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DAVID MUTT, 67-59 Long Acre, W.C. DULAU & CO., 37 Soho Square, W. 

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E. STEIGER & CO., 25 Park Place. 

BOSTON: RITTER & FLEBBE, formerly C. A. KCEHLER & CO., 120 Boylston Str. 
THE SCHOENHOF BOOK CO., 128 Tremont Street. 




The Gaspey- Otto -Sauer" Method has become my sole property by 
right of purchase. These books are continually revised. All rights, 
especially those of adaptation and translation into any language, arc 
reserved. Imitations and copies are forbidden by law. Any information 
as to infringement of my rights always thankfully received. 

London, Paris, Rome, St. Petersburgh, Heidelberg. Julius Oroos. 



This Portuguese Grammar is an adaptation of my 
"Neue Portugiesische Konversations-Grammatik," issued 
in 1910 by the same publisher, Julius Groos, of Heidel- 
berg, who, in consideration of the extremely favourable 
reception that work met with in German-speaking and 
Portuguese -speaking countries, commissioned me to 
compile a Portuguese Grammar for English use. This 
work I undertook the more readily, as the close rela- 
tionship existing between Great Britain and her Portu- 
guese ally, the increasing commercial intercourse between 
the two nations, and the evergrowing needs of tourists, 
demand further means of linguistic correspondence. 

In this Grammar, as well as in that employed as 
a model, I have tried to overcome one of the greatest 
difficulties of the Portuguese language i.e., the pro- 
nunciation by adopting the phonetical system of the 
Association phonetique Internationale. It was carefully 
applied to the Portuguese language by Sr. Go^alves 
Viana, who also kindly revised the chapter on Pro- 
nunciation in this grammar. 

As for the orthography the difficulty of which is 
next in importance to the phonetical one, as hitherto 
the Portuguese have apparently considered this as a 
problem to be solved individually I have employed 
that given in the "Novo Diccionario da Lingua portu- 
guesa," by Candido de Figueiredo, member of the Aca- 
demy of Sciences in Lisbon, which tends to simplify 
the writing and to facilitate the pronunciation of Por- 

IV Preface. 

In compiling the Exercises I have felt the desira- 
bility of furnishing objective material so far as this 
is compatible with the grammatical Rules to be worked 
out in the form of imaginative pictures. Further, I 
have aimed at making the student acquainted not only 
with the language, but with the countries where Por- 
tuguese is spoken viz., Portugal and Brazil by giving 
a geographical, historical, and cultural view of them. 

Wishing to make use, so far as is possible, of 
original Portuguese in the Reading Exercises, and this 
of the purest and most popular kind, I was fortunate 
enough to fall in with what proved to be a real mine 
of legitimate linguistic gold, both in subject and in the 
form in which it is presented. The student will notice 
that the greater part of the Reading lessons is taken 
from Trindade Coelho, a modern Portuguese writer 
who is acknowledged to be the most accomplished in 
popular language, whose literary excellence has been 
recognised, and whose tragic destiny has called forth 
expression of sympathetic sorrow wherever he has been 
known. I have profited by this great pedagogue's 
three "Livros de Leitura," described as "wonderful 
reading-books for public instruction" by Dr. Carolina 
Michaelis de Vasconcellos, the learned woman, respected 
by all Romanists, hitherto holding a professorship in 
the University of Lisbon. 

These three books have been appreciatively referred 
to by the Portuguese school-inspector, Senhor Brito 
Moreno, in the Givilisa$ao Popular, a highly respected 
pedagogical review, as "the very best of their kind to be 
found in Portugal, as they combine an extreme clearness 
with a lively and characteristic performance, uniting an 
amiable simplicity to an honest conviction" and, we 
may perhaps be allowed to add, a sincere devotion for 
the subject to the utmost consideration for the reader. 

Preface. V 

I am gratified at finding that Portuguese and Bra- 
zilian critics declare my selection of reading material 
to be the most meritorious feature of my "Neue Por- 
tugiesische Konversations-Grammatik" (which contains 
substantially the same exercises as the present work), 
while German critics highly appreciate the advantage 
of being introduced through this medium to the Por- 
tuguese countries and customs as to a home worthy of 
our fullest sympathy and esteem. 

I beg to express here my sincerest thanks to Mr. 
W. G. Priest, of London, for his assistance in revising 
the English portion of the work. Should any student 
of Portuguese, in using this Grammar, meet with errors 
or defects, I shall be grateful if he or she will com- 
municate with me, in order that I may be able to 
rectify the same in future editions. 

Pinneberg (Holstein), October 1911. 

Louise Ey. 


Remarks on the Recent Reform of 
Portuguese Orthography. 

While this Grammar was in course of preparation 
when, in fact, nearly the whole of the work had been 
printed the Portuguese Government officially adopted 
the Reform of Orthography recommended by a Com- 
mission of members of the Academia das Sciencias. In 
order, however, to avoid, the confusion that would re- 
sult from the universal application of so drastic an 
alteration in spelling, its operation is for the present 
limited to the "Diario do Governo" and official docu- 
ments, the schools being accorded a period of three 
3 r ears in which to accustom themselves to the change. 

It has, therefore, not been considered advisable to 
alter the orthography of this Grammar, more particularly 
as all Portuguese literature is, of course, still written 
in the style of spelling hitherto employed. At the 
same time, it is obviously desirable that students of 
the Portuguese language should acquaint themselves 
with and prepare for the new method; accordingly, in 
the Vocabulary at the end of the book, the letters ex- 
cluded by the Reform have been indicated by paren- 
theses , ' which system especially tends to establish a 
concordance between the orthography and the phonetical 

The principal alterations are: the avoidance of 
doubled consonants' where only one is pronounced (bb, 
ff, gg, II, mm, nn, pp, tt now b, f, g, I, etc.); the 
omission of the h in its combinations of th or ch (= k, 
this sound being substituted by c or qu, e.g., patriarca, 
), also its omission from the interior of words 

Remark on the Recent Reform of Portuguese Orthography. VII 

(e.g., proilirj coerente), even in those which conserve 
the initial li justified by etymology when compounded 
with a prefix. Thus the new orthography will be: haver, 
hoje, homem, Jtonra, but: ontem, desumano, desonra, etc. 
Instead of ph, f will be written: fotografo. 

It is obvious, of course, that the doubled ss and rr 
cannot be reduced to single s and r, as the pronun- 
ciation would thereby be altered. Also the mm and nn 
are conserved when the first m or n is nasal (e.g., em- 
moldurar, ennervar). 

For the accentuation, we have to distinguish, as 
hitherto, by a graphical accent the tonical vowel of 
those words which for want of some characteristic mark 
might be confounded; e.g., sede, sede; gosto, m. t gosto, v. 
Also those words ending by the generally atonic syllable 
-em, -ens are marked by a " when this syllable is 
tonical; e.g., contem contains (cf. contem they count), 
porem however (cf. porem of por), armazem, armazens 
magazine(s). ;> - 

As the Reform admits though it does not pres- 
cribe the vowels e and o to be written e and 6 wherever 
they have the close pronunciation, it has been thought 
convenient for the student, to accentuate them where 
any doubt might arise, it being understood that the 
tonical endings -oso and -or are always -oso and -or, 
the latter presenting the following exceptions 1 : major, 
suor, melhor, peor, maior, menor, where the o is pro- 
nounced o, similar to the English a in "all." 

These being the chief alterations, the remainder, 
of a slighter nature, will be presented in a future 

1 In sdror the ending -or is also or, but it is not tonical. 

L. E. 



First Part. 

Pronunciation. Pa s e - 

1. The Sounds of the Portuguese .... 1 

2. Types 1 

8. Auxiliary Signs of the Portuguese Alphabet 2 

4. Stress and Duration 8 

5. Vowels . . . 3 

6. Diphthongs 6 

7. Nasal Vowels and Diphthongs .... 8 

8. Triphthongs 8 

9. Consonants 9 

10. Compound, Doubled and Mute Letters . 11 
11. Summary of the Phonetic Signs in their 

Relation to the Port. Alphabet ... 12 

12. Accentuation 13 

13. Syllabication 14 

14. Homonyms 15 

15. Homographs 16 

16. Abbreviations 17 

17. Punctuation 18 

1st Lesson. The Gender of the Noun and the Article 2024 

Na Escola. 

2nd The Plural of Substantives .... 2430 

3rd The Address 3036 

4th The Auxiliary Verb ser and the Adjective 3640 

5th The Auxiliary Verb estar 4046 


6th The Auxiliary Verb haver .... 4652 

Os verbos auxiliares. 

?th Employment and Concord of Tenses . 5259 

Index. IX 


8th Lesson. Exercises on the Auxiliary Verbs . . 59 64 
Quintal e drvores. 
Jardim e flores. 

9th The Partitive Article 6468 

.Qth The Complements and the most Frequent 

Prepositions 6872 

Numa loja. 
1th The Attributive Adjective in Gender and 

Number 7278 

A visita. 

2th The Position of the Attributive Ad- 
jective 78-83 

A habitagdo. 
3th Comparison of the Adjective .... 8388 

A trowada. 

4 th The Absolute Comparative and Super- 
lative 8893 

5th The Numerals: I. Cardinal Numbers . 9399 

A ligtio d'arithmtiica. 
6th The Numerals: II. Ordinal Numbers . 99106 

systema decimal ou mitrico. 

7th The Numerals: III. Multiplicative Num- 
bers 106111 

Problemas de multiplicagao. 
3th Regular Verbs: First Conjugation. 

A. Simple Tenses 111120 

Ao deitar-se e levantar-se. 

) th Regular Verbs: First Conjugation. B. Com- 
pound Tenses 120128 


The Tower of Belem. 

) th Pronominal or Reflective Verbs . . . 128 137 

Alimentagao. SolicitaQdo d'um emprego. 
The Foot and the Hand. The Egg 

and the Nut. 

Paradigm of the Regular Conjugations . 137146 
The Studious Pupil and the Lazy. 

X Index. 


22rd Lesson. Phonetical and Orthographical Peculia- 
rities of Otherwise Regular Verbs . . 146154 
algodao. As pelles. 
The Seamstress. The Tailor. 

23rd Exercises on the Full Verbs . . . .154160 

As batatas. As frutas; a lavra; a 
sementeira ; a grade ; a monda 
Conselhos duma mae etc. 

24th On the Pronouns: Personal Pronouns . 161168 
espiriheiro maldoso. cao e a 

vacca. The Faithful Dogs. 
25th On the Pronouns: Demonstrative and 

Possessive Pronouns 168 174 

A vibora e a cobra. mocho. 

26th On the Pronouns: Interrogative and Re- 
lative Pronouns 174 181 

N'um album. 

27th On the Pronouns: Indefinite Pronouns 182186 

lido e a raposa. The Nut. 

28th The Irregular Verbs 186194 

cabrito e o lobo. 
29th The Irregular Verbs (continued) . . . 195201 

Annuncios. Building. 

30th The Irregular Verbs of the Third Con- 
jugation 201209 

Carta. Eequerimentos. 
31st Impersonal and Defective Verbs . . . 209216 

Muu tempo. Annuncios. Correio. 
32nd Verbs with a Double Participle . . . 216221 

33rd The Adverbs , 221228 

Os Pessegos. Soneto. 

34th The Conjunctions 228236 

A andorinha. 

35th Interjections 236239 

No theatro. Na rua. 



Second Part. 
First Division: Flection. 

1st Lesson. The Gender of the Portuguese Nouns 
Caule, franco ou haste. 




The Gender of the Portuguese Nouns 

Vozes d'animaes. 

The Gender of the Portuguese Nouns: 
Compound Nouns 

A Lusitdnia. 
Formation of the Plural of the Nouns . 


Formation of the Plural of the Nouns 

Tomada de Santarem. 
Use of the Article 

Portugal continental e insular. 
Use of the Article (continued) . . . 

Portugal ultramarino. 
Omission of the Article 

Joao I. 






Second Division: Syntax. 

to Lesson. Congruence ......... 291296 

Jodo I (continued). 
10th Intransitive and Transitive Verbs. Com- 

plements without Preposition . . . 296301 

Tomada de Santarem. 
11 th The Complement preceded by de and a 301307 

A preposigao de. 
12th Remarks on the Prepositions . . . 308313 

A emigragao portuguesa. 

13th Prepositions (continued): How to Ex- 

press Certain English Prepositions . 313 320 

14th Syntactic Peculiarities of Certain Parts 

of Speech; Possessive Pronouns . . 321 324 
Carlo ao Sr. G. P. 

XII Index. 


15th Lesson. Syntactic Peculiarities of Personal Pro- 
nouns 324328 

Trecho de Guerreiro e Monger. 

16th Syntactic Peculiarities of Personal Pro- 
nouns (continued) 328332 

Dia no campo. 
A Cigarra e a formiga. 
17th Syntactic Peculiarities of Demonstrative, 

Relative and Indefinite Pronouns . . 332336 
The Whistle. 

trdbalho physico e mental. 
18 th Syntactic Peculiarities of Adjectives and 

Participles ... ...... 336341 

terremdto de Lisboa. 

19th The Gerund and the Periphrastical Con- 
jugation 341346 


20th Tenses of the Indicative 346354 

Extract from Portuguese History. 

21st The Subjunctive Mood 354360 

Passeio & Rivieira portuguesa. 
22nd The Subjunctive Mood (continued) . . 360364 

Dom Jodo de Castro. 

23rd The Subjunctive Mood: Future Tense . 364368 

Consiglieri Pedroso e o accordo luso- 

24th The Infinitive: I. General Use ... 368371 

Hodrigues de Freitas. 

25th II. Use of the Personal and the Im- 

personal Forms of the Infinitive. 
III. The Independent Infinitive . . 372374 

rato. ledo e a lebre. 
26th iv. The Dependent Infinitive (without 

preposition) 374379 

On Education of Children. 
A ignorancia do povo portugues. 
27th iv. The Dependent Infinitive (with pre- 
ceding de) 379382 

Letter to a Friend. 
A respiragao. 

Index. XIII 


28th Lesson. IV. The Dependent Infinitive (with pre- 
ceding a) . 382388 

Women as Silkworm-breeders. 
A Mulher portuguesa como serici- 

29th Construction 388-390 

Preparation of Olive-oil. 

Supplement 391405 

English-Portuguese Vocabulary 406420 

Portuguese-English Vocabulary 421457 



Page 5, Remark II, instead of border, read: bordar. 
8, 1. 7 from below, instead of pvu, read : pi>u. 
11, 1. 3 from above, instead of [ug'fajtus], read: [us' 
17, 16 is to be added: "Paa = Fossa Serihoria. 
40, 1. 6th, instead of Coimbra is, read: Coimbra was. 
61, 1. 3 r d from below, inst. of tanto, read: tanta. 
63, Pdlavras, inst. of irrdfa' 'etu, read: irrity'etu. 
66, Palavras, inst. of Zetantar to get up, etc. 

a mesa to rise, etc. 
read: levantar a mesa to rise etc. 

98, 1. 3 r( J from the end of the Exercise, inst. of As Por- 
tugal . . . has, read : As Portugal had. 
98, 1. 8 th of 39, inst. of so many hundreds, read: so many 

tens, the next so many hundreds. 
98, 1. 15th of 39, inst. of 106, read 105. 
110, 1. 5th of 43, inst. of Twice five times five, read: Twice 

the fivefold of five. 

110, 1. 7th of 43, inst. of men where, read: men were. 
135, title of 48, inst. of Alimentafd, read: AlimentaQao. 
From the page 226 until the end of the 1st part the exercises 

87-95 are to have the numbers of 92100. 
Page 290, 1. 8, inst. of saltisfying, read: satisfying. 
290, N 22, title, inst. of Jao, read: Joao. 
353, 1. 3rd, i n8 t. O f 1583, read: 

First Part, 


1. The Sounds of the Portuguese. 

The Portuguese orthography corresponds only im- 
perfectly to the pronunciation. And there are signs 
(as the til, the cedilla, the accents) and sounds (as the 
nasal vowels, the lh, the nh) t which do not exist in the 
English language. To give an idea of the Portuguese 
pronunciation next to accuracy, we have had to recur to 
a phonetic transcription and adopted that of the Asso- 
ciation phonetique Internationale. In order to be easily 
distinguished from the remaining text, the phonetic 
signs are invariably put in parenthesis. Each of these 
signs represents always the same sound, and each sound 
is always given by the same figure. If you want to 
acquire the most possible correctness in speaking the 
Portuguese idiom, please to pay a careful attention to 
the phonetics. Whenever you have an opportunity, let 
the sounds be pronounced to you by a native of Lisbon, 
the pronunciation of the Portuguese capital being the 
one adopted for this grammar. 

Be careful also in distinguishing voiced sounds 
from dumb ones, in vowels as well as in consonants. 

2. Types. 

The Portuguese letters are equal to the English, 
but their denomination is different for the most part. 
The vowels and also some of the consonants have 
several different values. In the alphabetic list here- 
after we give their alphabetic value which mostly cor- 
responds to their names: 

Portuguese Conversation-Grammar. 1 

2 Pronunciation. 

Character. Name. Character. Name. 

a a (like a in bar) p pe (as in pay) 

}j b (aS in laij) Q ke (like the first syllable 
> - yi x in kali) 

c se ( s m say) r (er w (as in ere 

d de ( in day) followed by a con- 

/ . .*V sonant) 

6 ? ..A 81 * air ' S (68)86 dike in English) 

f (^^^**j* * ! te (as^ thirst syllable 

without the initial d) ^ u ( as 00 ) 

* aga (dumb) v ye (as in wriw) 

* i (ee in deep) w ^ dobrado 

j ji (as in ^'ifir, but without (the English w> 

^ k (the Tas^Lr) ^ C ^ S ( = Sn ^ s ^5 ^^ e 

? (el)le (as in English) S >- 

t \ II 1 erefifO (as in English). 

M (em)me (as m English) y j=> & 

/ \ 8 Z6 (as in English). 

w (en)ne ( ) 

6 (like ai0 in Zaw) 

Remark. The letter & is to be found in very few Por- 
tuguese words, as tysto cyst; else (as also w) only in foreign 

8. Auxiliary Signs of the Portuguese Alphabet. 

1. The accents, which mark not only the tonical 
accentuation, but also the colouring of a vowel, are 
well to be distinguished from the French accents. 

(a) The acute accent (') may be put upon any 
vowel, conferring to it, besides the tonical accen- 
tuation, an open, ringing sound: ma, si, alii, fwa+ 

(b) The circumflex (*) gives to the (tonical) vowel 
a dim and closed sound : chamdmos, sede, corte (cf. : 
chamdmos, sede, corte). 

(c) The grave accent f) is not obligatory. Where- 
ever it is to be found (upon a, e or 0), it denotes 
the open sound of an unaccented syllable (padeiro, 
fregues, patetice, sbmente). 

2. The cedilla ( b ) is placed under the letter c ($), 
to which it gives the articulation of 5 before the vowels 
a, o, u, where else the c would be pronounced like k: 
louga, mopo, a$ude. (cf.: louca, moca, acudir). 

Stress and Duration. Vowels. 3 

3. The til (~) is a sign peculiar only to the Castilian 
and the Portuguese languages. But being in the former 
employed upon a consonant (n), it is found in the latter 
only upon vowels and diphthongs, conferring nasality 
to them: Id, mae, poo, pde (poi), mui. On the u it is 
to be met with only in (the equally antiquated) mui 
and muito (actually written only muito) ; it has altogether 
disappeared from upon the i, being supplied by follow- 
ing n or m: insua for isua, sim for si etc. 

4. The apostrophe (') indicates that some vowel (e 
or a, rarely an o) has been dropped: d'elle (de elle); 
Sant' Anna (Santa Anna); Nun' Alvares (Nuno Alvares). 
Formerly also the m of com was sometimes dropped. 
(N.B. Actually the contraction of the elided words end- 
ing in e is preferred to the apostrophe: delle, duma, 
nesse, etc.) 

5. The hyphen (-) unites two words to one idea: 
agua-ardente brandy, mal-afortunado unhappy, bem-casado 
well married, recem-chegado new-comer. N.B. These 
words may be written in one (aguardente, etc.). 

Remark. As for the (') employed in this grammar for 
the prosodical accent, see 4. 

4. Stress and Duration. 

In the phonetics we indicate the prosodical accent 
by an acute (') placed before the tonical syllable. 

The vowels are of a middle length when having 
the tonical accent; they are shorter before the accented 
syllable and shorter still after it. 

5. Vowels. 

A has three chief sounds: 

1. [a,] an open sound resembling the English far, 
father, but with the throat less open and the tongue 
less down: ma [ma], chave ['favd], caso ['~k&zu]. 

2. [a] a sound like the English a followed by w: 
awe, saw. In Portuguese it is always followed by t or 
u of the same syllable: mat [matj, mau [man]. 

3. [u] a close sound like a in bag or about. It is 
tonical only before a nasal consonant: pan(n)o ['pvnu], 


4 Pronunciation. 

lama f'lvmv], mariha ['mvyue] and in para ['pvruj and 
cadaf'kvdvj; otherwise generally unaccented; ex.: lima 
['Urn's], Europa [eu 'ropy], hater [by 'terj. 

Remark. The e in the tonical diphthong ei, and when 
followed by a prepalatal sound (x, ch, j, Ih, nh) has the same 
sound: fecho f'fvfu], lei [lui], igrejaji'grvjv], espelho [tf- 
f pvfiu], tenho [tvyiu] ; it is equally indicated by /#/. 

IE in accented syllables has two different sounds: 

1. [sj an open sound like ai in air or a in bare, 
often indicated by an accent, as fe [fe] faith, se [sej 
cathedral; prelo, prelo f'prelu] printing-press, sede, sede 
[sefo] seat. 

2. [e] a close sound (like ea in the English words 
great, break); this sound may be indicated by the circum- 
flex, as aldea [ai 'devj, rede [ 'rrefo], sede ['sefoj; comer 
[ku'mer], perder [par'der]. 

3. [9] it is found short in unaccented open syllables 
and before r in an unaccented syllable, if not final : 
resoar, designar, perdido, like the e in matter; but in 
ether f'eter], cadaver [Tee 'davsr], pi. cadaver es /7c#- 
'davdrdf] the e is quite distinct, similar to very, but 
more open. It is nearly inaudible between voiceless 
consonants (repetir [rr9p(9)'tir]) and at the end of a 
word, as lote ['lote], molde ['motddj, parte['partdj; while 
at the beginning of a word it sounds like a short i 
(== ee, phonetically^), as edade [i'dafo], emenda fi'mendv], 
eleger [ifo'gerj; and still shorter fij in the terminal 
syllable es (fazes ['faztf], deveres fdi'verifj) and before 
cli (= sh) and the initial st, sq, sp: espago fef'pasuj, 
estranho [if'trvyiu], esquadra fif'kwa&rvj, fechar [ft' Jar]. 

Remark. When in the middle of a word the e is fol- 
lowed by a or 0, it is pronounced also like a short i: theatro 
[ti'atru], deante [di'untd], peor [pi 'or], theologo [ti'dugu], 
theoria [tiu'riv]. Also the conjunction e and is pronounced i, 
when followed by a word beginning with a vowel. 

4. see A, Remark. 
J [i, i] sounds: 

1. when long, like the English ee in been: riso 
f'rrisu], estima fif'time], sentir [sen'tir] ; 

2. short, it corresponds to the English i in gin, 
gild: bilro ['bitrrul, viu [ f vm], virgula f'virgufej. 


3. Before another vowel and not having the tonical 
accent, it is very short and sounds nearly like the 
English y: ocio ['osm] (but: macio [mv'siu]), inertia 
[i'mrswj (but: vertia [vdr'tivj), rdio f'rramj (but: 
sata sv'iv meia ' 

N.B. In those words containing two or more i- syl- 
lables the last of which is stressed, only this one is pro- 
nounced i (=- ee) while the preceding are pronounced 
like voiceless e [d] : dividido [ddVd'didu] ; selicula [sd- 
'likulv], divino [dy'vinu], This rule has various 


O in accented syllables has two different sounds: 

1. foj (6, o): an open sound like the o in nor, God, 
short. When tonical it is a little longer and more 
ringing than in unaccented syllables: cor [kor], avo 
[e'vo], fora [forv] '; adoptar ft do' tar]. 

2. [o] (o, o, ou): a close sound as in lode, stone: 
cor [kor], avo [v'vo]> lobo ['Itibu], grou [gro] '; solfar 
[sol' far], colmaea fkot'masvj. 

Remark 1. In northern Portugal the diphthong ou is 
pronounced o-u, so that there is a difference between ougo 
['ousuj I hear, and osso ['osuj bone, while these words are 
similar in Lisbon as well as in Brazil. 

Remark II. Before an I of the same accented or unac- 
cented syllable, the o is generally close: solto f'sottu], colza 
["kotev] ; voltear [voUi'ar] (exc.: volta [vtftv], volte ['&&?] 
etc.). In open syllables and before r or s of the same syl- 
lable. the unaccented o is pronounced u (= oo): barco f'barku], 
moroso [mu 'rozu], border [bur 'dar], costura [kuf'turv]. 

Remark III. The definite article of the masculine 
gender o, pi. os, always being unaccented, is pronounced u 
(= oo is foot), us fufj; same pronunciation as for the con- 
tractions of the article: dos, nos [duf, rntf], etc. N.B.: nos 
( em os) is not to be confounded with the objective pronoun 
nos (us), which corresponds to the subjective pronoun nds 
[nofj we (cf. also vos [vof] you and vos [vuf] to you, you). 


1. [u] (u, u) sounds like oo in root, when ac- 
cented: tu [tu], luva 

6 Pronunciation. 

2. (u, o) : It sounds like oo in foot when unaccented : 
do [duj, disputar [dtfpu' tar] , lodo f'lo&uj. 

N.B. Nearly every unaccented 0, if not nasal, is 
pronounced u (cf. 0, Remark II.). 

Remark. The u after a q and before a or o, is pro- 
nounced like the English w: qual [Jurat]. It is the same 
when at the end of a word, and after a voiceless consonant 
the u meets with an o or a: vdcuo ['vakwu]. The u after 
a g and before an e or i is mute. (Exc. : arguir [vrgu 'ir] and 
derived words, unguento [ugu'entu], sanguento, etc., and some 
others.) See also 10, end. 

6. Diphthongs. 
A. Falling Diphthongs. 

Such diphthongs where the weight rests more upon 
the first vowel than upon the second, are called falling 
diphthongs. Their second vowel is either i or u. 

1. Feeble /-sound. 

a,i (ai) 1 ; Ex. : pat (pai or pae) father, like pie. 

& (ei); rrs'if (reis) Portuguese copper-coins; 

like a in rare, ai in fair. 

vi (ai, ei); rrvif (reis) kings; a sound between 

fair and way; almost identical 
with the a of the diphthongised 
a in late of the South of Eng- 

oi (6i> oi, oe); rroif (roes) lists; like oi in moist, 

w (6i, oi): bot (boi) ox; same sound but with 

a close o. 

oiru (oiro or ouro) 2 gold ; same sound 
but with a close o. 

ui (ui); fu} (fui) I was, I went; like in ruin. 

1 Here and in other places hereafter the phonetic sounds 
are put in the first place, while the ortographical examples are 
put in parenthesis. 

2 The diphthong oi, not being terminal, may but for few 
exceptions be supplied by ou (cf. 5, 0, Remark I.). In northern 
Portugal the ow-sound is preferred, -while the south pronounces 
oi or o. 


a sound between 
pouch and pause, 
similar to the 
German Haus 

2. Feeble it-sound. 

Ex.: pau (pau) 

mau (mau 

or mao) 

seu (ceu or ceo) sky, the like 

ai in mV (cf. 5, E 1). 
breu (breu) tar, same sound 

with a close c (cf. 5, E 2). 
viw (WM,) he saw, in accor- 

dance with the pronuncia- 

tion of the simple vowels. 
do(u)ru (Douro) 1 Douro, river 

in Portugal. 

B. Rising Diphthongs. 
1. Feeble *-sound. 

Such diphthongs where the weight rests upon the 
second vowel, are called rising. 
ia (ia or.ea); Ex.: d^'anu (diario) diary 

vi'sidu (veado) hart 
? (ie or ie); di'dv (dieta) diet 
<i3 (io); m'i'oluf (miolos) brains 

to (io); mi'olu (miolo) crumbs 

iu (iu or eu) ; mi'udu (miudo or meudo) 

(au or ao) 

(eu or eo); 

cw or 

or io); 

or ou (ou); 

cf. 5, i 3 
and a 1. 

cf. 5, o 
and u. 

2. Feeble t*-sound. 

wa (ua or oo); Ex.: mu'ar (muar) mule- . . in compound 

su'ar(suar) to sweat. 

suar (soar) to sound. 
ua (ua); ^'af (dual) dual, 

we (we or oe,); sw'f^o (sueto) holiday. 

mu 'fdv (moeda) coin. 
ue (ue or oe): ru'er (roer) to gnaw. 

pu'emv (poema) poem. 

1 Nowadays written and pronounced only Douro (not Doiro). 
Nor can the diphthong ou be supplied by oi in the following words : 
ou or, ousar dare, omadia, ousado; outorgar, ouvir, ouvido, outubro, 
ouco, couve, mouco, louco, and their derivatives, and never in a 
verbal form e.g. comprou. 

8 Pronunciation. 

ui (ui or oi); Ex.: fu'ijiu (fuinJio) woodpecker. 
mu'iyiu (moinho) mill. 

7. Nasal Vowels and Diphthongs. 

The nasal sound of a vowel is either indicated by 
the til (s. 3, 3) or by placing m or n behind it. The 
nasality of the vowel, especially when making part of 
a diphthong, is not attainable without considerable 
practice. It is not so pure and ringing as in French, 
but rather squeezed. We shall try to approach the 
sound by means of examples, as much as possible. 

1. % (-a, an-, am-), %n before d or t, %m before b 
or p, is the nasalised # (see 5, 3), almost alike to that 
of pang: 'irma, 'santo, 'lampada. 

2. e (en-, em-), en before d or t, em before b and 
p, alike to that in length: 'tenro, 'lento, bem'posto, 'sendo, 
em 'bora. 

3. I (im, in; em-, en- as unaccented initial sounds): 
alike to that in ring: fim, fins, findo, limpo. 

4. o (om, on) alike to that in song, wrong: som, 

5. u (um, un), alike to the German jung: urn, atum. 

6. Nasal diphthongs with terminal feeble i or u. 

(di, ae, em) ; Ex. : m^i (mdi or mae) | like the a in 
mother \ pang, followed 

~bv,i (bem) well ) by an i. 
(oi, oe); pdi (pdi or pde) ] like the Q in 

he ? UtS ^ i. song, followed 

(dem); pdm (poem) they b ^ - 


(ui); mfti (mui, mui) very (see 3, 3) 

(do, am); pvu (pao) bread 

(compram) they buy. 

8. Triphthongs. 

There are in Portuguese numerous triphthongs 
which consist of a falling diphthong with preceding 
feeble i or u. These latter vowels are never nasal, 
even in nasal triphthongs. 

Consonants. 9 

Ex.: leais [h'aif], plural of leal [h'at] true; fieis 
ff, P lural of ft el faithful; fieis [ft'wf] from fiar to 
spin; miau [vn/tau] the mewing of the cat; poeira [pu- 
dust; ledo [li'uu] lion, leoes [It'oif] lions. 

9. Consonants. 

1. Those Portuguese consonants which in their 
denomination and pronunciation differ from the English, 
have already been mentioned ( 2). F, &, m, n. p, t, v, 
w are generally pronounced as in English. 

2. As for the voiced consonants, they are very 
carefully to be distinguished from the voiceless. Espe- 
cially the ~b and the d which, standing between vowels 
or between a vowel and an r, or being doubled, are 
very soft (as, e.g., those letters in the English words 
nob, lad), the b approaching the 0, and the d the voiced 
English th in though; we indicate these letters so: 5, d. 
Ex.: reboar frrdbu'str, nearly like rryvu'atrj; abbade 
[v'fiatoj, addigao [vtfi's&uj. The b is mute when ter- 
minal: Jacob fgv'koj. 

3. The same as for the g, which sounds like the g 
in give before a, o, u and consonants; and like g [%] 
in gentle (but without the initial d) before e, i, y (or 
rather like the g in agure): the terminal g [g] is soft 
as in English (hug). If the g is to keep its g(ive)-souud 
before e, i, y, a dumb u is put between the two letters 
(cf. 5, U, Remark). Ex. : garfo ['g&rfu] fork, gume 
['gumd] blade, gloria ['ghriv] glory, Gog [gs>g] ; gelo 
C^elu] ice, gig [gif] chalk; guerraf'gtrirvj war; guiar 
[gt'arj to guide. 

4. The j has the pronunciation of the g before e, 
i, y (the g in agure or the ,s- in pleasure] and is equally 
represented by [$] : jd [3%] already, jejum [gd'j&J 
fasting, joelho [gu'efiu] knee. 

5. The initial I sounds like the English; when ter- 
minal, it corresponds to the English U: falar [fu'Ur] 
to speak; mal [mat] bad. 

6. I united to a following "h (Ih) forms a sound 
which corresponds to the Castilian U and may be com- 
pared to the I and y in the combined English words 
will you, e.g.: fttho. It is figured by [K]. 

10 ' Pronunciation. 

7. A similar union forms the li with the n (nh) 
figured by [yi] and pronounced like the Castilian n 
in nino or the French gn in ligne: linha ['liyiv] line, 
manhd [m^'jiv] morning. 1 

8. As for the r, it must not be confounded with 
the English vocal r (in far, further). Good Portuguese 
speakers trill all r's, whether initial, medial, or terminal. 
Only there is a difference in the energy employed with 
the strongly rolled initial or doubled r and the weaker 
r that is found after a consonant (not being , n or s) 
between vowels or at the end of a syllable. We re- 
present the former by rr and the latter by r. Ex.: 
preto ['pretu] black; bravo f'bravuj brave; caro ["] 
dear; fior [florj flower; perto f'pertu] near; rei [rrei] 
king; carro f'karruj carriage; bUro f'bitrruj bobbin; 
honra ['drrvj honour; Israel [igrrv'd]. 

N.B. In some words the initial r is followed by a 
mute h: rheuma ['rreumvj rheumatism ; Eheno ['rrenu] 

9. S is pronounced like English s in such, silver. 
[s] 1. at the beginning of a word and when 

doubled. Ex.: servir [sdr'virj to serve; massa f'masvj. 

2. after a consonant and before a vowel. Ex. : 
cansar [kv'sar], arsenal [vrsd'nat], observar [obsdr'var]. 
Exc.: obsequio and derivatives, where it sounds soft: 
[ofo ' ztkiu]. 

[z] like s in the English words loose, rose, when 
between two vowels: luso ['luzu] ', rosa ['rrozv]. 
Exc.: after a prefix: resentir [msen'tir, presdgio [prt>- 

/j7 before a voiced consonant: rasgo 

[f] At the end of a word before a pause, and be- 
fore the consonants p, t, c, q, it sounds like English sh : 
esperar [ifpd 'rarj, estd [if'ta,], escapa fifkapvj, esquerdo 

1 In some words, as anhelo, inhibir, inhalar, inherente, iti- 
hdspito irih&bil, enharmdnico, and others, where the n is part of a 
prefix nh is pronounced like n; the h is mute. 

Compound, Doubled and Mute Letters. 11 

Bemark. The terminal [f] is changed into [z] when followed 
by a vowel; Ex.: as aves [uz'avif]; and it' followed by a 
voiced consonant, it is changed into [$] : os banhos [ug 'bvjius], 
as rosas u ' 

10. X has various sounds. It is pronounced: 

(a) [f] (= sh) at the beginning of a word: xadree 
[fv'dref], xarope [fv'ropdj; generally in the middle of 
the words: feixe ['Pnjiji sex ^ ['swftu] ; 

(b) [ks] (= English x) in some words fixo f'fiksuj, 
sexo f'seksuj; 

(c) [s] in some words as auxilio [au'siUu], proximo 
f'prostmu] ; 

(d) [z] in some words as : exame [i 'gvntoj, exercicio 
fizdr ' sisiu] ; 

(e) [kf] (very rare): borax ['borvhfj; 

(f) The prefix ex . ., when followed by a consonant, 
is pronounced either [if] or [&!fj: expor [(tyfpor], ex- 
pensas [(u)tfpesvf]. 

11. Z is pronounced like [z] in English zeal at 
the beginning or in the middle of a word: zelo [' zdu]; 
fazer ffu'zerj; and like [f] at the end of a word: pea 
fpefj, juiz [ 5 u'if] (cf. 9, Remark). 

Eemark. In Brazil the terminal s and z are pronounced 5. 

10. Compound, Doubled and Mute Letters. 

1. The Ih, nh and rh have already been mentioned 
in 9. 

2. The h is still found in union with t (ih), where it 
is mute (theatro [ti 'atruj), and with p (ph), where it 
forms the sound f: apht(h)as ['aftuj thrush, photographo 

3. Ph is mute before th: phthisica ['tiziku]. 

4. With the c (ch) it forms two sounds: 

(a) [f]: chave ['fnvd], encher [i'fer], chilro [JitrruJ. 

(b) [k] in words of Greek origin : chronica ['krwikv], 
mdchina f'm&kinvj, monarcha [mu'narkvj. 

5. The c is found compound also to t and a second 
c, (ct, cc), where it is often mute: actual [atu'at], ac- 



cento [u'sentu]; pacto ['paJctuJ, friccao [frik'suu]. It is 
also mute after an initial s (sc): sceptro f'sftru], sciencia 

6. The p is often mute before s and t (ps, pt): psalmo 
f'satmu], adoptar [vfto'tar], prompto [prontu] ; ph is 
mute before th: phthisica ['tistkej (cf. 3). 

Remark. The vowels e and o, even when unaccented, 
are open before the mute consonants c and p : director fdirs- 
'tor], excepgao [(vjifsz'seuj ; while a is open before ct and pt 
and in a few words before cc: activo [a'tivuj, aptidao [apti- 
'dfru] ; accdo [a'suu], fracgao [fra(7c)'svu]. 

7. Doubled consonants are generally pronounced like 
one (cf. 9, 2, 8 and 9): apparelJw [apv'refiu], matto 
['matu], penna f'penv], commissao [kumi'svtij, fallar 
[fu 'larj. Yet when, of two m's or 's, one belongs to a 
prefix, it is pronounced with a nasal sound : emmalhar 
ftmv'fiarj; ennovelar finu'vdlarj. 

N.B. m is mute before n: gymndsio foi'naswu]) con- 
demnar [kondd' nar] , somno f'sonuj. 

8. As for the gu and qu see 5, w, Remark and 
9, 3. In qu the u is mute before e or i: queda 
[fadvj, quinMo [Ui'yivu]. Exc. : frequente ffrd'Jcwentd], 
tranquitto [trv'Jcwihi] and derivatives, and also in some 
scientific words. Before a and o it is sometimes mute: 
quatorze [kvtorzd], quotisar fkuti' ' zar or kwuti'zarj. 

11. Summary of the Phonetic Signs in their 
Relation to the Portuguese Alphabet. 

a, a, is 

see 5 



&, o 



see 5 

d, '9 



P' PP 

f, e, 9 



-r-, -r 




r-, rh-, -IT- 

9, & 

g( a ), g(u), g(r), -g 


S', -ss-, (-)sc-, c(e), 

etc. (see 9) 

c(i), 9, -x 

* ?, $ 

see 5 


-x-, -cs- 




z-, -s-, -x- 

1 t 



g(e), g(i); j, -s, -z 



f . 

x-, ch-; -s, -z 


m, mm 


t-, -tt-, th-; -ct, -pt- 


n, nn 


see 5 

Accentuation. 13 

* : Y-, -V- N.B. 1: 

kiv : qu(a); qu(e), qu(i) -r signifies terminal r, 

(rare) -r- medial sound, 

v, e, t, r- initial . 
o, u : see 7 N.B. 2: A letter in pa- 

/ : after a vowel, stret- renthesis indicates that the 

ches it one preceding has the pro- 

: before a syllable, nunciation of the phoneti- 

means the toni- cal sign only in this com- 

cal accent. bination. 

12. Accentuation. 

1. Words of two or more syllables, ending by 
a, e, o, have the stress generally on the penultimate 
syllable: 'lama, 'vinte, cas'tello, anted' pado. 

N.B. Another vowel (i, u or o), preceding those 
vowels, does not form a diphthong, and is to be con- 
sidered an independent syllable: 'lia, harmo'nia, 'crua, 
'tua, ma'goa, 'broa. 

2. Words ending in a consonant, a nasal vowel 
or diphthong, or in i or u, generally bear the stress 
on the last syllable; so, for instance, all the infinitives 
(cha'mar, ven'dcr, inftu'ir); pa' pel, nacio'nal, ir'ma, ir- 
'mao, ale'mdo, java'li, ba'hu. Principal exc. : the ad- 
jectives ending in -vel (a'mavel, indefi'nivel) and some 
in -il ('facil). 

N.B. The s forming the plural of the nouns and 
adjectives, or the termination of a verb, does not affect 
the accentuation ('mesa, 'mesas; 'alto, 'altos; sa,'bias), 
even when by the flection the last syllable is changed 
into two: ta'ful, pi. ta'fues, in'gles, in'gleses; difficil, 

3. Words with stress on the ante-penultimate syl- 
lable are rarer and generally marked by a graphic ac- 
cent: nitido, fotografo, comprdvamos; they are called 

4. A word consisting of many syllables frequently 
has a secondary stress (marked thus: *) on a syllable 
preceding the tonical, yet never upon one following 
it. To this group belong (a) the adverbs formed of the 

14 Pronunciation. 

adjectives by adding the termination -mente (altlva'mente 
haughtily); (b) the diminutives and augmentatives with 
the intercalated letter -0-: cadeira' zinha small chair, 
from cadeira; hbmemza'rrdo big man (from 'homem). In 
such words it is the originally accented syllable which 
has the secondary accent. 

5. Atonic pronouns of only one syllable are added 
to the verbs, melting together with them: sabe-lo (or 
sabel-o), ver-nos, dar-lhe. 

13. Syllabication. 

1. Any vowel, whether accented or unaccented, 
even nasal, may terminate a syllable. 

2. Of the consonants, only the following ones may 
do so: I, m, n, r, s, z. More rarely and only in scienti- 
fic terms : p, c. k, b, g. 

(Even here we meet words separated thus : corru-pgao, aprom- 
ptar, au-gmentar, te-chnica, pra-gmatica, etc.) 

3. Ih, nh must not be separated. They are found 
only in the middle of a word and belong always to 
the following vowel: mi-nha, ve-lho. An only apparent 
exception form words from the Greek, as pkti-harmonica, 
and from the Latin, as in-hibir, an-helar, in-Mspito, in- 
habil, etc., where in- is a prefix (see p. 10, foot-note). 

4. Not to be separated are the diphthongs and the 
nasal syllables am, an, em, en, im, in, om, on, urn, un. 
Vowels not forming diphthongs may be separated : ma- 

5. A syllable may begin by one of the following 
groups of consonants: pr-, br-, fr-, vr-, tr-, dr-, cr-, 
gr-, cl-, gl-, pi-, U-, fl- (r or I with another preceding 
consonant), and sc- (this only in foreign words). 

N.B. There may also be read syllabications like: 
comi-pgao, pra-gmatica, aprom-ptar,etc. (see 2), but as they 
contradict the rules 1 and 5, given by the most learned 
Portuguese phonetician, Mr. Goncalves Viana, they are 
not to be imitated. 

6. The consonantal combinations of st-, sp-, sph-, 
spl-, spr- and sc- are found only in scientific or in 
foreign words: sparadrapo, sphinx or sphince (pop.: 



esphinge); splenico, stylita, sciencia. (In genuine Portu- 
guese or nationalised words they are always preceded 
by e, spoken like a fugitive i, which with the following 
,9 forms a syllable: espargo fif'pargu], estado, estilo, es- 
casso, esplendor, espraiar) These groups cannot be se- 

7. As for the consonantal gemination, the con- 
sonants are distributed on two syllables: fer-renho, in- 
nato, im-maculado, ap-parente, as-sistir, pel-les, ab~bade r 
at-testar, dif-ficuldade. 

14. Homonyms. 

Homophonos [o'mofunufj. 

There are a number of homonymical words in 

Portuguese that is, words of equal sound and different 


Here some examples: 

accento [v'sentu] accent 

apregar [vprd'sar] to ap- 
praise . 

area ['aria] area 

atestar [vtif tar] to fill up 
to the top 

bucho ['bufuj craw, maw 

caga f'kasvj hunting, game 

cegar [sd'garj to blind, to 

cella f'seluj cell 

celleiro [sd'lwiru] granary 

cem [sej hundred 

assento seat 
apressar to hurry 

aria air 
attestar to attest 

buxo box-tree 
cassa muslin 
segar to mow 

cerrar [sd'rrar] to shut 
chamma ['femvj flame 
concebo [ko'sebu] I under- 

sella saddle 
selleiro saddler 
sem without 
serrar to saw 
chama he calls, call 
com sebo with tallow 

stand, I conceve 

concelho [ko'svfttij council 
condega [kdn'desvj willow- 


consigo fko'siguj I obtain 
descripgao [difkri's&u] de- 

douto ['dotuj learned 

conselho counsel 
condessa countess 

comsigo with(in) himself 
discrigdo discretion 

dou-to I give it you 



ega ['esvj bier, cenotaph 

hero, ['vraj ivy 

maga f'masv] mace 

pago ['pasu] palace 

pello ['pelu] hair 

pena ['penvj punishment, 

perdigao [prdi'suu] perdi- 

perfeito [pr'feitul perfect 

rugo ['rrusuj grey 

seio I'swuJ bosom 

valle [vat] valley 

essa that (one) 
era was 
massa paste 
passo step 
pelo = por o. 
penna pen 

predicgdo prediction 

prefeito prefect 
russo Russian 
sei-o I know it 
vale post-office order. 

15. Homographs. 
Homographos [o 'mstgrsfttfj. 

A. Examples of Homographs with the same sound, 
but different meaning. 

a vista ['vifta] view, sight 

o dado ['dadu] die 

o eonto ['kontuj story 

a conta ["kdntv] bill 

a car a ['k&rvj face 

a ferida ffi'riidv] wound 

a conqitista [~ko'ltiftv] con- 
a saliida [sv'iiftv] issue 

a alta ['attv] raising ; halt 
a baixa fbattftoj decrease; 

furlough; lower part of 

the town (of Lisbon) 
a aberta [v'berte] opening, 


aceito ft svitu] I accept 
precise [prd 'siizu] I want 
como f'JcomuJ I eat 
entrc ['entrd] imper. of 

entrar to enter 

vista (pp. f. of ver to see) 

dado given 

conto I count 

conta he (she) counts 

cara (adj. f.) dear 

ferida (pp. f. of ferir) 

conquista (pp. f. of con- 

querir) conquered 
sahida (pp. f, of sahir) 

gone out 
alta (adj. f.) high 
fiaixa (adj. f.) low 

aberta (pp. f.) open 

aceito accepted 
preciso wanted 
como as, like 
entre between, among. 


IB. Examples of Homographs with Different 
Pronunciation and Meaning. 


da [da:] give(s) 

regia [rn'giv] imp. of reger 

to reign 
seria [sd'rivj cond. of ser 

to be 

governo [gu'vernu] govern- 

publico ['publiku] public 
contrario ('kon'trariuj con- 

analise [v'ndizz] analysis 
domino [domin 'o] domino 
continuo [kon'tinuu] con- 

concerto ['Jco'sertuJ concert 
gosto ['goftu] taste 
historia [if'tonv] history 

presents [prd'zentdj present 

da [dv] = de a of the 
regia ['rreigwj adj. f. king- 
ly, royal 
seria [' svriu] adj. f. serious 

governo [gu 'vernu] I govern 

publico [pu 'blikuj I publish 

contrario [Jcontrv 'riuj I con- 

analise [wye 'li:0dj! analyse! 

domino [du'mimu] I lord 

continuo [konti 'nuuj I con- 

concerto [ko'sertuj I mend 

gosto [goftu] I like 

historia [iftu'rivj he writes 

presente [prd 'senfoj he 

16. Abbreviations. 


ya jfi x cia = y ossa E xce i. 

lencia Your 
ya fle _ y ossa Merce 

Your mercy/ 
= Fosse(abbr. of 



sr a 

= sentior Mister, 


= senhora Mis- 
tress, Mrs. 

D., D a = Dom, Donna 
S ta = Santa 

Portuguese Conversation-Grammar. 

S to , S. = Santo, Sao 

dig mo = dignissimo 

most worthy 

ill mo , ill ma illustrissimo, 
-a most il- 

ex mo , ex ma = excellentissi- 
mo, -a most 

Dr. = Doutor Doctor 

P.E.F. =por especial 

(addressing an fnvnr "hv PCS. 

inclosed letter) / avo / DV 

pecial fa- 



S. E. C. = sua ex ma casa, gr to , gr mo 

(addressing a letter) here 

m to = muito much, 

very p. ex. 

_ m te == .mente (see 

12, 4) v. g. 

att = attento respect- 

ven or , v or = venerador 


cr do _ cr i a do servant 

adm or = admirador ad- p a 


simo thank- 

por exemplo 
for instance 

= verbi gratia foT 

= a saber name- 
ly? v ^ z - 

= isto e that is 
(to say) 

= para for, to. 

17. Punctuation. 

Ponctuaqdo [pontuv ' 

1. The signs of punctuation are the same as in 
English; they are called as follows: 

. ponto (final) full stop; 

, virgula comma; 

; ponto e virgula semicolon ; 

: dois pontos colon; 

? ponto de interrogagao note 

of interrogation; 
! ponto de admiracao note 

aspas or virgula do- 
brada notes of quo- 
tation ; 

[:()] parenthese, -sis paren- 
thesis ; 

- hyphen or risca de unido- 


* asterisco asterisk. 

of exclamation; 

risco or travessdo dash ' apostropho apostrophe. 

. . . reticencAas points of 
suspension or reti- 

2. On the whole, the rules of punctuation do not 
differ from the English. Before the conjunctions e- 
(and) and ou (or), the comma is generally not em- 
ployed; also not before a relative sentence. On the 
other hand, elucidating adjectives and, frequently, ad- 
verbs are separated by commas from their nouns or 
verbs. When e or ou do not only add a particle, but 
introduce an independent phrase, they are also pre- 
ceded by a comma. 

Punctuation. 19 

Examples of Portuguese Punctuation: 

Com bom vento, a canoa cacilheira atravessa o Tejo mais de- 
sa do que os vapores. 

Para o sen servi^o, ou para a rebocar em calma, a fragata 
uma lancha que leva a reboque. 

catraio e a mais pequena das embarca9oes que fazem ser- 
190 not Tejo, e emprega-se ordinariamente DO transporte de passa- 
jiros, e as vezes na pesca ao candeio. bote-fragata e uma 
fragata pequena, que em geral transporta carga mais leve. 

Onde houver pessoas, o pardal presume logo, como o rato, 
que ha comida, e e ahi que elle esta bem, para comer sem grande 

A cobra, pore'm, e inoffensiva . . . 

A este respeito, contem-se coisas muito inter essantes ... 

(Trindade Coelho.) 

Eu, porem, observei-lhe que, sendp ess' outro artigo, na ver- 
dade, notavel, elle, a meu juizo, estava incomplexo, e, insufficiente, 
nao esgotava o assumpto. (Bruno.) 



First Lesson. Li<jao primeira. 

The Gender of the Noun and the Article. 

genero dos substantivos e o artigo. 

18. There are only two genders in Portuguese: 
the masculine and the feminine; there is no neuter. 
Those nouns which designate beings of masculine sex 
(e.g., homem man, cavallo horse), are naturally also of 
the masculine gender; while those which indicate beings 
of feminine sex (e.g., mulher woman, egua mare), are 
naturally of feminine gender. Neuter nouns are con- 
ventionally ranged either amidst the masculine or the 
feminine ones. Examples: mesa table, feminine; pais 
country, partial sparrow, masculine. 

19. The Portuguese language distinguishes the 
gender, not only by the pronoun, but by the very 
article; by: 

(a) the definite article (o the 1 for the masculine 
singular; a the 1 for the feminine singular), when there 
is a definite person or thing spoken of amidst others 
of the same kind; 

(b) the indefinite article (urn a(n) for the mascu- 
line, uma a(n) for the feminine), when we speak of an 
indefinite person or thing among others of the same 
kind (see 2 nd Lesson). Ex.: o homem the man; um 
homem a man; a mulher the woman; uma mulher a 

Remark. Before rei king there was generally used the 
definite article el (of Spanish origin), when a reigning Por- 
tuguese King was spoken of: El-Rei Dom Manuel II. 

20. To signify the masculine sex (and gender) 
and the feminine, the Portuguese language has various 

1 The definite article the is consequently employed for the 
two genders and even for the two numbers: o os, a as. 

The Gender of the Noun and the Article. 


((a) a different word (for persons nearly always): 
em, mulher; frade monk, freira nun; cavallo, egua ; 
touro bull, boi ox, vacca cow. 

(b) a different termination e.g., pombo, pomba 
n; mestre, mestra teacher; leitor, leitora reader. 

21. In the latter case the feminine 1 is obtained 
by the following rules: 

1. Those nouns ending in -o (not being the second 
vowel of a diphthong) change the -o into -a, ex. : filho, 
filha child (= son and daughter); tio uncle tia aunt; 
pombo, pomba. 

Excep. diacono deacon, fern. : diaconisa deaconess. 

2. Those ending in -do change the -do into -6a: 
ledo lion, leoa lioness, abegdo head man-servant, abegoa 
head maid-servant. -- 

The chief exceptions to this rule are: bardo baron, 
baronesa; cidaddo citizen, cidadd; irmdo brother, irmd; 
ladrdo thief, ladra; sultdo sultan, sultana; valentdo boaster, 

3. Those ending in -or (or) and -es (ez) add an a 
for the feminine: senhor sir, senhora; leitor reader, leitora; 
lavrador peasant, lavradora; ingles English, inglesa. 

The chief exceptions are: actor actor, actriz; em- 
baixador ambassador, embaixatriz; imperador emperor, 
imperatriz; prior prior, prior esa. 

Words. Palayras. 

Isto ['iftuj 2 this (next to the 

sso f'isuj that (next to the 


aquillo [v'kiluj that (next to a 
third person) 

estefeftej, esta 2 this (one) 

that (one) 

esse, essa 

aquella } 

cd [kajj aqui here (next to the 

[aldj speaker) 

ahi [ui] there (next to 

the accosted) 

1 Also of the adjectives. 

2 Isto, isso f aquillo are pronouns and consequently employed 
independently (e.g. Que e isto? Isto e uma penna What is this? 
This is a pen), while este, esse, aquelle are adjectives and employed 
only with a noun clearly expressed or imagined (esta penna e 
aquella. There is the same difference between este, esse, aquelle, 
as between isto, isso, aquillo. 


Lesson 1. 

ali[u'li], Id [la], there (next to a | o chdo [u'fuu] 
acold [isku 'lal third person) o banco [u'ft&ku] 

the ground 
the bench 


is (mostly an- 

o gis [u'$if] 

the chalk 

swering to 

o muro 

the wall 

what? or 



o tinteiro 

the inkstand 

estd ftf'ta] 

is (mostly an- 


swering to 

o quadro preto 

the blackboard 


[u 'kwaffru- 

eis [vtf] 2 


eis aqui 

here is, this is 

o lapis [u'lapif] 

the lead-pencil 

[vizis 'kij 

o mappa 

the map 

eis ahi [vizis' i], there is 


ali or acold 

o caderno 

the copy-book 

que [fo, before 

which, what (a) 

[ukis 'd'ernu] 

a vowel kij 
que e [ki'sj ? 

what is? 

o menino 
[umd 'ninu] 

the boy 

quern e [kui'ejs 
onde 6 [ondi- 

> who is? 

o alumno [iw- 

the pupil, 


o lugar [ulu- 

the place 

onde estd 

where is? 

a mdi or mde 

the mother 

onde fica 

[is 'mm] 


o rei [u'rrvi], 

the king 

tern [tUsi] 

has (he, she, it) 

El-rei [el- 

o pae or pai 

the father 



a rainha 

the queen 

o mestre 


[u 'meftrdj 

a escola 

the school 

o professor 

the teacher 



a penna 

the pen 

'sorj , 

[is 'pews] 

a mestra 
a professora 

the (female) 
teacher or 

a tinta [is 'tint's] 
a cadeira [vkv- 
' fair "s] 

the ink 
the chair 

o livro [u'livruj 

the book 

a caneta [vkv- 

the penholder 

o tecto [u'tstu] 

the ceiling 


1 E, estd e f fica mean is, but they are very clearly to be 
distinguished: E marks a quality inherent to a person or an object 
(ex. : o pae e urn homem, e bom [good]), or the place of a person 
or thing that it cannot or not easily be removed from (ex.: a es- 
cola e aqui). Esta marks a passing or casual quality (ex. : o pae 
estd doente [ill]); or the staying of somebody or something on a 
spot that he (or it) can be easily removed from (ex.: o livro estd 
na mesa ; a mesa estd na aula. Fica is employed to designate the 
place appointed to something (rarely to somebody), ex.: a porta 
fica perto (near) da janella. Sometimes you may doubt whether 
to employ fica or estd or even estd or e ; there are cases where you 
may indifferently employ the one or the other. (See 5th Lesson.) 

2 Eis aqui or simply eis; also aqui e or (less correctly) 
estd (cf. l ). 

The Gender of the Noun and the Article. 


parede fa pie- the wall 


cidade [vsi- the town 

'lozu] the slate 
rua rruvj the street 
esponja [vif- the sponge 

lousa [ 

aporta[u'portu] the door 
a janella [v;$u- the window 


a aula [u'aulu] the school- 
room, the 
a escola [uif- the school 

yes, no 
and ; or 
too, also. 

sim, nao 
e, ou 
tambem [tum- 

a mesa ['mezu] the table 

a menina the girl 

a alumna the school-girl, 

the pupil 

tm [vi, i] in, on, at, contracted with the following article or de- 
monstrative pronoun into no, na, rium, riuma, riisto, riisso, 
n'este, etc. (or num, nisto, etc.). 

de [dd] of, from, contracted with the following article or demon- 
strative pronoun into do, da, d'um, d'uma, d'isto, d'isso, d'este, 
etc. (or dum, deste, etc.), is equivalent to our genitive form. 

[v] at, to, contr. with the following def. article or aquelle into 
ao, a, aquelle, aquella, etc., is equivalent to our dative. 

1. Exercicio. Leitura e versa o. 

Na escola. 

Aqui 6 1 a escola. Onde fica 1 (or e) a aula? Eis aqui 2 a 
aula. Onde esta 1 o professor? professor esta na cadeira. 
Onde e (or fica) o lugar do alumno ? lugar do alumno ou 
da alumna 6 (or fica) ali no banco. Quern tern o giz? mestre 
tern o giz e a esponja. Que e isto? Isso 3 1 o quadro preto. Que 
e" isso? Isto e o mappa. E que e aquillo? Aquillo e o tecto. 

2. Exercise. 

Where is the window? The window is in the wall. 
Has the reader the book ? The book is on the table. There 
is a lead-pencil on the ground. Where is the copy-book of 
the school-boy? The copy-book is on the chair of the teacher. 
Who is that man ? That man is the head man-servant of the 
baron. Has the daughter of the baroness a governess? Yes, 
and the friend of the girl has also a governess. Where is 
the inkstand? The inkstand is on the table. The pen- 
holder too is on the table. Who is there? The father of 
the boy is there. Who is at (a) the door of the school-room? 
The pupil of the teacher is at the door. Is here the place 
of the boy? Yes, here on the bench. 


Quern 6 esse menino? 
E quern 6 o professor d'esta 


E (He is) um alumno da aula. 
E um cidadao d'esta cidade. 

1 See note 1 of p. 22. 

2 See note 2 of p. 22. 

24 Lesson 2. 

Que rua e esta? Esta e a rua do Abe. 

Onde e (or fica) a escola? A escola e" (or fica) aqui. 

Tern o menino um lapiz? Sim, eis um lapiz e uma ca- 


(0 professor apontara para os objectos de que fala ou pegara 
nelles, emquanto dirigir as seguintes ou semelhantes perguntas ao 
alumno) : 

JP. Que 6 isto? E. Isso e a me~sa. Isso 6 o giz. Isso e" o 

quadro preto, etc. 
P. Que 6 isso? E. Isto 6 o livro. Isto e a penna. Isto 

e a cane"ta, etc. 
P. Que e aquillo ? R. Aquillo e" o tecto, a porta, a janella, 

o mappa, a parede, etc. 

(The same exercise to be continued for all objects already 

Second Lesson. Licjao segunda. 

The Plural of Substantives. 1 

A formagao do plural nos substantives. 

22. All nouns ending in a vowel or diphthong 
(except -do) or in -n form the plural by adding -s, thus: 

o banco the bench os buncos the benches 

a janella the window as janellas the windows 

o pae (or pai) the father ospaes the fathers, the parents 

a mde (or mdi) the mother as mdes the mothers 

o dia z the day 05 dias the days 

a irmd [vir'mv] the sister as irmas the sisters 

o dolmen [' udtfmen] the barrow os dolmens the barrows. 

23. Nouns ending in -m change this letter into 
-n before taking the -s of the plural: 
o homem [u'dmvi] the man os homens the men 
o jar dim [ugvr'dl] the garden os jar dins the gardens 
o som [u'soj the sound os sons the sounds 

um [u] a, one uns some, any. 

24. Nouns terminating in -ao distinguish two 
chief classes: 

1 The rules given for the formation of the plural of the 
noun are applied also to the adjective. 

2 Those words ending in a are generally of the feminine 
gender, but there are exceptions e.g., did, gramma, monarcha, 
dilemma, patriarcha, clima (dimatej, drama, ihema, and others 
derived from the Greek. 

The Plural of Substantives. 25 

(a) those where this termination is not accented 
take simply an s: 

o orfdo or orphdo ['vrfvu] os orfaos the orphans 

the orphan 
a bengdo['besSu] J the blessing as bengdos the blessings. 

(b) those where this termination is accented may 
be divided into three subdivisions: 

(a) such as change -do into -dos (rare) 
(p) -do -des (rarer still) 
(f) -do - -5es. 

(a) To the first class belong the following sub- 
stantives : 
o irmdo the brother os irmdos the brothers, the 


o cidaddo the citizen os cidaddos the citizens 

o christdo [krif'tvu] the os christdos the Christians 

o cortesao [kurtd svu] the cour- os cortesdos the courtiers 

o villdo [vi'lvu] the peasant, osvilldos the peasants, villains 


o chdo /T^w/.the ground os chaos the grounds 

a mao [men] the hand as mdos the hands. 

((3) To the second class belong the following: 

o cdo [kvu] the dog os cues [kvij] the dogs 

o pao [pvu] the bread, the os paes [p&lf] the loaves 

o alemdo [vld'mvu] the Ger- os alemdes [vld'mvif] the Ger- 
man mans 

o capitdo [kvpi'tvu] the cap- os capitaes [kvpi'tvif] the 
-tain captains 

o escrivdo [tfkri'vvu] the clerk os escrivdes ['tfkri'vuif] the 
of the court clerks of the court. 

(Y) Most substantives ending in -ao (among these 
all abstract nouns ending in -do) form their plural by 
changing -ao in -des, as: 

o coragdo [Jcwe 'svu] the heart, o aldedo the peasant, os aldeoes 2 
os coragoes [kurv'sotf] a acgdo the action, as acgoes 

o lido the lion, os Hoes a divisdo the division, as di- 

o can-do the song, os cangoes visoes 
o meldo the melon, os meloes a ligdo the lesson, as UgSes. 

1 bengao may also be accented on its termination. 

2 aldedo [aldi'vuj may form the plural in aldeaos or aldeoes. 

26 Lesson 2. 

25. Nouns (and adjectives) ending in -r or -s or 
-s add -es in the plural, as: 
o mar [mar] the sea, os a paz [paf] peace, pases 

mares [manf] [p***fj 

o mes /we// the month, meses a flor [flor] flower, flores 
o rapaz [rrv'paf] the boy, a mullier [mu'fier] woman, 

rapazes mulheres women. 

o portugues [purtu'guefj the superior [supdri'or] superior 

Portuguese, Portugueses (sub. and adj.). 

N.B. Many words may be written with an -s or a 
-*, as : mes or me#, lapis (pencil) or lapis, ingles or ingles, 
etc.; but nowadays the -s is preferred to the -s. 

26. Words (nouns and adjectives) ending in ac- 
cented -al, -ol, -ul, change the letter -I into -es: 

o animal [vni'mal] the ani- os animaes [vni'maif] 


o sol [sol] the sun os soes ['sotf] 

o taful [tv'ful] the gambler os tafues [tu'fuij] 

geral [gd'ral] general geraes fez'raif] 

azul [v'zul] blue azues [v'zutfj. 

Exception. mal the evil; o consul fkosul] the consul; 
a, cal [kal] form their plural by adding -es: os males, os con- 
sules, as coles. real [rri'al] the ree (unit of the Por- 
tuguese coin), forms the plural os reis [uz'rreif]. 

27. Nouns ending in -el or unaccented 41 change 
these letters into -eis. N.B. If the termination -el 
which is always pronounced [tf] is accented, -eis is 
pronounced [eijj; if not accented, it is [vifj. 
papel [pv'psl] the paper papeis [pv'peif] 
o tonnel [tu 'net] the barrel tonneis [tu ' 
o tunnel ['lunei] the tunnel tunnels 
agradavel [vgrv'davd] agree- agradaveis 


reptil f'rrsptil] reptile reptis 1 

fdcil ['fasti] easy fdceis 

dijficil [dd'fisil] difficult difficeis 

textil ['tviftil] textile texteis 1 . 

1 Textil (with the accent on the first syllable) has the scien- 
tifical plural-form: texteis, and the popular form: textis. Reptil 
(scientifical form ['rrsptil], popular form: [rrsp'tilf) forms the 
plural in reptis [rrtp'tif], instead of reptis [ 'rreptifj, as would be 

The Plural of Substantives. 


Exception. o mel honey, forms meles; o fel gall, bill, 
las no plural. 

28. Nouns (and adjectives) ending in accented 
change the letter -I into -s, as: 

funil [fu'nii] the funnel funis [fu'nif] 
burril [bu'rrtt] the chisel burris 
" [sd'vtt] civil (adj.) civis. a 

29. Nouns ending in -s preceded by an un- 
accented vowel or falling diphthong, do not change in 
the plural: o(s) alferes [at'ferif] lieutenant(s) ; o(s) lapis 
f'UpifJ pencil(s); simples simple. 

Exception. o calls ['kalij] cup, calyx, glass, pi. calls or 
calices; deus ['deufj god, deuses [deuztf]. 

30. Some substantives are only used in the 
plural, as: 

as calgas ["kalsvf] the trousers 
as ceroulas [39 'rolvf] the dra- 

as tenazes [td'naztf] the tongs 
os arredores [arrd'donf] the 

os generos ['gendruf] the vic- 

as fontes ['font?/] the temples 
as costas [koftvf] the back 

os dculos ['okuluf] the spec- 
environs tacles. 

Rule. As already mentioned, the adjective follows 
the same rules as the noun, as for the feminine and 
plural forms; so it agrees with the word qualified by it, 
in gender and number, as: 

o homem e alto the man is tall 
a torre e alta the spire is high 
as torres sao alias the spires are high. 

31. Present Tense (Presente) of ter to have. 

Eu tenho [eu'twyo] I have 
tu tens [tu 'tm.Jj thou hast 
die tern [elz'tvt] he has 
etta tern [dv't&i] she has 
nos temos [nof'temuf] we 

v6s tendes [vof'tendifj you 

elles teem [eltf'tvtvi] they 

(masc.) have 
ellas teem [elvf't$t$i] they 

(fern.) have 

tenho (eu)? have I? 
tens (tu)? hast thou? 
tern (elle)? has he? 
tern (ella)? has she? 
temos (nos) ? have we ? 

tendes (v6s)? have you? 
teem (elles) ?have they? (masc.) 
teem (ellas) ? have they (fern.). 


Lesson 2. 

Eu nao tenho I have not, etc. 
Nao tenho eu? have I not? etc. 
Rule. The negative nao is put before the verb. 
Remark. The conjunctive personal pronoun may be 
omitted. Yet it must be employed: 1. when it has the em- 
phasis e.g., eu (e que) tenho; 2. to avoid a misunderstand- 
ing; 3. when necessary to the harmony of the phrase. In 
the interrogative form it is put after the verb, but may also 
stand before it. 

N.B. As for you have, etc., see the following 

Men, minha my o sogro f'sogru] the father-in- 

['meu, miyiis] law 

seu, sua ['seu, his, her, its, a sogra ['sogre] the mother-in- 

suv] your law 

the lecturing- 

the prince 

the princess 

the reading 


the heir 

the heiress 
the gentleman 

the gentlewo- 
man, the lady 

the grand- 

the grand- 

the dog 

the bitch 

the boy 
the girl, the 

young wo man 

dois,duas['doif, two 

a cathedra 

f dJ] 


quanta I kwvntu], how much? 

o principe 

quanta ? 


quantos f quantas how many ? 
tres [tref] three 

a princesa 

quatrof'JcwatruJ four 

a leitura [lui- 

cinco ['slTcu] 



o pe [u'ps] 

the foot 

a versdo [vdr- 

o dedo [u&e&u] 

the finger, the 



o herdeiro [ir- 

o brago [u 'brasu 

/ the arm 


estes, estas 


a herdeira 

esses, essas 


fir 'd#m?7 

aquelles,aquellas those (cf. p. 21, 

o fidalgo 

footnote 2 ) 

[fi 'ffalgu] 

cada [lus&ie] 


a fidalqa 

nao [nvu] 

no, not 


sao favuj 

o avo /# 'voj 

estao ftf'tuu] 


algum fai'guj 

a av6 [v'vo] 

alguma [al- 

alguns [al'gufj 

some, any 

o cao [k'BuJ 

algumas [ai- 

a cadella [kv- 



ha [a] 

there is, there 

o rapaz 


a rapariga 

velho [vsfiu, 

old, aged 

[rrepv 'rigv] 


tambem [turn- 

Rule. The possessive adjectives are generally pre- 
ceded by the article, if the noun is not a title of re- 

The Plural of Substantives. 


tionship, in which case the article is generally 
dtted. The article is dropped also at addressing per- 
ms. Ex. : o meu lapis, a sua penna; but meu pae, 
sua mde; my good friend 1 

3. Exercicio. Leitura e versao. 

Meu pai tern dois filhos e duas filhas. Seu sogro e um 

homem velho, sua sogra 6 uma mulher velha. Na aula ha 

uma cathedra, dois bancos, duas janellas e uma mesa. Na me"sa 

ha uma esponja, tres canetas e quatro lapis. Os meus cadernos 

estao tambem na msa. Tenho [um] avo e [uma] avo. 

mestre 6 portugues. francos e um valentao. principe 6 

o filho do rei e da rainha. fidalgo e o herdeiro do seu amigo. 

Onde esta o cao do ingles? Esta ali no chao. 

4. Exercise. 


I have two hands. Each hand has five fingers. We 
have also two feet, and each foot has also five toes. These 
are my copy-books and my pens. Is this your lead-pencil? 
No, it is not 1 ; it is the pencil of my father. My mother's 
father-in-law (= The father-in-law of my mother) is my 
grandfather, and her mother-in-law is my grandmother. 
These girls and those boys are pupils of my master. Have 
you any brothers? Yes, I have three brothers; they are 
in the garden. The princes are the sons of the king and 
the queen. Those men are aged. They are German captains. 
The English, the Portuguese, and the Germans are Christians. 
There are four dogs in the street. Have we a map in the 
school-room? Yes r there is a map on the wall. 

Tern o menino uma lousa? 

Ha uma esponja? 
Quantos alumnos ha aqui? 

Quantos ha em cada banco? 
Onde esta o menino Carlos 

Onde fica a porta? 
Ha tint a no tinteiro? 
Que tens tu ahi? 

Sim, tenho uma lousa e dois 


Nao ha esponja nesta aula. 
Ha cinco alumnos e tr6s 


Ha um em cada banco. 
Esta na rua. 

A porta fica acola. 

Ha 2 , sim, senhor. 

Eu tenho alguns meloes. 

The impersonal it is is rendered by ^ without a pronoun. 

2 The Portuguese generally answers by employing the same 

verb as in the question; if the latter contains a compound form, 

he generally employs in the answer only the auxiliary verb. Ex.: 

Tern tido sorte? Have you had good luck? Tenho Yes, I have. 

30 Lesson 3. 

Isto e" uma m6sa. Isto 6 urn banco. Isso & a porta 
da aula. Isso 6" o caderno do menino. Aquillo e a 
cathedra do professor. A cadeira tern quatro pes 7 . 
elle esta no chao. papel esta na mesa. Ha cinco 
rapazes na classe. Cada rapaz tern dois lapis. 

professor (apontando o objecto): Que e isto?, isso?, 

alumno (apontando o objecto) : Isto e o meu caderno, 
a minha penna; isso e o seu livro; aquillo e o 
lapis do menino Carlos, etc. 

professor: Onde esta o banco? Onde fica a porta r a 
janella? etc. Que tern o menino?, a cadeira?, a, 
m6sa?, etc. Que temos nos?, etc. 

(The same exercise to be continued for all objects and forms 
already mentioned.) 

Third Lesson. Ligao terceira. 

The Address. tratamento [trvfe'mentuj. 
The Yerb ter to have. 

32. The English address "you" is given in 
Portuguese by different expressions: 

(a) Mostly it is not expressed at all: Tern tempo? 
Have you time? Ndo tens lugar? Have you no place? 
Esta doente? Are you ill? Pode dieer-me . . .? Can 
you tell me . . . ? 

(b) You is rendered by the state or title of the 
person addressed: senhor diz-me You tell me. A 
senhora quer sentar-se? Will you sit down? Qual e a 
opinido do senhor Doutor? Doctor, what is your opinion? 
sr. Conde (count) deseja passar? Do you wish to pass, 
sir? pae (a mde) que diz? What do you say, father 
(mother)? Que manda o senhor patrao (principal)? What 
do you command? meu amigo nao vd Id don't (you) 
go there, my friend! viziriho (o menino) como esta? 
Neighbour (my boy), are you well? A prima quando 
vae? When shall you go, my cousin? 

(c) You may be rendered by the name of a person: 
Carlos jd foi ? Charles, did you already go there? 

The Address. 31 

disse a Maria? Mary, didn't you say? It is to 
be considered, that with gentlemen the family name 
(sometimes also the Christian name) is employed directly 
after senhor, while with ladies only the Christian name 
is used, but preceded by senMra Dona (D a ). sr. 
(Antonio) Correa d'OUveira escreveu um novo poema ? Have 
you written a new poem, Mr. d'Oliveira? Tern (uma) 
creada a sr a D a Maria? Have you a maid-servant, Mrs. 
(or Miss) Mary? Upon country people or person of low 
condition, the title Dona is not bestowed. 

Remark. In addressing somebody, the Portuguese general- 
ly summons him by an introductory d/ (oh!). 

(d) You must be rendered by Vossa Excellencia 
(V a E a ) [vosvtfsz'lensw] in speaking to persons of rank, 
especially to ladies and to strangers. This form may 
be abbreviated toVossencia [vo'sesw]. 

N.B. In Brazil these forms (d) are not usual; they 
are substituted by: 

(e) Vossa Merce (V a Me) [wsu mw'se]. Your 
grace, a title given in Portugal to lower people, maid- 
servants, etc. This form may be abbreviated to: 

(f) Vosse (V*) [vo'sej, used for men-servants, 
etc.; in familiar conversation it is also used among 

(g) In commercial correspondence there is still the 
now antiquated Vossa Senhoria fvoss siyu'rve], your 
honour, to be found (abr. : V a Sr a ). 

Remarks. 1. With all these addresses above mentioned 
the verb is to be employed in the third person e.g., V a Ex a 
tern or e . . ., V as Ex as teem or sao ; 2. as already said, you 
need not employ the address at every verb. If on the one hand 
it would not be polite to dispense with it, a too frequent em- 
ployment would be heavy. 3. The pronoun M is used only 
in familiar treatment and may be altogether avoided by 
foreigners. 4. The pronoun ws, if not taken in the plural 
(and even here it is better to substitute it by the third 
person), is antiquated and only tfsed in pathos, at prayers, 
and in solemn allocution, for instance, to the king. 

32 Lesson 3. 

33. The verb ter to have. 1 

Present participle (participio presente): tendo having. 
Past participle (participio passado) tido: f'tiduj had. 

Indicative (Indicative). 

Present Tense (Presente). 

(See 2 nd Lesson.) 

Imperfect Tense (Preterito imperfeito). 

Eu tiriha ['tiyiv] I had nds tinhamos ['tinvmuf] we 

tu tirihas you had (thou hadst) had 

die, ella tinha he, she, it, had vos tinheis ['tinvtf] you had 

elles tinham ['tiyivu] they had. 

Perfect Tense (Preterito perfeito). 

Eu live ['tivd] I have got, I nosiivcmos [ti'vemuj] we have 

had got 

tu tiveste [ti'vsftd] you have vos tivestes [ti 'veft9f] you have 

got got 

elle, ella teve ['tev*] he, she, elles, ellas tiveram [ti'vervu] 

it has got they have got. 

Present Perfect (Preterito composto). 
Eu tenho tido I have had 
tu tens tido you have had, etc. 

Pluperfect (Mais-que-perfeito). 
Eu tiriha tido I had had 
tu tinhas tido you had had, etc. 

Future (Futuro). 

Eu terei fa'rvi] I shall have nds teremos we shall have 
. , , / thou wilt \ , v6s tereis you will have 

1 \ you will / L elles, ellas terao they will 

ette t ella terd he, she, it will have, 

1 We hesitated to give so early, in this lesson, the whole verb 
ter, successively followed by the other auxiliary verbs ser, estar, 
haver; but as these verbs cannot be dispensed with to form even 
the simplest phrase, and as experience taught us that a summary 
arrangement impresses more easily and lastingly, we resolved to do 
so. Yet the student is not supposed to learn at once all the verbal 
forms, so as to master them, as, indeed, these verbs with their 
resemblances and differences constitute one of the greatest diffi- 
culties of the Portuguese language for the foreigner. But he is ear- 
nestly requested not to put these lessons aside before having at- 
tained an absolute understanding of the meaning and employment 
of the auxiliary verbs. 

The Address. 33 

Future Perfect (Futuro perfeito). 
Eu terei tido I shall have had. 

Conditional (Conditional). 

Eu teria [td 'riv] I should elle, ella teria he, she, it would 
have have 

. | thou wouldst \ , nos teriamos we should have 

Unas ^ you wou i ( j I ' vos terieis you would have 

elles teriam they would have. 

Conditional Perfect (Conditional perfeito}. 
Eu teria tido I should have had. 

Subjunctive (Conjunctiva). 1 


Eu tenha I have nos tenhdmos we have 

tu tenhas you have vos tenhais you have 

elle tenha he have elles tenham they have. 

(Se) eu tivesse [ti'vesd] (if) (Se) nostivessemosfti'vesdmuf] 

I had (if) we had 

(Se) tu tivesses (if) you had (Se) vds tivesseis (if) you had 

elle tivesse (if) he had elles tivessem (if) they had. 


eu tiver [ti'ver] if (or when) I am to have or: if 
tu tiver es (or when) I shall have, etc. 

elle tiver 

n6s tivermos [li'vsrmuf J 
vos tiverdes 
elles tiverem. 

Personal Infinitive. Infinit(iv)o pessoal. 

(Para) eu ter that 1 may have, to have (I) 

tu teres you (you) 

elle ter he (he) 

nos termos we (etc.) 

vds terdes you 

elles terem they 

Imperative (Imperative). 

Tern (tu); tende (vos); tenha ndo tenhas (tu); nao tenhais; 
(V*) have ndo tenha(m) (V*( s >) do not 


1 The Subjunctive Moods in Lessons 37 may be only read 
over here, while well learned later on. 

Portuguese Conversation- Grammar. 3 


Lesson 3. 

Remark. Ter que or ter de indicates necessity: 

Tenho de Id ir I must go there. 

Tens que fazer a tua obrigagao you must do your duty* 

In the same manner are conjugated the compound 
Yerbs, as : 

abster-se to abstain, to for- entreter to entertain 
bear manter to maintain 

ater to stick to obter to obtain 

conter to contain reter to retain 

deter to detain suster to sustain. 


A drvore the tree 

o chd [fa] the tea 


o pudim [pu'&l] the pudding 

a drvore fru- the fruit-tree 

o pastel [pvj^tef] the pie 

ctifera [fru- 

a batata [bv- the potato 



afructa['frutie] the fruit 

a pimenta [pi- the pepper 



o fructo [' 'frutuj the fruit (in 

o sal [sal] the salt 


o vinho ['vijtu] the wine 

andado [vn- \ 

o pdo [puuj the bread 

'da&u] > gone 

a carne [karndj the meat 

ido ['iffu] 

a volataria the poultry 

ir [ir] to go 

[vulvtu f riu] 

asaude [se'u&d] the health 
voltar [vol'tarj to return 

a caga ['kasvj the game 
a dgua ['agwvj the water 

a carta ['kartvj the letter 

a agrwrt ardente the brandy 

a noticia [nu- the news 

/r 'dent&J 


o pato ['patu] the duck 

o trabalho [tru- the work, 

o copo ['k-jpuj the glass 

'baftu] trouble 

o dinheiro [di- the money 

por muito tempo for a long time 

' tyveiru] 

[pur muttu 

o chocolate the chocolate 



ficar [fi'karj to stay 

quando [kwvn- whenever 

a casa ["kazv] the house 

duj (algum 

em casa at home 


aordem,['ord3i] the order 

precisar [prdsi- to want 

nenhum [ni'jiu/ none 

/ 7 


o assucar the sugar 

o jantar [gvn- the dinner 



o leite [luitd] the milk 

o caldo ['kaiduj the broth 

o queijo ['kviguj the cheese 

o arroz [v'rrof] the rice 

a manteiga the butter 

a cerveja [sdr- the beer 

o ovo ['ovu, pi. the egg 


a gaveta [g's- the drawer^ 


Rule. The nouns of material, taken in a partitive 
and indefinite sense, are, as in English, used without 
the article or a preposition: Tenlio pao I have (some) 
bread. But: Tenho urn pouco de pao I have a little 

5. Exercicio. Leitnra e versao. 

6 menino, que tern na mao? Tenho uma canSta, Nao 
tern tambem um lapis? Nao tenho. sr. vizinho tern um 
cao? Tenho dois caes. Nao tinha meu Amigo (um) jardim 
com algumas flores? Tinha, sim, senhor, e ainda tenho. Se 
tivesse arvores fructiferas, tambem teria fructa. Tern a menina 
andado a escola nestes dias? Nao tenho ido, tenho andado 
(or estado) doente. Quando tiver saiide, terei muito gosto em 
voltar a aula. Teve V a . Ex a . uma carta da sua amiga? Tive 
hontem. Tenho tido noticias d'ella (from her) em cada m6s. 
Temos tido muito trabalho, para termos uma creada. Agora 
teem? Temos, mas nao a (her) teremos por muito tempo. 
Nao tendo ordem para la ires, teras de (to) ficar em casa. 

6. Exercise, 

Have you some fruit, my friend? I have none. She 
has the sugar. They have the milk. We had the cheese. 
You had the butter. I shall have eggs. He will have tea. 
We shall have a pudding. You will have a pie. They had 
no potatoes. He has had pepper and salt. Had you some 
wine? Will you have butter and cheese ? I shall have bread 
and meat. The boy has -soup and meat. I shall have no 
poultry, but I shall have game. Your horse will have bread 
and brandy. Shall you have a duck? My daughter would 
have a glass of milk. If you had money, you would have 
chocolate. Whenever we are to have money, we shall have 
everything we want fludo quanta precisarmos) . 


Que temos nos nesta msa? 

Terao os rapazes pao e leite? 
Nao teve V- queijo esta 

manha ? 
Nao terei eu carne de boi e 

vinho para o meu jantar? 
Onde tern a sua penna e a 

Nao teve ainda caldo com 

arroz ? 

Temos uma penna, tinta e 


Nao, elles terao pao e agua. 
Nao, eu tive manteiga. 

Nao, tu teras um pastel e 

Tenho-as (them) na minha 

Ainda nao (not yet), mas eu 

tive um copo de leite. 

36 Lesson 4. 

Teria o meu amigo escripto Teria, sim, senhor. Mas ha 
uma carta, se tivesse tido muito que nao tenho tido 
tempo? tempo. 

(Oral exercises to be done on the subject, as indicated in the 

preceding lessons.) 

Fourth Lesson. Licjao quarta. 

The Auxiliary Verb ser and the Adjective. 

verbo auxiliar seT e o adjectivo. 

34. The verb ser to be. 

Participio imperfeito: sendo ['senduj. 
Participio perfeito: sido f'si&uj. 



Eu sou [sou] I am nos somos f'somuf] we are 

tu es [sf] thou art | vos sois ['sotf] you are 

(elle, ella) e he, I you are (elles, ellas) sao [svu] they 
she, it is j (you) are. 

Eu era ['srv] I was nos eramos we were 

tu eras thou wast 
(elle, ella) era he 
she, was 

vos ereis you were 
you were elles, ellas eram they (you) 


Eu fui 1 f'fui] I was or have nds fomos ['fomufj 

tu foste ['foftd] elles, ellas for am f'forvu]. 


Preterito perfeito. 
or have nds fov 

been, etc. vos fostes [ fofti 

', foste ['foftd] 
elle, ella foi [foi] 

Preterito perfeito composto. 
Eu tenho sido ['sidu] I have been 
tu tens sido you have been, etc. 

Eu tinha sido I had been, etc. 

1 As fui is also the preterite of ir to go, it means also I 
"went (fui-me I went away); it is the same for tenses derived from 
the preterito (fosse, for, fora); see 44 and 45. 

The Auxiliary Verb ser and the Adjective. 


Future imperfeito. 

Eu serei [sd'rvi] I shall be nos seremos [sd'remufj we 
tu seras [sd'raf] you will be shall be 
(elle, ella) serd [s9'ra] he, vos sereis [sd 'rmfj you will be 
she, it, you will be, etc. elles, ellas serdo [sd'rvu] they 

will be. 

Futuro perfeito. 
Eu terei sido I shall have been, etc. 

Conditional imperfeito. 

Eu seria [sd f riu] I should be, nos seriamos [so'rivmuj] 
tu serias etc. vos serieis [sz'rivif] 

ette, ella seria elles, ellas seriam. 

Conditional perfeito. 
Eu teria sido I should have been, etc. 



Eu seja ['svgv] I be, etc. nos sejdmos 
tu sejas v6s Sfjais [ 

elles, ellas sejam. 

were, etc. nds fossemos ['fosdmuf] 
vds fosseis 
elles, ellas fossem. 


elle, ella seja 

Eu fosse 1 ['fosd] 
tu fosses [fos'ij] 
elle, ella fosse 


Eu for 1 
tu fores 
elle, ella for 
nds formos 
vos fordes 
elles ellas forem 

I am or happen to be 
or if I shall be. 

Infinitivo pessoal. 

o> J3 

H3 <D 


I may be or to be (I, 
you, etc.), etc. 

Eu ser 
tu seres 
elle ser 
nds sermos 
vos serdes 
elles, ellas serem 


Se (tu); seja (V*.); sede (vds) be. nao sejas (tu); 
nao seja (V*.); nao sejaes (vds) do not be. 

1 See note ot the preceding page. 


Lesson 4. 

35. The Portuguese adjective follows, as already 
mentioned, the same rules of inflexion as the substan- 
tive with which it consequently agrees in gender and 
number. It is the same as for the demonstrative, pos- 
sessive, and indefinite adjectives, and the ordinal numbers, 
which are all considered adjectives. Also the cardinal 
numbers um and dois have a different form for the 
feminine (cf. 2 nd Lesson): este livro, esta penna; meu 
pae, minha mde; algum papel, alguma tinta; o primeiro 
(first) alumno, a primeira alumna; dois francos, duas 
mesas, etc. 

36. There are adjectives, denominated uniforms, 
which have only one form for both genders. This class 
embraces those ending by -e, -I, -ar, -as, -iz, -02, -im, 
-ea and -6, and those ending by -s in syllable not accen- 
tuated. Ex.: doce, grande, leal, amdvel, fdcil, gentil, 
singular, capaz, feliz, veloz, ruim, femea, so, simples. 

Exceptions: este, esse, aquelle, mestre (chief e.g., muro 
mestre}, which have the feminine: esta, essa, aquella, mestra. 

37. The place of the Portuguese qualifying ad- 
jective is for the most part after the noun as for those 
denoting colour, form, dimension, nationality, religion; 
while the demonstrative, possessive, and indefinite ad- 
jectives precede the noun. 



young, new 

good, kind 

pregugoso lazy 


lello f'bduj beautiful, fine 

cedo ['seduj early, soon 

tarde ['tarfo] late 

melhor [mi'ftor] better, best 

duravel [du- durable, lasting 


caro ["karu] dear 

Velho [' 
novo ['novu] 
ruim [rru'i, 

mau [mau], adv. 

mal [mal] 
bom, boa [bo, 


doente [du' entz] ill, sick 
rico ['rrikuj rich 
applicado [vpli- diligent 

alto [attu] high, tall 

grande [' grendd] great, grand, 

large, big 

sempre [semprd] always, ever 
o caminho [kis- the way 

a invengdo [we- the invention 

o telegrapho the telegraph 

[fo 'legrvfuj 
o Paldcio de the Crystal 

Crystal [crif- Palace 

o edificio [}8d- the edifice 


o poeta [pu'stv] the poet 
opoema[puEi/ms] the poem 
colhido [ku- gathered, 

'fii&u] plucked 

madurecido ripe 

[rwsd'urd ' 

The Auxiliary Verb ser and the Adjective. 


<z crian^a fieri- the child 

pequeno [p'l- little, small 



o, fazenda [fis- the stuff, cloth 

grosso ['grosu] thick, big 
o marmelo [misr- the quince 

opannof'pvnuj the cloth 


o signal [si'nal] the sign, mark 

situado [situ- situated 

a duvida the doubt 


[is 'ffumffv] 

universidade the university 

nao tern duvida is does not 




&$rado[&i'ra,ffuj airy 

o pdu [pau] the wood, stick 

comprado fJcom- bought 

a madeira [mu- the wood 

bastante [bvf- enough, adv. 

de madeira or of wood, 

'tiintd] rather 

de pdu wooden 

o negociante the merchant 

a infancia the childhood 

[ndgusfi 'wntdj 


o quarto the room 

a manhd the morning 


[is mis 'yiv] 

muito very, much 

amanhd to-morrow 


[amis 'yiv] 

ideia [i'faw] the idea 

escovado I'ifku- brushed. 

bonito [bu'nituj pretty 


7. Exercicio. Leitura e versao. 

Eu sou velho. Tu es muito novo. Elle 6 um homem 
ruim. Ella 6 uma mulher nova. Essa penna ^ boa. Aquelle 
menino e doente. Nos nao somos ricos. Vos sois applicados. 
Elles sao pregui^osos. Ellas sao bellas. Eu era teu amigo. 
Nos ja nao eramos cria^as. Era isso um bom conselho? 
Nao, foi mal pensado. Eu fui tarde duma hora. Fostes vos 
(fdste tu, foi V g .) mais cedo? Nao 6 V a . Ex a . de opiniao que 
ja seja tarde? Se fosse mais cedo, seria melhor. Se as fructas 
ja forem colhidas, 6 signal de ja terem madurecido. Isto que 
sera? Sera um vestido para a menina. Nao teria sido melhor 
escolher uma fazenda que fosse mais duravel? Se nao for 
duravel, nao tern duvida; o panno nao foi caro. Tudo quanto 
tenho comprado a esse negociante, tern sido bom. A nossa 
casa era muito alta e tinha quartos bastante grandes e airados. 

8. Exercise. 

You are a tall man. The rooms are very large. He is 
[a] Portuguese. Those are big horses. It was a grand idea. 
She was a pretty little girl. He has always been a good boy. 
If it be late, you will not find (nao encontrard) the way. The 
telegraph is a grand invention. Be kind to the boy ! Be good, 
and I will give you the fine fruit. If the stick were not so thick, 

40 > Lesson 5. 

it would not be bad. If I were you, I should be diligent. 
The Crystal Palace is a grand edifice. Camdes was a great 
Portuguese poet. His best poem is "Os Lusiadas" He is an 
heir. Is this an apple? No, it is a quince. We are no bad 
boys. The dog of my cousin is good and useful. Coimbra 
is the only university in Portugal. It is situated on the 


Nao 6 elle um bonito rapaz? Nao e tao bonito como (o) 

E V 6 . tao velho como eu? Nao sou tao velho como V a . 


Sao estas mesas de madeira? Sim, ellas sao de madeira. 
Foste bondoso para com (to) Fui muito bondoso para com 

o velho homem? elle. 

Esta V a - E a - doente? Tenho sido doente desde 

crianca (from childhood). 
tempo amanha sera bom ou Sera bom tempo arnanha. 

Estao escovados os vestidos? Estao; foram escovados pela 

manha (this morning). 

(0 professor dira, apontando paro o objecto, e o alumno 

quadro preto 6 largo, a tinta 6 preta, o banco 6 
alto. papel 6" branco, o giz tambem 6 branco, o 
tecto 6 branco tambem. Assim o papel, o giz e o 
tecto sao brancos. Este mata-borrao e amarello, esse 
e" vermelho, aquelle 6 aznl. Como 6 o quadro 
preto, o banco, a porta? Que c6r tern a tinta, o 
papel? etc. 

Fifth Lesson. Li<$o quinta. 

The Auxiliary Verb estar. 
Difference between ser and estar. 

verbo auxiliar estar. Differenga entre ser 
e estar. 

38. The verb estar to be (to stand, to lie, to 
dwell, etc.). 

The Auxiliary Verb estar. 41 

Participio imperfeito: estando 
Participio perfeito: estado 


Eu estou [tf'tou] I am nos estamos (tf'tamufj we are 

tu estas [tf'taf] thou 

(elle, ella) estd [tfta] 

vos estaes fiftaif] you are 
elles, ellas estam [if'tsu] they 
(you) are. 

he, she, it is 


Eu estava [if taw] I was, etc. nos estavamos fif'tavvmul] 
tu estavas vos estaveis [tf'tavetf] 

(elle, ella) estava elles, ellas esiavam. 

Preterito perfeito. 

Estive [if'tivd] I was or I have estivemos [tftivemuj] 
been, etc. ^ estivestes [ifti'veftdf] 

estiveste Mti'vsftd] estiveram [ifti'vsrvu]. 

esteve [if'tevd] 

Preterito perfeito composto. 
Teriho estado I have been, etc. 

Preterito mais-que-perfeito. 
Tinha estado I had been, etc. 

Futuro imperfeito. 

Estarei I shall be, etc. estaremos 

estards estareis 

estard estardo. 

Futuro perfeito. 
Terei estado I shall have been, etc. 

Conditional imperfeito. 

Estar la I should be, etc. estariamos 

estarias estarieis 

estaria estariam. 



Esteja [if'tvgv] I be, etc. estejdmos [ffto'gvmufj 

estejas estejaes 

esteja estejam 


Estivesse [ifti 'vest] I were, et c. estivessemos 
estivesses estivesseis 

estivesse estivessem. 

42 Lesson 5. 

Estiver [tfti'ver] 


s estares 

estivermos & } - P T , r n , 

eater** l sha11 be ' 


Infinitivo pessoal. 
Estar ~ 

I am or happen to be 

5 * - - Q> +3 < or 



to be (F, you, etc.). 


; esteja (V & .) be, estae(vds); ndo estejas (tu); 



ndo esteja (V e .); ndo estejaes (vos) do not be. 

39. Difference between ser and estar. 
A. Ser expresses: 

1. Existence in a general meaning, and is therefore 
called "Verbo substantive." Ex.: Eu respiro, pois sou 
I breathe, consequently I am (existing). 

2. A permanent state of existence, an essential and 
lasting condition, which may be expressed by substan- 
tive or adjective attribute or an infinitive. Ex.: A 
terra e uma esphera the earth is a sphere. Sou fdiz I 
am happy. E um lento morrer it is a slow dying. 
Meu primo e soldado my cousin is a soldier. A rosa 
e uma flor, e vermelha the rose is a flower, it is red. 

3. Followed by the past participle of a transitive 
verb, ser is employed to form the passive voice. 
N.B. The past participle is submitted to inflection like 
an adjective: Elles for am censurados, they were blamed. 

4. Ser de means to belong to ; ex. : de quern e esta 
casa? To whom does this house belong? E de meu pae 
it is my father's. Estes livros sao do professor these 
books belong to the master. 

1 De before the Infinitivo pessoal corresponds to the English 
of with the gerund preceded by a possessive adjective: A certeza 
de estarmos salvos the certainty of our being safe. 

The Auxiliary Verb estar. 43 

B. On the contrary, estar is used: 

1. If the attribute appears merely accidental or 
smporary. Ex. : A rosa estd murcha the rose is faded. 

Elle estd feliz he is (just now) happy. Estamos ricos 
we are rich vis., we have at this moment and casually 
some means, Estou doente, estou mal de saude I am 
ill, I am in bad health. (Eu sou doente would mean 
that I have bad health.) Estou bom (de saude) I am 
well; sou bom I am good. Estd bem it is all right, he 
(she) is well, you are well; estd mal it is bad, or he 
(she) is ill, you are ill. 

2. If a dwelling is to be expressed in any place 
that can be left or the object can be removed from: 
A criada estd na cozinha the servant is in the kitchen. 
But: Onde e a cozinha? Where is the kitchen? 

Remark. Here it may as well be said: onde fica a 
cozinha? because the place of the kitchen has been appointed 
from the beginning (cf. 1 st Lesson, Remark 2 nd ). Also : A 
boca flea debaixo do naris the mouth is underneath the nose. 

3. While ser with the past participle of the verb 
forms the passive voice, estar with the same indicates 
the state or condition, as: negocio estd feito the 
business is done, finished. A casa estd construida the 
house is built. Cf. : A casa e construida the house is 
building. Elle estd pr< j so he is a prisoner. Foi preso 
he has been imprisoned. A conta estd paga the bill is 
paid. (Cf. : e pago de contado to be paid in cash. 
Somos pagos aos meses we are paid monthly.) 

4. Very often estar with another verb (in the In- 
finitive or with the Present Participle) is employed as an 
equivalent for to be with the Present Participle : Estou 
a escrever, estou escrevendo I am writing. Estamos col- 
leccionando (or a cotteccionar) estampilhas ha dois annos 
we have been collecting stamps these two years. Estar 
a ferver to boil, to be boiling. Such a paraphrase is 
called: conjugagdo periphrastica periphrastical conju- 

5. There is a certain number of adjectives that 
are generally used with estar, such as : attento attentive, 
contente content; satisfeito satisfied; cansado tired; zan- 
gado angry e.g., estamos attentos, satisfeitos, zangados. 


Lesson 5. 

40. The verbs of the first coDJugation (in -ar) 
form the participles in -ando and -ado; those of the 
second (in -er) in -endo and -ido; those of the third 
(in -ir) in -indo and -^0. 


Situado, sito 


torto ['tortuj 


a foz [fof] 


a embocadura 

the mouth 

estreito /)/- 

narrow, tight 


(of a river) 



sen, sua 

his, her, your 

bem conhecido 

well known 

its, their 


inteiro [in- 

entire, whole 

a praia [' praiv] beach, (sea)- 



o bairro 

quarter of a 

balnear [balni- bathing- . . . 

[u 'bairru] 


'ar], adj. 


to destroy 

populoso [pupu- populous 

[diftru 'ir] 


o marquez 

the marquis 

a travessa [tru- cross-path 



o ministro 

the minister 



[tnz 'niftru] 


a catdstrofe 

the catastrophe 



[kv 'taftrufd] 


mandou [man- 


o terreno [td- 

the ground 




to (re)build 




[monte 'yozu] 

a calqada paved (or steep) 

[kal'sa&e] street 

a escada [}/- stairs 

terrace on the 
bank of a 

a ribeira [rri- 


que [kd 


o norte ['nortd] 

' duzv}] 
a JBaixa 


a Alia ['attu] 

o terremoto 
[terrd 'motu] 

a maioria 
[mvju ' 


rel. pr. which, who 

the north 

the lower part 
of the town 
(of Lisbon) 

the higher part 
of the town 
(of Lisbon) 

the earthquake 

the majority 

direito [di- 

regular [rrdffu- 


[vtruvd 'sarj 
cruzar [kru- 


entao [in'tvu] 
reinar [rrvi- 


o sdcco ['soku] 
a mectalha [md- 


o bronze ['brozd] the bronze 
representar to represent 

a cidade [si- the town 

a collina [ku- the hill 

apra$a['prasv] the square, 


to cross 
to intersect 

to reign 

the sock, socle 
the medallion 

The Auxiliary Verb estar. 


sete [sets] seven 
como ['komu] as 

leal [li'atj } fni -Ai, fn i 
fiel [ft'el] 

depois [dd'poif] after 

o peixe f'pvifi] the fish 

hontem ['dntvij yesterday 

o passeio [pu- the walk 

ante-hontem the day before 


[unti 7 yesterday ! concluir to conclude 

a noite ['noitd] the night 


hontem a noite last night o estudo [if- the study 

o theatro the theatre 'tu&u] 

[ti'atru] a estada [if- the abode 

o concerto the concert 'ta&v] 


ingrato ungrateful. 

possivel [po- possible 



9. Exercicio. Leitura e yersao. 


A cidade de Lisboa esta situada na foz do rio Tejo. 
Ella foi edificada em sete collinas. E grande e populosa. As 
suas ruas, pracas e travessas sao empedrados. Como o terrene 
e" muito rnontanhoso, ha muitas cal$adas e escadas que con- 
duzem da Baixa para a Alta. Antes do terremoto do anno 
de 1755 (mil sete centos e cincoenta e cinco), as ruas na sua 
maioria eram tortas e estreitas. Bairros inteiros foram destrui- 
dos pelo terremoto. Foi o marquez de Pombal que, sen do 
ministro do rei Dom Jos6 I (Primeiro), depois d'esta catastrofe 
mandou reedificar a capital em bairros regulares que sao atra- 
vassados e cruzados por ruas direitas e largas. Na Praca do 
Commercio esta um monumento do rei Dom Jose I que entao 
estava reinando. No socco deste monumento ha uma medalha 
de bronze, representando o marquez. 

10. Exercise. 


Yesterday I was 1 at church. Were you at the theatre 
yesterday? No r sir, I was at the theatre the day before 
yesterday; last night I was at the concert. Where is Charles? 
He will be at his uncle's (em casa de sen tio). It is possible 
that he has been ill. This hat is too large to be beautiful. 
It would have been easy for Charles always to be faithful 
to his master. We have always been very attentive. Are 
you satisfied? He was angry while (emquanto) he was writing 
that letter. The water is boiling. The fish is boiled. Our 
walk has been beautiful. My sister had already been in 

1 A fact belonging to the past is commonly given by the 
Preterito perfeito e.g., in the above sentence by estive. 

46 Lesson 6. 


men nome e" Fulano 1 . Qual meu nome e Sicrano 1 . 

e o sen? 

Eu sou alemao, mas estive Eu sou portugufis e tenho 
por muito tempo em Por- estado naAlemanhahacinco 

tugal. E o senhor? - annos para ca (these 5years). 

Tem sempre sido alumno Nao, senhor, estive primeiro 
d'esta escola? (first) num internato (board- 

ing-house) de Berlim. - 
Que tempo estara ainda aqui? Estarei ate estiverem con- 

cluidos os meus estudos. 

