as^ti}^ designs of pastors, who have been eminent 
for their piety, their rank, and experience, and 
who» on that aceoupt, had a peculiar right to de« 
ciai'c those truths^ which . might give greater of* 
fc^ce^-were they^^o cpme from less respectable per- 

U2 TJI£ FOItTt^T ^r S.T« PA^I^* 

BETWEEN the state of careless ministers^. 
.apd ial&e aposUcsy. there is not, in realltjp'y so vast 'a 
cUfiereQQe as many^ are apt to In^gine* An uin- 
HKorthy labQurerip the spiritual vineyard^ ST^^ca 
speedy proof 9f a^lukewann temper, in the service* 
ot his Lord ; shortly after, his heart becqmes en-, 
tireljr cold with respect to piety, and nvhat is still 
more lan^atable» he frequently manifests as warxa 
a. zeal for eirror and vice, as the true minister cs^n 
possibly discover in the cause of truth and virtue*. 
Such 'v$ the sXate of those who may properly be 
termed preachers of the third clasiS, and who ar^ 
spoki^n of bs St« Paul under, t^^ tit^e of fa|se apo$n 

ThesQ unworthy ministersi are Xnown by theio 
works* LU^ maay of St« PauVs unfaithful fellow-i 
labourers^ they prefer the i:epose and pleasure of 
the worldt before the service and i*eproach of 
Christ* Like Judas and Simon the sorcerer,^ they 
love the honours and revenues of ministers) while 
they abhor the crosses and labours, of the ministry*. 
Like Hpphni, a^d Phinehas, they ^re "sons pf 
Belial, and know not the Lord. Their sin is, ve- 
ry great before the Lprd ; for," on their account, 
many " abhor the offering gf thi? Lord." Like the 
wicked servafli^, described by their reputed Master, 
ii^stead pf providing " ^at for bis household in 
diie ^ason,'' they be^in to finite, or to persecute 
ibo^e of their felIow*^ervaf)ts, who are intent upon 
discharging their sever^ duties i wh^e they pass 
away their time in mirth and festivity^ with the ri- 
otous and the drunken. They may justly be com- 
pared to lamps extinguished in the temple of God* 
*< Instead of shining there to his praise," says 

TH^ FjOlltRAlT OF ST. PATTL. 145 

-%ish($I> MuMillofH ^<lhef emit bfetkckMidsofamoke, 

^ which ob!(6Utie e^ty object about .tfeem, uid be- 

*^ come a savour of ^oatn to those, who perish. 

'^Ttiey are :piltarft of the sanetnory, which being 

«*OTer-throwto tod 8catte««d'in piiMfe ^ades, be** 

4* c6me stones of stuxnbUng to every headless pas- 

** senger. They €tfe'the sstlt^the earthy tnd were 

I . «* appointed to prcSsehre soois from comxption ; bfit 

,** Juiviog lost all their feavour,'they begin to ^cat^ 

: f' ttpt what they were imdftded to preserve.*^ Thty 

-aire t^bysiciaitji, w4iO carry to their pittients infection 

- instead of health. From the spiritually diseased, 
, -they withhold the healing word of God, wiale they 

^ jclcstribute aimoivg them the dangerous poison of 'a 

.. lax morality, setting befbre them an- eitample t>f 

^>bkterlzeal a^aiast the truth, pufiiiig them upwkh 

\ that wis^ffl) ifirhich ^ is'ec^rthly^ tensaal, alidade* 


^^ A Mse paistor,'* says, Mons. Rotioes, orta &be 

- ^afkdstle, *^ is % minister whose heart ssnot right be* 
, **> before God, and who lives not hi auch a manner 

: « as to edify his flock. He knows the holy course 

<<of life, to which christians in general, and minis- 

. <^ tors in particular, are calkd ; but, ipf spite of all 

^ his knowledge and his apparent ^eal, hefetars -not 

<' to triample under foot those very maxhivs t>f the 

• *< Gospel, Which he has publicly cstabtished *nd 

\ -^^preiched with the utmost ewJi^y. Every day 

I ^* he perforths acts of the m6st detestdble hypoc- 

I « risy. .'Every time he preaches and censures, he 

« boarsopen testimony against his own conduct : but 

I « he publicly accuses, without ever iivtending to cor^ 

I ^ rect himself, ^e is a constant declaimer agilnftt 

« vice, in the pulpit ; but a peculiar protector of k, 

« while he is engaged in the common concente of 

*^ life. While he C'X.hortshiB hearers-to repentance, 

« he either imagines himself above those law%, 

^ which he proposes to others on the part of God ; 

i " or he believes himself under iw odier necessity of 


*^ holding them fortbi except his known engiige^^ 
<MiieQX t»>«uck awttfft) and the sfilary he teceivet 
. *< fiwr Jiii« iierliMMafhee of lu'* 

Mitatf. OMer^idd^'iii a wdrkalteady refetrcd to, 
makes mention 'of* i4)fede t>a3tors in the following 
. tevsM* ^ Mow.maeay Idty we 4ee, who regard ^eir 
♦^boly Toeatlcin In «o otherHght, than the means^ot 
« l»oc«inng'for them a eomfortable maintenance. 
«< Are there not many> wh<y bring a'scapcfat upon 
<< their pMifesiion,' bf the It^centtoufncisij of theff. 
** mMinert? Do:we not «eethem hasty and outrage- 
« oos I X>d we not observe in them aii extreme at-, 
^^tachment t«j their «wn int^re^ts? Ate they care* 
^< lul toiinle^lieir families well? Has it not been a 
^ 9^Aiftct^f€om^\^\ntiihVitthcf^re pirfTed qp with 
« pridetiand are implacaWe- in their hatred ! J ^y 

• <^ nothing of many other vices and defects, which 
^< are equally scandalous in the clergy, such as yaiii 

• << alid Ipose conversation, an attaehitient to diversion 

• << and pleasure, a worldly- disposttioo, slothfulness,. 
' << craft, injttstioei, and slander. 

^^ It is impossible to find a person," adds Mons. 
Oster«ald,<« aurrounded with more powerful motives 
« to piety than a man, whose ordinary occupation is 
^ to meditate upon religious things, to discourse of 
« them amoi^ jothers, to reprove vice and hypocri- 

. << sy, to perform divine service, to administer the 
*< lioly sacraments, to visit the afflicted and the dy- 
«« ing; and whoaaiust one day render to God an ac- 

•^ count ^of. the souls oc^mmitted to his charge. I 
<< know not, whether it be possible to iind any 
" stronger marks of impiety and hypocrisy, than 
« those, which may be discovered in the character 
«( of a person, who, in the midst of all these favour* 
«< able circumstances^ is, nevertheless, an unrigh- 
Piteous man. Such a one may be said to divert 

. << himself with the most saered things of religion, 
<< and to spend the wkole of hisliie in performing the 
t« part of an. impostor u.,« And this he does to his 


^ c6^t siiiu:^ theirs U.iiiQrPfVi«W09 in^lbr wcwhti 
^ that will more effectUfdtty'»e»HiJ(«4.»ft9lrac^ ^CMi-^^ 

^ i^rpjs/^ m ftp UQ£u|l>fiU » m^um^fA*.- 

th^^^evmi^rtby pastors -ftr^ ppmr.irfL|fedhn«« aisoog 

discera t^eV^distiivipMkhi^g £B«Ui«9ft* '• Son ^ latAt 
<< ^ait^ ih^ t^]4r,iUYl(tii«»y:9ga»astKd)ft: jtephevdi 
of I§ra^|^ ^4 ^y H»fo liNi» -i ? Ye »lii}k& bt, ^Hd 
ye clotj^^ ,yp^ w4h. the vooty ,]f;« UU thwk that af» 
iedX^^t y^teednottliie. flock. ,v The diaeasttd have 
yc not 'sU'eogtfeer^^neWiif r,h«?e.|re ^t>Mfiil up tb»t 
TThtpti w^^^c«iI|^eiV ;a«4Xliei!.have. ya .broiig;ht agam 
tha,VVi^ich wa.^ c^ruren AwajTi neither have fr aoaght. 
thai whiph wa^lpat* hiu with.force and.irUh era* 
eitf have ye ruled them* Thetelbrci thus sakh the 
Lord (^od, behold! am agaii|»t the ahephevds: and 
1 will req^re my. their haad. As. Jaonea 
and Jambres withstood Moaesy so do these also 
resist tiie truth « mea of corrupt mindS) repcofaate 
coaceriuag the faith. . Wee uoto them ^t for thejr 
have gone in the way of Cain, and run greedily after 
the error of Balaam for reward» and perished ia the 
gain-saying of Korah. Clouds they are wiihoot 
water> carried about of winds, trees without fruit, 
Cwice dead, |4ucked up by 4he roois ; raging waves 
of the sea, (oaiming out their awn shame ; wandec** 
tng stars, to whom is reserved the Uacknesaofdark^ 
ness'fbr ever." 

Sl« John has not only draw& the chancter, but 
has likewise given, us the name of a certain tyran- 
nical teacher,, who began ta disflurb the peace of the 
primitive church*. I wrote unto theehurch,^? saith 
he to Gaius, concerning the receptian of stranger 
evangelists: >< but Diotrephes, who loveth to have 
the pre-eminence amtot^gthesa^ receiveth us not* If 
! come I will remember h^s deeds, which he doth, 
prating agdlnst us with malicious woi:ds: and not 


content tlierewithy neither doth he himself receiv6 
the brelhrenf and forbiddeth them that would, and 
«asteth them out of the church." Behold a striking 
description of proud and persecuting ecclesiastics ! 

But, perhaps, the most complete description of 
these persons is given by our Lord himself, where 
he treats of worthless pastors, in general^ under the 
particular names of scribes and pharisees. Here,' a 
divine and impartial hand delineates the jealousy, 
the pride, the feigned morality, the malice, and the 
persecuting spirit, which characterize this class of 
men in every age of the world. '< Do not ye, secith 
Christ, after their works : for they say and do not. 
All their works they do to be seen of men. They 
love the chief seats in the synagogues, and greet- 
ings 4n the markets. Woe unto you, hypocrites I 
for ye shut up the . Kingdom of Heaven against 
men ; ye neither go in yourselves, neither suffer ye 
them, that are entering, to go in. . Ye neglect judg- 
ment, mercy and faith. Ye outwardly appear . righ- 
teous unto men, but within ye are full of hypocrisy 
and iniquity. Because ye garnish the sepulchres of 
the righteous," ye vainly imagine yourselves free 
from a persecuting spirit, while in other matters, as 
^ the children of them which killed the prophets," 
ye are labouring to '' fill up the measure of your 
fathers. Behold I send unto you prophets" and 
zealous preachers of the word, " and some of them 
ye shall kill, and some of them y<e shall persecute 
from city to city." 

We need take but a cursory view of the new tes- 
tament, for sufficient proof, that these worldly- 
minded scribes and these furious bigots above re- 
presented, wliere the very persons, who pursued the 
iirst evangelists with such deadly rancour. Nay, 
had it not been for Annas and Caiaphas, Herod and 
Pilate would silently liave permitted the preaching 
of Jesus himself. These who were the chief men 
in the state, after refusing to en^rac^e the word o£ 


pody on their own part, would most probably have 
contented themselves, with denying its truths, and 
ridiculing its fallewers : but thejr would never have 
passed a sentence of death, upon persons of so admira- 
ble a character, as Christ and his fore»runner. 

The peculiar opposers of Jesus and htsdisciplesy 
were powerfully influenced by jealous pride; and 
-with the same malignant disposition, every false 
'apostle in the christian church is deeply infected* 
The prelate, whose pen we have already borrowed, 
gives the following lively description of this un- 
happy temper. " This despicable jealousy not 
^ otily dishonours zeal, but supposes it extinguished 
^ m the heart. It is an infamous disposition which 
«' afflicts itseif even for the conversion of sinners, and 
^ for the progress of the Gospel, when it is through 
^ the ministry of others, that God is pleased to work 
. ^ these miracles. The glory of God seldom inte- 
V* rests us so much, as when our own glory appears 
<^ to be mingled with his. We endure, with some 
" kind of regret, that God should be glorified : and- 
« 1 will dare to add, that some of us could behold our 
«< brethren perishing, with pleasure, rather than 
« see them rescued from death, by other labours. 
*< and other talents than our own. St. Paul rejoiced 
*' to see the Gospel spread abroad, though it were by 
'.' the ministry of those, who sought to disgrace h\v\x 
' *f among the faithful ; and Moses desired, that all his 
" brethren might receivs the gift of prophecy : but 
^•* we are anxious to stand alone, and to share with no 
" person the glory and success of the holy ministry* 
^ Bvery thing that eclipses our own brightness, or 
" shines too near us, becomes insupportable, and we 
« appear to regard the gilts of God in others, merely 
" as a shame and reproach to ourselves." Observe 
here the true source of those specious pretexts, 
which are^ professedly drawn from the order, the 
customs, and even from the prejudices of the world: 
pretexts under which we dare to oppose the zeal of 


our brethren, to withstand the word of God in its' 
ccmrse^ and to render thecrossof the minidtrf more 
burthensome to those, who' carry it farther than we 
are disposed to do. One distinguishing mark of 
these turbulent evangelidts, is that of being* thonm 
in the sides of true mittifeters, whom thef never fail 
to represent as' deceivters or novices', causing the 
truest pitty to wear the semblancie of enthusk^ra- 
and folly* « Thby speak evil of the thing* they un- 
derstand not t" and by the most malicidns discourses, 
which have always an appearance of zeial for refiy 
gion and order, they are gradoaliy fouling anew 
that spirit of persecution, by which the name of 
Christ has been so universally disgraced in thef 

In the earliest age of the christian church, these' 
false apostles, swelling with envy at the success of 
more faithful ministers, made use of every effort td 
render them contemptible, by giving false represenw 
tations of their holy zeal and their exemplary ftc« 
tions. Thus they accused St. Paul of walldng" ac*' 
cording to the fleshy*' and asserted, that tbouglV 
«< hh letters were weighty and powerful^ yet hitf 
bodily presence was weak, and his speech contem^i^ 
tible." Nay, so anxious were they in seeking oc- 
casions for offence in the conduct of this Apostle, 
that he believed himself obliged, in the end, pub- 
licly to expose thcm..#." These are false apostles, , 
says he, deceitful workers, transforming themselvel 
into the apostles of Christ. And no marveU for,Sa*^ 
tan himself is transformed into an angel of light. 
Therefore it is no great thing, if his mini45ters also' 
be transformed^ a& the ministers of righteousness ; 
whose end shall be according to th^r works." As 
our Lord foresaw, that these strenuous opposers of 
real religion^ would bring his church to the very- 
brink of ruin, he exhorted his disci{4es continually' 
to stand upon thier guard against them. And the 
Aposttesy after steadily following their Master 'a^ im* 



p{>rtaM ad^ice^ were diligent latransmUting it to 
t)^ latest of their followers* 

One nepessary reiosark »hall condkide this chap- 
tejr«r ! la the port mil: of St» Paul» w« have seen that of 
fn -eiTfuigjetieail pstaiar : in the preceding chapter^ 
we have mf^tked the charaQter of a carele^ minister i 
^d so thifty ^'^ heboid the faithful representation of 
Or faUe apostle^. Let us remember, that one of thts^ 
three portraits must agreoy more or less> with everjr 
PDej^:hert^f.the Gospel* I say more or less, because 
tjxe.v^rioviAtniits here marked out, may be varied to^ 
%n almost inconceivable degree* Moreover so in* 
constant is man, that a nunister, who to-day is pos- 
sessed of zeal sufficient to rank him with preachers 
of the first class, may to«o&orrow, by an unhappy re- 
xaissness^ sink into the second, as once did John 
whose surname' was Mark ; or even into the third, 
^ as Hynaeneus and Philetus, Diotrephes and Demas* 
On the contrary, a man, who now discovers many 
of those traits, by which Saul the pharisee was once 
distinguished, may, ere long, become an humble 
imitator of the seal and charity of Paul the Apostle* 




OBJECTIONS are the ordinary weapons^ 
with which error makes war upon truth, and these 
aure sometimes so powerful, that till they are effectu- 
ally repelled, we see truth deprived of its rights. 
The first that will probably be advanced against the 
ptortrait of St. Paul, is this : "The model placed be- 
fore us is too exalted for those, who are not cnduedl 
withthe miraculous gifts of St.PauU 

H 2. 

, Xo t)us andeYory oUier i^jecliooy. we sluilLoffo 

a variety of r^plUsi io a$ coocise a Biaooer aipoa* 
sibk* To, the present objoctioa* 4. .sufficient aatwer 
hai beep already retorned i^^r^a-.trulf respeotahie axM- 
ib^Qjr. ^ Y^s eKCAi4e«" saya Mans*. Roqiie«» ^< migli^ 
<^ li%ve soniei weiglu^ if inpn^posing the exa»plftfi£ 
<^ CJirUt to per^ooff . Vfk0 are* hoBOured ivkh the holf< 
" ministry, we ioiUted upon their keeping pac&wit^ 
<^, the Saviour oi mmlwd* Aut tbia toxoi^, i« aUo^r 
<< gether frivolous, when nothing more is requiffaA 
^^ of mlnlstersi than contvimaUy to/p]ape. CM&x, as a 
<< model before- their eyes,, and to.iieita^ hfHDa.*witk 
<( all the es;actnes^ oS which they: aae: cafiaUe^^ 
<' This excuse/' continues he» ^' is stdlKni|>re tui«»aft 
*f sonable^when applied to Prophets and Apostie^ 
<< whojwere xnen of like passions wjth ottraclves; 4ni^ 
<< whO| of consequence^ may be placed before ua nal 
^< models, whose perfections areatuunabljeby m^eanst 
•< of the very same succours, which supported 
<' them, and which are never refused to those whiC^ 
<Miave sincere and apostolical intentions* 

To the answer of this pious divine^ we shali add 
a few bbservations. 

1. In the Portrait of St. Paul there is found no 
large description of miraculoua gifts, but a faithful 
representation of those christian virtues which are 
found in every believer, according to his vocaUon, 
and without which, it is impossible for us to fill up 
our several duties*...such as humility, faith, charity »^ 
zeal, and assiduity, ' 

2. The morality, which was practised by St. 
Paul, was no other than the morality of the Cos* 
pel, which is the same in every age, and for every 
condition : whence it follows, that the moral cha*. 
racter of this Apostle, belongs not only to. all true 
pastors, but even to every sincere believer. If St.. 
Paul was truly humble, charitable, and, pious, his 
humility, his charity, and his piety, are as essential 
to the religion of every christian^ as three angles are. 


tbattbe pietj^ of this ApostUw^asf veater than that of 
a tbo«sand4>ther misbt^rs^ justas theofi« tke magm-, 
tbi&tdanf^^ may;begrealertbaii4hat ef a UuMsaBd 
dtloscs* 3«l:a&theaiigleft<^ the moftt di^mutive 
«riajnt^^>^^^ ^^ ^'^ quailitf with th^^e^, wl^ieb^ 
oqaqsoia-' -a 'triangle of aa ifiicofnmon ni^i^Itudey. 
uotb&mcml c;hanioter of Su Paul i9> with regard to 
efiseRlkI% the moral character ^Hg^erf true chns*- 

t, ^3« This Apostle informs us^ihat he was obliged 
ta^^-keef hiis.body in-snbjeclioft, lest after haviiig; 
pre&eh^ to •th^rsi, he himself should be a cafit*- 
way^'* Thi« single acknowledgement suffi<:ien%; 
prB^t«9,lh«i he w^»^ex]^^scd to all those dangers' 
with \irhich chH^tlaDS are generally beset, and that,' 
he ^.w. no w-ay of escaping themi but by the i|se oS; 
those very precautionsy which the weakest betiever; 
k instructed to take. Now, if St. Paul was so fear- 
ful ef £iiliog away ; if St. Peter was really seen to 
stumble and fall ; and if Judas, an elected Apostle^- 
irremediably pUaged himself into the depths of 
perdition : it is but reasonable to suppose, that, by 
& faithful improvement of our privileges, we may 
attain to a good degree of that exalted piety, from . 
which one Apostle fell for a season, and another 
for ever* 

. 4. In the whole Portrait of St. Paul, there la 
not a^troDgeJp. trait than the eighteenth, which de* 
scribes the ardour of his love for the Jews, who pur- 
sued iAm even to death : a love, that made him wil* 
Hng- lo be accursed in dying for them, as his gra- 
cious MasteJf had been in dying for the world. Now 
this charity is so far from being an attainment too 
exalted for true ministers, that it is indiscriminately 
required of every professing christian. « Hereby,'' 
saith St. John) « perceive we the love of God, be- 
cause he laid down his life for us : and we ought to 
lay dowB our lives for the brelhijen." And our Lord 


• •. ' • 

htmaeifliatk said, ^<riBy" tins ftfaall ali .men know,; 
that ft- are my dnciples, if ye hav^ love one to.aA« 
other." It is by a new commandment i& tbts effect #^ 
that the morality of the Gospel is pecoU^rly dis- 
ting<nishdd frblii thktof the ktir* Anii shall vTeMv^; 
piouBly ^aittempt to eDervate evangelical fmsx^alttyir 
Let'us ruth er declare, upon aU occasicms, tliatf^^Hft! 
irho loreth not, knoweth not G6d.** I-iet as cry out^ 
ifilh the Apostle i..i**Jf any mail lore not the Lotdr 
Jesus Christy let him be Anathema Ma^anathaDx^^t 
ahd if a man love tiot his brethren, he lovca iiotthe^ 
Jjotd lesiis ; " for he that tovcth not hife brother,? 
whom he hath seen, how can he love^God^ wlKimlrai 
bath not seen/' . .^ ~ ;- -r 

' On the other hand, when we lorcottr fercifchrerft 
with a pure heart fervently ; when, disfposed to'tmN, 
versal benevolence, we can look 'opon' tRWYcry: 
enemies with sentiments of pity andaffectibh ;'*we 
ate then assuredly possessed of that ehrisuatt cha* 
rityj which foriais the most brilliant trait in the m.ow, 
ral character of St. Paul. . , . 

5. St. Paul was for three years the resident pas* 
tor of a single church. The city of Ephesus'was 
his parish : and while he resided there, he gave aii 
example, which every mioister, by the most solemn 
engagements, is bound to follow ; whether he be 
commissioned to labour in a city or a village. Dur^ 
ing two other years of his life, this Apostle was » 
confined within a- narrower limits than any pastor- 
of a parish* Shut up at Rome in a houses that 
served him for a prison, and constantly guarded by ' 
a soldier^ he was unable to extend the sphere of his^ 
labours. Yet, even in these circumstances, he con* 
tinued in the diligent .exercise of the holy ministry, ^ 
*^ preaching the Kingdom- of God, to all them, that 
came in unto him, and teaching those things, which 
concern the Lord Jesusr'Christ." 
- Surely nothing can appear more perfectly rea^ 
sonable than that ev&ry pastor shouid discover a& 


much seal in his particular parish) as St. Paul wasr 
s^custDmed to manifest in the Roman Empire n 
when tie was at libertf^ and in h»s own apartmdot • 
>rheil> loaded with chiiins* 

6. If the aiklent charity and the incessant laboursi 
of St* Pattl were happily imitated hy Timothy, why 
may .they: not be copied by every pastor in the pre**: 
sent day ? That youUiful minister was anxious toi 
tnsad in the stepi^ of this Apostle^ and theyy who 
are otherwise minded^ assuredly- fall under tbos^r 
apostolical censures^ which are thus indirectly ex- 
pressed in his> epistle to the Phtlippians : ^< I tnut 
to send Timolheus shortly unto you ; for I have: 
no man like minded, who will naturally care for 
your state. For all seek their Own, not the 
things which are Jesus Christ's. But ye know the 
proof of him, that as a son with the father, he hath 
served with me in the Gospel." 

7. The destruction of the eastern churches com- 
menced in the falling away of their pastors; who 
gradually abated in the fervours of that holy zeal, 
with which they hadbegun to labour in the vmeyard 
of their Lord. Of such unfaithful teachers, Christ^ 
afiectingly complained in the earliest period of his 
church, and accompanied his complaints with the 
most-terrible menaces. ** Write unto the AngeL 
of the church of Ephesos," said he to Su John, " I 
know thy former works, and thy labour, and thy. 
pattenceyand how thou canst not bear thorn which . 
are evil : and thou hast tried them which say they 
are apostles and are not ; and hast found them liars, 
&c. Nevertheless, I have somewhat against thee, 
because thou hast left thy first love. Remember, 
therefore, from whence thou art fallen, and repent^i 
and do the first works : or else I will come unto 
thee quickly, and will remove thy candlestick out 
of his place,! except thou repent." 

The warning was unattended t0| and at length 
the threatened blow was struck. Thus lell the. 


church of Ephesus, and thus every church upon 
earth is fallen, making way for that mystery of ini- 
quity, and that general apostacy, which have been' 
80 long foretold. So true is it, that apostolical' 
charity, that charity which was first lighted up on 
the day of pentecost, is still absolutely necessa* 
py to every pastof^, to every church, and, of conse- 
quence to every believer. 

From the combined force of these seven argu»' 
mentative observationsTwe have aright to conclude, 
that the virtues of St. Paul are far from being in- 
imitable, and that the first objection against his 
portrait is void of solidity. 



THEY, who follow the example ot Diofcre- 
phes rather than that of St. Paul, add to the pre- 
ceding another objection, to discredit, if possible, 
the imitators of this great Apostle. " Do you. pre- 
tend/' say they, " to be the successors of St. Paul 
andthe other Aposlles, whom you presumptuously 
cite as your models ?" 

To such objectors the following reflections will 
serve as a sufficient reply. 

1. We have heard St.*Paul, in the character of 
a believer, proposing himself as an example to all 
believers, and, as a minister of the Gospel, exhort- 
ing every pastor to tread in his steps. 

2. John the Baptist preached repentance : The 
Apostles proclaimed remission of sins in the name 
of Jesus Christ, " who was delivered for our of- 
fences, and was raised again for our justification r" 
and every true minister stiU continues to insist up- 


on these important doctrines. Now, as he, who 
takes the place of a person deceased, is accounted 
the successor of such person ; so these faithful pas- 
tors should be regarded as teachers appointed to 
succeed both the forerunner, and the Apostles of 
Christ. It must be allowed, that the Apostles, as 
^eldersin the family of our Lord, were in possession 
4>f priveleges, which we are not permitted to enjoy. 
But if the Gospel is unchangeable, and if the King* 
xlom of God still remains under its ancient form of 
jgovernment, the priesthood must, for the most 
^art, of necessity, continue the same. 

3. There was a time, in which the Jewish priests 
had lost the ** Urim and Thummim,,' with which 
Aaron and his sons were at first invested* There 
was a time, in which God no longer manifested 
himself to his own appointed priests, as be had 
been accustomed to do. But as, notwithstanding 
the loss of that glory, which formerly rested upon 
the Jewish church, every pious priest, such as Zach- 
arias, was a true successor of Aaron ; so, during 
the eclipse of that glory, which once illuminated 
the christian church, every pious minister may 
justly be accounted ^ true successor of St. Paul. 

4. The word Apostle signifies one who is senti 
jmd answers to the term Angel or messenger. 

« Our brethren," says St. Paul, who accompany 
Titus, « are the messengers," or Apostles,, " of 
the churches." Every minister, therefore, who 
carries with sincerity the n^essagesof his Lord, may 
with propriety, be ranked among his Angels or 
messengers. Nor do such immediately lose their 
.title, when they neglect to perform the duties of 
their office. Th^y may, like Judas, go under the 
name of Apostles even to their death, though utterly 
,linworthy of such an honourable appellation. Thus 
After the pastors of Ephesus and Laodicea had out- 
iiyed the transient fervours of. their charity and 

1156 THE ro&TKAIT OF ST. ^AVL. 

OEcalt they were still addressed, as the Angels of 
their several churches* And thus St. Paxil gave 
-the title of Apostles to the worldly miikisters of his 
«time ; in quality of mintstersi they were Apostles ; 
but in quality of worldly ministers^ they were false 

5« As the name of Qesar is ordinarily applied 
to the twelve first Roman Emperors^ so the name 
of Apostle is ordinarily applied to the twelve first 
ministers of the Gospel, who had been permitted 
to converse with their Lord, even after his resur- 
rection^ and to St. Paul, who was favoured with 
a glorious manifestion of his exalted Saviour. In 
this confined sense, it is acknowledged, that the 
name of Apostle belongs, in an especial manner^ 
to those, who were sent forth by .Christ, aAer hav- 
ing received their consecration and commission 
immediately from himself. But as the name of 
■Cesar in a more general sense may be given to all 
the Emperors of Rome, so the nam« of Apostle 
7»aybe applied to every minister of the everlasting 
Gospel. Thus Barnabas, Andronicus, and Junia, 
who were neither of the number of the twelve, nor 
yet' of the seventy deciples, were denominated 
Apostles as well as St. Paul. 

6. It is the invariable opinion of slothful chris- 
tians, that the zeal of ministers and the piety of be- 
lievers in the present day^ must necessarily fall far 
below what they were in the Apostles' time : as 
though the promises of Christ were unhappily 
lim<ited to the primitive church. This error has 
been frequently refuted, in vain, by a variety of 
christian writers, since nothing can be more con- 
formable to £hat spirit of incredulity, which reigns 
among us, than to renounce at once, the most im- 
portant promises of the New Testament. Had the 
same promises been made respecting temporal ho- 
nours and profit^, we should see a diilRerent mode 

THJ5 .^C>lU'B4iT,pr ,.§T., PAPL, 157 

5^f.cq|\d\ict; aclpi^t^id : >' %tb.e chi^ren pf this world 
a?-e,'in tfeejir.g^erjation, ^wjser di|an,the children of 

,. J^1Lo;?.6^Rpq»^?s bears tl^efoUown^ to 

tfee riruAfe .9PJi?.f P<4?d. % in, th^ place. "Thenn- ' 
i« nUt.ers oi" t^e, Gospel esteem themselves apcJ vitji 
"^X'^ft^^W^t ,the,si*.??efSors ,<^ the ^pQstJes. . Their 
^^>fnJi^)py|n.en.t is^^^sj^pt^aljy the ^ame^; ihpqgh the 

Ki^oga^tiyes^ as j^ejiiig tlie^ first ^9 lay jjfe foij.nda^iqn 
^< 6f ibe,c(ujrchi." 

;.t'.,Tljc pftini^t^rpfXikOst," says the same writer, 
.«.iqannpt )^^ vainly JtQ fia^.ter ^wself, whpn.l\e 
M pQijpts^iipQn^he^r^ipus assistance of bis Mas- 
«',t^r. He tfk,«s ihe .prqnai^e of that -Master for .the 
<^ solicl foundation pf ^is .h^p^e. 1 ai^iwith ypu al- 
« way, said Christ to his Apostles, and, in their per- 
« sons, to all those, who should succeed ihcm in 
*vthe ministry I even unto the end of the world." 

*' It was this divine promise," continues he ; 
<* a promise more stQdfast than earth or heaven, 
" that filled the Apostles with such an ardent zeal, 
" as enabled them to rejoice evermore ; placing 
«'. them afeove the fury of tyrants, and b'eyond the 
<i reapb of fear ; assisting th^im to endure cexessive 
>< {atig\Lej^ftQd tc^ilsoine journeys, the Inclemency of 
« the seasons, and the resistance of obdurate hearts*** 
l^^pressed with ajust sense of this important promise, 
^^exeper^U writer concludes with this fervent pray- 
er- "Hply/esus Ijwiio hast promised to continye for 
«< ever'withtiiine Apostles,. and to give them that 
.-** .v4*fl(Wa, wl^'man shall ever be able to re- 
**isist,^iye^,:j^^ to experience a participation of these 
.".signal fayovurs,..thjgLt, animated by the same spirit, 
« with which .thy* first disciples were inspired,. I 
« may le^d ,sp,me so\il a, happy qaptive to the obe- 
." dience of ,;^hee*'* These beautiful quotation* 
wjili niake iheir.' own apology for appearing in thU 



7. If «ny are diposed to condetnn Mons^ Roquetf 
as an enthusiast in this point, they -consider not^ 
how many great and honoiirablcJ names they dis« 
grace by such a precipitate judgment; since al} 
those pious fathers^ who are lokiked upon as the 
reformers of corrupted doctrines and Regenerate 
manners^ were unanimously of the same ofnni^n^ « 

From the preceding refleclions^-it fte<^tns;:but 
reasonable to conclude, that all th<& true ministers 
of Christ among those nattosiS) which were Cor** 
merly known by the name of Genttks,vjird to-be 
considered as the true successors of the o^pp^es^ 
and particularly of St. Paul, who by way ^ ^udi^ 
ence is entitled the Apostle oftheGentnieSf and who^ 
on that account^ may, with the greater pi^pinbtj^ 
he piopostd to them as a noE^dei* > t > 

CHAP. V. * 


THEY, who will allow neither believers n6r= 
pastors to become imitators of St. Paul, very rarefy 
iisrget to propose a third objection against sucU' 
imitation. ' ." If you pretend," say they, "to be the 
Apostles' successors, then prove your mission by 
the performance of jniracles^qual to theirs. 

To this objection we rcply.,,....^ 

1 • That no mention is made of the miracles' 
of Andronicus, Junia, and Barnabas, who were real 
Apostles: nor are any miracles attributed to^TituSr^ 
or Timothy, though they were the undoubted sucw 
cessors of the Apostles. Further; it is expressly 
said, that John the Baptist, though he was greatef 
than the Pro[>het8, did no miracle. On the oth4B<' 
Jiand, some miraculous gifts were common in tho' 


eliUTeh of' Corinth^ even among thosei who were 
neither Apo6tIe& nor Evangelists : and these gifts 
were so far from being essential to apostolic zeal* 
that many ilnworthf brethren and many false Apos* 
tleSr as well as the trahor JudaS) were endued with 
them; This we are taught, in the most express 
termst "by our Lerd himself. 
-. 2» If any of those pastors, who make a profes* 
mom of fbktowmg St». Paul, are observed to publish 
anther* Gospel, or to depart from the or^er esta* 
bVished by the Apostles, the world has then reason 
%e reqaire tuimcles at their hand, as a demonstra- 
tiftii> tUait their doctrines are divine, and that their 
recent customs are preferable to those, which were 
Iqrfaefly adapted in the. church of Christ. But, if 
they simply proclaim that glorious Gospel, which 
has been already confirmed by a thousand miracles, 
and are observed to adopt no. other method than 
that of the Apostles ; it is absurd, in the highest 
degree, to insist upon miracles as the only sufiicient 
evidences of their mission. From worldly pastors, 
such attestations of their sacred commission might, 
with propriety, be required. These are the persons, 
who turn aside from the beaten track of Christ and 
his disciples, both with respect to doctrine and dis- 
cipline ; and these should be required, by the 
church, to give in^ontestible proofs, that their novel 
cuatoms are better than those of St. Paul and the 
ancient Evangelists. 

3. No Sji^lc^ent reason can be given, why the 
humble imitators of St. Paul should be required to 
^d^nce their spiritual mission by extraordinary ac*? 
tlons.-On the one hand, th^y do but simply declare 
those religious truths, of whigh they have had the 
inoBt convincing experience ; and* on the other, they 
' ejarnesUy solicit the wicked to become partakers of 
the same invaluable blessing. Now the certainty of 
such declaration, and the sincerity of such invitation, 
Viay be solidly estal;)Ushed upon two kinds of proof i 

liSO THE PORTRAIT 0^ W.'tAtjt'. ^ 

first upchi those proofk whrchsuptjortlfie CSo^^ fti^ 
general ; add secondly, xip6ti the hdly ccAdufct tff 
those,*Wh6 bear thi§ testtmohy artd refiieat these iti'- 
▼Uations, by which they d^fnonatfkte the' efflcaty df 
their doctrtne,'and indfijMitably prbte; that tnr^ 
•hristianft ar«f ** tiead Indeed Unto sihf btrtuKv'e unti>' 
God." That pastor, who is unable icr'prodtice t^V 
former proofs, canhcrt possibly be re^rd^d^s a; tt ufe 
' successor of the great Apbstti : and he, wHo^ imi-' 
form conduct is insnKciem to slipply the lalt(^,is rtv 
otherthan afalie Apostfe;* *' ^ 

4- External miraclfes, WhttA aflfect m> chkhge iW 
the heart, notr rescue the soul from a s^tt of splt^^ 
tual blindh^ss and dc^ttt ; mfratiles, which servfe onlf 
to repair the orgaihs of a l»dy, that m^si shortly b^ 
consigned to the grave ; mlr^les, t^hlch t^d iiter^iy^ 
t6 modify matter, such as causing green trbels td 
wither, withered trees to* springs and water tOgu^h- 
out of the flinty rock : mirtlcles of this nituVe, ard 
far less impbrtant than those, which tause tHethornaP 
of vice to wither, the seeds of grace to spttng,ant> 
streams of sacred consolation to* flow throligh tYids^ 
very hearts which were formerly batreh as a d^serrf 
and hard as the rock, that Moserstnbtfe. 

5. «* If yoa wisli'for miracles," siys i chrfstiaW 
writer 'f " if you aj-e atiiious to expe^i^n^cii them itf 
« yourseNejs ; if, in the secret of yout* hWar^, youp 
« would becomfe witnesses of his' aimtghtyp<rwer,b|p 
« whom that heart was formed, then ask df httW 
« this sublime virtbd [rhi% 6h«riey}from Which- all 
« your inclinations and habits detain you at so ^mtd 
** distance, that you are in' no situation to form Mf 
« |ust idea of it, nor even to t<3f&ce)^e tht possibility^ 
« of its earistence." 

6. This sublime vittii^, this divine* charity isrd 
these i^dcred consdlatiotifs^ whkh wei^ef aS a' tl^lfell of Wft^ 
<er springing up into everlasting lif^,-ift tfec heaftrf 
of Christ's htit dlsclplfc^i ittfcy • ^til! b6 ttladel to brettie 
forth in oar^. The tiSxitti 6i th^t int^tfiKisebltf 


fences can ^xha^sted ; and the faithful} ivho 
experience in themselves this consoling miracle, 
stand in need of no other prodigy to establish them 
in the &ith of the Gospel. 

. 7« The. most important miracles were those^ 
which were wronght. by the ApostleSy when, as fel- 
low-workers together with God, they opened the 
eyes of sinners, turning them <^from darkness to. 
light, and from the power of Satan unto God." 
True miracles of mercy these, and memorable con- 
versions which the word of God, in the mouths of 
lua ministersi is continually operating in every 

8. The charity, which is discovered by a faithful 
pastor, who humbly co-operates with God in the con* 
version of his inveterate enemies, should be regarded 
by the world, as the truest test of his " Apostleship. 
Whether there be prophecies, they shall fail ; Whe- 
ther there be tongues, they shall cease ; but charity 
never faileth. And though I have all faith, so that I 
could remove mountains," and perform the most 
unheard-of prodigies, " if I have not charity, 1 am 

. The preceding replies are abundantly sufficient 
to demonstrate the weakness of their third objection, 
who are the professed enemies of apostolic zeal. 




THE objection here proposed has been abun- 
dantly more prejvidicial to tbe cause of piety, than 
any of the preceding* " You suppose," say formal 
professors, ^^ that every pa^itor is called to labour ipr 
the salvation of souU, in tbe present day, with all 

mat zeal, which anftmifted iu Pklil itf ^rhiftlfS 
times. Biit thdr drcumsOktiee^ ffiffer iti ^^rfWi^ • . 
tertftl Way. Tbt Apostles w^t« eoiiiiiti«tidotied td 
preach the GospeU either tbthfidh^Lt i^^i or idb^- 
latroos HeatKehs x Wtiere^ &tit ptisXjbftt iir6 ciOled to 
exercise their miiiistf^kniotig^beiii^ hstv^f^telt^d 
the trotfi fronti thfeir eaMi^st infiltib]r« Irit ridbth«^ 
c6htrary to totiinibtt s^ft^, th&t ihk tmk iUi^tUiifyii' 
efibrtssbouMM tfadii^htn^desftaty fof^tft^iniititiogoK 
of christians whkh St. Pttill ^as forthbfl^ cdn^Muhedf 
to niak^ u&e of fOr th^ doi^tersioh of iddlateit?" 

As this specious objeetton has bet^ ittore ivku 
quently repeated, than properly refuted, it becomtbi- 
oecessary, in this plilce, tb estpose all its Wenkn^ss, 
and to demonstrate^ that the difference beti^eeiisiti^ 
ners, who are baptise^d, and ihbse^ ^th VhMi St. 
Panl had to do^ is by no meacns in &touf of it^dbleiit ' 

U Thiere are foond swarttis of ihfidth adi^Mdl^ 
ters ill fevery chrislfan eountfy upon efcrth. Wfe 
need hbt look beyond protectant chtirches to dlito*' 
ver multitudes of impious christians, wko liot bnl^ 
despise the Gospel in secret, but who even dare t6 
ihake it the subject of public ridicule i rticftj who 
♦* have set up their idols in their beam," toid who 
perfectly answer the apostles' description of de|;ene- 
rate professors. 

2. St. Paul himself sufficiently answers this very 
objection, as follows: "In Christ Jesus, neither cir« 
cumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcisiony 
but a new creature : and as many as walk according 
to this rule, peace be on them." If there are any, 
who make a profession of receiving the christian 
faith, and who follow not this evangelical rule, the 
Apostle thus addresses them, whh an holy warmth: 
*^ Examine yourselves whether you be in thft faith ^ 
prove your ownselves ; know ye not your ownselves 
how that JcsUs Christ is in you^ except yta bo repro- 
bates I Be ^ot deceived i neither covet^s perst^asy 

' inherit the Kingdom of Godm" 

3; i3teem hfm the ^fl(& 6b)6CtiM is d^blited 

dH^ cMlM diehH^tiCit^ Md midiftftt thy beftAt ^ Qod| 
iUM llit^ell bi^ #Hly bcltH^ iiiMrtiolAd oilt 6f tte" 
€#Oibld " l««r'* »£ Mblrasft «nd of Cfariit. . ^< T hidu, tMi 
jAfkftftt'tlSf b«&irt of^U hLW I If filMMt tiiiraitth fot»Aliit 
1^ tbe Id^r «ii»h0AoUf«st Godr the Mm« of G6d M 
tSai eiddjihttaidd ttfiidUg lh« genttte^ fthftlu^h fotti 
TK^t^foit tMu ftrt ifiMiout^bl^^ O mtni whoaol»vt# 
^6il ir^ thai j«il^«at" th^ heiitbttH tis ^itmttrt mortf 
Kt>p(d6as thaft thf^tf s for whefein thou jUdgettI 

rlt^cfter, ditiu <:x>ftd«ititf«st thf iielft fof thoit th«l 
JQ^&t d(m tbe tettie tMiigft. And tklnkest tirouy 
O thiuH" tMt ^y i^Htllegies mknphivcdv will aslim 
tfie^ m ^^iirtape the jadgtueat iorf God? Or desfieM 
th^ the riches of his goodness; ndt khoWing, th«l[ 
fdt gd'odbesil of God leodeih thee to ret^^tittuice ?'^ 
:blftw&fe leSt>« lifter the htt^essdf thin&impefiltcDl 
heart, thou treasurest up^unto thjrsetf wrath against 
tiieday of^rath*" 

4* If ertty scriptural tbfeat^fiing is denounced 
Irgstost'those) v^ho are without chat holtti«sii| Which 
the Gospel requiresr it Would tM become us to flattei^ 
^ther ours^tes 6r>thets With being the true follow^ 
erS 6f Christ) merely on accdunt of that external prcM 
€es^i6n of Christianity, Which is ^enertilly itppai^i^ 
aniong ii9» Is it not vikeniably eyhietit, that such St 
professjonr unless it be acciompsnied with strict liO^ 
linesS, will subject us to more and heavier stripeSf 
than if We had hever^ known the Willofdur hefeiVenff 
Father, nor eVer acknowledged Christ as our rightful 
lidrdt DidiVotdurgracioua MaStclrhiihsleifonceopelily' 
Aianifest a gred.ttr degree of abho^rrenee toward 
the lukewarm Christian, than toward the notorious 
aimierr And has he not plainly declared$ thatmyri* 
ada of righteous heathens shall be permitted to sit 
down ijfk the Kingdom of God) While multnudes^f 

164 TBK POAT&^IT O^ ^Ti. FAyt. 

his pro&fMing peofde sbaU be past into outer dark* 
ness ? 

5. 'After infants have, been baptized, and after 
yoiiBgper90D8 have been admitted to the holy com- 
munion^ the true for, 
granted, that they are become unfeigned christians 
by partaking of these ordinances,, examines theip. 
with diligence from time to tinKt, and, from an ^i" 
tentive observation.of their conduct, forms a judg- 
ment of their faith* Iff after the strictest scrutiny], 
he discovers some among them, who hold the form, 
without experiencing the power of goflliness, he rc^- 
news his work with encreasing ardpur* The mos^t 
painful part of his duty is still before him, when h& 
attempts to convert those sinners, who are ba^lzed, 
and those infidels, who are communicants i since 
before he can lead them to that which worketh by 
loves as St. Paul was accustomed to lead unprejudi* 
ced heathens, he must first unmask them with a 
holy, severity, as ,the blessed Jesus was accustomed 
to unmask the pharisees of his day. 

6. If unregenerate christians are heathens bf 
their worldly disposition ; if they are pharisees by 
their presumption, and eonfirraed in their pharisaism 
by the fallacious opinions they indulge of their pre- 
rogatives under the Gospel:— .it follows,, that every 
moidern pastor is called to a performance of the two- 
fold duty above described. And if tliis b^ the 
case, how unreasonable is it to imagine^ that the 
ministers of our own time have a much less difficult 
task before them than those, who were formerly 
commissioned to publish the Qospell 

< 7. All pastors have an important task assigned 
them, and, till this is performed, they are required 
to labour without fainting. Observe in what this task 
consists :»...*^ He that descended from Heaveu^" 
saith St. Paul, ^< gave some Apostles ; and some pas* 
tors and teachers i for the perfecting of the saints, 
for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of ihe 

fitteks;* « uwto the measure of the staturd of the fW* 

ti^«s of Chrifet." WhAi every christian has^attained^ 

in this exstlted isltatie, th^ Tftitii^tcrs ^'the Govpel 

ihay* th^rt asstett thcif wwk*to be cdfttipiebey and- 

ne^d iihitaitfe no' k>hger thtf diltgefice cf St. Faiih 

"Bxit whlt^ x^e are stjrrouiidetiifrith hstptited s-w^arfera,- 

tffsTbbftth-bf eajEi^, $fstnd«iref s^ gutnestersi drankftrdf » 

^9titt<j4is, debkuthasisi bla^hentehi^ aiid h^T^peer &tea»' 

i^bkre asing etefy effort to render trhtisttanitf 

4^s^k^e befdreinfld^) andeaceorabletn theeyes' 

pt ^liVfo^ophers r at sucha'tinie it contidt be rea* 

SWmbly iffia^fred* ttet any indrridtial laboarer w 

t^erftiftt^ to' stand idfe in Uie ftpiritiial vineyaid. 

"Andf^ty tit tfits-vtvy time of univermA degeheracyy 

thcfe are not wanting m«(riy among! 1189 who tnconan 

'detftt^f ttf mt; ^^ St; Paniv withouH do«bt, bad 

<* reai^'tb Idbour with tmremitting wistdiiity for tht^ 

**conVet5ion of idotatrbus heathens- 1 but we arie* 

^ converted already, dlid see n6 necessity for thac- 

** burning 2ea}, sind thot^ strenuous efforts amcm^ 

^oor ifi6tffem teichcrs, which wer6 formerly conK 

« iriehdibte in that Apostle." 

Sf; Kit be objettedy that christians are here rd- 
^^ttted in d more deplorable point ai view than 
caridotrr orobi^nfvation can warrant t we make onp 
sEp^eal to th^sfe proda^ationsywliich hsnrebeeninttfe 
wifth a view to suppress' th^ singld sin of prbfanin^ 
ftt nartebf Gc^i by impious oafhs^and horrible im-^ 
ptet$^<xMi These triu^t undoubtedly be considered! 
as public testimonies of public guilt. In siiehpro*' 
dhifniiationsf every ehristfan gov^nmeifit, whether ca- 
ft^lkS 46r prbtestantye(|ually eomplaifiy tHa% allr tird^ 
<^Hif laws; by whfoh they huVe endeshrovredtoenftfvcb 
the Li&w of QUfdi' h^e prb^^td' fns^iiSbfeiytta.preFventr 
fhe ov^^or^lngs of a erhhe^ dsitistpld as it is dit« 
^acefai. Ifk vatn^toive nevif per«alties' and ponislM 
Kftemfe beefi decreed j in vkitt are thby cowstantif 
)M4t forth frddr the fisAfM of fHm^tms aAditai 


thrones of Kings : this despicable vice Uill reign»' 
undisturbed among us^ insulting over the broken 
laws of earth and Heaven. Now if it has hitherto 
been found impossible to prevent the commission of 
a sin, which has neither pleasure nor profit to plead 
in its favour^ what csn we expect of «il4iho^ thou«: 
sand vices, which allure with promise sof botli I are^ 
not dissimulation and perjury, injustice and' coveO* 
ottsness, lasciviousness and luxury, apparent among"* 
the members of every church I Do not rapme, re*-* 
venge and murder, d^e every part of Chrlstendbmy- 
ill spite of prisons, banishment and deaUt-? it is a^ 
t|^th too notorious to be controveited, that tv^rf^ 
crimei with which human nature has ever been p»l*. 
luted, is still continually practised in the most iap*[ 
lightened parts of the world. ^^ 

We might here mention, if it were necessary,'. 
the contempt in which marriage is held, the insta^ 
biltty of that holy estate, and the £eicility. with which' 
so sacred a bond is broken. We might g» on to be-^ 
wail the frequent commission of suicide in christian- 
communities....But to speak of these with man y^ 
other sins, which are encreasing around us to an^ 
alarming degree, would be only to echo back those 
sad complaints, which are every day breathed from 
the lips of the righteous. The above remarks may, 
possibly appear uncharitable to some : but, if they. 
are without foundation, how many unmeaning ex5» 
pi«s^ons do we find in our liturgy i what hypocrisf^ 
in our public confessions! what false humility 4n eur 
prayers I 

From all these observations, it is evident, thatv 
the most heathenish manners are common among 
christians so called, and that the nK>st scandalous^" 
vices are i^revalent, even in those countries, where 
reformed Christianity has erected its standard. Let 
the impartial enquirer then declare, whether it 'be- 
not peculiarly necessary to preach repentance 
among those> whose rebellion against God is accom- 
panied with perfidiousness and hypocrisy I 

» <i - . . .• • . 



. .^ ' •!• WKRE it eren cectamv tbat prafemn^ 
*<^nstiiats ill geaerai waik according to tbcir holf 
vooalion^ votridiitbe Gommeodable in pastors to 
lAew/less^eooeemfoptfae salmtten of Christ's appa* 
i^t dboiplea^ than was ancieiitlf discovered by St» 
Pftidi for the cenns^rsion of pen^utisg heathens ? 
Qhsiatiaiisiare our bretiiren. The chux:chr our com* 
nqfOB mother^ has nourished us with the same spiri- 
taalniiilk9.a»d*caHs us to a participation of the same 
htfftvenly ti^eritance. <lhristians aee oo more stran- 
'£!efs ; and even those^ who are bad citizens apd 
iptfiudrfttl. domeslicsy are nevertheless in some 
Wise.ckizeQSof the. same city with ourselves, and 
ol the. kousehold of God* Hence, as we compose 
but. one housebbld, so whenever w« are disposed to 
•negitQct any part of this familyf we may apply to 
ourselves the following words of the Apostle : ^' If 
•a&y provide. not lor his own, and especially for those 
of his own house, h^ has denied the faith, and is 
w^rse than an infidel." Let ministers then, be 
piaoed in the happiest imaginable circumstances, 
and it .will still become them to cry out, with the 
. pious heaevfdjgnce of St. Paul; '^ As we have oppor- 
tuni^, let us do good unto all men, especially unto 
th^iP) who are of the houshold of faith.'' 

2» We may he?e pursue the idea, which Christ 
•himdelf has given us, by comparing his church to a 
vioeyard. If it be necessary to graft those stocks, 
which are naturally wild ; is it less necessary to 
ciiltivate those, wluich have been already grafted I 
We see the husbandman bestowing most culture 
upon those vines, which produce the most excellent 
^fruit• Let ministers attend to this general rule < 
jad viuoQ th^y only can be fruitful in the sacred vine- 

168 .TMT tOft f rAiT '«r- ir^ #AtrL J 

yard, who recelr* tH'e WoM bf Gbdm 'feithv fettlieih' 
study te traffi ^ap bdllevetS'tb tlie highest st^tt of 
maturity. Tints the heavenly huiibandinan H re- 
presentedvBS ^f gin^; ^eV^r^^nMiA hralidi, ^^' that' 
it may briti^ forth «iB*e4TOi«." .: .. i 

3. The wvMPd 'Af 6iyd iMst he ^ti-efd fd ^ftifteri 
as a remedy sttllad^ti^theidmiafttrdftli^t'Hit^feflM' 
to the fakhfel te tMstbejldiitkiitftaMiiyfiiiuHiiii^' 
-food. Heneet as -the^o^der Hi grac^ ie#einhft9^ that- 
tyf nature^ it is ne^se^ftaty^'tti U'splivtuii'eibilftc^^^Rif*'' 
nister nutrimcm 40 fht/)iMiK1t3r>tfi*ilii]icli['%^ 
quantities, than medicine to those, who aire*^^^' 
eased. Thus belUrv^vst^^fiid^oiMtaiiCly'ltf^^ 
thirst after greater 4«|^tees i^^fffBtitf^h^^Vi^iiht^^ 
frequently receive ^e living wimrd^tfai^^)!^^ itta^r* 
abound yet more and iMre ii»>knowM|i;|^^ tiii4ih^' 
are " filled with the fruits of rigliteoQgiie«Ks.*^ - «' .- 

4. We find the following expreMofis ittitliie 
epistle of St. Paul t&tbe RomaM: ^ i ani ptmtta^eil 
of you, my brethren that ye are^Mlnf gowiUMsv 
filled with all knowledge, able to aduM^nieh ^xief'fas^ 
other. Nevertheless! hs^ written^ the monejhlkkHf 
unto youi as putting you in mind*" And f^- i J0i%* 
to see you, that I may impart unto ^u «oroe« sfo^i 
ritual gift, to the end ye may be estiMished*" 'N^w^ 
if St. Paul could express soeameet a d^are tot.iii* - 
struct those christians^ who were perfect scrangen r 
to him, and who were already so divinely eiiligi:i<^ 
tened ; far from being imitatok^s of this gf eat ;;A^mdA- 
tle, do we not forfeit- «kl pretensim^ochaiityinidnkfe: 
we suffer those ignorant chnstinns' to -perish foi^lackL- 
of knowledge, who are not only of ouFAeighbaHT^. 
hood, but probably of o«c very parii^ 'I » i 

5. Though St. Paul wai asaietied with^imnuctt^ 
lous endowments, yet - how an-xiously. diid '»h©*en*^ 
deavour to fill up the twofold dutli^ of a bclievtv la. 
Christ, and a minister of hia Gospel* . Andf shall iira^ 
refuse to labour with equal 'eam^estnctsSf whose gifts 
are so mean> and whoso graceaiire go^nq^jayii^^*^ 


able ? Appoimtedy like tbe primitive preachers of 
chn^tiaDlty« to'be fishers of men, is it not perfectly 
1 e?Lsouable» that we should. manifest as great activit^r 
with; our feeble lines, as St* Paul wa« accustomed 
to discover in ^be use of his capacious net I If that 
Apo&ile, filled with holy seal, was enabled to convert 
morq sinners at a single discourse, than many pas-* 
tors are known to convert in a thousand sermons, 
should we not, by oun uncommon assiduity, supply^ 
as much as po8Mble« the want of that tncomprelien* 
sible energy) which accompanied hit ministerial la« 
bours ? 

6. Ministers are compared to labourers, wh« 
go fourth to cultivate the lands of their master* 
Now St* Paul, as the foremost of these labourers, 
wrought night and day with an extraordinary in- 
strument, which marked out furrows of an un- 
common depth, and ploughed up entire provinces 
on a audden* He made &e fullest proof of his mi- 
lustry, and, by the most astonishing efforts, spread 
the seed of the Gospel, from Jerusalem, round about 
unto Illyricum. How vast a difference between the 
former and latter pastors of the christian church ! 
Many of ua are content to stand altogether idle, till 
^ the night cometh. In which no man can work :'* 
while others, who are disposed to some little occu* 
psition, employ themselves as woikmen, who have 
need to be utterly asahmed of their insignificant 
labours* At best we hold but a tardy instrument ; 
an instrument, which with immense toil will but 
barely graze the earth, we are called to cultivate* 
And shall we, thus unhappily circumstanced, per- 
mit our plough'shares to gather rust during six suc- 
cessive days, and then leisurely employ them about 
an hour upon the seventh : Surely such a mode of 
conduct is as contrary to common sense, as to the 
example St. Paul has left us. 

7. So astonishing is the inconstancy, the weak- 
ness, and tbe depravity of the human heart, that in 



«pite of all the persevering industry of this Apostle . 
in the vineyard of Jii« Lord, it «till brought forth 
briars and thorns, «& the anguish of his souL *< Be- 
hold," saith he to the Corinthians, " the third tifne 
I am ready to come unto you, for your edify ing-* 
For I fear, lest when I ccmie, I shall notind you 
such as I would, imd that I shall be found u^^ f qi^ 
auch as ye would not : lest there be debates, ewi^r 
ings, wraths, striles, back-bitings, whisperingff 
swellings, tumults ; and lest when I come, my God 
will humble me among you, and that I shall bewail 
many, which have sinned already, and have not re- 
pented." ^ 

We shall close this chapter by proposmg th^ 6^ 
lowing queries, which may be r^sonably gr^ounde^ 
upon the preceding passage. If the natural an4 
supematural talents of St. Paul ; if his «ea2y his dh- 
iigence, and his apostolic authority were insu&cient 
to engage his flock to conduct themselves^ as fol* 
lowers of Christ; if their want of piety drew from 
him tears of lamentation, and obliged him to renew 
his painful efforts with redoubled solicitude ; can 
those pastors be said to possess the spirit of the 
Gospel, who behold with indifference the disorders 
of that falling church, which Christ has purchased 
with his own blood ? And if the extraordinary la^ 
hours of St. Paul were not sufficient fully to answer 
the design of the sacred ministry, is it not pre- 
sumption indeed to imagine, that our triviaii «er«> 
vices are sufficiently complete I 




WHEN we attack a prejudice, that is obsti- 
iiatEly defended, it is frequently as needful to mul- 
tipty -arguments, as it is necessary in a siege to mul- 
tiply assauks. Pursuing this method, we shall en. 
deavour, upon new grounds, to establish the doc« 
trine contended fbr in the two last chapters* 

l» After exhorting Timothy to labour without 
ceasing, St. Paul assigns the following reason for 
such injunelion, : " Know," saith he, " that in the 
last times*' of the christian church, "men,** wha 
miike a profession t)f faith, <* shall be lovers of their 
ownselveS) despi^sersof those, that are good.»««lovers 
of pleasure tnore than lovers of God : having a form 
of godliness, but denying the power thereof." Now, 
if Timothy was exhorted to use all diligence, in op- 
posing those evils, which were then only making 
their approach ; is it reasonable, that we should^be 
remiss, who are unhappy enough to see those last 
times, in which the decay of pierf^ predicted by the 
Apostle, is become universal ? On the contrary, is 
not this the moment, in which we should strenu- 
ously resist the overflowings of ungodliness, and 
fortify those who are not yet swept away by the im- 
petuotH torrent ? 

2, When the great Apostle benevolently carried 
the word of God to sinners of every different na- 
tion, he thereby armed against himself the autho- 
rity of magistrates and priests, as well Jewish as pa- 
gan* His universal philanthopy, exposed him to the 
most cruel persecutions* Thousands, and ten thou* 
sands were set in array against himj and the inha- 
bitants of every kingdom seemed determined to re- 
sist or destroy him? in his spiritual progress* He 
saw these surrounding dangers ; but he saw them 

^72 T»« PaHTHArT OF »T, I^AtYL, 

Without diacovenng any symptem of fear r aAd ra- 
ticief than dbcoatinuc hia poin^i labours, lie chber- 
fully proceeded ^ encounter erery theaterVkig e^. 
Wc5 on the contmryt mre appointed to >biuiW.:ep^4he 
childifsn of the kingdom in theic most holy faWi- 
UVnd sh4li we> labour iesB, be^&use • we offi». l&bo^r ~ 
wiih IcM danger^ Shall ^w« neglect die diiti«f$'6f 
our sacred ftuiction* Irecanseoor sdpertors^ivi tsimwh 
and Uftte pcrniit tis to convert sinnei^^ comAteiHd 
'US to preach Ui« Gospel^ erect jus templet foi^^tf^e 
public celebration of divine vorflihipj and aU5tr tts 
salaries, that our ministry may newriieincaertHipted 
by secular cares ? The ministerial services, ^iHch St« 
Paul performed with such ili»abatirigzear], when his 
reward was imprisonment and stripes, mtjst' we l^e 
engaged to discharge by emolam«nts and'faon«>d^r*^ ? 
And, after all, shall we limit our ccmstrdiied ob^dli- 
eoce precisely to that point, which will merely se- 
cure us from public deposition and disgrace I 

* 3. What was the error of Demas ; a^man^ as 
notorious by his fall among the Evangelists, as Judas 
amongvihe Apostles ? Demas loved this present 
world, and, ceasing to imitate the diligence of St. 
Paul, ungratefully left him to labour almost without 
a second. And will unfaithful Evangelists pre- 
sume, that they may imitate, without fear, the apos- 
tacy of Demas, and renounce, with impunity ^ the 
example of St. Paul I If such is their unhappy per- 
suasion, we submit the following qoeries to their 
serious* consideration. Are the souls of men less va- 
luable ; is sin of any kind less detestable, or the law 
of God less severe, in the present day^ than in^^the 
earlier ages of the christian cbtirch? Have i]ast(»rsa 
right to be remiss, while the night of incrediiiitf 
is blackening around them ? Are the attacks of an- 
tichristian philosophers* less frequentand audadoas 
at present, than in former times f Or, finally, i» the 
appearance of our omnipotent Judge no longer exr 
pected in the world i 

r^ \ 4t. If ^tbt <A]K>9tlpfr an4> prmitive pastots have 
■r«inov€Ml ;maa.3n;Lhi!cateiiingniinpedimentB out of our 
.WfibYi ifttbcyhavie prooiured Jdt «s our present ad- 
:jVa]i|Ugdftby.)th^>mQS(<i<fmu9iiig^':eiteirtioiiB) and at the 
.^pfglligiotis^cejof .their faiod4:.;:8iu«el]r it dan never 
.h^(bs^a^ne;dytbatitit0)r>acl^d'with sofniieh resolu- 
1[«|iQBi:at>d:i<«ffeead jwitk'fioioDUtte constaticy, that we 
/ ^m\^ ifaecQtme 4he iDdoleiit readerii' of ttveir unpa- 
i>lvftlklod'lii»tecf.«^ Wasdt not rather, that^ animated 
3lHt^> ia .h^qMi»ingf s0nae'X>f I then? great 'Sample, we 
?mi|^hlimali« tl}e<htgi»eatiimprofTenient of our inesti- 
l^mcMei jpclvilegefti; 

.^f". : t 5m; The jnonn tains are^n^w laid low, the ralleya 
xftfQ ^liedinp^ ikhe>orooked w«7S ane made straight, 
-MT^tmo htivG^oaly to carry- that salvation to sinners, 
\ for iWhieh. such wonderful preparations have been 
made^ And are we negligent in running on the er<» 
-i^nds of everlasting love ? And are we backward in 
bearing the happiest tidings to the most hapless of 
.^.crestnres ? No excuse then can possibly be made 
'S6r the coidness) except that, which the author of 
Emillus has put into the mouth of a fictitious cha- 
/ractec: Of what importance is it to me, says the vi- 
xar Savoyard) what becomes of the wicked! I am. 
bitf little concerned in their future destiny* An ex- 
cuse for the want of zeal, which can never be 
•pleaded, without reflecting the utmost disgrace upon 

: 6* Ye pastors of a flock ever prone to wander ? 
choose whom you will follow, philosophers or Apos-t 
7tles ^.'the i&de^iigable zeal of St« Paul, or the cruel 
^ii]dsfiei!ence of the sceptical vicar ^ But, if you takQ 
; the latter for your model, we solemnly entreat you to 
vlay aside the profession, while you so siiamefully re^ 
.nounee the- duties of the holy ministry. ** As I 
•Jive, saith the' I^ord G<id, I have no (ileasure in the 
death of the wicked; but that the wicked turn from. 
Ms. way- and live*'? : With y o», however, it is a mat- 
ter of very inconsiderable importance, whether, th&j 
p a. 

174 TM« POlLTmAlT Of •T. >AVX^ 

wicked foe finally savedi or detli^ed. And f ^ 
careless as foti are of iu weal or wte| you'^dimiw 
to appear as ministem of tlie CterthbaAdma pittftdwrn 
over that little fiock, for which the good shepherd 
was content to lay down his life. - ToranAt>With the 
watchful attendants of the fold Is an honocovof -Mftacsh 
you are altogether unworthy ; but yott may withprcK 
priety be counted In the number of those ungratefal 
hirelings, who care not for the sheep*' ' - ' . - .'^' 

7. it is true, you are not without companidnsy ms 
well ancient as tnodem* You have Hophni and 1^- 
nehas, Gehazi and Balaam, to keep you in oovn- 
tenance ; you have the prophets of Jeeehel toplead in 
your favour, and every worldly^cclesiastk of the 
present day to approve your choice c but apostoli- 
cal men will resolutely withstand you, like Misha 
and his Master, in the cause of deserted troth. 

Ye slothful domestics of the most diligent Mas* 
ter ! Ye ctuel attendants of the tenderest shepherd I 
say, have ye never heard that Master crying out, with 
the voice of affection. Feed my sheep f Have ye not 
seen him conducting his flock to an evangelical pas- 
ture, in the temple, in synagogues, in villages, in 
bousesi in deserts, on the sea-shore, and on the tops 
of mountains? He anxiously sought out the misera- 
ble. Truth was the guide of his way, charity accom* 
panied his steps, and his path was marked with bless- 
ings. His Sficret efforts wete more painful than hia* 
public labours : he publicly instructed through the 
day : but he privately agonized in prayer through the 
night. His first disciples were anxious to tread in the 
steps of their adorable Master. They exercised their 
ministry within sight of torments and death. And 
will you dare to neglect it, now the cry of persecution 
is hushed ? Will you equally despise, both the pro- 
mises and threatenings of the Gospel? Will you has- 
ten the times of antichrist, by an antichristian con- 
cfuct ? And wheiv the Son of man shall come, shall he 
ftud y%KA trami>l4Dg under foot the Gospel of Iws 

TfUl PO&TRiJT .Qy ST. >P^Vt. 175 

gnctl Oty slmll he «urpm^ yoa distributing <Hirds 
irouad tJbQ tiil^f jof jroar fiiendty rajii^r. tban ear- 
jDcfltlr 4iiTiiiPg ttKMie fmndft to tb^ tJi^k of jrour 
.1^0114 ?■•-,.•. 

* ' C^.th«ls^<^ul<lpi^Ti^Uii|ion you8t9A4 in your 

tnx^t.^postf Mi^'flct in ci^n^rmity to your pro- 

fesjttdiid clharaoteir { While you dream of secu" 

Etl^ yooittse «urroux»djed wJith the i»o»t alarming 

dangers, << Staiidf th^re&>i»e} havijog your loins girt 

:ttboiit mltik truth;' having on the breast-plate of 

ii^tfiousnenit and your feet shod with the prepara- 

total of tJbft. Goapel of peace : above alU taking the 

^shield.of fatiht wherewith ye shall be able to quench 

: lOi the Serf dartaof the wicked. And take the htU 

iiliei of saijrationy and the sword of the Spirit, which 

is^the word of God : prayingalways with all prayer^ 

and watching thereunto with all perseverance, and 

supplications for all $atnt&," and for the ministers of 

' the.Godpel in particular, ^< that they ma|sopen their 

mouth boldly, to make known the mystery of the 

Gospel," and diffuse abroad «^ the unsearchable 

riches of Christ." Thus, quitting yourselves like 

men, in this sacred warfare, after steadily resisting, 

' you shall finally overcome all the strength of the 

enemy, " by the word of truth, by the power of God, 

by the armour of righteousness on the right hand 

and on the left :" Till having weathered out the cyiL 

day, continuing faithful unto death, ye shall be rc-^ 

warded with a crown of everlasting life. 

176 ntmM ponTliAxi'JW'W^^piwrtr. 

CHAPw IXw. '. • •• -- • 

A yukTBS'R' A!EFirTA<]^id]r or tsBiSAKB^ OBj«mdir. 

U WHEN W:fB^e^.»umb!e^jof B^r^r^fi i^ pe- 

our first efTorts in favour of those, who^^p^igr^tg^ j^e 
in tbc moat . immme»t dwg^i?*^: : Stt^ ^l^ej upholy 
Ghri9tians» Skifal/heatUeQs^ are ^^ubtl^^sam^^g^g ; 
dMtinate Jews in still greeiter. peril $'l>^i;.ia>]^f^iAt 
cbrtstUns »re ia a sttuatkm abuii49i9tly>'9V3|(^,J^. 
mentftble than. «Llh«r ; (iace, ilmy oQip^ i^S^^jPft 
clearer light and knowledge, equallj^.Jns^^i^t^e 
to the most gracious promisesyon one ii^d»> 49d 
the most terrtble menaces> on the otbi^r* ? Tft^in 
with the new Testament in our hand« and wit|v4i|e 
sound of the Gospel in our ears... .40 sin with die 
seal of by tism in our forehead, and the. nam^.pf 
Christ in our lips-.-to sin and receive the holy qqi|l- 
munion ; to ratify and break the most solemn eiigc^g^- 
> ments ; what is this, but earnestly labouring out our 
own damnation, and plunging ourselves into those 
abysses of wretchedness, which Pagans and Jews- 
arc unable to fathom .MIow eagerly then should evei*y 
believer attempt to rescue his falling brethren I and 
especially, how anxious should they be to arrest 
those leaders of the blind, who are drawing th©ir 
followers to the brink of perdition? As this is <^q, 
of those arguments, upon which the truth, here 
pleaded for, must principally ;:e9t, wp shall aon^der 
it in the several points of view, under which it is 
presented to us in the Gospel. , . . 

2. The commission of St. Paul, was pwrtlculfiriy 
directed to the Gentiles : yet, before he vlsLLe<kt;Wr 
benighted nations, he his duty to make, a 
full and free offer of the everlasting Gospel to, the 
people of the Jews. For the conduct of th^ Apos- 
tle in this respectj the following jeaSons are tp be.. 


assigned. First, ** The promises pertained" to the 
Jewii in a peculiar manner; Secondly, The chil- 
dren of Abraham, according to the flesh, had a more 
tbresacniog prospect before them, in case of toal 
impenitence, than any other people upon earth: 
*^ Tvfbulatka) and anguish shaU be upon etery soul 
'of tnan, that doth evil,, of the Jew first and also of 
th^ Gentile* 

i 8. The same reasons, though chiefly the lattefy 
- cfie ^ttll to be urged, why the ministers of Christ 
' shicHk-ki^vincipally labour among christians. For if 
. fl^mi^fs of the circumcision shall be more severely 
^(yiHil^edthsn the ignorant heathen, so the Apostle 
declares that sinners, who are baptized into the name 
o$ Christ> shall be treated with still greater rigour 
than- impenitent Jews. ^« He that despised Moses' 
law," saith he, ^^ died without mercy under two or 
three witnesses : of how much sorer punishment," 
then, ^< suppose ye, shall he be thought nj^rthy, who 
hath trodden under foot the Son of God ...and hath 
done despite to the spirit of grace V* If this conside- 
ration was accompanied with its due effect, it would 
fire us with the most unconquerable zeal for the sal« 
Nation of negligent christians. 

4. In one of the last discourses our Lord ad« 
dressed to the cities of Galilee^ we find him reading 
over them this dreadful' sentence of condemnation. 
^Woe unto thee Chorazin, woe unto thee Bethsaida! 
lor ifthe mighty works which were done in you, had 
been done in Tyre and Sidon, they would have re- 
pented long ago in sackcloth and ashes. But I say 
unto you, it shull be more tolerable for Tyre and Si* 
don at the day of judgment, than for you- And thou 
Capernaum) which" by thy religious privileges, <« art 
exalted unto Heaven, shalt," for the non-improre- 
ment of them, ^ be brought down to Hell. Yea, it 
shall be more tolerable^ in the day of judgment for 
the land of Sodom," which has been already con- 
turned with fire from above, ^ than for thee." 