Esta satisfeito com a sua Estou, sim, senhor. Eu seria 
estada aqui? um ingrato, se nao o 

estivesse; pois e muito bo- 
nito aqui. 

Sempre tern estado com saiide Nem (not) sempre; mas agora 
emquanto ca esta? estou bem e dou-me bem 

(agree) com o clima. 

Sixth Lesson. Li<?ao sexta. 

The Auxiliary Verb haver to have, to be 
(left), to take place, to get, to obtain, etc. 

41. As for to be, there are also for to have 
two corresponding verbs in Portuguese : ter (see 3 d Lesson) 
and haver. The latter, less common in the meaning 
to have than the former, is especially employed 

1. As a true auxiliary verb to form the simple 
Future (Indicative) and Conditional tenses of any verb,, 
whereby it drops the h(av) and hangs its personal 
endings on the Infinitive of the verb (see 33. 
34, 38). 

2. as an independent verb in its meaning to be 
(existing or at hand) e.g., ha there is, there are (cf. 
1 st . Lesson). While so employed, it is impersonal and 
consequently used only in the third person singular 
and without a pronoun: 

1 The Portuguese indicates by Fulano (and in the 2nd place 
Sicrano) a person (or persons) unknown or not to be named or, as. 
meant here, a name to be substituted by the right one. 

The Auxiliary Verb haver. 47 

3. To form the compound Future (Indicative) and 
Conditional tenses: eu hei or havia de comprar I shall 
(should) buy. Here it may be used with the pronoun 
and must be followed by de. (Modern writers join 
this preposition to the verb by a hyphen : hei-de 

4. In the meaning of to obtain: Elle houve o per- 
dao do rei he obtained the King's pardon. Havendo o 
premio da nossa canceira obtaining the reward of our toil. 

42. Haver. 

Participio presente: havendo. 
Participio perfeito: havido. 


Eu hei [vi] I have nos h(av)emos [(vv)emuf] we 

tu has [af] you have have 

elle ha [a] he has vos h(av)eis [(vv)vif] you have 

ha there is elles hdo [vu] they have. 


Eu havia [v'viv] I had nds haviawos [v'vivmuf] we 

tu havias you had had 

elle havia he had vds havieis [v'vivif] you had 

havia there was elles hawam they had. 

Preterito perfeito. 

Houve 1 ['ovdj I had houvemos [o'vsmuf] we had 

houveste [o'veftd] you had houvestes [o'veft'i)] you had 

houve he had, there was houveram [o'vsrvu] they had. 

Preterito perfeito composto. 
Tern havido there has been. 

Tinha havido there had been. 

Future imperfeito. 

Haverei I shall have, etc. haveremos we shall have, etc, 

haverds havereis 

haverd (there will be or is haverao. 
to be) 

1 As this verb, with the exception of the Present and Im- 
perfect, is rarely employed personally, we leave the pronoun aside 
and also the uncommon forms in the following tenses. 

48 Lesson 6. 

Futuro perfeito. 
Terd havido there will be had, etc. 

Conditional imperfeito. 
Haveria there would be. 

Conditional perfeito. 
Teria havido there would have been. 



Haja ['a,gv] that I have, etc. 

haja that there be 
hajamos [v'gvmuf] that we have 
hajaes [v'g&lf] that you have 
hajam that they have. 


I Houvesse [o'vesd] if I had ( houvessemos [o'vesmuj] 

< houvesses if you had I houvesseis [o'vssdjf] 

\ houvesse if there were \ houvessem 


houver [o'ver] if or whenever I shall have 
Jiouver if or whenever there will be 


Imperative . 

Haja let there be. (All other imperative forms are 


Infinite pessoal. 
Haver, haveres, haver, havermos, haverdes, haverem 

(that) I, you, he, etc., may have. 

In the same manner is conjugated the compound 
verb rehaver to have or get back ; but this verb is only 
used in forms which have the -v- (rehavendo, rehavido, 
rehavia, rehouve, etc.) 

43. There are still other (compound) forms, 
such as: tenha havido, tivesse havido, ter (and tendo) 
havido, which we do not write at large, as they are 

The Auxiliary Verb haver. 49 

easily formed by themselves and rarely employed. The 
same is to be said for the other auxiliary verbs, already 
mentioned. The omitted tenses may easily be sub- 

44. Yet there is still a tense quite peculiar 
to the Portuguese language, which we have not yet 
spoken of, because we wanted to mention it apart: it is 
the Simple Pluperfect (mais-que-perfeito simples). It is 
formed from the 2 ud person sing, of the Perfect by 
hanging the ending -ste into -ra (houveste: houvera; 
-civeste; tivera; foste: fora; estiveste: estivera): 

thouvera, tivera 
houveras, tiveras 
houvera, tivera 
houveramos, tiveramos 
houvereis, tivereis 
Jiouveram, tiveram 

fora, estivera 
foras, estiveras 
fora, estivera 
foramos, estiveramos 
foreis, estivereis 

w foram, estiveram 





45. The student may at the same time be 
conscious that from the same person (2 nd pers. sing, 
perf.) there are formed two other tenses : l ly . the Im- 
perfect of the Subjunctive, by changing the ending 
-ste into -sse, and 2 ly . the future of the same mood, 
by changing -ste into -r (cf. the auxiliary verbs already 
mentioned). This derivation is the same in any regular 
or irregular verb. 

46. As for the employment of the Compound 
Future and Conditional tenses, there is some little 
difference with the simple tense. Hei-de fazer expresses 
not only that something will be done by me, but that 
I intend or am willing to do it. que die havia-de 
fazer corresponds to: what he ought to do. Nos ha- 
viamos-de ser mais economicos we ought to be more 
economical. Nos seriamos mais economicos we should 
be more economical. 

47. Haver-de, to be obliged to, may also be 
used in other forms than Present and Imperfect tenses: 
Houve-de ser cortes he had to be polite. Se nao houvesse- 
de considerar isso if that were not to be considered. Se 
liouver(mos)-de luctar com difficuldadas if there are diffi- 
culties to be fought with, or if we are obliged to fight 
against difficulties. Ha-de haver tempo para tudo there 
must be time for everything. 

Portuguese Conversation-Grammar. 4 

50 Lesson 6. 

48. In some tenses the 3 rd person sing, of haver 
indicates a time past and corresponds to these . . .] 
since or ago: ha (havia, haverd, haveria) quinze (15) 
dias a fortnight since or ago; haverd muito tempo it 
will be long since. Ha tres horas que estamos esperando 
or a espera we have been waiting these three hours. 

49. Ha (houve, haverd, etc.) quern, followed by 
a verb in the 3 rd person and in the Indicative or Sub- 
junctive mood, means there is a person or theje are 
persons who . . . e.g., Ha quern dw (or diga] = it is 
said, somebody says. 

Que ha? = what is the matter? Nao ha nada there 
is nothing the matter. 

50. Haver por bem means to think proper. It 
is scarcely used but by or of the King or the govern- 
ment. Haver por mal is rarely used and means: to* 
take in ill part. 

51. The reader will already have noticed that 
in the Imperative mood the second person sing, when- 
employed affirmatively is derived from the same person 
of the Present tense Indicative by losing the s ; and 
from the Present Subjunctive, when employed nega- 
tively; e.g., estd! ndo estejas! 

Yet there are still for the auxiliary verbs some 
little irregularities to be noticed: 1. tens becomes after 
losing the s: tern, because a verbal form is not al- 
lowed to end in n; 2. es is changed into se; 3. the 
Imperative of haver is not used in the 2 nd pers. sing. 

Eemark. Addressing a plurality of persons, the Imper- 
rative form is the 3 rd person plur. pres. subj. : tenham, sejam, 
estejam (hajam not to be used). There is indeed an Impera- 
tive of the 2 nd person plur., but it is antiquated and rarely 
used by modern writers. The reader will find it in the? 
general conjugation-table. 


Traduzir to render | bem [bu}] well (very) 

pouco(s) little (few) 


uma vez [vefj once 

outra vez another time 

as vezes [a$- sometimes- 

outro(s) ianto(s) as much (as 

ultimo I 'ultimuj last 

o uso ['itzuj the use, the 

a differenfa the difference 

fazer [fu'zer] to make, to 

The Auxiliary Verb haver. 


a lingua 

the language j a cordqem \ 


a distingao 
fazer distingao 


to distinguish, 

[ku'ra^i] \ 
o animo 
['unimu] j 

the courage 

a paciencia [pn- 

the patience 

em baixo 





to learn 

o erro f'erruj 

the mistake, 



depressa [dd- 


o dinheiro 

the money 



a .s em ana fsj- 

the week a fnglaterra 



[UTS term] 


we know ; passear 

to walk 


to conjugate [pies^'ar] 


ir a casa 

to go home 

a interrupqao 

the interrup- i em casa 
tion ! as duas (horas) 

at home 
at 2 o'clock 

urn dia santo 

a saint's day 

ja [$a] 


as ferias 

the holidays 

so [soj J 
unico } 


a doenga 

the illness 

a grammdtica 

the grammar 



cedo f'seffu] 

soon desde [dezfo] 


veneer [ve'ser] 

to overcome ! o principio 

the beginning. 

p. p. of veneer | [prl'sip'iu] 
11. Exercicio. Leitura e versao. 

05 versos auxiliares. 

Em portugues ha dois verbos auxiliares para traduzir o 
verbo ingles to have, e outros tantos, para traduzir to be. Os 
primeiros sao ter e haver; os ultimos ser e estar. No uso 
d'elles (in their use) ha alguma differen9a. As vezes essa diffe- 
ren^a e bem pouca, outras vezes nao ha nenhuma. Ha quern 
considera uma das maiores difficuldades da lingua portuguesa 
o fazer dist^ao dos verbos ser e estar. Se nao houvesse 
maior difficuldade, ou se essa fosse a unica, o estudo da lingua 
nao seria difficil. Mas haja paciencia, que havemos-de aprender 
portugufis bem depressa. Ha poucas semanas que o (it) esta- 
mos estudando e ja sabemos conjugar os verbos auxiliares. 
Estes verbos, sendo os mais (most) irregulares, sao os inais 
difficeis. Nao havendo interrup9oes, como ja as houve com 
dias santos e ferias, e se nao houver doencas, cedo hao-de ser 
vencidas as primeiras difficuldades. Tenham pois animo e 
sejam applicados. 

12. Exercicio. 

There is a man downstairs. There are two men down- 
stairs. There is to be a saint's day this week. There must 



Lesson 7. 

be some mistake. There being no one there, I went (see 
36, note) away. Is there much money in England? Yes, 
there is (transl. : there is, yes, sir). Will there be a concert 
to-night? No, there has been a concert last night. What's 
the matter? There's nothing the matter. I have been walk- 
ing these two hours. I must go home. We all (todos) intend 
to go home (see 46), we must (see p. 34, Remark) be at 
home at two o'clock. Is it long since you have been learning 
Portuguese? No, it is only a few weeks. And there has 
been some interruption by holidays. Have you had a gram- 
mar? Now we have, but we had not from the beginning. 


Que tern o alemao? 
Ha ali grandes casas? 
Houve terremoto em Portugal? 

Tern havido terremotos mais 
vezes ? 

Nao foi o criado comprar 
peixe no mercado? 

alemao tern uma casa na 
rua d'El-rei. 

Ha, sim, senhor; e a d'elle 
(his) e uma das maiores. 

Houve, mas ja ha alguns 

Tern. (that) do anno 1755 
(mil sete centos e cincoenta 
e cinco) foi o maior. 

Nao havia peixe no mercado ; 
como o tempo estivera mau, 
nao tinha havido guem fosse 
(see p. 36, footnote) pescar 
(to fish). 

Seventh Lesson. Li?ao setima. 

Employment and Concord of Tenses. 

Emprego e concordancia de tempos. 

52. As we have seen, there are two forms of 
the Infinitive: the impersonal one corresponds in its 
employment to the English form; the personal Infini- 
tive is a peculiarity of the Portuguese language and 
characteristic as for the personal terminations added to 
the simple form. It is employed after a preposition. 
(N.B. In the regular verbs it is consonant to the Sub- 
junctive Future.) Ex.: 

Faze diligencia para seres lorn. 
Take pains to be good. 

Employment and Concord of Tenses. 53 

Instead of Passei sem ser visto, you may say: 
Passei sem me verem I passed without being seen (lit.: 

without their seeing me). 

Depois de (nos) estarmos seniados, conversdmos. 
After having sat down, we talked. 

53. While the Present has only one tense, the 
Past is divided into two, or taking also the Pluperfect 
into three simple tenses: 

A. The Preterito imperfeito is used: 

(a) In descriptions of character, opinion, state, man- 
ners and customs, representing an action as often re- 
peated ; it embraces a space of time or a state already 
existing and still continuing as for the time spoken of: 
elle tinha lima casa; o homem era pobre\ Jiavia ruido 
(noise); havia reuniao todos os sabbados, an assembly 
took place every Saturday. Passdvamos o verdo no campo 
we used to pass the summer in the country. 

(b) If two actions are represented as being per- 
formed at, .or as lasting, the same time, as: 

Chovia emquanto eu passeava. 

It was raining while I took a walk. 

(As for an action being interrupted by another, 
see B, (c)). 

(c) The Imperfect is used for all actions that do 
not immediately belong to the relation, but are added 
by the speaker in order to express accessory circum- 
stances or his own meaning, as: 

Elles foram a urn sitio que ficava muito longe. 
They went to a place that was very far off. 
A lebre, como corria muito, fwu-se nas pernas. 
The hare, being a good runner, trusted to its legs. 

Eemark. As in English, the Imperfect may often be 
substituted by the first Participle e.g., A lelre, sendo lorn 
corredor . . . 

B. The Preterito perfeito or deftnido is used to ex- 
press actions following one another. It is the historical 
tense, being peculiarly appropriated to the narrative 
style and therefore used: 

54 Lesson 7. 

(a) To mark a (point of) time positively fixed, en- 
tirely elapsed relatively to the present or the time 
spoken of: 

cao foi .morto the dog was killed. 

Na batalha de Aljubarrota os Portugueses venceram os 

In the battle of Aljubarrota the Portuguese vanquished 

the Castilians. 

(b) To mark the beginning of an action or a state: 

Eu tlve (uma) carta I got a letter. 
Elle teve medo he became frightened. 
Houve gritaria there was a clamour. 

(c) If one action is interrupted by another, the 
Imperfect denotes the action that was going on when 
the other began ; the latter requiring the Preterite per- 
feito, as: 

JEhnquanto Jiavia trovoada, elle entrou em casa. 
Whilst there was a thunderstorm, he entered the house. 

(d) Very often the Preterito is employed when in 
English the compound Perfect is used, as: 

Jd jantou ? Have you already dined (or had dinner) ? 
Tive uma chicara de did I have had a cup of tea. 
Comprdmos cafe we have bought coffee. 

The compound Perfect is, indeed, always rendered 
by the simple Preterite, and not by the compound, 
when the action of the verb is altogether finished in 
the past and has nothing to do with the present time. 

Compare: Comprdmos assucar we have bought sugar, 
and: Temos sempre comprado assucar ao ne- 
gociante, nosso vizinho. 

C. Another tense peculiar to the Portuguese is 
the Simple Pluperfect (Mais-que-perfeito simples) already 
spoken of in 44. There is no difficulty whatever in 
its use. It may anywhere be substituted by the com- 
pound form ; yet, as the Portuguese likes to employ 
simple forms, the student will do well in equally prac- 
tising the simple Mais-que-perfeito. 

54. The first participle or gerund (Participio 
imperfeito or gerundio) does not essentially differ in its 

Employment and Concord of Tenses. 55 

use from the English ; it is used to express some reason 
or cause, condition or manner. Yet it must not be 
employed after certain prepositions which in English 
require the gerund, while in Portuguese the Infinitive 
or the Past Participle is used (cf. 52, examples). 

55. The Future of the Subjunctive Mood, also 
a form connected solely with the Portuguese language, 
is used to express some uncertain future event. It is 
nearly exclusively employed after the conjunctions se 
if, quando when, emquanto while, as long as. Ex.: 

Quando tivermos dinheiro, compraremos essa casa. 
When we shall have money, we shall buy that house. 
8e estiver em casa, a porta estard aberta. 
If he is (or be) at home, the door will be open. 
Emquanto nao fizerem diligencia, nao serdo succedidos. 
As long as they do not take pains, they will not 

56. The Conditional is employed as in English. 
Examples : 

Se tivesse diriheiro, compraria (or comprava) essa casa. 

If I had money, I should buy that house. 

Ainda gue fosse rico, nao a compraria (or nao a com- 

Even if I were rich, I should not buy it. 

Se nao tivesse sido tao tarde, o homem nao teria (or nao 
tinlia) estado em casa. 

If it had not been so late, the man would not have 
been at home. 

So we employ in the subordinate sentence the 
Imperfect (or Pluperfect) of the Conjunctive, and in the 
principal sentence the first (or second) Conditional. 
Instead of the Conditional the Portuguese prefers to 
employ the Imperfect (and Pluperfect) of the Indicative 
(see Ex.). 

57. The Subjunctive 1 being the mood of un- 
certainty, it is used: 

(a) After those verbs expressing a will, desire, hope, 
command, expectation, aspiration, merit. (N.B. The 

1 The rules on the subjunctive mood need be only read over 
liere and can be learned thoroughly later on. 

56 Lesson 7. 

subordinate sentence is introduced by the conjunc- 

Quero (mando, desejo, espero) que sejam modestos. 
I want (order, desire, trust) you to be modest. 
Merecia que fosse attendido. 
He would deserve to be attended to. 

(b) After the verbs expressing thought, speech, 
belief, employed in the negative or interrogative, and 
the subordinate sentence containing an uncertainty: 

Eu nao digo que seja assim. 

I do not say that it is so. 

Julga que die tenha comprehendido ? 

Do you think he will have understood? 

(c) After verbs expressing some emotion (joy, fear, 
fright, etc,): 

Receio que nao esteja em casa. 
I fear he will not be at home. 
Estimei que tivesse vindo. 
I was glad he had come. 

(d) After duvidar to doubt, ter duvida to have some 
doubts, negar to deny, impedir, estorvar to hinder, 
ignorar to ignore, because of the negation or uncer- 
tainty already included in the verb: 

Duvido que tenhas chegado a tempo. 
I doubt that you have arrived in time. 
Nao tenhas duvida que eu seja teu amigo. 
Don't have any doubt that I am your friend. 
pae ignordra que o filho estivesse doente. 
The father did not know that his son was ill. 

58. With respect to the concordance, it is to 
be noticed that, as in English, to a main time (Pre- 
sente, Preterito [perfeito e compostoj, and Futuro imperf* 
indie.) in a principal sentence corresponds a main time 
in the accessory clause; while to a secondary time in 

1 This conjunction may not be omitted so easily as in English; 
there are only a few verbs which dispense with it e.g., Pedir 
to ask, beg: pego (que) esteja as duas horas I beg you will be 
there at 2 o'clock; esperar to hope: esperamos (que) sejam pon- 
tuaes we hope you (or they) will be punctual. 

Employment and Concord of Tenses. 


the principal sentence corresponds a secondary time in 
the accessory clause, as: 

Mando que escreva I order him to write. 

Julgdra que tivesse escripto I thought he had written. 


A empresa 

the enterprise o atraso 

the delay 


[v 'trazu] 

dar [dar] 

to give 

o reldgio 

the watch 

deu [deu] 

(3rd pers. pret. 

[ra 'logiu] 

of dar} gave 


fast, advanced 

o lucro ['lukru] the gain 

[u&iun 'taftu] 

dez [dsf] 


ou$a! f'osv] 


o accionista 

the shareholder 

a noticia 

the news 

[as}u 'niftvj 

[nu 'tis?vj 

pensar [pe'sar] to think 

triste ['triftd] 


a posigdo 

the position 


to write 


fifkrd 'ver] 


to seem 

outra vez 

another time, 


once more 


to realise 

o prazer 

the pleasure 

frvsli 'zar] 

Iprv ' ztr] 


to ameliorate 

a bondade 

the kindness, 

[miftu'rar] . 

[bon 'dafo] 


a ambigdo 

the ambition 

que horas sdo? 

what o'clock is 



ensinar I isi'nar] to teach 

e uma liora 

it is one o'clock 

morar [mu'rarj to dwell, live 

e hora e meia 

it is half past 





sdo duas 

it is two 

a regido 

the region 



frdgi 'feu] 

sdo horas 

it is time 

o temporal 

the storm 

dar horas 

to strike 

[tempu 'ralj 

estar enganado 

to be mistaken 

diirar [du'rar] to last 

[igv 'na&u] 

causarfkau 'zar 

/ to cause 


tedious, bored 

o damno 

[isburrd 'si&u] 

o estrago 

the damage 

a quietagdo 

the quiescence 


o remedio 

the remedy 

estar a espera 

to expect, to 

[rd 'msd'}u] 



gasto ['gaftu] 


acabar [vkv'bar] to finish, ter- 

o caso f'kazuj 

the case 



to be long 



levar [Idvar] 

to take along 

/* nornw] 

or away 


to appraise 

o descanQO 

the rest 



o comboio 

the train 

se Dens quizer 

God willing. 



58 Lesson 7. 

13. Exercicio. Leitura c ycrsao. 

Esta empresa tern dado bom lucro; deu dez por cento 
aos accionistas no anno passado. Temos pensado muito na 
sua posicao que no primeiro momento nos parecia (Imp. of 
parecer) irnpossivel a realisar, mas que cedo havemos-de me- 
Ihorar. Ha muito tempo que tern sido a minha ambicao saber 
bem a lingua portuguesa. Se tivesse quern m'a (it to me) en- 
sinasse, havia-de estudar essa bella lingua. Desde que ca 
moro (1 st pers. pres. of morar) sempre tenho tido bons vizinhos. 
E curioso seres tu que tenha essa ideia. Na nossa regifio, 
<o temporal, que tern durado uns poucos de (several) dias, esta 
causando enorme damno. Estamos a espera que elle acabe 
para avaliarmos o estrago que tiver feito. Ja chegou o com- 
boio? Ainda nao; tera atraso; ja sao seis boras no meu relo- 
gio. Talvez esteja adiantado o seu relogio. Nao esta. Ouc.a! 
Estao a dar as seis. 

14. Exercise. 


What have you there? It is a letter. Is it for me 
{mim)? No, it is not. It is for your neighbour who is there 
at the door. Was there no letter for me? If there had been, 
I should have given it you 1 . It is a long time that I have not 
had any news from my friend. I am very sad. If there be 
no letter to-morrow, I shall write (com p. Future) again. It 
is long since we had the pleasure of seeing (Infinitive) 
you (a V a - Ex a -}. Have the kindness to tell me (de 
me dizer) what o'clock it is. It is two o'clock. No, I am 
mistaken, it is half past one. It is time for me to go home. 


Onde e (or fica) a sua casa? E (or fica) ali na rua vizinha. 

Ha muito tempo que mora Tenho la morado ha quatro 

n'ella? ou cinco annos. 

Onde esteve V a - Ex a - no anno Estive n'uma praia balnear. 


Houve la muito movimento? Nao houve; se houvesse, nao 

teria la ido. 

Mas nao havendo movimento, Nao 6. A quietacao 6 e sempre 

sera (or ha-de s6r) aborre- tern sido o melhor remedio 

cido? para os nervos gastos. 

1 The complementary pronouns follow here immediately the 
pronoun subject: eu Ih'a teria dado. 

Exercises on the Auxiliary Verbs. 


Ficando conhecido aquella 
praia, nao tardera que haja 
(or nao tardera haver) mais 

Ex a - teve bom resultado 
sua estada ali? 

Pode ser (it may be) que as- 
sim seja; nesse caso nao 
hei-de la ir outra vez. 

Tive. E este anno hei-de le- 
var a minha familia, para 
todos nos havermos bom 
descanQO, se Dens quizer. 

Eighth Lesson. Li<jao oitava. 

Exercises on the Auxiliary Verbs. 


O quintal the garden 

a amendoeira the almond-tree 

[ukln 'tal] 


o arbusto the shrub, bush 

florescia bloomed, 


[flurlf'siu] nourished 

o carvalho the oak-tree 

a neve [u 'nsvdj the snow, frost 

[nkur 'vafluj 

crest ar [kriftar] to blast 

a faia [v 'faiv] the beech-tree 

crestou-lhe blasted it 

a tilia [u 'tilivj the linden 
o olmo [u 'olmu]\ 

o casianheiro the chestnut- 

o olmeiro ithe elm-tree 

ukvftis'yis'iru] tree 

[uol'muiru] } 

a castanha the chestnut 

o salgueiro the willow 


[used' guiru] 

Todos os Santos All Saints 

o platano the plane-tree 


[u 'platenuj 


derribaram-no knocked it 

o magusto embers to roast 

[darn- down 

[mis 'guftuj chestnuts in : 


the feast of 

amattafv'matv] the wood 

chestnuts on 

o -grupo the group 

All Saints 


assado [v'sa&o] roasted 

a drvore fructi- the fruit-tree | comer [ku'mer] to eat 

fera [fru- 

gostar [guf'tar] to like 


o damasco the apricot 

<a cerejeira the cherry-tree j [u&a'mafku] 

[vswt'jvirv] I a tdmara the date 

$aboroso savoury /K 'tvmurvj 

[svfiu'rozu] a nespera the medlar. 

I / 

15. Exercicio. 

Quintal e drvores. 

Temos um quintal ao pe da casa. No quintal ha muitos 
Drupes de arbustos e algumas arvores velhas e altas: carva- 
Ihos, faias, tilias e olmos. Perto do rio atras do nosso quintal 


Lesson 8. 

ha salgueiros. Tambem havia um platano muito alto, mas 
os ventos derribaram-no. Ale"m das arvores de matta ha 
arvores fructiferas. Esta cerejeira teve muita flor e tera muita 
fructa saborosa. Aquella amendoeira tambem teria muitas 
amendoas, mas quando florescia, a neve crestoa-lhe as flores. 

castanheiro junto a porta da rua ha de dar bellas castanhas 
que havemos de comer no dia de Todos os Santos, depois de 
as termos assado no inagusto. Os meninos gostam de cerejas? 
Gostamos, mas mais ainda de damascos, de tamaras e de nSs- 
peras. Tivemos grande quantidade de nesperas no anno passado. 

16. Exercise. 

In which street is your house ? Have you not a garden 
near your house? Yes (see L. 2, note), a large and beauti- 
ful garden with many flowers and trees. What tree is that 
behind the wall ? That is an elm -tree. And all these trees 
are fruit-trees. We shall have very much fruit this year. 
Last year we had very little. The trees had many leaves, 
but few fruits. There you have also very fine roses. Yes, 

1 like roses very much; also my mother likes them much. 



the flower- 

a margarida 

the daisy 

[gvr 'd i] 


[umargv 'riffvj 

vir [vir] 

to come 

o amor-perfeito 

the pansy 

entre [entrd] 

come in 

[we 'morpdr- 

o vizinho 

the neighbour 

'fvitu] (pi. 



a cancella 

the trellis-gate 


[kv 'selej 

o lilaz [uli'lif] 

the lilac 

abre [afira/ 


a dahlia 

the dahlia 

a rua [rruis] 

the street, way 

[v ' fall] 

o meio [misiu] 

the middle, 
midst ; means 

o goivo [u' gojvu] 
roxo ['rrofuj 

the gillyflower 

o alegrete 

the flower-bed 

cheira [fair*] 



o jasmim 

the jasmin 

a especie 

the sort, kind, [u^s^mi] 


species o aroma 

the aroma, 

o cravo 

the pink [we'roma] 



o girasol 

the sunflower 

a cor [vkor] 

the colour farire'sdl 

branco ['brvkuj 



the permission 
to offer 

[inkvr 'na&u] 

[of^r^ 'serj 




I should offer 

[amis 'relu] 

[of 3rd 'se 


(de) cor de rosa 



[korda 'rozu] 

nao so [nvu so] 

not only 

Exercises on the Auxiliary Verbs. 61 

mas [muf] but i a uva [v'uvv] the grape 

oolher [ku'fier] to pick 
o que quiser what(ever) 

[ukdki'zer] you like 

(quizer = Fut. will, desire) 

COBJ. ofquerer 
fa^a favor de vir please to come 



'o[pra'firu] I prefer 

a pera [u 'pew] the pear 
a maga [emv 'svj the apple 
o meldo the melon 

o ramalhete the nosegay 

[urrvme 'fietd] 

nem . . . nem [nvi] neither . . . nor 
a cliuva the rain. 

[IB 'fuw] 

17. Exercicio. 

Jardim e flores. 

Tenha a bondade de vir para o meu jardim. Entre por 
sta cancella que abre para a rua do meio. Ao longo da rua 
ha alegreies com flores de toda a especie: cravos de varias 
<cores: brancos, encarnados, amarellos, cor de rosa; dahlias, 
margaridas e amores-perfeitos. Estamos no verao. Na prima- 
vera estavam em flor o lilaz e os goivos, que sao d'uma cor 
roxa e cheiram muito bem. Tambem o branco jasmim tem 
um bello aroma. V a - Ex a - gosta de girasoes ? Talvez ja haja 
um em flor. Ainda nao ha, nao. Mas quando houver (supply 
um), ha de me dar licenga de Ih'o offerecer. Ja nao temos 
rosas bellas; se tivessemos, offerees!- as -ia. Hei de fazer para 
termos flores todo o anno. 

18. Exercise. 

(a) Oh, what nice flowers you have in your garden! If 
I had some white roses, I should give them to my mother. 
I have great pleasure in offering you not only white roses, 
but all kinds of other flowers. Have the goodness to pick 
whatever you like. Do you like the aroma of the jasmin? 
I clo, but I prefer that of the pinks. I shall have a very 
fine nosegay of white roses, red pinks and violet pansies. 
Please to come when(ever) you like to pick flowers and fruits. 
In autumn we shall have much fruit: grapes, pears, apples, 
melons, and others. 

(b) Mother, I have got a beautiful nosegay to offer you! 
Oh, the fine flowers! How much (quanta) I like them! 
Look (olha) at these gillyflowers, how nice they are! And they 
smell so good (bem). We had no daisies nor dahlias in our 
garden; our neighbour had (. . . 6 que [as] tinha. KB. que 
marks an emphasis). We also should have (some), if there 
had not been so much (tanto) rain. If we are to have (or 
If there be) fruit in autumn, we shall pick apples, pears, 
and grapes. 




hordrio the time-table 

[uo 'rarfu] 
a UQUO de leitura the reading- 

[Iv}' twn] lesson 

a ligao de gram- the lesson of 

mdtica grammar 

a ligdo d'arith- the lesson of 

metica arithmetic 

[d'eritd 'mst'ilc'&j 
a li<;do de dou- the lesson of 

trina [do- doctrine 

a ligdo de the drawing- 

desenho lesson 

the caligraphy 

the needle- 

the intuitive 

to give or to 
say a lesson 

the cough 

the problem 

the cipher, 

the number 


a lingua [' 
liontem [' 
ao todo [to:&u 
todo, toda 
tddos, todas 
que [kd, before 
a vowel lei] 
a semana 

a calligraphia 
[Iwligfe 'fivj 

os lavores 
[lis 'vorffj 

a ligdo de coisas 

dar ligdo 

a tosse ['tosd] 
o problema 

[pru 7 " 
'O algarismo 

o numero 

hoje [051] 

the tongue- 
in all 
to do 


which, that, 


each, every 
the week 

a manha the morning 

[urn 'yv] 

a tarde [tarddj the afternoon 

a noite [is 'nofcfo] the night 

o dia santo the saint's day 

urn dia feriado a holiday 

the holidays, 

a working-dajr 

so much, so 

how much, how 

as much (as 

as ferias 

urn dia de semana 
urn dia util 


ianta, tantos, 

quanta [Icwvntu], 

quanta, quan- 

tos, quantas 
tanto(s) quan- 


19. Exercicio verbal. 

Conjugate: a) Eu tive (tenho tido, tivera) uma li^ao da- 
leitura (desenho etc.) 

b) que (quantas) ligoes terei (teras etc.) hoje ? etc* 

c) hei de ter uma li^ao de . . ., duas Ii9oes de- 

. . . etc. 

d) teria (tido) mais tempo, se nao tivesse (tido)' 

tantas lipoes. 

e) se tiver tempo, hei de fazer o meu thema. 

(desenho etc.). 

20. Exercicio. 


Quantas licoes tivestes (or tiveram) hoje? Tivemos uma> 
de doutrina, outra d'arith me" tica e duas de desenho i 

Exercises on the Auxiliary Verbs. 


quatro ao todo. Haviamos de ter cinco, mas o professor de 
calligraphia tinha tosse e nao veio (did or had not come). 
As segnndas e quintas feiras sempre tenho nma Ii9ao de gram- 
matica francesa: as terras e sextas [feiras] 1 uma de lingua in- 
glesa, e as quartas e aos sabbados uma ligao d'alemao. A 
5 ta f a (quinta feira) e" meio feriada, os domingos e dias santoa 
sao dias feriados. As liQoes sao das oito boras de manha at6 
ao meio dia e das duas ate as quatro boras da tarde nos dias 
liteis. Se tivessemos mais tr6s li^oes nas quintas, teriamos 
seis licoes em cada dia. menino gosta da 1193,0 de coisas? 
Gosto mais do que dos problemas; nao tenbo memoria para 
os algarismos e os mimeros grandes. E a menina, de que 
ligao gosta mais? A de que mais gosto, minba senhora, & 
a Ii9ao de lavores, que ternos todos os dias das duas para, 
as tie's. 




a groselha the currant 

[gi 'fisrmd] 


Jodo [gu'vu] 


geralmente generally 

Helena [*'Uwe] 





prequigoso lazy 



o dinheiro 

the money 

mais Ima'ifJ more 

[di 'yiviru] 

diligente diligent, 

o pecego 

the peach 

[ddli'xentd] industrious 


irrequieto restless 

estar falto 

to be short of firwfa'etuj 

[fattu] de 

o crro [erru] the mistake 

o morango 

the strawberry 

o thema ['temu] the task 

a uva de norte 


bem que [bvikdj though (conj.) 
nerihum [n'l ' nu] none, no (at all) 


contente glad, satisfied. 


21. Exercise. 

William is my friend. I am William's friend (the friend 
of W.). Here is John's brother. Where is my sister Ellen? 
She is in the kitchen. I had a cousin who went (see p. 36, 
note) to America. Was he still a boy? Yes, he was very 
young. The children had (== got) flowers and fruits. Had 
you not money enough to buy some peaches? No (I had 
not), I was short of money. Are there still strawberries. 
[left] 1 ? There are no more (Jd nao ha), but we shall have 
gooseberries and currants. The boys would have had a holi- 
day if they had not been so lazy. Little girls generally are 

1 The words in [] are not to be translated or may be dis- 
pensed with, while those in () are to be employed in Portuguese. 

4 Lesson 9. 

more diligent than little boys. These are so restless. You 
have had four mistakes in your task, though it was very 
easy. When you happen to have no mistake at all, you will 
have a nice (and) new book. I shall be glad if you be more 
industrious for the future. And you, my boy, will be more 

professor podera continuar estes exercicios, ate que os 
alumnos tenham adquirido uma certa facilidade no emprego dos 
verbos auxiliares em todos as suas formas. 


A que horas eomec,am as aulas? (As sete, oito, nove, 


Que lic.6es ha de manha? (de tarde?) 
Quantas licoes de . . . teem os meninos durante a 


Tiveram bom professor? (Answer: Tivemos, sim, senhor.) 
Ha outras lic.6es e outros professores todos os dias? 
Quantos dias ha na semana, e quaes (pi. of qual which) 

sao os seus nomes? 
Quantos dias liteis ha n'esta semana, visto haver (as 

there is to be) um dia santo? 

Ninth Lesson. Li<jao nona. 

The Partitive Article. 

59. To indicate an indefinite quantity or an 
indefinite part of a whole, the Portuguese expression 
is about the same as the English : bread is pdo, cheese 
is queijo; I have taken tea eu tomei chd; give me water 
de-me dgua. 

N.B. The pleonastical some, used in English, is 
only translated when you wish to indicate the quan- 
tity referred to as little, or if followed by the plural: 
Do you want some bread? Quer p&o? Have you got 
some money? Tern algum dinheiro? I was some 
moments Jate cheguei tarde de alguns mementos. 

60. However, the quantity being determined by 
a noun expressing measure, weight, or number, or by a 
substantive adverb, the name of the substance is pre- 
ceded by de: um pedago de pao a piece of bread; uma 

The Partitive Article. 65 

pouca de dgua a small quantity of water; uma garrafa 
de vinho a bottle of wine; um tanto de leite a certain 
quantity of milk. 

Here also the employment is the same as in English. 

61. If the word which denotes quantity has 
not the form of a substantive, the substance is not 
preceded by de (again the same as in English): Tern 
muito vinho he has much wine ; temos tanto leite que . . . 
we have so much milk that . . . ; ha pouca fructa there 
is little fruit; tern havido bastantes batatas there have 
been a good deal of potatoes. 

62. (a) Nouns and Adverbs of Quantity with de. 

Um metro de fasenda a meter of stuff. 
Um arratel [v'rrattl) de assucar [v'sulcar]. 
A pound of sugar. 

IDois arrdteis de farinha two pounds of meal. 
Um par de botas a pair of boots. 
Tres leguas ['hgwvj] de distancia three miles' distance. 
Um quarteirao de ovos 25 eggs. 

{Um) certo numero de cartas a certain number of letters. 
Um grupo de pessoas a group of people. 
(Uma) grande quantidade d'arame. 
A great quantity of brass -wire. 
Um pouco de paciencia a little patience. 
Um nada de esperanga a want of hope. 

(b) Pronouns and Adverbs of Quantity without de. 

Algum tempo some time. 

Muito ar much air. 

Mais dgua more water. 

Menos caminho less (= a nearer) way. 

Pouca distancia little distance. 

Bastante trabalho work enough, rather much trouble. 

<Quanto dinheiro? how much money? 

Quantas pessoas? how many persons? 

I)emasiado vinho or vinho demais too much wine. 

Poucas toalhas (too) few tablecloths. 

Muitas collier es (too) many spoons. 

63. The partitive genitive with de or d' is also 
used in terms equivalent to adjectives denoting the 
material of which a thing is made or its origin or 
purpose, as: 

Portuguese Conversation-Grammar. 5 

Lesson 9. 

Um vestido de seda a silk dress. 

Um chapeu de palha a straw-hat or bonnet. 

Uma camisa de linho a linen shirt or chemise. 

Um fato de Id a woollen suit of clothes. 

leite de vacca the cow's milk. 

A sola de jantar the dining-room. 

64. Present Tense of a Yerb of the First 
Conjugation (ending: -ar). 

Eu acdbo [v'kaftu] I finish 

tu acabas you finish 

elle, ella, V*. acdba he, she finishes, you finish. 

nos acabamos we finish 

vos acabaes you finish 

elks, ellas, V' s . acabam they (or you) finish. 

Participles : 

Pres.: acdbando finishing. 
Past.: acabado finished. 


A refeigdo the refection, a manteiqa the butter 

[rrdf&i'suu] meal, repast 

/tmvn 'tetys] 

chamar [fu 'mar] to call 

a vontade the appetite 

o almdgo the breakfast [vvdn't&fo] 

[al'mosu] as seis (horas) at six (o'clock) 

a ceia [sew] the supper 

[*rw* eorvfl 

vamos ['vvmuf] let us go ! i uma fatia de a slice of bread 

f altar [fal'tar] to want pao 

a comida the food tomar [tu'tnar] to take 

[Ivu'mifo] cortar [kur'tar] to cut 

o jantar the dinner 

o copo [u'kopu] the glass 


gosta de likes 

jantar to dine ['gaftffoj 

a sola de jantar the dining-room o vinho de mesa table-wine 

/# ' 'salis fojisn- 


a hora de almo- the breakfast- 

levantar to get up, to 

far [u'orvcri- hour 

[l&Bn't&r] raise, to lift 



faga favor (de} please (to) 

a mesa to rise from the 

['fasvfv 'vor- 



a talhada the slice 

(se) fas [faf] if you please 

["etts 'fia&v] 


a carne [ukarnd] the meat 

a cliicara the cup 

o presunto the ham 

/ 'fikere] 

[uprd 'zuntuj 

o leite [u'luite] the milk 

nove [novd] nine 

queria [kyriv] should like 

dez [def] ten 

The Partitive Article. 67 

oj)rato [u'pratu] the plate, dish 
a travexsa the dish 

a faca [v'fakvj the knife 
agora [v'gorv] now 

a sobremcsa the dessert i dar [dfir], irr. to give 
fvsobrz'meze/ da [da] 1 . , 

a sopa /u'sopuj the soup de [de] } & 

a colher the spoon me [ma] me 

[vku'Ker] a sede [seffj] the thirst. 

o clw fu'fnj the tea 

22. Exercicio verbal. 

Please to conjugate the present tenses and participles 
of the verbs: chamar, jantar, gostar, levantar, cortar. After 
some practice you may add a complement and employ a noun 
instead of the pronoun of the 3 rd person. You may also prac- 
tise the interrogative and negative forms. 

28. Exercicio. 


Chamam para ; o almoco. Vamos para a sala de jantar. 
Sao dez boras. E a hora de almocar. Ja aqui estao os 
paes 4 , os tios 5 e os primes 6 , faltam ainda os avos 1 . Mama, 
faz favor de me dar uma chicara de leite com um pouco de 
assucar? Tanibem queria uma fatia de pao e manteiga. 
Tenbo mnita vontade, ja a tinba ao levantar-me. tio gosta 
do nosso vinho? E vinho de mfisa. De"-me um ovo 2 e uma 
talhada de presunto, se faz favor. Quantas pessoas ha a mesa 
de jantar? Nove; nao sao muitas. primo Jaime nao tem 
prato de sobremgsa, nem colher de cha. Tem faca a menina 
Henri quf-ta? Agora tem, mas nfio tinha. 

24. Exercise. 

When is your dinner-hour? At six [o'clock]. Is (the) 
mother already in the dining-room? Yes (she is), but (the) 
father and (the) brother Henry are not yet. The soup-plates 
(plates of soup) stand (= are) on the table; also dessert- 
dishes, coffee-cups and tea-spoons. There is broth (= soup 
of meat), a big slice of meat, and potatoes. I should like 
also [some] bread and some cheese and some fruits. Give 
me a glass of wine and a small quantity of water, if you 
please; I am thirsty (= I have thirst). We rise from the table. 

Querendo dar mais pratica aos alumnos, p professor podera 
fazel-o, reunindo-os como para um almoco, um jantar ou uma ceia, 
e fazendo-os pedir e agradecer comestiveis. 

1 Os paes the parents (pae e tnae) ; os tios = tio e tia ; 
os primos = primo e prima; os avos = avo e avo. 

2 avo, ovOj porto, olho and other words which in the singular 
have [o], change it into fojin the plural (see 2nd Part, Lesson 5, 18). 


68 Lesson 10. 

Examples: Estamos a mesa. Ha uma toalha branca na 
mesa. Em cima da toalha estao pratos. Nas travessas ha comida. 
Tomamos a comida das travessas, pondo-a (putting it} nos nossos 
pratos. Os pratos estao em f rente (in front) das pessoas. As tra- j 
vessas estao no meio da mesa. Ellas sao ovaes. Os pratos sao j 
redondos. A mesa e quadrada. Tomamos cha n'uma chicara e i 
vinho n'um copo. 

Preguntas: Onde estamos? Que ha na mesa? Onde esta a 
toalha? Onde estao os pratos? Que ha nas tra vessas? Onde 
esta a comida? Para onde tomamos a comida? Que ha em frente 
de cada pessoa? Que ha no meio da mesa? Onde estao as tra- \ 
vessas? Como sao ellas? etc. etc. 

Tenth Lesson. Ligao decima. 

The Complements and the Most Frequent 

65. The Portuguese does not speak of a declen- 
sion of nouns. He merely distinguishes subject (su- 
jeito) and object or complement (complemento) ; and as 
for the latter, a complemento directo which corresponds 
to the English accusative, and a complemento indirecto 
which corresponds to the English dative or genitive. 
The latter may also be called the restrictive complement, 
as it indicates indeed a restriction in the meaning. 

66. The object (accusative) is in the form 
equal to the subject (nominative). The compl. indir. 
(dative) is introduced by the preposition a, which is 
contracted with the definite article into ao, d, aos, us 
and with aquelle, etc., into dquelle(s), dquella(s), while 
the compl. restrictivo (genitive) is introduced by the pre- 
position de, contracted with the article, demonstrative 
pronoun, etc., into do(s), da(s), dum(a), dims, deste, etc. 
(see First Lesson). 

67. The prepositions are always followed by the 
accusative that is: by the noun in its unaltered form. 
There is no form like the Saxon genitive. 

68. Prepositions. Preposigoes. 

a [v] to, at, in, within, alem de [v'lvidz] beyond, 
towards, against, till, on, besides 
upon, with, by, for, after, ante [vntz] before, in presence 
according to. of (local) 

The Complements and the Most Frequent Prepositions. 69 

durante [duruntz] during 
em 2 //??, *7in, into, to, on, upon, 

em f rente de ft'frentddd] in 

front of, opposite to 
entre ['entre] between, among 
excepto [(v)if sdii] except, 


fora [fvrv] except, save, besides 
fora de out of, without 
junto a ['guntuv] joined to, 

adjacent to 
para ['pure] for, towards, to, 

in order to 
para com towards 
por meio [mnu] de, mediante 

[medi'vntd] by means of 
perante [pd'nmtd] before 
por 2 [pur] for, by, through 
segundo 1 [sd'gundu] according 


sob [sufrj] under 
sem [svi] without 
sobre ['sobrd] on, above 
trds or trds de [ 
desde [degda] since behind. 

diante (de) [divntd (dd)J before 

69. Examples exemplos [i'zempluf]. 
Ante o perigo before (the) danger. 
Perante Deus, o tribunal, a minlia consciencia. 
Before God, the tribunal my conscience. 
Antes da sua chegada before his arrival. 
Diante (d)a casa before the house. 
Na mesa (up)on the table, na parede on the wall, no 

ar in the air. 
A mesa at table. 

Sobre a mesa upon or above the table. 
Debaixo do banco under the bench. 
Sob o ponto de vista under the point of view. 
Para os pobres for the poor. 

1 Conforme is used only of something very sure, undoubted? 
while segundo is used also of something doubtful. 

2 em is contracted with the following article or pronoun 
into no, na, nelle, neste, etc. (see 1 st Lesson); por is contracted 
with the following article into pelo, pela, pelos, pelas. 

antes de //?wfoj de] before 

ao lado de \ , , ,, .-, 

/m-ziA*/ b y' b y. thes , ide 

aope de I of > close "*> 
fa't*] I near 

ao longo de [uu 'logudd] along 

a pesar de [vpz 'zardd] in spite 
of, notwithstanding 

apds [u'pof] after, behind 

ate [v'te:] until 

atrds de [u 'tra^da] behind (s. 

atraves de [vtrv'vejda] through 

com [Jco] with, at, after, upon, 

conforme^ [Wformo] accord- 
ing to 

contra /'Jcdntrv] against 

de [dd] of, from, for, by 

debaixo de [dd'baifu dd] under, 
beneath (s. sob) 

abaixo de [v'baifu do] below, 
beneath, under 

depois de [d&poi-xto] after 


Lesson 10. 

Para comer (in order) to eat. 

Para o sul towards south. 

Olhar para alguem to look at or after somebody. 

Ir pela rua to go through the street. 

Trocar por prata to change for silver. 

Por engano by mistake. 

Feito pelo pintor N. made by the painter N. 

Excepto o mzirilio except the neighbour. 

Alem do vizinlio besides the neighbour. 

Fora de casa out of the house. 

Conforme o preceito, as leis. 

According to the precepts, the laws. 

Segundo a lei, um boato. 

According to the law, a rumour. 

Junto a esta carta joined to this letter. 

Estar ao lado, ao pe de alguem. 

To be (sitting, standing, etc.) at the side of somebody. 

Estar com alguem to be with somebody. 

Bondoso para com alguem kind to somebody. 

Encostar-se contra a parede to lean against the wall. 

Atrds de or trds (de) a casa behind the house. 



[kom 'prar] 
amigo, -a, adj. 

to buy 

a loja 

a mercearia 

[vmdrsiu 'riu] 
o caixeiro 

[ukai 'fviru] 
o mostrador 

[umufirv ' &or] 
os generos 

a(s) passa(s) 

o chocolate 

me [mdj 
os doces 

as conservas 

the thing 

the shop 
the retail shop 

the clerk 
the counter 

the goods, 
the raisin(s) 

the chocolate 


the sweetmeats 

the preserves 

a laranja 

a noz [v'nof] 
a avela [aw'lv] 

diz [dif] 
ver [ver] 
o figo [u'fiyu] 
o damasco 

a caixa [e 'kttifsj 
a amendoa 

o vidro [u'viffru] 
a lata [ulatv] 
o pau [upau] de 

o cesto /u'seftu] 
mats [watf] 
a conta [ukontv] 
o lojista 

[ulu' giftu] 
o charuto 

[ufe 'rutuj 

the orange 

the nut, walnut 
the hazelnut, 

to see 
the fig 
the apricot 

the chest 
the almond 

the glass, pane 
the tin box 
the cake of 
the basket 

the bill 
the shopkeepe 

the cigar 

The Complements and the Most Frequent Prepositions. 71 

perto de near to 

a rua [v'rruv] the street 
a praQa the square 

[TS 'prasu] 
esta^ao central central rail- 

do caminho way-station 

de ferro 

ftftv 'svu sen- 

'tralduku 'miyu- 

o portao the portal, 

[pur'tuu] porch 

em forma de in the shape of 

ferradura a horseshoe 


a escada /#?/- the staircase, 

'ka&v] stairs 

o elevador the elevator, 

[ullwv 'fror] lift 
conduz [konduf] .le&&8 
<i plataforma the passengers' 

[uplistv 'form's] platform 

(dos viajantfs) 
nos [nuj] us 

$ubimos we ascend, 

[su'bimufj mount, go up 

.gar. (French) 

estende-se extends, 



a entrada 

o tunnel 

o tnonte 

o comprimento 


o kittmetro 

[hi 'lomdtru] 
o aluguel 

the entry 
the tunnel 
the mountain 
the length 

the kilometre 
the hire, rent 

uma casa de 

a house to be 

aluauel or 

let, a tene- 


ment house 

uma casa minha 

a house of my 



to desire, wish 



to show 



to go 

[vn 'darj 


to pay 

[pu 'gar] 

morar j 


dwell, to live 

viver [vi'verj } 


to offer, 

[upmen 'tar] 


25. Leitura. 
Numa loja. 

Desejo comprar algumas coisas para pessoas amigas e da 
minha familia. Entro n'uma loja. E uma mercearia. Falo 
com o caixeiro que esta atras do mostrador. Elle mostra-me 
varios generos: chocolate, doces, conservas, laranjas, nozes, 
avelas, e diz: V a - Ex a - deseja v6r mais? Ainda tenho nrai- 
tas caixas de passas, de figos e damascos seccos; grande mi- 
mero de latas de conserva, muitos cestos de laranjas, diizias 
de garrafas de vinho doce, saccos cheios de nozes e de amn- 
doas. Compro alguns paus de chocolate, uns vidros com 
doces, duas garrafas de vinho do Porto e mais coisas. Pago 
a, conta do lojista e apresento a um amigo o vinho e uma 
aixa de charutos: a tia um arratel de chocolate; a men 
primo uma lata de conservas, e umas laranjas de Setubal a 
minha irma. 

72 * Lesson 11. 

25a. Exercise. 

The JRocio. 

We live in Lisbon in the Avenida da Liberdade. Near; 
to this street there is the Rocio, a large square. On this 
square is a monument of Peter the Fourth and the Theatre. 
Opposite to the theatre Dona Maria is the central railway 
station Rocio. We enter by a porch in the shape of a horse- 
shoe. By the side of the stairs there is an elevator. By 
means of this elevator we ascend the upper passengers' plat- 
form. The railway platform is behind the passengers' plat- 
form and extends up to the entry of a tunnel which leads 
us through the mountain. This tunnel has a length of some 

Onde mora(m) V a ( s )- Ex a ( s )- . . . o(s) seu(s) amigo(s)? . . . a(s) 

senhora(s) Teixeira? 

Mora(m) n'uma casa de aluguel ou n'uma casa sua? 
A quern da V. o sen lapiz? . . a sua penna? . . . os sens 

livros ? 

Onde compra o seu papel ? . . . os seus charutos ? 
Onde 6 o theatre Dona Maria? 
For meio de qu6 subimos a plataforma superior da 

esta^ao do Rocio? 
Onde e o elevador? 

caes da esta^ao do caminho de ferro, onde e? 
Como se chama a esta9ao? 
Que outra coisa tern o mesmo nome? 
Que ha n'uma [loja de] mercearia? 
Que deseja comprar? 
A quern deseja apresentar o que compra? 

Eleventh Lesson, Li<jao decima primeira. 

The Attributive Adjective in Gender and 

70. The Portuguese adjective is, like its sub- 
stantive, variable in gender and number (cf. Lessons 2 
and 3). There are 2 classes of adjectives: 

1. The qualifying or attributive adjective (adjectivo 
qualificativo or attributive), which attributes to the sub- 
stantive any quality, thus representing the adjective in 
its proper meaning: a grande torre, o homem alto, a 
mesa e redonda. 

The Attributive Adjective in Gender and Number. 73 

2. The determinative adjective, which renders its 
substantive prominent among and distinguishes it from 
others e.g., esta casa, aquelle livro, cada alumno, mmha 
irma, etc. These latter will be treated among the pro- 
nouns (see L. 24). 

71. The attributive adjective divides, according 
to the form, into two classes of adjectives (Please to 
repeat the rules given in 38 40): 

(a) The adjectives unifornies i.e., those with only 
one form for both sexes or genders and consequently 
invariable. They consist of 

1. Those ending in -e, -/, -ar, -az, -is, -oz, -im, 
-ea and -6, and also by -s in a syllable not accentuated 
(cf. 36). 

2. Commum, common also has only one form for 
both genders; and so have the Latin comparatives in 
-or: anterior id., former; posterior id., latter; superior 
id., upper; inferior id., lower; maior greater; menor 
smaller, minor; melhor better; peor worse; etc. As for 
the plural, they follow the rule of the words ending 
by -r: super iores, etc. 

(b) The adjectives Hformes i.e., those which have 
two forms and consequently a special termination for 
the feminine gender. To these belong all adjectives end- 
ing by any other but the above mentioned termination, 

1. Those ending by -o not accentuated and pre- 
ceded by i, u or a consonant: frio, mutuo, justo, bon- 

2. Those ending by -u preceded by a consonant: 
mi, cru. 

3. Those ending by -ao, -eu (-eo), -or (-or), -es (-es), 
-om, -urn: sao, liebreu, tutor, ingles, bom, nenJmm. 

72. Examples. 
A. Adjectives Uniformes. 

Singular. Plural 

Leve [levd] light (of weight) Those ending by a vowel 
verde ['verddj green take an s: 

differente [difd'rentd] id. leves, verdes, differentes 


Lesson 11. 

leal [ti'al] faithful, loyal 


amdvel [v ' 


legivel [If 3 wet] legible 
fdcil ['fasil] easy 
gentil [jen'til] gentle 
azul [v'zul] blue 
singular [sigu'lar] id. 

capaz [kv'paf] capable 

feliz [fd'lif] happy 
veloz [vd'ldf] quick 
ruim [rru'%] bad, naughty 
so [so] only, alone 
femea ['femiv] female 
simples ['slmpP/J simple 

leaes or leais (al becomes aes 

or ais) 
am,dveis (el becomes eis) 

legiveis (el becomes eis) 
fdceis (il not accented: eis) 
gentis (il accented: is) 
asms (ul becomes ues) 
singular es (adj. ending by -r 

take es) 
capazes (adj. ending by az take 


felises (adj. ending by intake es) 
velozes (adj. ending by o#takees) 
ruins (m changes into ns) 
sos (those in 6 add s) 
femeas (those in ea add s) 
simples (s remains unaltered). 

B. Adjectives Biformes. 



Quieto [ki'etu] 
frio [friuj 
formdso (s. 74) 
nu fnu] 
sao [svu] 

christao [krif'tvu] 
alemdo ' 

[kumi ' 
beirdo [bvi'rvu] 


Jiebreu [I' 
judeu [gu'deu 


torto [tortu] 
(s. 74) 

quieta quiet 
fria cold 
formosa beautiful 
nua naked, bare 
sd healthy, sound, 

christa Christian 
alemd German 
aided rustic, rural 
comilona glutto- 
nous, greedy 
beiroa or beird 
of the Beira 
liebrea Hebrew 
judia Jewish 


iorta crooked, 



Masculine. Feminine, 










beiroas or 


Portugueses portuguesas 
tortos tortas. 

73. The feminine form of these adjectives is 
obtained as follows: 

The Attributive Adjective in Gender and Number. 75 

(a) Those ending by unaccented -o change -o into 
branco, branca. 

(b) Those ending b}^ -u, preceded by a consonant, 
-a: cru, crua raw, unripe. 

(c) Those ending in -do lose the -o: vao, vd (or 

N.B. The adjectives augmentativos 1 form their fe- 
minine in -ona : comilao, comilona. - - Beirdo (native of 
the province of Beira) forms beiroa or beird. 

(d) Those ending in -eo (eu) change this diphthong 
into -ea feivj : hebreu, hebrea. 

Exceptions. Judeu, judia; sandeu, sandia foolish. 

(e) Those ending in -or add -a: abrasador, -a 

Exceptions. Incolor colourless; bicolor (tricolor) of two 
(three) colours; multic(ol)or of many colours; semsabor tasteless, 
insipid, which are uniforme. 

(f) Those ending in -es (-eg) add -a: f ranees, 

Exceptions. Cortes courteous, polite; descortes un polite; 
$oez low, vile, which are uniform. 

74. Those adjectives which in their last syl- 
lable but one have close o change this sound into 
open o in the feminine (as well as in the plural) form. 
To these belong: 

1. All adjectives ending in -oso (or -050) : e.g., for- 
moso [fur'mozu], formosa ffur'mosvj; formosos [fur- 
'mozuf], formosas [fur'mozuf]. 

2. The adjectives cMco hatched, brood(ing); grosso 
big; morno tepid; novo new, young; pdrco dirty; torto 
crooked; fern.: grossa ['grosvj, f'mornvj, etc. 

3. The past participle of por to put, and compound 
words e.g., posto ['poftu], posta f'poftv], disposto, -a; 
exposto, -a. 

1 Augmentativos are those adjectives (and substantives) which 
change their ending into or add the syllable -ao, sometimes pre- 
ceded by some intercalary letter or letters, thus expressing high 
degrees of a quality (in substantives an augmentation of shape, 
weight, etc.) e.g., magando (from magano malicious, knavish [per- 
son]); espertalhcio (from esperto brisk) cunning [fellow]. 


Lesson 11. 

Preliminary Remark. By adding the syllable -mente to 
tlie feminine form of the qualifying adjective, we form the 
adverb ; e.g., antigo, antigamente formerly. CompreJiende-se 
facilmente it is easily to be understood. N.B. Sometimes we- 
may employ the adjective form instead of the adverbial, espe- 
cially if accompanied by ser: facil de compreJiender. Elle 
foi direito (instead of direitamente) para casa he went directly 
home. (More particulars will be found under Adverbs.) 


A visita [vd f zita] 

the visit 

a pelle [pzi] 

the skin 

passar Item 

to be in good 


to vest, cover 


(bad) health 


como passou? 

how do you do ? 

particulars ente 


como tern pas- 



sado ? 


oxald [ofu'la]! 

would to God! 

o calgado 

shoes, boots, 

a importancia 

the importance 



[impur 'tvs}u] 

amottecido 1 



to prescribe, 

[umuld' si&u] 

[rrdsisi' tar] 


servem f'szrvvij 


deve ['dtvdj 


tirar de [tirar 

to tear off 

a consequencia 

the con- 


[kos9 'kwesw] 


a beterrala 

red beet, beet- 

apesar de 

in spite of 

[bdtd 'rrabv] 


[epd 'zarddj 


to scrape, 

pleno [plenuj 
diligent e 


a raiz [rns'if] 

the root 



fleshy, pulpous 




fiftufo 'ozuj 






[v 'siffwuj 

o mel [met] 




o vinagre 


fprdmt 'aduj 

[vi 'nagrzj 

a alegria 

the joy, merri- 

azedo [v'zedu] 


[eld 'griu] 






[is 'm argu] 



o xarope 





fkivn 'ffrupdfo] 

o vestudrio 


a vitella 

the calf 



fv} 'tele] 

26. Leitnra. 

A visita. 

Bons dias, minha senhora! Como esta V a - Ex a -? 
Bons dias, sr. doutor! Estou boa, obrigada! E o doutor r 

1 The ending -ido is that of the past participle of the 2 n * 
and 3rd conjugations, the 2nd C onj. having the infinitive in ~er and 
the 8 r d in -ir. 

The Attributive Adjective in Gender and Number. 77 

como tern passado? -- Nao estou muito bom; tenbo estado 
"(or andado) constipado ha algum tempo. Oxala que nao 
seja nada de importancia! Quern, como o doutor, tem de re- 
ceitar saude aos outros, nao dove estar nem ser doente. - 
Hei de fazer para estar bom depressa. E uma consequencia 
do tempo ruim. Apesar de estarmos em pleno^verao, os dias 
estao frios e chuvosos como emnovembro. E verdade, tem 
sido um verao pouco agradavel. Onde esta o filho de V a - 
Ex a -? -- Esta na aula. ^ E um menino muito intelligente. 
- Diligente e assiduo e o que elle e. Foi premiado por ter 
sido o melhor alumno durante o anno passado. Tera sido 
nrua grande alegria para V a - Ex a - E foi. Nao estaria (or 
nao havia de estar) satisfeita, se nao fosse assim. Tendo sido 
-estudioso em rapaz, sera illustrado quando for homem. 

27. Exercicio oral e por escripto. 

First repeat the rules of Lesson 2. 
What is the plural of alto, mdu, orfao, sdo, alemdo, 
<castellao, aldedo, comum, portugues, simples, brutal, azul, fdcil, 
Mbil, cruel, civil, ruim, irmao, bondoso, torto, menor, maior, 
superior, encantador ? 

What is the feminine of the same adjectives? 
What is the plural of the feminine form? 

Join the uniform and biform adjectives to substantives 
of different gender and number; e.g., um pensamento chris- 
-tao, uma obra christa; missionaries christdos; igrejas chris- 
ids, etc. 

28. Translation. 

The quadrupeds are covered with skins. The skins of 
some animals serve particularly to make shoes and boots. 
The skin, after being torn off the animal, is softened and 
scraped. The beetroot is a plant with (de) [a] 1 very thick 
and fleshy root of white or red colour. Out of the white 
beetroot sugar is made. [The] Sugar, [the] honey and 
|the] syrup are sweet; [the] vinegar is sour, and [the] beer 
Is bitter. 


De que sao revestidos os (animaes) quadrupedes? 
Para que 6* que nos servem as pelles dos bois, das vac- 

cas, das vitellas? 

Gomo se prepara a pelle, depois de tirada do animal? 
De que plant a, produzida na Europa, se faz assucar? 

1 The words in [] are not to be translated. 

78 Lesson 12. 

Que parte da beterraba e que serve para fazer assucar ? 

Como & a raiz da beterraba? 

Que qualidade tern o assucar? o mel? o xarope? 

Conheceis fructos que tambem sao doces? 

Que qualidade tern o vinagre? a cerveja? o sal? 

Qual e o gosto das coisas que sao riem doces, nem aze- 

das ou salgados ou amargos? 
Nomeie um liquido que da sua natureza d insipido! 

Twelfth Lesson. Li$ao decima segunda. 

The Position of the Attributive Adjective. 

75. The position of the adjective is greatly 
influenced by: 1. its greater or lesser importance (if 
accented or unaccented), 2. its category, and 3. the- 
harmony of the phrase. 

76. The following rules should be noted: 

1. The unaccented adjective, which, being rather 
ornamental than discriminative, forms a natural in- 
herent characteristic, precedes its noun: um bom livro? 
mau tempo ; a branca neve the white snow ; o doce mel > 
a negra sorte the dark destiny. (Here bom and mau 
are unaccented; branca and doce do not discriminate; 
negra is employed ornamentally and figuratively). Of.:: 
um livro bom, tempo mau, papel branco, fructa doce+ 
capa negra. Of. : 

A interessante crianga uma confer encia interessante^ 

Um simples aperto de mao a simple pressing of the- 
hand; uma phrase simples; um vestido simples. 

Um grande homem a great man. 

um homem grande a tall man. 

Remark. To this group belong also those adjectives 
employed in mere formal addresses, as in writing letters, etc.. , 
e.g., Illustrissimo Senhor, Excellentissima Senhora; de 
ya. -fi x a. attento servidor, respeitoso admirador, etc.; yet in i 
these finishing formulas they may also follow, especially if : 
several are employed to accompany the same noun; e.g., ad- 
mirador respeitoso e gratissimo (abbr. : adm or - resp. - e grat mo -)~ 

2. The accented adjective, which, being rather 
discriminative than ornamental, forms a mere accidental 
characteristic, folloivs its noun. To this group belong r 

The Position of the Attributive Adjective. 

(a) Adjectives denoting nationality, religion, dignity, 
employment, material e.g. : 

A literatura espanhola the Spanish literature. 
um pintor neerlandes a Dutuh painter 

I a igreja cathdlica the Catholic church 
a guarda municipal the town militia 
o governador civil the (Lord) Mayor 
o gado lanifero (or lanigero) wool-bearing animals 
dgua mineral mineral water 
a industria mineira the mining (industry). 

(b) Adjectives denoting qualities perceptible by the 
senses e.g., colour, shape, size, taste, smell, etc. e.g.: 

Uma sola comprida a long hall 
uma janella ogival a pointed or arched window 
uma faca aguda a pointed knife 
um vestido castanho a brown dress 
uma herva aromdtica an aromatic herb 
uma amtndoa amarga a bitter almond, 
(but: uma amarga decepgao, because here the adjective 
is employed figuratively). 

(c) The verbal adjectives or participles e.g.: 
Uma janella pintada a painted window 

a rainha reinante the queen -regent. 

(d) Adjectives accompanied by an adverb or an 
adverbial phrase, such as muito very, pouco little, 
lastante enough, demais or demasiado too, tdo so, etc. 

Uma carta muito extensa a very long letter 

uma tarefa pouco agraddvel a rather disagreeable task 

uma porta demasiado estreita too narrow a door 

um aluguel relativamente barato a hiring of relative 

um Jiomem digno de fe a man worthy of belief. 

3. Many adjectives may precede or follow the noun, 
this being often without any importance, but still 
oftener denoting difference. 

Um bom homem a good- um homem bom an honest 

natured man man 

um pobre homem a poor man um homem pobre an indigent 

(to be lamented, unhappy) man 

certa noticia a certain news uma noticia certa exact tidings 

um bello Jiomem an excellent um Jiomem bello a handsome 

man man 

80 Lesson 12. 

meu caro amigo my dear uma viagem cam an expensive 

friend journey 

uma alto, personagem a high um tecto alto a high roof 


um franco riso a frank a entrada franca free entry 


uma leve duvida a slight doubt um fardo leve a light burden 

meu proprio proceder [pru- uma maneira propria an ap- 

SdderJ my own behaviour propriate manner 

o proprio amor real love o amor proprio self-love. 

77. If a noun is accompanied by several ad- 
jectives, the harmony of the phrase decides the po- 
sition of the adjective, yet without contradicting the 
rules above. Cf. : urn bello dia um dia bello e (and !) 
soallieiro (or: um bello dia soalheiro, as a fine day gene- 
rally is a sunny day; uma grande batalha sanguinolenta 
a great and bloody battle ; but : uma batalha sanguino- 
lenta e victoriosa, as in English ; os tenues ramos floridos 
or os ramos tenues e floridos the thin, blooming twigs, etc. 
78. Though as a rule short adjectives precede 
the noun, there are also those which always follow 
it e.g. : frio, secco, gordo, guente, ameno, etc. 

79. An adjective qualifying two substantives 
must be plural: 

Paulo e Carlos estdo crescidos. 

Paul and Charles have grown, are tall. 

Minlia irma e minha prima sao applicadas. 

My sister and my cousin are diligent. 

If the nouns (or pronouns) are of different genders, 
the adjective is put in the plural masculine, provided 
the nouns denote persons or living beings e.g.: 

Homens e mulheres estavam satisfeitos. 

Men and women were satisfied. 

If, on the contrary, things are spoken of, the gender 
of the last substantive prevails e.g.: 

Contos e anecdotas bonitas, whereas : 
Anecdotas e contos bonitos. 

80. To a noun in the plural are added several 
adjectives in the singular, if each adjective would be ac- 
companied, when alone, by the noun in the singular; 

As linguas inglesa e portuguesa. 

The English and Portuguese languages. 

The Position of the Attributive Adjective. 



A J'abitamo the dwelling 

a trave f'travd] the beam, joist 

[ebiti? 'sen] (-place), habi- 

a viga I'viyvJ the little beam 


or joist 

habitar to dwell, live 

a lenha ['IvyvJ the wood 

o alicerce the foundation, 

o lenho ['Ivyu] the block 

[nli'sersd] basis 

aparar to cut, clip 

a parede the wall 

[vpv 'rarj 

[pe 're&d] 

o machado the axe 

o pavimento the pavement 

[me 'fa&u] 

ipvvt 'mentu] 

a face [fvsd] the side 

o sobrado the^floor 

o quadrado the square, 


[kwv '&ra&u] quadrangle 

assentar to rest, settle 

o rectangulo the rectangle 

cresce [krsf'sa] grows up 

[TVE 'tvgulu] 

seguro [ss'guru] safe 

o telhado the roof 

o casco ['kafkuj the skull 

[tv 'fiaffu] 

geral [&'ral] general 

atelha['tvfiv] the tile 

geralmente, em generally 

assente [v 'sentd] sitting; firm. 



o tijolo [ti'golu] the (burnt) 

a ripa ['rripu] the lath 


o zinco ['zlkuj the zinc 

o adobo [v '&obu] the sun-dried 

a lousa ['lozv] the slate 

brick, adobe 

tornar [tur 'nar] to make 

o barro [ubarru] the clay 


cozido baked 

[ddmuzi'a&u] too (much) 


quente [kente] hot 

cru [IcruJ raw 

inclinado inclined 

a madeira the wood 

[ikli 'nad*u] 


a facilidade the facility 

o madeiro the block 

[fesdlt 'fraffdl 

[nw 'tfuiru] 

a chuva ['fuvvj the rain. 

29. Leitnra. 

A habitagao. 

Os homens habitam em casas. Uma casa tern alicerce, 
parades, pavimentos on sobrados, e telhado. alicerce 
e a raiz d'onde a casa cresce. Sem bom alicerce nao ha casa 
segura. As paredes sao o casco da casa; geralmente sao feitas 
de pedra, mas ha paredes feitas de tijolos e tambem de 
adobos. Os tijolos sao de barro muito bem cozido. Os adobos 
sao tambem de barro, mas cru. Ha barro vermelho e barro 
branco. Os pavimentos on sobrados sao em geral de madeira. 
,0s sobrados assentam sobre vigas que sao madeiros mais on 
menos grosses; e as vigas assentam sobre as traves, que sao 
lenhos grossos e compridos, aparados a machado, com quatro 
faces regulares em rectangulo. telhado e geralmente for- 
mado de telhas assentes sobre ripas. Ha telhados feitos de 
zinco, e tambem os ha feitos de lousa. Mas o zinco e a 

Portuguese Conversation-Grammar. 6 

v2 Lesson 12. 

lousa tornam as casas demasiado quentes no verao. Os te- 
Ihados sao inclinados para deixarem correr com facilidade a 
agua das chuvas. 

(Trindade Coelho : primeiro Livro de Leitura.) 

30. Exercicio oral ou por escripto. 

The verbs of the present tense of No. 29 to be changed : 
1. into the preterite imperfeito, 2. into the futuro, 3. into the 
presente do conjunctiva, 4. into the pret. imperf. do con- \ 

N.B. Cresce(r) forms 1. crescia, 2. crescera, 3. cres^a. 
4. crescesse; assentar forms 1. assentavam, 2. assentarao; 
3. assentem, 4. assentassem; tornar forms like assentar. - 
In the Subjunctive begin each sentence by que. 

Ex.: Os homens habitavam em casas. Uma casa tinha 

alicerce . . . 
Os homens habitarao em casas. Uma casa tera 

alicerce . . . 
Nao ha quern duvide que os homens habitem em 

casas; que uma casa tenha alicerces . . . 
Nao havia quern duvidasse que os homens habi- 
tassem . . . etc. 

31. Tema. 

(The) Portuguese literature is very interesting, but little 
known. The prevailing religion in Portugal is the Catholic. 
In the Museum "das Janellas Verdes" in Lisbon are pictures 
of Portuguese, Spanish, Italian, Dutch, and German artists. 
On (the) Portuguese soil are to be found many springs of 
mineral water. In Germany there are besides the national 
wines also French and Portuguese wines and good German 
beer. Men and women are small in that country. The books 
and letters on the table were open. The Spanish and Italian 
languages are very melodious. Cervantes was a great Spa- 
nish poet, and Raphael a celebrated Italian painter. 


Se fosse rico, estaria mais contente ou feliz? 

Quando eras novo, em que eolle~gio estavas? 

Teremos de continuar a inarcha apesar de estarmos 
cansados ? 

Teve V a - Ex a - a visita d'uns parentes affastados (dis- 
tant) antes de ir ao campo? 

meu amigo (you) falar-lhe-ha, se ella estiver em sua, 

Comparison of the Adjective. 83 

No caso que nao esteja, dara o meu recado? 
E este o caminho para a proxima cidade? 
Esteja V a - Ex a - descansado (easy), que este e o caminho 
certo (right). 

Exercise : Conjugate the phrases of the conversation by 
changing persons, numbers and genders ; as well as 
the interrogative form into the negative or positive, 
or negative-interrogative form. 

Thirteenth Lesson. Licjao decima terceira. 

Comparison of the Adjective. 

81. The comparison of Portuguese adjectives is 
analogous to the compound form of the English. As 
for the Comparative, we distinguish 1. that of a higher 
degree (comparativo de superioridade) and 2. that of a 
lower degree (comparativo de inferior idade). The former 
is formed by putting the adverb mais (more) before 
the adjective, the latter by employing the word menos 
(less) e.g.: 

Positivo. Compar. de sup. Compar. de inferior. 

bello t -a beautiful 1 mais bello, mais menos hello, menos 

bella more beau- bella less beauti- 

tiful ful 

N.B. There is no comparison equivalent to the 
simple or Anglo-Saxon form of English comparison 
e.g.: alto high; mais alto higher; Superlative o mais 
alto the highest. 

82. The Superlative too has two forms; we 
distinguish : 

1. the relative Superlative (superlative relativo or ex- 
clusivo). This compares several objects and denotes that a 
certain quality exists in one of them in the highest 
(or lowest) degree relatively to others of the same kind ; 
excluding these from this same degree. It is formed by 
the words o mais and o menos (cf. 81N.B.), the more 
and the most; 

1 In the comparison the adjective is subject to the same 
rules concerning gender and number as in the positive form. 


Lesson 13. 

2. the absolute Superlative (superlative absoluto or 
simples) which denotes simply that an object possesses a 
quality in a very high degree. It does not compare 
nor select, but attributes in an absolute manner some 
quality in a very high degree. It corresponds to the 
English most preceded by the indefinite article, or to 
the adverbs very, extraordinary, extremely, etc. 

The absolute or simple superlative is formed by 
the ending -issimo added to the adjective (see the follow- ' 
ing Lesson). 

83. There are some adjectives which, besides 
their regular comparison, have an irregular Latin one, 
as well as an absolute superlative. 

Superlative Superlative abso- 

Positivo. Comparative. relative or Into or simples 

exclusive. superlative. 

alto high 

mais alto, su- 

o mais alto, o su- 

(oorum) altissi- 

perior 'higher 

premo, o summo 

mo, supremo, 

the highest 

summo very 

high, (a) most 


bom good 

mais bom (rare), 

o mais bom (rare), 

(o or urn) 6ptimo\ 

melhor better 

o melhor better 

the best. 

mau bad, 

mais mau, peor 

o mais mau, o peor 

(o or urn) pessi- 



the worst 

mo very bad. 


mais grande 

o mais grande 

(o or urn) mdxi- 


(rare), maior 

(rare), o maior y 

mo very great. 


o mdximo the 



mais pequeno 

o mais pequeno 

(o or um) mini- 


more little, 

the most little, 

mo very little, 


menor smaller 

o menor, o mi- 

very small. 

mwothe smallest 

Please to notice that alto in its proper meaning, 
mau in its meaning evil, and pequeno in its meaning 
little, have a regular comparison; cf.: a drvore mais 
alta: a mais alia or a suprema confianga; o summo 
pontifice (pope); o solo mais mau; a medida peor; o pe- 
da%o mais pequeno:, a menor duvida. 

Comparison of the Adjective. 85 

As an outer characteristic of the Latin absolute 
Superlative you may notice that it can be employed 
not only with the definite, but (and mostly) also with 
the indefinite article e.g. : a hora suprema; umaprova su- 
prema (or uma suprema or summa prova) de amor (N.B. 
summo, -a always precedes the substantive. 

84. "Much" before a comparative is bem or 
iituito, which latter is also employed in the form of the 
absolute Superlative: muito or muitissimo melkor; bem 
mais alto, bem maior. These two adverbs, before a 
Positive, are translated by "very" or "most": bem or 
muito simples = very or most simple. 

85. "Little" before a comparative is pouco, 
equally employed in the superlative form: (muito) pouco 

N.B. The adverbs mais and menos, employed in 
the comparison, are themselves comparatives (of muito 
and pouco). 

86. "Than" after a comparative is translated 
by que or do que. By que (or do que), if the 2 nd degree 
of a comparison is employed without a verb; only by 
do que if it contains a verb e.g. : 

A torre e mais alia que, (or do que) uma casa. 
A torre e mais alta do que nos pensamos. 

87. "As . . as" before an adjective in a com- 
parison (comparative d'igualdade) is translated by (tao) 
. . . como e.g.: 

A casa e (tao) alta como uma torre. 

88. "So (much . . .) that" in a comparativo d'igual- 
dade is translated: 

1. by tao . . . que which immediately precedes the 
adjective: Tao adversa nos foi a sorte, que ... so ad- 
verse was Destiny to us, that . . . 

2. by tanto que, which is employed separated from 
its adjective: Tanto nos foi adversa a sorte que . . . 

89. "All the more (so), as," "the (more) . . . the 
(more)" in a comparative is translated by tanto (mais); 
quanto (or que)" e.g.: 


Lesson 13. 

A nossa surpresa foi tanto maior, tanto mais agraddvel, 
quanto (or que} estavamos longe de esperdl-a. 

Our surprise was so much the greater, all the more 
agreeable, as we were very far from expecting it. 

Quanta mais, melhor the more, the better. 

Quanto mais tern, (tanto) mais quer. 

The more he has, the more he wants. 

Remark. Sometimes a Portuguese adjective has the form \ 
of a Comparative without there being a comparison: 

Uma casa por mais modesta que seja, ha de ser limpa. 
However modest be a house, it must be clean. 
Por menos lisongeiro que fosse o nosso acolhimento . . . 
Although our reception was little nattering . . . 


A trovoada 

the thunder- 

eis ahi [eizv'i] that is (the 




o perigo 

the danger, 








a cruz [IcrufJ 

the cross 




a gente [jentd] 



o conductor 

the conductor 

bent como 

as well as 



a electricidade 

the electricity 

o ponto ['pontu] the point 

[ilstrdsi '&a&d] 


elevated, high 

a atmosphera 

the atmo- 



sphere, air 



a pessoa 

the person 


[pd 'son] 

o objeto 

the object 



[obd r $etu] 


o metal [md'tal] the metal 

a probabilidade 

the probability 

de preferencia 

with predi- 




f fiafi] 



to produce 



a descarga 

the discharge 

o local [lu'kalj the locality 



o compartimento the room 

isolado [izu- 



o raio [rraiu] 

the flash of 





cae [kai] 


a chamine 

the chimney 

proximo (de) 

next, near (to) [f-emt'ne] 


\ a altura[at'turvj the height 

Comparison of the Adjective. 

quer diser that is (to say) 

[Tcerdi ' zer] 
2)or exemplo for instance 

pelo menos at least 

aindaque (subj.) though, even 

[v'mdv Ted] 
de mais a mais all the more 

[djmaiz- so, moreover 


[u given 'tar] 
pois que as 

ficar enxarcado 

ficar molliado 

o fato ffatu] 

[u ' 


to suffer, bear 

to become wet 
or drenched 

the clothing 
affected by 

82. Leitura. 
A trovoadct. 

E perigoso estarmos no meio de muita gente durante 
uma trovoada, porque sendo cada pessoa um conductor da 
electricidade da terra para a atmosphera, quanto maior for o 
niimero das pessoas, tanto maior sera o niimero de condu- 
ctores e portanto a probabilidade de se produzir a descarga 
ele"ctriea. As arvores isoladas, os edificios altos etc. sao peri- 
gosos quando ha trovoadas, pois o raio cae primeiro no que 
mais alto, por ser o que Ihe fica mais proximo. Eis ahi por 
que as cruzes altas collocadas sobre as egrejas, bem como o 
ponto mais elevado das torres principalmente quando estas 
terminam em algum objecto de metal mais ou menos agudo 
- sao de preferencia atacados pelo raio. Dentro das casas, 
o melhor local para se estar (for people to stay) durante uma 
trovoada e o meio das salas, dos quartos ou dos comparti- 
mentos, pois quanto mais afastado se estiver das parades ou 
das chamines, menor sera o perigo. 

(Trindade Coelho: Pao Nosso.) 

88. Tema. 

In the field, the best place during a thunderstorm is the 
one, where we are the most separate, 1 [from] and never so near 2 
[to] (de) a tree that the distance of it be less than its height. That 
is [to say,] if, for instance, a tree has 3 a height often meters, 
we must be distant from it by at least ten meters. Even 
if we have 4 to bear the rain and become 5 drenched, all the 
more so as (pois que de mais a mais) (the) wet clothing is 
[a] better conductor than the dry [one]. (The) women are 
less affected by the flash of lightning, than (the) men. 

* See 81 footnote, 
junctive. 5 Infinitive. 

see 88, 1. 3 Gerund. 4 Sub- 

88 Lesson 14. 


Qual e o lo^ar I mais se S ur . \ durante a tro ' 
I menos pengoso J voada: 

(1) dentro das casas? 

(2) no campo? 

Onde e perigoso estarmos emquanto ha trovoada? 

Porque (por que razao)? 

raio, onde cae de preferencia? 


Quando sera menor o perigo de sermos atacados pelo 

Quaes (sao) as pessoas menos attreitas ao raio? 

Fourteenth Lesson. Li<jao decima quarta. 

The Absolute Comparative and Superlative. 

90. As already mentioned ( 82, 2), there is 
beside the relative Superlative an absolute one, and also 
an absolute comparative form of a certain number of 
adjectives. This comparative absolute* is of Latin origin 
and has the accented ending -or. They are the folio-- 

Comparative. Superlative. 

anterior [untdn'or] former, anterior 
posterior [pufidn'or] latter, hinder, 


citerior [sitdn'or] hithermost 

ulterior [uttdn'or] ulterior ultimo ['ultimu] 

exterior [(v)'iftdri' or] outer, exterior, extremo [iftremu] 

interior [vntdri'or] inner, inside, in- intimo ['Intimu] 

superior [supan'or] higher, superior supremo [su'premu], 

summo ['sumu] 
inferior [infen'or] lower, inferior mfimo ['fnfimuj. 

91. Employed in a relative sense i.e., when 
comparing several objects these adjectives are followed 
by the preposition a (to)e .g. : 

A descoberta da America e anterior d da India. 

The discovery of America is anterior to that of India. 

The Absolute Comparative and Superlative. 89 

92. The Superlatives corresponding to the ab- 
solute Comparatives are employed in an absolute sense 
as well as in a relative e.g.: 

A descoberta do Brasil e ulterior d das costas da Africa, 

e a da India e a ultima (rel. sup.) das descobertas. 
Nos ultimos (abs. sup.) seculos os Portugueses nao fizeram 
descobertas de maior valia (= importance). 

Remark. Some of these Comparatives and Superlatives 
are also employed as substantives, as in English. 

93. Most usual is the pure absolute Superlative, 
which, without comparing, denotes a very high degree of 
a quality. It is formed by adding the ending -issimo to 
the root of the adjective, and subject to the same 
inflection v.g.: altissimo, -a (from alto) very high; for- 
mosissimo, -a (from formoso) most beautiful ; extensissimo, 
-a extremely vast. 

94. According to the ending of the adjective or 
its root, a certain number of them undergo a slight 
change in the formation of the superlative absoluto: 

(a) The adjectives ending in -co change this ter- 
mination into -quissimo : branco, branquissimo. (Exc. : 
parco, parsimonious, parcissimo). 

(b) Those ending in -go change it into -guissimo, 
largo, lar guissimo. (Exc. : amigo, befriended, amicissimo; 
antigo, ancient, antiquissimo.) 

(c) Those ending in -0 change this letter into c: 
feliz, felicissimo. 

(d) Those ending in -do (-an) and -m change this 
termination into -(a)nissimo: sao, sanissimo; bom, bonis- 
simoj commum, communissimo. 

(e) Those in -vel form -bilissimo: agradavd, agrada- 

(f) Those in -r and -s form -issimo: particular, par- 
ticular issimo, portugues, portuguesissimo. 

(g) Those ending in -ftco change this termination 
into -ficentissimo : magnifico, magnificcntissimo. 

(h) The following adjectives form the absolute 
Superlative by adding -illimo: fdcil, easy, facUlimo; 
difficil, difficult, difficittimo; humilde, humble, humillimo; 
semelhante, similar, similimo. 

90 Lesson 14. 

(i) The following adjectives form the superlative 
in -errimo: 

acre sharp, acerrimo. 

dspero rough, asperrimo 

celebre famous, celeberrimo 

integro righteous, integerrimo 

livre free, Uberrimo 

misero miserable, miserrimo 

poire poor, pauperrimo 

salubre wholesome, salutary, saluberrimo. 

(k) The following adjectives have an irregular 
Superlative, derived from the Latin form: 

cruel cruel, crudelissimo (beside cruelissimo) 

doce sweet, mild, dulcissimo 

fiel true, faithful, fidelissimo 

frio cold, frigidissimo 

geral general, generalissimo 

nobre noble, nobilissimo 

sdbio wise, learned, sapientissimo 

sagrado sacred, holy, sacratissimo 

simples simple, simplicissimo. 

Note. You must not without any farther consideration 
form an absolute Superlative of any adjective. There are a 
good many of them that do not admit the addition of -issimo. 
If not sure, it will be better to design a high degree of some 
quality by employing muito, bem, summamente, etc. e.g., 
muito meigo, bem cortes, altamente lisongeiro, summamente 
enfadonho (most tedious). 

95. Present Tense of a regular Verb of the 
second Conjugation (in er): 

dever, must, ought, to be obliged to, to owe. 

(For the present tense of the first Conjug. see 64.) 

Eu devo feu 'devu] I must, am obliged, owe. 

tu deves [tu 'dsvifj 1 you must, are obliged, owe. 

elle, ella, V e - deve ['dew] he, she, you must, etc, 

tods devemos [de'vemuf] we must, etc. 

vos deveis [dz'v&f] you must, etc. 

enes t ettas, V as - Ex as - devem ['devvi] they, you must, etc. 

Part.pres.: devendo. Part, passado : devido. 

1 The verbs which in their last syllable but one have un- 
accented short e [9] change this vowel, when accented into close 
e [e], if the last syllable contains o or a; and into open e [e], if' 
the last svllable has an e. 

The Absolute Comparative and Superlative. 


34, Exercise. 

Conjugate by word of mouth and in writing the Present 
and the Compound Perfect (preterite indefinido composto) of 
\.parecer 1 [perd'ser] to seem, 2. enternecer 1 
to affect, move; 3. estender [iften'der] to extend. 

A regiao 


the region o perfume the perfume 

a extensdo the extension 

a myriade the myriad 


[m 1 } 'riv&d] 

ainvejafi'vegvj the envy 

embalsamar to embalm 

o encanto enchantment, [wibalsu'mar] 

[i"k%ntu] charm 

a encosta the slope 

caprichar to make a fancy 


[faepri'far] of ... 

prodigo prodigal 

em . . . 


accumular to heap 

por toda a parte everywhere 

[iskumu 'lar] 

tudo [tu&u] everything 

enlevar fih'var] to rejoice 

perpetuo perpetual 

amar [v'marj to love I [pw'pstwuj 

a maravilha the wonder 

esplender to beam, 

[merie 'vifoj 

['ifplen ' der] sparkle 

raro ['rraru] rare 

o riso ['rrizu] the smile 

a joia [&WQ] the jewel 

a campina the field, plain 

lembrar to remember [kvm'pinv] 

[lem'brar] a cldusula the clause 

a concha ['kofvj the shell ['Wauzulv] 

a saphira the sapphire exequivel practicable 

[sv'fira] [izi'Ttiviwl] 

de dia during day- 

subtil [subd'til] subtile 


tenaz fo'naf] tough, 

engastar-se to be enchased 


[igvf'tarsy] o magistrado the magistracy 

semelhar alguem to resemble [mvgif'tradu] 

[sjm]''fi>ar] somebody a lei [lv}J the law 

o taboleiro the flower-bed | a calamidade the calamity 

a esmeralda 


serpentear to wind, 

[sdrpenft' ar] meandre 

encrustar to incrust 


a crista ['hri/tv] the crest 

o espectaculo the spectacle 

beijar [b&i'jar] to kiss 



com respeito a with respect to, 


a vista the view 

a residencia the dwelling- 

[rasft 1 'densiv] place 

chao, ehd plain 

atroz [v'trjf] atrocious, cruel 

1 c before o and a = $. 

92 Lesson 14. 

audaz [au'faf] audacious poremfpu'rvi] \ , 

feroz [fs'rofl wild, savage | no entretanto j 

particular particular o diadema the diadein. 

r] [diu'&emv] 

35. Exercise. 

Change the followmg adjectives, giving them the form of 
the absolute Superlative. Inimigo acre. Pessoa affavel. Sabor 
agradavel. Mao amiga. Costumes antigos. Inverno aspero. 
Crime atroz. Homem audaz. Boa alma. Papel branco. Su- 
jeito capaz. Autores celebres. Campinas chas. Delicto corn- 
mum. Dor cruel. Questao difficil. Palavras doces. Hora 
feliz. Tigre feroz. Servo fiel. Oausulas exequiveis. Li^ao 
facil. Peia ingratidao. Voz fraca. Agua fria. Phrase hu- 
milde. Magistrado integro. Lei justa. Vista linda. Vontade 
livre. Espectaculo magnifico. Mas novas. Misero estado. 
Accao nobre. Casos particulares. Gente pobre. Termos pro- 
prios. Calculo provavel. Conselho prudente. Diadema rico. 
Verdade sagrada. Sitio salubre. Ares saos. Estilo simples. 
Coisa subtil. Substancia tenaz. Terrivel calamidade. Triste 
situac,ao. Despesa util. Vaos cuidados. 

36. Leitura. 


Portugal 6 uina das mais lindas regioes do mundo. Pe- 
queno em extensao, de nenhum outro deve ter inveja este pais 
de encantos. A natureza parece ter caprichado em accumular 
nelle bellezas de toda a ordem, que enlevam os olhos e en- 
ternecem a alma. Portugal, minha patria bem-amada, es 
uma pequenina 1 maravilha e uma rara joia! Debaixo do teu 
ceu quasi sempre azul, que lembra uma concha de saphira, 
onde de dia se engasta um formosissimo sol e de noite as mais 
bellas estrellas, os teus campos semelham um taboleiro de 
esmeralda, que os rios, serpenteando em todas as direc9oes, 
encrustam de fios de prata. Montes verdes, cobertos d'arvores 
ate as cristas, nao os tern mais pittorescos o mundo todo; - 
e beijados por um clima dnlcissimo, que o perfume de my- 
riades de flores embalsamam na primavera, os teus valles, as 
tuas encostas, os teus campos sao no estio prodigos de fru- 
ctos, e por toda a parte, e em tudo, parece esplender, per- 
pe"tuo, o riso da natureza. (Trindade Coelho: Pao Nasso.) 

37. Tema. 

I got (= had) a most amiable letter from the very 
learned professor. The airs of this region must be extremely 

1 Diminutive of pequena small: a dear little . . . 

The Numeral. 93 

wholesome. Not only are the airs, but also the water is most 
salutary. The climate of the northern countries of Europe is very 
cold and rough, while that of the southern countries is extraor- 
dinarily mild. The Avenida da Liber dade in Lisbon is a very 
large and beautiful street with quite modern houses and 
healthy habitations. In the quarter (of the) Mouraria, how- 
ever, the streets are very strait and steep, showing extre- 
mely poor and miserable little houses. That quarter is very 
old; it is [originates] of the times of the Moors, and conse- 
quently anterior to the Portuguese monarchy. Though it be 
inferior as a dwelling-place, for its views, it is superior to 
any other quarter. 


Que diz oescriptor Trindade Coelho de Portugal? (see 36). 

Em que parece a natureza ter caprichado? 

Que e que lembra o ceu de Portugal? 

Que semelham os campos? 

Como sao os montes? 

Como e o clima? 

Como sao os valles, as encostas, os campos? 

Onde parece esplender, perpetuo, o riso da natureza? 

Fifteenth Lesson. Ligao decima quinta. 

The Numerals. 

Adjectives e Substantives numeraes. 

96. There are to be distinguished three classes 
of numbers: 

1. Cardinal Numbers (mimeros cardinaes); 

2. Ordinal Numbers (numeros ordinaes) and 

3. Multiplicative Numbers (numeros multiplicativos). 

I. Cardinal Numbers. Numeros cardinaes. 

Zero ['eeruj oito [oitu] 8 

urn, uma 1 nove [now] 9 

dots (dous), fern, duas 2 dez [dsf] 10 

tres 3 onze [029] 11 

qiiatro 4 doze [dozd] 12 

cinco 5 trese [trese] 13 

seis 6 quatorse [kv'torzs] 14 

sete 7 quinse [kl89] 15 


Lesson 15. 



cincoenta [stku'entv] 50 

sessenta [sa'sentv] 60 

setenta [sd'tente] 70 

oitenta fo'i'tente] 80 

noventa [nu'ventvj 90 

cem, cento [sut, sentu] 

cento e um 101 

duzentos 200 

tresentos 300 

quatrocentos 400 

quinhentos [ki'yentuf] 500 

seiscentos 600 

setecentos 700 

oitocentos 800 

novecentos 900 

m^ 1000 

wn e Mm 1001 

efows miZ 2000 

cem wiZ 100,000 

zm m^/Mo [mi'Mu] 1,000,000 

dois milhoes 2,000,000. 

um billido a milliard. 

dezaseis [ddzu'suif] or dezeseis 

dezaseteffddzv'sztd] or dezesete 


dezoito [dd'soitu, dd'zottu] 18 
dezanove [ddzu'novd] or 

[vintd] 20 

e wm [vinti'u] 21 

e dfows 22 

e tres 23 

e quatro 24 

e cmco 25 

e seis 26 

e sete 27 
wwte e oito[mnii 'oitu, vln ' 


vinte e nove 29 
^rm^a [trtntv] 30 
trinta e um 31 
tfnwfa e o^o [trZntvwtu] 38 
quarenta [Iwvv'rentv] 40 

97. Observation. 

1. /m and ^ois have a 
duase.g.: Tenho um nariz 
duas maos. 

2. Cento in the plural 
adjective: -centos, -centas e. 
seiscentas balas. 

Remark. A. hundred, one hundred, if not followed by 
another number (but mil or milhao), is rendered by cem 
(without um!): a hundred men cem homens 1 ; but: cento e 
um homens 101 men; cem mil reis; cem milMes de metres 
cubicos. Cento is also employed as a substantive e.g.; 

Quanto custa o cento d'estes 6vos? Um cento custa dois 

mil reis, mas duzentos custam tres mil oitocentos. 
So employed, cento must be preceded by the article and, 
if followed by another substantive, joined to this by de. 

3. Mil is never preceded by ^w^. 1 It must be 
employed to render the English expressions: eleven 

1 Cem, mil as, indeed, any other number, marking a plura- 
lity may be preceded by uns, umas, which means some or about: 
Uns cem homens, umas cem mulheres = some (or about) a hundred 
men. women. 


feminine form: uma an 
e uma boca, dois olhos 

is also inflected like an 
g. : quatrocentos soldados, 

The Numerals. 95 

hundred, twelve hundred, etc. mil e cem, mil duzen- 
tos, etc. 

4. The expression "in the year" is rendered by 
no anno de or simply by em: In the year nineteen- 
hundred and eleven = no anno de (or em) mil nove 
centos e onze. 

5. The number one being preceded by another, the 
substantive follows in the plural form, as in English: 
Mil e uma noites 1001 nights. 

6. The units may be joined to the tenths by the 
conjunction e or by a hyphen: trinta e oito or trinta- 
oito, vinte-um, etc. 

7. The days of the month (except "the first," o 
primeiro) are expressed by cardinal numbers, preceded 
by o, a, em or no dia: the 25 th of May em (or no dia) 
vinte e cinco de maio; the 7 th of August em (or no dia) 
sete de agosto. 

Nasceu a dezoito de junho. 

He was born on the 18 th of June. 

In official writings the plural is usually employed : 

Aos vinte e quatro dias de dezembro. 
On the 24 th of Decembre. 

Note. The names of the months are Janeiro, fevereiro, 
marge y abril, maio, junho, julho, agosto, setembro, outubro, 
novembro, dezembro. They are written with a small letter. 

Trinta dias tern novembro, 

Abril, junho e setembro; 

Vinte- oito terd um, 

E os outros mais: trinta e um. 

The date of a letter is either given as in English, 
as: Lisbon, the 4 th of February, 1911, Lisboa 4 de 
fevereiro de 1911 or: Lisboa, em (or a) 4 de fevereiro 
-de 1911. "What day of the month is it?" = A quantos 
estamos de mez? It is the 2 nd of November: estamos a 
'dois de novembro. 

8. The age of a person is generally expressed by 
ter . . . annos and fazer . . . annos, as: How old are you? 

= quantos annos tern? (or less familiar: Que idade tern? 
>Que idade e a sua? Qual e a sua idade?) I am 56 
vears old = TenJio 56 annos. 

96 Lesson 15. 

Quando faz (or vae 1 fazer 2 ) annos? 

When is (or will be) your birthday? 

(Literally : when do you make (or when are you going 

to make) years?) 

Fago (or vou fazer) annos em quinze de marco. 
My birthday is on the fifteenth of March. 
Quantos annos faz (or vae fazer}? 
How old will you be? 
Faco (farei or vou fazer) doze annos. 
I shall be 12 years old. 

No men dia d 'annos or no dia dos meus (vinte) annos . . , 
On my birthday, on my twentieth birthday. 

Minha irma vae fazer dezoito annos no mes que van. 
My sister will be eighteen years old next month. 

N.B. Minha irma terd 18 annos would be: my sister 
is about 18 years old. 

Elle casou (promoveu, morreu) aos 25 annos de (sua) 

He married (was promoted, died) in his 25 th year. 

98. The multiplication is expressed by vez, veses 
(times) e.g. : 

Quatro vezes cinco (sao) vinte. 
Four times five are twenty. 

Some (or about) 30, 40, etc. is: uns trinta, qiiarenta,- 
or trinta (quarenta) e tantos. 

99. Present Tense of a regular Terb of the 
third Conjugation (in in) dividir [ddVddir 1 ] to divide. 

Divido [dd'vidu] I divide dividimos [dwd'dimuf] we di- 

divides [dd 'viddf] you divide vide 

divide [dd'vidd] he, she di- dividis [ddvd'dif] you divide 
vides, you divide dividem [dd 'vidvi] they divide. 

Part.pres.: dividindo [davz dindu] . 

Part, perf.: dividido [ddvs'didu]. 

Exercise: Write and practise the Present Tense and the 
Participles of the following verbs: 

diminuir [dvminu'ir] to diminish 

repartir [rrdpvr'tir] to distribute, divide, part. 

cumprir [Mm'prir] to fulfil 

reunir [rrdunir] to unite, join. 

Ex. : DiminuOy reparto, cumpro, reuno, etc. 
1 3d pers. of ir to go. 2 to do, make. 3 see p. 5, KB. 

far it' 

as "/ operaroes' 

The Numerals. 


arithmetic a parcella the entry 


firgt four 


a somma [' some] the sum, 

[maif] and, plus (lat.) 

sommar to sum (up) 

miiltiplicar to multiply 


a addigao the addition 

a subtraccao \ 

a'S^cao (^subtraction 

w7/ * ' 

a multiplied- the multiplica- 
rflo [is mult)- tion 

a prova 


o total futu' tat J the totality 
tto iotaZ in the whole 

o resto [it' 'rreftuj the rest 
o numero addi- the minuend 

o numero sub- the subtrahend 


e assim em 

o si/sterna 

and so on 

a divisao the division 

o problema the (arithmeti- j 
[upru'blemv] cal) problem | 

systema the system of 

[sif'temv] de numeration 

the value 
the census 
to increase. 

o valor 
o censo 

38. Leitura. 

A Ugdo d'arithmetica. 

As quatro operacoes fundamentaes da arithmetica sao as 
seguintes: sommar, diminuir, multiplicar e repartir, ou 
'addi9ao, subtrac^ao, multiplica9ao e divisao. - - Exemplo de 
uma somma: tenho seis (6) ma9as e dao-me mais quatro (4): 
.coin quantas maQas fico? Eesolve-se pela somma: 6 mais 4 7 
dez (10). Fico com 10 ma9as y 6 chama-se uma parcella; 
4 e outra parcella; 10 e a somma ou total. Outro exemplo: 
vamos reunir os numeros sete centos e trinta e seis (736) e 
quatro centos e vinte-um (421) n'um so numero: a somma e" 
mil cento e cinquenta-sete (1157); isto e: 736 mais 421 6" 
igual a 1157. Este ultimo numero 6 formado de 4 algaris- 
mos, dos quaes o ultimo, 7, indica as unidades, que formam 
a, primeira columna; o penultimo, 5, a classe das dezenas ou 
i segunda columna; o antepenultimo, 1, a das centenas ou 
terceira columna; e o primeiro a dos milhares que vem a ser 
i quarta columna. - - Agora vamos fazer uma subtrac9ao, 
irando do numero oito mil quatro centos e sessenta-oito (8468) 

Portuguese Conversation-Grammar. 7 

Lesson 15. 

o numero cinco mil trezentos e vinte-um (532 Ij. primeiro 
numero e o additive, o segundo o snbtractivo, e o resto e 
tres mil cento e quarenta-sete (3147). Para fazer a c 
dizemos assim : de 8 tirando 1 ficam 7; de 6 tirando 2 fica: 
de 4 tirando 3 fica 1 etc. Podemos tambem operar diz 

1 para 8, 7; 2 para 6, 4; 3 para 4, 1; 5 para 8, 3 
(Trindade Coelho: Pao 

39. Exercise. 

We have ten fingers on our two hands and tr 
on onr two feet; we may (== podemos) therefore say 
ten is a natural number for numeration, and, as every one 
knows, ten is the number on which our system of numeration 
is based. Ten thousand plus one thousand plus one hundred 
plus ten plus one, is written 11,111, that is: eleven thon 
sand one hundred and eleven. The first number on the 
signifies so many units, the next to the left so many hun- 
dreds, the next so many thousands, and so on, the value 
of each place increasing tenfold (see 106), as we go front 
right to left Thus 200,000 + 40,000 + 5000 + 700 + 90 + 3 
is two hundred and forty-five thousand seven hundred and 
ninety-three, 245,793. 