5. To draw the just consequences ^m thU a.^ 
feeling menace, we must recollect, that, when it was' 
pFonoonGed, the inhabitants, of the aboyementioned 
cities had been favoured, but for a very short intervals 
with the ministry of Christ and his messengers: Anti 
if the death and resurrection of Jesus were alterwai^d^ 
published among them, it is moi*e than probable, 
that these important facts were published only in a 
desultory and transient way. Nevertheless the sin« 
ners of Capurnaum were thought worthy of greater 
punishment, than the sinners of >Sodom. Hence we 
conclude, that, if the sinners of London, Paris, Rome, 
and Geneva, have hardened themselves against the 
truths of the Gospel for a much longer continuance, 
than the citizens of Capernaum were permitted to 
do, there is every reason to apprehend, that their 
sentence will not only be more dreadful than the 
sentence of Sodom, but abundantly less toletabW 
than that^hich was pronounced upon the inhabitants 
of Galilee. 

6. While we consider the various proportions in 
which future punishment shall be admin ste red to the 
wicked of different classes, we may turn to those re- 
markable expressions of St. Peter and St. Paul :..»• 
** If, afier having escaped the pollutions of the world, 
through the knowledge of the Lord and Saviour Je- 
sus Christ, they are again entangled therein and 
overcome ; the latter end is worse with them than 
the beginning. For, it had been better for them not 
to have known the way of righteousness, than after 
they have known it, to turn from the holy coni-' 
mandment delivered unto them. If we sin wilfully 
after we have received the knowledge of the truth, 
there remaineth no more sacrifice for sins,but a cep* 
tain fearful looking for of judgment, and fiery indig* 
nation, which shall devour the adversaries." Theses 
declarations^ assist us to discover the true ground 
of that apostolic exhortation, with which we shall 
close this chapter : *< Of some have compassion, 


making a difiference : and others stfre with fear, 
paUing them oat of the fire. 

From this last Yiew of the subject we may per- 
^fetve^ iolo how dangerous an error those persons 
^e fallen, who presume to object agahkst imitatin|f 



THE solidity of the preceding remarks may 
be acknowledged by many pastors, who will still 
excuse themselves from^ copying the example of 
St. Paul. 

w It is unreasonable," they will say, " to require 
that we should preach the word of God, in season^ 
and out of season, as St* Paul once did, and as Tim- 
othy was afterwards exhorted to do. We find it, 
in this day, a matter of difiiculty to prepare any 
public address, that may be either acceptable to 
the people, or honourable to ourselves." 

To ihis objection we return the following 

1. He, who spake as never man spake, rejected 
the arts of our modem oratots, delivering his dis- 
courses in a style of easy simplicity, and unaffected 

' 3. We do not find, that St. Paul and the other 
Apostles, imposed upon themselves the trouble- 
some servitude of penning down their discourses. 
And we are well assured, that when the seventy, 
and the twelve, were commissioned to publish the 
Gospel, no directions of this nature were given in 
either case. 


S. St* Paul gives the following pastoral instnio 4 

tiona to Timotbf : ^ GiTe^itttAdaooe to reading, to ■ 

exhorialion, to doctrine. Negfeet not ihe-giStytK^t^'^ 
ii in thee. Meditate upon these tMig«, give thy- "j 

self wholly to them. Tdce h«e4 unto Ihy sdf^ and . i ! 

to thy doctrine ; continue in them t for th ^inig tifns ' * 
thou shalt both si^Te thyself and -them that h^. 
thee. Preach the word; be iflMiM!fn'»^asbnVt>ut' ' 
of season : reprove, rebulsef emhon^ With ^11 Iteng*- -^ 
suffering and doctrine." Now, had it ever-^iitei^cl ' - 
into the mind of the Apostle, that 4t woiildbe 'ptoi^r^ 
for. pastors to compose thett scrlitonsfn ^^m to tnerj x 
of rhetoricianstand to deliver them a^ pitblid ^rutoi^' ; 
he would most probably havef given' komeifcitiinailoii' '^ 
of this to his disciple. In sneh case, he would have ' 
held out to his pupil in divinity, some instructions ! 
of the following nature. ** O Timothy, i|if sdril I\ 
** have frequently commanded thee to lalN>ur in ttie ' 
^ work of the Lord, according to my example. But ' 
<< as thou art not an Apostle, properly so ctJled, 
^ and hast not received the gift of languages, I ad« ' 
<^ vise thee to write over thy sermons as correctly as ^ 
<< possible. And after this, do not fail to reheatsev 
<< them before a mirror, till thou art able to repeat 
<< them with freedom and grace : so that when thou 
<< art called upon public duty, thou mayest efiectu- 
<* ally secure the approbation of thine auditors. 
« Furthermore when thou art about to visit any dis- - 
<< tant churcheS) lay up in thy portmanteau the 
« choicest of thy sermons. And wherever thou art, 
*^ take, care to have, at least one discourse about thee, 
M that thou mayest be prepared against any sudden 
^ emergency, and never appear unfurnished in the 
M eyes of the people." The idea of such a passage 
in the epistles of St. Paul, whether public or private, 
is too absurd to be endured. ^ . 

4. If advocates, after hastily considering a ques- ,• 
tion of difficulty, are ready to plead the cause of 


their di^Qf^belcMW' ateoufi^off^judicatiire ;L.oan itlHi 
po^sil^leqi that aftor ftjS^Pid^ yoHrft-of nliedtuiioti a^ 
fttu^K* It jxiiBbHl^ «|ioitkl etiil .^ iHifireparvd to 
pleid t^.Q«use^i^f.pil»|y)ibdcihi a^idMk m&^uMf of 

ofJ-l^e^l^^^i^i^iilMiWjf 4i>'M^ newwMiry to 

pa^^>^he%^,w^i^^fn^|)H> delurorioiil; aMmtymMlft 
ttppj^jti^^.^j;x^^ ia iiMd i^ -iA.f 0- Mt ,th^ love and 
pej^^VAJA9Q,^'^ |>«?enla 9iif5ct^^t t^^ dictate ftuch 
advicc^/Jg^^u: ^ijM^, t^ |)|( 4Ur«ii<eQt t«fl»p^f« and Gon^ 

of ipLux*,B^^jgl^Qttr oafir^^Mretdo not withdr4W to our 
clt^eV ip ' i^^a.Ef^ s^ vai^ic^fc of ^ff«ctkig arguments, 
by r w^yi; ., Qjf.engp^iog him to 9ftve ^th himaelf and 
hisi, lamily from the flames. •!» such case, a lively 
eoQvUtiqo. ol our neighbour's danger, and an 
ardenli diesire tqxeacue him from it, afford u» great* 
erppw^rsp£natural eloquence, than any rules oi art 
cao furnish us with. 

]6. Horace observes^ that neither matter nor 
metKod. wiU be wanting upon a welUdigested subjects 
cui IcaafmtinUr €ri^re9^ 
Necfacundia deter et huncj nee luddua ordom 
With how much facility then may i»uitable ex* 
pressipns be expected to follow those animating sen* 
timents, which are inspired by an ardant love to 
God and man ; especially when subjects of such 
universal concern are agit%ted> as death and re- 
demption, judgment and eternity ? Uponaiu^h occa- 
sions, out of the abundance of the heart the mouth 
will speak, nor will the preacher be able to repeat 
a tenth part of the trxiths, which Ciod has communi* 
cated to him while meditating upon his text. If- 
malice .can furnish those persona if^ith an inexhausti* 
ble fund of conversatioUf who delight in malice, 
how much more may we suppose the cliarity of a^ 

183 THB FAOYEAIT 09 ST. 9AVt' 

pastor to furnish him with an inexlitattil^e ^"^^ ^f 
exhortation, instructioQt. and cp9i£Qrt. 

7. It has heen a pka with many minivers oCjtl^x 
Gospel, that they neglect to pxocJ^ini thfi^ Qq$C»^ 
during six days in the weehy lest ti^ey. should, he ,^li« 
prepared to address their pflU'isJucMifers, . .^^ !^ixk 
priety, upon the seventh* With, teafb^ifs, ,)^IXQ,.an5> 
thus scrupulously tenacious of the^. own pepMUi^'<>Qff 
we may justify he allowed, to reason ^in.thVwl<'v^i^£ 
manner. To what piu-pose .ar& allahosf oriabcicfX 
appendages, wiih which, yo^i are Bq ^udioyfs /.t.i^^ 
adorn your discourses ;. aivd w4>9 ^.^ r^iijirjed.jt))^ 
this useless labour at youjr haqd i^lf.a^rvQint, ai)Lci^, 
being charged by his master .wilb ^^f^^^.ofib^ 
utmost importaute* should betake biijisexT. iq^-hj^' 
chamber, and defer t lie execution of fi .day. .af^^f? 
day ; would not such a delay .b^ esteemed ^ UOt' 
pardonable neglect? Qcy if he ahoidd/f^t^tompt..)^^ 
apologiseUor the omission* by aUedging thatrhe ha^ 
been busily engaged ia learning .to repeat. wUh^|ife<^; 
cision, the message he had received) and to. mom., 
upon his errand with dignity aud grace^.wonl4not 
such an excuse be regarded 9 aa aa instance of thei. 
highest presumptioniuid folly I Andean we imagincy' 
that our heavenly Master will overlook that m^, 
lect in his public messengers, which would appear^ 
in the conduct of a private domestic, so justly c^n^ 

8. What advantage has accrued to the chuvcbii^ 
by renouncing the apostolic method of pidilisbi^^^ 
the Gospel f We have indokace and artifice, in ti^e 
place of sincerity and vigilance* Those public disr 
couriMss which were anciently the effects of convic* 
tion and zeul, are now become the weekly exerdbea, 
of beaming and art. ^ We believe and tberefofc* 
speak," is an expression, that has grown entirely 
obkoLete among modern ^>astQrs# « But nothing la 
more common amoi)g us» thim to . say««i« As we 

Tior poKTKAir or ftr. paul. 183 

have SietiBfmt prepared upon a variety of subjects, 
ire are ready to tfeltver thein, as opportunity oflers* 

9* Many ineoiiveniences arise from that method 
of preaching) which is generally adopted in the 
present day. While the physician of sojuls is la« 
.bdtirtng' to compose a leafned dissertation upon 
iSbme ^laio passage of 8erit>ture) he has but little 
ieisur^H) irisrt those languishing patients, who need 
his hnniediate assistance. He thinks it sofficientto 
astbivd them tiponr eviery sabbath day in the place 
appcAfited" thr public duty ; but he recollects nof^ 
^^t those, to #hotn his oounsel is peculiarly neces« 
•ary^ a^e %tie very persons, who refuse to meet him 
shei'e* 'HU unprofitable employ fnents at' homct 
le^fe^ltli ho opportunity to go in pursuit of his 
irandeVin^ sheep* He meets them, it is true, at 
stated pei4od!», in the common fold : but it is equally 
true, that dNirtn^ every successive interval, he dis- 
dyversf the to^dest indilTerence with respect to their 
vp^iti^al welfare^' From this unbecoming conduct 
cf' many a mintsti^r, one wtmld naturally imagine, 
that ttie fl^clr were rather called to seek out their in- 
d^nt paisior, than th&t he was purposely hired to 
pursue every straying sheep. 

10. The most powerful nerve of 'the sacred mi- 
ffistry IS ecclesiastical discipline. But this nerve is 
absolutely tut asunder by the method, of which we 
ik>w ' speak* When a pastor withdraws fatigued 
from his study, imagining that he has honourably ac» 
quitted hhnsdf with regard to his people, he is Ipo 
a^t to neglect that' vigilant inspection into families, 
upon Which the discipline of the church depends. 
Siich a spitntual instructor may justly be compared 
to a Vain-glo^ous pedagogue, who, after di-awing up 
a "copy, and adorning it, for several days together, 
with all the embellishments of his art, should yet 
imagine, that he had admirably performed his part, 
in preparing it at length, for his scholars, without 
any visible defects. And what could reasonably bo 

164 THE rOBiYHAtT OF SY. YAXn;. 

expected from the pupils of such -A «eael)et*,lMPf,'%bat, 
fearing neither scholafific d?scipKiie» titr pat*tiafrlar 
Inspection, they should neglect • tb transcribe' What 
their master ^h iointrch utipr6f(titM6'M4l*'h{/d*pib«> 
duced? s J .-...' 

1 1. Since the oratbr'sr art has tiUbn ^lii^e of -tfee 
energy of faith, what 'hat^pJ^ eff(»et ktfs' fif )[^i^lteed 
upon the minds of men f Havewe'di^G^>ered¥9f<>te 
frequent conversions among us f AreftkvhBlptittes^ 
sors more generally seised wlth^ r^ll^uilllto^l';^e 
libertines more unirersally cbnsti^kied t<i^ ery'^iht, 
•'Men and brethren, what shalf iir« dot'*^'D6 the 
wicked depart from the churchV to bc^aH' their 
transgressions in private ; arid ^eliel^sf tci vi^k^v 
mourners in their affitction ? Is it notnlfherto ^1a* 
mented, that we are at this day equally dFstiint fnom 
christian charity, and primitive simplicity'} 

13. Reading over a variety of apptt>ved seruftona 
is generally supposed to be preaching the G^speU 
If this were really, so, we need but look out some 
school-boy of a tolerable capacity, and after iiistruct- 
ing him to read over, with proper emphasis and 
gesture, the sermons of Tillotson^ Sherlock, or Sau- 
rin, we shall have made him an excellent mitniater 
of the word of God. But, if preaching the Gospel 
is to publish among sinners that repentance and sal- 
vation, which we have experienced in ourielves ; if 
it is to imitate a penitent slave, who, freed from -mi- 
sery and iron, returns to the companions of his £or« 
mer 8lavery,declaringihe generosity of their Prince, 
and persuading them to sue for iherty jifthts-isto 
publish ihe Gospel of peace, then it i^ evident, lliat 
experience and sympathy are more nece^aryftathe 
due performance of this work, than all th^ ac:curacy 
and elocution that can possibly be acquired* ' > 

1 3. When this sacred experieitce, and this gene- 
rous sympathy began to lose their prevalence in*the 
church, their place was gradually supplied by the 
Irifiing substitutes of study and affectation* CaiDal 

^)ik^ M%TJBLA^:r ^t ST, PAVL. 1^5 

"[^fi^cinio* Isas now for many liget^ solicitously «n» 
< d^^Vo^red W adapt it^^f to the jUi&te of the wise and 
jt;)|»9)rn9d« Buty while tl^e oCTei^ce of. the cross h 
. r«vv>i^di^ aeiibcr tb^ wise^iQior the ignorant are effec- 
tually converted. The Gospel is abundantly better 
3^)iiU^d^VQ 1^8 fi^!9l^.¥i^H^^>'Ut^f^^^t^ iliose* who value 
b ilMWi^^^s -ASi men -, of . sagacity , and. science. **^ I 
'. $imikAimi F^if^r I" saiU M»^ Jowly Jesus, « that 
-Hy^m. 4»m 1^ tbes^ tbii?^ Croxn the. wise and pru- 
?^im,:and.r)imt Feyealecl tbem u^to babes." These 
/. J^bsfti Jjv9ifiB^f3i?, ii^wt^e tanguage of Cbrist, are the 
^.fQ(«y;P^^of)S9^irhQ have been usually neglected by 
Ti.Mi 4)i;/'tbe diier^ .g^tificatipn of reputed sages. 
^ v^toA^ b9\t i^jSqF j^ho>isand proofs do we require to 
..^njt:Mi»P99illlf ^ki^ the wisdom of this world will con- 
^l.ti||u^)L<M^i«lp^^nde^ foot the pearl of the Gospel, 
though iapcde^ to s^Pure its reception, it should be 
? :ipms«pt|»4 Ainong the artificial pearls of a vain philo- 

^,: . > 14#> In ^opsequence of the same error, the oi*na- 

xneetA of ^beatrjcal eloquence have been sought after 

rwith -a shameful solioitude* And what has been the 

rfruitof so much useless toiH Pi:eachers, after all, have 

•' >|iiaored their part witb much less applause than co- 

mediana ; and their curious auditors are stTll run* 

BiRg fram ^he pulpit to the stage, for the pleasure 

: of heariBg fables repeated with a degree of sensibi- 

.iityi» whkSi the messeitgecs of truth can neither feel, 

nor feiga* . 

I Nolwithstimding; thcu above remarks have be^n 

' expcessed in the most pointed manner, we mean not 

to inwHiate, thattlie errors already exposed are the 

or^y mistakes to be guarded against. Extremes ^f 

every kind are avoided with equal care. We 

condemn the carnal prudence of christian oratoi^s { 

bitt we as sincerely reprobate the conduct of those 

' enthusiaslsi whoy. under pretence, that Christ has 

..promised to continue with his disciples to the end of 

the world| exhibit the reveries of a heated iroagiua« 



lion for the truths of the <»ospe]. Too many of 
these deluded fanatics are foiitid« «boi;dakihg their 
slothfulness and presumption) . for the efiects of » 
lively faith and an apoatotic efmfidence» repeatedly 
affront the Almighty, aM jttatly offend those can- 
did hearers* wfaa-ate least dist> take offienetf. 
Oflfences will ufidouhCedl)r eome s btittitbehilves tis 
to make a just distinction hetwecn the real offence of 
the cross, and that, which is given by aq unlicenced 
.presumption on our part. 

If we are honoured with the pastoral xiffke^ let us 
consider the holy scriptures >aa an tnexhaustiftde 
mine of sacred treasures. Iii. the lawoCtbe.L.drd 
let us meditate dajr and night. : Before we attempt 
to deliver evangelical truths in poUit, iet itr be^uk" 
first care, to penetrate our hearts^ in^ratSf^wirh 
an adequate sense of those truths^ Let us arrange 
them in the most suitable order : let us add\ice and 
compare the several passages of sacred writ, which 
appear to support or explain the particular doctrines 
we mean to insist upon : but* above all, joining faith 
and prayer to calm meditation, after becoming -mas- 
ters of our subject, let us humbly ask of God, that 
Parresiam that lively and forcible elocution, which 
flows from the unction of grace. 

And here, instead of resting contented with barely 
requesting, we should labour to acqtiire what we 
setk, by frequently stirring up the gift, that is in us* 
Let us embrace every, opportunity of exhorting both 
-.believers and catechumens* Let us carry, with 'un- 
wearied constancy, instruction to the ignorant, and 
copsolation to the affiieted* Let us befaithful tn re- 
proving sinners of every class, and diligent in train- 
ing up the children of our parish. 

It is necessary indeed to be scrupulously cau- 
tious, lest we abuse the liberty of preaching from 
meditation, by becoming {followers of those, who are 
more worthy of censure, than imitation. There are 
pastors of this kind, whO| baring acquired a good 


dkgrfte of spintufti knoii'lcd^r And a wonderful fa- 
cility 9Df expresstonV vfihappily be^n to 'pique them- 
seWes-QfRm aiipeacinj^' befbre a tiumtroui assembly 
wiehoal} "any preirioua study* Conscious ' of their 
-own abiKty> these t^dfisufl&cient preachers-make Kt- 
.tlexylp otr^iidparatGoit'for <m« of the most solemn du- 
taesv tliat can^ssibly 'be discharged. They hasten 
to a crbwdcd'awWitory Wfthout any apparent concern 
and coming tlcnrnifrom the pnlpit with an aijr of the 
same easy confidence, with which they ascended it, 
GotiteMedly return' tothat habitual listlessness, which 
*h»dbeen interrupted by the external performance 
■of a necessary work. Alas I if these presuming 
pastors oould be prevailed upon to write over their 
- sermons^ to how much better purpose might they 
thtis employ their hours» then by heedlesly trifling 
ithem away> in frivolous conversation and shameful 
inactivity U 

, It is ncA to imitate examples of this nature, that 
T«r« solicit the ministers of Christ to recover those 
hours, which are usually employed in composing 
their weekly discourses. How many are the impor- 
tant oecupati^s, of which the faithful pastor has his 
daily choice ! The wicked are to be reclaimed, and 
the righteous established. Hope must be administer- 
ed to the fearful, an4 courage to the'tempted. The 
veak are to be strengthened, and the strong to be 
exercised. The sick must' be supported, and the 
dying prepared for dissolution. By f4'equ«nt pastoral 
•^sit« tO'hamlets, schools, and private' houses, the in- 
liefhdgablt minister should continually be moving 
through the several parts of his parish ; discovfering^' 
the dondttton of those entrusted to his care,' and re- 
gularly supplying the necessities of his flopk; difl'if- 
sing all around instructidn and reproof, exhttrtatioft 
'and comfort. To sum up his duties i rl- a- single- set^- 
tence, he should cause the light, that isr in himj to 
shine out in every, possible dlpectioli,-heibre the ig- 
norant and (he learned| the rich and tk^ poor ^ making; 

ttt THE PO&TmAir OV ST. FAVtr 

Uk MlTfttioii of nianluad bis pratipal^iMilfflofd 
the glory of Cod hit nlcinuae aim. 

Thus after having faithfully pcrforaned the-^ttk. 
of an evaogeUstf wheo he is aboat- to be iromo^ed 
Irom bib charge by death,* or by any oQierpfenrlcfeii* 
tial appoiiumeiii, he may taifce ao affecd^tiaie h^i^ 
of has peofile^ and say ; Rememberay i^hiMbMNi, 'Hultt 
while 1 have sojooined ttmong yeib ^ I ti^Te- o^t 
ceased lo warn every t>ae of you night had dsyV-^aikl 
if my word has not always been aceomftattHedwith 
tears| yet it has constantly ftowed fNMn tbe Cruett4ift- 
cerity and affection* 



THOSE persons who have already so ear* 
nestly resisted the trtiths for which We contend) will 
not fail to exclaim in the last place, by way of ^n un« 
answetable argument, '^ What you require of pastors 
is unreasonable, in the highest degree. If they are 
indeed called to labour for the salvation of ^oulb) with 
the zeal and assiduity of St. Paul, the holy ministry 
must be regarded as all the most paiiiful of all pro- 
fessions, and, of consequence, our pulpits wHi be 
shortly unoccupied." 

^ons. Ostervald, who foresaw this objection} 
has completely answered it im his Third soarceof 
the corruption, which reigns among christians i ^< It 
*^ jvill not fail to be objected," says this .venerable au* 
.thory <' that if none wefe to be admitted to holy ^r- 
>^ ders, except thosci who are posses^d of every 
f^ necessary qualification) there coiild ntt pesdibly 

T9Ji.FQILT]t4IT Of ST, PAPf.. 18d 

^ be procured a sufficient number of pastors for the 
" su^ly of our churches* To ^hich T answer ; 
•' that h wquld t^^ ahundanily abetter, to exfposc our- 
'** selves tpi tliis,LDcpnv,cmQnce> than. to violate the 
f^ettpure^islikwa o{,tb<s )|Brit,teA.vrord.. A small num-* 
<f ib^rof .ch>s«ii pastor^^is^preferab]^ to a multitude 
!^^liQ^f!wfilifi^ teachers/' [One Elijah was more 
powerful tbanrall the prophets of Baal.] << Atall ha^ 
^^satHift) we^mUst .adhere to the comniat^dof God, 
<^and J^avethe event to providence* Buti in realiiy» 
" this ^deatb* of pastors js not so generally to be ap« 
*♦ prehended. To reject those candidates for holy 
^< orders, whose labours in the church would be al<* 
'^ together fruitless, is undoubtedly a work of piety ; 
<< and such alone Would be repulsed by the apipre*' 
" hension of a severe scrutiny and an exact disci« 
" pljne. Others, on the contrary, who are in a con-^ 
" dition to fulfil the duties of the.sacred office, would 
*> take encouragement from this exactness and se* 
** verity ; and the ministry Would every day be ren- 
^.*dered more respectable in the world." Behold an 
answer truly worthy an apostolical man ! 

If it still: be objected, by the generality of pas« 
lors, that what we require is as unreasonable, as it 
is unusual : Permit me to ask yoU; my lukewarm 
brethren, whether it be not necessary, that you 
should -use the same diligence in your sacred pro* 
fessiony with which your neighbours are accustomed 
lo labotu^, in their worldly vocations and pursuits ? 

The fisherman prepares a vari|jty of lines, hooks, 
and hails; he knows the places, the seaspns, and even 
the hours, that are most favourable to his employ- 
iMnt ; nor will he refuse to throw his line several 
hundred times in a. day* If he is disappointed in one 
place, he. cheerfully betakes himself to another ; and 
if. his ill succe&s is ^f any long continuance, he will 
associate with thQse> who are greater masters of hia* 
art. Tell me then» ye pastors, who make the busi* 
ness of a fisherman the amusement of many an idle 

I90 THk ^omtif Alt' dr st. pjeou 

hmiry do you really imti^ne, that lesii ftrdour and 
peneTerance are necessary to prfc]NLr^ sotdii for 
Heaveoy than to eaJtch trcmt fiir y oiyr taUe. 

The huDiaman reijoicet in expectation df th« pto^ 
miaed chase* He deniea hhnself >senfte hcnts c^- 
usual repoae, that bemaur haiten abroad in ptik'Mi^- 
of bis game* He seeks it witb nnweiuied aHMtlon"; 
and follows it from 6M to field witb en&r6As?ng dr-^ 
dour* He labonraup the mountain ;terQ«h€B do Wf^ 
the precipice : penetrates titt thickest wood^f Mil ' 
etreiieapk the most threatening obstacles^ He prd<5i 
tise^ the .wildest geslureif and mokes-'U^e' of th^ 
Bdiost extravagant laingiiig« ; fstMttvtimr^ bf e^wf 
possible means, to'ai^mate both do|^s^itod mtii itf . 
(he furious pursuit. He counta the fatigflbes of ^th^ 
chase among 4he number of ita-.f^casai^a^t - nhdt ' 
through the whole insignificant bnsmess'pf tlvrd^y, 
he acts with as much reseiutfon and iirYOor^ aj 
though he had undertaken one of the nobteft anuria 
prises in the worid« . " 

The fowler with equal eslgemess pursues his dtfJ 
ferent game. From stubble to stnbbJo, uAd fr«M 
cover to cdtct he urges his #ay* He pUsj^ea tbrtmgh 
the stubborn break, and takes his way alo*g thd 
pathless dingle : he traverses the gloofny inountain^ 
or wanders dcTious over the barren heath :. and, a& 
ter carrying arms all day, if a few trifling birdt re« 
irard his toil, he i*eturrts rejoicit^ bomei 

Come, ye fishers of men! wboinoiwiifeatandiiif 
your consecration (o God, are firequemly ieen'tOfpa^- 
take of these icont em puble diversons ; teihe, and «A>». 
swer by your conduct, to the fbilowing queationtf« 
Is the fiock committed to yeuTchargie, leas estMfNN 
ble than the fowl* which you so laborkwaly pursue i 
Or are you less interested in the saivaticmJbf^ik' 
people, than in the .destruction of those >utthapp)r' 
quadrupeds, which give yon ao nmch Mly w£stig>lier 
and afford-yousomu^h brutal pleasure i . 


nu& rOiXTRAlT. DF ST. TJLV%r ^^^ 

< . P^mt m^t Hill Ibrtiiert. to carry- oii my arg^ 
mfinU Ws^iUie paatiiig'aaiiixial'Wfakh ti^uallf ac* 
ct^op^HiMJ^^QMi^ steps: in tlie id«^t-memit>ned exer* 
C9^ef;iQcaiuUi«W4i^ to {ikiii^iifito a 'dangerous pit i 
tlijBms^ .fi>l^l^ wttJt the. labouvft «f the days and novir on 
yo^.T£Jtjyiri^>r0ukl fioiicartdess^ kave him to pe« 
Hiib I W9uUi)io«tfiounithe»,ttse evety ^flR^n to ex« 
l^(^ftt$ Jij^ «fr«Mn apparent .^atii/:€o%itd you even 
sj^P (tft«%^ tiiB y«tti Uda&rdfedluin eveff possi^ 
Ui$^.^9!i»lancc^2 And t^cU yeu eat> y<^i ftleep, you 
yk^ ;\^ay« it ;«ay he>. yoa dance, you hunt , you 
ft^ot^ii ^drthat withom tim least nvquieiude, while 
f ^Itv^S^ka^are cmhtDf^iOQr &om sift to ain, and faIN 
t^ frf^MM^QCifd^e . to p«ecipice« Ak ' MT a thousand 
M|^ arO'lmt .oomparable to thn vilest aiiimaU aud 
ii,^»i^«fire hiiss^mi^y aix^ying throng^ the ways of 
pf t^iMiHly nay^ ife not eeasonuxly exhrof t yon io use 
•yjt^f;r9SoiH^ i& pKaenring th«n» from the most 
alarniiiig danger, and in securing tbem from the bor« 
fQi!s pferverbraittng death I 

. jtotf paesbig by those amntementi, wfaieh so 
gi^ieiratty jsi^pag^ your attention, let me reason with 
y<Hi:lrfm one of the n^ost laborious oocopationi of 
lifiir . ir«« are called to be << good soldiers of Jcsua 
CbrisKti". And can you possibly imagine, that }esa 
Tesi^UUkHi Aad patience are required in a spiritual 
varttor, than in vm earthly soldier ? Behold the mer« 
cens^y, wbOi for little more than food and clothing, 
b pf epartag ta go on bis twentieth campaign i 
WbffXheis he: is called to feeeze beneath the pole, or 
to ayeltrnnder the iine^ he undertalies the appointed 
expcMtijtmi viiaiuuEaipof intrepidity and zeal* Loaded 
with the- weapons of his urarfare^ he is harrassedout 
with painful marches : and after enduring the ex« 
ceasire lattguea of the day, he makes his bed upon 
the rugged earth, or perhaps, passes the comfort* 
leas night under -arms. In the day of battle, he 
advances agaiaat the enemy amid a shonre^^ bullets, 
and. is anxious, in the most tremendous -scenes ta 


give prooGi of an uncooquerable resolation. If, 
throagh the dangers of the day, be escapes unhur^ 
it is but to run tk^ bazard of anotber encoumer ; per« 
haps, to force an enlrenchaient, or to press through 
a breach. Nothing, boweTcr, discourages him ; bvt, 
covered with wouncU^ he goes on unrepining to meet 
the mortal blov. . All this he suffers, and all this he 
performs in the service of his supericH^ and with 
little hope of advancement on has own part- 
Behold this dying veteran, ye timorous soldiers 
of an omnipotent prince ! anjl Uush at your want of 
spiritual intrepidity* Are you not engaged in the 
cause of humanity, and in the service ^-Cod I Are 
you not commissioned to rescue captive souls from 
M the powers of darkness ? Do you not fight beneath 
bis scrutinizing eye, Who is King of Kings, and t.ord 
of Lords f Are you not contending within sight of 
eternal rewards, and with the hope of an unudin|^ 
inheritance? And will you complain of dif&cuUies, 
or tremble at danger? Will you not only avoid the 
heat of the engagement, but even dare to withdrair 
from the standard of your sovereign Lord ? Let me 
lead you again into the field ; let me drag you back to 
the charge : or, rather, let me shame your cowan^ce^ 
by pointing you to those resolute commanders, who 
have formerly signalized themselves under the banners 
of your Prince. Emulate their example and you shall 
share their rewards. 

But if, hitherto, you have neither contemplated the 
beauty, nor experienced the energy of those troths, by 
which St. Paul was animated to such acts of hero- 
ism ; it is vain, that we exhort you to shine among the 
foremoKt ranks of christians, as inextinguishable 
lights, holding up, against every enemy, all. a two- 
edged sword, the word of everlasting life. /'instead of 
this, it will be liecessary to place before >ou, the ex- 
cellence, and efEcacy ofthis Apostle's doctrines, toge- 
ther with the infinite advantages, which they procure 
to those, who cordially embrace tlicm. And this we 

s\f9i\ cnd^ktoiH^ to> doF'tpctbe second. part>of this 
wo!rfe<''..iM9aanwiiUe9 wt wiJl iomic^adb ithls ftrst 

«^pffi[s|a8li|ifoi» ill cxislipnerbwai^ijire 4'^Hbe Wc are 
«<^rftlli.t^^< swrouiidei}-j>y/: afi:ho8twf endnriexi 

<< ther labQp)r,.n^.wQ«ui4»# iiiiv.death;'Let^«i$:4(11 con- 
«f :S|^. jni«mfai]fS[?lo ^assist abiI dofefid 4MMe another. 
<( Aildiii^t. foif :inilgiianimU^ be stich, as may add 
<\&rmiiei»«|«ili# most resoluie, «iid g?Jv« cdutagc 





PART !!• 

ne Doctrine* of an evangelical PoMlor. 

THE minister of the present age, being des« 
titute of christian piety> is neither able to preach, 
nor clearly to comprehend,.the truths of the Gos- 
pel. In generali he contents himself with super- 
ficially declaring certain attributes of the Supreme 
Being ; while he is fearful of speaking. too largely 
of grace or its operations, lest he should be sus- 
pected of .enthusiasm* He declaims against some 
'enormous vice, or displays the beauty of some so- 
cial virtue. He affects to establish • the doctrines 
of heathen philosophers : and it were to be wished 
that he always carried his morality to as high a 
pitch, as some of the most celebrated of those sages. 
l£±e. ever proclaims the Lqrd Jesus Christ, it is 
but in a cursory way, and chiefly when he is obliged 
to it, by> the return of particular days. He him- 
self, continues the same through all seasons ; and 
the cross of Christ would be entirely laid aside, un- 
less the temporal prince, more orthodox than the 
minister, had appointed the passion of our Lord to 
be the preacher's theme, during certain solemnities . 
lif. the churclu 


With the evanj^elical pastor it is wholly other- 
wise : " Jesus Christ," hfe is able to say with St. 
Pauli " sent me to preach the Gospel, not with wis- 
dom, of words, lest the cross of Christ should be 
mad^'pF notie effect* . Fortlie preaching of ihj cross 
is, to theni that perish, foolishness ; but unlo usf 
which are saved, it is the power of God. For it is 
written, I will destroy the" ^wain " wisdom of the 
wise, and will bring to nclthTng the" false " under- 
standing of the prudent. Hath not God made fool- 
ish the wisdom of this world ? For after that the 
woild by" this " wi^^bm;*' this' boasted philosophy, 
** knew not God," but rested in materialism and 
idolatry, "it pleased God by the foolishness of 
preaching, to save them that believe." The preach- 
ing of 'the true mimster, which commoniy passes 
for folly in a degenerate world, is that through which 
God employs his power, for the con^ersioA' of sin- 
ners and the edification of believers. It coih^^re^ 
bends all that is revealed in the old and new Testa^ 
meat 2 but the subiects on which it is chiefly em* 
ployed, are the precepts of the decalogue, and the 
truths of the Apostles' creed. They niay be reduc- 
ed to four points s 1. True repentance toward God;. 
5. A lively faith in our Lord Jesus Christ. 3. The 
sweet hope, which the Holy Spirit sheds abroad in 
the hearts of believers, 4. That christian charityi 
• which is the abundant source of all good works* 
In a word, the good pastor preaches, " repedtahce, 
faith, hope, and charity." These four virtues in* 
elude all others. These are the four pillars Which 
support the glorious temple, of which St. Paul and 
St. Peter make the following mention : " Ye ar^ 
God-8 building. Ye also, as lively stones, are built 
up a spiritual house. 

By searching into the solidity of these four sup* 
ports, we may observe how vast a difference therd 
Is between the materials of which they are com- 
posed, and that untempered mortar with whieh 


the ministers of the present da^ are striring to erect 
> showf buildings upon a ^andy foundation. 

*rhc evangelicui ftaMtor fireaehe9TVitty REiPENTAifCE 
toward Qod» 

THE true minister, convinced, both by revela- 
^tfOB ande:itperience, that Jesus Christ alone is able 
to recover dise.ased souls, employs «very -effort to 
^jbring: sinners into the presence of this heavenly 
physician, that they may obtain, of him spiritual i 
health ^txd salvation. He is fully convinced, that 
he^ v^ho is not weary and heavy laden, will never 
. apply for relief ; that he, who is not poor in spirit, 
yr'\\\ const4ntly despise the riches of the Gospel ; and . 
^thatjtliey, who are unacquainted with their danger, , 
Awil turaade^fear to the loudest warnings of a com- 
', passionate Saviour. His first care, then, is to press 
,upon his Jiearers the necessity of an unfeigned re« 
pentance ; that, by breaking the reed of .their vain 
cQnfi4c^cei he may constrain them, with the poor, 
the miserable, the blind, and the naked, to fall be- 
fore. the tl^'one of divine justice : whence, after see- 
ing themselves condemned by the law of God, with- 
out any ability to deliver their own. souls, he is con- 
scious^ they will have, recourse to the throne of 
grace, entreating, like the penitent publican, to be 
/' jvisUfied freely by the grace God, through the re- 
demption that is in Chribt Jesus.'* It is in this state 
.of humiliation and compunction of heart, that sin- 
iier§ are .:enal^Jed Xo experience the happy etlects of 
^thcit.ei^arngelicaj repentance, which is well defined 
J^; the jjivih chap, of tl^e lieivelic Confession : " By 
.". j^ep^fttfti^Cje,/' say our pious reformers, '* we mean 
."4ha^;^0'rrow, or that displeasure of soul, which is . 
/* e^fciled io ^ f)nn^r,by the wordjand spirit of God, 
*^ &c.. I}y thisiUew sensibility, he is hrst made to 
*'. discover hi^ patural corruption, and his actual * 
.** transgressiops. , His heart is pierced with sincere . 



<^ distress ; he deplores them b<efore God ; he eon- 
<* fesses them with conlusloii) but mtfaoul reser^d ; 
*' he abhors them with an holy indtgnatioir ; be se« 
** riously tesolves, from the present moment^ to re* 
*< form^his conducti aAd rdigiotHly aJH^ly himself to 
" the practice of every virtue^ during the remasAder 
*< of his life. Such is trite repehtanbei it cohiists, 
"at once, in resolutely rcAoiindtig»'tl»e d^tlt^^fth 
•* erery^hingthat is sinful } tffrti Ih iinttttly dmVmjg 
« to God, with every thing that^is tnily go<*i^ BiK 
« we expressly ^ay, iHU repentance is the mtre gift 
"of God, and can nete)r be effected by ^r o^n 
** power/' 

It appears, by this diefinition, that out* ^eforme!^ 
distinguished that by the nahie of repentance, w^tli 
many theologists have called the awMting i>f a bc^I 
from the sleep of carnal security ; and witioh diliei<s 
have frequently termed conversion. Bat^ if sinnfe^s 
understand and obtain the disposition here dfesttiV^, 
no true minister will be over-anxioui, that tfee^ 
should express it in any particular form of Wo^dts.- 

Now Bin and the necanty ofreftenHinee entered Mo 
the world. 

OBSERVE the account which the evanig^elical 
minister gives, after Moses and St. Pastil of thfe 
manner in whtch that dreadful infection madeita 
way into the world, that corrupt nature, that old 
man, that bo<ly of death, which Chinst the seed of 
the woman came to destroy* When the tempted 
woman saw, that the fruit of the tree, which God 
had forbidden her to touch, " was pleasant to the 
•eyes, good for food, and to be desired to make one 
wise, she took thereof and did eat, aiidgavc al^o 
unto her husband with her, and he did elt." Thus 
entered into the very fountaifvhead of our nature 
that moral evil, (Iiat complicated ftialady, '* that 
lustofthelleshj that lust of tl^ eyes, and that pride 

^nk foAtHAtt 6ff BT. fAth. H9 

of life,'* whi^h the second Adam came to criidfyili 
the flesh, and Urimh is still d^ily crucified in -tte 
nkesioibcrs of his mistical body. . 

If Jesus Christ De?eir pubUclf discoursed eott* 
tttmag th^ entt'f of sih into the worlds it was b^« 
c^tiite htk ibermoh^ ^ere efddressed t<i a peo|ple# wftt> 
Isad been lon^ before iDStructed ki a matter of sb 
. /j^redt iniportance* Oti this account, he simply pro- 
t>bsed hih»lelf to Israelf as thdt promised ^Messiah, 
that Son of God aiid Son of man, who was about ib 
tepair the error of the first Adam, by bec^ming^ the 
Iresuri^tion and the life of all those, who Should be- 
iieVe in his name. 

St. Paul was very dififerently circumstanced* when 
iabouribg amotig those nations which werPunac^ 
^uaihted with the fall, except by uncertain and corrupt 
tradition. Behold the wisdom, with which he un(Bld% 
to the Hedthen^ that fiindamental doctiine, whielk 
ifTasBot contested among the Jews t ^* The first maA 
'Adam," the head of the human species,*' was^nad^ 
^a living Soul j*' but Jesus Christ, ^< the last Adam^ 
^as made a quickening spirit ;" and he also is the 
head of the human species, for ^^ the head of ever^ 
man is Christ. The first man is of the earth, earthy : 
the second man is the Lord from Heaven. As is 
the earthy, such are they also that are earthy 
[worldly:] and as is the heavenly, such are they also 
\hat are heavenly, [regenerate.] And' as we ' have 
-borne the image ofthe earthy, we," whose souls ar^ 
already regenerate, ** shall also bear the complete 
Image of the heavenly ; when this mortal shall have 
put on immortality t** For thefiesh and blood," which 
we have from the first Adam, *^ cannot inherit the 
kingdom of God*" 

As human pride is continually exalting itself 
against this humiliating doctrine, so the true minis* 
ter as constantly repeats it, cryiog out in the lan- 
guage of ihis great Aposile : ** All unregenerate 
tneu are under sin: t^ere is none that under&tandeth> 


there it none that aeeketh after God : they are all 
gone out af the way^ they are together become im^ 
profitable : the way of peace have they not known i 
•there is no fdur e£ God before their eyes : wc know 
that whatsoever things the law saith," the natural or 
the nosatc laW| '< it saith to them that are under the 
law: that every mouth may be stopped and. all the 
world may become guilty before God. There is no 
difference ; for as all have sinned and come short of 
the gtory of God," so Hi equally need the merits 
and assistance of ^' Jesus Christt whom God hattt 
set forth to be a propitiation, through faith in hik . 
blood." All those» therefore, who, neglecting Christy 
rely Upon *' the works of the law, are under the 
xurse ;'.' and all their endeavours to deliver th^m^ - 
selves^by their imperfect obedience, are totall^ vaiac . 
^£dp it is written, cursed is every onCf that continuetii . 
not in all things which are written in the book of the r 
law, to do them." Thus, by denouncing. malediCf* 
tions, as dreadful as the thunders fcom mount Siniay . 
against e\lsry act of disobedience, ^^ the law be^ 
comes our school-master to bring us unto Christy 
that we might be justified by faith." 

Tkii doctrine U mamttdned by all the ChrUtian 
« • CJiurcheB* 

WHEN an evangelical minister insists ^upon 
the fall, the corruption, and the danger of unregene- 
rate man, he acts in couformity to the acknowledged 
opinions of the purest Chui elites-. As I chiefly write 
for the French protestants, 1 sh^iU here cite the con- 
fession of faith nov^^ in Us? .among the .PVench 
Churches. " We believe," say they in the ix,,,x 
and xi articles of their cre6d,:<* that man, hjiving 
"been created after the image gf Cod, felli by .his 
*' own fault, from the grace he had received i and 
<^ thus became alienated from God, who isthe fouii* 
*- tain of holiness and . felicity ; ^o that having, his . 

THt: FORTKAlt OT ST» PAtJt, 201 

<* mttid blifldedf his lieart depraved, and his whole 
•♦* nature coi-ruptcd, he lost all his innocence^..We 
** believe that the whole race of Adam is infected 
«< with this contagibi^, that in«his person he fi>r- 
<« feited every blessing, and sunli into a stat^ of 
« universal Want and nialedtdtidn....We believe sQ^ 
*^ that sin, Stc. is a perverseness producing the friiiti 
-« of malice and rebellion.** 

The reformerd Churches of Switzerland mak^ 
as bumilialing; a confessiom " Man," say they, "by 
-** an abuse of his liberty, sufiPering himself to be se- ' 
" duced by the serpent, forsook his primitive integ- 
'^ rity. .Thus he rendered himself subject to sin, 
" death, and every kind of misery : and such as the 
*** first man became by* the full, such arc atl his de- 
" scendants." When wt say, man is subject to sin, 
** we mean by siri, that corruption of nafturei whic^ 
*' from the fall of the first man^ has been transmitted 
^ from father to son: vicious passions, an aversion 
*' to t^at which is good, an inclination to that which 
^Is evil, a dispositiOatomalifi^a bold defiance and 
** contempt of God.' Behold tho unhappy effects 
*^ of that corruption, by which vfe are so. wholly de- 
^^ biHtated, that of ourselves we are not able to do, 
" nor even to choose, that which is good." Hel- 
vetic Confession. Chap. viii. 

Every man may find in himself sufilicient prootk 
of these painful truths. " God is the Creator of 
" man," say the Fathers who composed the synod 
of Berne, << and he intended that man should be en- 
« tirely devoted to his God. But this is no longer hii 
^ nature ; since he looks to creatures, to his owii plea- 
*^ sure, and makes an idol of himself.*' Acts of Sy- 
nod. Chap. viii. ^ 

This doctrine is dso set forth in the AusbO^n^g 
confession ; as well as in the ix and x articles of th^ 
Church of England, where it is expressed in the fol- 
lowing terms : ^^ Original sin standeth not ill the 
^ following of Admn, but it h the fiRuU and corrup- 


^ tion of the nature of every man, whereby he is 
« very fi^r gone from original righteousness, and is 
<< of his own nature inclined to evil, so that the fle«h 
*' lusteth alway contrary to the spirit ; and therefore,. 
" in every person born into this world, it deserveth^ 
" God's wrath and damnation. "••..<* The condition 
<< of man, after the fall of Adam, is such, that he 
*' cannot turn and prepare himself, by his own na- 
'< tural strength and good works, to faith and calling 
" upon God : wherefore we have no power to do 
*^ good works, pleasant and acceptable to God, with- 
" out the grace of God by Christ preventing us, that 
^^ we may have a good will, and working with us 
" when we have that good will/' 

Nothing less than a liyely conviction, of the cor- 
ruption, weakness, and misery, described in these 
confessions of faith, can properly dispose a man for. 
evangelical repentance. 

Without evangelical refientaneey a lively faith inChriati- 
or regeneration by the Holy Sfiirity will afifiear not 
only unneceeaaryy but abiurd*\ 

AS the knowledge of our depravity, is the 
source from whence evangelical repentance and. 
christian humility fiGw,.so It is the only necessary, 
preparation forthatliving faith, by which we are both, 
justified and.sanctifiied.^. He who obstinately closes 
his eyes upon his own wretchedness, shuts himself 
up in circumstances which will not suffer him to re- 
ceive any advantage from that glorious Redeemer, 
whoniL^^ God hath anointed to preach the Gospel 
to the poor; to heal the broken.heartjeu; to preach 
deliverance to the captives ; and recovering of 
sight- to the blind ; to set at liberty, them that 
ARfe bruised ; to preach the acceptable year of the 
Lord." Reason itself declares, that if sinful man is 
possessed of sufficient ability to secure his own sal- 
vation, he. needs no other Saviour, and " Christ is 

* THE FoaraAiT ©F ST.FAUL. ^OS 

dead in vain." In short, so far as we are unac- 
quainted with our degenerate estate, so far the im« 
portant doctrine of regeneration must necessariljr 
appear superBuous and absurd. 

• Here we may perceive one grand reason, why 
the ministers of the present day^ who are but su- 
perficially acquainted with the depravity of the hu- 
man heart, discourse upon this mysterious subject 
in a slight and unsatisfactory manner. 

The true minister, on the contrary, following the 
example of his great Master, speaks upon this mo- 
mentous change with affection and power. Observe 
the terms, in which our Lord himself declares this 
neglected doctrine ; " Verily, verily, I say unto 
you, except a man be bom of water and of the spi- 
rit, he cannot enter into the Kingdom of God." As 
though he should say ; the natural man, how beau- 
tiful an appearance soever he maymake, is possessed 
of an heart so desperately wicked, that unless it be 
broken by the repentance which John the Baptist 
preached, and regenerated by the faith which I de- 
clare, he can never become a citizen of Heaven : for 
the doors of my Kingdom must remain everlastingly 
barred against those ravening wolves, who disguise 
themselves as sheep, and those painted hypocrites, 
who salute me as their lord, without embracing my 
doctrines and observing my commands. " Verily," 
therefore, I ** say unto you," my first disciples and 
friends, " except ye be converted and become as 
little children," who are strangers to ambitious, en- 
vious, and impure thoughts, <' Ye shall not enter 
into the Kingdom of Heaven." 

Such is the doctrine that is still able to convert 
every inquiring Nicodemus. At first it may' perplex 
and confound them ;. but, at length, submitting to 
the wisdom of their heavenly teacher, they will cry. 
Impart to us, Lord, this regenerating faith : and 
when once they have obtained their request, they 
will adopt the prayer of the disciples, and proceed 

like ihtmy from Cuth to faith, till all thbga m thd^ 
legeaaMo he vtaaca become oei^« - ii 

But, if this doctrine 49^ a.iftnvir of life unto some, 
it is also a savour of death unto Mothers. It g^vcs of- 
^<r M^ ' bUn^Ml t>>go^ > ^iA^ ^od^tti lofideJa 
strengthen U^nsuwlfes.agftiDAt ity.a^JMfloah oaeet 
ftrength^o^d htmMi' aig^f^^i^ ^ autbonif^of .Jte<-' 
6oTah« ^. Thiis ji^ii^ t^^e. ^qd,'* s^d Mos^i^ tJiaC 
MstinaU Moii»]r^,.<^ Let jnj .9e(9le|.(^vi^^]|ef 
migr ,8enre Ki^e.;" jaftcl tbe. fa^bty. iuiidel Teptied^ 
^ who i» the .Lord t{iat I sboi|ld . pbefr his.voieej| 
^< I know not the IU)rdi nc^tbf&riw^IietJti^ei.goi/r.. 
Come up out of my stie £gy ptf f ^k the SoA 4»£<JHi4> 
to every sinful soul : Fallow me JaA^eMf;ctienUjoDr 
' and I will teach you to^iiprship ^i'Od.invSpint tirid in 
truth* And who is the Son of God? repHeis »pm^ 
ptitj Fharoah : I knpw. Aekher lum> nor his fi^tber^ 
nor conceive myself in ai^y wise obliged to ot^&y hia 
commands. ^ . 

impious as this Jangua^^ tmj appear^ ^he ism* 
duct of every irreligious christian must be conaf^ 
dered as equivalent toit> according to those V0rd#o£ 
our Lord : ^^ He that despiseth my servantsy and t|iy. 
doctrines, despiseth me > and he that despiseth tite^' 
despiseCh him that sent me." Whatever mask j&ucli; 
a Pharisaical professor may wear, he loves the vtorldi^ 
therefore ^he love of the Father is not in him ,; he 
hates both Christ and his Father^ his repentance ia 
superficial) his fiuth is yaip^ and sooner .or later* hi» 
tactions or his words w!ilL testify, Ihdt h^ is an. utter 
enemy to Christ and his members. 

TBX PORTftAXT OF «T. PAVt. :^9$ 


WHAT was spoken by God to Jeremiah) 
may in some sort be applied to the true minister : 
*<^ I have set thee to root out and to plant, to pull 
dffirn aM^to build*" For before the nacred vine can 
be planted} the thorns of sin mast be rooted up, 
together with the thistles of counterfeit righteous- 
ness t and before the strong tower of salvation 
<ran be erected, that spiritual Babal must be over* 
thfioWK, bf which presumptuous men are still exalt- 
ing themselves agotni^ Heaven. 

To lead sinners into a state of evangelical repen- 
tance) the true minister discovers to their view the 
corruption of the heart, with all the melancholy ef^ 
fects it produces in the character and conversation of 
unregenerate men. After he has denounced the ana- 
themas of the law against particular vices, such as 
swearing, lyings evil-speaking, extortion, drunken- 
ness, fcc. he points out the magnitude of two general 
or primitive sins« The greatest offence according lo 
the law, he declares to be that, by which its first and 
- great command is violated : consequently, those, 
who love not God beyond all created beings, he 
charges with living in the habi^ of damnable sin ; 
since they transgress that most sacred of all laws, 
which binds us to love the Deity with all our heart* 
Hence, he goes on to convict those of violating a 
command like unto the first, who love not their 
neighbour as themselves: and to these two sins, as 
to their deadly sources, he traces all the crimes, 
which are forbidden in the Law and in the PropheU. 
And now he proceeds to lay open, before the eyes 
of professing christians, the two greatest sins which 
are committed under the Gospel dispensation. If 
the two great commands of God, under the new cove- 
nant» are to this effect ; that we believe on his So» 

Jcsiis Chinst, and love one another; k rseTldt^liii 
that the two greatest sins under the'Gospe1;cire,-.<fh# 
Mart of that living faith, which nhites lis to Cfarni^ 
and that ardent charity,, which binds tis te tifvanbkl^ 
in general, as well as to believers in paftlcular', iMilh 
the bands of cordial afleciion. As dai^cness^proctHt^ilft 
from Ih6 absence of the sun and moon;"so^lr&^ 
r these two sin^of omission, fiow atl the varionff^^ 

I fences, which are prohibitecl by the evangeli^ul liawi 

^ And if those vho are immersed in these pHttiitit* 

sins, are withheld from the actual cotntnissionciletU 
ormous offences, they are not on this aceotmt tt>'ht 
esteemed radically hoty ; since tHey ai^ fKisst«isiBd-df 
that very nature from which every icrime ispntklOetlk 
Sooner or later, temptation and oppbriMkf^^^uf 
cause some baneful shoots to spntrgfoi-th^' In t^^f 
outward conduct, in testimony that-a root cHT'^bCuer* 
'* ness lies deep within, and that the least' ka|)io«ritf 
men carry about them a degenerate natur«v a* ^d^ 
i>f sin and death. ' ^ 

To give more weight to these obseT^atiims,*!* 
nets forth tlve greatness of the supreme Being, 't^ 
iarges on his justice, and displays the severity ofi)i« 
laws* He trafuples under foot the pharisakal hoH* 
IM ss of sinners, that he may bring into cstifnlltioa 
the real virtues of the <^ new man, which affef ^od 
js created in righteousness and true 'lidliness/' To 
awaken those who are sleeping in a statfc of- carnal 
tiecmity, he denounces the most alarmiriig-maJedi^- 
lions, calling forth against them the thtinders of 
jfcuun. t Sinai, till they are* constrained ttf turn theit 
facts Zi<.n*waid ; till ihey seek for safety in tlie^e- 
fiiaror of the new. covenant, and hilBten to **'the 
frprjnkling of that blood, which speaketh betlei: 
Ihiu^** t'«Aii Uic blood of Abelt" 

By ihii method> he conducts his wan deritigfii^ck 
to tlie very poiiii w here ancient Israel sUiod, wfiert 
God had ptxpaitd them to receive the law by his 
lifrTuui Mps^S9 Now a£ter the pepple had hem d tbf 


•*lhunderings/and the'noisfe of'the truApetj" after 
Ib^y 4iad,4ecn *^ the Ughmingis,, and thq mountain 
imo^king :" when, unaJble any longer to gaze on 
%hi^t^v^2kf\i\il sccn«^*' threy said un'o Mose», speak 
<^0uf vrilh HP Aod we will hear ^ but let not God speak 
HiKa n%i** vfittiQUt a Mediator, ^ Jeat we die **.... Then ' 
U'^^^W Mo^se^be^aatO console therri in the fol- 
tewing-worda : ** Fear not : for God is come to prov« 
l^at^ ^Vld-^hal' hU fear may be befoi»e your faces, that 
yi9fjt^m not*'' So in the present day, they only, who 
^fe- bfoiigllt to this poverty of spirit, are properly 
l)t9|^0sed to receive the riches of divine mercy. As 
fiioii^ iWc^fioreas'the evangelical minister has suft 
i^i«tnUy alarmed a sinner, with the terrors* discbverdd 
Hp^ oip^iKt 3inai, he anxiously prepares him for th« 
f^fHK>lations of the Gospelj by a sight of the suffci* 
img ^<^i^ upon Calvary« 

, dlany pious divines have supposed, that, by 
jl^fM^ing^the €#>^ftof Christ alone, mankind migh^ 
^:^r<>M>g^( to ifue cepentance* What th^ fathers 
of the Synod of Berne hs^ve said upon this point, de* 
«« tlu^ attention of those, who desire successfully 
«^>Qft^|thatiptritua( weapon, which U <^»lia4*pcr thati 
$kf tvA^e4g^ sword." 

« ;ith^* kfW>M^e4g« of sin,'* Kay they, « must of 
<* necejssity be di*a;wn from Jesus Christ* The Apos^ 
'^ttf Wtni»% tk%v»i *> God commet»deth his love toward 
A'v»4Kfit^t while we were yet sinners, ChrlsV died f >r 
^'iit{.' it* follow^' tiiiat am must Imve made us abomi- 
*i|abtd^ and extremely' hateful, sitKe the Son jof God 
¥ ooukir o^cother Wfl,y deliver us fix>tt) the Ixirden of 
i^iMi tliatt by dying in oar stead. Hehce,- we rna)^ 
^W^inet what a depth of misery and corruption^ 
*i'thePe is in the be&rt/bince it was ntof able to be 
^pUriBtM, but by the sacrVftce of so precious a vic^ii 
" liWi, and by the sprinkling of the blood of God/* 
iwe4 of a ma^n, miraculously formed, in whom dwefV 
*> all- the fulness of the Godhead bodily.'' " The 
^^po&ttea hiive clearly mjahifestcd the biitfulness mf 


•* our nature by the death of Christ ; whereas the 
^ Jews, after all their painful researches, were not 
•* convinced of sin by the law of Moses. After a so- 
«* lid knowledge of siuhas been drawn trom th^pM^ 
<^ sion of our Lord> there will naturally flow irpn^ 
* this knowledge a true repentance ;^t^t U,a JtipeJji 
^ aorrow for sun xningled with the hope of fi^^urcLpar* 
*-don. To this necessary work, the Hoiy SpiriHalH) 
^ powerfully contributes, brix^ing more aiwi; more 1q 
« the light, by its mysterious operations, the hiddci© 
^ evils and unsuspected corruptions of the. h^^^i 
^ daily purifying it from the filthiness of sin, as ML? 
^ ver is purified by the fire/' ^ct9 </ ^ynod^ckt^^ 
viii»UfXiT. t 


£ V£B faithful to the word of God, the minis*' 
ler of the Gospel endeavours to humble the tmpeQi^ 
tent, by appealing to the sacred writers^ and parti* 
•Ularly to the declarations of Jesus Chrisu 

The corruption of the heart is the most asci^nt 
aiffl dreadful malady of the humui race* Man' had 
no sooner made trial of sin, but hit was driyea' 
from &n earthly paradise : and so terrible were, ita^ 
first efTecU, that the second man was seen, to assas^ 
sinate the third* This moral contagion encreaisecl 
through every age to so astonishing a degreci thatf 
before the deluge, *^ God saw that the wickednesa of 
man was great in the earth, and that every imagina^ 
tion of the thoughts of his heart was only evil com 
tinually. After the flood, God still declared th^ 
imagination of man's heart to be evil from his youth* 
The heart of man}'' saitb he again long after tba|> 


tltfh^j^^Usdefceurul above' all thitjgs and desperately 
^jrkfeed ; who. cdh tno.\V It ? I the Liord search ihfe 
ll^i-^,^ try ;the reins.'' . : 

--! O^rL^i^ Himiself', who pertecfl/"lcnew what wa% 
ttt *na«,^ being t he physician who al&n c is able to hcaS 
a%9/aM' Xht Judge who wifl render to every on© a<t- 
i ed^dih^ <b hi s works ; oil r Lord has described rtiari - 

kind alienated from. the chief gO0d, filled with avei*- 
sla«^ to his people, ^nd eneinies to God hitnsclf. 
<^5^1/seJ^d'yOl^.f6rth," saith he to his disciples, ** ak 
lambs among wolves. If liie world hate you, ye 
;. know that it hated me» before it hated you. If yoa 

■ were of the world,nhe w®uld love his own ; 

but because I have chosen you out of the world," 
that ye should walk in my steps, "therefore the 
>iqfl4 hatc^thj^o^* If Ihey have persecuted me, they 
Y^i\\ al;^9 pers((ecute. you. All thes^ things will they*^ 
do unto you for my name's sake, because," not- 
withstanding their deism and polytheism, " They 
know not him that sent me :" For ." he that hateth. 
I in£, hateth my Father also. These things have I tbki 

[ you^ that when'' they shall chase you from their 

I churches, as demons would chase an angel ofJighty 

<< ye may remcniber that I told you of them*" 
! ' • The Jews were doubtless, in one sense, the most 

enlightened of all people v seeing they offered ta the 
true Cod, a public worship unmixed with idolatry, 
iTcre in possession of the l^vr of Moses, the Psalms 
^f David, together with the writings of the other prot 
phetsy in which the duties required of man, both 
i vrith respect to God and his neighbour, are traced out 

I ' tH the most accurate manner. Neverthttlessi Jesus 

Christ represents this enlightened people as univer- 
sally eoi^rupted in spi<e of these advantages : '^ Did 
not Moses*" saith he to theni, " give you the Law I 
iltid yet Ko^ K of y<^ keepeth. tlike 1-aw^," • 

What appears most extraordinary in the ser- 
mons of our Lord, is the zeal with >vhich he bore 
his testimony a'gainst the virtues of those Jewsi 
S 2 

2\0 vuM FOftTmAiT car cti fjiux;*? 

who 'were reputed mea o£ iMxwinnion .derblMSi^i 
A|(boughtbey piqtied themBelvee upon beiAg^ emi*.^ 
neoftly lighteoas, hc^ declared ichis disdple%tbftt^: 
unless their *S righteouatoese/' slntild '^iexceed the 
rigbteousnesf o£ the sorbet) afid f^iikrisees,'' thetf 
sbould ^* in no wise enter intolheAKingddni of ^c«rL 
▼en." And observe the manneri in whk^ he gqae*' 
imlljr adfiressed those religious impostors i ^ Wotr 
unto you scribes and pharisees, hypociites ! fony«^ 
make clean the outside of the cup and of theplaiteTV 
but within they are full of extortion and excess t^dU 
of covetous desires and disorderly paasioni^ ;7 TiKHP 
blind Pharisees, cleanse first tha^ which is Withinw*p 
that the outside may be clean als6.*' . ' 

Nothing is- more common than that blindnessy^ 
%hich suffers a roan to esteem himself better than' 
he really isi and this blindness is, in every period 
and in every place* the distinguishing characteti^ie 
of |L pbarisee. This species of hypocrisy , with 
which St« Paul was once elated, agrees perfectly 
well with the ordinary sincerity of sinners, who- 
bliiuily regaid amusements the most trifling and ex^- 
pensive, as allowable and innocent pleasures ; who 
look upon theatres, as schools of virtue ; intrigue and 
deceit, as prudence and fashion ; pomp and profu- 
sion, as generosity and decorum ; avarice^ as frugal- 
ity ; pride, as delicacy of sentiment ; adultery, as 
gcillantry, and murder as an affair of honour. 

To all such modern christians, may we not, with 
pi'oprieiy, repeat, what our Lord once openly aid-« 
dressed to their predecessors ? Without doubt, we 
are authorized, to cry out against them, with an holy 
zeal* " Woe unto you hypocrites I for ye are like 
UiUo whited sepulchres, which indeed appear beau- 
tiful outward, but are within full <)f dead inenVbonea; 
t;nd of all uncleanness* Ye outwardly appear righ4 
i€^us unto men, but within ye, are foil of hypocrisy 
feud iniquity :" of hypocrisy, because, your virtues 
hdve more appearance than solidity ; and of injua* 

TH» W^RTaAlT OF -IT; FAtTX/.' 211 . 

tlcB^'btG&use^jrcm rciifderiiot that^bich friueto^ 
God) ta :€ed%r> or to yoao feliow^cpeatupef^,. ^vhetber^ 
i(.ibe a^i»*i|tiioaf feat, honotir, ^suppdrtcy* or gocrf* win. • 

a^it>r. tke pliaTls&6» in paitioulatv a{}|)e^'^^^-' 
^Uo^y evLdenf ; muat m suppose tlutte were ik>^ 
happf eKtepttOBs among them : It is true, 4be roy-^ 
ai 'Prcrphet d}eclares^«.^< The Lord looked down- 
ffMnn heaven upoii the children of men, to see if 
t^effc Irer^ asyt that did understand and seek God» 
They icrc all gone aside, they are altogether be* 
OMsiB filthy i there i». none that doeth good, no not 
ooew^ « But were not the disciples of our Lord to be 
considered in a difiTerent point of view ? No : even 
^fterthe extraordinary assistance afforded them by 
tike Son of Godf the Apostles themselves did but 
€h)nfirm ;th6 sad assertion of the psalmist. Our 
'bdrd, upon whom no appearances could impose, 
ohce testified *to James and John, that, notwi'thstand- 
ing their zeal for his person, they were unacquaint- 
adiwith his real character ; and that, instead of be- 
ing influenced by his spirit, they were actuated by 
tli4t of the destroyer. ''Ye then, being evil;** 
Said he to all his disci plei : " Have not I chosen 
you twelve, and one of you is a devil ? One of yOu 
shall bttray me"—»Peter who is the most resolute to 
confess mfe, shall "deny m6 thrice....and all ye 
shall be offended because of me." Lastly .: our 
Lord constantly represented the unregenerate, as 
persons ** diseased and condemned. They that are 
whole," said he, *'have no need of the physician, but. 
i they that are sick ; I came not to call the righteous, 

f- ]wil'sinners to repentance. Ye are of this world, 

i iherefore I, said unto you, that ye shall die in your 

! sins: for if ye believe not that I am He," and re- 

f^i^ to observe ihespimuai regimen I prescribe, 
♦f ye shall die in your ^ns. Except ye repent, yc 
ihall perish/* 

•. «*~ 

• »13 - •• THIS fsaiiTHAir «» nfiiffhVt^'-' -^'i :•-• "^ > 

,' It )s "notoiiQui, thai John the faaplfst prepa^^d, 
ibeway of hi» adorable Mast«f by'-iweacljing^ ,th$:. 
s^jnc doctiiiie'; ." O • gen,ei-'aUon pf vjpciVSj-* sajd,;l^e^. 
la the Pharisees acil sadducee*, to the prppHaac^syi^: 
profesfeing par^ of the, nation, ." wJao hafh warp<t 
you lo flee from the wrath to come ? JBrJrig jforfc^^ 
tl)crefor«? fruits meet, for rppcntance," : . ?. :? 

. It is equally well kniowp, that the disciple* Wire* 
instructed by Christ himself to treaji in the" stupsti^ 
bis forerunner ; " It behoveih," said b©i ^^liVist 
to suffer ; and that refietitance^ should bepreiched i«t 
his name amang all x>ations'.** Hence an ^p<iibtle . 
was heard to cry outi " God now commanded -alti 
men every where to repent.** And at edier tih>M^^ 
the s^me" divine teacher was inspired to vril^ a«*^ 
follows : *' We, who are Jews by nature, andoot* 
sinners of the gentiles, were by nature the children 
of wrath even as others: for we were sometimes 
foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving divers lusts'< 
9jid pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful and' 
' hating one another. 

The same doctrine was constantly held forth by 
the other Apostles, as well as by St. PauK In. 
*' time past," saiih St. Pcler, we have '< wrought 
the will of the gentiles, walking in lasciviousmsS)^ 
lusts, revelUngs, Sec. The whole world lieth m^; 
wickednesss ;'' suith the beloved John : and St.? 
Janies solemnly testifies, that every '* friend of the* 
vfrorld is the enemy of God.** 

This humiliating doctrine, which the world ^nl"^ 
versally abhors, is a light too valuable to be hidden^ 
under a bushel : and , till it is raised, as il werev^ 
upon a cancjlestick of gold, we cacn never hope bs^ 
see the visible church enlightened and reformed, i 

, Observations upon ihje repentance of worldly men* 

" - IF' U be enquired, db not all ministers preach 
repentance? we answer ; that^ ordinarily, true mV 


nisters alone preach true repentance. The preach* 
era of the dtuff asthejr iu« conformable to the. worlds 
in other things, ao they are perfectly contented with 
pracftfsing the repentance of worldly men* No^ aa 
l>e who receives only base coin, cani^iot possibly 
circulate good money, so he, whq^ satisfies his own 
heart *with sr sh6rt-lived sorrow for sin, cannot pes- 
M^ly give free course to that erangelical repentance^ 
which the CQspel requires. And it is obserTablej 
that the hearers of such ill-instructed scribesy gen* 
eraily fix those bounds to their repentance^ which 
are satisfactory to their impenitent pastors. 
[ The repentance, we here condemn} may be 
Isoown bf the following marks* 

U It is superficial, and founded only upon tha 
most vague ideas of our corruption :* hence, it can- 
noi^ iiJ^e that of David and Jeremiah, trace sin 
tf> Ua sourc^i and bewail the depravity of the whole 
heart* . 

Uw It is [^ariij^aical, regarding only outward sins. 
The righteousness of the pharisees rested upon 
the most Vri&ing observances, while they neglected 
thpsci weighty Qommiuida of the Law, which respect 
the. love of Gpd and pur neighbour. They afflicted 
thems^iv^^ when, they had not. scrupulously paid 
thie. tei^thji of tl|eir harba; but they i^mpte not upon^ 
th^i: breastSf wbien they had rejected the. glorious 
Gqsp^ of JeauaXhriftt. In the same dangerous 
ci^jcuiEaailsMaceaare those. penitents of the present day, 
whp.aj^.Jess sctPfowful on account of having offend* 
ed Qod afi4 ^rejected Christ, than that they are be-> 
come objects of ridicule, contempt,, or punishment,' 
by; the 9Qiiiiiiission of some im|)ious or dishonour- 
sM^ acti9ii«. We frequently bear these false peni- 
^ tents bewailing the condition, to which they have 
t^4ac|td; tbems^ves,, and giv^ing vent to the most 
passiooatie exptesaions 4){ sorrow. But, when are- 
they seen to aSlic^ themse}vf^<i, because they have 
Dot beei^ wholly devoted to God i Or when dp th^y^ 

SU TftE toafHAIT WP Sf. TA'VlL. 

shed a'single tear at the recollection, th'<.t they H&fh 
not ch<fcrtfthed their heighboiii' a^ theai#eT¥e« ? Af H 
fhey ever lifleard to lament thff ^♦^wi-t df ^lial fttiih in 
Chrlsti "which trorketh by lov^ ^' At« «hey fevei^ 
lengag^d in^eeking; a^er that e6inifroffiefi' of isaim^i 
by tvhich* betieVert bertmife of Oife ' Heairt ^'hd'one 
Bbii! ? Alas I so taf are <h^ tr^tti iW^-tlifet ttley <Jbrtw 
ttrtiie^quklly ti-timjuil uiider the tfta*^d*6Ufj*i^.ol iii* 
Gospel, as dti8er those of tlie lL«W* Tfyey-^hckri 
Without terrt^r, those •dreadffrlw6r*»dl'tfe«'Aiposf lei 
^If bny tfiati loVe tioV fhe Ldlrd' JF^m Ciiiii&t,<M 
him be anathema maranathik ^'* 'andf'th0i}|fh' iliey 
litiitbJerloT^ hdr ktibW him, yet tf^ey tiSrt^ llA>k'«p^ 
on themselves, as gcdly ttidttrfftrs afid^ifllf<ngi^ 
piJnititnrs. ' •■ ' . : > n 

S. Thltnr«pentM(Oe irutifrUStifbl, itfasttHi^HriiB'tlidiiB) 
irho repent after ^is iMnil^, alne^uttc^kr^g^nMi^ 
cSMiiiHinetidn 6f heart. Noile 6f these aTe''ifeiM:Mfiki6tf 
to cry out, ^ Men and brethren, what shall wedd'Ht 
Th^ toriit hotto th^ Red<&eni«r amttfH^ifiidfc a^ are 
wei^ry and Mavy laden. Thtyh»f^iib€itpti4^(f^di 
Hhkt go6Vf 80t4r6#) by Whkjh tlrtr liNi6l>ettltib^t di^^Af 
ifin : and so fa^ ai^ ^h^ frorh bdng: bdrB^ajgiiSzf <)f^M 
l^i^t, th»rtfifey nt^Ith^r e^p^ct^ nor dtnire ally sdlW 
i^g:<^&l*^€b. Ih sbi^ tfiis n^rMtHdt^ kr rkYe9f' id 
ilncer^ as that of Juda«r, vho'c^ortfedfted hii^ ^V j^i^' 
lied the inMc^, subdtied Itiis i\iNV)^ patf^t^'dnd'^^ 
fUfthcd the tribn^y hfe hald so deal4y> gldtt^.< 
• £^%ngc^lcllf i'ei)tiM:ance is- an* ifttddti^VehaiSibli? 
w>rk tb the generaTity of m\nh0Ltf%. WlfciKeVe¥ if 
appears, they are' prepoired to censui^ it ^»-4**«* ^^^ 
earnest in exhorting^ men* UV fly from- ir> !>a?tli^ l*iUI* 
retjtiesf it as a gfift kurm G»m Tt^us^ #ht»lh'eyJbev 
hold any bnfe tmly moumiikj^uAd^ra ^eftse-^ sii^^ 
stnitini:^ upon his breast, '^fith the ^ablitai^ strlppiftg* 
elff, with St. Paul, the covering ©f hia 6^'H^fatec>ua^ 
ntss, and^enquiring, with* the coirritet<i«l jailiM^ ** what* 
must I do to be saved?** they i«j>po8e these to b©^ 
i^rtain ibigns of a deep metocholy: they ^ii^gino* 

•JfHE raaTKAlT Of ST. PAIJli 315 

the converf ^tipo of , s9paei enth|usia«t, ^s driv^ii ihi^j 
mm U>.^«pair, a^ w^ll npf^crui^Je to affirm,; that be 
bsi» lost. the ^€^r i^se of his re^soiu So tinie it isj 
thati^^ Ailllirdl ii|^ r^eiveth npt the things, of tL^ 
i^arit of God," noiris even s^le to form any just idea* 
of ^ths^t ifep^^it^i^CiQf^whu^i ;s. the .first duty i^lposed 
upoix u» by^ Gp^pelg, atni th^ iirs|: step toward tha^ 
4iolines% without whicl^ no maj) shall see the Loiti. ; 
. } T<foe moralists pf tla« prescint time, acknowledge 
th«t all men^resiimei^s,; bf^ t^y iu;;gjectto dra\y the 
jlist cofKsequenc^A from soi had a truth. To be fouD4 
a ;ffiQttfir bfeftfe a^infinijtelX;hoIy apd just Gop, is to 
fbc&j[^ .9A:0QS^ both Qur felicity and existence. To 
appear as an offender hi the eyes of our ail-seeing 
4t)K%e, is do ; lij& in . th^ cqiiKUtiaa <t£ a broken vessel, 
nrhicb tlse psotter thiY>ws aside as refuse : it is to stand 
jb .die.eircuin^liiK^s of a criminal ccnivicied of vio* 
fating ibe most sacred laws of his Prince* The twa 
most inoipcyrtant laws of God are those, which require 
piety toward himself and charity toward our neighbour. 
Now if w« have violated both the on^ and the other 
of these law^; and that, tiifi^s without number; it 
becomes us not only to confess our transgression, but 
to consider our danger. When a traitor i§ conyicted 
of. treason, or an assassin of murder, h<^ immediately. 
expects to b^ar his sent^ce prjonounced : and thust 
when a sinner confesses hims^f to be such, he makes. 
a^ tacit acknpwledfi^menl, that sentence of death might 
justly be pixniouQocd upon him. 