At the census of 1905 the population of the ten mos 
populous towns of the world was the following: 1. (see 106] 
London, with 4,715,000; 2. New York with 3,476,000; 
3. Paris with 2,764,000; Berlin with 2,040,000; 5. Vienna 
with 1,870,000; 6. Tokio with 1,820,000; 7. Chicago with 
1,699,000; 8. Philadelphia with 1,294,000; 9. St. Petersb^B 

with 1,265,000; 10. Constantinople with 1,125,000 inhate 
tants. As Portugal at the census of the year 1900 has j 
5,423,132 inhabitants, that whole country has only aboot 
708,000 more than the capital of England. 

Conversaf-ao com inn menino. 

menino em que dia e mes Fa^-o annos era 25 de maio. 

faz annos? 
Entao ainda nao fez annos Nao fiz ainda, hei de faz&l- 

n'este anno? os no proximo mes. 

Seu irmao ja tern 16 annos Ja, sim, minha senhora; j 
feitos? os fez ha quinze dias, em 

18 de marco. 

Quantos annos tern (a) sua Tera 21 annos; nasceu 
prima Dona Virginia? 1889. E verdade (if 

vae fazer 22 no mez 

The Numbers. 


Ha quantos annas o 
ja Yae a escola? 

^nantos alnmnos ha na sna 

Xao ha elasse, em qne o nu- 

mero dos alnmnos chega a 

1 que hora corner -am as aulas ? 

Entrei (I entered) no primeiro 
de abril do anno passado, 
logo (so) ha ponco mais de 
um anno qne ando (I go) 
na escola. 

Havera 50 e tantos. 

Nao ha, nao, minha senhora: 
o maximo e de 60; somos 
ao todo 519 em toda a esool*. 

Xo verao come^am as 7, e no 
inverno as 8. 

sixteenth Lesson. Licao decima sexta. 

The Numbers. 
IL Ordinal Numbers. Xumeros ordinaes. 

100. The ordinal numbers are formed out of 
he cardinal numbers and considered adjectives i.e.. 
hey are subject to the same inflection (feminine and 
>lural form): primeiro, -a, -os, -as. Their formation 
rom the unite is altogether irregular; there are besides 
uso some modifications preceding the termination -esimo 
dded to the number beyond vinte, as will be seen 
>y the following. 

The ordinal numbers are generally put before the 
oun; they are: 

o dedmo quarto the 14 th 
o dedmo qmnto the 15 th 
o dedmo sexto the 16 
o dedmo setimo the 17 th 
o dedmo otiavo the 18 th 
o dedmo nono the 19* 
o vigemmo [vi'^zimu, irizt- 

simu] the 20* 
o mgesimo primdro the 21 

[prim'etru] the 1 st 
9tmmdo l&'gunduj the 2^ 
teredro [tor'sinruj the 3^ 
quarto [kwaartu] the 4* 
o [tint*] the 5* 
/*/*/ the 6* 
t> r***~] the 7* 
> /bt'tew/ the 8* 
fnonuj the 9* 
&dmo I'dfstmvJ the 10* 
**^n'*o or dedmo primdro, 
o onzeno [ozenu] the 11* 
[duu'otsimu] or 
segundo the 12* 
ferwaro the 13th 

the 50* 
o quadragesimo [kuedrv ] 

the 40* 
o qumquagesimo [ktcthn> 1 

the 50* 

100 Lesson 16. 

o sexagesimo (szksv J the o quadrigentesimo the 400 th 

60 th o qmngentesimo [kwigent ] 
o septuagesimo [septw? ] the the 500 th 

70 th o sfxcentesimo [sefsen'tczimu] 
o octogesimo [oMu ] the 80 th the 600 th 

o nonagesimo [none ] the o septingentesimo the 700 th 

90 th o octingentesimo the 800 th 

o centesimo [sen'tssimu, sen- o nonigentesimo the 900 th 

'tcsimu] the 100 th o millesimo the 1000 th 

o centesimo primeiro the 101 st o millionesimo the 1,000,000 th 

o ducentesimo the 200 th o penultimo the last but one 

o trecentesimo the 300 th o ultimo the last. 

101. Use of the Numbers. 

1. To distinguish monarchs of the same name, 
ordinal numbers are used as for the units, like in 
English, but without the Article e.g.: Eduardo Setimo; 
Dom Manuel Segundo, Dom Pedro Quarto. With the 
tens the cardinal numbers are generally employed : Luis 
Quatorze; but Henrique Trigesimo segundo de Eeuss. 

2. To catalogue books, chapters, etc., cardinal as 
well as ordinal numbers may be employed ; in this latter 
case they generally follow the noun: Tomo segundo or 
dois; capitulo vigesimo terceiro or vinte-tres; pagina de- 
cima oitava or dezoito. 

3. Fractions (fracgoes) are mostly expressed by 
a . . . parte e.g.: a terga, quarta, quintaparte; as quatro 
decimas (paries), etc. They may, however, also be ex- 
pressed by the substantivated ordinal numbers e.g.: 

| meio, meia (without the 1 U um quarto 
1 /2 | article) 3 /7 tres setimos 

\ (a) metade 7 /io sete decimos 

J /s um tergo 3 /s tres oitavos. 

Partly is em parte; for the most part = pela maior part. 


Half a meter of cloth meio metro de panno. 

Half a bottle of wine meia garrafa de vinho. 

I got half of the money recebi (a) metade do dinheiro. 

6 x /2 metres of linen seis metros e meio de panno de 

2 x /2 yards of silk duas varas e meia de seda. 

The Numbers. 101 

4. Fractions smaller than a tenth are sometimes 
formed by adding -avo to the cardinal numbers, as : 
1 /ii urn onsavo (better: um undecimo, uma undecima 
parte or uma decima primeira parte ; 3 /5o ires cinquentavos. 

5. The decimal numbers (niimeros decimaes) are: 
1 10 um decimo Viooo um millesimo 

Vioo um centesimo ^jioooo um decimo -millesimo 

or uma decima, centesima, millesima parte, etc. 

102. Division of Measures and Weights. 

o metro f'metru] the metre 

o decimetro [dd'simotru] the decimetre 

o centimetro [sen'timdtru] the centimetre 

o millimetre [md'limdtru] the millimetre 

o decdmetro [dd'kamdtru] the decametre 

o hectometre [sk'fonidtruj the hectometre 

a medida linear [mddidv lini'ar] the lineal measure 

a medida de superficie a superficial measure 

a medida de volume the cubic measure 

a medida de capacidade [kupvsi' dadd] the measure of 


a medida dp peso [pezu] the measure of weight. 
o gramma ['grvmu] the gram 
o kilo(gramma) [kilu'grvmv] the kilogram 
o decigramma [desi'grvmv] the decigram 
o centigramma [senti grvmv] the centigram 
o decagramma the decagram 
o hectogramma the hectogram 
o metro quadrado the square metre 
o metro cubico the cubic metre 
o litro f'litru] the liter 
o decilitro [disd'litru] the deciliter 
o hectolitro fekh'litru] the hectoliter 
a tonelada [tum'lada] (= 13 J /2 quintaes) the tun 
o quintal [fan 'tat] the Portuguese quintal (of 58 3 /4 kilos) 
o quintal metrico two hundredweights. 

103. Division of Time. 

Names of the Days. 

Domingo [du'migu] Sunday quinta feira Thursday 

segunda feira [fvirv] Monday sexta feira Friday 

terca feira Tuesday sabbado f'sabvdu] Saturday. 
quarta feira Wednesday 

102 Lesson 16. 

104. Observations. 

1. On Monday, on Tuesday, etc. is na segunda 
(feira), etc. or only segunda feira, etc.; feira is often 
omitted. You may also write with a hyphen : segunda- 
feira, terga-feira, etc. 

2. The names of the days are written with a small 

3. For the dates see 97, 7. 

4. The hours of the day are expressed by the 
cardinal numbers: 

What o'clock is it? Que horas sao? 

It is one o'clock, half past one e uma hora, e hora e 


It is two o'clock sao duas horas. 
It is half past three sao tres (horas) e meia. 
It is a quarter past 4 sao quatro (horas) e (um) quarto. 
At what o'clock a que hora(s)? 
At 7, 8, 9 (o'clock) as sete, oito, nove (horas). 

T , . , . / sao cinco menos um quarto. 

It is a quarter past 5 > { , um ^^ pam a * dnco 

It is noon e meio-dia, sao as doze da noite. 

It is midnight e meia noite, sao as doze do dia. 

About noon pelo meio dia. 

About one o'clock pela uma hora. 

About 2 o'clock pelas duas horas. 

The train starts at ten minutes to 7 o comboio sae as 

7 menos 10. 

It is striking ten o'clock dao or estao a dar dez horas. 
Has it already struck eleven? Jd deram as onze? 
It will strike immediately . . . vao dar agora (doze horas). 
It has just struck eight acabam de dar as oito. 

5. Indicating a day-time by a certain hour, the 
Portuguese says: da manha, da tarde, da noite e.g.: 
as dez da manha, da noite; as quatro da tarde, at ten 
o'clock in the morning, at night; at four in the 
afternoon. If the day-time is not precisely indicated, 
he says de manha, de tarde, etc., or pela manha, pela 
tarde, etc., in the morning, in the afternoon: Irei de 
tarde, I shall go in the afternoon. 

6. The expressions: a quarter of a year, half a 
year, etc., should be rendered by three months, six 
months, etc., as: tres meses, seis. meses (or meio anno), 

The Numbers. 


HOi'c wiws. etc. A week : uma scmana or oito dias. A 
fortnight, qiiinze diets. 

105. The numeral adverb is expressed by the 

I 'responding ordinal. 
First(ly) is primeiro or primeiramente or em primeiro 
Secondly is segundo or segundamentc or em segundo 
Thirdly is terceiro or terceiramente or em terceiro lugar. 


A parte inteira the whole 

a linha /'liyvj 

the line 

a parte deci- 



to value 




a dizima 


o conjuncto 

the totality 




a operaqao 

a ajuda 

the help 


the decimal 


a opera$ao 

operation a porcao 

the portion 

de dizima 

[pur svu] 

ao contrario de to the con- 

seccos [sekuf] 

dried fruit 

trarv of 

o feijao 

the bean 

consistir de, em to consist of, /M'j^w/ 

in a balanga 

the wages 


to separate [bu'lunsfi] 

a mrgula 

the comma o anno bissexto 

the leap-year 



a casa 

the partition, intercalado 



intdrkis Iciuul 

cada um 

each (one) o seculo 

the century 

a letra 

the type f'sekidu] 

o systema 

the metrical a era ferx] 

the Christian 

metrico fsif- 

system christao 


'temv'msiriku] o solsticio 

the solstice 

o meridiano 

the meridian 



o equinoxio 

the equinox 



[il&> 'noks^u] 

[tor 'reftnj 


to be sufficient 

o ylobo [globu] 

the globe 

a primavera 



[prime 'vervj 


to indicate 

o verao \ 




. o guadrante 

the quadrant 

o estio [tf'tiu] } 


o outomno 



to derive 

[o 'tonuj 


to measure 

o inverno 


a saber 



a e.'ctetisao 

the extension 

a Pascoa 


fj-ften 'swj 



Leeson 16. 

o Pentecostes Whitsuntide 


to arrange. 



to embale 

a mala f'maluj 

r the box 

a guia ['gw] 

the luggage- 


vou [vou] 

I go, am going 

vd [vaj 


ate logo 


ate jd fa] 

till presently. 

o dia do anno New Year's Day 

novo or do 

anno bom 
darasboas festas to send the 

(pelo anno greetings of 

novo, pela the season 

Pdscoa, pdo 


o Natal [nv 'tat] Christmas 
levar to take 

40. Leitura. 

systema decimal ou meirico. 

Ao contrario do niimero inteiro, o qual tern so uma parte, 
o numero decimal consiste sempre de duas partes, separadas 
por uma virgula. A parte que fica a esquerda da \rirguia, 
chama-se parte inteira; a que fica a direita da virgula, 
chama-se parte decimal e tambem dizima: e cada uma das 
suas letras represents uma casa. A parte inteira indica uni- 
dades; a parte decimal indica fraceoes ou partes da unidade. 
primeiro algarismo d'uma parte decimal indica decimas, o 
segundo indica centesimas; o terceiro, se o tiver, indicara 
Hiille"simas ; o quarto decimas millesimas. -- systema metrico 
tern por unidade o metro. metro e uma medida. Esta 
medida e" igual a decima millionesima parte do quarto (ou 
quadrante) do meridiano terrestre. Do metro derivam todas 
as medidas, a saber: 1. as medidas lineares, com que medi- 
mos o comprimento ou extensao das coisas: das linhas por 
exemplo; 2. as medidas de superficie, com que avaliamos 
no seu conjuncto as coisas que teem ao mesmo tempo com- 
primento e largura, como um campo; -- 3. as medidas de 
volume, com que avaliamos no seu conjnncto as coisas que 
teem ao mesmo tempo comprimento, largura e altura, como 
e, por exemplo, uma sala, ou uma porcao de lenha ou de ma- 
deira de comprimento igual ; 4. as medidas de capacidade, 
com que medimos liquidos: por exemplo, vinho ou azeite; e 
sSccos, como p. ex. trigo ou feijao; -- 5. e finalmente, as 
medidas de peso, com as quaes avaliamos, com ajuda de uma 
balanQa, o peso das coisas. 

(Trindade Coelho: Pao Nosso.) 

41. Thema. 

The Year and its Divisions. 

The first day of a year is New Year's Day. The 
year is divided into 4 seasons (Spring, Summer, Autumn and 

The Numbers. 105 

Winter) 12 months, (January, February, March, April, May, 
: June, July, August, September, October, November, and De- 
cember), 52 weeks, and 365 days. A leap-year has one day 
more (= a mais} namely, 366 days. The intercalary day 
is the 29 th day of the 2 nd month, which is denominated Fe- 
bruary. (The) September was formerly the seventh, October 
the eighth, November the ninth, and December the tenth 
month of the year ; actually (= to-day) these months are the 
ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth. The week-days are for the 
most part (pela sua maior parte) indicated by "feira" i.e., 
fair, whereas the Sunday, as the day of the first fair, is not 
indicated as such (== como tal), but as the day of the 
i Lord (domingo being derived from Dominus the Lord). The 
week has 7 days, and the day has 24 hours; every hour 
counts 60 minutes and every minute as many seconds. In 
the year take place two equinoxes: on the 21 st of March and 
the 23 rd of September, and two solstices : on the 22 nd of June, 

2 days before Saint John's, and on the 22 nd of Dezember, 

3 days before Christmas. On Christmas, New Year's Day, and 
Easter we send greetings of the season to our friends. The 
31 st of December is the last day of the year. A hundred 
years form a centary. We live in the twentieth century 
of the Christian era. 

No Hotel. 

! A que horas deseja V a - Ex a - V g - chame-me as sete e meia. 

ser acordado? 

E o almoco a que horas o Tres quartos de hora mais 

deseja? tarde, as oito e um quarto. 

Va. g x a. j a vae partir no com- Vou. V 6 - arrange-me um trem ; 

boio das nove e dez? quantos minutos leva ate a 

esta^ao ? 

i Levara doze minutos quando Entao basta que o carro ca 

muito. esteja as nove menos cinco. 

* E a bagagem V a - Ex a - le- Nao, senhor. Ja esta tudo 

va-a no carro? emmalado; as malas podem 

ir ja para a estacao. senhor 
leve-as para baixo! 

Sim, senhor. Vou ja despa- Quando trouxer (fut. conj. 
eha-las e entregar-lhe a guia. of trazer) a guia, traga 
V a Ex a - manda mais al- (imper. of traser) tambem 
guma coisa? uma chicara de cha! 

As ordens de V a - Ex a - ; ate" logo ! Va com Deus ! ate ja ! 

106 Lesson 17. 

Seventeenth Lesson. Li<jao decima setima. 

Numbers (Continued). 
III. Multiplicative Numbers. 

106. The nmltiplicatives (mimeros multiplica- 
tivos) are: 

Simples simple o dobro (de) 

-a I o triplicado, triplice, pop. o 

triple threefold tresdobro, the triple 

quadruple, -a fourfold (o) sextuple* septuple, octuple, 

quintuple, -a fivefold decuple, centuple (the) 6, 7, 

o inteiro the whole 8, 10, 100 fold 

multiplu manifold. 

All the other multiplicatives are not used; they 
are generally periphrased (as, indeed, also most of the 
mentioned may be) by the numbers of repetition (w&- 
meros iterativos) ; uma vez, duas vczes, etc. e.g. 2 X 2 
= 4, duas veses dois sdo quatro. Elle e cem veses mais 
rico do qiie CM, he is a hundred times richer than I. 

107. The most important collective Numbers 

(mimeros collectives) are: 

Urn par a pair, a couple (urn par de luvas; urn par de 


urn casal de rolos a brace of doves 
lima duzia a dozen 
meia duzia half a dozen 
duzia e meia one dozen and a half 
uma groza or doze duzias a gross 
uma quinzena fifteen 
una vintena a score 

uma trintena, quarantena some thirty, forty 
uma sessentena threescore, sixty 
urn quarteirao twenty-five 
uma centena, um cento a (or some) hundred 
urn milhar, um milheiro a (or some) thousand. 

1 Vae, present of ir = to go: vou, vaes, me, vdmos, ides, vao. 

2 Fazer to do, make, is irregular: Pres.: fago, fazes, faz, 
etc.; Pret.: fis, fizeste, fez, fizemos, fizestes, fizeram. Pan.: feito. 

The Numbers. 107 

108. The Augmentatives and Diminutives. 

Augmentativos [aumentv'tim<f] e diminutives 

[ddminu 'tivtifj. 

As the ending -issimo modifies the adjective, other 
terminations, peculiar only to the Portuguese langu- 
age, modify the original meaning of substantives: cer- 
tain terminations add to the noun the idea of some- 
thing unusually hig (or clumsy or grotesque), they 
augment some quality already prominent, while others 
add the notion of littleness, daintiness; they diminish a 
quality already existing. It is easily understood that 
the former convey an idea of antipathy, while the 
latter indicate one of sympathy or pity. 

109. To form the Augmentativos, we add to the 
noun the syllable -ao (fern.: -ona), sometimes modified 
also according to the ending of the substantive. To 
form the Diminutivos, we employ the ending -inho, -inlia 
or -ito, -ita. Those derivations which intercalate a --, 
generally denote only size without any secondary 
meaning e.g.: cadeirazinlia = a little chair, while 
cadeirinka means a sedan(-chair). 

The employment of both the augmentative and 
the diminutive modifications takes place only in familiar 
intercourse, and may be avoided by a foreigner. Here 
we bring them to the student's notice to enable him 
to understand those words and for the sake of com- 

1. Augmentativos (termination -do). 

garrafao [gmrie'fuu] the great bottle (of a gar- 


urn bofetdo [bufd'tvu] a heavy slab (of a bofetada) 
palavrdo [pelv'vruu] a long and difficult (also: an 

ugly) word (of palavra) 
o casacdo /ftvev'&jft*/ great-coat (of casaco) 
o papelao [pups' luu] thick paper, pasteboard (of 

o papdo [pv'pvu] bugbear (of papar devour or papas 

o homenzarrao [omutev'rrvu] the great (or important) 


o mocetao [musd'tuu] \ big fellow (of moco young man) 
o rapagdo [rrvpv'gvu] f great boy (of rapaz the boy). 

108 Lesson 17. 

6. Diminutives (termination -(g)inho, -(z)ito, etc.). 

Masculine. Feminine. 

liomenzinlio the little man A mulherzirilia the little wo- 
a mulherinha the intriguing 


o filhinho the little son a filhinha the little daughter 

o rapazito, o rapazinho the a rapariguita, a rapariguinlia 

little boy the little maid 

o caozinlw the little dog a cadellinha the little bitch 

o pobrezmho the little poor a probreziriha the poor (or 
person or beggar beggar) maid. 

coitadinho, -a poor darling! 

Familiar language also adds to certain adjectives 
and even to adverbs the diminutive endings. loni- 
tinJia she is rather pretty; estd melliorzinlia she feels a 
little better; uma casa pequenina quite a small house; 
die estd grandinho he is rather tall (for his age); ella e 
boasinha she is a dear little thing. 

110. Examples from Portuguese Authors. 

Velho tao velhinho nenhum outro havia . . . 
Para cumprir cem annos Ihe faltava urn dia, 
Ha noventa e quatro que 6ra ja pastor 1 , 
Zagalzinho 2 alegre, desde tenra infancia. 
Ja de surraosito 3 cheio a tiracol 4 

Branqueadinho 5 a neve 6 e doiradinho 7 a sol. 

Gruia o jumentinho 8 uma velhinha errante . . 

A molheirinha 9 atras, o jumentito adiante! 

Descalcinha 10 e pobre . . 

Pobres de pobres (= the poorest of the poor) sao pobresinhos . . . 

Alvas ermidinhas 11 sob azues maguados 12 . . 

Ao filhinho a noite nao Ihe causa medo . . . 

Uma igrejasinha que e como um pombal 13 

Nao se esquece da vaquinha 14 loira 16 

Que se poz de joelhos ante a mangedoira 16 , 

Qnando nas palhinhas 17 dormitava 18 Deus 19 . 

1 Herdsman. - shepherd. 3 bread-bag. 4 a tiracol in 
bandoleer-belt. 5 branqueado whitewashed. 6 by the snow. 
7 doirado gilded i.e., made brown. 8 o jumento ass. 9 moleira 
the miller's wife. 10 descalga barefooted. n ermida hermitage. 
12 magoado = bruised ; here violet-blue. 13 dove-house. 14 vacca 
cow. 15 bright yellow, fair. 16 manger ; crib. 17 palha straw. 
18 slumber. 19 Deus for Jesus. 

The Numbers. 




the multi- 

tirar [tirar] 

to subtract 



o ultimo 

the last 

feito [fixtu] 

executed, made, 

o penultimo 

the last but 


[up<) 'nuttimoj 


o multiplicador 


o antepenultimo 

the antepenult 

1 in uttsp li KB 


os factores 

the factors, 

o primeiro 



submultiples [pri'muiru] 

o producto geral 

the total (sum) primeiro 


o producto par- 

the quota saber ['svber] 

to know 

tial [upru- 



'ftutu pvr- 


f stal] 



a unidade 

the unit 




a dezena 

the ten 

dar um trago 

to draw a line 



a conta [vkontv] 

the account; 

por baixo 



[pur baixuj 

a centena 

figure marking 

chegar [f'l'qar] 

to arrive, reach, 


the hundreds 

to mount to 

o milhar 

figure marking apurar 

to make clean, 


the thousands [vpu'rar] 

to obtain 

a eolumna 

the column a virgula 

the comma 



a taboada 

the nmltiplica- a potencia 

the power 

[utvfiu' cifrv] 

tion-table [pu'tesiv] 

dao-me [dvumd] 

they give me, o numerador 

the numerator 

I am given o denominador 

the denomina- 

re solver 

to resolve 



j o resto 

the remainder 

ramos ['vemuf] 

we go; here: valente 


we are going i ao par 

at par 

to . . ., we 

o principe 

the Crown 




fazer [fvzer] 

to make 

42. Problemas de multiplica^ao. 

Para saber multiplicar 6 precise saber primeiro a ta- 
boada. Eis aqui um exemplo de multiplica9ao : dao-me de- 
zeseis ma^as por dia durante quatro dias: quantas ma^as me 
dao ao todo? Este probl^ma resolve-se pela multiplica9ao. 
multiplicando 16 6 multiplicado pelo multiplicador 4. 
producto e egual a sessenta e quatro. Vejamos (Let us see) 
agora como e practieamente feita a multiplica9ao seguinte: 
Trezentos e vinte e oito a multiplicar por quarenta e cinco. 
Collocam-se os dois factores (nome commum do multipli- 

110 Lesson 17. 

cando e do inultiplicador) um debaixo do outro, e, tendo dado 
um trac,o por baixo, dizemos assim : cinco vezes oito, quarenta. 
Escrevemos o ultimo algarismo, zero, e vao quatro (tr.: we 
carry four); cinco vezes dois, dez, e quatro, quatorze; escre- 
vemos quatro e vae um (= we carry one)-, cinco vezes trSs, 
quinze, e um, dezeseis. Apuramos assim o primeiro producto 
parcial, e mil seiscentos e quarenta. Depois de apurado da 
mfisma maneira o segundo producto parcial, de trezentos e 
vinte e oito por quatro, sommamos ambos para obtermos o 
producto geral que vem a ser: quatorze mil setecentos e ses- 

Uma e uma certa parte d'um todo. Ha frac- 
e.6es decimaes das quaes so se escrevem (= are written) os 
numeradores, sendo o denominador dez ou alguma potencia 
de dez e fracc,6es vulgares. Emquantoque as primeiras 
sao escritas n'uma linha com a parte inteira, separadas d'ella 
apenas por uma virgula, as ultimas expressam-se em (se) 
escrevendo tanto o numerador como o denominador (transl. 
both num. and den.), com um trao entre elles 2 /s = dois 
ter9os; 5 /is = cinco decimo oitavos. Um dia e uma vigesima 
oitava, vigesima nona, trige"sima ou trige"sima primeira parte 
de um mez. Trindade Coelho: Pao Nosso. 

43. Exercise. 

How little does one half of the world know how the 
other half lives! How many more apples have I than you, 
if I have 7 /i2 of a dozen, and you the remainder? 6 is three 
times the fourth part of 8 ; because the fourth part of 8 is 2, 
and 6 is 3 times 2. Twice five times five is half a hundred. 
When I was young, I thought that five hundred years ago (the) 
men where twice as strong, and twice as wise, and much 
braver, and a thousand times happier than now. Portuguese 
money is also subject to the decimal system : a hundred reis 
form a tostoon, ten tostoons make up mil reis, and a thou- 
sand times tail reis i.e., a million of reis is a conto. An 
English pound is worth about four thousand five hundred reis 
when the exchange is at par. Twenty reis are a vintem and 
225 reis correspond to a shilling, while a tostoon corresponds 
nearly to sixpence. The deposed king of Portugal, Manuel II. , 
ascended to the throne on the 1 st - of February, 1908, the day 
on which his father, king Charles I., and his elder brother, 
the Crown Prince, were shot. 


Quaes sao as quatro ope^oes fundamentaes ? 

De quantos algarismos 6 formado o numero de 17.580? 

Regular Verbs. Ill 

Jual e a primeira columna, e que classe de niimeros 

contem ? 
Quaes sao as mais classes? 
Onde se escrevem as fraceoes decimaes e como? 
Como se escrevem as fracsoes vulgares? 
Porque se chamam as primeiras decimaes ? 
Como se charnam os tres niimeros que prefazem uma sub- 

Como se chamam os tres niimeros que prefazem uma mul- 

tiplica 93,0 ? 
Em que anno subin ao throno o rei D. Manuel de 

Em que anno subiu ao throno a rainha Victoria de 

Inglaterra ? 
Quando morreu ella? 
Quantos annos reinou o rei Eduardo? 
Em que anno e mez morreu? 
Quern 6 que reina na Alemanha? 

Que e que se entende por augmentativos e diminutives ? 
Como sao formados? 
Qual e o systema de medidos, contos e pesos, de que 

as naQoes do continente se servem? tirou a norma para o systema metrico? 

Eighteenth Lesson. Li<?ao decima oitava. 

Regular Verbs. Verbos regulares. 

111. By the termination of the infinitive mood 
we distinguish three different forms of conjugation viz. : 

The 1 st conj. with the infinitive ending in -ar, as: 
comprar to buy. 

The 2 nd conj. with the infinitive ending in -er, as: 
vender to sell. 

The 3 rd conj. with the infinitive ending in -?>, as: 
partir to depart. 

N.B. These terminations have always the tonical 

112. That part of the verb before these termi- 
nations is the root, which in regular verbs remains 
unaltered. Those termination letters which characterise 
the different persons and tenses, are added to the root. 


Lesson 18. 

113. We distinguish: 

1 . Forms where the root has the tonical accent ; and 

2. Forms where the termination has the tonical 

Every verb has 11 of the former viz.: 
Pres. ind. : singular and 3 rd pers. of the plural (4) 
Pres. subj.: (4) 

Imperative: (3). 

All other forms have their tonical accent on the 
termination e.g., compro, but comprdmos. 
114. We distinguish further: 

1. Primary tenses (raizes da formagao dos tempos): 

(a) The infinitive (infinitivo or infinito). 

(b) The present indie.: 1 st pers. sing, and 2 ud per- 

sons sing, and plur. 

(c) The preterite (preterito perfeito) : 2 nd pers. sing. 

2. Derived tenses (tempos derivados), which com- 
prehend all the rest and are formed as follows: 

(A) From the Infinitive: 1. Present, 2. Imperfect, 
3. Perfect, 4. Future indie., 5. Conditional, 6. The 
two participles. 

The terminations are added partly to the stem, 
partly to the infinitive. 



1. Pres. 

2. Pret. imp. 

3. Pret. perf. 

4. Future. 


vender : 










5. Conditional. 6. Part. imp. 

7. Part. perf. 

comprar-ia for compr-aria) 
vender-ia for vend-eria) 
partir-ia (or part-iria) 



(B) From the Present Indie. 1 st pers. sing.: The 
Pres. Subj. by changing the ending -o into -e in the 
1 st conj. and -a in the 2 nd and 3 rd conj.; and from the 
2 nd persons sing, and plur.: the corresponding persons 
of the Imperative by dropping the -s. 

Regular Verbs. 


Pres. ind. l.Pres.conj. 

Pres. ind. 

2. Imperative 

Compr-o : 


tu compras: \compra (tu) 

vos compraes: 

comprae (vos. 


vend- a 

tu vendes: vende (tu) 

vos vendeis: 

vendei (vos) 



tu partes: 

parte (tu) 

vos partis: 

parti (vds). 

2. Pret. imp. 

3. Fut. imp. 







Note. The 3 rd person sing, and the 1 st and 3 rd persons 
plur. of the imperative are equal to the same of the subjunc- 
tive present, except that the subject, if employed, gene- 
rally follows the verb e.g, : compre, venda, parta V a Ex a , o 
senhor, etc. Yet it may also preceed: V* compre, venda, 
parta! The negative form of the imperative takes also the 
subjunctive mood e.g.: Ndo compres, ndo compreis! Don't 
buy ! Ndo vendas, ndo vendaes ! Ndo partas, ndo partaes ! 
Ndo partdmos, ndo vendam V or V* s ndo vendam! 

(C) From the Preterite perfeito, 2 nd pers. sing. 
(cf. 48), by changing the termination -ste into -ra, 
-sse or -r, we form the 

1. Pret. mais-que- 

compraste: comprd-ra 

partiste: parti-ra 

114. First Conjugation. Infinitive: Comprar 
to buy. 

A. Simple Tenses. 

Infinitivo pessoal. 
Para eu comprar to buy (I) para nos comprarmos to buv 

para tu comprares to buy para vos comprardes to buy 

(you) (you) 

para elle comprar to buy (he) para elles comprar em to buy 



Eu compro I buy, etc. nos comprdmos we buy, etc. 

tu compras vos compraes 

elle compra elles compram. 

Portuguese Conversation-Grammar. 8 

114 Lesson 18. 


Compravct I bought, etc. compravamos we bought, etc. 

compravas compraveis 

comprava compravam. 

Preterito perfeito (definido). 

Comprei I bought, etc. comprdmos we bought, etc. 

compraste comprastes 

comprou compraram. 

Preterito mais-que-perfeito. 
Comprdra I had bought, etc. comprdramos we had bought, 
comprdras comprdreis [etc. 

comprdra comprdram. 


Comprarei I shall buy, etc. compraremos we shall buy, 
comprards comprareis [etc. 

comprard comprardo. 


Compraria I should buy, etc. comprariamos we should buy, 
comprarias comprarieis [etc. 

compraria comprariam. 


Compra! buy (thou)! compremos let us buy! 

Compre V. Ex a - (o Senhor)! comprae buy (ye)! 

buy! (sing.) comprem (V as Ex as )! buy! 


Imperativo negativo. 

Ndo cowvpres (tu) ! Ndo compremos (nos) ! 

Nao compre (Vfyl Ndo compreis (vos)! 

Nao comprem (V)! 

Conjunctivo or Subjunctive. 


Qiie eu compre that I buy, etc. que nos compremos that we 
gue tu compres que vos compreis [buy, etc. 

que elle compre que elles comprem. 


Se eu comprasse If I bought, etc. 
se tu comprasses 
se elle comprasse 
se nds comprdssemos 
se v6s comprasseis 
se elles comprassem. 

Regular Verbs. 



Se eu comprar If I shall (or am to) buy, etc. 
se tu comprares 
se elle comprar 
se nos comprarmos 
se vos comprardes 
se elles comprar em. 


Comprado bought. 

Presents. Gomprando buying. 

115. Difference between Imperfeito and Pre- 
terito perfeito (cf. 53). 1 

The Imperfeito is employed: The Preterito perfeito is 

employed : 

1. If two actions are repre- 
sented as being performed 
at or as lasting the same 
time (see Ex. 1). 

2. If one action is interrupted 
by another, the Imperfeito 
denotes the action that was 
going on when the other 
began, while the latter re- 
quires the Preterito perfeito. 

8. In descriptions of character, 
opinion, state, manners, and 
customs, as well as repre- 
senting an action as often 
repeated (see Ex. 3 and cf. 
120, A 3). 

4. The Imperfeito is used for 
all actions that do not im- 
mediately belong to the re- 
lation, but are added as ac- 
cessory circumstances or the 
own meaning of the speaker. 

1. To mark a time positively 
fixed, entirely elapsed, an 
action quite accomplished. 

2. To express actions following 
one another, interrupting 
others. It is the historical 
tense, being peculiarly ap- 
propriate to the narrative 

3. While the Imperfeito des- 
cribes, the Preterito perf. 
narrates (cf. 2); it represents 
an action as performed only 

4. The Preterito denotes a 
changement in the state of 
things; some action mark- 
ing a progress of the events. 

1 As these rules, already given for the most part in 53, 
are very important, we repeat them here, completing them by 
adding others. 

116 Lesson 18. 

5. It marks an indefinite or 5. The Preterito marks a de- 
illimited duration. finite and limited duration; 

one without any reference 
to another action or state. 

6. It is employed in a hypo- 
thetical clause (instead of 
the Conditional). 

7. It is used in indirect 

Remark. The Preterito perfeito is one of the most im- 
portant, while most usual, tenses in the Portuguese language. 
It is very often employed instead of the English Perfect (e.g., 
for "I have bought" eu cowprei cf. 53, B, d). More details 
for the use of these tenses are given in the nineteenth lesson. 


1. Emquanto o cortejo passava pelas runs, os sinosj 


Whilst the procession passed through the streets, 
the bells were ringing. 

2. Eu estudava a ligao, quando tu chegaste. 

I was studying my lesson when you arrived. 

3. Quando estava na praia, tomava banhos todos os 

When I was at the seaside, I took baths every 


Eu fui d praia, mas ndo tomei banho. 
I went to the beach, but did not take a bath. 
Elle falava muito alto \ he spoke very loud (as a 


Elle falou muito alto ( he spoke very loud (on a 
) certain occasion). 

4. Ghovia or estava a chover it was raining. 
Choveu, principiou a chover, o tempo tornou-se chu- 

It began to rain, the weather became rainy. 

5. Eramos amigos we were friends (and are so still). 
Fomos amigos we were friends (but now no longer). 

6. Eu voltava (instead of: voltaria), se me mandassem 

I should go back if I were sent for. 

7. Elle disse-me que ndo pensava em partir. 

He told me that he did not think of departing. 

Regular Verbs. 


t find 

Regular Verbs of the First Conjugation. 

gastar [gvftar] to expend, use, 


gorgeiar [gurgiar] to warble 
ignorar [ignurar] to ignore 
illustrar to illustrate 
imitar to imitate 
lan$ar to throw 
lavar to wash 
levantar-se [hvvntarsd] to rise, 

get up 

levar [Idvar] to take (away) 
limpar [limpar] to clean 
livrar [livrar] to free 
louvar [lovar] to praise 
mandar [mvndar] to send, to 


mandar chamar to send for 
mudar (de) to change 
nadar to swim 
olhar to see 
passar to pass, go 

m \ to take 

Abotoar to button 
abreviar [vbrdViar] to shorten 
acabar to finish 
riccordar to awake 
acMr /i?/ar/ I 
encontrar \ 

admirar [vddmtrar] to admire 
alisar to smooth 
apanhar [vpvyar] to catch 
assentar-se to sit down 
afirar com to fling 
avistar [vviftar] to perceive 
i banhar to bathe 
cacarejar to cackle 
calgar to put on (shoes, gloves) 
caminhar [kemiyar] to go, 

stride, walk 

cantar [Mntar] to sing, crow 
cansar to tire 
chamar [famar] to call, to be 


collocar to put 
cwr flco'rar] to bleach, 


deitar to lay down 
deitar-se to lie down 
deixar [dvifar] to leave off, 

let, forbear 

deleitar [ddlvitar] to delight 
descansar to rest 
doirar [doi'rar] to gild 
encadernar [ikuddrnar] to 

bind (books} 

enfiar to thread; to put on 
enxugar to dry (p.p.: enxuto) 
escovar to brush 
escutar to listen to 
esfregar to rub 
espantar [ifpvntar] to frighten 
estacar [tftvlcar] to stop 

esticar fiftikar] \ , 

A / to stretch 

[fvlar] to speak 
/to to spin 
freqilentar to attend 

pendurar to hang 

pensar fpesar] to think 

pentear to comb 

praticar [pratilcar] to practise 

precisar to want 

principiar [prisipi r ar] to begin 

procurar [prukurvr] to look 

projectar [prugdar] to intend, 

to have in view 
quebrar-se [kd'brarsd] to be 


receiar to fear 
recreiar [rrzkrvtar] to refresh, 


recusar [rrzkuzar] to refuse 
[rrdgar] to water 
to pray 

[salvar] to save 
sanar [svnar] to cure, heal 
[svrar] to heal 
to soil 


Lesson 18. 

tirar to take off, draw out 
tomar [tumar] to take 
tratar to treat, deal (with), 

viajar to travel 
virar to turn 
voar [vuar] to fly 
voltar [vottar] to return. 



the noise 

a borboleta 

the butterfly 

[rru 'idu] 


o cabide 

the rack 

o banco 

the bench 

fkv 'bifoj 

o gorgeio 

the warbling 

o casaco 

the coat 


[kv 'zaku] 

o ouvido 

the hearing, 

o collete 

the waistcoat 

[o 'm&u] 



o lavatorio 

the washing- 

os calQoes 

the breeches 




a toalha 

the towel 

as ceroulas 

the drawers, 


[39 Vote/7 


o no [n-j] 

the knot 

a camisola 

the vest 

o estabelecimento 

the swimming- 

[kvmi' zolis] 

de nataQao 


as chinellas 

the slippers 

o natatorio 

the bathing- 



o colarinho 

the collar 

o mestre de 

the teacher of 




a gravata 

the cravat 


put, he puts 

[gre 'vatv] 

em seguida \ 

o toucador 
[tokv 'for] 

the dressing- 

entao [m 'tuu] \ 

then, after 





a esteira 

the mat 

[d9'poif] 1 


43. Leitura. 

Ao deitar-se e levantar-se. 

Agora, Jose, deixa de regar as tuas flores! Sao oito 
horas e tempo para acabares. Has de ir (to go) deitar-te. A 
Maria ja te chamou, ella deseja levar-te & cama. Anda depressa, 
mas sem ruido, para nao acordares tens irmaozinhos. Tira 
o teu fato, mas nao atires com as tuas coisas para o chao! 
Olha aquelle cabide: pendura ali o teu casaquinho, o collete 
e as canoes. E nas eostas desta cadeira deitaras a tua camisa, 
as ceroulas e as meias. Colloca as tuas botas ou sapatos 
fora da porta para que o criado as limpe antes de tu te levan- 
tares. As tuas chinellas, essas ficam bem ao pe da cama. 
Poe o teu colarinho e a gravata em cima do toucador ! Assim 
encontraras tudo no seu lugar, sem que precises procural-o 
amanha de manha. Ja lavaste as maos? Bem, deita-te, reza 
e dorme! 

Regular Verbs. 119 

Depois de ter bem passado a noite, Jose e accordado 
pelo criado que o chama: 6 menino, accorde! Levante-se! 
Seu papa ja o esta esperando no jardim! Ja sao sete horas! 
E e verdade: o gallo canta, as gallinhas cacarejam e os pas- 
saros gorgeiam, cleleitando os ouvidos. Jose esfrega os olhos, 
estica as pernas e salta da cama. Elle muda de camisa, cal^a 
as meias, as ceroulas e os calcoes, enfia as chinellas e depois 
lava-se bem com uma esponja ao lavatorio. Elle usa de 
muita agua fria e gasta bastante sabao. Elle gosta ate" to- 
mar banho de manha, mas receia que leve muito tempo, por- 
que sen pae esta a espera d'elle. Esfregando-se bem com 
uma toalha, enxuga a cara e o peito; entao pega numa es- 
I cova para escovar os dentes, e com urn pente alisa o cabello. 
Depois de penteado enfia o coilete e a jaqueta, abotoa o 
colarinho e ata um lindo no na sua gravata. Afinal tira as 
chinellas e calc.a os sapatos que o criado ja limpou e collocou 
fora da porta do quarto. Agora esta prompto para passar 
para baixo e almocar com o pae que em seguida o acompanha 
a escola. Pois o Josezinho freqiienta uma escola de meninos 
onde trata de aprender quanto um menino precisa saber. 
Mas logo que as aulas acabam, elle toma o seu fato de banho 
e caminha para o estabelecimento de natac,ao, onde ha um 
grande natatorio para os meninos nadarem debaixo da inspecc,ao 
d'nm mestre de nata^ao. 

44. Exercise. 

(a) Read and write the first part of 43, changing the 
2nd person of the Imperative into the 3 rd e.g. : Agora, Jose, 
deixe de regar as suas flores ! 

(b) Read and write the 2 nd part (from : Depois de ter . . .), 
, changing the Present Tense (1) into the Past Tenses and (2) 

into the Future. 

45. Thema. 

Our little brother went to bed. He took off his things 
and hung them (-as) for the most part on a rack behind the bed- 
room door. But his shirt, vest, and pants were carefully put on 
a chair near the bed, while the slippers and stockings remained 
on the mat by the bedside. Before he lay down, he took a glass 
of milk and a slice of bread and butter, for he had had no supper. 
He had passed the afternoon in the garden, watering his flowers 
and catching butterflies. When he was tired, he sat down on a 
bench to rest, and delighted his (= the) ears by listening to the 
i warbling of the birds. Then he thought that it would be time 
rto finish and go to bed. In that moment his (= the) mother 
sent for him, ordering the maid-servant to take him ftr. that she 

120 Lesson 19. 

took him) to bed. As by working in the garden he had soiled 
(imp. subj.) his clothes and boots, the man-servant will have to 
clean these, while the maid-servant will brush those. When little 
Joe awakes (fut. subj.) to-morrow morning, he will find his 
things clean and prepared. 


A que horas ha-de o nosso irmaozinho ir para cama? 

Quern o leva para la, ajudando-lhe a despir (undress)^ 

Que mais tera a criada que (to) fazer? 

Como passou o Jose a tarde ? 

Que fez (did) elle quando estava cansado ? 

Que (e que) tomou antes de se deitar? 

Onde collocou as suas coisas? (1) a jaqueta? (2) as cerou- 

las? (3) as meias? (4) o collarinho? 
Para que precisa elle de collocar tudo bem no seu lugar? 
Que fara, depois de deitado e antes de adormecer (to fall 

asleep) ? 

A que horas ha de levantar-se ? 
Como se prepara para almocar com seu pae? 
Para onde o acompanha depois o pae? 
Que faz o JosSzinho na escola ? 
E que faz depois de acabadas as aulas? 
Que ha no estabelecimento de natacjao? 
Como nadam ali os meninos ? 
Os meninos gostam de nadar e de tomar banho? 
Que fazem depois de ter tornado banho? 
Que parte de dia e a melhor para tomar banho ? 
Ha entre os meninos algum que seja bom nadador ? 
Porque nao se recommenda ficar muito tempo na agua? 

Nineteenth Lesson. Li<jao decima nona. 

Regular Verbs. 

B. Compound Tenses with ter (Active Voice). 
and er (Passive Voice). 

117. As the compound tenses do not offer any 
difficulty, as soon as we know the auxiliary verbs, we 
gave their forms in the conjugation of those verbs 
(cf. L. 3 6). The compound tenses of the auxiliary 
verbs and of the active voice of the transitive verbs are 
formed by aid of the verb ter, joined to their past parti- 

Regular Verbs. 121 

ciple, while the passive voice is formed by the verb 
.sv.r, joined to the past participle. Haver is scarcely used 
in compound tenses, but for the compound future and 
conditional, where it is joined to the following infinitive 
by de and, in contrast to the simple future or condi- 
tional, expresses a necessity or intention. 

Hei-de comprar I shall (I intend) to buy. 

sol ha-de derreter a neve the sun will (= must) melt 
the snow. 

118. Note. The intransitive verbs follow on 
the whole the same rules as in English. Their com- 
pound tenses are formed by ter; yet, if you want to 
express a state, the result of an action, you emplo} T 
estar e.g. : o comboio estd chegado; a arvore estd cahida; 
a casa estd voltada para o sul (lies towards the south) ; 
a industria estd decahida, etc. 

119. Ter comprado to have bought. 


Preterite composto. 
Eu tenho comprado I have bought, etc. 

Preterito mais-que-perfeito composto. 
Eu tinha comprado I had bought, etc. 

F-uturo composto. 

Hei for tenho) de comprar { intend to buy. 

terei de comprar I shall have to buy. 

Futuro anterior. 
Terei comprado I shall have bought. 

Conditional imperfeito . 

llama (or teria) \ 1 should have or I ought to buy, 
de comprar / I should have been obliged to buy. 

Conditional passado. 
Teria comprado I should have bought. 

Conjunctiva passado. 
Que eu tenha comprado that I have bought. 

122 Lesson 19. 

Se eu tivesse comprado if I had bought. 

Futuro anterior. 
Quando eu tiver comprado when I shall have bought. 

Infinitive e Participios. 

Ter comprado to have bought. 

Haver for ter) de comprar to have to buy. 

Participio composto. 
Tendo comprado having bought. 

120. As already said, the Preterito simples is 
often employed instead of the Preterito perfeito com- 
posto (the English "I have [done]"): 

A. The Preterito simples B. The Preterito composto 

indicates : indicates : 

1. Something belonging to the 1. Something belonging to the 
past: elle foi professor (he past and still continuing in 
is no more). the present: Elle tern sido 

professor (he is so still). 

2. A past state : esteve muito 2. A still lasting state : tern 
occupado he was very busy. estado muito occupado he 

has been very busy. 

3. An isolated singular action 3. A habit still enduring : 
(even when repeated): Es- Tem escripto com regulari- 
creveu algumas veses lie dade he has written regu- 
wrote sometimes. larly (and still continues 


Ex.: "Eu fago assim, eu tenho feito sempre assim, in- 
conscientemente ; e o que escrevi ndo e mais do 
que a revelagao do que tenho sentido" (Trindade 

As a rule you may recognise which tense to 
employ by some adverb contained in the clause: 

Havia cinco annos que era iwofessor he (then) had 

been a teacher for 3 years. 
Ha cinco annos que foi professor he (then) had been a 

teacher 3 years ago. 

Ha cinco annos que tern sido professor he has been a 
teacher these 3 vears. 

Regular Verbs. 123 

121. Observations. 

(a) The interrogative, negative, and interrogative- 
negative forms of the verb may be formed, as already 
said, by the transposition of the noun or pronoun after 
the verb, or simply by the accentuation or punctuation 
e.g.: Eu compro. Compro (eu)? Eu nao compro. 
Nao compro (eu)? 

(b) In the regular verbs the Infinitive pessoal is 
equal to the Futuro do Conjunctiva. 

122. The Passive Yoice (Vos passim) is formed 
1 by joining the auxiliary ser to the past participle of 
the active verb (cf. L. 4). The past participle, when 
coupled with ser, is considered an adjective and conse- 
quently agrees in gender and number with the noun 
or pronoun to which it refers, even when the verb ser 
is omitted: 

terreno foi vendido the ground was sold. 

A casa foi vendida the house was sold. 

Os terrenos for am vendidos the grounds were sold. 

As casas for am vendidas the houses were sold. 

Note. Instead of ser we may employ also ficar: 
livro ficou vendido, etc. 

123. If there be several subjects belonging to 
the same participle, this latter takes the form of the 
plural. If the subjects are of different gender, the 
masculine is preferred to the feminine in modifying the 
* participle. If the participle follotvs such different sub- 
jects, the masculine ending is applied to the participle; 
if preceding, this is not necessary. 

For am comprados muitas uvas e figos (or muitos figos 

e uvas). 
As uvas e os figos (que foram) comprados no mer- 

cado . . . 

Note. The subject being vds, employed for a single per- 
son, the participle is employed in the singular; also if the 
subject is V a Ex a , F, etc. the participle agrees with the sex 
of the person addressed : 

V a Ex a , senhor Nogueira, foi convidado. 

V a Ex a , miriha senhora, foi convidada. 

Vos sois adorado, Senhor, pelo ceu e pela terra. 

124 Lesson 19. 

124. Ser chamado to be called or summoned. 



Eu sou chamado, -a I am called or summoned, etc. 
tu es chamado, -a 
die e chamado 
ella e chamada 

Plur. nos somos chamados, -as 
vos sois cliamados, -as 
elles sao chamados 
dlas sdo chamadas. 

Eu era chamado, -a I was called or summoned, etc. 

Preterito absolute. 

Eu fui chamado, -a I was or have been called or sum- 
moned, etc. 

Preterito composto. 
Eu tenho sido chamado, -a I have been called. 

Preterito mais-gue-perfeito. 
Eu fora chamado, -a I had been called. 

Preterito mais-que-perfeito composto. 
Eu tinha sido chamado, -a I had been called. 

Eu serei chamado. -a I shall be called, etc. 

Futuro composto. 

Eu liei de ser chamado, -a I shall or must be called 

Futuro anterior. 
Eu terei sido chamado, -a I shall have been called. 

Conditional presente. 
Eu seria chamado, -a I should be called, etc. 

Conditional composto. 
Eu teria sido chamado, -a I should have been called. 

Se chamado, -a (May you) be called, etc. 

Sendo chamado, -a being called, etc. 

Regular Verbs. 125 

Participio passado. 

Tendo sido chamado, -a having been (or as I was) 

Infiniti-vo passado. 

[ J er sido chamado, -a to have been called., etc. 


eu seja chamado, -a that I be called. 

Que eu fosse chamado, -a that I was called. 

Prefer ito composto. 
Que eu tenha sido chamado, -a that I have been called. 

Preterito wais-que-perfeito composto. 
Que eu tivesse sido chamado, -a that I had been called. 

Se eu for chamado, -a if I shall be called. 

Futuro anterior. 
Se eu tiver sido chamado, -a if I shall have been called. 

125. The passive voice may be and is frequently 
expressed by the active form with the pronoun se i.e., 
reflectively; thus: 

Com a farinha de milho faz-se a broa (== e feita a 

broa). "*N 

Out of the flour qf Indian corn is made bread of 
maize. - 

Yet this form must only be employed, if no 
ambiguity result, as for instance : delinquente enfor- 
cou-se or: enforcoti-se o delinquente would be rather: 
the criminel hanged himself, while "was hanged" must 
be rendered in this case by "foi (or ficou) enforcado." 

126. The preposition "by" in the passive voice 
is rendered by por. 


a tecedeira 

o fuso 
em seguida 

depois de 
emfim [ifi] 

the woman 
the spindle 

at last, finally 

liriho ['liyu] the flax 
o fto ffiuj the thread 
a substancia the substance 
o tear [ty'ar] the weaver's 
a urdidura the warp(ing) 


Lesson 19. 

assedar to hatchel 

a estriga the strike (of 

;?fiL. 1 th 

[if'tricjv] flax) 
a meada the skein 

secco f'sekuj dry 


magar [mv 'sar] to break, brake 

a estopa the (flax-)tow 

6ater [bv 'ter] to beat 


o mafo ['masu] the flax-brake 

grosseiro coarse 

a magadeira the flax-dresser 
[mvsv 'ffwirvj 

otecidoftd'siffu] the web, tissue 

espadelar to swingle 

o cabo ['kabuj cable, rope 


ordinario ordinary 

sedeiro the flax-comb 



a corda ['kordvj the cord, rope 

d roca [rrokvl \ -, A - ? 

o barbante the pack- 

a maqaroca \ dlstatt [bvr'bvntd] thread, twine 

estomentar to hackle o Jewfo ['lesuj the handker- 

[ifhtme* 'tar] chief 

o tomento the awn, chaff 

Tanto whilst. 

[tumentu] (of flax) 


^4 torre [torrd] the tower 

a cruz fkruf] the cross 

severo [sd'veru] severe 

a varanda the veranda 

erguer [ir'gerj to raise 
o cobadelo sandy beach 

[we 'rundu] 
o arco ['arkuj the arch, bow 

/"fcaBe '^eZwy 

o parapeito the parapet 

o terrago the terrace 

[ptsve 'pvituj 


rendilhar to indent 

a descoberta discovery 

frrendi' 'ftar] 

[difku'forto] o andar the story 

avan$ar to advance 

a abdbada arched roof, 

construir to construct 

/ 'bobv&ej vault 


o pavimento the ground 

datar to date 

ierreo floor 

o dnqulo the angle 

a nervura the nervure 

o hexdgono hexagon 

entrelagar interlace 

/^ip 'zagunu] 

[intrdlis 'sar] 

o cupulo the cupola 
a curtina the curtain 

o ingresso ingress 


o accesso access 

a aweia the battlement 


a escada de winding stairs 

grandioso grand 




ornar [ur'nar] to ornate 

a guarita the watch- 

o escudo the shield 

[gwe 'rite] tower. 

o Zodo c?a terra the landside 

46. Leitura. 


linho e uma planta baixa de flor azul. Das hastes d'essa 
planta util e tirado nm fio. Esse fio 6 a substancia de que e 

Regular Verbs. 127 

feito o panno de linho. Depois de estarern bem seccas, as 
hastes da planta sao ma9adas ou batidas a ma^o pelas mae,a- 
deiras. Em seguida sao espadeladas, depois levadas ao sedeiro 
e emfim fiadas na roca. linho ha de ser espadelado para ser 
estomentado ou para se Ihe (of it) tirarem os tomentos que e 
a estopa. Os dentes de ferro do sedeiro separam o linho da 
estopa : esse fica assedado. Esta e mais grosseira que o linho ; 
lambem e fiada na roca, e d'ella serao feitas cordas e bar- 
bantes, tecidos grosseiros, cabos ordinaries etc. Com o linho 
assedado fazem-se as estrigas, e estas sao fiadas na roca. Ao 
fiar, fazem-se no fuso as mac.arocas. Das ma9arocas fazem-se 
meadas no sarilho. As meadas vao a lavar (go or are to be 
washed) ; depois sao cosidas com cinza ; outra vez sao lavadas ; 
e em seguida postas ao sol a (= to) corar. Depois de en- 
xutas, as meadas vao a dobadoura, para se fazerem os novellos. 
Os novellos vao para a tecedeira, e esta faz com elles a urdi- 
dura no tear. Em seguida, lanqando o fio por entre a urdidura, 
a tecedeira faz o panno. Para tudo isto ha tambem machinas 
rnuito perfeitas nas fabricas de fia9ao e tecidos. 

Trindade Coelho: primeiro Livro de Leitura. 

47. Exercise. 

The Tower of Belem. 

One of the most beautiful monuments in Portugal is the 
Tower of Belem, called also "Torre de Sao Vicente," magnificent 
and severe, raised upon a rock on a sandy beach of the Tagus 
t with its terrace advancing still over the river. The tower 
was built in memory of the discoveries of the Portuguese, 
and its construction dates from the beginning of the sixteenth 
century. The square tower shuts up the terrace from the 
landside. The two angles of the terrace which are looking 
upon (para) the sea are cut so that by their base is formed 
an hexagon, in the little angles of which (do qual) are rising 
watch-towers with cupolas, as well os from the two inferior 
and the four superior angles of the tower. The terrace and 
the platform of the tower are protected by curtains of grand 
battlements; each of these ornated by (com) its shield and 
cross of Christ. At half the height of the tower projects 
an open veranda with columns, arches, and indented parapets. 
Inside in every story a large central room is (to be) found 
whose arched roof in the ground-floor has no nervures, while 
very rich interlaced nervures are in the upper stories. By very 
little doors ingress is given to the very narrow interiors of 
the square watch-towers. Winding stairs give access to the 
superior stories. 

128 Lesson 20. 


Que especie de planta e o linho? 

Qual e a parts util da planta? 

De que servem os fios tirades da baste do linho? 

Como se prepara a substancia que sao os fios, para se 

fazer o fio de fiar? 
Que vem a ser a estopa? Como e? E que se faz 

Quaes sao os processes passados pelos fios depois de 

fiados na roca? 
Como se cbarnam os apparelhos que servem nesses pro- 

Onde sao esses apparellos substituidos por machinas 

muito perfeitas? 
Como se chama um dos rnais bellos monumentos em, 


Onde se encontra a Torre de Belem? 
Com que intento (intention) foi ella construida? 
De quando data a sua construc^ao? 
De que duas partes consiste o monumento? 
Como e construido o terra^o? 
Como 6 protegido o terrao assim como a plataforina 

da torre? 

As ameias como sao ornadas? 
Que e que projecta a meia altura da torre? 
Que 6 que se encontra no interior? 
Como sao feitas as abobadas no pavimento terreo? nos 

andares superiores? 
Como se entra nas guaritas? nos andares superiores? 

Twentieth Lesson. Licjao vigesima. 

Pronominal or Reflective Verbs. 

Verbos pronominaes ou reflexives. 

127. As we learned in the last chapter ( 125), 
the Passive Voice may be and is often rendered by 
the reflective form of the verb. Thus employed, any 
verb, even the intransitive one, may adopt the passive 
form. This form may in English be rendered either 
by the same passive form or by the active form with 
the impersonal pronouns one, we, you, or tliey, or people 
as a subject e.g.: 

Pronominal or Reflective Verbs. 129 

Juntam-se os papeis the papers are gathered, you or 

we gather the papers. 
Este livro le-se com agrado this book is read (one reads 

or people read this book) with pleasure. 
Fala-se d'elle com muito elogio he is spoken of (they 

speak of him) with high praise. 


(a) In the last phrase we may also employ the 
active form, with the verb in the plural, just as in 
English : 

Falam delle com muito elogio. 

(b) In other cases we may substitute the passive 
or impersonal form by the gerund e.g. : instead of 
"quando se dorme, nao se precisa comer" : 

Dormindo nao se precisa comer. 

When you (we, people) sleep, you (we, people) need not 

(c) Here also the second reflective form might 
(be rendered by the active, as in English: Dormindo, 
a gente nao precisa comer. 

128. The following is the whole conjugation 
of the reflective verb, the 3 rd person of which we have 
'already learned. 

As for the reflective pronouns (English : myself, etc.), 
ithere is only the one characteristic form (se), already 
dealt with, which marks the 3 rd pers. sing, and plur. 
For the other persons the accusative of the pronoun 
.is employed, thus : me [mdj, te [td], se [sd], nos [nzf], 
[vos [vofj. 

Infinitivo impessoal. 

Lavar-se to wash oneself. 

Infinitivo pessoal. 

Para eu me lavar that I (may) wash myself, etc. 
para tu te lavares 
para die se lavar 
para nos nos lavarmos 
para vos vos lavardes 
para elles se lavarem. 

Portuguese Conversation-Grammar. 9 

130 Lesson 20. 


Lavando-me washing myself. 

Pas sad o. 

Tendo-me lavado (= depois de me ter lavado) after 
having washed myself. 



Eu lavo-me, I wash myself, etc. nos lavdmo^-nos 
tu lavas-te vos lavaes-vos 

elk lava-se elles lavam-se. 

Preterito imperfeito. 
Eu lavava-me I washed my- nds lavavamo^nos 

self, etc. vos lavaveis-vos 

tu lavavas-te elles lavavam-se. 

elle lavava-se 

Preterito perfeito. 

Eu lavei-me I washed myself nds lavdmo^nos 
or I have washed myself, etc. vos lavdstes-vos 
tu lavaste-te elles lavaram-se. 

elle lavou-se 

Preterito mais-que-perfeito. 
Eu lavdra-me I had washed nos lavdramo l -nos 

myself, etc. vds lavdreis-vos 

tu lavdras-te elles lavaram-se. 

elle lavdra-se 

Preterito perfeito composto. 
Eu tenho-me lavado I have washed myself. 

Preterito mais-que-perfeito-comp osto. 
Eu tinha-me lavado I had washed myself. 


Eu hei-de me lavar or lavar-me-(h)ei or eu me lavarei I 
shall wash myself, etc. 

Futuro passado. 

Ter-me-(h)ei lavado or eu me terei lavado I shall have 
washed myself, etc. 


Eu havia de me lavar or lavar-me-(h)ia I should wash 
myself, etc. 

Conditional passado. 

Ter-me-(h)ia lavado or eu me teria lavado I should have 
washed myself. 

1 The s of the I 8 * pers. pi. drops before the pronouns o(s), 
a(s), nos, vos. 

Pronominal or Reflective Verbs. 131 


Lava-te! Lave-se! Lavae-vos! Wash yourself! 
Nao te laves! Nao se lave! Nao vos laveis! Do not 
wash yourself. 



Que eu me lave that I wash myself, etc. 
que tu te laves, 
que elle se lave 
que nds nos lavemos 
que vos vos laveis 
que elles se lavem. 


Que or se eu me lavasse that or if I washed myself, etc. 
que or se tu te lavasses 
que or se elle se lavasse 
que or se nos nos lavassemos 
que or se vos vos lavasseis 
que or se elles se lavassem. 

Preterito composto. 

Que eu me tenha lavado that I have washed myself, etc. 
que tu te tenhas lavado. 

Mais- que-perfeito- composto . 
Que or se eu me tivesse lavado that or if I had washed 

myself, etc. 

que or se tu te tivesses lavado 
que or se elle se tivesse lavado. 

Se or quando eu me lavar if or when I shall wash 

myself, etc. 

56 or quando tu te lavares 
se or quando elle se lavar 
se or quando nos nos lavarmos 
se or quando v6s vos lavardes 
se or quando elles se lavarem. 

129. The position of the reflective pronoun is: 
1. in a simple principal phrase, if not negative, after 
the verb (or the auxiliary), to which it is joined by a 
byphen e.g.: Lavo-me; lavaste-te? 

2. If however the phrase is negative, the pronoun 
vrecedes the verb: Nao me lavo\ nao te lavaste? Nunca 


132 Lesson 20. 

3. If an adverb, conjunction, or complement begins 
the phrase or, without beginning it, precedes the verb, 
the pronoun may be put before or after the verb. 

"0 homem precisa alimentar-se para viver: se nao 
se alimentasse, morria. Os homens alimentam-se de 
carnes, e tambem se alimentam de vegetaes." 

4. In subordinate sentences the pronoun precedes 
the verb: Quero que te laves (as maos). I want you 
to wash yourself (your hands). 

5. After the "verbo de realce" E que which is 
employed to put an emphasis upon some word, you 
may put the pronoun behind or before the verb : E que 
esta lei presta-se (or se presta) a tudo quanto seja fraude. 
The case is that this law complies with anything like 

Here also E que may be omitted or considered 
as not existing, and thus the phrase becomes a prin- 
cipal one. 

Note. The same rules apply to the pronoun complement, 
even if not employed reflectively, and whether accusative or 
dative e.g.: 

Eu law- a I wash her or it. 

Lavaste-os? Did you wash them? 

Nao as lavei I did not wash them. 

Nunca te lavou a roupa she never washed your linen 
(te is here dative). 

Se a lavadeira nao me tivesse lavado a roupa ... 

If the washerwoman had not washed my linen . . . 

130. The reflective verbs in English and Por- 
tuguese languages do not always correspond to each 
other. As indeed the reflective verbs in English are 
rare, some neuter or passive verbs in English require 
the reflective form in Portuguese. Such verbs are: 
Admirar-se to wonder chamar-se to be called 

afogar-se to be drowned compor-se (see 213) to be 

approximar-se \. . composed 

chegar-se ^approximate eonten l r . se to be contented 

apresentar-se a to wait upon or satisfied 

(apresentar-se to offer oneself) decidir-se to decide 

arrepender-se to repent , .. / to lie down, 
(as)sentar-se to sit down G \ to go to bed 

atrever-se to dare desctiidar-se de to neglect 

calar-se to be silent dignar -se to deign, to be pleased 

Pronominal or Reflective Verbs. 133 

empenhar-se to endeavour lembrar-se to remember 

encontrar-se to be (found) levontar-se to get up, to rise 

encontrar-se com to meet queixar-se to complain 

enganar-se to be mistaken referir-se to refer 

escapar-se \ , s regosijar-se to rejoice 

evadir-se \ resentir-se to resent 

esquecer(-se de) to forget restdbelecer-se to recover 

fazer-se to become retirar-se to retire 

informar-se to inquire tornar-se to become, turn out 

irritar-se to grow angry recusar(-se) to refuse 

^r-5e (embora) to go away desanimar(-se) \ to discourage, 

jactar-se to boast desalentar(-se) / to lose courage 

. The three last verbs may be employed as active. 
heater, or reflective verbs ; as for esquecer, it must be follow- 
ed by de if employed reflectively, and personally. Without 
le, it may be used as an active verb (which is considered a 
gallicism); but more frequently as a neuter and in the 3 rd per- 
son; neuter, it is employed without pronoun or de. 

Esqueceu-se de alguma cousa \ 
Esqueceu alguma cousa / he forgot something. 

Esqueceu-lhe alguma cousa } 

Eu desanimei or desanimei-me \ I god discouraged, I 
Eu desalentei or desalentei-me } lost courage. 
seu mallogro desalentou-o his ill-success discouraged 

131. Whenever the Portuguese se, nos, vos have 
lot a reflective sense, but express a reciprocal action, 
hey are translated by each other or one another: 

Os dois irmdos parecem-se (Nos parecemo-nos). 

The two brothers resemble (we resemble) one another. 

132. Very often we can hardly distinguish 
[whether a verb, employed with -se (i.e. in the 3 rd per- 
on), is reflective or passive. In this latter case it can 
Iways be substituted by the past participle preceded 
cy a form of the verb ser. sino ouve-se ( is heard). 
ometimes the difference is immaterial : corpo alimenta- 
!, the body is nourished or nourishes itself. If there is 
second pronoun, we may be sure that the verb is 
mployed in the passive voice e.g.: 

A cavallo dado nao se Ihe olha o dente (= o dente nao 

e olhado). 
Look not a gift-horse in the mouth. 

134 Lesson 20. 

Quando Jia vento, molha-se a vela (= a vela fica mo- 

lhada) (prov.). 

Strike the iron while it is hot. 
Contenta-te, gato, que farta o farto. 
Great wealth, great weariness. 


Vestir-se to dress 

a extremidade the extremity 

[vi 'ftirsd] 


despir-se to undress 

saliente prominent 


[suli 'entdj 

divertir-sd \ 

a uriha the nail 

[divdrtirsd] { to amuse 


recrear-se j oneself 

guarnecer de to provide with 

[rdkr'i'arsdj } 


dedicar-se a to give oneself 

estar em pe to stand 

up to 


guardar-se de to beware of 

pisar [pi'zar] to tread 

[gwer 'darsdfoj 

o trabalho the work 

refrescar-se to refresh 

[ire 'fiafiu] 

[r9frif"karsd] oneself 

o tacto ['tatuj the touch 

olimentar-se to nourish 

particularmente particularly 

[ulimen'tarsd] oneself 


assemelhar-se to equal, to 


[usdmi r fiars9], resemble, to 

o dedo pollegar the thumb 

parecer-se be (alike) 

[puU 'gar] 

[pvrd' sersd] 

o dedo pollegar the big toe 

o vegetal the vegetable 

- . 

do pe 


opponivel opposite 

a bebida the drink 

[opu 'nivsl] 


a gemma d'ovo the yolk 

engordar to fatten 

[' emv '&ovu] 


a clara (d'ovo) the white (of 

solido ['soliffu] solid ; thorough 

an egg) 

molar a sede to quench one's 

incolor colourless 

(a fome) thirst 

cozido boiled 

figurar to figure 

o miolo the kernel 

suar to sweat 


a baga [bagv] the drop 
o suor [su'or] the sweat 

oval [u'val] oval 
envolver to involve 

o estdmago the stomach 

[ivul 'verj 


proprio para eatable 

o succo f'sukuj, the gastric 


gdstrico juice 

saboroso savoury 



digerir to digest 

nutritivo nourishing 


[nutrd 'tivuj 

o condimento the seasoning 

o producto the production) 



salivar to spit 

o reino animal the animal 



Pronominal or Reflective Verbs. 


o reino vegetal the vegetable 

o caixeiro the clerk 

delgado thin 

o guarda-livros the book- 



acastanhado brownish 

seja o que for whatsoever it 

[ulitiftie 'yaffu] 


liquido['likwi&u] liquid 
rijo f'rriguj hard, strong 

a respeito de as for 
a escri(p)tura- the bookkeep- 

alimentar alimentary 

Q ao (mercantil) ing 

a natureza Nature, quality 

em (or por) par- by single and 

o requerente the solicitor 

tidos simples double entry 

[nrjika 'rente] 

e dobrados 

o caixa the cashier 

(em) caso (que) in case. 

48. Leitura. 


homem precisa alimentar-se paraviver: se nao se alimen- 

tasse, morria. Os homens alimentam-se de carnes, e tambem se 
alimentam de vegetaes. As carries e os vegetaes, chamados 
alimentos solidos, ou comidas, matam-nos a fome. Ha alimentos 
que nos engordam; e outros que nao nos engordam, mas pelos 
quaes e" conservado ao corpo o seu calor natural. Os animaes 
,e os vegetaes fornecem-nos os alimentos solidos; mas alem 
d'estes, precisaroos tambem de bebidas. As bebidas matam- 
nos a s6de. nosso corpo e formado de muitas substancias. 
Entre as substancias que formam o nosso corpo figura a agua. 
Quando o nosso corpo se resente da falta d'agua, somos avisados 
pela sde de que precisa d'ella. Quando suamos perdemos 
agua, pois esta sae-nos do corpo em bagas de suor. Eis ahi 
porque suando sente-se (or a gente sente or porque quando sua- 
;rnos sentimos) s6de. estomago produz um succo, chamado succo 
gastrico, muito precise para digerir a comida. Os condimentos, 
tque nos fazem salivar, fazem com que se produza esse succo 
em maior abundancia. corpo humano carece de substancias 
'varias para bem se nutrir. Essas substancias encontram-se 
i.nos varios alimentos; e d'estes r uns possuem grande niimero 
ide taes substancias, e outros so possuem algumas. pao, a 
3arne, os legumes verdes e seccos, as batatas, os ovos, e tambem 
i agua e o leite pertencem ao numero dos primeiros. 
> Trindade Coelho: Primeiro Livro de Leitura (adapted). 

49. Thema. 

Solicitagdo d'um emprego. 

Lisboa, 8 de Abril de 1908. 
Ulmo e Ex mo1 Senhor: 

Tenho a honra de apresentar-me como requerente do 
imprego de caixeiro (guarda-livros, caixa, ou seja o que for) 

~ 1 See 18. 

136 Lesson 20. 

na estimada casa de V a - Ex a -, annunciado no Diario de Xo- 
ticias d'hoje. 

Frequentei durante seis annos a Escolade..., e estive dois 
annos em casa do sr. A. B. a quern tenho licenc.a de me 
referir. Tive uma solida instruc9ao na arithmetica emquanto 
a exactidao e promptidao; e esta carta informara a V a Ex*- 
a respeito da minha letra. Tambem estou bem versado na 
escriptura^ao mercantil em partidos simples e dobrados. 

Gaso (que) V a - Ex a - deseje v6r-me antes de se decidir, 
digne-se de m'o fazer saber, para que eu me apresente a 
V a - Ex a - a qualquer hora que marcar. 

Sou com toda a consideragao e respeito 

De V a - Ex a criado att e obrg do 
Joao da Silva Nogueira. 

50. Exercise. 

A. The Foot and the Hand. 

The foot and the hand are both members of the human 
body. They are composed of bones, flesh, and skin, and are 
more long than large. On their extremities they have five 
prominent parts provided with nails. These prominent parts 
are called fingers. Of the two, the foot is the more solid and 
big and the one which has the hardest bones. With the feet 
people can stand, walk, and tread. With the hands we can 
execute numerous works. Of the two members, the hand is 
the one in which the sense of touch is the more refined. What 
particularly characterises the hand is the thumb being (infini- 
tive) separated from the other four fingers and opposite to 
each of them, whilst the big toe is joined to the other toes. 

B. The Egg and the Nut. 

The egg and the nut resemble one another by their 
exterior form. Both are oval. The interior of both is en- 
cased by a shell. The interior is not only eatable, but also 
nourishing and savoury. The egg is a production of the] 
animal kingdom, and the nut is a production of the vegetable 
kingdom. The shell of the egg is more or less white and 
thin, and may easily be broken between the fingers. The 
shell of the nut is brownish, thick and hard, and can only 
with difficulty be opened by the hand. The nourishing sub- 
stance in the egg is liquid, but when it is boiled, it becomes 
firm. It is composed of the yolk and the white. The yolk 
is yellow, and the white is colourless when raw, but white 

1 See 18. 

of the Regular Conjugations. 137 

after being boiled. The nourishing substance of the nut, 
called the kernel, is of a firm quality. 


A. (bate na porta.) B. Pode entrar! (or Entre quern 6!). 

Abrfi-se a porta, dando ingresso a um homem que se approxima, 


A. V* Ex a - da- me licen^a? 

B. Don (see 184 and p. 29, note). Chegue-se para 
ca. Que que deseja? 

A. Falaram-me n'um emprego de caixeiro que se pre- 
tende preencher. 

B. E verdade. E V- encontra-se nas condicoes . . ? 

A. Atr6vo-me de solicital-o. Chamo-me . . . 

B. Sente-se! Pode dar-me informac.6es sob re alguma 
collocaQao anterior? 

A. P6de V a - Ex a - tomal-as com a casa dos senhores . . ., 
donde me retirei ha um ni$s. 

B. Porque se retirou? Descuidou-se das suas obriga^oes? 
Nao se empenhou bastante em satisfazer os patroes? 

A. Nao foi isso. Fiquei doente e tive de me ir embora 
para me restabelecer. Levantei-me da cama ha dias 

B. Bern, hei-de informar-me, antes de me decidir. Mas 
V 6 - lembre-se que tern de se contentar com pouco or- 
denado e que espero dos meus empregados que nunca 
se escapem a trabalho algum, nem se esque9am dos 
sous deveres. 

A. V a - Ex a - nao tera de queixar-se. 

B. Muito bem. Caso (que) se dedique seriamente ao sen 
emprego, nao terei eu de me irritar, nem V 6 - de 
arrepender-se. Entao retire-se por emquanto (for 
the present) e nao (se) desanime ate receber a 
minha decisao! Va-se (see 217) com Deus! 

A. Deus guarde a V fl - Ex a - ! 

Twenty-first Lesson. Li<jao vigesima 

Paradigm of the Regular Conjugations. 

Paradigma das conjugates regulares. 

Having in the three last lessons dealt with the 
>rmations of the tenses and moods of a regular 


Lesson 21. 

verb and given all the forms (including the passive and 
the reflective) of a verb of the first conjugation, we 
now present a paradigm of all three, thus repeating 
the first, in order to facilitate a summary view, yet 
omitting the English translation, easily supplied, however, 
after the 18 th lesson. 

133. The Portuguese calls Yerbo adjective a verb 
that unites in one word the verb ser or estar and an 
attribute, thus expressing an action, a state, or a quality 
of the subject e.g.: saltar, comer, partir; salto, I jump, 
equivalent to estou saltando, I am jumping; come, he 
eats, equivalent to estd comendo, he is eating, etc. 

134. The verbo adjectivo may be transitive 
or intransitive, according to its expressing an action, 
or a state, respectively a quality of the subject. Being 
transitive, it has an active and passive voice (voz activa 
or passiva). In the compound tenses of the former, it 
is conjugated with ter, in all tenses of the latter with 



Conjugates regulares do verfoo adjectivo. 
Voz activa 

l a . conjugagdo. 2 a . conjugagdo. 3 a . conjugagao. 

Infinit(iv)os e Participios. 

Presente impessoal. 

Louv-ar, to praise Dev-er, to owe, Applaud-ir, to ap- 
to be obliged, plaud. 

must, ought 







Ter louvado. 







Presente pessoal. 
dev-er es 
dev-er mos 
dev-er em. 

Preterito impessoal. 

Ter devido. 
Preterito pessoal. 
termos j 
terdes . 







Ter applaudido. 




Paradigm of the Regular Conjugations. 


Futuro impessoal. 
Haver or ter de louvar, de dever, de applaudir. 

Futuro pessoal. 

Ter or haver \ de louvar, termos or haver mos\de louvar. 
teres haver es \ de dever terdes haver des \de dever, 
ter haver } de applaudir terem haverem } de applaudir. 



Tendo louvado. 



















Participio imperfeito. 

Participio perfeito. 



Participio perfeito composto. 

Tendo devido. Tendo applaudido. 









Preterito imperfeito. 







Preterito perfeito. 

Dev-i 1 




















Preterito perfeito composto. 
Tenho louvado, devido, applaudido. 

1 In the meaning of must or ought this tense is not used, 
but is replaced by the Imperfect. 


Lesson 21. 

Preterito mais-que-perfeito. l 

Louvd-ra Deve-ra Applaudi-ra 

louvd-ras deve-ras applaudi-ras 

louvd-ra deve-ra applaudi-ra 

louvd-ramos deve-ramos applaudi-ramos 

louvd-reis deve-reis applaudi-reis 

louvd-ram. deve-ram. applaudi-ram. 

Preterito mais-que-perfeito composto. 
Tinha louvado, devido, applaudido. 







Futuro imperfeito.' 













Futuro imperfeito composto. 
Hei or tenho de louvar, de dever, de applaudir. 

Futuro preterito composto. 
Terei louvado, devido, applaudido. 







louvd-ra, etc. 

Presente (imperfeito). 


(cf. Mais-que-perfeito^). 
deve-ra etc. 







applaud-lra etc. 

Teria louvado, devido, applaudido 

Tivera louvado, devido, applaudido. 

1 For the formation of this tense cf. 114, c. 

2 For the formation of this tense cf. 44, 1. 

Paradigm of the Regular Conjugations. 



Louv-a (tu) 
louv-ae (vos). 

dev-ei (vds) 

Applaud-e (tu) 
applaud-i (vos). 

N.B. The verb clever in its meaning "must" has 
no Imperative. In its meaning "to owe" this form is 
given periphrastically : fica devendo, ndo fiques devendo. 
The above imperative forms of dever, one of the few 
quite regular verbs in -er, is meant only for a gram- 
matical model. 















Preterito imperfeito. 







Applaud- a 




applaud- aes 










Preterito perfeito composto. 

Teriha louvado, devido, applaudido. 

Preterito mais-qite- perfeito composto. 

Tivesse louvado, devido, applaudido. 

Futuro imperfeito. 1 

Deve-r Applaudi-r 






applaudi rmos 



Futuro imperfeito composto. 
Houver de louvar, de dever, de applaudir. 

1 Cf. 113, C. 


Lesson 21, 

136. Summary Table 

of the Endings of Regular Verbs in their Simple Tenses. 
First Primitive Tense, Infinitivo and Derived. 

1. conj. 2. conj. 3. conj. 


Pres. impessodl. 


er ir 

Pres. pessoal. 


er ir 


eres ires 


er ir 


ermos irmos 


erdes irdes 


erem. irem. 




es es 


e e 


emos imos 


eis is 


em. em. 

Pret. imperf. 


ia ia 


ias ias 


ia ia 


iamos iamos 


ieis ieis 


iam. iam. 

1. conj. 







2. conj. 3. 
Pret. perf. 











Future imperfeito. 

arei erei irei 

ards eras irds 

ard era ird 

aremos eremos iremos 

areis ereis ireis 

ardo. erdo. irao. 


aria eria iria 

arias erias irias 

aria eria iria 

ariamos eriamos iriamos 

arieis erieis irieis 

ariam. eriam. iriam. 

Participio imperf. 
ando. endo. indo. 


Participio perfeito. 
ido. ido. 

Second Primitive Tense, Indicativo presente (see above) 
and Derived. 

1. conj. 2. conj. 3. conj. 



1. conj. 2. conj. 3. conj. 


































Paradigm of the Regular Conjugations. 


Third Primitive Tense, 2 nd Pers. Sing, of the fret. perf. 

(see above) and Derived. 

Same endings in all 3 conjugations, whether regular or irregular. 

Indicative. Conjunctive. 

Mais-que-perf. Pret. imp. Futuro imperf. 

Ira sse 

ras sses 

ra sse 

ramos ssemos 

reis sseis 

ram. ssem. 







137. Verbs of the 2 Ed and 3 rd conjugations. 

N.B. Those verbs marked by * are irregular. Of 
the regular ones, those ending in -cer, -ger, -guer, -guir 
are subject to the well-known rules of the phonetic 
law concerning c and g. Others submit to the phone- 
tics mentioned in the following lesson (22). 

abrir to open 

affligir to afflict 

aggredir to attack, assault 

conduzir to lead ; -se to behave 

consistir (de) to consist (of) 

fransir to gather into plaits ; 

as sobrancelhas to frown 
fugir to flee, to fly 
*impedir to hinder, prevent 
insistir (em) to insist (upon) 
*ir ter com to call upon, to 

go to 

luzir to light, to shine 
mentir to lie 
*ouvir to hear 
partir to part, to divide; to 


*pedir to ask, beg 
perseguir to persecute 
possuir to possess 
produzir to produce 
prohibir to forbid, prohibit 
proseguir to prosecute 
*provir to come from 
reduzir to reduce 
sentir to feel, smell 

Adoecer to fall ill 

agradecer to thank (for) 

amanhecer to dawn 

apodrecer to make or grow 

apparecer to appear 

bater to beat 
collier to pick, to gather 

commover to move 

conter to contain 
converter to convert 

coser to sow 

cozer to cook 

defender to defend 
. desapparecer to disappear 

esquecer(-se) to forget, to be 

*fazer to do, make 

fornecer furnish 

merecer to merit 

nascer to be born; to spring, 

parecer to seem [rise, grow 

percorrer to run through 

*poder can, to be able 

proteger to protect 

"saber to know 


Lesson 21. 

tecer to weave 
varrer to sweep 
*ver to see. 

servir to serve, to be of use; 

se de to make use of 
sorrir to smile 


O poente the west, oc- 


the favour 

[pu 'enty] cident 

[ot>' zskiu] 

o chao [fun] the floor, 

o trabalho de 

the holiday- 




a direcgao the direction 



/cfo'rc 'sett/ 


o alimento the nourish- 


/#ft 'mentuj ment 


to need 

o legume the vegetables 


a 2?0na [pontv] the horn 

o castigo 

the punishment 

o #ado vaccum the cattle 

a preguiga 

the laziness 



o cervo ['ssrvu] the stag 

a lebre ['leftrdj 

the hare 

a armagao the horns 

a raposa 

the fox 

[vrrws 'svuj 

[rra 'pozvj 

descangado quiet 

pardo ['parduj 


[dtfkun 'sa&u] 



opapel [pv'pslj the part 

[rrts 'faffuj 

fazer o papel to play the part 

o focinho 

snout, mouth 

de . . . of ... 


as palmas the applause 

as barbas 

the whiskers, 



the beard 

a gallinha the hen 

timido ['timt&u] 


a ave [avdj the bird 

a casca f'kafkvj 
cagar [kv'sar] 

the bark 
to hunt, catch 

a ave de rapina the bird of prey 


estudioso studious, dili- 



[iftu&'i' ozu] gent 

o pelo f'pelu] 

the hair 

preguigoso lazy 

o chapelleiro 

[prdgi' sozu] 

[fvpa 'Ivfru] 

the hatter. 

o pato f'patu] the duck 

51. Leitura. 

sol nasce no oriente e desapparece no poente. A herva 
cresce no prado, enverdecendo o chao. Tejo, depois de 
nascido na Hespanha, percorre este pais em direccao occidental 
e, atravessado tambem Portugal, vae lancar-se no Atlantico 
ao pe de Lisboa. alimento ordinario do homem consiste de 
pao, carne, leite, ovos e legumes. Os animaes de pontas, taes 
como o gado vaccum, os cervos e outros mais, receberam a 
sua arma9ao para se defender(em), ao serem aggredidos. 
Guilherme devia ser mais modesto ; assim mereceria a estima de 
toda a gente. senhor appareca em minha casa na tarde de 
amanha! Nao se esqueca! Nao me hei de esquecer, fique 

Paradigm of the Regular Conjugation. 145 

V a - Ex a - descanc,ado! A nossa melhor actriz adoeceu infeliz- 
ineute; se nao tivesse adoecido (or: se nao adoecesse), teria 
sido nmito applaudida. Ainda ante-hontem, fazendo o papel 
da Ophelia, recebeu muitas palmas, que agradecia, sorrindo 
commovida. alumno ja lia, escrevia e fazia contas, mas 
ainda nao sabia desenhar. Nao sabias que a raposa persegue 
as lebres ? Eu nao tenho duvida que ella persiga ( 224) as 
lebres, mas queria que nao perseguisse as gallinhas e os 
patos. Se conhecesse um meio que o impedisse e que prote- 
gesse essas aves, havia-de empregal-o (or: empregal-o-ia). 

52. Thema. 

The Studious Pupil and the Lazy. 

On the last day of the holidays Edward went to his 
schoolfellow Joseph and asked him (Ihe) the favour that he 
[might] let him copy his two holiday-tasks which (os quaes) 
should be presented at school the following day. Joseph 
asked, astonished, whether he had not yet begun them. 1 
;Edward answered that he had had no time for it, that he 
had played a great deal with his brothers and sisters, that he 
jhad walked in the fields and woods, and that he had caught 
butterflies. Then Joseph answered that Edward, having 
walked so much, must be very tired and needed to rest; but 
that the following day he would receive the just punishment 
for his laziness. 

53. Exercise. 

Change the indirect language of the above into the 

A Lebre. 

(By aid of the words in parenthesis a whole sentence 

is to be formed). 

Que e uma lebre ? (animal quadrupede) 
Que cor tern? (parda) 
Como e a cabea? (arredondada) 
Como sao as orelhas? (compridas e 
Como 6 o bei90 superior? (rachado) 
Que tern no focinho? (barbas) 
Como sao os ps anteriores? (curtos) 
Como sao os pe"s posteriores? (compridos) 
Como e a cauda? (muito curta) 
Como e a lebre? (timida) 
Que come ella? (sementes, couves e cascas) 

1 In indirect discourse the Indicative is to be employed. 
Portuguese Conversation-Grammar. 10 

146 Lesson 22. 

Quaes sao os aniraaes que a perseguem? (raposas, gatos 

bravos, aves de rapina) 
Quern a ca^a? (o homem) 
Como e a carne? (saborosa) 
Quern utilisa os pelos? (chapelleiros). 

Twenty-second Lesson. Li<jao vigesima 

Phonetical and Orthographical Peculiarities 
of otherwise Regular Verbs. 

A. In the First Conjugation. 

137a. (a) Those verbs of the 1 st conj. which in 
their radical syllable have a close a [v], not followed 
by m, n or nh, change this u into open a wherever 
it has the tonical accent (cf. 5). Ex.: lavar [h'var] : 
lavo f'lavuj. comboio para ['parvj. 

(b) If, however, the # is followed by m, n or nh, 
it remains close: chamar [fe'mvr] : chamo ['famuj ; sa- 
nar : sano f'svnu], apanhar : apanho [v 'pvyiuj. 

Except.: ganhar [ga jiar] : ganho ['gayiu] I gain. 

138. (a) Those verbs of the 1 st conj. which in 
their radical syllable have an atonic e [d], not fol- j 
lowed by m, n, nh or by one of the palatals ^ ch, Ih 
modify it, when tonical, into open e [e]. Ex.: con- 
certar [Jcdsw't&rJ to mend : concerto [Jco'sertuJ; confcs- 
sar:confesso [kd'fesuj; levar; medrar; seccar; segar. 

(b) If, however, one of those consonants follows, i 
as well as in the verb chegar, the atonic e [9 or i] 
becomes close e [e] or fsj (see 5 A, Remark): remar : 
remo ['rremuj; acenar : acena [v'senvj; chegar : chego 
['fvgu], chegaf'fegvj; desejar [dd^'jarj : desejofdd'zvjuj; 
fecher [ft' far] : fecho f'fvfuj; ajoelhar [vgwi'fiar] : ajoelho 
fvgwvfiuj. Except.: invejar to envy : invejo fi'veguj 
with open e [e]. 

(c) On the other hand another verb belongs to this 
group (b): pesar in its meaning to be sorry: pesa-ine 
['pezvmd] I am sorry, I worry, with close e, while the 
isam e verb in its meaning to weight has open e [e] in 
the tonical syllables: peso [pezu]. 

ion. and Orth. Peculiarities of otherwise Regular Verbs. 147 

139. Verbs ending in -ear change e into ei [m], 
whenever the e would have the tonical accent: nomear 
[numl 'urj to name : nomeio [nu 'wiv^u]. Except. : the verb 
crear (or better criar) to create, breed, bring up; which 
conjugates: crio, crias, cria, criam, etc., while its com- 
posites follow the general rule : procrear to procreate : 
procreio (but also procrio) ; recrear to delight, to recover : 

N.B. Recriar, to recreate, conjugates like criar. 

140. Verbs ending in -iar conserve the i 
even when tonical: copiar : copio [Tcu'piuJ. 

Yet there is a small group of verbs which follow 

the rule of those in -ear: negociar to negotiate : nego- 

\ceio; diligenciar to endeavour, to effect, bring about: 

diligenceio ; odiar to hate : odeio ; premiar to distinguish, 

to reward ipremeio; remediar to remedy, repair : remedeia. 

141. An atonic o [u], not followed by m, n 
or nh, changes in accented syllables into open o [oj: 
tocar to touch, to play (an instrument) : 'toco [tokuj ; 
cortar to cut : corto ['fortuj. 

If, however, followed by m, n, nln or a vowel (verbs 
in -oar), the atonic o changes into close o [o] : assomar 
\[vsu'mar] to climb up, to peep out, to appear : assomo 
fv'somuj; abonar to bail : abdno [v'bonu] '; sonhar to 
dream : sonho [' sojiu] iperdoar to pardon \perdoo [par'- 

Exceptions to this rule are the verbs tomar to 
take and domar to tame, which change close o into 
open o [o] : t6mo ['tomu], donio ['tomu]. (N.B. Tomo 
jis volume; domo dome). 

142. The unaccented close o, which is found 
before , is modified into open o [o] : soltar [sot 'tar] to 
release, loosen, free : solto ['sottuj. 

N.B. The nasal o [o] is and remains always 
:lose: contar [kon'tar] to count : conto ['kontu]. 

143. The verbs in -gar intercalate u between 
/ and a following e: pagar to pay : pagues, pague } pa- 
'liiemos, pagueis, paguem; paguei. 

The verbs in -car change before e the c into qu: 
ocar : toques, toque, etc. 


148 Lesson 22. 

The verbs in -car lose the cedilla before e: come- 
car : comeces, etc. 

Those in -jar may change the j into g before an 
c or conserve it: viagei or viajei, viagemos or viajemos. 

IS. In the Second Conjugation. 

144. Unaccented close a [%] of the radical 
syllable changes, when accented, into open a [*]: 
abater [ubv 'terj to abate : abato [v 'fiattij. 

145. Atonic e [d] of the radical changes: 

1. Into accented close e [e] in the first person 
sing. pres. ind. and the accented forms derived from 
it (i.e.: the singular and the 3 rd pers. plur. of the sub- 
junctive): gemer to groan : gemo ['gemuj, gema, gemas 
['zemu(f)], gemam (N.B. a or o in the ending!); 

2. Into open e [e] in the 2 nd and 3 rd pers. sing. 
and in the 3 rd pers. plur. pres. ind. and the derived forms 
(2 nd pers. imperative): gemes ['^intf], geme ['jenn], 
gemem f'gtmvi] (N.B. e in the ending!). 

146. Atonic o [u] becomes in the same cases: 

1. close o [o]: comer to eat : como fkomuj, coma(s) 

2. open o [o]: comes ['~kdmlf], come ['~kmw], etc. 

147. Unaccented close o [o] becomes open o 
[o] in all those forms where 9 becomes e (cf. 145,2): 
volver to turn : volves, volve, volvem. 

148. Verbs ending in -cer take a cedilla before 
a and o: conhecer to know : conheco, conheca, etc. 

149. Verbs ending in -ger change g into j be- 
fore a and o: proteger to protect : protejo, proteja. 

150. Verbs ending in -guer drop the u before 
a and o : crguer to raise : ergo, erga, ergas, etc. 

C. In the Third Conjugation. 

151. Unaccented close a [vj of the radical syl- 
lable changes, if not followed by m, n or rih, into open 
a [a,] when accented: obrir [v'firir] to open : obro 

Phon. ar 

and Orth. Peculiarities of otherwise Regular Verbs. 149 

If, however, it is followed by m, n or nk, it remains 
close: ganir to howl, yelp : gane ['gvny] ; bramir to roar: 
bramo f'brvmuj. 

152. The atonic e [9] of the radical syllable 
changes : 

1. Into i in the first person sing. pres. ind. and 
the derived forms (pres. subj. N.B. before a and o): 
despir to undress : dispo, dispa, etc. (cf. 156). 

2. Into open e [e] in the 2 nd and 3 rd pers. sing, and 
3 rd pers. plur. pres. ind. and sing, of the imperative 
(N.B. before e): despes, despe, despem. 

Remark. The verbs aggredir to assault, denegrir to 
blacken, to slander, prevenir to anticipate, to prevent, pro- 
gredir to proceed, to thrive, remir to redeem, transgredir to 
transgress, change the e of the penultimate into i when ac- 
cented: aggrido, aggrides, aggride, aggridem, aggrida(s), etc. 

153. Close e [e], whether oral or nasal, be- 
comes i in the same forms where 9 becomes i (s. 152,1), 
remaining e [e] in all others: sentir to feel, smell : sinto, 
sinta(s), sintam (s. 156); sente(s), etc. 

154. Atonic o [u] becomes: 

1. U in the same forms where atonic e [9] be- 
1 comes i (s. 152,1): dormir to sleep : durmo, durma, 

durmas, durmam (s. 156). 

2. Open o [o] in those persons where atonic e be- 
comes // (s. 152, 2) : dormes, dorme, dormem. 

Remark. In the verbs sortir to supply, cortir to tan, 
ortftr to warp, to plot, o changes into u wherever accented: 
curto, curies, curte, curtem, curta(s), curtam, surte, urdo, etc. 
The same change occurs in cortir even in unaccented forms, 
which might be confounded with those of cortar: curtdmos, 
curtaes, etc. N.B. Instead of ordir you may write urdir, 
i which is more modern. 

155. Atonic u (and o) of the infinitive becomes 
.open o [o] in the 2 nd and 3 rd pers. sing, and the 3 rd pers. 
plur. pres. ind. and in the following verbs: 
\Acudir to succour descobrir to discover 

'bulir to stir cuspir to spit 

consumir to consume destruir to destroy 

cubrir (better: cobrir) to cover engulir to swallow 

150 Lesson 22. 

fugir to flee, fly, escape subir to mount, ascend 

refugir to retrocede sumir to sink; se to vanish 

sacudir to shake (off), to toss tussir (or tossir) to cough. 
Thus: acodes, acode, acodem. 

Pres. ind. of consumir: consume, consomes, consome, consumi- 

mos, consumis, consomem. 

> destruir: destruo, destroes, destroe, destruimos } 
destruis, destroem. 

Remark. In construir and reconstruir the u is generally 
conserved : construo, construes (or constroes), construe (or con- 
stroe), construimos, construis, construem (constroem). 

156. The vowel of the radical syllable beiug 
close e [e] or atonic e [9] or o [u] (see 152 154), 
it undergoes the same modification in the 1 st and 2 nd 
pers. plur. pres. subj. as in the sing, and in the 3 rd pers. 
plur. of this form : ferir to wound : firamos, firaes. 
Pres. conj. of vestir to dress : vista(s), vistdmos, vistaes, vistam. 
mentir to lie: minta(s), mintdmos, mintaes, 


dormir to sleep: durma(s), durmdmos, durmaes, 

157. Those verbs, where the infinitive-ending 
-ir is preceded by g, gu (or qu), are subject to the 
rules of" 149 and 150. Ex.: corrigir : corrijo, corrija; 
seguir to follow : siao, siaa, franquir (antiquated) to 
cultivate : franco, franca. 

Remark. In. arguir, to argue, the u is audible: 
arguo, argues, argue, arguimos, arguis, arguem. 

The same in delinqu'ir, to offend against a law: 
delinquo, deUnqiies, delinque, delinquimos, etc. 

158. In the verbs ending in -ahir, the h is not 
a part of the radical, but serves merely to separate a 
and i. So as not to leave any doubt, for instance, in the 
1 st and 2 nd pers. plur. pres. ind, the i has the tonical accent, 
and not the a: saMmos, sahis. Modern orthography 
drops the h, putting an accent instead, thus : sdio, saes, 
sae, saimos, sais, sdem; saia(s), saiamos, etc.; sdia(s), 
saidmos, etc. 

159. Verbs in -usir drop the e of the 3 rd pers. 
sing, pres, ind., thus conduz instead of conduce. (N.B. 
The imperative is: conduce.) 

. and Orth. Peculiarities of otherwise Regular Verbs. 151 


the cotton alinhavar 

to baste, to 


[Tslir)^ 'VH r] 


o algodoeiro 

the cotton-tree a costura 

the sewing 

[alguffu 'vim] [kuf'turv] 

o ourii'O 

the prickly o alfaiate 

the tailor 


shell, hedge- [a^fui' ate] 

hog o vestudrio 

the clothing 

a felpa \ 



o fio, o liriho 

the thread 

a pennugem 1 
[pj 'nugvij 1 

the down 

a agidha 

the needle 

o cot (to 

o traje ['tragij 

1 the costume 




macio /me 'siuj 



a roda [rro&u] de round 


o casulo 

the capsule 

[puffd 'sdr] 

to suffer 




to card 




to practise 


to appropriate, 



make fit to 

a raiz [rm'if] 

the radical 

o tecido 

the tissue 


to embrace 

{fa 'sifru] 


a pelle [pclz] 

the skin 



o calcado 

shoes and boots 

[tfdlig 'mentdj 

[kal 'saffuj 

o mirihoto 

the inhabitant 


to scrape 

[mi 'yotuj 

of the Minho 


o ribatejdno 

the inhabitant 

o tanque [t&kd] 

the tank 

[rrifivt'i'gv'iiuj of the Riba- 

a camada 

the layer 


[kv 'nia&ej 

o alemtejdno 

the inhabitant 

o tanino 

the tan 

[vlvW 'z'enul 

of the Alem- 

[tv 'ninuj 



o mirandes 

the inhabitant 

[fT9pv 'sarj 

to soak [mirvn'def] 

of Miranda 


\ 2)assar para 

to pass to 


abster [vof'ter] 

to abstain 

a cosiureira 

the seamstress aftexao 

the inflexion 

1 kuftu'rvirv] fflsk'svuj 

o restido 

the dress, cloth acertar [usdrtar] to hit 


i oral [o'rall 


a roupa branca the linen \ dtono [' atunuj 
[ 'rropu 'bruke] surdo ['sur&u] 


o fato f'fatu] the clothes a tr ans forma- 
cortar [kur'tar] to cut gao [trvf- 

the transforma- 

a tesoura 
ftd 'zoru] 

the scissors furma'svu] 
a modificacao 


the modifica- 
j. __ 

a fiia metrica the metric [moffyfica- 
[' fits' metrikvj measure 'svu] 

the change 

o molde 

the pattern no entanto 

meanwhile, yet 

[ 'milfoj 


152 Lesson 22. 

phonetico phonetical basear [buzi 'ar] to rest upon 

[fu'netiku] a pronuncia the pronuncia- 

patentear manifest fpru'nustv] tion. 

54. Leitura. 

(a) algodao. 

algodao e produzido por uma arvore chamada algodoeiro. 
algodoeiro produz uma especie de oui^os. Estes ouri^os 
abrem quando estao maduros e mostram no meio uinas se- 
mentes escuras. A. roda d'essas sementes escuras v6-se uma 
felpe on pennugem macia, como cotao. Essa felpa e o algodao. 
Depois de tirada do ouri90 ou casulo, a felpa e cardada e em 
seguida reduzida a fio em machinas apropriadas; e com esse 
fio fazem-se os tecidos ou pannos de algodao. 

(b) As pelles. 

As pelles servem principalmente para fazer caleado. Os 
bois, as vaccas e as vitellas sao os animaes que nos fornecem 
mais pelles para ca^ado. A pelle depois de tirada do animal 
e mettida em agua para que amolleQa e em seguida e raspada 
para que Ihe saia todo o pello e restos de carne. Depois de 
bem raspadas, as pelles se curtem, sendo mergulhadas em tan- 
ques e separadas umas das outras por camadas de casca de 
carvalho pulverisada. A casca de carvalho contain muito tanino, 
e este repassa as pelles e faz com que nao apodre^am. azedo 
ou acre da casca de carvalho provem do tanino. 

(Trindade Coelho: primeiro Livro de Leitura.) 

55. Exercise. 

Transpose No. 52 into the corresponding forms of in- 
direct language, wherein it must be remembered to employ the 

Ex.: Affirmaram-me que o algodao era produzido . . ., 
que o algodoeiro produzia . . . 

56. Theina. 

(a) The Seamstress. 

The seamstress makes clothes and linen for women. She 
makes also children's clothes and men's linen. The seamstress 
first cuts what she intends to sew, making use of the chalk, 
the scissors, the metric measure, and the ruler, and she might, 
if she wanted to, employ also patterns. Thereupon she bastes 
and then she sews, making use of a needle and thread. With 
a hot iron she opens and irons (tr.: correr) the seams. 

and Orth. Peculiarities of otherwise Regular Verbs. 153 

(b) The Tailor. 
The tailor occupies himself in making clothing for men. 
The costumes of the Portuguese people are very curious 
and in various regions of Portugal even very fine (sup. abs.). 
People should always wear these clothes, which do not resemble 
those of other nations. Unhappily, fashion allows (fas) national 
clothing to fall into oblivion (calr em esquecimento). But 
the inhabitants of the Minho, the Ribatejo, the Alemtejo and 
of Miranda still dress after (d) their own fashion. 


Previno os senhores que ainda 
devemos exercitar os verbos 
que apprenderam na ultima 
li^ao. Qual a mudanQa que 
soffreni os verbos da terceira 
conjuga9ao, cuja raiz temum 
e surdo? 