' Some pers(His are naturally .so short-sigbtcd, that 
th^y can only discovfer the most strikiiijj objects about 
them. Msmy in the mt^al wga^ld are in similar cir? 
cumstanees, to. wl«om njcHhIng appears us sin, except 
impieties of thegrossest itind.^ If we judge of God's 
commands aococding to the :pr«fju-; ices of these man^ 
iilolatry is nothing less thaii the act of proslrating oiirr 
solves before an idol ; and murder is merely the act^ 
by which ^a man ditstroys the lifc of hiii fellQ'.v^rea-.. 
lyr^. But if thes;^ doludc4 persons could coutem- 

9 16 T«¥ f OllVkilT 'it S^: PAUL'.' ' 

plate siti ih tf %<rliiihtttCH?g|hti IfAejr ebvifd avaiT t|i<^m-* 
■eWcs of' ' tftc la¥ • * bf God, as of an ob^eiratorYj^ 
erected 1b*'y5lU»l^tfhMtith)ii; their nipraT vieMr.woula ' 
be gufBd^tftfff ^treng^ttetied to (fiscovl^f tiie fottwlnC 
truths.-'- "'i '"** '"'^'•' " "' "*"'^'^''' ,™^ 

1. If^ h*te hbt; it 'kll tlriieaii'pra^.^'agr^^^^^ 
confidence inthef t^rcator/'tfian^'ih anj^^brhi^'c^aTl 
tures; If "W<f htfre *ithe^ l&at^d' cfr ipye^^^ . a^^^ 
more than our celesdal parerft, Ve 'have ttiea-r^jr * 
set up anothet* God, hi i)p^sitl6tt tip thc^Dbrd of %^ 

2. If ne^fettilig to ^i^ship ^tfla'tef 'sjp^nt^^ ^ 
truth, we have suffcnid*outseHnes Wbe 'sedj^cedby'any '^ 
splendid Yahity of^tRe age, tfe havtf 'sinned,' mtS^ 
same degrc«,a*'dioiigh We had Mien^doym pe^^ 
molten ima|;e. • • ■ ■•' •••*■• •>• ' -"' '' V' '^^'^'\ "' 

3. If, in 4>ur conversadon; our teadfrig;^of ourl^.praj^- ^ 
crs, we have ever irteveretitlf -pronounced the name of* . 
God, we have then taken thtft tocre'd ttaihe ih yaHn't ^ 
and God himself* dcekWs, that he will not hold such ' 
a one guiltless. ' '" ./^; 

4, If we have refused to labour diligcntlv, through ' 
the weekj in the work of oiir pkrtitular calfeiig ; or if > 
we have ever made the sabbatb adfey of s^iritiialj 
indolence and fmolous amusemeut ; thfen^^e hati^ ^. 
neglected and blxdc«n that Law, Vhlch ^e ja*e |)eculi- * 
arly commanded to remember ^arid keep. ; * * 

5. If we have, atamy tSm^, been waning Ihdbe^ 
dience, respect, or tove^ to' our parti*nts, <Air pastor^ ' 
our magistratesvOrto^aiiy of our superiors i ot^tf we'; 
have neglected.aBgr-«f those dmwW, -^hich otr^^Vdk-'; 
tions in society, or ^ear psfr^cular *tt)ca6<5n ha^4?tii- .; 
posed upcm Us, we. hare merited that God' sht/uM tut 
us off from theiland ol the tfvifi^. : * '- • ' ' ^^f * 

6. If we have weakened out* ccind^utiortby^ilftits^ :^ 
of any kind; if we have striicfc^o^r ndj^bout in i " 
-moment of passion ; if we baW ey^r- spolten an^ ihjn-^** 
rious woixl ; if we have ever< ca^t A^Wk*- dft^cted 
by maUce : if we harcb ever ibrtni^d i« ourliearts k 

«ingle evil wish again^slt imy per»pn.wJi$U^VCiS 99MW0, 
have ever ceased to love oujp })rothQr.;^..w<f have Xhqn. 
iii.the sight" qTGodj cpmrniUed ^ species**rde^« 
7. If we have ever lopped ii|HkU ^w>mM with any ; 
oilier feelings thin those of chastity ; or if we haye^a^; 
any tiine,^C^At a wi§hftjl» gjfincp iippp tlie^hoftoirs and 
pleasurfes.o^ the ;wor)d J we jiyive auffideutly,cP¥)oVod- 
the impurity of^ur nature^ and musthe^ co(u»ider(*d) as • 
living in enmity .^ith pod- 
'^ 8. Jf we haviPfeQeived the |)iroGt annexed. to any 
post or emptoyment, without cai'cfuUy dischat^^inj^ 
the duties incymbent upon ua, in such sltuatiofkr ; or if 
\fe hate tal^n advapitage either of the. igngrance^ or 
the\ necessity of others^ in order to enrich ourselvea 
at they* expence i we may jystly raak ourae^vea wkh ^ 
those, who openly violate the eighth command 

9. If v^ have ever offended against truth in our 
ordinary conversation ; if. we have neglected to fulfil 
our promises) or have ever broken our vows^ whether 
made to God or man ; we have reason, in tliis res* 
pect to plead guilty beibre the tribunal of immutable 

10. If we have ever been dissatisfied with our lot 
in life ; if we have ever indulged restless desires, or 
have given way to envious and irregular wishes; we 
have then assuredly admitted into our hearts thatco- 
vetousness, which is the root of every evil. 

When St. Paul considered the Law, in this point 
of view* he cried out; ^^' It is si^iritual ; but I am car- 
naly sold under sin." /Vnd when Isaiah, passing 
from the letter to the apirit, discovered the %'ast ex- 
tentof thedecaiogue, he exclaimed : »* Woe is me I 
for I am a. man of unclean ^{Mvand I dwtll in the* 
muUt of a people of uiM:lean> Ji^s/* If our self-ap- 
plauding ]iw>ra|ists would be persuaded to wei^^h 
their piety in the same balance,, they would find it 
as deftsctive^ at leaat^^as il&l pf Isaiah and St. Paul. 
. Her^ perhaps, some objecting pharisee may 
saj f if I have sinned .in «ome«degree, yet I hav« 

5rl^ TWi? PORt*RArt>OFSt. fAUL. 

not coTTiitiitfed 'sucK <fHifl«9 ti^' ivmny othens <iiiu»i^ 
done : and I trusty thttt 6od t^^not be 'ft<»Tfei9e> sn »t<- 
tending to iHflltig sk>s. Edit .1. A*htsei^i«teQiGM 
trifling ^inS'i tire ortfit^ily «>flo gtotit^ si'tHinibeivihaJt 
the nYtrltitu5:te h( thcrfi bWrMi^tis <^ftfiVftriAi|i«oT^ibffi]^ 
ormitt tf tfiostiCi^infe'i, wliteh it^e^^rrtsljiHOQiii^BftUifti 
so mouni ami UnA' stk^tife 'bill; cdll6€j&fO(39^eif r^pnns 
ot'«an^^ndtltt>|>§of WWter*'* i ' • 'i. v. ; i>f JO }(, 

contemtit of tht Lr^lAtt>r*d a%itfa^it)^^- anii*tn oofih 
contempt; there Ufound'lhe 9t:ttd%l:ev4^^i]iih«t«dsi 
possibly be cotnttkitte^, i>»i dp^Hidif ^ Mi^Mpcea» 
commands All' th^* toni^ffndtf 'df <Sf«4v^t3vlwtii)»: 
bl^ey "be great or iitn'any W(iVe,tt6 'MlitiF^isttct^ithKii 
that which c6nsi»tB in his divifl^ la^it^iM'iljrf^iifdftiita 
' authority U trampled \ind«F ftldt^ <tf «ffrerj^opal|)r 
delinquent, as weli a9 by- €vet^ Mtoiiig'jsuaiM- 
gfessor. ■ *■■ *'■'•• ■'^-•"i".*' .'>,mow 

3« Thos9, whi<!h yre w^Mj <Btte«m tiix^iiili^pani, 
are the more dangeroiw; on actJAiJttt i>f t^iSr'beii% 
less attended to. They ttre-coittfHh«e4 w4lb«at.£ete, 
without remorse, and gene rttUf without iniemdimbn* 
As there arc more frhips "Of^tvitr destroyed by» vii)rms» 
ihanljy the siiotof the enemy; so the mulfeU'Vtde of 
those, who destroy themsfeWesAhftrOOgh ordituu^ siosy 
exceeds the tin niber of those who |)eriith by^(9^oi»nQtts 
ofiences. •' - '- -'* ; * » = -^ •• 

4; We hare a thotisttnd pfodisythfat sitvaUrsmsttEiU 
lead a mail, by insensible degree*^ tai:heic<imiiiii»ik>ii 
of greater; *N6thing is 'hK)t'e 'ceto^RQOn<'attQ»i^ 
than the ctrs;omt>f s weiring aftd't^kv'mg^af lolvttKth 
without reason ; and these art lis&iii^ly 'regardftdcjas 
offences 6f ^n incoinstderable ttatut^*-' -&ui iliereiis 
every rtasoti to bdi^Ve^ thiM Ihey Wttiy'hawe loan- 
iracied these vjtious habits, ^toM be- itqatilyo dis- 
posed i.o pt?r|ury aiid mnMci-; were t^^A«siiilod;by« 
any i*oii:ib1e tend p tat ioti, and tinf^eSli^ailled :witbiiih& 
drervtl Of forfeiting their honour or thehr 'I4fei.--^lfixve 
judge wf a ifeottebdity by otwming a^at^ 

^cdi^ KttH?d!ii^.ift Miella^.by trivial a^t^^ ,of virtue, 
^«^iBa9!iiE>jrin^m j«dgl»»nft.<if (^e.he^^ , Hence ihc 
Mdim's l^wftfliites. ^pp^^red.^ppnsijdpr^jk obUiion 
Jim(tbttj^fU%(fii Gto^jifitj.wfoojjii^^d Uy j4)ejji^how rich 

a&eJifienrpo»»ja*«?<ljQC Ul^.njbeftiv^., ^l'>r,,i,h^; ?anie rea- 
WMi^^te€fcfc«^!Wa\i ij^fuJansiftMPAfa ii? ,^lwcl> -the name 
of God is taken in vainjithf}^et,p<^i^4WVt .railleries^ 
hod diB%o^kyoi^\^lu^f,9ifiiihiQ}\i',iV^^^ in com- 

ihioardofekYei>^U<>l^idiscqv6f?/,iAke, |ri|)S; disposition of 
<U»^ftii|MHrfi^»«^:;\y;bPt> .witbpfit: insult. oc temptation, 
HesarpnotaiiVe ik^KSfttred iawi^ o^ D^^^i '^ ^^ve. The 
i9ato«i«w4»>»>i'<Klu§^ fiwit inor^. or l^ss perfect^ ac- 
/CKiitliRgtj^jiil^^j^tQrUUy Qriai^fUi'iancp of the Roil iu 
tfiiiii6h^b«)^<wie;,»pw,nf, Xhus (he,Y^Ty same princi- 
^0te/of<maUc& whjich Iqi^d^ a child to torment an in- 
"«nc;VaQU,0liefire foriCij^ly jgpon the heart of a slanderou!» 
jiFoman, whose highest joy cc^sists in mangling th« 
«ctipiltatkiaufaneig^ibovr; nor i»tfae cruel tyrant ac- 
,AuateikJ»y'ai^i£fei^t prlncipk^ who iinds a barbarous 
^fislsamc in ,pemKMmg the ri$hteous> and shed-^ 
jiiftgcAhe. blood pf th«fj Uiuocent.^ 
.<u H j^pii^iiiii will ^qH ^low these observations to 
■ be yisx., reastOn deUai*€s thei contrary* The very 
^ttlinie^Ai^ttoo that) m certain case^, would be esteemed 
A faiii0g> be<;om4»S9 in &on%e circumsitances, an of- 
fence ; and in others^ an enormous crime. For in- 
: .6Uiic««i»t Jf I deispis»e an inferior^ I oommit a fault ; 
. if tii«ijoffx^nd^d psu'ty ismy equal, my fault rises in 
3;j)ftiig^ude.i.ifli£ is i|>jf;Superip^^ greater still : 
> iif. vh4». i^: 9L re^^ctAMe magistrate ...a beneficent 
-MptJBteeii^i^if tiiA^ princ^ u,m)? sovereign Lord, whose 
Ihrniti^ IJj^v^-^afp^rie^iccd aftsJX. repeated acts of re- 
^bcillii>ai> who has heaped, upon ime many kindnesses ; 
-i{vh9:k&e^9S to be§^c^.V»ppi) ^e *till greater favours: 
'jiindiiifr«(iet}flUi;have been led to deny and oppose 
. him^^my prAmeisp^MtHl^ubttdlj ?tggvavated, by all 
AbHe circvmstat(i€f s, tp.a^ e;jtraordinary degree. 
BnU Jf U>is oliepdeU benefactor is Loid of JUords s^n^ 

?*d ' 91IE ^OMtHaIT or Bf. PAtTl.« 

King of £ing5..».th« Creator 9^ inaj)f.the ,Moiimi!^ 
»f Ang<:ls*...ibe Alici^utofdays».before whoigqi^Jtfveif^^* 
jesiy of all the mpoarchsjupo^ earth fLisappne^fs,^ 
I he Iu<&trc of a.thoui^nd ^ars ^4^?^^*PY^}^^ l*Tft- 
scijce of the sufi,».,;f thU.'^lm*WW.B;ei|ig ba^ gity^ 
his beloved Son. ip . &ufiejr ijafainf.. j^pd jd^^h^ii^'^pi'- 
iler 10 pTocui^ . (or nie c(cnri54:JLi'f5>,f^^^ 
glory. cnipe-viii^ then be ^g:gray^^.'in,jM*9«> 
portion to loy own. meanness, the i^r£^iri^}% ptiff^^* 
fns rtctivcd, and t^ cjj^ity^of my.'e&altcd/Be^^fag^ 
tor. B it our imagination U b^yk-Wdpi^^ w4iei>r.)^ 
aitcmpt to scan jihe frnorinify, .which the,!i§r^^miftj* 
Kited circumstancea add tothoa^ ac^a9£ Re^l)qi^5 
tiirnoroinaied sins* _ '. , 'j., ^'^.; 

I'hey, who are not working out thtiir -^V^^f^^^^ 
^iih fear and trembliDg«" must neceasar^i)^ 4yf -^ 
(he pruciice of some constitutional sin ^ a^d.ihia s^if> 
ft.dulgence, houever secret it msyr bet.willwi suf*' 
i'er them to perceive the demerit ojf their cUHf 
transgressions. An old debauchee, whose chief dja« 
)ight has been in seducing women, or an ^ 
nnirderer, who haa shed human blood iike Wfiter, 
may as easily conceive the horror that aduU^r^y and 
murder excite in virtuous aouls. - >. 

Before we can form a rational judgment of sH|.an4 
the punishment it. deserves, it becomes us to^iUe|* 
tuin jubt ideas of moral order ; to mark th^ oblVglk* 
tiun iuid upon the hupreroe legislator to .ii>aii>ta|n 
that Older by wholesome laws, and to.diacar^r, in 
i^ome degree^ t-he sanctiiyt the excellence ^ndi}J^|e 
extent of those absolute cQmmanda^ It isn^cj^^^jr 
to understand the dependence of thexraatuit^'iippo 
the Creator ; since the image formed by tliA^ref- 
sence of an object before a nairror, i^ niot mojire j^n- 
pendant upon that object, than all orders of cr eaHyi 
beings depend upon the Creator : if he wji^hdi'^vi^ 
his protecting hand, they are no moire; if he stuetch^ 
out the arm of hi^.venfteance, they a,re, plung^^d, M 
«»uce, into an abyss of^misery. We must re(ie«t 


Mon a^} the various.obiig^atiops, under which welitt 
Wthe' Almighiy> is l;reat6r,'PreWrvei', Redeemer^ 
iritl^CoriSifortcr. We muHt cdWsider those exani;iles 
•Whl^^hgefuf jiistiteywhi^^^^^^ has'plactid Utifore 
dii^ cyt^ tm pui*pdsfe to k^^i^kW ottt* ftar* i.iogether 
^^^itft Cfe' ^ttWerftfe^a: fUv^ur^i by Whifcb he ha^ con- 

^6W£dm^«%4^iktwi*^t!; to obVet^ve the Vattit^ of all thossc 

it^^krteiiftf l»y':%Kith V^ art alKir^d intb'sin ; and 

^Rfttfy^, Sc'ia/ tt«»<:eiwary to remetn\>er, thkt '^ God will 

BHrig^^vtiy i»6rkiRto jodg^eittv, 'w every secret 

Wiii^.*'" W'hflie'Uvc pay Hdl ar pfoptr attention to 

^fe^^fylfeid of thieve drcaxristances, we must necessa* 

Jfflyii^Wh ihrthperiSctjudgtnent concerning the na-. 

turc of sin, the severity with which God has dc- 

''tW^riJiWd'to punish it, and the greatness of that ex* 

'Jiiiitor^ -sacrifice, by rirtue of which his justice and 

•hHrrti^rey'tanife iri t>^rdohing the penitent. 

"* '- When thclfawof God is wilfully transgressed, 

"iW^riidlctilous in any tnan to attempt tl>e justifica- 

"Hbr^iif htn^elf, by piecing that he has committed 

^ittiry ^fttbrmoas crimes ; o^ that, if ever he has been 

^^illfy of any «uch offencesj his good fictions have 

ttl^skys been sufficient to counterbalance their deme- 

Tit* FHvotous excuses • Is not one treasonable act 

itf^ki^tit to mark the traitor ? Is not that soldier 

-^ifitabed its a deserter, ^vho flies his colours but a 

tki^gie 6me ? And does not a woman forfeit her ho^ 

h6ti^byol1fe moment of weakness ? 

'^\ Though we' grant there ai«e some sins of a pecu- 

IfarFf 'ftttrotious kind; yet as murder will always 

'stpii^tLty before an earthly tribunal, according to its 

'Kbk^ribletiftturc, sbVm wiH eter be considered as such 

'd&foi^ail1n€n4teiy holy God. If a mai) accused of 

*;J*tlVi*rg- WHfuHy i>6i«oned a feHow.crcature, would 

'M<dres8 his judge in tennslJke these ;... .The cha»-g<j 

t)tought 'Against me is just t but let it be considered) 

fhttt the person I have destroyed was only an infant..., 

'ihftt J)e W9S t4he child of a common beggaW..and that 

.^ «*4i4*e*<»f'*hty life; Ott^lie^yih^r -tend, tKhiiM 
been a constant benefactoi' to the poor ; and "stm^f 

*«veK ; i wHf^n^yoii prdWnjg^y^l ih<3? ttfcr ^df HM ihdfgdiit 
tijn j^oui' Aim's, y<>fi timtirtjlt pWftM»ftttrdoit 'dm^^iMdlk 
ih UnH«efs«(lly' f^uli'ed bf*<^6»^*fl^t!^^ifltzeto^fj«wl 
Vhfe JUw attovvii yOH ttodifcl&'dft lftis'JalG!c«Umtr>i Buiplf 
I'oli have gWt^ thti'i^iihrin^t dbifcJttP^sOBf|»allf 
^mmatixVeatore, with it^ ittierttJ fe ;d«iti^4iWntift5^ 
Mi^ la<.t priiriofUfttes ybti^ rtuW^ei^i^ttitd'trill ^^b^^ 
• ymi ks feuth. • * '' *^'' "^^ '' -■' ♦ ■••■itnr^ibijf.'to 

AficY* on j» first pai^n^* hid i6f!lfl^dlftd%y<eii<i<^U^ 
forbidden fi-ait," they had- but Vflfdrf ^Hi^ti^ed^^^iillL 
«el\*e«, in saying: *We^hUt?^e^athe¥efi^o6iyj<ton 
•ivhich appeared to be of liute \voft!hv.riW«R«ric^f»«M 
jl but oncc—moreovef, bur taboui^ tit lfee^gifdi«*»tl 
of much g^reater vailiie than Hic ivttU we li*n^«S^eV(* 
Lord ! condemn us not to death for soiftJcSoHblderd^ 
ble'^n offence.** Such, h^Wevtir, at^th<er'i^i%'0)out 
exc"U!^e^ wiih which ev^ry Winded moralist tteaielfi* 
Fits scared 'con»ciente» afx* ivith vhfch^he fe^bpij^ Id 
«atiofy his omiicient J\^dQc. When Si. Bm\*^eA 
one oftliis clasfei he practiiiedapon himsetf i1i<f^iti« 
delusions. Oapable only of natural ^c^n^itn^TifiS) Xhi 
ludden truths of a spimutil law were -tKJt btily itiL 
rom|i^'tficivs4ble; but vairt and^fooH^h Wm^ ltvtn$ 
e^tirijaiion. TliH >»c kiett'n frobt tho^ follo*^ iilg pia* 
hcij»e in his tpibljc 1*0 ftfe Homam=*i **;l^tt#iK'veAvitfei 
i)ui ihe la%v oficte,*' pafin^ Utile att^jiAlotttd' lb* ^^ 
1 iiualily pf'ils precepts, tit the ^ve^iey 6fit^<tfo^c«t 
ciiin^s, arid indiilgltfg'no >5<jsJ>icieiVC^^^^ 
hipuuh, or tiiy con<5emnarJon«'^*Biit-w-fiee't*id>-e4]ifie« 
iiivtudment x:uii*c,^ in'fts si>iHturt etii&i^ji ^^«fii^«$k 
Vived,^' u^suming art aj^p^aruntote tetiUied toMtiSiftfei*- 
lyA natuiW**5M^d,*' received a • scfetj^ritfe 'irf'de'itliiiA 
liUstUV " I ^»ed. I hsid ntil«*'thH^fa <(*%ii<iwfl^%»ilf ^iK* 
i»/u4e law ; t«i^ rjhaa'iim'itflt)2»*ii^MiJSt** #li|eh4#aJ^ 

M^iOii .*A^wttept^lile.aft^r(ha<i wdjrthfiwi >$bAU not 

■^0Wl*"f)(Tn —a'U! '->-'/ .> •.. t .* . :.i' ),n, :,<, ., 

ik^ W»y^/w^hjflrWic|3J^ aay. i, M^<M:€f?,rf,,V;Vipw« sini , 

Hfbgihti htii 1|>e^n s©en/*»5<w;h*.bvllr ^5^r«,*iQ/ light of 

XblirlCqsfH^ fof j5|waplo,frha4.liv^d/irva^ciMPity with 

*csi>p€5(^vf<)r«bw9ii%g^t4*^.fi*c ^P€/4h5v4inci had 

j lim0i kiMw»/jt*«p;>Mwg^)'> im*;^^ lodging 

i ' -iiwfe <iipjiO^'jthfit«r4kJ*,iU' C^ not 

i ^ilMin^t rfecjttii^?; ,fi £vcr}^ itUc word t,hat jomn nhM 

ftpknk^ rtw)ff)ftb^^.giT«..?^co^B^, i^reof i*>, the day 

of judgment s for by thy words thou sh^k he juaii- 

I fi*iltfW>ife^3frjthyf wford*- thou, sbalt be. ^PiKkroned." 

I JUFrtto«^1»f)m; IfH^V J» v^hetr o wp righteousBess, would 

;)W^fjpui5^o€]i^mvn« ihejinMriveit by the twofold law of 

; Mfm»j»iw^ p{/Ch«st, they leould form a new judg- 

fgiemiJQ£;^hf^ &^TUM^'Circi}instaace9> and ^ass, with 

^ JPaMi^l^oru t.he st«j(i^ of the phameci iuto that of 

?t«- :^«irfiher«&.&iiTs.of omi»sion> as weil.aa those of 
memmi»B'wt\y*<^^ sqS^ciein to draw, upon us the ma- 
Icdictioa&^^oftbeJlawy which equally commands tn 
to da good «iid to ^Main from evil. Olfences of tUU 
liature are aelcSom regarded as si»s, by, the genera- 
l^y of mankind .« and .hence»they>i;e wholly tina- 
larm)Qd«t:the repoU<;eUon of thei^* To lack djii- 
^eaiqe >ia.<u{ir. duties,, moderation i<i our joys, at- 
Jt^mic^n m sjwiicpr^ers, and^eal in our- devotions; 
44«?liv9 ifinbewt^^a^iwde io«?,mhJ our divine bene- 
AotoruwHliomreBi^^atioii, under lo$$es« patience 
Ja oaAioliojo, ;,ccw64|:ace M God during times of 
4wgen )aind.«oi|LteHtJi\>Jje state to whicJi he has 
«aHe(iwd ta wa^t.liwi|l*'^y .^^^'^^''^ ouf -superiors, 
^^ui'rUsy $^wm:dvQfur. equals, affabiiity tpwawl our in- 
^»d^*%t-m'eelM)ei^s 4owArd thps^ whg displease us, 
&ltJb{i4fi#fts^TOHr^woiKi>>triq4tiulh in oureonver- 
im«iQft,.i)^ Qbf^p^y . in. ithe i^dg|l>ent we form of others 
#«li441Jl^f»tsw«ti]4HP««ij^j^^-n"py«5X ^ the if. 


pose of a wortdlf man ; nor does he esteem tbem 
4* rta-oflBDiitei'ttt the tl^hi bfiQccfJ ^«i* -^wftitftUs^a 
nott that ail inkttendTeiriuf^ nta^ W<»'efi^^tliiiai)i^'^4it* 
afrby-a child, bf *t<ft»i«iGifdiil#'^fkW>#'p«^p^^ 
rishmetiN a^ though she hkd'Mli^^nd^'^'s^^^^^ 

' sotibtts drdtigfitt 1 'thafc R^^oldifdt'^dlii^liiPeAiMeinBed ' 

'to deathV if %htr:entd^ iiHc^fd toH$l%^ zt^bfth tHifile 
lie was sliei?ping oti l£i pt/ii^'lEtqd;^ fi^ iftb^gft ^ 

'b^d beeiVt^tisy in (»penitig^^he'^«e^Bfi tl!r^«%;dtt^|. 
aion ; and that Chilnst re^feseks'^hre W^i[^M^qii>f)r 

*fcr v^tAif, as the Wah* reasijti ^Hy ' ^(tki^^tiHb^'^tMli- 
tlans excite in him the ttnibst ^di^tt$liu^'iini^4BA. 
horrence. An mW cKatitet inth^ <3feyi>^3#feifr- 

Vofcd to teach us; that si'ns pfhttii^^i^'WW^oitdSi^ 
tnte the principal cause aFtt*6liVhe#^^cdMemA%ft*Ai 
at the last day. The slothful s^rVtift i^ hitki lAlb 
euter darkness, not fcr having Mbbed^^i«ft^itf^df 
his talent, but for the nori-itoptweiheiftof; W*^d%i»flf: 
the foolish virgins are excluded fVom the ^iittiiat^ 
feast, not for having betrayed the brld^oi(A,^Mt 
because they Were unprepafed toreteivc-hitfi^l-^tkl, 
every christian is acquainted with that terrible ieii- 
tence, which shall one day be pronounced tipdif^^ 
wicked....** Depart from me ye cursed rfo*"i' 'W As 
an hungered, and ye gave me no meat>"'&c.^^?o 
haVe that ^ religion, which is pure and unde3edb|^- 
fore, G6d,"it is not only hecessarf, thatnl^t ^ ke^ 
purselVes linspotted 'from the world," but we tntrst 

'"also visit tti6 fatherless scnd widows hi thcTlt-t^r* 
fliction ;'• relieving the unfortunate to the trtm«»t W 

' oiir ability, and exerting oUf whole power ^sptifci^- 

\ ing truth fef^d happiness among jUil krouiid tis.^ ''' 
Thus hiTntcd, at letigttii, m>ni ttiany a datijgt^- 
ous shelter, unhumbled sinners will ji^sUlite^^to 

'adopt the following plea.... we' *prkyj wte'cfastf i#e 
give airhs^ ii^e receive the' Holy uacTameiH r- -irifd 
what hibre db yoU require ?* Stich wa^ the r'fottndi- 

'tton6?the ahclen't jiharbees' hoper Kiit ehn^ttatki 
iis'/^joaltes ovftthirew thci^ >atn' confidence,* by ttie 


, pgftfoiMi^i^,, w>Qirij?4ulg(? fii^ ex opinion .of tic|t 

-i^Wr^n^fflt/fJJf jf>!ir/9hupch ; but what §aluury.effe^U 

fc#vf5nVJ>6y . rPJ^mJu^ed in. ygui^^ife s^hdjiconvebfiiuoi^? 
/Sih% f^^^jpf^f^q^t^fhU^^ ihe J[e wsv was, . not 

Ifeft'. 5^»R9*i»W»i9^' <^^^ ^*^^ flesh, }3Ut/,;ihat pf the 
fUfff^vz^^ii tb« ti^PJ*^"* ^^(^i^. saves chnsiiai)s, is 
cf^P 1^ ^r i^ichib^body 19 sprinkled ^'^^^^ water, 
7^mik^ wl^cl^ piunfiea the aoul. So the pas sever, 
*t|KbUIV;^<^ sk^c^ptable to God on the. part of the Jewi 
.^^oi^%tfpd . jkot simply io eating the paschal lanib: 
r^'iit.M# peoetratipg ih^ir soiils vith gratUude, on 
• recpllejcting the niany wonderful deliverances, which 

ih^ Ai^ig^kty. had wrought for his people;. And the 
.,foi|imuo>ant^ which is acceptable pn the part g( 
««;b";^tiaps^ consists not merely in receiving the con- 
vsecr^ted elements, as various, classes of sinners are 
. acciiAtQined to do ; but in uniting themselves to the 
,-Lovd by. a living faiih, and to all his. members by 
V^^rdijnt charityf.. You pray... .And did not the 
^l^harisces soi.yea, they were remarkable for their 
iJoi^ apid zealous prayers : but, alasi while they 
jwri^o\Ylpdgf?i Gpdj *' wiih. their lips their hearts 

were .fair, frpnp; h^ni.*' Vou give. alms*., '.but, if you 
:4^ap,>*[ith these to j)>urchase Heaven^ you do but 
^><defe^ yourownsoulSj while your prei<;nded cha- 
.f:it]^^de^efie rates into, insolence : or, if you merely 
j-Sjeek ip^ precure the refutation of being chiiriiably 
.^^/^e^j/yoi^ have your reward. Vpu fast*,..b^, 
5,if^ypu.dftth^ chief(y thrpMgb cMStbm,, or throug^h 
^l]^spect jto the ordj^Hvs of yo.i^r Prihc^;,' your fa;5t can 

no more be counted religious,' Ui ah tlie reginiea 

prescribed yod by a p!iysiciaa:a)id Ff these fa^if 
have not produced in you a sincere repept^pcej, anc| 
a true conversion, howerer yoii m^y reg^ ^^lem 
as acts of devotion, thiey . are in reaHty no Qth^^ 
than ads of hypkjcrisy. IVloreovcr,. t^e pha^Jisvfjes^ 
fasled .twice in the w^ek •, while yoqi it^niay|!ijj;, 
are among the number ot thcise, wh6 ^Jmag^iiip 
-they have inud'e a Valuable sacrifice tij^j "^cjtl^^^r 
Abstaining from a single repast in a year^'. !• 

As Pharisaical moralists ^< have sought out.&o 
many inventions,*' to evade the necessity of an qiv 
"feigned repentance ; and as phiiosophiiina; ^cl>r|rs- 
tians rise up with one consent again U this, doc tr)^ 
of the Gospel; we shall conclude this .^^bjeif, 
by disclosing the sources of theii' conimoii erroix, _ 

1 . There are phantoms of virtue, or yirtiies purejjr 
natural, which pass in the world for divine. ' But wlio 
ever imagined the dove to be really virtuous, bec^» 
«he is not sejen like the eagle, to make. a stoop sjt 
birds of a weaker frame than herself? or who sup- 
poses wasps to be generous insects, because they ai^c 
observed mutually to defend themselves, when thar 
nest is attacked^ Is not the conjugsU and . maternal 
tenderness of the hunum species apparent^ in an tina- 
nent degree, among various tribes of the feathered 
kind ? And do we not see, among bees and ants, that 
ardent patriotism which was so highly extolled among 
the Romans ? Does not the spider exhibit as maniCest 
proofs of ingenuity and vigilancip, as the most indus- 
trious artist ? And do notcarnivorous animals discover 
all that feurWss intrepidity, which is so universally 
boasted of %y vain-glorious heroes ? Let us no^ mis- 
take in a matter of so much importance ; as nothing 
but charity can give to our alms the value of good 
works, so nothing less than the fear of God, and a 
sincere intention of pleasing him, can give, to our 
most valuable propensities, the sfainp of solid virtnes. 
If we could completely expose the worthless alloy, 
which werldly -men are accustomed, to pass off as 

flterUn^ virtue, many of thp^y who now esteem tlieni'- 
lelveS^;nch in good -works, constrained 1* 
♦^^lilior themselves, ancf repent in dust apd aslies***^ ; 
*^' ''^. Mahy. persons indiilge too favourable ideas jc^ 
tfiS Huniiai heart, throujjh theii^ ignorance of that un- 
^li^ed' t)«rity^ w requires of hjs li^telligent 

'C'i%akit|es»^ Th^y judge bf themselves, and others, as 
^l^^fisaijt 'judges bf a theme replete with solecisms, 
wi6 ifeif from expressing tlie. discernment of a critic, 
jadipire^ . the vast erudition of the young composer. 
**? hus^ some external acts of devotion are applauded 
'^'^undiicer^ing christians, as commendable worksi 
'^ipiifc'tlii^'t^ight of God, arid before holy spjrit^ 
Vi>!pear>ltog^etlier pb^ and worthy of pllni8hmen^ * 

^' ' ' ij. If we are Sometimes deceived by our own ig- 
norance, we inbre frequently impose upon others by 
Oiir innate hypodrisy. Unregenerate men, after bav- 
irig thpbvy^n a cloak over their distinguishing -vices^ arc 
^anxious to make ^ parade of virtues, which they do 
.'not possess* The pitoud man is, sometimes, observed 
J^iittiDg on the garb " of humility, and witli the most 
lowly dbcisance, professing himself the very humbte \ 
'servant of an approaching stranger. Immodesty is 
-Irequently masked with an affected air of chastity and 
.'bashfuhicss ; hatred, envy, and 'duplicity, vail tbem- 
.setves under the app^rances of good-nature, friend- 
ship, aiid 'simplicity : and this univtrsal bypocrisy 
^contributes to render its practitioners less outwardly 
' oBerisive, than they would otherwise be j as an unhand- 
,some woman appears less defective, to a distant be- 
. holder, after having nicely varnished over fhe ble- 
Jiiiishesof her face. '^ 

7 ' 4/ It frequently happens, that one fice puts a pe- 
riod to f he progress of another. Thus vanity, at 
tliiies, obliges us to act coi)trary to the maxims of 
7' uVarke,' avarice contrary to those of indolence, and 
indpieticc contrary to those of ambition. A refined 
pinde is gei^.eraUy sufficient' to overcome contemptible 
' yi^s, abd may influence us tb the performance of ma- 

3n^ Tamamwmjmf 0v.«T^<nL«iai* 

i4r.cfkleiM»vTii!liKS9<: ifien^efitfani inqmiB -^and*' wiMife? 

ofifHtttyi'aiid IwM^eiHie^sGqpMnadidleieBiB^ 

of tte wbrJiL ( BrndtiprbtBikms^^Jiamd^bigaat^ 

of dtiahaubtifiiiv^vbioiuaaifeas kheviiDnitg^.i>iiiiitiy:«ti^^ 

toe by iricep viiAr bj^jiiqpretj^ >t6iidtvptiBD. o^Bia^tjiMI^^ 

withaUiidiBg^ cverj; ipkiJsittleiappc»r8aibi^it^ 

claret thefqlliof iBmi^togetfaer widi'th^?abi^6«e^' * 
of regencnralicA9i»ri$>aii{^kirtpd«l «ime^^^'4il^latayE^' 
reas<Hi»aad experience.;'' •>- . /i:. ->•-• 'rji./lj?v^c n ;?''^ 

5. If the moeal ditordee, iiniih-vJwhielr^ihttnlittY^ 
nature is infected^ appeua not: alw&^^M^ «ftfl]R»st ' 
height, his because^regcoeratibh ha^isg iMWch^Abed 
in many persons of «very ituik^ the:3^ck^^«fit ^sh^^' 
awed by the influence- of their exampte*- >At4^^U^*tM^ 
that God^restrains them, as vnth a bridle, by' Mil ]^¥0^ 
videnpe) and by those motknis of consoietice^^'trl^h' 
they vainly endeavour to stifle. ^ tt it notorioQi, thtt% 
the fear of public contempt and- |)Qni8hiiielitv is seme>^ 
times able to arrest the most abandoned in ibeii^ vicious 
career.; since they cannot discover what they reaiiy* 
are» without arming against themselves the sec^dar 
jjowcr. Thus the terror which prisons and gibbets* 
inspire, constrailks ravening wolves te 'appear in ^e 
gaH) of innHensiMe sheep. But is it possible, that in* 
nocence so constrainedy sbonld be accounted ofany va» ^ 
lue, even among heathens thefnsel^esMt ishnpossibie,' 
since we' find one of <heii?^oW]ip0etStdeda9ii^*w.. i:^ -^^ ^ 

Odermit pcccgre moHyJbrmidint pitmK ' •- r ^ * 
The wickjd abstain fi'om mischief, thPdu^lvfiiaf of* 
punishment . Aaid all the reeotnpehce, he ^conceivfcs^ ^ 
due to sucli guiltless pet^sonsyeoilsli^ in ;notbecQnsri¥ig^ 
the food of ravcnsiupdnagibbet^e ' - 5 - ' ; - « » 

6 . I f servile fear i s '8QBietim«s ' ih e ^ o^se > >of^ ^mr- 
innocence, necessity is more coipmbnly • <He ' caus^ ^^ - 
our apparent viituei. A youth of. «nf'vmede&^!is> ^« 

hU in«iiM^i|)ns«; ^t^iMr^tf ikk fcrwdtifBCPeti^iiialio^d^f 
al!ie]Q4^1i»amelmbttaa^t9 i]F8utl»xpriw> 

harlias^tMifiikjf^ihesbBrtil'ft disBohiliid eourtkai^ ipken^cb^ 
]d|9fie\fTJ8to emty/i^ndrof tnipiet^fl! «liei*6a9> h»d' be; 

m\g^l^i9p sutii^isscd him mtyapfmaM exqestf. <Dii^ 
tl^'^er. j»0B4r^^?vdbni im' mfamcus; tohiptuary^f 16»«> 

finds it absolutely needful to liveia'nioiwaabeff andor* 
d'^f^tW&eiitAmcdaMy he;takies linwelf for ahother 
C^^« »ot flofisidQnng^ that nenaecpi^ aioK^ 
oi.^^i?9np!Qn^ace*. \ The test cxcessr disorden his'^ 
hefblli^fmiitiibeweateesiit^ bis stomacii'Obligea him 
tQ;H^i9tf^ftF9in tlKlae Inxutdotts feasts, which he can stiU 
cQDT^rSie of >ith so> much «atis&istibn. If suGh . aone 
isif¥iitiiott»|.k«ca4i9e no longer abie to ra^ into hia 
focmerfsice^fieft ; (hcB we may prove the most incorr 
ng^ble -robber it® be an h<«est man, while the irons are ' 
OQrJbMhandfi^or when, scared by the officers of jtistioe^ 
h^ fies tQ ^enie secret retreat Has that vtmian any 
i^^«39):tp bofiist^fher ^dnuouseondiUcty who hasnever 
solicited by those men, who were most likely t^ 
hMis triimki^hed over her modesty ? And yel, manf 
such filkd -with stlf^appmbation^ will frequently sp* ; 
pUud%bi^ j»wii innDc<ince> i^laCiivg that to the. ac^- 
coy Hie ^. vifluei Khiefo was.merely ending to proTiden^ ' 
tial circut«isianise#:r'0i»rp«vhapB>fio the. want i)f per* 
sonal aaraciton* Siich plausible appearances no 
mfire BieHi ili4 cemmendotion \do6 ^ solid- virtliet 
ihaii'Ute' Mcbly wol£f:who {peaceably passes by aJock 
of ^Jbfe^p, caa bei'sat^ Ci^^6««v^e ih^ cslresftes) which 
a shepherd be»tow8upon kis^fakhfoldog* .. 

7* .Sff8Giuiilly*H» ifB^se upon others by a beauti- 
ful i9LUt«ide». we pi*fteitee a ideepei: deceit u^onour own 
h^aris ; «nd'>ery,frftqueniiy we succeed as weH, m 
hifttngirM9tQUiPs«ltes 4l^rowj^ evU^li5positions>|W in 
ts ' ' 

5rJU THIS. FOKTttAir or 6T. PAUl.. 

- ■» . .... ..J, _ 

CQPC«aii{ig froua (CHher^cnir unworthy actiont. Could 
*%ve discover all tbad secretly passes in the world, we 
should not want demonstrative proof:^ of the defpravlty 
of the human heart. But why need we go abroadj 
in.^etirch of a truth, which is easily evrdetited ai 
home ? Htttl wd ourselves but dared to have execlited 
openly, what vt h^ve acted in- imaginatfonj^trtictt 
•ur irascible or concupisdible' passions iiitv^. btetti 
rouse.d» where should w« havcj hidden pur giiHtV 
heads, or how should. we have escaped thtf swbr&df 
justice ? Convinced too late of otu* de^enefatte inait(i4^ 
we should, haply > have smitten upon otir bVelisMt 
with the repentant publican, adopting loi>e^'ago'hij 
humiliating confession, in the anguish of ou^ibulsk 
Every thinkins^ person must allow, that had fkWiti* 
tebtions fallen under the cognizance of human hisht^ 
and had the secular power possessed eqii ai ability^ i«ir- 
|>unish them, as it punishes those actioB^^f;whk5h 
they are the very root and soul, the whole ^^th ]| 

must, in such caset have become as vast a^seaffolt^ . i 
as it Is now a place of grovel* Can it heittcb^^ry 
lo multiply observations upon this head, 'when this 
ATmighty, whose mercy and justice ai^ in&iicev'sitef^ 
ficienily declares the universal deptatityx>linay)tkih<l^ 
hy the variety of scourges, with which He is con- 
strained to punish both individuals and common* 

8« If the children of this world are unable to form 
any ji»t Qonc^i(bion.of the^hmmai^' iwearViand.i^s ^yil 
propeasitkaf it is iKsaiise tb^ lar^in Ajbf nuq;^t>er of 
chose natural men^ of whom the Apostle Paul makes 
mention; ^And inch, hanit»|^ a n^tutsd antipathy to ^ 

the €ros|}el, idktle thej are ev^r ready^tpieait.r^proacb ! 

«pon the faithful, are equally ^pttrodto&^QHjr UtiiSe 
of a like disposilion with themselves. Thna .{icfocU 
Caiaphus,^ntl Pilate, mtttuaj^y o^rtooked the Unaha • 
of each othen, ^htle they unit^ in acduaing^mnjd.^ears 
secnting'Chfrist-, ' '■ • * ♦■ • j • vi'.- v . ,.- j,»c. - 


» ItU i|sual with thpse^ who arc destittie of tWe re- 
))giQQ» to fsteem some among their sihfut compa-^' 
ni90S9 as moral. , and Well-dlBposed men : but, were 
Ihej them:^e}ve3 to be cpnvevled, their error \n this 
rjesgect, would soon become apparent* Upon daring 
fp .opppieajay torrent of impiety, with the teal of 
their h^ayenly Master, instead of Anting ai^ong 
thei^r as^Qpj^tes any natural disposition to real virtue, 
^ey. wpijld meet witfi indisputable proofs, iii spite of a 
thousand amiable qualities, that all unregenerate 

gea r^seiob^e one another'i in their enmity against 
od* ., Y^si;, whether they inhabit the banks of the 
ThanieSro<>^ the s>cine; the Uke of Getiefareth, or 
thatftf, pe^evaj they are in the sight of God, as 
fi^>J ^^\f^^ trampling under foot the pearls of the 
0asp^tj op like raveniog wolves outrageously tear- 
ing iA pieces the Lamb of Go^« 

It might* perhaps, haye been objected, that this 
Portraits is overcharged, had not Christ himself, who 
i» immutahk TruiU and unsearchable Love, pencil- 
led oiU the. gloomiest traits observable in it« Follow- 
ing such a guide, thouglx we may give much offence, 
yet . w« caa never err. 

TBJr Ta«S lilMtftTlbK, is. A UVIVQ TAlTa. 

XO&bftW ihfi necessity of repentance, with- 
out publishjog the remission of sins^ through faith 
in Jesus Christy woi^ld be to open a wound wiiliout 
MinvUftg it tip* . It wovld be leading sinners to the 
brink o£& tf«mcndou« gulph, and cutting off all pos- 
sibility of ^tbc^k retreat. llut nothing can be more 
contrary to the intention of the faiihful minister, 
than to sport with the miseries of man, or ultimately 
(o ag.« ravate his distress* 

taral pr^nalfy ^to ^vil^ "Wti'ith ' maoifeftcs ii« ixht^ 
#«ice ilv«T6ry Hedirt, b^ a variety <>f e&tel-iittl trkAift^ 
gretiifm»v %hefirh^ ha« ootmticcd tb#ta isljr-tto 
woM of "G^d) tOkdhy M-i^peid toei^c^^tii«R/^^eoiki^ 
•cl«iiee; Ckat tbey ii^o tki^birtOMdtUttv ^btttei^ei^' 
•itherfitliii tMtlktaI'pf^^til«iiy,4yrfti(^tf^a^{itr d(f^^ 
•e^ueace^'s a^r M hii^ f^k' dftiti«B3t<rxtfcd^t^ 
ii«€<i, In Atlkicii thtf staitd c^ii Redeemerf wtoitMatit 
^ all poirer in Heaveti and In cartlh" if i^bdf tia)-deift^ 
net their ht^uru ; if tUef stiand, Kke %h6 fifsl«if»itt^ 
•aked and trtmblmi; before God, liai^ffig teettv^e^ 
tbe sentence of death in tllclniel4re«*;;.lnt«']|ir6rd, 
when they cry oiit» like the |>ub)ic(iRi ainii$oliltoB 
alarmed by the preacbinf of Jdhn, «^'what shaQ 'mw 
4o V They are then properly di»p6aed'«o^i^eoeiV^ 
** the glortooi C^spe! of Chvist,*' and wift lie ^IM^kd^ 
to experience its powerful effects* From ibt« tiine^' 
the eTangelical pastor aifectionately prei€iie»re«n^^ 
9ton of bins through faith in the name of a merciful^ 
Redeem or. ■ ■' "' I 

This is the very same method^ which Chnst Bn^ 
his forerunner piirsued. << Behold the Lamb cff^ 
Cod) which taketh away the sins of the world/'wa» 
the cry of John the Baptist. And ^ blessed/' ^d^ 
oar Lord) ^* are the poor in spkit ; for theira i» tbm 
Kingdom of Heaven. God so loved the world, that 
he gave his only*begotteh Son, that whosoever ^-4 
ikveth in him, should not perisbf but have vverlSAtisgj 
life* He- that ^elU^eih on the Son^ bath evedasttng^ 
life : and he, that btUeveth not the Sony shali not: 
see life ; but the wrath of God ' abideili on bsmh* 
Whosoever shall dnnk of the water, that I shalLgive 
him) shall never thirst ; btrt it shaU be in 4iim a- 
well of water," a source of sacred consolation^ 
•♦ springing up into everlasting life.*' Again, when 
itwas enquired by the multitude,^ whatshall we doy 
that we may work the works of God ? Jesus said unta 
themi this is the work of God, that ye bcHevt onhims 

viJi^[>m(^^ iift^^eiiu -iAttiW^is( iN.ifSUiOMitnsf^hat 

ttet^lfelftppf^i^ ii^]^miimmkir^% ?y^*imrn:bi^m^ Mi«^ 
IMI adtosfl^.i^li[i^c^MiHts4Ulcii4eSf9^« It lieh^v^,'?. 

%iidVr£f«di:/t]»e'<];i»Aptl]tQ <^vofy «i*f%ture« he that 
4r^foQ<)^iainditla44)lized8lMd|l>f»«^v^ but ^e thai 
4f/!^r*»r*ei»o!|i:»hlillije. damned*'*- To/th^ samr pw* 
pMCtJwraii Vhe <^Ommf{iaioni With, which the Apostle 
F<aMl'Wa%!itfterw»r«is hoA<mrcd. ^^1 haveapptarcd 
UntCDthfic// said/ihe pjerse^uted Je«u«T "lor rbia p«r* 
pose, to make thee a minister and a witness tp the 
gemdeiiyiilitb Whom 1 nciw ^end ^h«e, to opea their 
€S7«^tci^^ tiiiti:thetn from daHtneo^ to ligh(r .suftd from, 
tib&.phwier of :SBtiti unto God, Uiat they ii^ay "eeceive; 
feigivenestof sHit^and inheritance among them that- 
mtz sanotiliedy hy faiik that is in me>" , > 
T.T&tt'ApofttIea^traaDin(iQU$ly!^ preached, in ohedi- 
. enee toiheoFders, and.m conformity t© the^xam^ 
p|ei 'ol; tbfdr bener^eat I:.oir^* ^^^ ^H t¥ue . minis* 
i;^ra9intstracttiii»y^lhe same divii^^^.teaeher^ ^ontt- 
Hue *o proeiaim tlxe glad. tiding«s of^lle GpspelK 
thvottgh faith ki JesUs Chriist | kying f^ much stiMssfii 
ill'' otl 'their /setrttionuvupoa^is eificHcious gra^eef aa 
tlietiA|n>sile'df ^d^ehttkil wats^ceustomed: to do^4ci^ 
aH' faU epistlesi -Take a. few. instances of St.'Pawi'ar 
u»ii4l>custoniin this r(^pfeGtbi<r»Afletthav)ng^onirii>e-^ 
eA the ' Hbniatis: of- tbiir (w^rruptioa^ant^ miaevy-* h« 
siM be£oreth«ia^^'tbei redecaption 4hft( lAin C^irial 
l«su8y wlioin Go^ Ititlii acDfovthr^ liftia ^r9{^i}bilti^)»: 
V 3 

pnMicb«4l mi»i^. 5ft^»f w*»?f 1|m^Im> »yi9 nb.4^ft/ffs^L^» 

that God vra& in- ChKihUreconcUiixg^ttlij^.iiy^rAd^^ 

For he bath made b«j|Si» tq 1^ iuj^ior ^ 3Y>bi?' ^^i^i^ 
no ftiO) that we ovght be made the rigi^e^usni^^jpf 
God in him.;' . To tbc GaUti^ns^v ^' S^iowiiigUtia^ a 
man is apt jutttified by the work^ oitbuf ^>«>,iiMiV,)^jr 
iht faith of Je^UB Christ,, ev^n we barA belieyec^^a 
Jesus Chr.ut,tl\at wc piighlbe iusti^ed by/a/^/a^^^^'d 
not by the woika»qXtheLaw.. Bc£br(^/<^i/AjCi^iBg^*)j»c 
wcr« kept i4Jader the Lawt Wherefore -the Law vyasoyr 
ftchoolmaftter to briog u» uoto CUrist. : but afij^r tbat 
/aith is con^e>. we are no more under a scKoplmastie^r. 
For ye are all tbcxhildrcn of God hy/oifh ih (^^rist; 
Jc>u?.*' T<> the ijiphe^ia»s.-*»^' Bi?sJ^d be^ ^he jG^d 
and Father of oHr L^td Jest^s CV^W^bo batb.m^c 
\|5 accepted iji the Belpved: ^i whj:im w/e aa^^ 
^emptipn threugU hisbIcK]id^li^%rJg;^€^e&».9j^^^ 
l^ygrace arc ye saved,. thrc^^giiy^yA./^ndthat not 
^f yourselves ; it is ihe giix oi Cod<^ liot of ,^orka 
test any ntaa should boa^t. I iAa)ly> ^ bretbreii, 
put on the whole armour of GodV»..aboyeiiU,. taking 
theshieldofyatVi&yWherewithyeshall be; able to quench 
all the hery darts of the wickcd»" The the Philip- 
pians^...^* Stand fast in one spirit, with one mlnd» 
striving together for the JiUiA of the Gospel. We 
rejoice in Christ Jesus> and have no confidence Xft 

^^ar'wih Chrhti and bt'fattria^ to'^hktii^i^fhjivittg 
'^Hat^'whteH iii ihrdii^yhf^' faith MtHiAiiy tht ^Irtt- 
•«teii«.;^.«^UpH«iJcidHW Fith^i^, tliat^ ifem flic 

4'<^iTi'<*iIi4-WBliiTfgii unti'fartesclfc^'An<lryti«,»fJ^at wire 

' HrtilLtdf -WrksV Aathf he^fe6ttt?ile^- in' the feo^y- if his 

"^6^' lim^l^h dek^; tci pkieki- y<iii fcoly- diia tin- 

^^l^filiWblld inhis fct^lit ; if yt Gonihiat^ grouhded and 

*^'^ttlc^ Mihi /hiih. A^^ciiave' therefore received 

' Clrriit Jtiaftis ihe Loi'di so ^sAk ye in him s 'rooted 

'aiitf btnit tip in hittt, 6nd cftablished in the^ffiM, asi 

^'y^'liii^e.been taught, abounding therein wi<h thanks- 

^^ihg-**' To'tbe Thessalonian*.*.." Let ust who are 

'<0f. the day be sober, putting on the breast-plate of 

[faiih'rM God hath not appointed us unto wrath ; 

^ but to obtain salvation by our Lord Jesus Christ> 

' #ho died for ds, that wjieiher we wake or sleep, we 

"^^ should Ih'e together with hiili* We are bound to 

thank Gpd always for you, brethren,' because that 

your faith growcth exceedingly." ' Now *^the Lord 

shall come to be glorified in his saints, and to be ad- 

tniVedin all ihiii ifeiiexfe. Whfeixforc we pray fhat 

-^mtr God would fulBl in you the work oi faith with 

fhvftt'f that the name of our Lord Je>us Christ may 

be^onfiediri you,andyoti in him."* To Timothy. ..• 

^^1 hfs IS a faithful saying, and worthy of all accep- 

^tation, that Christ Jesus «amie into the world to save 

'sin'neirs, of whom 1 am chief. Howbeit, for this 

' cat&^e 1 obtained mercyi that in m^ first Jesus, Christ 

might shew forth all long-suffering, for a pattern to 

them which should hereafter believe on him to life 

everlasting. For God our Saviour will haye all men 

So be saved and to come unto the knowledge of the 

Irtith : For there is one God> and one Mediator be- 

ill the apWt, f«»i» of Attgclai pucaelw^ <into>be,5»,* 
God bmth ♦avietl p*,. t^w^i? io a^^f}>il6 D^<iip^tii jp^v^ 

sinful wcmMrileicp9fi;$9f ^ ^I^P* • ^JAl^l^fee P^trft^^^ 
hcrtelf ttl Ihfe, fe^tcif Jq»u«| laJiixk ^^ pr^^cr^fj^r! 
ceivedfrnvL hiin;ihe«e|ConsoUtQiir^ ^^P^fi"*^^^* ^If S^^/s 
sins are<ibrgijwen'tji)<fe ; Thy/aUAJ^^^ ^, 

go m peace*] (J^d hath,s^XPd>M»^/npt,ja^'pi3i^^^^ 
our wbrks, bitf apcocd^g to,hU.a^«t jg/fw.; w 
was grren us, in Christ Jesu^M»whQ>iajJt^i^ 
death, and hath brought iifeapd i»iraw:^i^iiy|^jj[gb^i 
through tifa«Go9peU'' To Tttu8<«»*l*I^auliani^g9^Ij^^ 
of Jesus Christy to TUus mine owa^son a^r w c^Oi^r; 
mon/aiih : grace* m^rcy, and pea«, froiu Cjijd tb^^ 
Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ our Savipur« ^7 Ko^ 
gave himself for ua, that hie might risdeem. lis from '^ 
air iniquity, and purify unto himself a feciiUar^^ej^. 
I^e, aealous of goo4 works. We oui*se]ves MT^re,. 
sometimes dtsobedientii: but after that the kindness- 
and love of God our Saviour iLo wards man appeare^^ 
not by works of righteousness which we bavtt donc^ ' 
but according to hts mercy be saved us^ahatbeiAg 
JQsti^ed by his grace we. should be made heirs b^ 
eterhal life*" To Phflemon.he writcs..^'f .^F^^^ ^^ * 
to- youj aftd -peace from Gpd our- Fatiwsr^ landj 
the Lord Jesus Chrtist- I: G4:^,,hfaif|i^^^ 
of thy/aiiiAi which thou ih«^ taw«ird tbf'' ^Ojd^^i^Ui^; 
Christ. The grace, of our .LQf<} J|B?^iJt CjT!^Jis(t .^f:/, 
with ^our spirit." . Thus a pcrKcute^ .S^ipur-jb^rr 
came tbe>«.:Alpha«nd>tbo/Qm9ga*' ofethk ^^at^ 
ApObtlei. '" . : .,; :,; v^ rcf Ar:.'\' -.^ i^ 

' In his epiaile to the Hebrje>fs;.be.u^c%thejsa^ 
language. It begins and conq^xidei- wMh:|ijiii^V^*i9ti 
is ♦* the fie^^nniug and Uie'^d'*:^f.4Jl ftinjis. G)^t ^ 
saith hey <^hath in these last days spoken unlo ua^||jr.^ 

l^in^ the brig^htil|fe&s of bis Father's glory, and tte 
cij)re$s/iniaig:i of hh ^'p^rsott, :%iitd 'ppholding all; 
tlAttl^' by 'the word df'Hi^s 'paorwcr, Jirhefi H<d ;had by. 
Himself ptirj^e^biir'iihs^m dowh^^it tlie righthaisd 
BfXiie^trt^^tL^hxi^^ U bediaibe Hlmt for whom* 
syre an tliiiigii; m^bfWgfVig itfan>^ 
msiktiii^'tkptsiiri lortheir SatTatioh |)eYl(NA.ihidugh 
sii^ijryn.^'i^ ' Pbra^much then, a* thie t\^ldfen are. 
pkm^ers bf ;fit;&h'atid blbod, He aFso Hinwaclf^toolL 
jfeft pi.tht s'anie^t thatihrbugh d«alh, H«f might dc- 
Rtjrof;Mm th'athad the power of death, that is the de- 
T$l; iitid (ietivit tbem, who through HeAr of deaths 
^er6 kfl^toi^ir fife-time subject to botidage* Though 
Htiirc^ ^a Soil, yet learned H« obed fence by the 
things which He suffered ; and bein^ made perfect 
He becime the author of eternal salvation* This man^ 
because he continueth ever, hath an unchangeably 
priesthood. Wherefsre He is able to save them 
tb the uttermost that come unto God by Him^ see* 
ing He ever liveth to make intercession for them« 
Havhig therefore an High Priest over the house of 
God, let us draw near in full assurance of y^ik. Now 
faUh is the substance of things hoped for, the evi* 
dence of things not seen : for by it the elders obtained 
a good report who through ^'^A subdued Jcingdomst 
wrought righteousnes^s, obtained promi&es, stopped 
the mouths of lions, quenched the violence of fire* 
escaped the edge of the sword, out of weakness were 
made strong, waxed valient in fight, turned to flight 
the armies of the aliens* Wherefore, seeing we are 
compassed about With so great a cloud of witnesses, 
let us run with patience the race that is i»et be*^ 
fore us, looking unto Jesus the author and hnisber 
of our Jait/i. Now the God of peace****make you 
perfect in every good work to do his will, working 
iti you Chat which is well-pleasing in his sight, 
through Jesus Christ ; to whom be glory f^r ever and 


The same Saviour, whom St. Paul was so anxlh 
<m8 to declare in his epistleSf he as const^tly; 
preached in his sermons. He was no sooner poAr 
vertedfbut, straightways says St. Luke^ <^ he pi^achedi 
Christ in the synagogues, that he is the Sou^of Co4*'' 
Take an abridgement of the first o£ his.' senxLQtns.^ 
which is left upon record, and which was preao^e^L 
at Antioch in Pisidia* After asserting t he. ftUfiJwent;' 
of that glorious promisei which had ))eea ^cientJ^^ 
given respecting the birth of our omiupoteiitt.^^-*^ 
viour, he cries out ; ^' Men and brethnen^ pbildrej^ (^ 
the stock of Abraham, and whosoever, among^ypiv, 
fearetb God^ to you is the word of.this salvaii^Tf* 
gent." For the inhabitants and i'ulers of. Jeru4fiU9)j^. 
** because they knew him not»" nor und^^rstood ilji^^ 
sense of those prophecies, whith are read every. , sab- ' 
bath-day, have given them theit* sad completion/ bf. 
condemning the Lord of life and glory* ^ Though 
they found no cause of death in Uim, yet desired 
they Pilate, that He ^should be slain. And wbea 
they had fulfilled all Vhatwas written of Him, the|r . 
laid him in a sepulchre." But God^ after thre& 
days, raised him triumphantly from the gr^ve z 
•♦ and He was seen many duys" of his wondering 
disciples, whom He continued to visit and instruct 
ev^n after his resurrection, that they might become , 
* his witnesses to the people/ And i-ow, We de- 
clare unto you, that Gqd hath fulfilled the premise 
which was made unto the fathers, in that He hatli, 
raised up Je&us from tlie dead. ** Be it known linto 
you, therefore, men and brethren, that tlirough this i 
Man is preached unto you the forgivcncjis of w^% : 
and by Him, all that believe, are juslrfied firwB all , 
things, from which ye could not be juslificdby the , 
Law of Moses. BewsLre, therefore, lest that conie^ 
upon you, which is spoken of in the Prophets. Be-|. 
hold, ye despisers, and wonder and perish : for I 
work a wqrk in your days, a work which you shall . 
in nowise believe^ though a man declare it unto you." 


.When t^ cross of Christ and its happy effects arc 
thus faithfally declared^ the word of God is never 
^hdHf preached id vain. Some» it is truC} will al- 
ways reject, aiid count themselves unworthy of ever- 
Ija^ttnglife: But others will rejoice in the truthi glo- 
rifying the -word of the Lord; and all those, who, by 
fli ^roe poverty of spirit, are disposed for eternainfe» 
flrhallcffectuatly believe. 

'"9binetimt afterwards, St. Paul delivered a ser- 
lAornf "in the prison at PhiUrppi, the capital of Ma- 
cedonia. St. Lyke, his historian, has not favoured 
uV '"tirith- thift discourse, but he has transmitted to 
m the^ubject-tfiatter of it.. Despairing sinner, said 
tfiti^posite to the affrighted }ailar, wholay treni- 
hMg^BX hit* feet, "believe 6n the Lord Jesus phrist, 
aM thou Shalt be sated and thy house." After 
hearing tliua much, the astonished nian collected 
hf^ &tnily together, and the Apostle continued his 
discourse, declaring unto them all " the word of the 
Lord." Such are the small rennains we are a^le 
to eollect of this excellent sermon. But though ^Ye 
nre iinacquainted with its severd.1 parts, we know 
that It was attended with the happiest.efifects : for 
before th* return of day, this converted jailqr 
siiatclied from the very brink of destruction, was ^ 

seen, withaH his believing family, rejoicing, in 
God. , 

When the same Apostle was afterwards ap- 
pointed to speak before, the senate at Atliens, her 
could not with propriety, set before those unburn- 
bled philbsbphers, *' the mystery of the Gospel/* 
But iafter bearing a public testimony against^ their 
superstition and idolatry, he pressed upon them the 
necessity of an unfeigned repentance : announcing 
Christ as dn om^it^cient Judges that he might after- ' 

wfllrds ' proclaim, htm as the compassionate Saviour | 

of, men. /I'o the same purpose was that other ser- 
mbn of hiSr,- whi th "was delivered before - the tribu- | 

na) of Feitx ; "Vrhetit the Uomim Governo^ was seen i 

340 TRB PORl'mAIT or «T. FAUL. 

to tremble under the power of an Apostle's preach- 
ing. The little effect produced by these two last* 
mentioned discourses, may be brought as a proof, 
that the most momentous truths are hidden ^^from 
the wise and prudent," while they are ^* rcrealed 
Unto babes." 

It was by proclaiming the same mighty Saviour, 
that St. Stephen obtained for himself the first crown 
of martyrdom among the christians* Behold an 
abridgement of hisi celebrated apology. ** Men, 
brethren, and fathers/' you accuse me of having 
spoken blasphemously against Moses. But, oii 
the contrary, I publicly acknowledge him as the 
deliverer of our fathers, and gladly embrace this 
opportunity of reasoning with you from the charac- 
ter of that favoured Prophet* He once supposed 
that by certain of his actions, <* his brethren wou!c( 
have understood, how that God by his hand would 
deliver them." But so far were they from under- 
standing any such matter, that one of them thrust ' 
him away, crying out in an insulting manner, << Who 
made the a ruler and a judge over us? This Moses" 
however, «^ whom they'' thus refused, was chosen of 
God, to be ihcir futureprince and deliverer. **This 
is that Moses, who said unto the children of Israel, 
A Prophet shall the Lord your God raise up unto 
you of your brethren, like unto me ;" a Prophet, 
whom you will at first reject, as you rejected me ; 
but who, wilL' deliver you out of spiritual Egypt, as 
I once delivered you fram the land of bondage, 
when you gave credence to my word. This pro» 
mined Saviour has already made his appearance 
among us, whom ye have rejected to your own 
condemnation. As our fathers rejected Moses in 
th« wilderness, thrusting him from them, and in 
their hearts turning back again into Egypt ; so you 
have 1 ejected your great Deliverer. " Ye uncircum- 
eised in heart and ears, ye do always resist the 
Holy Ghost : as your fathers did, so do ye. Which 


'Ai^d tticy. ha^yc >Jiria, t\\em vUi€5b'«f 
It^f bq[iiig of .^h^F i^t^^,,i»f.^iwm,if fihawfci beeft 

ceivcd the" Law by the disposition of AtigfcU oind 

smiijetioa^ na^e .♦* tb& sajiKwip.afdeatktifitGPdesth/' 
ij^yiifcr«itlj^ c)eaF,li:«»,:^ ibllfewingi acauunt^ 
^^?Er^?P^^ -^*'^*^^. tbi# di%o6ufaf>, thc^h^arts 
pj^h'ishMirer/i^^r^ ti^l^tj^oited -witfc rage^ insomuch 
i|)ftt fjTfiW ^^^: iipon hiinf vith their teeth." 
Sijiat^vf^j)t?^l^oly nrvgrtyP'-cteUntied to proclaim 

imngii looking slidfasHy up to-he^ven^ inakind of 
4pst^<^^ produced . by the (U«ngth of his faith» the 
vigoujr ;Qf his hope^ and the ardour of his love, h& 
cried. pv,t?*f I see tbe beaveos opened, and the Son' 
of^^ifip sending on the right hand of God." And 
ivhile' Uiie multit^^ ran upon him with stones, after 
coinmHiiog bii» own. soul to the care of his e3;alted 
Saviour J he cried withv a loud voice, ♦'Lord, lay 
npt. this sin to their charge." Behold an apology, 
which was looked npon by the preachers of that 
day, as replete with ignorance and fanaticism, 
though delivered by an ]|vangeli«t, who w%is filled 
with faith, with power, i^nd with the Holy Ghost I 

The satbe doctrine was preaclied by the Evai^- 
gelists, -syhb^wpre dispersed abroad by the perse- 
cution esH^ited against Stephen, and wa^ followed 
by' the benediction of th« Lord. For we find, 
that same; bf tbem^ entering ipio the'city 6f Ahti- 
oth, spiaj&e unto the Grecians therfc, preaching the 
Lord Jesus, and 'stbe hand of the Lord wa^ Tilth 
them,^'fio that "a^gre^ number ^e^Vtr^cf and turned 
uhfo th^ l^rd/' ' , . . . - 

We shall 'gp on to select a few proofk, that'aU 
the .?V|>^tles w^rii Qtf ©ne ^a<$tin tMs iTiatterj preach*' 


iag Jesus Christ as the Saviour of all tboscy who be- 
lieve in him. 

. Though St. James professedljr wrote his epia? 
tie against the error of those, who had destroy ^4 
the law of charity, by an imaginary faith in Christt 
yet so far is he from despising the substantial faitl^ 
of believerst that,! as "the servant of God and of 
the Lord Jesus Chnbt,'*he exhorts false brethren io 
seek after And manifest it by its proper fruits* He 
even employs a species of irony to point out the 
necessity of this powerful grace : " Shew me thy 
faith without thy works, and I . will shew thee my 
faith by my works." He intimates, that our {a*tb 
mQst be tried by divers temptations, in order to our 
becoming " perfect and entire" before God i whence 
we learn that, according to his judgment, the perr 
.f(;ction of christians absolutely depends upon the 
perfection of iheir faitlu On this account, he exr 
horts us. to ask wisdom in faith. And lastly, be de* 
.c)ares» that the prayer oi faith shall be powerful 
enough to procure health for the sick« and remis* 
siou for the sinfuh , 

There needs no more than an attentive perusal 
of this epistle, to convince us, that Stt James an- 
nounces a faith which saves the christian, by pro- 
flucing in him hope, charity, and every good work» 

Tii^ same doctrine was inculcated by St. Peter 
botU in his sermons and epistles. Three thousand 
souls were converted, while he cried out, upop the 
day of Pentecost ; " Ye men of Israel, Jesus of 
N'azareth, a map approved of God among you, by 
miracles and wonders and signs \ him, being deli* 
vered by the determinate council of God, ye havp 
tak^M) ^y^^ hy wicked hands have crucified and slain ; 
^wiiom God bath raised up, having loosed the pain3 
of death, because it was not possible that he, who 
JA tl^e resurrection and the life, should be holden 
pf it. This. Je*u;h therefore, being by the right 


hand of God exatted, hath shed forth this, which' 
ye now see and hear. The refore, let all the house 
of Israel, assuredly know, that God hath made that 
same Jesus, whom ye have crucified^ both Lord and 
Christ." Now when the convicted multitude efi- 
quired in their distress, "Men and brfeihren, what 
Wiallwedo?" Peter answered and said: *^ Repent 
and be baptised every one of you" [that is to say, 
Br^t cordially believe, and then by baptism make a 
public confession of that faith] " in the name of Je- 
sus Christ for the remission of sins, and ye shall re- 
*e?ve the gift of the Holy Ghost.*' ' ^ 

His second discourse was to the same effect. 
**The Ged of our fathers hath glorified his son 
J'esus, whotti ye delivered up and denied in the prc« 
sence of t^iTate, when he was determined to let him 
gn. *But ye desired a murderer to be granted unto 
you, and killed the Prince of life, whom God ha4h 
j^&ed from th© ^««4f whereof w« are ^i4n«u««» 
And /aith in his name hath made this man strong, 
whom ye see and know ; yea the faiiA which is by 
him, hath given him this perfect soundness, in the 
presence of you all*. -And now brethren, repent yfe 
and be converted^ that your sins may be blotted 
out, when the times of refreshing shall come from 
the presence of the Lord.*' 

His apology before the council was founded upon . 
the same divine truths. ^* fie ft known unto you all 
and to all tne people of Israel, that by the name of 
Jesus of Nazareth, whom ye crucified, whom God 
raised from the dead, even by him doth this man 
stand here before you whole. This is the stone 
which was set at nought of you builders^ which is 
become the head of the comer. Neither is thei-e 
salvation in any other : for there is none other 
Nam^ under heaven giveA among men whereby we 
must be saved." Thus St; Peter, wfiiHid with the 
Holy Ghost, spake the word of God with boldness, 
ahd with great power gave witness to the resurt^c*^ 

lion <3i the Lord Jcbus." fiten after being^ cQib*- 
mandcd to spqak no more ia the name of JesuS) 
he departed from the council) rejoicing that he was 
counted worthy t« suffer shaine for his.Ma^er^a 
take: ** and daily in the temple, and in evety 
house, he ceased not to teach and preach Jevuft 
Christ." . 

The fourth 8:ermon of this Apostle perfealf eor^^ 
responds with the foregoingw This diacoursewas 
«l«iitered in the hovse of Cornelius the Centurion, 
io whom an Angel had before revealed that Petet 
^.duld declare onto him things whereby both himh 
s6lf and his house should be saved. Of all the ser* 
laons which have ever been preached, this Wasf 
perhaps the most effectual ; since it is observed, 
that '« the Holy Ghost fell on ail them, which hf Ard 
the word." Take an abridgment of this powerful 
discourse* God hath proclaimed peac«i ^^ to the ohU* 
drea of Israel* by J^^^^^ Chcistt wbQm thejr sXtH 
and hanged on a tree." But "He," being raised 
Again by the power of God, ^commanded us to 
preach unto the people, and to testify, that i<: is fie 
which was ordained of God, ta he the judge of quiefc 
and dead. To Him give all the Prophets vttnesa» 
that whososever k^ihvtth m him shall receive remis* 
sion of sins. 

And, as in hi? sermons, so also in his epialles, 
St. Peter was ever anxious to declare aalvatioa 
tjirough faith in tJi^e name of Jesus Christ. 

" Peter, an Apostle of Jeaus Christ, totbeekct 
of God, Blessed be God, who hath begottto us 
again unto a lively hope by the re^rrection of Je»' 
sus Christ from the dead, to an inheritance tncor«> 
ruptible^ reserved in Heaven for you, who s^pe kivpC 
by the power of God, through ya»/A, unto !lal«atioiii 
1% is contained in the scripture. Behold, I lay ia Slta; 
a chief eomer stone, elect, precious : and he, that 
btHeveth on Him, shall not be confounded* Unta; 
youy therefore^ which bdtkpc^ Hei is pirecidtiai hut 


TRle l>OkTRAlT OF ST. PAUL. 245 

unto them, which be disobedient. He is made a stone 
of stumbling and a rock of offence." 

The second epistle of St. Peter was written for the 
tonfirmation of the iveak, and the establishment of the 
stt^ong. In the first verse, Christ is represented as 
the author and finisher of our faith : in the last, the 
glory of our salvation is expressly ascribed to the same 
divine person : and these two verses may be given 
as an abridgment of the whole epistle. 

This powerful faith, and this adorable Saviour, 
were as constantly proclaimed by the Apostle John* 
Though St. Luke has not transmitted to us any ex- 
tracts from his discourses, yet his doctrine is sufii* 
ciently manifested in his epistles. 

" If any man sin," saith this favoured Apostle, 
*' we have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ 
the righteous : and He is the propitiation for our 
sins. He wa^ manifested to take away our sins.... 
And this is the commandment of God, that we should 
believe on the name of his Son Jesus Christ. Who- 
soever belieifethy is born of God.,.»what5K)ever is born 
of God, ev«rcometh the world; and this is the vic- 
tory that overcometh the world, even our/ai/A, These 
things hav« I written unto you that believe on the 
name of the Son of God, that ye may know that ye 
have eternal life, and that ye may" yet more sted- 
Ifastiy *' believe.^ 

** Many deceivers,*' continues the same Apostle 
in iiis second epistle, " have entered into the world, 
who confess not that Jesus Christ is come in the 
flesh. This is a deceiver and an Antichrist. Who- 
soever abideth not in the doctrine of Christ, hath 
not God ; he, that abideth in the doctrine of Christ, 
hath both the Father and ihe Son." Here St< John, 
foreseeing the melancholy revolution that would one' 
day be effected in the Church by these antichri^tian 
teachers, notwithstanding hi^s natural gentleness^ 
cries out against them, with an holy indignation ;: 
" if there conie any unto you, and bring not this doc- 
X 2 - . " , 

246 TII]( PORTRAIT or S^T* PAVlr. 

trinCf receive him not into your houses neiti&er bid . 
him God speed. For he that biddeth him God speeds 
is partaker of his evil deeds.'* 

In this third epistle, he expresses the utmost joy 
oyer Gaius, on account of his steady adherence to 
the truth ; assuring himy that he had no greater joyi 
than to hear that his children continued to walk ia 
the truths of the Gospel. He commends his charitf 
toward the people of God, and exhorts bim to conti- 
nue a feliow-^helper to the ti;uth| by affording an 
hospitable recepticm to thoites who, with a view of 
spreading that truth, were journeying from place to 

St. Jude, in his short epistle, writes thus...." Be- 
loved, when I gave all diligi^nce to write unto you of 
the common salvaiion, it was needful for me to ex- 
hort you, that ye should earnestly contend for tlie 
faith which was once delivered unto the saints. For 
there are certain men crept in unawares, denying the 
only Lord God, and our Lord Jesus Christ. But 
ye, beloved, building up yourselves on your most 
holy/a//A, praying in the Holy Ghost, keep your- 
selves in the love of God, looking for the mercy of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, unto eternal life.^ 

The concluding book of the new testa^ent^ 
abounds with striking testimonies to the foregoing 
truths, and was added for the consolation of the 
church in every age. It opens with a sublime eulogy 
pronounced upon that iucomprcnsible Saviour, who 
is " the Alpha and Omega, the faithful witness, t^e 
first begotten of the dead,and thePrince of the kings 
of th« earth, who hath loved and washed us from 
our sins in his own blood, and hath made us kings, 
and priests unto God and his father, for ever an4 

The faithful, who groan in secret, to behold their 
Master rejected by deists, and neglected by the 
greater, part of christians, attend, with holy trans- 
port, to the representations here given by St. John. 
Here they perceive that condescending Saviour, who 

THE rOBTRAXT OF JT. r^Vh, 347 

was dishonoured upon eaFtbi acknoviedged and 
adored by the hosU of Heaven. They see the pros- 
trate dderS) and behold the innumerable multitude 
of the i:edeemed assembled before the thron«* They 
hear tha( new song of adoration, in which Angels 
and the spirits of just men made perfect unanimously 
cry out ; ** Worthy is the Lamb, that was slain, to 
receive power, and riches, and wisdom, and strength, 
and honour, and glory, and blessing." These are 
scenes, which the believer is assisted to realize, by 
npieans of a livelyyazVA, and in which he already bears 
an humble part, ascribing, with his more exalted 
brethren, " blessing and honour and glory and 
power unto him, that sitteth upon the throne, and 
unto the Lamb, for ever and ever." 

This mysterious book concludes with that short 
prayer of St. John, which shall one day be. offered 
vq^ with the energy of the Holy Spirit, by ten thou- 
sand times ten thousand of the faithful...." Come, 
Lord Jesus," fully to accomplish thy gracious pro- 

If it be here enquired ; Do not all ministers 
maintain this scriptural faith P I answer ; It is a 
rare thing, with the generality of ministers, to treat 
on a point of so vast impprtaiice: and even when 
they are heard to speak of this mighty grace, they 
represent it; ^.s sotncthihg manifestly different from 
that Wy'mg faith , by which we are regenerated. If 
ever they discourse with their catechumens on this 
subject, they speak as men, who attempt to teach 
what they have yet to learn. They frequently re- 
Rcat the viordfait/^^ but are unable t© open its spi- 
ritual signification. They take it for granted, that 
all their neighbours are possessed of this grace, ex- 
cept those who openly reject the word of God : and 
they become perfectly satisfied with that species of 
faith, against which St. Paul and St. James were 
authorized to denounce the anathemas of the Gospel. 
On this account, one of the last texts a worldly pjMr 

34S THfe POKT&AIT Of 8f . VA^t. 

tor would make choice of, is that solemn exhortatioti 
of the Apostle ; " Examine yourselves, whether yc 
be in ih^ /auh: prove your own selves: know ye 
not your own selves, how that Jesus Christ is in you^ 
except ye be reprobates ?" The faith, with which 
he contents himself, and which he publishes to 
others, may be equally possessed, by those, who.ure 
conformable to this present evil world, and those^ 
who << have crucified the flesh, with the affections 
and lusts." It belongs to self-exalting pharisees^ 
who boast of their own righteousness, as well as to 
those humble believers, who count themselves un« 
worthy of the benefits they have received* 

Further : so far is the ill-instructed minister 
from preaching the true faith, that he is always 
prepared to plead against it. In confirmation of 
this melancholy truth, take the following relation. 
A believer, whose circumstances frequently engaged 
him in conversation with a worldly man of his 
neighbourhood, once took occasion to offer him such 
advicei as brotherly charity suggested* After the. 
customary civilities, Sir, said he,we have livedasneigh- 
bours long enough to kuow one another, and, I pre- 
sume, the intimacy of our acquaintance authorizes 
us to speak to each other without any reserve. It 
has given me real satisfaction to observe your con- 
stant attendance at our church, and your strict at- 
tentioh to her most solemn services* Nevertheless} 
permit me to express my fears, that you are not yet 
iseeking the Kingdom of God, with that earnestness 
aiid solicitude, without which it can never be obtain- 
ed. Though you afe constant at church, yet you 
ure as constant at tables of festivity ; and an ap- 
proaching entertainment appears to afford you 
greater pleasure, than an approaching sacrament* I 
regularly observe the gazette upon your table, with 
a variety of new and ingenious publications : but 
I have never found you perusing the sacred pages 
•f a more important volume* 1 have heard you 


spenkt in lUt) e^reeabJe znaoner, upon twenty differ- 
ent :thiOgs: but. cannot recollect, that your conver- 
sation evec turned upon what our Lord has describ- 
ed, as the one thing needful* In short, Sir, I ap- 
preltend from your conduct, that you are altogether 
uD&oqudinted with evangelical faith : and if so, your 
hope is a» fallacious, as your devotion is pharisaical. 
Neighbour* I am obliged, Sir, by the interest you 
appear to take in my salvation ; but allow me to say, 
wiih Solomon, there is a time for all things* Be- 
liever. Yes, Sir ; for all that is good. But, if you 
really believe there is a time for all things, is it not 
amazing, that, after you have found four seasons in 
•very day convenient for eating and drinking in your 
family, you should find no proper opportunity, 
through the whole course of a week, to pour out 
your prayers with that family before God ? Neigh- 
bour* It is true, I do not pique myself upon my 
piety : smd 1 will coafest* *o you, that i frequetit Ihc 
church and the holy communion, rather out of de» 
cency than choice* But, notwithstanding this, my 
faith is as orthodox as tha^ of my neighbours. We 
all bielieve in God, as our Creator, and in Christ, a« 
our Redeemer, except some few persons, who glory 
in trampling all revelation under foot. For my own 
part, I have never erred from the faith, since I first 
became acquainted with the Apostles* creed ; and 
that was'so early in life, that I cannot now recollect 
who first instructed me in it. Believer. Il seems 
.th«n, neighbour, that you imbibed your faith, as you 
drew in your nurse's milk : and you have learned 
- ta believe in Christ, rather than Mahomet, because 
ycm happened to be taught the English, rather than 
the Turkish Language* Neighbour. That may 
be* : However, if I had been a Mahometan, I trust i 
might also have been an honest man* ^^ I give to 
every one his due*'' This is the grand principle 
upon which I have always acted, and from this, I 
leave every rational man to form a judgment of- mj 


ikilh* BelieTer. Ah Sir I if such are the principles 
by which your conduct is regulated} then make a full 
surrender of your heart to God, and consecrate t(> 
his service those poirers of body and soul, which 
you have received from his bounty, and to which he 
has so just a title. But alas I without piety, your 
strict justice is like the fidelity of a subject, who 
fulfils his engagements with a few particular X)er sons, 
while he withholds the homage due to his rightful 
sovereign. If sucha subject can be termed faith* 
ful, then may you, with propriety, be accounted just, 
while you offer not to God that tribute of love, gra- 
titude, adoration, and obedience, which is your rea- 
sonable service. You made a confession but now^ 
that you pique not yourself upon your piety : it 
would not have astonished me more, had you said, 
that you piqued not yourself upon paying your debts, 
and acting with common honesty in the world. 
Alas, air, y mir boasted prirn^ipkis do^aotxoufirm thfL 
fears, to which your conduct had given rise. I en* 
treat you in the m«8t solemn manner, "examine 
yourself, whether you be in the faith." Neighbour. 
What do you call faith ? Believer. The scriptures 
teach us, that we must believe with the heart, and 
that ^^ faith is the substance of things hoped for, 
Rhd the evidence of things not seen." He, there- 
fore, who truly believes in the Father, the Son, and 
the Holy Ghost, carries within him a lively demon- 
stration of the Almighty's presence, which pen«* 
trates him with sentiments of fear, respect, and 
love, for a Being so powerful, just, and good : he 
possessesan internal evidence of the affection of that 
Redeemer, upon whom alone he groundshis hope of 
salvation, saluting him, with Nathaniel, as << the 
Bon of God, the King of Israel :*' and he discovers 
in h|S own heiart, the most indisputable testimonies 
0f the sanctifying and consoling operations of the 
Holy Spirit. Now, from this three^fold demon** 
^Uation^ h? U epab)ed to s^y, with suitable enti- 


naents of gratitude and devotion, « Behold what 
manner of love the Father hath bestowed upon uSf 
that we should be called the sons of God : he hath 
made us accepted in the Beloved,, in whom we have 
redemption throttgh_4»s blood, the forgiveness of 
sins ; and the Spirit itself bearetb witness with our 
spirit, that we are the children of God. Tell ,me, 
then, since you boast of having received the chris- 
tian faith, have you ever experienced those salutary 
effects of faith, which I have now described I Neigh- 
bour. If that demonstration, and that lively repre- 
sentation of which you speak, are essential to chris- 
tian faith, I must confess, that to such a faith I am 
a perfect stranger. But the writings of St. Fault 
whose definition of faith you have just cited, are 
generally looked upon as remarkably dark and mys- 
terious: I wish you had rather quoted St. John. 
Believer* I doiibt. Sir, whether you will gain any 
thing by such an appeal, " Whosoever believeth 
that Jesus is the Christ,** saith St. John, " is bom of 
God. This is the victory, that evercometh the world, 
even our faith. Who is he, that bvercometh the 
world, but he that believeth, that Jesus is the Son of 
God r" You perceive, Sir, that, according to this Apos- 
tle, faith is a principle of grace and power, sufficiently 
forcible and victorious to regenerate and make us par- 
takers of the divine nature, enabling us to triumph 
equally over the most seducing, as well as the most af- 
flicting occurrences in the world. Have you obtained, 
or havey ou even sought the faith, of which such excel- 
lent things are spoken ? Neighbour. You embarrass 
me. I never heard the least intimation of such a faith in 
this country. Believer. Indeed, Sir, you are in an 
en*or, since this very faith is plainly set forth. in the 
xvith chapter of the Helvetic Confession. " The 
** christian faith [say the pious ministers who ccm- 
" posed that work] is not a mere human opinion of 
" persuasion, but a state of full assurance : it not only 
*'^ gives a constant and clear assent to, but also com- 

35^ THKr rOVTKAlT^ Or STv VAtfL." 

^.prehen^iiaii^ #iabnM»tiie.ti»tliflxiP God, adpfti{io»->- 

«< ed to .u» ia^ Aik>9U«»' «roe& The aoul^ by ftAw 

<< actf unites itself to Gody a&lo tta Ooiyi ettcaal/ttii^* 

<< sovereign gQod| ^ to- Jesu« ChfiBt$ as^die/cbnttib^ 

<f of all tl^ promiBea*" . Hai^e. )fou» the%i tliit -^M^^ 

persuasion^ this fuU assumice c^lfefi trathfisof our hmif'* 

religion ? And have you axi^rrie^esd this ast^ixf^nrk^shs^ 

the soul Is united taOdd, .through Chritt9&»to8li;«H: 

vereigngood? Neighbour. Ibavosundonhtod^'^apa^' 

suasion, that the word, of God is, trufi. 3ilt. hsm^mKff 

I absolutely determine^ whether or no I am a pp^se^in^' 

of thcy^uM, of which you speak, i Qetieves^. Iffm. 

are possessed otfaith^ you, ha¥e« aoine experiipe^t^h 

knowledge of those happy efiectapfthatgi^cef "whi^h* 

are thus enumerated in the ss^ne confession. ^ T]?ii^> 

^ faith restores peace to the conscience. Itprocurosia 

^ free access to God, enabling us both to approach hW 

*' with confidence, and^to obtain from him the thingB,of 

^ which we stand in need. It retains us in the path 

« of obedience, induing us with power to fulfil our. se- 

** vcral duties both to God and to our neighbour. It 

^ maintains our patience in adversity, and disposes us, 

^< at all times, to a sincere confession of our confi* 

" dence. To sum up all in a single word, it produces 

" every good work." " Let it be observed [says the 

•* same confession] that we do not here speak of a pre-. 

" tended faith, which is vain, ineffectual and dead, but 

" of a living, effectual and vivifying faith. This is a 

'^ doctrine, which St. James cannot b^ understood to 

" combat, seeing he speaks of a vain and presumptu- 

" ous confidence^ of which some were knb"wn to boast, , 

"^while they had not Christ living in them by means 

« of laith," Neighbour. «< Christ living in them by " 

" means o£ faith." .1 pray. Sir, what is to be understood 

by this expression ? I do not comprehend the thing. 

But, if I recollect, I shall have an opportunity in a 

few hours, of mentioning the matter to our pastor, 

whom I expect here this evening to makeup a party at 

cards. The true believer, after thanking his worldly 


neighbour Sot the patience with which he had lis- 
tened to his conversation, took his leave, and with* 
drew apprehending every evii consequence from 
the decision of a pastor, who was known to indulge 
|i taste for play and vain amusement* His fears 
vrere too well founded. Th^ minister, true to his 
engagement, arrived at the appointed hour, and the 
gentleman thus eag^rlyaddressed him : I have been 
receiving some singular advice from a person of a 
very unaccountable turn, who appears to agree either 
with the mystics or the pietists. He spoke much 
of faith, asserting, that all true christians are really, 
regenerate, and that they " have Christ living in 
them by faith.*' What think you. Sir, of such as- 
seKions as these ? I will tell you freely, replied the 
minister, that these abstruse points of doctrine are 
among those profound mysteries, which neither you 
nor I are appointed to fathom* It is usual with en* 
thusiasts to speak in this manner ; but such mystic 
jargon is now out of season. There have been ageS| 
in which divines were accustomed to speculate con* 
ceming this faith, and publicly to insist upon it in 
their sermons* But, in an age like this, enlightened 
by sound philosophy and learned discoveries, we Tio 
longer admit what we cannot comprehend. I ad- 
vise you, as a friend, to leave these idle subtilties 
close . shut up in the unintelligible volumes of our 
ancient theologtsts* The only material thing, is to 
conduct ourselves as honest men. If we receive 
revelation in a general sense, and have good works 
to produce, there can be no doubt but our faith is 
of the proper kind, and highly acceptable before 
God* To this short discourse, the card-table sue- 
eeeded, which served to strengthen the bands of inti- 
macy, between the careless clergyman and his delud- 
ed neighbour : so perfectly alike were their faith and 
their manners. 

The circumstances alluded to \n the above rela- 
tion^ are not imaginary ; and there is every reason 

' T 

954 ' TKK rosTmirr or st. pjot^ 

to teVf thmt circinnsfances of tbe 9»ne nattire, are 
no less common hi other christian coontHes, than 
in that which gare birth to the writer'of these 

Thns the wortdlj minister, instead bfpreafehhi^ 
this important doctrine in itsptiritf, seeks'^to^e- 
fttrof even the curiosity, which would engage gi^ 
irreligious man to enquire into the ncccsk'rtjr, ihje 
nature, the origin, and the effects of eraugelft^J 
fairh. And while the generality of those, whb %Tp 
required to publish this victorious grac^, ir^ &!e|^ 
to reject it with contempt^ no vender that theifu^ 
minister esteems himself obliged to' contend .fe'r 
it, with increasing earnestness, bot)i in Jniblid^iuiji 
in private. . ; * 

To close this section. When the chrfstifirry tiii- 
nister proclaims salvation by faith, he adherei po^ 
only to the holy scriptures, but also to those t^ubTfd 
confessions of faith, which are in c^mnion'' ii'sfe 
among the churches of Christ. •* We believe,* "^ay 
the churches of France, " that every thing necbsr 
" sary to our salvation, was revealed and offered to 
" us ii) Christ,, who is made unto us wisdom, righ- 
«* teousoess, sanctification, and redemption." Art. 
xiii. " Wc believe, that we are made partakers of 
** righteousness by faith alone ; since it is said, that 
** he [Christ] suffered in order to procure salvation 
" fof us, and that whosoever believeth in hitii shall 
" not perish." ArU xx. " We believe, that, w« 
« are illuminated by fi^ilb, tbrpjigh the secret grace 
" of the Holy Spirit." Art. xxi. « We believe 
. ** that, by this faith, we are regenerated to newness 
^ <rf life, being by nature in bondage to sin.s ii?o 
^ thai faith, instead of coohng in us the desire of 
•* living righteously and godly, naturally tends to 
<* excite such desire, and necessarily produces every 
** good work."* Art. xxii. ? 

Suph also is the doctrine of the Helvetic C^fc4- 
sion. ^^ We believe, with St. Paul, that sinful man 


" isj^wtified by faith alone ia Jcsii? Christy) and .not 
jf* Gy the law. Faith receives Jesus, who is our righ* 
*/ teouspess ; and on this account jutificatioh is at- 
" tributed to faith. That by means of faith we re- 
f J jceiife. Je^us Chriiit, he himself has taught us in the 
^VGnsp^i, wher^ he significantly uses the terms apr 
*^, p^lejd tq saiiri,^ for btlieviii^ : For, as by eating wq 
i^ irecplye.bpdily nourishment, so by believing, w^ 
H ^re jpad^ parts^k^rs of Christ." Chap. xv. " Manj 
•* |s qot. regenerated by faith, that he should continue 
" m a . state pt indolence, but rather that he should 
*i apply himself^ without ceasing, to Che performance 
*' of thqse thiijgsj which are useful, and good : since 
^' the ILord hatji said, *^ every good tree bringeth 
^* forth good fiuit : He that abideth in me, and I 
" hia\, the isamti bi ingeth forth much fruit." 
. I'lie church of England expresses herself in the 
following terms upon salvation by faith, and the good 
work^ produced by that faith. " We are accounted 
^ righteous before God^ only for the merit of our 
** Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, by faith, and not for 
^^ our own works and deservings. Wherefore, that 
*J we ar« justified by faith only, is a most whole- 
" some doctrine, and very full of comfort." Art. xi. 
" Good works do spring out necessarily of a true 
" and lively faith, insomuch that by them a lively 
f^ faith may be as evidently^ known, as a tree discerned 
«* by the fruit." Art. xli. 


« GODLINESS' with contentment is gceat 
gain :" And the pastor, who is possessed of so inva- 
luable ja blessiog, cannot be backward in soliciting 
a^» within the circle of his acquaintance, t^o shai;e it 

256 rut rORTRAIT OF ST. PAUL^ 

wiiFi him. ' Happy in the cnjqynien|:.c4 U;ial p^;ex:ip|^s 
-secpel, xviilch enablesiii;!! to rejoice. witl^pijU ce3^i;c^, 
'be reaciily comrnu.nicatcs U t,Q Uie affiijCled, t^y^^fj^- 
. i\y^ tlicm, lo ihAt lively h^Gj >v|)jch. cpi^icjesj ;^ih^ 
•Uhiaihs tT>ehear't qIT every bell^v^, • I ,"^. vnui 

Jq, a^worUU where tfcp Initerxi^es^ jm .cvij i^/^onti- 
niijkUy ingreaiibg : where vc rijs.cove,i* the^^c^^fg^ 
oi'a Ood, who y/\\\ not &kil Ip c^hasUztj hU r-^U^^^^ 
creatures i where drsappoiDtraent ftnxl .^ea^Vj^i^i^ 
cessivcly deprive u* qf QU,r clearest coinfqrfvftl>^ 
wl\ere the forerunners pf deal h arc continua^yM)YJ5^i^ 
cnin^ all our imperfect ei^jgy aieo^ : in such a y^^Mi 
it i^ evident that the mo5t exited |^C4su4ie av(^j?H'|5 
capable of, uxust spring from a weU-.grpunde<l>^' 
of those immortal joys, which are restirv^d foi:. ^h^ 
righteous. The lang;uage of n^orlaliiy is topfefibii; 
to describe^ cither the powerj or the 3u;ee<ncsis.c^ 
such an hope. Here we can only cry out witU l^ 
Psalmist, " O taste and see how gracious the-.i^v4 
is," in providing so potent a cordial^for those, ^h© 
are travelling through a vale of tearsT 

The lively hope, which gives birth to a belieTcr'p 
felicity, is one of the most exhilarating fruits of iiii 
fallh, and is inseparably connected with it, sii^oe 
" true faith is. the substance of things hoped for," 
In proportion as the truths and pix>mise^, upon whicU 
faith is founded, are evidenced and apprehended} 
such will be the hope with which that faith is,accop>* 
panied. If Moses then» by the faith which he pro* 
tessed, was enabled to renounce the prospect of an 
earthly crown, with the hope of obtaining a mori; 
glorious inheritarice; if he esteemed " the reproach 
ol Christ greater riches than the treasures of Egyp^^ 
having respect unto the recoropence of reward}'* 
\vhat may not be expected from an hope founded 
upr>n those precious prpmiseS| which havie he^ 
sealed with, the blood ofthat coudescending SayiotUFt 
^ho " brought life and immortality to ligl^tthi-pttg];! 
the Gospel r The law," sa[th the Apostlcj "made 


nothing perfect) but the bringing in of a better hope 
dki I b^ the which we draw oigh unto God- Seeing 
ihen^ that we have such hope, continues the same^ 
A|j6st]!e,'^^ we all, with open face beholding, as in k- 
g^ks«;thegtorf of the Lord, are changed into the 
same image, frbin glory to glory.*' 
' We eVcry^ day observe the men of the wbrjd ex* 
"tiRlng ih th^ hope of some temporal advantage^ The 
^rbsipedt of ah honorable title, ati augnientation of 
ibrturie, an advantageous marfiage, or even a poor 
party tyf pleasure, is sufficient to allure, , to animate^ 
^ ehrtipture them. They will even acknowledge* 
that the iiaiiering hope of futufe pleasure it sweeter 
thiein enjoyihem itself. Who then shall attempt to 
^jidlari^ thd^e -transports, which ilow froni the lively 
hope; bf a triumphing christian? A hope which is 
fbiinded upon the Rock of ages, «nd which has for 
$ts object, riches, honours and pleasures,as much su- 
perior to those of worldly men, as the soul is superior 
to the' body, heaven to earth, and eternity to the pre- 
fieftlifleeting morafent. 

The true minister publicly announces this hope 
to the world, persuaded that if mankind were once 
liappy enough to possess it, they would exchange s^ 
toad o( misery for a prospect of blessedness. But 
since he knows, that this hope can never be admitted 
into hearts replete with sin, his first concern is to 
overthrow the vain confidence of ihe impenitent, to 
undermine the presumption of the pbarisaical, and 
to point out the true distinction between a sin- 
ner's groundless expectation, and the ^ell-foundcd 
hope of a believer in Christ. 

f n every place, there are many to be found) who, 
T^ithout evangelical faith or hopd, are filled with a 
presumption as blind as that of the Pharisees, and as 
fatal as that of fleaihens hardened in their sin. To 
every such person, the true miniiter uniformly de- 
clares, that he is without Christ, without <*hope, and 
without God in the world." These Ttiy men, ii is 
1 1 

958 THE TeRTltAlT Of ST.' PATH.» 

|>robtible, nray t>ficrtp tfce Deity a ibrmal ^vorUhlp, 
ind indulge high e^pectA^ns from the fticfcf of a 
iivVpe Mtdiator, though Ihey ftre tdtellf dtfs^lufe of 
*n ttrtfeig^ed " repentiaBce toward God, an4 ^ tUnie' 
ftith tov^rd otif Lord Jesti* ChrtM!/* Thus fslr tlie 
Hticonverted may pro<*cd ih a seemtngflyT^ig^D^Oi^ 
cdHrte. But the rcg^tterat^ aloftc tah t**tily"6Wyy 
« The grace (yf God> that fttinf^li sa!vi(fi^^ b^^i 
appeared tihto M- finen> ^eaehini^p m that, dHiyf^gi 
ungodliness and wwTdly fusrts, we^hootd^liVe soheHy'^^ 
righteously and godfy in this present- woi^ldilbijlSng 
for that blessed hoftej and the glorious appeati^gW 
the greaf God, and our Savioin' Jesus Chrfet^*^ -'! 
Tlie hope of ufnnghieous Yfteniis fdUYieteff^^up^ftP 
pride, false notions of the Deity, ignof«ii(^ of ll|s" 
law, and those prejudices, tvhich llie irrelig*©tfi eoiflX^ 
municate one to another. On the'<Jontr«fry,thelJW^'^ 
of bclievei-s has for its basis, the W6HI of him'" W^hb** 
cannot lie.' Whatsoever things were Wiiltcii afore^*' 
time," saith the Ax)ostle, " were writteo fo^ our kftm-' 
jng that we**, [the children of God] « through^a-?" 
. tience and comfort of the scripttires ttitght haVe* 
hope." It is founded not only upon the word j but *^ 
equally upon the oath, of God. « Menterily swear" 
by the greater ; and an oath, for confirmation, is to 
them an ^nd of all strife. Wherein God, uriHiog^ 
more abundantly to shew unto the heirs of the pro- 
mise the immutabilrty of his cxwmse!, confirmed it 
by an oath : That by two imnmtable things, in whfch' 
it was impossible f©r God to lie" [namely his woi^d • |3 

and his oaih] ^ we might have strong cdnKJlatioli;- 
who have fled for refuge to lay hold upon the Ao/^tfiS©t ^ / \ 

before us, which hope .we have^ as ah anchor of the 
soul, boih sure and stcdfast." , ', = -^ 

When 'the fiaithful minister has rooted*»p ^ei^epf ' 
false hope, he then announces JesusGhrist, wh^haih ' 
bfoiTght in a better hope than thint^of Mcatlteus of 
Jews. Observe here the reason, why tha^ piiU^iHy 
wito preach not Christi are incapable of doing any 

■ \ 

If' tW«ir 1^*^?^ *!*« fuirth^rapcse, of . ibat livi^j^iailh, of 

/ Chfisil, «aiitb ^ P»uU U Qtt^ liopii : and ^e declaii^ 

^nm^fWy <^ Che i^ftf sicijy, which hath he^ hid fsom 

\ r '^kg^,'* jB^d. i» utiH hidden frqqa vorWlf m^Ut " ^hipi 
V ia,Chr«||;kiyo%th,e;*^/i^Hrf glory •'• Thwthe.^y^F- 

lifiyif>g,,Sc>» <^t t4i« FathcP:^ iii nwi^? Dpi his true .4>U 
low«^^e beginfii'mgr apd theconstnnniaiipii ofjiope^ 
9inr§ft4is/^ th)(;«tt^hor ^ind fimiher of our faith." 
. iBy ;rhe.'i»»rcy<jf God, and Uitpugh the redcmp- 
t|^ t,hat>9:ii>JesiHi Chri^, the believer has alreadf 
recei\'«d -^e ^VQnM$^^f,arfiae» {>avdon for paU ofifea- 
c^ f jOlh^rwise he-^es^rves not to be termed a be« 
r^ifelt^; ^)^sl)4)e. is^deBtltute of eyangeUcal faith* 
But «ri^ft:he. MiK;ere)y r^eire^Uie glad tidings of 
il9i^^>«!(i)il>g'^faeei he then receives Jesus Chris^ in 
vrh()!m^< aUthe pvomiaes are yea and amen^^aikd he 
would ccmdAict himself in a mannericontrary to that^ 
wla^ifili^both reasi^i^andscripture prescribe^if he should 
rej^etperejiiice in God his Saviour. By such a mode of 
a«tij3g9 Ke would prove his want of gratitude for that, 
whichChNst hath already done) and ofhope for thaty 
which he hath promised still to perform. But when 
he^ gives himself up toa jay> as reasonable, as it ia 
refreshing) he then answers the gracious designs of: 
his benev^nt Lord. Continually taken up with 
more satisfactory enjoyments, he despises the seduc- 
ii^ pfeaaures of sin* He carries in his own bosom • 
a source of eelestial pleasure; while the man of the 
world' disquiets his heart in the vain pursuit of 
earthly joys* The difference between the enjoy- 
m(f nts ^f these two characters \% as great, as betwixt 
the rational pleasure of those, who gather their 

i wheat into t^baruy and the puerile mirth of chil* 

dren» wbo ai« busied Jn, cqlle^Ung the scattered 
straws jand thorns ; the fprraei^' are secuiing 9Xi- in- 

\ estimable treasuf^y wbile the latter have nothiog 

9M TfiS rO&TRAlT or ST. PAUL. 

more in view» than to dance round a short-lived 
Mase, the truflMvmblem'Of svsinm^r^.satisC^btiv 

iii tke'HoijKScnplturos' Yer)r«aEcelkm ilhin^^ri^te 
•pokeo of tbe haf^ which' ^Ai^emtiM sacr^ joy; 
U It is a divmebopey uiicea^ haft for its 6bjis<$tili« 
cajojqoomitof G0d/and'b«ea«p«r .k .dmwi 'SU{xpU4e« «of 
strength from that Holy Spiritf which discoVefttXt^ 
beltttvers thegreatoesaaDd'^tebiAitf. ;of g;os^el^ro« 
mises. TIiub St. Paolteabhetii us^ ihat^ the Patfy^ 
f^- glorf :^velh Qt) .the Spirit of mrtsdom and Te«^ltti 
lion { eiiiightemng'the eyes of our: uddera^ncteg;^ 
that we may know what nXbcJkofic of^ourioaUlAgi 
and- what the riches of the jg^ry of htatinlibritiaM«( 
among* the' smuts*" • ^r.-. hau >';![ 

3* It gives heaotir*to die fmlh{u)iie8oani^>oiin»r 
of God. Abraham^ saith St«^ PauU agait<str 4i lia^ 
man ptobabilltyy believing ^^in Ao^^ oCagg^ed iM 
at the promise; bat was strong in fieith gintnig i^y 
to God : bdng fcdly persuaded^ that what fae^hdd' 
promisedyhe was able also to perform* TJMcDtforty 
being justified," like Abraham, <« by iaithi, 4i;e rie«i 
joice/' continnes the Apostle, with a confidence ilkb 
his, ^^ in hope of the glory of God. And" this ^^Aofig^ 
maketh not ashamed«" How unlike the faikciotfs: 
hope of worldly men, who are frequently put to 
shame by their blasted expectations. 

3. This Ifope i% said to fill us with a holy joy^^ 
^< Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesua- 

' Christ," saith St. Peter, ^ who hath begoUen ua 
again unto -a lively Ao/iCf by the resurrection of Je<* 
aus Christ from the dead. Wherein ye greatly re** 
joice." And on this account it was, that the Apostks 
Paul prayed, with such ardour, for an inerease of hope 
among believers....*' Now the God of hope ^ yon 
with all joy and peace in believing, that ye may* 
abound in hope through the power of the Holy 

4. It actually saves us, as St, Paul himself de«» 
Clares in the following . words & *< I reckon, that the 


yulB^ijitaigft of the |ntt&eRt!«ime;are:«ot wr^clhy lOi 1Mb 

yWt -for t^e ■' ad^^a> ta wit^ tli^iiEe^nEiptifiivjof^our 

AfAP^'^*' '- *' j-.''^' */?• 'J .' 'ii'il '" •' '•'■••• " ,;, •■ :/ 
^:> u45^j^ltct:9 ibi|U| Bi^dr solid ;;«mte^ i( setsdbt 
«|)i$n tJ:ieJhight.Yvhiefa tile diildteQ of jGod xnay.c^aim 

9^0^ nli|;^ki'?which;!i» ckm£LFfned.t^dbem with the uU 
|^9).i«ol«fDn!ty in* tiittiimr T-estomsot* l^iow eifcrjF 
Bim)^- who >rftaei3iwsv'^l»'-&'^erit7i9 the Lord- of 
life and glory, receives with him' a title to-. ttv«rla6i» 
iQ9/o.|Hbi8c««fins^: ftml vsi^ksy .fi»in that moment, 
ampnl^; *^iriic.soa8 oE Odd*'* So^ that t^ sucb,iho 
fcUaJiHiq;^|iasa^ge$ may, with propriety, be api^Ued^.A 
S^-tiifj hfttb rmoidc^ us accepted in the beloved*».*la 
^hamf e>»i9o ipustedj after that ye beard the word 
O^iljuiby the gospei'ttf yonir salvatioa : in whom akot 
a&er tkat ye beiiev^d^ ye were sealed with that 
I Hid^r Spirit of pcomise,^ wixich is the earnest of our 

I i&heritaiYee, uatii the redemptioQ of the purchasei^ 

j pKsssession*'^ 

5 6* It purifios lis. « Now are we," saith St# 

* John, ^' the sons of God> ftod it doth not yet appear^ 

•I whsjt we shall be i but we know ihat when he shall 

i aippear, we shall he like him ;. fen* we shall aeerhttii^ 

I aa. he is* And every man, . that hath tki%. Aope ia^ 

I hiiD,purifiethhimself,eirenasheispure» Whosoevef 

I ifi'.hcnm of God/' or regenerated by^ a true faith and a; 

f lively hope,. <^ doth Jipt commit sin £. for his seed re*< 

maintth in him' { and he oanndt sanybccause he is 
bora 6fG«dv'^ The truth of this assertion ist^learta. 
t i|e ey & of r easoiu We fa^ into siin, because we suf** 
fcrr. oursdliveQ^to be seddced by the aHtiremeiits of: 
some transitory good, which presents itself either 4^ 
our senses; or' imaghi^tieii* « Bsit whea we are oace 
peiisuteied,^ thatiiiiinit&^e^ygiBAta'atvait us, ms/ 
can then look with contempt upon those deceitful s^» 


pearances t* and after our hearts are animated with a^ 
confident hope of possessing those invisible reathife^; 
the charm of sin is broiien. In such a !^tate, wc 
break through temptations with as much'resoftitioaji 
As a prince, who is going to take possession of ^ 
kingdom, Tenodmifts the Rttfetimiiseinents^that 6^^ 
*^ptcd his thOugHts before thejr were etfgrbssedW i 
concerA of so va^ ifnportatKre. *<' Who is'Hfe^thi* 
overcotficth th^ worlds except the ffiari'4vhdbyiij>i!*if 
with that ftiith Mthich *iflfbrds httn a lifelf reprc^^rt-* 
tfetion of things hbped for ? Compare 1 JoKil' f i 5. 
whhHcfe.xi. 1. ■ •• ^'' ■ - ■';; *'"'^ 

« r. This lively hope produces chafitfid tf^ sotrH 
* We give thaii/ks to God," saith the Apo^tle^"^^5)raLy'i 
hig always for you, since we heard of the Jo^^ wftfchj;^^ 
have to all the saints ; for the Ad/?e, which ii laid tip fdr' 
you in heaven, whereof ye heat'd before in'theworti oif 
the truth of the Gospel.*' Nay, of so prevaifingan iti-" 
fhience is this solid hope, that the Apostle mtimatei^ 
in the same chapter, that believers shall be priesented 
kefore God, " holy and unblamable," provided they 
be not « moved away from the hofie of the Gospel^ 
For,*' continues he, we are made partakers of Christy 
if we hold the beginning of our confidence stedfast 
onto the end. And we desire, that every one of yoa' 
do shew the same diligence to the full assurance of 
hope imto the end : that ye be not slothful, but follow- 
ers of them, who through faith and patience inherit 
the pnMnises." 

8. This hope is full of coi^iolation;* ^ We^ Vh6* 
remain,** saith the Apostle, « shall be caught up to^ 
meet the Lord ki the air : and so shkll w'e ever be 
with the Lord. Whereforfe comfort one another widi 
these words. Now our Lord Jesus Chmt himsielfc; 
and God even our Father, which hath loved Us, and 
hath given usr everlasting consolatioti and good hope 
tlntnigh grace, comfort your hearts." When we ob-. 
svpve among tts some, Who are disquieted and cast 
4owii, who want courage ta support affliction without 


.iixil>a%|icei, apd to fill i^p thek duties with oheerfulneMy 
\fj^ tb^:behold pevspns wli^^ever <aijoyed9< <Hr wfep 

f^^^^pily.lost^ih^Uv^;]^ cbrislwi«t 

si^^qtnefis .^ P9;^e? oLt^AB hf^mj^ wbat pkfMUVQ 
YCjii^ij'iJ;^r^w^U»fe it tothcs #fil)^tfd. A^d with nrlwl 
Pje^^yi^rpp^C) 'j^fould tbey: jom.^ their dftsOQuraeslM 
^ijQJsti pi;<dpflj^,pviv7«r88r5thHt ^U tjieir bcatew might o^mo 
t9,thi;,aypymept of.^ in»alwbl^<«8ring» , ' .- 
/^WThpn^ejtrwcmimsteF ka<^ hi* flock. to^his Uvd^ 
and joyful hope, he treads in the' footsteps. of < hiadW 
. vj^^^a^t;^., ^C^iri^tj it,i& |jru^,thflgan)hi|s «wi»stry by: 
preaching. j^p^Htai)Qe» But m, the vfsry pext chapter 
y^Vp?^/ hifl;*> j>laciog. h<^rfuth«fWicvcp'a ey^, beatt^ 
^d^ mi pjTpiaii^s of the niost coQsolatjory natune* And 
iip^ , a.' variety of paasagesy. he exhortis his fodlowers tQ 
tlfws exercise of a jovial iope in the seTerest trialsy 
iT^s^ijixg that ^n indispensible d^^ty^ which is, indeed it 
^loriou^ privUege. « Fear not them»" saith he/* 
*f which. c^re nqt able to kiil the .souU..The. very hairs 
of !your, head are all numbei7ed.«.. whosoever shall coa« 
f^ss. m^be&re zneny him will I confess also beiore my 
fathejc which is in iieaFen* Fear not little fkck^ 
for it is your Father's good pleasure, to give you ^bt 
Sjiigdom. I gt\'e unto my sheep eternal iifey and the 3^ 
shall never perish, neither shall any pluck thexa ovAoi 
xny hand.'* . ' . > 

tte appears anxious^ that his people should be par^ 
takers of his peace> bis joy, aod his hope, tUl they 
cGtme to the possession of consummate blessedness.. 
*f These things. have I spoken," saitib lM}«that in ma 
yi .might have peace. . In the worldje shall have tri* 
bujation :.but be of ^pood cheer; I ilave^ove^ce«ne the. 
worjd* , Let not your heart be troubled. I go to pre-: 
pare a place for you. And if I go to prepare a plase: 
for you, I will come again, an^ receive you unto my-} 
self; that where I am, there ye may be also. Ye ncnr: 
have sQiTow : But I will see you again, and your heart* 
shall' rcjoiccj and your joy no man takctli from you." 

964 "ram FOBTaAiT er st. PAVfc. 

lie enhons tk«n coptiauaily to e;sj^}ii8 returti; 
and cweq eoode t ds rtto'BiciAMMi tht very terms in 
.arUchbe wiUfAtthatlimCy salute. «ver;r waiting be- 

-T4ie {»iay€M nf Cbrisl^ aa veil mIus eyhorta- 
iion•^alld pioiiusiK^. tend to pfoduce and support the 
aKMt eindtad hope ia the souis of believers, he hsui 
gncioii^^ ittCercedei for th^mj be still obntiiiues 
to m^Be ii»te«ce8Biaa» and his prayer js always pre* 
▼ident* Mark a few senteocea of that memorable 
prayeri which he once of&red up for all his follow^ 
ers^and which forms the 17th chapter of St. Johii^s 
Gospel* << O Father 1 I pray ik)t<for the world, but' 
for thena^ which thou hast given me. Holy Father! 
keep through thine own. name> those whom thou hast 
given me ; and sanctify them through thy trulh.»* 
S^either pmy I for these alone, but for them also^ 
which shall believe on me through their word ; that . 
they may all be one, even as we are one. Father 1 
I will, that they whom thou has given me^ be with 
me where I am, that they inay behold my glory.'' 

A lively hope founded upqn these prayers and 
declarations of the blessed Jesiis, enabled the pri* 
mitive christians to triumph over every affliction.... 
in the midst of the most terrible persecutions, they 
could aongratulate one another on their common 
blessedness, and say ; ^< Our life is hid with Christ 
in God: and when Christ, who is our life shall ap- 
pear, then shall we also appear with him in glory* 
For he shall yet come to be gloriiied in his saints^ 
and to be admired in all them that believe." 

The Apostles, agreeable to the example of ilieir 
Master, were unanimous in publishing this glorious 
hope : and St. Paul very frequently insists upon it, as 
a most important duty. " Let us," saith he, " who are 
of the day be sober, putting^ on the breast-plate of 
faith and love, and for an helmet the hope of salvation. 
I beseech you, brethren, present your bodies a livhig 
saciifice unto God.. ..rejoicing in hope. Rejace in 


the Lord' alway : and again, I say, rejoice." This 
« evangelical hope" will evet^be experknc^d^ as a ne- 
ver-failing source of cottsofatidn and thankfolness : and 
hence, wherever the hope ^ the Gospel h preached, 
there believers continue to be filled with unspeakable 
joy . How truly happj^ wbiild christians be,, were such 
an hope to flourish amt>ng thefn ! ¥hf from dispmting 
any longer for the trifles of tiifie and sense, they woqid 
'joyfully rendunce them all, in expectation of an eternal 
iiilieritance ; and instead of running' to the "frivolous 
amusements of the world for a moiwentary recreation, 
every passing day would appear too short for the ex- 
hilarating duties of praise and thanksgiving. 

It is asserted by many, that this divine hope is usu- 
ally preached by every minister. That preachers in 
genera! are accustomed to exhort their hearers, in a 
cold and languid manner, to hope in divine mercy, 
win readily be granted : but that such do not publish 
the " real, evangelical hope" of christians, may be 
easily proved beyond the possibility cf a doubt. \Vc 
i have seen, in the preceding sections, that the mi- 

nister of the present day is unacquainted with this 
hoi^e : that he is even without any just ideas of that 
• • true repentance, and that living faith, from which 

^lone this hope can flow : and hence, it is impossi- 
ble for him in the nature of things, lo publish it iu 
\i tlie church of God. In vain has Christ himself de- 

il ciared, that the 'Abroad way" will conduct mulli- 

j tudes to destruction, and that « except a man be 

|; born again, he cannot enter into the Kingdom of 

[ God :" in spite of these solemn declarations, the 

worldly pastor still imagines, that this very way will 
conduct him to life, and that he i»hall be counted 
among the inhabitants of that Kingdom, without 
scriptural regeneration. He supposes, at least, that 
he is sufiiciently sanctified, though his righteous- 
ness exceeds not that of the pharisces, nor his de- 
! voiion liiat of the Laodicean church. Thus enter- 

taining a vain hope in his own heart, ard indulging 



a confifience, v'hich is repugnant lo the concurrent 
IcsiimoMes of every sacred writer, lie necessarily 
leads hrs hearers into the sume duugerous delusions* 

As in order *iolidly to found our hopes upon a 
benefactor, or a surety, it i& neccssai^ to haVe an 
acquaintance with the person, who presents hit^iftelC 
in either of tliese characters ; so the lively hope df 
which we speuk, must flow from an experiflntnital 
knowledge of God, by Jesus Christ : *' This is^ter* 
ival life, that ihey may know Thee the €m\y true 
Cod, and Jestu Cluist whom ihou hast seat." fiut 
Hie children of this world, whether they be laymen 
or ecclesiastics, are without this kn6wledge« They 
know neither the Father» nor the Son ; and were it 
otherwise^ the love of the world would not hat^ do* 
minion over them. 

This lively hope can never dwell in an unrege^ 
nerate heart. The child, Ihat is not horny cannot 
possibly rejoice in hope of possessing the hcrU 
ta^e of his father ; since he is equally unacquainted 
with his parent, and the patriiMony, that is likely to 
be reserved for him. It is, therefore, ahsoUuely 
necessary to be born of God, before we can exercise 
this exhilarating hope. Now a man is thus born 
when he is regenerated by that spirit of adoption, 
which God hath promised to those, who sincerely 
believe in Jesus Christ. But they, who are coti- 
fo.rmablc lo the maxims of the world, are not able 
to receive this vivifying spirit. ** I will pray the 
Father,'* said Christ to his disciples, "and he shall 
give you anoihcr comforter, that he may abide with 
you for ever, even the spirit of truth, whom the 
Morld cannot rtci:Ive, because it scclh him not, nei- 
ther knowL'th him ; hi;i," being already regenerate 
in part, •'* ye know him lor hedwelleih with you, and 
hhcill be in you,'* when yoi.i are fully born of the 
Spirit. It is noi, till after the accomplishment of 
this promise has been experienced/timt the follow- 
iugexpresbions can be perfectly understood....'* Know 

'^HE FlMtTRAiT OF ST. VALt.. . 267 

ye not, that yo«r body is the temple of the Holy 
Ghdst ? now the Cod of hope fill you. with all joy 
and peac€ in believing, that ye may. yhouiid in hope, 
^j^ough tli« power of the Holy Ghosi/* 

• Far from preaching thia primitive hope, the 
Worldly miniRter is alarmed^i the bare mention of it. 
Let H here bc^ ol>3erved ugain, that this ccltbtiiil 
f^UitUean {lonri%h only in those hearts, \i liet c the word 
of God, s^harpep ihan awy two-edged sword, has cut 
d55%vn every unfruitful appearance of pharisaical 
hope. Now when a true minister is engaged in 
^^erfarming this painful operation, culling avay the 
Xiiortified men/iyers of the old man, and plucking 
from pride its unprofitable supports; the inexperi- 
tfHced minister preposteroui»ly takes offence at hi» 
holy zeal, and censures this necessary severity, a» 
Ifiading souls into horrors of dt^jiair. Slow of tu.der- 
Atanding in spiritual concerua, he comprehends not, 
tliat they who recline themselves upon a broken 
Tciidim-ust give up all the confidence they foolishly 
place in so blender a prop, before they can effectu- 
ally choose the Rock of ages for tlieir support. 

The true character of these false Apostles is 
not generally known. Covering tlieir impiety with 
the cloak of religion, they are supposed by many to 
act on the part of Christ, and are frequently esieeni- 
ed aspiUars in the churcli. liutihercare occasions, 
on which ihey unwittingly throw off the mabk, and 
make an open discovery of their secret thcughts. 
Some few persons are found in the world, v>no, re* 
fusing to attend card absembliei, rejoice to be pre- 
sent in thoie less polite assemblies* which are form- 
ed for the purpose of prayer. Here it is usual for 
consenting neighboui*s to lake sweet counsel together, 
and v/restle with ardour for the hope of the (ioiipci, 
in words like theae :.»..'' Gracious Father ! iorgive 
** the sins of thy returning children, and grant us 
**an increase of spiritual strength. Sensible .of our 
^' own unworihiness, assist us to place all our con- 


'^iidence id thine unbounded taercy^ maoifested 
** through Je«a9 Christ* Increase our fiuth in the 
*' Son of ihy love^ and confirm our hope in chine us- 
*^ changeable promises* ,0 thou divine Saviouf l 
^ descend this day into our hearts as thou didst oooe 
*' descend upon thy first disciples* Consecrate u»thf 
*^ Itvin)^ temples, filLus with thy ^aces, audi during 
*^ the time of our eartlUy pilgrimage, Touchsafe to 
'^ lead us nith the ri^t hand of thy power. Let not 
^ thy spirit of illumination and hoTmess, thy spirit of 
^ coniolaiion and joy, abandon us fi>r a moment, a^- 
*♦ wc pass through this valley of tears^ May its 
^'potent operations subdue in us the power of sin' 
«* and produce in our outward conversation the happy>^ 
^ fruits of righteousness, peace and joy. Permtt q^ 
*^at this time, to return to our houses, with a con^-- 
" sciousness of ihy love, and an assurance of thy fa^ 
** vour : and grant that, after having been the tern- 
•' pies of thy Spirit upon earth, we may one day be 
*' received into the temple of thine eternal g^ry in 
*♦ the Heavens." 

A worldly minister, on a certain time, entering 
into an assembly of this kind, heard the prayers of 
these humble believers ; and as much surprised to 
see the ardour with which they offered their peti- 
tions, as to observe the time and place in which they 
were presented, withdrew from their society, with 
as much indignation, as a good pastor would retire 
from a company of jugglers* But having under- 
stood that one of his own parishioners was of the 
religious party, he took the earliest opportunity of 
testifying the utmost disapprobation of his conduct. 
' What was it,' said he, 'that you was doing with those 
< people the other day, in such a place ? Conventicles 

* of that kind are contrary to order, and unworthy of 

* toleration. The Church is thtf only proper place 

• for the performance of divine worship : moreover, 

• I heard you foolishly praying for, I know not what 
•consolation, light, and. power, of the Holy Spirit. 


< Receive i|) good pa^t tUe ail vice I offer yoiu.>«, 
^ Look i^pon inspirations and iiiuminations of this soi*t) 
^ ns sio other ihan tiie idle ^cies of visionaries 'md 
^ ^Dthuaiaots : . renouiice - the imaginary assnraiice) 
f with wh'iah you. do but deceive yout^self, and repose 

< upon the hope- which. I have oenstaBliy pi^eafthed 40 
^ ^tm, ; & hopcy . widi. Tvhich ^you duul your neigliboiu'S' 
^AUayver^fWfiU riist e^nitcoted/ Con&>iuidftd''with a' 
discou£6e>of this, kind, a weak and inexperienoed' 
Qliristiaii. might have U^en^awa aside from the nai'- 

. row, path of trv^th. Eitt the ;person here alkided to; 
hyi cilifig £ph« i. 17^.19* was.enalded to. prove^ that 
t|^ .verf Jiame iiiuminalion and power, w^ich werb 
Ufeafeed so contemptuously by his opponent, we^-c nc* 
^Cthdeasab^okitelx necessary, as the ground-work of 
a solid hope. May, be pushed tiic matter still further ; 
aod asaected, that the pi'ayer, a,^uiikit which tlie. zeal- 
ous pastor had. so angrily e3&clairac*l, was. used in ex- 
act conformity to those very petitions, ^vhich he hiui- 
scilf waa incoQsistentlj beard to oiler at the feast of 
Pentecost, and at other soleinn seasons. 
. if this.Uule relation faithfuUy describes ihe man- 
ner of thinking, which is too common among the' 
clergy of th« day, is it not evident, Uiac they are 
more di^posed'to ridicule, than to. preachy the chm*: 
tian hope i and abundantly more eiaue^t to obstruct, 
than. assist their parishioners, in the. pursuit of evec- 
lasting blessedness I 

When the. d^wn of tliis glorious lu)i>e firat be- 
gan, ta glimmer : whej^, at the deiiCciU of the mount 
of Olives, the.>vhole company of the disciple.o be* 
ganto pi'iaise. God with a loud voice, strewing the- 
way by which l^eir Lord was to pass, with garments. . 
and branches of trees, and cryi^>g out before XV\\n, 
*' Uosanna to th^ Spji of David : blessed is he thac 
coineth in the nan>e of the Lord : Ho&auna in the, 
highest I". Some of the phari^ees, who had mixed, 
among the muUittide, rudely exclaimed ; " Mastery 
rebuke tl^y disciple^/' And when he was eaiered 
z 2 

t70 TH« FORTmAiT OT'ST* FAUli. 

into Ike teiiif»le, the chief pflestft and 8cr%e9^ 
[these models by whidi tlie generalHy of ministrr& 
9€enk mRKious to form themtetres] seeing ^ fbe 
woDderfuA chisigB that he did/ ftnd the children cry- 
in^ Uosannaf were sore displeased^ and said unior 
him« hcarest thev what these say i^' And Jeans aiv^. 
swered them, *' Yea-; have ye never Tead, odt •€ 
the month oC babes and sntklin^thoit hast ^rfeited 
pi-aise ? 1 tell you^ that if these shoaM< hoM their 
peftce^ ihe stones troiild immediately^ cry oot.^^ 
There still exists the same oippositton betwixt tfeose^ 
who conlially embrace the Gospel> andtbiise^ who' 
>ingratefiilly reject it. As often as the forsner ar^ 
perceived to g^tve a loose to the transports of thetr 
gratitude, rejoicing in hope of the gktry of God) the- 
worldly minister^ displeased to ohser^'e any thin^' 
That appears to reproach his own luke^'aimnessy is; 
prepared to counteract the motions of that joyfut 
hope, which he deems no better than the confidence 
«)f presumptuous fanatics* But the minister, who 
imitates St« Paul, on observing such a scene, will 
€i-y out with that great Apostle : " Now the God of 
hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, 
that ye may abound in hope through the power of 
the Holy Ghost." 

If penitents are not pointed to the blessedness of 
tliis hope, they will strive like Cain, to stifle their, 
remorse, by passionately abandoning themselves ta 
the buMnessand enjoyments of the present world i 
or, like the Israelites, who found not sufficient plea« 
sure in religion to banish the recollection of Egypt ^s 
Vanities, ihcy will iiidulge that spirit of triBing which 
the Apostle ahus describes*«««^^ The people sat down 
to eat and to drink, and rose up to play*" On the 
contrary, when the christian is directed to the hope 
of his high calling, he finds it a source of unuttera- 
ble con3olatiop x and having discovered the treasure 
hidden in the Gospel field, '*^ for joy thereof he bei'^ 
Iclh his all,*' in order to purchase that field. He 


tg»vr rcnotinceS) without patn, what b^l^fe bad hln* 
dered.him in nmning t^ beavenlf race, counting; 
noching^ear lo hixii$elf,lhai he may finnsh hiscour&r 
w'uh jof, ahd tiisute: thl: cromtLoi ^vcrlasiting> Hfc*- 
So powierSullyi wKire the^rst christiaBs supporti^d foy 
this: GosfSiei hope) that they cemamed immoTcahle 
an&idsi'the s«re»t calatnities of iife, and suffereYk 
deatkltsejif jvHb a ccmrage tjkat astonished their per- 
seiattora* i £ki>t vrheii they lost thdr pOhfidence, like 
Demas, they befsa to indulge the fond hopes and 
fpolisfi feavs of the pieseni worlds becoming akoge- 
ther weak a$ other men : and such are thegenera<*' 
lUy of chmttatys at this day. The love of inany is 
Draxing coidy ithile» the church of God is eWdently. 
falling. arito ruins : atiid how shall we assist to rtkin« 
dje {that- love^ repair that church, but by zealously 
proclflifliying abjroad the ^^ hope of the Gospel.". 


IF the evangelical pastor proclaims repent- 
ance, faith, and hope, it is with a yiew of leading 
sinners to that christiafi charity, which is justly es- 
ttempedthe crown of every grace* In preaching re» 
pentance, he lays the axe to the root of every cor- 
rupt tfee. In preaching faith, he plants the tree of 
life* When he preaches hope, he causes that tree 
to put forth a beautiful blossom : but when he 
pt^eaches charity, he calls forth the rich fruit from 
eVery vigorous branch* And while he* is engaged 
in jjerforming the various parts of this important 
work^ he denounces the anatheruas of the Gospel 
against that repentance, faith, and hope^ which are 
sttpericial, unfruitful j and delusive* 


The ministes of the day piques himself upon, 
preaching moralu?, which he is ordiaarily accus- 
tomed to do» in the manner of sa\ Heaihe^ ^hUos-. 
plier. Unacquainted wii|i the importance and pow^r. 
of the doctrines of Christianity, h^ is i^^ha^tn.ed to 
walk in the traces of St. Paul- tf h.^ ii ei\a,bl<?d ,to ! 
paint with any degree of ability* the Bergenia of eji-' 
vy, the inquietudes of avarice^ and tlie. ^elighU.ot 
charily, he iipagpies. ti)ftf . he sha\l r^ariily^dispo'ac, 
his neighbours to Joyc a? b^eiliren. .H/e^knpw*^ 
not, that *' thp 1$i\y of the spirit pf life ix) ^t^hris^ J[e-r'. 
8Us" is that aloiie^ which cap n^^ke any n\^.z), 5' ft-^g^ 
from the Jaw of j^in an^ deatji,'* by deliveri^ig^ ii'ih^,. 
from that tnvy, tiat avaficej tj^at ambjiiioni, tl>at Jjh-; . 
4iQ'crfcnce9 and ihp^ worldly f^a^'SjAxbich ..arp .|o- . 
compatible with evangelical cjbarity., '^WhaitJ^c, 
law could not dO| ip that it wa^ we^k through Xhp^ 
flesh, [i' c] our degenerate nature,*' which ims peed 
of stronger motives and more powerful support^.th^ ^ 
those which the law proposcfl,^' God sending Kia 
own Sou in the likeness of sinful Besh» and for sm>, 
condemned sin in the flesh ; that*' by the new roo- , 
tives and the divine assistance offered in the Gospel^.' 
«* the righteousness of the law might be ful5Ued ia 
us, whp," being regenerj^e, " walk not after the. 
flesh, but afier the, spirit." 

The judicious pastor, observing the same, con- 
nection between tlie morals and. doctrines of chriSf 
lianity, as between the root and fruit of. a vigprous 
tree, is constrained incessantly to preach those im* 
portant truths, which naturally give rise to the tlirec 
above-mentioned graces; and he is perfectly ass»4r- 
cd, that wherever these truths are permitted to takeij 
root, he, shall shor'ly rejpice over the inesUmaMc . 
fruits of christian charity. This ;node of acting J^, 
equally conformable to reason and revelation.. By/ 
publishing those doctrinesy upon which the neces- 
sity of repentance is founded^ he exterminates pride . 


and ihardinate self.l6ve, which Site the greatest obsta- ' 
cles to charity. By preaching the doctrines o^ fatth, 
he gives rise to that Universal love, which extends 
to God and tnan. Thus when a sinner sincerely be- 
lieves, tbat God Is love : when pencftrat^xl with ad* 
miration and gratitude, he can say with the Apostle> 
*' I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me 
ahd gave himself for me :" at that moment, he ne- 
cessarily feels a degree of affection towards the credit- 
ing Father, and the redeeming Son, Whom he longs 
to imitate, and whom he rejoices to obey- This love 
is as boundless as it is ardent, and reaches to the 
most unworthy of his fellpw creatures, enabling hirti, 
according to the example of Christ, to sacrifice for 
his' veiy enemies, not only outward comforts, but 
e\1en. liTe Ttself. Hence the christian faith is Said to 
work by love. Now if this lively persuasion of the 
unspeakable blessings, which God hatli already gi- 
ven us in Christ Jesus, is sufficient lo produce a 
good degree of charity ; it is evident, that a well- 
grounded hope of greater blessings still .to come, 
must serve to strengthen and increase this charity. 
And if we are fully persuaded, that our labours of 
love shall never be forgotten ; that even a cup of 
cold water, impai'ted for the love of Christ, shall not 
go um-ewavded ; what influence may not such an 
hope be expected to have, in opening the heart to 
universal benevolence, and in producing all the fruits 
of evangelical charity r 

Convinced, that to plead for charity', without in^ 
sisting upon the doctrines, by which it must be sup- 
potted, would be building a house wiihout laying a 
solid foimdation, the true ministtr industriously la- 
bours to explain the nature, to exhibit the motives, 
and represent the elVects of this wondrous grace, in 
the clearest manner. To some* indeed, such dis- 
courses are vain ; but others among his hearers are 
found, who, ravished with the loveliness of this vir* 
ture, and constrained by those motives which the 


Gospel proposes, betake themselves to the exertise, 
of it, Willi as much ardour, as the Yoluptuou5 run lo 
their sensual entertainments. 

Darkness diSers not more from light, thaa the 
charily of tlie faithful ministers differs from that of 
a scribe ill instructed in the mysteriesof the king^ 
dom. The love of ihe good pastor " rejatceth.npt' 
in iniquiiy, but rejoiceth in the truth," whtdi fre*- 
quently comes to bumble human pride. On the 
contrary, the charity which evtry false . Aposile 
preaches, is no more than the phantom of u v\r^ 
tue, consoling the heart in tlie midst of sin^rej^^ict^' 
ing in fi lie, and resttx^ upon assurances alloge- 
tlier contrary lo the word of God* To be charica* 
ble, according to the notions of these men^ is. to in- 
dulge a persuasion, that there is much to be abated' 
of the threatenings contained in the Gospel,. and \hat 
JSt. Paul is far beside the truth, when he tleciares, 
that '' no unclean or covetous person hath any in- 
heritance in the kingdom of Christ." It is ta be-« 
lieve, that the Holy Spirit was too severe, when it 
dictated to St. James, that " he who is a friend of the 
world, is the enemy of God," and violates his baptis- 
mal vow in as full a sense, as adulterers violate the 
£acred vow of conjugal fidelity. It is to insinuate, 
that Christ himself overpassed the bounds of reason^ 
when he publicly cried out, " Whosoever shall say 
to his brother, thou fool, shall be in danger of Hell- 
fire. Judge not," saith the Redeemer, ** that ye be 
noi judged.'* hut, according to the sentiments oi 
ihcbe erring giiities, to be divinely charitable, is to 
conclude from this precept, that a man may even 
revoke the judgments of Christ himself : thus, un* 
der pretext of not judging those, who are e vide nilyw 
walking in the road to perdiiion,they indirectly give 
judgment against the Redeemer, as beiiring a false 
testimony. In errors like these it is, that ihe >vorld 
will needs have the greatest part of charity to con- 


^ The tnic ministep attacks this false grace, as an 
trneroy lo the truths of the Gospel, while he pleads 
for that Christ-like charitjv wliich may properly be 
called the sister of truth. He asserts the dignity 
and poAvep of truth. ; holding it up to the veneration 
afidl6y«> of those,, who would not wilfully offend the 
God of ti!oth* Let us, Continues he, " speaking the 
truth in love, grow op into him in all things, which 
i« the head, even Christ :*' and having first " puri- 
fied mii^ souls in oljeying the truth, let us love one 
another with a pure heart fervently." Between 
these scriptural cotopanions he will suffer no sepa- 
rQ,iioa to take place ; and when they are t^-eatcd by 
the injudicious, as enthusiastic and heretical, he 
will dare to stand forth in defence of these two con- 
fuderaxe Yi Flues. 

Ahothei* opinion, that generally prevails among 
the professors of Christianity, is, thdt chai ity con* 
feifets in giving alms to the poor ! and this opinion is 
earnestly contended for by many, although the pha- 
, risees, who were regarded by oiir Lord, as serpents 
. and vipers, through their want Qf un/eigned charity, 
were yet remarkable for their generosity in alms- 
giving. St. Paul manifestly opposes this erroneous 
notion, where he declares, that it is possible for a 
man to ''give all his goods to feed the poor, and yet 
be destitute of charity. The faithful pastoi% it is 
true, maintains, that every charitable person is con- 
strained to assist the poor, according to his ability : 
l)iit he acids, that alms giving is as uncertain a mark 
of charily, as a constant attendance upon the sacra- 
menial table^ is an equivocal evidence of faith : since 
it is as possible to relieve the poor through weakness 
or vanity, as to receive the Jioly communion through 
timidity or custom. 

If the charity of worldly men is ever found to 
exceed this disCiipiion, y^t it will always be Iimilcd 
to the necessities of ^thc body.. As they know not, 
how far the immortal spirit is suj;erior to the perish- 


fng body,, which must soon be blended with' tfic 
dust oT a thousand carcases, it is no Vonder, thit 
tkeir chief concern is engrossed by the latter- The 
velfare of their own souls is aitelided t6 with areiy 
small degree of solicitude ; and while this i^ tfre 
case, it cannot be imagined, that ihey should tnani- 
.fest any extraordinary degree of affection towards 
the souls of their neighbours. They behold withbtit 
sorrow iho^e deluded partizans, who make war upon 
each other for the sake of their particular ei'rorsx 
thev can even gaze, without pity on those obdurate 
souls, who are desperately plunging from 6ne abyss 
of sia to another. Hpw different were the feelings 
of David, when, like a true penitent, he ' not only 
wept for his own offences, but shed torrents of tears 
for those, who transgressed the law of God. And 
how contrary was the character of St. Paul, who went 
through akind of spiritual travail, till the degenerate 
were born again. In like manner the primitive 
christians exposed themselves to imminent dangers, 
that they might give proofs of the .most exalted cha- 
rity, by snatching souls from sin and death. And 
when they were not ahle to effect lliis by their exter- 
nal labours, they ihcn wrestled in their closets, 
with sacred prayers and tears, for the conversion of 
the ungodly • Where there is no desire after the 
salvaiiun of others, there true charity is unknown : 
for while a man disregards the soul of his neigli- 
bour^all the interest he lakes in his temporal affairs, 
can manifest no more ilian the charily, of a disciple 
of Epicurus, which is. as far below the charity of 
Christ's ^isciples, as materialism is inferior to Chris- 

In opposition to all the false ideas, which have been 
received upon this subject, the minister of the nev/ 
Testanicnt teaches, that cliarity is the image of God : 
and that " eternal and infinite charity," is notbiuj^; less 
tlian God himself. Que Apostle dcdares that God is 
love ; and another assures ais, thut we are called to be- 


naade " partakers of the divine nature :'* whence the 
' sacre4 preacher infers, that the new creature, of which 

St» Paul makes mentioi^, jnu^t necessarily consist m 
charity* When a christian is filled with charity, he 
is. then regenerate and bom of God. Christ is then 
foctued in his heart, the Holy Spirit ^^sts upon him, 
.atid he^s 'VfiUed with all the fuhiess of God.'* He keeps 
.the. first commandrakeht of iiiG. law, by making a full 
surrender of his heart to God, from a consciousness 
that he is in himself the sovereign good : but he chiefly 
loves him in the person of Christ, through whom the 
Fatlier is pleased peculiarly to shine forth, as a God 
of love^ In a secondary seifte, he loves the works of 
God In all their wonderful variety, as they shadow forth 
. his matchless perfections, and place them within the 
^ reach of man*8 understanding. And his esteem for 
his admirable productions, is in proportion to the nearer 
or more distant relation, in which they stand to that 
eternal wisdom, which formed them all. Guided by 
this principle, he loves all mankind with an extraordi- 
nary degree of affection. ' The soul of man is peculi- 
*. arly dear to him, because created in the image of God, 

f* and redeemed with the blood of his beloved Son : 

while as the organized vehicle of the soul, he ad- 
mires and loves the perishable body. As the souls 
^ of the poor and the rich are equally immortal, he is 

f never meanly prejudiced in favour of the latter ; but, 

[ on the contrary, is ever ready to prefer a poor and pi- 

^ ous btggar, before a sensual and supercilious noble. 