Dizendo a flexao do presente, 
abrangeu outra mudanQa dos 
mesmos verbos. Qual e? 

senhor nao conhece verbos 
da mesma categoria que nao 
transformem o e surdo em 
e aberto? 

Como e que se distinguem dos 
outros verbos? 

Ja nao duvido que os senhores tambem os verbos 
que, parecendo-se com os ja 
tratados,teem no entanto um 
e fechado na penultima syl- 
laba do infinite. 

Bemjabasta! Naomintamais! 
Exige a justiea que, pedindo 
desculpa, se rectifique o que 
eu dizia: nao mentiu, dizendo 

e surdo passa para i na pri- 
meira pessoa do singular do 
presente indicativo e nas tres 
do singular e terceira do plu- 
ral do presente conjunctivo; 
por exemplo: visto, vestes, 
veste, vestimos, vestis,vestem. 

e surdo passa para e aberto 
n a segunda pessoa do singular 
e nas terceiras pessoas do 
singular e plural do presente 
indicativo, assim como no 
singular do imperativo. 

Conhec,o, sim, senhor. Sao entre 
outros os verbos aggredir, 
denegrir, prevenir,progredir, 
remir, transgredir. 

Elles mudam o e surdo da penul- 
tirna syllaba do presente do 
infinitive para i todas as vezes 
que e accentuada, p. ex. pre- 
nimos, prevenis, previnem. 

Nesses verbos, o e fechado, seja 
elle oral ou nasal, passa para i 
nas mesmas pessoas em que e 
surdo passa para i, conservan- 
do-se nas outras pessoas : min- 
to,mentes, m en te,ment linos , 
mentis, mentem; minta, 
mintas etc. 

verbo fugir, pertencendo 
aquelles que no infinitive 
teem u oral, muda essa vogal 
em o aberto na 2 a pessoa e 


Lesson 23. 

a flexao de mentir. Ate que 
acertou; muito bem! Agora 
desejo que conjugue fugir. 

A l a pessoa sing, do pr. ind. 
d'este verbo, sendo phonetica- 
mente regular, patenteia to- 
daviauma modincaeaoortho- 
grapbica. Indique o senhor 
em que consiste e a regra 
em que se baseia. 

na 3 a do singular e na 3 a 
do plural do presente indi- 
cative e no singular do 
imperative : fujo, f6ges, foge, 
fugimos, fugis, fogem; foge. 
Na pessoa rnencionada, assim 
como em todo o presente do 
con j uncti vo (fuja, fujas, fuja, 
fujdmos, fujaes, fujam), o g 
passa para ,;', porque precisa 
conservar a mesma proniincia 
antes de a. 

Twenty-third Lesson. Li<jao vigesima 

Exercises on the Full Verbs, especially of 
the Preceding Lesson. 

N.B. Here Lessons 37, especially the subjunc- 
tive moods and their employment, are to be repeated. 

The verbs printed in italics are to be conjugated 
by word of mouth in those tenses which have some 

As batatas.* 

As batatas nascem de uma planta chamada batateira. 1 
A rama 2 da batateira e verde. A batateira da flores cor de 
violeta, ou brancas. Estas flores trans formam-se em fructo 
com a forma de pequeninas bolas 3 cor de violeta. Estas pe- 
queninas bolas sao venenosas. Arrancada* uma batateira, o 
pe traz agarradas 5 [a elle] varias batatas, umas grandes, ou- 
tras mais pequenas. Cada batata apresenta por fora varies 
botoes 6 , gomos 6 ou borbulhas 6 , os quaes teem o nome de 
olhos. Enterrando uma batata, nasce com o tempo uma 
batateira. Partindo uma batata de modo a 7 separar inteiros 
os varios olhos que ella apresenta, e enterrando em separado 8 
cada um d'esses olhos, de cada um nasce uma batateira, que 
com o tempo dard batatas. 

* These excerpts 55 60 are taken from Primeiro Livro 
de Leitura by Trindade Coelho. The student is advised to care- 
fully read and translate these excerpts, as well as No. 61, and 
to retranslate them into Portuguese. 

Exercises on the Full Verbs. 155 

As batatas sao um magnifico alimento nao so para as 
pessoas mas para os animaes. Depois de apanhadas 9 , as 
batatas devem ser conservadas em sitios seccos e frescos. A 
humidade 10 faz apodrecer as batatas. calor faz com que 
germinem. 11 A batata, depois de germinar 11 , adquire um gosto 
pessimo, e nao se pode comer. 

1 Potato-plant. 2 foliage. 3 ball. 4 arrancar = to pull 
out, to root up. 5 aqarrar = to cling (cf. 54). 6 bud. 7 so 
as to. 8 separately. 9 apanhar = to pick up, to gather. 10 damp- 
ness, moisture. ll to germinate. 

As frutas. 

As fructas nascem das arvores fructiferas, ou arvores de 
fructo. Todas as arvores produzem fructo ; mas as chamadas 
arvores fructiferas sao propriamente as que produzem fructos 
que podemos comer. As arvores de fructo cobrem-se de flores 
na primavera. Das flores nascem os fructos, e estes sao co- 
Ihidos depois de maduros. 1 

pecegueiro 2 dd pScegos 3 , a pereira 4 da peras, a ma- 
cieira 5 da macas, a larangeira 6 da laranjas, a ameixoeira 7 da 
ameixas, a amendoeira 8 da amfindoas, a cerejeira 9 ou cerdeira 9 
da cerejas, a gingeira 10 da ginjas 11 , o castanheiro da castan- 
has, o marmeleiro 12 da marmelos, o limoeira da limoes, o 
damasqueiro 13 da damascos, a nogueira da nozes, a roman- 
zeira 14 da romas, a figueira da figos, a tangerineira da tange- 
rinas 15 , etc. 

As arvores de fructo sao podadas 16 no inverno. po- 
dador 17 serve-se principalmente da navalha 18 , do podao 19 e 
da tesoura 20 , com os quaes corta os ramos iniiteis. As fru- 

1 etas comem-se mais por goso 21 do que para sustento; mas 
todas as fructas conteem elementos preciosos para a saude. 
As fractas comem-se geralmente emquanto frescas, e so devem 
comer-se bem maduras. As fructas tambem se podem con- 

^servar, quer 22 seccando-as, como se faz por exemplo a ameixa, 
ao figo e a pera; quer fazendo com ellas os chamados doces 
de calda 23 , ou de compdta Z4: ; e ainda outros variedades de 
doces. Com as fructas frescas, fasem-se tambem as chamadas 
fructas de conserva. 

1 Ripe. 2 peach-tree. 3 peaches. 4 pear-tree. 5 apple- 
tree. 6 orange-tree. 7 peach-tree. 8 almond-tree. 9 cherrytree. 
10 mahaleb. n mahaleb-cherries. 12 quince-tree. 13 apricottree. 
14 pomegranate-tree. 15 oranges of Tanger. 1G podar = to prune, 
lop, clip. 17 clipper. 18 knife. 19 pruning-saw. 20 pruning-shears. 

1 pleasure. - 2 quer . . . quer either ... or. 23 juice, jam. 
* 4 stewed fruit. 25 preserved. 


Lesson 23. 


Porque plantamos um grao 
de maca (um car69o de 
p6cego, de ameixa) etc.? 

Que esperamos (desejamos), 
plantando uma arvore fru- 

Que e precise para uma ar- 
vore fructifera dar fructa no 
verao ou outono? 

Como e que se consomem as 

Porque sao podadas as ar- 

vores ? 
Quaes os instruments de que 

o podador se deve servir? 

Para que fim cultivamos a ba- 

Como e precise conserval-a? 

Que seria se as batatas esti- 
vessem num sitio quente? 

Porque se deve evitar que 
germinem ? 

Para que nasa uma macieira 
(um pecegueiro, uma ameixo- 
eira) etc. 

Esperamos (desejamos) que 
cres^a e que produza fru- 

E precise que na primavera se 
cubra de flores. 

Consomem-se (or: sao conso- 
midas) frescas, seccas, co- 
zidas, feitas em doces de 
calda, de compota etc. 

Podam-se as arvores para as 
livrar dos ramos iniiteis. 

E precise que se sirva (e pre- 
cise servir-se) da navalha, 
do podao e da tesoura. 

Para que nos forneca alimento, 
a nos e aos nesses animaes 

E preciso que seja conservada 
em sitio secco e fresco para 
que a humidade nao a apo- 

calor as faria germinar (or: 
faria com que germinassem). 

Para que com a germinacao 
nao adquiram (ou ganhem) 
um gosto pessimo que nao se 
Ihes deixe comer. 


A lavra. 1 

A lavra faz-se com o arado 2 ou com a charrua. 2 
arado e a charrua sao puxados 8 por bois, e tambem o podem 
ser por cavallos ou muares. 4 arado e a charrue rasgam* 
a terra com a rfilha 6 , abrindo no chao sulcos 7 ou r6gos. 7 A 
terra antes de lavrada 8 esta mais ou menos dura; depois de 
lavrada fica fofa. 9 So depois de fofa r a terra esta propria 
para receber a semente. 10 lavrador 11 que deitasse a se- 
mente na terra antes de a lavrar, perdia o tempo e a semente, 

May be extended and varied by the teacher. 

Exercises on the Full Verbs. 


4 mule. 5 tear. 
n husbandman. 

pois esta comiam-na os passaros, e a que nao comessem os 
passaros nao nascia. A semente precisa de terra humida e 
fofa para nascer e de se esconder 1 * debaixo da terra. 

1 Tillage. 2 plough. 3 to pull, to draw. 
6 coulter. 7 furrow. 8 till. 9 loose. 10 seed. 
12 to hide. 

A sementeira. 1 

Depois de lavrada a terra, o lavrador deita-lhe a se- 
mente. A semente vae 2 n'um sacco, e este debaixo do braco 
i esquerdo do lavrador, e dependurado 3 do hombro. lavra- 
dor espalha* a semente, jogando 5 -a, com a mao direita, para 
| a frente e para os lados, Ao mesmo tempo que semeia 6 , o 
! lavrador vae andando. A sementeira faz-se tambem com in- 
strumentos apropriados, chamados semeadores mechanicos. 7 

1 Sowing. 2 present of ir (s. 214). 3 hanging. 4 to spread. 5 to 
throw. 6 to sow. 7 sowing-machine. 


(See note p. 156.) 

Porque se poem os bois a Para que a puxem (or: para 

charrua? que seja puxada por elles). 

Para que se emprega a char- Para que rasgue a terra com 

rua ou o arado? a relha e abra sulcos ou 

Porque e precise rasgar-se a Para que fique fofa. 


Que havia-de dizer V. se dese- Pegue com o sacco da semente 
jasse ensinar a alguem a debaixo do bra0 esquerdo, 
semear? de maneira que fique de- 

pendurado do hombro e jo- 
gue a semente, espalhando 
-a com a direita para a 
frente e para os lados. 


A grade. 1 

Semeada a terra, o lavrador passa a grade por cima 
d'ella. A grade alisa a terra; e alisando-a, faz com que de- 
ibaixo d'ella se esconda a semente. Encontrando-se coberta 3 , 
a semente nao tarda a germinar. Pouco tempo depois, toda 
a terra comeca a verdejar*, cdbrindo-se de uma especie de 
relva. 5 E a seara 6 que come^a a nascer. Cada grao que 
,germinou produziu uma pequenina haste; as hastes vao 7 cres- 

158 Lesson 23. 

cendo pouco a pouco; vao com o tempo creando espiga 8 ; e 
na espiga vao medrando 9 os graos. 

1 Harrow. 2 to smooth. 3 P. part, of cobrir. 4 to become 
green. 5 turf, "(standing) corn. 7 Pres. of ir (s. 214); vao crescendo 
periphrastically for crescent. 8 ear (of corn). 9 to grow, to thrive. 


A monda. 1 

Na primavera, a seara esta ja muito desenvolvida, e ate 
ondula 2 em dias de vento, produzindo a vista um agradavel 
aspecto. 3 Mas misturados com as hastes da seara, apparecem 
entao, frequentemente, hervas damninhas. 4 Essas herves e 
precise arrancal-as, pois roubam 6 a terra o sustento que 6 so 
para a seara, e portanto 6 nao deixam medrar esta. tra- 
balho ou opera9ao de arrancar essas hervas damninhas chama- 
se monda. 

1 Weeding. 2 undulate. 3 sight. 4 weeds. 5 to rob. 6 therefore. 


Conselhos d'uma mae (A) e d'um amigo idoso (B) para 
um mogo (C) em vesper as 2 de ir para fdra. 2 

A. Meu filho, quando te fores embora (see 34 foot-note 
and p. 37), nao te esqnegas de te 3 despedir dos tens 
professores, para que te nao tenham em conta 4 de 
malcriado! 5 Seria uma desapprobacao que me to- 
casse a mim, porque fui eu quern te criei. 

C. Nao receie minha Mae, que eu nao me comporte bem. 
Diligenceio ( 139) sempre fazer honra a educa^ao 

B. E um cuidado que sempre se premeia, pois a um 
joven bem comportado acolhe*-se com prazer em 
toda a parte. 

A. E faze para nao chegares tarde a estacao! Sabes a 
que horas abre a bilheteira? 7 

C. Acho que abre as tres menos dez, e consta-me 8 que 
fecha cinco minutos antes da partida do comboio. 

B. Se assim o deseja (or: desejar), tomo-lhe (or: tomar- 
Ihe-ei) o bilhete e chamo tambem um portador 9 que 
Ihe leve a bagagem. 10 

C. Muito obrigado a V a -Ex a -, mas nao sera melhor que 
tome um trem de prasa? 11 

A. Ainda que tomes trem, nao escusas d'um portador 
que te acompanhe ao caes (or: a plata -forma), e ate 
a portinhola 13 do comportamento. 14 E escuta 15 : nao 
te assomes muito a janella, para nao te constipares 16 

Exercises on the Full Verbs. 


(para que te nao constipes). E nao consintas 11 que 
se abra a janella do lado do vento! 
>. meu joven amigo pode dormir em caminho de 


C. Eu raras vezes durmo; receio que algnma paysagem 
passe, sem que eu a perceba. 

B. Tern razao. Seria pena que Ihe escapasse coisa al- 
guma. Mas entao sera precise que se erga de vez em 
quando, para nao ficar (or: para que nao fique) com 

A. Sim, e nao comas muito, porque isso faz adormecer. 

C. Tambem sinto pouca vontade de comer emquanto 

A. Tu ainda tens (por ahi) algumas pequenas dividas 

que pagar? 
C. Nao tenho, minha Mae. Paguei tudo quanto devi. 

A. Melhor. Prefiro que nao haja nada que te pese 
( 138 c) na alma. Lamental-o-ia, se nao me dissesses 
a verdade. 

C Perdoe-me, minha Mae! Nunca Ihe menti, nem Ihe 
minto agora. Nao Ihe pese ( 138c) isso! 

B. Como veste em viagem? 

C. Visto fato 18 de flanella e levo casacao. 19 

A. E olha, airtda que parega superfine lembrdl-o: nao 
cuspas no chao, nem tussas quando puderes 20 evital-o, 
para nao incommodares 21 os outros viajantes. 

B. Agradeco todos os seus conselhos, minha Mae, ate 
os superfluos. 

1 On the point (= at the eve) of. 2 to go abroad. 3 to 
take leave. 4 to take for. 5 ill-bred. 6 to receive. 7 book- 
ing-office. 8 I am told. 9 porter. 10 luggage. ll cab, hansom. 
12 platform. 13 door. 14 compartment. 15 to hark, listen atten- 
tively. 16 to catch cold. 17 to consent. 18 clothes. 19 great- 
coat. 20 fut. subj. of poder (s. 198). 21 to molest. 


vaqueiro the cowherd 

[ve 'kviruj 
apascentar to pasture 

[vpufsen 'tar] 
a vacca ['vakv] the cow 
contiguo contiguous 

[kon 'tigwuj 
'ctttrahir to attract 

[vtrv 'irj 

10 desejo the desire 

trepar [trs'par] to climb 

pisar [pi'zar] 

[if u' tar] 
corar [Tto'rar] 

[irrvsiu 'nal] 
o appetite 

a vergonha 



to tread 

to drive away 

to blush 

the appetite, 

the shame 


160 Lesson 23. 

soprar to blow 

[su 'prarj 
aspero f'afpdruj rough; harsh, 

a constipagao the cold 

[k8f tips' sew] 
o corrente d'ar the draught 

sharp : estorvar to disturb. 

64. Leitura. 


Um rapaz anda apascentando uma vacca n'um prado con- 
tiguo a um jardim. N'essa occasiao ve" n'uma arvore uinas 
cerejas maduras, que o attraem, e o movem a desejos de as 
apanhar. Abandona no mesmo instante o animal, e trepa a 
arvore. A vacca porem, quando nao ve o pastor, entra no 
jardim, come a melhor herva, e pisa nmita outra com os pes. 

rapaz desce furioso da arvore, enxota o animal, e bate-lhe 
barbaramente. Aproxima-se logo o pae e diz-lhe: Quem 
merece um tal castigo, tu ou o animal irracional? Obedeces 
ao appetite menos do que elle? E o rapaz cora de vergonha 
diante do pae. 

65. Thema. 

I am glad tbat you are determined to accompany us. 
If to-morrow the weather be good, we shall ascend the 
mountain which offers so beautiful a view. The weather 
does not appear to become good, the wind blowing from east. 

1 am afraid that we shall have rough weather for some days 
more. If it was not for our journey, it would be indifferent 
(not matter), but as it is, it disturbs rather (it is rather 
annoying). Are you not afraid of catching a cold? I gave 
you this great- coat that it might protect you from the 
draught. Now it is time for us to go home (= it is time 
that we go home), that we may sleep a couple of hours 
before departing (infinitive). 


Transforrne o exercicio n. 62 : 

1. empregando o preterite; 

2. sendo o prdprio rapaz que conta este caso; 

3. sendo o pae que conta o caso ao rapaz ; 

4. sendo dois rapazes em vez de um, e muitas vaccas 
em vez de uma; 

5. sendo os dois rapazes que contain o caso: 

6. sendo o pae que conta o caso aos filhos. 

On the Pronouns. 161 

Twenty-fourth Lesson. Licjao vigesima 

On the Pronouns. Pronomes. 

160. There are six kinds of pronouns viz.: 
1. the Personal; 2. the Demonstrative; 3. the Possessive; 
4. the Interrogative; 5. the Relative; 6. the Indefinite 

I. The Personal Pronouns. Pronomes pessoaes. 

161. The personal pronouns are the only words 
of Portuguese language which, like the Latin and Ger- 
man, modify their original form (subject or nominative), 
to express the different complements (genitive, dative or 
accusative), as here represented: 

Singular. Plural. 



de mim de nos 

Dat. I me; a mim nos; a nos 



* Ace. 

f Gen. 


Tu vos 

de ti de vds 

te; a ti vos; a vos 

te vos 

Elle, ella elles, ellas 

d'elle, d'ella; de si d'elles, d 1 ellas; de si 

Ihe ; a elle } a ella ; a si Ikes ; a dies, a ellas ; a si 
o, a; se os ; as; se. 

162. (a) The forms nos, vos, elle(s), ella(s) are sub- 
ject only when employed without a preposition, and may, 
as well as the atonic forms of the complements, be 
called conjunctive (conjunctos), as they are always joined 
to the verb; while the others (mim, ti, si), being sepa- 
rated from their verbs by a preposition, may be considered 
absolute (absolutes). 

(b) The absolute pronoun is often employed with 
the conjunctive when a stress is laid on it e.g.: dd- 
[llio a elle, give it to him, instead of dd-llio, give it 
him. Yet the conjunctive forms of the subject may be 
also employed quite alone, in which case they are also 
absolute. Ex.: Eu? Tu nao, elle ou ella. 

Portuguese Conversation-Grammar. 11 

162 Lesson 24. 

163. (a) Eu and tu are alivays subject; nos, vos, 
elle(s), ella(s) are, as already said, subject when em- 
ployed without a preposition. 

When governed by a preposition, they are com- 
plements of the genitive, dative, or accusative e.g.: 
lembra-se de nos; del a elles; recebemos para ella. 

(b) Mim, ti, si are always complements and go- 
verned by a preposition ; elle(s), ella(s), nos, vos are also 
complements as soon as they are joined to a prepo- 
sition (see a). Deu-me (a mim), he gave me; viu-me (a 
mim), he saw me. Tenho-o d'elle, I have it from him. 

(c) The first and second persons (sing, and plur.), 
as well as the pronoun se of the third person, joined 
to the preposition com, are assimilated with it and take 
a new form viz. : com(m)igo, comtigo, comsigo, comnosco, 
comvosco, with me (myself), thee (thyself), him(self), her- 
(self), them(selves), us (ourselves) you(rself), yourselves. 

Elle foi com(m)igo, he went with ine. 

Venha comnosco, come with us. 

Levou-o comsigo, he took it with him. 

Isso ndo e comsigo, that is no concern of yours. 

(d) Me, te, nos, vos, se do not admit of any preposi- 
tion. They are forms of the accusative or dative and 
correspond to the Portuguese: a mim, a ti, a nos, a vos, 
a si to me, to you, to us. 

Elle levou-me he took me. 

Eu mostrei-te ... I showed you . . . 

Nos persuadimo-vos we persuaded you . . . 

Yds devolveste-nos . . . you gave us ... back. 

Eu dei-vos o conselho I gave you the counsel. 

(e) Lhe, Ihes are forms of the 3 rd person, without 
distinction of the gender. They express the dative- 
complement and are employed without a preposition: 
mostrei-lhe(s), I showed it (to) him, her, them, you. 

N.B. As Ihe, Ihes are also employed in addressing 
somebody, you may avoid a misunderstanding by em- 
ploying a double form: 

Mostrei-lhe(s) a elle (a elles) I showed him (them) 
T> a ella (a ellas) her 
a voce (a voces) you. 

On the Pronouns. 163 

The prepositional form may also precede the other 
e.g.: *Nesse meu artigo sobre o Coragao Doente, que 
a voce Ihe agradou tanto . . . (Tr. Coelho : Cartas). 

In that article of mine on the "Sick Heart," which 
pleased you so well . . . 

Or it may even substitute the simple form e.g.: 
Homenagens que de todo a banda me vem chegando . . . 
a elle as endosso* (ibid.). 

Homages which from all sides come to me ... I endorse 
them to him. 

(f) 0, a, os, as, him, her, it, them, are complements 
of the accusative of the 3 rd person of the transitive verb 
with distinction of gender) and are employed without 
i preposition. 

Vejo-o (-a, -os, -as) I see him (her, it, them). 

(g) The reflective pronoun se has the forms se, si, 
sigo, and is employed without distinction of the number 
md gender: se without a preposition; si with the pre- 
oositions a, de, em, por (per), para, sobre; sigo with com 
comsigo). Ex. : 

Lava-se, he (she) washes himself (herself). (You) wash 

yourself (see Remark II.). 
homem nao vive sd para si. 
Man does not live for himself alone. 
Pensou comsigo he (she) thought by him-(or her-)self. 

Remark L The absolute pronouns may still be streng- 
,'aened by mesmo or proprio : N6s mesmos we ... ourselves, 
u proprio I ... myself, para si mesmo, comigo mesmo, etc. 

Remark //.As se is the reflective pronoun of the 
rd person, and the person spoken to is always in the 3 rd person, 
2 may be also "you" e.g.: 

Lembrou-se, he or she or you remembered. 

Remark ///.Also the forms si and sigo are employed, 
hen addressing a person, but only in familiar style e.g., 
embrei-me de si I thought of you; irei comsigo I shall go 
dth you. 

164. (a) The forms me, te, se, nos, vos, Ihe, Ihes, 
a, os, as, are joined by a hyphen (-) to their preced- 
ig verb: 

Offendeu-me (but: elle nao meoffendeu): desculpo-te; 
c firmou-lhe(s) ; affirmei-o; perdoai-nos; feriu-se. 


164 Lesson 24. 

(b) The pronouns o, a, os, as are changed into lo, 
la, los, las: 

1. when preceded by a verbal form ending in r, 
s, or z, which ending is dropped. The vowel (a or e) 
preceding these final letters may take an accent (a, e): 
chamd-lo, chamdmo-las, trase-la, trasemo-los ; poe-lo tu? do 
you put it? trd-lo! bring it or him I 

Remark. This modification may also be expressed thus: 
A verbal form ending in r, s or e changes into I when 
followed by o(s), a(s) : chamdl-o, chamdmol-os, etc. This form 
is even more modern. 

2. When following the pronouns nos and vos or 
the adverb eis, which then also lose their final s: es- 
creve-no-lo he writes it to us; ei-lo here it is. 

(c) These same pronouns o, a, os, as, take the forms 
no, na, nos, nas, when preceded by a nasal sound: 
deixam-no, deixavam-na, deixaram-nos, ddo-no; estdo-no 
fazendo, they are doing it, pde-no he puts it or "put 
it!" Ex.: 

Jehovah disse a Moyses: Faze-te uma serpente ardente 

e pde-na sdbre uma haste. 
Jehovah said unto Moses: Make thee a fiery serpent 

and set it upon a pole. 

(d) The dative-complements me, te, the, being fol- 
lowed by the accusative-complements o, a, os, as, drop 
their e, substituting it by an apostrophe: disse-m'o; 
mostrei-fas, affirmava-lh'o. 

(e) Lhes joined to these accusative pronouns forms 
Ih'os, Was, which may be "them to him," "them to her," 
or u them to them." Dou-ltios, I give them to her, to him, 
or to them. 

165. The position of the conjunctive pronoun- 
complement is: 

(a) In positive and simple sentences generally behind 
the verb ; in negative sentences and those beginning with 
an adverb, a preposition, conjunction, etc., before the 

Elle disse-me; eu explico-te or eu te explico; elle we 
nao disse or (elle) ndo me disse; se me ndo dissesse. 
Eu dou-lhe; eu ndo Ihe dou; para que Ihe ndo de. 
Nos temol-o; nos ndo o temos; hontem ndo o tinhamos. 

On the Pronouns. 165 

Remark I. In negative clauses, the adverb nao may 
precede or follow the pronoun -complement; it always precedes, 
when the subject is not expressed : die me nao disse; nao me disse. 

(b) The conjunctive pronoun-complement must be 
put after the verb of a positive sentence whenever the 
pronoun subject is omitted, as the former cannot begin 
a sentence 1 : tenho-o t conhego-os, and not: o tenho, as co- 
nhego. Yet you may say: die honrou-me or elle me 

(c) In the future and conditional tenses it is put 
between verb and ending: responder-te~(h)ei, dar-lti o-(h)ia 
I shall answer you, I should give it him. 

(d) With the infinitive, the pronoun complement 
may precede or follow it: 

rei ha-de te chamar e dizer-te se me nao queres 
vender, mas tu nao me vendas. (Anna de C. Osorio.) 

e) It is the same with the compound tenses: 
Nos temos-lhe dito ; eu o tenho sabido ha muito; but 
only: tenho-o sabido, etc. 

166. IiP there are several complements of different 
cases, accusative and dative, in the same sentence, the 
dative precedes the accusative : dei-lh'o. If the comple- 
jOients are only of the accusative, that of the person 
ur personified thing is put in the dative: Essa sonata 
\mvi-lh'a tocar (a ella), I heard her playing this sonata. 

167. In order to be emphasised, the conjunctive 
pronoun-complement may be repeated by an absolute 
cf. 162 [b]): Elle disse m'o a mim he said it to me. This 
ibsolute pronoun may also precede: a mim me disse or 
it mim disse-me; a elle eu ndo (Hie) disse nada. (N.B. 
in this latter sentence the conj. pronoun-complement 
,nay be omitted, but not the subject eu.) 

Remark. This construction is also employed where in 
iJnglish a possessive pronoun or a preposition is used e.g., 
^onhecia-lTie a wz I knew his voice, or I knew him by his 
oice. Tomei-lhe a mao I took her (by her) hand. 

168. When a personal pronoun is followed by 
( n appositive noun or number, in Portuguese the ar- 
icle is generally put between: 

1 In Brazil the construction o tenho, as conhefo, Ihe diyo, 
;tc., is also employed. 

166 Lesson 24. 

Nos, os inglezes gostamas viajar. But also: Nos re- 

publicanos somos assim. 
Vamos os dois or even: vamos ambos os dois, ambas 

as duas; vamos os tres or todos (os) tres, let us go 

both (or all three). 



the coal 


to turn round, 

[kvr 'vuuj 

to return 

o mineiro 

the miner 


to draw out, 

[mi 'weiru] 

to take from 


to advertise 

a pancada 

the blow 

pouco a pouco 

by degrees 

o mendigo 

the beggar 

a fenda [feud's] 

the crack 

[m&n digu] 


to repair 


to drag 



o espinheiro 

the thornbush, 

o pantano 

the pool 






voltar a si 



recobrar os 

} to recover 

o vime [vinw] 

the osier 




to covet 

o gemido 

the groan 

[kubi 'sarj 


por p6 de 

near to 



dormir a sesta 

to take a nap 

[vfli 'tivuj 



to approach 

o molho [mofiu] 

the bottle 


o feno [fenu] 

the hay 



to tie 

o ladrao 

the robber 



[ITS 'tfruu] 



to drive away 



[if u' tar] 

fir' menu] 



o cortador 

the butcher 


[kurtu '&or] 


to treat ill 

pedir esmola 

to beg, ask 

por nome 





to behave 



66. Exercicio. 

Se a luz do sol nao nos impedisse, veriamos as estrellas 
durante o dia; mas assim esta luz impede que nos as per- 
cebamos. carvao se encontra na terra; elle 6 extraido pelos 
mineiros; sao elles (or: estes) que o extraem. amigo que 
te adverte para que [tu] nao commettas uma falta, aquelle 
que mais te estima. Estas paredes caem pouco a pouco, por 
isso que as fendas n'ellas nao se reparam; e"ra preciso repara- 
las. Nao quer vir comigo? Hoje nao r mas amanha vou ter 
comsigo para Ihe falar numa coisa que muito nos interessa a 

On the Pronouns. 167 

ibos. Entao nao me pode dize-lo ja agora? Nao posso; so 
amanha poderei dizer-lh'o. 

67. Leitura. 

P(a) espinheiro maldoso. 
vime disse urn dia ao espinheiro : Dize-me ca! Porque 
e que cubi9as tu tanto o fato das pessoas que passam por p< 
de ti? que queres tu com isso? espinheiro respondeu: 
Nao quero nada. Nao Ihes quero tirar o fato, mas apenas 
i rasga-lo. 

(b) cao e a vacca. 

Um cao dormia a sesta sobre um molho de feno que 

estava rnal atado. Aproximou-se uma vacca esfomeada. 

cao, mal a viu, comeQOU a ladrar, e impediu que ella comesse 

i do feno. A vacca, cheia de fome e de tristeza, disse: Se tu 

nao podes comer o feno, porque nao queres que eu o c6ma? 

68. Thema. 
The Faithful Dogs. 

A butcher, named Herman, went one day into the 
country (ao campo) to buy some cattle. On the way a man 
begged an alms from him. Herman turned round, that the 
beggar should not perceive the money he had with him, 
opened his purse, and took a silver coin from it. In the same 
moment the man assaulted him by giving him so heavy a 
blow on his head that he fell down (no chao). The two 
dogs of the butcher threw themselves immediately on the 
beggar, flung him to the ground (a terra), and dragged him to 
the near pool. Then they returned to their master, licking his 
face until he recovered. Hereupon Herman heard a distressing 
groan. He approached and found the robber whom the dogs 
were about to assault anew. But the butcher drove them away 
and drew that man, who found himself rather ill-treated, on 
to dry ground. 


' Onde dormia o cao? (The answers to be formed 

' Quern se aproximou? after No. 63 b). 

Oomo se conduziu entao o 


Que disse a vacca? 
i Aonde foi o cortador? Foi um dia ao campo (para) 

comprar algumas rezes. 

'Que Ihe succedeu no caminho? No caminho pediu-lhe esmola 

um homem. 


Lesson 25. 

Hermano como 

se com- 

E depois? 

Que 6 que aconteceu entao? 

Que fazem entao os caes do 
cortador ? 

E em seguida? 

Elle voltou-se para que o 
mendigo nao percebesse o 
dinheiro que trazia comsigo. 

Abriu a bolsa e tirou(-lhe) 
urna moeda de prata. 

No mesmo instante o homem 
aggrediu-lhe, dando-lheuma 
pancada tao forte na cab&ja 
que elle caiu no chao. 

Os dois caes saltam logo sobre 
o mendigo, deitam-no a terra 
e arrastam-no para um pan- 
tano proximo. 

E seguida voltam para o seu 
dono e lambem-lhe a cara 
tantas vezes que elle recobra 
os sentidos. 

Twenty-fifth Lesson. Li<jao vigesima 

Demonstrative and Possessive Pronouns. 
A. The Demonstrative Pronouns. 

169. We distinguish conjunctive and absolute 
demonstrative pronouns, indicating the former, which 
accompany a noun, as adjectives (pronomes adjectives) 
and the latter, used instead of a noun, as substantives 
(pronomes substantives). 

N.B. The noun indicated by a demonstrative ad- 
jective may not be expressed, but only understood, 
which does not influence its form. 

Pronomes adjectivos : 

Pronomes substantivos : 

o mesmo, 

esta this 

., , 

aquella f t 
outra the other 
a mesma the same 
tanta so much 
tal such a 

isto this 
isso \ 


aquillo \ 

outrem somebody else 

o mesmo the same 

tanto so much 

o, a, 05, as that or those 

(which) ; he, she or they 


Demonstrative and Possessive Pronouns. 169 

170. The pronomes adjectives form their plural 
alike the nouns; este, estes; tal, taes. 

The pronomes substantives have only a masculine 
and singular form, except o, which has a feminine 
and a plural form. 

171. (a) Este, esta, isto indicates an object near 
to the person speaking or one mentioned in the last 
place (= latter). 

(b) Esse, essa, isso indicates an object near to the 
person spoken to, or one mentioned in the first place 
(== former); it may also be employed independently, 
without any reference to another. 

(c) Aquelle, aquetta, aquillo indicates an object equally 
distant from both persons, the speaker and the one ad- 
dressed. Ex.: 

Estes (meus) olhos; esses (seus) ollios ; aquelle ceu: 
aquella igreja. Que e isso? 

N.B. Instead of aquelle, etc., you may also some- 
times employ este, etc. e.g.: este ceu, esta igreja. 

Remark. Esta, essa in commercial style and employed 
absolutely, means: esta praca (or cidade), essa praga. 

172. By an alliance of outro with este, esse or 
aquelle the compound pronouns est'oiitro, ess'outro, 
aguelVoutro, pi.: est'outros, etc., are formed. 

173. These pronouns, being preceded by the 
prepositions em, de, a, form a crasis with them (Port.: 
erase) i.e., they melt together: 

(a) With em: n'este (or neste), n'esta, n'isto, ri aquil- 
lo, etc. 

(b) With de: a" este (or deste), a" esse, d'isso, d'aqttel- 
le, etc. 

(c) With a: dquelle(s), dquella(s), aquillo. (Only 
those demonstratives beginning with a.) 

Remark. The Englishes, that, employed absolutely, is not 
always rendered by isso, aquillo, but only when no substan- 
tive is to be substituted e.g.: 

What is that? Que e isso? Aquillo que e? 

That is a book, isso e um livro. 

But: Who is that? Quern e esse homem, aquella senhora? 

That is my father, esse (homem) e meu pae. 

170 Lesson 25. 

Is this your book (= is this book yours) ? 

E este o sen livro? 

No, that is not iny book, that is my brother's. 

Nao, esse nao e o men (livro), e o de meu irmdo. 

174. Este, esta, esse, essa, aquette, aquella are 
frequently employed for a noun or personal pronoun 
strongly emphasised. Ex.: 

Carlos, esse e que tern forgets. 
It is Charles who has strength! 
A natureza, essa e sempre victoriosa. 
It is Nature that is always victorious. 
A indulgencia cTelle? Com essa nao contes! Olha o 
cavalleiro, aquelle e que sdbe montar! 

Essa is frequently employed without any substan- 
tive in the idioms: Or a essa! (Why!) Essa e boa! Mais 
essa! etc., where graca or tasneira,* etc., is to be 

175. The English "he who," "she who," "they 
who" are given in Portuguese by o (a, 0s, as) que or 
agueUe(s), aquella(s) que. 

B. The Possessive Pronouns. 

176. It is a peculiarity of these pronouns that 
they are preceded by the definite article: 

Are excepted: 1. Those expressing parentage; 

2. Those you address a person with (meu Amigo, 
minha Senhora); 

3. Those which constitute an essential part of a 
title: Vossa Majestade, Sua Alteza, Vossa Excellencia, 
Sua Reverendissima, etc.; 

4. Those predicatively employed (see 178). 

Note. The general rule and that under 1. are not I 
always observed. 

177. We distinguish conjunctive and absolute 
possessive pronouns (adjectivos e pronomes possessivos), 
yet there is no other difference between them but that 
the adjectivos are and the pronomes are not accompanied 
by a noun. 

Este e o meu chapeu; este chapeu e o meu. 
This is my hat; this hat is mine. 

Demonstrative and Possessive Pronouns. 


men, fern, a minha Plur. os meus, fern, as minhas my ; 

ten, a tua os teus, as tuas (thy), 

your; (thine), yours 
sen, a sua os seus, fern, as suas his, 

her, your; his, hers, yours 
o nosso, a nossa os nossos, fern, as nossas our; 


o vosso, a vossa os vossos, as vossasyowr- 



N. & A. o men vestido my dress. G. do men vestido. 

D. ao men vestido. 

> a tua penna your pen. G. da tua penna. 
D. d tua penna. 

178. If predicative^ employed (with ser) or, 
when governed by ser or a preposition, it expresses 
rather origin than possession, the possessive pronoun is 
also not preceded by the article. So employed, it may 
precede or follow the noun. Ex.: 

E men it is mine. 

(Elle) e meu amigo, e amigo meu. 

He is my friend or a friend of mine. 

(j o meu amigo would mean: it is my friend.) 

Onge rios sao seus tributdrios (do Tejo). 

Eleven rivers are its tributaries (= are tributary to it). 

A culpa e minha the fault is mine, it is my fault. 

Foi culpa minha, por culpa minha. 

It was rny fault, for my fault. 

jfi ideia tua that is your idea. 

tua esta ideia this idea is yours. 

Por tua causa for your sake. 

Com sua licenga with his (her, your) permission. 

Para maior conveniencia nossa for our greater con- 


1.' Your, yours is rendered by seu, sua, etc., when no 
misunderstanding can result e.g. : 

Have you got your paper? Becebeu V*- o seu jornal? 
Where do you buy your pens? 
Onde compra as suas pennas? 


Lesson 25. 

If, however, an ambiguity might take place, sen, sua is 
supplied by o (a, os, as) de V a - Ex a -, etc.; or on the other 
side by o (a, os, as) d'elle(s) or d'ella(s) e.g. : 

Have you lost your glove or his? 

Perdeu V a - Ex a - a sua luva ou a ffelle? 

His money is safe, but yours is not. 

dinheiro d'elle estd seguro, mas nao o estd o de V<- 

2. The possessive pronouns are also sometimes employed 
with the indefinite article or pronoun e.g.: 

Urn amigo meu or um meu amigo. 

A friend of mine, one of my friends. 

Uma carta minha a letter of mine, one of my letters. 

Alguns sens amigos some of his friends. 

3. Also they are met together with the demonstratives: 
Este meu piano this plan of mine. 

Essa sua quinta that country-house of yours. 
Aquettes seus parentes those parents of his. 
These associations are more frequent in Portuguese than 
in English. 


A vibora 

the viper 

roir [rro'er] 

to gnaw 


velar [vd'lar] 

to watch, to 

a cobra [kobrvj 

the snake, 



o naturalista 

the natural 

o reptil 

the reptile [nvturv'liftv] 


[rrsp 'til] 

o besoiro 

the beetle, 



[bd 'zo}ru] 


[kurpu 'lentuj 


o gafanhoto 

the locust, 





[mufen 'sivuj 



ao passo que 


[d'e 'niyu] 






[pis 'rsi&u] 

o dente canino 

the eye-tooth 


to meditate 

[kv 'ninuj 


6co [oJcu/ 


o segredo 

the secret 

a mordedura 

the sting 

[sd 'gre&u] 

[murffe' dwe] 

nada ['na,d~u] 


o orificio 

the orifice, 







o rato [rratu] 

the rat, mouse 


o ratinho 

the mouse 



[rrv 'tiyuj 
a ra [rr'e] 

the frog 


to cover, hide 

o mocho f'mofuj 

the horned-owl, 




to discover 

o roedor 

the gnawer, 





[vifsd 'lentej 

o chape 

Demonstrative and Possessive Pronouns. 173 

chapeu de \ 

chura } the umbrella 

averiguar to inquire, to 

fgV9riffu'rJ determine 

veneer to overcome 

ora . . . ora now . . . now 
'orv either ... or. 

C/fw*tM* / I 

o guarda-chuva } 
a galocha india-rubber- 

[gv'lofe] shoe 

69. Leitura. 

A vibora e a cobra. 

Deante de uma vibora e de uma cobra, qualquer pessoa 
que nao conhecesse a differen^a entre estes dois reptis, talvez 
temesse mais a cobra do que a vibora. Pois esta raro (instead 
of raramente) tern de comprimento mais de dois pes, e aquella 
6 muito maior e em geral muito mais corpolenta. A cobra 
inoffensiva, ao passo que a vibora, essa, com a sua apparencia 
fraca, e um dos mais perigosos animaes. veneno d'este in- 
sidioso reptil 6 muitas vezes mortal. Elle segue por um canal 
finissimo at a raiz dos dentes caninos; e penetrando n'estes 
por serem ocos, sae, na occasiao da mordedura, por um pe- 
quenino orificio. A vibora alimenta-se de ratos, ras etc. 


Tambem o mocho se alimenta de ratos e outros roedores. 
Calculou um naturalista que uma so d'estas aves destroe por 
anno quasi 1500 roSdores, afora insectos, como besoiros, ga- 
fanhotos e aves damninhas. Como os sabios e os que estudam, 
o mocho vela tambem emquanto os outros dormem. Parado, 
a posi^ao do mocho nao e outra, senao a (mesma) dos que 
leem: parece dobrado sobre si mesmo, como a meditar. 

(Trindade Coelho: Segundo Livro de Leitura.) 

70. Thema. 

My secret cannot be of any use to you, if I have not 
first yours. Your wish is just, and so is mine also. I have 
lost my handkerchief, please to lend me yours. Does this 
lesson deal with the demonstrative or the possessive pronouns ? 
It deals with one and the others. These are more easily to 
be learned than those. But there is no great difficulty, neither 
in the one kind nor in the other (tr. : in both). At any rate, 
the difficulties are such and so many that we need all our atten- 
tion to overcome them. Capricious children want now this, 
now that; if you offer them a pear or an apple, they take 
this and ask (pedir) for that. One lie covers the other, but 
one truth discovers the other. The same causes do not always 
produce the same effects. Health and wealth are two magni- 
ficent things: but what is the use of the latter without the 
former ? 


Lesson 26. 


No guarda-roupa. 

De quern e este chapeu de 

E est'outro guarda-chuva, 6 o 

De quern sera? A quern per- 

Este chapeu 4 o de V* Ex a ? 

Um amigo meu usa chapeus 
taes, deixe ver, se e d'elle. 

E meu. Tambem essas galo- 

chas sao minhas. 
Nao e. E um guarda-chuva 

de senhora. 
A Lucinda procura o d'ella. 

Sera esse? 
Nao, deve ser de outrem. Eu 

nao uso tal chapeu (or: eu 

nao uso chapeus d'esses or 

d'esses chapeus). 
Isso e" muito difficil averiguar, 

pois todos parecem os mes- 


Twenty-sixth Lesson. Ligao vigesima 

Interrogative and Relative Pronouns. 
C. The Interrogative Pronouns. 

quanto(s) ? how 
much? how many? 

de quanto(s) of how 
much or many? 

a quanto(s) to how 
much or many? 

quanto(s) how much 
or many? 

179. Use of the interrogative pronouns : 
1. Quern is always employed absolutely as a sub- 
stantive; it asks only for persons and may be employed 
with the verb in the sing, or in the plur., in direct or 
indirect speech e.g. : 

Quern estd aM? Who is there? 

Quern serdo os paes d'estes meninos? 

Who may be the parents of these children? 

Norn, quern? 

que (o que) 
which ? 

qual, quaes? 
which (of)? 

Gen. de quern? 
of whom? 

de que of 
what or 

de qual, de 
quaes of 

Dat. a quern? 
to whom? 

a que to what 
or which? 

a qual, a 
quaes? to 

Ace. quern? 

que what? 

qual, quaes 
which ? 


Interrogative and Relative Pronouns. 175 

Ndo sei a quern eu disse . . . 

I don't know to whom I said . . . 

De quern e esta casa? Whose house is this? 

Nao sei dizer de quern e. 

I cannot tell to whom it belongs. 

A quern falou nisso ? To whom did you speak of this ? 

2. Que (que) is used interrogatively: 

a) employed substantively and generally, for things 

Que diz ? What do you say ? 

De que precede isso? What does this come from? 

Para que fez isso? What did you do that for? 

(b) adjectively and generally employed, for per- 
sons and things: 

Que tempo estd? What sort of weather is it to-day? 
De que autor e este livro ? By which author is this book ? 
A que fim? To what purpose? 

3. que (que) is used as an exclamation, yet also 
a real interrogation: 

que?! What?! 

que sdo as descripgoes dos maiores poetas em com- 
paragdo da linguagem viva da naturesa?! que e 
a liberdade do homem mais livre? Fazer o seu 

4. Qual, employed as a substantive and as an adjec- 
ive, asks for persons as well as for things, but out of 
* selection. It is either followed by a genitive in the 

lural or this case is to be supplied: 

Qual dos dois, das duas ? A qual d'estes senhores per- 
tence o cavallo ? Quaes d } 'esses homens o aggrediram ? 
De qual provincia e natural? 

N.B. Here you may say: de que provincia . . ., 
hich has a more general meaning, while de qual pro- 
. . is employed with reference to a small num- 
of provinces. 

Remark I. Qual may be preceded by tal; in this case 
as not an interrogative, but a comparative meaning: such 
the same as e.g.: 

Elle voltou tal qual foi, he came back the same as he 

176 Lesson 26. 

Both pronouns may accompany a noun and be separated 
from another: 

Qual pae, tal filho like father like son. 
Tal mulher me fosse ella, qual marido eu Hie sou.* 
Would that she were such a wife to me as I am a 
husband to her! 

Remark II. Tal may be only supposed as accompaning 
qual : 

caracter deste sujeito e qual eu desejo. Quaes para 
a cova as providas formigas levam as provisoes. 

Qual . . . qual means the one ... the other: qual mais, 
qual menos. 

5. Quanta is used interrogatively: 

(a) Employed without a noun and in a general 
meaning, for things: 

Quanta gastou? How much did you spend? 

Quanta vae do Natal d Pdschoa? 

How much (time) is it between Christmas and Easter? 

Here quanta remains unaltered. 

(b) Employed with a noun, after persons and 
things, being subject to the rules of the adjective 
(feminine and plural): Quanta espaga? -- quanta genie? 
quantos dias? -- quantas noites? 

Remark III.- Quanta is often employed instead oftudo 
o que, meaning then "all that" or "whatever" e.g. : 

Fiz quanta pude I did all (whatever) I could (cf. the 
Relative and Indefinite Pronouns. 

Remark IV. ~ The interrogative quanta is not to be con- 
founded with the adverbial quanta, which signifies "how, 
how much," being employed exclamatorily and taking the 
form qudo before adjectives e.g. : 

Quanta e bonita esta vista! Qudo (or que) bonita e! 

Not to be confounded neither with the exclamatory que 
which may stand instead of qudo or quanta, nor this with 
the adverbial que : Que de genie ! How many people ! (What 
a crowd !) Que bonita vista ! Que vista tao bonita ! What a 
nice view! 

D. The Relative Pronouns. 

180. These pronouns are in part the same as 
the interrogative, from which, however, they are easily 

Interrogative and Relative Pronouns. 177 

e distinguished, as they refer only to an antecedent, 
while the interrogative pronouns (and adjective) only 
refer to something following: 

1. Que who, which, that, is equally employed for 
persons and things without distinction of gender and 
number, as in English e.g.: 

homem (a mulher, aquelle, aquella) que commetteu o 


The man (woman) that (he, she who) committed the theft. 
Os ratos (as ras) que escaparam. 
The rats (the frogs) which escaped. 
mais bello que ha the most beautiful existing. 

2. Quern is synonymous with aquellefs), aquella(s) que 
he, she, they who. It refers only to persons and is 

Quem tern telhado de vidro, nao atire pedras ao do 

Those who live in glass-houses should not throw stones 

(lit. : He who has a glass roof must not throw stones 

to that of the neighbour). 

Thus employed, quern has the value of a relative 
pronoun joined to a personal one; it is considered to 
oe of masculine gender and singular number. 

Quern has generally the verb in the singular, but 
nay have it also in the plural e.g.: 

Nao for am elles s6s quern vos mataram.* 

As a merely relative pronoun, quern is employed 
>nly joined to a preposition: 

0(s) poeta(s) por quern tenho mais admiragao . . . 

Preceded by the prepositions de or a, quern corre- 
ponds to the genitive and dative (or accusative) of 
who" or "he who." 

De quern eu me queixo . . . He whom I complain of ... 

A quern eu disse isso ... He to whom I said that . . . 

A quern eu quero mais . . . He whom I like best . . . 

3. Qual "which," has only one form for the two 
exes, but it forms the plural quaes. It is mostly pre- 
eded by the definite article, which is dropped, however, 
/hen qual is preceded by tal (see 179, Remark I and II). 

Portuguese Conversation-Grammar. 12 

178 Lesson 26. 

Encontrei um homem o qual me reconheceu. 

Um povo ndo tern ideias, para as quaes ndo tenha pa- 

Declaro que desejo occupar-me immediatamente da 

questdo Hinton, para resolver a qual deve mar car -se 

successivamente sessdo todos os dias uteis (Affonso 

da Costa). 

Generally the pronoun que is preferred to qual Yet 
you must employ qual and not que: 

(a) Whenever the relative depends on certain pre- 
positions (durante, para, sdbre, sob, em cima de, etc.): 

inverno durante o qual estive em Lisboa . . . 

(b) When by que a misunderstanding might be 
caused. For instance, in the clause: A mde do pequeno 
que encontrei, it is not clearly understood whom I met 
with. So I must say: A mde do pequeno a qual en- 
contrei, if I met the mother, and A mde do pequeno o 
qual encontrei, if I met the boy. 

(c) Whenever the relative clause is not a necessary 
or ornamental complement of the antecedent, but con- 
tains a new idea, a motive, etc.: 

sapo devora as lesmas, as quaes fasem muitos estragos 

nas hortas.* 
The toad devours the slugs which cause a good deal of 

damage in the kitchen-gardens. 

4. Cujo "whose, of which" has different forms for 
genders and numbers, in which it agrees with the 
following noun. 

aborrecimento e uma doenga cujo remedio e o trabalho. 
Tediousness is an illness the remedy of which is labour. 
A parede, cujas fendas ndo se reparam, cae pouco a 


The wall, whose clefts are not repaired, is falling to 
ruin by degrees. 

5. Quanto has the meaning of tudo o que "all or 
everything that, whatever," having also different forms 
for gender and number. 

Fiz quanta pude. 

1 did everything (all, whatever) I could. 
Soffreu quantos males ha no mundo. 

He suffered all the misfortunes in the world. 


Interrogative and Relative Pronouns. 


6. que is "(that) which," "what," if not inter- 
rogative or exclamatory. 

que ndo tern remedio, remedlado estd. 
What can't be cured must be endured. 
Elle tinha sahido o que eu ndo sdbia. 

He had gone away, which I did not know. 

7. In English you may separate the preposition 
from the relative pronoun, putting it at the end of the 
clause; also the relative pronoun may be omitted. In 
Portuguese the preposition always precedes the pronoun, 
which cannot be omitted. 

Tudo em que faldmos all (that) we spoke of. 
A carta com que V a - Ex a - me konrou. 
The letter (that) you honoured me with. 

Remark. Relative clauses must not be confounded with 
indirect interrogations. For instance: 

Chegaram emfim das colonias os generos os quaes pedira 

ha wuito. 
There arrived at last from the colonies the goods I had 

long since asked for. (Relative clause.) 
Ndo sei dizer quaes (sdo) os generos que chegaram. 

1 can't say which goods arrived. (Indirect interro- 
gation. The direct interrogation would be: Quaes 
sdo os generos que ... or elliptically: quaes os generos 
que ... or quaes (or que) generos chegaram? 


mundo the world 

a regua nume- the measure, 


rada rule 

a pmga ['pragvj the plague 
ser de to belong to 

tragar to draw 
pretender to pretend 

sandeu fool, foolish 



o oleado the oilcloth 

fern, sandia 


epico [' epiku] epic 

a pasta [' paftvj the portfolio 
sei /sej/ I know 

porfiar to persist, per- 

vi I saw or have 

[purfi'ar] severe 


o feito f'fvrtu] the heroic 

o modo ['mo&u] the manner, 

deed, exploit 


a por$ao the portion 

terno ['tsrnu] tender, affectio- 



de ordindrio ordinarily 

tenro ['term] tender 

os Lusiadas the Lusiad 

ser capaz to be able 

numerar to mark with 

appreliender to apprehend, 


[vprien 'derj seize 



Lesson 26. 

pezar [pd'zar] 
posso fposuj 

I can 



fito, part. perf. 

to fix, to stare 


of fitar 




o ai [atf 

the sish 


ofluidof'fluid'u] the fluid 

a biissola 

the compass 

o esplendor 

the splendour 



o norte [nortd] 

the line, rule, 

a ingratidao 

the ingratitude 


[igruti' duu] 


to accuse 

a estrelta fixa 

the fixed star 

a procedencia 

the origin 








a petata 

the petal 





to verify, to 

elle qwr 

he is willing to 



a vitrina 



to justify 

[w' trims] 





to discharge 






71. Exercicio. 

Quern criou o mundo? Foi Deus quern o criou. Quaes 
foram as dez pragas do Egypto? Nao me sabe dizer, quaes 
ellas sejam ? Em que logar da terra ha perfeita felicidade? Nao 
conhe^o logar algum em que a haja. Quern pode ser todo seu, 
em ser d'outrem 6 sandeu (prov.). Mais faz quern quer do que 
quern pode (prov.). Quern porfia mat a ca<?a (prov.). Camoes, 
cujo poe'ma 6pico 0s Lusiadas* e um dos maiores monu- 
mentos literarios de todos os tempos, cantou n'elle os feitos 
dos Portugueses no oriente. Uma bahia 6 uma por^ao de mar 
que entra pela terra e cuja entrada e de ordinario estreita. 
As rdguas numeradas de que nos servimos, permittem dar as 
linhas que se tra^am com ellas, o tamanho exacto que se 
pretende dar-lhes. A pasta sobre a qual escrevemos e onde 
mettemos papeis, 4 geralmente feita de papelao, coberto de 
oleado. Quanto custou a tua? Nao me lembra (or: nao me 
lembro) ja quanto paguei, nem a quern (or: de quern) a com- 
prei; ainda esta tal qual a recebi. 

Eu,olhos, sei d'uns 
Que, desdequeosvi, 
Nao vi mais ne- 
nhuns . 

72. Leitura. 
N'um album. 

V tu por ahi 
Se os achas ; senao, 
Descubro-os em ti. 

Que lindosquesao! 
Que modo de olhar! 
Que terna expres- 

Interrogative and Relative Pronouns. 181 

Ja tenho pezar Suspires e ais Que doce esplendor ! 

De os vr, porque Foi o que tirei Tao d6ce, que eu 

emfim ... De ver olhos taes. Nao posso suppor 

Que posso esperar? Q6 vendo . os se Cr6 

Vte fitos em mim Na graca, na cor 
Taes olhos, jamais ; Nofluido, ounao sei 
Decerto, e assim, 

E esta vida um mar; e n'este mar 

Qual e o astro que nos alumia? 

Que norte, estrella ou biissola nos guia? 

Um olhar de mulher! urn terno olhar (idem). 

73. Thetna. 

Which of the boys is the one whom you like best? 
What black ingratitude! What sort of wine grows in the 
region of the Douro? Stars which have their own light are 
called fixed stars. There is nothing so miserable as a man 
who is willing to do everything and not able to anything (nada 
vode). That is indeed (bem) the most beautiful existing. 
Sometimes there are goods behind the show-windows of the 
shops which show the most refined taste, pell-mell with that 
jyhich we need for our daily life. What did you think of 
vhen doing this task? What were you occupied with and 
i>vhat did you speak of? Look at those flowers, how beautiful 
hey are! What perfume and what tender petals! What is 
ic accused of? The crime he is accused of is a theft. The 
.hings whose origin he was not able to prove were apprehended 
,or seized), which is quite (muito) justified. 


Quern e Camoes e qual (e") o poe'ma que escreveu? 

Que e essa poe'ma? or: Que sao os Lusiadas? 

De quern cantou elle os feitos? 

Que (6 que) se entende por uma bahia? 

Quaes sao os principaes rios de Portugal? 

Em qual dos oceanos desembocam? 

A quantos estamos do mez or que dia do mez temos? 

(Or: Em que dia do mez ou da semana estamos?) 

Corno se chama aquelle rapaz cuja mae esta doente? 

Nao tern essa senhora quatro filhos, dos quaes o amigo 

de V a Ex a - e o mais novo? 
Que e que tornou tao triste aquella rapariga que de 

ordinario esta tao alegre? 

182 Lesson 27. 

Twenty-seventh Lesson. Li<jao vigesima 

Indefinite Pronouns. Pronomes indefinidos. 

181. The indefinite pronouns are either joined 
to a noun (pronomes adjectives), or they are of substantive 
nature, being employed absolutely and only in the 
singular number (pronomes substantives). N.B. The 
noun may be not expressed. 

I. Adjective Pronouns. 

urn, uma; uns, umas a(n), one; some 

algum, alguma; alguns, algumas some, any; such 

nenhum, nenhuma; nenhuns, nenhumas no, none 

outro, -a, -os, -as another, some more 

tal, taes such a (one), such 

certOj -a, -os, -as (a) certain 

cada (m. and f.) each 

todo, -a, -os, -as (followed by the definite article) the 

whole; all 

qualquer, pi.: quaesquer any, whosoever, whatsoever 
urn e outro the one and the other, either 
ambos, ambas both 
um ou outro one or the other 

nem um, nem outro neither one nor the other, neither 
muito, -a many a; pi. muitos, muitas many 
dwersos \ different various> 
varios } 

II. Substantive Pronouns. 

Alguem somebody, anybody algo something 
ninguem nobody, none alguma coisa something 

oiitrem somebody else tudo everything, all 

nada nothing cada um, cada uma, cada qud 

quemquer whosoever everybody, anybody, each. 

Note. The boundary-line between the indefinite and the 
demonstrative pronouns is sometimes quite vague, so that the 
grammarians count some of them now to the former, now 
the latter. We also have already classed some (as outro, tal) 
among the demonstrative, giving here a repetition of them. 
Some, as muito, tanto, are often classed among the indefinite 

182. Explanatory Rules. 

1. Nenlmm, ninguem and nada, pronouns which 
include a negation, are employed, as in English, 

Indefinite Pronouns. 183 

without the negative adverb "not," when preceding the 
verb: nenhum d'ettes veio none of them has come; nhi- 
guem a viu nobody has seen her; ningiiem foi visto 
nobody was seen; nada aconteceu nothing has happened. 

Nada as an exclamation is "Not at all!" "God 

If however these pronouns follow the verb, this is 
preceded by *n&o* : nao veio nenhum d'elles; nao a viu 
ninguem; nao aconteceu nada. 

Nenhum may precede the noun or follow it: ne- 
nhuma regra ... or regra nenhuma . . . 

2. Algum is also employed in a negative sense and 
then follows the noun: em tempo algum at no time(s). 

3. Cada is never employed absolutely: when an ad- 
jective, it precedes the noun; when a substantive, it is 
followed by the indefinite article or by qual. A hydra 
repuUicana tern cada uma das suas sete cabecas assente 
em cada uma das sete collinas da cidade de Lisboa. 

4. Ambos is always followed by the definite article 
or a pronoun in the plural: ambos os (or estes, aquelles, 

-.seus) rapazes; ambos elles. 

5. Outro in the meaning of "another" is employed 
without an article: 

Este copo nao estd limpo, de-me outro. 

6. Qualquer may precede or follow the noun. In 
the latter case the noun is employed with the indefinite 
article e.g.: 

Qualquer dia Id irei. Dei-lhe uma coisa qualquer. 

7. Certo is generally employed without an article; it 
may, however, also be accompanied by one: Faloti com 
certa energm. Tern um certo modo de falar. 

8. Muito in its meaning "many a" has no plural: 

Ha muita hora que se perde na ociosidade. 
There is many an hour lost in idleness. 

9. Algo is taken from the Spanish. It is better 
to employ alguma coisa instead. If followed by some 
complement, this is joined to either of them by de: 
: alguma coisa or algo de bello. 


Lesson 27. 

N.B. Algo can be also an adverb, preceding thus 
adjectives or adverbs: 

Uma tarefa algo espinhosa a somewhat delicate task. 
Trdbalhou algo difficultosamente. 
He worked with some difficulty. 

10. Quemquer and qualquer, if accompanied by que 
and expressing an uncertainty, are followed by the verb 
in the conjunctive inood: 

Quemquer que seja; quaesquer perigos que possa haver. 

Otherwise they are followed by the indicative: 

Qualquer (pessoa) pode faze-lo. Quemquer se arremessava 
d agua. 



the splint, 

a comadre 

the godmother 




o ocio ['oMu] 

o compadre 

the godfather 

a ociosidade 

the idleness 

mirar [mirar] 

to look at 


o rasto [rraftu] 

the track, 

a communicagao the communi- 




Ignaciofig 'nvgiu 




to be of opinion 




to pick up 


[upv 'yar] 


to recompense 


to come to 


[trv 'vars9] 



a contenda 

the quarrel 

punir [pu'nirj 

to punish 



to determine 

a briga [brigv] 

the fight 


to dispense 




to put oneself 




[bnfu' zu^u] 

deste modo 

thus, in the 

o merito 

the merit 





to complain 

o miolo [mi'olu] 

the kernel ; the 

[to}' far] 


o entendimento 

the intelligence 

a casca 

the shell 





to keep 


to feign 



a sentenga 

the sentence 

o bicho [ubifu] 

the animal, 



o resultado 

the result 

a malicia 

the malicious- 

[rrdsul 'taffu] 

[nvs 'lisiv] 


a demanda 

the plea 

a fera ['fsru] 

the wild beast 


Indefinite Pronouns. 185 

o paldcio do \ I o arrdbalde the suburb 

muncpo > oll 

a cdmara \ a uniftcagao the unification. 

municipal | [unafikv 'svuj 

74. Exercicio. 

Ninguem ve" o argueiro no seu olho. Toda a energia se 
perde na ociosidade. Alguns insectos vivem apenas urn dia. 
Cada um deve fazer conhecer aos outros tudo o que (or tudo 
quanto) julga util ; esta communicasao bene"vola produzira cedo 
ou tarde aJgans fructos. Todo o homem sera recompensado 
ou punido segundo os seus actos. Ningaem pode ser dispensado 
de ser justo e bemfazejo. Certos ventos reinam em certos 
mares em esta9oes deterrninadas. Todos os homens hao-de 
morrer. Nenhuma criatura humana pode voar. Ninguem e 
bom juiz em causa propria. A vontade de brilhar nao ajunta 
realmente nada ao merito da pessoa. Cada nm queixa-se da 
sua memoria, ninguem se queixa do seu entendimento. Mais 
vale pouco que nada. Nada duvida quern nada sabe. Nin- 
guem se metta onde o nao chamam. Cada qual com seu 

75. Leitura. 

lido e a raposa. 

Era uma vez um liao muito velho, e que de velho que 
era ja nao ia a caca. Lembrou-lhe entao fingir-se doente, e 
'qualquer bicho que o ia visitar comia-o logo, e foi assim 
comendo muito animal. Mas um dia urna raposa conheceu-lhe 
a malicia, e em vez de entrar, disse-lhe da porta: 0' senhor 
liao, esta melhorzinho? 

- Nao, respondeu a fera. Cada vez peor! Entre e 
descanse um bocadinho, 6 comadre . . . Mas diz-lhe a raposa 
a mirar o chao: 

- Nada, compadre! n'essa nao caio en. Aqui ha o rasto 
le muitos que entraram, mas nao vejo o rasto dos que sairam 
'or: de nenhuns que tenham saido)! 

(Trindade Coelho: Segundo Livro de Leitura). 

7G. Thema. 

The Nut. 

One day two boys found a nut. "This nut is mine," 
Called out Ignace, "for I was the first who saw it. "Not at 
11!" replied Bernard, "I am of opinion that it is mine, be- 
ause [it] was I who picked it up." And both came to blows 
Q^a hot fight. "I shall (tr. : Eu vou) finish your quarrel," 
aid another and bigger boy who passed that way. He put 

186 Lesson 28. 

himself in the middle of the two boys, opened the nut, and 
spoke thus : "One half of the shell belongs to him who first saw 
the nut; the other to him who picked it up; and the kernel 
I keep for myself for my sentence." "That," he added 
laughingly (a rir), "is the ordinary result of most pleas." 


Que cidade e esta em que estamos? 

Onde e situada? 

Qual (e") o niimero da sua popula9ao? 

Quaes sao as ruas mais importantes? 

Quaes sao os bairros mais bonitos? 

Nomeiem alguns hoteis dos mais frequentados! 

Quern sabe alguma coisa da histdria d'esta cidade? 

Em que annos foi edificado o palacio do municipio? 

Como se chamam os arrabaldes, as povoacoes visinhas 


A que Estado pertence esta cidade? 
Quaes sao as provincias d'elle? 

Quantos Estados pertencem ao Reino da Gran-Bretanha? 
Quern e o Rei actual? 
Em que anno subiu ao throno? 
Nomeiem quaesquer outros monarchas ingleses! 

Twenty-eighth Lesson. Licjao vigesima 

The Irregular Verbs. 

Os verbos irregulares. 
183. Note the following rules: 

1. All compound and derived verbs follow the 
original verb, if not indicated as an exception -e.g.: 
demo(n)strar like mostrar; surprender like prender; re- 
partir like partir, etc. 

2. All tenses not indicated are regular. All irregu- 
lar forms are given in italics. 

The first conjugation (verbs in -ar) has only two 
irregular verbs, of which one, estar, has alread}^ been 
dealt with among the auxiliary verbs. The second is: 

184. Dar to give. 


dou I give de that I give 










dam I gave desse that I gave. 

Preterito perfeito. 
del I gave, I have given 
der am. 

Mais-que-perfeito simples. 

dera I had given. 


(se eu) der if I shall give, if 

deres [I am to give 





darei I shall give 






All the rest is regular. 

The irregular forms desse, dera, der are regularly 
formed from deste (2 nd pers. sg. pret.) by changing the 
ending -ste into -sse, -ra, -r. 

185. Idioms with dar. 

Dar um abrago a to embrace 

dar entrada a to let in; to admit 

dar fe a to believe or to have faith in 

dar horas to strike (the clock) 

dar occasiao to offer an opportunity 

dd-se a occasiao de there is an opportunity for 

dar parte to communicate; to impart 

dar um passeio to go for a walk, to walk 

dar um salto to jump 

dar os bons dias to bid good day 

188 Lesson 28. 

dar as boas festas to send or express the compliments of 

the season 

dar os pesames to condole 
dar os pardbens a to congratulate 
dar a luz to publish (book); to bear, to bring forth 
dar a to lead to, to end in 
dar de esporas to spur 
dar em alguem to strike one 
dar em (doido) to become (mad) 
dar no alvo to hit the mark 

dar nos olhos or na vista to be evident or striking 
dar pelo nome de to answer to the name of 
esta janella dd para a rua, o jardim this window looks 

or opens into the street, etc. 
dar-se (a) to dedicate oneself; to thrive; to occur, to 


dar-se (bem) com to agree with 
pouco se me dd I care but little 
quern me dera (saber)! how fain would I (know)! 

186. Concerning the verbs in -car, -car, -gar, 
-jar see 143. 

187. The verbs in -ear change e into ei in all those 
forms where the radical is accentuated e.g. : nomear to 
name, recear to fear, Usongear to flatter, gorgear to 
chirp, warble: 

nomeio, nomeias, nomeia, nomeamos, nomeaes, no- 
meiam; nomeie, nomeies, nomeie, nomeemos, nomeeis, no- 
meiem (cf. 139). 

188. Or ear (or criar) to create, to bring up, 
changes in the same forms the e in i : crio, crias, cria, 
creamos, creaes, criam', eric, cries, crie, creemos, creeis, 
criem (see 140). 

N.B. The compound verbs of crear (with the ex- 
ception of recrear (better recriar) to create once more, 
to bring up again) change the e into ei: 

procrear to procreate, to beget : procreio (yet also 
procrio), procreia. 

But: a natureza recria; and ella recreia she diverts, 

189. The verbs in -iar keep their i, in the 
pronunciation as well as in the orthography: copiar to 
copy : copio. 

The Irregular Verbs. 189 

190. In some verbs in -iar the modification of 
the i into el is admissible and usual. Such verbs are: 
diligenciar, agenciar, remediar, negociar, odiar, premiar; 
thus: diligenceio, agenceia, etc. 

191. Not so in the verbs adiar, afiar, alumiar, 
anmmciar, aviar, contrariar, confiar, copiar, fiar, miar, 
piar, saciar, tosquiar, variar, which form: adio, alumia. 
anmtnciam, etc. 

Second Conjugation. Yerbs in -er. 

192. Haver to have; to be, to exist (see L. 6). 

Eehaver follows the same model, but is used only 
in the forms that have -v-: rehavendo, rehavido, rehavia, 
rehouve, rehaja, rehouvesse. 

193. Fazer to do, to make, to cause, to let. 

Pres. Indicat. Fago, fazes, faz, fazemos, fazeis, fazem. 

Pres. Conjunct. Faga, fagas, faga, fagdmos, fagaes, facam. 

Pret. imperf. ind. Fazio, , fazias, fazia, faziamos, fazieis, faziam. 

Pret. perf. ind. Hz, fizeste, fez, fizemos, fizestes, fizeram. 

Imperfeito Conj. Fizesse, etc. 

Mais-qiie-perf. Ind. Fizera, etc. 

Futuro Ind. Farei, fards, ford, etc. 

future Conj. Fizer, fizeres, fizer, etc. 

Condicional. Faria. 

Imperativo. Faze (tu),fazei (vos), f aga (V e -),f alamos (nos). 

Participio. Feito. 

Gerundio. Fazendo. 

, 194. Compound verbs: 

(a) contrafazer to counterfeit; to imitate; to disguise. 

P. p. contrafeito, also adj., false, forced. 

(b) desfazer to undo, to destroy, to abolish, to 

(c) perfazer to complete, to perfect, to constitute; 

(d) refazer to do or make again; 

(e) satisfazer to satisfy, to pay. 

Remark. To let is rendered by fazer whenever you wish 
to express an active interference: fazer saber to let know, to 
send word to, to acquaint with. Faca entrar ! Let him come 
in. It is translated by deixar whenever you mean to express 
admission: deixo-o falar I let him speak. (Fago-o falar would 
be: I (shall) cause him to speak.) 

190 Lesson 28. 

195. Idioms with fazer. 

Fazer caso de to esteem; to care for; to attend to 

ndo fazer caso to despise 

fazer annos to have one's birthday, to complete . . . 

years of age (see 97, 8) 
faz color, faz frio, fas vento, calma it is hot, cold, 

windy, calm 

faz bom (man) tempo it is fine (bad) weather 
fa$a o favor de, faz favor de (if you) please to 
fazer (com) que to cause, to oblige 
Fiz (com) que elle fizesse isso I made him do that 
ter (muito) que fazer to be (very) busy, to have 

(much) to do 

fazer em pedagos to break or cut to pieces 
fazer (or mandar) fazer alg. c. to have something done 
fazer construir (uma casa) to have (a house) built 
fazer tengdo to intend 
fazer a barba to shave, to get shaved 
fazer as unhas to clean or cut one's nails 
fazer leildo to hold an auction 
fazer as contas to count, to calculate 
fazer conta or de conta to suppose 
fazer contas com alg. to make up (to settle) accounts 

with a person; to argue it out 
fazer justiga a alg. to do justice to a person 
fazer gala de alg. c. to boast of something 
fazer compras to purchase, to go shopping 
fazer as pazes to reconcile (oneself) 
fazer urn discurso to make (or deliver) a speech 
fazer forga(s) to use violence 
fazer falta to be absent, to miss, to die 
faz-me muita falta I miss it very badly 
fazer de bobo to make a fool of oneself 
fazer de capitao to supply the captain 
o navio faz dgua the ship is leaky 
fazer cara a to defy, to face 
fazer fogo to shoot, to fire 
fazer nonra(s) to bestow honours, to do honour 
fazer horas to wait for a certain hour, spend time 


fazer o papel de to perform the figure of 
estd a fazer it is being done 
estd por fazer it is not yet done 
da que fazer it is hard work 
isso nao faz ao caso that is of no concern 
fazer-se to become, to turn, to grow; to occur 

The Irregular Verbs. 


fazer-se velho to become old 

fazer-se vermelho to blush 

fazer-se pdllido, amarello to grow pale, yellow 

fazer-se d vela to put to sea 

fazer-se ao mar, ao alto to gain the open sea, to get 

the offing 

fazer-se d terra to steer towards (to head for) the land 
fazer-se de novas to plead ignorance 

'tas vezes se faz isso that occurs often. 

196. IMzer to say, tell, speak, talk, relate. 

Pres. Ind. 
Pres. Conj. 
Pret. imperf. Ind. 
Pret. perf. Ind. 

Imperf. Conj. 
Mais-que-perf. Ind, 
Futuro Ind. 
Futuro Conj. 

Digo> dizes, diz, dizemos } dizeis, dizem. 
Diga, digas, diga, digamos, digaes, digam. 
Dizia, dizias, dizia, diziamos, dizieis, diziam. 
Disse, disseste, disse, dissemos, dissestes, 

disser am. 
Dissesse, etc. 
Dissera, etc. 
Direi, dirds, etc. 
Disser, disseres, disser, etc. 
Diria, etc. 

Dize (tu), dizei (vos), diga (V*), digamos (nos). 

197. Compound verbs: 

condizer (com) to agree, suit, match, contradizer to 
contradict; desdizer to deny; desdizer-se to unsay; interdizer 
to interdict; maldizer to slander, curse; predizer to predict, 

198. Poder can, may, to be able. 

Pres. Ind. Posso, podes, pode, podemos, podeis, podem. 

Pres. Conj. Possa,possas,possa,possdmos,possaes,possam. 

Pret. Imperf. Ind. Podia,podias,podia/podiamos,podieis,podiam. 
Pret. perf . Ind. Pude, pudeste, pode, pudemos, pudestes, 


Imperf. Conj. Pudesse, etc. 
Mais-que- Perf. Ind. Pudera, etc. 
Futuro Ind. Poderei, poderds t etc. 

Futuro Conj. Puder, puderes, puder, etc. 
Conditional. Poderia, etc. 

Participio. Podido. 

Gerundio. Podendo. 

Poder-se to be possible. 


Lesson 28. 

199. Saber to know, to learn, to be able, can. 
Pres. Ind. Sei, sabes, sake, sabemos, sabeis, sdbem. 

Pres. Conj. Saiba, saibas, saiba, saibdmos, saibaes, saibam. 

Pret. imperf. Ind. Sdbia, sabias, sdbia, sdbiamos, sdbieis, sabiam. 
Pret. perf. Ind. Soube, soubeste, soube, soubemos, soubestes, 


Imperf. Conj. Soubesse, etc. 
Mais-que-perf.lnd. Soubera, etc. 
Futuro Ind. Sdberei, saberds, etc. 

Futuro Conj. Soiiber, souberes, etc. 

Conditional. Sdberia, etc. 

Imperative. Sabe, saiba, sabei. 

Participio. Sdbido. 

Gerundio. Sabendo. 

Remark. Can j to "be able must be rendered by poder 
whenever it means a physical power or disposition; it must 
be rendered by saber if signifying an intellectual capacity 
e.g., Men irmao sdbe ler, mas hoje nao pode porque estd rouco 
my brother can read, but to-day he is not able to do so, 
because he is hoarse. 

200. Caber to be contained in, to fall to, to 
belong to, to come or happen opportunely, forms like 
saber, but for the 1 st pers. pr. ind. 
Pres. Ind. Caibo, cabes, cabe, cabemos, cabeis, cdbem. 

mel [met] 
a abelha 

[TB 'bv/iv] 
a cellula 

o tumulo 

o cortigo 

a colmeia 

o sobreiro 


sugar [su 'gar] 





the honey 

a casiriha do 

the honey-cell 

the bee 


o alvfolo 

the cell, alveole 

the cell 


o cabrito 

the kid 

the tomb 

[kv 'ftrituj 


to give back 

pegar [pv'yar] 

to seize 

the bee-hive 

entrar a fazer 

to begin doing 

alg. c. 


the cork-oak 

a flauta ['flautvj 

the flute 

largar a fugir 

to put oneself 

to flight 

to suck 

o magarefe 

the blockhead 

to sweeten 

/ TW&Cp:* / j*|^J 

o flautista 

the flautist 


a palavra 

the word of 



to deposit 

outro dia 

the other day 

The Irregular Verbs. 


o sapateiro 

the shoemaker a vacancia 

o recibo 

the receipt 

a vagatura 

the vacancy 


entirely [vieqis 'turv] 

um pagamento 

an instalment : seguir [sa'gir] 

to continue 

a conta 

(the way) 

o emprego 

the employ- 

por signal 

by way of 

[in i 'pregu] 




vago [vaguj 

free, vacant 

o monolitho 

the monolith 


to confer 

[monu 'lituj 



to work, to 

fazer todas as 

to take all 




a columna 

the column 

[ddli 'ges'ivfj 



to exercise 

a licenga 

the license, per- 

[tear 'serj 



fazer-se illusoes 

to illude oneself especial 

especial, par- 





to despair, to 

a informagao 

the information 


) despond 

nao ha de que! 

don't mention! 

torcer [tur'ser] 

to twist 

passe muito bem 

' good-bye! 

77. Exercicio. 

mel e fabricado (or feito) pelas abelhas. Estas fazem 
o mel dentro dos corses ou colmeias. Os cortices sao feitos 
da casca do sobreiro. Para fazerem o mel, as abelhas chupam 
de certas flores o succo adocicado d'estas, o qual succo se 

I chama nectar. Com o nectar sugado, as abelhas fazem o mel 
que levam para os cor^os, depositando-o nas cellulas ou 
casinhas dos favos, chamadas tambem alveoles. -- Dize neste 
mundo o que tens para dizer: o tumulo e mudo. Dou-me 
muito bem com os ares d'esta regiao y melhor do que me dei 

*na Suissa. Ali se dava as vezes que nao podia aturar os 
ventos asperos que me faziam mal. Mas nao sabia que fazer, 
ate que me disseram da Eiviera portugufisa e que soube que 
iate 'no inverno os ares aqui sao beneficos. 

78. Leitura. 
cdbrito e o lobo. 

Era uma vez um cabrito que se tinha perdido num 
nonte. Nao sei aonde, salta-lhe um lobo para o devorar, e 
Mle volta-se para o lobo e diz-lhe assim: 

- Senhor lobo! ja sei que me vae (see ir, 214) comer! 
*Jas se faz favor, eu gostava muito de uma morte alegre! 

Diz-lhe o lobo: -- Qual? 

Torna o cabrito: Gostava muito de morrer a da^ar! 

lobo por Ihe fazer a vontade, p^ga numa flauta e poe- 
;e (see por, 212) a tocar, e o cabrito entra logo a bai- 

Portuguese Conversation-Grammar. 13 

194 Lesson 28. 

lar ; - - mas uns caes que andavam perto, ouviram a fiauta e 
vieram (see vir, 218) a correr, e o lobo largou logo a fugir 
com medo dos caes. 

Bern feito! dizia elle entao. Nao passo de magarefe, 
para que me metti eu a ser flautista. 

(Trindade Coelho: 1 Livro de Leitura). 

79. Thema. 

I give you my word of honour that I gave those 25 
pounds which my father had given me the other day, to my 
tailor, in order to pay his bill. Did you (tr. thou) also pay 
the shoemaker, and did he give you a receipt? I could not 
yet entirely pay the shoemaker; I made him an instalment 
and told him that I should give him the rest as soon as I 
should be nominated to the vacant appointment that is to be 
conferred. How can you know whether you will be nominated 
for it? I don't know, but I natter myself, that it will be 
given to me, as I take all pains, and because there is perhaps 
nobody else who is able to do the service as well. And I 
tell you what I have always told you: I fear that somebody 
else will be appointed, as you, however well knowing the (tr. do) 
service, cannot exercise it on account of your health. Don't 
give yourself up to illusions, but also don't despair if (by chance) 
you know that another has been selected for the vacancy. 


A. Sabe-me o senhor dizer, por onde eu posso (or puder) 
chegar ao Palacio do Municipio? 

B. Sei, sim, senhor. Faqa favor de se dirigir por esta 
rua, que e a Rua do Ouro, abaixo ate" ao Terreiro 
do Paco que da para o Tejo. Depois pode seguir a 
direita pela Rua do Arsenal ate* ao Largo do Pelou- 
rinho, onde e a Camara Municipal. 

A. Ora diga-me, porque se nomeia aquelle largo do 

B. Deu-lhe este nome um monumento, por signal muito 
antigo, que esta no meio do largo e defronte do 
Municipio, e que.e" formado por um monolitho lavrado 
(or aberto) em trSs columnas torcidas uma em volta 
da (round the) outra. 

A. P6de-se entrar no Palacio? 

B. Pode. Ate as 4 boras esta aberto. Depois e so com 
licenca especial. 

A. Muito obrigado oelas informacoes que me deu. Boa 
tarde ! 

B. Nao ha de que\ Passe muito bem! 

The Irregular Verbs, 


Twenty-ninth Lesson. Li<jao vigesima 

^The Irregular Verbs. (Continued.) 
Second Conjugation. Terbs in -er. 
201. Querer to be willing, to wish, to intend, 
to feel disposed, to like. 

Pres. Ind. Quero, queres, quer, queremos, quereis, quer em. 

Pres. Conj. Queira, queiras, queira, queirdmos, queiraes, 

Pret. imperf. Ind. Queria, querias, queria, queriamos, querieis, 

Pret. perf. Ind. Quiz, quizeste, quiz, quizemos, quizestes, 


Imperf. Conj. Quizesse, etc. 

Mais-que-perf.Ind. Quizera, etc. 

I Futuro Ind. 
j Futuro Conj. 




Quererei, quererds. etc. 

Quizer, quizeres, etc. 

Quereria, etc. 

Queira, queiram (only used in the 3 rd pers. 
followed by an infinitive e.g. : queira, 
dizer-me in the meaning "kindly tell me". 

Querido. (As an adjective it means: be- 
loved, dear). 


202. JRequerer to solicit is regular but for the 
1 1 st pers. pr. ind. and derived; it forms: 

i Pres. Ind. Requeiro, requeres, requere. 

*et. perf. Eequeri, requereste, requereu, requeremos, etc. 

203. Trazer to bring, to carry, to wear, to x 

[Pres. Ind. Trago, trazes, traz, trazdmos, trazeis, trazem. 

\Pres. Conj. Traga, tragas, traga, tragdmos, tragaes, 

Pret. imperf. Ind. Trazia, trazias, trazia, traziamos, trazieis, 

Pret. perf. Ind. Trouxe ['trosd], trouxeste, trouxe, trouxemos, 

trouxestes, trouxeram. 
^mperf. Conj. Trouxesse, etc. 
\iais-que-perf.lnd. Trouxera, etc. 
7 uturo Ind. Trarei, trards, etc. 

fiduro Conj. Trouxer, trouxeres, trouxer, etc. 


196 Lesson 29. 

Conditional. Traria, etc. 

Imperative. Traze (tu), traga (V*), trazei (vds). 

Participio. Trazido. 

Gerundio. Trazendo. 

204. Valer to be worth, to be of value, to 
help, to assist. 

Pres. Ind. Valho, vales, vale or valj valemos, valeis, 

Pres. Conj. Valha, valhas, valha, valMmos, valhaes, 

Imperative. Used only in the 3 rd pers. e.g., Valha-m>- 

Dem! God help me! Valha a verdade 

to tell the truth! 

All the rest is regular. 

205. Perder to lose. 

Pres. Ind. Perco, perdes, perde, perdemos, perdeis, 

Pres. Conj. Perca, percas, perca, percamos, percaes, 


The rest is regular. 

To this group of irregular verbs belong also ser, 
ter and haver, already dealt with among the auxiliary 

206. Ler to read. 

Pres. Ind. Leio, les, U, lemos, ledes, leem. 

Pres. Conj. Leia, leias, leia, le(i)cimos, le(i)aes, leiam. 

Imperf. Ind. Lia, lias, lia, liamos, lieis, Ham. 

Pret. perf. Ind. Li, leste, leu, lemos, lestes, leram. 
Imperf. Conj. Lesse, lesses, lesse, lessemos, lesseis, lessem. 
Mais-que-perf. Ind. Lera, leras, lera, etc. 
Imperative. Le (tu), leia, le(i)d,mos, lede (vos). 

Participio. Lido. 

Gerundio. Lendo. 

207. Crer to believe, to think, to trust, and 
descrer to disbelieve, are conjugated like ler. Modern 
writers use the forms creiamos, creiaes instead of the 
more correct creamos, creaes (cf. ler). 

208. Ver to see, behold, consider, view. 
Pres. Ind. Vejo, ves, ve, vemos, vedes, veem. 

Pres. Conj. Veja, vejas, veja, vejdmos, vejaes, vejam. 

Imperf. Ind. Via, vias, via, viamos, vieis, mam. 

Pret. perf. Ind. Vi, viste, viu, vimos, vistes, viram. 

The Irregular Verbs. 197 

Imperf. Conj. Visse, visses, visse, etc. 
Mais-que-perf.Ind. Vira, viras, mra, etc. 

Futuro Ind. Verei, verds, verd, etc. 

Futuro Conj. Vir, vires, vir, etc. 

Conditional. Veria, verias, veria, etc. 

Imperativo. Ve (tu), veja, vejdmos, vede (vos). 

Participio. Visto. 

Gerundio. Vendo. 

209. Compound Verbs: 

antever, prever to foresee 

entrever to have a glimpse of, to discover 

rever to review, to see again 

prover to provide 

desprover to deprive, to strip (of). 

N.B. Prover and desprover are regular in the Pret. 
perf. Ind. (provi, proveste, proven, etc.^ and in the forms 
derived from it (provesse, provera, prover), as also in 
the Past Participle (provido). 

210. Jazer to lie, to be buried, a defective 
verb of rare use, has become regular i.e.: it has no 
longer the forms jaco, nor jouve (pret. perf.), nor an 
open e [e] in the 2 nd pers. pret. pref. and derived forms: 

Pres. Ind. Jazo, jazes, jaz, jazemos, jazeis, jazem. 

Imperf. Ind. Jazia. 

Pret. Perf. Jazi, jazeste, jazeu, etc. 

Mais-que-perf. Jazera, etc. 

Aqui jaz (jazem) here lies (lie). 

From the 1 st Participle the verbal adjective jazente 
or better jacente is formed. 

Essas pobres gera^oes que de ha muito jazem sem vida. 
Terras jacentes ao poente grounds lying towards the west. 
Heran$a jacente heritage not jet distributed. 

211. Those verbs ending in -cer, -ger and -guer 
indergo analogous modifications as those ending in 
'car, -gar and -gar, in order to conserve the original sound 
)f the c and g (cf. 136 N.B. and 143). 

212. Pdr to put, place, lay, set, suppose. 

This verb apparently not belonging to any of the 
hree conjugations, is to be considered as one of the 
,f nd , having lost the e of the termination (po-er). 


Lesson 29. 

Pres. Ind. Ponho, poes, poe, pomos, pondes, p5em. 

Pres. Conj. Ponha, ponhas, ponha, ponhdmos, ponhaes, 

Imperf. Ind. Punha, punhas, punha, punhamos, punheis, 


Pret. Ind. Puz, puzeste,poz, puzemos, puzestes, puzer aw. 

Imperf. Conj. Puzesse, etc. 
Mais-que-perf. Puzera, puzeras, puzera, etc. 
Futuro Ind. Porei, pords, pord, poremos, poreis, porao, 

Futuro Conj. Puzer, puzer es, puzer, puzermos, puzer des, 


Conditional. Poria, porias, poria, etc. 

Imperative. Poe (tu), ponha (Ve), ponhdmos (nos), 

ponde (vos). 

Partitipio. Posto. 

Gerundio. Pondo. 

Por-se em pe to get up. 

213. Compound verbs: 

antepor to set before, prefer indispor to indispose, to unfit 

compor to compose 

contrapdr to oppose, to com- 

depor to state; to depose; to 
deposit; to lay down 

dispor to dispose 

expor to expose, exhibit 

impor to impose 

interpor to put between, in 

oppor to oppose 
propor to propose 
propor-se to intend, to design 
suppor to suppose 
transpor to transport, etc. 



[we 'rvuj 
o ingeriho 

the man, male 

the skill, talent, 

art, wit 
o brazao the escutcheon 


herdar [ir'darj to inherit 
o padre 

the father 

to speak aloud 

falar em bom 


o voto [votu] 
a amizade 

[vmi '$. 
a infdncia 

o tumulo 

the vote 

the friendship 

the childhood 
the tomb 

a pedra tumular the tombstone 
o punhado the handful 

a campa the burying- 


o annuncio 

a prompto 

(supply paga- 

a prestagoes on payment by 

[upriftie 'soifj instalments 
o escriptorio the office 

the bakery 


the advertise- 

on cash (pay- 

a padaria 

The Irregular Verbs. 



to alienate 


to break 

[trjfpv 'sar] 


o lucro f'lukruj 

the gain, profit 

tnlhar [tv'fiar] 

to cut 


to negotiate, 

a alvenaria 

the masonry 

treat, deal 


as ali'igaras 

the finder's 

a argamassa 

the mortar 



[vrgv 'masis] 


the mill 

o betao [b9 'tvuj 

the beton, con- 



o colar fku'lar] 

the collar 

o cimento 

the cement 

a medalha 

the medal 

[& 'mentuj 


a liga$ao 

the binding 

o capitalista 

the capitalist 

[lips 'sen] 


o socio f'sosi'uj 

the sleeping 

o instrumento 



9 partner 

o officio 

the profession 

a industria 

the industry 

[u 'fisiuj 


a colher 

the trowel 

o proprio 

the same (ad- 


(supply: an- 


a picadeira 

the pickaxe 


[pikv 'ff&irie] 

o abaixo assi- 

the signatory 


to thin 


[vftElgv 'sar] 



to hoe 

a agenda 

the agency 

o estuque 

the stucco 

[is 'zest's] 


o penhor 

the pawn, 

o camartello 

the cutting- 








to rough-hew 



a casa de 

the pawnshop 

calcar [kalkar] 

to fix by beat- 




to establish 

o prumo 

the plummet 

fvfrdg} 'za&uj 

well accustom- 

' ed 

o nivel f'niveij 

to plumbline 
the level 

' o local [lu 'kal] 

the locality 


to level 

o esclareciment( 

) the information 




[orizon 'taij 


a cantaria 

the masonry; 

; a construcQao 

the construc- 

[kvnte 'riu] 

the cut- stone, 

fkoftru 'suu] 



o pedreiro 

a enxada 

the spade 

[pd 'frrviru] 


1 o trolha 

the mason 


to wet, to stir 


o cdche [koftf 

the hod. 

a trolha 

the handle- or 



80. Exercicio. 

Rebello da Silva disse que valia mais o varao que se fazia 
grande e famoso pelo ingenho e pelos actos, do que o homem 
que ja nascera entre brazoes herdados. Dizia o padre Antonio 

200 Lesson 29. 

Vieira que se descompnnha a si mesmo, quern aos mais deseoin- 
punha. Nao leias em meia voz, le alto e em bom som! Dou-lhe 
os parabens ; nao caibo em mim de contente pelas boas novas de 
que me deu parte. Vejo que Ihe trouxe fortuna o conselho que 
algum dia Ihe de"ra. Deus queira que Ihe valham sempre os rneus 
votes de boa aniizade e o muito que Ihe quero. Quem me dera 
que pudesse ir ve-lo! Propor-lhe-ia que fossemos (see 214) 
rever os logares da nossa infancia e os tiimulos onde jazem 
aquelles a quern mais quizemos quando vivos. Que satisfac^ao 
d'alma se, lendo nas pedras tumulares aquelles nomes queridos, 
depuzessemos um punhado de flores na campa dos que nos 
deram a vida. Mas ja perdi toda a confianca, descreio em que 
jamais os reveja ou que torne a ver esses saudosos sitios os 
quaes valha a verdade ! valem para mim o mais bonito 

81. Leitura. 


1. Piano alemao, novo, magnificas vozes, vende-se barato, 
a prompto ou a presta9<5es, Na Eua da Palma 61, escriptd- 
rio, se diz. 

2. Padaria, trespasse-se uma em boas condisoes e muito 
barata. Da 100 000 reis de lucro por mfis. Trata-se com 
o abaixo assignado na Padaria Bijou a rua Escola Poly- 
technica 247. 

3. Alvigaras dao-se a quern entregar na Canada do Moinho 
de Vento 32 um colar d'ouro com medalha que se perdeu 
desde a dita rua ate ao Chiado. 

4. Capitalista. Precisa-se de socio capitalista ou commandi- 
tario para desenvolver uma indiistria. Capital garantido, 
lucres certos 10/o (por cento). Trata-se com o proprio, 
Carta a agencia NN. Eua dos Eetrozeiros. 

5. Capitalista precisa-se que entre com o capital sufficients 
para mais desenvolvimento de uma casa de penhores, ja 
montada e afreguezada n'um dos melhores locaes da capital 
Esclarecimentos, rua Capellistas No. 71. 

82. Thema. 

Building in Portugal. 

Do you see that house in construction? The mason 
makes the walls and all masonry with broken, uncut 
stones or with bricks, joining the materials with clay, mortar, 
beton, cement or another binding. Do you know of which 
tools the mason makes use in his profession? I (shall) 
tell you ; they are these : the trowel, with which he places 
the clay and mortar; the pickaxe, with which he thins the 

The Irregular Verbs of the Third Conjugation. 


sides of the bricks, cuts the walls and demolishes the stucco ; 
the cutting-hammer, with which he cuts the stone and fixes 
the materials out of which he builds the walls; the plumb, 
which helps (valer em) him to plumbline the walls; the level, 
with which he levels the blockings; the handle-board where 
he puts the chalk; the spade he stirs the chalk with; the 
hod, which serves in transporting the chalk, etc. 


Que tempo faz, (or esta)? 

Porque cr isso? 

Valha-nos Deus ! Antes queria 
que continuasse enxuto, por- 
que com a chuva perco a 
occasiao de dar passeios. 

Ora veja o jornal que trouxeram 
e que ja prediz mudanca de 
tempo. Quer que Ih'o leia? 

Pois ja ficamos sabendo que, 
se o tempo se puzer a mal, 
sera por muitos dias. 

Por emquanto tern feito (or 
estado) bom tempo, mas 
creio que vae mudar. 

Porque se levantou muito 
vento, e receio que nos traga 

Pois nao ve aquellas nuvens 
que se juntam no horisonte ? 
Vera que amanha teremos 
chuva, a nao sr que o vento 

Se quizer fazer esse favor . . . 
corno eu nao sei ler . . . Gom- 
tudo ja prevejo o que diz. 

Pois seja o que Deus quizer! 
Visto a gente nao pudermos 
fazer nada . 

Thirtieth Lesson. Licjao trigesima. 

The Irregular Verbs of the Third Conjugation. 

214. Ir to go (as for the compound tenses of 
this verb see 118). 

Pres. 1ml. Vou. vaes (vais), vae (vai), vamos (imos), 

ides, vao. 

} res. Conj. Vd, vds, vd, vamos, vades, vao. 

et. imperf. Ind. la, ias, ia, iamos, ieis, iam. 

. perf. Fui, foste, foi, fdmos, fostes, fordo, 

iperf. Conj. Fosse, etc. 

ais-que-perf. Fora, foras, fora, formos, foreis, foram. 

Fid. Ind. Irei, irds, ird, iremos, ireis, irao. 

Fut. Conj. For, fores, for, formos, fdrdes, forem. 

Conditional. Iria, etc. 

Imperativo. Vae (tu), vd, vamos (nos), ide (vds). 

202 Lesson 30. 

Participio. Ido. (In the adjective meaning "past" there 

Gerundio. Indo. is also the fern, form "ida" 

and the plural forms "idos, 


215. Ir followed by an infinitive expresses an 
intention, that which tho English expresses by "to be 
going to" e.g.: vou fazer o meu thema I am going to do 
my task; iamos dar um passeio we were just about to 
take a walk. 

216. Idioms with ir. 

Ir a pe to go on foot 

ir de (or em) carruagem to go in a carriage, to drive 

ir a cavallo to go on horseback, to ride 

ir a melhor to grow or become better 

ir ter com alguem to call upon somebody 

vae melhor he (she, it) is better, it is going better 

Gomo vae? how do you do? how is it going on? 

Que vae nisso? what does it matter? 

par mal que vd if the worst come to the worst 

Quanto vae d'aqui a . . . ? How far is it from here to . . . ? 

Esta rua vae ter a ponte this street leads to the bridge 

Vae em tres annos about three years ago 

Vae-lhe bem it suits you well 

Isso jd la vae that's a thing past and done. 

217. Ir-se to go away, be off, to set out, 
disappear, die. 

Vou-me I go away, I am going away. 

Foi-se he is gone. 

Vd-se embora! get you gone! be off! 

Vamo-nos! let us go away 

(Vae-se fazendo tarde (escuro) it is growing late (dark).) 

Remark L While ir expresses a movement towards a 
place, ir-se expresses one away from it. The former answers 
to the question ''where to?", the latter to "whence?" 

Remark II. In the last example se is not part of the 
verb ir, but of fazer, being joined to the former only for 
the sake of harmony. 

218. Vir 

Pres. Ind. Venho, vens, vem, vimos, vindes 7 veem. 

Pres. Conj. Venha, verihas, veriha, venhamos, venhaes, 


The Irregular Verbs of the Third Conjugation. 203 

?rf. Ind. Vinha, vinhas, vinha, vinhamos, 


Pret. perf. Vim, vieste, veio, vihnos, viestes, vieram. 

Imperf. Conj. Viesse, viesses, viesse, etc. 

Mais-que-perf. Viera, viSras, etc. 

Fut. Ind. Virei, virds, vird, mremos, vireis, virdo. 

Fut. Conj. Vier, vieres, vier, viermos, vierdes, vierem. 

Conditional. Viria, etc. 

Imperativo. Vem {tu), venha, venhdmos, vinde (vos). 

Participio. Vindo. 

Gerundio. Vindo. 

Remark. The singular of the imperative terminates by 
m : vent. The same ending has the 2 nd pers. sing. pres. iiid., 
when followed by an objective pronoun (-0, -a, -os, -as) 
e.g., cem-lo tu dizer? do you come to tell it? (About lo 
cf. 164 (b).) 

Idioms: Vir as boas to reconcile oneself. Vir-se e desejar- 
se com ... to be in difficulties with . . . 

219. Compound Yerbs: 

advir to intervene, to arrive desavir to disunite 

contravir to contravene, in- intervir to intervene 

fringe provir to come from 

convi.r to agree, to be fit or sobrevir to supervene. 


220. Rir to laugh. 

Pres. Ind. Rio, ris, ri, rimos, rides, riem. Conj. Ria, rias, ria, ridmos, riaes, riam. 

Compound verbs: sorrir to smile and rir-se (de) 
to laugh (at). 

221. The verbs medir, pedir and ouvir to hear, 
are regular but for the 1 st pers. pres. ind. and derived 

Medir (cf. 152) to measure, appreciate. 

Pres. Ind. Mego, medes, mede, medimos, medis, medem. 

Pres. Conj. Mega, megas, mega, megdmos, megaes, megam. 

Imperativo. Mede, mega, megdmos, medi. 

Pedir to ask, to beg. 

Pres. Ind. Pego, pedes, pede, pedimos, pedis, pedem. 

Pres. Conj. Pega, pegas, pega, pegdmos, pegaes, pegam. 

Imperativo. Pede, pega, pegdmos, pedi. 

Compound verbs: despedir to dismiss and expcdir 
to dispatch. 

204 Lesson 30. 

Ouvir to hear. 

Pres. Ind. Ouco (oico), ouves, ouve, ouvimos, ouvis, 

Pres. Conj. Ouga (oica), ougas, ouga, ougamos, oucaes, 

N.B. The u before g may be supplied by i. 
222. Dormir to sleep (see 154). 

Pres. Ind. Durmo, dormes, dorme, dormimos. dorntis, 

Pres. Conj. Durma, durinas, durma, durmdmos, durmaes, 


223. Concerning the verbs in a(h)ir see 158. 
Cair (sometimes, but incorrectly: cahir) to fall. 

Pres. 2nd. Cdio, caes, cae, caimos, cais, cdem. 

Pres. Conj. Cdia, cdias, edict, caidmos, caiaes, cdiam. 

Sahir or sair to go out, to go forth. 
Pres. Ind. Sdio, saes, sae, sahimos (saimos), sahis (sais) } 

Pres. Conj. Sdia, sdias, saia, saidmos, saiaes, saiam. 

All the rest is regular. 

224. Concerning the verbs adherir, advertir, ferir, 
mentir, repetir, seguir, sentir, servir and compound ones 
cf. 152, 153, 156. 

The following is a model conjugation of these 

Pres. Ind. Visto, vestes, veste, vestimos, vestis, vestem. 

Pres. Conj. Vista, vistas, vista, vistdmos, vistaes, vistam. 

Imp. Ind. Vestia, vestias, vestia, vestiamos, vestrns, 

Pret. perf. ind. Vesti, vestiste, vestiu, vestimos, vestistes, 

Imp. Conj. Vestisse, vestisses, vestisse, vestissemos, 

vestisseis, vestissem. 
Mais-que-perf. Vestira, vestiras, vestira, vestiramos, vestireis, 


Fut. Ind. Vestirei, vestiras, vestira, etc. 

Fat. Conj. Vestir, veslires, vestir, vestirmos, vestirdes, 

Condidonal. Vestiria, vestirias, etc. 

The Irregular Verbs of the Third Conjugation. 205 

-..iperatieo. Veste (tu), vista (V*), vistdmos, vesti (vds). 

Participio. Vestido. 

Gerundio. Vestindo. 

Thus are conjugated: 


TntJ Pres.Subj. 

a) Adherir to adhere, to stick to . adUro adhira 

(b) advertir to advise advirto advirta 

(c) ferir to bless firo fira 

(d) mentir 1 to lie, to deceive . . . minto minta 

(e) repetir to repeat repito repita 

(f) seguir* to follow sigo siga 

(g) sentir to feel sinto sinta 

(h) sermr to serve; to be of use; to 

lay (the table) sirvo sirva 

(i) vestir to dress visto vista 

(j) despir 3 to undress dispo 

225. The verbs aggredir, denegrir, pro- 

yredir, remir, transgredir, prevenir change 

equally the radical e into i, yet not only in the 1 st pers. 

! pr. ind., but in all accented forms of this tense, as 

also through the whole pres. subj. (cf. 152, 2, Remark). 