I Thus the true christian cherishes the faithful, not 

\. only for the love of the Creator, and Redeemer, but; 

I also for love of the sanctifying Spirit, unto whom 

their souls are consecrated as living altars, and their 
bodies as hallowed temples. From this divine cha- 
k rity, good works of every kind proceed, as frcm an 

inexhaustible fountain : a fountain which is making, 
as it were, continual efforts to enrich the barren 
soil around it. But where this is wanting, all exter- 
nal appearances are without any real value : the la- 
A a 


vish giver loses his worth before pious men, find tjiif 
zealous martyr his reward before a righteous feod. 

Unliinj^ in his own heart the love of God^ with 
the love of his neighbour, the true minister anxipusr 
\y endeavours to demonstrate the fojly of thosej jvha 
seek to separate these important duties../.' We: ro£M.i>- 
lains, that charity without piety, is but ^ mere, natu- 
ral virtue, which discovers itself as frequentljf in tli^ 
brule creation, as among iinreeenerate. zpen^ ,T^^ 
swallow and ihe bat are careful of their yofing,,V» 
The beaver and the ant are observed to, Jaboiir fdi^ 
the respective societies of which Jheyare indiyidttir 
als, and the she-bear is ready to meet desith jii d^- 
ftince of her cubs. On this account, the gooi'pasT 
tor furnishes his flock with those exalted inotives to 
christian love, which, by giving a divine princfple tQ 
natural cl^aritj', ennobles it in man, an^J renders ijt 

As charity, without piety, is no more tha!n a na- 
tural virtue, and may be the effect of Pharisaical or 
diabolical pride, so devptjon, without brotherly lovc^ 
is to be considered as a species of hypocrisy, as our 
Lord himself teaches in the fbllpwing passage. " If 
thou bring thy gift to the altar, and there remembcr- 
cst that thy brother hath ought against thee ; leave 
there thy gift, before the altar, and go thy way ; 
first be recoacil^d to thy brother, and then come 
and offer ihy gift," which would other>ylse be re- 
jected, as an abomination by the God of love. Triif 
charily embraces all men, because being made oJT 
'one blood, they compose but one v^st faniHy^ of 
which God himself is the great parent. And here 
our Lord permits us not to except even pur most cruel 
enemy. '* Ye have he^rd," saith he, ^* ^h-at it hatb 
been said, thou shalt love thy neighbour and haip 
thii'.e entmy ; but I say unto you. love your en^« 
I'r/ies* bless ihem, that ciirse you, .do good to them 
•»»ar hate you, and,'* manifesting a concern for their 
pouls, as well as an atleniion to their perso'na, '* pi-^j^ 


For them that despltefully use ybu^ and' persecute 
you ; that ye tnay be the children of your Father, 
which IS in Heaven ; for he makeVh his aun to. rise 
on the evil and on the good." 

"Charity consists of two parts, patience and bene- 
volence. By the one, we buffer every kind of indig* 
hity, wiihbut entertathing' a thought of revenge.; and 
by tne otheiswe heap upon our enemies unsolicited 
favours! (Jur adorable Master, whose conduct has 
furni'shed^us with examples of the most peifecicha* 
rUy/ discovers to us the extent of this virtue, in the 
Ibllowio^ passaged. The world hath " hated both 
me sUid tny Father ;'* nevertheless, " God so loved 
the world, that he gave hi^ only l)e gotten Son, that 
whoso'ever believeth in him should not perish, but 
have iiverl«sling life. It bath been said an eye for an 
eye, an<l a tooth for a tooth ;" and the time is ccm- 
ing, when it shall be said, a thurst with a sword for 
Stn abusive ^vord ; a pistol shot for a satyrical ex- 
pression ; "but I say unto, you, resist not," accord- 
ing ta th^ maxims of those, by whom you are evil- 
intreated ; "but whosoever shall smite thee on ihy 
right cheek, torn to him the other also :" i. e. snf- 
fer two insults rather than revenge one. Follow the 
sarne rule likewise with respect to their world . 
ly substance, " and if any man will sue thee at tlie 
law, and iak€ away thy coal, let him have thy clot k 
also;" a. e. far from exacting viih rigtui, le 
ready to remit much of thy right, for the mainte- 
nance of peace ; s^ince it is belter to suffer a double 
injustice, ihan to lack condescension and charity. 
And whosoever shall compel thee to go a mile, go 
Vith hini twain;" i. e. pierely yielding lo oihers in 
things, that are good, or indifferent, is not enough ; ^ 
thy charity should rather prevent and surprize thtiu * 
with unexpected acts of civility and 
From these expressions it appears, ihal our Lord 
would have his disciples to possess a charity not on- 
ly extraordinary in some degree, but aliogeiher di- 


Vine. In point of <|u&)ii^9 lie Pequlrea, tbat k tbonUi 
foe eqiia) to the ii[iexpt*e»»ib}« lore of thef Faither; «& 
a droptakei^ from the ocean is. of tbe samencifttire 
^vith those migVity waveS) that Yi^l over th^ «»i&^ 
f homab^e defirp. **Uyt love chem/' 6&ixh' he, **il»at 
loTc yoUf what reward have you ? do iiidt evjen:t^t 
imbli^tos' so ? Be ye, thereforse^ perfect**' imcli^ity, 
^♦evfch a^yoor Father, whicli \% in Heaven i4perfl:te&v 

Faith, unspeakably cnc^eUenc as it is^ ixsaUld te 
void of any rcfai worth, unless it produced' thiabapiyy 
disposition. « In ChrUf,?* sattfe the; Apostkr, ¥ itA 
whole body" of the faithful, " fitly jomed: together, 
and compacted by that whieh every joint stupplie^ 
a<:cordtng to the efifeetnal working in th<^ Aneasur^ 
«>f every part, maketh rncreaseof tiie body, untfy tke 
edifying of itself it) i&ve* In Jesus Christ naifirlicr 
circumcision evaileth any thing, nor imci^on-mci^ 
»1on ; but faith) which worketh by love: andthdugh 
I have all faith, so that I could remove mountaiiMi, 
and have not charit^^ I am nothing. ** Thiso^le:^ 
tial grace runs through the whole circle of trhrtstiali 
virtues. Thus when St. Paul enunoeratesthe fruits 
or effects of the Spirit, he points to chartiy a^ the 
foremost of the train : and when St. Peter recounts 
the virtues which a christian should add to his faith, 
he concludes with the finishing graces of ^^ brotherly 
kindness and charity." Both these ideas are afteiv 
wards united by the great Apostle, where he exhorts 
the Colossians ^' to put on charity'^ as ^ that bond 
of perfectness," without which the christifiin cha- 
racter would be incomplete, and which may be said 
to include ail the graces of the Spirit, as a thousand 
ears of com are united in the same sheaf by onb 
common band. 

It was With these sublime views of charity, tisat 
St. Paul thus addressed his converts. ** By love 
serve one another ; for aU the law is ftdfilled in one 
word, even in this ; Thou shalt kyve thy neighbour 
as thyself* Owe no man any thing, but to ove one 


another, for he that loveth another," in obedience to 
C hrm'a commandt ^^ hath fal&lled th& law. Charity 
never, faildtb ;'' inasmucli as it. U Ihe^source of bear 
yenix joF« '' Now, in tb9 chunQh militsiAti \^ abidetjh 
foitb) it(4>ejaod charity. 4 but Ahre ^^reatjisst of ^he^e U 
cAift'/^i'^which s)iftU..etii^roaU)^^Bima(^« .^chj^rcb 
iriuuispbafiti . • 

« £Ven Jiem m e|irth»/itUcQun^d |ls the beginning 
t)JE eterafd life, to.kQO^i t>y. fistitjb* Vbsit.God is J^ye^ 
mid thai he seeks to gain our ^ffeqtion&b/l^l^^iugs 
?iiruhout.Dtt2iiber« A discoyery of t^iis k,ind Q^nnoi 
tkut "gvvje ris^' to so^Qi« grateful return in. tl^e »a,ul ; 
Vinoeit i^impoaciible firmly to beiliev^ th^se ravUh- 
ingitJi^lJas^ without crying out) likje the &r:fct cbris- 
ltaa%'!^^ Wb 16ve him). because he first loved us." 
XI God hftt^ dieroifuiiy i»ade the first advances to- 
ward his rebellious creatures ; if, notwithstanding 
the distance betw^f^n him and us be infinite, and the 
.obstacles to our union inniimerable, he yet graciou;^- 
ly presents himself in spite of all ; if he yetinclint;s 
to poirdon the guilty, and endeavours to reconcile 
the world unto hisiself by Jesus Christ ^ what con- 
scious heart can be unaffected with these tokens of 
his lovcy or what tongue be silent in his praise I 

This God of charity thus affectionately addresses 
«tn ancient class of his servants y ^^ I have loved thee 
with an everlasting love; therefore, with loving kind- 
ness have I drawn thee." The favour which he here 
expresses towaixl the Jewish church) is great ; but 
that, which he testi&es to the christian church, is still 
more astonishing* . lUs Son, the living and eternal 
image of his Father). humbles himself to the dust, 
. and invests himself with our narture, that raising us 
iirom our low estate, he may^ at length, place us £.t 
the right hand of tlie Majesty on high. '' He loved 
ithe church,*' sailh St, JPaul> " and, gave himself for 
'it, that he might sanctify and cleanse it, and that he 
maight present it to hiuisi^U, a glorious cUua:cb, not 
shaving' spot or wrinkle or uny such thing**' Thus 

2»:f TBX rORTKAlT OW ST. YiUTL. * 

he has j^i^cn to belicTcn aoi example of the' fortf/ 
^r.ich ihej Qu^^ht to entertaio for &U ibeir cbti^Uan^ 
bic'hrcn, mud to husbands a pattem of the attach**' 
mtnt they shoold feel to their wives ; stace be lefb 
the boMm of his Father, for the very pmrpose of 
suETcring with, aad for his church, which to tJie laa^ 
gua^e of scripture is called his spoose.' - But^ 
adds the Apostle, **ihis is a great mjFSte>t.*' Noor 
the true inifM«ter is happily initiated into this gn^ 
SBystery of charity* He can say, %»ith Peter^ *^ Locd^ 
thou knowest all things, thou kBOwest that 1 iove 
ihec:" he can testify, with Paul, *^ the k>v^ of Chi^^t 
const ralneth me : and, at other times, when the emniH 
tions uf his heart are too tender for utterance, tears of 
ipraii . ude and joy , silently cry out> like those of dissohr'- 
iti^ Mary, Lord ihoa art worthy of all my love, since 
ihou hast graciously pardoned all my sin» Animaiteti 
with this love, he publicly insists upon universal chari^ 
tr,wiih 'c\\ the ardour of St* Johni testifying that it 
lows from the knowledge of God, and must be consi*> 
dcf ed as the rooi of chri:>ti an obedience. '• Hereby ,** 
saiih he, •' perceive we the love of Cod, because be 
laiii dcwn his lif;: for us: and ve ought to lay down 
•ur livci for ihc brethren. My little children, let 
us not love in word, ceither in lor.guc ;'but,** ac- 
cortling to t!.e example of Christ, *>^ in deed and in 
lr»::h :" ior, '* if Cod so loved us, we ougiit also to 
lo\oone another." And remember, '• he that loveth 
not, kncweth not God, for God is love," 

Aliiicui^h Claist evidently came to break do^Hi 
Ihe wall of separation betmecn the Jews and Gen- 
tiles, by preaching the doctrine of universal charily ; 
yet ht; willed, that believers should love one another 
wiih a ptcuiiar degree cf affection. We ai*c required 
to meet the iiurei^enerate with a love of benevo- 
lence r but believers should be bound to each o<h^r 
by ties so tender and powerful, that the woUd may 
acknowledge them to be men of one begirt and one 
tM>ul. ^ J3y this/' :>aith our Lordi ^< ihaU all men 


rut l^totJbAlt Oi %T..TAVti. $SS 

know that ye afe my disciples, if ye bave toveone t^ 

another;" And who can dc^ribe ihe j^fcijeiT;siity^ 

thb js.vrietdes&, the'»trtngth,.and thic ccnsiancy^ of 

thU etiliveuiDg ^riuiJt I Ibis more acvlve thi^u tbtf 

I^eneirQtijkf flanve ;>.lt is istixwigctf than llca^h^ ** Tlib 

ccniln^'nbn' iof .'l^enci^S)'!. ik. re.GiLiv^d. amph^' Y:hr^^ 

a&/^ setaeooe io their est&hii&hcifir :crje£dit> bft]»pyt 

WQtHd )ti9e«jdid it conjstiiute a:))ai'toi:ibqVir ndi^^ous 

tefierienieeJ A's to the di^^y^t^ost bkA^'\%t'chhi\^ixti 

^barifyvandliiat ivhi^h was required uhder the lixwi 

it ' iB}ediT]& to' bft .satisfaclDriiy poit^ied fmt by St« 

Jdhrt,ih theioiktwing {^as^iagc v^^ Brethren I writtl 

no i)ew command ment mHo yoa^ but an old torn* 

Inaisditieiit,* which ye had from, the beginning :*' fof 

Mo8e&;h»ni&eif earnestly exhorted his people to 

fDaioUin ^niang.themfe'elves the lire of fraternal tore*' 

^* AgaiHf a new covenant! write unto you :" new, 

in Illation to Christ, who hath loved us not only 

as himself, but even more than himself; since he 

ofic»ied tip his life a ransomc for the rebellious. 

\Moses lasted not of death for Pharoah, as Jesus did 

for Pilate, Heiod, and Caiaphas. The christian le^ 

gislator alone requires a charity of this perfectly dis- 

iilierested nature ; and for the support of so exalted 

a^jiccept, he has seconded it with his own great ex« 

ample. "Herein is love," continues the Apostle, 

not that we lovtd Cod. but that he loved us, and sent 

his Son to be the piopitiation f©r our sins* Love/* 

then, is undoubtedly of Cod j" flowing from him, 

,«?.s liom an inexhaustable spring ;" and he that 

Jo Vet h, after iLe sanje pure and fervent manner, ^* is 

born.of God, and knoweth Cod." . 

) '1 his charity is set foiih by St. Paul, as a source' 

of couwxlalioii. " If," fearth be to the Philippians, 

" th«re be any cotnfort in lovt^ be >e like-minded, 

, having the same love" one to another: and, ^ let this 

/TOJfud be in you, which was also in Chris^ Jebua**' 

And in another epistle, he cries out; ^ I have a 

• gireal cOnfiict for them at Laocticea>that their iiearta 

might be comfoited, teiug knit together in lovt**[ 


]« Charity may be considered as a spring of 
comfort, because it frees Us from the fear of ^ithf 
and delivers us from a thousand, otlier terrorsrwhtch 
trouble the peace of worldly men. « Thfepe ift nn 
f^ar'in hve ; but perfect ioi^e^ hoping all'thii^g^ oast^ 
eth out feacl.fcecause fear hath" tbrment.t4i<^tHcpr< 
fore, that fc'artih, is not made pcHectih t^vtl^** Is- i 

2, Charity is consolfrig, becaufse 4t'a%fthtSi'anf4 
encourages us in' the discharge of ofir ^V^raNlutles# 
When we glow with affection to Ootf andouriieigii# 
hour, works of piety and charity are perlbiltif^d^ iioc 
only without pain, but with hekrt-feri Sensatibn^i^^bf 
secret cklighu " This is the love of (iod chit^^c 
keep his commandments: and to tho^e- ^ho'<si»^ 
cerely love him, his commandments are not ^mV^k 
ous/* Thus a tender mother, tose« her -re^osei 
without repining, that she may attend to the -wailtt 
of her restless infant : thus an affeciionate fdXh^t 
labours with pleasure, for the support and educ;atio4 
of his children ; and thus, with erery testimony of 
joy, the primitive christians relieved and supported ' 
one another. The admirable effects produced by 
this unfeigned love, are described by St* Luke *n the 
following terms: '* The multitude of them that be- 
lieved, v^ere of one heart and one soul ; neither said 
any of them, that aught of the things which he pos- 
sessed, was his own t but losing sight of every self- 
interested view, they had all things common. 

Here we behold that, eminently accomplished by 
Christ, which was anciently prefigured under Moses 
in the desert, when the manna was so equally distri- 
buted amoqg the people that ** he who gathered 
much, had nothing over, and he who gathered little^ 
had no lack.** Happy were these fleeting days of 
christian fellowship I Days that bad long been pro- 
mised by God, and of which a foretaste had been 
given in the land of<3anaan, when it was ordained 
that during the year of Jubilee, the poor should be 
permitted to share the comforts of thelrrichcrnelgh- 



' t - - 

botirsb It muftt be allowed that a maltitude of in- 
«ii»ee/re profi^s&ors overspreading the church, iti 
these melanclioly times^ will not permit this method 
to bo geiMraUsr. adopted amonfr us which Would, ne* 
v^rihetes, be eniircly; pr?icticable in a country In- 
habiterd by the afTectionate followers of Jesus* But^ 
nt the $aii>e tixpe* it is no less true, that every in- 
dmdaal, .wh9 is possessed of real charity, is still 
tf^ading dn the »teps of his elder brethren, and 
waiting only the return of favourable times to prove,* 
that *« Jesus Cbmt is tlw; same yesterday, to-day, 
and far ever;" and that unfeigned charity, in the 
aaiiie^ cirouxafttanoes,. will ever produce the same 

It is impossible too highly to exalt tbis: charity, 
jwjhioh springs from a grateful sense of the redemp- 
tion that is iu Jesus* He, who is unacquainted with 
this grace, is a stranger to every real virtue, and ut« 
terly destitute of that " iioliness without which no 

'yoMi shall seethe Lord." Hence we find the Apositle 
Paul so frequently connecting " holiness'* with 
'Move ;" or rather pressing the lattery asthatin which 
the former may be said principally to consist* God, 
saith he, ^^.hath chosen us in Christ, that we should 
be holy and without blamt: before him in love, Ltrt 
Christ dwell in your hearts by faith ; that ye being 
rooted and grounded in iove^ may be able to compre- 
,liend with all saints, what is the breadth, and length, 

oand depth, and height; and to know the love of Christ 
which passeth knowledge, that ye might be filled 
.will» all the fulness of God* The Lord make you to 

. increase and ajbound in love one toward another, and 

f toward all men : to the end that he may establibh 
y'Our hearts unblameable in holiness before God." 

Knowledge alone "puffeth up," but charity, added 
to knowledge, edifieth and conducts the soul, from 

..grace^to grace, *^ unto the n^easure of the stature of 
the fu).i^ss. of Christ*'^ Happy they, wlio have at* 
tatned to this high degree of spirituality , from wliicb^ 

d8< TBB PO&TBAIT •r BT«^Al7f.v 

with a kiok of pure bcBcfirieDcc tbey <:aR smlie t)it 
aii around them 1 Such naT joia the tint professors of 
chrisuanitf , ainl sajF ; ** We hare known and belteved 
the loTe, that God bath to us t*' mnd^ penetrated witft 
a dttep sense of his aftsciioo, we declak^ from hap pf 
cxperkeace, thai ** God-is hvr ; and he that dwetietfi 
in liyvey dwcUeth in God^ aad God in him.** Thsf 
love of these pciserering disciples may^ in a scrip- 
tural seose> be tenmed p^riect ; since it enables tbem 
to bear a just, though faint resemblance to the Godf 
«f love. Their hearts are as replete with charity ,^- 
as sparks are Eiled with fire : and doubtless the smal^. 
lest spark may be said to shine, with a degree of per^ 
feclioKS in its little sphere, as well as the brighten 
sun ia his more boundless course. 

St. Paul» who preached this charity with so much 
fenrency, declares, that it was kindled in his heart 
by the lore of Christ ; and upon this account he 
labours to found it upon those doctrines, vrhtck 
are universally despised by every class of .deists* ^ 

In his epi&ile to the Romans, which contains six- j 

teen chapter^, he employs eleven in laying this so- 
lid fottiMiaiion, while the duties of charity are de- ] 
clared only in the five remaining chapters. Like a 
wise master-builder, before he attempts to raise this 
sacred edifice, he endeavours to remove out of the j 
way the ruins of corrupted nature, and the rubbish of 
self-love* But had he endeavoured to do this, with- j 
out calling in to his aid the doctrines of the Gospel« 
he would have acted as ridiculously as Archimedes, 
had that philosopher attempted the removal of eanh, 
. without having first secured a solid footing suited to. 
his purpose. 

The most powerful naotives employed by this 
Apostle, in urging us to the practice of christian 
chanty, are the Iwe of God, and the compassion of 
Christ. God, saith he, <^ commendelh his love 
toward us, in that while we were yet sinnerstChriiit 
died for «is : and^ ye know the grace of our Lord Je^ 


sus Qi^iistyAiat ttougk be wai rith, yet*foryoursaltes 
he became pomv that ye, through his porerty, tnigbt 
he rich*'* Now, whoever is sensible of the power, and 
taates the sweetness of these two grand ti^tithft, feels 
jivm&eJf, at the same time, cairied to "every good 
^vork^ in the satn^. manner. as the linker is led to 
t(iofe acti<n>p, wf^ich >erve. to increa&er his hoard* 
For^ " being saved by grace, throegh fairthj*' in these 
yery truth?, "' we are created by ChTist Jesus unto 
good work9* Who gave himself for ui,'^ on thw 
sole' aGc,oun^ ^^ that he might redeem tis from all 
ija j^V^ity^ and purify unto himself a pecul'mr people, 
s&ealousjQ^ gcpod works." 

The cQjisoljktory doctrine of a gratuitous pardon 
offered to sinners, a token of God's unfathomable 
love, is another -motive frequently made use of to the 
fike purpose. , <^ Put on,'- continues the same Apos- 
tles, " as the elect of God, bowels of mercies, kind- 
ness^ humbleness of mind, meekness^ long-suffer- 
ing ; ibrbear^ng on^ another, and forgiving one an* 
other, if any man have a quarrel against any ; even 
as Christ forgave you, so ako do ye. Above all 
things have fervent ^^barity among yourselves : for 
- chaiity shall cover tfee multitude of sins." Yes, it 
not only covers the ^iiis of others, by considering 
their doubtful actions in the ra^ost fovourable point 
of view, and by overlooking the mosi unpardonable 
of their fUilings^ ; but may in somte meaaiire^ be said 
to cover their own oflences, sihcc God, for Christ's 
■ sake, has promised to overlook our transgressions 
as we give proof of a forgiving temper toward our 
brethren. Discord entered into the world by sin« 
Hence we see unregenerate men not only separated 
fvpm God, but divided among-then^selves ? and 
hence, by. the rebellion of his growing passions 
against his enfeebled reason, every unrighteous man^ 
ia, at war with himself* 

. Dreadful as these evils are, w« arc here pi'cscnt- 
^d ,with a perfect remedy fqr them all. He, wh© 

ci^obed '*fijai -iipi^lit^ *fath si^t hi« Sew t» feiesfa^* 
biith'hatwiohy in th<J wdrtd,-tfyrbdUce oUf passfeiis-* 
under live ^d vemment o£^ lote,^ t6 uubjett <mr reason- * 
to thearithoWly ttf ^i^^v ^d to%ubd*tte tfee wbote^ 
ndan iindeir Ilie »w»eet fofce'^F^cfifertty^iiaiiiftstWm-^ 
tWfe'Beaft J « that chat^f," which' b 4e8tkte<f 40*re5^'* 
foi^-^vttf^ ttAd' •wUfi*^ Iwi^tiy o«rtpi*e i«^*ctitied*lfte'*' 
Kini^dom of Hea«»eerf*-' « Tke Pathef*^ glAfy,^-^^ i*'- 
Stw Paiul^ •''fcath^ put aJlthitfgw un<fer iW^feet^ oT^ 
Christ, and hath given httti'tu be ihe^h«aii'c^er%^-' 
things to the €iiocehi M^hich i«. hid bodf > ^e^Ihesii ^ 
of him, that filleth all in alt« Ye,' who^ s^on^iii?^ ( 
were far off, are now mtfde nigh by ^thio %vio6^of 
Chriftt* For he is our pt9L€t^" btti¥t9wM^^ tfn^ 
Gentiles, between man and mao,^^ ^^hd lia^h^isitod<^> 
both one, and hath broken downthrWiddleWi^or'' 
IHurtition between us, that he might reconc^dotft' ' 
unto God tn one body, bf the crosSyh^inagalain^lhe 
enmity" by that perfect charity, of whiqh he ga^ do 
many wonderful proof«* -^ Now, there^^re^'^'^a-wlKb 
are actuated by the sanme spirit of iove» ^ areno^ mom 
strangers and foreigners, but fellow-citizeniswith ^o 
saints .and. i^ the household of God ; and are buitt 
upon the .same foundation of the Apostles and Pro* 
phetft, Jesns Christ hin^elf being the ciuef comer- 
stone* In whom the whole building, fitly framed 
together, growoUi unto an holy temple in the Load t • 
In whom also ye are builded together for an hal»- 
taiion of Godr tlirough the apirit of choHtif*" 

The imnister, who feels the force of this ever^ 
coming motive, cannot &il Vo>piace itconiinuallyiM** 
fore hi»'hoarers« Th^ various parts of .his pi^io .. 
discourses as . muturaliy incltn^to this gnatid pointf 
as the several parts of a aoUd edifice^ mutually seat 
upon the conimonfoundation*; ^^Thejr^iatonebodyi" 
saith he with the Apostle," and oiie apuit,j^vea an 
ye, are called in one hop^.of.your calling} 9fi^ Lord«. >^ 
one. God an4 Fanj^er lof all, who iss,abos7ft.aU9 Viiid< , 
ihrough all| and in yon alU Aa w<? iiwe many mtwi*» « 

bcrft In one^ U>dy f so we, )>^liig .in«Dy» arie ona body . 
ill. ChrUt| and £very <mc i^efubera one pf AiKttbQr* 
Ijgl love be, therc^ore> without di&simuiaiion^ be 
kiodly^ffectioned oiu> ta anptber witb brotherly lofe # 
in booQiir preferring ope «iM)the;r» H^joice wUli^- 
them, tban do rejoice ; and weiep wic^ th^m that 
wieep., 9^ ojT t^e. «ikiiie*miad ooe« towaF4 ^apthei^., 
i^^age i^-f oiyrfteli^ft, but* rather give place ualo [ 
wrath. .;.If thiBer eaemy. hungeri feed him; if he- 
tl^irat} giv49 kifn^rinli^ B^Dot overcome of evil ; but 
o\^riHinf|e -e^vil with good.** In a word, ^' hti all 
y<HAr rthii^»>be done with charity,^' 

: T^ oenetode* The evangelical pastor points out 
the <^^^i4anco of chafity, and urges every motive 
thai ^enn lead- to the practi<^ of it) till vKoi^diy men - 
sLfp qoBfttminedto cry out, with all the admiration of 
th^^raix^eifnt heathens ; ^^ See how these chmstians 
** iovo: one* another I" Lucian, indeed, could look 
. with fidftciiie upon the zeal, with which the primitive 
chnAliaas succoured one another i " For>" says he, 
''^ their lBgi«lator has made them believe, that they 
" are ill brethren ; and hence they havfc all things 
" Goxamon among them, despising eten death itself, 
" through -the hope of immonaliiy ." The good pas- 
tor, however, is an3j:ioas to do that, which this hea- 
then writer was impious enough to censure in Christ. 
He ^monishes believers to address the Ahnighty, 
as- their common parent, conscious^ that so soon a^ 
they receive power to cry Abba, u e. Father, by the 
Holy Spirit, they will necessarily forget every scru- 
pulmas distinction between mine and thine, and put 
up^ *fith unfeigned sincerity that univfe'rual prayer, 
" Gtreiu^ this day our daily bread/* This petition h 
commonly UMd by every member of our degenerate 
church, while thtir hearts are com^mratively ihsen- 
sit^ to the wants of their rtecessttotis brethren. But 
wa^the love of ancient days to revive among us, we 
should not only solkit comlfwon blessings from above, 
liittyejoice li> share them with each- other, a^ bre-- 

Lb ^ 

390 THE FOBTKilT ^f ST. TA9L. 

thren purtake of a repast provided for them at tbe 
table of their common Parent* - 5 :? .• .^ . 

Happy daysl \ihtn the Gospel of Cllttkf[-««$ 
sees to Nourish in theeanh« Surely that^ilicMd'ieiiP 
son might, with, propriety^ be leim^fd- c)s^ rgoldcfel 
age of the church* O that we totildteaall^lM^^eli* 
city we have forfeited, and see the jof^xtP ^mtih^ 
miiy restored to a distracted worldl Butr^«4lle^4rc; 
give vent to our laflienutions^let hs not skik^iimdes^ 
pair, since however deplorabte our pv^seilt^ oftrdlifiH 
stances may be, they are not t6tal!y( nimildileit; 
Though, for so many ages, self-lo^e- has i>S Tt »|< eJ 
the throne of charity t though manfciiidi are pr^ii&ti» 
injare one am>ther, in their reputation-, -^-^Haid^ :^ 
in their property by mjustice; and in 4h«lr)ii(riro^ 
by murder, whether perpetrated in the «iiira€f(^FNif 
an assassin, or that of a duellist; though vvM^jR^ 
fomented on the sfightest pretooc^and GktUite> 
princes appear eager to wash their hand& m thb%loi^ 
of thousands ; though ^ aU the earth is itAl i§ «tt^^ 
aess and cruel habiutions t** yet will we Mtg]^e»lit>^ 
our hope. These unhappy times weftfopetetd^bf' 
oqr gracious Master. And as he had preseiofMv 
enough to predict the decays of christiaA kyre^ hMf 
tbe calamit,ies consequent' thereupon ; so he is ^os*' 
scssed of sufficient power to re-establish the empifet 
of charily in the world. Belie vers, then, ao^dist^ 
their aSlictions, may patiently and confidently te^ 
peel those '^ times of refreshing, which tinM assured*^ 
ly come from the presence of the Lordi*** t60ltin|^ 
forward to that promised ^reslitution of all^thitig^i'^* 
concerning ^* which, God hlaih spoketibiy the i^ate<ith^ 
of all his holy Prophets since tlic worhl begatou^'^^ltti 
the mean while, let those w^- are haste AlUgrb)^' 
their prayers, this desirable resolutions \}t^0mMt\iy 
preserve in their own hvart^th'oae sprite of ehai4ty^' 
which shall one day klodleU4ie universe imoa^'S^i^ 
creii fiutni^ ' And let thettimi^oiB -orthe^ClMp^V 
moke a constant display of those evangelical truttev- 


ivhich were formerly sufficieat to light up lUis glO' 
ri{iiu|fire» tbatl>y stirring up .the dying enibcrs 
c^^ra9«»th9 lUilrUglit^whlci^s^iil remains in tlxe 
diufi^^) may. l9e;Pfi«is«$rve4i^FoipA .total extinction* 
^.;. ,Sboukl it b^ ber€ objectedM.«Aite Jnot all U>c «[\ir- 
iJAMm qf:o^ .church to h& conaHle^cd^ a& preachers 
^vo^:!i4lM»istiaA charity ?** We answer, by no means. 
3%l»<f^iiAi:ityfr concerning which we Bpeak^ must Sow 
firmn^taD unioflr with Christ; a nnlop, nhich minis- 
tff»fr0Ci^ present day, are accustomed to treat as 
tQthMSiasii(^ and vain. This excellent grate ^^ is 
^^.4^(^: tn our hearts by the Holy Ghost, which 
isigiwtin Am^ iw%. But he, who dares openly to plead 
l»rj|hi»«QrH>t4iPal truth* is esteemed by such preacb- 
♦iH^QjNlijW than a deluded fanatic These preachers 
af)t ipe^efvtly heard> indeed, to speak of christian 
^barilyjbut^arfromendeayouringto spread it through 
^ jvorU, U>ey use every effort to destroy the very 
%^^% ^ thi» grace in the church of God. If, in a 
fMurisK that is unhappy enough to have a pastor of 
ihls .J^Lfidt^a few persons are happily converted to 
(^od) 4uid united together in Jesu& Christ ; if, havif)g 
90<? heart* and one soul, ihey frequently join togeth- 
er in prayer and iq praise, mtitually exhorting and 
pisovi>king one another to loye and good works ^...« 
the worldly rointsteri instantly alarmedi imagines 
thii^ these persons) for the sake of forming a new 
aed} are. destroying the unity of the churqh t when, 
on the<?omrary4 they are but just about to experience 
*^ahe communion of saints." And, if he is possessed 
of i^^aio 9^ parly^spirit, he will iabour to make itap- 
p^r, .thalt thei^e christians, who are beginning to live 
aft bi^tbren,. are ibriaing conventicie<i to disiurb the 
orckpboth of church and state* Such a minister \viil 
give^eoceuragen^eoi tacoinpanies of jugglers, dan* 
c«irs, and drunkards, r^her Ahan tolerate a societyi 
Wtbi(^ has ciinstian chauriiy forii^ object and its b^*^ 


, • ., . -...♦>• "•^* 

That believers arc sited by k failtV ibd-aRoi>e>^jf;|l^h 
sjcrve to feed in their souU the sacfjCd fcrc oif^thafi- 

'tj^. Now, this fkiih, 4»d tlii$ hbp/e, mgstriecelWjJy 
liit^e for their fotincTaiiotis^me. proti^ise af ^q4-.\A 
^'rromhc already accoiiipli^hed i^* ^mbface'd liy'faiih 
alone ; hut a firoinisc? whose dccdmpirshmehtris ppp- 
trActcd, i!»'ecjuullylbe object bf fti(h* tiid of ,,Sope. 
He, thci efore, who is fiip|k>inlcti b) Chiist'a ptea^l^r 
gf the cvcrlaiting Gospel; is kolichoiis ^(dol^t^jn 
clear ideas of the great promises *of God*' Ht is 
consiantly engaged in meditating, either xipoii tlieir 
past or fiilure accompli shmcnt;, in order to mainlam 
in hi?* own heart those inestimable graces, with whfch 
he \% desirous to animate the isouls of other^. Obr 
sine i!»e meUiod, in which he considers, embraces^ 
aiid prcai hes the m.. . .. ! 

I lulcr the dispensation of the Father, the grand 
pr(i:ui«?e 7f\'as that, wluch respected the^externaVnUi- 
ivirvsUirion of* the Hon. The original promise, as 
made 10 Adiim, was expressed in the following terms : 

* ** I'he seed o( the "Nvomiui shall bmisc the head of the 
serpent.'* As the Messiah was to descend from' A- 
l*raham, according to the flesh, the same promise %Yas 
llius renewed to that Patriarch: «< In thee shall all 
families of the earth be blessed/' In the aays oi Mp- 
ses, it was I'tJpeatcd to ail Israel, as follows : ** The Lord 
thy God will raise up unto thee a prophet, froin tfie 
midst of thee, of thy brethren ; unto him* shall j^e 
hearken.*' David and the other prophets powerfolly 
confirmed this prophecy, and Malachl thus recfipltu- 

,latesthe promises which' had been' given before his 
time* : "The Lord,"\vhomye seek, ^liaHsuddettlj^'cotiic 


td4iis temple, even the messenger of the covenant 
whom ye delight in ; behold, he shall come, saitli the 

* liofd WHbsts. Unto yoii, that ftir ifn)r name,'^hall 
tlie tSirtv of tic^ht^oclsness ari^e with healing in his 
M»ihg* 5 dnd Vfe sfhaU go'fo'rth,** bu^'df font pt-6sent 
obscure dispensation, " and ^bti^' tip,'* in spiritual 
Btfength, "as calves cf the stall." .Thus speaks the 

'rast ot th^ prQpWsj und^r tlie dispensation of the 
';iP^t}ier. '.'■.,;' "■■;/.■. '•'•-"•' \ '" . ' . 

"'ImmWiately upoii the accomplishment of these 
.prbmisV^, while the dispensation of.lhe Son was but 
darkly? opeiiied by. his precursor, another promise 
/ ^as giyeh for the exercise of faith and hope, und^r 
ihU npw economy, respecting the futl manifestation 
; 'of the Holy Ghost, as^ a Spirit of truth and love, 
'^feetiold this grand promise, as announced by John 
; the baptist* " 1 am not the Christ; I am the voice 
' of one crying in the wilderness, make straight the- 
!Vay of the Lord. 1 baptise you with water unto re- 
pentance," as a preparation for the spiritual king- 
dom and baptism of the Messiah: ^^ but he that 
cometh after me, is mightier than I, whose shoes I 
am not worthy to bear." He shall introduce a more 
spiritual dispensation, and administer a more tffica- 
cious baptism ; for ** he shall baptise you with the 
Holy Ghost and with fire/* shedding abroad tho^e 
^ifts and graces of his Spirit, which shall penetrate 
and purify your hearts, as metals are penetrated and 
purified by material fire. This promise is of so great 
ii»pprtance> that it was thought necessary to be re- 
' peated by the four Evangelists. 

, Our Lordi continuing thi dispensation, whicif 
'.tis^ forerunner had opened, "made and baptized 

* more disciples than John, though Jesus himself bap- 
tized ftot,'* with water, " but his disciples." The 

..baptism, which he was about to administer, was as 
far supofior to the baptism of John, and that of his 
own disciples^ as the water^ of. which he spake to 

.^e woman of Saimaria^ was superior to the water of 


254 TUB .«0«lTI»llX Of/IKr.>FifcUfi.ri' 

J<u^a% op^kat^f Jw»fl>;» w<3i. ^^ Wh<3tt7eyei>^)t»lt 
dno^k. of U)e vit^iw that I ^^aHs>veikim,^ isai4:ihe^Uic 
tb^t enqqirinf^ ^iKipi^R;; :iKhQ60cnoer. ■ shaiti ooiMi^w^ 
niy baptism^ and let down his vefsaci inioltbe Ine^^^ 
l^aAlst^lc.fq^Di^li ^f mif :gB9L«e,''^ shalllnG&drtMrst : 

m wd) of watef,*' ;a ft««irce:'of?itigbteiMikDesa¥-fieai0B$ 
and joy, *< spnytgmii^.ufii inttM^iterJIsi^iig fctfe.^^? 5toi> 
Id order tO/^lrengUif^O lhe:ho|»«-oftbos€f3^ui 
had been haptUed .wit K watec« (C»^r Locdftt^clf ira^ 
lified the prorai&<,Hbtqhli4d ln^en-6(H&dquen\l)rire-» 
pcatcd tQ ihcoi hyJoho the Baptwt^ !? *fla;th©:last 
day, that great day.«f the feast, tous/^tood^tna jaai4 . 
tid ; |f any onaii thirst* let tviiii:€»iBfi* tuUOiHiic^nd 
drink. . He that heiievcth on hms, as Uie& cra plurg 
hath said, out of bis belly shall Sow rivetqi>f RfiB^ 
water. But thi$ be spoke of th« Spitit» Aijikbihey 
that believe on him," in every age, ^^ should' rtosmvei 
)"or the Holy Ghost was not yet fully- givftn^becaasise 
that Jesus waH not y^ glorified,*' An incsitiinjablji 
promise tliis, tvhich deserves to be deeply eiigjrat 
yen in the nainds of those, who arc metelyacq^iaiot^ 
ed \vith Christ, according to his exterior appe»r» 
iince in the wprld. Observe here the me thod» h^r 
wlilch he endeavours to prepare all stsch in every 
country, and in every period, for hi^mauifaslatlof) 19 
the Spirit : <^ If you love me keep my commands 
jnents,", be faithful to the present dispensation of 
my Gospel, ** and I ^ill pray the Father, and te 
will give -you anolber Comforter, that^he may abide 
with you for ever* At that day," vhen ye shall ex- 
periqnce the (tilness of his-prestpce,. ** Ye «hall 
Jtnow, that I am in my Father, and ye in me, .9pdJ 
in your" For ** be that loveih mc,:shallbe loved cif 
my Father, and I will love him, and we will oome 
\into him and m^ke our abode with, him/' By com^ 
paring these words. with the seventeenth wad twfcn- 
ly-sixtU verses oi^ the same chapter^ itiaevideol, 
thai by this spiritual manifestation of the »the]: and 

TUH BOBTJtAIt OT ST« PM7t« > « 295 

the^lStOD^ lutikiiin'g less can' be intentded fh&ti the f)!j 
meafluve of thaft ^ Hx>if Spirit, ^ whidi procee^eth 
foomvlbo F&Lther^V«nd wfakh is expres^f callledj^^ the 
S|>irit©£hi$ S6ib.'' i ' ' ; 

jr QurLAxii,twliO'kne«PthestupidUy''€f\h<)seitW 
veore ^umliirw^theiififerier diipiinsiktl^tt of his'GoispeYy 
(URiLivow j'^aiowi df he^ti"^ tH^y ^irere ^ tt> b^fe^t,* 
what ehbear iihecPfophets of li^iliMlP ha<) spolJeiii 
. jud^e4itdx|ttdi9atto>i*epeatthie'grftnd{)r6mhe6fthe 
^nt ..ll^J^n^aod fl|faiiw >«• \iVhen tlte Cotnfdrtcf ii 
eoines/^.saidbes^^irhotnliyilUond itnto ^rou fVomthe 
F^tlher^iieihaU testify 6f itie. It is expedient foryou^ 
Vliat ♦! go aw^ t ^ if I go not away, the Cpmfort- 
toinHAIiiotci>in«'Ui»to:you4 but if I depan-i will send 
himuianto fOtt.'' Behold i ttrA the promibe ot my 
Fatfcieriip^ii yo¥i>- 

.. Th«abaf)dant effusion of the Holy Spirit was 

termed by our Lord, the {^fomise of tbe Father, for 

t«« reasons ; first, because coming to int^truct roan* 

kii^d' bow to worship the Father <^ in spirit and in 

tj^uthi" it^ became him to refer all things to that Fa* 

ther : and this he was strictly and constantly accus* 

* jtomed to do. Secondly, because '^ the Father of 

1^ lights** is to be- considered as the author of " every 

y' goo<| and perfect gift." It was he, who so loved the 

f :wor^^ that be gave his only begotten Son to die for 

r iiie world ; and from him proceeds that Holy Sptrit, 

i which Jesus Christ still continues to shed abroad^ 

;- among his faithful followers. The Father had al-» 

ready )>romised undet: the law, that he w<2u}d grant 

unto his people a gcaeral ont-pouring of his Spirit, 

Itnder the reign of the Meisiab. The memorable 

|>rophecy of Joelt as quoted by St. Peter, is generally 

j^nowp ; and the following promises equally merit the 

attention of believers* *^ In that day, \ will pour upon 

the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerd- 

4ialem, the spirit of grace and supplications : aod the^ 

shall look upon me, whom they have pierced^svid they 

yhalt mourfir for him, as ofie mourneth for his only 


. ton. I will pour water upon him^ thatis thirsljr, and 
^floods upon the dry grt)und: I i^ift pour irty 5pWt 
upon tl\y seed} and noiy blessing u{<oq thine dflrst)ri!h'g;. 
I will sprinkle dean water upon you, and ft sh&ttbe 
clean. I ' wilf put roy Spirit witttn yo^f, aftd cause 
you to walk in my statute*.' 1 wilt|five tfien^ l>tffe 
heart ; I will take the stony heart but of thfcir 'fletdit 
and will give therti ah heart of iSeslil''*^' THdt ^^n 
. must be prejudiced to an extreme degprec, wte^ pifta- 
ccives notj thajt these graclbas prophecies ^ej^an to 
i^ccivc their accomprishmeutupoh thd day 6f Wt^« 
tecost^ when the multitude of them that belieVcd,#(Sj?« 
^^•of one heart and one soul."' ' ; .^ 

The last day our risen Saviour pa^ed upbh earthy 
was enoployed in strengthening the faith of hts dis- 
cipIeS) with respect to this promise. Aftel^ havih^ 
them together, " he coihmanded theui to Wait for 
the promise of the Father, which,"' contitiued be, >* ye 
.havc,heard of me. Por John triily baptized with 
water/' and ye have done the satne bv my dif ection^ 
** but ye shall be baptized with the Holy Chosi not 
many days hence." 

After the grand promise under the dispensatibji 
of the Son was in part accomplished } when the dis« 
ciplea were filled with faith, and with the Holy 
Ghost, another promise was given to exercise their 
(ailh, to fix their attention, and to perfect their pa* 
tiencef the promise of Christ's second coming C<» 
'< gather his wheat into the garner, and t^ burn up tl^ 
ehaiF with unquenchable fire. This satne Jes^s,*' 
said the Angels who appeared to ihe disciples onthit 
day of their Masters ascension ; ** Thi? same Jesui 
which is taken up from you. into Heaven, shall sio 
eome, in like manner as y« have seen him go into 
Heaven/* This important promise wj^s aftcrwardb' 
repeated by St. Paul and the other Apostles. "The 
Lord Jesus shall be revealed fcom , Heaven^ with his 
mighty Angels, in flaming fire, taking vengeance on 
them that obpy not the Gospel; who shaJJ be punis^- 


^4,ryW>. ^yerlasUn^ distructloh^ the presence of 

ip^^ t^y^ when he shall oofneto be gJofifiecT m his. 
j^aint^j, .an4 to la'e'/a'dniired in alF theirs that be- 
jyevcV • Jl^^ol^ '^)ie|C^j;ueth "witli tfoucl^? and €?very'eyc 
;^^Iiall se<?.l^paV^ in5 t^ey aisb wlikh pierced him ^ and 
';^lXiJt\pdrp^ai;^^^^ eartli sMU Vail tecause of liini* 
■j't.iie ^Qs^y/ot^^i^ip^i^ydi \yin cbmeV a^> tl^i^f i'o the 

\\ .X^ii coriilog. of Chnsti; which is cfisrfe^atded liy 
^'pxip^,^ for ti^e t'ker, is s6 fully 

^,ex^ct^^|>y tfeo^e? who live tinder the j dispensation pf 
"tlie Spirit, that they are. constiantly «* looliing'fofj artd 
b|UJjteT)f ij^. , t|t>, ttie coming of the day of God/* Ag- 
' jpprmi^g -.^.StJ ilP'aiir,,. sinners are; donyerterf from the 
"eiTpr ."of^^iheir way p, that they may « serve the living 
Hind tii,9 true. God, aitd wait for his Son from Heaven, 
vfboni lie reused from the dead ; Ipokiiig for that blcs- 
"^fed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God 
' and our Saviour Jesus Christ/' This second coming 
,, of Christ was' the object of this ApoMl^'s highest' 
' hopesi" after which h^ Represents himself as « groan- 
ing" with the inpst fervent desire. " Yea, I count all 
things but loss,** continues he, "that I may know him< 
Jand the power of his resyrrection. ' Our conversation is 
in Heaven, from whence also we look for the Sa- 
viour, who shall change our vile body, that it may be 
fashioned like unto his glorious body, according to the 
Svork?ng, whereby he is even able to subdue all things 
:*iinto biimsclf.** 

. As God had afforded believers, under the old Tes- 
tament, a perspective view both of the manifestation 
'of the Redeemer in a mortal body, and that dispensa- 
tion ofthe' Spirit, which he was to open among his fo!- 
'lowets under the new Testament, sq he had likewise 
%retold,'by his Prophets, tfte glorious return of thRSit 
]^aviour to the earth. "The Lord cometh with <en 
'thotisands of his saints to execute judgment. Behold 
he shall come saith the Lord of Hosts. Biit wRo 
tnay^^ abide tire day of his coijnin^? and whosh^U stand 

f9d TH« FO^TKAIT OW ST. FA|^« 

when he appeareth ? &r be U liket a leSoer^^ fiiSMirf 
))ke fuller's soap." : ^ ^ ; »' 

Mark the terms, in which our Lord himself de- 
clared this sublime dispensation. ^ The love of ma- 
ny shall wax cold. FalM prophets shall arise, and ye 
9h»ll see the abomination of desolation, ^oken of by 
the Prophet Daniel stand in the holy place. Imme* 
diately aftet the tribulation of those dayi, the po\/ers 
of the Heavens shall be shaken^ Add then shall ap- 
pear the sign of the Son of man in Heaven ^ then sliali 
all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they slfall see 
the Son of man coming in the clouds of fieaven, 
with power and great glory. 3ut of that, 4ii^y 4!¥i« 
hour knoweth no man* Watch -therefore; io^ ip{ 
know not what hour yoqr Lord doth come**' Tiuii^' 
Jesus himself testified of bis second comingt t^dhim 
first disciples, in cooformity to their Ma:iXei:'6 decU»^ 
ration, addressed a large assembly in the ipUowlng... 
terms, almost immediately after his ascension ;/>H.&f^^ 
pent f •, and be converted^ that your sins may be.; 
blotted out, when the times of refre^hiog shall come 
from the presence of the Lord ; and he shall send 
Jesus, which before was preached unto you ; whom 
Ibe Heaven must receive, until the time of restitu* 
tirni of all things, which God hath spoken by jihe 
the mouth of all his holy Prophets, since the world 

So long as a minister embraces these different, 
promises ; so Jong a«, with a lively faith which is 
*' the evidenc^of things not seen," he believes, that. 
the Fati^ sent his hon for the redemption of sin-, 
ners, andhis Holy Spirit for the saBctificationof bef*. 
lievers...«SQ long as, with a faith which is " the sub*^; 
stance of things )ioped for," he believes^ that Chri^.; 
ahi^ll one day return for the glorification of bi^.- 
saints ; so long he is saved by that ^^ faith aiid hoperV 
which enable him to preach the Gospel in all its 
w^tidcrous extent. So long, he not only cpmpr&». 
hcnds, but experiences the'power of that Gospel in 

THS FOETR'AIT Or ST. 1A«I>« f9f 

his own souly while he labours to make it manifest 
the whole tenor of his conduct. ' " ' „ ' 

::•! li^ 

^ ,ilisI^l^Ki5iAirolis, in.omioi T'<».<;ijJAi-i*'X aiMftje-L'^v 
.l^Fpi' yHE j);sc»Aac£ of Eyaav part or: hisv 

; * ' ' *#riE pastor, if^o fs lit ittstructed in the my$n 
tt*ifeB'6f 6xx^. holy religidn; loses himself and leadW 
hii.shteep astray. , The g6od pastor^on the contrary 
hsh^tng fotitidtrtit'theitay to everlasting life, presses 
fbrWard tfeerein at the hefad of his flock* and exhorts 
- e^ry heedless vtanderfer to follow his st«ps. tie is 
cbnfcCiouB notoiily,^ thdt he has m mixture of slxeep- 
acnd goats In his fold ; but he knows that, among the 
former, there ate some, to whose spiritual condition . 
h theSiiticeremilk of the word is much betier adapted^ 

li tfean stronger food. To all of these he studies toad-, 

dress himself in a Suitable manner. To those who^. 
are dead in trespasses and sin, equally destitute both ; 
J of love and fear, he ppoclui ms the fij^st principles pf 

iht Gospel, such 4is ** reperitance from dead works^ ■ 
faith toward God, and an eternal judgment.", /those 
vrho are alrettdy ' awaketied from the delusion? of sixif , 
i ht anxrodsiy leads' into the paths of grace ; ahd'endc^-,! 

vcmrs tb^ebtiduct those ib evangielical perfection, who 
\ harefeh'the <« powers of'the Woi^Id to conie.** He ^ 

i easily iiistingtdshes the miied multitude of his liearer^^ ; 

intto'^. v^Hety of classes. The unbelieving aud impen* . 
^ itejit^ who are to be considered as without pooand 

I withoftt hope in the world, are Siich' 21$ go odl, wlth^ 

out aiiy symptom of fearj toward the gulph, jof perr^, 
dition; whether it be by the high-road of vice, witik, 
the ndtoripttsly ab^doaed* or through the by-paiji of 

SM Tflff ^•KTBAIT or ST. FAOL. 

hypocnnjn with phaiisucal professors. CoDTerted 
siimeray or bclicrers, are either uixler the dispensation 
of the Father, under that of the Son, or under that of 
the Holy Ghost, according to the different progi'ess 
they have made in spiriti^ things : and the &ithful 
pastor b as perfectly^ acqusunted widi their yarious at- 
tainments, as a diligent tutor b acquainted with the 
different abilities of his several pnpib. 

Believers, under the dispensation of the Father, 
arc ordinarily surrounded with a night of uncertainty 
and doubt, though visited, at times, with a few scatter- 
ed rays of hope. Under the dispensation of the Son, 
the doubts of believers are dissipated, like those of the 
two disciples who journeyed to Emmaus, while they 
* discover more clearly, and experience more powerfully, 
the truths of the Gospel. But under the dispensation 
of the Spirit, they " walk in the light," and are led 
*' into all truth, by the Spirit of truth ; the anointing 
which they have received, abideth in them, and teach- 
cth them of all things" necessary to salvation. 

A father of the church paraphrasing upon those 
words of the Apostle, " Lord save us ; we perish'*.... 
apostrophizes thus with the doubting disciples ; * You 
' have 'your Saviour with you, what danger can you 

< fear ?. We are yet, they reply, but children, and have 

* attained but to a small degree of strength : hence we 
' are afraid. The descent of the Holy Spirit, that di- 

* vine protector, which has been graciously promised, 

< has not yet filled us with full assurance. This has 

* been the cause of our unsteadiness hitherto ; and 

< hence, the Saviour so frequently reproaches us with 

< the weakness of our faith.' Now, all tliose christians, 
who have not yet received the spiritual baptism, so fre- 
quently mentioned in the new Testament, are shut up , 
in this state of weakness and doubt. But so soon as 
they arc born of the Spirit, they cry out no longer J 
with trembling fear, " save us ; we perish !" but they ' 
cry out In transports of gratitude, " God, according to 

his Hiercy, hath saved us, by the washing of regencra- 

•■IIS F©ltTllAlT •» 8"^. PAUL. 301 

tioii, wmI r^?»pwing of the Hoiy.^hosV Tfhk* , Wiatk'; 
shed" on 48 aljui>dahUy^throu§^h Je§«i?, Chi^3t ouc .:?^, 

viour i** - .. '-■' -..r i^ .*•' ^ :-: "i r..^ ■ ' 

- -/Under tKc clUpcpsatioft ojf the FaHier, l^Ucv^w , 
coDstandY^experiwice the- fear oCGqd^jjpd, Ingepci-,. 
ra^ a muck gWer degree of i^v thau fove. .Under; 
the'economy of the Son, lo\e begins, to g^m tte 9«J 
cendenfy.o^etXear; But.und,er. th^ dispensatipn of 
thV Holy Spirit, ''* perfect love c^steth putfe^ri' oOf^g 
cayse! itU peculiarly the cfffice of th^ ComfortertXq d^> 
liver; the- aqul from every, thipg that is UahW t<^ dis-^. 
tress .and torment it» . ';,•*' 

,Under the 'economy of the Father, the behevcr 
is frequently heard to exclaim, « O wretched man 
that I am ! who shall deliver me from the body ot 
this death ?" Under that of the Son, he gratefufly 
cries out; " I thank God," who hath aifectually 
wrought this deliverance, '* through Jesus Christ 
our Lord :** but under the perfect Gospel, which li 
the dispensation of the Spirit, all believers are en- 
abled to say, with one voice ; " We have not received 
the spirit of bondage again to fear ; but we have re- 
ceived the spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, 
Father ! The Spirit itself beareth witness with our 
•pirit, that we are the children of God, and joint hcira 
-with Christ," 

St. Paul thus distinguishes the different states of 
advancement in the christian faith. ." The heir, a» 
long as he is a child,*' [and such is the case with belie- 
vers, under the dispensation of the Father] ** differ- 
cth nothing from a servant, though be be Lord ©f all ; 
but is under tutors and governors till the time ap- 
pointed of his Father. Even so we were once ia a 
state of bondage: but when the fulness of the time 
was come, God sent forth his Soato redeem them 
. that were under. the Law, that we might receive the 
adoption of Sons. And because ye are ^ons, God 
hath sent, forth the Spiritof his Son into ycut^ hesH-tsy 
orying, Abba, Father. Wherefore thou art no more 
c c 

fM TBB rOKTmAlT •F tV. WAVh* 

a ttrr%j\ty but a sod » and if a son, then ati lieir tf 
God, through Christ : by whom we have access int« 
this grace, and rejoice in hope of the glory of God." 

Our Lord himself evidently pointed out the pro* 
gressife state of the church, when turning to his dis- 
ciples, ^* he said; Blessed are the eyes which see 
the things that ye see : for I tell you, that many 
prophets and kings hare desired to see those things^ 
which ye see, and have not seen them ; and to bear 
those things, which ye hear and have not heard 
them/' Nevertheless, when their gracious Ma^telr 
held this language, he was at that time neither glo- 
riiied, nor crucified : and it is well known, that the 
great glory of the Gospel, was to follow his sufferinga 
and his triumph^ 

The same subject is treated by St. Peter In hfa 
first epistle, where he (peaks of that foil salvation^ 
which is to be considered^ as the end or i^ompense 
of faith. *« Of which salvatton," saith be, ^ the Pro*^ 
phets have enquit^d and searched diligently, wh« 
prophesiied of the grace that should come unto you : 
searching what, or what manner of time, the ^i^ 
of Christ, which was in them did signify, when it 
testlfttd beforehand the sufferings of Christ, and \ht 
glory that should follow. Unto whom it was re* 
vealed, that not unto themselves, but unto us tbey 
did minister tbe thtn^^s, which are bow reported 
unto you, by them that have preached the Gospei 
unto you, with the Holy Ghost sent down from Hea- 
ven, which things the Angeb desire to look into. 
Happy are ye I for the Spirirt of glory and of God 
resteth upon yoiN Ye are a chosen generation, a 
peculiar people, thatye should shew forth the praisea 
of him, who hath called yeu out of darkness into hia 
marvellous light.'* 

Without an experimental knowledge of these 
several states, a minister can no mora lead sinners 
to evangelical perfection, than an illiterate peasant * 
fan copimutiicate su£&cient intelligence Co his rustic 

companions, to pass an examination for the highest 
degree in a university. 

It may here be necessary to mark out the grand 
truths, by which these dispensations are severally 

The common langua^ under the dispensation 
of the Father, is as follows : «' God hath made ©f 
we blood all nations of men, and hath appointed the 
bounds of their habitation ; that they should seek 
the Lord, if haply they might feel after him and hnd 
him, though he be not far from every one of us. 
The grace of God that bringeth salvation, hath ap- 
peared," in different degre<fs, " to all ipen ; For the 
living God is the Saviour of all men, especially of 
those that believe. God is no respecter of persons ; 
hut in every nation, he that fcareth h.ira and worketh 
righteousness, is accepted with him. Without faith 
it is impossible to please him ; for he that cometh 
Mnto God, must believe that he is, and that he is a 
rewarder of them that diligently seek him.. He hath 
shewed theej O man, what is good ; and what doth 
the Lord require of thee, but to do ju»tly, and to love 
mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God." 

Observe the language of the Son's dispensation. 
« Glory to G^d in the highest, and on earth peace, 
good* will toward men. 1 bring you good tidings of 
great joy, which shall be to all people : for unto y©u is 
born ihis day, in the city of David, a Saviour, which 
is Christ the Lord. Grace and truth came by Jesus 
Christ, who hath abolished death, and hath.brought 
life and immorulity -to light through the Gospel. 
The hour cometh and now is, when the true worbhip* 
pers shall jworship the F-ather in Spirit and in truth. 
Ye believe in God, believe al^o in me. if tl>e Son 
shall make you free, y« shall be free indeed, i his 
is the work of Cod, that ye believe on him whom 
ke hath sent....No man can come unto me, except th» 
S'A^tberi Mrhi«k hath ^^^i sue 4r9>v km t a&i «veif 

904 VHE pomraAiT pr st. pavl* 

man, that bath heard, and. hath learned of the Fa« 
ther, Cometh unto me. He that believeth on the 
Son, hath everlasting life : and he, that believeth not 
the Son, shall not see life : but the wrath of God 
abideih on him.'* 

The dispensation of the Spirit is again distin* 
f^uished by the following peculiar language. " This 
is that vi^hich wzls spoken by Ihe Prophet Joel : In 
the last days," or under the last dispensations of my 
grace, " saith God, I will pour out of my Spirit upon 
all flesh, upon my servants, and upon my hand-mai- 
dens : and they shall prophesy, Jesus, being by the 
right hand of God exalted, andjiaving received of the 
Father, the promise of the Holy Ghost, hath shed 
forth this** plenitude of grace, the effects of " which 
ye now see and hear. Repent," therefore, " and b« 
baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus 
Christ, for the remission of sins, and ye shall re- 
ceive the Holy Ghost. -For the promise is unto 
you and to your children, and to all that are afar off, 
even as many as the Lord our God shall call." 

If at any tin^ it is to be apprehended, that be- 
lievers are still carnal, and unrenewed by the Spirit- 
of God, the pastor, who is conversant with these dif- 
ferent economies of grace, enquires with St. Paul ; 
" Have ye received the Holy Ghost, since ye 
believed ? When others, among his flock, demon- 
state both by their conversation and conduct, that 
they are influenced by the Spirit of Christ, he exhorts 
ihem in a manner suitable to the glorious dispensa- 
tion under which they live. Ye are washed, ye are 
sanctified, yc are justified, in the name of the 
Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God. ¥ourbody 
j« the temple of the Holy Ghost: therefore glorify 
God, in y6ur body and in your spirit, which are 
God's. Grieve not the Holy Spirit of God, whereby 
ye are scaled unio the day of redemption. Be. filled 
>riih the Spirit ; speaking te yourselves in psalms- 

<lulkyflBini, and spAritiul sonf^s, makini: melod/ in 
your hearts unto the Lord. Rejoice evermore. 
Fray without ceasing. In ev<?ry thing give thanlw." 
This language is too elevated for natural meny 
who understand it no more than illiterate per'^ons 
comprehend the most abstruse {Mrts (^f science. 
Hence it is necessary, that the faithful minister 
should acquaint himself with the different conditions 
and capacities of all his hearens if he would happily 
accomodate spiritual things to spiritual men. With* 
out thin knowledge, he will, under every dispensa^ 
tion, run the hazard of refusing to advanced chris- 
tians the solid nourishment they need, and of pre- 
senting to the natural man that celestial manna* 
which his very soul alihors* 



▼ OURS. 

IF the light of the Gospel had been due 
from God to every individual sinner ; if he had not 
been left entirely free m every sense of the word, to 
impart it to whom, at what time, and in what degree 
soever was moiit pleasing to himself; his impartial 
justice would then have engaged him equally to il- 
luminate all mankind, and he must have caused the 
Sun of righteousness, immediately after the fall, to 
have shone out in its meridian brightness. In such 
case* there would have been but one dispensasion of 
^race ; and the light of the Gospel would not have 
proceeded to its iiighest glory, by such just grada- 
tions, as are observable ia all the productions of na- 



But the Almighty has proceeded in the work of 
our redemption, according to the dictates of hi« 
own unerring wisdom, and not upon the plans of our 
pretended sages* The day of the^Gospel, whether 
it be considered as enlightening the world in gene^ 
ral, or the heart in particular, rises, like the natural 
day, from one degree of brightness to another^ till all 
its glories are fully manifested. 

The confusion which many divines have sprea4l 
over this part of theology, makes it necessary to go 
into particulars, that we may place in a just point of 
view, both the gradations and the harmony of those 
three dispensations, which collectively form the glo* 
rious Go«pel of God* 

If some naturalists were determined to confine* 
their observations upon the rainbow, to those lines in 
it that are manifestly red; if naturalists of another 
clabs as were obstinate in contemplating those of &a 
•range hue ; and if others were as resolutely bent in 
singling out those of a blue colour ; they would 
contradict and dispute with each other in as ridicu- 
lous a manner, as many ignorant worshippers of the 
triune God ai^e observed to do at this day* Thus 
ilcitts dispute for^he honour of God the Creator ; 
and while some christians pay all their homage to 
God the Redeemer, others ate as wholly taken up 
ivithGod the Sanctifier. Amidst all the confusion c^ 
these jarring sentiments, the prudent pastor admitSt 
in thrir proper place, the various dispensatiotis of 
Evangelical light, conducting his followers fiom 
faith to faiih, till he beholds them illuminated with 
all ihe truths, and experiencing all the power of the 
christian religion* ^ 

We acknowledge that God is just, though the light 
of the natural sun approaches us only in a gradual 
manner, producing a constant variety both in our 
days and seasons. We do riot accuse the supreme 
Beii^g of injustice; because he is ngt pleased to brin|(. 

iQic fruits of the earth, in an instant to their highest 
maturity ; or because, the . same species of fruitf 
which is esteemed for its delicious flavour in one 
climate, is found worthless and insipid in another. 
And if the Sovereign of the world is not expected to 
ripen on a sudden, either the reason of individuals, 
or the knowledge of nations, it should not be matter 
of surprize to observe him acting in his u&ual man- 
ner, with respect to things of a spiritual nature. 
Flis plans are all equally wise : but it is impossible 
for man to form a perfect judgment of them, unless- 
the creature could stand tor a moment in the place 
of the Creator^ snd take one comprehensive view of 
earth and heaven, time and eternity. If, " one day 
is with the Lord as a thousand years," when he is 
pleased in aft unexpected manner, to fulfil his grand 
designs : " and a thousand years as one day," when 
he sees good to accomplish his purposes in a mor« 
. gradual way : why should it so strangely afflict and 
ikmaze us, that he has left the human race in a state 
of suspence, with regard to his unsearchable coun*. 
sels, for near six thousand years ? The time is com- 
ing when he will discover to us th^t stupendous plan, 
Vf^hich, in our present circumstances, we contem- 
plate with every disadvantage ; and just as an animal- 
cule, whose life is limited to six hours, would con- 
template the plan of an immense palace, which & 
skilful architect had promised to complete in as ma- 
ny years. Supposing sUch an insect endued with 
Reason, and coming into existence during the night, 
should blindly crawl among the loose materials of 
which the intended edihce was to be constructed ; 
what opinion could it form either of the architect, 
or his plan? Would not ih^s insignificant creature be 
led to judge of these matters, as the pretended phi- 
losopher inconsiderately judges of that mysterious 
plan, upon which the Almighty is erecting the tem- 
ple of truth, and creating an incorruptible world r If 
the Creator ,tl)ought it necessary to employ six days 

im completing the beauties of the material w«rld ; 
and if the Redeemer judges it expedient, progrea* 
aavely to perfect the more lasting beauties of ^ apU 
ritual world daring aia of hit more ample days ; 
bow little reason have we to de^piM the conaprehen- 
aive de&ign ; especiallyt when we consider &ij^ thoii« 
aand years are far more inconsiderable in compari- 
aon of eternity, than six atoms in comparison with 
this terrestrial globe ? 

Now if such a plan is not only reasonable, but 
has been evidently adopted by him, who '^ giveth 
not account of any of his matters," it is undoubtedlf 
true, that those who have lived in different periods 
of time* have not been permitted to enjoy ail th^ 
various truths, which God has successively revealed 
to man* Nevertheless, it is equally certain, that. 
erery many in what period of timci and in what pt* 
^uliar circumstances soever he found himself placed 
has receired sufficient light to discover, as well aa 
sufficient power to perform, what God has beem 
pleased to require at his h«indS' ^ 

Thf day of evangelical truth is graciously allow- 
ed to all mankind, that they may thereby be assisted I 
to discover, to love, and to obey their celestial Pa- 
rent t and finally that they may reach the mark of 
their high destination, which is the enjoyment of 
tbose different degrees of blessedness, which art 
reserved for the different classes of the faithful- Let 
us consider the morning of this shacred day* When 
the first man had extinguished in his hf^a^rt tba. 
light of truth and the fire of charity ; when he be- "^ 
came sufficiently stupid to think of concealing him* 
aelf from his God among the trees of the garden^ 
and sufficiently impious to thiow the blame of his 
offence ui>on his companion intran.-;gression, instead ^ 
of confessing hib disobedience with M its aggrava- 
tions ; it is evident, that man was then without 
Chiist, i* e* witltout a Saviour, vithout hope, an4 
niihout God in the world.'j; lu tb^t night of errai> 


•f confusion^ and probably^ of despair, thb promise 
of a powerful Redeemer wa« given to our first 
parents, whence certain beams of hope were pro- 
duced, which formed the earliesttwilightof the Gos- 

^ The tradition of this gracious promise, which 
was m^de to Adam and confirmed to Noah ; the 
natural law, which is nothing less than the remains 
of theOeator's image in the human heart ; and the 
secret grace of the Redeemer, which is more or less 
operative in every man ; these collectively formed 
tliat evangelical dawn, which was for a long time 
universally experienced in the world, and which 
may, with propriety, be termed^eithcr gentilism, the 
religion of the first patriarchs, the Gospel of the hea- 
then, or the dispensation of the Father. In this 
low dispensation, and under these faint glimmer- 
ings of truth, the generality of mankind are still 
unhappily observed to live. And. though clouds of 
prejudice, together with vain tradition, deprive pa- 
gan nations, in „ part, of this inestimable light, yet 
sufficient remains among them, for the direction of 
these, who are seeking after the light of a less ob- 
scure dispensation. 

When mankind had become almost universally 
unfaithful to the grace of gentilism, and unmindful 
of the past vengeance of God in destroying the 
world ; when they had plunged themselves into the 
most impious excesses, and were wholly given up 
to the grossest idolatry : at that time, the Almighty 
resolved to separate from the corrupted nations, a 
single people, who should preserve among them the 
divine worship in its purity ; a people, among whom 
the Mi^ssiah should be born, and who should spread 
around them both the expectation and the promise 
of so wonderful a Deliverer. Moses, Aaron, and 
Joshua, were the representatives of this extraordi- 
nary person. Moses, as a Prophet and Legislator ; 
AaroDi a& an (Jiigii-priest appointed of God ; anil 

Joshua, as an illustrioua conqueror, diTiding the 
Kingdoms of Canaan among^ those who had followed 
htm through the dangers of a tedious warfare. 
Thus the Jews became a preaching people to tha 
rest of the world, preserving in it the light of the 
Father's dispensation, and preparing it for the fur- 
ther dispensation of the Son s insomuch, that th« 
expectation of a divine Restorer was spread ofcr 
many parts of the earth, as we learn from two pagan 
historians, whose testimony deserves credit* Nay, 
the Sybils, and even Virgil himself took occasion 
from this general expectation, of applying to Au- 
gustus the predictions of a sublime conqueror, 
who was to issue from the east, renewing the face 
of things. 

Judaism then seems to have been nothing mora 
than the dispensation of the Father, though undoubt- 
edly more luminous than it had formerly appeared 
before the calling of Abraham. The morak Lavr 
given by Moses, was but a new edition of ihe natu- 
ral Law, which had been given before, and the cere- 
monial Law was added thereto, as a further con- 
firmation of the original promise* This was, how- 
ever, a remarkable advance toward the dispensation 
of the Son and that of the Holy Ghost, since the 
mysteries of both were shadowed forth by the inte- 
rior parts of the temple, by sacrifices, by ablutionst 
by anointings, by perfumes, by burning lamps, and 
aacred fires. 

The universal creed under this ancient dispensa- 
tion still forms a part of that, which is. received 
among christians; and there is no tiuc worshiper 
under this economy, but who can say, with sinceri- 
ty ; *< I believe in God, the Father Almighty, the 
Creator and Preserver of heaven and earth, tha 
avenger of sin, and the rewardcr of those who f*ith- 
^lly serve him : and I trust the time is comiog9 
when some divine instructor will enable me mora 
^y to know and obey thia incoosprehf nsiWe 1*^. 

Utitr t>f the truiverse." Maf such an iHBtruttor soon 
«ppear, was the united prayer of Socrates and Plato* 
** Let him hasten his coming/' says the true Jew 
•nd pious thei&t, *^ under whatever appellation he 
-may choose to appear. Let him be called the seed 
of the woman, the teed of Abraham, or the 
Son of David ; let his name be, the Messiah, the 
Son of God, the Logos, Emanuel, Joshua, Jesus, 
Saviour ; or only, the Pix>phet, the Angel of the cove- 
nant, or the messenger of God ; it is of little conse- 
quence ; if he brings but life and immortality te 
light, 1 will receive him with gratitude and joy." 
Such is the faith, by which those Jews, Mahome- 
tans, and Pagans, whose hoarts are .principled with 
humility, candour and the fear of God, have been, 
4ind still continue to be *aved in evcty part of the 
Wot<ld. For the Father of mercies, who knoweth 
whereof we are <made, will no more absolutely coi>. 
'^etnn such worthippers, on account of the cxtraor- 
idinaty respect they have dicovered for Moses, Ma* 
liomet, and Confucius, than he will finally reject 
K*me pioUs christians, for the sake of that excessive 
veneration, which they manifest for particular saints 
mnd reformers ; nor will he punish eitlier, because 
their guides have mingled prejudice with truth, and 
legendary fatbles with thee doctrines of theology. 

As a prudent phybician proportions his raedi* 
twines to the different ages and habits of his patients, 
%6 the enlightenad pastor, who feels himself con- 
cerned for the spiritual health of his flock, sees it 
necessary to act with equal care aud discretion. 
He preaches the dispensation of the Son to those, 
>ho like Socrates and Plato, are longing for a divine 
instructor, as well as to those, who like Simeon, 
Kicodemus, and Cornelius, are waiting for the con- 
aolation of Israel. He leads them, either from the 
Law of Moses, or from the Law of nature, to the 
Gospel of Christ; explaining, with precision, those 
parts ef the new Testament, which exhibit the cora- 


mencement of the Son's dispensation, together witli 
all he taught, performedf and suffered while he con- 
tinued upon earth. 