Aggredir to assault. 

i Pres. Ind. Aggrido, aggrides, aggride, aggredimos, 

aggrediSj aggridem. 
I Pres. Cony. Aggrida, aggridas, aggrida, aggriddmos, 

aggridaes, aggridam. 

Prevenir to advise, to warn, to prepare, to prevent. 
Pres. Ind. Previno, prevines, previne, prevenimos, preve- 

ms } previnem. 

'Pres. Conj. Previna, previnas, previna, previndmos, pre- 

wnaes, previnam. 

226. Those verbs of the 3 rd conj. whose radical 
vowel is u modify this u into open o [o] in the 2 nd and 
3 rd pers. sing, and in the 3 rd pers. pi. of the pres. ind., 
is also in the sing, imper. (cf. 155) e.g.: 

1 Instead of mentir you will better employ faltar d verdade. 

2 For the orthography seguir and sigo, cf. 157. 

3 This verb conserves in the first and second persons pi. pres. 
ponj. its radical e: dispa, dispas, dispa, despdmos, despaes, dispam. 


Lesson 30. 

Fugir to flee, fly. 

Pres. Ind. Fujo, foges, foge> fugimos, fugis, fog em. 

Pres. Conj. Fuja, fujas, fuja, fujdmos, fujaes, fujam. 

Imperative. foge, fuja? fujdmos, fugi, fujam. 

All the rest is regular. 

N.B. Concerning the g changing into j see 157. 

227. After this model are conjugated: 
Acudir to run, to help, to aid engulir to swallow 
bulir to touch, to stir sacudir to shake 

consumir to consume subir to ascend, to mount 

cobrir (cubrir) to cover tussir to cough 

descobrir to un- or discover sumir to hide 
cuspir to spit sumir-se to disappear 

destruir to destroy surgir to appear, to rise. 

Remark. Construir and reconstruir to build and re- 
build are also often conjugated like this, yet they better keep 
their u: construes, construe, const ruem instead of constroes, 
constroe, constroem. 

228. Affligir to aflict; affligir-se to care, to 
be in sorrow, to grieve; corrigir to correct; fingir to feign; 
dirigir to direct, change the g before a and o into j 
e.g., que die corrija that he may correct (cf. 157). 

229. Frigir to fry, modifies moreover the i 
into e in the 2 nd and 3 rd pers. sing, and the 3 rd pers. pi. 
Pres. Ind. Frijo, freges, frege, frigimos, frigis, fregem. 

Participio. frito besides frigido. 

Remark. The verbs in uzir, as: conduzir, produzir, 
induzir, reduzir, (re)luzir, etc., are regular, but they lose 
the e of the 3 rd pers, sing, of the pres. ind. e.g., produz; 
the imperative, however, conserves the e: produze! 


Parar to stop, to stay 
o cavalheiro the gentleman 

a presenQa de the presence of 
espirito mind 

[kvvv 'fi'Biru] 

andar doente, to be ill, sad 

o cavalleiro the rider 

triste etc. 

[kvvB 'IsfruJ 

o desastre the disaster 

a estrada real the high-road 



a (primeira) the temporary 

o grito ['gritu] the scream 

Ugadura dressing (of a 

a desfilada in full speed 

[ligs 'durv] wound) 


sentir d falta de to miss 

The Irregular Verbs of the Third Conjugation. 


o apparelho the apparatus 

o tribunal criminal court 

[vpv 'rvftu] 


os sentidos the senses, 

a instrucgdo primary in- 


primdria struction 

effectivawente indeed 

a direcgdo geral central school- 

a complicagao the complica- 

de instrucgdo board 

fTcompliku- tion 

o documento the document 

de passagem by the bye 

constar to be said or 

de dia a dia from day to day 

[konf'tar] reported 

o medico the assistant 

acerca [a, 'serkvj with regard to 

assistente surgeon 


fracturar to break 

a frequezia the parish 



o requerimento the petition 

collocar to place 




referido mentioned 

o ministerio da the ministry of 

o levantamento the raising 

justi$a justice 

a suspensdo the suspension 

depois d'dmanha the day after 



o despacho the despatch 

a urgencia the urgency 



o deputado the deputy 

a sentenga , the sentence 



d'aqui em dianie henceforth 

oficial [ofisi'cd] official 

assim que as well as, also 

absolvitorio absolving 

contar com reckon upon 


alquem someone 


auxiliar to help. 

a nota ['note] the note, list 

[ausili 'arj 

83. Exercicio. 

Men bom Amigo! 

Ha muito que nada 01190 de ti. Nem eu sei ja onde 
paras e como vaes. Disseste-me que virias ver-me um dia 
qualquer de que havias de prevenir-nie. Mas nao vieste, nem 
me preveniste. Sin to muito que nao tenhas vindo na semana 
passada, quando demos um passeio a Cintra, sitio de que de 
certo ja ouviste falar. Fui eu com meus paes e irmaos e 
fomos de carruagem e nao em caminho de ferro. Alguns 
.cavalheiros, indo a cavallo e em bycicleta, seguiam a nossa 
carruagem pela estrada real. De repente ouve-se um grito - 
olho para tras e vejo que um dos cavalleiros caido abaixo, jaz 
no chao, emquanto o cavallo foge a desfilada. Oh, se visses 
aquillo ! Mas nao perco a minha natural presenca de espirito, 
e, querendo valer ao ho mem jacente, que cria ferido, ponho- 
ine em pe e fa^o parar a carruagem. Saio d'ella precipitada- 
tnente e os outros acodem. Tu sabes que geralmente ando 
.prevenido, como que presentindo sempre algum desastre. Trago 

208 Lesson 30. 

comigo, para fazer umas primeiras ligaduras, um apparelho, 
que n'aquella occasiao tambem trazia comigo. E se o nao 
trouxesse (or: trago), ter-nos-ia (or: tinha-nos) feito muita 
falta. Pois o homem perdera os sentidos. Proponho que se 
puzesse na carruagem, onde effectivamente foi posto, dispondo- 
se de maneira que nos outros viemos a pe, ate que nos adveio 
outra carruagem de que fizemos uso. Consome-me ainda o 
receio que sobrevenha alguma complica9o no estado do ferido 
que diga-se de passagem sente melhoras e vae a melhor 
de dia a dia. Sirvo-lbe de medico assistente, visto-o e dispo-o, 
pois fracturou um bra90. Bile agora dorme e e bom que durma, 
para que se ponha bem de todo. Se nao sobrevier febre, 
espero que elle se possa levantar depois d'amanha. Na 
esperan9a de te v6r brevemente, pe90 me creias 

sempre teu muito amigo 

84. Leitura. 

Requeiro que pelo ministerio da justi9a me seja enviada com 
urgencia copia da senten9a absolvitoria de 26 de julho de 1907, 
do tribunal criminal do Porto, dada no processo em que res- 
pondeu o professor official da escola de C. senhor Paulo Fer- 
reira de Azevedo. 

Requeiro que pela direc^ao geral de instruc9ao primaria 
me sejam enviados com urgencia os seguintes documentos: 
1. Nota de tudo quanto se souber e constar acerca do ex- 
professor primario da freguezia de Paranhos, do Porto, sr. P. F. 
de A., actualmente collocado na escola official de C. ; 2. Copia 
do requerimento do referido professor a direc9ao geral de ins- 
truc9ao primaria, pedindo o levantamento da suspensao que 
Ihe foi imposta, com o despacho dado pela mesma direc9ao geral. 

Lisboa, 3 de junho de 1908. 

Affonso Costa. 
85. Thema. 

My dear friend! 
I congratulate you that you so quickly have (conj.) run 
to help that gentleman fallen from his horse, and that you 
could provide his injuries with temporary dressing. I appreciate 
all the interest and satisfaction with which you follow the pro- 
gress in the recovery of the wounded man. I beg that you will 
continue to let me know how he is going on and whether he is 
growing better. Also that you will tell me whether I can help 
you (cf. 204) or be of any use to you (see 224 h). You 
well know that you may reckon upon me and that I am 

Impersonal and Defective Verbs. 209 

good for something. Communicate to me, whatever I may be 
able to do for you or your patient. I repeat that I will 
come (= ir) at once as soon as you write me "Come!" 
I suppose that you are (conj.) without a soul to help 
you (= a soul that [may] help you) and grieve about 
it. Should it be convenient, advise me, and I will run to 
(your) help. 

Yours most heartily (= teu do cora^ao) 
James (Jayme). 

86. Exercise (oral). 

Instead of a conversation the student is recommended 

to transfer the address "tu" in 78 and 80 into the more 

ceremonious form, remembering that it may be given either 

' by the mere verb (3 rd pers.) or by o Senhor, o Amiga, V a Ex a , 

etc. (see 32). 

Thirty-first Lesson. Li<$o trigesiina 

Impersonal and Defective Verbs. 

Os verbos unipessoaes e os defectives. 

230. Impersonal are those verbs the activity of 
which is not exercised by persons or even by any 
distinct subject, and which are only used with the 
3 rd pers. sing, and the indefinite subject it. We di- 
stinguish three groups: 

1. Such verbs as are always and merely used in 
the 3 rd person, the essentially impersonal ones. To these 
belong those expressing natural phenomena. Some 
of them are employed with the subject o tempo; ama- 
nliecer, to dawn, is sometimes accompanied by the 
pleonastical subject o dia; acontecer may have a noun 
for its subject. 

\Consta it (he, she, etc.) is chovisca it drizzles 

said to ... graniza it hails 

acontece it happens neva it snows 

\(o dia) amanhece it dawns gela it freezes 

'anoitece it grows night, dar- degela it thaws 

kens relampeja it lightens 

chove it rains venta it blows 

\troveja it thunders escurece it darkens 

Portuguese Conversation-Grammar. 14 

210 Lesson 31. 

o tempo estia it (the weather) resulta it results 

settles pesa-me I am sorry l 

o tempo aclara it (the weather) apraz-me I am pleased. 2 
clears up 

2. Such verbs as may also be employed with a 
personal subject and in all persons: the accidentally 
impersonal ones e.g. : 

parece it appears nao admira it is not astonish- 
entende-se it is understood ing, I don't wonder 

tarda muito, leva muito tempo recommenda-se it is to be re- 
it tarries commended 

nao admette duvida it is convem it is convenient 

doubtless verificou-se it was verified. 

3. Compositions of the 3 rd pers. of the verbs ser, 
estar, fazer, haver, ir, etc. with an adjective or substan- 
tive e.g. : 

E or estd claro it is clear estd (or faz) luar it is moon- 

e evidente it is evident light 

e (im)possivel it is (im)possible estd (or faz) sol it is sunshine 
e preciso it is necessary estd (or faz) nevoa it is foggy 

e indispensavel it is indis- ha duvida there is some doubt 

pensable nao ha duvida it is doubtless; 

e justo it is just it does not matter 

e verdade it is true, indeed nao ha novidade it is all right 
e provavel, certo it is probable, ha gente there are some people 

sure ha que fazer it is much to do 

e lastima it is to be deplored ha um anno a year ago 
e pena it is a pity ha muito (tempo) long ago 

e (uma) vergonha it is a shame vae melhor it (he, she) is 
faz arranjo it is convenient, growing better 

fit or opportune (also em- vae em ires annos about three 

ployed personally) years ago. 

estd (or faz) color it is hot me fazer um m $ s nearly a 
esta (or faz) fno it is cold month ago. 

231. Eule. Impersonal verbs and locutions 
which express uncertainty, necessity, feeling or wish, 
are followed by the subjunctive in the dependent clause, 
if introduced by que; otherwise by the infinitive. 


E indispensavel que va levar esta carta ao correio. 
E lastima que nao tenha vindo mais cedo (or: e lastima 
nao ter vindo . . .). 

1 See pesar 137 (c). 

2 See prazer 234. 

Impersonal and Defective Verbs. 211 

E justo que o operario venca um ordenado correspondente 
ao seu trabalho (or: e justo o operario veneer . .). 

E (uma) vergonha que um rapaz tao intelligente nao 
se applique mais (or: e vergonha um rapaz . . . nao 
se applicar mais). 

Pesa-me que Ihe tenha feito essa injustice (or : pesa-me 
ter Ihe feito . . .). 

Nao admira que nao se sinta bem depois d'uma noite 
d 'insomnia. 

Tardava muito que chegassem noticias d'elle. 

Nao admittia diivida que o reu fosse culpado (or: de o 
re*u se"r culpado). 

Foi preciso que se Ihe fizesse uma ligadura (or : foi pre- 
cise fazer-lhe . . .). 

However: E verdade que nao veio a tempo. 

E claro or certo que fez o seu dever. 

Parece que nao deseja ser visto, etc. 

232. Defective are such verbs as are lacking in 
some forms. Their number is very limited. The following 
are used only in those forms where the final consonant 
of the radical is followed by i (i.e., in the Inf. pers. 
and impers., in the 1 st and 2 nd pers. pi. pr. ind., in the 
pret. imp. and perf., the future and cond., the parti- 
ciples) : 

Adir (uma heranga) to accept emollir to soften, mollify 

(an inheritance) empedernir to petrify, harden 

banir to banish extorguir to extort 

brandir to brandish fattir to fail, to become bankrupt 

parpir to moan, lament florir to flourish 

wlorir to colour munir to furnish 

\iemolir to demolish renhir to combat 

Uscernir to discern retorquir to retort 

ifescomeeftr-se to be immoderate, submergir to submerge, and 
to fall into a passion other rare verbs. 

The missing forms of these verbs are periphrasti- 
;ally formed (see P. II., L. 20) for instance: estou de- 
molindo I demolish. Espero que faga por banir esse 
>ensamento I hope you will banish this idea from your 

233. Precaver to warn, caution, precaver-se (de) 
o beware of, fremir to tremble, are employed only in 
tie forms where the final consonant of the radical is 
allowed by i or e: precavia, precavendo; fremia, 
, fremem, etc. 


212 Lesson 31. 

234. The impersonal verb prazer (and apraser) 
to please, to be pleased, wants the dative complement 
and is employed only in the following forms: 

Pres. Ind. Praz. 

Pres. Conj. Praza. 

Imperf. Ind. Prazia. 

Pret. perf. Prouve. 

Imperf. Subj. Prouvesse. 
Mais-que-perf. Ind. Prouvera. 

Fut. Ind. Prazerd. 

Fut. Subj. Prouver. 

Partidpio. Prazido. 

Gerundio. Prazendo. 


rei disse: Praz(or apraz)-me conservar o men governo. 
Aprazia-lhe (or aprouve-lhe) tomar essa resolugao. Prazerd 
a Deus . . . Prazendo a Dens . . . Se a Deus prouver . . . 
Prouve a el-rei . . . 

This verb, wanting a complement (Infinitive or 
objective clause with que and the subjunctive) is not 
to be exchanged for agradar or gostar. For instance: 
o espectdculo agradou the spectacle pleased; gostei do 
quadro I was pleased with the picture. Prouve ao des- 
tine conduzi-lo cd for que o conduzisse cd) Destiny was 
pleased to lead him here. 

235. Grassar to rage, prevail, only employed 
in the 3 rd persons: grassa a febre amarella; grassaram 
as bexigas (small-pox). 

236. Jazersee 210. 

237. Pesar to afflict, to grieve, is also used only 
in the 3 rd persons and completed by the dative com- 
plement : Pesa-me I grieve, I am sorry. Pesou a familia 
enlutada nao ter assistido aos ultimos momentos do falle- 
cido. The survivors were sorry for not having assisted 
at the last moments of the deceased. 

238. Eehaver to get back is used only in the 
forms which have a v: rehavemos, rehavia, rehouve, 
rehavendo, etc. 


Sombrio gloomy, dark 

carregado loaded 

a tempestade the tempest 

Impersonal and Defective Verbs. 213 

subtil [sub 'til] subtil 

o guarda-liwos book-keeper 

o remoinho the whirl(wind) 



/ , . /-T 


a ramagem the branches 

a cobranfa the receiving 



a bdtega sudden shower 

o pagamento the payment 


[pTsge 'mentuj 

(de dgua) 

o registo the register, 

assustador frightful 

[m'giftuf list 

[vsuftu 'dor] 

as entradas de entrance-money 

emmudecer to grow durab 


[imu&d 'serj 

as saidas de the sale 

esconder to hide 



de uma (hora) from one 

rouco ['rrdku] hoarse, hollow 

em diante o'clock 

deleitar to delight 

immediatamente immediately 


o correio geral the central 

incendiar to set on fire 

[ku'rrviugd- post-office 



o rebombo the re-echoing, 

regist(r)ar to register 

[m'bdmbuj cracking 

regist(r)ado registered 

enfraquecer to slacken 

mediante by means of; 


on payment 

crepitar , to crepitate 
i [krdpi'tar] 

a taxa [tafu] the tax 

to raio frraiuj the flash of 

o registo the registration; 

lightning, the 

fm'xifto] register-office 

thunder-clap a franquia the postage 

p continue official of a 


[ 'kdn 'timvu] government 

a carta-postal the letter-card 


o sello [seloj the seal, 

3 ordenado the salary 



tanto . . . como as well ... as 

\nensdl monthly 

a cinta ['sintu] the wrapper 

[me 'sal] 

o impresso the printing 

lesembaragado agile 



a remessa de the remittance 


amostras of samples 

'', abonasao security 

o arranjo the arrange- 



\>rocurar to procure 

o endere$o the address, 

^ fpruTcu'rarJ 

[mdd 'resuj direction 

referenda reference 

o destinatdrio the receiver 



' nogao the notion 



o consumo the consump- 

i collocagao collocation, 

[ko'sumu] tion 

[Icululca'svuJ place 
caixa ["kaifu] cashier; cash- 

o bilhete the picture 
illustrado post-card 


a receita the receipt, 

cargo ["kargu] charge, em- 

fm' 'suite] income 


a respeito de with respect to 


Lesson 31. 

pretender to pretend 
o competidor competitor 
identico identical 

preencher to accomplish 
pleno [plenu] full 
o superior the superior 
fsupr} 'or] 
deixar-se ficar to remain 
veneer [ve'ser] to earn 
aproveitar to profit 

o vencimento the earnings, 
a instrucQao the instruction 
polytechnico polytechnical 
mediocre mediocre 
[md 'ffiukrd] 
a mecdnica mechanica 

o acordo the agreement. 

87. Exercicio. 
Man tempo, 

dia amanhece sombrio. Parece que o tempo se poe de 
chuva. Ja chovisca, e nao admirava que nevasse, pois esta 
muito frio. Seria lastima que caisse neve ou que granizasse, 
por que faria muito estrago nas arvores fructiferas que estao 
em flor e que perdem muito quando gela ou venta. Sopra um 
vento gelido. Nuvens carregadas ^escurecem os ares. E evi- 
dente que teremos tempestade. E precise que fechSmos as 
janellas, para que a chuva nao possa entrar. Veja, como o 
po subtil sobe em remoinhos e como o vento sacode a ramagem. 
Ja caem grandes bategas de agua. Graniza ate. Os passaros, 
precavidos pela escuridao assustadora, emmudeceram e escon- 
deram-se fremindo debaixo das folhas que fremem como elles. 
Elles que a esta hora costumam voar e cantar alegremente, 
nao Ihes apraz deleitar-nos com o seu canto. Relampeja. Aos 
raios segue-se-lhes o rouco travao. Praza a Deus que nao nos 
incendeiem a casa. Agora os terriveis rebombos enfraquecem. 
Extinguem-se os raios crepitantes e ja nao troveja. astro 
de dia reapparece e sorri de novo. Faz sol e o tempo aclara. 
Vejamos se ha novidade. Ha muito que nao houve tempo tao 
mau, e haverd que fazer. E possivel que a graniza tenha cau- 
sado algum estrago. Deus queira que nao seja assim! 

88. Leitura. 

1. Empregado precisa-se para continue ; ordenado reis 
10000 mensaes e casa. Prefere-se homem novo e desembara- 
9ado que de abona9oes. Carta escripta pelo proprio a agencia, 
dando todas as informa9oes e onde se pode procurar. 

2. Empregado offerece-se com boa calligraphia e perfeito 
conhecimento de correspond^ncia em portugues e allemao. Da 

Impersonal and Defective Verbs. 215 

ferencias de l a ordem. Quern pretender dirija-se ao caixeiro 
da casa X. 

3. Commerciante estrangeiro, novo, offerece-se para casa 
commercial de exportacao. Escreve e fala as linguas allema, 
francesa e inglesa e tern boas rupees das linguas portugnesa 
e italiana. Prefere colloca9ao como caixa ou guarda-livros, 
tendo na sua posi^ao actual a seu cargo cobran9as e pagamen- 
tos, assim como o registo das entradas e saidas de fundos. Para 
tratar, das 6 em diante, Rua NN. 

89. Thema. 

Francis, you must at once take this letter to the post. 
Read here: "Registered!" You will have it registered on pay- 
ment of twopence. Here are 5 shillings : pay the registration 
and the postage and bring me ten stamps at (a) a penny 
and as many at a halfpenny and twopence. For the rest bring 
letter-cards. It is most convenient to employ these latter for 
short communications, and it is well to be provided with 

Actually I am altogether out of postage-stamps. And 

yet I need them every day for letters for the inland post as 

well as for foreign countries (o estrangeiro), for wrappers for 

f book-post, for remittances of samples, etc. Also the post-card 

j is most convenient, especially since this new arrangement 

has been made that the consigner may use half of the 

front side for written communications. But it is indispensabJe 

I that you leave free the room destined to the address of the 

[ receiver. With this innovation the consumption of the picture 

\ post-card will be further increased, as well as the receipts of 

(the Post Office. 


Solicitagao de emprego. 

A. Venho a respeito d'um emprgo vago que me consta 
haver n'esta casa commercial e de que se deu parte 
por annuncios. 

B. E o Senhor quern pretende ser competidor de F.? 

A. Sou, sim, senhor. Vim apresentar-me e pedir o 
interesse de V a Ex a . 

B. Como se chama o senhor? 

A. Ghamo-me Ricardo de Sousa Almeida, criado de 
V a Ex a (your humble servant). 1 

1 This or something identical (sen criado, um seu criado) is 
generally added to a self-introduction. 

216 Lesson 32. 

B. Faca favor de se assentar, sr. Almeida! E natural 
que ja tenha tido colloca^ao identica ou parecida, nao 
e verdade? 

A. Ja, sim, senhor; vae em oito annos que estou em- 
pregado na casa d'exportapao de Fulano 1 onde tenho 
tido a meu cargo as cobran^as e os pagamentos, e 
posso dizer que tenho preenchido o meu logar com 
plena satisfaccao dos meus superiores. 

B. E porque nao se deixa la ficar? Que e que o 
determina a mudar? 

A. Tenho pouco ordenado. E indispensavel que venca 

B. E quaes sao os titulos que Ihe dao direito a urn 
vencimento mais elevado? 

A. Falo e escrevo correctamente tres linguas, conheci- 
mentos esses que nao me aproveitam na minha 
posi^ao actual, tao pouco como uma instruceao poly- 
technica e um talento, mais que mediocre, para a 

B. Muito bem! Nao havera duvida que cheguemos a 
um accordo. 

Thirty-second Lesson. Li<?ao trigesima 

Verbs with a Double Participle. 

239. There are a certain number of verbs which, 
besides their regular participle, form an irregular one. 
The former is used for the active voice, so it has the 
function of a verb; while the latter is employed in the 
passive voice and as an adjective. In some of these 
verbs one and the other participle are employed in- 
differently for the active and passive voices. 

N.B. We place before the forms an a (= activo) 
or a p (= passive), adding to the 2 nd form wherever 
this includes an adjective meaning different from that 
of the participle the English adjective. Those forms 
marked * occur only as adjectives; those marked t are 
unusual or incorrect, consequently to be avoided. 

1 Fulano (and in 2nd place Sicrano) is employed for some 
name not expressed (our "What's his name?"). 

Verbs with a Double Participle. 

The most important of these verbs are: 
(1) Of the First Conjugation. 


(c)eitar to accept (a-,p-) ac(c)eitado 
Assentar to place; to (a., p.) assentado 

Descalcar to pull off 

(shoes, etc.) 
Despertar to awake 

(p.) ac(c)eito 
(p.) assente sitt- 
ing; firm, 
(p.) descalcado (a.?p.) descalgo 

(p.) desperto 


(p.) despertado 

Dispersar to dis- (a. y p.) dispersado 

perse, scatter 
Entregar to deliver, (U-,P') entregado 


Enxugar to dry (a., p.) enxugado 

Escusar to excuse, (a.,p.) escusado 

to justify; to 

exempt (see escon- 

Expressar to express (a., p.) expressado 

(see also exprimir) 

Expulsar to expel (see 

also expellir) 
Fartar to satiate 

Findar to finish 

(a.) expulsado 
(a.) fartado findado 

Fixar to fix (a,p.) fixado 

Ganhar to earn, gain (a., p.) ganhado 
Gastar to expense, (a.) gastado 

use, consume 

\Ignorar to ignore (a>,P>) ignorado 

_ lietar to disquiet, (a., p.) inquietado 

ir to exempt, to (a.) isentado 

tar to join 

(a., p.) juntado 

(p.) disperse 

(p.) entregue 

(p.) enxuto dry 
(p.) escuso secret ; 

(p.) expresso 
express ; 

(p.) expidso 

(p.) farto 

abundant ; 
satisfied ; 
(p.) ftndo last, 

(p.) fixo 
(a.,p.) ganho 
(a., p.) gasto 

(p.) ignoto 

(*) inquieto 


(p.) isento exempt 
or free (by 
(a.,p.) junto 



Lesson 32. 

Limpar to clean 
Manifestar to mani- 

Matar to kill 

(see also marrer) 
Misturar to mix 

Occultar to hide 

Pagar to pay 

Quietar 1 to quiet, 

Salvor to save 

Sepultar to bury 

Soltar to untie, re- 

Sujeitar to subject, 

Suspeitar to suspect 

Vagar to be vacant or 
void ; to stroll about 

(a.) limpado 
(a., p.) manifestado 

(a.) matado 
(a., p.) misturado 

(a.) occultado 
(a.) pagado 
(a.) quietado 

(a., p.) salvado 
(a., p.) sepultado 
(a.) soltado 

(a., p.) sujeitado 

(a.. f p.) suspeitado 

(a.) vagado 

(a., p.) limpo clean 
(*) manifesto 

(a. } p.) morto dead 

(*) misto or 

(p.) occidto 
(a.,p.) pago 

(*) quieto quiet, 


(a., p.) salvo safe, 
(p.) unhurt 
(p.) solto loose; 

(p.) sujeito 

(p.) suspeito 


(*) vago vacant, 

void; vague. 

(2) Of the Second Conjugation. 

Absolver to absolve (a.) p.) absolvido (p.) absolto 

(a. } p.) absorvido 
(a., p.) accendido 

(a.) corr< 

(a.) elegido 

Absorver to absorb 
Accender to light 
Corromper to corrupt 
Eleger to elect 

Esconder to hide 

(see also escusar) 
Escrever to write 
Estender to extend 


(p.) absorto 
(p.) acceso 
(p.) corrupto 
(a., p.) eleito elect, 

(p.) esc'uso 

(a.) escrevidof (a., p.) escripto 
(a.?p.) estendido 

(*) extenso ex- 
(p.) incurso 
(p.) involto 
(a., p.) morto dead 

(p.) preso fast, 

(p.) pretenso 
(p.) resoluto 


1 More usually: aquietar, which has the only participle 
aquietado. In quietar as well as in vagar only the irregular par- 
ticiple is used and in its adjective meaning. 

Incorrer to incur 
Involver to involve 
Morrer to die 

(see also matar) 
Prender to seize, to 

catch, to arrest 
Pretender to pretend (a., p.) pretendido 
Resolver to resolve (a-,p-) resolvido 

(a.) incorrido 
(a.) involvido 
(a.) morrido 

(a.) prendido 

Verbs with a Double Participle. 


Rotuper to break, tear (a.) rompido (p.) roto ragged 

Surpre(h)ender to sur- (a., p.) surpre(li)en- surpreso 

prise dido 

ispender to suspend (a.) suspendido (p.) suspense 

-cer to twist (a-,P>) torcido (p.) torto crooked, 

(3) Of the Third Coiijugation. 

tnr to open 
Afftigir to afflict, 

Gobrir to cover 
Conduir to conclude 
Contrdhir to contract 
Distinguir to dis- 
Erigir to erect 
Espargir to spread 
Expellir to expel 

(see also expulsar) 
Exprimir to express 
(see also expressar} 

(a.) abridof 
(a.) affligido 

(a.) cobridof 
(a., p.) concluido 
(a., p.) contraliido 

(a.) distinguido 

(a., p.) erigido 
(a.) espargido 
(a.) expellido 

(a.) exprimido 

Extinguir to 

Extrahir to extract 
Frigir to fry 
Imprimir to print 
Induir to include 
Inserir to insert 
Opprimir to oppress, 


Instrtiir to instruct 
Possuir to possess 
Reprimir to repress 
Surgir to anchor 
Tingir to dye 

ex- (O",P.) extinguido 

(a., p.) extrahido 

(a.) frigido 

(a., p.) imprimido, 

(a., p.) induido 

(a.) inserido 

(a., p.) opprimido 

(a., p.) instruido 

(a., p.) possuido 

(a. , p.) reprimido 

(a.) surgido 

(a.) tingido 


fa.,p.) aberto open 
(p.) afflicto sorry 

(a., p.) coberto 

(p.) conduso 

(p.) contracto 

(p.) distincto 


(p.) erect o erect 

(p.) esparso 

(p.) expulso 

(p.) expresso 
(p.) extincto 

(p.) extracto 
(a., p.) frito 
(a., p.) impresso 

(p.) induso 
(a., p.) inserto 
(p.) oppresso 

(p.) instructof 
(*) possesso 
(p.) represso 
(p.) surto 
(p.) tinto. 

Aviuvafa'uvv] the widow 

os pesames 

a assento 
o prazo 

the condolence 

the seat 
the term, ap- 
pointed day 
the competition 

o chcfe [fefdj 

o jurado 

par conseguinte 

the chief; head; 

the juryman 

o concurso 

a roupa ['rropvj the linen, 

o recem-chegado the newcomer 

the appearance 
the ingredient 

a apparencia 
o ingrediente 


Lesson 32. 

a droga ['drogvj 

' the drug 


the coction 

[hole' suu] 

o deputado 

the deputy 

o liberal 

the liberal 


a offerta 

the offer 


to present 

cor de laranja 



1 a circular 
a dnimo 
j a oppressao 
1 emquanto 
\ o. por do sol 

the circular 
to set 
the mind 

the oppression 
to continue 
the setting (of 
the) sun. 

90. Exercicio. 

A viuva do sr. N. tern ac(c)eitado todas as pessoas que 
foram dar-lhe os p^zames pelo fallecimento do marido; foram 
todas ac(c)eitas. Eu tinha-me assentado num assento baixo e la 
fiquei assentada. Este muro esta bem assente. Na semana finda 
tem-se findado (better: findou-se) o prazo fixo para o concurso 
do emprego vago. Assim que tiver entregado a carta, ella estara 
entregue. sol tern enxugado bem a roupa; agora ella ja esta 
enxuta. chefe tinha expressado aos empregados a sua vontade 
expressa. Tambem tinha fixado o ordenado de todos e deter- 
minado os dias fixes em que seria pago. reu que foi suspeito e 
preso, como involto no crime, ficou absolvido ; absolveram-no os 
jurados; ja esta solto e salvo. A mae d'elle, a quern a desgraca do 
filho tinha affligido muito, ja nao esta afflicta, mas quieta. 
governo tinha suspend ido as garantias que por conseguinte 
estavam suspensas. E de admirar que nao tivessem distin- 
guido os recem-chegados, pois teem apparencia muito distincta. 
rapaz, com medo manifesto, tinha-se escondido n'um logar 
muito escuso. Para fazer esta droga tinhamos misturado varies 
ingredientes bem limpos que, depois de bem mistos, foram 
sujeitos a uma coccao cuidadosa. Viemos num comboio misto. 
Os olhos ja muito abertos, tinham-se-lhe abrida mais ainda. 

91. Tliema. 

Who has been elected deputy? A Liberal has been 
chosen. Had you already resolved to insert an advertisement 
on account of the vacant place? Yes, it has been already 
inserted, and I am resolved to accept the place if it is offered 
to me, for it is exempt from taxes. Enclosed I present you an 
open letter of Mr. N. N., which I opened at his express desire. 
In a printed circular he communicates that, his partner 
having died last month, the old firm is extinct, bat that he 
has resolved to continue the old business under a new name. 
See how beautifully the sun has dyed the clouds! Some 
are rose, others are yellow, those others orange- coloured 
or fire-coloured. The whole sky on (por) which they are dis- 

The Adverbs. 221 

persed is covered by them. Also the masts of the ships 
anchored in the harbour are gilded by the setting sun. Calm 
your minds! Those who were oppressed are safe and free 
from oppression, while the oppressors have been expelled. 

Thirty-third Lesson. Li$ao trigesima 

The Adverbs. Adverbios [s&'v&rbiuf] . 

240. The adverbs express the circumstances in 
which an action, a quality, or a state has occurred, and 
so determine either a verb, an adjective, or another 
adverb. We distinguish: 1. original adverbs; 2. derived 
adverbs; 3. those which in their form are equal to the 
adjective; 4. adverbial expressions. 

241. The original adverbs are divided into: 

1. Interrogative and Relative 

(interrogativos e relatives). 
These generally are the same when relating to place 
j or time: onde (d'onde, aonde), quando. Onde estd? Aonde 
\ vae? D'onde vem? No jardim, onde estive, aonde fui, 
d'onde vim . . . Quando veio? No dia quando veio . . . 

2. Adverbs of Place (de logar). 

These answer to the questions "where, whither, 
; whence?" onde? d'onde? aonde? por onde?: 

ij cd here abaixo, debaixo down, below 

y all, Idj acold there aguetn on this side 

dSj detrds behind alem on the other side 

adiante, deante before,, in front ; algures anywhere 

to the front nenhures nowhere 

dentro within ; inside perto \ 

, , ., > near 

fora outside cerca / 

\ up, above U "f far 

arnoa | embora away. 

3. Adverbs of Time (de tempo). 
These answer to the question "when?" quando? 
Hoje to-day antehontem the day before 

iontetn yesterday yesterday 

222 Lesson 33. 

amanlia to-morrow tarde late 

sempre always, ever entao then 

nunca, jamais never agdra, ora now 

depots afterwards logo presently, directly 

outr'dra formerly jd already, now, immediately 

primeiro before, first ainda still 

antes sooner, before amiudo, amiude often. 

cedo soon 

4. Adverbs of Manner (de maneira). 

These answer to the question u how?" como? 

Bern well antes rather 

mal badly sequer at least 

melhor better assim so, thus 

peor worse assim assim so so. 
aparte separately 

5. Adverbs of Quantity (de quantidade). 

These'answer to the question "how much?" quanta? 

Tao, tanto so, so (or as) much quasi almost, nearly 
muito much, very urn bocado de a little, some- 

(o) metis more, most what 

pouco little apenas hardly, scarcely 

(o) menos less, least quanto mais . . . tanto mais 

iSj demasiado too (much) the more . . . the more 

bastante \ , s6, somente only 

assaz I nada nothing. 

6. Adverbs of Affirmation (affirmatives) , of Negation 
(negatives), and of Doubt (de duvida). 

Sim yes nada not at all 

certamente certainly, to be sure jd nao \ 
ate even nao . . . jd } 

ainda moreover nunca never, ever 

alias else, moreover acaso perhaps 

realmente really, indeed gui$a \ pernaps 

nao no, not, neither talvez | * 

nem not even; nor; neither 

242. Derived Adverbs. 

These adverbs are formed by adding the syllable 
-mente to the feminine form of the attributive adjective 
(in the positive degree as well as in that of the absolute 
superlative) or to that of the past participle of the pas- 

The Adverbs. 223 

sive voice, employed as an adjective: justamcnte justly, 
exactly, at that very moment; devidamente duly; assi- 
(jnaladamente remarkably; riquissimamente most richly, 
etc. In some adjectives ending in -es (formerly having 
been uniform), the adverb is composed with the mascu- 
line form: portuguesmente in a Portuguese manner. 

N.B. It is understood that uniform adjectives add the 
ending -mente to their form common to both genders: feliz- 
mente happily. 

243. Of two or more adverbs following one 
another, only the last adds the ending -mente, while 
the preceding take only the feminine form : darei franca, 
sincera e lealmente o meu voto. I shall give my vote 
frankly, sincerely, and truly. 

244. The derived adverb is as subject to com- 
parison as the adjective, being governed by the same 
rules : Fiquei ainda mais agradavelmente surpre(h)endido. 
I was still more agreably surprised. 

245. As already stated, the Portuguese prefer, 
wherever possible, the simple form to the complicated. 
They like to employ the adjective instead of the derived 
adverb or the adverbial locution. The adjective so 
employed is put with or without a preposition imme- 
diately behind the verb and is called: 

Adjective apposto ou circumstancial. 

tempo passa rdpido (instead of com rapidez or ra- 

povo escuta dvido (instead of com avidez or avidamente). 
pulso batia desordenado (instead of em desordem or 

desordenadamente) . 
Saltou de contente (instead of de contentamento). 

Quando se respira fundo, o ar enche completamente os 

When you breathe deeply, the air completely fills the 


In some locutions the use of the adjective instead 
the adverb is obligatory; e.g. : 
Falar alto, baixo to speak loud, low 
voar alto (baixo) to % high, deep 

224 Lesson 33. 

andar direito to go upright or straight on ; to act 


ir direito a to go straight on 
ir seguro to go or be safe 
ir or andar ligeiro to go quickly 
vender caro to sell dear 
comprar barato to buy cheap 
levar caro to charge (too) much 
custar caro to be expensive. 

246. Remarks to 241. 

1. The comparative of bem is melhor or mais bem; 
the one of mat is peor or mais mal. The latter form 
is used before a participle: mais bem feito; menos mal 

2. After antes (== rather) "than" can be ren- 
dered by que or do que: Antes quero isto (do) que 

3. Certain adverbs correspond, with respect to their 
origin or meaning, to certain pronouns e.g.: 

aquij cd corresponding to the demonstrative este 
ahi esse 

alli,Uj acold aquelle. 

Such adverbs are therefore denominated adverbios 
pronominaes and divided into: 

(a) demonstratives : aqui, ahi, ali, acold, entao, tao, 
tanto ; 

(b) relativos: onde, d'onde; 

(c) interrogativos: onde? quando? como? quao? 

(d) indefinidos: algures, nenhures. 

4. Tao and qudo correspond to tanto and quanto 
(see Pronouns), with the difference that the former 
determine adjectives and other adverbs, while the latter 
only modify verbs. 

N.B. Instead of quao you may in most cases 
put que. 

Falou tao alto que . . . Falou tanto que . . . Era tao rico 

que . . . 

Era tao amante da verdade que nem zombando (not even 
in joke) mentia. 

The Adverbs. 


Ndo faz ideia qitao (or que) bella e a vista e qudo (or que) 
sagazmente aproveitada! (and how cleverly taken ad- 
vantage of). 

Elle bem sabia quanta eu o estimava. 
>eside the true adverbs, there are a great many 
adverbial locutions (locucoes adverbiaes), formed out of 
several words one of which generally is a preposition e.g. : 

A custo hardly, with diffi- 


de continue* continually 
por ventura happily, by chance 
d mao (de) at hand 
por dentro inwardly 
por fora inwardly 
do mesmo modo in the same 


de outro modo \ otherwise 
de outra forma } 
de certo, por certo certainly 
de mddo algum by no means 
ao certo exactly 
d uma altogether 
n'um pronto in an instant 
por alto superficially 
de alto a baixo from top to 


longe d'isso by far 
de contente \ 
de alegria } 



the peach 

de fame with hunger 
de cor by heart 

de balde \ , 

> vainly 
em vao } 

de vagar slowly 

por acaso by chance 

de proposito intentionally, on 


a proposito de with regard to 
a saber namely 
as aoessas oppositely 
de bom grado willingly 
de mao grado unwillingly 
mao grado meu against my 


d toa at random 
por acaso by chance 
alem d'isso moreover 
ao de leve slightly 
d pressa, de fugida hastily, 


em media on an average. 

menear a cabe$a to shake one's 

o lavrador 

the country- 




man [igi 'yozuj 


to be enchanted o cdlculo 

the calculation 

r TI * ~i 

[ytv z^arsdj 




to part with 




to guard 

[llui 'ad'u] 




o caroc.0 

the stone 


[ku 'rosu] 

etl>ereo [i'tenuj 


tocar (dig. c.) a 

to fall to one's 


to subsist 





to interrupt 

o assento 

the seat 

guloso [gu'lozu] 

greedy [TB 'sentuj 


to snatch up | merecer 

to merit, be 


fm^rd 'serj 


Portuguese Conversation-Grammar. 



Lesson 33. 

o mano ['menu] brother 
o remedio the remedy 

a memoria the memory 

a mdgua 
a chaga ['fagu] 
a desfeita 
o osculo 
[trui dor] 

the grief, pang 
to shorten 

the wound 
the offence 

the kiss 

o atlas ['atlefj 

the atlas 


to taste ; to try 

Ipru 'varj 


talhar [tie fiar] 

to cut 




to discolour, 




to be quite 

[ibugbu 'karj 

taken aback 

o solsticio 

the solstice 


revezar-se \ 

to relieve one 

[rrdV9 r zars3]\ 

another, to 

olternar-se 1 

do ... by 



87. Exercicio. 1 
Os Pessegos. 

Um lavrador que tinha quatro filhos trouxe-lhes urn dia 
cinco pessegos magnificos. Os pequenos, que nunca tinham visto 
semelhantes fructos, extasiaram-se bastante deante das suas cores 
e da fina pennugem que os cobria. A' noite o pae perguntou- 
Ihes: -- Entdo comestes os pessegos? 

- Eu comi, sim, senhor disse o mais velho. Que 
bom que era! Guardei cd o car690. e hei-de planta-lo logo, 
para depois nascer uma arvore. 

- Fizeste bem! respondeu o pae satisfeito. 

- Eu -- disse o mais novo, saltando de contente - 
men pessego comi-o logo; e a mae ainda me deu metade do 
que Ihe tocou a ella. Era doce como mel! 


acudiu o 


censurando-o brandamente - 

foste urn bocadinho guloso, mas na tua edada ndo admira. 
Espero sinceramente que, quando fores homem, te has-de corrigir. 
- Pois eu cd disse o terceiro apanhei prontamente 
o caro^o que o meu irmao deitou fora, quebrei-o a, custo e 
comi o que estava dentro, que era como uma noz. Vendi o 
meu pessego, e com o dinheiro hei de comprar coisas mais tarde 
quando for a cidade. pae meneou a cabe9a, descontente: 

Pensaste engenhosamente, mas eu preferia menos cal- 
culo e que tivesses obrado de outro modo. Dize-me cd tu, 
Eduardo, acaso provaste o teu pessego? 

Eu, meu pae, -- respondeu enleiado o pequeno, - 
levei-o a casa do visinho onde o Jorge, coitado, esta com a 
febre. Deixei-lh'o em cima da cama e vim-me embora imme- 

1 State to which class of adverbs belong those printed in 
italics in the Exercicio 87. 

The Adverbs. 227 

- Or a Item -- perguntou o pae -- qual de vos e que 
empregou melhor o pessego? 

- Foi o mano Eduardo! disseram os tres pequenos d 
uma e num pronto. Esse, entretanto, nao dizia palavra, e a 
mae abracou-o enternecida. (After Guerra Junqueiro.) 

88. Leitura. 


Alma minha gentil, que te partiste 
Tao cedo d'esta vida descontente, 
Repousa la no ceo eternamente, 
E viva eu ca na terra sempre triste. 

Se la no assento ethereo, onde subsiste, 
Memoria d'esta vida se consente, 
Nao te d'aquelle amor ardente, 
Que ja nos olhos meus tao puro viste. 

E se vires que pode merecer-te 
Alguma coisa a dor que me ficou 
Da magua, sem remedio, de perder-te, 

Roga a. Deus que teus annos encurtou, 

Que tao cedo de ca me leve a ver-te, 

Quao cedo de meus olhos te levou. (Canutes.) 

Antes a pobreza honrada 
Do que a riqueza roubada. 

Antes a chaga feita Que a desfeita 

For amor, De uni osculo traidor. 

(Joao de Deus.) 
89. Thcma. 

Where can my atlas be? Have you perhaps seen it? 
;No, I have not; if you had duly laid it on its place, you 
would find it there. But look, there it is! Not there where you 
;look for it, but there, near the window. - When did the 
lilor bring my coat? Yesterday afternoon about four o'clock, 
[e went hurriedly away, saying that he would come here to-day 
to-morrow, to try it on you. The coat seems to be some- 
rhat wide. Not only somewhat but very wide, nearly too 
ride; but it is most carefully sewn and well cut. How do 
like the colour? So so; perhaps it might have been a 
little darker. I do not like dark colours much ; and, moreover, 
this colour does not fade so much as another darker. Was 
ie cloth very expensive ? Good cloth is never bought cheap. 
The better it is, the dearer it is sold. And also the tailor 
isks rather a high price. By (tr. : com) his bills I have been 
'ometimes quite taken aback. 


228 Lesson 34. 


Onde nasce o sol e onde se poe? 

A que horas se levanta o sol nos dias de solsticio? 

Quando temos o dia mais cumprido e a noite mais 


Donde vem que ha varias estates ? 
Porque e que se revezam o dia e a noite? 
Como se move uma locomotiva? um navio de vela? um 

autoraovel etc.? 
Onde desemboca o rio Tejo ? o rio Douro ? o rio Mon- 

dego? o Guadiana? 
Acaso me sabe dizer onde e a esta9ao do caminho de 

Quanto tempo leva ate la? 

Thirty-fourth Lesson, Licjao trigesima 

The Conjunctions. As Conjunc$oes [Itd^u styf] . 

247. The conjunction joins sentences or por- 
tions of sentences, and is invariable e.g.: Desejo, mas 
temo I desire, but fear. Here mas is a conjunction 
which joins the two predicates desejo and temo, opposing 
one to the other. If we say : desejo e o temor inquie- 
tani-mc, the conjunction e joins desejo and temor, subjects 
of the same predicate. 

248. A conjunction not only joins sentences 
or parts of them, but it brings them into a certain 
relation, making the one dependent on the other ac- 
cording to their tenor. Therefore we distinguish: 

1. According to their signification two great classes 
of conjunctions : the co-ordinates (coordinativas) and the 
subordinates (subordinativas). 

2. According to their form we distinguish simple 
(simples) and compound conjunctions (locugoes conjunc- 

249. The co-ordinate conjunctions only join sen- 
tences, etc. There are: 

(a) copulative (copidativas c continuativas) ; 

(b) explicative (explicativas) ; 

The Conjunctions. 229 

disjunctive (disjuncMvas) ; 

(d) adversative (adversativas) ; 

(e) conclusive (condusivas) ; 

(f) comparative (comparativas); 

(g) correlative (correlativas). 

250. The subordinate conjunctions join sen- 
tences, etc., making them dependent on one another. 
There are: 

(a) conditional (condicionaes) ; 

(b) causative (causaes); 

(c) final (finaes); 

(d) concessive (concessivas) ; 

(e) temporal (rirciimstanciaes do tempo); 

(f) integral and dubitative (integr antes e dubita- 

251. Summary of the Conjunctions. 

Remark. Those marked with * require the verb of the clause 
in the subjunctive mood; those marked with (*) may be followed 
; by the subjunctive or indicative, according to the certainty or un- 
certainty expressed by the sentence. Those compounded with de 
are followed by the infinitive. 

A. Coordenativas. 

(a) Copulativas. 

Conjunccoes simplex. Locngoes equivalentes. 

[E and bem assim yet 

ntto so(mente) . . . mas tambem 

not only . . . but also 
nem sequer not even 
tampouco no more, as little 
nao . . . mas sim not . . . but 

on the contrary 
tanto . . . como as well as; both 

. . . and 

assim como as also 
alem de besides 
jd (que) . . . jd (que) since; 

as soon as; now . . . now. 

em or na verdade indeed 
com effeito indeed; really 
alem d'isso besides, moreover 
alem de que or do que except or 
save that 

B, <le mais a mais moreover. 



well, why 
now, yet; why 
trosim also, likewise, moreover. 

230 Lesson 34. 

(b) Explicalivas. 

Como as. assim como } 

hem como } as wel1 a3 
*como se as if 

(*}de (tal) sorte que \ in a way 
(*)de maneira que \ that; 
(*}de modo (or geito) so as 

<?ue to 

*c0wo guer <jwe however 

(c) Disjunctivas. 

OM or. (*}ou . . . ote or ... or 

nem . . . nem neither . . . nor 
ora . . . ora now . . . now 
*quer . . . quer whether ... or. 

(d) Adversativas. 

Mas but apesar de in spite of 

porem yet comtudo yet, however 

todavia however. nao obstante notwithstanding 

sem embargo de } 
ainda assim \ nevertheless 
(*]antes rather 
no entanto however 
senao otherwise ; but 
quanta a with regard to. 

(e) Conclusivas. 

Logo \ so, therefore, con- por conseguinte } 

pois \ sequently. por consequencia } c 

por isso, por tanto accordingly 
por onde, peh que wherefore 
(*}assim que } ,,, 

(*}de maneira que ) s 
(*}com que wherewith. 

(f) Comparativas. 

Mais (do) que more than '''antes que } ^ 

mcnos (do} que less than *primeiro (que) \ 

como as 

(gr) Correlativas. 

axsim . . . como such as assim como . . . assim (tambem) 

tao . . . que so that such as ... so also 

quanto . . . tanto the (more) . . . 
the (more) 

qual . . . tal like . . . like 

co mo se as if 

(*)tal . . . que so that, etc. 

The Conjunctions. 



B. Subordinativas. 
(a) Condicionaes. 

*cor tanto que 

*caso or caso que if, in case 

*dado caso que of 


*sem que without, except 

*a nao ser que 

a menos de if not, unless, 

*a menos que saving 

salvo se 

(*)uma vez que if ever. 

(b) and (c) Causaes e flnaes. 

Porque, que because Jd que 

(*)como as pois que 

pois because, as. por quanta que 

visto como 

(*}visto que 
sendo que 

as, considering 

*Embora though 

Como } 
quando j 


para que nao lest 

por isso que by reason of, on 

account of 
pelo muito que for (the sake of). 

(d) Concessivas. 

(*)ainda que even if, though, 

*comquanto que j 
*se bem que \ though 

*pois (que) 

(*)posto que ] supposed 

*supposto que \ or provided 
*dado or caso que J that 
por mais (or muito) que however 

como quer que (seja) however 

(it be). 

(e) Circumstanciaes de tempo. 

(*)tanto que inasmuch as, so far 

(*)logo que \ 

(*)assim que \ 

(*}antes que \ , f 

(*)primeiro que J C 

desde que since 

(*~)depois que after 

ao passo que 

(*)emquanto (que) 

as soon as 


232 Lesson 34. 

(*}ate que until 

em (with the Gerund.) in, while 
(*}sempre que whenever 
(*)todas as vezes que any time 

(f) Integrantes e duMtativas. 

(*)Que that, if *se porventuar \ - f , 

ifw w>iPtJir *** C/. lf Perhaps. 

if, whether 
*se if 
*quando when 

252. Remarks: 

(a) A great many of the conjunctions are simply 
adverbs, nouns, or adjectives with prepositions: 

(b) By the preposition a and the infinitive you 
may supply conditional conjunctions. 

A ndo haver que fazer i.e., se ndo houver or caso ndo 
haja que fazer. 

(c) Se, introducing a condition or supposition, is 
generally followed by the subjunctive (future); employed 
in an indirect question, by the indicative; if in any 
other indirect speech, it may be followed by the sub- 
junctive or the indicative, according to the certainty or 
uncertainty it expresses e.g. : 

Se fizer bom tempo if it be good weather. 

Perguntei se fazla bom tempo. 

I asked if the weather was good. 

Vet ver (QIC diz-me), se faz bom tempo. 

See (or tell me) if the weather is good. 

Ndo sei se faz (or faga) bom tempo. 

I don't know whether the weather is (or be) good. 

(d) The conjunction que most commonly introduces 
a dependent substantive clause (which may be also 
elliptical), as: 

Creio que tern razao I believe you are right. 
Creio que ndo I think not. 
Creio que sim I think so. 

In English the conjunction "that" is frequently 
understood, whereas que is not only always expressed 

The Conjunctions. 


'ortuguese, but repeated before each clause of the 
sentence, as: 

t.'rdo que teni razdo e que sera bem succedido. 

RI think you are right and (that you) will succeed. 
(e) When a conjunction governs several verbs, it 
laced before the first verb only, and que may be 
used instead before the other verbs. This is especially 
the case with the conjunctions compounded with que. Ex. : 

Se for (or caso seja) applicado e (que) tenha intelligencia. 

it he is (or be) diligent 

and has intelligence. 


Esfalfado exhausted 

i o comedo the beginning 


[Jcu 'mesu] 

nudavel changeable 

\ a doQura the softness 



trescindir to prescind, 

! meigo ['mviciu] soft, tender 

[pnfsm'dir] to extract 

presenter to feel, anti- 

' carvao de the coal 

[prdsen'tirj cipate 

i pedra 

o ninho ['niyu] the nest 

i conibustivel full 

> chocar [fu"kar] to breed 

[kombuf tivetj 

educar [i&u 'Jcar] to bring up 

gaz [gaf] the gas 

o macho the male 

otctvel potable, 
[pu'tavil] drinkable 

afemeat'femtu] the female 

,-esprezar to despise 



[iftrd'mozu] loving, fond, 

tperior superior 

amoroso tender 

nova [now] the news 


" (name) the packet boat 

animar to animate 


[vni 'mar] 

acaso the accident, 

o sentido the sentiment 


[sen 'ti&u] 

\nformar-se to comply with 

rasteiro low 

com alg. c. 


sta-me I find difficult 

o piso [pizu] the ground 

or hard 

estar irado to be angry 

madador the swimmer 

contre alg. with someone 

[wedu '(for] 

sorihar [su'yar] to dream 

tuientiroso the liar 

mogoar to hurt 



t a pique [pik] to sink 

o candrio the canary- 

(andorinha the swallow 

[kv 'nariu] bird 

r vndu 'riyv] 
anestico tame, domestic 

o melro [' mslru] the blackbird 
passar por to be considered 

r du 'meftiku] 

esperto clever, sly 

C'duir to conclude 


f^itry fe'fo'itu] hardy 

o yrito the warbling 


Lesson 34. 

o chamariz 
a delicia 

the bird-call 
the delight 


savage, wild 

o cantador 
pobre f'pobri/ 

the singer 

j o fregues 

the customer 

o moQO [ mosuj the waiter 
fluminense of Rio de 

[flumi'nenss] Janeiro 
a revista the review 


o trdco ['trokuj the change, ex- 

90. Exercicio. 

cavallo correu tan to que ficou esfalfado. A belleza e 
a riqueza sao mudaveis. homem nao p6de prescindir nem 
do alimento nem da roupa. Nao so esta, mas tambem aquelle 
sao-lhe precisos. carvao de pedra emprega-se como com- 
bustivel, com elle tambem se prepara o gaz. A agua do mar 
nao e" potavel ; nem ella pode empregar-se na cozinha. ho- 
mem nao deve ter demasiado cuidado no seu exterior; tam- 
pouco elle deve despreza-lo. Londres e maior do que Lisboa: 
comtudo esta cidade esta numa posicao superior. Assim (que) 
eu me veja em porto seguro, podes estar certo que hei de dar- 
te novas minhas; emquanto porem estiver em viagem, nao 
havera occasiao, a nao ser que se encontre um navio (paquete). 
Como nao se pode contar com este acaso, melhor e que nao 
contes com noticias, por mais que eu desejasse mandar-t'as para 
que te nao afflijas. Pec,o que te conformes com isso, posto que te 
custe. nadador e o mentiroso, se abrirem muitas vezes a boca, 
ir-se-hao a pique. 

91. Leitnra. 

A andorinha. 

A andorinha e essencialmente dom^stica: nao vive senao 
(or a nao ser) ao pe do homem. Onde virmos uma andorinha, 
podemos concluir, sem que haja receio de errarmos, que nas 
visinhancas ha habitacoes. E ella a toda a hora entra afoita- 
mente nas habitacoes, como se ella propria fosse da familia. 
Todavia, a andorinha passa metade do anno longe de nos, 
na Africa d'onde vem no comeco da primavera, procurando a 
meiga doQura do nosso clima, e para onde se retira no comego 
do outono ; logo que presente os primeiros frios. A mesma 
andorinha volta ordinariamente aos mesmos logares, e ate ao 
mesmo ninho ; mas se o local Ih'o consente r faz um ninho novo 
ao pe e por cima do anterior, e ahi vive com o seu compa- 
nheiro pacifica e amorosamente : ella, a chocar os ovos, em- 
quanto elle occupa e protege a entrada do ninho. Macho e 
femea sao extremosissimos pelos filhos e educam-nos maravilho- 
samente: emquanto pequeninos nao cessam de Ihes trazer de 
comer. Depois dao-lhes as suas licoes de voo; e nao someute 

The Conjunctions. 


os ensinam a voar, mas ainda os animam n 'esses exercicios 
quer com tilo expressivos gorgeios que o sentido d'estes quasi 
se adivinha; quer voando elles proprios (ou) adeante dos filhos 
ou ao lado, para que Ihes possam acudir quando for precise. - 
As andorinhas vivem dos insectos ; e como estes ora voam mais 
alto, ora mais baixo, segundo faz mais ou menos calor, acon- 
tece que a andorinha os persegue em voos rasteiros, sobre as 
folhas, sobre as hervas, e ate" no piso das ruas. 

(After Trinde Coelho : 2 Livro de Leitura). 

92. Thema. 

I forbid it him, nevertheless he went. Though he said 

nothing, I well felt that he was angry with me, since I 

had blamed him. I shall go, whether it rain or be good 

weather. You do not know, you don't even dream how you 

are hurting me. A canary-bird if treated as it ought to be, can 

live for twenty years. The blackbird is generally considered 

i very clever, but it is not so much (or: less) so as it seems. 

Moreover, it makes its nest very often near to man and 

| is lured (atrair) by the bird-call, though this be only a poor 

instrument. As all of us know already the warbling of the 

r blackbird, we can declare that it is a delight. Yet it is not 

i on account of its wild song that the blackbird merits the 

, reputation which it has as a singer ; but. rather on account of 

i that which it learns after being taken, be it by "learning by 

heart what it is taught or what it hears of the elder birds, 

or by imitating all it hears, consequently also the sounds 

of instruments and the voice of persons. 


N'um cafe. 

Fregues: 6 sr. Manuel, faz o favor d'uma chavena 

de cafe e os jornaes d'hoje? 
Moco: Pronto, senhor! Eis o Commercio doPorto, 

o Fluminense l , o Diario Illustrado ; 

tambem deseja alguma revista? 
Fregues: Queria. Ha a portugu6sa e a 

Revista de Bem? 
Mo 90: Ha, sim, senhor. Tambem 0s Seroes* 8 , o 

Bran co e Preto e outras. 

1 Fluminense is the adjective formed of Rio de Janeiro, 
Fluminense is a newspaper published there. 

2 uSerdes*, pi. of serdo = evening-party. Os Seroes, Branco 
Preto and Illustra$ao portugnesa are illustrated reviews. 


Lesson 35. 

Fregues: Bern, traga-m'as. E olhe que hei de querer 
mais assucar! 

Moco: Quanto V a Ex a quizer, sr. doutor. Manda 
mais alguma coisa? 

Fregues: Sim. Depois deter percorrido estes jornaes, 
queria escrever alguns bilhetes postaes. 
Tem-nos illustrados? 

MOQO: Tenho. Eil-os. Queira V a Ex a escolher. 

Fregues: Esta bem. E estampilhas? Como teem des- 
tine para o estrangeiro, cada urn precisa 
d'uma a vint^m ou de duas a dez reis. 
Aqui tern dois tostoes. 

Mo 90: Nao tenho troco ; vou trocal-os la dentro. 

Fr eg tie's: Deixe estar, que estao em boas maos. 

Mo 90: Muito obrigado a V a Ex a . 

Thirty-fifth Lesson. Li<jao trigesima 

Interjections. Interjeigoes [inUr^'stif]. 


253. Interjections are cries or exclamations 
which express sudden emotions. They are invariable 
and mostly short. The most common are: 

bravo! bravo! very well! 
bis! once more! 
cdspite! the deuce 
catrapuz ! bounce ! dash ! 


6! oh! (used as a vocative) 
coitado! coitadinho! poor man 

(dear darling)! 
silendo! silence! 
psch! schiu! hush! 
diabo! \ the deuce! 
diacho! / zounds! 
apre! hang it! confound it! 
arrel gee-ho! ho! 
xo! shue! 

Ah! Ah! 

oh! oh! oh! bless me! 
hui! ai l ! oh, dear! alas! 
ih! lo! 

fora! begone! hence! 
come out! (for actors) 


! zounds ! for shame ! It's 

too much! 

oxald! would to God! 
old, hold! holla! halloo! 
ole, ole! zounds! 
zas! slap! crack! 
basta! enough! stop! 

will do! 

eia! sus! ammo! cheer up! 
viva! Long live! hurrah! hail! 


1 Ai de mim poor me! at de TOS (d'elles)! woe unto you 




254. Besides these there are several interjections 
which (as already the two last do) express a call for 
animals e.g.: big-biz! 1 pussy, pussy! to call cats; ff! 
to incite cats; ks! to incite dogs. There are also a 
series of imitation-sounds, as: trus! trus! tap! knock! 
rap! rat-tat-tat!; toe! toe! tramp! tramp!; ttim-lim; tlim- 
tlom! ting! ting-tang! ding-dong! clatter!; tique-taque 

255. Finally, other particles, especially verbs in 
the imperative mood, are used as interjections. 


pois! what next? 

Andal go on! 
anda cd! come here! 
da cd! give hither! 
to ma Id! take this! 
escuta! hark! 
\ouve cd! listen to me! 
some-te! vae-te ! begone ! away ! 
\ama-te! be quick! 
Vamos! let us go on (or 

(away) ! ^ 

gira! go on! move! 
par a ahi! stop! 
\pudera! to be sure! I say! 

wouldn't it suit (him)! 
vois nao! certainly! why not? 

isn't it? 

oois entao! you see! 
^luem (me) dera! that would 

suit me to ,a marvel! 
\ii Jesus! Senhor! Jesus 
' Senhor! mercy on us! Good 

Heavens ! 
ideus! farewell! good-bye! 

good morning (or day)! 

cautela! agua vae z ! take cara 

or heed! 

aqui d'el-rei 3 / Acudam ! \ , , . 
6 da guarda! f n ' 

por quern e! I pray! 
por amor de Deus! for God's 

Deus me livre! God forbid! 

Oh, no! 
valha-me Deus ! Oh Lord ! bless 

Amen Jesus 4 / Amen ! 

thank Heaven! 
por Deus! egad! by Jove! 
se Deus quizer! (if it) please 

God! Deo volente! 
seja o que Deus quizer! as 

God will 
Deus guarde a V a Ex a B ! 

God be with you! 
sabe Deus! God knows! 

Remark. Every interjection expresses a whole sentence 
r even several sentences. Thus ail means "how painful it is!" 

1 Biz biz, a quickly repeated "bicho, bicho!" 

2 Agua vae!, literally "water is going," a traditional warn- 
ig for passers-by, survived from former times, when things were 
ung out of the windows. 

8 Aqui d'el-rei, elliptic al for "acuda aqui a genie d'el-rei!" 

* Amen, Jesus, popular for Amen. 

5 Final form in official letters or documents. 


Lesson 35. 

or "how unfortunate I am!" So the interjection differs by 
its nature, which is synthetic, from all other particles, these 
being essentially analytic. 


theatro lyrico the opera 

atar to tie 

a enchente the fulness 

o palco ['paikuj the stage 
rugir [rru'$ir] to roar 


a procella the storm, 

desmaiar to faint, swoon ! 

[pru' sslis] hurricane 


o sino ['sinuj the bell 

o scenario the scenery 

os sinos a defun- the tolling- 


tos[dd'funtuf] bells 

aprimeira dama the prima 

bemdito deceased 


[bvi 'dituj 

bisar to repeat 
sisudo [si'zuftu] judicious 

guiar [gi'ar] to lead, guide 
o jumento the ass 

impor to impose 


o baritono the baritone- 

a reboque in tow 

/& 'ritunuj singer 


o baixo the bass-singer 

o cocheiro the coachman 

as palmas the applause 


levar palmas to be applaud- ! 

obedecer to obey 


doer to ache, hurt 

ww sem numero innumerable 

tocar as to chime the 

de (vezes) (times) 

trindades Angelus 

a corda the garland 

[trln 'dad~if] 

a festa artistica the benefit 

o toque ftolcj das the chimes of 

a pomba the pigeon, 

trindades the Angelus. 

dove | 

93. Exercicio. 

No theatro. 

Hontem no theatro lyrico foi tal a enchente que algumas 
senhoras, coitadas, desmaiavam. Mas oh, se visse aquillo! 
Ai, que lindo scenario! E os artistas? A esses levantavam-se 
muitos vivas, e os espectadores gritavam bravo! e bis! a 
nao poderem mais (till they could not any more). A primeira 
dama teve de bisar uma aria ole, ole ! e depois tornaram a 
romper os vivas e os bis, para obriga-la a repetir segunda 
vez. Mas entao o piiblico mais sisudo fez psch! e schiu!, 
para impor silencio. Tambem o baritono e o baixo levaram 
muitas palmas e foram pedidos fora urn sem numero de 
vezes, at alguns gritaram basta! Mas, caspite, que bellas 
vozes! Atiraram-lhes muitas flores e coroas, visto que tiveram 
a sua festa artistica, e ate soltaram pombas, as quaes, atadas 
a duas e dnas zas! -- foram cair no palco. 

Interjections. 239 

94. Leitnra. 

E em Novembro, rugem procellas . . . 
Deus nos acuda, nos livre d'ellas! 

Ai, que ditosos os lavradores ! 

Sinos a defuntos! ai, quern morreria! 

Viverao sempre na eterna luz, 
Pobres bemditos, amen, Jesus! . . . 

Pela estrada plan a, toe, toe, toe, 
Guia o jumentinho uma velhinha errante, 
Como vao ligeiros, ambos a reboque, 
Antes que anoitece, toe, toe, toe, 
A velhinha atras, o jumentito adiante ! . . . 
Toe, toe, toe, lindo burriquito, 
Para as minhas filhas quern m'o dera a mim! 
(Guerra Junqueiro.) 

95. Thema. 
Na rua. 

Take care! Come here! Be quick! Don't you see that 
a carriage is eoming along? Lord, bless me! Take heed not 
to fall (Olha, se caes !) Oh, coachman, stop ! The coachman 
calls to the horses: "Gee-ho! ho!" and then "Shue!" But they 
do not obey him. Help! help! There they (tr.: eil-os que) 
stand, thank God! But you have fallen (pret.), poor darling! 
Are you hurt? No, thank Heaven! Give hither your little 
hand! Let us go on! Cheer up! Zounds, what a fright! 
Nothing hurts you, does it? Hark! Do you hear the bells? 
Ding-dong! They chime the Angelus (or: it is the chimes of 
the Angelus). Listen ! Come, say an Ave-Maria ! Well ! Amen ! 


Second Part, 

First Division: Flection. 

First Lesson. 

The Gender of the Portuguese Nouns. 

(Cf. 2nd Lesson of Part. I.) 

1. The gender of the noun may be recognised 
by its meaning or by its ending or by both. By 
their meaning are 

(a) Masculine. 1 . The denominations of male 
persons and their professions: Jose, o rapaz, ojar- 
dineiro, o doutor^ o monarcha, o patriarcha, etc. 

2. The cardinal points, the winds, the seasons, 
the months and those days as are not indicated by 
"feira": o leste or este (also: nascente, oriente, levante 1 ), 
o oeste (also: poente or Occidents), o norte (also: se(p)- 
tentriao, o sul; o verao or estio, o outo(m)no, o inverno; 
o Janeiro, o fevereiro, etc.; o sdbbado, o domingo (but a 
segunda feira, etc.). 

Exc.: a primavera Spring. 

3. Mountains, capes, rivers and seas: o Etna, 
o Gerez, o Cdbo da Roca; o Mondego, o Lima, o G-ua- 
diana, o (oceano) Atlantico, o (mar) Bdltico. 

1 The names of the cardinal points (with the exceptions of 
those in parenthesis) indicate also the winds blowing from there 
e.g. : o norte or septentriao (poetical name) is employed for north 
and north -wind. Another denomination for north-wind (rarely 
for north) is a tramontand. Feminine are also a brisa the breeze. 
a araffem, a veraqao gentle breeze. 

The Gender of the Portuguese Nouns. 241 

N.B.H the name of mountains is preceded by serra, 
the article, etc., concords with this noun: a serra da Estrella, 
a serra do Gerez. 

4. Metals: o ouro, o ferro, o cobre, o zinco, etc. 
Exc. : a prata, a platina, a lata or folha de Flandres 


5. Characters and notes: o A, o B, o L, dois cc; 
o do, o re. 

6. Many names of trees and shrubs: o carvalho, 
o freixo, o salgueiro, o sobreiro, o tremoceiro. N.B. Fruit- 
trees are generally feminine: a pereira (pear-tree). 

7. Those words (adjectives, infinitives, participles) 
converted into a substantive: o bello, o falar, o sim. 

N.B. If by an adjective so employed a female person 
is indicated, it is naturally preceded by the feminine article: 
a bella, a velha. 

(b) Feminine. 1. The denominations of female 
persons and their professions: Maria, amae; aleiteira, 
a autora. 

Exc.: o mulherao the strong and stout woman. 

2. Continents, and generally towns, countries, 
provinces and isles, especially those ending in a: 
a Africa, Lisboa, Londres, a Dinamarca; a Beira, 
a Guine; a Isldndia; however: o Brasil, Portugal (mas- 
culine, but without article), o Trds-os-Montes , o Sao 
Thome, o Porto, o Funeral, o Eio de Janeiro, Paris m. 

3. Arts, sciences, professions, moral qualities and 
abstract nouns: a musica, a historia, a olaria (pottery), 
a esperanca, a fe, a moralidade, a discregao. 

Exc.: o amor Love, o vicio Vice. 

2. To indicate the natural sex in persons and 
animals, the Portuguese language has either a different 
expression or a different ending (cf. 3 of this Lesson 
and L. 2 of the 1 st Part.). 

Masculine. Feminine. 

rapaz the boy A rapariga the girl, maid 

o homem the man a mulher the woman 

o pae the father a mde the mother 

o padrasto the stepfather a madraste the stepmother 

Portuguese Conversation-Grammar. 16 

242 Lesson 1. 

o padrinho \ ,, ^ f ,, a madrinha \ ,, 

o corner* / the g dfather a ^arfre } <* godmother 

o m the king a rainha the queen 

o dom = a title of nobility, a dona = title bestowed upon 

employed before the Christ- any lady and followed by 

ian name the Christian name. 

o genro the son-in-law a nora the daughter-in-law 

o frade the monk a freira the nun 

o didcono the deacon a diaconisa the deaconess 

o avo the grandfather a avo the grandmother 

o tsar or cear the czar a tsarina the czarina 

o gallo the cock a gallinlia the hen 

o cavallo the horse a egua the mare 

o carneiro the ram, mutton a ovelha the sheep 

o bode the buck- goat a cobra the goat 

the dwarl a ana the female dwarf. 

3. By their ending are: 

(a) Masculine. 1. Those nouns ending in un- 
accented -o or in any accented vowel e.g. tio, dedo, 
alvard (charta), cafe, aleli (gillyflower), javali (wild 
boar), do (pain), no (knot), avo. 

Exc. : a pa (shovel), a chamine, a fe, a gale (galley), 
a libre, a mare (tide), a pole (pulley), a rale, a re (the 
female prisoner or defendant, but o re the D [musical 
note]), a se; a avo, a enxo (adz[ej). 

2. Those nouns ending in -en, -em (exc. those in 
-gem], -im, -om, -urn, -do (cf. b, 3): o germen, o bem, o 
armasem, o setim, o som, o atuni, o orgdo. 

Exc.: a ordem the order. 

3. Those nouns ending in -ae (-ai), -ao (au), -co 
(-eu), eo (eu), -oe, -oi e.g.: pae (pai), pdo (patt), ceo 
(ceu), breo (breu), heroe (heroi), boi. 

Exc.: a ndo (ndu) the ship. 

4. Those in -al, -el, -il, -ol, -ul: o areal, o annel, 
o funil, o paiol, o paul (swamp), o consul. 

Exc.: a cal the chalk, a vogal the vowel, as well 
as cathedral and credencial, which properly are ad- 
jectives, to be supplied by se and carta. 

5. Those in -ar, -er (-er), -ir, -or, -ur: o altar, o 
talker, o prazer, o elixir, o senhor, o andor (beer for 
saints), catur (little Indian man-of-war). 

The Gender of the Portuguese Nouns. 243 

Exc.: a beira-mar (properly: a beira do mar the 
shore), a collier (spoon), a cor, a dor, a flor. 

6. Those in -az, -bz, -02, -us, -uz: o cabas (basket 
of twigs), o algbz (hangman), o arrbz, o jus (jus, law), 
o capuz (hood), o abestruz (ostrich). 

Exc. : a pas (peace), a tenas (tongs), a foz (mouth 
of a river), a noz (nut), a vog (voice), a cruz (cross), a 
luz (light). 

Remark L Are masculine also those nouns in -os, em- 
ployed only in the plural: os bredos (notch-weed, s pin age) ; 
os brocolos (broccoli). 

(b) Feminine. 1. Those nouns in -a or -a 1 : tia, 
alma, la, maga. 

Exc.: o dia, o belga, o persa, o planeta, o cometa, 
o enigma (riddle), o capitalista, o cambista (money-changer) 
and all those, mostly taken from the Greek and indi- 
cating a male person, as poeta, monarcha, democrata, 
atheista, etc. 

2. Those in -e, and -ei: a merce (mercy), a lei (law). 

3. Those in -ade, -gao, (-c)gao, -so, -ddo (cf. a, 2): 
adoragao, direcgao, extensdo, confusfto, aptidao (aptness), 

! miiltiddo (multitude). 

Exc.: o coragdo (heart). 

4. Those in -gem: a imagem, a impigem (tetter), a 
, ferrugem (rust). 

Exc.: o pagem (page, cabin-boy), o almargem 
(meadow). 2 

Remark II. Are also feminine those nouns ending in 
-as and employed only in the plural, and also the proper 
names ending in -as; e.g. as exequias (exequies), as nu- 
pcias (wedding), as bodas (de prata, de oiro the silver or 
golden wedding) ; as caZf as (trousers), as vitualhas (victuals) ; 
Bruxellas (Brussels), Athenas (Athens). 

1 The ending ~a may be also written -an: Ian, magan. But 
this latter is feminine only when identical with -a, otherwise it 
is masculine: o afan (toil), o ademan (generally employed in the 
plural ademanes gesture). 

2 Personagem is employed now and then as a masculine, 
but the correct form is feminine. 


244 Lesson 1. 

4. As for the denomination of animals and plants, 
their species is partly indicated by the masculine, 
partly by the feminine gender e.g., o corvo (raven), o 
rouxinol (nightingale), o cordeiro (lamb), a dguia (eagle), 
a ovelha (sheep), a lebre (hare), a raposa (fox), o myrto 
(myrtle), o castanheiro (chestnut). To indicate the 
natural sex, you have to supply the name of the 
species by macho (male) or femea (female) e.g., a femea 
do rouxinol, o corvo femea, a dguia macho, etc. 

N.B. The words of the reading and translating tasks 
should now be looked up in the vocabulary at the end of 
this book, or as this, being chiefly intended to furnish 
typical examples of a correct pronunciation, does not pretend 
to be complete from a dictionary. In the Pocket Dictio- 
nary of the Portuguese and English Languages by H. Michaelis, 
an abridgement of the larger Dictionary of the same author, 
published by Broclthaus, Leipzig, and the best of its kind 
we know of, the reader will find everything that is required. 

1. Reading Lesson. 

A lebre corre. peixe nada. A andorinha voa. cabrito 
pula. ca$ador caca. juiz julga. homem pensa. boi 
rumina. orgao soa. A luz alumia. general commanda. A 
torre e alta. savel e" um peixe. A aguia e uma ave de 
rapina. cysne e" uma ave aquatica. A plaina 6" um instru- 
mento. cravo 6" uma flor. Diz-se vulgarmente que o sol e 
a lua estao no ce*u. altar esta na igreja. A nuvem esta no 
ar. vento (o norte, a tramontana) sopra. trovao brame 
ou estrondeia. leao ruge. mar brame. A ovelha bala. 
cavallo rincha ou relincha. cao ladra, uiva ou geme (gane). 
rouxinol e o melro cantam. A ra grasna. burro zurra. 
A serpente silva. porco grunhe. lobo uiva. pardal 
chia. A raposa regouga. touro berra. gato mia. mos- 
quito zumbe. A rola geme. pato e o ganso grasnam. 
gallo cucurita e canta. A gallinha cacareja. 


Caule, tronco ou haste (pe, pedunculo). 
caule 4 o que nos vulgarmente chamarnos tronco ou 
haste. Um carvalho tern tronco; a papoula e o trigo teem 
haste. caule d'uma flor tambem se chama pe (ou pediinculu). 
caule (ou tronco) de algumas arvores chega a ter 400 metres 
de altura: o dos musgos tern apenas alguns millimetres. caule 

The Gender of the Portuguese Nouns. 245 

e pois a parte da planta que se eleva no ar. Eleva-se ver- 
ticalmente, ou mais ou menos inclinado. E do caule que nas- 
cem as folhas, as flores e os fructos. caule das arvores 
compoe-se de cinco partes: por fora a casca; por baixo da 
casca o liber, que e uma camada branca e tenra; por baixo 
do liber outra camada que se chama alburno; ainda outra, 
a mais interior, chamada cerne; e ao centre a medulla. Para 
aguentar o caule, algumas plantas teem gavinhas, tambem 
chamadas elos ou abracos. Veem-se na videira, no melao, na 
ervilhaca etc. Algumas gavinhas teem na ponta uns pequeni- 

i nos discos. Estes discos introduzem-se as vezes nas fend as 
das paredes, e incham dentro das fendas. Inchando, os discos 

, nao saem, e as gavinhas aguentam melhor o caule. Essas 
gavinhas que teem disco, chamam-se adhesivas (air roots). 
(Trindade Coelho: Terceiro Livro de Leitura.) 

2. Thema. 

Indicate the gender of the following nouns, by placing 
in front the definite or the indefinite article: 

The horse, cavallo. The pear, pera. The metal, 

- metal. A winter, inverno. The spring, primavera. 
The chestnut, -- castanheiro. The apple-tree, macieira. 
The gold, -- ouro. The platinum, platina. The vapour, 

- vapor. The working, trabalhar. The author, autora. 
! The ship, navio, nau. The prophet, propheta. The 

sun, -- sol. The moon, -- lua. The image, -- imagem. 
The sparrow, - - pardal. The fox, raposa. The he-fox, 

- raposa macho. A lion, liao. A region, regiao. The 
heart, -- cora9ao. The modesty, modestia. The faith, - 

1 fe. The foot, -- pe". The chimney, ~ chamine. The vowel, 

- vogal. The pair, -- par. The peace, paz. The piece, 

- pedaco. The Belgian, belga. The mercy, merce. 
The hare, lebre. The wool, la. The sound, som. 
A frog, -- ra. A swamp, paiil. The chalk, cal. The 
salt, -- sal. The sky, -- cthi. The eagle, -- aguia. The 
bird, - ave, - - passaro. The trousers, ca^as. The 
wedding, -- nupcias. Asia, Asia. Italy, Italia. Nor- 
mandy, - - Normandia. Portugal, Portugal. Brazil, 
Brasil. The Thames, -- Tamisa. The Tejo, -- Tejo. 

3. Thema. 

Write down the translation and the feminine of the 

following nouns. The neighbour; the prisoner; the dwarf; 

the grandfather; the monk; the doctor; the author; the 

; gardener; the lion; the hare; the nightingale; the bode; 

246 Lesson 2. 

the cousin; the stepfather; the son-in-law; the cock; the 
bull; the Jew; the prince; the master; the Portuguese; the 
German; the boy; the dog; the orphan; the wolf; the hus- 
band; the son; the godfather; the horse. 


Quaes sao os principaes quadnipedes domesticos? 

Quaes sao os principaes quadnipedes bravos ou as prin- 
cipaes feras? 

Qual e o movimento da lebre? 7 do peixe? 7 da aguia?, 
do homein? 

Qual e a voz da ovelha?, do cavallo?, do cao?, do 
porco?, etc. 

Quaes sao as principaes aves domesticas?, as aquaticas?, 
as de rapina? 

Quaes sao as vozes das aves? 

Que se entende por "caule"? 

Como se chama tambem o caule d'uma nor?, d'uma 
arvore?, d'uma espiga? 

De quantas partes se cornpoe o caule d'uma arvore e 
quaes sao? 

Que 6 que nasce do caule? 

Que teem algumas plantas para aguentar o caule? 

Diga(m) alguns exemplos! 

Second Lesson. 

The Gender of the Portuguese Nouns 


2. Nouns with a Double Gender. 

(a) With special ending for the feminine (cf. P. I, 

(a) The ending o changes into a: pombo, pomba. 

Exc.: didcono, diaconisa. 

(p) The ending do changes into 6a: patrao principal, 

Ex.: barao, baroneza; cidadao, cidada; irmao, 

irma, etc. (see 21). 

(f) The ending or (or) adds a: leitor, leitora. 
Ex.: actor, actris, etc. (see 21). 

The Gender of the Portuguese Nouns. 


(b) The ending es (ez) adds a : portugues, portuguesa. 
Exc.: (only for adjectives) cortes, which is 

the same for both genders. 

(e) Nouns with any other ending do not follow de- 
terminate rules. 

Alfoade abbot abbadessa 

alcaide alcalde, mayor alcaidessa 

archiduque archduke archiduqueza 

avo grandfather aw 

czar czar czarina 

conde count condessa 

deus god deusa 

dugue duke duqueza 

heroe hero heroina 
hospede host; landlord, guest hdspeda 

infante infant; foot-soldier infanta 

mestre master, teacher ntestra 

parente parent parenta 

marques marquis marquesa 

monge monk monja 

peru turkey-cock pertia 

poeta poet poetisa 

principe prince princesa 

propheta prophet prophetisa 

reo criminal, delinquent re 

sacerdote priest sacerdotisa 

visconde viscount viscondessa. 

(b) Without changing their ending or meaning the 
following words are distinguished only by the article 
(o for the masculine, a for the feminine). As they are 
common to both genders, they are called "communs de 

Artista artist 
regente \ 
governante J 
gerente manager 
suicida suicide 
regicida regicide 
conjugicida conjugicide 
consorte consort 
mdrtir martyr 
espia spy 

compatriota country-man, 

persa Persian 
belga Belgian 
commensal \ table fellow, 
conviva \ commensal 
cumplice accomplice 
convalescents convalescent 
pateta blockhead 
parasita parasite 
indigena indigenous 
herege heretic 
guia guide 
joven youth, young girl. 


Lesson 2. 

(c) Besides these "communs de dois" which still are 
distinguished by the different gender of the article, 
there are others which are indiscriminately employed for 
both genders, ones with the masculine, others with the 
feminine article. They are called in Portuguese "sobre- 
communs." Please to note the following: 
conjuge the married man a testemunha the witness 

or wife 

o gemeo 1 the twin boy or girl 
o interprete the interpreter 
a crianqa the child 

(d) Without changing 

different meaning: 

guarda the watchman, 
keeper, guard 

o cabega the chief, leader 

o planeta the planet 

o trombeta the trumpeter 

o corneta the horn -blower 

o vogal the voter 

o crescente the crescent, half- 

o atalaia the sentinel 

o vigia the guard 

o capital the capital, principal 

o lingua the interpreter 

o cura the parson 

a sentinella the sentinel 

a criatura the creature e.g., 

o grande estilista e infeliz 

criatura . . .. 

of the ending, but with a 

a guarda the guard, defence 

a cabega the head 

a planeta sort of chasuble 

a trombeta the trumpet 

a corneta the horn 

a vogal the vowel 

a crescente the flood 

a atalaia the watch-tower 
a vigia the watching 
a capital the capital 
a lingua'ihe tongue 
a cura the cure, healing. 

Exchange, bank 
o barco* the bark, boat 

(e) With changing of the ending or meaning, gene- 
rally indicating in the masculine a greater idea of size. 
(N.B. Sometimes the contrary; we mark these by *.) 

Obanco the bench; shop- board; a banca the writing-table; 

bar; basset 
a barca the bark, ferry-boat, 


a cesta the basket, maund 
a fossa the pit, hole 
a carvalha the little oak 
a caleira the gutter 
a horta the kitchen-garden 
a caldeira the kettle 
a madeira the wood 

o cesto* the basket 
o fosso the ditch, trench 
o carvalho the oak 
o caleiro the gutter 
o horto* kitchen-garden 
o caldeiro* the kettle 
o madeiro the block 
o mosco* the mosquito 

a mosca the fly 

1 Employed also as an adjective: irmaos gemeos. 

The Gender of the Portuguese Nouns. 


o pio the basin, winepress 
o pogo the well 
o riso* the laughter, smile 
o sacco* the bag 

a pia the basin 

a poga (poga) the pool 

a risa the shout of laughter 

a sacca the bag. 

6. Please to pay attention to the gender and 
meaning of the following nouns, different in their ter- 
mination and consequently in their gender: 

aro the hoop 
o arco the bow; arch 
o barbo the barbel 
o barro the clay 
o bico the beak; bill; thorn 
o bolo the cake 
o bolso the pocket 

boneco the doll; fig. puppet 
o bordo the board 

o cabego the top of a moun- 
tain; chief 

o cabide the rack 

o cabido the chapter of a ca- 

o campo the field 

1 o cargo the office, employment 

o carogo the stone of a fruit 

o carpo the wrist 

o carrasco the hangman 

'o carreiro the narrow path; 

>o carreto the waggonage; 


o carreteiro the cart-man, carter 
o carteiro the postman 
o casco the skull; cask; hull 
o caso the case 
o castello the castle, tower 
o caudal the rapid 
o cavallo the horse 
o cepo the stump, block 
o cerco the circle, circuit ; siege 
o cevo the bait; decoy, lure 
o chdco the brooding 


A ara the altar(- stone) 
a area the chest, coffer 
a barba the chin; beard 
a barra the bar; spar 
a bica the water-pipe 
a bola the ball 
a bolsa the purse ; B Exchange 
a boneca the doll, baby 
a borda the border, edge 
a cabega the head 

a campa the grave 

a carga the load, burden, 


a carroga the coach 
a carpa the carp 
a carrasca red -oak 
a carreira the run, race, road ; 


a carreta the cart 
a carete the grimace, mask 
a carreteira the lighter 
a carteira the pocket-book 
a casca the bark, rind 
a casa the house 
a Castella Castilian 
a cauda the tail, train 
a cavalla the mackerel 
a cepa the vine -stock, vine 
a cerca the enclosure, hedge 
a ceva the masting; food; lure 
a choca the bowl ; cattle-bell ; 



Lesson 2. 

o cigarro the cigar 

o cimo the top; summit 

o cobertor the blanket; quilt 

o colchao the mattress 

o colchete the clasp 

o collo the neck, lap 

o conto the tale, story 

o cdrte the edge ; cut ; incision 

o cunho the stamp, coin 

o custo the cost, expense 

o espinho the thorn 

o esquadro the square 

o estado the state 

o fado the fate ; popular song 

o fardo the burden, pack 

o fecho the bolt, bar 

o ferro the iron 

o folho the flounce, frill 

o folio the folio; page 

o goivo the gillyflower 

o golo the draught 
o gorgete the half- shirt 
o grado the will, accord 
o jorro the jet, shoot of water 
o lance the throw, cast; trait, 

lucky chance 
o lango the throw ; suit ; space ; 


o linho the flax, linen 
o lixo the filth, dirt 
o lombo the loins, reins 
o luto the mourning 
o maco the mallet 
o malho the mall, mallet; 


o mango the handle of a flail 
o meado the middle, half 
o medo the fear 

o meio the half, middle ; means 
o modo the mode, manner 

a cigarra the balm-cricket, 

a cima the top 
a coberta the cover(ing) ; shelter 
a colcha the counterpane, quilt 
a colcMta the eye(let) 
a colla the glue 
a conta the bill, account 
a cdrte the court; as Cortes 

the Parliament 
a curiha the wedge, quoin 
a custa the cost, charge 
a espiriha the fish-bone; spine 
a esquadra the squadron 
a estada the abode 
a fada the fairy, fay 
a farda the uniform 
a feclia the conclusion 
a ferra the fire-shovel 
a follia the leaf, sheet 

a forma the form, shape 
a forma the matrice, model 
a goiva the gouge, hollow 


a gola the throat, gullet 
a gorgeta gratuity, tip 
a grade the harrow, grate 
a jorra the tar 
a langa the lance, spear 

a liriha the line; row 

a lixa the sea-calf; seal(-skin) 

a lomba the hill, eminence 

a luta the wrestling, combat 

a maga the mace, club 

a malha the mash; stitch; 


a manga the sleeve 
a meada the hank, skein 
a meda the stack of straw or 


a meia the stocking 
a moda the fashion 

The Gender of the Portuguese Nouns. 


o mofo the mould 
o monte the mountain 

o morto the dead man, corpse 
o mote the motto, device 

o moto the motion, impulse 
o novel(l)o the clew; ball 
o pago the reward 
o palmo the span 

o papo the maw, crop 
o papa the pope 
o partido the party, faction ; 

o passo the step 
o pasto the pasture, feed 
o pato the duck 

o pego the whirlpool, pit 
o pel(l)o the hair, down 

o pinheiro \ the fir-tree, pine 
o pinho / tree 
o pinto the chicken 
o pito = pinto ; pipe 

o ponto the point, stitch 

o porte the freight, postage ; 


o porto the port, harbour 
o paste the stake, pillar 
o posto the place ; post 
o prdtico the pilot 

o preso the prisoner 

o quarto the room, quarter; 

o queixo the jaw(-bone) 

o raio the beam, ray; flash; 


o rato the rat 
o risco the danger; stroke of 

a pen 

a mofa the mockery 

a monta the amount, quan- 

a morte the death 

a mota the terrace; dam, 

a novella the novel 
a paga the pay 
a palma the palm-leaf, palm- 

a(s) papa(s) the pap 
o papa the pa(pa), daddie 
a partida the part, lot ; match 

a passa the raisin 

a pasta the portfolio; paste 

a pata the female duck; paw, 


a pega the handle, ear, tedder 
a pega the magpie 
a pella the ball, tennis-ball 
a pelle the skin 
a pinha the pine-cone 

a pinta the spot, mark 
a pita the fibre of the aloe 
a piteira the aloe 
a ponta the point; top, tip 
a porte the bridge 

a porta the door 

a posta the slice, cut; post- 
(age); courier 

a prdtica the practice, ex- 

a presa the prey, booty 

a quarto, the fourth part or 

a queixa the complaint; pro- 
cess, action 

a raia the stroke, dash; bor- 
der; ray 

a rata the she -rat; share 

a risca the dash; parting (of 
the hair) 


Lesson 2. 

o rodo long stick to heap up 


o rolo the roll(er), ball; taper 
o rolete the small roll 
o seguro the insurance 
o sello the stamp, seal 
o sino the bell 
o siso the good sense 
o solo the soil, ground 
o telho the earthen cover 
o tento the counter ; maulstick; 


o testo the cover, lid 
o tiro the shot 
o toldo the covering; awning 

o torno the turn(bench) 
o trinco the latch 

o troco the change, small coins 
o vaso the vase, vessel; urn; 


o vello the fleece ' 
o vento the wind 
o verbo the verb, word 

a roda the wheel; circle; 

round slice 

a rdla the turtle-dove 

a roleta the roulette 

a segura the hoop -knife 

a sella the saddle 

a sina the flag; fate 

a sisa the excise 

a sola the leather; sole 

a telha the tile, brick 

a tentdiihe probe 

a testa the forehead 

a lira a strip 

a tolda the quarterdeck ; awn- 

a torna the return; compen- 

a trinca a series of three ana- 
logous things 

a troca the truck, exchange 

a vasa the slime, mud 

a vel(l)a the candle; sail 

a venta the nostril 

a verba the clause, article 

7. There are a few nouns which by the mas- 
culine gender indicate the individual and by the femi- 
nine the collective sense e.g. : 

o fructo the fruit a fructa the fruitage, fruit 

o grito the scream a grita the crying, clamour 

o marujo the mariner a maruja the crew 

o ramo the bough, twig a rama the foliage, branches. 

8. There is some affinity between these nouns 
( 7 and 5 (e)) and 

(a) the so-called augmentativos, formed by the trans- 
formation of the final syllable of certain nouns into 
-ao, which adds to the noun an idea of bigness and 
sometimes that of deformity and ugliness; and 

(b) the so-called dimunitivos, which attribute to the 
noun an idea of smallness, of somebody or something 
needing protection, and therefore that of a certain 
tenderness (cf. P. I, L. 16). 

The Gender of the Portuguese ttouns. 253 

4. Thema. 

'his boy tears his stockings so that there is no possibility 
of darning them. In the Botanical Garden of Lisbon are palm- 
trees of more than sixty spans height. As this needle has 
no point, not a stitch can be done with it. The duck filled 
its maw with pap. Please to give me some small coins, I 
want to buy a few stamps. Of the whole crew only one 
mariner was saved. Waiter, there are some guests who have 
not yet had a slice of fish; you ought to be more attentive. 
In the action brought (movida) against that spy, several 
witnesses were summoned; amongst them as [an] interpreter 
a native of Africa. Our globe, the moon, and other stars 
are planets; the sun is a fixed star. When the moon is vi- 
sible in the sky, we have moonshine. She renews her light 
in the phases of each revolution and is a satellite of the earth. 
Her four phases are; new moon, half moon, full moon, and 
waning inoon. The ebbtide and flood are phenomena in 
connection with the crescent and the wane. Where there is 
the most capital and paper currency (papel moeda) is in 
the banks of the capital of England. As you so warmly take 
the part of the Portuguese republicans, are you a republican 
yourself? I do not belong to any political faction, but I sym- 
pathise with the republican party and its leaders. An English 
squadron performs its maritime manoeuvres in the bay of 
Lagos on the Portuguese seashore. A square is used at 
drawing. The crickets chirp during the hot season (a calma) 
in the months of June, July, and August. Flies and mosqui- 
tos may be driven away by the smoke of a cigar or a ciga- 
rette. Consorts are often martyrs of society, and the children 
of the married couple sometimes are unconsciously the cause 
of domestic strife. 

5. Leitura e Versao. 

Nao 6" saudavel para gente sadia, quanto m6nos para gente 
doente, a estada n'uma casa d'um estado m&nos salubre. A 
prisao nas cidades portugusas encontra-se muitas vezes na 
melhor e maior pra9a: Chama-se terraco ou eirado o telhado 
piano d'uma casa ou seja o espaco descoberto sobre uma casa 
ou ao nivel d'um andar d'ella. Chama-se chifres, chavelhos ou 
pontas as excrescencias corniformes ou do gado corni- 
fero (or cornuto). Na partida do deputado do partido pro- 
gressista estiveram na gare os correligionarios e amigos pessoaes 
d'elle. Neste anno ha pouca fructa: nao vingaram os fructos 
das macieiras e pereiras. Em compensate de"ram boa colheita 
os castanheiros. Por isso se veem agora muitas castanheiras 
na rua a venderem castanhas assadas. 

254 Lesson 2. 

6. Para decorar (to be learnt by heart). 
Vozes d'animaes. 

Palram pega e papagaio Opardal,damninhoaoscampos, 

E cacareja a gallinha, Nao aprendeu a cantar; 

Os ternos pombos arrulam, Como os ratos e as doninhas, 

Geme a rola innocentinha. Apenas sabe chiar. 

Muge a vacca, berra o touro; negro corvo crocita; 

Grasna a ra, ruge o leao; Zune o mosquito enfadonho; 

gato mia, uiva o lobo; A serpente, no deserto, 

Tambem uiva e ladra o cao. Solta assoUo medonho. 

Eelincha o nobre cavallo; Chia a lebre, grdsna o pato; 

Os elephantes dao urros; Ouvem-se os porcos grunliir; 

A timida ovelha Mia; Libando o succo das flores, 

Zurrar e proprio dos burros. Costuma a abelha sumbir. 

Hegouga a sagaz raposa Bramam os tigres, as on9as; 

(Brutinho muito matreiro) : Pia y pia o pintainho ; 
Nos ramos cantam as aves; Cucurita e canta o gallo; 

Mas pia o mocho agoureiro. . Late e gdne o cachorrinho. 

Sabem as aves ligeiras A vitellinha da berros; 

canto seu variar; cordeirinho balidos; 

Fazem gorgeios as vezes, macaquinho da guinchos; 

As vezes poem-se a chilrar. A creancinha vagidos. 

A falla foi dada ao homem 
Eei dos outros animaes, 
Nos versos lidos acima, 
Se encontram, em pobre rima. 
As vozes dos principaes. 

(Pedro Diniz.) 


Que se entende por substantives communs de dois? 
Quaes (sao) os substantives que teem a mesma forma 

para ambos os sexos? 
Que desinSncia da forma feminina teem os substantives 

communs : irmao, barao, leao, ladrao, propheta, monge, 

rapaz, imperador, mestre . . .? 
Qual a differen9a entre um c6sto e uma cesta? um 

horto e uma horta? o trombeta e a trombeta? um 

vogal e uma vogal? 
Quaes sao os substantives que, designando individuos, 

sao masculines, e femininos quando exprimen um 

sentido de collectividade ? 

The Gender of the Portuguese Nouns. 255 

Como se formam os augmentativos? os diminutives? 
Qual o sentido accrescentado ao substantive pela syllaba 
augmentativa ? e pela syllaba diminutiva? 

Third Lesson. 

The Gender of the Portuguese Nouns 

Compound Nouns. 

9. The Portuguese language does not contain so 
many compound words as the English. It substitutes 
them in different ways: 

1. By adding a determinative noun, preceded by 
de to the appelative e.g., oculo de mao eyeglass; amo- 
lador de tesouras (e navalhas) knife-grinder; escuma de 
mar meerschaum; caixa de correio letter-box; cJiapeu de 
palha straw-hat; criada de quarto house-maid; bomba de 
fogo fire-engine. 

2. By joining an adjective to the noun e.g. bilhete 
postal post-card; ministerio publico Attorney-General; 

1 calgado caseiro house-shoe; mina hulMfera coal-mine; 
pinheiro manso nut-pine; empregado subalterno subaltern 

Note. Sometimes the noun drops altogether (as also in 
' English), taking the adjective in its form and meaning; e.g., 
o postal; o subaltern. 

3. By a genitive: casa da fructa fruit-cellar; costa 
do mar sea-coast; empregado do correio post-official ; 
assento do cocheiro coach-box; porta da cidade town-gate. 

4. By two nouns joined by another preposition than 
' de: compartimento para fumistas smoking-compartment; 

banho aos pes foot-bath; papel para cart as letter-paper; 
correspondencia por cartas epistolary intercourse; colher 
para paixe fisht-rowel; medo a morte fear of Death. 

5. By the junction of any other particles e.g. 
os afazeres (= a faser) the business; os parabens 
(= para bem) the congratulation ; a sempre-verde the 

256 Lesson 3. 

10. Yet there is a certain number of compound 
nouns, formed by various particles. Their gender cor- 
responds, for living beings, to the natural sex or to 
the conventional one. For inanimate things the 
gender corresponds to that of the noun in such 
compound words as are formed by a noun and another 
particle (cf. however bate-folha, saca-rolha, quebra-nos, 
etc.). In substantives compounded of two nouns, the 
gender mostly corresponds to that of the last or the 
one which logically is of the greater importance. 

Remark. As there are a great many exceptions th< 
only means of attaining proficiency is by learning the article 
If you are in doubt, please to consult a dictionary. 

11. Examples of Compound Nouns formed: j 

(a) by two Substantives: 

o mestre-escola the schoolmaster 

o mestre-sala the master of ceremonies 

o mestre sapateiro the master shoemaker 

o goma-gut(t)a the gamboge 

a goma-lacre the gumlack 

o guarda-portao the door-keeper 

o guarda-louga the cupboard 

o (or a) guarda-roupa the (keeper of the) wardrobe 

o guarda-livros the bookkeeper 

a porta-cocheira the gateway 

o tenente -general the lieutenant-general 

o consul geral the consul-general 

o tenente-coronel the lieutenant-colonel 

o logar-tenente the lieutenant 

a mao-tenente the small distance 

o paquete the packet-boat, ship 

o pontape the kick, spurn 

a pedra-iman the magnet 

o usufructo the usufruct 

o varapau the (shepherd's) staff 

a beira-mar the sea-shore 

a couve-flor the cauly-flower; 

also a great number of nouns compound with pa\ 
(pdu-balsamo, pdu-barro,pdu-canelaetc.), designating tree 
and shrubs and being all of masculine gender. 

(b) by Substantive and Adjectives: 

a dguardente (dgua ardente) the brandy 
a dguaforte the aquafortis 

The Gender of the Portuguese Nouns. 257 

o amdr-perfeito the pansy 

o cantochuo the church choir 

o cavallo-marinho the hippopotamus 

o porco-marinlio the dolphin 

a guinta-feira santa the Maundy Thursday 

o terrapleno the terrace 

a idade-media the middle age 


uma mao-cheia a handful 

o mordomo-mor the Lord Steward of the Household 

o porto-franco the free port 

a pedra-infernal febe nitrate of silver 

o terra-nova Newfoundland (dog). 

(c) by Adjective and Substantive: 

a cenlopeia the centipede 

o gentilhomem the gentleman 

a macha-femea the (door-)hinge (and hasp) 

o meia-dia the midday 

a meio-noite the midnight 

o meiorcorpo. the bust, half body 

a meia-lua the half moon, crescent 

a menoridade (minoridade) the minority 

o salvo-conducto the safe conduct 

o porto franco the free port. 

(d) by Verb and Substantive: 

o guarda-po the dust-cloak 

o guarda-chuva the umbrella 

o guarda-fato the wardrobe, clothes-press 

a lesa-majestade the lese-majeste" 

a Usa-poesia the offence against poetry 

a lesa-bom-gosto the offence against taste, tactlessness 

o porta-bandeira the standard-bearer 

o porta-cocheira the coach -gate 

o porta-chapeus the hat-box 

o porta-lapis the port- crayon 

o porta-relogio the watch-stand 

o porta-voz the speaking-trumpet 

o lavapes the maundy, nipter 

o lavapratos the dish-washer 

o catavento the weathercock 

o cliupa-flor, o beija-flor the humming-bird 

o batefolha the gold-beater 

o cJntpamel the honeysuckle; humming-bird 

Portuguese Conversation-Grammar. 17 

258 Lesson 3. 

o girasol the sunflower 

o para-raios the lightning-conductor 

o passatempo the pastime 

o passaporte the passport 

o quebramar the breakwater, pier 

o quebra-luz the light-screen 

o saca-rolha(s) the corkscrew 

o salva-vidas the safety-buoy; life-preserver, life-boat 

um papa-leguas a stout walker 

o pesa-cartas the letter-balance 

o pesa-dgua the watergauge 

o or a papamoscas the gaper 

o or a papa-jantares the sponger, parasite 

o or a papa-nostias \ 

o or a papa-missas \ the devotee; hypocrite. 

o or a papa-santos J 

(e) by two Verbs: 

o bule-bule (or bole-bole) the quaking-grass 

o ganhaperde sort of play at cards in which the winner 


o vae-vem the to and fro; up and down 
o passe-passe the juggling(-trick). 