Lastly, to such as have devoutly embraced this 
part of the Gospel, he publishes the glorious eco- 
nomy of the Holy Spirit, which was not fully opened 
till after the bodily appearance cf the Redeemer was 
withdrawn from the world. Then it was, that he 
descended in the fulness of the Spirit, directing* 
and supporting his disciples, animating and sanctifi- 
ing his members, and manifesting that Kingdom of 
God, that dispensation of righteousness, peace and 
joy, which is so largely treated of in the acts and 
epistles of the Apostles. 

These three dispensations have one commou 
end. They mutually tend to manifest the differtnC 
perfections of the Supreme Being, to raise man 
from his present low estate, and to perfect his na- 
ture. This threefold design is apparent under the 
dispensation of the. Father ; it unfolds itself more 
clearly under that of the Son ; and shines out with 
encreasing lustre under that of the Holy Spirit. As 
it is one and the same Sun, that animates every 
thing in the natural world, so it is one and the same 
.God, that operates every thing in the kingdom of 
grace. //<?, whom we address as our Heavenly Fa^ 
ther^ in that sacred form of prayer which is conw 
mon among christians, is the very God, in . whose 
name the ancient Patriarchs were accustomed to 
bless their children. The v>ord^ through which we 
address him, is no other than that *^ light of the 
world,'' by which the antediluvian fathers were illu- 
minated in their several generations : and the Holy 
Ghos.r, by which the souls of the faithful are divinely 
regenerated, is the same Spirit, that primaiily 
•* moved upon the face of the watersj" of which also 
it was said, in the days of Noah, <« My Spirit shall 
not always strive with man." 


There never was a lime, in which the Son and the 
Spirit were pot occupied in completing the salvation 
of believers. But there was a time, when the Son 
became manifest upon the earth, making a visible 
display of his astonishing labours : and then it was 
that his particular dispensation had its commence- 
ment. So likewise there was a time, when the Holy 
Ghost, more abundantly shed forth by the Father 
and the Son, began to work his mysterious opera- 
tions in a more sensible manner : and at that time 
commenced the particular dispensation of the Spirit, 
which serves to perfect the dispensation of the Son, 
as that of the Son was given to perfect the dispen- 
sation of the Father. 

These, distinctions are founded upon reason, 
upon revelation, and upon the Apostles' creed. 

1. Reason suggests, that mankind must for ever 
remain under the sovereignty of their omnipotent 
Creator, and accountable to him, for the use they 
make of his innumerable favours. Reason further 
discovers, that, if man should admit the darkness of 
error into his understanding, and the fatal influence 
of sin into his will, he cannot possibly recover his 
pristine state, except by the manifestation Of a nevr 
light, and the exertions of a stronger influence. But 
who shall produce the former except that Saviour, 
who « is the light of the world ?" Or, who shall sup- 
ply the latter, except that energetic Spirit, whick 
** heFpeth our infirmities." , 

2. These distinctions are founded upon revela- 
tion. The volume of truth informs us, that the 
Creator foretold the coming of a Redeemer, and 
that the Redeemer, during his outward manifesta- 
tion, proclaimed the near approach of another Coni- 
fbrter. It is undoubtedly true, that some earnests 
of redeeming grace, togetl^er with the first fruits 
of the Spirit, were experienced even by the moat an- 
cient inhabitants of the earth. It is true also, that, 
l»y means of those earnests and first fruits, manjr- 


myriads of mankind have been sared in eFcry age 
of Che worid. But it is no less true* that the pleni- 
tude of these sacred gifts was rcserred to a Teiy 
distant period of time ; since* after the first pro- 
mise of a Redeemer was giFen, sear four thousand 
years elapsed before he made his public appearance ; 
and while he continued upon earth, it is expresslj 
said, that ^* the Holy Ghost was not yet given," in 
itf full measure ; ^* because that Jesus was not yet 

3* Christians are taught to distinguish these dif- 
ferent degrees of eFangclical grace, and to rejoice in 
all the advantages of these three dispensations, 
when they are solemnly baptized in the name 
of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost* And 
this they publicly profess to do so often as they re- 
peat the three principal articles of the Apostles' 
ci*eed. Happy would it be, if through the demon- 
stration of that Holy Sftirit^ in which they affect to 
believe, tbey were enabled experimentally to confess 
their Mmighty Father and his redeeming Son. Every 
one of them might then thankfully add, I experi- 
ence "the communion of saints," and "the forgive- 
ness of lins t*' I joyfully and confidently expect " tho 
resurrection of the body, and life everlasting*'* 

It is presumed, that no doctrines can come more 
strongly recommended to the consideration of pro- 
fessing christians, than those which are undeniably 
founded upon reason and revelation, upon that out- 
"Ward form of baptism, and that primitive creed^ 
which are universally received in the chri&tiaa 

The attentive reader will easily perceive, that 
the difference between thes^ several dispensations} 
Is formed by those different degrees in which the 
i^edeemcr is manifested* Under gentllism and ju* 
dainni, or under the general and particular dispen« 
sations of the Father, the Redeemer is both an- 
nounced and expected : he is announced by the Fa« 


ther's original promise, by tradition, by types, by 
propbecies; and he is expected as a Saviour, >vho 
shall, sooner or later, make his appearance. Under 
the baptism of John, and under that imperfect chrisr 
tianity which is received by a baptism of water, the 
Hcdecmer is apprehended, in some measure, by 
sense ; orby a faith which merely respects the his- 
tory of the Gospel : but he is only apprehended, as 
a Saviour manifested in the fiesht to accomplish the 
external act of redemption. It is otherwise, undei' 
that perfect Christianity, to which we are introduced 
by the mysterious baptism of the Spirit, in ^^hich 
the Redeemer is manifested after a manner abund- 
antly more glorious. He is now received as conw 
ing in the Spirit, after having died for our sins and 
risen again for our justification. Now he perfornis 
the spiritual work of redemption in the soul, deli- 
vering his people from the power of sin by commu- 
nicating lo them the special eflicacy of hii death., 
his resurrection, and his triumph. Henceforth, l.c 
is a Comforter, not only %i)ith, but zw us ; where lie 
spiritually exercises his acknowledged ollices, in- 
structing, purifying, and, finally, subduing- all thiiiij« 
to himself. 


PERSUADED, that confusion is the source 
of a thousand errors, the prudent minister endea- 
vours to place the truths of the Gospel in their pro- 
per order : and reflecting upon those preachers 
who have formerly proclaimed them, he is enabled 
to produce something upon their separate tesiimo* 
nies, which may serve to edify the different classes 
of his hearers. Thus St. Paul> when preaching to 


the Aihcnians, judged it convenient to cite one of 
their own poets, rather than Moses : and thus, in 
addressing those teachers, who leave Ihe Gospel in 
order to set up a vain philosophy, the true minister 
may find it necessary to produce the description 
Hhich Epictctus has given of a real philosopher. 

Every dispensation has had its peculiar preachers, 
and the pastor who is led into alltruih, is anxious to 
second these preachers, by puhlishiiH5»in their proper 
place, those sacred truths which ihey have respec- 
tively delivered, according to Jlheir different propor- 
tions of grace* 

The preachers under the dispensation of the Fa- 
ther, are 

1. " The works of creation. The heavens,"sai(h 
Diivid, <* declare tlie glory of God, and the firmament 
hlicwelh his handy work .: That which may be 
known of God," adds St. Paul," is manifest," even 
ainonj^ lUc hculhcn. " For the invisible things of 
iiim, fi"om thvi creation of the v.oild, arc clearly 
seen, being understood by the things that are made, 
even his eternal power and Godhead ; so that they 
are without excuse : because that when they knew 
God, they glorified him not as God.'' 

2. " Piovidence : Vhe living God," saith the 
Aposile, " who in times past, suflercd all nations to 
walk in .their own ways, left himself not without wit- 
ness, in that he did good, and gave us rain from 
Heaven, and fruitful seasons, filling our hearts with 
food and gladness." 

3. TliO'ic dreadfiil scourges, with which an aveng- 
ing God is constrained to correct a rebellious world. 
Such as" famineypesiilenee, war," &c. 

4. Reason ; which is a ray from that divine 
word, that eternal logos, that true light, which lighl- 
eneth every man that cometh into the world." 

5. " Gonscience : For the Gentiles," saith St. 
Paul, ** which have not the law" written by Prophets 
and Apostles, '• are a law unto themselves : their 


conscience "bearing witness, and their thougjits ac- 
casing) or else excusing one another." 

6, £noch, Noah, and all the holy patriarchs who 
lived before the flood* 

7. All those pious persons, who have inculcated 
tire fear of God, and published the traditionary pro- 
mise which was given to our first parents. 

8, The prophets and priests among the Jews, to- 
gether with the sacred poets and true philosophers 
among the ancient heathens. 

9. Those priests, who,.among Jews, Mahometans, 
and modern Pagans, recommend, with sincerity, ho* 
liness and the fear of God. 

And lastly, all those preachers of Christendom, 
who^ blind to the dispensations of the Son and the 
Spirit, fall back into gentilism, delivering only such 
moral essays, as have been abundantly exceeded by 
philosophers of old. 

As this dispensation has ever had, and still conti- 
nues to have, its celebrated preachers; so it has fre- 
quently had, and may yet continue to have, its con- 
fessors and martyrs. If it were possible to come at 
the history of all those, who have been eminently dis- 
tinguished by their piety under this economy, and 
who have nobly suffered in the cause of godliness, 
we might probably discover many an Abel, and many 
a Zacharias, mkny an Aristidcs, and many a So- 
crates, in every nation under Heaven. Id company 
with these amiable and honourable characters, the 
evangelical pastor is constantly observed, so far a» 
they proceed in the high-way of truth : but he ad- 
vances far beyond theno, when he would associate 
with the preachers of the Son's dispensation. 

The heralds of truth, under this dispensation, are 

1. The priest Zacharias, who announced the ac- 
complishment of the promise which was made to the 

2. The Angel, who first brought down the tiding* 
«f the Messiah's birth, in company yvilh the inulti- 

o d2 


tude of the lieavenlf host, who attended him upon 
that extraordinary occasion. 

Z* Those Jewish priests, who direcled the man-i 
from Jerusalem to the city, in which Christ was 

4. Those celestial voices, which declared, upon 
mount Tabor, and on the ba^ks of Jordan, that Je- 
sus Christ was the beloved Son of the Father. 

5. John the bapiist, who proclaimed Christ come 
tn the flesh, and endeavoured to prepare the peni- 
tent for the dispensation of the Spirit. 

0. Those seventy disciples, who were commis- 
sioned by our Lord to preach the Gospel. 

And, lastly ; all those teachers of the present 
day, who, like Apollos in the beginning of his mi- 
nistry, perceive nothing beyond that inferior dis- 
pensation, of which an outward baptism is consi- 
dered as the seal. 

Under the dispensation of the Spirit, the preacb- 
crs, are 

1. The Apostles, who entered upon their excel- 
lent ministry, after being first miraculously endued 
with power from on high. 

2. All those ministei's of the Gospel, who, after 
receiving into their own hearts " the spirit of adop- 
tion," proclaim the coming of that Spirit to those, who 
have already experienced " repentance toward God, 
and faith toward our Loi^ Jesus Christ." Such mi- 
nisters alone may be said to proclaim the spiritual 
Kingdom of God : and those alone can experimentally 
direct believers to the absolute fulfilment of every 
Compel promise. The teachers of this day,- instead 
of proclaiming the grand promise of Christianity, im- 
liappily renounce that promise ; imagining, that it 
meiely respected the first followers of Jesus, or, at 
r.ost, that it was confined to the earliest ages of the 
christian church. Far from publishing the Gospel in 
its abundant plenitude, these unskilful evangelists arc 
fict able to preach all tiiat imperfect GospeJ, whick m 


scripture language is called, " the baptism of John.'* 
John publicly anoonnced the baptism of the Holj 
Ghost: and far from despising such baptism himself, 
he openly declared, that he had " need to be baptized 
of Christ." Nevertheless, John was i)ut to death be- 
fore the promise of the father was fully accomplished : 
and on this account our Lord declared, that-the " least 
in the kingdom of Heayen," i. e. the lowest under the 
dispensation of the Spirit, should be accounted " greater 
than he.*' Yea, even the soldiers of Cornelius, after 
the Spirit had descended upon them, were assisted to 
publish the mysteries of that kingdom ^ith greateir 

. chamess, and with a more lively conviction, than t^.e 
fore-runner of Jesus had ever done. 

That prophet doubted before his death, as well as 
all the Apostles before the day of Pentecost. But un- 
xier the dispensation of the Holy Spirit, the great 
truths of the Gospel are demonstrated by the power 
of an internal evidence, which leaves in the heart no 
more ixwm for doubt, than a mathematical demonstra- 
tion leaves room for hesitation in the mind. Further. ... 
John the Baptist barely intimated the necessity of a 

. spiritual baptism : but the most illiterate among the 
centurion's servants could say : Christ hath Jbaptized 
me with the Holy Ghost and with fire : and the pro- 
mise, which he hath already fulfilled to me, who am. 
a poor Gentile, he will as gloriously accomplish in fe- 
vour of others, since " the promise is" given " to all 
that are afar off, even as many as the Lord our God 

. shall call." Thus, under this sublime dispensation, 
every faithful servant of the Lord is enabled to pro- 
phesy out of the fulness of l>is heart, and to speak the 
wonderful works of God. Thus also, every zealous 
minister, persevering in his pursuit after evangelical 
truth, becomes, at length, of the same society with 
those, who were the first and most effectual preachem 
of the everlasting Gospel. 

S2$ TKX roErmiiT •* tr. pavi» 


TO reject the Son of God manifested in the 
Spiriti as worldljr christians are universally obserr- 
\ ed to dO) is a crime of equal magnitude Wiih that of 
' the JeWy who rejected Christ manifested in the flesh* 
\Nerertheless, in vain has the Apostle Paul informed 
lit, *^ that Jesus Christ is a priest for ever, after the 
m'der of Melthisedec ; the same yesterday, to-da^ 
and for ever." In vain has John the fiatpist de- 
clared, that <<he shAll baptize us with the H0I7 
Ghost and with fire." In vain, has Christ himself 
made a |;racious offer of this baptism to ail nations. 
In spite of all these declarations, our incredulity 
itill seeks out some plausible reason for re^ectin^ 
the dispensation of the Spirit. 

So long as those perilous times shall continue 
which were foretold by St. Paul, so long we may- 
expect tobehold multitudes of erring professors, who 
like the ancient pharisees, not only refuse to enter 
into the Kingdom of God themselves^ but resolutely 
withstand all thost, who are striving to enter in. 
These faithless christians, resembling the timorous 
spies of old are constantly prepared to discourage 
every persevering Israelite, by raisingevil reports of 
their promised rest. Attached to this present dege* 
Derate world, as the wife of Lot was attached to her 
polluted city, they are ever insinuating, that there is 
little danger to be apprehended in their present 
situation : and as far that full dispensation of the 
Spirit, concerning which so many excdlent thing^s 
are spoken^ tliey confidently assert, .that it cannot 
be expected in the present time, without giving 
way to the highest presumption and folly. On these 
accounts^ it btcomes absolutely necessary, that the 


true minister should stand prepared " to give every 
man a'* solid " aKswer, that asketh a reason of the 
kope that is in him." 

That the extraordinary gifts of the Holy Spirit 
were peculiarly necessary to the Apostles, aod that 
they were actually 'put in possession of such gifts, 
we readily allow. But, at the same time, we con- 
aider these gifts as entirely distinct from the Spirit* 
itself. When the Spirit of grace takes the full pos- 
session of a particular person, he may, if the edifi- 
cation of the church requires it, bestow upon that 
person some .extraordinary gift, in an instantaneous 
manner ; as the prince who honours any subject 
with an important commission, invests him with suf- 
ficient power for the execution of such commission. 
But the presents of 'a prince do not always demon- 
strate his actual presence ; since it i^ very possible 
for a prince to lodge with one of his subjects, upon 
whom he has conferred no inestimable favour, while 
he makes a magnificent present to another, whom 
he has never condescended to visit in person. Thus 
the Holy Spirit descended upon Mary the mother 
of Jesus, together with several other women, as well 
as upon the Apostles, with whom they continued in 
earnest supplication and prayer ; nevertheless, it 
. does not appear, that anyone of them received, even 
the gift of tongues. On the other hand, we arc 
well assured, that many persons, who never received 
the Spirit of holiness, were yet outwardly distin- 
guished by several extraordinary gifts of the Holy 
Ghost# The first king of Israel gave rise to that 
memorable proverb, "Is Saul also among the pro- 
phets ?'* Jonah though he posscsed neither the faith, 
Hor the charily, which are common to many chris- 
tians of this age, was yet commissioned to visit 
Nineveh with an extraordinary message from Hea- 
ven. And we arfe informed, that Judas was endued 
with the power of performing miracles, as Balaam 
had before been honoured with the gift of prophecy 


But, notwithstanding these external appearances we 
may rest assured, that neither Saul, nor Balaam^ 
nor Judas had fully experienced that happy estate, 
which the meane:>t among the primitive christians 
was permitted to enjoy. When, therefore, wc 
assert, thai every sincere belicTcr becomes " a tem- 
ple of the Holy Ghost:" it is not to be understood 
by such expression, that they have received the pow- 
er of working miracles ; &ince in this sense, St* » ! 
Paul himielf was not always replenished with the j 

Spirit. But it should rather be understood, that I 

the same Spirit of humility, of zeal, of faith, and of i 

charity, which so eminently dwelt in Christ, con- j 

tinually flows from him to the meanest of his spi- \ 

ritual members, as the sap is known to pajis frotn \ 

the trunk of a vine.into the least of its branches. 

The old and new Testament sufficiently prove, 
that the special influences of the Spirit are to be 
universally experienced by the faithful in every age. 
Isaiah promises this invaluable blessing to those^ 
who are athirst for God. Ezekiel announces the 
same blessing, in a variety ef passages, to allthosci 
who enjoy the privileges of the new covenant. The 
prophet Joel more directly promises, the extraordi- 
nary effusion of the Holy Spirit, to " the young and 
the old" among the people of God ; to *^ their sons 
and their daughters, their servants and their hand- 
maids." John the' Baptist expressly repeats the 
same promise to all those, who partake of his infe- 
rior baptism* Our Lord invites every believer freely 
to come and receive the long expected blessing. 
St. Peter unreservedly offers it to the truly penitent, 
and St. Paul every where declares, that it is the 
common privilege of christians to "be filled with 
the Spirit.*' Nay, he even intimates, that the name 
of Christian should be refused to those, who have 
not received the promise of the Father. These few 
passages abundantly testify, haw strangely those 
professors deceive themselves^ who confidently 

THB POmTRAlT tt? iT. PAVZ.. .593 

Itffirm that the Holy Spirit was promised to the 
Apostles alone. 

KeTelation is n» sooner admitted, but reason 
itself confirms the very iruih for which we contend. 
Why was the Holy Spirit to be poured out in its full 
measure upon the first followers of Christ ? If in 
order to their sanctification ; have we less need •€ 
holiness than the Apostles had ? If it was to shtd 
abroad in their hearts the love of God ; is that love 
less necessary for us than for them ? If to make inter- 
cession for them with groanings which cannot be ut« 
tered ; were the Apostles supposed to stand in greater 
need of such intercession than all other men ? Lastly ; 
if the Holy Ghost was given, tliat believers might be 
enabled to' cry out...." Who shall separate us from the 
lore of Christ ? Shall tribulation, persecution, or death ? 
O death, where is thy sting ? O grave, where is thy 
yictory ? Thanks be to God, who giveth us the victory^ 
through our Lord Jesus Christ".... if so ; then it should 
seem, that the Apostles alone were called to suffer 
and die in a manner so perfectly worthy of christians. 

The more we meditate upon the scriptures of 
truth, the more we shall be convinced, that the expe- 
rience of real christians, and the reason of natural 
men, coincide'with that sacred volume, in demonstrat- 
ing, that the grand promise of a Comforter must res- 
pect every sincere believer, as well as the first disci- 
ples of Jesus. To reject, then, this precious gifti 
is to trample under foot the pearl of great price, and to 
despise the Redeemer himself in that spiritual appear- 
ance, which is of far greater importance to us than 
his outward manifestation in Judea. Further ; to in- 
sinuate among christians, that the promise of Christ's 
spiritual coming is no longer in force, is to enervate 
the glorious Gospel of God, and to muntain in his 
church that detestable lukewarmness, which will ulti- 
mately prove the ground of its condemnation* It is 
to surpass the Jews in their obstinate tejeclion of our 
•nly Lord and Saviour. There was ho aeed, says the 


incredulous Jew, that the Messiah should suffer and 
die for our sins : nor is there any need, says the carnal 
christian, that the Saviour should come in a spiritual 
manner to reign in my heart. The one destroys the 
body, the other the soul, of Christianity : and both ai*« 
cquul strangers to the renovating power of the Gospcl- 
The U^ue minister, stinjck with the magnitude of 
this sin, so general in the present day, incessantly la- 
bours for the restoration of those, who are defeply 
plunged in so destmctive an error. 


WHATEVER dispensation of grace the true 
minister announces, he is constrained, with St. Paul, 
to brandish bis spiritual weapons << on the right 
hand, and on the left." If he publishes the dispen- 
sation of the Father, he finds it necessary to defend 
its important truths against the daringly prophane, 
on the one hand; and on the other, against the vainljr 
superstitious* When he preaches, the dispensation 
of the Son, he has still greater occasion to arm him- 
self on every part, in defence of the doctrine he 
maintains. On the left'hand, he is attacked either by 
deists, who wholly disclaim all ideas of a Saviour : or 
by socinians, who despoil that Saviour of his greater 
glory : and on the right, he is assailed by ill-in- 
structed christians who under pretence of exalting 
the Son, look down wrth contempt upon the dispen- 
sation of the Father; not considering, that, by this 
error, they oppose one principal design of Christ's 
appearing which was that we might worship the Fa* 
tber in Spirit and in truth. But it is chiefly with rtm 


tpect to the third dispensation, that the christian 
preacher is constrained to wield, without ceasing, 
that "sword of the Spirit," and that « sliield of faith," 
with which St. Paul was so anxious to see every chris- 
tian armed. As this doctrine is abundantly more ele- 
vated than the preceding dispensations, so it stands 
more exposed to the shafts of innumerable enemies. 
On the left, it is incessantly attacked by carnal profes- 
sors, and on the right, by fanatical zealots. These 
two classes of adversaries, though continually at war 
with each other, unhappily agree in opposing, either 
directly or indirectly, the progress of this glorious 
dispensation, obliging the faithful minister, with equal 
intref)idity, to combat both. 

Observe the grand argument, with which carnal 
christians carry on this opposition. * The Comforter,' 
say they, * which was graciously promised to oui* 
Lord's first disciples, was undoubtedly received by 
those highly-favoured missionaries, and conducted them 
into all the truths of the Gospel. From this divine 
Spirit they received continual assistance in spreading 
that Gospel, and by him they were endued with those 
miraculous gifts, which served as so many incontesta- 
ble marks of their sacred ;tnission. But as Christianity 
is at this time firmly established in the world, the 
tetter of the Holy Scriptures is now abundantly suf- 
ficient for every purpose ; and there is no longer any 
necessity for that baptism and illumination of the Spi- 
rit, which were evidently reqliisite among the primi- 
tive christians.' 

'As the mistaken Jews, perfectly satisfied with the 
law of Moses inscribed upon tables of stone, reject- 
ed, with obstinacy, the promised Messiah : so these 
carnal christians, contented v/ith the letter of the 
new Testament, perversely reject the "Holy Spirit of 
promise. Search the Scriptures ; for they testify of 
me," was our Lord's exhortation to those deluded 
formalists: and the true minister continues tlie same 
cschortation upon those, who blindly oppose the com- 
E e 


ing' of Christ's spiritual Kingdom. He is anxious^ 
with his heavenly Master, to put the matter upon 
this issue ; fully conscious, that they who peruse 
those sacred pag;es with an unprejudiced mtnd,niuftt 
readily observe, that, instead of superseding the 
neceosiiy of a spiritual baptism, they give ample 
testimony, that such baptism is to be considered as 
a privilege freely offered to the whole multitude of 

\Vhi!n christians aflnrm, that the manifestation of 
the Spirit is no longer to be sought after, except in 
that mysterious volume which promises this manifest 
tation to the church ; modern Jews might as well de- 
clare, that they look for no other manifestation of 
their Mes-^iah, than that which is to be found in 
those books of Moses and the Prophets, where the 
coming of that Messiah is repeatedly promised. 
But if it be said, the Spirit of Christ was fuUygiVen 
to his first disciples, and that is sufficient for us t 
this argument has in it as great absurdity, as the 
following method of reasoning. Moses instructs 
us, that God created the Sun, and that the patriarchs 
were happily enlightened by it : but the supreme 
illumination of that Sun is no longer to be disco- 
vered, except in the writings of Moses : and those 
labourers are downright enthusiasts, who imagine 
they need any other rays from that luminary, ex- 
cept such as are reflected upon them from the book 
of Genesis. I'he scripture informs us, that God 
commanded the earth to produce a variety of fruits 
and plants for the nourishment of its inhabitants ; 
coven am ing, on bis part, to send refreshing rains 
and convenient seasons. But, we do not live, ex- 
claims a rational farmer, in the season of miracles, 
nf)r am 1 enthusiastic enough to expect, that rain 
shall be sent upon the earth. Mention indeed is 
made in ancient history, of the former and the lat- 
<viTain, ; .and the books which speak of these fruc- 
***»yi:,g:ibho\\ers, and promise a continuance of them 


to the latest posterity are undoubtedly awtbentic : 
nevertheless, all the rain we can now reasonably ex- 
pect, must flow from these books alone, and from 
ihose speculations, which our reason can make upon 
the truths they contain. Who will not smile at such 
a method of reasoning as this ? 

In those things, which respect our temporal inte* 
rests, we arc not stupid enough to be deluded by 
such wretched sophisms, though we frequently de- 
ceive both ourselves and others, wiih regard to 
»;>iritual things, by arguments no less palpably ab* 
aurd. God, says the orthodox profcsbor, undoubt- 
edly caused the Sun of righteousness so effectually 
to. shine upon bcliever-j, on the day of Penteco*it, 
that they were instantaneously baptized '* with the 
Holy Ghost and v\iih fire." A celestial shower, at 
that time, refreshed the church : and the mystic 
vine matured on a sudden, by the direct rays of so 
glorious a luminary, was assisted to produce, intei*- 
nally, a.11 the graces and externally, all the fruits, 
©f the Spirit. But some extraordinary phenomena, 
which accompanied that dazzling Sun and those gra- 
cious showers, have long ago disappeared. Nay, that 
Sun itself is totally eclipsed, with respect to us ; and 
the book, which bears testimony to the constant influ- 
ence of that Sun,, and the endless duration of those 
showers, naw absolutely stands in the place of both. 
Ridiculous divinity I And shall they be <:alled enthu- 
siasts, who oppose such absurdities as these ? Then fa- 
naticism may be said to consist in making a rational 
distinction, bet^veen the pearl of great price, and the 
testament that bequeaths it ; between that sacred vo- 
lume in which the Comforter is merely promised, and 
the actual presence of that Comfjrter in the heai^t- 
To pretend, that we have no longer any need of the 
Spirit of Christ, because we are hi possession of an 
incomparable book, which declares, that " if any 
man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his :'* 
is not this to destroy, at once, both the letter and Spi* 


rit of the Gospel ? And when "we see those christians, 
who profv^ss the utmost respect for revelation, deriding, 
without fear, the manifestation of that Spirit, by 
-which alone '' the love of God" can he " shed abroad 
\n our hearts :" what judgment can we form of such 
persons, but that they are disposed to treat the Gospel 
of our glorified Master, as Judas once treated its per- 
secuted author? whatever air of devotion they may 
assume, while they saKite the exterior of it, their se- 
cret intention is to betray the very life of the Gospel to 
derision and infamy. By arguments of this nature it 
is, thut christian ministers are frequently obliged to 
defend tl^e dispensation of the Spirit, from the outra- 
gtous attiicks of carnally -minded christians. 

But there are times, in which the faithful pastor 
finds it equally necessary, to defend this part of his 
doctrine against high and fanatical professors. In 
every christian country tliere are not wanting such as 
Lave rendered the dispensation of the Spirit contemp- 
tible, by their ridiculous and impious pretensions, 
l^rotestants have blushed for tlic prophets of Ceven- 
ncs, and Catholics ft^r the convulsionaries of Paris. Ih 
order successfully to oppose the progress of enthusi- 
asm, he publicly contrasts the two different characters 
of a presumptuous fanatic, and an enlightened chris- 
tian, in some such terms as follow. The one extin- 
guishes the torch of reason, that he may have oppoitu- 
Ttity to display, in its room, the vain flashes of his own 
pretended inspirations : the other entertains a just re- 
spect for reason, following it as the surest guide, so far 
as it is able to direct him in the search of truth ; and 
whenever he implores a superior light, it is merely to 
supply the defects of reason. The one destroys the 
clear sense of Scripture language, that a way may be 
made for his own particular manifestations : the other 
i'efers evcr}nhing« to the I^awjand to the Testimony,** 
fully satisfied, that if high pretenders to sanctity " speak 
not according to this word, it is because there is no 
light in then^*' The former flutters liimself, that 


\fhUff the means are neglected the ' end may be ob- 
tained, presuming that God will illuminate him in a 
miraculous manner without the help of prayer, stvidy^ 
meditation, sermons, or sacraments ; tiie latter unpre- 
aumingly expects the succours of grace , in a constant 
use of the appointed means ; and conscious, that " the 
Holy Scriptures are able to make him wise unto sal- 
vatipn^'* he tak6s<hem for the subject of his frequent 
meditation, the ground of his prayers, and the gei.e- 
cal rule of his conduct. The fanatic imagines him- 
self independent of superior powers both in church 
and state ; the real christian, a constant friend to truth 
and order, looking up<Mi himself as the servant of all, 
not only acknowledges the respect due to his superi- 
ors, but is ready to give them an account either of hii 
faith or his conduct, \vith meekness and submission ; 
anxious to have his principles supported by appealji 
to the reason and conscience of his adversaries, as v/ell 
as by tlie testimony of revelation. The fiinatic pays 
Uut little regard to the inestimable grace of charity : 
like Simon the sorcerer, he aspires after the extraor- 
dinary gifts of the Spirit, and seduced by a. vain im- 
gination, forsakes the substance that he may pursue 
the shadow :..,.the true christian without despising the 
most inconsiderable spiritual gifts, implores only 
those, which may assist him in. the discharge of his 
several duties, and peculiarly that of charity^ which is 
to be ranked as high above the performance of mira- 
cles, as miracles are to be esteemed abore the tricks of 
jugglers. The fanatic conceives himself to be ani- 
mated by the Spirit of God, when his body is ai^itated 
by a rapid motion of the animal spirits, excited by the 
sallies of an over heated imagiiiation, and augmented 
by hysterical or hypochondriacal vapours :.../! he ju- 
dicious christian detests this enthusiam, which, cover- 
ing religion with a vail of delusion and fixinzy, renders 
it contemptible in the eyes of those, who are ever 
ready to treat devotion as enthusiusiTk. 

EC 2 ' 

^ .rr^rric Tiwr iit u.uhii :u an ni'varraxjcaLfe excess, pcl^ 
*:• V ••t^L-iinir .j-uu aou pu'Sai^in'atfci prAT^rs, produced 
^^i-^ r^ 3Kjai viuicoL tiriurji i ou caJa tkeir attentiaD 

^♦".v— : mh! .s rt«jrr:««fatt« is mamrciicrti! boBtscHy no- 
tiisv a -j'ti '^ro* aie *\ir^»'^.Alc^. c<jr the lifr ; butina 
i. :]jt ^ri^^ "Tiirs. Tj insoirs tiien wkii & just komr 
;; r :3..«s^ <:nu Ji di:iiiiici2mi* he piarrts theak totbose 
«-'>'nr!r»:i/uie »::vju'ut.te!'i wQoae CQcduct they jtre mK- 
•1 ::••:: :v'^v:"^, onu. cTiIiarrs tbeiB Qa icaie theiKkr- 
V .c r.i -nu n :r^-n-^ w.trr x kjuc vcice. tcg :r tiae r with 
r t::— j.-^r -r.:^:^^^ -ji rrtiiruus e^'JATaK^iKe, to the 
>J:rc:-^i:' :js M-crjis oi l:a;u. IT n be necessaEy, he 
e"t:Q A^^;: litis :i:os« saLrr-t-^nc i^rrressiens a*" Elij.^ cry 
aijuu.» AC. lii pet-^biTiijrc ^^i:» p'iTt or kis diznrr ^ i* 
uu-^^-;^ ."!uwcver tu ^t w:tj iicutrnost cBscrttkxn ; 
noi r'vucii^intc the Einuci:^ \r.Li aa irreTrerent ^^hl- 
'^tr?s> aut cx.i\jrtin<? tueia wita -^ possible ifiecrioa 
j..a ^oicmniC^. It ippesirs rent tiie vritingsof Su 
*» 'i^i, :!ia.c cnci^usiaj^ai au*i once risen to so great a 
.. . n w/ie Lo^-uiuiitUi cliurcii. that tiie coiaaiaDioa 
TWii :7».iliit;:vi 2^ tae members of that exarch, acid its 
» .f>.:c ci^-innnctirs ci^rc^ra mto the unncst disorder- 
.- ^*v* if : 'c A :cbvle jiic him-icii be\^a aa enthusiast^ 
t-e '^•:' ^i- 11 A. s <..^t:Q o:ese ciiisorier* witiicat regret; 
t*r ::.!«: Je jeea i_ie the m.niijCcra- ot the present daT^ 
be ^ t.^t '^0.*'^ rt oiceti it uie pretest afTocded him hj 
tie CtJi'inctiians, fcr rLmm^ into hcicuiefie- 
wcrun anil the po.*-<:r of primer and the gift of 
c^ <-r_J.•^-.^. i! ;t, c'tuJIt a'tiicl^cd both to €>Fder and 
zt;il* -*^ wr*:^e to tlicaa jo. tiie fcilowi::^ terois : *^ I 
v:LLi*:. wh-i-t ye ail soiike wIlj toc^^iies* bat ntber that 
re pr^.^~c-Lt:vi : iicr he tLat prcpaeskth etLiieth the 
churirli- 1 Lrjisriuci:," then, * as ye are zealous of 
sr:J"i:i:ui ^tll'-s* 5«.c*i tl^iit ye etjit cicel to the ctiinring 
mi i.c ^-.urcu- ii.ttiirwa^ be Rot chikiren ia uadcr- 


•Btanding; but men. Ye may all prophccf t that all 
may learn, and all ma^ be comforted/' And observe 
tbiS) xhatf^^ the spirits of the prophets are subject to 
the prophetft t for God Is iiot the author of confusion, 
but of peace, as in all churches of the saints. If way 
man think himself to be: a Prophet^ or ^nritual, let him 
acknowledge, that the things i write unto yoii are the 
conunandments of the Lord* Lei all thingk be done 
dece^tiy and in order." It is by adopting the metliod 
of this Apostlej that the good pastor endeavours to 
root up the tares of enthusiasm, without injuring the 
invaluable grain of devotion. 

Here it may, perhaps, be enquired,, if particular 
manifestaticHis ^ the Spirit are admitted, how is it 
* possit^e to shut the door against dangerous illu- 
sions ? Would it not be wiser entirely to reject th« 
dispensation of the Spirit, while it is confessedly at- 
tended with so many difficulties f And would it not 
make for the happiness of the church, was every 
member of it to rest contented with having the holy 
scriptures expliuned according to the best rulesof 
reason and criticism ? We answer ; by no means* 
Bad money, indeed, is frequently put into our hands ; 
but is it necessary, on this account, to obstruct the 
free course of that which is intrinsically good ? And 
would it be reasonable to refuse a sovereign prince 
the right of coining for the state, lest that coin 
should be counterfeited or defaced ? As, in so- 
ciety, after warning the public of their danger, 
^we content ourselves with apprehending the man, 
who attempts to impose on us in this way ; so we 
may rest fully satisfied with adopting the same mode 
of conduct, in regard to the church of Ged. 

Let it be here observed, that the operations of 
the Holy Spirit upon the hearts of believers, are to 
be distinguished from the effects of enthusiasm in 
the imagination of visionaries, just as readily as we 
distinguish health from sickness, wisdom from folly, 
and truth from falsehood. The believers of Rome 

sn^i. *w. ■* ITitt >im: Tt Irsc'.i 3eirsc!j witness with 

H-*i.'- -*-t: *i Ail Jii.:t.:^c'U ' ^xi/ !Li«: CortDthians,, 
- i^>^ i-.>c :c-^:i n^^c :u i^-*> oae Spirit.'* 

-a^rrk ««i:^ • -<:jxi^-». -'* ^-^ -i« Sot ::cf G*:d^ un- 
to .:u *-.* •* *»::. .«^-u '-'.:•'* A^«i/ ^-^s «Lu enthu- 
ift«->k^« -w -^ k n- vvw -n LTuc- jr. i "c^ci tii^T colM re* 
«Lu;c :^^ ;^ u IXC j^.^u* ra*.*^ "L:c -L^i-iJ. tV. n their 

C ^^^ » . '-•i .»^*^' i^ui ic^'^rr "tuiin Li^ ^cuLIc to 

**;*^.. >i. n>i.; ;u.vr-> -ac > :t;s-Ic ; vca lorget 
:::t. *i^>«.«:>i«j." ':r ;ic *• ic-i^'sac^'-'^ia.: /. in^i jour 
t'»'-vc ::> A/' '^ /.j.:rc ~;i;";":itut»«.s» - A.'^ HI -rcrkers 
ik i:..-^-.^>. l.^ -r j..i -uc :^-Ls -£" !:s:j-1i1^ 5 Do aU 
^•^ -A. ». .1 -r^^.c-s- "' r icit; ai i^» taea» !rc ^>oizic 

» :»j^<i xv. c* oi"^ 3trCJtrtC lenio.ea u£ lAC H:Iy 
V. »:•-♦»< . ^'<^- I ■s»ie*» an. J J'i\l tai» aions e!kcel- 

•^^ -' a^T Jc 'H.w.>»\u:iur*i^ aiMrj«cr::iL ^ 4a men* 
U-c Jc'.-.j^t jk u:c ::.*.o*:i:j^ cr^otjctir i In wile Ii tic 
,»^r-^.:: ^ ^u.-l i^ :; ^ic ciiOiii'.iaxioii j» Ctira, cot 
*,:va uio ^ .u u ,7r.-.?uecT luti 3taca I«as tliii of 
!**•'.-: •-4^'i>» .'it i>^<iwi^;" ipuaall:^e c JATicLiri of 

U K». I*'. L ii-i- »^> -.ic --^aS*TDin:^ J£ A i'^-IIsClTie, ftS 

^: r - v-i*^'*>»vr«i . *• \ ii ^:ea *pc-LA. Jr'jtiir:^ ^sirl: cF 

** •;»*. ' ^ .1 > -i*-j * 4."* > ic iHi'^uc JL w jic'i Cliri^i 
hi... ;>,.. ^jj. a.-'«^:?v.::*c'j. vj Ak-^-^e en i-i* jcijiC 

xz: '^'- -'«> :-vr-~i f.ri-r^ .C-^'^ tVuKi. Wi^rtiarr, 
r^* i^-ivT. • c . i> r^ >.:-^ kac-r liioi.** Aii«i» '* ^-iss 

:-. , j: :^..* ^ .» •..* ^\..»i«^.u.c* Sc, ipAiJ, " » I^¥c* ••-•f , 

•:v:j.'«,:* j.."^— s.i^ -.4:. .c^-^*- Ii~jC53> 5:c»i2cs>. £^Ji, 
i.^^^ ;^I•,•>.-^. .^.~' ^.*.tJLv:-/' .^-'" '-•^^•JL-ivLiZa Wis ne- 
▼cjT i..-' '*a :-• , :_•: < iv:-. £ui.-i j.? ci:c5e- Or% i^e co2- 


melancholy, trouble, impatience, fury, vain confi- 
dence, arrogance, and excess of different kinds* 
Nay, it is frequently observed to produce assertions 
diametrically opposite both to scripture and reason, 
together with absurd pretensions to new revelations. 

It may be asked, in this place, with a shew of 
reason, If Christ "still continues to reveal himself, 
by his Spirit, to every true believer, arc not such 
manifestations to be considered as so many new re- 
velations ? To this we reply that when the Apostle 
of the Gentiles petitioned for his Ephesian converts, 
" the spirit of wisdom and revelation," he was not 
to be understood as requesting that Gcd would 
communicate to them a new Gospel ; but rather 
that He would assist them to discover all tlijs glory, 
and experience all the power, of that inestimable 
Gospel, which had been already published among 
them- " Open mine eyes," said David, " that I 
may behold wondrous things out of thy Law." And 
when God was graciously pleased to answer this 
prayer of the royal Prophet, He undoubtedly visited 
him with the illumination of his Holy Spirit. But 
that Spirit was imparted, not for the purpose cf re- 
vealing to him a new Lawj but merely that he might 
be enabled to fathom the depths of that holy Law, 
which had been given long before. Thus also chris- 
tian believers are constantly offering up their joint 
stjppHcations, that God would sti'engthen them " by 
his Spirit in the inner man," not for the experience 
of new revelations, but "that they may been abled to 
comprehend, with all saints, the unsearchable love 
of Christ ; and be tilled with all the fulness of 

After having defended internal Christianity sgainst 
carnal christians, and deluded fanatics the faithful pas- 
tor is obliged, on another part, to resist the attacks of 
gain-saying philosophers. And this he endeavours to 
do, by reasoning with them upon this important sub* 
jcct in the£>llowing manner: 

Tz rr ST. FArx- 

^-sar. 4* & :2.^iiic Sun, 

^ : --r^ ^-^ -^rfnieL-^i 2i.crt pc^cr- 

z cr, .T II ?c^jt iLn.__T -pre iz.^ 


'I ~ ^ - .-- >.:i. ^ : : L iri.. ri -t:!.'*, xr f -•«- 

.^ ^ ■•-.ri ..>i :_^-. :!.:-. Tot •- «^ i»*- TrcL-^:':^*: ':>£ 

'».-^ .i^^,^C • i*^ ii*, 'ttt '"*>«. :tc -i-l-c LCi c: ir.'C 
anna- .?^ - ,;::». v r '^.r- c.*^" t^i -- ;i*<;Jl its 


Tiu poatRArr of »¥• PAiy.. SS$ 

mittary for their c:^istencc, their encrease, and their 
perfectioTi ; may we not reasonably argue from the 
rnlos of analogy* that as certainly as there is a spi- 
ritual world so there must be a spiritual Sun^ which 
carries life and light to the inhabitants of that 

Do you act in a rational manner, continues the 
true minister, if, because you cannot comprehend 
how this SuH may be said to act upon spirits, you 
shut your eyes against his light, and obstinately deny 
his very existence ? Can you comprehend hew the 
material sun, without suffering any decay in him- 
self is continually darting around him rays sufficient 
to illumine and cheer revolving worlds? Can you ex- 
plain, how these rays are impelled, with such amaz- 
ing velocity, through the immense space, by which 
that sun is separated from those worlds ? Or can you 
describe the means, by which they awaken, in us the 
sensation of sight ? Moreover, is it not absurd to sup- 
pese, that the Almighty is more solicitous, that we 
should perceive the difference between white and 
black, than that we should discover the more im- 
portant di$»tinctions between virtue and vice, truth 
aud error? 

If you object, that the material sun is plainly 
perceived, and .the power of his beams universally 
fell, by mankind ; it may be replied, that he is not 
always discoverable. Sometimes he i% eclipsed ; 
frequently he is enveloped with thick clo\ids ; and 
at other times his rays glunce upon us in se oblique 
a manner, that their influence is scarcely perceptible: 
it is possible also to exclude his light by means of 
curtains or walls, and the cataract eifeclually op« 
poses his most direct beams. In the moral world 
there are obstacles of a similar nature, which fre- 
quently obstruct the course of ctlcstial light. Clouds 
of error and vice 'are constantly rising around us, 
which by ol)scuring the Sun of righteousness, 
leave room for the iiicrtduloub to doubt of his exist- 

eoce* ' The eye is, in general^ %o much daxided 
wilh tbe glare of material objects, that it canmt lit*^^ 
cover the lustre of a differeot light* Sometimes 
invincible prejudicet like a confirmed cataractf is^ 
tercepts the strongest raystif tmth ; aod, at otl»ir 
time99 we are so closely shut up within the nxrroNr 
limits of selMove, that the most piercing ixamsof 
uncreated lovej cannot penetrate into onrig^ieidiDy i«w 
tirementi where that spark of reaaon> whidh mig^ 
have directed us to a higher light, is at length totallf 

The light of the Gospel is never absdntely Te^eofe*' 
edybut through the influence of sin^accordingto those, 
words of Christ : << Every one, that doth evil batetlr 
the light, neither cometh to the light, lest his decdB 
should be reproved." And here we see the cause^ 
why so many persons cast themselves headlong into 
materialism, denying the inspiration of the Holf 
Spirit, and treating every impression of his power 
as the workings of a disordered brain. - But as the 
testimony of blind men can never persuade a rea^ 
sonable person, that he is under a delusion, while 
he sees, feels, and admires, the material sun ; so the 
joint testimony of all the incredulous men in the 
world, may justly be counted of as little force, when 
they would prove scriptural illumination to be 
downright fanaticism. Notwithstanding all the im- 
potent arguments that can be brought against 
him) the christian believer des»erves not to be es^ 
teemed an enthusiast, when he declares that '^ faith 
is the evidence of things not seen ;'' since he has 
reason and revelation to plead in bis favour, his own 
experience, and that of his brethren, together with 
the universal testimony of the primitive church. 

As you do not rank with professed atheists, it. 
is probable that you do sometimes pray to the Su-*> 
preme Being. Among other biesbings, you implore 
of him in a peculiar manner, patience to sustain, 
those alHiclions, which are necessary to the perfection 

THE ?OJlT»AIT OF •▼* ^A^L. 357 

of wtiic. Now if yoti are persuaded, that God is 
able not only to hear, but to , strengthen yon with 
hi» mij^ht : and, further, if you believe that, when 
he thus strengthens you for the day of affliction, you 
shall have any perception of his influencing power; 
ve are then perfectly agreed. But if you pray, with- 
out a cwifidcnce that God attends to your prayer, 
and without ever expecting to receive the assistance 
you implore of Him, you act like persons deprived 
of their reasoning powers : with the fear of praying 
like enthusiasts,' you pray after the manner of idi- 
ots, and afford as manifest a token of extravagant 
folly, as though you should intreat tempests to 
grow calm, or beseech rivers to return to their sour- 
ces. It is by such a method of reasoning, the true 
minister resists the attacks of prejudiced philoso- 
phers, solicitous to make it appear, that the sanctify, 
ing and consoling operations of the Holy Spirit are 
fis conforitnable to reason, as they are correspondent 
lo our urgent necessities. 

But, if it still be urged by the enemies of inspi- 
ration^ that we have no distinct idea of the manner, 
in which any knowledge is conveyed to the soul, ex- 
cept by means of our reason, or our senses ; and 
that to speak of things, which will admit of no cilear 
explanation, is running into the wildest enthusi- 
asm* No, returns the faithful pastor : it is not usual 
to esteem that man an enthusiast, who is employed 
in bestowing alms upon the poor, though he can nei- 
ther explain to us, how his gold was produced in 
the mine, how his will actuates his hand, or how the 
feelings of charity are excited in his bosom. If na- 
ture operates every thing in a mysterious manner, it 
is unreasonable to expect, that the operations of grace 
should be conducted in a less mysterious way. This 
is one of the arguments proposed by our Lord to Ni- 
codemus. " Except a man be bom of the Spirit, he 
cannot enter into the Kingdom of God." But, it 
^mjf^y be, you have no comprehension of spiritual 

M f 


things : marvel not| hofwreri at thift; 9Uice tberchare 
many thipgs aboT£ thy comprehieDtsioo in the naliw 
ral world* ^ The wind bloweth whf re^ it liaitetbi 
and thou bearest the lound therepf, but ca^st noj^vt^l^ 
whence it cometh and whither it goeth ^ so is>^y^rf 
one that is born of the Spirit:" they pcove the opera- 
tions of that Spirit by incontestable efifepts, thpu|^ 
they are unacquainted with many things r^^^pfp^ng 
the manner in which those effects ar^ p/poduced* • 

We may here very [Mx^periy apply whatprofesaov 
Vernet has said^ concerning the manner in. Hf\uch 
God has frequently manifested the truth to his Vfi^ 
phets. '^ It is easy toconceivey^'says this judipi^us 
divine, ^^ that He who created the soul a3. well,a»j(bc 
«< body^ and who for that reason iscaUed the Fa{^er 
<< of Spirits, can never be at a loss for adequiatcm^ma 
« of communicating to us^whenhe judg«si(; aecefr- 
<< sary, ideas and discoveries wholly different from 
^ thosC} which we are able to acquire either by our 
<< own powers, or through the assu^tance of other 
f< persons. If the most ignorant classes ^of men are 
<^ acquainted with the art of reciprocally commttiu^ 
*^ eating their thoughts to each other ; how much 
*< more may we imagine, that God is able to act upon 
<' the soul, both externally and internally ; he» who 
<( has already placed within us some confused no-. 
<<tions of primitive truth ; he, who holds sepcoid 
*< causes in his hand, and animates all nature*'' 

But if it be. asked, are not Prophets properly so 
called, the only persons whom God; is pleased to 
priviltge with such impressiona as^ ace. formed by 
the seal of his Spirit ? It might with equal cproprietf, 
be enquired, whether the Apostles alone fw«re privi- 
leged with that evangelical faith, whici^ reapecU ii^ 
visible and incomprehensible things? *^ A soul/' 
says the illustrious Crou$az, ^< upon w^hich the Spi- 
(< rit of God has moved, muses upoa her Grealor with 
(( ineffable, delight, and contempialiea her Redeemer' 
« with a mixture of gratitude^ admiration^ andtcaos- 


« p<M*t. O toy God I such a soul is incessantly cty- 
^ ing ^Ut, when shall I see thy face ? When shall 
« thy light 4Htimin4te me wkhout any darkenm^ 
** cloud I To approach Thee 4s my only happiness. 
*> Happy they who praise thee without ceasing." 

' •* I acknowledge," contioues this christian philo- 
«opl^v, ^* that these may be the natural e£Bects of 
^^ that attenftion, with which the Spirit of God has 
" gf«<aously fixed mif minds upon Ihobc oibjects, 
*^ wkkh revelation ppescn/ts to our view, and upon 
" » w^hich it dil»ects us to occupy our thoughts* But 
« t afn not afraid of going beyond the truth, when 
« i add, that the Spirit of God by his own immedi- 
** ate agency, may inspire the soul wiih this sacred 
« ta*te and these exalted sehiimenls. Corporeal ob- 
¥ jffet5 act upon the organs of sense by a power, 
** which th^y undoubtedly receive from God. This 
^ m^y, in some measure, be understood : but in 
" what manner their action passes from thence upon 
« the soul, is a mystery too obscure to admit of an 
*' explanation* Christian philosophers have con- 
** ceived, that the will of God, and some established 
^* order of his appointment, are the only causes of 
** those internal sentiments, of which these impres- 
^ sions upon the outward organs are but the occa- 
*♦ «on. This being the cai»e, under what pretext 
'^ can we refuse to believe, that thfe Spirit of God 
" may give rise to such sentiments in the soul, as 
<< are abundantly more conformable to the nature of 
«.• their holy cause, than those ordinary sentin^ents, 
** which are, neveFlheless, referred to the will of 
M Godi as their Hrat and tru^ cause ? Such are tho^e 
^ senttm^ntsv which St. Paul so earnestly solicit etl 
^^ for his foUowers at Ephesus, and for ihe increase 
*f of which, he implorfed upon them the influence of 
« the Holy Spirits 

Such are also (hose impressions, motions, and 
aids of the Holy Spirit, both mediate and immedi- 
ate for which wc ofier up &o many ardent supplica* 

S4^ . THE ^dE'TRAtT OF ST. PAffL* 

tloiis |tt dHFerfent parts of dtir paWlc service. Etery 
christian liturgy is fillefd'with pctitiohs of tbh na* 
Wte ; petitions, irhich afe conformable to the prin- 
ciples of Christianity, the voice of reason, aftd' thfe* 
necessities of sinful men, though they lisiially^ ap- 
pear to the children of this world, as the me^e ilniii- 
telligible jargon of enthusiasm. The nifini8ter,^h(y 
strictly follows the example of St. Paul iri thi% re-' 
spect, will most probably be regarded as a visional^ 
by the ignorant and the profane : but, "white 'h^' 
breaths out these ardent prayers, iti htiittbTe fik'h, 
accompanying them with those disdo^irses and that 
conduct, which are correspondent to such requests jf 
he has, at least, a satisfactory consciousness, that he- 
has never practised the arts of an impostor with the' 
liturgy in his hand, nor played the part of a comedian 
•ki a christian pulpit. 

As to the real advantages, which would flow frotn 
our doctrine of the dispensations, though they have 
been adverted to in various passages of this work, yet 
it appears not unnecessary to take a transient review of 
them in this place. 

1 . By an accurate acquaintance with these dispen- 
sations, every evangelical preacher may become " an 
approved workman, rightly dividing the word of 
truth ;'* and a " faithful servant," distributing to every 
domestic of his Master's household, that peculiar por- 
tion of spiritual food, which is suited to their several 

2. By exactly dividing the dispensations of grace,' 
we are enabled to mark out the boundaries, of those- 
particular states, which believers of different classes 
are observed to enjoy. We ascertain that degree of 
spiritual life, to which we ourselves have attained : we , 
distinguish the various graces bestowed upon us : wc 
discover whatever great promise is still before us, and 
solicit, without ceasing, the complete accomplishment 
of that promise. He, who preaches the Gospel, widi- 
Gut tracing out the lines which separate the three cUs*^ 

rUZ ONDRTRAiT Of. $T* PAUL* 341 

{Idt^sa^ions of grace^ m»j^ b6 %M to exhibit a sunrdiaU 
upon which the hourfi are .uimiark^^ and from which 
little else than cpniusioni ifnort da»g^rous mistakeBf 
CsWv be expected to flow, 

, 3« By the light o£ thi6 d^cjUine, true woi*shippeK» 
of ^ver,y diffepcait class^ may he4;aughfc to acknowledge 
and.estb^tn.(n;ie ano^ier^^accordrng to their different fte** 
gree^: of faith. J^othing is more commeu U^ a chnstiai> 
country,, than to see- the rigidly orthodox^ ^moharitablf . 
ti'eatijQg^ as hopeless outeast^^ not only those viirtuoas 
dtdstSy whoare yet unacquainted with the Squ, but 
^yen thos^ pious socinians, who are resting satisfied 
with that inglwious state? in which the first disciples 
of Q^T; Lord were so long detained ; and wlio are un- 
able, to. acknowledge any more than his humanity. 
Let. thes© orthodox professors become acquainted v ith 
the various dispensations of grace, and, ceasing to of-. 
fend^ either virtuous deists or pious socinians, with 
their furious anathemas ; they will treat the former 
with all th« benevolence, which St. Peter once ex- 
pressed toward Cornelius, and the latter with that bro* 
therly kindness, which Aquila manifested in his car- 
riage toward ApoHos. On the other hand, if those 
christians, who are yet carnal, had any proper idea of- 
these different dispensations ; if they could but be- 
lieve, that the same Jesus who was once, outwardly 
n^anifested among the Jews, still continues to mani- 
fest himself in the ^irit, through every part of the 
world, to those who are anxiously pressing into the. 
Kingdom of God : if they could admit, but in theory, 
thia eminent dispensation of grace, they would no 
loiter argue against those, as enthusiasts, who speak 
of tibte influenc^of the Spirit in scriptural terms. 

So loi^ as this glorious light shall continue inob*. 
a^rity, so long we may expect to observe among chris- 
tians the most unfriendly disputes : and though they 
never ^ainmay kindle blazing piles for their mutual 
destructicm, yet bkter words interchanged among; 
tinemj-^e so maSDy.invenomed >haft#9 will still contir- 

E f 2. 

pnc to dedaBCy-tluit war is in their hearts. - Thos^^ who 
imagine themsfilvca in posseasioii of the parest%iais^ 
tian faithi wiH tread othci^wha!infkilgedi&seBt«6epti«- 
mcntS) IL& infidels asd henetics^wfaileiheseiarettHm,' 
will 8t^niati2» their uncfaaritaljlr brethneD- with the 
opprobripua epithets i)f.omhiisiaatia]«i £anatijb. rcB^ut 
when every minister of Che Gotpel^- eniighteBed^wifch 
tiiiih aad glowing with chanty » faslMaikf coiHliici;tl]e 
fiock of Christ from grace to grace, and iixmijstrengtii 
to strength) then the foremost of that flotk^ahaSraani* 
feat their religious superiorityi by giving pmo& of the 
most unfeigned affection toward the Baeanest^andiaost 
infirm of their sjnritual companionfi. Copying the hum^ 
ble courtesy of St. Paul) these unpresuming elders will 
cry out, amoi^ their younger brethren.; ** Letlis^aa 
9^any as be like-minded, forgetting those thiiigsi that 
are behindhand reaching forth unto. those things wJiich 
•are before, press" earnestly " toward the mark) fee the 
prize of the high calling of God in Christ J esosii .and 
if in any thing ye be otherwise minded," that perfect 
charity which hopeth all things, engages uato beliete,. 
that "God shall reveal even this unto you. Never-- 
theless, whereto we have already attained, let us walk 
by the same rule, let us mind the same things " 

It may not be amiss to c<»ielude these remarks 
upon the three grand dispensations of gnace, by ob» 
serving, how imperfect worshippers deceive them^ 
' selves, while they refuse to proceeed from feith 
to faith* It is the opinion of many sincere^ deists^ 
who ai*e zealous fer the dispensation of the Father^ 
that were they to embrace the dispensation of the 
Son, they must necessarily detract . from the honoor 
due to the incomprehensible God» This,prgudiee# = 
however,.evidently Hqws from the want of spiritual dis* 
cernment ; since the holy Scriptures instruct ui, that^ 
when " at tlie name of Jesus every knee shall bow, and 
every tongue confess, that he is Lord of. Heaven and 
eanh," siK^h religious adoraiion §haU be considered as.. 
uUinxately heightening '^ the,. glory : joC tiod the Fars 

rtiBW^xPOKTMiklT.'^m mc^ PATH.. 34S 

ther.- Now H^^^ie: Eathen leads us M<theiS€di^ by the 
dasmings of his graoeyas :we«)r&tai3ght by-the foitow^ 
m^ 4)«isage8..^^..No<nia]:i oaa come unto -me, except 
.the Faidier draw hkn. Simon Fetei? saidy Thou art 
Qhriit ^he Son. of the Imug Godc > Jtefua 'Otiswered 
iaitti, Blessed aUt thoKi Simon Bavjoba:^ for flesh and 
blood:: hath: not revealedl'it unio tisee, bivt my Fathet 
whidaisiSi heavens it is equally certain^ ^hat, when 
jwe come to Onrist^ he teaches us both to know and 
worship the Father. Observe the language of our 
Lord) with ne^Gt to this^pbint. <' I am the way, the 
tni^9 and the life : no man cometh unto the Father, 
but by me; Father, glorify thy Son, that thy Son 
jtlao may >gknrify Th^e. This is life eternal, that they 
might know Thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ 
whom^ thda hast sent. Righteous Father, the world 
jlath not known thee ; but I have known thee, and 
these have knbwn that thou hast sent me," to make 
an op^i display of thy glory upon eaith. " I have de-. 
Glared unto them thy name, and I will declare it,'^ 
yet more perfectly. From these passages it evidently 
ai^ears, that the faith of the Son can never posably 
take away from that profound veneration, which is 
due to the Father. And what is here observed relative 
to the faith of the Son, is no less true with regard to 
the laith of the Holy Spirit. For if, under the dispen* 
sation of Jesus, we learn to address " our Father, who 
is in Heaven," with a degree of humble confidence, it 
is cmly under the dispei;iBation of the Spirit,ithat we are 
enabled to make those addresses with all that filial re- 
verence and that lively fcrvour> which the Gospel re* 
quires. This ** spirit of adoption," by witnessing <' with 
«mr spirit that we are the children of God," assists us 
to bow before our celestial Parent, with that ineiFable 
vexkeration and love, which are due to the Supreme 
Being. If philosophers would duly reflect upon these 
important truths, they would no longer tremble under 
the vain apprehension of becoming idolaters and tri- 
theisis, by admittmg tbedogtrisres of the Gospel. Qa 


the contrary,, we might indulge » hope, tha^ those, 
proud reasonerft would ooc day be seeiH ui company 
with humble bebeverft, approaching the God<]f their 
Fathers^ through the iutercesaion of the Sou, and. 
with the energy of the Holy Spirit ; crying outf .with 
St« Paul: «« There iaoae God, and one Medialiof be? 
tween God and man, the. man Christ Jesua; aa^ 
through him we jiaTe ac<cea% by one Spirit) unto thtr^ 

There it another Glass- of worthippers, who «i<e 
aealous far the dispensation of the Son, and whosr 
wholly taken up wkh the <^ ivord xnanifeste4 in the 
fittshy" imagine that hi» diapensation is rendered con<- 
tcmptible, if it be represented merely as the commenoe*^ 
mcnt ai Christianity^ while the perfection of th&Go&» 
pel is declared to consist in the dispensation, q£ the 
Holy Spirit. To the consideration of such, we woukt 
profxwe the following expression of St. Paul ; ^ Hence- 
forth, know we no man after the fiesh: yea^ thougW 
we luiire, known Christ after the flesh, yet, henceforth* 
know we him no more,'^ after thia manner. And 
though our Lord is acknowledged to have spoken on, 
this wise, ^^ whoso eateth my flesh and drinketh my 
blood, hath eternal life. ; and I will raise him up. at 
the last day : for my fiesh is meat mdeed, and my 
blood is drink indeed"....yet9 it must Ukewiae be ccm*- 
fessed, that he immediately added, It is the Spirit, that, 
quiekeneth ; the fie^profiteth nothing.'' 

The fc^owing observatiQn% it is hoped^ will civ* 
tirely dissipate the fears of these pious peraoBa.< 
(<■ When the Spirit of truth is come," soitlt our Lord,c 
<^' he will guide you into all truth ; andespecialljs into* 
those truths, which, respect &ith;ttMKa£d. me, and re-- 
pentanee toward my Fiather^ ^ He shaU ^rify me x 
for he shall receive of mine, and shalLshew unto you^?'. 
the merits of my rightesuaneas^ the eflicacy of my 
death, and the power of my Clospel. "The .Fathen> 
shall g^ve you anot|ier Comfi)rtec, whom ye" already 
«:4uK>w?' in. parti i^ fiw he duraUetb. with you," eyen^ 

THE FdRtltAIT Of it. ^A^L. 345 

Bcw iti Thy bodily presence t but, hereafter, rife " shall 
bt in yoa," when I shall have baptized you With the Holy 
Ghost sent down from Heaven. " i will not leajve you 
comfortless : I will come untx> you. The world seeth 
me no more ; but ye shall see i*ie," in the effects of 
my indwelling power: and «* because I live, ye shall 
Ifre also. At that, day, ye shall know, that I am in 
BPiy^Ffether, and ye in me, and I,** by my spirit, ^^ in 
you." This spiritual abode of Christ in the souls of 
hl^ peoj>le, is the most glorious mystery of the Gospel ; 
artd ** if liny man have not the Spirit of Christ,** he is 
at best, but a disciple either of Moses, or of John the 
Baptists he is -not' in a spiritual, but in a carnal 

** I live : y^ not I, but Christ liveth inline. Christ 
is our life. The mystery, which hath been hid from 
s^s, is Christ in you the hope of glory. My little 
children, of whom I travail in birth, until Christ be 
formed in you. These," with a thousand other scrip- 
tural exp«*essions, must be utterly incomprehensible to 
those, who, resting contented. with a literal knowledge 
of the incarnate word, admit not the internal manifes- 
tation of Christ by his spirit of revelation, wisdom, and 
power. « The deep things of God are reveajed unto 
us by his Spirit ; . and, without thi$ Spirit, we must 
continue strangers to the most exalted truths of the 
Gospel and be cut off from the purest springs of reli* 
gious consolation. " This is he," saith St. John, « that 
came by water and blood, even Jesus Christ : not by 
water only, but by water and blood. And it is the Spi-i 
rit, that beareth witness, because the Spirit is truth." 
As though the Apostle should say ; Christ indeed, in 
the first part of his ministry, proclaimed that repent- 
ance toward God, which his own disciples, as well as 
John the Baptist, were accustomed to seal with a bap- 
tism of water. And to this .sacred ceremony he him- 
setf eondescendingly submitted. But, after this, he pro« 
cecded further, when, as a visible Saviour, he sealkd 
his own diepensation of gprace with a baptism of blooA 


upon the cross. Moreover, k is the Sptrit,tfaat j^fveii 
testifnony to the unsearohable tn^s tyf l^e Oospel^ 
by hk ^1 mcure excellent baptism: deepet^ig^ our 
FcpeatiQiioe toward Go«l, and adding a^ fiiU assirrance*^ 
to our £uth in Jesus Christ. Let no one then Sfitspe<?l» 
^at the manifestation of the Spirit must necessaMiif 
obscure the glory of the Son ; espectaily since it is est* 
pressly deckred,^ that no man can say,thbt Jesiis is 
the Lord» but by the Holy Ghost/' 

Before we close this section, we tete to httnetit, 
that this important part of the Gospel is rarely pub* 
liahed among professing diristians. The grater p&rt 
of the clergy are to be ranked widi the inost violent 
opposers of spiritual religion. They insult its follow- 
ers, they condemn »ts advocates ufoheatrd, and presninp^ 
tuously <^ speak evil of those things which, they kifow 
not." As there was a time, in which the Jewish 
church cvcrlooked the most important promfee under, 
the dispen ation of the Father ; so it was intimated 
that a time would come, in which the christian cimrcb, 
sunk into a st&tc of listlessness and incredulity, should 
neglect the grand promise under the dispensa^on of 
the Son. " When, the Son of man cometh,*' s&ith 
our Loi'd, « shall he find faith on the earth?" He will 
£nd little indeed, if we may either rdy upon our own 
observatiQUs, or give credit to the most soknm asser* 
tions of a predicting Apostle. 

All our ecclesiastics, however, arc not of thi» de- 
acriptioQ. Among the thousands of this saered order, 
we firi4 many, who are possessed of godly iear, scrip* 
tural £^ith, and christian charity. These pious eran- 
gelists are anxious for the salvation of those commtt" 
ted to their charge. They labour to spread the King*^ 
dom of God among men, though they have niefver ex- 
perienced that kingdom according to the fulness of 
the promise. An4 though they are unacquainted 
with the abundant plenitude of the Gospel, yet ihey^ 
cease not to publish that Gospel abroad with affection 
md xeal. Thejr preach the cross of Christ : bnt they 


proclaim not the spirkual coming of a risen Saviour. 
As their careless brethren refuse to publish the coming 
of the SfHnt) through infidelity and prejudice, so these 
tipright ministers neglect to preach it> through uncer<* 
tainty and irresolution. If they even entertain a just 
f^inion of tlie doctrine for which we plead, yet they 
are restrained from speaking frequently and freely 
upop the subject, because, as many false christians 
have rendered the dispensation of the Son contemptible 
in the eyes of deists ; so many vainly-inspired zealots 
have caused the dispensation of the Spirit to appear 
ridiculous before sober-minded christians. But, not- 
withstanding the reproach, which many fanatics, of 
various sects, have brought upon this sublime part of 
the. Gospel, by mingling with it the reveries of an 
heated imagination, yet it will constantly be regarded, 
by every well-instructed christian, as the quintessence 
of our holy religion. 

There appears little probability, that this neglected 
doctrine will be either universally received or preached, 
in our degenerate day. But as truth has never been 
left entirely destitute of witnesses, and as the gene- 
rality of ministers have still courage enough to main- 
tain, before an unbelieving world, the dispensation of the 
Son ; we may reasonably hope, that they will continue 
to mention the dispensation of the Spirit, -at least, on 
every commemoration of the pentecostal glory. By 
this means we may preserve among us a precious 
spark of sacred fire, till our returning Lord, bursting 
through the clouds of incredulity, shall kindle the 
spark into an everlasting flame. In that day, the idle 
pretensions of enthusiasts shall no more influence be- 
lievers to reject the Hol^ Spirit, than the vain preten- 
sion of those false Christs who formerly appeared 
among the Jews, could influence the faithful to reject 
tlletr only Lord and Saviour. The dispensation of the 
SpiHt shall then appear as glorious to the eyes of ad- 
miring christians, as the dispensation of the Son ap- 
peared to ravished Simeon : and every apostolic pas- 


ffJMTUlT €9 ST. PAUL. 

is iD^froafttke Aapensadon of the 
F^faov throQ^ th^ «r tke Son, to that of the Holy 
Sptrifc^ m as n^id asHBoav as St. Peter is repoited to ' 

■■PC OHK n us first t 



M S S A Y 

AN Tax 







SOME divines, almost wholly occupied with 
the doctrines of the Gospel, are not sufficiently care- 
ful to insist upon morality : while philosophers, for 
the most part, as wholly taken up with morality, treat 
the doctrines of the Gospel with neglect and disdain. 
It is to reconcile, if possible, these two mistaken classes 
of men, that a few observations are here presented 
upon the importance of such' doctrines, and their im- 
mediate connexion with morality. 

Morality is the science, which regulates our man- 
ners, by teaching us to know and to follow justice, ren- 
dering to every one their due, love, honour, obedience, 
tribute, &c. The whole of this morahty is included 
in those maxims of natural and revealed religion.... 
•* Whatsoever ye would, that men should do unto you, 
do"ye even so unto them. Render unto Cesar, the things, 
which are Cesar's ; and unto God, the things, which 
are God's." Hence it follows, that pure moralhy must 
maintain some form of divine worship. 

Some moralists, it is true, imagine it possible to 
be strictly just, without making any profession of piety. 
But if justice consists in doing that to others, which 
we desire may be done to ourselves ; it is clear, that 
every man who honours not the supreme Being must 

353 TWB FttKTiRAiT OF ST. ?Art. 

be unjtisr as weTl as impious : since if wfe are paretJts 
at benefactors, we ihanifest s6 deep a sensibility of the 
injustice of our children or dependat^ts^ when they re- 
pay out kindness with insolence and ingratitude. , 

Doct/mea are, i^ general, pr66epts:hivt b^ 'doe- ! 

^ines, are hercj'particuiarty, tinderstbod, llioS(^ !nsh*uc- ;, 

tions, which Christ ahd hJs Apostles hairfe g;iveii^T^fe- ^ 

«pecting the different relations, In which we s'taiiia ti , 

God, and to each other, tdgethcr with the VariouiS dti- f 

ties consequent iipoti such relaliohs;' 

Such instructions, as are transmitted ftom getierfc 
tion to generation, under the name of maxims or doc- 
trines, whether they be true or false, have a prodigi- 
ous effect upon tlie conduct of those wJio admit them. 
In the ancient world, how many hapless infants have 
been tocrificed among the Greeks and Romans to that 
barbarous maxim, that fathers have the right of life 
And death over their new*bom children. In the mo- 
dern world, how vast a number of unborn infants, and 
how many fanciful heroes are failing every year un- 
fortunate victims to tliose maxims of false honour: It 
is better to destroy the fruit of an illicit love, or to 
plunge a sword into the bosom of a friend, than to live 
without that, which constitues the honour of the sexes* 
Overturn these maxims of a false point of honour, 
and you destroy the principles, upon which a thousand 
impious actions are committed. 

Mankind ci£i no more divest themselves of all pre* 
possession in favour of general maxims, than they can 
lose sight of determining motives. The atheist and 
the infidel have their particular doctrines, as well as 
the just man and the christian. The inconsistency <^ J 

some philosophers^ in this respect, is hei:» worthy to «' 

be noted, who begin their discourses by decrying max- 
ims in general, and conclude them, by setting forth 
and maintaining^ the ipnost dangerous doctrines. The 
road to permanent happine;5s,. say they, is both conye- 
nient and spacious^ The Almighty pays but little re* 
{|ard to our actions, and ha& endued us with passiooee^ 

for die veiry purpose, of grg^ifyjing^ tlj«m. ,Tlic^ .insi- 
nuate, that if a. man is sufRcienUy rich tp'.^ntertai^^ 
number pf wom^n, he jnay innocently 6nJQj|^'', whate^ver 
pleasure, .their ^(pqiety can raSord him : an^cj^th^tj when . 
hte, h^p, no Ioji_ger any. relish for life^ he iway ,a^/V^nc^ 
ccnjt);^ blow put his btws. Such, are th<9 ^octriues^ 
iB^ -^|^(?|i 1^, which many ijl-if^^tructed 
ji'afes^oi'js j»r^ pr^diing^ ?imong us J^t this clay | giving; 
ao^pje . Wtii^pny, t,h^t np men are mpre^ ri^ady, toj^t^ ^ 
up for dogmatists, dian thosei vJiQ reject ti)^ 4QQ^'i«eta 
0f.^Uj^.,jCipspeU- . ! 

^ : . . . i:HAP. L 

fe"' ..♦.■■••-''■ 




AS those, who affect exterior acts of devotion, 
are not always possessed of the most solid piety ; so 
they, who are foremost to magnify philosophy, are 
not always to be regarded as the wisest of mankind. 
Tt must, however, be confessed, that many christians , 
have afforded philosophers too just a subject of scan-.- 
dill, by continually opposing faith to reason : as though,^ 
in order to be possessed of the richest christian grctce,' 
f it were necessary to renounce that noble faculty, which 

f :. cliiefly distinguishes us from the briite creation. Like' 

ii the great Apostle, we may rationally oppose faith to 

I sense j but we can never, without the highest indiscre— 

' tion, oppose it to reason. , We shonld even be cautious • 

' of saying with Mi'de Voltaire and St. touis, '' Take 

heed how you follow the guidance of your weak rea-' 
son,*' ' The reason of man is acknowledged to be 
v,feak, when compared with the intelligence of sup t-rior; 

Beiogs. But w&aferer Ub ^vericnsM imtf be^it bet-» 
c«me8 «S9 with ^gratitude, to Ibtlow it as 611IP guidt^ s ' 
flinoe^ in a glbgun^ nighty it idbetJttr ta-jtrG^tr^finiifi^tliei 
smaUest tarprrt!te€ can be proaicMl^ tkaii oba i ' iMitttelyi > 
to shut our ey«8 aik) w^lk at rasxibm:' ff feeite »gf » j 
prdtr the reveksrtson ttf Chriat iwafofe* dieipillio dtf p i y ^ 
of infidels^ H iabecaose* (he nnat enfightroerf/wfaimy" 
influences their choice. ...•.-♦;■ '* 

The true beiiefcr is notrBir^^ yfe jpMug ggnliiaa^^ 
Ttodern phtiosophera before' the tfrfMsnai ^^eiettma,.' 
"You accuse me," he may aay, ^ ofMrof>enrtitfen> 
" because in pfunuing those iuMioara, nches^ aiMl.|ilea«o 
<' aurea, which are external^ I havfrchocen;.the wngh'' 
** uncomloTtable path tif piety. But, wlnic J «ct thtts,^ 
*< I act in no leas conformity to the princi]^!es ofi^aasofit * 
^^ than the mai^ who> to expel a sweet poison^ receives'^ 
" a bitter antidote, and cheerMly si^mits to adis-^ 
*^ agreesU>ie regimen, till he is restored to perfeict 
^ health. If tlie sacrifice oi a few trifiiaig csnjoyttiettia^ 
** for the present, wM secure to me th« possesflk>b of ^ 
** everlasting felicity, 1 do but imitate ttie prwIeM 
^ husbandman, who deprives himself, to-day, of a 
^ few bushels of grain, that after a few mootha o£ 
** patient expection, he may reap from his trivia} 
<< loss an abundant harvest. And is it unreasonai^eia 
** me to adopt such a mode of conduct ; especially^ 
^\ when the sweet hope of promised blessings afforda 
^* me, even now, a joy as solid and constant, as yours is 
^ transitory and vain l** 

Ye men of boasted wisdom ! we dare assert that the 
secret springs of your morality are weak and: gross^i 
in comparison with ours. You maintain, that, in or^ 
der to bind a rational creature to the pmctice of mdra-i 
Itty, nothing further is requisite than the consideratidn 
of his. own interests. You afiirm, moreover, with, equal 
confidence^ that all attempts to urge mai^ind to the.ex^ 
crcise /of virtue, by the consideration of evangfeKcal 
voouves, is but depending on the fdi'ce of ties» whldi 
are (00 £ bobifiding* But y6u ^rceive^^not^ that 

HlMr. f QXTflcM-R OB Wi TMOtU %» 

raUfti9|^4ince it: merely opposes one ^vi^^by flKtnatat^i 

lit TrnffoHt-fttlat^iafthrB vidi»u^> pro|iBflaiti*»"' And .)»#; 

-i!fcw/mylj»>3«iiy «<ftfeiw p i ><rf fates 

«» determine, I neither aAroit feiniitkni». aag reisctka 

n^dp^.ociljr lOsr ^WgBtMni to i«49e0e 1^^^^ 

«pNr dinnn^ ft«m the GcNfMi^ wbvt ]««^ 

^>9fflf 'eicdciltfcly fiM: yen may te etejwd; Wliat 
^h-gf^ate? fefi^Hyoad a noble sbmiI ptwaessy. thas that 
^whacli?fiow».fromli)c pesde ^fvictucv jmseA vfith 
^^^sQitf ;'^He>«r {wente and insefi&cw&t ave these hm^ 
<^ Uvnttji when coo^ared ^lilh ^toacy which the Geapel 
pjresanto ! Leading mai^kKl to>Ttitue by siKh a loute 
ai»> thij}^ is it dgC t0> iiwpife ttoeit^. atonce^ witii all a 
pjtarisee^s pride and a Jezcikl's vanity ? 

When we draw a vail 9V€f t)^ sotdime obfcett of 
ttarihf tOKl place heioft nveathe mere conoderatioa of 
$otne present advaiitage, ii^ ovder ta infiueace their 
condilct ; then we actttalty tnrat tfaa ts^txma^ part of 
the creation, as we are acenstoiaed to deat with the 
moat hratish antmala* Behold that swine making, np 
to. a heap of com. Tbraw bat a single hand-6il of 
that heap in his way^ and he will past mr. lurthei* ; 
ttnce fifty gFEdna of com, aoactored innnediat^ be&re 
bta face, will attract him more fiorciUy than a» suoiy 
biisbels piled up at a distance. Were It possible to 
tnakje him an offer of all the harvests in tliia univerae^ 
after a single hour ; yet he would not saciifice for 
them all, tlie .poor enjoytncmtof the present ittookcnt* 
Nej who thus fixes hicr attention npon^ temporal and 
sensible objeotS)^ forgets that his soul is immateiiai 
«nd< immortal, lid, wiio cannot be engaged to the 
proi&tke of 'Vxrlue> but by meaa^ of such uftwortby 

J5f TRX'POttTEArr OV-ftlC.PAiJblv 

imadveBi mny be said t« ioluoe ^momtHf j^ .t^e pMp,^ 
Gifcei lest h« should be ^oasU'ais^ lo ivceivi^ i^^^tbi^ 
lund of Christ. n . . ., / r ' 

Why ar«H^el«tfui uw|s^leete4sl^ws^bsq|;nr^; { 

to fiyi before temptatioa^ Tb»> c^f raa^oa.t^^^ C9J>r j 

be isjky^n is, that, being, jjcpudia. t^ lijf43f!^,mWT; 4 ; 
ner with the. thji^gs that «f&iiiwaedi*te^y.bp^rerj^ | 

they are in no condition to contemplate tho^ o]:^}ect§. j 

whieh are spore reniotei pf J&ow .gre^t in^port^Pir^ so- ^ 

ever they may be, / Uenoe^ the inestimalbl^ . ^^<^, o^: f 

£uth appear tP them* as the fised |stai> discQi^i: ,t]tiep»-^ | 

selyes to the vulgarjdesfioUed of, their ce^l^m^gpiMid^. 
and s;lory9 aod i^parenUy of too. Utti^,<^Qi;ksi^q)^i^pe 
to merit much attention. With the $ino(^^<;hnsti4iv^ '\ 

the caae is wholly different* His^ fa^ whigb l^,ja^ j 

gtH from God, may be compai«ed to. ar divine .tele^rr | 

cope^ by which the most distant objects ai^ brpught. I 

within his ken. And of this sacred help he. l^api^y. 
avails himself, till wholly certified of the nature and. 
importance of celestial things, he necessarily . acquires*, 
ideas and sentiments suitsd>le to so grand a discovery. 
Observe here the ground of St Paul's definition of 
faith. Destitute of the same assistance, wiiat w:onder; 
is it, that the infidel should remain a perfect straii^er 
to the christian's sacred views and exalted sentiments ! . 
He foolishly rests contented with the naked eye of his . 
reason, regardless of that ignorance, and those prejii'-^^ 
dices, with which it is too frequently obscured. Thus^, 
self»deluded, he despises the .divine instrument above ^ 
described, and acofi$ at those, who are known to usq; 
it ; just . as the illiterate Were . formerly accijstomed 
to set at nought the most profound astronomej5s> 
and to look with derision upon tlieir mysterions ^^^ 
paratus. , . .. - 

. As . to the power of .this faith, by which aJone , any- 
spiritual discovery can be made,, it. is top wonderful to. 
be crediibed. either by the . ignorant . or tjie impious* / 1 1^ 
'^removes mountains :". and, to the. possessor of it^, 
^^nothing is ijoprposslble," Jt afibrdSc tlyc beHe.ver . a^ 

perfedt itdoty oVerthe |>rctt*«l wwW, by putting' im» 
hid hiUKl n " shIeM,?* wbieli is Impeneti'able to « ali the- 
fiery darts of th« wicked/* Here is the -ehriitJan'^ si?*^ 
c?urfty^ Belttfttl'ti^ biicliteyo#eek«tSalte«i>peif,* 
mams"ih\ttidiaturbed maiqaililj'y-iirfltte iht incwsdii* 
lchisr'^M16s<)pheir, togethfef with the ahawdemed seiisu*^ 
alist, are"hurii6g against it the feeble darts of ridictite 
and ttmltte. '■ .,...■■ 

it wiust be ack!46wledgedi thatifliny extelletit pre- 
cepts of morality arefotmd m the Alcoran j arid in the 
wbrks of tnodern philosophers r but it must be assert- 
ed, at -the samie time, that the enemies of Christ are 
chiefly? ii\debted to revelation for erery just cotiCeptkMJ 
of religious truth* The authors of the AJcoran, of 
Emllius, and the Philosophical Dictionary, before ever 
they began to dogmatize, were apprized, that there is 
a God, whom it i% our duty to k)ve above aH things, and 
who has commanded us to kve our neighbour as owjf- 
selres. It is, therefore, matter of little surpfrite^ that 
a lovefy sehfimem of this kind, should here and th^e 
brighten a page of their gloomy volumes. Their Bdse 
coin couM never have becohie current in the werld un- 
less they had artfully mingled With it some httk quan*- 
tity of the pure gold of scriptural truth. 

We shall conclude this chapter with a beauti&iL 
passage fronti Tertullian, in whkh he poitit* out the 
di^^ercnce between a true christian^ and a philosofiher 
JK> calledi. After having spoken of the vices^ with wbkh 
tlie Greek philosophers were infected, be makes the 
following reply to a very common objection : ** It is ob*^ 
♦* jected, thiit some also among us, are guilty of vicfet- 
^ ing the laws of virtue. But it must berememheredy 
« that such offenders pa^s no lotoger with us for chrk«- 
" tians : while among you, after the commission of 
<« many vicious actions, philoscrphers, stiJl preserve 
<' their reputation, and contiime to be had in honoiic. 
" What I'eseinblansie then is there, between* the dnaa*- 
*' tian and thfe phtTosopihcr? The €fl»e i» n disttiple of 
<» Greece j the other of Heantn; • The ofte aeetoto 



« establish « fair rcptitation*: tfcc ttther aspires to 
^ work out hU salration. The one spetil;^ ftdtnirMe 
^ wofds s the othef performs good actions. The one 
« destroys, and the other builds up. Thfe ofie'^eiJi 
• in error, the other m truth/* ' - ' 

CHAP. n. 




. THE doctrines of natural religion, Uuch as-f h6 } 

Being of a God, an over-rulmg providence, and a judg«- 
ment to come, are the first doctrines of the Crospel : buf, j 

hitherto, they have never been found sufficient to lead i 

toen into the love and practice of solid virtue. ^ j 

As the earth, deprived of its primitive fecundity^ *« 

requires not only the genial influence of the sun, but 
must be enriched and assisted by many other means^ 
in order to recover its lost fertility : so the truths of * 

natural religion can never restore the degenerate- sOul 
to its lost perfection, without the powerful'assistance <rf 
a revealed Gospel. On this account, the Father of 
mankind has condescended to instruct us in doctrines, 
more efficacious than those^ which unassisted liature 
can discover, and abundantly better suited to ouir ^; 

weakness : that the tree of mortality, having more 
numerous and vigorous roots, might be assisted to pro^ 
duce fruit of a more exquisite flavour, and in greater * 

abundance, than it formerly had done. « What the 
Law," says St. Paul, " could not do, [the natural or 
mosaic Law] in that it was weak through the' flesh 
f i. e. our corrupted nature, which stands in need of 
greater helps than those, which the Law casi oflbrd^ 


^ God aecpding: Us own Soo^ coodeimned sin in the fiesh^ 
that tke xighteousnes^ of the Law might be fulfilled ia 
V^" by a power derived from hinou Hence, this pro-i 
mised Savioqr was spoken of ja^ <' tlie desire of all na-» 
tions.'* And hence, that public declaration of Christ 
concerning the nature of his mission to the children of 
men : (< I am come that they might have life, and that 
they might have it morc^ abundantly.** 

Without revelation, we are left a prey to the most 
cruel uncertainty. The Almighty created man, that 
he might partake of his o^im felicity : and, after hav- 
ing placed in his heart an ardent desire after the " so- 
vereign^ood^" he made a benign discovery of Himself, 
^s the « one only and inexhaustible source of true 
blessedness." -But, since the darkness of sin has ovei> 
spread our understanding, we have lost sight' of this 
«overe^gngQod, and arc, where it cannot pos- 
bly be found. Like Ixion in the fable, while we em- 
brace a cloud, we. imagine ourselves in possession of a 
sublime reality. And even after repeated convictions 
of our folly, imin^ructed by disappointment, we set 
out again m pursuit of objects full as frivolous as those, 
by- which we have .been already beguiled. Philoso- 
phers, unable to guide mankind to true happiness^ are 
vainly searching after it tlujmselves in darkness and 
^uncertainty. Divided into a variety of sects, they 
^maintain a hundred cUfferent opinions upon a subject 
jof so great importance. Slo that after all the re- 
searclie^ of its professors^ philosophy has left Iho 
wprld in a. state of equal peiplexity, with a man, who, 
Slaving but one aiTow to level at the mark, has a hun- 
dred different marks, proposed to him at tlie same 
:ti2Xie. - . . . 

>In all this uncertainty, how happy is it to discover 
-a vokime? which decide the momentous question in so 
•clear a manner, that reason itself can object nothing 
4iO the decision I, Thjis book, the most ancient that can 
be produced, informs us that J^hxyvah once appeared 
to the father of the faithful, " and said untp him, \ 

am the migblf^ aUrttoBcieiit Gcd^ vmlk b^frre ««y 
and be them perfect. So, will i snaiie jbj coFe&ai^ 
bctveeu ]^4mtirtlicc,:" said thcu >haU.fawy>me» jqy^ 
&lpossie9SQra£ti^ soYemign gnod. W^e& these tnttli^ 
arc oBce cordially ^assented tc^tfadG^ peq^dcy af.i^ 
believer is then sweetly termiE^ted, aad his high .faca^ 
taoaeompklieiypc^Dtedoiit. Fiom thia:&a»erbeifds 
the importance of thoie doctrines^ which^ JijL^ Bte^wly . 
figfatB> eclipse a thouaand giinxmecixig tmimomf aod 
discover, amid' surrouodi&g dangess, a «ure thoi^b- 
Rarrow road to happiness. Aud hereit is to heahneipredftt 
that upon these important ttiiths» as w^l as i^MH^ey^fy 
other essential point, christians of . aU dfinrfflainarioivi- 
are perfectly agreed. 

What is meant by ^< walking befofe Cod in podoe*. 
tion,'' is fully explained in the foliqwiag tenaa; '^ Tho^a . 
shaU lore the Lord thy God vitii aU thy (heart: aad 
thy neighbour as thy self." Now, luu^eneiate maiH 
fiir ii'om filling up these duties, neglecte the Supc^sEi^ 
Being, and prefers his own particular iaterest, to that 
of society in general ; affording the atrongeat pmo^ thai 
he possesses neither genuine piety, nor undisaemUed 
charity. Hence, before such a man can become tn^y 
Tirtuous, it is evident, tliat his principles lauat be im^ 
proved, and his inclinations rectified. And till these 
salutary changes take place in his soul, always vicious* 
restless, and selfish, he will continually be making 
tome addition to his external errors, and his internal^ 
misery. •, 

Deists, while they acknowledge, that we^are hound., 
to love both God and man, presume upon the suSci- 
ency of their own power for the diie perlbrmm^ce ©f 
tliese extensive duties. Were they, however, tri^^ 
anxious to practise these virtues in as imreserved a 
manner, as even natural religion requires, they would 
qiiickly perceive the weakness of humanity,, and ac- 
know led ge 1 he d eepest need of divine assistance* But 
BO lon^ as the piety of thesepersons consists in " honour* 
ing;. God with their lips^ while tUeir heaits ai'e far 

.TH« FOmrtAIT OF ST. TAVL. 561 

frttmhims** and while tbef boast of manifesting toward 
i mankind love so universal, that none but their ene- 

znies are excluded from it : so long, they will need no 
olthtT assistance for the performance of these wretched 
services, than that which cjomiptcd nature Can amply 

It fe fi^nentiy asserted, thaj the mysteries of Re* 
demotion are utterly useless wfth respect to morality, 
as)dthat bemgnky of God, as exemplified in our crea- 
tion and the preservation, i« a sufficient motive to afFec- 
idon andobedienceonthepart'of man. But since manhas 
become a sinful and miserable creature, every motive 
to re#ltude» that can possibly be drawn from his crea- 
tion and preservation, has lost much of its former con- 
5tFain]!% infiuence. How many persons may we find 
in the worid, who, instead of being penetrated with 
gratitude on account of these blessings, lament, with 
despairing Job and Jeremiah, that ever they were born ! 
And when the miseries of life have rendered it almost 
insupportable, can we reasonably imagine its repin- 
ing possessor to be glowing with love to the deity, 
ttterely as die Author and preserver of his unhappy 
existance ? Surely nothing can be more absurd tliaii 
juch a supposition. Yet how many boasted reasoners 
xxmfidently maintain, that the very same gift, which 
wretched sufferers in every age, have thrown back to 
the giver with anguish and contempt ; is nevertheless 
A motive sufficiently powerful, to engage every trans- 
jgressor of the Almighty's Law, to love him with all 
^eh* hearty and serve him with all their power. 

But let us suppose that man, unassisted by the 
doctrines of the Gospel, has some knowledge of the 
** sovereign good," and the means by which it may b^ 
4ibtained ; yet how superficial is this knowledge ! We 
might here produce a gloomy catalogue of those capi- 
tal errors, into which the ancient philosophers havo 
jOdlen, with regard to these important points. It must 
indeed, be allowed, that modem professors have cor- 
*:pcted many of those errors : but it must be lament- 


cd, at the same time, that they have unhappily adopt* 
cd others, not a whit less glaring or fatal. , Passing 
over, in silence, the honnble systems of atheistical 
writers, let us listen to philosophers of greater estima- 
tion, among whom Rousseau and Voltaire may tonk. 
as the most conspicuous characters. The former bf 
these acquired considerable reputation by his observa» 
tions upon the education of youth, and the latter, by 
tiie courage with which he contended for toleration. 

" Let it be laid down," says Rousseau, " as an in- 
" coiitestible maxim, that the first movements of na- 
«< ture are always right : and that there is no sucb 
« thing as original sin in the human heart" ^oW 
large a stride is here toward the sentiments of la Ma>- 
trie ; all whose morality wa? wrapt up in this single 
sentence, " Satisfy thy desires s .thpy are the voice of 
God and of nature.** To enlarge this little quotation 
from J. J. Rousseau, would bt a superfluous task. • lit 
must appear evident to every unprejudiced leader, 
from the above assertion, that the maxims of this adr 
mired philosopher have a greater tendency to ad- 
vance « aelf-gratiiication,'* tlian to promote <* universal 
bckievolcnce" in tlie world. 

Turn we now to the toleration of M. dc Voltaire. 
In his epistle to Boileau, we find him writing tlius.... 
" I have .consecrated my voice to sing the praises of 
" virtue ; overcoming those prejudices which are 
** idolized by the ij2jnorant, I dare to preach toleration 
'' to persecutors,** Now when any man comes forth, 
in this public manner, to plead the cause of candour 
and liberality, we are naturally led to admire the gene- 
rosity of his conduct. And it wquld be well if M. de 
Voltaire was really deserving of all tliat credit, which 
a stranger feels disposed to give him, when he as- 
sumes so questionable an appearance. But, notwith- 
standing the praises, wluch this celebrated w'riter has 
bestowed upon liis own humanity, and in spite of all 
the beautiful things he has said upon toleration, many 
ungenerous scntimquts may be discovered in bis 


^ x^rorks, "^hidi tend to renew, the most bloody persecu- 

tion3- /.Take an instance or two. • 

1 " It is never necessaiy to rise up against the re- 
ligion of the prince .'* Upon thii principle Jesus Christ 
^ and St Paul were higWy worthy of blame, notwith- 

^ !^t9j;idii3ig, the ][iypo,cri$y and idolatry , which composed 

• t^e.reUgion' pf Caiaphas and Tiberias.^ 

,'^i. ^} What is called a jansenist is really a madman, 
^a tad citizen, and a rebel. He is a bad citizen, be- 
c^ause he troubles the order, of the state : he is a rebel 
b^^use be disobeys- the molinists are madmen of 
^ jpore harmless kind.** These two lovely fnaxims of 
tolei^tion . are to be found in a little piece of M. dc 
.Voltaire -Sj intttled " The voice of a philosopher and of 
-the peopl?." 

Had the King of France attended to this voice, 
' he would have regarded every jansenist, and, for the 

I Banae reason, evei*y protestant, as a bad citizen or a re- 

I , bel ; every spark of religious moderation would have 

i been extinguished in his royal bosom, and an effectual 

f door throMTi open to the terrible exertions of tyrannical 
I power. These pretended rebels might then have pe- 

rished unpitied and unheard ; while the bigoted 
Prince, convinced that " a man must cease to be a fa-* 
natic before he merits toleration,'' might have gloried 
i in the rectitude of his public conduct. Such a Prince 

! might have commanded his blood-thirsty troops to ad- 

I vance under the banners of modern philosophy, leav- 

[ ing M. de Voltaire to animate them agauist the inno- 

I cent with, what he calls, « The voice of a philoso- 

[ pher." 

[ It appears then,* according to M. de Voltaire, that 

every subject should profess the religion of his Prince. 

Nor is this opinion less earnestly contended for by J. 

J. Rousseau, who tells us in his Emilius, that « every 

daughter should be of her mother*s religion, and that 

j everywomanshouldprofess the religion of her husband, 

I So that if a man should turn from the time and em- 

i brace a false religion, his wife and children are bound 

^64 tnn FO&TRAIT OF ST. PAUL. 

to apostatize Mith bim. ; apd, in case of a refusal Sm 
their part, J. J. Rousseau, while he alfects to plead the 
cause of liberty, pronounces upon tJ^em a sentence of 
«ondemnatldn« Upon these principles of toleration^ 
the father of the family is authorized to persecute his ^ 
non^onfQPTniiig. vif? md c\^Tf3^-^fi^^ frifice may 
lawfiiJJy take up ^xjijr^s 9g^i|st «ich oi hism\fi^f^J^ 
are fanatics. . Jf th^ bfiuevplpncje an^ n»ora^itjrjS:th^/r^ 
ruul^d philosophers were tQ be si(tb$^tut^i^i^Q^«/^ 
of that liberality aod lovei. which 4;her:G^p^ VP^fn^n 
lo what a deluge of misery would itigiysptrlfe^ h^: ili - 
fcmiUesandincommoawe<Jthsl Ji^iug^wpirt^tyrfs^nk^ 
over the conscience of their subjects, hiu^bands oiT$f ^ 
that of their wives, and pareiUs over that .of Ibeif idlUK ^ 
drcn : nor would the least religiouB liberQ? be^j^sp^fb" 
enced by any class of men^ except by th^lffm^SrS^ 
the earth* Such is the imperfect charit^^^a^d such tib^ 
limited freedom, for which modem philosophers hait^ 
contended with equal earnestness and approbaUo&* 

The dangerous principle of these ,two oretcle% «P^ 
on the subject of toleration, will sufiBce to sbewy wit^ 
how just reason the former of them could say...." I hate 
false maxims, but I detest evil actions yet more^.^Alas ! 
the horrible actions of a murdering inquisitor termi-v 
nate with his life ; but the intolerant doctrines of these 
reputed sages, may continue to scatter misery and 
death through the world, long after their neglected 
Itmbs are mouldered into dust* 





MORALltYt . t 

TO ascertaiti the im^rtatice of tfoctriiies in 
general) let us consider th^ influence thef haVe npon 
our conduct. ^ Our duties in life depend upon the dif- 
ferent relations we sustain in It; and these relations 
affect uSt only, as they are understood. Thus it is ne- 
cessary, .that^a child shouM know his father, before 
he can ti-ulj^ love him in that character. This know- 
^ ledge is the effect of certaiW instrucitions or maxims, 
' which infiuence our manners, in proporticm as they 
are assented to. I love the man from whom I have 
received my birth and education with a particular af- 
fection r.feut such love is founded, first upon this general 
doctrine, *' Every child, honourably bom, shoiild reve- 
rence and love his Father ;" and, secondly, upon this 
parUcular truth, *« That man is thy Father." If I am 
made to doubt of this general doctrine, or of this par- 
ticular truth, the moral springs of that respect, lovci 
gratitude ^nd obedience, which are due to my father, 
will necessarily be weakened; nndifi either the one 
or the other should lose all its influence over mg 
heart, my father would then become to me equally 
indifferent as any other stranger. 

The knowledge, therefore, of the affinities, whtth 
subsist between one being and another, is essential to 
morality. Why is it, that no traces. of morality can 
be discovered among the beasts of the. field ? it is be- 
cause they, are incapable of imderstanding either the 
relation in which creatures stand to the Creator, or the 
affinities which subsist among the creatures themr 
selves. As it becomes the soldier to have a distinct 
.iinowledge of his officers, that he may render to 
every one according to his rank, the honour and obe- 
dience to which they are severally entitled ; so, pre'?- 
H h 2 

366 THE TORnkir or st. TJtvn, 

paratory to the practice of moralitf^ h bdio^eetxwtcr 
bare a clear perception of our Tarioos duties, to^-*^ 
ther with the proper subjects of those duties. If some 
desperate inaiady has deprived us of this Uowled^," 
we then rank with idiots^ and are in no cc»dkioii to' 
violate the rules of morality. Hence, thetunade \Hia ' 
butchers his father, is not puni^al]Ae amon^ Qsas a* 
parricide, because he has no acquamtiBaice iK&h tfasBc^ 
general maxims, ^ No man slUMild murder another.' 
CTery son shall honour bis fadier;** nor has he mny^ 
conception of this particular truth, ^ The iniA whonqt ' 
thou art about to destroy, is thy father." ./• * 

Take away all doctrines, and you annilniate ailtfaef 
relations which subsist among rational cneoturevvF^^^ 
destroy afi morality, and reduce man to the condildoTi' 
of a brute beast, allowing him to be influenced by pas* 
aion and caprice, as the lowest animals ace actdated bye 
appetite and instinct. Admit only some few doctrines^ 
and you admit only a part of your duties as well as* 
your privileges* An example may serve to set tins 
truth in a clear light. Suppose you have a rich fiither^ 
who is at present, entirely unknown to you, and whom 
the world has ever looked ux)on as your parent ; if yoa 
never receive any certain intell^ence concerning him^ 
it is plain, that f ett can neither render him filial obe- 
dience, nor yet succeed to his estates. 

Many philbsophers, wlio cannot reasonably be sus*^ 
pected of ^natlcism, or even of partiality to evangeli- 
<^ principles, have yet strenuously insisted upon the 
importance of doctrine, as calculated to influence the 
conduct of mankind. A polished writer of this class 
seems to have entertained an idea, that if all men vere 
possessed of an enlightened understanding, crimes o£ 
every kind would be unknown in the world. Observe, 
at least, in what terms he speaks of war, which is an. 
evil of that complex nature, that it may justly be look-- 

ed upon as an assemblage of every possible vice 

•' What is the cause of that destructive rage, which jr. 
^ m every period> like a contagious malady^ Jias in-^ 

•VaS FORT& AIT or STtf rA|fft« $61^ 

*f fectedtlte human rsceF Ignonoceis^ undoubtedly^ 
<( t^e AOUircle of our calaittttiea ;• ignorance with re-- 
<<■. .spject'to the rdalions, ingbta^ and duties of our spe*^ 
'^ li^Ktn^ TJbu% tfa6 most: igtioanint «icl fmipolished pfso^^ 
^ pbhat9e«veirbeci»th6am>st'¥riirlike7/aBdtho8eage» 
<i ibf the 'ivk)rldv iv^hich hsnni been peculiarly ^xtiiii* 
Hi guiBhedrbirdaiQciicfiKs and JMrbarism^ ha^beeo in^ 
^ . ^sdialii^'the most fmit&d in tnurdmua.}ira?9. I^ 
^ adrancepirepares'theway for •^evaatation ; andde^ 
*V .T%statieD> in its tranj )*e^i»f^uoefl igncarHiice4 . With 
<<^ a dlear. knowledge of their rigfatsi and their Teppn»» 
^ cal duties, v/fach form the true^nd only interest i^ 
<^ nak^iiis^ is a contradiction to suppose, that thos»s- na* 
^ ^pa tnmld voluntaiily precipitate themselyes inito 
<^ aa abjss t)£ kveritable evils.'^ This author, if he be 
' supposed to spc^ of our relations ^ind duties with re* 
fsptct to God, as well as those which regard our neigh* 
bcmr, had reascoi on , his side ; and especially, if his 
mws were^directed to the knowledge of every power*' 
fel motive, which should constrain us to fill up those^ 
. duties. 

Upon .these principles, of what fatal neglect are^ 
those persons gmlty, who, being charged with ttic reli- 
gious instructicMi of princes and people, leave both 
immersed in a deplorable ignorance, which draws after 
it the horrors of war, with all the various calamitiev^ 
that overspread the face of Christendom* 


CHAP. rv. 


IF to preach the Gospel, is to teach sianets- 
the relations they sustain with respect to Goii) as, 
Creator, Redeemer^ and Sanctifier; if it is to announce ' 
the advantages which flow from this three-fold rela*> 
IsLOVky till, 'penetrated with^ gratitude and lore, man- 
kind apply themselves ta fiijlfilthe several duties ta 
which they stand engaged ; we may challenge^the 
world, to point out any knowledge of equal imports 
ance with that, which is discovered in the Gospel..*^ 
To deprive us, then, of the doctrines contained in this 
Gospel, is it not to suppress the most important in- 
structions we can possibly receive ; is it not to conceal 
from us a Testament, which is made wholly in our 
fevour I To decide this question, we shall here con- 
sider what influence these doctrines have upon mo- 

The virtues of worldly, man, as- well as- their vices, 
are little else than a kind of traffic carried on by an in- 
ordinate self-love. From this impure source the most 
amiable of their actions flow ; and hence, instead of 
referring all things primarily to God, they act with 
an eye to their own immediate advantage* Christ has 
offered a remedy to this grand evil, by .teaching us^ 
that to love the Deity with all our heart, is thefirst 
commandment of the Law ; and that to love ourselves, 
and our neighbour as ourselves, is but a secondary 
commandment in the. sight of God : thus leading us- 
up to divine love, as the wily source of pure virtue..... 
When self-love is once reduced to this wholesome or-- 
der, and moves in exact obedience to the Creatbr^s 
Law, it then becomes truly commendable in man, and 
aerves as the surest rule of fraternal affectioiii 

Kyangelical morality ennobles our most ordinarjr 
actions^ such as those of eating and drinking} re^uir— 


ing^ that " all things be done to the glory of God,'* 
i.e. in eelebration of his unspeakable bounty. A just 
prpcept ^his, and founded upon the following doctrine, 
" All things are of God :" to whom of consequence 
they ought finally to refer. If you lose sight of this 
4octw^, y^i^ a|>parcnt gratitude is nothing more than 
afejfeign^i i^iif^ue, which has no other motives orends» 
f^€j^^.«uc)} SIS originate and lose themselves in self- 
IqSQ4 ;{nsuch circamstancesyyou cannot possibly as* 
9ei]tt;to.the jufltice of the graiid precept above cited; 
but Koidilig'it up, like the autlior of the Philosophical 
Cktiomtr^^as a just subject of ridicule, you naay per- 
kf^yburk^qiie the feelings of a conscientious man, 
with rcg^ird to this command, as the comedian is ac- 
^il^tomed to sport with the character of a modest wo- 
iatan« Thus many philosophers are emulating the 
toorality and benevolence of those sensorious reli- 
gionists, concerning whom our Lord significantly de» 
clared, " Verily, they have their reward." 

How shall we reduce a sinner to moral order ? Will 
it be sufficient to press upon him the following exhor- 
tations: Love. God with all thy heart: Be filled 
with benevolence toward all men : Do good to your 
yery enemies ? AH this would be only commanding 
a rebel to seek happiness in the presence of a prince> 
whose indignation he has justly merited: it would 
be urging a covetous man to sacrifice his inte^'ests, 
not only to indifferent persons, but to his implacable 
adversaries. To effect so desirable a change in tlie 
human heart, motives and assistance are as absolutely 
necessary, as counsels and precepts. 

Here the doctrines of the Gospel come in to the 
49Uccour of morality. But how shall we sufficiently 
adore that incomprehensible Being, who has demon^ 
»trated to us, by the mission of his beloved Son, that 
the divine natiare is love 1 Or, how shall we refuse any 
thing to this gracious Redeemer, who clothed himself 
with mortality that he might suffer in our stead I All 
th^ doctrinea' of the Gospel have an immediate ten- 
dency to promote the practice of morality. That ©i 


the incarnation, which serves 'as the basis of tSie nfe^ 
Testament, expresses the benevolence of the Supreme 
Being in so striking a manner, that every sinner tvho 
cordially receives this doctrine, is constrained to Sur- 
render his heart unreservedly to God. If is servile fear is 
changed into filial reverence, and his aversion ihte fer^ 
vent love. He is overwhelmed with the greatness 'ol* 
benefits received, and, as the only suitable retunh'for ^ 
mercies of so stuj>endous a natare, he sac'rifieesi * 

at once, all his darling vices. " If the Son br'Clo© ] 

•' has un^ed himself to my fallen hature^**"auch' a 
humble believer will naturally ' say, " I wiU not restl 
" till I feel myself united to this divine Mediator: if 
" he comes to put a period to my misery, nothing 
«* shall ever put a period to my gratitude : if He has- 
" visited me with the beams of his glory, U shalfe 
♦< henceforth become my chief concern to refliect those 
«* beams upon all around me, to his everlasting praise. r* j 

The memorable sacrifice, which was once ofTered 
up in the person of Christ, as a propitiation for our^ins, 
is abundantly efficacious, in. the same respect. This 
mysterious offering sets forth the mafignit^ of our 
offences, and represents the compassion of the Deity 
in so overpowering a manner, that, while it fills us with 
horror for sin, it completely triumphs over the obdura* 
cy of our hearts. From the moment we come to a real 
"perception of this meritorious sacrifice, from that 
moment we die to sin, till " rising again with Christ" ' 
into a new life, we become at length, wholly " renewed 
in the spirit of our mind." Point out a man, who uh- 
feignedly believes in a crucified Saviour ; and you have 
discovered a man, who abh^ors all inanner of vices and i 

in whom every virtue has taken root. Such a one { 

can thankfully join the whole multitaide of the faithful, . | 
and say : " Being justifted by faith, we have peaice with 
God through our Lord Jesus Christ: and rejoicing ih 
hope of the glory of God, we have obeyed, from the 
heart, that form of doctrine, which was delivered untjo 
Hfi." Once; indeed, when we where withbut the know- 


Jfi4gc pj[ Christ, ".we where the servants of sin i but 
now, telpg made free from sin, and become servants 
Xp i^qd^yfe have our fruit urito holiness, and the end 
everlasting. life." 

If ypu ravish from such a msgm these consoliivg ajid 
saiictifying doctrines, you will leave him either in the 
stupid insensibility of those, wh© give themselves up 
to carnal security, or in the p^plexity of others, who 
are cryuig, " What sjiall we do to be saved ?" Thp one 
or the other of these states must be experienced, in 
different degrees, by every man, who is unacquainted 
with the efficacy of evangelical doctrines. And if th.e 
first moralist of the pagan world was yet observed to 
triumph over this stupidity and confusion, it was merely 
through the regenerating hope he indulged, that a 
restoring God, of whose internal operations he had al- 
ready been favoured with some faint perception, would 
we day afford him a more clear and perfect light. 

CHAF. y. 



FOR the fullest proof that a strict connexion 
j^ubslsts between the doctrines of the Gospel and the 
most perfect morality, let us cast our eye on the as- 
semblage of those doctrines, known by the name of 
<» The Apostles* Creed ;" a creed, to which every true 
christian conscientiously subscribes, and which bap- 
jized hypocrites make a solemn shew of assenting to. 
Our preiudice against these holy doctrines must ne^ 
cessarily vanish, after we have duly considered the 
influence they naturally have upon the conduct of true 

S7S THE l>OIlttt-Air or BT. TAXJt. 

This conf^ssioa of faith has three parts. The JroT 
contains the principia} ^oictrlnes of deiuB, «r imturad 
religion', setting forth the relation in which we scuid 
to God, as Creator. The second part of this creni 
includes the prlBcipal doctrines ciMitaifted in the foar 
Gospels, tthd plac^ before us the relation wse^besrtc^ 
God considered in the character of Redeemer, or i# 
coming to save the world by tJMt extmon^iufff per-- 
son, who is called the Ofdf4)egotteii son of Gob. Ti^ 
docrtnnes, here oiuitierat^, are these, wkh whk^ the 
disciples of our Lord were wholly takeii vs^ tHl tlie 
day of theh* spiritual baptism. The third part {nre* 
sents us with a recapitulaticHi of the prindpai doe- 
trmes set forth in the Acts and Eptsdea of tibe Apos- 
tles. This latter part c^ the Christian creed i nstWiu l i 
us in our relation to God, as Sanctifier, or sAcsommf^ 
to regenerate man by that Spirit of tnrtti, oons<datioQ 
alid power, which was promised by Christ to his fbl«> 
lowets : a Spirit whose office is to instruct and saneti* 
fy the church of Christ, to maintain a constant cbm" 
munion among its members, to seal upon thw oen^ 
sciences the pardon of sin, to assure them of a future 
resurrectioQ, and prepare them for a life of everlasliiHp 
blessedness. Let us review these three parts of this 
Apostolic Creed, and observe the necessary reference . 
they have to moitility. 

The first article of this creed informs us, that 
there is an " all-powerful God,'* who is the Creator 
of all things in Heaven and in Earth. It is evident} 
that no man can renounce this doctrine, without re* 
jiouncing natural religion, and plunging headlong into 
atheism. If there is no God, there can be no £vine 
Law, and morality becomes a mere instgniicant 
term. Human laws may, indeed, restrain the wretcfii 
who indulges a j^ersuasion of this nature ; but was it 
not for the authority of such laws, he would throw off 
the mask of decency, and laugh at the distinction be*- 
tween virtue and vice. 

If you admit, with Epicurus, " the Being of a God,** 
without admitting an « over-ruling |>rovideQce ;" if 

T|i£ i>ob;t&ait ov ST.. faux.. 373 

you believe oot, that the Creator is an *' all-powerful 
Parent, and) as 8uch> peculiarly attentive to the con- 
t^eras of his imme&se family ; you then destroy all 
^CHK&teoce inthe b^epreine Being : you take from the 
K^ighleous. 4sheir chief . ecHnsolation in adversity » and 
from the wiiske4th€i|:» chief restraining curb in proa- 

Mt^ale this important doctrine, by admitting 
iQUjy 8 general providence, atid you destroy the parti - 
^tsiarcoftfidence which, holy men indulge, that God 
idispexises to his children, according to his unsearch- 
^hh wisdom, both prosperity and adversity ; that He 
lt9left» to their supplications, and will finally deliver 
%k^Ei out of all their afflictions* You trample under 
ifoot tibe moat powerful motives to resignation and 
imtience ; you nourish discontent in the heart, and 
scatter the seeds of despair among the unfortunate. 
Yet all this is done by many inconsistent advocates 
for morality. 

Heavens themselves were perfectly con vinced,that 
^he practice of morality was closely connected with 
tiie above-mentioned doctrine. Cicero, in his book 
^concerning the nature of the Gods, seems to appre- 
»bc»idi that the whol^ edifice of morality would fail to 
the ground; .was the doctrine of a particular provi- 
dence to be taken away* " For," says he, " if the 
*t Gods observed not what is transacted here below, 
.<* what would become of religion and holiness, 
<^ without which human life would be replete with 
« trt»7ble and confusion ? I am persuaded, that, in 
«* banishing the fear of the GodS} we should, at the 
^ same time, banish from among us good faith, jus- 
<< ticci and all those other virtues, which are coftsi- 
. « dcred as forming the basis of society.'* 


• CHAP, vi/'. ' ; "' ;.';" '*",' 


TIIE doctrines adverted' to; ipith^ iktter Jpati 
of the preceding chapter, fcompose th^ riblig^dri oTthe- 
ists, who believe in God, as Creatot' arid pvetttVet^ 
but who know him not, as the restorer oF fallen niik. 
They, however, wIm) give their unfeigned atteiiUbtxJp 
the first part of this Creed, will lieyei' cprit^tktm^ 
rest at the thresliold of truth. After diil)^ aitchditi'g^ 
to the blessings of creation and pj'eseryation^'t life y 'Wia 
readily perceive how destitute they are oif that l6Vei 
that gratitude, and that obedience, which ate so jysilj^ 
due to the Authoir of all their mercies. Hence, gra- 
dually discovering that, even with respect (d tlhelr 
neighbour, they are void of that justice and charity, 
which should be' mutually exercised betweien liiah arid 
man, they will humbly acknowledge their transgres- 
sions, and tegin to apprehend those niysterious truths, 
by which the christian religion is distitiguished ifrbnl 

In our ancient confessions of £aith, no mention is 
jmade of the misery and depravity of man. For what 
»eed was there to make so melancholy a truth an ar- 
ticle of faith, since it has been publicly demonstrated 
in every age and country, by the conduct of all classes 
of men ? To deny, that indisputable evidences of this 
truth are every day to be met' with, is to deny that 
there are in the world, prisons, gibbets, soldiers, fields 
of blood, and beds of death. 

if we give up the doctrine of the fall, an4, of conse- 
quence that of the restoration, we givethe lie to the geh*- 
eral experience of mankind, as well as to that of our own 
hearts ; we shut pur eyes against the li^ht of cbnvic- 
tion ; we cast away,in the midst of a labyrinth, the only 
due that can guide us through its winding mazes* An4 

Tflffc' PORTHAtIT Ot ST* FAUL* . $79 

lifter such an act of foljy we shall, either with infidel 
philosophers, disdain^ to imploi'e the assistance of the 
Supreme Being ; or, like the haughty pharisee^ we 
sha^l' approach him '>vith insolence. 

If, in direct dpposhidri to the doctrine of our depra- 
Tity» we.^ffi|'j«,,that'Sall things arc good, ^d the hu- 
ijdan ^p^cies as fiee from imperfection as the Almighty 
^t ^.rst .intendedj** we then neglect the only probable 
ip.eapa lof. overcoming sin, and obstinately endea- 
vour to preqlude all possibility of our restoi*ation. 
Tfiusj by persuading a loathsome leaper, that his ma- 
feiy is .both cpnyenient and becoming, we teach him to 
llespise. the mp^t efficacious remedies, and leave him 
a deludetf prey to deformity and corruption. But if it 
be onbe acUnitcd, tliat we are immersed in sin, witliout 
the least possibility of restoring ourselves to a state of 
innocence ; we have then, some degree of that humility, 
which disposed St. Paul to embrace a persecuted Sa- 
viour, and by which alone we can be prevailed upon lo 
embrace the second part of this sacred Creed. 

To reject that which respects, either the Conception, 
the " Birth, the Sufferings,the Death, the Resurrection,, 
or the Ascension" of Jesus Christ, is to reject every 
thing that concerns this condescending Saviour ; since 
it is one and the same Gospel, that instructs us in all 
these different doctrines. To remove one of these 
doctrines, is to break the chain of evangelical trutli, 
by destroying one of the links, oif which it is compos- 
ed ; it is ultimately to deny the authority of revelation, 
if not absolutely to ovei^thro w that grand edifice, of which 
Jesus Christ " is the chief Corner-stone." In a word, 
as the doctrine of our redemption by a crucified Sa- 
viour, is rejected either wholly or in part, so we reject 
either « in part or altogether," the most constrain- 
ing motives lo repentance and gratitude, obediance and 

/ All unholy course of conduct proceeds from two 
principal causes, ''pride and the rebellion of the senses :" 
from the former, arises the disofder of our irrascible 


ST6 ffM^ foiHtjiir iff St: p Aid. 

pftwWnd ; ana-frbni the fatter, proceed aft 'eili- fri^gir-- 
la^ de^ire^. Ntm, bfefbre these evils can be 'pfei^ctl^ 
i«toe<fi«d, Of tftetmh6lybec6ntetii^Tirtiimis^ Itfeti^i 
cessaty to ei^dkate ^^'ride- fitrtn the heart, sftfl to'sutdu^ 
the ipregtriftrappetitfes dfAiir' degenerate*naLt^i*e; 'This 
is undoubtedly the most difficult task to be accom- 
plished in life : but what is impracticable to the incre- 
dulous deist, becomes' aifitualfjrpossible to the sincere 
beliver. By the example of his persecuted Master, ho 
is animated to tramp^p upon all the pride of life ; and 
tipon the Cross of his dying Lord, he is crucified to the 
sensual delights of this present world. " Take my 
yok^ ttpon you,^ says the blessed^ Jesiis, aiM^f^rii'm 
me: for I am meek and lowly \h heart. Christ hath 
suffered for us, continued St. Peter> leaving. u§ an ex«* 
ample, that ye should follow his steps. Let riie same 
mind be in you^ adds St. Paul, which was ^fso in ChHtrt 
Jesus, who being in the form of God, tohmtartly took' 
»pon him the form of a servant, and became dbedietft 
uiito the death of the Cross.'* 

It is necessary to be well acquainted with the -htj* 
man heart, and to have aecuratcly observed the influ*" 
ence that exaniple has upon mankind, in order to un- 
derstand the great advantage which christians have 
over deists; even allowing the morality of both parties 
to be equally pure. What is there^ of which those 
persons are ^ot capable, who follow the King of Kings, 
encouraged by*his example and supported by his pow-^ 
er ? Thus supported, no command will appear tck> sttict 
to be obeyed, no burden too heavy to be sttstatAed : but 
we may joyfully triumph, like the first imitators qf 
Jesus, over that innate pride, and those sensual desilres, 
upon which the incredulous continually striking, a^, 
upon dangerous rocks, mad^ shipwreck of all their 
boaste d morality. 

The last article, recounted rn this part of our Creed,, 
must be supposed to have a prodigious influence upon 
the minds of men. Take away the doctrine of a judge* 
ment day, in which an infinitely -hojy and poweinnil ' 

Go» will iwder unto ^yery n>fLn..^ccor<}ingrti> W» 
works ;. you then take ftpm the wicije4 tho^e j^alijfctajpy 
fearsy ,which resti-iin theia iJ> the career ^f vic^ .ancj 
froni',tiiie righteous thoj5e,j^lori9^sb.Qpe^s, .which are 
l^if MrongesijincentiYestjOialife of *; 


;. ; CHAP. VII. 

. If ART OF THE AF05TI,E$* CJWlfiD, 

. THE first articliB, in the third part of thisaocienr; 
confession of faith, respects the confidence which eve* 
ry believer indulges in the divine grace, or rather in that 
Hol^ Spirit) which sanctifies the sinful and console^^ 
the afilicted. If, by an obstinate incredulity, we reject 
this sacred Comforter ; we refuse the wisdom and pow* 
er which result from an intimate union with the Father 
of lights, and disclaim all fellowship with that divine . 
Mediator, whose humanity is far removed from tlie 
sight of men. As we could derive no possible advan- 
tage from a sun, whose rays, concentered in himself,^ 
should neither visit our eyes with their cheerii>g lighty. 
nor our bodies with their kindly heat ; so, if the Almigh- . 
ty neither illumines our minds by the Spirit of tp^th, 
nor animates our souls by the Spirit of charity, we may 
reasonably suppose him to have as little interest in 
th'e concerns of men, as the statue of. Olympian Ju- . 

The remainder of this Creed, respects the natlire of 
the Ciiurch, and the privileges of its members. 

To destroy the doctrines, which relate to. the holi- 
ness of those who truly appertain to the church of God>-, 
the universality of that Church, and '* the communion' 
ef those s^dnts;'* of whom it is* composed; this is to oveiv- 

STB rrjME f^RTBAKT Of «r- 'P-AtflU. 

itraw tbe bamers) inthkhfbnathe palejof theCfrascftyc 
CDBfcttnding thefeKHyj^^atfe thc-profaaiejaad'the since^ 
With the hypooriticid. /. •> » v- 

Take «waiy the dooditie^ tl^at ife^cts tto tendtf- 
slonjof sin^ and yau< leave u& in a btate of tHb ihostoinifl 
xmcert«im;r\ Yoi^teike a!irafr fimn pettksntsidkdexpeic^ta* 
tioii that snstMBB them ; and frofn, hoHetrevs^^^e j^ODli*^ 
tode that engages them t6 love iniidi,teiiB^sh itoi)^ 
has been fcrgiYen them.. You desHoy the mbstficnr- 
erhil motive we have topatden the': dffiptesa^oiunlr 
neighbour, and leave us in a state of solHndehiieoiMrpaii- 
ble with that internal peaces which is thepecoluUi pri* 
rilege of christians. ;. - : ."r 

Rob us of the doctrine of a futufe resarteedoiif and 
you leave us weak in times of danger^ alarrnddla Ism^s^ 
of sickness, and wholly in bosidag^ to thelearof dietih. 
But, while we remain in possession of this i^^dbiUi-^ 
rating truth, we can follow^ without fear, the ktatidkfd 
<of the cross ; the most cruet torments are rendered ial* 
erable : and we can submit, without repinihg) to a tan- 
porary death, looking forward to a glorions resttEfec- 
tion and a happy immortality. 

CHAP. viir. 


ALL crimes are founded upon those error% 
whjch are first embraced in theory^ before they asre .a* 
dopted in practice^- Overthrow these errors by oppos- 
ing to them pure and incontrovertibie doctrines^ md 
you destroy sin in the bud. On the other hand, tfu^ 
virtue is prociuced by trudi. Oppose a lie tothii 
truth, and, if it be admitted^ yoii destroy the seedsr of 
-virtue. So iong as tlie &'stmanbad.his.heart p^fie?^ 

tertedt^ith £be^ceTtarhty of thra&idriB©,- «<^lflta)to>ti«^ 

grateful eiMWgh to disobey mf Ote^ft^y ialte» i&ir^ 

tto teBg he remained in a state «rfibnoo<ficfc.'>ja^Alw^ 

lW»j<fQe«tit»^ llMt: tempter oi^^ pif^liiwMfc 

'•f:'15aa«haflK<>(fcsarBiy dic/5*saidlte^ biLitte«cwawfljr> 

^'ji^f^shm^ixfrn^e niwst aaiA. happy «ft Cwd»/? - ^i0 

tooacBiircw t^ttfier djBfraairiefdDetiifK^ aasitfited toi«ttitte 

il^actiof^Adasoit but hb in)derstandiiig>:bec«ftiitogiB«be«- 

larilr^ciondciJ, hir wai warf imttiodfitttelr Iwguifed^: -aad 

jtimsl, bliflriif ibitewi^ teuipttttiofij he feil-kllfr^l 

-Iib5^wi''0«'nuber^« ' • ' "''ii''*«' 

•' • : Dotrtrinps^ •whetherthey begttod ef baA' stol •^^^J 

mie to have the same krftuence upon tfhe cend^ m 

' inc»T a»d? ta suppose the cofttrasy^ « t© SBf^e^ that 

%lrt atid *ntoes»cHueT€i« eea» to* produce their or* 

^iSmtrf effects. The Mowmg doetrme, «♦ Dot of liw 

pdb of the Roinirfi chtrrch them is no sa^fttiotH*' hft« 

teed Europe with fires, scitffoidsj and mftSsafete^... 

Eradicate this doctriiie from evcty preje^ced hettt^ 

ftnd plant in its room tiie fblhmin^ scrijmwil tra^f 

^ God is no respecter of persons ; hut » eveiy natfen, 

hre that feareth him and worketh rlghieotisne«» is ac* 

tepted with him,'* and, in ^e place of sft^amkig, 

Mood, we shall see streams of charity TaninterniptetSy 

Bowing through every xhristian kingdom. 

The miser imagines, that riches are the " S€>ve«-^ 
teign good>" and that the highest pleasure consists in 
* «oumii^ over and over his splendid hoards. The de* 
bauched youth ' is. confident, that the soverefgn goei. 
toosists in sensual gratification, and the highest grji^* 
fication, in the enjoyment of a frail beauty destined ta 
lie the prey of worms. Dtstvoy these grotiitcRess pcf«^^ 
gaasiouB by solid doctrines : demonstrate to theaein- 
iatuated creatures that God Wfnself is the sovcreagH 
good,. and that^is good is offered to u« m Jesus Christ ;. 
_ timt the highest ehjoy merit consists m having the heart, 
penetrated with divine lave, and* in looking forward 
trith a lively hope of being ofte. d^ etern^Iy united, 
to Goal convhice them of these nujtaentotts truth* 

Mri tlie chanas'tqr ivbichdief havebecs»caiidn^edi*' 
Idiigt^U be immediateisr broken. Ah! howdelif^tt^ 
fblis itf tobRbold such sensual icafoneniawjdMiii^ from* 
UMsr-dsatfalul slumbtfv aod xrying out with St, AiL^^ 
gustine : ^ O eternal sweetness 1 Ineffable greatODOSAl 
^ Befnil]^ far erer new i TruUi whose cbi^sT. bi»ye 
^ iwen aoloQg unnoticed,, akS) hpw i»iichlJQneh^i^ii, 
<< iost^ in not loving thee !" < . ■: / 

Sound feasoB mnat unavmdaUj snbnujtio t^ftfr^ 
of these obserrBtioQs^ the truth >of.whkJk is^«pa«i' 
straied by the general cooductof o»eiikiod« B«|^pec-. 
lui|% the best method of- reasimiog witk the/inc]«4tt- 
lons^ is to point out the conseqtt^oceaof their ^v^sja-^ 
tenu Imagine a man, who,, instesd of receiving 4ie 
doctrines of the Gospel^ publicJ j presumes ta m»k^ 
the following declaration: ^ I believe not in God the 
Creator; I trust not in any Mediator, nor admowjledgie 
any sanctifying Spirit. And, as I believe not in-Qodi' 
so I believe not in what is called his Church; nor do.^ 
look upon the communion of those who worship him^^ • 
in any other light than that of a mere chimera. I be«} 
Jieve^QOt in the remission of sins. I look for no resujs 
reetion, nor mdulge any hope of everlasting life. Let 
us eat and drink ; for to-morrow we die." Was any - 
man seriously to repeat in your hearing such a confess 
sion of his faith, would you fix upon such a one for the 
management of your estate ? ^wQulU you entrust him 
with the charge of your wife,, or chuse him for the. 
guardian of your children ? would it be possible for 
you to depen^ upon his word, or confide in his honesty I 
Now imagine, this very infidel, in some future seascnif ~ 
convinced of his former errors, and firmly persuaded, 
that he acts under the eye of an omniscient God, who 
will bring " every work into judgment, with every se- 
cret thing." Suppose him smiting upon his breast 
with the penitent publican, and •determining with St» 
Paul to know nothing " among men, save Jesus Christ, 
and him crucified.". Would you not indulge a better 
opinion .of this mail} .in his,belieyiiig state^than whenf. 

hfePveJdctb^^itBltlif BKiderB' filkiiosogfeggSy Ae d P e tri i jt« 
of'<^h»i«f(iaidi^ ? It could not possibly be»th«n»39e».8o 
tnie it jtt$*4ftidtf m 46itftm tsas^sif our co&dtot wiU/gt\ie: 
th«4ie^ (yo(ir«t»giinteiita, agaUuU the utUity^^fidM^* 
tiimti^'' ■ ^'= ■/--'. . ./ .;. 

-v^^ J^iRiMilnse««i^^y<^<Mtes to Itaeiie haled ^^badnutic-' 

be should have detected the Sormcw s» the caused 
t]|^'l«t«l0r< it Is liiOt'Sti£icie»ty<}hail we pro£t«t to .make 
th^'^kie^le&<»f tirtue Uie ground e^ our oeiiduet» un^^^^ 
le^tihM^asiibe^efiiaUitliedf^Kni an iimnoVabk fomiN 
da»km.^ >W4th^t alfee&dk%''to»£y« Tuie> Wfr>re8€ni^ : 
thi^ie lYidi2tn«, who 8«r{>pose the world to be founded 
u^ :th^ bitek of «n^d«{>hant, wMk that elfiphantb^ 
ft«p]>efnedbf the«heIlof a toitoise^ and who, perfect'* 
ly satfefkd with sttch a discovery^ attempt not to un* 
derstsnd-aliy itiore of the matter. 

A sT^eem of morality, h«fW beautiful so ever it may^ 
appear, unless it be impported by doctrines of the iK« 
most cansiatency and firmness, may be compared to a 
splendid palace, erected upon the sands : in some u»« 
expected storm, it will assuredly be swept away, prov« ■ 
ing, at once, the disgrace of ks buikkr, aod the w^sx 
of ita inhabitant. 



EXPERIENCE goes far in the decisMiK ef 
maiyy difficult questions, and ^fore it, the most sob' 
tile sophism ^cannot long maintam Its gvound. " To 
thisj therefore, we chee^fulif appeal for tiie Happy efr^ 
hdt^ of the CkMpeh Ye inc#^uIous sages of tte day* - 
ibew vi^ a smgteeoemyio'the^da^tiiaesolrt^daitiQR^ 

who may truly be calkd a humble man; <:oiidiKtini|^ 
binuieif soberly, jusUyi and religiousiyt in okV the iary»^ 
ibg circumBtanG€s ^ life. Thioa^ l&e whdle circle 
of your Uifiddl acquamta&ce^ iyoi> will setit subh^dttm^ 
in vain. ' ■ n- r^'i j^* ir-.-'j^ > 

If it be ftsudy that I. J. R4NM0ea»>itiidu^ia7'pt^<^«i^ 
edsceptic9prei»eDted«a witb^&p6Etniit;iDf a'^fMa'^tttrjK 
honest man : We anawev^ ib the: first .piace,ithat'J^«^ J^ 
Rousseau rejected not the G^pelf is aa^dbeiitaikeetie^ 
my $ but rather counted it an iriSViclaoii^^atJieMs'ilo*' 
able to embrace Its doctrines : and secondly, thetttblfl^ 
philosopher was equally deatfUtfdiif tbumiiky and re- 
ligion. . ' ' ' ;i . « / II ' 
It must be confessedt that these^atfeiinulttuida&rof 
inconsistent persons in ihe world, who cttwtanily de- 
ceive themselves, and who frequelitly.deltideothers^^ 
by their fallacious notions of faith and. inclteduHty.u; 
We meet with many, who, while they rmk th^'«' 
selves in the number of believers^ areusnaDy enapkyy^ 
ed in the works of in&deis : and, on/ ^e- o^er hiaid^ 
we observe divers penitent worahippersf who, tixrougb 
an excess of humility, account themselves no^ better 
than infidels, while th^y manifest in theiir conduct the 
fidelity oT christians* But these partio^ar exceptiona 
are insufficient to destroy the general rule here con^ 
tended for : since the former must be looked upon as^ 
believers, and th^e latter as inikkls, only in appearance. 
The first have not sincerity enough to acknowledge.; 
their secret incredulity : and the last hav« not light 
sufficient to determine their e:atact adv^eementin the 
christian faith. The latter deserve our pitj^, irhilrthe^ 
former merit our indignaticR. 

, But turn your eyes upon an enlightened betiever. 
Behold St. Pau1> after his memo^ble submissiafi to ^ 
persecuted Jesua ! the love of Qpvt possesses his'sooiy 
and he consecrates all his po^wers to the sertace of his 
exalted Master. Appointed t€i;in»tniot theii^notant, 
he discjiarges his important commis»on;withunde&w^ 
finable zeal. * ^ QairryMis; Xq tbPi 9^t«d bK^ cspii&tiitf ^ 

^iidteiHipoKil imocourSf'heiippean to be borne from east 
t^ fviresti ds«; u^xv: ^e 'wiiigs of a» eagle. He is ready 
%iiii^lifeiitod>l^iKpeDt^ Ibr tb^ coninibn interests of 
BUOXkixidk'c^ He^ par«vcB <h|s fidelity eoid grhlitiide t6 
Christ, at the hazard of his life. His magnanimity 
a^>lg^t3iid^d>is*rsciH^tt«lkn kxi&. pkti'ence, his'gene- 
:l^lit^T^a:(di^ctodolIryb^l)^ev^lenc^and^ are^ 
9l o|}Ci^ili^S3Siqa»Q]iient^of'hi&' entries, and tbe |^lory 
oSM^&AlvmGn^., ^Bdhold^this^ converted pharisee, and 
«cdBiKK«iodjg&rf^< iwtoi^ efBtac^y of evangeiidal 

< ¥im ^hivesjcf ^ilosbt^ikal prrejudice I ho^ Ibng 
win you mistake the nature of doctrines so happily a-^ 
4op^lxrbumbte^ supercilious tnan ; so perfectly calcu*. 
is^hdftPis.iStBsttof both preemption and despsdr; to 
{)9i%dithe;im6st havdened under the tender pressure of 
JO^vcs^^.ftad-carry up grateful belieVersto the«uMimest' 
s)«3»ii»t«Qf virtue I Behold three thousand Jews sub- 
Butl&v^ at the same instant, to the constraining power 
«if libese doctriiiesi Through their transcendant effi* 
•c^y, innumerable niiracles are still daily operated a- 
mongtis. . They dispel the mists of ignorance, they 
destroy the seeds of injustice, they extinguish irregular 
4e»ret and open in the heart a source of universal 
charity I Thus^ « the multitude of them, that'* for- 
meriy ^< believed, were of one heart and one soul :" Bcc. 
Enjoying together the « sovereign good," it was not 
po»{»ble for them to contend with each other for the 
trifiicig^ enjoynieAts of time and sei\se. Gon had giv- 
ie^ithem his only-begotten Son ; how then could they 
rffitses.atiy tiling to ^eir indigent brethren. 

Lcmg after St. Luke bad borne testimony to the* 
unoxampled charity of Christians, we find TertulKan 
4:itbg the £oiUowing testhnony which his lieathen co- 
ti^popaneS'Were csonstrained to be&r in fiiVour of the 
Burne christiaii virtue. ** Behold, say they, how* these 
cbristisms love, and ktf6 prbpared to die for each other l" 
Yes> adds this celd»?ated christian father, «^ We who 
Jhave hut one heart and one soul» are not afraid to have ^ 

$4 ram woxntjctf orsr.rAiA^ 

<me parse. Atoob^ us afi thin^ «w < 
<eept our wires-** 

If the* tesdiBowr i^re prodooed sbooid be i 
garded. becauw dmwn from the wrttiii^af Ik profea »- 
<d ad^tttate fer^hristianftT, ipe wiil readiy c«Be t# 
another ^e^.-' IHmT bears wiciie» to the |nb« isMiWe^- 
flsttioii of th^ generated chnsHans eChm fuse;' AbA 
the Empefw JuMaa hisMel^ 4«M of ti» aioir- ^nfigtklr 
enedy as well as implacable enemies of chriadaai^v es^ 
horted his heathen subjects to practice among diem' 
selves the duties of charity, after the example of cjina^ 
tjans, ^ \Mio abound, said he, in acts of benevolence." 
Aiui as to the joy, witli which they sacrificed thnr liyeSf 
«'ben occasion so required : They go, oontimies he^ 
to death, as bees swarra ID the hiye.** Such oiflii- 
ence hare the doctrines of our holy religion upon the 
conduct of its sincere professers, erea by tlfe ^idnlbs* 
•ion of their inTeterate enemies. 

It appears then, that St. Paul was employed Hke 
«n experienced moralist, while he Wa^ engag^ ta 
erecting the sacred edifice oi morality, upon the s(M 
fonndation of evangelical truths. And ^e -dcKtiines 
he mad^ choice ofy as peculiarly suited to this puiposs^ 
were those which respect the mercy of God in Christ 
Jesus. Upon these he laid the greatest stress, and 
from these he drew his most«persuasive€»^meittBf6 
▼irtue and piety. Witness that memonMe exhoft^* 
tion delivered to his Roman conrerts....^ I beseech 
you, brethren, by the mercies of God, that ye pffr- 
«aent your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, aeceptafale nfr 
to God, which is your reasonable service.** 

To withhold from the degenerate this cheering 
truth, that « they are bought with a price,** is to deny 
them one of the most powerful motives to love and 
<* glorify God in tlieir bodies and inthefr souls,** which 
f^pertain to him by the endearing right of redemplioh, 
as well as by that ori,^inal right of creation, to whieh 
they Jare generally rendered insensible by the affile- 
lions atKi cUsappointments of life, instiniet them con* 

^eriHi^ tibe sMctity of t^e dliFiae l-aw i set before 
them the guilt of their innumerable 0ffHic;e&; and 
tlie ju^ fears, to whic^ such d»OQ««ries must na|ural« 
If gtme rise, wiU make exist^nci^ Maetf «n iatolerabie 
bitfxieB«. But wbea the Gospel c^dUFiedcm^oQ be* 
g»i»t9^sip«te their doul^aiidaU«fthe^«figUishi^ 
their rqoKHnie, they wlU be eosbled to m rejotciug on 
their wi^, through the strictest pathsof obedience fOid 

CHAP.. X. 


THEY, who exak philosophy against revelation, 
imagiiie,^hat to invalidate the preceding reflections, they 
need only make the following reply : ^^ AU christians 
receive the apostles' Creed ; but their faith is, in genc- 
ral) onatteaded with the happy effects you Imve been 
tecounting. Crimes of every hind are committed by 
the disciples of Jesus : and their doctrines, instead of 
producing charity^ engender little else but dispute and 
persecution." The serious nature of this objection de- 
mands a suitable reply. 

A true christian was never knoivn to be a persecu- 
tor» The cruel disputes which have arisen among 
faithless christians, have not necessarily sprang from 
the nature of scriptural doctrines, but rather from the 
pride of those tyrannical doctors, who have contended 
for their particular explications pf such doctrines. To 
in^uate, then, that the doctrines of the Gospel should 
i>e utterly rejected^becanse, some churchmen have taken 
E k . 


occasion from them to stir up vehement cOate^ltSf wouM. 
scarcelv be less absurd, than to contend that asarcby is 
to be prefemxi before an excellent code af laws, becraae 
unpriiKipIcd Uxnrers are accnstomed to {bmeilt strife^ 
and have it always in their power to protract a caiiaeu 
As to the extrainagant explications, which the s«l>tiity' 
or power of men has substituted in the p1ac« ci etao^ 
gelical doctrines, they can no more be said to pvwe H 
the falsity or unproStableness of such doctrines, ttum 
the detested policy uf tyrants can weaken the force of ji 
that apostolic precept, *• I-et every soul be scAiject im- * 
to the hi Q:her powers.** But let us come to the mail^ 
knot of the di£BcuIty. 

They, who have unfelg^edly embraced the doc- 
tr'uies of Christ, far from committing a variety of 
crimes, have carried every virtue to a degree bf per- 
fection, surpassing almost the ccoception of other bicb. 
Rousseau and Montesquieu acknowledge, that even in ^ 
those countries, where the Gospel has but imperfectly ^ 
taken root, rebellions have been less frequent than in 
other places. The same acknowledgment must be 
made, by every unprejudiced observer, with regard to 
▼ice of every kind. Many ofiences, it must be owned, 
are every where common among the professMS of J 

Christianity; but they would have been dbundantiy j 

more frequent, if antichristian philosophers had beoi 
able to talvc from them the little respect they still re- 
tain for a revealed Gospel. Moreover, there are ma- 
ny rare virtues, which chiefly flourish in secret : and 
they, who deserve tlie name of christians, might as- 
tonish incredulity itself, had no^ Christ commanrled 
them lo perform their best services in so private a 
mamer, tliat the left hand might not know how the* 
right was engaged. 

Nothing can be more unjust* than to impute those, 
evils to the christian religion, which evidently flow 
from incredulity and superstition, fanaticism and hy- 
pocrisy. Jesus Christ requires of his followers an ar- 
dent love both to God and man ; such a love as was 


^xempUfie^ in the Ts^hole of his own conduct through 
Jifo4 Ttoe iocreclulQUS deny, either wholly or in part, 
tfe«,debtof gtateftil love* which the innumerg^ble mer- 
cies 0iQQ» ino^s^ upon them : since while the athe- 
klruefuses-to^adpiowledge him as the Creator and Pi^- 
^ei\i^c4 ma% the deist rejects him as the author of 
<Mf redemption and seinctification. The superstitious^ 
iBdeed9 acknowledge these immense debts ; but they 
pretend to pay them with idle ceremonies, and vain 
repetitions* of tedious forms. The fanatic attempts to 
^ohar^ them with unfruitful fervors, and the hypo- 
Dlite yith. stupid, grimace. But these errors cannot 
reasonably be considered in common with our holy 
vejigiim which expones and condemns them all. 

The life of a christian, so called, must necessarily 
becofme pure, when he is actually possessed of chris- 
tian faith, i. e. when he is strongly persuaded, that he 
walks in the presence of the Almighty, who being hts 
-Father by Creation, becomes so in a still more affec- 
^onate and effectual manner, by the mysterious exer- 
tions of his redeeming and sanctifying gi'ace. These 
three astonishing operations of the Supreme Being, tire 
undoubtedly three grand evidences of his love to man , 
and must be ccHisidered, as so many abundant sources 
of christian charity, among the members of his church. 
Hence, tlie man, who acknowleges but one of lhes« 
proofs, cannot possibly be united either to his brethren^ 
or to his Gob, with so ardent an affection, as he wlio 
^admits and experiences all the three. The divine cha- 
rity, he|"e spoken of, is produced in the heart by means 
of faith, and from it proceeds every social virtue^ with 
every praise worthy-action. 

All this is conformable both to reason and expc- 
fience. A weak subject will fear to disobey a power- 
ful king, whose eye is actually upon him : at least, so 
long as the subject is penetrated with this thought, 
** The King observes me." A son will never exalt 
himself against a good father, while he believes that 
his lather^ in every possible sense, is good with respect 

ttt rim PdvntiLrr tt ^r.^AVt; 

to biHu Bvttltleiiy 'nlio'CdRikHf ackMrwIe^ge eac& 
other fit Budiy wiH not dare to -abuse one ttnetiieritt 
the presence of a tether y/rho is miistQly pcnvetiiH t 
and while be kade tbem «o late poftsdwioftof « kiog-^ 
doiD, vhkh Iris generosity bas dkided amon^'th<Bta(i''r 
they \rTll not threaten. tonmirdereadi «^ier un^^ tive 
eyes of their |iarenls^i»B$bepoMeMioii!of any ^tittle^6ti^ 1 
joy mcnt that pFcsente itself «pon the rataij The IbOM J 
of JflGoh hod never, sold their brekher J^xfh^Ai tti^ I 

had been firmly peraaaded, tl»t Israel vwild^iafe^ iaj jd 
diSQover their crittie: and they irouid have eonceorfe^ ' 
the greatest horron h»A they really believed^ thae tini&m < 
Heavenly Father was present at tiie impious traMsat^* 
tion, resolving to call them at some iiitare season, to ir' 
severe account^ in the fieice of tiie world. A faithy 
which has no influence upon the conduct^ is no other 
than the faith of hypocrites^ upon whom our Lord de- 
nounces the most terrible judgments^ threatening them ^ 
with everlasting banishment from liis presehce, into V 
that outer darkness, where shall be ^ weepings and ? 

wailing^ and gnashing <^ teeth. I will shew thee my 
faith," saitb St. James, <^ by my works. If any man 
say," continues St. John, " I believe in God, I love 
God, and hateth his brother, he is a liar." The same 
principjesy whicli in the present moment gain the as- 
cendancy in man, give ri&e to the words and actions 
of the moment : and hence that saying of the Apostle, 
" Whosoever abideth in him, [Christ] sinnetb not i 
whosoever sinneth, hath . not seen him,'* through the 
medium of a true and lively faith . 