(f) by Preposition and Substantive: 

a antecdmara \ he antechambei . ante room 

a antesala } 

a antemuralha 1 ^ u 

o antemuro } 

a ante-data the antedate 

o antepasto the first dish 

a anteporta the double door, screen 

a antepdpa the forepart of the stern 

a antivespera the day before the eve 

o antipapa the antipope 

o antidoto the antidote 

a antithese the antithesis 

a contrabanda the contraband 

a contra-escritura the counterbond 

a contra-ordem the countermand 

contrasenha the watchword, counter -ticket 

o contratempo the annoyance ; vexation ; inconvenience 

a entrefolha the inter-leaf 

a entrelinha the interlineation 

o entremeio the insertion 

os parabens the congratulation 

The Gender of the Portuguese Nouns. 259 

a semrazao the groundlessness 

o semsabor the insipidity, disgust 

o sobresalto the (sudden) emotion, fright 

a sub-ordem the subdivision 

post-escrito the postscript 

concidadao the fellow- citizen 

consoeio the companion, associate. 

(g) by Adverb and Substantive: 

o bemfeitor the benefactor 

a malquerenga the malevolence 

o malgrado the displeasure 

o malnascido the one who is born under an evil star, 

unlucky fellow 
o acima-mencionado the aforesaid 
o abaixo-assignado the undersigned. 

(h) by three words: 
o mal-me-quer (malmequer) \ -, . 
o bem-me-quer (bemmequer) J 
o nao-me-deixes the forget-me-not 
o pe-de-gallo the hop(s) 
o pe-de-liao the lion's-foot 
o pdu-de-lacre the gumlac-tree 
o pdu-de-cabelleiro the milliner's block 
o rabo-de-gallo the thunder- cloud 
o valete de pdu the knave of clubs 
uma tuta-e-meia an insignificance. 

7. Thema. 

Hamburg is a free port since 1888. The countermand 
of the lieutenant colonel concerned only the subdivision 
of the pioneers who were about to open a ditch near the bul- 
wark. The congratulation of his book-keeper gave pleasure to 
my partner; but the postscriptum of his letter containing, 
the news of the bankruptcy of a bank, caused him a sudden 
emotion and was a great annoyance to him. It is indeed an act 
of tactlessness giving such news in a letter of congratulation. 
In the great kitchen-garden is still much cauliflower and other 
vegetables; but in the small kitchen- garden there is only to 
be found quaking-grass, daisies, forget-me-nots, and pansies. 
The Newfoundland dogs are dogs belonging to a race which 
is said to originate (que dizem procedente) of Newfoundland. 
The gum-bearing croton (arvore gummifera) and the gam- 
boge-tree (guteira) are trees of the tropics from which the 
gumlac and the gamboge are extracted. 


260 Lesson 3. 

8. Yersao. 

Quando estavamos na beira-mar, vimos muitas vezes os 
porcos-marinhos, como vulgarmente se chamam os delfins ou 
golfinhos, a saltar fora das ondas da resaca. Um catavento 6 
um aparelho que indica a direc9ao dos ventos; tern a forma 
d'uma bandeirinha, geralmente de ferro ou lata, enfiada n'uma 
haste, e collocada no alto dos edificios. para-raios e um 
aparSlho, formado principalmente de uma haste metallica e 
destinado a attrahir as descargas electricas da atmosphera, li- 
vrando d'ellas os logares ou edificios proximos. Na quinta-feira 
santa ha lavapes em muitas igrejas catholicas, executado pelos 
prelados ou outros altos sacerdotes. No Porto vi o cardeal, 
em Lisboa o patriarchs a celebra-lo. Os muitos afaz^res pro- 
prios do acima-mencionadoj assim como do abaixo-assignado 
nao Ihes permittem occuparem-se dos afazeres alheios. 

9. Leitura. 

A Lusitdnia. 

Antes de haver aqui hespanhoes e mouros, n'um peda9o 
do que e hoje Portugal, havia os lusitanos. Esses lusitanos 
eram os naturaes de uma regiao chamada Lusitania, regiao 
que occupava especialmente, a principio, os territories entre o 
Douro e o Tejo, e depois chegou a alastrar-se pelos que formam 
hoje as provincias todas de Portugal, menos o Minho, Tras- 
os-Montes e parte do Douro. Estes lusitanos viviam muito 
descanc,ados ca em sua casa; mas com o rodar dos tempos, 
os carthaginfises, que eram uns povos oriundos da cidade 
de Carthago, ao norte da Africa, chegaram a domina-los, at6 
que esses mesmos carthaginSses foram tambem vencidos 
pelos r oman os que passaram depois a dominar elles sos. 
Esses romanos viram-se e desejaram-se com os lusitanos, princi- 
palmente com um tal Viriato que a frente da rapaziada 
lusitana Ihes deu que fazer, e os venceu em muitos combates 
at6 que o mataram a trai9ao quando dormia. Dizem que 
Viriato era um pastor da Serra da Estrella e ainda hoje ha 
em Vizeu um sitio a 1 que chamam Cava de Viriato, por 
ser fama que morou ali esse valente capitao, que e o mais 
antigo dos herdes Portugueses. 

(Trindade Coelho: 3. Livro de Leitura.) 


The answers to be given with the wording of No. 9. 
Quaes foram os habitantes de Portugal antes dos por- 
tugufises ? 

i See P. II, L. 11, 48 (a) (p). 

Formation of the Plural of Nouns. 261 

Quando ainda nao havia hespanhoes e mouros, quern 

habitava o pai's? 
Donde eram naturaes os lusitanos? 
Qual era a regiao comprehendida, a principio, pela Lu- 

sitania ? 

quaes eram os territories que occupava depois? 
Como viviam os lusitanos? 
Quern chegou a domina-los? 
Quern eram os carthagineses ? 
Que tempo durou o dominio dos carthagineses? 
Com quern se viram e desejaram os romanos, principal- 

mente ? 

Como morreu Viriato? 
Onde ha a chamada Cava de Viriato ? 
Porque se chama assim esse sitio? 
Que dizem que Viriato era? 
E como e considerado? 

Fourth Lesson. 

Formation of the Plural of the Nouns. 

The general rules for forming the plural of the nouns 
have been given already in the 2 nd Lesson of the First 
Part. They will here be repeated in coherence and duly 

N.B. The same rules apply to the adjective. 

12. (a) By adding an -s is formed the plural 
of all those substantives (and adjectives) which end in 
a vowel, an n, or a diphthong e.g., rede(s), pae(s), ir- 
md(s), germen(s), pau(s), grdo(s). Exc. : o canon the 
church law, canon, catalogus, forms the plural cdnones', 
o ademan the gesture, ademanes. 

Remark. Of those words ending in accented -do only 
a few take an -s without changing the form of the singular ; 
e.g., irmao(s), christdo(s), cidaddo(s), mdo(s), ben$ao(s) (this 
only if accented on the first syllable, else bengdes. Those 
ending in unaccented -do (allowed to be written also -am) 
follow the general rule: o 6rfdo, orfdos (orphans). 

(b) Some words in accented -do change their ter- 
mination into -des e.g. : pdo, pdes; alemdo, alemdes] es- 
crivao, escrivaes] cdo, cdes. 

262 Lesson 4. 

(c) Most words in accented -do change this termi- 
nation into -oes: conddo gift, magic wand condoes; coragdo, 
coragdes; lido (lefto), lioes; aldefto, aldeoes; cancdo, cangdes; 
meldo, meloes etc. 

(d) The nasal endings -em, -im, -om, -urn change -m 
into -n before adding -s, thus: -ens, -ins, -ons, -uns; ar- 
mazem, armazens; bem, bens', fim, fins; som, sons; atum, 

(e) Nouns ending in -r, -s or -z add -es e.g. : doutor 
doutores; mulher, mulheres; portugues, Portugueses, pas, 

N.B. Cardcter modifies its accent in the plural: ca- 

Jf) Remain unaltered those nouns ending in -s pre- 
by an unaccented vowel or falling diphthong 
e.g.: o(s) alferes the ensign(s); o(s) simples the simple- 
ton(s), (the plural simplices being antiquated); o(s) lapis 
the pencil(s) ; o(s) caesthe quay(s); o(s) arrais the master(s) 
of a boat. 

Exc. : calis (or calix) forms calls or calices-, deus 
forms deuses. 

Those few nouns in -x with preceding unaccented 
vowel change ~x into -ces: o appendix (or appendice); o 
index (or indice), indices. See also calix. 

(g) Nouns ending in -al, -ol, -ul drop the -I and 
add -es: animal, animaes: sol, soes; paul, paues. 

Exc.: Consul (vice-consul, proconsul) and mal keep 
the -I in the plural: consules, males; o real forms reis. 

(h) Those words ending in -el loose the -I, adding 
-is: annel, anneis', fiel, fieis. 

(i) Those in accented 41 drop the -I, adding -s: 
funil, ftmis, civil, civis. 

(j) Those in unaccented -il change -il into -eis: 
projectil, projecteis; fdcil, fdceis. 

13. Proper names and foreign words form their 
plural regularly by adding -s or changing the ending 
after the rule: 05 Bragangas, os Gramas, as Indias, os 

Formation of the Plural of Nouns. 


Algarves, as Americas] os deficits, as erratas 1 , as quotas, 
os quocientes, etc. 

KB. Names of towns ending by -s are singular: a rica 
Londres; a sdbia Athenas; Bruxellas foi fundada no seculoVIl 
(cf. 3, Remark II). 

14. Some nouns are used only in the Plural 
at least in their meaning here given: 

as dncias sickness as entradas the beginning and 

as andas stilts as sahidas the end in the 

as andadeiras leading-strings connection of: desejar 'boas 

sahidas do anno velho e boas 
entradas do anno novo wish- 
ing a happy new year 
os espinafres spinage 
as exequias exequies, funeral 
os imponderdveis imponderable 


os midlos brains 
os nimbus (or nimbos) nimbus 
os dculos spectacles 
os parabens felicitation 
as semcias ill treatment, cruelty 
os stratus stratus 
os trdpicos tropics. 

KB. There may also be read funeraes instead of funeral; 
but the plural, being a gallicism, is to be avoided as in- 

15. Only in the Singular are employed the 
names of sciences, arts, qualities and other abstract 
nouns, of metals, elements and materials, as also the 
infinitives applied as nouns and in their proper meaning. 
Being used in the plural form, they have another, 
though cognate, meaning. Ex.: 

j os ambages subterfuge, excuse 

os amoricos flirtation 

os annaes annals 

as b6das \ 

as nupcias J 

os bredos notch-weed, spinage 

os brdccolos broccoli 
1 os cdnones church-law 
i os cereaes cereals 

os cirrus cirrus 

os ciumes \ . ^ 

' OS Z&lOS f J J 

os cumulus (or cumulos) cu- 

direito the right, law, juris- 

o desenho the (art of) drawing 

a pintura the (art of) painting, 

a bondade the kind(li)ness 

Plural: duties 

o drawings 



1 So according to modem grammarians. Others indicate 
errata as subst- f. 2 } l- an d employ the singular o errata after the 
; model o problema, o dilemma, o programma, etc. Errata is also 
1 employed as subst. f. s. in the meaning of English errata. 


Lesson 4. 

o amor the love 
a saude the health 
o cdbre the copper 

o fogo the fire 

a seda the silk 

o vidro the glass 

o trigo the corn, wheat 

panno the cloth ; shawl ; 


o ferro the iron 
a tinta the ink 
o ar the air 

a dgua the water 

o gesso the gypsum 

o dever the being obliged; 

o andar the striding 

Plural : beloved ones ; flirtation 
coins or objects of 


> silks; bristles 
cereals; bread 


colouring, colours 
prevailing winds ; cli- 

medicinal waters ; wa- 

figures in plaster 

duty, obligation 

stories, floors. 

10. Oral Exercise. Exerdcio oral. 

Please to put the sentences of the Reading Lesson I. in 
the first Lesson into the Plural. 

11. Thema. 

Those gentlemen are German teachers and well instructed 
authors. Some courteous Englishmen have been our amiable 
guests these last months. On those fertile fields where a few 
weeks ago still grew green seeds, are now only faded grasses 
and flowers to be found. Among the quadrupeds there are 
wild beasts and domestic animals. (Os) Dogs, cats, cows, 
sheep, horses belong to the domestic animals; (the) lions, 
wild cats, panthers, lynxes are beasts of prey; (the) hares, 
foxes, stags, roes and other horned animals are game. The 
magic wands are said to have the gift of finding the springs 
out in the ground. There are many villages in the Alemtejo 
with less than a hundred fires. Of glass are made drinking- 
glasses, panes, spectacles, eyeglasses and telescopes, as well 
as many other things. The funeral of the infant followed 
very fast (== de perto) her wedding. The climate of the Isle 
of Madeira is most beneficent for consumptive people. Also 
the climate and the medicinal-waters of the Gerez in northern 
Portugal are most famous. The State has the right to collect 
new duties. The community sang a church-choir, while a 
group of young men, boys and girls entuned in a loud voice 
(pi.) Christian songs and hymns. 

Formation of the Plural of Nouns. 265 

12. Yersao. 

tigre e o lobo sao animaes ferozes. chumbo e o 
ferro sao metaes pesados. A aguia e o abutre sao valentes 
aves de rapina. ferro e a pedra sao duros. A torre e a 
casa sao altas. A legoa e o kilometro sao distancias com- 
pridas. cao e o gato sao animaes dom^sticos uteis. 
diamante e a esmeralda sao pedras preciosas. sal e a pi- 
menta sao temperos necessaries. As flores naturaes e as 
(flores) artificiaes sao bonitas. A marinha inglesa e a (ma- 
rinha) fraucesa sao fortes. As baleias e os tubaroes sao 
1 grandes. vinho e a cerveja sao boas bebidas. Os proje"cteis 
tinham-lhe penetrado os pulmoes. 

13. Leitura. 


Da terra e do mar elevam-se vapores que se espalham pel a 

atmosphera. Nas regioes elevadas da atmosphera esses vapores 
i encontram urn ar frio; e ao contacto d'esse ar, os vapores 

resfriam: resfriando, formam as nuvens. Da mesma maneira, 

quando no espaco se encontram duas massas de ar, uma mais 
1 quente e mimida do que a ontra, a mistura d'essas duas 

massas de ar tambem da origem a nuvens. Estas sao pois 
i pequenas gottas d'agua suspensas na atmosphera e provenientes 

do resfriamento do vapor. Apertando o frio com ellas, essas 

gottas, reunindo se r caem em chuva ; ou esfriando mais, tornam- 

se solidos, caindo em forma de neve ou geada. 

As nuvens teem varias formas : quando semelham mon- 
\ tanhas d'algodoes, arredondadas, umas encastelladas por cima 
sdas outras, chamam-se cumulus. Quando lembram pequenos 

filamentos desligados de la cardada, denominam-se cirrus. 
; Quando formam camadas delgadas e continuas, mais ou menos 
extensas, limitadas por linhas horizontaes, teem o nome de 
\stratus. E quando lembram um panno cinzento-escuro, fran- 

jado ou esfarrapado nos bordos, chamam-se nimbus. 

Os cumulus denominam-se tambem algodoes, e sao mais 

frequentes no verao do que no inverno. -Formados de manha 7 
; desapparecem geralmente de tarde, quando se nao misturam 

uns com os outros e dao chuva. Os cirrus, chamados tambem 
,rabos-de-gallo, sao as nuvens mais elevadas. Annunciam mu- 
de tempo: chuva no verao, e frio ou gelo no inverno. 
Os stratus veem-se em geral ao por-do-sol, perto do hori- 

zonte. Os nimbus chamam-se vulgarmente nuvens de chuva, 

e sao conhecidos ainda por tiguaceiros. 

(Trindade Coelho: Terceiro Livro de Leitura.) 

266 Lesson 5. 


Como se chama a mulher de um abegao? de um archi- 
duque? de um barao? de um campones? de um 
cidadao ? de um conde ? de um czar ? de um duque ? 
de um embaixador? de um imperador? de um 
marque's ? de um principe ? de um rei ? de um sultao ? 
de um visconde? 

Qual e a forma feminina de doutor, auctor, artista, in- 
terprete, hospede, mestre, deus, mdrtyr, conviva, in- 
digena ? 

Como se chama a femea do bode? do boi? do cao? do 
carneiro? do cavallo? do gallo? do pato? do leao? 
do pavao? do peru? do veado? do lobo? 

Fifth Lesson. 

Formation of the Plural of the Nouns 


16. Difference of meaning between the singular 
and plural forms. 

(a) Besides those nouns mentioned in 15 and 
other analogous words, there are such the Plural of 
which has a second meaning besides that of the Sin- 
gular. Please to notice: 

a arma the weapon, arm as armas arms, weapons 

a bexiga the bladder as bexigas small-pox 

a corte the court as Cortes House of Commons 

a entranha the bowels as entranhas heart, character 
a feria the pay, s alary ; list as ferias holidays 

of appointments 

o folle the pair of bellows os folles bagpipe 

a fonte the spring as fontes temples 

o gSnero the gender os generos victuals 

a letra the letter, character as letras literature 

o miolo the crumb, braia os miolos brains 

o dculo the telescope os dculos spectacles 

o zelo the zeal os zelos jealousy 

a venta the nostril as ventas nose 

a vespera the eve as vesperas vespers. 

Formation of the Plural of Nouns. 267 

(b) Some substantives indicate in the singular form 
the male individual and in the plural the totality of 
the respective male and female persons: 

pai the father os pais the parents 

o filho the son os filhos the children 

o it-moo the brother os irmdos the brothers and 


o criado the man-servant os criados the men- and maid- 

o avo the grandfather os ayos the grandfather and 

o tio the uncle os ^'os the uncle and aunt 

9 conde the count os condes count and countess 

10 homem the man os hdmens mankind. 

17. For the Plural of the Compound Words 
sure and satisfying rules cannot be given. However, it 
may be noticed that: 

(a) those words compound by an unalterable par- 
icle and a noun, add an -s to the latter: antedatas, 
wbrenomes, abaixo-assignados ; 

(b) those compound by a verb and a noun, add 
she -s of the plural only to the noun: passa-tempos, 
[ iorta-bandeiras, guarda-chuvas, girasoes, quebramares ; 

(c) words compound of two nouns add the -s only 
the last: guarda-portoes, beira-mares, couve-flores, 

lestre-salas. On the contrary : a porta-cocheira (= porta 
e cocheira). portas-cocheiras\ tenentes-generaes; tenentes- 
oroneis-, capitdes-tenentes. 

(d) Those formed of a substantive and an adjective 
ake the -s of the plural partly only at the end, partly 
3r both elements e.g.: as aguardentes, os cantochtios, 
s mao-cheias, os meio-dias, as meia-noites, os salvo-con- 
uctos. But: os amores-perfeitos; os cavattos-marinhos. 

(e) Those formed of two verbs take the -s at the 
nd: os bule-bules, os vae-vens. 

(f) Of nouns compound of three words, those joined 
y de generally take the plural form for the first word, 
ids being a substantive; the others add the -s on their 
ad: os paus de cahellewo-, os paus de lacre\ but mal- 

268 Lesson 5. 

18. Observations on the Pronunciation of the 
Plural of Certain Nouns, 

A certain number of substantives ending in -o, 
whose accented vowel of the penultima is a close 6 [o], 
change this 6 in the plural into open 6 [v] e.g. : o ovo 
['ovu] the egg, ovos fwuf] (cf. Part. I, 74). 

These substantives to which belongs also avo are: 
abrolho cliff, rock, avo grandfather, cachopo boy; carogo 
kernel, stone; clioco cuttle-fish, brooding, adj.: hatched; 
o choro weeping, composto mixture, corcovo jump, ca- 
priole, corno horn, coro choir, chorus, corpo body, cdrvo 
raven, despojo cover, destrogo ruins, escolho reef, esforgo 
effort, esposo husband (pi. also esposos besides esposos), 
estbrvo hindrance, fogo to fire, fol(e)go breath, rest, forno 
oven, fdro jurisdiction, forro lining, fosso ditch, imposto 
duties, jogo play, miolo brains, olho eye, osso bone, ovo 
egg, pescogo neck, pogo well, porco fJeSc, porto harbour, 
posto post, pdvo people, preposto or proposto substitute, 
reforgo supply, renovo shoot, spring, rogo demand, soro 
whey, serum, soccorro succour, supposto supposition, 
tijolo brick, tojo gorse, tordo throstle, tor-no lathe, 
tremdco grain of lapine, troco small coin, trogo stump, 
fragment, body of soldiers, etc. 

Thus: dbrolhos, avos, cachopos, carogos etc. 

This modification does not take place in the words 
adbrno ornament, a tire, amor love, bolsa purse, lolso 
pocket, estojo case, box, follia leaf, folho flounce, frill, 
globo globe, gosdo grease, fat, gorra cap, gorro hood, 
cape, goso joy, enjoyment; gorto taste; goto, drop; molko 
sauce, tronco trunk, stump; thus: adornos, bolsos, estb- 
jos, etc. 

14. Theiua. 

Among the persons who assisted at the funeral (exequies) 
of the brother and sister, there were besides their parents ; 
their grandparents and the servants, more than a hundred 
men, but only a few women. All men are mortal. Of what 
died the children of the count and countess? They are said 
to have succumbed to the measles or small-pox. The arms 
over the chief entry has been covered with crape in sign 
of mourning. To make these tasks correct, every care is to 

Formation of the Plural of Nouns. 269 

e employed and particular attention to be bestowed upon gender 
and number of the nouns. The shopkeeper of the next corner 
sells victuals and other goods of all kinds. I bought there 
5 pounds of sugar, 2 kilos of coffee, 3 litres of wine, and 
6 J /2 meters of ribbon, as also half a dozen pairs of gloves 
and three dozens and a half of handkerchiefs. In Lisbon 
there are in the halls (= portal or vestibulo) of the better 
houses doorkeepers sitting behind ornamental tables, to give 
information to the visitors and to receive and hand over to 
the residents visiting-cards or any kind of commissions. The 
Portuguese peasants like to eat boiled grains of lupine. (The) 
tastes differ: while some like pork, others prefer eggs, 
and others still like sauces best. The Portuguese woods are 
j full of gorse, a prickly plant of which there are various kinds. 
, These gorses generally grow on dry ground and bear (= dar) 
yellow blossoms. 

15. Versao. 

Todas as segundas e quintas-feiras os guarda-livros d'aquel- 

j las casas d'exportacao teem mais que fazer do que nos outros 

dias da semana, por serem vesperas da partida dos paqu6tes. 

| As vezes nao bastam os esforc.os d'esses empregados para 

senhorear todos os trabalhos, mas e" precise pedir reforQO aos 

: prepostos e mais empregados. Destes tro^os d'arvore reben- 

taram alguns renovos, e por entre estes destroys de tijolos e 

esses abrolhos ha muitas gavinhas de hera agarradas as fendas 

i pelas adhesivas. Os zelos muitas vezes sao signal, ou de poucos 

miolos ou de poucas entranhas. Chama-se Cortes ao parla- 

mento portugugs, assim como ao edificio, onde esta o parla- 

mento; de ordinario sao abertas no dia dois de Janeiro. Em 

j Lisboa ha guarda-portoes em todas as melhores casas particu- 

! lares. Nos mercados compram-se muito baratas todas as hor- 

\ tali9as, taes como as couve-flores, os brdccolos, os espinafres, 

j as aze"das, os brfidos e outras hervas; e os rnal-me-queres e 

! amores-perfeitos as mao-cheias. 

16. Leitura. 

Tomada de Santarem 1 (1147). 

Na noite do sabbado, destinada para o assalto, tornava-se 

probabilissimo que os atalaias e roldas 2 estivessem descuidados. 

Se, como parece, o calculo foi este, calculo na verdade nao 

i ^___ 

1 Santarem, a town upon the Tagus in the province of 
Estremadura, the ancient Scalabis of the Eomans and once one 

' of the strongest bulwarks of the Saracens. 

2 Rolddj antiquated, modernly ronda = patrol. 

270 Lesson 5. 

exempto de perfidia, as esperancas dos christaos falharam em 
parte. No logar onde habitualmente nao havia sentinellas, 
descobriam-se agora duas, que mutuamente se espertavam 
a vozes. 

A pequena hoste, cuja rectaguarda o principe l fechava, 
parou entao no meio de uma seara, esperando que os vigias 
adormecessem com a modorra do quarto d'alva. Largas horas 
Ihes deviam parecer estas em que esperavam; mas os dois 
musulmanos cederam por fim ao somno. Pelo tecto da casa 
de um olleiro contigua ao muro, Mem Eamires coseu-se com 
este e procurou com a ponta da lan$a segurar uma escada as 
ameias; mas, falhando-lhe o tiro, a escada caiu com grande 
ruido. Nao titubeou elle entre a vida e a morte e, curvando-se, 
ergueu sobre os hombros um soldado, que lancou as maos a 
aresta da muralha, e, pulando acima, pode amarrar a escada 
a uma das ameias. N'um relance o alferes subiu com o pendao 
real e hasteou-o. Quasi a um temgo Mem Ramires se achou 
ao pe d'elle. Tudo isto foi obra de um instante ; mas o ruido 
despertara, de feito, as sentinellas. Olharam : o pavoroso estan- 
darte do tyranno Ibu Errik estava la como o espectro da morte. 
Estupefactos, perguntaram ambos com voz tomada: Quern 
sois? Fora impossivel enganal-os. Tres vozes clamaram em 
brados confuses: Nazarenos! Tres eram tambem os christaos 
que se achavam no adarve. Mem Eodrigues respondeu com 
o grito de guerra: Santiago e rei Affonso! (Continua.) 


Que e" Santarem? Como se chamava antigamente? 
Que importancia tinha sob o dominio dos saracenos 

(mouros) ? 

Por quern foi tomada? E em que anno? 
Quern e"ra Affonso Henriques? E quando reinava? 
Qual era o calculo dos assaltadores ? 
Quern deu o primeiro assalto? e como? 
Qual foi o resultado d'essa tentativa? 
Como reparou Mem Ramires o mallogro? 
Como se descreve o encontro dos portugue"sens com os 

saracenos ? 

1 Affonso Henriques, first king of Portugal, 11281185. 

Use of the Article. 271 

Sixth Lesson, 

Use of the Article. 

19. The definite Article (artigo definido) is not 
only employed before nouns (nomes communs) but also 
in the following cases: 

(a) It substantiates any other particle, any letter 
or even a whole sentence employed as a subject, attri- 
bute, or object, namely: 

(a) attributive adjectives: o hello, o licito, o 

(p) infinitives: A natureza fez o comer para o 

viver. gabares-te de sdbio mostra seres igno- 

(Y) prepositions: adverbs, conjunctions, letters 

e.g. : Defender o contra d'uma questao. 

como, o quando, o porque, o A(bc) ; 
(6) phrases: nao posso dos negligences e o nao 

quero dos contumazes, valem quasi o mesmo. 

(b) It changes appellatives into proper names; for 
instance o Porto ( harbour); a Extremadura (= the 

, extreme border) ; a Beira (= brink, bank) ; o Funchal 
(= a field set with fennel) ; a Bahia (= bay) ; o Rio de 
Janeiro ; a Granja ( farm, grange), o Espinho (= spine) 

' Portuguese bathing-places ; a Terceira (= the third), 

. island of the Azores. 

(c) On the other hand, it changes proper names into 
1 appellatives : os Albtiquerques, os Castros, os Camoes i.e. 

prominent naval leaders such as Affonso d 1 Albuquer- 
que and D. Joao de Castro, or famous poets like Camoes ; 
for instance : Gil Vicente foi ckamado o Plauto portugues 
Gil Vicente was called the Portuguese Plautus. 

N.B. Also family names indicating totality may be em- 
ployed in the plural. 

(d) The definite Article is also employed with proper 
names preceded by an adjective (young, old, little, poor 

; included) or followed by an apposition e.g. : o eloquente 
Cicero ; Guilherme o Conquistador, young Henry o joven 

272 Lesson 6. 

Are excepted from this rule santo (Santo) and sao 
(Sao) Saint, as also the ordinary numbers employed 
with names of regents, and several other appositions: 
Santo Antonio e o padroeiro de Lisboa. A biblia, tradu- 
zida por Sao Jeronymo, e conhecida pelo nome de Vul- 
gata. Luis Quatorze, Carlos-Quinto, Alexandre Magno] 
Deus Poderoso. 

(e) The definite article is employed with the names 
of the seasons : a primavera Spring, no verdo in Summer, 
durante o inverno during winter. 

(f) Sometimes the definite article is found without 
a substantive, which is to be substituted. It then often 
corresponds to our that, those. Ex. : As merces que recebi 
sao manifestas a todos; aos de fora com esponto da sua 
grandeza, aos de casa com inveja de minha fortuna. 

(g) Contrary to the English, the definite article is 
generally employed before a possessive adjective, not 
indicating parentship : o meu jar dim, a vossa casa etc. ; 
but minha prima, seu marido etc. 

N.B. This rule is not alway strictly observed. 

The word indicating possession being a pronoun, 
it has no article^ Este livro e meu (this book is mine)', 
esse e teu, aquelle nao e nosso. 

(h) The definite article is employed with parts oi 
the body or its clothing, bodily qualities or states, 
and also wherever the relation between possessor and 
possession is evident (in English there is employed the 
indefinite article or the possessive adjective instead). 

Ella tern os cabellps louros e os olhos pretos. 

She has fair hair and black eyes. 

Falava com a cabega erguida e o brago estendido. 

He spoke with his head raised and his arm extended 

Maria 6 muito paredda com a mde. 

Mary is much resembling her mother. 

Tiraram os chapeus. 

They took their hats off. 

Calgdmos as luvas we put our gloves on. 

Ella tern a garganta inflammada. 

She has her throat inflamed. 

Use of the Article. 273 

Elle tern a bocca rasgada, as pernas compridas, a cinta 


He has a large mouth, long legs, a fine waist. 
Ter uma dor de denies, uma dor de cabega. 
To have a tooth -ache, a head-ache, as in English, but in 

the plural form: ter dores de denies, de cabega. 

20. The definite Article is omitted: 

(a) before proper names (cf. however 19, (b), (c) 
and (d). 

N.B. In familiar speech the article is often employed 
before names of persons : Carlos foi levar a carta. Ber- 
nardino Machado e republicano. Also the article may be put 
before the names of well-known artists e.g., As Sodas de 
Cana, pintadas pelo Veronese, e a Kermesse do Rubens . . . 

Exc. : Are excepted from this rule the names of the 
seas, rivers, mountains and continents, as well as certain 
countries and provinces which are always employed 
with the article (o Atlantico, o Mondeao, o Caramulo, 
a Europa, a Alemanha, a Japao, a Extremadura etc. ; 
but without the article: Portugal, Trds-os-Montes). Also 
the article is found always before a plural name of 
countries: as Indias; os (dois) Algarves; os Estados 
Unidos (do Brasil) etc. 

(b) before nouns, especially abstract ones, which (a) 
lare quite generally employed, or ((3) as an attribute 
i e.g. : Pobreza nao e mleza poverty is no crime. Padecer 
\por, fbrga e fraqu&sa; nao desanimar nos trabalhos, neces- 
isidade. Yet you may also read and say: Inveja e um 

vicio envy is a vice. 

(c) in vocatives i.e., addressing persons or personi- 
fied beings : Filhos (my sons) jd sei que nao posso durar 
muito. ffervas do prado, vossa vida e morte e innocente 

fYe herbs of the meadow, your life and death are in- 

(d) with the names of the months: Estamos em 
november. Foi em margo do anno passado que . . . 
However: Todo o (mez de) Janeiro esteve frigidissimo. 

(e) with the names of diseases, generally employed 
in English with the article: Elle tern bexigas (the small- 
pox), tiriha sarampo (the measles) : tern typho he has the 

i typhus. 

Portuguese Conversation-Grammar. 18 

274 Lesson 6. 

21. The article, though generally omitted before 
names of islands and towns, is employed: 

(a) when they are accompanied by an adjective or 
some other attributive determination e.g. : terremoto 
de 1755 destruiu quasi completamente a velha Lisbba] da 
qual a Lisboa d'hoje e muito differ ente] 

(b) with those proper names formed by an appel- 
lative (cf. 19, (b): a Madeira, a Guarda (town of 
Portugal); o Cairo (formed after the Arabian). 

22. Contrary to the English, the definite article 
is generally employed: 

(a) before material and abstract nouns in the nomi- 
native (as a subject, sometimes also as a predicate). 
ar e mais leve do que a dgua air is lighter than water; 
Cf.: vinho e feito de uvas . . . esse liquido e (o) vinho 
... vinagre e vinlio azedo . . . o vinagre e feito de 
vinho . . . Tambem se fas vinagre de cerveja . . . da beter- 
raba se faz assucar. chumbo e mais pesado que o ouro. 
medo 6 mau conselheiro ; 

(b) before nouns which, in contrast to 20, (b), 
are employed in a restrictive meaning e.g.: 

A pobreza de bens mater iaes ndo e villeza, mas sim a 

pobreza de dignidade. 
Poverty of material goods is no disgrace, but poverty 

of dignity is. 

Antes a pobreza honrada, 

Do que a riqueza roubada. 

Rather honourable poverty than robbed riches. 

A rega ou a chuva excessivas prejiidicam as plantas. 

Excessive watering or rains damage the plants. 

(c) before the cardinal points North and South and 
before the names of the feasts e.g.: para o sul, para 
o norte, ao sul, ao norte ; e.g. : da norte para o sul from 
North to South; but: de leste or d'este, a (or ao) deste 
from East to West; pela Pdsc(h)oa about Easter, ao 
Natal at Christmas; 

(d) with collective names of corporations, govern- 
ments, the names of sciences, religious creeds, seasons, 
metals, etc., as: 

nobility a nobreza monarchy a monarchia 

government o governo history a historia 

Use of the Article. 275 

geography a geographia Judaism o judaismo 

philosophy a philosophia winter o inverno 

posterity a posteridade spring a primavera 

mankind a humanidade gold, silver o ouro, a prata 

Christianity o christianismo iron, steel o ferro, o ago. 

(e) With nouns denoting a whole class, genus, or 
species, as: 

Man is mortal o homem e mortal. 
The voices of animals are very different. 
As vozes dos animaes sao muito differentes. 
The rich (men) are not always happy. 
Os ricos nao sao sempre felizes. 

(f) before the following and other nouns taken in 
a general sense: 

Man o homem hell o inferno 

men os liomens tea o chd 

Nature a natureza dinner o jantar 

heaven o ceu breakfast o almogo 

earth a terra supper a ceia. 

(g) also in compositions of adjectives and abstract 
nouns, which in English are used without the article, 
it cannot be omitted (cf, (b) examples) e.g.: 

human understanding o intendimento humano 

human power a forga humana 

human nature a natureza humana 

human life a vida do homem 

high life a alta roda or sociedade 

ancient history a historia antiga 

modern history a historia moderna 

universal history a historia universal 

high treason a alta traigao 

royal favour a real graga 

divine religion a divina (or santa) religiao 

English history a histdria inglesa 

English poetry a poesia inglesa 

kingly power o poder real. 

(h) "Town" in the terms "to go to town, to live 
in town," etc., is ir d (viver na) cidade. Also the names 
iof streets, squares and public buildings are employed 
with the article. A rua de Garrett, do Ouro, Garrett 
Street, Gold Street; a Praga de Dom Pedro Quarto, o 
>Eocio Rocio Square; Largo de Camoes Camoes Place. 


276 Lesson 6. 

(i) Geographical names are, contrary to the English, 
generally employed with the article (cf. 1, (a), 3; (b), 2 
20 (a) Exc. and 21) : a Inglaterra England, o Vesuvio 
Vesuvius, a Alsdcia Alsace, a JBritanha Brittany, etc. 
The terms Western, Southern, etc., which form one idea 
with the following names, are rendered in Portuguese 
by do oeste, do sul, etc. or occidental, oriental, septentrional, 
meridional e.g.: Eastern Africa a Africa de leste or 
oriental. Southern Portugal o Portugal meridional or 
de sul. 

(k) as in English the names of the months are 
employed without article, if not meant in a restrictive 
sense: Janeiro geralmente e frio: o Janeiro d'este anno 
esteve excessivamente frio. 

(1) with the article are employed todo all, the whole, 
every, ambos, ambas both, and qual which, when rela- 
tive. Todo o pais the whole country; todo o homem 
every man, o mesmo autor o qual jd citei the same 
author whom I cited already. Todos os mares os quaes 
percorri All the seas I ran through. Ambos os irniaos, 
ambos as minhas mdos both the brothers, both my hands, 
(m) The article is employed in certain idiomatic 
expressions, as: 

dar os bons dias to say good morning 

dar as boas festas (os pardbens) to send the compliments 
of the season, to felicitate 

dar os pfaames a alguem to condole with a person 

fazer as suas despedidas to bid good-bye 

pela manha, pela tarde in the morning, in the after- 

ds sete horas at 7 o'clock 

ao meio-dia at midday 

saber o portugues to know Portuguese (cf. : falar por- 

a maioria, os mais dos homens most men 

as mais das vezes mostly 

viver da mao a boca to live from hand to mouth. 

ds armas! to arms! 

17. Tema. 

The ostrich has long legs, a long neck, and very shod 
wings. The fox has a more slender form than the wolf. Mj 
children have fair hair and blue eyes. Do you know thai 
girl with the brown eyes? Yes, I know her; she is th< 

Use of the Article. 277 

daughter of a German in Alsace. In Germany people have 
mostly light eyes; the more towards south, the more dark 
eyes are met with. In Northern Europe most persons have 
flaxen hair. America is bathed in the east by the Atlantic 
Sea, and in the west by the Pacific. Do you learn French? 
Not yet; I shall learn it as soon as I know Portuguese. I 
thought I had already heard you speaking Portuguese. In- 
deed, but I do not yet know it well. Folar, from the French 
poularde (= fattened poultry), is a present given in Portugal 
at Easter, in some places also at Christmas. At Christmas time 
you may send the compliments of the season from Christmas 
Eve until Epiphany (dia dos [tres] reis [magos]). I wish you 
a happy New Year with all my heart (see 14). My sister 
has her throat inflamed and my friend has a head-ache. 
January was very cold. Japan is now a great Power. The 
i Emperor of China died young. 

18. Versao. 
Portugal continental e insular. 

Portugal, a Lusitania dos antigos, e" um dos estados da 

i Europa occidental. Elle occupa quasi toda a parte d'oeste da 

peninsula iberica, tendo por limites ao norte (N.) e a leste 

(E.) o reino de (a) Espanha, ao sul (S.) e a oeste (0. or W.) o 

oceano. seu maior comprimento, desde Chaves junto a 

, Melga90 ate ao cabo de Santa Maria no Algarve, e de 103 

leguas, a sua maior largura de n ascent e a poente desde Campo 

! Maior ate ao cabo da Roca, e de 44 leguas. A superficie 6 

de 3150 leguas quadradas. A populaQao no continente 6 

poueo mais de 5 milhoes. A capital e a cidade de Lisboa 

' sobre o Tejo. Outras cidades importantes sao: o Porto, 

i Coimbra, Vizeu, Braga, Setiibal. Comprehende este reino, 

ale"m do continente, as ilhas chamadas adjacentes, que sao as 

dos AQores, da Madeira (vulgarmente denominada a Ilha) e 

Porto Santo. Outras ilbas sao o archipelago de Cabo Verde, 

as ilhas de Sao Thom6 e Principe. archipelago de Cabo 

Verde forma dois grupos, a saber: o de Barlavento ao norte 

que se compoe das ilhas de Santo Antao, Santa Luzia, Sao 

Vicente ; Sao Nicolau, Sal, Boa Vista; e o de Sotavento ao 

sul, o qual consta das ilhas de Sao Thiago, Maio, Fogo e 

Brava. Na Oceania ha a ilha de Timor, que serve de degredo. 


Onde esta (ou fica) situado Portugal? 
De que peninsula faz parte? 
Quaes sao os seus limites? 
Qual e o seu maior comprimento? 

278 Lesson 7. 

E qual e a sua maior largura? 

Qual < a sua snperficie? 

De que numero e a populate? 

Quaes sao as cidades mais importantes ? 

Quaes sao as chamadas ilhas adjacentes? 

De quantos grupos se compoe o archipelago de Cabo 

E quaes sao? 

Seventh Lesson. 

Use of the Article (continued). 
23. The Definite Article before the Attribute. 

(a) The nouns nome, titulo, mes, fdlta are joined to 
the following noun or proper name (if this be not a geni- 
tive) by de without article, o nome de Defensor, titulo 
de rei, mes de dbril, a fdlta d'dgua. (Of.: titulo do rei 
de Portugal era "Fidelissimo" ; Mingua e a fdlta do ne- 

(b) The appellatives ilha, cidade, villa, reino, estado, 
provincia, porto, rua, imperio, regido, serra, cabo, etc., are 
joined to the following proper name by de with or 
without the article (see Task 18). 

N.B. In a mere enumeration of names the appellative 
with de and article is omitted (id.). 

The employment of the article and its form after 
these appellatives depends on the following proper name 
being used, when alone, with or without the article, 
and whether this be in the masculine or feminine, sin- 
gular or plural form e.g.: 

A ilha de Timor, do Fogo, do Haiti, da Madeira, 
da Trindade, as ilhas de Hyeres, dos Azores, das Ca- 
ndrias. Yet without article: a ilha Terceira (i.e., the 

A cidade de Setubal, do Porto, do Funchal, da 
Guarda, da Figueira da Foz, de Sao Cosme, das Pedras 
Salgadas, das Torres Vedras, etc. 

The same with villa, porto, if these appellatives 
are not a part of the proper name as, for instance, in 
the following: 

Use of the Article. 279 

Villa Franca. Villa Franca de Xira, Villa Franca 
do Campo, Villa Fria, Villa Vigosa, Porto-Alegre, Porto 
Cabreiro, Porto de Mots, Porto da Guarda, etc. 

Cabo 1 dc Sao Vicente, da Boca, Cabo Delgado, 
Cabo Negro, do Norte, da Praia, da Boa Esperanca, das 

A rua (travessa, escada, calcada, praca, o beco, ca- 
minho, largo, caes, passadigo) de El-Eei, de Joao de Deus, 
de D. Fernando, do Forno do Tijolo, da Fdbrica das 
Sedas, das Cavallarigas do Infante, dos Cardeaes de Jesus, 
do Sodre, do Terreiro Publico. 

iinperio de AUemanha, do Japao; o reino de 
\ Portugal, os Estados Unidos do Brasil, o imperio da 


As provincias da Beira, da Estramadura, do Alem- 
tejo, de Trds-os- Monies. 

(c) Rio is always employed without de if indi- 
cating a river e.g.: o rio Douro, o rio Tejo, o rio Lima; 
but o Rio de Janeiro. 

24. The Definite Article and the Apposition. 

1. A noun in apposition is generally employed wit- 
, liout the article, when following the name : A rainha 

D. Leonor, regente do reino, confidra o governo do Alem- 

', tejo a D. Jodo, Mestre d'Aviz. Estivemos no Porto, 

cidade episcopal, a segunda da monarchia em popula^ao. 

2. The apposition is employed with the article in 
, the' following cases : 

(a) When the proper name is preceded by a title 

,(not being Dom, Dona, Frei, Sor, etc.): doutor Nogu- 

eira] a menina Maria-, o padre Jose. (But Dom Carlos 

Berquo, Dona Carolina Michaelis', Frei Luis de Sousa\ 

Sor Marianna.) N.B. If these titles are preceded by 

\senhor, senJiora, rei, rainha, they too are employed with 

the article: 

a ex-rainha Dona Amelia, o ex-rei (El-rei) Dom Ma- 
nuel, etc. 

A senhora Dona Beatriz Artgelo foi a primeira mulher em 
Portugal que em 1911 votou nas eleigoes parlamentares. 

1 Cabo, making part of the name, is written with a capital 
letter, as also Villa, Porto, Rio in the same case. 

280 Lesson 7. 

(b) When it is an historical addition after a personal 
name, without being an ordinal number e.g.: 

Dom Joao II (Segundo), o Principe perfeito, iniciou a 
epoca dos grandes descdbertas dos Portugueses. 

(c) As a superlative (which, not being one ending 
in -or, may also folloiv the noun): 

Trindade Coelho, o melhor contista moderno e um dos 
caracteres mais nobres que Portugal teve, morreu em 
9 de agosto 1908. 

0s Lusiadas e o titulo do poema de Camoes, poeta 
portugues o mais celebre do seu tempo. 

(d) When indicating something notorious or famous. 
Foi Vasco de Gama, o grande navegador, que descobriu 

o caminho maritimo das Indias. 

25. The Indefinite Article and the Predicative 


1. The predicative noun is employed without 
article and preposition, when indicating in a general 
way a state, profession, title, parentship, office or em- 
ployment, dignity, character, nationality, etc., with the 
verbs : 

(a) ser, ficar, fazer-se, tornar-se, dizer-se, nascer, 
morrer, parecer, padecer etc. Ex.: 

Dizia-se correligiondrio dos monarchistas } para ficar 

He passed himself off as a partisan. of the monarchists, 

in order to remain a deputy. 
Meu amigo e portugues e auctor; tornou-se sdbio. 
My friend is a Portuguese and an author; he became 

a learned man. 

Bern que tivesse nascido filho do povo, morreu presidente. 
Though he was born a child of the vulgar, he died a 


(b) nomear to nominate, appoint, acclamar, pro- 
clamar to proclaim, eleger to elect, crer, consider ar, jul- 
gar to think, armar cavalleiro to create a knight. 

Dom Joao I. foi eleito Mestre da ordem de Aviz e armado 
cavalleiro por seu pae, (o rei) Dom Pedro I. Em 
1385 foi acclamado rei de Portugal. 

Use of the Article. 281 

2. The predicative noun is employed without ar- 
ticle, but with preposition after the verbs escolher (-se) 
para to chose (to be chosen); passar por, ser tido por 
to pass for, to be taken for ; tomar or ter por to think, 

Escolheram-se os homens mais resolutos para combatentes; 

escolheu-se para general urn capitdo experimentado. 
Passava por homem capaz e recto, sempre o tinha tornado 

(or tido) por tal. 

3. The indefinite article is omitted with a noun in 
apposition, as: 

A Ceia dos Cardeaes, comedia por Julio Dantas. 
The Cardinals' Supper, a comedy by Julio Dantas. 

4. Omitted also on the title-page of a book: 
Grammdtica portuguesa a Portuguese Grammar. 
Historia da Inglaterra a History of England. 

5. A, an when used in the sense of "per" is ren- 
dered by por or the definite article: 

Five pounds a month cinco libras por (or o) mes. 

So much a lesson tanto por (or a) ligao. 

To give so much a head dar tanto por (or a) cabega. 

26. Repetition of the Article. 

(a) The article, as also its substitutes e.g., the 
possessive or demonstrative adjectives, is repeated before 
several nouns or adjectives expressing diversity of 
meaning: Vird a julgar os vivos e os mortos. Os soldados 
mogos e os velhos. 

(b) The article is not repeated when those words 
do not express diversity, but similarity, even though 
their gender be different e.g.: "Entre as ruinas e mo- 
numentos antiquissimos que se cncontram ainda pelo 
pais . . " 

(Concerning the adjective in the plural see Lesson 9.) 

19. Thema. 

Harbours, bays, capes, provinces and towns of Portugal. 
(See the map in the innerside of the front cover of this book.) 
Portugal being a shore-land (pais d beira-mar), it has on 
its coast some important harbours, where ships may sail into 

282 Lesson 7. 

and cast anchor in order to embark and disembark passengers 
and goods. The principal harbours of Portugal are: that of 
Lisbon, the best of all and one of the largest and most beau- 
tiful in the world. There may enter it at any hour of the 
day or night ships of any size, and there would be room 
for (= caber) all the ships in the world. Following the 
coast from north to south, we meet with the following 
harbours: that of 1 Caminha, Vianna, Espozende, Povoa de 
Varzim, Leixoes, an artificial harbour near the fishing- 
villages of Lega and Mattosinhos; Sao Joao da Foz near 
Oporto; Aveiro, Figueira da Foz, Vieira, S. Martinho; those 
of (da) Ericeira, of Cascaes, a beautiful bay called "the Por- 
tuguese Riviera"; of Setiibal, a very ancient commercial town 
situated on the Ria 2 do Sado; of Sines, Villa Nova de Mil- 
fontes, Sagres, a harbour made famous by the Infant Dom Hen- 
rique with the surname "the Navigator" ; Lagos, a bay where 
the English fleet used to have its manoeuvres; Villa Nova de 
Portimdo, Faro, Tavira, Villa Eeal de Santo Antonio. 

As Portugal is a littoral, the land stretches now and then 
into the ocean (tr. : pelo mar dentro), forming greater and 
smaller capes or points. The principal capes of Portugal are 
the following: The cape of Mondego, of Carvoeiro, da Eoca,, 
the most occidental cape of Europe; the cape of Espichel, 
of Sines, of Saint Vincent, of Santa Maria. 

Portugal has eight provinces, each of which has its capital: 
that of the Mirilio, the most northern province, is called 
Braga; that of Trds-os- Montes : Braganga; that of the province 
of Douro: Oporto; that of the Beira-Alta: Vizeu; of the Beira- 
Baixa: Guarda; of Estremadura: Lisbon, at the same time 
capital of the country; of Alemtejo: ficora; and that of Al- 
garve: Faro. 

20. Yersao. 
Portugal ultramarino. 

(Vide o mappa na parte antero-interior da capa d'este livro.) 

As provincias ultramarinas, vastos territories situ ados na 
Africa, Asia e Oceania 3 , e sujeitos a, um regimen adminastra- 
tivo especial, comprehendem : na Africa: ale"m das provincias 
insulares de Cabo- Verde (see Less. 18), S. Thome e Principe, as 
continentaes de Guine, Angola e Mo9ambique; na Asia: o 

1 Substitute always "that of." 

2 Ria is the mouth of a river enlarged to a sea. (Of. on 
the map: Sado, Tejo; Ria de Vigo (in Spain). 

3 Oceania or Oceania. The former accentuation is scientific, 
the latter popular. 

Use of the Article. 283 

estado da India e a provincia de Macau; na Oceania: o dis- 
tricto autonomo de Timor. 

A provincia da Guin compoe-se de territories na costa 
occidental da Africa, e de muitas ilhas. D'essas ilhas, as mais 
importantes sao: Bissau, Bolama, Jatte, todas perto da costa; 
e mais ao largo as 12 ilhas do archipelago de Bijagos. A 
provincia de Angola esta quasi toda no continente da A- 
frica, pois defronte da costa apenas tem uma ilha de areia. 
seu territorio 6 enorme, e alguns o avaliam em um milhao 
e 300 mil kilometres quadrados. A capital de Angola 3 a 
cidade de Loanda; e as suas principaes povoac.oes, alem de 

i Loanda, sao as seguintes : Cabinda, Ambaca, Malange, Benguella 
e Mossamedes. -- Mozambique, provincia ultramarina na costa 

1 oriental da Africa, e formada por extensos territorios litoraes 
e ainda por muitas ilhas fronteiras, proximo e ao longo da 
costa. A provincia comprehends os districtos de Mozambique, 
Zambezia, Inhambane e Lourenzo Marques etc. A capital 
e a cidade de Mozambique, situada na ilha do mesmo nome. 
As suas principaes povoa^oes, alem da capital, sao: Quelimane, 
Inhambane, Lourenzo Marques, Sofala. Estado da India 
comprehende os territorios de Goa (capital : Nova Goa ou 
Pangim), de Damao e de Dia. A provincia de Macau e for- 
mada de parte de uma peninsula a entrada do rio de Cantao, e 
de duas ilhas muito proximas d'aquella: Taipa e Colovane. A 
cidade de Macau, capital d'esta provincia, occupa quasi toda 

i a parte portuguesa da peninsula a entrada do rio de Cantao. 
districto de Timor consta de parte da ilha de Timor e de 
uma pequena ilha, chamada de Pulo-Cambing. A ilha de Timor 

j e" uma das ilhas do archipelago de Sonda, archipelago que 
alguns geographos modernos entendem pertencer a Asia e nao 

i a Oceania. Dilly, capital do districto portugues de Timor fica 
na costa septentrional da ilha. 

Foi durante o reinado de D. Joao I e sub a direcQao de 
D. Henrique o Navegador, seu filho, que se descobriram mais 
de 360 le"guas da costa africana, desde o cabo Bojador ate" a Serra 
Leoa, e as formosas ilhas do Atlantico, de que foram ventu- 
rosas primicias as ilhas de S. Miguel, S a - Maria, Terceira, 
Azores, Porto Santo e Madeira. 


Quaes sao os portos principaes de Portugal? 

Quaes sao os seus principaes cabos, seguindo do norte 

para o sul? 

Quantas provincias tem esse reino? 
Quaes sao os nomes d'ellas e das suas capitaes? 
Que se entende por Portugal ultramarino? 

284 Lesson 8. 

Quaes sao as suas colonias africanas? 

Como se chamam as principaes povoa^oes de Angola? 

de Mozambique? 

De que territories se compoe o Estado da India? 
De que e formada a provincia de Macau? 
De que consta o districto de Timor? 

Eighth Lesson. 

Omission of the Article. 

(Cf. 20, 21, 24 (1) a, 25, 1 and 2). 
27. The article (or its substitute) is omitted: 

(a) in mere numerations (cf. 23 (b) N.B.) e.g.: 
Roubou-lhe reUgio, corrente, anneiSj tudo. 

(b) often with nem . . . nem neither . . . nor (also often 
omitted in English): 

N^isto nao ha nem honra nem proveito. Eu m nem casa 
nem jardim. 

(c) after jdrnais and nunca before the subject, if 
not determinate: 

Nunca honra maior foi offerecida a ninguem. 
Never a greater honour was offered to anybody. 
Jdmais haverd amigo mais leal. 

(d) in sentences denoting doubt, negation as well 
as in questions expressing uncertainty, supposition, or 
negation : 

Duvido que haja qualidade melhor. 

I doubt whether there be a better quality. 

Nao havia coragao mais nobre do que o d'elle. 

There was no heart more generous than his. 

Tens amigo dedicado, e>n que possas fiar-te? 

Have you a devoted friend that you may depend upon ? 

Cabega de rapaz sobre a qual esses olhos admiraveis 

pousassem um instante, era cabe$a perdida. 
Any young man's head those admirable eyes rested upon 

for a moment, was lost. 
Jd se viu pessoa mais ingrata? 
Was there ever seen a more ungrateful person? 

Omission of the Article. 


(e) before a noun or substantiated 
iployed in a general meaning e.g.: 

estado e de guerra. 

The situation is that of war. 


pais ndo se resigna jd a situagao de vencido. 
The country resigns itself no longer to the situation 
of a vanquished (nation). 

(f) before the adjectives tao, outro, tal, qual, tal 
quad, qual outro, semelhante, igual, meio, certo, tamanho 
(also subst.), and the substantives mtmero, parte, porcao, 
quantidade, quantia, somma, gente, pessoa, coisa. 

(N.B. Before the nouns and certo the article may be 

Em certa occasiao a indignagao foi tamanha que . . . 
On a certain occasion indignation was so strong that . . . 
Nao querendo dar-lhe avultada quantia, dett-lhe meia 

Not feeling inclined to give him a big sum, he gave 

him a half promise. 
Houve grande quantidade de gente e muita somma de 

There was a great number of people and a large 

amount of intelligence. 
Grande parte dos pedintes recebeu porgao igual d dos 

A great part of the poor got a portion equal to that 

of the inmates of a charitable institution. 
De-me outro cdpo d'agua. 
Give me another cup of water. 
caracter deste sujeito e qual eu desejo. 
The character of this man is such as I desire. 
Tal mulher me fosse ella, qual marido eu Ihe sou. 
Were she such a wife to me as I am a husband to her. 
Elle aoriu caminho qual outro Arnaldo de Winkelried. 
He made a way like a second A. W. 

(g) before coisa in connection with alguma or nen- 

Viu alguma coisa? Nao m coisa alguma (or nenhuma). 

(h) often in titles and headings: Tomo segundo; 
Capitulo primeiro-, Descoberta da India; 

286 Lesson 8. 

(i) before nouns employed predicatively : sr. Jose 
e primo do Carlos. Carlos e amigo do primo. Francisco 
d' Almeida foi vice-rei da India; 

(k) with parts of the body spoken of in a general 
meaning: (cf.19(h)): corpo humano tern dois bracos, 
duas pernas, cabeca e tronco. Temos mdo direita e mdo 
esquerda, pe direito e pe esquerdo; 

(1) in dates : Lisboa, (em) 18 de junho, Lisbon, June 
the 18 th . An exception to this is the official dating: 
Lisboa^ aos dezoito dias de junho de 1861. 

(m) in phrases like these: 

prestar juramento to take an oath 
prestar servigo to do a service 
pdr termo or metier cdbo a to put an end to 
foliar (a) verdade to tell the truth 
fazer de bobo to make a fool of oneself 
fazer boa (md) figura to make a good (bad) figure 
fazer numero to elevate or complete a number 
dar bom resultado to give a good result 
tirar bom lucro to get a good profit 
exhalar mdu cheiro to exhale a bad smell 
abrir banca to establish an office 
ter (por) costume to be in the habit 
convocar cortes to convoke the House of Commons 
abrir caminho to make a way 
estar a ponto de . . . to be on the point of 
e costume it is the custom 
fazer aposta to lay a wager 
a pretexto de under a pretence 
morrer de febre to die of the fever 
morreu victima da revolugdo he fell a victim to the re- 

ir a acto to go in for an examination. 
fazer examen to pass an examination 
viver em casa de . . . to live in the house of 
ndo dizer palavra to say not a word 
ter costume to be in the habit 
correr risco to run a risk. 

j (uma) pena it is a pity 
ter appetite to have an appetite 
estar com press a to be in a hurry 
estar com raiva to be in a fury 
ficar com raiva to fly into a passion 

Omission of the Article. 287 

ter fim to have an end 

fazer barulho to make a noise 

ter vontade to have a mind 

ter como regra to make it a rule 

(em) termo medio on an average 

com vista with a view 

fazer signal to make a sign 

fazer presente (de) to make a present (of) 

dar batalha to fight a battle 

tomar exemplo to take an example 

falar em voz baixa (alia) to speak in a low (loud) voice 

nao ha meio de there is no means of. 

e moda it is the fashion 

e fora de questao it is out of the question. 

Note that the indefinite article is not used with que: 

What a noise you make! Que barulho estd a fazer! 
What a misfortune! Que desgraga! 

28. The article may be omitted: 

(1) In enumerating several substantives which are 
! joined by e, ou, etc., or separated by a comma, and 
not denote a contrast (cf. 26) however being of diffe- 
rent gender e.g.: 

Os habitantes dos vdrios bairros, aldeias e arrabaldes. 

It is the same for several adjectives which acorn- 
pany the noun: 

A primeira, segunda e terceira classe or: as classes pri- 
meira, segunda e terceira. 

N.B. If such a noun precedes, it is used in the plural. 
80 with such adjectives as, by their nature, follow the noun : 

As linguas portuguesa e inglesa. 

The Portuguese and English languages, 
noun not being employed in the plural, the article must 
be repeated: 

A lingua portuguesa e a inglesa. 
Equally repeated is the article, if living beings of different 
ex are spoken of: 

Os bois e as vaccas. Os burros ou as jumentas. 

29. The partitive article is omitted after the 
prepositions com, sem, por, in certain idiomatic ex- 
pressions; also after de denoting the instrument or 
cause. Ex.: 


Lesson 8. 

com prazer with pleasure 
com paciencia with patience 
com cuidado with care 
com elegancia elegantly 
sem dinheiro without money 
sem ceremdnia without cere- 
sem mais nada with no more 


por dia daily, a day 
por anno yearly, a year 
por mes monthly, a month 
por mar by water, by sea 
por terra by land 

por tal forma in such a manner 
por 6ra for the moment 
por causa de for the sake of 
por ventura by chance 
sob pena de morte on pain of 

encher de beneficios to load 

with benefits 
viver de pao to live upon 

morrer de fome to be starved 

to death 
saltar de alegria to jump with 


30. No article is used (a) before a substantive 
which is repeated with a preposition, as: 

a gota by drops 
folha a folha leaf upon leaf 
dia a dia day after day 
de dia para dia from one day to another 
promessas sdbre promessas promises upon promises 
de tempo(s) a tempo (s) from time to time 
de seculo em seculo from age to age. 

(b) In the following expressions, where the noun 
forms an indivisible unity with the verb, the article is 
omitted in both languages: 

ter razao to be right 
ndo ter razao to be wrong 
ter vontade to have a mind 
ter precisdo to want 
lanQar dncora to cast anchor 
levantar dncora to weigh 

ter cuidade to take care 

ter fome to be hungry 

ter sMe to be thirsty 

ter somno to be sleepy 

ter boa cara to look well 

ter piedade to have pity 

ter vergonha to be ashamed 
ter medo to be afraid 

(c) In certain expressions formed with de, em, a, 
sobre, as: 

estar em risco to be at stake 

estar sobre dncora to be at anchor 

pegar em armas to take up arms 

ser de opiniao to be of opinion 

pdr em fugida to put to flight 

perder de vista to lose sight of 

comprar em segunda mao to buy second hand 


Omission of the Article. 

a cavallo to go on horseback 

de carrudgem to go in a carriage 
estar em casa to be at home 
ir a casa to go home 
estar de (or em) pe to be standing 
estar a pe to be up 
tomar parte eni to join in 
tomar cuidado to be upon one's guard 
tomar assento to take a seat 
tomar sentido to be aware 
tomar fogo to catch fire 
tomar folego to breathe 
dar gragas to say grace 
dar (or fazer) attengdo to pay attention 
fazer caso de to value 
fazer mengdo de to mention 
fazer fortuna to make one's fortune 
pedir licenga to ask leave 
pedir perdao to beg pardon 
dar credito a to give credence 
pdr-se em pe, to rise 
vir a pe. to come on foot 
estar em paz to be at peace. 

31. In some expressions the indefinite article is 
employed, as in English, in the sense of one e.g.: 

d'um folego in a breath 
n'uma palavra in a word 

d'uma assentada \ ol1 
71 A } all at once 

d uma vez J 

d'um trago at a draught. 

32. Employed in the plural, the indefinite article 
has the meaning of some or about: 

Uns dias depots; durante umas horas ; 
Serdo preciso uns seis metros de fazenda. 

21. Thema. 

Virtue is the highest good. Men are mortal. Modesty 
adorns youth. Human life is short. Man is liable to a variety 
of changes. Gold and silver cannot render man happy. Beer 
is sold at fivepence a pot. This coffee costs two shillings a pound. 
The love of glory and the fear of shame are often the cause 
of great valour. Summer is warm, but winter is cold. Geo- 
graphy is a very useful science. Good and bad seem to be 
blended together through the whole of nature. Do you know 

Portuguese Conversation-Grammar. 19 

290 Lesson 8. 

General Knox? Yes, I know him. The knife and fork are 
broken. Let us go to church. The boys were at school this 
morning, but now they are at home. When did they come 
home? After two o'clock. 

What books have you got there ? Langenscheidt, a Por- 
tuguese pocket-dictionary and Ey, a Portuguese conversation- 
grammar. What cold weather to-day! Did you find some 
means of saltisfying him? I do not know, he said not a 
word. His mother made us a sign to leave the room. The 
poor woman was dying from hunger and cold. You are 
always right; I have been wrong. Have pity on my weakness. 
I must ask your leave. Many poor people live on bread and 
potatoes only. The rent of this house is twenty pounds a 
year. We expected our friend every day (say: from, day to 
day), but day after day elapsed without bringing him. Cha- 
rity begins at home (by itself). Necessity knows no law. Games, 
conversation, theatre, nothing entertains him. 

Mr. Teixeira Lopes is a Portuguese and a sculptor. He 
lives at Villa Nova de Gaya, in front of Oporto, on the left 
side of the Rio Douro, Hua Direita. He is a most famous 
artist. Some of his most important works are in Lisbon for 
instance, the monument to Ega de Queiroz, one of the most 
eminent novelists, the so-called Portuguese Zola; it is erected 
on the Largo do Quintella. In Catholic countries it is the 
custom to hear the Mass every day. 

22. Versao. 
Jdo I (primeiro). 

Dom Joao I r rei de Portugal, cognominado o de Boa 
3Iemoria, mas mais conhecido pelo seu titulo de Mestre d'Aviz, 
foi fiiho de el-rei D. Pedro I e de D. Thereza Louren90. Nasceu 
em Lisboa a 15 de abril de 1358, e na idade de 11 annos foi 
eleito mestre da ordem de Aviz e armado cavalleiro por seu 
pae. A prudencia e valor deste monarcha deveu Portugal a 
conserva^ao da sua independencia, que esteve a ponto de perder 
com a morte de D. Fernando I. Mestre de Aviz, a quem 
a rainha D. Leonor, regente do reino, confiara o governo do 
Alemtejo, para o afastar de Lisboa, aonde era benquisto do 
povo, foi ao pa$o a pretexto de conferenciar com ella. Em- 
quanto fazia espalhar a noticia de que ali o retinham prisio- 
neiro, apunhalou o conde de Ourem, valido da rainha, vingando 
assim a affronta de que este fora criminoso autor. N'um ins- 
tante appareceu armada a populasao de Lisboa. D. Joao 
publicou a morte do conde, e foi logo acclamado regente e 
defensor do reino, que jurou defender contra Castella. 
D. Leonor retirou-se para Alemquer, villa da provincia de 
Extremadura, e o monarcha castelhano entrou em Portugal, 

Congruence. 291 

empenhando todo o seu poderio, para tomar Lisboa. Porem 
as bem acertadas medidas e o valor de D. Joao e do grande 
condestavel D. Nuno Alvares Pereira, inseparavel companheiro 
das suas glorias militares, fizeram com que os Portugueses 
sustentassem o sitio, ate que o grande exercito sitiador se viu 
obrigado a retirar-se. (Continua.) 


Corno foi cognominado D. Joao I? 

Qual o titulo pelo que era ainda mais conhecido? 

Quando nasceu? 

Que e que Ihe deve Portugal? 

Quern foi D. Leonor? 

Qual foi o acto com que o Mestre d'Aviz vingou a af- 

fronta feita ao povo e a memoria do rei pela rainha 

viuva e o seu favorite castellao? 
Que succedeu depois d'este acto? 
Quern foi o companheiro d'armas de D. Joao I? 
Qual foi o resultado das medidas e do valor de ambos ? 

Second Division: Syntax. 
Ninth Lesson. 


33. The adjective, the article and the past 
participle conjugated with ser or estar agree in gender 
and number with their noun or pronoun e.g.: 

amigo certo corihece-se na occasiao incerta. 
Exceptions. 1. The subject being the pronoun vds (or 
que referring to v6s), and indicating only one person, those 
words are in the singular: Vos sereis feliz. V6s sois amado 
or amada. 

2. The subject being quern followed by the verb ser and 
a substantive in the plural as a predicative noun, the verb 
agrees with the latter (as in English): Quern foram os pro- 
genitores de D. Affonso L? 

3. See L. 16, 72, N.B. 

Contrary to the English, the verb ser, when used im- 
personally, agrees with the following predicative noun: Sao 
quatro horas it is 4 o'clock. Sao dezoito do mes it is the 


292 Lesson 9. 

eighteenth of the month. Quern e? Sou eu. Who is it? 
It is I. 

34. (a) Several nouns in the singular being 
accompanied by the same adjective or past participle, 
the latter takes the form of the plural: a lingua, (a) 
grammdtica e (a) literatura portuguesas. Sao necessdrias 
a circumspeccao e a prudencia. A senhora e a crianga 
estavam cangados. Com as suas tdo apregoadas probidade 
c distingao teem tecido toda esta trama. 

(b) The nouns being of different gender, without 
diversity in their meaning, the adjective or participle, 
when employed in the singular, agrees with the next 
to it: amor e amizade verdadeira or: a amizade e 
amor verdadeiro. Com verdadeiro amor e amizade. E 
necessario o esforgo e a vigilancia. E necessaria a vigi- 
lancia e o esforco. 

(c) Those nouns being of different gender and 
meaning, or the adjective (or participle) being in the 
plural, it agrees with the masculine noun: Urn dia e 
uma noite eram passados. Nem o sangue, nem as lagrimas 
estavam enxutos. A cortiga e os couros foram declarados 
de commercio livre. 

(d) The same adjective or participle referring to 
several nouns in the plural and of different gender, it 
agrees with the next to it: Seus temores e esperancas 
eram vas, or: eram v&os seus temores e esperangas. 

(e) The same adjective referring to a noun in the 
plural and another in the singular, it generally agrees 
with that of the plural: As fazendas e o dinlieiro eram 
muitas. 1 

35. (a) The verb agrees with its subject in 
person and number: 

tempo foge; eu escrevo; nos vamos. 

1 Cf. No dia e horas indicados, as irmas dirigiram-se ao 
Vaticano. (Manual Politico by Trindade Coelho). For these rules 
given in 34, there are many contrary examples met with even 
in the classics, as, e.g.: Eosto e cabega descoberta. "Porque essas 
honras Das, esse ouro puro, melhor e merecel-os sem os ter que 
possuil-os sem os merecer." 

Congruence. 293 

(b) Several subjects belonging to one verb, tbis is 
used in the plural. If these subjects belong to different 
grammatical persons, the first is preferred to the second, 
the second to the third e.g. : Eu e tu (tu e eu) temos 
saude. Tu e Maria estaes bons. 

(c) If there be several subjects of the third person, 
the verb is also 

(a) in the third person and plural when the sub- 
jects are in the plural: 
Andam sempre de companhia os erros e as desculpas. 

(P) in the third person plural when the subjects are 
in the singular and precede the verb: 

A comida, a bebida, a vigilia e o somno sem certa me- 
dida nao aproveitam. 

(Y) in the third person singular when the subjects 
follow the verb: 

Sem certa medida nao aproveita a comida, a bebida, etc. 
(see Note I). 

(6) in the first person plural if the person who 
speaks belongs to the subjects: 

(0 mestre e) todos os officiaes somos teus amigos (cf. : 
mestre e todos o officiaes sois meus amigos. 

Note I. With following subjects the verb is also met 
with in the plural: 

Fallecem-nos (or fallece-nos) o pdo e a agua. 

Note II. If two or more subjects indicate only one and 
the same person or thing, the verb agrees with that next 
to it: 

JEste soldado valente, este poeta sublime, esta gloria national 
(Camoes) foi desamparada no leito da dor. 

(d) The impersonal verbs, except haver, which is 
always employed in the singular, agree with the logical 
subject v.g. : 

Chegaram muitos viajantes there arrived a great many 
travellers. (French: il arriva beaucoup de voyageurs.) 
Ha muitos Jiomens que . . . there are many people who . . . 
Houve muitas pessoas there were many persons. 

294 Lesson 9. 

36. (a) If the subject be a partitive collective 
in the singular with following genitive in the plural, 
the verb and attribute are generally in the plural. 
[N.B. The genitive may not be expressed) e.g.: 

Parte (dos soldados or dos quaes), para fugir ao ferro 
dos nossos, se lanQarem a uma lagoa a nado. 

(b) If the subject be a general collective i.e., one 
only to be considered as a totality the verb is employed 
in the singular, even if a genitive plural accompanies 
the subject: 

exercito dos inimigos foi derrotado. 

37. (a) In relative clauses the verb agrees in 
its person not with the relative pronoun, but with its 
antecedent : 

Tu que nunca estiveste no estrangeiro . . . 

Eu sou aquelle mesmo (aquella mesma) que setnpre te amei. 

(b) It is the same for the relative que which, joined 
to the verb ser, is employed as Particula de realce after 
a personal pronoun (cf. L. 16, 64 (c)): 

Fdste tu (o) que disseste . . . fdmos n6s quern dissSmos. 

(c) However, if a relative clause is introduced by 
quern, in order to render a personal pronoun prominent, 
the verb agrees with quern. 

Fiu eu quern disse; es tu quern ouve; fdmos nds quern 

23. Thema. 

I play the piano, you write letters. You are satisfied, my 
son, but your sister is not satisfied. During the fine season 
concerts are often given here. Most of the Portuguese content 
themselves with two daily refections. I and my children will 
pass the summer in the country and the autumn at the sea- 
side. You (V6s) wanted to deceive me, but perhaps it is 
you who will have been deceived. His cold blood and intre- 
pidity amaze the bravest men. The earth, the stones, the 
animals, the plants, all are the work of God. Incredible things 
succeed every day. The refined fashion and taste of the last 
season created quite a new branch of industry. His brother 
and 1 made this discovery. Was it you who helped that poor 
family? It was I who made the suggestion, but it was you 
who have given the necessary money. It was the women who 
made the great revolutions. 

Congruence. 295 

24. Versao. 

Joao I (continuagao). 
Ja antes d'isto tinha D. Nuno desbaratado os hespanhoes 
na batalha dos Atoleiros, junto a Fronteira. * Convocadas 
cortes em Coimbra, n'ellas discutiu com agudeza e resolveu 
com liberdade o c^lebre jurisconsulto Joao das Regras, que a 
coroa portuguesa estava vaga, que podia o povo eleger prin- 
cipe que o governasse, e que nenhum Ihe convinha mais do 
que D. Joao, Mestre de A viz. A 6 de abril de 1385, nao 
tendo ainda completes 27 annos, foi D. Joao acclamado rei 
de Portugal. Elevado ao throne mostrou-se logo digno d'elle, 
nao so pela escolha que fazia das pessoas para os diversos 
cargos, como pelo valor com que defendeu o reino. A victoria 
de Trancoso e outras, seguiu-se a de Aljubarrota, dada a 15 de 
agosto de 1385, e na qual com 6500 homens derrotou o exer- 
cito castelhano que se compunha de 30 000 homens. N'este 
numero se contava a flor da nobreza castelhana e o proprio 
monarcha, que so deveu a vida a velocidade do seu cavallo. 
Em commemorate d'esta batalha, e no proprio si'tio d'ella 
edificou o novo rei, para cumprir o vOto que fizera, o sump- 
tuoso templo de Santa Maria da Victoria, vulgo da Batalha. 
Nao contente com as victorias terrestres, D. Joao I meditou 
fazer o seu nome immortal com as navaes, e preparando uma 
armada de 200 velas, n'ella embarcou com seus filhos D. Duarte, 
D. Pedro e D. Henrique, e tomou em 1415 a pra$a de Ceuta. 
Quatro annos depois (1419) os descobrimentos das ilhas de 
Porto Santo e da Madeira vieram abrir a Portugal as portas 
das suas vastas conquistas. (Lacerda.) 


Qual 6 a regra fundamental de concordancia com relacao 

ao adjective, o artigo e o participio? 
Para que numero vae o adjective ou participio, ha- 

vendo 2 ou mais substantivos no singular? 
Quando concorda o adjective com o substantive mais 


Quando concorda com o substantive do genero masculine ? 
Quando concorda elle apenas com o ultimo? 
Qual a regra da concordancia do verbo? 
Havendo varies sujeitos de differentes pessoas, qual a 

pessoa com que concorda? 
Qual o numero do verbo, havendo varies sujeitos da 

3. pessoa do singular? 

L Villa e freguezia no Alemtejo, districto de Portalegre. 

296 Lesson 10. 

Em que mimero esta o verbo, sendo o sujeito nm col- 
Com que palavra eoneorda o verbo em phrases relativas? 

Tenth Lesson. 

Intransitive and Transitive Verbs. 

I. Intransitive Verbs. 

38. The intransitive verbs generally form their 
compound tenses, as in the English language, with the 
auxiliary ter or haver: 

Tenho andado uma legoa todos os dias. 

I have walked a mile every day. 

Elle sempre tern ido (vindo) chegado, voltado) a tempo. 

He has always gone (come, arrived) to time. 

39. Yet some take also the auxiliaries ser or 
estar or ficar, but only when a condition or the result 
of an action is to be indicated. The participle with 
ser, estar or ficar has the value of an adjective. If, 
however, you want to indicate, not a condition, but an 
action continually going on, you must employ ter or 

As in English, a great many verbs are employed 
transitively and intransitively. 

Examine the following examples, distinguishing the 
transitive from the intransitive meaning of the same verb. 

Sabe que elle esta de volta? 

Do you know he is returned? 

As actrizes estavam voltadas para os espectadores. 

The actresses stood (with their faces) turned to the 


A caneca esta or ficou partida. 
The jug is gone or went asunder. 

He has departed, is gone can only be rendered by: 
elle partiu or foi(-se) ; elle tern partido would be : he has 
broken or he belongs to a faction; elle e partido he is 

Estao idos aquelles tempos those times are gone. 

Ella tinha adormecido. 

She had lulled (somebody) to sleep; she had fallen asleep. 

The Complements and their Cases. 297 

Ella estava adormecida she was asleep. 
N6s temos corrido muito we have run fast. 

J6s temos corrido mundo we have travelled about. 

fds estamos (or ficdmos) corridas. 
We are (or became) vexed. 

Tern caido bastante chuva there has fallen much rain. 
Estd caido he is dejected. 

A sua fortuna tern augmentado consider avelmente. 
His fortune has been increasing considerably. 
A sua fortuna estd consider avelmente augmentada. 
His fortune has been considerably increased. 

II. Transitive Verbs and their Complements. 

40. Every transitive verb requires a complement 
i.e., an object on which the activity of the subject 
passes over directly or indirectly; e.g.: 

If directly, the complement is the accusative 
(complemento directo or objectivo propriamente dito), and 
generally employed without preposition; if indirectly, it 
is the dative (complemento indirecto), generally employed 
with the preposition a (to). N.B. Personal pronouns 
have special forms for the complements (cf. P. I, L. 23). 

Dom Affonso Henriques conquistou Santarem aos 

The Complements and their Cases. 
A. The Complement of the Accusative. 

(Complemento directo.) 

41. As a rule, this complement, as in English, 
has no preposition: 

Eu comprei um livro I bought a book. 
42. With a certain group of verbs, however, it 
may be joined by a preposition, especially if referring 
to persons; e.g.: 

Vejo a elle I see him. 

Amae aos vossos proximos love your fellow-creatures. 

As coisas qiie possam interessar aos meus designios. 

The things which may influence my intentions. 

Ninguem p6de servir ao mesmo tempo a dois senhores. 

Nobody can serve two masters at the same time. 

298 Lesson 10. 

This a is always employed in Amar a Deus (of. 
L. 11, 48 (a) p) and in the locution um a outro one 
another : defendem-se um ao outro they defend one another. 
With the verb chamar, when this has two comple- 
ments. The complement of the person or the per- 
sonified object is generally employed with the prepo- 
sition a (or the pronoun in the dative). 

ELle chamava amigo a quern nao o era. 

He called friend a one who was not. 

Chamaram "Principe Perfeito" ao rei Dom Joao II. 

que ganhei com o meu trabalho, chamo-lke men. 

What I earned by my work, I call my own. 

The preposition a with the accusative is found also 
with the verbs ouvir (dizer), ver, saber, cheirar, and others: 
Ouvimos dizer ao sr. Fulano. 
"Paris a Helena roubou" (Camoes). 
"Querendo ver a Diana, Acteon perdeu a vida" (id.). 
Este pao sabe (cheira) a mofo this bread tastes (smells) 

of mould. 

Note I. The complemento directo is the one which, the 
active voice being changed into the passive, becomes the sub- 
ject: livro foi comprado por mim the book was bought by me. 
Note II. There are verbs that have two constructions; 
so you may say : ensinar alguma coisa a alguem (alguma coisa 
is the complemento directo), and ensinar alguem a fazer uma 
coisa (alguem is the complemento directo). 

B. Other Complements without Preposition. 

43. There are transitive verbs which, besides the 
complemento directo, require the addition of an adjective 
(or some word thus applied) or substantive referring, 
as a qualification, to the complemento directo and serving 
to complete the signification of the verb ; e.g. : 

Nomear alguem ministro, fazer alguem feliz. A corte 
suppunha o duque de Braganga, D. Joao, incapae 
de qualquer pensamento ousado. 

This qualifying word is called nome predicativo do 

complemento directo, predicative noun of the accusative. 

The active voice being changed into the passive, 

the predicative noun of the complement becomes the 

predicative noun of the subject; e.g.: 

duque de Braganga, D. Joao, era pela corte supposto 
incapaz de qualquer pensamento ousado. 

The Complements and their Cases. 299 

The chief verbs thus constructed, are: 

fazer to make appelidar \ nickname 

tornar to turn, become cognommar j 

eleger to elect achar to find, judge 

nomear to name considerar to consider 

jurar to swear crer to believe, think 

declarar to declare julgar to judge 

constituir to constitute reputar to repute 

instituir to institute suppor to suppose 

sagrar to consecrate descrever to describe 

ww^'r to anoint pintar to paint 

' coroar to crown representar to represent. 
chamar to call 

Remark 1. With some of these verbs the predicative 
noun may be joined to the verb by the particle como e.g.: 
considerar justa uma coisa or considerar uma coisa como justa. 

With some verbs the qualification of the complemento 
directo, instead of being a simple predicative noun, may be 
ruled by the preposition por, and also para (expressing an 
aim) e.g.: instituir alguem por herdeiro. The employment 
of por (or como) is obligatory with the verbs ter and haver 
I in their meaning to judge, think, suppose, and with the verbs 
dar and tomar and their synonyms e.g.: ter alguem por feliz. 

Remark 77. Instead of the predicative noun, an equi- 
, valent expression may form the complement of the above verbs : 
Os historiadores reputam D. Jodo III de intelligencia 

45. As an adverbial complement the accusative 
without preposition is employed to indicate: 

(a) the price or value with the verbs custar to cost, 
voter to be worth, avaliar (em) to value, to tax, apreciar 

to appreciate, conceituar to value, think, etc. e.g.: 
Entao a vida em Lisboa custava os olhos da cara. 

(b) the manner: 

Elle passeava o chapeu na nuca e as mdos nas algibeiras. 
He walked about with his hat on his neck (at the back 
of his head) and his hands in his pockets. 

46. Elliptically the accusative is employed in 
colloquial language: 

Eil-o! there he is! 

Desgra^ado que es! Unlucky man! 

Boa tarde, minha senhora! Boas festas! 

300 Lesson 10. 

25. Exercise. 

Serve your fatherland whenever it is threatened or its 
dominions are invaded by enemies. Do not contradict those who 
wish you well and advise you. They will help you (passive 
voice), and you will thank them for your rescue. Do not be- 
lieve, however, those who flatter you. Imitate always those 
who precede you with a good example. Follow them, and 
all true friends will felicitate you (pass. v.). Here it 
smells of fresh hay. This cake tastes of lemon. The poli- 
cemen summoned the crowd to disperse, but they were not 
obeyed. They menaced the public with their arms, but the 
people even defied the gun-barrels. Fool that you are, to be- 
lieve that you will be considered a victim of the intrigues of 
your adversaries. Thou shalt love God above all things and 
thy fellow-creature as thyself. 

26. Leitura. 

Tomada de Santarem (see Less. 16). 

A voz do rei, sobrelevando as do tropel que o cercava, 
retumbou entao por cima de estriipida. 1 Bradava por Santiago 
e pela Virgem, e ao mesmo tempo dizia aos que estavam no 
adarve: Eis-me aqui! eis-me aqui! Mettei-os a espada! 
Nem um escape do ferro! 

Entretanto tinham arvorado outra escada, e 25 homens 
d'annas estavam em cima. A vozearia dentro e fora do cas- 
tello era ja confusa e medonha. Affonso dividiu as suas pe- 
quenas for^as em dois corpos, um que tentasse escalar o muro 
pela direita, outro que tomasse o caimnho do arrabalde assen- 
tado na margem do rio, para que os sarracenos nao viessem 
por aquella parte impidir-lhe o approximar-se da entrada. Ao 
mesmo tempo os 25 esfor^ados tentavam quebrar as portas, 
arremessando pedras contra ellas, mas debalde, ate que, ati- 
rando ao de fora um malho de ferro por cima do muro, pu- 
deram os que se achavam dentro, partir com elle os ferrOlhos. 

Despeda^ado o dique, a torrente precipitou-se dentro do 
castello. Affonso, movido pelo impeto do enthusiasmo religiose, 
ajoelhou no limiar d'aquellas portas que mal cuidava se haviam 
tao facilmente de abrir para o receberem vencedor. 

Seguiu-se uma resistencia iniitil e uma larga carnificina. 
Os raios do sol, que nascSra entretanto, nao encontraram ja 
sobre o roqueiro castello o estandarte do Islam ,derribado n'essa 
noite (15 de marco), para nunca mais se erguer sobre as torres 
da opulenta Santarem. (Alexandre Herculano). 

1 Estrupida s. estrepito. 

The Complements and their Cases. 



Jue se diz da voz do rei Affonso? 

J or quern bradava e que dizia? 

Jue tinham feito entretanto? 

)omo dividiu Affonso as suas for^as? 

|ue deviam fazer os dois corpos? 

Jue fcentavam fazer os esfor^ados ao mesmo tempo e com 
que effeito? 

Jue fez Affonso, quando a torrente dos sitiadores se 

precipitou dentro do castello? 
Que se seguiu a entrada ftm^ada d'*elles? 
Que 6 que ja nao encontraram os raios do sol? 
Em que dia e anno houve logar a toinada de Santarem? 

Eleventh Lesson. 

The Complements and their Cases (continued). 
C. Complements with a Preposition. 

(Complemento indirecto.) 

47. The Complement preceded by the 
Preposition de. 

The preposition de is employed: 
(a) With nouns: 

(a) as a genitive complement of the subject: o 
amor de Deus, the love of God (God loves); 

(p) as a genitive complement of the object: o 
temor de Deus, the fear of God (God is feared) ; 

(Y) to indicate property: o pago d'el-rei, the king's 
palace ; 

(5) to denote time, place, material, form, price, 
character, extension: na era de Christo; o com- 
mercio do Porto; uma perna de pdu; luvas de 
seda; chapeu de tres bicos (three-cornered hat); 
cadeira de bragos; charuto de vintem; coisa de 
valor; esquadra de quince velas; cinco metros de 
altura (or de alto) por tres de largura (or de largo) ; 

(e) in a partitive condition (cf.L.9 ofP.I): um copo 
de dgita; um pouco de assucar; nada de bom; 
tudo qiianto ha de mais bello; 

302 Lesson 11. 

(I) before an attribute (cf. P. II, 23) : o rei da Ingla- 
terra; o imperio daAlemanha; homem de intrigas\ 

(r|) to express a destination: a sola de jantar; uma 
penna de escrever; papel de cartas; quarto de 
dormir; estar de guarda; 

(&) to indicate a characteristic: o homem das barbas 
negras tbe man with the black beard ; uma sa- 
lada d'hervas finas (de alface) a salad of fine 
herbs (lettuce); 

(b) After certain adjectives and participles which 
mostly indicate physical or moral qualities: 

cego de ambos os olhos blind of both eyes 

surdo do ouvido direito deaf of the right ear 

alegre de semblante with a merry face 

sou mais velho de cinco annos I am older by 5 years. 

Such words are: 

leve de (dinheiro) short of (money) 
tranquillo de (alma) quiet of (mind) 
provido de provided with 
capaz de capable of, etc. 

(c) With verbs such as: ter de, haver de with a 
following noun or infinitive: accusar de, arrepender-se 
de, ser de to belong to, to come from; vingar-se de, 
desforrar-se de to revenge oneself on and others, in 
English mostly employed with of. 

accusar de to accuse of precisar de to (be in) want 

arrepender-se de to repent of (of) 

ser de to belong to, to come abster-se de to abstain of 

from desconfiar de to distrust of 

ter de \ to have to queixar-se de to complain of 

haver de ( to be obliged to soffrer de to suffer from 

aproveitar-se de to profit by morrer de to die of 

acabar de fazer to finish doing tremer de to tremble with 

vingar-se de to revenge oneself nao passar de not to pass 

of beyond 

desforrar-se de to pay back passar-se de to do without 

for gostar de to like 

felicitar de to wish joy for vestir de to clothe with or in 

gozar de to rejoice for revestir de to invest with 

prevenir de to inform of ornar de to furnish or trim 


The Complements and their Cases. 303 

(e) After the past participle of the passive voice of 
verbs expressing a feeling, de may be employed instead 
of por: ser amado de to be loved by. 

(f) In elliptical phrases like: aqui d'el rei! (a cry 
for help); ai de mim woe unto mel pobre de mim poor 
me! felizes de nos! infeliz d'elle! etc. 

(g) As an expletive in familiar language: a boa da 
mulher the good soul, o garoto do rapaz the naughty 
boy; o pobre do homem the poor man; o malandro do 
jardineiro the sluggard of a gardener. 

(h) In comparatives de may be employed before 
que: Elle sdbia mais do que outros. 

(i) In absolute superlatives as: o rei dos reis the 
king of kings; o cdntico dos cdnticos the Song of Songs. 

Remark. De may join several complements to one noun 
without being repeated: Berlim tern uma academia de sciencias 
mechanicas e architectural muitas sociedades de sciencia e lite- 
ratura; gabinete de histdria natural e de medalhas, galeria de 
quadros e estdtuas. 

(k) In adverbial locutions, such as: 

de or por certo to be sure estar de costas or de barriga 

de cima from above para o ar to lie ' on one's 

de dentro from within back 

de novo anew de manhd in the morning 

de fora from without de tarde in the afternoon or 

de todo altogether evening 

de joelhos kneeling de noite at night 

de pressa quickly de madrugada at dawn 

de vagar slowly de vez em quando sometimes 

de veras (deveras) indeed de accordo com in agreement 

de prop6sito on purpose with 

de facto really de mans(inh)o softly 

de resto besides de chapeu na mao with one's 

de modo so that hat in one's hand 

de repentej de salto suddenly de brago dado arm in arm 

de justiga right(ly) de bragos abertos with open 

de verao in summer arms 

de vez at once de mao a (or em) mao from 

estar de volta to be back hand to hand, etc. 

48. The preposition a is employed: 
(a) Before nouns, thus indicating: 

304 Lesson 11. 

(a) the dative complement: o jardineiro deu uma 
macd ao ftlho; 

(p) the accusative complement of the person after 
certain verbs which need two complements, one 
of the person and another of the thing, and 
always in the phrase amar a Deus. 

Examples: Devemos amar a Deus sdbre todas as 
coisas e ao proximo como a nos mesmos. "A partilha do 
mundo 1 chamou D. Joao II ao convenio que se estava 
negociando. A nacdo acclamou rei de Portugal a JD.Jodo. 

Also if a misunderstanding is to be avoided : De que 
soffre? perguntou o medico a meu amigo. Pede ao que 
for mais leal (cf.42). 

N.B. After como we employ a when without this pre- 
position it is not evident whether como refers to the subject 
or to the object: 

Tratei-o como a homem de bem. 

I treated him as a man of honour. 

Tratei-o como homem de bem. 

I treated him as a man of honour. 

(Y) space and direction: a cinco Jcilometres d'dqui; 
vou a casa (home) a direita (a esquerda) to the 
right (left); 

(b) time: a que ~horas? as seis horas; aos vinte an- 
nos; ao por de sol; 

(e) instrument or means: morto a bala; impresso a 
muitas cores', aberto ao cinzel; pintado a oleo, a 
esfuminlio (stump), a crayon; 

(I) aim: sais a ver; partir a negocios importantes; 

([}) manner: a pe, a cavallo, a nado, a medo, a cos- 
tume, ao parecer, etc.; 

(0) measure, price, tax: comprar or medir a metros; 
pesar as arrobas; comprar or vender a vintem; 
juro or cdmbio a cinco por cento; 

(i) measure of time or space: a tiro de bala; a tres 
leguas de distancia; d'aqui a dez annos; a tantos 

(K) a near future: o combdio estd a chegar; 

(\) a repetition or duration: andar a saltar; ensinar 
a ler; continuar a falar (cf. d of this ). 

The Complements and their Cases. 


After adjectives, such as: 

acostumado a 
affeicoado a 
ajfeito a 
agradavel a 
anterior a 
attento a 
bom a 
caro a 
conforms a 
contrdrio a 
desagradavel a 

disposto a 
ensinado a 
equivalente a 

favoravel a 
fiel a 
hostil a 
identico a 
igual a 
indinado a 
indifferente a 
(in)docil a 
inferior a 
inexoravel a 
insensivel a 
sensivel a 
necessdrio a 
nocivo a 

obediente a 
parallelo a 
posterior a 
preciso a 
prejudicial a 
prestes a 
propenso a. 
rebelde a 
semelhante a 
sobranceiro a 
superior a 
surdo a 
util a 

(c) After verbs, such as: agradar a, autorizar a, 
comprar a, conquistar a, falar a, fazer bem a, faltar a 
(foliar as obrigacdes, ao dever, d sua palavra to neglect 
one's duties, break one's word), orar a, succeder a, pedir 
a, pertencer a, ensinar a, obrigar a, pintar a (oleo), tra- 
balhar a (agidha) etc. 

N.B. I. -If the verbs fazer, deixar, mandar, ouvir, v$r, 
sentir are followed, not only by an accusative of the person, 
but also by a transitive infinitive with an accusative of things 
or a complementary clause, the complement of the person 
is generally put into the dative: Fiz-lhe perceber a ndo-razdo 
dos sens escrupulos; mandei-lhe copiar a carta; but: mandei-o 
conduzir a casa; fizeram-no proclamar regente. 

N.B. II. Cheirar a to smell of; saber a to taste of 
(saber a meldo, cheirar a vinho). 

(d) Before the infinitives of the verbs: estar, ser, 
andar, ir, passar, ouvir etc.: estar a sair, a chegar, a 
morrer; andar a procurar, a estudar; passar (o tempo) 
a ler, a nao fazer nada; ouvir passar os a cantar, fontes 
a correr; "Como se fosse apenas a deitar-me . . . / e o teu 
olhar ainda a ensinar-me / a morrer com amor e con- 

Cf.: estar d espera to be waiting; estar d morte 
to be dying; andar d procura de to be looking for. 

(e) Instead of a relative clause: o melhor a fa^er 
the best to be done; o primeiro a entrar the first enter- 

Portuguese Conversation-Grammar. 20 

306 Lesson 11. 

ing; "a tua vida a rir na minha vida" your life smiling 
into my own. 

(f) In adverbial locutions, such as: 

a tempo in due time a sos alone by oneselves 

d pressa in a hurry d vontade at ease 

a contento with satisfaction d mdo at hand 

d francesa in a French manner a pedagos, aos bocados in 

a conselho (de) on the advice pieces 

(of) ao certo surely, exactly 

pouco a pouco little by little, as vezes sometimes 

by degrees as escuras at dark 

a mais e mats more and more as claras openly, evidently 

dia a dia day by day d espera de waiting for 

folha a folha leaf by leaf a ser assim in this case 

gotta a gotta drop by drop a nao ser assim (or isso) in 
a urn, a uma one by one the other case 

dois a dois \ , a dizer a verdade to tell the 
duas a duas / two b ^ two truth 

a par de beside, in comparison isso nao faz ao caso, (ao ne- 

with gdcio, d questdo) that does 

salto a salto by leaps and not matter 

bounds d vista d'isso thereupon 

a tremer trembling a menos de if not, unless 

a suar sweating a proposito by the bye. 

(g) Elliptically in exclamations: a saude de V a Ex a ! 
as armas! to arms! d memoria dos grandes heroes! 

27. Thema. 

Oxford has a university which counted among its professors 
Max Miiller, Mattew Arnold, and Sir Hubert von Herkomer (cf. 
42). Will you have the kindness to give me the Didrio de No- 
ticias* and the Primeiro de Janeiro-* 1 In Portugal newspapers 
are bought at the price of ten reis from the sellers or the boys (ga- 
rotos) in the streets. The Commercio dd Porto is sold at a 
vintem a copy. In summer or on hot days you may sometimes see 
gentlemen with their hats in their hands walking in the Ave- 
nida da Liberdade. It does no good to the nerves to be 
too sensible to impressions of any kind. If you want to 
enjoy good health, you must be deaf and indifferent to im- 
pressions injurious to health. If we walk so slowly, we shall 
not arrive home before evening. Let us walk quicker, so as to 
be back sooner than our sluggard of a cousin, who, to tell 
the truth, needs a reprimand. The least we can do is to profit 
by the experiences of others and to be attentive to all things 

The Complements and their Cases. 307 

that may be favourable, pernicious, or adverse to our projects. 
By the bye: On the 5 th of March of next year that is, 
in three months from to-day you have to pay the bill of ex- 
change of 50. Abstain from any superfluous expenses and 
content yourself with what you have. If, however, you need 
money, communicate with me in due time. Who is that lady 
in the violet dress? That one with the fair hair? No, that 
one with the red hair and the lace-trimmed dress with a train. 

28. Versao. 

De, preposi9ao que denota o logar d'onde vem ou sae 

1 alguma pessoa ou cousa (venho de Roma; cartas, noticias de 
Londres); a origem (lei de Deus); a relac,ao (parente, amigo 
cfe); a propriedade (livro de Antonio); a materia de que 6 
feita alguma cousa (annel de ouro, copo de crystal) o estado, 

: as qualidades de alguma pessoa ou cousa (anno de fome, dia 
de calma, homem de honra, coberto de chagas); o modo (andar 
de pressa, fazer alg. c. de caso pensado) ; a causa, o motivo 
(morrer de fome, tremer de medo) ; o uso ou destino (tribunal 
de justi9a, tempo de estudo); o tempo em que se faz, ou 
succede alg. c. (de dia, de noute, de verao, de inverno). 

De serve tambem de particula extractiva (peda$o de pao) ; 
e designativa (prodigio de virtude, exemplo de valor, cidade 
de Coimbra). Faz as vezes de outras preposi9oes, como desde 
(de Madrid a Lisboa, de tempo immemorial), tocante, sobre 

I (falar de . . .), por (amado de todos). Serve para ligar dois 
verbos (acabar de lr, de escrever ; gosta de estudar) ; um verbo 
e um substantivo (ambisao de reinar) ; um verbo e um adjec- 
tivo (difficil de crer, facil de entender). Precede os infinites dos 
verbos para formar o futuro composto (quern ha de ganhar honra, 

' ha de entregar ao descanso); e antepoe-se aos adverbios 
(de perto, de longe, de baixo, de cima) ; ou a outras preposicoes 
(de sobre a porta). Algumas vezes, por elegancia e propriedade 
da lingua, usa-se esta preposi9ao entre dois substantives (o 
ladrao do rnogo, a embusteira da velha); ou entre um adjectivo 
ou substantivo e um substantivo ou pronome (o mau de Thyo- 
neu, o pobre do homem; triste de mim, coitados de nos). Pela 
mesma razao tambem se poe depois de alguns verbos e antes 
da dic^ao em que elles passam a exercer o seu significado; 
mal se faz de crer o que se nao cuida nem espera. 

(After Lacerda: Diccionario eneyclopedico.) 


308 Lesson 12. 

Twelfth Lesson. 

Remarks on the Prepositions. 

(Cf. L. 11: de and a.) 

49. The frequently employed prepositions a, de, 
em, por are generally repeated: Folio a die e ao irmao 
d?elle; pensei n'isso e n'aquillo; fago-o por ti e por elle. 

50. Several prepositions may be joined to the 
same noun or pronoun. If joined to a pronoun, all 
prepositions precede; if to a noun, one precedes, the 
other follows, the noun being repeated by a pronoun: 
with or without him com ou sem elle; coffee with or 
without sugar cafe com assucar ou sem elle; before and 
behind the house deante da casa e atrds d'ella. 

51. Sometimes several prepositions are joined 
with one another or with adverbs: atrds de, atraves de, 
deante de, para com, por debaixo de, de ao pe de (from 
the neighbourhood of). 

52. Some Portuguese Prepositions in English 

(1.) J&m (no, na, nelle, neste etc.) in, at, on: 
Em Londres; na Inglaterra, em Portugal. Em casa at home. 
Na casa in the house; em casa delle, em nossa casa; 
num did, em um instante ; nesse tempo ; numa palavra; 
em breve; em breves lirihas ; ensinar em musica; estar 
em ftrias, em agosto ; no ar ; em geral; em particular, 
em extremo (to the utmost); em cumprimento ou exe- 
cuQdo das or dens; d sombra d'um carvalho. 

na mesa; na praga, no chao, no mar alto (in the 
offing, on the high seas, at the main) ; encostar-se no 
cotovello, na esperanga; metter-se em cavallarias alias 
(to mount the high horse); avaliado em cinco mil reis. 
Estd-lhe o vestido em (her dress comes to) duas libras; 
insistir em. 

illustre em fama; rico em conhecimentos ; pobre em 
bens; agarrar-se em, pensar em; em si (in the abstract, 
in itself); no sdb(b)ado, nesse dia. 

em castigo de; em signal de; em honra de; em pro- 
ceito de, em damno de; passar de mao em mdo (to go 
from hand to hand) ; de boca em bdca; numa assentada 
at one pull. 

Remarks on the Prepositions. 309 

vir em soc(c)6rro, no vapor; em toda a horn. 

em (or por) ddio da pessoa ; em razao de amizade. 

Que horas sao no seu reUgio? 

Em is also sometimes employed before the infinitive or the 
gerund of a verb : o dominio do mundo nao consists em 
o possuir, consiste em o pisar. Em estudando a gram- 
mdtica da prdpria lingua, fica o homem apto para aprender 
com facilidade outro qualquer idioma. 

(2.) Para indicates direction, aim, use (after estar) 
something imminent; it answers to the question: where 
(to)? whither? what for? to what purpose? when? 

Examples. Partiu para Inglaterra. Esta madeira e 
boa para navios. Os Portugueses sao bons para ma- 
rujos. Para a semana next week; para o mes que 
vem next month. Para o sul, o norte; para a direita. 
Estavamos para dar a vela. Estou prompto para fazer 
o ajuste. Das plantas umas dirigem os ramos para 
o ar, outras para a terra. Estuda para medico, para 
letrado, a ftm de ter um modo de vida decente. Estas 
luvas sao para a menina. Vem para o Natal. Sera 
para sempre. Ha seis para sete annos. 

(3.) Idioms with para: 

Ser para ... to be fit for ; este sttjeito e para pouco . . . 
Estar para to be disposed or appointed for : nao 
estou para isso, para aturdl-o: Essa quinta estd para 
vender. De mim para mim, de si para si unto me, 
unto him. Pensei de mim para mim. Para vergonha 
nossa for our shame. 

(4.) Before an infinitive para corresponds to "in 
order to": 

Fil-o para Ihe ser agradavel. Nao e para admirar it 
is not to be wondered at. Para dizer a verdade. 

(5.) Para is sometimes joined to com and has the 
meaning of towards. 

Ser bom, affavel, justo para (com) os companheiros, dis- 
cipulos ou para com todos. 

(6.) Para may be employed for por (see (7.) of this 
paragraph) in order to express the cause of an action 
or an intended effect: 

Procurou cortar a conversagao para (or por} nao expbr-se 
a dizer mais do que quizera. 

310 Lesson 12. 

There is, however, a difference between para and 
por: para hints to the effect as being certain, por as 
being uncertain: 

Movo os pes para andar ando muito por ver se posso 
dormir melhor. Saio de casa para, ir ao campo, onde 
darei um passeio por dissipar a melancolia. 

(7.) Por has a manifold employment expressing, 
however, in spite of apparent diversity, its original 
meaning i.e.: the space between the subject and its 
aim, a space which may be considered as such, or as 
a way or means for its design. 