If there are found professors of Christianity^ in 
whom the truths of the Gospel have ^led to produce 
a holy conversation, ^VQ may take it for granted, that 
such persons are iniidels in disguise, and totally unac« 
quainted with the Gospel ; except it be in theory- The \ 

faith which is common to these npminal christians, is ^ 

purely speculative, not ckffering less from the solid 
faith of a true believer, than a sun upon canvaa differs 
from that> which spreads light and heajt among suTv 


90i^«di^5f4HMbl^ 1 A^.a:|>bint>omQOt*te: nourish^fl by 
Ibei^^pferfioial^ ftfjfilicatiw-tf uteaig;© sa|> to hs rind, 

^li^JttblU9^btotefc|wpeti*teibica^«*^ wa«^ nourishes 
^W^ipaft.ofljiit plant: 80i tiie^coBdi|cfe^A nian,caii:-» 
J^ P9$mbly'^be "I'ctforiR&lr^iinotnais i»riidtt0trjiires ^^ 
l»eiodiftt)i|fiilHJQk«j,bufefey tjifi^ ^ 

\ .Tte^ntttlVer danoct jwdyifaa Eegarded as k remsuh^ 
Hrfege« To be' dott^fic^ of ite solidatyf it wiM tw sxifii- 
€»eiifrt«t.i3aii6t^«^ iibw:tbe soul a&iiSbcted according to 
tlie^-dUforent'dfigirees 6f ^taaj impression that is made 
VIHSlut.. WJuk Jaeob wasstiil Jamenthtg the suppoi- 
^ dtktk of Joseph) Reuben infonried hifn, tliat his be* 
hfvtd son -was yet aiivc^ and enjoring t*>e second place 
of! dig^nitj ID Egypt. These tidrngfr at first appeared 
ddusive to the good old man^ who was »o othei-wise 
affected by themt than by some extravagaiH relation. 
BtttifV'licn the^ affirmations of Reuben were seconded by 
the pint testimony of his other sons,- his earnest at- 
tention was immediately excited, his incredulity was 
gradually overcome^ and his fainting heart began to 
revive. The waggons and presents of Joseph now ap- 
pearing, in coniirmati<Hi of his chifdrens* report, his 
doubts were entirely dissipated: " My son," cried he, 
" is yet ahve I I will go and see him before I die." 
This animating persuasion, " Joseph is yet alive," 
seemed to restore the lioiguishing patriarch to all the 
vigour of former year** He renounced a terrestrial 
Canaan ; he turned his back upon the tombs of Isaac 
and Rachel ; and, with all the courage of youth, set 
forward to embrace his newly discovered son in Egypt. 
So certain it is, that a truth in which we are deeply in- 
terested! will change, in some degree, our very nature, 
and modify the soul itself. 

Thus the Gospel of God our Saviour affects every 
true believer. And why slK>uld Egypt have greater 
charms than Heaveli'? Or, why should an inviuition 

390 rwm -nmar^itTT 0m wn vj 


.front ibe virtiKitB flon ^ _ 

Ifian tbat which oomcafrvm dM dbriBe «ttof Mw^ 

Were the (huts whidiJosepbsent Ins ~ 
ftnred befeve those of the 8|Hnt»vi& 
plenwb^s 1m» fiiTDUPoilvarlf Ok 
•ofw «C Jacol^HKfit gnaicriaBdiCyi 
Mir exalted Lord« tboi^ seceadedbf 
of nanjn^ vW have Baled witk 
of die Gm^t.; Alas I tf tfaelbn 

Ihe-Gospely (for we speak noi hin iif llawi ha— i Ij 
addiuooB, by whkh k is too J ke q u e Htl T dbfigoicd sad ' 
weakeaed) bad hvt deeply praetniBd u m -hu LHiy we 4 
should bear testiinony, by our conduct, to the imtk tf 
the IbUowiiig aflsemoau..^ If aay nan be indeed a 
' christiant he is a new GRatme ; oki tftua^ 
away ; all things are become new.^ 

But why should we go^back to the tibnea of 
to prove that doctrines have an influence npan llie ^ 
conduct of men, in proportion to the dcgroe of £dtk |F 
with which they are receiTed? Let us retuni andcast 4 
a retrospective view ov^r the various circumstances of 
our past life. If we hsure at any time felt a lively per- 
suasion of the truth of the Gospels If, at oar first ap- 
proac hing the sacramental table, or after hearing some 
pathetic sermon, we have really believed, ^< that God 
was in Christ recondiing the world unto himself/* and 
promising hb pe(^le» in return for. their temporary 
labours, everlasting i^ewards ;....have we not^ at socfa a 
moment, perceived the love of God and man, spring- 
ing^ up in our hearts I Now, ^ this paitiad persuasion 
had spread itself through the wh(^ souly iwyuld not 
our devotion, our humility, and our charity, have been 
carried to a much higher degree of perfection, than 
we have hitlierto experienced \ Would not our goad 
works of every kind, liave been abundantly more exccK M 
lent and namerous,than we cannow possibly pretend toi ' 

On the other hand, ieft us look back to the days of 

. youth, and we shall. Tecoiiect a time, in whioh the 

doctrines of tl>e Gospel began, to loaeUie little fflfior 


ilhali the^kitestwdnBexaan*s«ibsi9tsi^ tfigst- 

Htmft: gfiHfMrrtTnirtt^fiy h jiaTe #«jio« fbofn/thatiiyiActfp^ 
J^HflPiod^ (bdomiieriinove dcsbbudued^iai^eiiliiifk^fty 11^ elt* 
>.ABaniiDdi)ih:tiuv0Ulwstrd<behaVi^ d^)bi« 

rmtaiuitKaaplh upon the ptfke^plesJof itatural i^eH^bh, 

jsei^jQtsoiisi^i^exriutil proceed todcaw the fbUo^^^lh- 
;feiience»dt >» ..■ . ' ■■ '■'^^ 

£ L.ihl.iM Bofondity may be compaped to a tree, whose 
'£antia)ferj^;tibumhineBt of mankind, true doctrines; 
may be considei^ed as the roots- of this tree. Take 
^cimf these doctrines tinder pretence that they embar- 
rass morality^ «nd you ridiculously «m away the voots 
of this sacred plant, lest they should prove an impe-^ 
^ diment to its rising perfection. Now he, who thus 
seeks the mm*ality of the Gospel by reprobating e^salK 
gelical doctrines, would act entirely consistent wkh his 
eharacter, was he to plant his orchards with trees 6t* 
pri ved of their roots, in order that diey might pmdutse 
the mtore excellent fruit. 

.2. As in the vegetable kingdom, fruits are nourish- 
ed and matured by that vegetative energy, which 
draws the sap from the root, refining, and distributii^g 
itramong the several branches t so in the moral world, 
charity and good w^irka can mfy be produced by that 
living faithy which first receives the doctrines of tmth> 
and theii becomes a kind of vehicle to their invigorat* 
. ing virtue* This fidth was rightly characterized by 
Christ and his Apostles, when they represented h as 
< the graces by wldch we are principally saved ; since 
'.this' grace ahme is capable of producing in us th^t 
lively hope^ that ardent charity, ' and that universal 
•beddence, which will ever distinguish the believer 
ScfxxL the in&deL He> lli^Teibre^ who declaims again&t 


tills scriptural faith, whether his be a sQvke or a |^ 
losejiher, indirectly pleads the cause of vice, and |^i¥^ 
sufficiept proof of bis sptritual ignorance. 

, 3- From what has bee^ a4Tanced) w<^ paayjQJ[e|r^ 
the necessity there is, of avoidiog the m^ia}^'Of*t|ril! 
g^Qostics on the one hand ; and tjbe erir^'.of ^iiWpf'fQb^* 
lops. sages on. the other : the Jbrmer q£ 3;cWn>,^r. 
tending for a speculatiYe ftith, salutet Cih|ist(f^//t^p,i 
Lordy though they refuse to oh^y his ^qi^ijE^aqd^i.' 
while the Jatter holding fisatk in ti>e ul^iQo^t^ri^^of^ * j| 
and dep^iding upon their own power £6r/d^.!]i^^diyrnsft V 
ance of every good work» pollute^by un^iioi^]^ ni<^ ^ 
tivea, the most excellent of their actions^s - ^i,r ? j 





AS many have taken great offence in observing^ 
bow little effect the doctrines of the Go^^ol hayeupon 
the lives of christians so called, it becomes us h«re la 
enquire Into the causes of this grand eviir 

The^ doctrines which distinguish Christianity f£om 
theism, have this peculiarity, that no maa cast p^ssi^ 
bly receive them, imlesshe has first sincerely; embrao-r 
ed the doctrines of theism^i- He must believe in Qom : 
before he can believe in Christ ; he must have thp sinp : 
oerity of an honest heathen, before he <:omes. to the 
possession of christian chanty. It k usual with ithe 
whole multitude of outward professpirs to cry out i» 
their public services ; " We believe in Jesus Christ v . -a 
We believe in the Holy Ghost :*' &c. though their feith, * 

k may be, is not equal to that of devils, who believe in a . 
the exigence of are warding and avenging God, with sin.^ 
copity sufi&oienttomakethm tremble before him. Thear . 


liypocritea can no more' be s^id to befi^eve, from the * 
bearti the latter iirtides of the Apostles" Creed, than 
those children, 'w^ho are yet unacquainted with the af- 
phabct, may be said to have perused and digested the 
ifiost'profeund authors. The doetnnes of the Gospel 
must titeeessanly appear both useless and absurd to 
those, vAiost faith in God is not sufficient to penetrate 
theitt^>!th a holy fear : for as we calinot a^rtive at mah* 
ho^ without first passing through the state of infan- 
cy^ so ' we- cannot cordially' receive the l«ttter part ol" 
the A|)0«^tleS^ Creed, tfll'We have first embraced the for- 
mei» part by « lively and stedfast faith. Why did 
Caiphas refuse to believe in Christ ? Because he wais 
but an hypocrite with respect to the Jewish faith. On 
the contrary, why <fid Cornelius the centurion so rea- 
dily believe ? It was, undoubtedly, because the since- 
rity of his faith in God had prepared his heart for the 
reception of faith in Christ. " Every man," saith this 
divine Saviour, " that hath heard, and hath learned of 
the Father, cometh unto me. Ye who believe in God^ 
believe also in me s and I will pray the Father, and 
He shall give you another Comforter, even the Spirit 
of truth." 

These fundamental doctrines compose the ladder 
of evangelical truth, in which he, who takes offence at 
any single step, runs a double hazard, that of ascend- 
ing no higher, and even that of falling from the step 
where he has obstinately determined to take up his 
rest. *< He that doeth truth, cometh to the light ;** 
but he that refuses the first truth, places himself be- 
yond the possibility <^ receiving those, which are of a 
more sublime nature. If he has not first observed the 
dawn of the Gospel day, he can never contemplate 
our divine Sun, when shining in his meridian bright- 

The articles of the christian faith may be com- 
pared to a course* of geometrical propositions, the last 
of which always suppose a perfect knowledge of the 
first. To require of spiritual infants any high an4 

S94 TBS pomrmAiT ov sy. pauiu 

important acts of fidth ib Jesus Christ, or Ib the Holy 
Spirit, before they are taught to oitertain just notiaQs 
of the Supreme Beiag, would be equity unrea^onar 
ble, as for a man to pretend, that it is poswble tO' laake 
a good geometrician of an ignorant peasant, by instsiict<- 
ing him to repeat the terms of Euclid's Wt proposi- 
tions, without ever bringing him to a true aa^ifsffia^ 
ing of the first. If, then, the generality of <^^^i4|tfi5 
are contented with leaining merely to repeat Mr,dfx> 
trisal terms, we must expect to see them as far Itoib 
manifesting the virtues of St. Paul, as the soperSislai 
peasant from possessing the solidity of EuclVl. 




PROFITABLY to teach the doctrines of the 
Gospel, there are certain rules necessary to lie ob* 
served ; and where these rules are ^ther unknown or 
neglected, the Gospel becomes of little importance. 

1. A true doctrine, in oi*der to have its due elTecfi 
must be announced with purity. It should neither be 
mutilated by hasty contradictions, nor corrupted bf 
vain additions. The prince of error equally serves 
his own interest^ by perplexing the truth, as by spreads , 
ing a falsehood : and when errors are added to eyan* 
gelical truths, those truths may be compared to excels 
lent medicines unhappily mingled with dangerous pok^ \ 
sons» Thus, the doctrines of future pimishments is ^^ 
not only deprived of its utility, but becioines really per4> 
nidous, by the addition of anotlier doctrine^ which < 
teaches, that a sum of money left as tkCi price of pray« 


«p for a depaited soul, will effectually soften, and even 
termiimte its pains. 

2. A doctrine should not only be deEioeittd ia the 
purest tnaiiner,but they who announce it should study* 
io dtetodti^tmte iU excellency goid power, by the whole 
course of their conduct. Were leprous physicians to 
cry tip a ^edfic against the leprosy, k cannot be ima- 
gined, tteit! lep^t^, in ^neralt would anxkmsly scdopta 
remedy, which bad been attended with so little effect 
\\ptfR tht t<e<totnmender8 of it. We here intiaaate, not 
without the utmost regret, that too many of the clca;^ 
destroy thief effect of thetr docmDiea,.by the inunomli- 
ty of their conduct. 

3. To give scriptural doctrines their full effect, it 
is necessary to make th^tn pas* from the understand- 
ing to the will, or from the judgment to the heart of 
those, who admit them. It would be in vain to pro- 
cure for a patient the most efficacimis remedy, if, in- 
stead of applying it in the method prescribed, he should 
l^iids^ it s\:^cient to touch it with his lips^ or should 
content himaelf with drawing in the grateful odour ex- 
haling from it. To such a patient^ however, the great- 
er part of christians bear a strict resemblance, who 
apeculate upon the Gospel, without ever embracing it 
with that lively " feiith, which worketh by love." 

4. It is not sufficient, that these doctrines should 
be preached in their native purity ; but it is equally 
necessary, that they should be preserved in the same 
prurity by • those, who receive them. Our Lord makes 
thls^ solemn deekLration to sinner^ : ^ Except ye re- 
pent, ye shsil all likewise perish." Yet how is it, that 
many thousand christians who admit this important 
truth, remain to the present day in a state of impeni- 
tence ? It is because they mingle with it the following 
pemieious error: though I spend tbe present moment 
ki sin, God will assuredly give me grace to repent in 
the latter part of my life. Hence that lameentable in*- 
atienti^i to the duties of religion which is universai 
among Us at this day. 


5. Veiy frequently the doctrines of the go^iel a^e * 
attended with no oonsiderahle effect apoo thoae wbo 
admit thenif becauae the aaliitaiy operatioii €i these 
truths is coonterscted by the powerful infiaence of 
earthly desires indulged in the heart. Thnsy in a <&s- 
ordered stomach, the moat wholesome food is deprived 
of its virtue. To remedy this evil, it is necesary to en- 
ter upon a regimen too severe to be regarded by an 
obstinate patient, and upon an absolute necessity of 
which an inattentive physidan will not pereintorily 


6. Where doctrines of the most humiliating ten- 
dency have not first made a deep impression, there the 
consolatory doctrines of the Gospel tend only to up- 
heUd the sinner in a course of impiety. Those preach- 
ers, who favour the fidse judgment of woridly men, 
wanting either courage or experience wisely to admi- 
nister the doctrines of the Gospel, so that they may 
alarm the impenitem and console the dejected ; these 
preachers, instead of eradicating, do but increase the 
evil we lament. It cannot, indeed, be denied^ that they 
offer many sacred truths to the world : but, while they 
do not nicely distinguish, and apply them to the dif* 
ferent states of their hearers, as they only draw their 
bow at a venture, it is no wonder that tlieir arrows so 
frequently fall beside the mark. These perplexers of . 
truth contribute as little to the conversion of sinners, .V 
as a physician would contribute to the recovery of the ^ 
aick, who, without any prudent selection, compound- 
ing together all the drugs of an excellent pharmaco- 
poeia, should indiscriminately offer the same confused 
recipe to every padent. 

7. The doctrines of Christianity are frequently de- 
livered as the ©pinions of men, rather than as the de* !^ 
clarations of God, founded upon events much better i 
attested than the most certain historical facts : and to ^ 
this single error the in efficacy of those doctrines may, 

in a good degree, be imputed. Were reason and 
consience made to walk in the front of the Gospel, the 



VftE~*OilTllAXT4)F ST, PAUL. 397 

wsxxt^fsL R^deetrtcr-w^uld be more universally expe- 
tieticed^trt tiife wrorldt thafv it'^has hitherto been. But 
'While ihepfftach^rs of that CtJspet neglect to assert t&e 
Tdepwwt«y*of humati Ttatuife ) or while they omit, in con- 
^r*rtjitfaiA^ 9o tfl^Jaaicholy^tfutivto make the most 
^t^ifin'^^eaii^ to the c^^iences 6f then ; so long we 
^mty^^e^l^^ftSGVtO «ee their ill '^reict^d febours universal^ 
4M)st|<icti58M; 'Hii«l t^ese- teachers in' Israel an expe- 
^it(6t)ml 'A<*qaaimtance with thojse truths, upon which 
tb«$^|^sti^^d{)€nly ti^descant, their word would spe- 
dily be attended with unusual efficacy ; their example 
i^fouW^gfe^i it-weight, and, in answer to their fervent 
fjmy^B,' the Gob of all grace would set his seal to the 
tmthfe oF the Gospel* 

Whenever the messengers of religious truth shall 
become remarkable forthe purity of their lives, and the 
-fe%*vency tif their zeal, their doctrines will soon be at- 
tended with sufficient* influence in the christian world, 
to overthrow the objection we have been here consi- 
dering, dixid effectually to stop the mouth of every gain- 
l^ayer. * 

CHAP. xm. 


* THE Gospel, says J. J. Rousseau, is accompanied 
with marks of truth, so great, so striking, so perfectly 
inimitable, that the inveiuor qf it appears abundantly 
more admirable than its Hero. But, after all, this 
Gospel is filled with incredible things, with things that 
are repugnant to reason, and which no sensible man 
can possibly conceive, or admit. Remove all the diffi- 


culties, continues the admirers of thbphilosopher, dia** 
sijiiUc all the obscurity with which your doctrines arc 
surrounded, and we will cheerfully embrace the 

Extraordinary things appear always incredible, in 
proportion to our ignorance. Thus, an ignorant negro 
of Guinea would look upon that man as a deceiver, 
who sliould asssrt there are places in the vorld^ where 
the surface of rivci*s become so solid* at particular sea- 
sons, that without bridge or boat, whole armies may 
pass them dry-shod. And it is well known that the 
doctrine of Antipodes g:ave no less offetice to the cele- 
brated geographers of a former age, than is unhappily 
given to the deistical sages of modem times, by the doc- 
trine ol a divine Trinity. 

As we become better acquainted with spiritaal 
things, instead of despising the truths of the Gospel as 
altogether incredible, we shall be truly convinced that ^ 
J. J. Rousseau passed the same kind of judgment up- ",T 
on the doctrines of Christianity, as a savage might be i 

cxpectorf to pass upon some late discoveries in natural 
philosophy. The sciences present a hundred difficul- 
ties to the minds of young students. By entering up- 
on an obscure course, they, at length, attain to supe- 
rior degrees of illumination: but, after all the indcfa- . 
ti gable labours of the most learned professor, the 
highest knowledge he can possibly acquire, will be 
mingled with darkness and error. If men of wisdom, 
however, do not look with contempt upon those sci- 
ences, which are usually taught among us, because all 
of them are attended with difliculties, and most of 
them are too abstruse to permit a thorough investiga- 
tion ; how absurd would it be in us, for these insuffi- 
cient reasons, to reject that revelation, which may be 
considered as the science of celestial things. "'• 

I'o despise the doctrines of the Gospel, because 
they are attended with some degree of obscurity, is 
to act ,in as full contrariety to the dictates of philoso- 
phy, as those of revelation. No follower of J. J. Rous- 





fteau could blame us, without reproaching himself, if, 
arguinf^ from the erroneous principles of his master, 
we should make the following declarations....*' Natu- 
" ral philosophy abounds with incredible things, which 
" no sensible man can either conceive or admit. I 
" have arteries, it is said, which carry my blood, with 
*' a sensible pulsation, from the heart to the extremi- 
\' ties of my Ijody ; and veins, wliich without any pul- 
" sation, reconduct that blood to the heart : but since 
" the union of the arteries and veins is, to me, an in- 
** conceivable mystery, I cannot admit the generally - 
" received opinion, respecting the circulation of the 
" blood. I see the needle of the compass perpetually 
" turns itself toward the pole, and I have observed 
" that the loadstone camiftunicates to it this disposi- 
♦' tion : but, as it cannot be ascertained how all this is 
" effected, 1 look upon the voyages of Anson and Cock, 
" which are said to have been performed by means of 
" the compass, just as infidels are accustomed to lo<Dk 
" upon the Gospel. I will no longer increase the 
" number of those idiots, who unthinkingly jmss over 
" a bridge, while they are perfectly unacquainted with 
« the plan upon which it was built ; and who vulgarly 
*' depend upon their watches with regard to the re- 
*' gulation of time, without being thoroughly versed 
'' in. the mechanism of tinie-peiccs 1 will never again 
** be persuaded to take a medical preparation, till I 
" have penetrated into the deepest mysteries of physic 
^ and chymistry. In short, 1 resolve neither to ^t, 
" nor drink ; neither to sow my grounds, nor gaze 
" upon the sun ; till I am enabled perfectly to com- 
" prehend, whatever is mysterious in vegetation, light, 
" and digestion." If the preceding declarations might 
reasonably be considered as evident tokens of a weak 
and puerile judgment, the following ..^armation un- 
doubtedly deserves to be considered in the same point 
of view...." I grant that the science of physics has its 
"unfathomable mysteries: but, as a philosopher of 
^ the first rank, I insist upon it, that nothing of a 



« mrstenous nature should be suffered to pass in Tc- 
** l»t;ion, that deep mernphysical science, which has 
•* for its objecls, the Father of Spirits, the relation in 
** vhich thf^e Spirits stand to their irxomprehensi- 
•* ble Parent, their properties, their light, their Dou- 
•* rishment, their gioTith, their distempers and their 
*' remedies, their degeneracy and thenr perfection.^ '^ 
Ye, wi!o are anxious to be saluted as ** Lovers of wis- 1 
doin," if such is the absurdity of your common objec- ^ 
tions against the Gospel of God our Saviour, what |i 
p'^or pretensions have you to the boasted name of 
« Philosophers 1" 

This answer may be supported by the following 

In the present world. Ire serve a kind of spiritual 
apprenticeship to " the truth, which is after godliness :*• 
and it is not usual, hastily to reveal the secrets of an 
«rt to such as have but lately bound themselves to any '^ 
particular profession. This privilege is justly reserved . ^^ 
for those, whose industry and obedience have merited ^ 

so valuable a testimony of their master's approbation. 
See John xiv. 21. 

A physical impossibility of discovering, at present^^ 
certain obscure truths, forms the vail, by which they 
are effectually concealed from our view. In order to 
form a perfect judgment of the material sun, it is ne- 
cessary in the first place to take.a near survey of it : 
but this cannot possibly be done with bodies of a like 
constitution with ours. The same may be said of the ^ 
Father of lights. God, as a spiritual Sun, enlightens, 
even now, the souls of the just : but while they con- ; 

tinue imprisoned in tenements of clay, their views of 
his matchless glory must necessarily be indistinct 
since they can only behold him " through a glass 
darkly," Hence, we ai'gue with St. Paul, that as spi- 
ritual things are spiritually discerned, the'natural man 
can never truly comprehend and embrace them, but 
in proportion as he becomes spirituajly minded by re-* 


The wise Author of our existence initiates us not 
immediately into the mysteries, which lie concealed 
under many of our doctrines, for the very same rea- 
son, that a mathematician conceals the most abstruse 
parts of his science from the notice of his less intelli- ' 
gent pupils. If a preceptor should affect to bring 
cliildren acquainted with all the difficulties of algebra, 
^' before they had passed tlirough the first rules of arith- 

^ metic, sucban attempt would deservedly be looked up- 

on as ridiculous and vain. And is it not equally ab- 
• surd to expect, that the profoundest mysteries of the 

' Gospel should be open to us, before we have properly 

r digested its introductory truths, or duly attended to its 

lowest precepts ? 

The Almighty will nerer perfoinn a useless work, 
nor ever afford an unseasonable discovery. For the 
practice of solid piety, it is by no means necessary, that 
^ we should be permitted to fathom the depth of every 
^ spiritual mystery. It is enough, that fundamental 
P^' truths are revealed, with sufficient perspicuity, to pro- 
r». ckice in us that faith, which is the mother of charity. 

i When the Gospel has proposed to us the truths, which> 

\ give rise to this humble faith, and presented us with 

\ such njotives, as evidently lead to the most disinterest- 

X' ed charity, it has then furnished us with every thing 

I we stand in need of to work out for ourselves a glori- 

ous salvation. The followers of Christ are required 
to tread in the steps of their master, and not deeply to 
speculate upon the secret things of his invisible King- 

If a clear knowledge of the mysterious side of our 
doctrines, is no more necessary to man in his present 
state, than an acquaintance with every thing that re- 
spects the art of printing is necessary to a child, who 
If is studying the alphabet ; why: then do we peevishly 
r complain of the, sacred writers, for not having throwa 

light sufficient upon some particular points to satisfy 
an ^ inordinate curiosity? Our scruples on this head, 
should be silenced by the constant declarjitions of tha&fe> 
L 1 2- 


very writers, that the time of perfection is not yct ar- 
rived ; that they them selves were acquainted, bi^ia 
part, with the mysteries of the Kingdom ; and tiiat 
the language of mortality is vmsnitable to the »nUimit]r 
of divine things. The sea has its unfathomable abysaesy: 
and an extent unknown to the most e^erieqced tu,^ 
vigators : but notwithstanding all this niuxvtakukyi thei 
merchant is perfectly contented^ if he can4Miti'glbd& 
securely over its sur£iice to the pon for IteKie^h'he i» 

If we are placed here in a state of pi»bat«Ni^ iti» 
reasonable that our understanding, as well a&ow. wiH^ 
should be brought to the txial. But how shall tte Al* 
mighty proceed to make proof either of the self>«uffi<* 
ciency, or the diffidence of our understandings? No>' 
happier method con possibly be adopted, than thatoF 
pointing us to such truths, as are partly manifest and 
partly concealed, that we may search them out with 
diligence, if there is* a possibility of comprehending ¥ 

them : or, if placed above the highest stretch of our * '^ ^ 
faculties, expect with patience a future' revelation o£ 

To acquire, and manifest dispositions of a truly 
divine nature, is possible only under a religious ^cono* 
my, whose docti-incs are in some degree mysterious, J! 

and whose morality has something in it painful to hu- 
man nature. Why then, do those persons,^ who affect wiser than their neighbours, universally take of- 
fence at such a religion ? If a mysterious vail is thrown* 
over the operations of nature, and the workings of 
Providence ; wliy should we expect td»e more wonder- 
ful operations of grace to be laid unreservedly open 
to every eye ? Philosophy, it is presumed, will not 
dare thus foolishly to destroy the rules of analogy. 
Humility is necessary to the perfection of our under-^ 
standing, no less than sagacity and penetrWion : on 
which account God is pleased to bring our humility 
to the test. And this he does, by discovering to us soa 
viuch of truths as may enable us to recognize it oaiia 

THE POUTflAW cur »T, « AUt. 40S 

first ikppeacance; at the sa«n« tionte^ permitting the ob- 
jecU of laith to be surrouBded with . clilSiculties, suffix 
cient t& leave roood &rthe esjepcise^f tbat^un^le 
confidtaace in his veraeity^ and. that true poverty of 
spiiitf "wchkh plillasopherai lire pleased to hold up, a» 
just i»abjex2t» fxTri^cnie. > Soond/knoi^tedgey however) 
and una^toted' inability, waU al^wii.yB. iiieep pace with 
edch otiver^ Hence^ thiat TUteinorablc confession of So-*- 
erates,** All diat I Jspiow, isf tha* I know nothing:" 
an(ji hence that remarkable declaraticm of St.jPatll, " If 
snjruiui ihkik> that he knowetb any thing, he know-^ 
0th.f\dthin^ yet as he ought to know." 

it is im^iossH^ie^ that a&y thing should have a great* 
ei^ tendency to keep mao at a distance from GoD) 
than that an'ogant self-'su^&ciency, with which moderi» 
freewthioker& are usually puffed up. This unhappy 
disposition must be totally subdued, before we can 
come to the fountain-head of pure intelligence : and 
to effect this,, the Almighty permits our understand-^ 
xng to be embarrassed and conibunded, till it is con- 
strained to bow before his supreme wisdom, in ac- 
knowledgment of its own imbecility. But it is always- 
with the utmost difiiculty, aiid not till after a thousand 
vain devices have been practised, that human nature 
can- be forced into this state of self-abasement. Here: 
Socrates and St. Paul may be regarded as happy ^ 
companions, experiencing, in common, that submis-- 
sive meekness, and that profound humility, which are 
so terrible to many professors of wisdom. , And it is 
but reasonable, that the piety of the one, and the phi- 
losophy of the other, should have been established up- 
on the basis of those rare virtues, which formed the 
ground of the following address from Christ to hi» 
Father: " I thank thee, O Father !. Lord of Heaveir 
and earth, because thou hast hidden these thinga 
from the wise and the prudent, and hast revealed then* 
unto babes." 

It becomes us so much the more to moderate the 
sallies of an impatient curiosity, with respect to Uruths. 


of a mysterious nature^ since Christ himself has gir^ir 
us an example of the obedience due to the following 
apostolic precept....'' Let no man think of himself 
more highly than he ought to think ; but let him think 
soberly, according as God hath dealt to every man the 
measure of feith.** This condescending Saviour wa* 
content, as Son of man, to remain in tJie humble 
ignorance of which we speak. If, in order to have sa- * 
ti^Ged his curiosity, with respect to the day of judg- • 
ment, he had attempted to explore the secret counsels ■ 
of the Almighty, there can be no doubt but his gracious 
Father would have admitted him into that impenetra-* 
ble sanctuary. But he rather chose to.leave among 
his followers tax example of the most perfect respect- . 
and resignation to the will of that Father. 

What was said by St. Paul concerning heresies,- 
may, with propriety be applied to that obscurity, which • 
accompanies the doctrines of the Gospel. " There • 
must be heresies among you, that they which are ap- 
proved, may be made n^aaifest.** Mons. de Voltaire, 
who saw not any utility in the proof here mentioned by 
the Apostle, was accustomed to censure revelatiooi. 
because the doctrines it propose^e incapable of suchr* 
incontestible evidences as mathematical problems.... 
lie considered not, that lines, circles, and triangles, 
falling immediately under the senses, are subjects of" 
investigation peculiarly suited to the natural man. He 
recollected not, that many of Euclid's demonstrationa 
are as incomprehensible to the greater part of mankind, . 
as the mysteries of our holy religion are incomprehen- 
sible to the generality of philosophers. And lastly, 
he perceived not, that, if all men were to pique them-- 
selves upon their skill in mathematics, and were equal- 
ly interested in the proportions of circles, squares, and 
triangles, as in those relations, which subsist between 
fallen man and an incomprehensible God, there -would 
be excited, among ignorant mathematicians, as manyr 
warm disputes, as are continually arising among ill- 
iastructed christians. 



The justness of these observations will become 
more apparent, if we consider the importance of that 
virtue, which is called, in scripture language, " The 
obedience of faith." Man originally suffered himself. to 
be seduced with the hopes of wonderful effects to be pro- 
dUcfed by the fmit of a mysterious tree ; founding his 
frail hope Upon the simple dedaration of the tempter, 
God, in Order to humble the soul, is pleased to -re- 
store tis through the hope of powerful effects^© be pro- 
duced by the truths of a mysterious revelation ; a 
sweet hope, whose t)nly basis is the simple declara- 
t!6nof the God of truth. And it is uixdoubtedly rea- 
sonable, in every respect, that the cause of our resto- 
ration should be thus directly opposed to the cause 
of our fall. The ol^edience, that is unattended with diffi- 
culties can never be regarded as a reasonable proof of 
our fidelity to God. Had He merely commanded us to 
believe, that " The whole is greater than a part i or^ 
that two and two make four :** in such ease, no room 
^ would have been left for a reasonable distribution of 

rewards and punishments. The Deity could not pos- 
sibly have been disobeyed, since we can no more re- 
fuse our assent to these manifest truths, than we can 
deny the existence of the Sun, while we are rejoicing 
in his meridian brightness. It appeare^ therefore, per- 
fectly necessary, that every truth, proposed to the faith 
of man in his probationary state, should have an ob- 
scure, as well as a luminous side, that it may leave? 
place for mature deliberation, and of consequence, 
for the merit or demerit of those, who are called to 
" the obedience of faith.** 

To desire a revelation without any obscurity, is to 
desire a day without night, a summer without winter, 
a sky without a cloud. And what should we gain by 
such an exchange? Or rather, what should we not 
lose ; if those intentional obscurities, which conceal 
some parts of celestial truth, should be as needful to 
man in his present situation, as those clouds, which fre- 
quently deform the face of the heavens, are beneficial 



toAhe earth ? The faith, which is unaccompanied with 
any thing mystericus, do more merits the name of 
iaJth, than the tranquilitr of a man, who has never 
been in the way of danger, deserres the name of brave- 
ry. An expression of our Lord's to one of his doubt- 
ing disciples, is sufficient to throw the most conTinc- 
ing li;:;hl upon this matter: ** Thomas,'* said he, " be- 
cause thou hast seen me, thou hast believko :" but 
what recompencc or praise can be due to such a faith? 
*< Bicsbtrd are they, that have not s££k, and yet haTc be- 

To conchide. What occasion would there be for 
the exercise of cither w-sdom or virtue, was the one 
only goo<l path presented so clearly to our view, that 
it vovM be dfficult to make choice of any other? Or ta 
what good purpose could true philosophy serve, which 
has no other use, except that of teaching us to regu- 
lar :; our principles and govern our actions, in a manner 
more suited to the perfection of our naiure, than is cus- 
tomary with those, who are led by prejudice and 
passion I 

I'rom all these obsenations> it may justly be argu- 
ed, that to insist upon having religious doctrines 
without obscurity, and a revelation without mystery, 
is to destroy the design of the supreme Being, who 
hatli placed us here in a state of triaL It is to confound 
the gaol with the course, the conflict with the triumph, 
and earth with Heaven. Nay more : it is to confousd 
the creature with the Creator. That, which is finite, 
must never hope to comprehend the heights and depths 
of infinity. Archangels themselves, though endued 
with inconceivable cfcgrees of wisdom and purity, will 
continually fifid unfathomable abysses in the divino 
nature. And if so, is it not to abjure good sense, as 
well as revelation, to turn our back upon the temple 
of truth, because there is found in it " a most holy 
place," where the profane are never sufiered to enter, 
And the furniture of which, even true worshippers can 
neither clearly explain, nor fully comprehend. 




l" AS sophistical reasoners had a hundred objec- 

j tkmsto propose against the doctrines of Socrates, 

I who was a true philosopher ; so the philosophers of 

[ this age are industriously framing objections to the doc- 

trines of that Gospel, which unerring wisdom has an- 
i nounced to' the world. To determine, whether or not 

• those objections arc just and unanswerable, we shall 

|| here consider that, which appears to be the most 

^ weighty, in the balance of those two companions in 

|i' error, Mons. de Voltaire and J. J. Rousseau. "If 

^ your doctrine of Redemption," say they, /' is real- 

ly as important as you represent it, why has it been 
preached only for the^e last eighteen centuries ? If it 
was of so riiuch consequence to mankind, God, with- 
out doubt, would have published it sooner, and more 

An9%ver, The doctrine of Redemption, was not 
primarily necessary to mankind : since there was a 
time, when unofiending man stood in no greater need 
of a Redeemer, than a healthy person stands in need 
of a physician. At that time, natural resiigion was 
suitable to the state of man, and the doctrines of de- 
ism were the spiritual food of his soul. But, as me- 
dicine is not less necessary than nutriment to a sick 
person, so fallen man stands in need of the Gospel, as 
well as of natural religion. And as strong nourish- 
ment would be a species of poisonl^to a man enervated 
by a raginj^ fever, so the tenets of theism administer* 
ed alone to a siimer, who burns with the disorderly fer- 


▼or of pride) must kievita^lf prove fiital to the hodth j 
of his soul. Thus the presumption of some phiIo6K>> .u 
phers is encreased by the doctrines of d^sm, as the ] 
fe?erof a debiHtated patient Is redoubled by those very 
oordiaiSy which would encrease the strength •# a. vtgo« 
rsQS person. And this may serve as a proof, that the 
naitural refigioa of sinless man, is as liute adapted to 
man in his corrupt estate, as the sweet familiarity of«n 
affectionate infant, is suitable to the character of a dar- 
ing and disobedient son. 

It is necessary here to observe, that there are two 
kinds of deism ; that of the humble smner, who is not 
yet acquainted with the Gospel, and that of the pre- 
sumptuous reasoner, who rejects it with contempt. 
The centurioh Cornelius, who lived in the practice of 
piety before he was perfectly acquainted with Chnst, 
and the penitent publican alluded to by our Lord, were 
deists of the first class, and such as might well be es« 
teemed the younger brothers of christians. The se- 
cond class is made up of those theists, who trample 
Revelation under their fee», and who may properly be 
called the presumptuous pharisees of the present day- 
It is the haughty deism of these men, that a false phi- 
losophy would substitute in the place of the Gospel.... 
The judicious author of << The new Theological Dic- 
tionary,'* has characterized these two kinds of deism 
with an accuracy, peculiar to himself. " Deism," says 
he, " was once on the high way from atheism to chris- 
<< tianity ; but to day it is usually found upon the road 
« from Christianity to atheism." 
"* To assert, that the doctrine of the Redemption 
has been announced for no more than eighteen centu- 
ries, is to suppose there can be no appearance of light 
tilljthe sun has'riscn above tlie horrizon. So soon as 
the work of redemption became necessary, in that 
very day it was announced to man. When our first 
parents had received from their merciful judge' the 
sentence, that condemned them to misery and death, 
^e immediately gave them a promise, that in some 


future day a repairer of their evils should be born of 
woman who should " bruise the head of the serpent," 
i. e. who should crush at once, all the power of the 
tempter, and the pride of the sinner. »In consequence 
of this gracious covenant, which was, indeed, the first 
[ promulgation of the Gospel, God implanted in man 

.' an interior principle of Redemption, a seed of regene- 

xating grace, which should, in the end, spring up to 
everlasting life. Now, this principle was nothing less 
than a ray from the living Word, which was afterwards 
to be visibly united with our nature, in order to raise 
man from his dishonorable fall, and finally, to procure 
for him a state superior to that, which he originally 
enjoyed. Nothing can be more explicit upon this 
point, than the following declaration of St. John, " In 
Him [the living word] was life; and th6 life was the 
light of men. And the light shined in darkness ; and 
I the darkness, in general, comprehended it not. This 

r was, however, the true light, which lighteth, more or 

less, every man, that cometh into the world." When, 
therefore, a conceited freethinker superciliously ex- 
- claims: " If the doctrine of the Redemption had been' 
necessary, it would have been published in the earliest 
ages 'of the world".... such objection should serve as a 
manifest token of his ignorance in this matter, since 
that important doctrine was mercifully announced to 
\ the very first offender. If that doctrine, was after- 

[. wards corrupted by tradition ; if rebellious man be- 

gan to exalt himself as Ifis own Saviour ; or if through 
impatience, he set up false mediators, instead of pati- 
i ently expecting the fulfilment of Jehovah's promise: 

all this evidenily proves his extreme need of a Re- 
deemer. In short, if the greater part of the Jewish 
f nation rejected this divine Saviour, in the days of his 

' outward manifestation, and if prejudiced deists still 

i- continue to reject his offered assistance, all that can 

be proved by their unrelenting obalinacy, is the great- 
ness of their guilt and the depth of their depravity : 
: just as the conduct of a pat lent, who abuses his physi^ 

M m 


c ian, suffices only to demonstrate the excess of Lis deli- 
rium. • j 

Several reasons may be here produced, which 
might have engaged the Father of mercies to defer 
the external manifestation of our promised Redeemeij 
for a period of four tiioiisand years. 

1. It is probable, that, as every^ thing is discovered 
to opci*atc gi*adually in the natural world, the same 
order might be established in the moral world. Jiveo 
since the time of Christ's outward manifestation, the 
influence of his redeeming power, has but gi'adually 
discovered itself in our yet benighted world. He him- 
self compared the Gospel to a little leaven, which 
spreads itself by slow degrees over a bulky mass of 
meal : and to a small seed, from which a noble plant is 
produced. To this we may add, that a portion, of 
time, which appears long and tedious to us, appears 
wholly different in the eyes of the everlasting 1 AM, 
before whom a tliousand years are no more than a 
fleeting day. 

2. If immediately after the commission of sin, God 
had sent forth his Son into the Avorldto raise us from 
our fall, before we had experienced the melancholy ef- 
fects of that fall ; such an hasty act, instead of mani- 
festing the perfections of the Deity, would have drawn 
a vail of obscurity betv/een us and them. The divine 
mercy discovered in Jesus Christ, might then have 
appeared as insignificant to us, as to the arrogant de- 
ist, who, notwithstanding th-^ crimes, with which the 
v/orld has been polluted for near six tliousand years, 
and in spite of those, which he himself has added 
to the prodigious sum, has yet the audacity to assert, 
that there is no necessity for a Redeemer, that man 
is good in his present state, and that lie may conduct 
himself honourably through it, without the assistance 
of regenerating grace. Hence it appears, that the 
outward raanifestal^on of the Messiah was wisely de- 
ferred to a period of iime far removed from the com- 
n\encemcnt of the fall. 


■ S. While the visible manifestation of Jesus was 
delayed, all things were put into a state of clue prepara- 
tion for so great an event. And in the mean time, the 
seed of regeneration, which was received by nicUi, af- 
ter God had pronounced the first evangelical promise, 
was as sufiicient to save every penitent pumer, as the 
dawn of day is sufficieut to direct every erring tra-' 

This merits an t^xplanation. The first man, to 
whom the pjx)mise of Redemption was made,containcd 
in.himself the whole of his jwsterity : and this pro- 
mise, wonderfully powerful, us being the word of vied, 
had an indiscribdhle elTect upon the whole huniiJi 
vace, implanting in man '* a seed of regerseratiou, a Lo- 
gos, a reason, a conscience, a li<^ht ; in short, a good 
principle,*'which, in every sincere enquirer after iruth, 
has been nourished by the grace of (ioi>, and seconded 
by the pious traditions of Patriwircha, Prophets, Apos- 
tles, Evangelists, or true philosophei-s. Unhappy is 
k for those, who, stifling in themselves every g;racious 
sentiment, have, treated this internal principle, as the 
Jev/s once treated their condescendin'.^ Lord, and as 
sinners still coritinue to treat a preached Gospel, If 
such are not saved, it is not through want of an offer- 
ed Saviour, but because they have wilfully sliut their 
eyes against the tv/ilight, the opening dawn, or the me- 
redian brightness of the Gospel Day. 

Nothing can be more mireasonable than the objec- 
tion, to which we now return an answer. To argue, 
that Goo would be unjust, if, having given a Saviour to 
the world, he should not reveal that Saviour in an 
cquaV degree to all mankind, is to ai^ue, that God 
is unjust, because, having given a Sun to the earth, he 
has not ordained that Sun eqiuiUy to enlighten and 
cheer every part of the globe. A gain.... To insinu- 
ate that Christ cannot properly be regarded as the 
Saviour of mankind, because innumerable multitudes 
of men are not even acquainted with his name, is to 
ineinuatej that the Sun is utterly useless to the deaf, 



because they have never beard the properties of that 
San described, and to the blind, because they have ne- 
ver seen his cheerinj^ beams. Lastly. To cooclode 
that the Gospel is false, because it has not rapidly 
spread itself over the whole world, or because it is not 
observed to operate in a more hasty manner the hap- 
py changes it is said to produce :....thus to argue, is 
to rjiison as inconclusively, as a man who should 
•ay ; The treci that produces Jesuit's bark, is an in- 
significant and useless tree: for, 1st, It grows not in 
c\cry country. 2dly, It has not always been known-, 
3dly, There are persons in the country where it grows, 
w ho look upon it as no extraordinary thing: and 4thly, 
Many, who iiave apparently given this medicine a pro- 
per trial, have found it unattended with those salutarjr 
effects so generally boasted of. 

Turning the arguments of our philosophers against 
their own system, we a£Brm, that the Messiah was 
manifested in a time and place peculiarly suited to so 
great an evtnt. With respect to the time ; He lived 
and died, when the human species had an'ived at the 
utmost pitch of refinement and learning. Had He ap- 
peared two or three thousand years sooner. He must 
have visited the world in its infant «tate, while igno* 
ranee and barbarity reigned among the nations ; but 
in the days of Augustus and Tiberias mankind may be 
said to have reached the highest degree of maturity, 
with respect to knowledge and civilization. Now, as 
it is necessary, that he, who bears testimony to any me- 
morable transaction, should be a man and not a child ; 
so it is equally necessary, that Christ should have ap- 
peared in the most polished period of the world, as Me-^. 
diator between God and man. _ 

Deists sometimes tell us, thaf the force of historic 
evidence is greatly diminished by lapse of time, as a 
taper placed at too great a distance loses much of its 
brightness. If Christ then had offered himself a ran- 
som for all, many ages sooner than unerring wisdom 
had ordained, the incredulous might have urged, th a. 


th€ history of a miraculous event, reported to have 
h'apperted in so remote a period of time, was most 
probibly corrupted with unceitain tradition, and ren- 
dered uoWoithy of credit. 

■ On tJie other hand, if the accornplishment of the 
promise had been delayed some . thousands of years 
looker, the faith and patience of beiievei-s would have 
been called to a proof incompatible with the wealmess 
of humanity. And fiie impious might have said, con-' 
cerning. the first coming of Christ, what they have 
long ago tauntingly spoken of his second : "Where is 
the promise of his coming' ? for since the fathers fell 
asleep, all things continue as they were from the be- 
ginninjg of the creation/* 

What is here obseiTed with respect to the nge, in 
which the Messiah was cut off, is no less true of the 
season, the day, and the hour. He offered himself a 
sacrifice for the sins of the people in the noon day, at 
the solemn feast of the passover, and at tliat season of 
the year, which naturally invited the dispersed Jews 
to visit the holy city.r The place was, like the time, 
peculiarly adapted to such an event: a country, in 
whicJ^ the promise of Christ's coming had been fre- 
quently repeated. Moreover, He became obedient un- 
to death in the time predicted by the proplvcts ; be- 
fore a people, who possessed the oracles of God ; under 
the eyes of the high priest; before Herod the king, 
together with the grand council of the nation ; beibre 
Pilate, who was lieutenant of the greatest prince on 
earth ; at the gates of Jerusalem, in the centre of Ju- 
dea, and nearly in the centre of the then known world. 
Thus, the external manifestationof our glorious Re- 
deemer may be compared to a Sun, whose rising was 
preceded by a dawn, which benignly opened upon the 
fiVst inluibitants of the earth : and whose setting is 
followed by a lovely twilight, which must necessarily 
continue, till He shall again ascend above our horri- 
zon, to go down no more. In this point of view, the 
scriptures uniformly represent the sacrilic;; of Christ. 
M m2 

St. Paul expressly declares, that, •< hj one offering, He 
hath perfected for eve^ tliem that are saifcti&ed :*' i. e. 
all those in erery nation, who fear God and work 
rigfaieoiisnefls. . We argue, thftrefere^ whhthift Apcis^ 
tie, that, ^* as4>y tbeoffenceef one, jadgtnent came up- 
on all men to condemnation, even so, by the righteous- 
nets of one^the free gift came upon all men unto jus- 
tification of Kfe." 

From these observMiona we conckide9first...«Tbat the 
Gospel has been more or less clearly announced, evpr 
since the time, in which a Redeexncr became necessa- 
ry to man. Secondly : That Jesus Christ openly inant- 
fested Himself m a time most proper for such a dis- 
covery. Thirdly : That the Work of redemption is 
at necessary to mankind, as the assistance of medicine 
is necessary to. those, who are struggling liinder soipe 
dangerous disease. Fourthly : That an explicit know- 
ledge of the Redeemer and his salvation is as desira- 
ble to tliose, who feel themselves ruined by sin, as the 
certain knowledge of a physician,possessed of sovereign 
remedies, is consoling to the patient, who aj^rehends 
his life in imminent danger. Fifthly : As languish- 
ing infants may be restored by the medicines of a phy- 
sician, with which they are totally unstcquainled, so 
Jewt, mahometans, and heathens, provided they walk 
according to the light they enjoy, are undoubtedly sa- 
ved by Jesus Christ, though they have no clear con- 
ception of the astonishing means employed to secure 
them from perdition. And lastly : that the grand ar- 
gumerit advanced against the Gospel by Mons. de Vol- 
taire and J. J. Rousseau, is abundantly more spedous^ 
than solid. 


TH'2 PORTRAIrr 9f SfT^rT^trL* 4111 


IN refuting, tlie objection of superficial moral- 
ists proposed in the preceding chapter,. :we may^iper- 
hapfif have afforded them gtioitod for another^ . full: as 
specious and solid. 

' Objection. ^ If it be Allowed^ that in every age sal- 
vation^ has been extended to all the true woarshippers 
0$ God, whether they have been pious JewSj such as 
Joseiphr Hezekiah, and Josiah: just men* among Uie 
Gentiles,, such as Melchisedec and Aristides) or ^a- 
then philosophers, who have walked in the fear of* 
God, such as Pythagoras, Socrates, ,and Plato. ..And 
if all these virtuous men have been saved without sub- 
scribing to the doctrines of the Gospel ; why may not 
deists and modern philosophers be permitted to enjoy 
the same salvation, while they reject those doctrines V* 
jinawer. There are three grand dispensations of 
grace* Under the first, every heathenish and unen- 
lightened nation must be ranked ; the Jews under the 
second ; and christians under the third, which is a dis- 
pensation abundantly more perfect than either of the 
former. The followers of Mahomet may be clashed 
with modern Jews>. since they are deists of the same 
rank, and have equally deceived themselves with re- 
spect to that great Prophet, who came for the restora- 
tion of Israel. 

Those Jews, mahometans, and heathens,, who " fear • 
God and work righteousness," are actually saved by 
Jesus Christ. Christ is the Truth and the Light : and 
these sincere worshippers receiving all the rays of 
truth, with which they are visited, afford sufficient 
proof, that they would affectionately admire and adore 
the Sun of righteousness Himself, were the interven- 
ing mists removed, by which he is concealed fromi 


their view. But it is wholly diflerent with those, who ' 
beholdiug tliis divine Sun, as He is revealed in the 
Gospel, detcrminately close tljeil* eyes against Him, 
and contemptuously raise a cloud of objections to vail 
Una, if pobsible, from the view of others. . Every Vir- 
tuous heathen has manifested a love for truth, while 
mafiy of our philDsophcrs> in the pride of'their^eaitSy"* 
reject and despise it. The former wrought out their 
salvation, though favoured only with the glimmering 
dawn of an evangelical day : the latter, surrounded with 
the meridian brightness of that day, are anxjoUsly seek- 
ing the shadowy coverts of uncertainty and ciTor.... 
The former were saved, according to that apostolic de- 
claration : '* glory, honour and peace to every man 
thatjTorkcth good, to the christian and the Jew first, ' 
and al^oto the gentile : for there is no respect of persons 
with God." And of this number 'was the Apostle 
Paul, who obtained mercy, because he was ignorantly 
a persecutor of the truth, " living,'* at the same time, 
" in all good conscience before <iod.'' Nor can it be 
doubted, but the same grace, with which St. Paul was . 
visited in these circumstances, will, in various degrees, 
illumine and purify every soul that resembles him in 
uprightness and sincerity. The latter will be condemn- 
ed by virtue of the following declarations : " This is. 
the condemnation, that light is come into the worlds 
and .men lovcvl darkness rather than light, because 
tlieir deeds were evil. God will render unto them,, 
that are contentious and do not obey the truth, indig- 
nation and wratli, tribulation and anguish upon every 
soul of man that doeth evil, of the ciirisdan and the 
Jew first, and also of the gcntiie."' 

From these citations we may infer, that, in several 
proportions, the sal 3' ai ion of virtuous heathens will 
differ as greatly from the salvation of true christians, 
as the brilliancy of an agate is different from that of a- 
diamond. v " many mansions and different degrees of 
glory, are prepared in the house of our Father, There 
is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon,,. 


and another glory of the stars ; for one star differeth 
from another star in glory." So also will it be in the 
resurrection of the dead, when God Will render unto 
every nxan according to his works. 

The highest degrees of glory are reserved by the 
righteous Judge of all the earth, for the most faitkflil 
of his servants. The honourable privilege of being 
seated at the right hand of Christ will be conferred 
upon those, who have trodden in their Master's foot- 
steps, through the narrowest aftd 'most difficult paths 
©f resignation and obedience. On the other hand^ God 
will display the most terrible effects of his righteous 
anger upon those^ who have trampled imder foot the . 
greatest and most frequent offers of divine grace, aci 
cording to that exclamation of the Apostle : " Ho\r 
shall we escape if we neglect so great salvation ?" Since 
thus obstinately to despise the highest degrees of glo- 
ry, which may be attained under the Gospel, and dar- 
ingly to brave the threatenings denounced against those 
who reject that Gospel, discovers in the heart a cold 
indifference to real virtue, together with a sovefeignr 
contempt for the divine Author of it. 

As true virtue, like a beautiful plant, is continually 
rising to a state of maturity ; so true philosophy is 
constantly aspiring after the highest attainable degrees 
of wisdom and purity. If any man neglects those 
• means, which conduce to the perfection of virtue, when 
they are once proposed to hini, he gives evident proof, 
that he has neither that instinct of virtue nor that true 
philosophy, which cannot but choose the most excel- 
lent ^nd, together with the surest means of obtaining it* 
What would our philosophers say to a man, who, af- 
fecting to aspire after riches, and being called to re- 
ceive a large quantity of gold, should inconsistently re- 
fuse it, in the following terms : " Many persons have 
been rich enough with a little money, to prevent them 
from starving, and I have no inclination to exceed them 
in point of ' fortune V* The objection proposed in this 
chapter is founded upon a like sophism^ and amountst* 

4tS TSE FO&TRAir 07 ST. FAVLb 


Id but an equal argument: " Jews and virtuoHS tea-^ 
tliciis have received assistance sufficient, effectually to 
aecurc their salvation, and we have not piX'sumption 
enough to de$ire any extraordinary advantage above 

It is difficult to form a just idea of the conceited- 
ncss of those boasted moralists, who despise every "help 
aflbrtlcd by the Gospel, because some heathens, with* 
out such assistan e, have been acceptable to God. We 
may compare it to the supposed self-sufficiency of a 
contemptible subaltern officer, wbo, being presented 
with a more honourable commission from his pfincei 
should rejc't it and C17 oui, " The commission is false, 
•* and they who present it are no better than deceive- 
•* ers. I have no anxiety to quit, my present post. I 
" aipire after no greater honours than those 1 possess.. 
<* Many thousands liave faithfully served his majesty 
** in the capacity of subaltems ; nay, common soldiers 
^ themselves have received t<;stinionies of his royal 
"-approbation: and why should my services affoixl 
** him less satisfaction than theirs r" Was a corporal) 
in my hearing, thus to excuse his rejection of a mon* 
arch's ofTered kindness, I should suppose, either that he 
had no just conceptions of the honour, or was i^ovemed 
by motives too unworthy to be avowed. But this excuse 
would be insolent as well as pitiful, had the terms of 
the commission ran thus :...." Either serve your prince • 
with fideUty, in the post to which he exalts you, or ex- 
pect to be treated with the utmost severity." 

Now such is the case with all those, v/ho obstinate- 
ly reject the Gospel, and perseveringly trample under 
foot the richest offers of unmerited grace. They 
either reject the truths of revelation through haugh- 
tiness of spirit ; or they are held back fix)m embrac- 
ing them, through the secret gratification of soifte in- 
ordinate appetite. Observe here, the ground of those 
memorable declarations of our blessed Lord : " Preach 
the Gospel to every creature. He that believeth and 
is baptized shall be saved ; but he^ that believeth noty 


'Shall be damned. He that believeth not the Son, after 
hearing him evangelically announced, shall not see 
life ; but the wrath of God abideth on him,. He is. con* 
demned alreacjy : for ^very one, that doeth evil, hateth 
the liglit of the Gospel, neither cometh to the light, 
lest his deeds, should be reproved?. 

Upon tliis prij)ciple, as conformable to experience 
as tp sound, reason, the Gospel is not absolutely re- 
jected,, e^^ciept by those, who ajxj either visibly cor^ 
rupte^, fiS: Pilate and Felix, or secretly depraved, as Ju^ 
das and Caijpl^as. A^d it was to persons of this cha-^ 
racter;. that Christ addressed himself in, the following 
term^ t *' How can ye believe, who receive honour one 
of another, and seek pot the honour that cometh from; 
God only ? If any man. will do the will of Him that 
sent mc,** and follow the light that is imparted to him, 
" he shall know of the doctrine, whether it be of God^ 
or whether I speak of myself." Hence, when any^ 
who have been consecrated to Christ by baptism, are; 
seen withdrawingfrom the foot-stool of their Master to 
the schools of philosophy, or, at least, making no ad- 
vances in true holiness ; we may rest assured, that 
their decline is caused, or their spiritual growth pre- 
vented, by the secret indulgence of some vicious iii-* 
clination. These philosophizing moralists, and these 
lukewarm disciples may be compared to the fruit,tbat 
falls befor/B it has attained to the perfection of its spe- 
cies : examine such fruit, and you will fiiid under a 
beautiful appearance, either a destructive worm, or 
loathsome rottenness. Such is the apostatizing deist 
ynder the most specious forms he can possibly assume. 

When J. J. Rousseau expressed himself in the fol- 
lowing terms : " If God judges of faith by works, then 
to be a good man, is to be a real believer ;" he was not 
far beside the truth, provided, that, by a good man, he 
intended one, who lives in temperance, ju--tice, and the 
fear of God; since every man, in whom these virtues 
are discoverable, is assuredly principled in the true 
faith. Such.a.Qn^ is a real believer, according to that 

economy of grace, under which Job, Josiah) andSiy 
crates, shone out to the glory of Goi> ; men, who ei-» 
ther possessed pMnciples of faith, or \vh€>se best ac^ 
tions are no more to be admired, than those of oardcK 
Kflestic animals. 

This writer had less distinct views of truth, what 
he added, ^' The true christian isthe just laaaa; ut4)e« 
Kevers are the wicked :" since there are jiift laeA) who ' 
are not yet christians, as there are sludioufi persoQ3i 
who cannot yet be accounted profound scholars* Moibb* 
ever, there are many, who, like the ceQtux4oD Cor- 
nelius, do not yet believe the Gospel, -becai^e they * 
have never heard that Gospel explained isdth deci- 
sion and fidelity : and surely such deserve iiot to be 
termed absolutely unjust men. The latter proposi- 
tion approaches indeed nearer the truth, " UnbelierenL • 
are the wicked:*' yet this is false; except the term 
unbeliever be taken for one, who obstinately disbelieves 
the Gospel : since a good man, who receives the first 
part of the Apostles' Creed,may yet, like Nathaniel and 
Kicodemus, be so forcibly held back by involuntarjr 
prejudice, with respect to the other parts of the same 
Creed, that he may fluctuate long between truth and 
error. It is by propositions so vague and insiduous, 
that our philosophers delude themselves and beguile 
their disciples. 

But replies J. J. Rouseau, " have we power to be- 
lieve? Is the not being able to argue well imputed to 
us as a crime ? Conscience informs not, what we are to 
think, but what we are to do : it teaches u^ not to rea- 
son well, but to act well." And are all the faculties of 
man, except his conscience, to be considered as utterly 
useless, with regard to this important matter ? Let it 
however, be granted, that a wicked and haughty per- 
son has it not in his power to believe ; yet it is highly 
necessary that he should fear the truth, so long as he 
gives himself up either to actions or mclinations, that 
are manifestly evil. Thus the conscious robber can 
never overcome his fear of justice, so long as he i» 


4fispoMd W eofidniJK his iniqtiitocis practices : but if, 

^ «&er malung fuH restitution, he should become sin* 

f oewif upright) maintaining It conscience void of of- 

feace towsrd Goio and toMrard man, he wiU tremble 

ao more at the idea of judges, tribunals, ot execu- 

if it be afiked, what secret vice it was, that Vould 
net tnifto se honest a man as J. J. Rousseau to em- 
fafftce the gospel ? Without searching into the anec- 
dotes (^ Mb life, we may rest satisfiea with the disco* 
X9Vf he haa made of his own heart, in this single sen- 
tenee i « What can be more transporting to a noble soul 
than the pt\de of virtue I** Such was the pride ^i^ich 
mode him vainly presume, that he had power sufficient 
to conquer himself, without invoking the assistance of 
Go0 ; and by which he was encouraged to assert, that 
the doctrines of the Gospel were such as " no sensible 
man could either oHiceive or admit/* Such was the vir- 
i tuous pride, which would not suffer the pharisees 
to receive the liumiiiating truths of the Gospel, and 
which filled the heart of Caiaphas with jealousy and 
I hatred against Christ. 

There is no species of pride more insolent tlia» 

Aat, which gives rise to the followifag language. " It is 

I ^ asserted, that God so loved the world, as to give 

^ ^ his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in 

i ^ him should not perish, but have everlasting life.**^ 

« These tidh)gs,wheth^ they be true or false, are high- 

I ** ly acceptable to many: but,formy ownp^rt, lopen- 

[ ^ ly declare, tJiat I reject, with contempt, the idea of 

I << such a favour. I read with attention t^ose writ* 

[ << ings, which tend to unfold the mysteries of nature, 

^ but resolve never to turn over those authors, whe 

[ ^ vainly attempt to estaWish the truth of the GospeL 

^ This subj^t, though it has occupied the thought* 

^ and engaged the pens of enquiring students for these 

" seventeen hundi^ed years, I shall ever regard as un- 

*« worthy my attention. I leave it to the vulgar, who 

f^ we easily persuaded of its importance. My virtuen 

S . irn 

I ' 


*< are sufficient to expiate mj crimes, and on these I 
« will resolutely depend, as my sole mediators beiorc 
« God." If this is implicitly the langus^ of every 
man, who obstinately rejects the doctrines of the Gos- 
pel, what heights of presumption, and what depUisof 
depraTity, must lie open, in the souls of such, te the 
eye of Omniscience ! Reason and Revelation agree ^ 
condemn them. Behold the ground of then- senteDPe. 
« WhosocTcr exalteth himself shall be abased ; and 
he that humblelh himself shall be exalted : for Goi 
tesisteth the proud, and giveth grace to ihe huinbk^ 
Reason itself is sufficient to discover, that befoit 
the Supreme Being nothing can appear more dctes- 
Ublc than the pride of a degenerate and ungrateful crea- 
ture. And if so, the deists of Socrates's time must have 
been far less culpable, than those of the present day. 
The former, conscious of the uncertainty with which 
they were encompassed, made use of every help they 
could procure, in the pursuit of truth, with unweaned 
assiduity. The latter, presuming upon their ovn 
sufficiency, decide against doctrines of the. '^*^°®^"''^' 
portance without impardally considering the evideD- 
ces produced in their favour. The former, ^Y ^' 
fully examining every system morality proposed to 
their deliberation, discovered a candour andhberaW 
becoming those, who were anxiously " feeling ^^^ 
God, if haply they might find him." The latter, \>r 
condemning Revelation, without calmly attending to 
tlie argimients of its advocates, manifest a J^^S^^. 
prejudice, that would be unpardonable in a j^^^^^^ 
which becomes execrable in a criminal, wfioispr^^^^ 
bv the strongest reasons to search out the truth. 
" Plato, in the sixtli book of his Republic, introduces 
his blaster marking out the dispositions necessary 
a virtuous man. " Let us begin, says Socrat^ ^/ 
recounting what qualities are necessary to him*. ^^.^ 
would one day become an honest man and a true p^ 
losopher. The first quality is the love of truth, whictt 
he ought to seek after in every thing and by eyeff ' 

fc. ' 


•»ieaTis ; true philosophy being' absolutely " incompa* 
tible with the spirit of delusion. He, who has a 
sincere desire to obtain wisdom, cannot confine him- 
self to things, that are here below, of which he can 
Squire but an uncerts^in knowledge. He is bom for 
truth, and he tends to it with an ardour, which nothhig 
is able to re$train.'* Ye, who oppose philosophy to 
^Revelation, and reject, without thoroughly investiga- 
ting, the doctrines of the Gospel, can you be said to 
discover an attachment to truth, as sincere as that of 
Socrates ? Do ye not rather esteem that an excessive 
fondness for truth, or even a dangerous species of 
enthusiasm, which the wisest heathens have looked up- 
on, as the first disposition requisite to an honest man ? 

Plato and his master, who scrupulously acknow- 
ledged the truth wherever they discovered it, were 
assuredly in a state of acceptance before God, with- 
out an explicit acquaintance with Jesus Christ : for 
where the Almighty hath not strewed,there will He ne- 
ver expect to gather ; and where He h^th scattered 
only the ^ first truths of the Gospel, there He never 
will require that precious fruit, which He expects to 
be produced by the highest truths of Revelation. Thus 
the husbandman is content to reap nothing but barley 
in a field, where nothing but barley has been sown.... 
But if, after sowing the same field with the purest 
wheat, it should produce only tares with a few scatter- 
ed- ears of barley ; he would, undoubtedly, express a 
degree of surprise and displeasure, at having his rea- 
sonable -expectations so strangely disappointed. . 

In the new Testament we find a remarkable para- 
ble to this purpose, where mankind are considered as 
the domestics of God's immense houshold. In tbi» 
parable the Almighty is represented as collecting I;iis . 
servants together, and confiding to the care of each a 
separate loan, to be employed for the mutual interest 
of the covenanting parties. To one of his domestics 
he imparts five talents ; to another two ; while a third 
has no more than a* single talent comnutted to his 

charge : but all are Required so to occupy, that thdhr 
gains may be proportionate to the ^veral studs eiw 
tnivted to their fidelity. Kow^ if the christian vith 
'ftre taknta of apiritual knowledge acqiure^ np aiiTu^^ 
lage over the Jew, who has received but tw.o^ is it nit 
cedent, that he has acted the part of an un&ithful scr* 
iraiit I Nay^ he is to be esteemed even more unprbi^- 
able than the heathen^ who suffers his siagle l^i^t U> 
lie onimiM'oyed ; since amidst all his trifling ,g^aip% bt 
Ims slothfully concealed three valuaUe tafents^ whi|b 
the other has buried but one. But were the first auj^ 
tiie last to derire equal advantagesyfrom the disprgpor* 
lionate privileges permitted them to eujoy^ while ti^ 
latter would be received as a good and faithful servsuDlb 
the former might deservedly be treated with an unu- 
fual degree of severity by his insulted Lord. Thi^ 
patable may assist us to Gonceivey that a pihiIoso]^e%. 
who is caHed by baptism to evangelical perfection, a&dl 
yet contents himself with practising the morality of a 
heathen, has not in reality so much solid virtue as 4 
lincere deist bred up in the bosom of paganism. 

Our progress in morality, like our advancement in 
tcience, is to be estimated by considering the circum-- 
•tances in which we are placed^ and the privileges we 
enjoy. A dramatic piece composed by a chUd or a 
negro, might be received with plaudits, which woiil^ 
be justly hissed off the stage, had it becsi produced 
by a Shakespear or a Comeille. A traveller, who 
expresses his admiration at^ the address, with which' 
savages ifianage a hatchet of stoiie,would express equal 
astobishment at the weakness of his countrymen, 
should he see them easting aside their axes of irod^ 
ahd felling their trees with ill-formed implements of ** 
fiint. Thus, after admiring the successful efforts of 
Socrates, who drew many sacred truths from the cha« 
OS of paganism, how astonishing is it, to behold mo>- 
.dem philosophers patching up a eonfiised system of 
deistical morality, to be substituted in place of the 
sublimer doctrines^ and the purer morality of the Gos^ 


pel. WherevcF such reti:ogr^d€.rea8oncr8 are disco- 
vered, their insignificant labours roust be universally 
deplorable by the loveret of truth. But when the.^ 
cha,mpions of false wisdom endeavour to bury, updtr 
the ruhis of Christianity, those important truths, whicji 
'heathens themselves have formerly Jdis<joyeredj it is 
Jh?iposslble to behold their impious eiforts, without 
feeling all the warmth of an honest indignation, 
' \ W6 shall conclude this Essay by transcribing a 
pJart of that ancient testimony wiiich was borne by 
Xactantius, to the power of those doctrines for which 
ive contend. 

'**. That which many have discovered, by the assist^ 
ance of natural religion, to be their indispensiljle duty, 
but which they have never been able either to prac- 
tise themselves, or to see exemplified in the 'conduct 
of l^hiloftophers ; all this the sacred doctrines of the 
Gospel assist us to perform, because that Gospel is 
wisdom in its highest excellence. How shall philo- 
phers persuade others, while they themselves continue 
in a state of perplexity ? Or how shall they repress 
the passions of others, while, by givhig way to their 
own, they tacitly confess that nature, in spite of all 
their efforts, is still triumphant. But daily experience 
testifies, how great an influence the ordinances of God 
have upon the heart. Give me a passionate, slander-^ 
ous, implacable man; and, through the power of 
our Gospel, I will return him to you gentle as a lamb. 
Give me an avaricious man, whose greediness of gain 
will suffer him to part with nothing ; and IvM return 
him to you so liberal, that he will give away his mo- 
ney by handfuls. Bring me a man, who trembles at- 
the approach of pain and death ; ere long, he shall 
flook with contempt upon crosses, fires, and even the 
bull of Phalaris itself. Present me with a debauchee, 
an adulterer, a man holy lost to good manners : you 
shall shortly behold him an example of sobriety, up- 
rightness and continence. Give me a cruel and blood-^ 
thirsty man : his ferocious disposition shall suddenly 

4f • Vn TOmT&AIT OF IT. tAV^ 

Be succeeded by real clemency. Give me mk imjiml 
jnaiiy a stupid person, an extravagant sinner : you shatt. 
^lortly behold him scrupulously just, truly wise, and 
leading a life pf innoeence....Such is the power of bea* 
^fenly wisdom, that it is no sooner shed abroad 1a the 
heart, but, by a single ellbrt, it chases away folly, the 
mother of sin. To compose these invaluable ends, a 
man is under no necessity of paying salaries to mas^ 
ters of philosophy, and passing whole nights in medi* 
tating upon their works. Every necessary assistance 
is iinparted wxthe«t delay, irith ea;»e»aj^ ^^^d^*^ 
cost I if there be net wanting «n4^iefimiiMSlK^%d a 
lieart desirous of wisdom. The sacred source t^ifphich. 
vre point, is plenteous, overfipWing^, and ^ ^^^ ito Hfi- 
men : the celestial Hghl^ we alinouhte, in£scr&iinate« 
If arises upon all, who open then* eyes to beholtflt* 

What philosopher has ever done so much^^ ^Who. 
among d^em is able to perform such t^ndersJ After 
hav|ng passed their lives m the study .of philosophy, \i 
appears, that they have neither better^ tbefi^Ivea 
tior others, when nature causes them any great resist-^ 
•nee. Their wisdom serves^rather to cover, than to^ 
eradicate, their vices. Whereas our divine instruc*- 
tions, i. e. the doctriiKs of the Gospel, so totailyr 
change a man, that you would no longer know luoii 
fi>r the same.person*'^^ LacU Libt ilL cap. 9i» 



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• '. n o* ^-^ ■ - V'>' -*'.«. »»-' v;'.'-"-* • ■ • '■ 

\ iuBU^HED Br E. COOPER l5* y. fTILSONf FOR 

Tim MEtuomst connexion: 
X. roRKy MJRca 1, 1805. 


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