Examples. Ir por mar, por terra (by sea, by land), 
por um lado, por caminho direito, por todo o reino. 
Entrar por uma rua, por um rio ou porto. A bala 
entrou pelo (= por o) muro (beat through the wall). 
A espada entrou por elle (pierced him). Ir por al- 
guem to call for or go to meet somebody; ir por 
dinheiro. Pelos annos de mil nove centos about 1900. 
Por outra parte somewhere else, on the other side; 
por outro lado on the other side. mez por vir 
next month ; o (tempo) por vir or poroir the future. 
Um por um one by one. Cada um por seu turno 
each by his turn. Deixar por morto to leave for 
dead. Comegar por to begin with. Passar por alle- 
mao to be taken for a German. 

Por isso therefore; por isso mesmo for that very reason; 
nem por isso nevertheless. Por mim as for me, for 
my part; por quern e I say! Por quern me toma? 
Whom or what do you take me for? Por falta de 
for want of. Por medo que for fear of, lest. Feito 
por mini, por elle done by me, by him. Isto estd 
por fazer this is still to be done. Por pouco que 
nao alcangasse o comboio he had nearly lost the train. 
Por rico que seja however rich he may be. 

Por essa razao, por falta (de), por isso, por ordem, por -< 
mandado, por culpa. Foi condemnado por uma pe- 
quena falta; por commodidade; por costume; por in~\ 
veja; por forga ou por vontade obliged or of one's 
own accord. Por bem ou por mat. Por (or pelo) 
amor de Deus, por amor do proximo. Por ser amigo 
d'elle because he is his friend. Por carecer, por merecer. 
Mandar por embaixador to send as an ambassador. 
A obra ficou por acabar . . . remained unfinished; as 

Remarks on the Prepositions. 


eartas estao por responder . . . are still to be answered. 
Pedir, interceder por alguem. Por parte de on the 
part of. Por Deus for God's sake. Tomar pela mao. 
Por ordem alphdbetica. Ter alguem por amigo, por 
lionrado, por douto to take one for a friend, for 
honest, for learned. Ter por certo, por dumdoso. 
Comprei por cincoenta mil reis este armdrio. Rece'beu 
esse livro por prhnio. Semeei milho pelo campo; 
distribui esmolas pelos pobres. 

(8.) Por in adverbial locutions expressing space, 
duration, etc. 

por nenhum modo or caso by 

no means 

por que razao for what reason ? 
porque why, because 
por causa de on account of 
por quanto as, because 
portanto therefore, consequent- 

por cima (de) above, besides, 


por baixo (de) underneath 
por dentro (de) within 
por fora (de) without 
por aqui this way 
por alii that way 
por onde where? which way? 
por diante (from) before 
por detrds (de) (from) behind 
por entre (from) between 
por ora for the present 
por ventura by chance 
por inteiro totally 

morrer por morrer let the 

worst come to the worst 
por ser pobre ndo deixa de 

mostrar soberba though he 

be poor . . . 
por conta (de) on account of 

por tal forma que so (much) por certo (to be) sure 

por ad t lie on purpose 

trdbalhar, comer por ires to 
work, eat for three. 

29. Thema. 

Our Country-seat. 

On certain Sundays of the month we receive in our house 
a small number of friends who, however bad the weather may 
be, appear about noon on those days, to lunch with us. 
The windows of our dining-room look towards the riverside, and 
before the wide panorama of the town and in the shadow of 
the trees, we so agreeably pass the afternoon on the terrace 
under our windows, that i blame myself for so long depriving 
myself of my friend's company. However, since the tramway 
passes before our door, the time of rural peacefulness is over for 
me. And it is not to be wondered at, as this modern institution 
is accompanied by much noise. I take it for certain that 
these innovations, however useful they be for social and com- 
mercial intercourse, exercise a destructive effect upon the 
nerves. On the other hand, they signify indeed a great con- 
venience. And, willingly or unwillingly, we have to accept them. 

312 Lesson 12. 

30. Leitura. 

A emigragao portuguesa para o Brasil. 

Queixam se numerosos proprietaries territoriaes da escassSz 
de operarios campestres, apesar do augmento de salarios. Era 
natural que ao mesmo tempo se pedisse como remedio o er- 
guer obices a emigra9ao; comtudo nao me recordo que se 
levantassem jamais importantes clamores tao desarrazoados que 
cegamente a combatessem. Pedia-se reforma da lei do recru- 
tamento por mode que a lavoura nao soffresse com a manu- 
teneao da forQa militar. Chegou-se a pedir isen9oes para o 
jornaleiro campestre, por se entender que o imposto de sangue 
era uma das principaes causas, senao a maxima, de emigra- 
rem para o Brasil tantos rapazes. lam clandestinamente ou 
arranjavam passaportes por maneiras fraudulentas. Esta repug- 
nancia ao servi90 militar, innata em todo o Minho, e bem expli- 
cavel, por isso que o filho, ajudando desde cria^a seus paes nos 
diversos grangeios agricolas, e d'elles violentamente arrancado, 
com grave prejuizo do casal agricola. Prefere, pois, tentar em 
regioes desconhecidas a sua independencia a servir a patria no 
exercito. A repuguancia pela vida militar v6mol-a confirmada 
na emigra^ao claudestina, que em tao grande escala se effectua 
n'esta regiao, constituida em grande parte por mancebos fu- j 
gindo ao recrutamento. Esta repugnancia, habilmente explo- 
rada pelos engajadores, que enxameiam na regiao, facilitando 
passaportes para os criminosos fugirem a justi9a e os mancebos 
se esquivarem ao servi9o do exercito pelo modica quantia de 
nove mil reis, e em extreme auxiliado pela facilidade de trans- 
portes e extensa raia da provincia. Supponha-se modificada 
a lei do recenseamento militar a contento dos lavradores, e 
extincto portanto a principal origem da clandestina sahida de 
muitos Portugueses. Restava saber se nao augmentaria ipso 
facto (=por isso mesmo) a sahida legal. Por outras palavras: 
todos os que se expatriam clandestinamente, haveriam deixado 
de tomar o caminho do estrangeiro, desde que nao ficassem 
sujeitos ao servi90 no exercito, ou elle se tornasse compativel 
com os labores campestres? Cuido que muitos dos emigrantes 
clandestinos iriam as claras para o Brasil, e, sendo assim, as 
modificac.aes na lei do recrutamento poderiam ser seguidas por 
accrescimo da emigragao legal. Na corrente exportadora de 
Portugueses esta um caracteristico signal da nossa decadencia 
economica, (Rodrigues de Freitas). 


Em que circumstancia se ve a principal causa da emi- 
gra^ao portuguesa? 

Prepositions Continued. 


Qua! e" a consequencia imrnediata d'essa emigrate? 

Que reme"dio se Ihe pediu? 

Em que se baseava o pedido de isen9ao? 

Qaal a maneira de emigrarem os rapazes? 

Como se explica a repngnancia ao servi90 militar? 

Que e que os mancebos preferem? 

Por quern e como 4 explorada essa repugnancia? 

Que v o economista Kodrigues de Freitas na emigra9ao 

para o Brasil? 
Que cuida elle, suppondo-se modificada a lei do recru- 

tamento ? 

Thirteenth Lesson. 

Prepositions Continued. 

53. How to express Certain English Prepositions* 
(a) About. 

About: 1. in the sense of "round" is to be rendered 
by em volta de, em roda de, em redor de; 2. in the sense 
of "concerning" by com respeito a, sobre, acerca de; 

3. in speaking of things which people carry about them, 
it is translated by com or may be not translated at all; 

4. when it means near a certain number or quantity, 
by pouco mais on menos, cerca de, por ahi; 5. when ex- 
pressing nearness to a particular time, it is translated 
by perto de, por. 

(1) All thronged about the orator. 

Todos acotovellavam-se em volta do orador. 

(2) I will speak to him about this affair. 
Hei-de Ihe falar com respeito a este negocio. 

He could not give me any information about what had 

Elle nao poude dar-me informacao alguma acerca do que 

se tinha passado. 

(3) I had no money about me. 

En, nao trazia dinheiro (commigo). 

(4) We are about 300 people. 

Somos pouco mais ou menos (or por ahi) trezentas pessoas. 

The dinner lasted about two hours. 

jantar levou perto cie (cerca de) duas horas. 

314 Lesson 13. 

(5) The train arrived about three o'clock. 

combdio chegou pelas tres horas. 

(b) At. 

At: 1. is most commonly rendered by a or em 
with or without an article; sometimes it is not trans- 
lated at all; 2. after nouns or verbs denoting derision, 
anger, surprise, sorrow, etc., it is rendered by de (or 
com); 3. "at," meaning "at the house" is em casa de; 
"at the shop" is na loja de or a (or de) with the article. 

(1) At six o'clock we were at home and at dinner. 
As seis horas estavamos em casa e a jantar. 
Do you play at cards ? jog a as cartas ? 

(2) She laughed at him ella riu-se cTelle. 
To tremble at tremer de or com. 

1 am surprised (angry) at what you say. 
Estou surpreendida (zangada) do que diz. 

(3) We were at our aunt's estavamos em casa da tia. 
We buy our coffee at the grocer's. 
Compramos o nosso cafe ao (or do) merceeiro. 

(c) By. 

By: 1. Denoting the agent or cause, is translated 
by de or par: 

An honest man is respected by everybody. 
Um homem honrado e respeilado por todas. 
We are beloved by our parents. 
Somos amados de nossos paes. 
I took the child by its hand. 
Tomei a crianga pela mao. 

2. After verbs denoting to sell, to buy, to work, etc., 
and preceding a noun of weight or measure, day, 
week, month or year, "by" is rendered into Portuguese 
by a with the definite article or by por: 

How much do you sell the tea by the pound? 
A quanto vende o chd por arratel ? 
We work by the hour or by the day. 
Trabalhamos a hora ou as dia. 

3. When preceding a numeral immediately followed 
by an adjective of dimension, "by" is rendered by "por": 

Prepositions Continued. 


This room is fifteen feet long by ten wide. 

Esta sola tern quinze pes de comprido por dez de largo. 

4. "By" following verbs denoting to kill, to wound 
etc., is translated by dum golpe de, com or de um ataque 
de, etc., to express the use of the instrument by which 
a man was wounded or the disease he was killed of: 

The officer was wounded by the sword of his adversary. 
official foi ferido por um golpe de espada do seu ad- 


His father was killed by an inflammation of the lungs. 
Seu pae morreu com um ataque de pneumonia. 

If the blows have been repeated, a golpes de (a 
setadas, apedradas) is used, in which case it is most com- 
monly rendered in English by "with." Ex.: 

They knocked him down with a stick. 

5. "By" is employed in the following idiomatic ex- 

By day de dia; day by day 

de dia em dia 
by night de noite 
by means of a meio de, medi- 


one by one um por um 
two by two dois a dois 
by turns por turnos 
by the bulk em grosso, por 


by heart de cor 
by letter por escrito 
by no means de modo algum 
by and by logo, ao depois 

hard by pegado, proximo (a) 
by that time nisso, entao 
by this time twelvemonth 

d'aqui a um anno 
by name de nome, pelo nome 
by myself por mim mesmo, so 
by Jove por Dem! 
by to-morrow evening pela 

noite de amanha 
by four o'clock pelas guatro 


81. Thema. 

1. My father was not above (mais de) twenty -two years 
old when he was married. My uncle's country-house is very 
handsome, but it cost him above eighty thousand francs. It 
is about a year since my friend set off for America. Rome 
was built by Romulus. The poor man has been driven out 
of his house by his creditors. I will get up to-morrow at 
six o'clock. Were you at Mrs. D.'s ball last night? Yes, 
I was there. I will pay you at the end of this month. 

316 Lesson 13. 

2. I rejoice greatly at your good luck. She always 
smiles at everything that is said. Where was your sister this 
morning? She was at her aunt's. My box is one foot and 
a half deep by two wide and four long. Harold was wound- 
ed by a sword. William the Second was killed by an arrow 
in the New Forest. He is so strong that with his fist he 
could knock down an ox. They killed the dog with stones. 
The soldiers kill one another with bayonets. 

(d) From. 

1. "From" after or in connection with the verbs 
to come, to send, etc., is generally rendered by da 
parte de, de ao pe de, when followed by a noun or pro- 
noun denoting a person: 

Many compliments from Dr. 0. 

Muitos cumprimentos da parte do serihor doutor 0. 

I come from him or her. 

Venho da parte d'elle or d'ella. Venho de ao pe d'elle 

or d'ella. 
Tell him from me diga-lhe da miriha parte. 

2. "From" with a possessive = ("from someone's 
house,") is da casa de: 

I come from my uncle's, aunt's, etc. 

Eu venho da casa do meu tio y da minha tia. 

3. "From . . to . .", when denoting progress from 
place to place or time to time, is rendered by de . . . a 
(para, em, ate): 

He went from street to street, from town to town. 
Til f - { de rua a rua, de terra a terra. 

' \ duma rua a outra, duma terra a outra. 
From day to day, from time to time. 
De dia a (or em) dia, de tempos a tempos. 

4. "From" is rendered by desde (or de), and "to" 
by ate, when speaking of extent or time. 

From Easter to Christmas. 

Desde a Pdscoa ate ao (or ate o) Natal. 

From the Rhine to the Ocean. 

Desde o Rheno ate o oceano. 

From Lisbon to Porto. 

Desde Lisboa ate ao (or ate o) Porto. 

Prepositions Continued. 

(e) On or upon. 


1. "On" or "upon" generally = em, em cima de, 
ra cima de, sobre: 

Your gloves are on the table. 

As suas luvas estdo em cima da mesa. 

I am sitting on a chair. 

En, estou (assentado) numa cadeira. 

A cover is spread on the bed. 

Uma coberta estd estendida sobre a cama. 

"On to" with verbs of motion = para cima de. 

The cat sprang on to the table. 
gato saltou para cima da mesa. 

2. After the verb "to play," on or upon is not 
translated; after "to live," "to depend," and the like, 
"on" or "upon" is rendered by de: 

You play on the violin, and I play on the flute. 
V a Ex a toca rebecca e eu toco flauta. 

The prisoner lives on bread and water. 
preso vive de pao e dgua. 

A good end often depends on a good beginning. 

Um bom fim muitas vezes depende d'um bom principio. 

3. "On" before the days of the week is rendered 
by em with the article; in letter-dates, it is dropped in 
Portuguese : 

Come on Sunday or Monday. 

Venha no domingo ou na segunda feira. 

On the 19 th of April. 

No dia dezanove de Abril, em 19 de . . . 

Lisbon, on the 7 th of May Lisboa, 7 de Maio. 

People go to church on Sundays. 
Vae-se d igreja aos domingos. 

4. "On," followed by a substantive expressing 
action, or meaning "when" with a verb, is translated 
by a and em: 

On his marriage (when he married) ao seu casamento. 
On that occasion nessa occasiao. 

318 Lesson 13. 

(f) Over. 

1. "Over" generally is translated by em (or a) eima 
de, sobre when it signifies a stay; by por cima de, when 
it means movement: 

The looking-glass hangs over the chest of drawers. 
espelho estd em cima da cdmmoda. 
The cat passed over the live coal. 
gato passou por cima das brasas. 

2. When it is equivalent to "more than" or "longer 
than," it is rendered by mais de, alem de: 

The fight lasted over four hours. 
A luta durou mais de qimtro horas. 

Note. Distinguish carefully from this the use of "over" 
as an adverb: 

As soon as the rain is over. 

Logo que a chuva tiver passado. 

Is dinner over? Jd acabou o jantar? 

That's over and gone isso passou, isso jd Id vae. 

(g) With. 

1. "With" is rendered by de (or com] after verbs 
denoting to die, to meddle, to do, to dispense, to load, 
to cover, to fill, and after adjectives meaning pleased, 
contented, etc. Ex.: 

He is dying with cold elle morre de frio. 
The waggon is loaded with goods. 
carro estd carregado de mercadoria. 

2. "With" is expressed by a without the article 
before nouns denoting the means by which a thing is 
done or made. Ex.: 

To draw with a pencil desenhar a lapiz. 

To "fight with" (a weapon) is : bater-se a (espada etc.). 

3. "With" must not be expressed after certain 
verbs, such as: to meet with encontrar (with direct ob- 
ject; but: encontrar-se com)', to trust with confiar alg. c. 
a alg. ; to supply with fornecer alg. c. a alg. ; to reproach 
with lancar em rosto, reprehender alg. c. a. alg. Ex.: 

We shall supply him with everything. 
Havemos de Ihe fornecer tudo. 

Prepositions Continued. 319 

I reproached him with his ingratitude. 
Eu repreliendi-lhe a sua ingratidao. 

4. "With" governing a noun together with which 
forms an adjective phrase in translated by de. 

A bonnet with feathers um chapeu de plumas. 

The boy with black hair o rapaz de cabellos pretos. 

5. "With" meaning amongst, in, is rendered by 
com and em: 

With us, said the Frenchman . . . 

Comnosco, dizia o frances. 

With woman, maternal love is the strongest feeling. 

Na mulher o amor maternal e o sentimento mais forte* 


As already stated, prepositions must always come before 
the words they govern, and never (as often in English) at 
the end of a sentence : 

Whom are you speaking to? A quern fala? 
What's that for? Para que e isso? 
The man whom you are interested in. 
homem em que estd inter essado. 

32. Thema. 

1. Go to Mr. Smith and tell him from me that I am 
expecting him. From whom do you come? I come from 
Miss B. I never received such an (= tamanJio) insult from a 
Frenchman. Charles was wounded in his arm, and not in his 

'leg. I will call upon you in the afternoon, and in the evening 
(I will) go to the play. Upon what instrument does your 
sister play? She plays the piano. That happened on the 
12 th of March. I am in the habit of taking a cup of coffee 
as soon as dinner is over. 

2. Do not meddle with my affairs ; attend to your own. 
Is that house covered with slates or tiles ? It is covered with 
tiles. This picture seems to be done with pencil. When you 
meet with a poor man, never reproach him with his poverty. 
France extends from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. What 
does he complain of? We have travelled from Switzerland to 
Italy. You spend all the day in going from house to house, 
'from street to street, from place to place. Those .labourers 
work from morning to night. I walk every day from twelve 
to three. 

320 Lesson 13. 

33. Leitura. 


automovel, como a propria palavra o esta a indicar, e 
urn carro que se move por si rnesmo, ou independente de qual- 
quer for^a exterior. Para comprehendermos facilmente o me- 
chanismo do automovel, notemos, antes de mais nada, certos 
factos conhecidos de todos, que nos levarao, sem o menor es- 
for90, a comprehensao d'aquelle mechanismo. Quando pomos 
em movimento a roda de uma bomba r acontece que o movi- 
mento que imprimimos a essa roda faz com que o embolo da 
bomba suba e des^a ; o que e o mesmo que dizer que o movi- 
mento da roda se transmittiu ao 6mbolo; -- e suppondo o 
caso inverso, isto e, que, em vez de fazermos girar a roda da 
bomba, faziamos subir e descer, com o auxilio das maos, o seu 
mbolo, tambem o movimento d'este faria com que a roda en- 
trasse a girar. Por outra: o movimento do fimbolo transmittir- 
se-hia igualmente ao volante da bomba. 

Quer isto dizer que se uma roda pode por em movimento 
um e"mbolo, tambem este pode por em movimento uma roda. 
Ora no automovel e precisamente o movimento de um embolo 
(movimento rectilmeo alternativo, ou de vae-vem) o que faz 
mover as rodas d'este vehiculo. Se n'um apparelho fizermos 
com que o Smbolo se desloque n'um movimento de vae-vem, 
subindo e descendo constantemente, claro que a roda, que 
esta ligada a esae embolo por uma haste, entrara a girar, e 
girara emqnanto o embolo estiver em movimento. 


Que e" um automovel? 

D'onde ja deduzimos que se move por si mesmo? 

Que havemos de notar, para comprehendermos o seu 
mechanismo ? 

Que acontece quando pCmos em movimento a roda d'uma 

E que se daria, suppondo-se o caso inverso? 

Que quer dizer isso? 

Qual 6 o movimento que faz mover as rodas d'um auto- 

Como entrarao as rodas a girar? 

E durante que tempo continuarao a girar? 

Syntactic Peculiarities of Certain Parts of Speech. 321 

Fourteenth Lesson. 

Syntactic Peculiarities of Certain Parts of 


A. Possessive Pronouns. Pronomes possessivos. 

54. Like the article, the possessive pronoun is 
repeated before all nouns when designating persons or 
things of different kind; equally before all adjectives 
when referring to beings of different kind and preceding 
the noun. Ex.: 

Os meits desgostos e as minhas alegrias. Partilhei comtigo 
os tens bons e os teus maus momentos. 

55. If there be no contrast of kind, or if the 
adjectives do not refer to the same noun, the poss. 
i pronoun is not repeated: 

Todos admiram as nossas vastas e Bellas florestas. 

' 56. The gender of the nouns being different, 
the possessive pronoun agrees with the one next to it: 
meu poder e gloria; a minha gloria e poder. 

} 57. A poss. pronoun which belongs to several 
adjectives is not repeated if one or all of them follow 
the noun: 

Partilhei eomligo os teus bons momentos e os maus (os 
teus momentos bons e maus). 

58. The poss. pronoun may be strengthened: 

(a) By adding proprio: vi-o com os meusproprios olhos. 

(b) By adding a demonstrative pronoun: 

Ouvi por estes meus ouvidos dizer aquelle seu amigo. 

59. Contrary to the English, the Portuguese 
employs instead of the poss. pronoun: 

(a) The definite article in those cases where the 
relation between owner and object is evident: 
Escreceu d avd (to his grandmother). 
Vendeu a casa (his house). 
Estendo o bra$o (my arm). 
Tapa a boca (your mouth). 
Cola a boca hold your tongue. 

Portuguese Conversation-Grammar. 21 

322 Lesson 14. 

KB. If the object is an abstract noun in the plural, 
the article may be omitted: 

Eecobrei (os) sentidos: redobrdmos (as) diligencias. 

(b) De or another preposition after certain verbs: 
Mudar de fato to change dress. 

Mudou d' aviso he changed his mind. 

Cumpri com a (miriha) palavra I kept my word'. 

Ella cam de joelhos she fell on her knees. 

(c) De with the personal pronoun of the 3 rd per- 
son, whenever the poss. pronoun seu, sua might cause 
a misunderstanding: 

Vi a irma d'elle, d'ella (his, her sister). 
Fomos a casa d'elles (to their house), 

60. Before the same noun two poss. pronouns 
are not admissible: 

Os sens amigos e os meus. 

Your and my friends, your friends and mine. 

61. If to a noun belong a poss. pronoun an< 
a possessive genitive, the latter must be preceded by 
o, a, 05, as, esse, aquelle or the like: 

Li as tuas cartas e as (essas, aquellas) de tua irma. 
I read your and your sister's letters. 

62. If the noun depending on the poss. pronoun 
expresses a quality, the definite article may be employed 
instead, while to the verb will be added the respective 
personal pronoun in the dative: 

Estranhei-lhe a franquesa I wondered at his frankness. 
Admiro-lhes o sangue-frio I admire their self-possession 

(or coolness). 

Como te conhego a indole ... as I know your character. 
Recorihed-lhe uma boa voz. 
I noticed him to have a good voice. 
N.B. This construction may be employed with persons 
and must be employed with things: 

Avistdmos a cidade: jd se Ihe distinguiam (jd Hie 

distinguimos) as torres. 

We got a sight of the town: its spires could already 
be distinguished. 

63. While the adjective and participle always 
agree with the possessive in gender and number, titles 

Syntactic Peculiarities of Certain Parts of Speech. 323 

of which the possessive forms an essential part, are 
excepted from this rule, the adjective agreeing with the 
natural sex of the person: 

Vossa Alteza que e bom e justo (respectively : boa e 
Santidade estd bem lembrado. 

34. Thema. 

He sacrificed his and his sister's fortune, though an ac- 
quaintance of mine warned him. If he had doubled his efforts, 

' and if somebody had come to his help, he might have succee- 
ded in saving his family from ruin. As I know his honesty, I 
did whatever I could to guide his steps. But alas ! my friend, 
all my measures were in vain. His own father gave him up. 
I am wet through, I must change my dress. My friend changed 
his mind, he will remain at home with his parents. My head 

I aches. I wrote a long letter to my aunt, who had asked me 
to give her some news from me. May I also give her your 
kind regards? The woman fell on her knees. I have a 

i thorn in my foot. I have only lived a fortnight in this town ; 
so I don't yet know all its places and streets. 

35. Leitura e yersao. 
Carta ao Sr. 6r. P. sobre Feminismo. 

Nao imagina V a Ex a o prazer que me deu a sua carta, 
sabido como 6 que da discussao intelligente e sincera t6m sahido 
as mais claras verdades; conhecido como e quanto se ganha 
em fazer interessar pelas nossas opinioes, ainda os adversaries 
que mais as combatem. E nao sendo V a Ex a um adversario, 
mas urn confesso adepto, embora moderado, maior prazer o 
meu em Ihe vir expor serenamente as ideias feministas, taes 
como as comprehendo e preconiso. Diz V a Ex a que e femi- 
nista, embora moderado, que o e, como todos os illustrados 
nao poderao deixar de o ser, segundo a sua propria phrase. 
Eis o nosso primeiro triumpho, a nossa principal batalha ven- 
eida . . . Que victoria immensa nao representa essa sua simples 
phrase! E se pensarmos que esta primeira, mas definitiva 
conquista do espirito masculino, representa o trabalho de quasi 
meio seculo, temos vontade de dizer . . . que as mulheres, 
apresentando as suas ideias e luctando pela educacao que as 
superiorize, lembram a paciencia das alluvioes que fazem re- 
cuar o mar e mudam o aspecto de um pais. Entendo que o 
ser humano que pertence ao sexo feminine, nao deve ser coa- 
gido (influenced) pela educa9ao, nem pelos costumes, nem pelas 


324 Lesson 15. 

conversas, nem pelos paes que tern a mania de talhar muito 
discrecionariamente o future dos filhos a v6r no casamento 
um fim, um ideal complete e unico, quasi uma obriga<jao. 
Assim como o homem pode ser professor, jornalista, sabio, 
artista, empregado, operario, tudo emfim, sem que ninguem Ihe 
pergunte pela certidao do matrimonio, sem embargo de serem 
quasi todos chefes de familia, nao vejo inconveniente a que 
a mulher procure a sua colloca^ao, tenha o seu curso scien- 
tifico, estude, trabalhe para si, para o seu futuro, para a sua 
vida autonoma, sem se Ihe inquirir do seu estado . . . 
(Anna de Castro Osorio: As mulheres portugusas.) 

Fifteenth Lesson. 

Syntactic Peculiarities of Certain Parts of 
Speech (continued). 

B. Personal Pronouns. 

64. To put an emphasis upon a personal (or 
demonstrative) pronoun (or a substantive), the Portu- 
guese employ: 

(a) The indefinite pronoun mesmo, (-self): 

Escreveu elle mfomo he wrote himself (cf.: escreveu com 
o seu prdprio punho he wrote with his own hand or 

Vimo-la a ella mesmo we saw her herself. 

Vimo-la nds m$smos we saw her ourselves. 

(b) The verb ser with the pronoun o (a os as) and 
a relative clause: ser o que (a que, etc.) or ser quern: 

Tu foste o que me salvaste (instead of "tu me salvaste") 
it was you who saved me. 

N.B. "0" may be dropped :Tu e que me salvaste. 

(c) The periphrase e (era, foi, etc.) que: 

Tu e que me salvaste. $ a ti que devo a minha salvagao. 

Here que is not a relative, but a particle of emphasis 
("Particula de realce 1 ). In both periphrases (b) and (c) 
the dependent verb generally agrees with the personal 
pronoun: tu salvaste. 

tactic Peculiarities of Certain Parts of Speech. 325 

If, however, a pronoun so emphasized is followed 
>y quern, the verb agrees with this latter i.e., it is put 
into the 3 rd person singular. Ex.: 

Eu fui (o) que affirmei isso 

It was I who affirmed that 

It was not we who said that 

Eu e que affirmei isso 
Fui eu (o) que affirmei isso 
Fui eu quern affirmou isso. 

Nos e que o nao dissemos 
Nos nao fomos (os) que o dis- 

Nao fomos nos (os) que o 

Nao fomos n6s quern o disse. 

(d) The particle to be emphasized may be also put 
at the beginning of the sentence, being generally 
repeated by a personal pronoun. Ex.: 

A mim reputo-me um pobre filho de povo que por acaso 
veio ter cd cima. 

Essas Tiervas e preciso arrancd-las. 

Aquelles individuos que desejarem orientar-se no estudo 
dum tal problema nao deixarei de Ihes recommendar 
a leitura de dois bellos livres, que venho de compulsar. 

65. When two or more subjects (noun or pro- 
noun) of different persons belong to the same verb, 
this agrees with the plural of the most prominent per- 
son (the 1 st pers. is more prominent then, the 2 nd and 
this more than the 3 rd ): 

Eu, tu e elle partiremos juntos. Tu e elle partireis juntos. 
Eu e men irmao partimos juntos. 

Note. In southern Portugal and in familiar speech the 
verb is employed in the 3 rd person pi. instead of the 2 nd : 
Tu e teu irmao partirao juntos. 

66. The absolute reflective pronoun is si, which 
does not distinguish number or gender. It is employed 
with the prepositions a, de, em, por (per), para, sobre. 
With com it assimilates to comsigo. Sometimes it is 
strengthened by mesmo: 

Nao estar em si to be out of one's mind 

estar muito em si \ , , 

estar senhor de si f to be conscious of oneself 

326 Lesson 15. 

cair em si \ , 

tornar *obre si f to come to oneself 

fazer alg. c. de per si to do something separately 

fazer para si to do for oneself 

o mundo em si the world by itself 

pensar de si para si to think by oneself 

tomar sobre si to take upon oneself 

trazer comsigo to carry about oneself 

ndo caber em si de . . . to be beside oneself with . . . 

67. "Si" depending on another preposition may 
be translated by elle(s), ella(s): 

Elle(s) tinha(m) todos contra elle(s) or si. 
He (they) had everybody against him (them). 
Viram o ceu azul por cima d'elles (or de si). 
They saw the blue sky above them. 

N.B. The same translation takes place when "si" being 
in familiar speech employed also for "you," might cause a 
misunderstanding. Pensa sempre em si may be: he thinks 
always of you or ... of himself. So, to express the latter, it 
is better to say: pensa sempre em si mesmo. 

68. The conjunctive reflective pronoun is se, which 
takes the forms me, te, nos, vos, according to the person 
and number. Its place is: 

(a) In an affirmative direct capital phrase after 
the verb: 

apresentou-se ; eu lembro-me; nds affastdmo-nos. 

(b) In such a phrase beginning with an adverb 
or some complement, se may be placed before or after 
the verb: 

Hontem lembrei-me; Id se ficou ; pouco a pouco nos 

(c) In a negative and interrogative capital phrase 
and always in a dependent clause before the verb: 

Elle ndo se approximou; tu ndo te applicas; a egua e 
que se ndo esquecia; nem me fale nisso. 

69. How to translate "it is" with a predicative 
complement : 

(a) This being a noun with an article, possessive 

or demonstrative pronoun, an adjective or a noun 


Syntactic Peculiarities of Certain Parts of Speech. 327 

ployed as an adjective and followed by que or an in- 
finitive, "it is" is translated by e: 

E uma lastima it is a pity. 

E men it is mine^; e isto that's it. 

fi o teu dever. fi certo, e verdade que se foi embora. 

E facil a gente enganar-se a si mesmo. 

Seria justo (seria justiga) que fosse absolvido. 

(b) The predicate being an adverb or a noun which 
designs a transitory state, "it is" is rendered by "estd" : 

Estd bem it's all right; estd urn horror it's a horrible 
thing; estd uma belleza it's a beautiful sight. 

70. "So" or "that' r supplying the place of an 
adjective, or of a noun used adjectively, or of a phrase, 
is translated by o or isso or remains untranslated: 

Portugal e um povo triste, e e-o ate giiando sorri (and it 

is so even when smiling). 

Durante algum tem,po, o systema liberal foi uma palavra. 
Hoje nem isso e. 
For some time the Liberal system was (but) a word. 

To day it is not even that. 

86. Thema. 

Louis Philip, King of the French, wrote most of his 
letters with his own hand. It's to you that I owe my liberty 
and my life. Mrs. S. speaks always of herself and blames 
everything she did not do herself. Have you your spectacles 
about you ? Yes, I never go out without them. I never saw these 
gentlemen in your house. Are they your nephews? Yes, 
they are. She will think of us when she is unfortunate, 
for she will certainly become so. Is that your house? Yes, 
it is. Are those your shoes ? Yes, they are. "Is it you, my 
friend?" exclaimed I, when I heard somebody come up the 
stairs. "Yes, it is I," answered he; "I bring you good news." 
Was it you, my boys, who planted this tree? Virtue by it- 
self is worthy of esteem ; but vice by itself is hateful. I and my 
children will pass the summer in the country. Then you and 
your friends will no longer stay there. 

37. Leitura. 

Nao perdia o seu tempo aquelle veneziano que viera re- 
commendado a Salomao Zacuto e se disfar^ava em mercador 
flamengo. Era um espirito perspicaz e observador. Desagra- 

328 Lesson 16. 

dara-lho o caracter de Salomao. Nao era evidentemente o judeu 
que elle suppozera encontrar. 

Um outro Ihe parecera excellente para informador e auxi- 
liar, em terra que tao completamente Ihe era desconhecida. 
De um relance d'olhos o avaliara e Ihe percebera os me'ritos. 
Esse outro era Ananias, o comico judeu, que a canalha de 
Lisboa apupava cruelmente. 

Que importava ao veneziano que elle f6sse ridicule ? Sabia 
muita cousa da vida de Lisboa, conhecia e apreciava perspi- 
cazmente os homens de Villa Nova da Gibraltar, seus corre- 
ligionarios, e nao seria difficil conseguir que falasse desassom- 

Aquelle seria o sen precioso guia. Leu-lhe a alma no 
olhar, sentiu-lhe vibrar a ambisao em breves referencias re- 
passadas de malicia, em palavras soltas que vinham esbraze- 
adas de rancor. Comprehendeu a especie d'homem que a for- 
tuna Ihe deparava, e logo procurou acercal-o bem de si, 
lisongeando-lhe as cobic,as e malquere^as, tao rapidamente 
surprehendidas. (Campos Junior: Guerreiro e Monge.) 


Que nos diz Campos Junior d'aquelle veneziano no seu 
celebre romance Guerreiro e Monge ? 

Quaes foram as relagoes d'elle com Salomao Zacuto? 

Como vinha disfar9ado? 

Qual foi o juizo que o seu espirito observador formou do 
judeu que o acolhera? 

Quern Ihe parecia melhor para informador? 

Como Ihe tinha percebido os meritos? 

Que circumstancia tornava Ananias precioso aos olhos 
do veneziano? 

Que procurou elle fazer em seguida? 

Por que meios o acercou de si? 

Sixteenth Lesson. 

Syntactic Peculiarities of Certain Parts of 
Speech (continued). 

Personal Pronouns (continued). 

71. If the modal verbs (querer, saber, dever, 
poder, ir, deixar, fazer, mandar, vir, ouvir, sentir, etc.) 
are followed by an infinitive and a personal pronoun, 

jl 1_ 

Syntactic Peculiarities of Certain Parts of Speech. 329 

this latter is placed in a direct sentence, whether affir- 
mative or interrogative; 

(a) After or before the infinitive, if it is its object: 
Devo-o fazer or devo fazel-o ? vou buscdl-o ; posso dizer- 

Ih'o or posso-lh'o dizer; mandei-a dbrir; vi castigdl-o. 

(b) Before the infinitive, when it is its subject: 
Mandei-o buscar pao; vi-o castigar o cao; ou$o-a chamar 

a filha; fago-o vir; ouviram-no falar; mandaram-me 

71. In negative sentences the place of the pro- 
noun is before the verb: 

Nao m'o tinhas dado; ndo Ih'o deste? 

In the case of 70 (a) also in a negative sentence 
the pronoun may be placed before the verb or after 
the infinitive: 

Ndo o devo fazer (?) ; nao devo fazSl-o ('?). 

In a dependent negative clause, the pronoun may 
precede or follow the "nao": 

11 Jd porque me nao (or ndo me) esquego que e pobre, 
muito pobre, o nosso povo" 

72. If the phrase begins by a complement (ad- 
verb, conjunction, relative pronoun, etc.) the conjunctive 
pronoun is generally put before the verb or its auxiliary : 
Emquanto o ndo vejo . . .; quantas vezes IWo ndo 

tenho dito! 

Deus vol-o pague! (Here the conjunction "qtte" is 

N.B. The verbs ver, ouvir, deixar, mandar, fazer being 
followed by an infinitive and an accusative complement of 
the 3 rd person (o, a, os, as), the dative pronoun (Ihe, Ihes) 
may be employed instead (see 62) : 

Eu vejo-lhes lancar Idgrimas tristes. 

The same is to be said of the verb chamar: chama-lhe sever o; 
chamo-lhe meu. (See also 62.) 

73. Conjunctions of the Pronouns. 

(a) A pronoun of the dative or accusative may be 
joined to a gerund, but never to a past participle: 

Dizendo-lhe isto; tenho-lh'o dito (but not: tenho dito-lh'o!) 

330 Lesson 16. 

(b) "Se" may be joined to another conjunctive 

Ndo se me lira da cabega que foram injustos comnosco. 

(c) In the future and conditional tenses the pro- 
noun complement is intercalated between the root of 
the infinitive and the termination: 

fechdl-o-d; sel-o-ei; far-lhe-ia falta; vel-o-emos ; dir-lh'o-ei. 

Popularly, these forms are not employed, but are 
replaced by others for instance: 

Eu digo-lh'o ao depois; vamos vel-o. 

(d) Sometimes a dative complement (especially of 
the pronouns) is joined to a verb instead of a possessive 
pronoun before a noun: 

Ficava-nos tambem na amada terra o coragdo. 
Also our heart remained in our beloved country. 

(e) The English ''there were four of us," instead 
of "we were four," is rendered in Portuguese by: 

Eramos quatro ao todo. 

(f) In familiar speech the pleonastical "me" is used 
in sentences like this: 

Porque ndo me estuda? Why don't you study? 
Ndo me saias d'aqui! Don't go out of this place. 

(g) To the pronouns nos and vos is added some- 
times an also pleonastical outros: 

N6s-outros Portugueses we Portuguese, 
(h) In familiar speech sen, sua are employed with 
a following noun or an adjective used as such: 
Seu garoto! Naughty boy! 
Seu felizardo ! Fortunate man that you are ! 
Seu tolo! Fool that you are! 

38. Thema. 

From where do you get your coffee? I get it sent from 
Guatemala. Is it good? I have always heard it hghly praised. 
I have also noticed it always to have the best flavour (cf. 
62). Some time ago there was a revolution in Catalonia, 
but the Government succeeded in suppressing it. That province 
strives to render itself independent, but until now it has 
not yet succeeded. Get up ! You intended to rise at cock-crow. 
Don't you hear it crow? I have heard it crowing already 

kolf ov, 

Syntactic Peculiarities of Certain Parts of Speech. 331 

half an hour ago. To this poor woman a letter was given 
in which she was informed of her son's misfortune. She 
melted into tears (= desfazer-se em pranto) so that she was 
not to be calmed. Saint Anthony, the patron saint of Lisbon, 
is said to have been preaching when a raving madman entered 
the church and with wild words and gestures demanded the string 
that fastened his hood. The saint immediately took it off, and 
as soon as he clasped it round the madman, this latter changed 
into one of his most attentive hearers. 

39. Leitnra. 

Dia no campo. 

A tarde principiava a coar-se atraves das grandes arvores 

I da nossa deveza. Os campos estavam solitaries; neste, na- 

quelle, dois ou tres bois corno esquecidos. Tinhamos passado o 

dia pouco communicativos e repassados de uma doce saudade 

maguada: e r sem me sentir com coragem de Ihe dizer que 

j abrisse o piano, poisei sobre a cadeira a rabeca que quiz fazer 

1 cantar e que gemeu em torn menor uma amargura. Eramos 

tres ha dez mezes e somos so dois agora. E, como o peque- 

nito morrra aqui, desde entao a nossa casita de campo, aldea 

branca, no declive d'um monte verde, entre pinheiros, fechou-se 

e nunca mais falei n'ella. 

Quando me pediu que voltassemos, quiz dissuadil-a ter- 

t namente; mas ella tinha o riso nos labios; e um ramo de flores 

! outonaes para a campa do nosso fllho, uma visita matinal ao 

cemiterio que e como uma singella quadra campestre, a missa 

conventual dita pelo tio Jose" na egreja fresca, o almo90 na 

nossa salita de jantar rescendendo ainda a lua de mel ... 6 

i coracao egoista! attraiste-me e nao fui superior ao encanto 

dum dia recolhido com ella na pacificadora naturSza. Ainda 

para mais a quadra ia deliciosa e eu amo o tempo em que 

as arvores se despem dos seus atavios e entram na meditacao 

e na penitencia. 

dia estava bellisimo, os caminhos cheios de sol e ainda 
humidos das chuvas anteriores. De manhasinha atravessamos 
a aldeia com o nosso ramo de flores na mao. Uma pontita 

i de pallidez dava-lhe mais realce ao rosto meigo. 

cemiterio estava alegre, tinha muitas rosas de toucar 
e o seu muro caiado, ao fundo, d'onde se descortina o rio e 
um panorama de verduras. Ajoelhamos piedosamente na campa 

! do nosso filho : cantara n'esse momento uma avesita n'um car- 
valho proximo, e o sino dava as primeiras badaladas. Ella 
limpou os olhos e fomos entao beijar a mao ao tio Jose e 
ouvir-lhe a missa. (Guilhermo Gama.) 

332 Lesson 17. 

40. Para decorar. 

A Cigarra e a formiga. 

Tendo a cigarra em cantigas Amiga (diz a cigarra), 
Folgado todo o verao, Prometto, a fe d'animal, 
Achou-se em penuria extrema, Pagar-vos antes de agosto 
Na tormentosa esta^ao. Os juros, e o principals 
Nao Ihe restando migalha, A formiga nunca empresta, 
Quo trincasse a tagarella, Nunca da, por isso ajunta. 
Foi valer-se da formiga, No verao, em que lidavas ? 
Que morava perto d'ella. A pedinte ella pergunta. 
Rogou-lhe que Ihe emprestasse, Responde a outra : Eu cantava 
Pois tinha riqueza e brio, Noite e dia, a toda a hora. 
Algum grao, com que manter-se 0h ! Bravo ! (torna a formiga) 
TC" voltar o acceso estio. Cantavas? Pois dan$a agora*. 

Seventeenth Lesson. 

Syntactic Peculiarities of Demonstrative, 
Relative and Indefinite Pronouns. 

74. The demonstrative "this," "that," "these," 
"those," "the one(s)," followed or not by a relative, is 

(a) By este(s), esta(s) for objects near the speaker; 

(b) By esse(s), essa(s) for such near the person 
spoken to; 

(c) By aquelle(s), aquella(s) for such distant to the 
one and the other; 

(d) By o(s), a(s) in any case, but only with a 
following relative: 

E este (esse, aquelle, o) que ve it is the one you see. 

N.B. These pronouns, being employed adiectively and 
referring to nouns of different gender, agree with the nearest: 
Estes homens e mulheres; estas mulheres e homens. 

75. "This," "that," employed without a noun 
which, however, is to be supplied, is rendered by este, 
esse or is altogether omitted: 

Esse nao e o meu livro. esta a minha porta, 
aquella e (a) do meu amigo. Quern e? who is that? 
meu pae. That is my father. 


yntactic Peculiarities of Demonstrative, etc., Pronouns. 333 

76. If "this," "that" does not refer to a deter- 
minate person or object, it is rendered by isto, isso, 

Que e isto (isso)? Ndo percebo isso (aquillo). 

77. "That which" or "what" is rendered by o que. 

que vi nao me agradou. 

That which (what) I saw did not please me. 

Remark. Isto, isso, aquillo, tudo, o que (= aquillo que) 
are masculine and singular. If, however, followed by the 
verbs ser or parecer with a noun or pronoun in the plural, 
the verb generally agrees with the predicative noun : Isto nao 
\sao palavras de animagao: que vimos pareciam drvores. 
Eram tudo memorias de alegria. 

78. . The difference between outro and outrem is 
this: the former is an adjective and variable; the second 
is a noun and invariable. The former refers to per- 
sons and things; the latter only to persons and in a 
general and indeterminate manner: 

Mas como entdo nao liavia no mundo outro amor, nem 
outrem a quern amar, que faria Addo para provar o 
amor que desejava encarecer?* 

79. "He who" is rendered by aquelle que, o que 
or quern. The latter is always employed in proverbs 
and in a general meaning: 

Quern tern capa, escapa. Quern porfia, mata caga. Quern 
com caes se langa, compulgas se levanta (cf. 180, 2 
of the 1 st Part). 

80. Tal, taes without distinction of gender, is 
the English "such," "like"; it is employed conjunctively 
or absolute: 

Taes desgostos soffreu e taes foram as suas dores . . . 

Such troubles he suffered and such were his pains. 

Tal amo, tal criado like master, like man. 

81. Also quern may be employed for "such": 

Ndo faltard quern por alguns punhados de dobras de 

oiro os favorega e acclame. 
There will be no want of such who for some handfuls 

of doubloons will favour and acclaim them. 

82. The pronoun que in certain conjunctions is 
employed predicatively and may not be translated: 

334 Lesson 17. 

Os ribeiros quasi nao murmuram de debeis e exhaustos 

que vao. 
The rivulets flow so feebly and exhausted that they 

don't even murmur, or the rivulets hardly murmur 

with debility and exhaustion. 

83. Quanto as a pronoun is correlative; it is 
employed either with tanto or with tudo, antecedents 
which also may be only understood: 

Dei-Hie (tanto or tudo) quanta tinlia. Foi sonlio (tudo) 
quanta vi. 

84. The relative cujo whose, of whom, corre- 
sponds to "do qual," expressing the preposition de with a 
possessive meaning. It is immediately followed by the 
noun, with which it agrees in gender and number: 
Este e o homem cujo talento admiramos. 

If, however, this noun does not express possession, 
but is a predicative, "whose," "of whom" must be 
rendered by de quern (dos quaes), de que (do qual). 

Os viajantes de quern (or dos quaes) foi companheiro. 
pais de que (or do qual) era rei . . . 

85. The relative que ("which," "that") may refer 
to persons or objects. In the latter case it may be 
preceded by one of the prepositions em, a, or de. 

papel em que escrevo ; o livro de que me falou; a coisa 
a que se refere. 

If, however, "which" or "that" is employed with 
another preposition, it must be rendered by o qual (see 
180, 3 of. P. I). 

41. Thema. 
The Whistle. 

I was still a child of seven years of age, so related the 
famous Franklin, when my parents on a holiday filled my 
pockets with coppers. I went directly to a shop where they 
sold toys for children. Yet the sound of a whistle that I saw 
by the way in the hands of another boy charmed me so much 
that I voluntarily offered him all my money for this one ob- 
ject. The boy consented. Satisfied with my bargain, I ran 
home, where I went whistling all over the house, for rny 
whistle gave me as much pleasure as it disturbed the whole 
family. When my brothers and sisters knew of my bargain, 

Syntactic Peculiarities of Demonstrative, etc., Pronouns. 335 

they affirmed that I had given for times as much four it as 
it was worth, and they laughed at me so much for my folly 
that I began to cry with vexation. At the same time it came 
to my mind what good things I might have bought with the 
rest of the money ! Repentance then caused me more chagrin 
than the whistle had given me pleasure. As this occurrence, 
however, had made on me an ineradicable impression, it was 
afterwards of great use to me. Often when I was tempted to 
buy some unnecessary thing, I said to myself: "Don't give too 
much for the whistle!" and so I saved my money. 

42. Leitura e yersao. 

trdballio pliysico e o mental. 

Todo o homem deve ter uma profissao, uma arte ou urn 
!officio: n'uma palavra, uma occupa9ao ou modo de vida. 
trabalho e um beneficio para a propria saiide, tanto do corpo 
como do espirito, e 6 o linico remedio efficaz para as necessi- 
dades. homem que trabalha 6 util a si, aos seus e a so- 
ciedade; e e do trabalho de todos, seja qual for, que depende 

10 progresso e o bem-estar geral. 

A unica nobreza actual e a do trabalho: um artista, um 
artifice, um operario, um commerciante, um industrial, um 
iavrador, e" tao indispensavel ao bem geral, como o sacerdote, 
o mestre, o me"dico, o engenheiro, o advogado, o magistrado, 

jo escriptor ou o sabio. Perante a virtude de trabalho sao 

todos iguaes, e mais se distingue o que mais ou melhor produz. 

Aquelles que pelo seu trabalho concorrem para facilitar, 

desenvolver e tornar mais productivo o trabalho dos outros, 

jisto e y para os ensinar e educar, habilitando-os a serem bons 

( e fejizes, esses sao benemeritos no mais elevado grau : e nesse 

'grupo esta o sabio. que no seu gabinete, sosinho, pensa e 
medita no que convem ao bem geral, e escreve o resultado 

.das suas cogita9<5es, no proposito de ensinar coisas ignoradas 
que elle descobre, ou de aperfeicoar ou propagar pelo seu 
trabalho as ja conhecidas, esse e" o obreiro por excellencia, 

; por que e o mestre dos mestres, a luz e o guia dos traba- 


Gloria e esses, e em geral aos trabalhadores do pensa- 
mento, que a sua vida consomem no mais alto e difficil labor 

^que nenhuma remunera9ao material saberia pagar nem paga; 
- e depois d'esses, gloria aos seus apostolos que sao os pro- 

jfessores, os mestres, os que ensinam e explicam ao povo os 

livros e a obra dos pensadores. 

Neste momento, as profissoes, artes e officios mais com- 

,muns em Portugal sao os seguintes, -- e a especialidade de 

336 Lesson 18. 

cada uma d'estas occupa9oes aprende-se em livros, que os ha 
a respeito de tudo e que tudo ensinam. 

(Trindade Coelho: Pequeno Diccionario de profissoes, artes e 
officios, appSndice do 3 Livro de leitura.) 


The preceding task 40 may be varied : 1. by having the 
story told to the school-fellows by one of them (Franklin era 
ainda uma crianga). 

2. By allowing the father of Franklin to tell it him: 
{ Tu ainda eras . . .) . 

Eighteenth Lesson. 

Syntactic Peculiarities of Adjectives 
and Participles. 

86. The adjective and the participle employed 
as an adjective (= verbal adjective) serve: 

(a) To determinate the noun (pronominal adjective; 
see pronouns) or 

(b) To describe it (predicative or attributive ad- 
jective) Ex.: 

Alguns peixes teem formas singulares. 

(c) To qualify the action or the state of a noun: 
A empresa saiu feliz. A aurora rompeu meiga e serena. 

In the latter case the adjective is employed ad- 
verbially or in apposition i.e., it is added to the noun 
or the verb to explain and complete it (see P. I, 245). 
(Cf.: Como era a aurora? Meiga e serena. 
Como rompeu a aurora? Meiga e serenamente). 

87. The verbal adjective agrees with its noun 
in gender and number like a predicative adjective. Ex.: 

As ondas vinham espraiar-se preguicosas no areal da 

Sentiu a fronts aquecida por febre ardente. Eu mm 

soldado, temeroso on irresoluto, deu parte do negdcio. 

The adjectives of the last example express cause 
(por temor ou irresolugao). In such a case you may 


Syntactic Peculiarities of Adjectives and Participles. 337 

have the adjective preceded by de in order to put an 
emphasis upon a state or quality (cf. 82): 

Elle cahiu de cansado he fell down with weariness. 

A crianga salta de contente the child jumps with joy. 

De alegres que estavam, ndo pensavam em mal algum. 

They were so merry that they did not think of any evil. 

89. The position of the adjective or participle 
apposition may be before or after the verb, according 
o its meaning (see the preceding examples): 

Entramos em uma batalha, onde vencidos (= se formos 
vencidos) honraremos nosso Deus com o sangue. 

(a) If accompanying a noun, the adjective precedes it: 

Acabada a refeigao, saimos. 
The repast over, we went away. 

(b) The past participle, acompanied by a comple- 
ment, is placed after the noun and before the com- 
plement; yet in elevated stile it may even be put after 
the complement: 

... Com exclusao dos trechos indicados pela mesma 
commissao ... 

Depois de eliminados os trechos pela commissao technica 
indicados ... 

Those excerpts which the technical commission had in- 
dicated having been eliminated. 

(c) The past participle may even take the plural 
form before a subject in the singular, if this latter is 
one of the pronouns coda um, cada qual, nenkum, ninguem 
and refers to persons or things already mentioned: 

Sobresaltados com esta vista, procurava cada um a toda 
a pressa por-se a salvo. 

N.B. Many participles may be employed as mere adjec- 
ves; others may have an active meaning in spite of their 
ive form ; for instance ido (tempos idos times past), vindo 
noticia vinda de fdra), lido (homens lidos well-read or learned 

This is especially the case with participles of reflective 
verbs: arrependido from arrepender-se ; lembrado, etc. Ficd- 
arrependidos we repented or changed our mind. Ella 
lembrada she reminds herself. 

89. Sometimes the adjective as well as the par- 
iciple is employed substantively: 

Portuguese Conversation-Grammar. 22 

338 Lesson 18. 

Muros de dois metros de alto (= de altura) e meio 

metro de largo (= de largura). 

Dd esmolas ao pobre, consola o afflicto e (o) abandonado. 
Give alms to the poor (man), comfort the afflicted and 

abandoned (one). 

(N.B. Here poire, afflicto and abandonado are singular, 
and not, as in English, plural, though they have a plural 
meaning. The Portuguese adjective, when substantively em- 
ployed, has the verb in the plural only if it has itself -the 
plural form: Os pobres pedem esmola the poor ask for alms.) 

90. In certain cases you may employ instead 
of an abstract noun, complement to a verb, an adjective 
preceded by de, or supply the verb ser or estar: 

Accusar alguem de negligente, de desleal (= de negli- 

gencia, de deslealdade or de ser negligente etc.) to 

accuse somebody of negligence or of being negligent. 

Deu mostras de (ser) insofrida, de (estar) nervosa. 

She gave proofs of being impatient, of feeling nervous. 

91. A small number of adjectives may be used 
adverbially in tbe singular and masculine form i.e., 
unaltered (see P. I, 245): 

Luctas nao raro estereis; li$des demasiado fdceis; falar 

92. A verbal adjective is, besides the past par- 
ticiple employed with ser, estar, ficar etc., the form on 
-ante, -ente, -inte (the so-called Participio active], derived 
from the gerund (-ando, -endo, -indo). While the gerund 
is invariable (see the following Lesson), the Participio 
active and the passive are subject to all the rules go- 
verning the adjectives: 

Ficaram castigados. Ndo estamos lembrados. 
Aguas dormentes; plantas dormentes; judeu errante. 

Of. the adjectives presidente ( presidindo), amante 
(= amando), previdente (= prevenindo) provident, previdenie 
foreseeing ( prevendo), proponente ( propondo), abstinente 
(= abstendo), subordinate (= subordinando), corrente, nas- 
cente, andante, ridente (= rindo), luzente, constituinte, seguinte, 

In the case of many of these words their derivation has 
fallen into oblivion, so that they are considered qualifying 
adjectives. Some of them are : brilhante, constante, importante, 
distante, regente, doente, contente, eminente, excellente, etc. 

yntactic Peculiarities of Adjectives and Participles. 339 

Others have become substantives, as for instance: 
Corrente current, vertente slope, regente regent, fabricante, 

disponente, correspondents, descendente descendant, ascendente, 

proponente, lente, etc. 

43. Thema. 

At war less brilliant than his brother, and at peace less 
foreseeing than his father, Dom Affonso the Third neverthe- 
less united the qualities of the one and the other in an eminent 
degree. The most prominent feature of his character seems 
to have been cunning obstinacy, which did not exclude an 
excessive indulgence towards his favourites, especially for those 
who had helped him to arrive to the brilliant position of 
king. His reign was a period of real social progress, in which 
civilisation extended and the popular class made important ac- 

Weary with constant disappointments, Peter the First, 
Emperor of Brazil, retired unexpectedly at night-time on board 
the English man-of-war, where he abdicated in favour of his son on 
the 7 th of April, 1831. Dumbfounded by this sudden resolution, 
the higher officers retired to their houses, repentant of their 
behaviour. The people dispersed in silence (see 87) during 
the night, while the most prominent functionaries, from fear 
(see 87) of the consequences of the abdication, decided the 
following morning to proclaim the prince constitutional em- 
peror, appointing him a regency composed of three members. 
In virtue of the Reform Law of 1834, a single regent then 
governed Brazil until a decree of 1841 declared the majority 
of the emperor. 

44. Leitura e versao. 

Terremoto de LisUa (1775). 

Na manha do primeiro de novembro a cidade estremeceu, 
abalada profundamente, e come^ou a desabar. Eram nove horas, 
dia de Todos os Santos: nas casas ardiam as velas nos orato- 
rios, e as egrejas regorgitavam povo a ouvir missa. 

Toda a gente, numa onda, correu as praias; mas, rolando 
em massa, estacou perante a onda que vinha do rio, galgando 
a inundar as ruas, invadindo as casas. Por sobre este en- 
con tro ruidoso, uma nuvem de po que toldava os ares e es- 
curecia o sol, pairava, formada ja pelos detritos (=destro9os) 
das constructs e das mobilias, que o abalo interno da terra 
vasculhava ( varria), e os desabamentos enviavam, em esti- 
Ihas, para o ar. 

A onda do povo afflicto, retrocedendo, a fugir do mar, 
trope9ava nas ruinas; e as quedas, e a metralha dos muros 


340 Lesson 18. 

que tombavam, abriam na floresta viva, agitada pelo vento 
da desgra^a, clareiras de morte, montoes de cadaveres e po^as 
de sangue, dos membros decepados, com inanchas brancas dos 
cerebros derramados contra as esquinas. E as casas erguiam- 
se com as paredes desabadas, os tectos abertos sobre o esque- 
leto dos tabiques, mostrando a nii todos os interiores funestos, 
neste dia em que, para muitos, Deus julgara e condemnara 

For isso o rouco trovao dos desabamentos se ouvia cor- 
tado pelos ais dos moribundos, e pelos gritos dos homens e 
das mulheres, abra9ados as cruzes, aos santos, as reliquias, 
solu9ando ladainhas, ungindo moribundos, parando esgazeados 
a cada novo abalo da terra, que nao cessava de tremer, ar- 
rostando-se pelo chao de joelhos, e com as maos postas, a face 
em lagrimas, a clamar: 

Misericordia! Misericordia! 

Casas, palacios, conventos, mosteiros, hospitaes, egrejas, 
campanarios, theatres, fortalezas, porticos, tudo, tudo caia, 
Se visses somente o palacio real, diz uma testemunha, que 
singular espectaculo, meu irmao! Os varoes de ferro, tor- 
cidos como vimes, as cantarias estaladas como vidros! 

A onda do rio sorvia n'um momento o caes do Terreiro 
do Pa90, com os barcos atracados, coalhados de gente. Dos 
andares altos precipitavam-se sobre as lages das ruaa. medo 
crescia, vinha a loucura: viam-se mortos arrastados pelos vivos, 
viam-se mutilados coxeando, gente correndo desgrennada, semi- 
mia, homens e mulheres, velhos e creancas dilacerados, san- 
grentos, arrestando uma perna fracturada, esvaindo-se em 
sangue por algum membro decepado. 

Gritos, chores, clamores, impreca9oes, ais, preces, um bor-i 
borinho de vozes desvairadas acompanhava os gemidos com- 
primidos dos soterrados nos escombros. No turbilhao das ruas 
havia quedas e mortes, abra9os e agonias. 

A mesma loucura dos homens era o desvairamento dos 
brutos: os machos, desbocados, arrastavam os cavalleiros e a 
cale9as, precipitando-se nos despenhadeiros da cidade montu- 
osa; e as massas de gente, viva, moribunda e morta, de en- 
volta com os entulhos, rolavam nas ruas ladeadas pelos esque- 
letos das casas como uma imagem desolada do que seria o cahos. 

Quando a terra se subvertia, quando o mar vinha subindo 
afogar a terra, quando no ar faiscavam as linguas flammiferas 
rutilantes, que Iembrac9a podia haver das inve^oes humanas? 
Abra9ados, confundidos, na communidade do pranto, fidalgos 
e freiras, mendigos e senhores, viloes e cavalleiros, abra9avam- 
se na communidade da fome, do frio, da nudez, do terror. 

The Gerund and the Periphrastical Conjugation. 341 

De rastos a cidade inteira, sacudida pelo abalo formidando 
(= formidavel), reunia toda a sua eloqnSncia n'uma palavra 
linica : 

Misericordia! Misericordia! (Oliveira Martins.) 

Nineteenth Lesson. 

The Gerund and the Periphrastical 

93. The participle in -ndo or gerund is in- 
variable. It is employed: 

(a) Referring to the subject of a verb: 
Caminhando vagarosamente e parando a espacos, tinliam 

seguido os dois ao longo do rio. 

(b) Referring to the object or some adverb (of 
cause, manner, etc.): 

Encontrou-os dormindo (= que dormiam; see N.B. ). 
OlTia os ceus, olha a terra, a luz do dia expirando 
( que expira) nas vagas. 

N.B. When it may be doubtful whether the gerund 
refers to the subject or to the object, another form must be 
chosen; for instance: 

Encontrei-os vindo da minha casa may be: 
I met them when I came from my house, or: 
I met them when they came from my house. 

Such a phrase had better be expressed thus: 
Encontrei-os ao virem (dies) da minha casa. 
Encontrei-os ao vir (eu) da minha casa. 

(c) In absolute form i.e., independent of any part 
of a phrase and with its own subject. In this case it 
expresses a circumstance (cause, time, etc.) of the verb 
of the principal sentence. Ex.: 

D. Jorge, parecendo-lhe (= a quern parecia or como Ihe 
parecia) opportuna a occasiao, determinou tentar a 
fortuna. Isto aconteceu, estando tu ( while you 
were) na India. 

N.B. I. An absolute participle may be employed without 
a subject: 

342 Lesson 19. 

(a) when employed impersonally: chovendo nao sairei 
(if it rains . . .) ; 

(b) when, the verb being a personal one, the subject is 
not expressed: 

Isso esclarecer-se-hd indagando a causa. 

That will be cleared up by inquiring the cause. 

N.B. II. The composed gerund is subject to the same 
rules : 

Havendo elle falado, todos resolveram partir. 
After he had spoken, everybody resolved to go away. 
Tendo Augusto Cesar (QIC A. C. tendo; see Remark) capti- 
vado em guerra Adiatorix, trouxe-o a Roma. 

Remark. When the subject of the gerund is at the same 
time that of the verb in the principal sentence, it may pre- 
cede or follow the gerund; otherwise it only follows: Tendo 
os Portugueses descoberto o caminho maritimo da India, o 
oriente abriu-se d cultura do occidente. 

94. If the gerund expresses a circumstance of 
time, a supposition or condition, while the verb of the 
principal sentence designs something as happening in 
future or as a habit, the gerund may be preceded by 
the preposition em: 

Em elle entrando (= as soon as he will enter), falar- 

Nao ha amigos nem inimigos politicos em se largando o 


95. The simple gerund expresses a simultaneous- 
ness with the action of the principal verb ; the composed 
gerund something preceding it. Yet the former is often 
employed instead of the latter, if there be no misunder- 
standing : 

Musa, o emir d'Africa, desembarcando (for tendo de- 
sembarcado) nas costas de Hespanha com um novo 
exercito, rendia Hispalis. 

The Periphrastical Conjugation. 

96. Most frequent is the employment of the 
gerund in the periphrastical conjugation (conjugagao 
periphrdstica) i.e., joined to a form of the verbs estar, 
andar, ficar, ir, vir, ter, haver. Thus employed, it adds 
to the verb the meaning of certain circumstances: 

The Gerund and the Periphrastical Conjugation. 343 

a) With the verb estar the gerund expresses an 
action commenced but not yet finished: 

Estava estudando; estd chovendo; estd-me parecendo que 
tudo sera em vdo. 

N.B. The same meaning is expressed by estar followed 
by the preposition a and an infinitive : estava a estudar ; estd 
a chover. Estar followed by para and an infinitive expresses, 
however, an action immediately impending : Estou para partir. 

(b) With the verbs andar, ficar the gerund ex- 
presses lasting action or state: 

Ando estudando; elle andava meditando; ficou gosando. 

N.B. The same meaning is expressed by an infinitive 
joined by a to these verbs: ando a estudar; andava a medi- 
tar; ficou a gosar. 

(c) With the verbs ir and vir the gerund expresses 
the gradual realisation of an action: 

A vermelhiddo foi avultando; vinha amanhecendo. 

Jd estds a ver que as terras que o genro do rei fosse 
tomando aos Mouros, iam, e verdade, augmentando o 
condado, mas iam ficando tambem terras de Leao, 
porque de Leao era o condado, e vasalo do rei 
espanhol o D. Henrique.* 

Percorrendo o corpo do homem, o sangue vae espa- 
lliando por este a sua substdncia.* 

Se for estudando diligentemente, poderd urn dia saber 
bem a lingua portuguesa. 

N.B. Employed with an infinitive without any prepo- 
sition, these verbs mark an immediate future: vou levar esta 
carta ao correio; vae abrir a portal 

(d) The auxiliary verbs ter and haver, with following 
de and infinitive, express necessity: 

Tenho (or hei-)de escrever uma carta. 

N.B. Cf. haver in the future and conditional tenses. 
The singular and the 3 rd person pi. of haver may be joined 
to de by a hyphen: 

Hei-de, has-de, ha-de ir, havemos de, haveis de, hdo-de ir. 

(e) A conjunction of vir and an infinitive preceded by 
a has nearly the same meaning as these verbs employed 

344 Lesson 19. 

Isto vem a significar is hardly to be distinguished from 

isto signified (= isto por fim signified). 
Isso vem a ser o mesmo that is rather the same. 

N.B. Fir a ser often means tornar-se to become. 
45. Thema. 


(See the map on the inner front-side of this book.) 
Brazil has for limits in the north the French, Dutch and 
English Guianas, Venezuela and the republic of Columbia ; in 
the east Equador, Peru, Bolivia and Paraguay; in the south 
Argentinia and Uruguay ; in the south-east, east and north-east 
the Atlantic ocean. It is well known that the discovery of 
this country was due to chance, and that Pedro Alvaras 
Cabral, after having circumnavigated the Cape of Good Hope, 
when sailing (fazer viagem) to the Indies, was thrown there 
by a tempest in 1500. From that moment this vast region 
belonged to the Portuguese crown, though it was little 
known before the year, 1534 when D. Joao III. divided it 
into several provinces (capitanias), of which he made grants 
to various private persons who undertook to populate and 
cultivate them. Yet the shipwreck of some, the frequent 
incursions of the Indians, and various other accidents which 
the recipients of these grants experienced, and at last their 
death, were so many obstacles to the prosperity of these 
various States. Martim Affonso de Sousa was the only one 
who remained to witness the prosperity of his province, to 
which he gave the name of Sao Vicente, because he had 
anchored there on the 22 nd of January, the day on which the 
Church celebrates the memory of S. Vicent the martyr. The 
remainder of the coast of Brazil was after that time infested 
by innumerable adventurers of different nations who came to 
purchase and traffic with the Indians. 

46. Leitura e versao. 

Desejando el-rei D. Joao III dar uma certa consistencia 
aquellas capitanias, creou o titulo de governador, e o conferia 
a Thome" de Sousa, a quern os donatarios foram sujeitos, e 
quern em 1549 fundou a cidade de S. Salvador da BaMa. Morto 
el-rei D. Sebastiao em Africa, Filippe II, tendo-se apoderado 
de Portugal por fallecimento do Cardeal-rei, se tornou tambem 
de facto senhor do Brasil. Em 1624 os hollandfises invadiram 
a maior parte d'este pais r porem Filippe IV, tendo recobrado 
a cidade da Bahia, despachou a D. Jorge de Mascarenhas, 

The Gerund and the Periphrastical Conjugation. 345 

marques de Montalvao, com o titulo de vice-rei; o qual foi 
deposto pouco tempo depois, quando os Portugueses, sacudindo 
o jugo dos espanhoes, pozeram no throno de sens avos o 
duque de Bragan9a com o nome de Joao IV (1640). Nesta 
epoca varias concessoes haviam entrado naturalmente nos do- 
minies da coroa, outras foram mais tarde compradas aos her- 
deiros dos primeiros donatarios, e a colonia, inteiramente res- 
taurada em 1654, foi administrada por governadores generaes 
de provincia, e um vice-rei na Bahia, ao qual eram sujeitos 
os primeiros, conservando todavia a faculdade de comnmni- 
carem directamente com o soberano. Era entao bem pouco 
iconhecido o sul do Brasil, e o interior ainda menos. Assim 
todo o maritimo tornou a ser dividido em cinco governos: 
Para e Maranhao na costa septentrional, e Pernambuco, Bahia 
e Rio de Janeiro na oriental; e o chefe da dynastia de Bra- 
gan9a houve por bem conferir a colonia o titulo honroso de 
principado, ordenando que d'ali em diante o herdeiro presump- 
tive da coroa tomaria o titulo de principe de Brasil. 

Com a chegada em 1808 do principe regente, D. Joao, 
foram todos os portos do Brasil franqueados as na^oes estran- 
jgeiras, e uma carta regia de 2 de dezembro de 1815 elevou 
o principado do Brasil a dignidade e cathegoria de reino. Falle- 
cendo em 1816 a rainha D. Maria I, o creador da primeira 
monarchia hereditaria da America, vendo-se a ponto de perder 
aa Europa o throno de seus avos, se transferiu a Lisboa em 
,1821, deixando no Brasil D. Pedro, sen filho primoge"nito, em 
^ualidade de principe regente. Porem os acontecimentos obri- 
^aram este principe a separar-se de Portugal e a erigir o 
Brasil em impe"rio independente, sendo acclamado imperador 
aa cidade do Rio de Janeiro em 12 de outubro de 1822; e 
depois de haver dado uma ao impe"rio, foi reco- 
ihecido nesta nova qualidade por el-rei seu pae, por um tra- 
,ado celebrado em 1825. Desde entao o Brasil viu seus portos 
;oalhados de navios mercantes de todos as naQoes ; sua cultura 
> indiistria come^aram a desenvolver-se. cafe, a9ucar e 
ilgodao, tendo uma extrac9ao rapida, e o pre90 d'estes ge"neros 
ndo gradualmente subindo, os proprietaries e agricultores tra- 
^aram de augmentar a produc9ao, ao passo que o luxo se foi 
ntroduzindo nas cidades, nas villas, e ate" nas propriedades 
uraes no meio dos campos. 


Quaes sao os limites do Brasil, ao norte? a oeste? ao 

sul? a leste? 
Como se deu o doscobrimento do Brasil? E em que 


346 Lesson 20. 

A quern ficou pertencendo? 

Quaes foram as medidas tomadas por D. Joao III rela- 
tive, ao pai's? 

Que obstaculos se Ihes oppozeram? 

Qual foi a primeira capitania prospera? 

Que aconteceu ao restante da costa? 

Qaal foi a primeira cidade fundada por um portugues? 
e como se chamou? 

Nas maos de quern foi ter o Brasil, depois da morte de 
D. Sebastiao e do rei-cardeal? 

Em que data e contemporaneo a 'que acontecimento em 
Portugal, foi deposto o primeiro vice-rei, instituido 
por Filippe IV V 

Que dynastia conferiu o titulo de principado ao Brasil? 

E quern o elevou a dignidade de reino? 

Quern emfim foi o primeiro imperador do Brasil? 

Quern foi o ultimo e quando ficou deposto? 

Que espe"cie de govSrno tern o Brasil actualmente? 

Twentieth Lesson. 

Tenses of the Indicative. 

(See P. I, L. 18 and 19.) 

Present Tense. 

97. The Present of the Indicative is used: 

(a) To denote, as in English, that a thing is now 
taking place, or habitually takes place. In the first 
case the periphrastical form may be employed, as in 
English. Ex.: 

Saio; estou lendo. Saio sempre depois do jantar. 

(b) In narrative instead of the Preterite, in order 
to give more vivacity to the description, and to make 
the event, as it were, present. This is called the 
historical or narrative Present. Ex.: 

A Bastilha e dbandonada d demoligao; d'ahi a pouco 
um montdo de ruinas indica o logar onde estava . . . 
lodos correm para por a cidade na defensiva ar- 
ranca-se o calgado das ruas, fazcm-se barricadas 

(c) For an action or state marked as having con- 
tinued for some time up to the present : 

Tenses of the Indicative. 347 

Desde quando estd aqui ? How long have you been here ? 

Estou aqui ha ires dias. 

I have been here these three days. 

Jd ha muito que estuda o portugues? 

Have you already been long studying Portuguese? 

Ha muito que o nao vejo (que me nao escreve). 

I have not seen him (he did not write me) for a long time. 

(d) For the Future, when speaking of actions which 
are to be completed in a short time, as: 
Volto jd I shall come back directly. 
Amanhd vou d praia to-morrow I shall go to the sea- 

98. The Future Tense: 

(a) Denotes that something will happen, as: 

Estudaremos esta ligao. Digo-o, sustento-o e sustentd- 

(b) It is used as a softened form of the Imperative, 
implying the expectation of fulfilment. Ex.: 

Se cd vier alguem, dir-lhe-hds que nao estou. 

If anybody comes (you will) tell him, that I am not 

at home. 

Honrards pae e mde honour thy father and thy mother 
Nao matards thou shall not kill. 

(c) It is used to express uncertainty, an approximate 
statement, a possibility, or a modest form of declaration. 

Haver d paz no tumulo? 

Will there be peace in the tomb? 

Tive aviso, haverd qunize dias, que adoeceu. 

I was advised about a fortnight ago that he has be- 
come ill. 

Sera tempo de ir a casa it is time to go home. 

Assim sera. It may be so. 

Uma coisa vos confessarei. I beg to confess to you 

99. The immediate future is expressed by the 
Present of ir (eu vou) or vir (venlio) and the simple 
Infinitive (see 96, (c) N.B.): 

Vou contar-lhes um conto. I shall tell you a tale. 
Vein convidd los para um passeio he invites them for 
a walk. 

348 Lesson 20. 

Eemark. After the conditional se = if, whether, quando 
when, and emquanto while, as well as after como, assim que, 
logo que the Future of the Subjunctive is to be employed 
(see L. 23). 

100. The Preterito Imperfeito (see P.I, 115) is 

(a) To express what was customary or habitual, or 
to describe an action as simply going on in the past, 
or a state as existing in the past whether in principal 
or subordinate sentences. Ex.: 

Era tdo poderosa no primeiro quartel do seculo XVI a 
esquadra portuguesa, que D. Manuel trazia de ordi- 
ndrio trezentos ndus nas conquistas da Asia, da Af- 
rica e da America. 

(b) In familiar speech it is employed instead of the 
First Conditional: 

Se a apanhasse, esbofeteava-a if I could seize her, I should 
box her ears. 

101. The Preterito perfeito is used: 

For an action occurred in the Past; it serves as 
the ordinary narrative tense for past time: 

Estive no theatro (h)ontem; fui ver o Othello. 

Em virtude da lei das reformas de 1834, um regente 

unico governou o Brasil, ate que um decreto de 1841 

declarou a maioredade do imperador. 

N.B. Of dever the Imperfect is always used instead of 
the Perfect: 

Elle divia (not: deveu) ser (or ter sido) (h)ontem mats 

attencioso para comtigo. 

He ought to (or should) have been more attentive to 
you yesterday. 

102. Two simultaneous actions of the Past are 
put into the Imperfect, while two actions following one 
another are put into the Perfect: 

Eu escrevia o que o professor dizia. 

I wrote what the teacher said. 

Uma telha caJiiu-Uie na cdbega e elle morreu em seguida. 

A tile fell on his head and he died at once. 

Tenses of the Indicative. 349 

103. When a lasting action is interrupted by a 
new one, the former is expressed by the Imperfect, 
while the latter by the Perfect: 

Eu lia quando recebi a tua carta. 

I was reading when I got your letter. 

104. With regard to the translation from Eng- 
lish into Portuguese, it may be summarised that the Per- 
fect is to be employed whenever you may add one of 
the adverbs then, noiv, thereupon, thereafter: and the 
Imperfect when still, already, just may be added, or 
when the verb may be rendered by tvould, used to and 
the infinitive. Ex.: 

Aggredimos o inimigo que recuou we attacked the ene- 

my, who (then) retreated. 

Perseguimos o inimigo que recuava we pursued the 
enemy, who (already) was retreating. 

105. The difference between the Preteritos im~ 
perfeito and perfeito is with certain verbs quite keen in 
its meaning. Ex.: 

Eu tinha I had (possessed) Eu tive I had (I got) 
havia there was houve there arose, began, hap- 


eu sabia I knew- (already) eu soube I learned, heard 

eu conhecia I knew eu conked I made the acquain- 

tance of 

die vestiu he put on 
die vestia he was dressed . dregsed 

elle trazia he carried, he was elle trouxe he brought 


ella dizia she would say ella disse she said 

levantdvamo-nos we used to levantdmo-nos we got up, rose, 

get up etc. 

106. Most frequently the Preterito perfeito is 
employed where in English the Perfect is used. Ex.: 

Chegou he has arrived. Vi-o I have seen him. Tive 
uma carta I have got a letter. Deram-me noticias delle they 
have given me news from him. Esteve no concerto de (h)ontem? 
Were you at the concert last night? 

107. The Preterito indefinido, however, expresses 
repetition or continuation of a fact from a certain point 
of time until the moment of speaking. (In English 
the Present may sometimes be employed instead). Ex. : 

350 Lesson 20. 

Todas as constituigoes teem facultado a certas autoridades 
o direito de perdoar. 

All constitutions have given (or gave or give) to cer- 
tain authorities the privilege of absolution. 

Sometimes this tense serves only to emphatically 
declare an action as altogether finished for the speaker: 

Teriho dado fim as minhas investigates. 
I put an end to my investigations. 

108. The Pluperfects (Preterites mais-que-perfeitos 
composto and simples) express an action preceding 
another. Ex. : 

Eu jd tinha jantado quando meu irmao cliegou. 
I had already dined when my brother arrived. 
Faldramos em negocio . . . We had spoken of business. 

109. The Mais-que-perfeito simples may be 
employed instead of the Condicional as well as instead 
of the Imperfeito Suty. (the latter especially in the first 
part of the conditional sentence) and instead of the 
Presents conditional in the second part. Ex.: 

Quizera (= queria) ser-lhe agradavel. 

I should like to be of some use to you. 

Se o contentamento fizera ( fizesse) milagres, tivera-me 

(= ter-me-hia) nesta hora a seus pes. 
If joy did wonders, you would have me ... at your feet. 

But it is also absolutely employed, especially in 
popular interjections: 

Quern (me) dera! 

Would it were so! That would be a good thing! 
Pudera! I say! Wouldn't it! To be sure! 
Prouvera Deus! God grant! 

110. The Imperativo expresses request, order, 
permission, or prohibition. It is formed out of the Pre- 
sente Subj., but for the 2 nd persons which are formed 
out of the Presente Indicativo, if they are not in nega- 
tive sentences. Ex.: 

Ndo lebas coisa que ndo vejas, nem assignes coisa que 

ndo Mas. 
Don't drink what you do not see, nor sign what you 

did not read. 

Tenses of the Indicative. 351 

111. The Conditional expresses: 
(a) That something soon happened or would have 
happened on certain conditions. Ex.: 

Se nao fossemos orgulhosos, nao nos queixariamos do 

orgulho dos mais. 
If we were not proud, we should not complain of 

the pride of others. 

Elle teria sido feliz, se tivesse sabido moderar os seus 

He would have been happy if he had known how to 

moderate his desires. 

N.B. I. The Presente Conditional (or even the Imper- 
feito Ind.) is sometimes employed instead of the Preterito 
conditional, the verb of the dependent clause being put into 
the Preterito comp. indie, instead of the Mais-que-perfeito. 

Caso e que se elle nao tern ( tivesse) sido demittido 
tdo depressa, o roubo dava-se (instead of dar-se-ia or 
properly ter-se-ia dado) com certeza- there is no doubt 
that, if he had not been dismissed so suddenly, the 
robbery would certainly have taken place. 

6te a teem (instead of tivessem} visto ali haveriam apor- 
tado certamente e encontrariam (instead of teriam 
encontrado) confirmados as informagoes de Pedro da 
Covilha, que d'aquella povoagao dera preciosas infor- 
magoes na sua carta a D. Jodo IT, pois ali fora 
poucos annos antes . . . Em Sofala certamente en- 
contrariam (for teriam encontrado) navios da costa 
do Malabar.* 

(Campos Junior: Guerreiro e Monge.) 

N.B. The Preterito conditional, composed jvith tivera 
or houvera, may be employed in conditional clauses instead 
of the Mais-que-perfeito Subj.: 

Teria ido, se tivera (for tivesse) sabido que . . . (cf. 109). 

(c) In certain cases the Conditional (or the M.-q.- 
perfeito simples instead) is used to express astonishment, 
avaliation, or a softened form of declaration: 

Seria verdade? Can that be true? Haveria no theatro, 
quando muito, trezentas pessoas, there may have 
been at the most in the theatre about 300 persons. 
Vim-me embora seriam dez horas I went home at 
about ten o'clock. Nao diria isso I should not say 
so. Antes diria. I should rather say, as in English. 

352 Lesson 20. 

(c) Frequently the Presente conditional (without a 
dependent clause) is used to express an expectation, an 
arrangement, the fulfilment of which depends of the 
future. Ex. : 

Esse manual ser-lhe-hia guia seguro pelos caminhos tor- 

tuosos da politica. 
This handbook was meant to be a reliable guide to him 

on the tortuous ways of politics. 
Eu far-lhe-hia ver as bellezas do men pais. 
I intended to show him all the beauty of my home. 

47. Thema. 

Extract from Portuguese History. 

The history of Portugal properly begins with the reign of 
the Count Henry of Burgundy. All that is anterior to this 
belongs more to the history of Lusitania and in a more gene- 
ral meaning to that of the peninsula. When in Leon Al- 
phonse the Sixth was reigning, the Count Henry, a descendant 
of Hugo Capet (= Capeto) offered (= came to offer) his ser- 
vices to that monarch, and received from him in reward the 
hand of his daughter D. Thereza and the country of Portugal. 
Is is certain that they were already married in 1095 and 
that the Count Henry already in 1097 governed Portugal 
from the Minho to the Tagus. The successor of this first Portu- 
guese regent was his son Dom Affonso Henriques 1 who, after 
having conquered many tracts of land from (see 48 c) the 
Moors, was victorious at last on the 25 th of July, 1139, at the 
famous battle of Campo de Ourique against five Moorish 
kings, while the day before he had been (gerund) proclaimed 
king by his soldiers, [a] title that was confirmed to him 
by the nation in the Parliament (as Cortes} of Lamego in 
1143. Already the monarch had caused the independence of the 
kingdom to be recognised by the King of Leon. The suc- 
cessors of Affonso Henriques continued their conquests: 
D. Sancho the First conquered Algarve, D. Affonso II. Alcacer 
do Sal, and D. Sancho II many tracts and places of the 

The kingly power then began [to be] in fight with the 
ecclesiastical state, [which was] most powerful at those times 
and from that fight resulted the deposition of D. Sancho II 
by [a] bull of the Pope Innocence IV, and the government 
of D. Affonso III, his brother. D. Diniz strove especially to 
make Agriculture and Science flourish, to which purpose he 
created the first university in Lisbon. His successors conti- 

Tenses of the Indicative. 353 

med the work of civilisation until the unfortunate reign of 
D. Fernando J, last monarch of the first dynasty. 

The nation united in Parliament proclaimed in 1583 King 
of Portugal, John, Grandmaster of the Order of Aviz (Mester 
de Aviz), who settled the independence of Portugal which was 
attacked by Castile, and by his valour and good administration 
he obtained the love of his people. The descendants of this 
monarch reigned until 1580, when the Cardinal King Dom 
Henrique died. This is doubtlessly one of the most beautiful 
periods of Portuguese history. 

48. Leitura e versao. 

Os descobrimentos dos Portugueses, as suas victorias na 
Asia e Africa, tornaram o seu nome temido e respeitado em 
toda a parte. DSsde a gloriosa toaaada de Ceuta em 1415 ate 
a desgracada batalha de Alcacer Quivir em 1578, este povo, 
dotado de uma actividade sem exemplo, descobre os archi- 
pelagos da Madeira, (das) AQores, (das ilhas) Canarias e (do) 
Cabo Verde, (a) costa e ilhas de Guin6 ; explora e faz muitos 
estabelecimentos no litoral da Africa occidental: dobra o 
Cabo das Tormentas; submete ou faz tributaries os principes 
mouros da costa oriental africana; arrebata aos arabes a 
navega9ao da India e (do) Mar Vermelho; e assombrando 
os povcs do Oriente com prodigios de valor, estabelece-se em 
Ormuz, Diu, Damao, Goa, Bombaim, Cochim, Ceylao, Malaca, 
abrindo-se caminho pela Oceania para Java, Borneo, Timor, 
Molucas, China e Japao, ao passo que descobre a Nova 
Hollanda, Nova Guine e outras terras. Pedro Alvares 
Cabral descobre o Brasil (1500) e em m6nos de um seculo, 
os vastos e ferteis terrenos entre o Amazonas e Prata, se 
acham submettidos ao dominio portugues. Mais de cincoenta 
reis ou regulos foram tributaries do rei D. Manuel, e os mais 
poderosos monarchas da Europa e do Oriente solicitaram a 
sua ailiansa. 

Nao foi menor o cuidado pelas letras neste glori6so 
periodo. D. Affonso V forma a bibliotheca de Evora; D. 
Manuel I manda reformar e aperfei9oar a legislacao. Foi 
neste periodo e no reinado de Joao III que se introduziu em 
Portugal a inquisi^ao (1540) e a Companhia de Jesus (1541). 
A morte do cardeal-rei D. Henrique (1580) seguiu-se a 
occupacao castelhana, que durou at 1640 ; e Portugal, que 
no reinado de D. Manuel chegara ao maior grau de esplendOr, 
caiu nesse periodo na maior prostrayao. 

No anno de 1640 recuperou esta na^ao a sua independe"ncia 
pela gloriosa revolu9ao que elevou ao throno D. Joao IV, tronco 
dadynastia deBragan^ahapouco ainda reinante. Portugal alliou- 
Portuguese Conversation-Grammar. 23 

354 Lesson 21. 

se depois com a Inglaterra e Hollanda contra Espanha na 
ce"lebre Guerra de Successao. Esta guerra terminou pelo Tra- 
tado de Utrecht em 1713. Naquelle tempo e reinando 
D. Joao V, constnriram-se obras grandiosas, como foram o 
mosteiro, templo e palacio de Mafra e o aqueducto das Aguas 
Livres. Mas o tesouro ficou exhausto e a em deca- 
dencia, de que so a poderia tirar um ge"nio e perseveranQa 
como o do marques dePombal, ministro de D.Jose" I (1755 1777) 
em cujo reinado se reorganisaram as finai^as, o exercito e a 
marinfia, foram expulsos os jesuitas, e a levou o sen 
primeiro golpe, at<$ ser de todo extincta em 1820. 

Em 1807 os francses invadiram Portugal, mas foram 
repellidos pelo exercito anglo-portugu3, que Ihes deu severas 
119608 em Vimieiro, Bussaco, Badajoz etc. Em 1820 uma 
revoh^ao estabeleceu o systema constitucional. A rainha 
D. Maria I, tendo ido em 1807 ao Brasil com o principe regente 
D. Joao e a corte, la fallecera em 1816. D. Joao VI entao 
voltou a Portugal em 1821, sendo-lhe negado o desembarque, 
ate elle ter confirmado o systfima constitutional, que foi des- 
truido em 1828. Em 1833 porem foi restabelecido por 
D. Pedro IV (como B. Pedro I imperador do Brasil), filho de 
D. Joao VI, o qual pelo seu valor e constancia soube reivindi- 
car o thrOno para sua filha, a senhora D. Maria II, fallecida 
a 15 de Novembro de 1853. Foi ella a bis-avo de Dom 
Manuel II, ultimo rei de Portugal, desthronado em 1910. 

Twenty-first Lesson. 

The Subjunctive Mood. 

112. The Subjunctive denotes an action or a 
state as existing in the mind of the person speaking, 
and not as a fact: 

I do not think he is so old. Nao creio que seja tao velho. 
We feared he would go. Eecedmos que se fosse embora. 

It is the mood of uncertainty, and is employed after 
verbs expressing desire, tendency, order, hope, merit, 
fear, doubt: 

Desejo (espero, quero, duvido) que Carlos estude. 

113. The Subjunctive is used: 
A. In principal clauses (oragoes principaes or sub- 

The Subjunctive Mood. 355 

(a) In the Imperative mood for the first and third 
persons when affirmatively, and for all three persons 
when negatively employed: 

Estude (elle, V*), estudemos, estudemf 

Ndo pe$as a quern pediu, nem sirvas a quern serviu. 

Que esteja ou nao bom tempo. 

N.B. In the third person que may precede the verb; 
que estude(m)! 

(b) In clauses where talvez precedes the verb: 
Talvez elle diga perhaps he may say. Yet here the 
Indicative may be employed. 

(c) In clauses expressing wishes or interjections: 

Praza a Deus que assim seja! Viva! Morra! Deus 
o salve! Possa eu um dia pagar-llie as suas finesas! 
Assim as suas prendas fossem devidamente desen- 

(d) In clauses of admission being equivalent to a 
conditional clause: 

Falle elle (= se elle falar), tudo se calard. 

B. In subordinate clauses (oragoes sulordinadas) 
beginning with qiie 1 and not representing indirect speech. 
The conjunction que requires the Subjunctive: 
(a) After all verbs, substantives, adjectives and 
other particles which express cause or impediment of 
an action or occurrence, an admission, approval or dis- 
approval, hope, convenience, etc., such, as: Desejar, 
querer, pedir, aconselhar, consentir, admittir, impedir, 
ordenar, approvar, propor, suppor, merecer, prohibir, 
decretar, resolver, esperar, convir. desapprovar, acliar mal 
(bom, melhor, peor). 


Fie com que elle visse o seu erro I caused him to re- 
cognise his error. 

1 "Que" may be omitted in the complementary accusative 
clause whenever the verb is also accompanied by a dative com- 
plement which is the subject of the accusative clause; e.g., 
Candido de Figueiredo propunha d Academia das Sciencias, en- 
car r eg asse uma comissao da reforma (ou revisao) da ortografia, 
antes que se comegasse o famigerado Dicciondrio (in spe), de que 
era director Latino Coelhov (Carol* Michaelis de Vasconcellos). 


356 Lesson 21. 

Impediram (or obstaram) que entrassemos. 
They opposed our entrance. 
Aprovo (desaprovo) que faga isso. 
I approve his doing so. 
Suponhdmos que esse facto se de. 
Suppose that will happen. 

Ndo Hie aconselho que parta. I don't advise you to part. 
Nao se pode admitir (or e inadmissivel) que se digam 
taes eoisas. Such things cannot be allowed to be said. 
Elle mereeia que se Ike concedessem todos as honras. 
He would be worthy of all honours bestowed upon him. 

(b) After the expressions (verbs, substantives, ad- 
jectives) of fear: 

Receei que o meu amigo estivesse doente. 

Tinha medo (estava com medo) que perdesse o comboio. 

De medo que lest, for fear. 

Ndo temas que fiques castigado! 

Estou a tremer (e de receiar) que haja mallogro. 

I tremble for fear there may be a failure. 

(c) After expressions of astonishment, surprise, 
joy, grief e.g.: 

Admiro (-me) que elle venha (or tenha or tivesse vindo). 

I wonder that he will or has come. 

Fiquei surpreendida que tivesse chegado. 

I was surprised he had come. 

Folgo (or estimo) que tenha recuperado a saude. 

I am glad he is well again. 

Sinto que nao Hie possa valer. 

I am sorry I can be of no use to you. 

(d) After verbs or impersonal idioms expressing 
that it is agreeable or deplorable, rare or frequent, 
possible, probable, astonishing, important, just, necessary, 
useful, etc. e.g.: 

j de sentir it is deplorable, a pity 

e de crer f \ it be assumed 

e admissivel | 

e de desejar it is desirable 

e raro (vulgar) it is rare (common) 

e possivel (provdvel) it is possible (probable) 

e admirdvel (or de admirar) it is astonishing 

parece incrivel it seems incredible 

importa it is a matter of consequence 

The Subjunctive Mood. 357 

e justo it is just 

e necessdrio (util, perigoso) it is necessary (useful, 

a ndo ser que unless, except. 

Ex.: Importa que se comprehenda e exercite hern o em- 
prego do conjunctiva, para que haja nella a maxima 

To this group belong also the nouns predicatively 
employed : 

e honra it is an honour 

e vergoriha it is a shame 

e tempo \ it ig time 

sao horas / 

e justiga it is justice 

e asneira it is foolishness 

caso e que the question is. 

(e) After duvidar and other terms expressing doubt, 
when employed affirmatively, the English "whether" is 
translated by que: 

Duvido que elle saiba I doubt that (or whether) he knows. 
j muito duvidoso que seja despachado o requerimento 

It is rather doubtful whether the request will be 

agreed to. 
However : Ndo ha duvida (ninguem duvida) que Cintra 

e urn logar dos mais bonitos da Europa. There is 

no doubt that Cintra is one of the finest places in 


N.B. I. Sometimes, however, the subjunctive is employed 
even with duvidar in a negative clause: Ndo duviddmos que 
o sr. Jose diga a verdade. 

N.B. II. After ignorar the subjunctive may be employed: 
Ignorava que vivesses (or que vivias) na aldeia I did not 
know that you lived in the country. 

N.B. III. After the verbs expressing knowledge or 
meaning of something happening or existing (verbos sensitivos), 
as ver, saber, j^llgar, and those declaring something as happen- 
ing or existing (verbos declarativos), as dizer, declarar, an- 
nunciar, the verb after "que" may be in the subjunctive mood, 
in case the verb of the principal clause is employed negatively 
or in a negative interrogation. 

Ndo digo que elle ndo saiba. 

I don't mean to say that he does not know. 

358 Lesson 21. 

Entao nao achas que fosse melhor ter metis cuidado? 
Don't you think it would be better to be more 
careful ? 

N.B. IV. In an interrogative accessory clause the verb 
may be in the subjunctive. 

Nao sabia quaes fossem as suas ideias e medidas. 
I did not know which were his ideas and measures. 

N.B. V. In the same case after se whether, with dever, 
haver de added in thought, the verb may be employed in the 
subjunctive : 

Nao sei se dlga (= nao sei se devo or deva dizer or: 
nao sei se hei-de or haja de dizer) I don't know 
whether I am to say. 

49. Thema. 

It is not advisable that during a thunderstorm many people 
should crowd together in a church unless there is a lightning- 
conductor. It is indispensable that a nation should fulfil its 
destiny and always strive after high ideals. I should have 
rendered him this service, if I had had the means to do so. 
These flowers would not have faded if they had been watered. 
I shall do what he wants me to, provided he behaves well. 
Do not go upon the lake while the ice is not solid, lest you 
break through. He will give it you on condition that you shall 
give it back to him to-morrow. It is impossible that he should 
have written that. It is convenient for you to go to find him. 
It is a pity that you have not seen him. It is a shame that 
you should deny thus what you have done. It would be a 
crime if you should let him do that. What would they say 
if I should send them this parcel? We should comfort her 
if she needed it. However sad the news is, I shall impart 
it to her. You ought patiently to endure these trials, until 
a time will come when you will no longer be oppressed. It 
is just that you should be rewarded. Do not believe him, 
whatever he may say. God grant (= querer) he may suc- 
ceed. Tell him, so that he may know it. Even if he should 
come to-morrow, he would no longer be in time. 

50. Leitura e yersao. 
Passeio d Eiviera portuguesa. 

Visto que ja conhecemos o mappa de Portugal nos seus 
tragos geraes, vamos agora fazer uma visita aos arrabaldes 
da capital. Como esta calor, recommenda-se que tomeTnos o 
combdio de Cascaes, para que nos leve a Eiviera. Pois sigam- 

The Subjunctive Mood. 


me, se forem do meu parecer. Vejam, alem esta o comboio 
prestes a partir. Nao se demorem ! Corram e subam, para 
que nao o percamos. Eis-nos installados! Ainda bem que o 
alcancamos, pois duvido que haja outro antes do meio-dia. Sen- 
tem-se e descansem da corrida ! Ora querem ver que o Carlos 
esta sem folego! Nao se precipitasse tanto! Agora reparem: 
Do lado esquerdo do comboio ve-se o Tejo e as margens da 
Outra Banda. D'ali se gosa um panorama encantador de Lisb6a 
e do rio, por tal forma magnifico que sera muito para lasti- 
mar que nao seja visto pelo estrangeiro que visite Lisboa. 

Ora por pouco que tivessemos passado, sem a ve"r, a Torre 
de Belem, uma das maiores maravilhas de architectura, que 
ha no mundo. E que uma fabrica de gaz impede que se 
veja, a nao ser do lado do rio. Que pSna que se tenha dado 
licenca de collocarem essa fabrica de maneira que seja tao 
difficil obter um relance d'olhos d'um monumento erigido para 
que sempre relembre os feitos dos Portugueses no seu periodo 
de maior heroismo e gloria. 

comboio agora vae passando pelas povoasoes de Ddfundo, 
Pedroucos, Paco d'Arcos, Alges, praias consideradas de mar, 
visto que o rio aqui leva agua salgada, e frequentadas pela 
melhor gente de Lisboa, comquanto nao estejam longe da 
capital. E que ha tantas e tao boas praias por todo a costa 
portuguSsa que facilmente se Ihe encontra onde nos sintamos 
bem e fiquemos curados dos nossos males. 

Agora permittam que Ihes chame a para o sitio 
que estamos atravessando e que se chama Caxias. Nao e senao 
justo que aqui se mencione um instituto pedagdgico que faz 
honra ao pais: 6 a Casa de Correccao, estabelecida n'aquelle 
vasto edificio que, se bem que tenha sido um mosteiro e por 
conseguinte nao destinado desde logo ao seu fim actual, e um 
modelo no genero. E raro o alumno que ali nao se sinta (or 
sentisse) bem e em que os esfo^os dos professores, tendando 
a que todos cheguem a ser bons e uteis, nao consigam (or 
conseguissem) o seu fim. 

E nao esquecamos que aqui ha ainda outra coisa a ad- 
mirar: uma casa de campo, deshabitada, que foi do rei, ou seja o 
quintal que Ihe pertence, uma especie de parque com avenidas e 
alegretes contornados de buxo artificialmente copado, e em 
parte do tamanho de um homem. Foi, como ja disse, d'el-rei, 
que porem nunca habitou aqui que eu saiba. Outra quinta 
real, e essa lindissima, no que diz respeito ao palacio em estilo 
de renaseenca, esta situada nao longe d'aqui na estrada de 
Cintra, em Quelus. Tambem tern parque rococo com altas 
sebes de buxo. Mas o maior attractive que eu Ihe conheco, 
e" o profundo silencio em que esta mergulhado. 

360 Lesson 22. 

Ja estamos a beira-mar. Notem aquelle grande edificio 
sobre os rochedos lambidos pela quebranca! Nao e como quern 
quizesse atirar-se ao mar? E o Sanatorio de Carcavellos cons- 
truido em 1902 para que de" acolhimento a meninos de 4 para 
12 annos. Nao longe d'ahi esta outro sanatorio, o de Sanf Anna 
de Parede que, tendo cem camas, recebe tanto adultos como 
crian9as que sejam tuberculosas. E ha quern affirme que cada 
cama custou 16.000 marcos, a ser verdade que o sanatorio, 
edificado em 1904, tenha custado 1.600000 marcos approxima- 

Do nosso lado direito devia-se v6r outro edificio, mais 
antigo e nao mfinos interessante, se as verduras e alguns 
grupos de casas nao no-lo occultasse. E o palacio do marques 
de Pombal que foi o grande ministro de D. Jose I. Estamos 
em Oeiras. 

E ja vamos passando Sao Joao d'Estoril, Estoril e Monf 
Estoril, onde nos encontramos na parte da Bahia de Cascaes, 
mais restrictamente chamada Riviera portuguesa. Proponho 
que desc,amos para lanchar no Real Hotel MonV Estoril d'onde 
se gosa uma vista formosa a nao poder ser mais linda. De- 
pois daremos um passeio ate Cascaes, para v6r a cidadella, resi- 
dencia d'el-rei quando ca esta, e uma formacao das mais 
curiosas de rochedos, em forma de cratera, aberta no fundo, 
e chamada B6ca do Inferno*. 

Twenty-second Lesson. 

The Subjunctive Mood (continued). 
C. In Adverbial Clauses (oragdes circumstanclaes). 

114. The subjunctive is employed after the 
following coDJunctions (cf. P. I, L. 34) : 

(a) The concessive (concessivas) : ainda que, posto 
que etc., as soon as the clause expresses only supposition 
and not a reality: 

Nao me queixaria d'elle, ainda que me maltratasse. 
Ainda que o amava, por ser valoroso, nao era cega pelos 

seus defeitos. 

N.B. Sometimes the concessive clauses may have the 
subjunctive, even when expressing a reality: 

Se bem que (or comquanto que) os Alpes sejam mais 
altos que os Pyreneos, elles sao mais fdceis de at- 

The Subjunctive Mood. 361 

f>) The final (finaes): 
Ibedecei as leis, para que vos obedegam. 
;) The consecutive (consecutivas) : que: 
Is generos de mais necessidade devem ser tao baratos 
que estejam ao alcance de todos os bolsos. 
JB. /Sew que and que ndo always require the subjunc- 
tive. Ex.: 

Caso venha e que nao (or sem que} ckegue a liora . . . 

(d) Nao porque, nao que: 

Procedeu assim, nao porque gostasse, mas por entender 
ser este o seu dever. 

(e) Contanto que, a ndo ser que, supposto que, dado 
que, dado caso que, caso que, caso always require the sub- 
junctive. Ex. : 

Pdde ir contanto que nao se demore. 

(f) Se if, whether, expressing condition; como se 
as if; quer . . . quer; como quer que (cf. se followed by 
the future in the following Lesson, 115 (a)): 

Se nao fosse a grande distancia, iri a vel-o. 
Falou como se tivesse perdido o juizo. 

N.B. I. Instead of como se in the preceding example 
might be employed como quern (see E). 

N.B. II. 8e, introducing an indirect interrogation, is 
followed by the indicative: preguntou-me se era grande a 

Sa(li)irei quer chova quer nao chova . . . whether it be 

raining or not. 

Como quer que seja however it may be. 
Como quer que o nao visse as he did not see him anyhow. 

(g) Ate que, depois que and antes que, when ex- 
pressing a future, an intention: 

Esteja em casa ate que seu irmao volte. 
Depois que tenha chegado, saiam ambos antes que se 
feche a porta. 

(h) Como, when, employed with the imperfect or 
pluperfect, it expresses a series of events; sometimes 
also when expressing the reason: 

Napoleao, como tivesse sido vencido e aprisionado pelos 

alliados, foi levado para a ilha de Elba. 
Como ndo quizesse acompanhar-me, sai so. 

362 Lesson 22. 

D. In Relative Clauses. 

(a) When expressing a supposition and not a reality: 

Pompeo aspirava a honras que o distinguissem de todos 

os capitdes do seu tempo. 

Se encontrar um livro que Ihe agrade, compre-o. 
Se nao chove, a raiz duma planta nao encontra na terra 

dgua que sugue. 

(b) When expressing a quality which restricts the 
generality of an idea, this idea belonging to a negative 
or interrogative-negative attribute: 

Ainda nao encontrei homem algum que nao tivesse (or 

tenha) sido logrado nos sens sonhos de felicidade. 
Quern ha que tenha sido sempre feliz? 

N.B. Pouco is considered as attributing a negative 
meaning : 

Ha poucos homens que saibam aproveitar bem o tempo. 

(c) Expressing purpose: 

Enviei-lhe uma pessoa que o avisasse do que havia aeon- 

Remark. Relative clauses which do not belong to any 
of the groups above require the indicative : Elle sabe os meios 
de que pdde dispor e sabe os deveres que tern de cumprir. 
Conhecia perfeitamente a sociedade em que vivia. 

E. Quern in the meaning of "somebody who" or 
"people who" and depending on ha, apparece or the 
like, or following como (cf. C (f ) N.B.) equally requires the 
verb in the subjunctive mood: 

Ha quern assim pense; havia quern assim pensasse. 
Falou com quern tivesse perdido o juizo. 

However : Ha algumas pessoas que assim pensam. 

Also expressions as seja quern for que, quern quen 
que seja and the like require the subjunctive: 

Elle estd innocente, seja quern for que diga o contrdrio. \ 

F. Finally, the subjunctive is employed in the forH 
mulas que eu saiba as I know, and queira ou nao queira\ 
whether he wants to or not: 

Nao ha, que eu saiba, expressao mais suave. 

The Subjunctive Mood. 363 

51, Thema. 

T should want to find a book that might serve me as 
a guide on my travels. Man is the only sentient being that 
in a state of freedom may destroy itself. Please to send me 
a servant who knows how to wait upon people. I should be 
very sorry if you should depart without bidding me good-bye. 
It will be well that you may know why I kept silence. Per- 
haps it will be sufficient if you tell him that he will be dis- 
missed immediately if he should not do his duty. It is 
time that we return home, for it begins to rain. It may 
be assumed that to-morrow the weather will be good. I 
promised that I should keep her company, in case you should 
be obliged to remain here. Dom Joao de Castro, a brilliant 
modern author and a descendant of the famous Portuguese 
viceroy of the same name, says in the preface to his Jor- 
nados no Minho : "The reader who will like substantial 
treatises, may halt here with his curiosity, for my 'Jornadas' 
are nothing but a slight beating of wings . . . When I should 
be a man so I intended when still a child I should 
rove through old castles ; on my command (= vos) the draw- 
bridges were to sink and the confined ladies of the castle 
should hail me as their invincible deliverer ..." You do not 
know whereby the ancestor of this author has become an his- 
torical person, and you ask me whether I do. May I ask 
leave to tell you briefly in the following paragraph the his- 
tory of this hero, so intimately connected with that of his 

52, Leitnra e versao. 

Dom Joao de Castro. 

D. Joao de Castro seria immortal na, historia de Portugal, 
ainda que nao tivesse sido vice-rei da India e como tal feito 
facanhas como havera poucos as tenham feito. TalvSz elle 
seja mais conhecido pela sua probidade e desinteresse, que 
nao ha quern Ih'a possa negar ou Ihe levasse a palma. Nasceu 
em Lisboa no anno de 1560; e como descendesse de uma fa- 
milia illustre, passou a India no vice-rei nado de D. Antonio 
de Noronha, e era governador de Ormuz quando foi chamado 
para viee-rei da India. Tinha ja militado em Tanger e acom- 
panhado o imperador Carlos Quinto na tomada de Tunis. Por 
essa occasiao, como este monarcha quizesse dar-lhe a sua parte 
dos despojos, D. Joao de Castro recusou, nao porque despre- 
zasse todo o pre"mio material da sua valentia, mas por entender, 
dizia, que so pertencia ao seu soberano recompensal-o como 
merecesse. Quando D. Joao de Castro tomou conta do govSrno 
da India, era I)iu governada por D. Joao de Mascarenhas que, 

364 Lesson 23. 

posto nao dispuzesse de mais de 300 Portugueses, a defendeu 
valorosamente da forcu cem vfizes maior com que a amea9ara o 
rei de Cambaia. novo vice-rei nao hesitou em Ihe man- 
dar alguns soccorros de soldados, assim como sens dois filhos, 
dos quaes um morreu na pra$a pela explosao duma mina. 
Defendia-se Diu heroicamente haveria seis mezes, quando D. Joao 
de Castro chegou (1546). Posto que nao i'6sse facil illudir o 
inimigo, conseguiu fazel-o, entrando na pra9a com 4000 homens. 
Alguns dias depois fez uma sortida e, agredindo as trincheiras 
dos sitiantes, ganhou completa victoria, uma das mais sangui- 
nolentas e memoraveis, que nos tern transmittido a historia. 
Ficou a cidade arruinada, visto que o combate abrangesse 
ruas, largos e arredores. Era indispensavel que se reconstru- 
issem as fortifica9oes, mas nao havia dinheiro que chegasse. 
Neste apuro D. Joao de Castro cortou alguns eabellos da barba, 
e sobre este penhor pediu (que) Ihe emprestassem 20 000 par- 
daus 1 os habitantes de Goa, os quaes Ihe forneceram o di- 
nheiro precise e sem que tivessem de se arrepender da sua 
confianca, pois a singular hypotheca foi resgatada no praso 
fixo. E nunca houve, nem nunca havera homem que possa 
gabar-se de barbas tomadas em mais alto valor. Foi esse 
rasgo de magnifico aprumo que, mais do que os feitos com 
que honrou a sua espada e as armas do seu pais, Ihe gran- 
gearam a popularidade de que, passados quasi 4 se"culos, ainda 
gosa o nome de D. Joao de Castro. 

Mai tinha conseguido restabelecer a boa ordem no vice- 
reine, quando a morte o veio surprehender a 6 de junho de 
1547. Teve de ser enterrado a custa do piiblieo, visto nao 
se achar nos seus cofres mais do que um cilicio, e tres reaes 2 , 
por isso que D. Joao de Castro, nao aspirando a bens que nao 
fossem os do seu pais, em vz de amontoar tesouros, despendia, 
generosamente os seus ordenados no servi90 do Estado. 

Twenty-third Lesson. 

The Subjunctive Mood (continued). 
A. The Future Tense. 

115. The Future of the Subjunctive is employed, 
instead of the Future indie., whenever you want to ex- 
press the uncertainty of some future event: 

1 Indian coin of about 360 reis or Is- 4 d - in value. 

2 Old Indian coin of different value. There neeve silver 
and copper reaes 

JThe Subjunctive Mood. 365 

.fter the conditional conjunction se: 
ier if he should come; se ndo desejar mais nada in 
ase you don't want anything more ; se Deus quizer 
lease God. 
ever: se vejo (se vi) whenever or if I see (saw), 
lere se is not conditionally employed and does 
UUL express a future, but a repetition. 

(b) After qiiando when: 

Quando vier when he will come; quando forrnos a casa 
when we are to go home. 

(c) After emquanto while, as long as: 

Emquanto fizer este traballio . . . Emquanto ndo puder 
contar com augmento de ordenado . . . Ordeno que 
nao saia emquanto ndo tiver estudado a ligdo (cf. B, 
118 c). 

(d) After segundo, conforme, assim como, assim que 
according to, corresponding to, thus, so as to: 

Serds ou ndo bem succedido, segundo te houveres. 

You will or will not succeed according to your mode 

of procedure. 

Cvnforme fizerdes, far-vos-hdo. 
As you do, you will be done to. 
Poy onde vds, assim como vires, assim fards. 
Filho es, pae serds, assim que fizeres, assim terds. 

(e) In relative clauses which refer to something 
uncertain in the future: 

Aquelle que vier he who may come. 

Traga o trabalho que estiver feito bring the work that 

will be ready. 
Seja o que Deus quizer be it as God pleases (God's will 

be done). 

(f) Often after the relative como as and quern (he) 
who (cf. (d)): 

Como quizer as you please; como The parecer as you 

Quern boa cama fizer, nella se deitard as you make 

your bed, so you lie on it. 

116. The Perfect Future subj. is employed instead 
of the same tense of the indicative, on the same con- 
ditions as the Imperfect Future: 

Avisem-me quando os cavallos tiverem chegado. 

Let me know when the horses will have arrived. 

366 Lesson 23. 

B. Agreement of Tenses. 

117. In the Subjunctive Mood the agreement 
of tenses is, as a rule, the same as in the Indicative. 
Therefore only some exceptions may be noted: 

(a) There is no Preterito perfeito definido in the 
Subjunctive (corresponding for instance to the verbal 
form /m), but only a Preterito perfeito indefinido (cor- 
responding., for instance, to tenho sido:tenha sido) and a 
Preterito imperfeito, which, according to the character 
of the clause, may alternate with the former. Ex.: 

Example: Elle esteve hontem doente; ndo creio que esti- 
vesse hontem doente. 

Example: Elle tern estado (or esteve) doente; ndo creio 
que tenha estado doente. 

118. The Future tenses of the subjunctive are 
only employed in the above mentioned cases (see A). 
However, it should be noticed that: 

(a) An action to be done in the future is expressed 
by the present tense, in an accessory clause, if it de- 
pends on a verb employed in the present tense of the 
principal phrase: 

Ordeno que elle vd amanhd. 

(b) Such an action depending on a preterito in the 
principal clause, must be expressed by the imperfect 

Ordenei que elle fosse amanhd. 

(c) If the action is relatively future i.e., if it will 
be already past when another, equally future, action is 
to be or will have been done, this future tense is thus 

Ordeno que ndo saia, emquanto ndo tiver estudado a 

Ordenei que ndo saisse, emquanto ndo tivesse estudado 

a ligdo. 

119. In certain cases the imperfect may supply 
the pluperfect: 

Ndo puzesses ( ndo tivesses posto) a mdo numvelho! 
You ought not to have laid your hand upon an old man! 

Quern me dissesse (or diria) isso ! 
Who might have told me so before! 

The Subjunctive Mood. 367 

120. On the other hand, the Preterite perfeito 
indefinido is sometimes employed instead of the Pluper- 
fect subj. (see 111, N.B.I). 

63. Thema. 

I cannot believe any longer in your promises unless you 
give me the necessary securities. If you had been more thought- 
ful, you would have spared us these painful discussions. 
A thoughtless man never profits by those lessons which Life is- 
giving him at any moment, although he has to pay for them 
dearly. Also there are many people who remain ignorant even 
after having travelled (personal form) through the most cul- 
tured countries. They pass, as if they were blindfolded, be- 
fore the greatest wonders of Nature or the most beautiful 
monuments which Art may have created, if they are not 
accompanied by somebody who will open for them their eyes_ 

Now the thunderstorm is over; as soon as the sun will 
come forth, while the rain is still continuing, we shall see a 
rainbow. Also if you place yourself before a fountain, with 
your back against the sun, you will see forming itself in the 
falling drops a bow like the rainbow, which proves that this 
phenomenon is due to the sun. If we want the proof that 
the sunlight is formed out of various colours, it will be suffi- 
cient that we cut a disc of pasteboard on which the seven 
colours are put in strips of paper, disposed from the centre 
to the circumference, so as to complete a certain number of 
successive spectrums. If then we cause the disc to turn round, 
this will appear white. That is the so-called "experiment of 

64. Leitura. 

grande erudito Consiglieri Pedroso, quando presidente 
da Sociedade de Geographia de Lisboa, submeteu a delibera9ao- 
da assembleia com o intiiito de estabelecer um accordo luso- 
brasiliense uma se"rie de propostas, de que extraimos as seguintes : 

Estudar a forma mais adequada de se realisarem con- 
gresses periddicos luso-brasileiros, que devam em prazos a fixar 
reunir-se alternadamente em Lisboa ou Porto e no Eio de 
Janeiro ou outras cidades brasileiras, com o intuito de discutir 
todos os assumptos de ordem intellectual e econdmica, que in- 
teressam em commum e exclusivamente as duas na9oes, e onde 
haja de fazer-se a propaganda das deliberates que pelos mes- 
mos congresses e pelos governos dos dois paises tenham de 
ser tomadas a beneficio de ambos os povos respeitando-se 
escrupulosamente a independencia de cada um d'elles, e evi- 
tando-se toda e qualquer interferencia, por minima que seja,. 

368 Lesson 24. 

na vida interna e no modo de ser dos dois paises respectiva- 

Estudar a forma de se ultimar urn tratado de commercio, 
ou antes um largo entendimento commercial entre as duas 
na^oes, procurando-se a maneira ate onde for possivel veneer 
as difficuldades naturaes inherentes ao assumpto de que 
uma a outra concedam respectivamente vantagens especiaes, 
que deixem de ser transmittidas aos outros estados, nao sendo 
portanto attingidas pela clausula de nac;ao mais favorecida, 
inscripta actualmente nos tratados ja existentes tanto de Portu- 
gal, como do Brasil com os paises estrangeiros. 

Twenty-fourth Lesson. 

The Infinitive. 
I. General Use of the Infinitive. 

121. Portuguese language distinguishes two 
forms of the Infinitive: 

(a) the impersonal and (b) the personal. 

While the former expresses an action quite generally, 
without saying by whom, the latter includes in its 
ending at the same time the subject. 

122. The impersonal or simple infinitive occurs 
purely (without preposition) or prepositive (= depending 
on a preposition) e.g.: escrever; de, para, por escrever. 
Sometimes it substitutes (with or without the article) a 
noun, and may be subject, object, or predicate: 

Viver e um beneficio da natureza, commum a todos. 
Educar os filhos e o dever mais sagrado dos paes. 
Nao the resta sendo pedir esmola. 
Gosto de cantar. 

vida da mintia vida 

6 vida do men viver 

Viver sem ti nao e vida 

Viver sem ti e morrer. (Portuguese folk-lore). 

123. The subject-infinitive may also be placed 
after the predicate: 

Praia e o bem falar, ouro e o bem calar. 
Mais vale calar que mal falar. 
$ melhor ir por aqui. 

The Infinitive. 


grande defeito do rato e ser muito guloso 
j@ fdcil faser 

Bom saber e calar, aU ser tempo de falar. 
uma vergonha (uma Idstima) ndo saber ler 
A sua velha poltrona onde Ike e grato dormir urn curto 
so(m)no benefico . . . 

124. The Infinitive is employed as a complement: 

(a) As a direct complement: 

Nao sei (que) faser I don't know how (or what) to do. 
Esse homem de Estado quer ser chefe do governo (= quer 

a chefia) this statesman wants to be the head of 

Elle pediu de beber he asked for a draught, 

(b) As an indirect complement of verbs or adjectives, 
answering to the question: of what, to what, etc.: 

homem e capaz de se enganar (= de engano). Elle 

prepara-se para fugir (= para a fug a) 
Pensa em partir (= na partida). 

125. The simple Infinitive is also employed as 
an attribute; as such it is preceded by de after nouns 
of which it is the complement. In English it is generally 
rendered by the gerund. Ex.: 

A arte de escrever e jd antiga. A Austria tinha inten- 

gdo de ficar neutral (the art of writing . . .). 
publico ndo tern interesse em os ouvir. Elle fez 
mengao de se retirar (. . . no interest of hearing . . .). 
pais estd numa situagdo de se lastimar. 

126. The Infinitive employed as a substantive 
may express any part of a proposition: 

andar cansa walking tires. Era um ndo acabar de rir 
there was no end of laughing. Soava um correr 
de cavallos a trot of horses was heard. Desde o ama- 
nhecer ate ao anoitecer from dawn to nightfall. 

127. The Personal Infinitive has its own 

subject which may or may not be expressed by its 

termination. It may also be accompanied by a noun 
or pronoun: 

Seria justo confessarmos o nosso erro 

Ndo ha maior erro que ndo reconhecer um homem seu 

erro (or ndo reconhecerem os homens . . .). 
Ao ouvir os pdssaros cantarem no bosque ... . 

Portuguese Conversation-Grammar. 24 

370 Lesson 24. 

128. The subject of the Personal Infinitive may 
even be an indefinite, an impersonal one. The action 
then is expressed by the third person plural. In Eng- 
lish this form may be rendered by the passive voice: 

Calei-me par nao me accreditarem I remained silent be- 
cause they did not believe me (or because I was not 

Eetiro-me para nao me importunarem. 

I retired that I might not be bored. 

See also the Infinitive as representing a dependent 
clause, Lesson 28 151. 

N.B. I. As may be seen by the examples, the Infinitive 
may also be accompanied by complements of any kind; e.g.: 

suave decorrer do tempo . . . um longo agonisar . . . o 
agraddvel passear pelos campds. 

N.B. II. Generally the substantiated Infinitive is em- 
ployed only in the masculine and singular form. With a 
small number, however, the employment of the infinitive as a 
substantive is so natural that even the plural is formed of 
it; e.g.: o jantar dinner, jantares; os ditzeres, os poderes, o& 
deveres, os haveres, os andares, os saberes etc. 

55. Thema. 

Water is an indispensable element : for men and animate 
to drink ; to cook foods ; to fertilise the ground ; to water the 
plants ; to produce steam that causes the locomotive to go on 
land and the powerful steamers on sea. "What future 
awaits us," exclaims Trindade Coelho, "if we do not assist 
agriculture? Continuous impoverishment of our race, which will 
be undermined by disease; our impossibility of creating 
new industries or of developing those already existing, which 
all depend on the mother-industry; the impossibility of our hav- 
ing commerce, for want of (= for not having) something in which 
to exercise it; misery and hunger not very far off, when, in 
exchange for products indispensable to Life, we shall have given 
the last crumbs." Is there anything more lamentable than 
not knowing how to read and to write? Can you tell us 
how to reach the railway-station? I have a great pleasure 
in being of use to you. Please come along with me; 
for I have to go the same way. When do you think of 
coming back? I don't know yet, but I hope I shall not 
be long. 

The Infinitive. 


56. Leitura e yersao. 

Eodrigues de Freitas. 

)uem estudar com atten9&o as pequenas obr as-prim as 
reunidas n'este volume (Pdginas Avulsas de J. J. Modriguse 
de Freitas), curvar-se-ha por certo com respeito e sympathia 
perante o autor. Notara nao so o vasto saber positive e a 
justSza das doatrinas expostas, mas tambem as variadas apti- 
does literarias, e a arte rara de narrar acontecimentos e exte- 
riorizar ideias, com precisao e sobriedade . . . Se em seguida 
fememorar os factos principaes da sua vida piiblica, como lente 
na Academia polyte"chnica, eximio publicists, chefe de partido 
e deputado, penso que deve ficar impressionado pela nobre 
rectidao da sua indole e pela perfeita unidade que sempre 
houve entre o sen pensar, o seu dizer e o seu obrar . . . 
Ficariam, comtudo, incompletos os breves trac,os Ian9ados n'este 
singelo monumento, erguido a memoria de Rodrigues de Freitas 
pelas maos piedosas' que o ampararam e acariciaram em vida r 
se alguem dos poucos que tiveram a ventura de serem ad- 
mittidos na intimidade do seu lar, nao manifestasse a profunda 
e consoladora impressao, produzida pela sua personalidade no 
trato familiar, AJguem que pode seguir a evolu^ao das ideias 
e dos ideaes de ambos . . . e leu em admiraveis cartas a es- 
posa r medita^oes . . . fragmentos e esbo9os infelizmente, mas 
tao bellos que provocam urn doloroso pesar por o destino nao 
Ihe haver concedido tempo e for<;as para terminar as suas in- 
vestiga^oes sociaes, nem para coordenar as suas ideias filoso- 
fico-religiosas . . . Quando em vida, em horas de desalento, 
procurava alguma ideia sublime que o avigorasse r era na Ora- 
9ao de Benjamim Franklin que a encontrava, repetindo: 

0h bondade todo-poderosa, pae misericordioso, guia in- 
dulgente. Augmenta o meu saber de sorte que eu reconhe9a 
os meus verdadeiros interesses. Firma-me na resolu9lo de 
seguir os conselhos que esse me der. Acceita os servi9os que 
eu possa prestar a teus outros filhos, como signal unico de 
reconhecimento que me e dado offerecer-te pelos favores que 
me concedes sem cessar.* 

(Carolina MichaSlis de Vasconcellos : prearnbulo (dbbr.) das 
Paginas avulsas por J. J. Rodrigues de Freitas.) 


372 Lesson 25. 

Twenty "fifth Lesson. 

The Infinitive (continued). 

II. Use of the Personal and the Impersonal Forms 
of the Infinitive. 

129. Whenever the pure infinitive is employed 
in quite a general meaning, without referring to some 
subject, the impersonal form is used: 

Os preceitos do direito sao : viver honestamente, nao em- 
pecer a outrem, e dar o sen a cada um. 

130. When the infinitive has its own subject 
expressed, the personal form is employed (cf. 127). 

Ao chegarem os fugitives a planicie, um dos desconhecidos 
estava ali. 

131. The personal form is employed also when- 
ever an action is spoken of which has a special though 
unexpressed subject (cf. 128): Passei sem me verem. 

132. The impersonal form is employed when- 
ever the infinitive has the meaning of an imperative 

133. After the verbs mandar, fazer, deixar-se, 
the simple and pure infinitive is employed: 

Mandei-o entrar. Fal-o-hei subir. Deixou-se prender. 

N.B. If, however, the infinitive is separated from the 
subordinating verb, the personal form may be used : Mandeis-o 
em dia e liora marcados seguirem o sen caminho. 

134. The impersonal form of the infinitive is 
used after the following verbs: 

Acdbar de, andar a, cessar de, comegar a (or de), con- 
tinuar a, costumar, chegar a, desejar and the verbs 
of similar meaning deixar de, entrar a, dar em, 
estar a, ser feito para, haver de, ir a, langar-se a, 
metter-se a y ser mandado, ousar, poder, por-se a, 
querer, recusar, saber, soer, ter de, tratar de, tornar 
a, vir a. (Also for these verbs see 133, N.B.) 

135. In any other cases the personal as well as 
the impersonal forms may be employed, considering 
always that the use of the one or the other is subject 

The Infinitive. 373 

to the clearness, the emphasis, and the harmony of the 
clause. Ex. : 

Accrescentava que as nolicias recebidas do Alentejp 
continuavam a ser favordveis. Ensinou a ser reis 
os reis do mundo. For esta pergunta nos ensina a 
sermos curiosos. Obriga os cercados a lidar. Obri- 
gdra os Mossulmanos a concederem-lhe . . . As aves 
aqudticas pareciam, nos sens voos incertos, ora vaga- 
rosos, ora rdpidos, folgarem com os primeiros dias 
da estagdo dos amores. Viam-se lampejar as armas 
e ajuntarem-se ondas de vultos humanos. 

III. The Independent Infinitive. 

13G. The Infinitive is employed independently: 

(a) When substituting a noun e.g.: 

bem fazer floresce, e todo o mal perece. 
Mais custa mal fazer, que bem fazer. 
Bern parece o bem faser (see 123 125). 

(b) When substituting an imperative: 

Companheiros, despedir esta noite da montariha e das 
tristezas, e apparelhar para amanha me seguirdes I 

N.B. In this case the subject (tu, vos) is never expressed. 

(c) In exclamations expressing surprise, disillusion, 

Nao haver quern me salve! Pensar que tudo seria 
em vao! 

67. Thema. 

To err is human. To obey is the duty of youth. Bea- 
ding, writing and arithmetic are the most elementary attain- 
ments which ought to be taught to everybody and which all 
ought to learn. The strong beating of his heart prevented 
him from going fast. To recognise the limits of one's knowledge 
is to be wise. It is not virtue never to err, bat avoiding 
error as much as possible may well be called so. It is easy 
to blame, but difficult to make it better. I want to see this 
work finished, for it is easily to be done (cf. 146, 2 ; N.B. III). 
Already you have often promised to improve yourself, yet I do 
not yet see that you have succeeded in doing so. It must be 
acknowledged that in the last decennium the women's rights 
movement has learnt how to convince the righteously and justly 
thinking people of the justice of its existence and advocacy. 

374 Lesson 26. 

Rowing is a good exercise, as, by putting the arms to strong 
movement, it obliges us to breathe deeply. For it is not 
enough for us to breathe good air and well nourish ourselves ; 
it is also necessary to take some exercise and to be clean. 

58. Leitura e yersao. 

(a) rato e um animal muito interessante e engrac. ado ; e 
nao obstante (elle) ser o mais incommode e atrevido dos nossos 
visinhos, costurnamos gostar d'elle, porque a sua viveza e in- 
telligencia nao deixam de fazel-o sympathico. rato seria ate 
de estimar, se nao fosse tao guloso e prejudicial; pois ale"m 
de devorar tudo o que topa, e de furtar para levar aos filhos, 
parece que tern o prazer de destruir o que pode alcan^ar, e 
nao ha nada que resista ao seu dente afiado, A brincar, o 
rato domestico da cabriolas muito engrac. adas e sabe tomar 
posi96es e fazer momices que lembram os dos palhaQOS. E 
para ir ter com uma gulodice, tanto 6 capaz de ir pelo chao 
como por uma corda. Apanhado e mettido n'uma gaiola, a 
principio assusta-se muito, ignorando o que Ihe vae succeder. 

Task: The preceding to be put in the plural: Os ratos 
saojdnimaes muito inter essantes, etc. 

(b) Um leao dignou-se travar conhecimento com uma lebre 
muito le"pida. A lebre perguntou-lhe, se era verdade que um 
misero gallo pudesse com o seu canto afugentar facilmente 
um leao. leao respondeu que era verdade sem duvida, e 
que nao era raro terem os grandes animaes quasi sempre al- 
gum fraco. E assim, por exemplo, ja teria ella ouvido dizer 
que o grunhir de um porco causava assombro e terror a um 
elephante. A lebre interrompeu-o, dizendo que era agora que 
ella comprehendia a razao porque as lebres se assustavam 
tanto a ouvirem ladrar um cao. 

Twenty-sixth Lesson. 

The Infinitive (continued). 
IT. The Dependent Infinitive. 

A. Without a preceding preposition. 

137. Those verbs which according to their meaning 
require to be completed by another verb with the same 
subject, are followed by the simple (impersonal) infinitive: 
>'L'' Ninguem pdde fugir d morte. 

The Infinitive. 375 

With the simple infinitive and without a preposition 
are employed: 

Poder, parecer, custumar, soer (to be in the habit) 
saber (in the meaning of "to be able"), ousar, nao 
duvidar, recear, propor-se, tencionar, emprehender, 
intentar, meditar, projectar and similar verbs, tentar, 
recusar, merecer; e.g.: 

A lingua bi-partida da vibora agita-se tao furiosamente 
fora da bocca, qiie parece phosphorejar e despedir 

macaco pode receber uma verdadeira educagao. 

Propoz-se tentar fazel-o, sem bem saber projectar urn 

N.B. In relative clauses the infinitive may sometimes 
precede the personal verbal form; e.g.: . . . cortando o esteiro 
o mais abaixo que ser possa. 

138. Without a preposition the infinitive is em- 
ployed also after the following verbs: 

v$r, ouvir, sentir, deixar, mandar, fazer though the 

infinitive has not the same subject with these verbs, 

but refers to their object; e.g.: 
ouvi cantar = I heard (somebody) sing. 
Ouviram-no falar; manddram-me entrar; (in passive 

form: elle foi ouvido falar, fui mandado entrar). 

N.B. I. After deixar, mandar, fazer, vir, ouvir the ac- 
tive infinitive may be understood in a passive meaning; then 
its subject is governed by por or de. In English the infinitive 
is rendered by one of the participles: Deixei-me tyrannisar 
por ella I allowed myself to be tyrannised by her. principe 
fazia-se respeitar (made himself respected) dos vassallos. 

Ex.: Ouvimos bater o tambor, tocar a rebeca, cortar a 
madeira; vimos arder a casa We heard the drum beaten, the 
violin played, the wood sawn ; we saw the house burning. 

It may be noticed that when these verbs are followed, be- 
side the infinitive, by an accusative of the third person, this 
is substituted by the dative: 

Eu vejo-lhes verier Idgrimas tristes (instead of: eu as 
vejo . . .). 

139. Most of the verbs of saying and thinking 
(verbos sensitives e declarativos), as pensar, julgar, contar, 
declarar, affirmar, negar, duvidar, perdoar, dizer, entender, 

376 Lesson 26. 

etc., may be followed by the pure infinitive, instead of 
a clause depending on que; e.g.; 

Julgas saber (= que sabes); affirmou nao haver perigo 
(= que nao havia p.). 

Rule. The infinitive is generally simple when 
its action relates to the same subject as that of the 
capital verb. 

N.B. After some verbs the infinitive may be preceded 
by de; e.g.: 

Jurou exterminar (or de exterminar) os inimigos. 

140. The transitive verbs querer, preferir, desejar, 
gostar, aborrecer and those analogous are followed by an 
infinitive pure and simple whenever both actions have 
the same subject: Desejo entrar. 

(The subjects being different, a dependent sentence 
with que is employed instead: Desejo que elle entre.) 

N.B. Desejar may be followed by de : desejo deir; but 
desejo ir is more popular. 

141. The transitive verbs diligenciar, procurar, 
evitar, conseguir, obter, decidir, resolver and those ana- 
logous are followed by the pure infinitive, whether the 
two actions have or have not the same subject: 

Consegui ser premiado; consegui ser elle premiado. 
I succeeded in getting a prize; I obtained a prize 
for him. 

N.B. In the latter case you may say: consegui que elle 
fdsse premiado. 

142. The infinitive pure and simple is employed 
in final clauses after the verbs ir and vir; the subjects 
of these verbs and of the infinitive are the same: 

Fui procurd-lo I went to call on him. Veio ver-me he 
came to see me. Indo encontrd-lo a dormir ... to find him 
asleep. Ir ter or vir ter (com) = to turn to, to call on, to 
fall in (with). Esta rua vae ter d ponte. Fui ter com elle; 
veio ter comigo. 

143. The expression nao fazer sendo is equally 
followed by the infinitive pure and simple: 

Nao faz sendo brincar he does not do anything but 

The Infinitive. 377 

144. The pure infinitive follows as an accusative 
complement the verbs ser, ter por origem, dar em re- 
sultado, ter por consequential, haver por galarddo ( to 
get as a prize) and those analogous [N.B. here in its 
personal form], as also the verb fazer in its meaning 
u to cause." Ex.: 

Isto deu em resultado serem todos castigados. 

The result of it was that all of them were punished. 

Se brincares com o lume, terd isso por consequencia 

If you play with the fire, the consequence will be your 

burning yourself. 

Tao grande e a sua desgraga one fas cliorar as pedras. 
So great is her misfortune that it causes the stones to 


145. Without any preposition or with de the in- 
finitive follows the verbs dever (= must, ought) and 
dignar-se (to deign, to be pleased). Ex.: 

Elles deviam (de) contentar-se. 

They ought to be satisfied. 

Dignae-vos, senhor, (de) ouvir o vosso servo. 

Be pleased, Lord, to hear thy servant. 

146. The pure infinitive (subject) follows certain 
adjectives and substantives employed as a predicate 
(see 123), such as: precise , fdcil, daro, difficil, justo, 
possivel, bom, mettior, vergonha, Idstima etc. e.g. : e fdcil, 
foi precise, sera melJior sdir (but cf. 148, 3, N.B. HE), 
as also the impersonal verbs, such as: 

importa it is important custa-me it is painful to me 

convem it is convenient nao custa nada it is not diffi- 


147. The pure infinitive is employed after some 
prepositions, such as: 

por (e.g. : nao saiu por nao ter que vestir he did not 
go out, because he had nothing to put on). 

sem (e.g. : sem pestanejar without twinkling). 

para (e.g. : para nao o metindrar that I may or might 
not offend him . . .) 

. . . para elle me dizer that he may or might tell me. 

378 Lesson 26. 

59. Thema. 

On the Education of Children. 

There will be no lack of those who will laugh on hearing 
speak of education of a child only three or four years old. 
Nothing, however, (is) more serious and necessary than to 
understand how to profit by the sincerity of this age, which 
does not yet know how to lie, in order to recognise the future 
man in the child. 

It offers the best opportunity for improving all good 
qualities of character yea, even to make the best of its 
defects, to change them into virtues, without twisting the will 
or wronging the individuality. From the infant-school, where 
the mother had placed the child, because (see 147), it 
was impossible to have it at home from its third (tr. : since 
the third) year, it passes over to attend the public schools. 
It has its compendiums which speak (a with inf.) to it of things 
that it had not the slightest idea of. Each step is a diffi- 
culty (see 147) to be vanquished ; each matter a novelty the 
meaning of which the teacher, amongst so many pupils requir- 
ing his attention, has had no time to explain to it. With 
tears in its eyes and the book in its hands, the child will 
seek her whom it loves best, that she may (see 147) ex- 
plain to it what it cannot understand. And the poor mother 
will not be able to help it, but will have to confess her igno- 
rance. How often when finding the child nodding over a book 
which it does not understand, would not the mother have 
the wish to take it out of its hands and by clear reading 
and intelligent explanation teach it how to understand the 
meaning! But the "poor mother" cannot do so (fut.), because 
she also does not know. And from day to day the conviction 
of its mother's inferiority will take root in the child's mind 
in the same measure as it acquires (see 148, 2) knowledge 
and develops its intelligence. 

(Anna de Castro Osorio: As mulheres portuguesas). 

60. Leitura e versao. 

A tignordncia* do povo portugues. 
Ninguem de boa-f6 contesta ser o povo portugues igno- 
rante. Todavia nao devemos exaggerar as consequSncias so- 
ciaes d'este facto, mSsmo porque nao acredite o senhor F. que 
o povo francos saiba chimica, o povo inglfis resolva equacoes 
e o povo allemao discorra sobre metaphysics. Se o cuida, 
illude-se completamente; e de saber l6r e escrever, e certo 
que esse e meio caminho andado para o povo adquirir a ver- 

The Infinitive. 379 

dade y mas 6 tambem meio caminho andado para a turba se 
imbuir de quanta mentirola e de quanta prote"rvia goza do 
hoje commum privilegio da letra redonda. A ignorancia e 
mal, mas a meia-sci6ncia e peor; e, nas condiQoes genericas so- 
ciaes actuaes, nunca o povo pode attingir a plenitude do saber. 
Nao tern tempo para estudar, nem vagar nem disposi^ao nas 
horas livres que Ihe restam, desde que sa(h)e moido do seu 
trabalho exhaustive. Assim, fore, a Ihe 6 recorrer aos e con- 
fiar nos profissionaes ; confiar nos lettrados, nos publicistas e 
nos politicos ... A independencia do espirito seguira tambem 
os tramites de seus progresses. Conve"m nao desatender ao 
facto significative de que em Portugal o registo civil tern sido 
adoptado de preferencia pelo proletariado fabril, e 4 de notar 
o avance civilisatorio da nossa gente nas artes e nas indiis- 
trias . . . For o facto de o povo estar desconfiado, nao se 
segue que elle seja insusceptivel de enthusiasmo . . . Por- 
tanto, resumindo, nao me pareceram procedentes aquellas accu- 
sacoes verberadas contra o povo portugues pelo sr. F., o qual 
se mostrou desgostoso a ponto de dizer, aito e bom som, que, 
emquanto uns nascem para ser ricos e outros para ser sabios, 
elle nascSra para levar pancada e dar pouca. 

(Bruno: Os modernos publicistas Portugueses.) 

Twenty-seventh Lesson. 

The Infinitive (continued). 

The Dependent Infinitive (continued). 

B. With the preceding preposition de the infinitive 
is employed: 

148. 1. After substantives to which it is a com- 
plement (see 125). 

2. After many verbs of which it forms the com- 
plement, -such as: 
acabar to finish, having just come$ar, principiar to begin 

done deixar to forbear 

accusar to accuse desculpar-se to excuse 

acertar to hit encarregar(-se) to take upon 

admirar-se to wonder oneself 

advertir to inform esquecer-se to forget 

affligir-se to grieve excusar-se to withdraw 

alegrar-se to rejoice fugir (de or a) to fly from 

cessar to cease gabar-se to boast 

380 Lesson 27. 

gostar to like provir to come from 

haver to be obliged parar to stop 

impedir to hinder queixar-se to complain of 

lembrar-se to remember ter de to be obliged 

pedir to ask trata-se the question is 

prometer to promise vangloriar-se to boast. 

3. After adjectives, also followed by the genitive, 
such as: 

dvido eager digno worthy 

cansado tired difficil difficult 

capaz capable fdcil easy 

certo sure impadente impatient 

cioso, dumento jealous insaddvel insatiable 

contents satisfied raro rare 

descontente dissatisfied susceptivel susceptible. 
desejoso desirous 

N.B. 1. Some adjectives, expressing cause or design, may 
be followed by the infinitive preceded by por; e.g.: impa- 
denle, (des)contente, causado por . . . 

N.B. 2. Some infinitives preceded by demay be employed 
in the meaning of an adjective ending by -vel; e.g. : Pan- 
dam menos de temer (= temivel). E'de presumir (= presu- 
mivel). Foi acgao muito de louvar (= louvdvel). 

N.B. 3. Certain adjectives (as fdcil, diffidl, raro), when 
adverbially employed, are followed by the infinitive preceded 
by de, the substantive determined by the adjective being the 
.object of the infinitive; e.g.: 

Enigmas difficeis de dedfrar (= de serem dedfrados) 
riddles difficult to be guessed. 

Compare, however: com esta natureza e fdcil crearem-se 
os poetas here fdcil is a predicate. 

N.B. 4. In some cases the infinitive thus employed is 
still followed by a complement: sao fructos de enlevar olhos 
fruits to gladden the eyes. 

Eram lindas de fazer inveja they were so beautiful as 
to cause envy. 

4. In clauses of circumstance after certain pre- 
positions conjunctionally employed: 

alem de besides antes de before 

afim de that a ponto de so that 

d f6r$a de with much apesar de in spite of 

The Infinitive. 381 

depois de after perto de near to 

em vez de instead of par falta de by want of 

longe de far from sob condigdo de on condition 


Como o sr. Theophilo Braga diem de haver classificado 
em generos poeticos as composites incluidas no Campo 
de Flores as dassificou tambem por epocas chro- 
nologicas . . . 
5. After e e.g.: 
de crer (advertir, mencionar etc.) qiie . . . 

61. Thema. 

Dear Friend, 

Weary of travelling, I have just come back to my Penates 
(recolher a Penates), dissatisfied with myself for having stayed 
away for so many months that I ought to have been more 
profitably employed. Yet such is our nature. We pine for 
the opportunity to scamper through the world, with an in- 
satiable appetite for seeking excitements we feel to be lacking 
in the cramped surroundings of our home. And we go to 
find what? A climate that does not agree (dizer) with 
our nervous system, nor with our northern customs; a bed 
fit only to break our bones, after having tired them by con- 
tinual walking; people as indifferent to our presence as we are 
insensible to their company; a hotel room destitute of every- 
thing that hitherto seemed impossible to be done without. Only 
in our home have we the opportunity of enjoying the calm 
and the happiness that we vainly seek away from its doors. 

But you will be surprised, dear friend, to hear thus 
speak a man who, although having already finished his thirty- 
seventh year, yet remains a bachelor. I know, of course, 
that you consider me a theorist whose theories are all the 
more difficult to understand, the longer he is in bringing 
about their realisation. But I am determined to go on 
theorising. It has occurred to me to invite you, my good 
friend, to come here and stay some time with me, instead of 
going to Italy. Also I hope you will bring your family. We 
shall pass a couple of weeks so agreeably that they will com- 
pensate me for all the vicissitudes of my travels, and I am 
confident that you will have no cause to regret having ac- 
cepted my invitation. Don't delay in letting me know that 
you will come, and at the same time tell me the day and 
hour I may expect you. I am longing to see you here. 

Please remember me to your family. 

Your sincere friend, 

382 Lesson 28. 

62. Leitnra e versao. 
A respiragao. 

homem precisa respirar para viver. 

Vamos estudar no seguinte as vias da respira9ao. 

Todo o sangue do corpo, depois de circular por este, 
volta pelas veias ao, donde torna a partir, saindo do 
cora<jao pelas arte"rias. No sen giro pelo corpo, o sangue vae 
deixando por este a sua substancia. A substancia e dada ao 
sangue pelos alimentos e tambem pelo ar. ar entra pela 
boca e pelo nariz e vae aos pulmoes. sangue, depois de 
percorrer o corpo do homem, e de deixar n'este a sua sub- 
stancia, passa pelos pulmoes onde recebe mais ar. ar que 
ahi recebe torna a dar ao sangue substancia, para este a es- 
palhar outra vez por todas as partes do nosso organismo. 

sangue quando chega aos pulmoes vae quasi escuro. 
Quando sae dos pulmoes, depois de ser ahi bafejado pelo ar, 
torna a ser vermelho-claro, isto 6", torna a carregar-se de sub- 
stancia para ir espalhar pelo corpo. sangue nao para de 
circular. Se parasse, o homem morria. Como 6 o corac,ao que 
faz andar o sangue dentro dos canaes, se o cora^ao deixasse de 
bater, o sangue deixava de andar, e sobrevinha a morte. 

ar, depois de entrar pela boca e pelo nariz, vae em seguida 
passar para o tubo da garganta chamado larynge ; e como este 
tubo e" continuado por outro chamado trachea, o ar segue pela 
trache'a e chega aos pulmoes. Como os pulmoes sao dois, a 
trachea divide-se na raiz da garganta em dois ramos, cada urn 
dos quaes vae dar a seu pulmao. Esses dois ramos em qne 
a trachea se reparte, chamam-se bronchios, e estes penetram 
pelos pulmoes: penetrando, o ar que vae dentro d'elles, en- 
contra-se com o sangue nos pulmoes e ahi o bafeja. Bafejado, 
o sangue torna a ficar vermelho, porque o ar transmittiu-lhe 
parte dos seus elementos, os quaes elle vae em seguida espa- 
lhar pelo corpo, para o medrar e dar-lhe vida. 

(Trindade Coelho: Terceiro Livro de Leitura.) 

Twenty-eighth Lesson. 

The Infinitive (continued). 
The Dependent Infinitiye (continued). 
C. With the preceding preposition a. 
149. The infinitive preceded by a expresses: 
1. When following a verb, the manner or some 
circumstance of its action: 

The Infinitive. 38S 

Viemos a correr we came running. 
Disse isso a rir he said so laughing. 
Pediu-m'o a chorar he asked me crying for it. 
Deteve-se a examinar um quadro he stopped to examine 

a picture. 
Encontrei-a a dormir I found her asleep. 

2. When following a substantive, a design, the 
object of which is the same substantive e.g.: 

Havia grandes difficuldades a veneer there were great 

difficulties to be overcome. 
Ha muitas pequenas industrias caseiras a cultivar e a 

fazer resurgir no nosso pais there are a great many 

small home-made industries in our country to be 

cultivated and revived. 

N.B. Sometimes the infinitive joined by a or de to a 
verb is equivalent to a verbal adjective and must be render- 
ed by the past participle: 

Uma occasido a ndo perder an occasion not to be lost. 
caminho a trilhar the way to be taken. 
FSuma fonte de receita muito de aproveitar it is a source 
of income very much to be profited by. 

3. In abbreviated clauses the infinitive preceded by 
a serves to express an admission or condition: 

A ser isto verdade (= se isto fosse porventura verdade) 
ndo tornariamos a falar-lhe. A acreditd-lo teria 
havido urna enchente. 

4. The infinitive is preceded by a after the following 

animar-se a chegar a ser . . . 

apparelhar-se a (or para) tornar a fazer 

anticipar-se a atrever-se a 

estimular-se a preparar-se a 

excitar-se a abalan$dr-se a 

principiar a 1 langar-se a 

comegar a see ( 148, 2) obrigar a 

appressar-se a aventurar-se a 

tardar a or em metter-se a 

continuar a por-se a 

habilitar a resolver-se a 

aprender a decidir-se a 

entrar a determinar-se a 

habituar a annuir a 

1 But, principiar or come$ar por (dizer) to begin by (saying). 

384 Lesson 28. 

concorrer a ajudar a 

cooperar a entreter-se a 

ensinar a attender-se a 

autorisar a convidar a 

accostumar-se a vir a 

costumar a levar a 

conde(m)nar a arrojar a 
comegar a 

as well as after all those which may be followed instead 
by an abstract noun preceded by a e.g.: 

Se continuasses (nao tardasses, wincipiasses, entrasses, 
te appressasses, tornasses, te abalangasses) a estudar; 
chegarias a ser instruido. Abalan^ou-se a luctar (== d 
lucta) ; resolveram-se a partir (d partida). Quern dd 
o sen antes de morrer, apparelha-se a bem soffrer. 

5. The infinitive preceded by a follows the verbs 
of movement: 

Corri a $alvo-lo I hurried to save him. 

Arrojou-se a deter o cavallo he rushed to stop the horse. 

N.B. Cf. the verbs ir and vir which, being employed 
as auxiliary verbs of the periphrastical form, may be followed 
by the gerund instead (see 96 and 142 : use of these 
verbs with the pure infinitive). 

6. The infinitive preceded by a after the verbs 
cstar and andar, equally auxiliary verbs of the peri- 
phrastical conjugation, as well as Hear, passar, etc. in- 
dicates essentially manner or duration and may be 
supplied by the gerund (see 151): 

Ando a estudar or ando estudando. 
Estas coisas ficam a pertencer or ficam pertencendo 
sen foro intimo. 

7. The infinitive preceded by a follows the verl 
ensinar, autorisar, convidar, etc., being itself followed by 
the direct object: 

Ensinou o cdo a fazer hdbilidades he taught the dog to 

perform tricks. 

Convidou-a a dangar he invited her to dance. 
Autorisou-me a publicar as cartas he authorised me to 

publish the letters. 

8. In an analogous way the infinitive with a joins 
the verb dar, expressing, however, an action practised 

The Infinitive. 385 

by the dative complement of dar; and the verb por, 
expressing the action practised by the accusative com- 
plement of por. 

Dar a dlguem uma coisa a provar (alguem is dative 
complement of dar and subject of provar). 

Por os filhos a estudar (os filhos is accusative comple- 
ment of por and subject of estudar). 

149. The infinitive may not only be preceded 
by a or de, but by any other preposition (em, por, para, 
com. sem, antes de, depois de, apesar de, nao obstante 
etc.), having the same meaning as abstract nouns, 
governed by these prepositions e.g.: 

Reconsiderou depois de ter falado aos paes e antes de se 
comprometer . . . 

He changed his mind after having spoken to his parents 
and before engaging himself. 

Entrei sem me verem I entered without being seen. 

Pedi-lhe para me acompanhar I asked him to accom- 
pany me. 

Ella estava aborrecida por nao saber como (or em que) 

empregar o tempo. 

She felt bored, as she did not know how to spend her time. 
Deixdmo-nos ficar por jd nao haver tempo de akangar 

o comboio. 
We stayed because there was not time to catch the 


Com ser velho nao deixa de sentir com a gente moga. 
Though he be old, he is able to feel with young people. 
Andamos (or estdmos) mortos por ir para fdra. 
We are dying to go abroad. 

150. After the verbs consistir, insistir, perseverar, 
persistir, teimar, porfiar, hesitar, tardar, attentar, confiar 
and those analogous the following infinitive is preceded 
by em. 

Persistem (or teimam) em resistir they persist in resisting. 
Hesitei em confiar n'elle I hesitated to trust him. 

151. The infinitive is employed for the English 
gerund and to shorten circumstantial clauses: 

(a) The verbs perdoar and agradecer are followed 
by the personal infinitive without preposition, and not 
by a dependent clause with que: 

Portuguese Conversation-Grammar. 25 


Lesson 28. 

the infinitive is employed 
after : 

afim de 

Perdoou-lhes o haverem-no offendido he pardoned them 

their having offended him. 
Agradecerem-nos o te-los protegido they thanked us for 

(our) having protected them. 

N.B. The same is to be said of the impersonal verb 
haver j e.g.: 

Nao ha (= ndo e possivel) valer-lhe there is no ex- 
celling him. 

(b) The subject being the same in the principal 
and the dependent clause: 

instead of a personal form 

with the conjunctions: 
afim de que 
para que 
sem que 

antes que antes de 

depois que depots de 

de modo (fdrma, maneira) que de modo (fdrma, maneira) a 
por que por. 

N.B. So it would be wrong to say: Cultivar a terra 
de maneira a produzir, as terra in the first clause is the 
complement: cultivar a terra de maneira queproduea would be 

152. Instead of a dependent clause with que 
the personal infinitive without preposition may be 
employed after those transitive verbs expressing ad- 
mission, permission, suffering and those of opposite 
meaning, such as : conceder, permitft)ir, admit(t)ir, prohibir, 
sof(f)rer, tolerar etc.: 

Proliibiu entrarem os navios de noite (instead of: pro- 
hibiu que os navios entrassem he prohibited the ships 
coming in at night. 

63. Thema. 

Women as Silkworm-breeders in Portugal. 

If at some not very distant date the industry of silk 
manufacture in Portugal should happen to be revived, it will 
be due to the initiative of Mrs. Anna de Castro Osdrio, the 
excellent writer, who is always eager to see her country 
prosperous. Her idea is at the same time to provide working 
women with better facilities for gaining a livelihood, an object 
which the promoter of this industry never fails to keep in mind. 

Construction. 387 

This lady has recently explained to the president and 
other aldermen of the municipal council of Setiibal how she 
was led to conceive the idea referred to, and has requested 
the assistance and protection of the council. She does not 
deny that there are some difficulties, but she affirms that the 
obstacles are not great, and hopes to overcome them with the 
aid of the authorities. 

She is of opinion that the industry of the sericulture 
(i.e. of the breeding and selection of silk-worms) is one that 
the women of Portugal must not allow to die out. With 
five weeks' work of so slight a nature that it is rather a 
pleasant distraction than an irksome task, each housewife or 
daughter could realise a profit which to the one would provide 
assistance towards the house-rent, and to the other additional 
funds for increasing the stock of clothing. To the young 
ladies this latter is generally a matter of great importance; 
and with some reason, indeed, for their greatest concern is 
how to make themselves appear most beautiful and attractive. 
The beauty of women is a tribute to Art and Nature which 
a cultured people should not allow to depreciate. 

64. Leitura e versfio. 
A mulher portuguesa como seri(d)cultdra. 

Se esta industria se desenvolver em Setubal, como e" de 
esperar, como indiistria caseira que deve ser, ali mesmo sera 
montado um filatorio dos que o governo vae montar official- 
mente. N'esse filatorio terao trabalho algumas mulheres, o 
que vem a ser ainda uma grande vantagem, visto as fabricas 
de sardinha em que andam a trabalhar, soffrerem ja muitas 
crises de falta de peixe e as operarias sentirem a falta de 
trabalho, que e" a mais dolorosa das faltas. T6dos aquelles 
que desejarem experimentar esta industria, deverao dirigir-se 
a presidente da Liga Republicana das Mulheres PortuguSsas, 
a acima rnencionada escriptora e propagandista D. Anna de 
Castro Osorio; porque a iniciativa pertence a esta beneme'rita 
associac^ao que por todo o pais esta levantando (or a levantar) 
o espirito da mulher portuguesa e fazendo-a entrar no caminho 
do dever, apontando-lhe o trabalho como a linica fonte da 
independencia e do brio individual. 

Do norte ao sul do pais muitas socias da Liga se estao 
preparando (or a preparar) para iniciarem nas suas casas esta 
industria. que e necessario e saber cada uma a por9ao de 
sirgo que podo criar para se fazer a dictribui9ao das folhas 
das amoreiras cedidas pela Camara e tomarem os criadores as 
responsabilidades exigidas pelas esta9oes officiaes, sendo a 


388 Lesson 29. 

principal a de se compromet(t)erem a destruir tcda a semente 
que nao seja seleccionada, isto 6 : a escolhida e fornecida pela 
esta9ao official. intelligente professor da Escola Liberal de 
Setiibal de boa vontade se presta a fazer na escola uma cri- 
a^ao de experiencia, cujo producto revertera a favor da mSsma, 
que tanto necessita de numerario para se poder sustentar e 
poder continuar a exercer a sua missao. 

Twenty-ninth Lesson. 

Construction. Colloca$ao. 

153. The simplest construction is: beginning by 
the subject and what relates thereto; then the predi- 
cate and its extensions; the determinative follows the 
word it determines (e.g.: desejoso de gloria)', the ac- 
cusative complement generally precedes the dative. 

Interrogative clauses begin with the interrogative 
word i.e., the thing asked for and what pertains to . 
it; the dependent clauses by the conjunction or a rela- | 
tive pronoun e.g.: 

Sao alias as drvores que ha no jar dim? (The height \ 
of the trees is asked for.) 

154. These general rules have numerous ex- 
ceptions, based on the harmony of the speech or the j 
emphasis bestowed on one or the other part of it. In | 
the preceding lessons these exceptions, as well as those j 
rules of construction inseparable from the subject spoken 
of, have been mentioned. 

It may still be noticed that an absolutely employed ! 
participle precedes its noun. Ex.: 

Arrancada uma batateira, o pe traz agarrados vdrias j 

If a potato-plant is pulled out, its root bears various j 

potatoes clinging to it. 

Yet when the participle is preceded by em, the I 
subject may be placed before: 

Em a mina rebentando or em rebentando a mina. 
Remark. Though the gerund generally precedes the I 
noun, it may in elevated speech also be placed behind; e.g.: 
A revolu$ao abriu as portas da historia, ap(p)elando para \ 
o povo, fechou-as, para o povo ap(p)elando. 

Construction. 389 

65. Thema. 

Preparation of Olive-oil. 

Olive-oil is extracted from the olive, which is the fruit 
of the olive-tree. In some regions the olive is beaten down 
with a pole (= varejar); in others, it is picked by hand. 
After having been picked, the olive goes to the olive-pit, 
where it remains for some time. While it is still in the pit, 
the olive secretes (= escorrer) a watery fluid (uma agua- 
dilha), dark and bitter, called olive-water (alpixe). From the 
pit the olive is taken to the olive -crushing mill, which is a 
sort of round stone tank in which one, two or three vertical 
wheels, equally of stone, are moving, generally dragged by 
an ox. 

In the crushing-mill the olive is crushed. The pulp as well 
as the stone of the olive is completely ground ( desfaser), 
forming a dark paste. On the surface of this paste, when still 
in the mill, a great quantity of oil appears. This oil, con- 
stituting the first virgin oil, may be taken off (= recolher-se). 
Prom the mill, the paste is taken in wooden porringers 
to the olive-press (Idr or lastro de lagar). In the press the 
paste is put into baskets (= ceira), disposed one above the 
other. Upon the topmost basket are placed some blocks 
(= madeira) and then is lowered (= faeer baixar) upon the 
latter the so-called cross-bar of the press (viga do lagar), 
which descends by means of an axle-tree in a spiral line or 
in form of a screw (= fuss). This screw of the olive-press 
ends in its lower extremity by a big stone weight. In pro- 
portion to its coming down, the cross-bar presses (periphra- 
stical form) upon the blocks which cover the baskets and 
squeezes the paste contained in them. 

66. Leitura e yersao. 

Assim espremida, a massa larga um liquido, Este liquido 
6 ainda azeite virgem que, seguindo por uma calha ou sulco 
aberto no lar, vae cair dentro de uma talha de pedra. Ao 
lado d'esta talha ha outra tambem de pedra, e as duas sao 
ligadas superiormente por um sulco ou r6go; mas o azeite 
virgem fica todo na talha que esta em communicasao directa 
com o lar. Em seguida, faz-se elevar a viga do lagar, e as 
ceiras ficam d'este modo desapertadas. Desapertadas as 
ceiras, a massa de cada uma e caldeada, isto e", intimamente 
misturada com agua a ferver. Caldeadas todas as ceiras, de 
novo tornam a ser espremidas como o foram da primeira vez. 
Esprernidas, o liquido que ellas largam segue pela calha do 

390 Lesson 29. 

lar para a primeira talha, onde encontra o azeite virgem que 
a massa escorreu quando foi apertada a primeira vez. 

Com o azeite proveniente do segundo aperto das ceiras 
vae misturada urna porsao de agua, que e a agua que caldeou 
a massa; e como o azeite vem sempre a tona da agua r o li- 
quido logo que cae na talha reparte-se em duas camadas : em 
baixo a agua, a qual se chama alpixe ; e em cima ou a tona 
do alpixe, o azeite. Entre o azeite e o alpixe ficam as borras 
do azeite. 

As borras sao as fezes do azeite, e vao-se formando na 
primeira talha, entre o fundo do azeite e o cimo do alpixe. 
A medida que o azeite se vae escoando para a segunda talha, 
as borras vao subindo na primeira; e tomariam para a se- 
gunda, se o lagareiro nao tivesse o cuidado de as fazer depo- 
sitar, isto e", de as fazer baixar ao fundo da primeira talha. 
Depois de bem assentes, as borras ainda apresentam a super- 
ficie uma certa quantidade de azeite, embora impure. Este 
azeite das borras e aproveitado: serve para a candeia; para 
untar os eixos dos carros; e para varios fins industriaes: fa- 
brico de sabao etc. 

Depois de completamente espremidas as ceiras, o que fica 
dentro 6 o bagaco. bagac.o 6" o residue da pelle e do ca- 
ro<jo das azeitonas. bagac,o da azeitona serve para alimen- 
tac,ao dos porcos e das gallinhas, e ainda de combustivel. No 
proprio lagar, a agua para caldear a massa 6 tambem aque- 
cida com lume de bagaco. Este arde muito bem por ser oleoso. 
Para todas estas operaQoes do fabrico do azeite ha hoje mecha- 
nismos muito perfeitos. 




Sou ingles. V a E a e por- 

Sou, sim, senhor. Para um 

estrangeiro V a E a folia ra- 

zoavelmente o portugues. 
Como se chama isso? Como 

se diz . . . ? 
Isso ndo se pdde; isso ndo 

pdde ser! 
Entdo que tern ? Nao estd lorn ? 

Isso passa; nao 6 nada. 
Nao passou bem a noite ? Olhe, 

que nao tern boa car a. 
Passei a noite em claro. 
Ndo se dd bem aqui? Estra- 

nha o clima? 

Nao estranhOj ndo, senhor. Dou- 

me bem aqui. 
E gosta de cd estar? 
Gosto muito. Estou morto por 

ver toda a cidade, todo o pais. 

Onde e a pardgem mais prdxi- 
ma do carro electrico? 

Qual e o caminho mais curto 
para Id? 

Ndo ha pardgem mais perto ? 

Julgava que houvesse uma im- 
mediata ao hotel. 

I am English. Are you a 

Portuguese ? 
Yes. For a foreigner you speak 

Portuguese rather well. 

What is this called ? How do 

you say . . . ? 
That can't be (done)! 

What's the matter with you? 

Aren't you well? 
It will pass over ; it's nothing. 
Didn't you sleep well? You 

do not look well, indeed. 
I passed the night awake. 
Don't you feel well here? 

Does not the climate agree 

with you? 
It is not that. Indeed, the 

climate agrees with me. 
And do you like to stay here ? 
I do indeed. I am dying to 

see the whole town, the 

whole country. 
Where is the next stopping- 
place of the electric car? 
Which is the nearest way 

to it? 
Is there no stopping-place 

I thought there was one 

next to the hotel. 



Ate logo! ate breve! ate a se- 

mana (que vem) ! ate d proxi- 

ma sexta-feira! 
Nao faltava nada que eu per- 

desse o comb6io. 
Deixe ver isso! 
Jd estd de caminho. 
Estou com pressa. 
Jd deram ome horas. 
Sao horas do correio. 
combdio jd nao tar da; estd 

a chegar. 
Sa(h)iu-lhe bem a empreza ? 

Com licenga! A vontade! 

Nao faga cerimonia! 

Eu tinha vergonha de Ihe fallar. 

Nao tern troco? 

Nao ha remedio. 

Vamos embora! 

Isso e conforme! Depende! 

Estd bem? Que Ihe parece? 
Em que ftcdmos? 

Segundo o meu parecer . . . 
Ha alguem que procura o 


Quern me procura? 
Diga que nao estou. 

Espere ahi! Mande entrar 

para a sola. 
Nao fallemos mais n'isso! 

Jd folia menos mal. 
Estou constipado. \ 

Apanhei uma constipagao. J 
Logo que eu me 

campo . . . 
Em que Ihe posso eu ser agra- 

ddvel ? 
Faga favor de se servir do meu 

limitado prestimo. 
Tttdo quando puder fazer, serd 

com todo o 

Good-bye for the present! 
Until very soon! Until next 
week! Until next Friday! 

I was very near losing the 

Let me see that. 

He is already on the way. 

I am in a hurry. 

It has already struck eleven. 

It is post-time. 

The train must be here di- 

Did you succeed in your en- 
terprise ? 

With your leave ! Be pleased ! 

Don't make any ceremony! 

I was shy to speak to him. 

Have you any change ? 

There is nothing to be done. 

Let us go away! 

That's all according! That 
depends ! 

Is it well so? What do you 
think of it? 

Where did we stop? What 
did we agree upon? 

According to my opinion . . . 

There is somebody calling on 

Who is calling? 

Tell him that I am not at 

Just wait! Show him into 
the drawing-room! 

Don't let us speak any more 
of that! 

You speak already rather well. 

I have caught a cold. 

r no As soon as I am in the coun- 

In what may I be agreeable to 

Please dispose of my modest 

All I can do will be done with 
the greatest pleasure. 

Some Portuguese Proverbs. 


Some Portuguese Proverbs equivalent to 

Antes so que mal acompanhado. 
Com taes me acho; tal me fago. 

Chega-te aos bons, serds um 
delles: chega-te aos maus, 
serds peor do que elles. 

Duro com duro, nao faz bom 

Da Deus o frio conforme a 

Quern primeiro anda, primeiro 

Hora a hora, Deus melhora.\ 

Atrds de tempo, tempo vem. f 

Quern porfia mata ca$a. 

A cavallo dado nao se Ihe olha 
o dente. 

olho do amo engorda o ca- 

Faze-me as barbas, far-te-hei 

o cabelo. 
Como canta o db(b)ade, assim 

responde o sachristao. 
De noite a candeia a burr a 

parece donzella. 
Casa roubada trancas d 

Tantas vezes vae o cao ao moi- 

nho, que Id Ihe fica o fou- 

Malhar no ferro emquanto 

estd quenle. 
Quando ha vento, molha-se a 

Emquanto o pdu vae e vem, 

folgam as costas. 
Contenta-te, goto, que farta o 

Filho de peixe sabe nadar. 

Better alone than in bad 

Birds of a feather no\f to- 

Tell me whom you associate 
with and I will tell you 
who you are. 

Hard with hard never made 
any good wall. 

Aptness comes with the office. 

First come, first served. 

After rain comes sunshine. 

Patience overcomes all things. 
Look not a gift horse in the 

The master's eye makes the 

horse fat (or: the cattle 


One good turn deserves an- 
The young pigs grunt like the 

old sow. 
When candles are out, all cats 

are grey. 
To lock the stable-door when 

the horse is stolen. 
The pitcher goes so often to 

the well that it comes home 

broken at last. 
To strike the iron while it is 

To make hay while the sun 

When the cat is away, the 

mice will play. 
Great wealth, great weariness. 

What is bred in the bone will 
come out in the flesh. 



Pintura e peleja de longe se 

Filho eSj pae ser&s, assim como 
fizeres, assim achards. 

Nao ha dgua mais perigosa 
que a que nao soa. 

Santos de casa nao fazem mi- 

Praia 6 o bom f attar; oiro e 

o bom calar. 

seguro morreu de velho. 
Mais vale um <Ltoma que dois 

4-te darei*. 
Quern nao vae d guerra, nao 

morre n'ella. 

Nem todo o matto e ouregaos.\ 
Nem tudo o que luz e oiro. > 
Nem todo o branco e farinha] 
Nem zombandOj nem deveras, 

com teu amo jogues as per as. 

Picture and battle to be seen 

from afar. 
Do unto others as you would 

be done by. 
Still waters run deep. 

A prophet is not without ho- 
nour, save in his own coun- 
try and in his own house. 

Speech is silvern, silence is 

Prevention is better then cure. 

A bird in the hand is worth 
two in the bush. 

Who plays at bowls must be 
prepared for rubbers. 

All is not gold that glitters. 

Those who eat cherries with 
great persons will have 
their eyes squirted out with 
the stones. 

Short Notes, 

Aos Ex mos Srs. Conselheiro A. de Lima e Ex ma Esposa, 

D. Maria Jose Moreira da Silva 
e o Coronel Nogueira da Silva e Mattos 

apresentam os seus cumprimentos, pedindo a honra da sua 
companhia para um copo de dgua que, na occasiao do casa- 
mento de sua filha D. Beatriz com o ex mo Sr. capitao Antonio 
de Lemos e depois da ceremonia, se offerece na 4 a feira, 15 do 
corrente, as 2 hs. da tarde na rua dos Bem-casados No. 3. 

Lisboa, casa de V as Ex* 8 , 8 de maio. 

2. Resposta 
(on a visiting-card). 

A Ex ma Sr 11 D a Maria Jose" Moreira da Silva e Ill mo e 
Ex mo Sr. Coronel N. da Silva e Mattos, agradecendo em seu 
nome e no de seu marido a insigne honra do convite de 

Short Notes. 


D. Eugenia de Lima 

apressa-se em partipar-lhes que Ihes dara a maior satisfacao 
poder assistir ao auspicioso enlace da sua Ex ma Filha. 

3. Outra resposta. 

Cumprimentando o Ex mo Sr. Coronel Nogueira da Silva e 
Sua Ex ma Esposa, os Condes de Valfl6r teem o inaxirno pesar 
de nao poderem assistir a tao fausta festividade, visto estarem 
de luto recente por uma parenta sua muito chegada. Fa- 
zendo os mais sinceros votos pela felicidade dos Noivos e pe- 
dindo a V as Ex as acceitem dfisde ja os seus cordiaes parabens, 
pedem desculpa da sua nao-comparfincia. 

Meu illustre Amigo: 

Por este peco lienca para Ihe apresentar o men particular 
amigo, Dr. Fulano, eximio escriptor e deputado da na9ao, cujo 
npme nao sera de todo desconhecido de V a Ex a . Nao precise 
dizer que as atter^oes que a sua generosidade dispensar ao Dr. F. 
tornar-me-hao ainda mais sen devedor. Nunca poderei pagar 
nem mSsmo agradecer bastante, tantos e tao immerecidos fa- 
vores, dos quaes ainda assim me sinto digno pela muito dedi- 
cacao que Ihe consagro e na convic9ao que o melhor premio da 
amizade e: acceitar-lhe as provas com a msma naturalidade 
como sao dadas. 


Meu bom Amigo, 

Caso o men Amigo disponha de algum momento vago 
amanha entre uma e as quatro horas, peco o insigne favor de vir 
falar-me a esta sua casa. Trata-se d'um assumpto urgente e que 
merecera todo o seu interesse. 

Ex mo Senhor e Amigo: 


Desconsolado de so h6je receber o seu bilhete d'ante- 
hontem, por ter estado ausente, por este peco desculpa de nao 
ter apparecido ahi, e Iicen9a de poder falar-lhe hoje a qualquer 
hora que V* Ex* se digne determinar e que mais Ihe convier. 



Poetry to be learnt by heart. 
Popular Stanzas of Four Terses. 

Amar e ser amado, que ventura! 
Nao amar, sendo amado, e um triste horror: 
Mas na vida ha uma noite mais escura, 
E amar alguem qae nao nos tenha amor! 

s Crespo.) 

Ja nao tenho cora^ao, 
Que m'o tiraram do pel to; 
No logar onde elle estava 
Nasceu um amor-perfeito. 

Tu dizes que nao tens cruz 
Para resar o rosario; 
Casa-te, minha menina, 
E teras cruz e calvario. 

dia tern duas horas, 
Duas horas, nao tern mais: 
Uma 6 quando vos vejo, 
Outra, quando me lembraes. 

Os teus olhos sao escuros 
Como a noite mais cerrada; 
Mas apesar de tao nggros, 
Sem elles nao vejo nada. 

A folhinda do salgueiro 
E a primeira novidade; 
Quern madruga nao alcanna, 
Que fara quern se ergue tarde? 

Ninguem descubra o seu peito 
A nenhuma amiga sua; 
Quern o seu peito descobre 
Seu segredo deita a rua. 

Quern e pobre, sempre e pobre 
Quern pobre nada tern; 
Quern e rico, sempre 6" nobre, 
E as ve"zes nao e ninguem. 

Aqui tens meu cora9ao, 
Fechadinho com tres chaves; 
Abre-o, mette-te Id dentro 
Que tu sosinha bem cabes. 

Eu nao quero nem brincando 
Dizer adeus a ninguem: 
Quern vae, leva saudades, 
Quern fica, saudades tern. 

Amorsinho da minh'alma, 
Ensina-me a tua arte: 
Ensina-me a aborrecer-te, 
Que eu nao sei senao amar-te. 

Se os meus olhos te incommo- 

dam r 

Quando os ve"s na tua frente, 
Manda entao que m'os arran- 

Para eu te amar cegamente. 

Ando triste como a noite, 
Nada me alegra o sentido ; 
Ninguem sabe o bem que perde; 
Senao depois de perdido. 

Ai quern me dera ter mae, 
Inda que fosse uma silva! 
Inda que ella me arranhasse, 
Sempre eu era a sua filha. 

Ja morreu a minha mae, 
Ja la vae minha alegria; 
Caixinha dos meus segredos, 
Espelho donde me eu via. 

Vae-te, carta venturosa, 
Ver um bem que Deus me deu; 
Antes tu, carta, ficaras, 
No teu logar fora eu. 

Carta, vae onde te eu mando, 
Que uns lindos olhos vaes ver; 
Carta, poe-te de joelhos, 
Quando te forem a ler. 

Poems of Modern Literature. 


Aqui estou a tua porta, 
Como o feixinho da lenha, 
A espera da resposta 
Que dos teus olhos me venha. 

amor e o respeito 
Nao fazem boa uniao; 
Quando amor diz que sim, 
Diz o respeito que nao. 

Poems of Modern Literature. 

corvo e a raposa. 

E fama que estava o corvo 
Sobre uma arvore pousado 
E que no sofrego bico 
Tinha um queijo atravessado. 

Pelo faro aquelle sitio 
Veiu a raposa matreira, 
A qual, pouco mais ou mnos, 
Lhe falou d'esta maneira: 

Bons dias, men lindo corvo, 
Es gloria d'esta espessura: 
Es outra phSnix se acaso 
Tens a voz como a figura. 

A taes palavras o corvo 
Com louca, estranha afoutSza 
Por mostrar que e bom solfista, 
Abre o bico e solta a prsa. 

Lan9a-lhe a mestra o gadanho 
E diz: Meu amigo, aprende 
Como vive o lisongeiro 
A custa de quern o attende. 

Esta liQao vale um queijo, 
Tern d'estas para teu uso. 
Rosna entao comsigo o corvo 
Envergonhado e confuso: 

Velhaca! Deixou-me em branco, 
Fui tolo em fiar-me n'ella. 
Mas este logro me Hvra 
De cahir n'outra esparrela. 


Sol e o Vento. 

Vento desafiou 
Sol, um certo dia, 
Para vrem dos dois 
Qual mais poder teria. 

E logo, n'um momento, 
Sem mesmo ao repto esp'rar 

pela resposta, 

maluco do Vento 
Com a sua maneira descom- 


Deitou-se a vr se despojava 
Da capa que trazia 
Um homem que passava. 

Soprando rijo e agreste, 
Na fiiria d'um sudoeste, 
Tudo revolve e agita n'um es- 

carceu . . . 

Logo a primeira rabanada 
Vai-se ao homem, e leva-lhe 

o chapeu. 

E riu, e riu de gosto, a gar- 

Zombando do homenzi- 


Que seguiu sereno e descuidado 
seu caminho. 


Este, pore"m, assim ja avisado, 


Puxou aroupa a si, abotoou-se. . 
Mesmo que pondo tudo em 

Vento iroso, por all abaixo 

Estava frio, 

Um frio no diacho! 

Como 6 de calcular, 

- Nao de espantar 
Contrariado o Vento exasperou- 

E n'uma furia tal 
Que ja nao e*ra Vento, antes 
dir-se hia 
Um vendaval! 

As rabanadas, 

Aos empuxoes, 

As sapatadas, 

Tirar a viva for9a a grossa capa 

Ao triste viandante. 

Mas quanto mais soprava 

E esbravejava 

Sudoeste insoffrido, 
Mais o homem na capa se em- 

E, e claro, ate mais esta se 


Ao corpo do transeunte assim 

Sol, do alto, que esta 

scena via, 
Ria de puro goso, ria, 

ria . 

Nao porque a aposta, emfim, 
o interessasse 

(Era bem mais que certo), 

Mas uma liQaosinha dar quizesse 

Ao Vento furio e esperto. 

Por sua vez se foi ao nomen- 

Da capa, e gravemente, 
E sem maus tratos 
Nem espalhafatos, 

Quasi amigavel, delicadamente, 
Devagarinho . . . 

Dobrando a sua fora apenas 
de calor, 

Mas pouco a pouco, lento e 
lentamente . . . 

homem d'ali a pouco se despia, 
Quasi insensivelmente 
Da capa que trazia, 
Da sua capa rica, 
Por tal modo suava, 
Em bica! 

E concluiu, falando sentencioso 
Para o Vento raivoso: 
Se mais forca e poder que tu 
eu tenho, 

Nao sei . . . 
Tu o diras! 
Por mim, direi 
Que faz 
Muito mais do que a colera, a 


Que mais vale a brandura que 
a violencia. 

(Paulino de Oliveira.) 

A cigarra e a formiga. 

Como a cigarra o seu gosto 
E levar a temporada 
De junho, julho e agosto 
N'uma cantiga pegada, 
De inverno tambem se come 
E entao rapa frio e fome . . . 

Um inverno a infeliz 
Chega-se a formiga e diz: 
Venho pedir-lhe o favor 
De me emprestar mantimento, 
Matar-me a necessidade! 

Poems of Modern Literature. 

E, em chegando a novidade 1 , En . . . cantar ao 

Faco ate um juramento, Ah! cantar? Pois, minha 

Pago-lhe, seja o que for! amiga, 

Quern leva o estio a cantar, 

Mas, pergunta-lheaformiga, Leva o inverno a dancar. 
que fez durante o estio? (Joao de Deus.) 


Trazeis-me rosas; d'onde as heis trazido, 
Boa velhinda e minha boa amiga? 
Eosas no inverno! permitti que o diga, 
Sois feiticeira: d'onde as heis colhido? 

Na primavera de meus annos, olho, 
Mas vejo abrolhos e nao vejo flores: 
E vos colheil-as, como as eu nao colho . . . 
Sois feiticeira enfeiti9aes d'amores. 

Enfeiticaes que a formosura, crde, 
Nao vem da face avelludada e bel]a; 
A formosura vem so d'alma; 6 d'ella 
Que brota a fonte que nos mata a sde. 

Vos sois velhinha, ja nao tendes cores 

Que o rosto animem e que os olhos prendam, 

Mas tendes prendas que o amor accendam, 

Tendes ainda no inverno . . . flores. (Joao de Deus.) 

Cangao das ires gotas de dgua. 

Trgs irmas, tres gotas de agua e um passarinho bebeu-a; 
que o infinito condensa, mas a terceira, tombando 

sua mae, nuvem do ce*u, no mar, dizia chorando: 

la d'aquella altura immensa <<Nestag ondag a ntes 

desprendeu : desapareco mesquinha .. . 

vem uma e cae sobre a nor 

que d mingua de agua morria, Responde a onda marinha : 

e mal a gota sentia, Ja sou maior que era de 

voltava-lhe o vi90 e a cor; antes. 

caiu outra ao pe" d'um ninho, (Affonso Lopes- Vieira.) 


Ella velava perto No ber90 fluctuante 

Do filho que dormia, Moveu-se agora o infante 

E Candida sorria E acorda pranteando . . . 

Ao lyrio entreaberto. Nao ha quadro mais bello 

Da lua um raio incerto Que a mae, solto o cabello, 

No quarto se perdia; filho acalentando! 

E a mae olhaya o Dia (Gon 5 alves Crespo.) 
E a Luz do seu deserto. ^_ v J 

x The first fruits of the year. 7~ 

400 Supplement. 


Chamei em volta do meu frio leito 
As memorias melhores de outra idade, 
Formas vagas, que as noites, com piedade, 
Se inclinam, a espreitar, sobre o meu peito. 

E disse-lhes: No mundo immenso e estreito 
Valia a pena, acaso, em anciedade 
Ter nascido? dizei-m'o com verdade, 
Pobres memorias que eu ao seio estreito . . . 

Mas ellas perturbaram-se coitadas! 

E empalidecerem, contristadas, 

Ainda a mais feliz, a mais serena . . . 

E cada uma d'ellas, lentamente, 

Com um sorriso intimo, pungente, 

Me respondeu: -^ Nao, nao valia a pena. 

(Anthero de Quental.) 

Ao caliir da folha. 

Quando cahir a folha e tu te fores 
A ter com minba mae que ja morreu, 
Se nao Ihe posso dar mais que flores, 
Leva Ihe beijos, abrac.cs, Que sei eu! 

Diz-lhe que eu ainda sou como era d'antes 
Assim sem esperai^as, sempre sem amores. 
- Meus pobres olhos, sempre agonisantes, 
Vao se mirrando mais so pisam dores. 

Dize que os meus versos sao atormentados 
Como so sabem rimar os des grades, 
Diz-lhe que em breve . . . Nao, mas deixa la, 

Podia a santa affligir-se. E agora, 

Sempre sao maes quando te fores embora, 

Nunca Ihe contes o que vae por ca. 

(Albino Forjaz de Sampayo.) 

calendar io. 

E n'um instante a vida! . . . Dia a dia, 
Desfolho o calendario com saudade. 
A gCtta e gotta cae na eternidade 
Esta porQao de vida fugidia. 

Poems of Modern Literature. 401 

Assim caminha em breve romaria 

prazo em que gastei a mocidade 

E so me traz mais pena cada dia, 

Mais pranto, mais angiistia e mais edade! . . . 

A manso e manso o tronco se desfolha 
Do tempo que resume esta negrura 
Onde se fazem brancos os cabellos . . . 

E os dias vao cahlndo, folha a folha, 
E embora todos feitos de amargura 
Oh, quern pudesse ainda revivel-os! 

(Conde do Casal Ribeiro.) 


No sen corpo tao fragil quanta vida, 
Cheia de luz, cheia de forpa ingente! 
Luz que cegava e que inda ce"ga a gente . . . 
Forc^a que a todos leva de vencida . . . 

Foi-lhe a curta existencia uma comprida 
Vida de lucta, e embora o Amor florente 
E a Gloria Ihe sorrisse ternamente, 
Foi-lhe penosa estrada dolorida . . . 

Sen genio impetuoso de inspirado, 

Que o fez tao grande e tao infliz o fez, 

Minou-lhe o de*bil corpo arrebatado. 

Ramo florindo em flammas muita vez, 
Ramo que pela Morte desfolhado 
Todo em perfume, em alma, se desfez. 

(Paulino de Oliveira.) 


A pregui<ja, inda de peito, PreguiQa foi confessar-se: 

Muito custou a criar! Fez exame de conscien- 

Quasi que morreu de fome, cia? 

Com preguiQa de mamar. Nao fiz, meu padre! mas 

Pregui^a, ja crescidinha, A ^ '^ 

Quando por sen p^ andava Amanha . . . Tenha pacien- 

Nao era andar! mais par'cia ciau>> 

Que toda se espreguicava . 

Pregu^a aprendeu costura, 

Pregui^a foi a liQao: Mas, sempre que costurava, 

Ler, escrever e contar? So para nao por dedal, 

Deixava a memoria em casa, Sempre os seus dedos pi- 

Com pregui9a de a levar! cava. 

Portuguese Conversation-Grammar. 26 



A mae ralhou a Pregui9a, 
Porque se nao penteara; 
Torna-lhe ella : Ha quantos 

E que a mae nao lava a cara? 

Pregui<ja, morta de somno, 
Quasi de somno morria; 
So por nao fechar os olhos, 
Quantas noites nao dormia! 

A Pregui9a abria a bocca, 
Coisa em que ell a era mais certa : 
Mas depois p'ra a nao fe- 
Ficou sempre bocca- aberta. 

Pregui9a e o Desmazelo 
Juntarem-se em casamento: 
Levando os dois, em bom dote, 
Uma mao-cheia de vento. 

A Preguisa teve dois filhos: 
Oh que santa gera^ao! 
A mais velha, Dona Fome; 
mais novo, Dom Ladrao. 

Quando a Pregui9a morrer, 
Ate* o monte maninho, 
Ate" fraguedos da serra 
Darao rosas, pao, e vinho. 

(Antonio Corre"a d'Oliveira.) 


Era uma vez um moleiro 
Que estava no seu moinho . . . 
Come9ando seu caminho, 
Vinha na serra Janeiro 
Com longo acompanhamento 
De sombras, de neve e vento, 
Para honrar (se bem me lembro) 
Desepedidas, bota-fora 
Do velho e pobre Dezembro. 

Inda estavam, a tal hora! 
Ao borralho da lareira, 
Moleiro e mais a moleira, 
Depois de bem consoados, 
Bem fartos e regalados . . . 
Que minguas, la no casal, 
Fome ou se"de, nao havia: 
Pois, segundo se dizia, 
moleiro, como tal, 
Mettia a mao na maquia . . . 
Mas, n'isto, ouviram 

truz! truz! 
Bater a porta . . . 

- Jesus! 
Quern sera? . . . Quern e?! - 


Fora, uma voz arrastada: 
Alguem que pede pousada, 
E uns restos de lume aonde 
uecer ... 

Torna, soberbo, o moleiro: 
- Andar! andar, caminheirof 
Esmola? . . . Nao pode ser! 
Diz a voz: 

Nao me conheces, 
De certo! Se conhecesses . . . 
Sou o Anno Velho: Eu sou 
Quern para ti foi tao bom 
Que tudo o que te fartou 
Por minha gra9a e meu dom 
lograste, dia a dia: 
Alvo pao que tu comeste; 
Doce vinho que bebeste; 
azeite que te alumia; 
Sol que seccou tua lenha . . . 
Pois ha ingrato no mundo 
Que negue pao d'um segundo 
A quern um anno o mante- 

Volta o moleiro: 

paspalho l 

Do velho! Pois nao se atreve? . . 
Faz' la a cama na neve, 
Que ha de ser bom agasalho! 
De que me serves, agora 
Que ja vaes de pe"s a cova? 
Anno Novo, sim! E nova. 
Amizade ; nova vinha: 

Poems of Modern Literature. 403 

E taleiga venerada Poe-se a chover! a cbover! 

De respeito e valimento, Gomeqa, o rio a crescer; 

Poisme dara dafarinha. . . A crescer de tal feitio, 

Que logo ao moinha, o rio 

Ora, foi neste moinento Levou o rodisio e a mo! 

Que o Anno Novo chegou; E nao ficou aqui so 

Vae, ouviu tudo, e pensou: castigo: 

01ha o coracao ruim! Desde entao, 

Alma damnada! mofino! Tanto Ihe correu avesso 

De aqui a um anno p'lo visto, Anno de tao mau comco : 

Fazia-me o mesmo a mim . . . Que no moinho (de nome 

Espera! que eu ja te ensino: Moinho da Ingratidao) 

Has de pagal-as! - moleiro soberbao 

E nisto, Acabou, morrendo a fome . . . 

(Antonio Corrga d'Oliveira : Parabolas.) 

A Ldgrima. 

Manha de junho ardente. Uma encosta escalvada, 
Seca, deserta e nua, a beira d'uma estrada. 

Terra ingrata, onde a urza a custo desabrocha, 
Bebendo o sol, comendo o po, mordendo a roeha. 

Sobre unaa folha hostil d'uma figueira brava 
Mendiga que se nutre a predegulho e lava, 

A aurora desprendeu, compassiva e divina, 
Uma lagrima ethe'rea, enorme e cristalina. 

Lagrima tao ideal, tao limpida que, ao vel-a, 

De perto era um diamante e de longe uma estrella. 

Passa um rei com o seu cortejo de espavento, 
Elmos, Ian9as, clarins, trinta pendoes ao vento. 

No meu diadema, disse o rei, quedando o olhar, 
Ha safiras sem conta e brilhantes sem par. 

Ha rubins orientaes, sangrentos e doirados, 
Oomo beijos d'amor a arder, cristalisados. 

Ha perolas que sao gotas de magua immensa, 
Que a lua chora e verte e o mar gela e condensa. 

Pois brilhantes, rubins e perolas de Ophir, 
Tudo isso eu dou, e vem, 6 lagrima, fulgir 

N'esta c'roa orgulhosa, olimpica, suprema, 

Vendo o globo a meus pe"s do alto do teu diadema. 

404 Supplement. 

E a lagrima celeste, inge"nua e luminosa, 
Ouviu, sorriu, tremeu, e quedou silenciosa. 

Comrade de ferro, epico e deslurnbrante, 
Passa no seu ginete um cavalleiro andante. 

E o cavalleiro diz a lagrima irisada: 

Vein brilhar, por Jesus, na cruz da minha espada! 

Far-te-hei relampejar, de victoria em victoria, 
Na terra Santa, a Inz da Fe", ao sol da Gloria! 

E a volta ha-de guardar-te a minha noiva, 6 astro, 
Em seu collo auroreal de rosa e de alabastro. 

E assim alumiaras com teu vivo esplendor 
Mil combates de heroes e mil sonhos d'amor. 

E a lagrima celeste, ingenua e luminosa, 
Ouviu, sorriu, tremeu, e quedou silenciosa. 

Montado n'uma mula escura, de caminho, 
Passa um velho judeu, avarento e mesquinho. 

Mulas de carga atras levam-lhe o thesoiro, 
Grandes areas de cedro abarrotadas d'oiro. 

E o velhinho andrajoso e magro como um junco, 
craneo calvo, o olhar febril, o bico adunco. 

Vendo a estrella, exclamou: 0h Deus, que maravilha! 
Como ella resplandece e tremeluz e brilha! 

Com rneu oiro em montao podiam-se comprar 
Os imperios dos reis e os navios do mar. 

E por esse diamante esplSndido trocara 

Todo o meu oiro immense a minha mao avara. 

E a lagrima celeste, ingenua e luminosa, 
Ouviu, sorriu, tremeu, e quedou silenciosa. 

Debaixo da figueira entao um cardo agreste, 
Ja ressequido, disse a lagrima celeste: 

A terra, onde o lilaz e a balsanaina medra, 
Para mim teve sempre um cora9ao de pedra, 

Se a queixar-me, ergo ao ceo os bra90S por aeaso, 
O c6o manda-me em paga o fogo em que me abraso. 

Poems of Modern Literature. 405 

Nunca junto de rnim ? uleerado de espinhos, 
Ouvi trinar, gorgeiar a miisica dos ninhos. 

Nunca junto de mim ranches de namoradas 
Debandaram, cantando, em noites estrelladas . . . 

Voa a ave no azul e passa longe o amor, 

Porque ai! nunca del sombra e nunca tive flor! . . . 

6 lagrima de Deus, 6 astro, 6 gota d'agua, 
Cae na desola9ao d'esta infinita magoa! 

E a lagrima celeste, ingenua e luminosa, 
Tremeu, tremeu, tremeu . . . e cahiu silenciosa. 

E algum tempo depois o triste cardo exangue, 
Reverdecendo, dava uma flor cor de sangue, 

D'um roxo macerado e dorido e desfeito, 

Como as chagas que tem Nosso Senhor no peito . . . 

E ao calix virginal da pobre flor vermelha 

la buscar, zumbindo, o mel doirado, a abelha! . . . 

(Guerra Junqueiro.) 


English -Portuguese Vocabulary. 

(The gender is indicated by f. (feminine) and m. (masculine). The 
principal word is substituted by (a dash), when repeated.) 

A alley avenida f., alea f. 

allow permitir, dar licenga para, 

consentir em 
almost quasi 
already jd 
also tambem 
always sempre 
ambitious ambicioso 
amiable amdvel, bondoso 
among (par) entre 
amuse divertir 

ancestors antepassados m. pi. 
anger zanga, despeito, colera, 

angry zangado; to be or get 


answer resposta f; v. res- 

any algum; (neg.) nerihum 
anybody alguem ; (neg.) ninguem 
any more mais algum; (neg.) 
nao . . mais 

above em citna de, por cima de 

about ao redor de, cerca de 

able capaz, hdbil 

absolve absolver 

abstain abster-se 

abundance abunddncia f. 

abuse abusar, insultar 

accept aceitar 

accompany acompanhar 

accustom acostumar 

account conta f., lista f. 

acquaintance conheeimento m, 

acquire adquirir 

act obrar, operar; s ac$ao f., 

acto m. 

action a(c)gao f. 
add acrescentar, adicionar 
address dirigir(-se a); endere- 


admirable admirdvel 
admiral almirante m. 
admit admitir 
advance adiantar, promover 
advantage vantdgem f. 
advice conselho m., aviso m. 
affair negocio m., assunto m. 
affect impressionar, afectar 
afraid, to be , ter medo 
after depots, conforme 
afternoon tarde f. 
again de now, mais uma vez 
against contre 
age idade f.', old velhice 
agree convir 
agreeable agraddvel 
alike semelhante, igual 
all tudo pr., todo adj.; that 

tudo quanta 

appear aparecar 

apple maga f. 

apply to aplicar, empregar em 

approach aproximar 

April abril (in dates A ) m. 

archer besteiro m. 

arm bra$o m. 

army exercito m. 

arrive chegar 

arrow frecha f. 

art arte f. 

artist artista m. & f. 

as co mo; . . assim que 

ashamed envergonhado 

ashes cinzas f. pi. 

ask preguntar, pedir 

assiduity assiduidade f. 

assist assistir, socorrer 

English-Portuguese Vocabulary. 


assistance assistencia f. 
associate with frequentar, as- 

sociar-se com 
astonishing surpreendente 
at a, em; at home em casa; at 

first no principio: at once 

duma vez; at last por fim; 

at all de tddo 
attack agredir 
attain dlcangar, conseguir 
attentive atento, atencioso 
attract atirar 

August agosto (in dates A ) m. 
aunt tia f. 
author autor m. 
avarice avareza f. 
avaricious avaro, avarento 
avoid evitar 
avow confessar 
await aguardar, esperar. 


bad man, md\ ly mal 

ball bala f\, baile m. 

bare nu, despido-, ly apenas 

bark v., ladrar; s. casca /"., cor- 

tiqa f. 

barley cevada f. 
battle batalha /'. 
beard barba f. 
beat hater 

beautiful formoso, Undo 
because porque 
become ficar, tornar-se 
-bed cama f., leito m. 
bee abelha f. 
beer cerveja f. 
before antes, ante, deante 
beg pedir (esmola), mendigar 
begin principiar, comegar 
behind atrds (de)trds 
believe era*, acreditar 
belong to pertencer a, ser de 
better melhor 
between entre 
beyond alem de 
big grande, grosso 
bird ave /., pdssaro m. 
bite morder 
bitter amargo, acre 
black preto, negro 

blame cemurar, repreender 

blessing ben^ao f. 

blood sangue m. 

blush corar 

boarding-house casa f. de lios- 

body corpo w. ; every cada 

urn, todos; no ninguem 
boil ferver 
bonnet cliapeu m. 
book livro m. 
boot bota f. 

born nascido; to be nascer 
bottle garrafa f. 
box caixa f. 

boy rapaz m. } menino m. 
brave valente, corojoso 
bread pdo m. 

break romper, partir, quebrar 
breakfast almoqo m. 
bring trazer, levar 
brother irmfto m. 
build const ruir 
burn arder, queimar 
business negocio m. 
but mas, por em 
butter manteiga f. 
buy comprar 
by por; heart de cor; the 

way ( the ) de passdgem ; 

and logo, ao depois; 

hard muito perto. 


cab trem de praga m. 

cabbage couve f. 

calf vitela f. 

call chamar ; to mind lembrar ; 

- at ir ter com 
camel camelo m. 
camp campo m. 
candle vela f. 
cane bengala f. 
cap barrete 

carnival carneval m., entrudom. 
care cuidado m. 
carpenter carpinteiro m. 
carriage carruagem f. 
carry carregar, levar 
cast (away) deitar (fora) 
castle castelo m. 


English-Portuguese Vocabulary. 

cat gato m. 

cattle gado bovino m. 

cease cessar, acabar 

censure censurar 

celebrated celebre 

certainly certamente, com certeza 

chair cadeira f. 

chamber quarto, sala 

chase caga f. 

chastise castigar 

cheese queijo m. 

cherry cereja f. 

child crianya f. 

china louqa f. 

choose escolher 

chorus coro m. 

church igreja f. 

city cidade f. 

clamour clamor m., brado m. 

class classe f., aula f. 

clean limpo 

clear claro, limpido 

cloak capa f., capote m. 

cloth patio m.', clothes vestudrio 

m., roupa f. 
clothe vestir 
cloud nuvem f. 
coach carrudgem f., trem m., 

carro m. 
coast costa f. 
coat casaco m. 
coffee cafe m. 
cold frio (m.), constipagao 
colour cor f. 

come vir ; in entrar ; outsair 
comfort conforto m., comodidade 

f.', v. confortar, consolar 
command ordem f. (co}mando 

m.', u. (co)mandar, ordenar 
commence comego m. 
commerce comer do in. 
complain queixar-se 
compel obrigar 
compound composto 
comrade camarada m., compa- 

riheiro m. 
conceal esconder 
conceive conceber 
condemn conde(m)nar 
conduct conducta f., proceder m.; 

v. conduzir 
confess confessar 

confidence confianr-a f., con- 

fidencia f. 
conquer conquistar 
conqueror conquistador m. 
conscience consciencia f. 
consent consentir 
consequence consequcncia /". 
consider considerar 
constrain constranger 
construct construir 
contain conter 
contented contente 
continue continuar 
convince conven cer 
cook cozinheiro; cozer 
cool fresco (m.) 
copy-book caderno m. 
corn grao m. 

correct corrector v. corrigir 
cost custar 
country pais m. 
courage cordgem /., animo m. 
course curso m., corrida f. 
cousin primo m., prima f. 
cover coberta /'., cobertor m., 

tampa f. 
cow vaca f. 
creator creador m. 
creditor credor m. 
crime crime m. 
cry grito m., clamor m. 
cultivate cultivar 
cup chicara f., ta$a f. 
currant groselha f. 
custom costume m., hdbito m. 
cut v. costar, talliar', s. corte 

m., talhe m. y golpe m. 


damp (h)umido 

danger perigo m. 

dark escuro, sombrio 

dart v. dardejar, s. dardo 

daughter filha f. 

dawn madrugada f., alva f. 

day dia m. 

dead morto; ly mortal(mente) 

deaf surdo 

dear querido, caro 

death morte f. 

debt divida f. 

English-Portuguese Vocabulary. 


deceive enganar, lograr 
December december (in dates 

I)) m. 

decision decisao f. 
deer viado m. t gado m. 
defect defeito m. 
defend defender 
delight in deleitar-se em 
demolish demolir 
dense denso 

deny (de)negar, recusar 
depart partir 
departure partido 
depend depender; upon des- 

cansar em 
describe descrever 
description descrigao 
deserve merecer 
desire desejar 
despise desprezar 
destroy destruir 
die morrer 
difference diferenga 
difficult dificil 
difficulty dificuldade f. 
diligent diligente 

direct v. dirigir, enderegar; a. 

directo, direito', ly jd, im- 


direction direcgdo f., endereqo m. 
disappear desaparecer 
disciple discipulo m. 
dissatisfy desagradar 
dissipate dissipar, desbaratar 
dissolve dissolver 
distinguish distinguir 
distress afligdo f. 
divide dividir, partilhar 
do fazer 
dog cao m. 

door porta f. ; way portal m. 
doubt v. dumdar; s. diivida f. 
dozen duzia f. 
draw puxar, tirar-, (pictures) 

desenhar; upon oneself 


dream v, sorihar; s. sonho m. 
dress v. vestir(-se) ; s. vestido m., 

fato in. 
drink beber 

drop v. gotejar, deixar cair; s. 

goto, f. 
drunk bebedo; to get embria- 


dry seco, enxuto 
duchess ditquesa f. 
duck pato m. 
dumb mudo 
during durante 
dust po n., poeira f. 
duty dever m., obrigagcio f. 
dwell morar, residir 
dye tingir. 


ear orelha f., ouvido m. 

early cedo 

earth terra f. 

easily facilmente 

easy fdcil 

eat comer 

edition edigcio f. 

egg ovo m. 

elect eleger 

ell (measure) vara f. 

elm (tree) olm(eir)o m. 

elsewhere algures 

embarrass v. embaragar', s. em- 
bar ago m. 

embellish embe(l)lecer 

emperor imperador 

empire imperio 

employ impregar 

end fim m., cabo in., con- 
clusdo f. 

enemy inimigo m. 

engine (steam ) mdquina 

enough bastante, assaz 

enrich enriguecer 

enter entrar (em) 

entertain entreter, regalar 

entertaining divertido 

envy inveja 

equal igual 

equality igualdade f. 

error erro m. 

escape v. escapar, fuqir; s. es- 
capada /"., fugida f. 

esteem estima f., consideragao f. 

evening tarde f., noite f. 

event su(c}cesso m., acontecimento 


English-Portuguese Vocabulary. 

ever sempre 

everybody cada MW, todos; 

everything tudo; everywhere 

em toda a parte 
evil mal m. 
example exemplo m. 
execute executar, cumprir 
exercise exercicio, prdtica 
exhaust esgotar\ ed exhausto 
exist existir 
expect aguardar 
extinct extinto 
extinguish extinguir 
extract v. extrair; s. extracto 
extreme extremo 
eye olho m. 


fable fdbula f. 

face face f., car a f., rosto m. 

fail faltar, falhar, errar 

faint desfalecer 

faithful fid, leal 

fall cair 

false falso 

falsehood falsidade f. 

family familia f. 

fan leque m. 

far longe 

fat gordo 

fate fado m., destino m. 

father pai or pae w.: in-law 

sogro m. 

fault defeito m., falta f. 
fear medo WL, receio m. 
fearful recedso 
feather pena f., pluma f. 
February fevereiro (in dates F} 


feed comida f., alimento m, 
feel sentir 
feign fingir 
fellow-traveller companheiro m. 

de magem 
ferocious feroz 
fertilize fertilisar 
few poucos 
field campo 

fight luta /"., combate in. 
fill encher 
find encontrar 

fine bonito, fino 

finish acdbar, terminar 

fire s. fogo m.; v. desfechar 

flag bandeira /". 

flatter lisongear, adular 

flatterer adulador m. 

flee fugir 

flock rebanho m. 

florin florim m. 

flour farinha f. 

flourish florescer 

flower flor f. 

fly v. voar, fugir', s. mosca f. 

fog nevoeiro m. 

follow seguir 

folly tolice f., pdndega f. 

fool tolo m. 

foolishness tolice f., asneira f. 

foot pe m. 

for (prep.} para-, (conj.) porque; 

as enqiianto a 
forbid prohibir ; God ! Dcus 

ndo queira! 
forehead testa f. 
foreign estrangeiro 
foresee prever 
forest floresta f., bosque m. 
forget esquecer, olvidar 
forgive perdoar 
fork garfo m. 
formerly antes, outrora 
forsake abandonar 
fortify fortificar 
fortnight, a quinze dias 
fortune fortuna 
forward(s) para diante, na 

found v. fundir 
freeze gelar 
French f ranees 
frequently freqitentemente, a 

fresh fresco 
Friday sexta-feira f. 
friend amigo, amiga; ly ami- 


friendship amizade f. 
fruit fru(c)to m., frn(c)ta f. 
fugitive fugitive 
fulfil cumprir 
full cheio,, plena 
furniture mobilia f. 

English-Portuguese Vocabulary. 



gaiety alegria f. 

gain v. ffanhar: s. ganho m. 

game jogo, caga f. 

gape bocejar, abrir a boca 

garden jardim m. 

gardener jardineiro m. 

gate porta f., portal m., cance(l)la 


gather collier, apanhar 
general a. geral; s. general m. 
generous generoso 
genius genio m., talento w. 
gentleman cavallieiro m., senhor 

gentleness gentileza f., delicadeza 

get procurar, ter; up levan- 


gift dddiva f., prenda f. 
girl menina /"., rapariga f. 
give dar 
glad contente, alegre ; ]jgostosa- 


glass vidro m-, copo m. 
glitter reluzir 
glory gloria f. 
glove luva f. 
go tr; away ir-se (embora); 

out sair; far from afastar- 

se; for procurar; on 

God Deits m. 
gold ouro m. 

good a. bom, boa; s. bem m. 
goodness bondade f. 
good-will boa vontade f. 
govern governar, reger 
gown vestido m. 
grammar gram('m)dlica 
grandfather avd m. 
grandmother avo f. 
grant conceder 
grass herva f., reloa f. 
graze pastar 
great grande 
green verde 

grief desgosto m., mdgoa f. 
grind moer 

ground chao M., solo w. 
grow cresccr; lean emma- 

grecer; old envelhecer; 

pale empalidecer ; red corar 

tall crescer, estar crescido; 

ihiuemmagrecer; worse 
peorar better melhorar 

- rich enriquecer 
guilty culpado 


hail v. granizar ; aclamar, sait- 

dar; s. graniza f. ! viva! 
hair cabelo m., pelo m. 
half s. metade f.; a. meio, meia 
hand mao f.; v. passar 
handsome bello 
happen acontecer 
happily felts mente 
happiness felicidade f. 
happy feliz 
hard duro, dspero 
hardly de todo, apenas', ever 

quasi nunca 
hare lebre f. 
harvest colheita f. 
haste pressa f. 
hasten apressar-se, aviar-se 
hat chapeu m.; to put on (take 

off) one's hat pdr (tirar) o 

hate odiar 
hatred 6dio m. 
hay feno m. 
head cabe^a 
heal curar 
health saude f. 
healthy saudavel, sao 
hear ouvir 

heart coragao m. ; by de cor 
heat ealor m. 
heaven ceu m. 
heavy pesado 
helm leme m. 
help ajudar, so(c)correr 
henceforward d'aqiti para diante 
here aqui 

hide esconder, occultar 
high alto, elevado 
hill co(l)lina f. 
hinder impedir 
history liistoria f. 
hit dar urn golpe em; acertar 


English-Portuguese Vocabulary. 

hive colmeia f. 

hold segurar 

hole buraco m. 

holiday ferias f. pi. 

holy santo, sagrado 

home casa ; go ir a or para 

casa', at em casa 
honest (h)onrado, (h)onesto 
honour s. honra f.; v. lionrar 
hope s. esperanea; v. esperar 
horse cava(l)lo m. 
hot quente; it is estd color 
hour (li)ora f. 
house casa f. 
how como, que\ long (since 

when)? desde quando?-, 

much (many) quanto(s)? 
however no entanto 
human (h)umano 
hunger fome f. 
hungry esfomeado', to be ter 

vontade (de comer) 
hunter cacador m. 
hunting caga f. 
hurt ferir, prejudicar 
husband marido m. 

ice gelo m. 

idea ideia f. 

idle preguifoso 

if se, caso que 

ill a. doente; adv. mal 

illness doen^a f. 

image imdgem f. 

imagine imaginar 

imitate imitar 

immediately i(m)mediatamente, 


immortal i(m)mortal 
importune importuno 
impossible impossivel 
improve progredir 
in em; into para dentro de 
inch po(l)legada f. 
increase crescer, au(g)mentar 
incredible incrivel 
incur incorrer em 
indeed na verdade; I e ver- 

inhabit habitar 

inhabitant habitant* m. 

injure prejudicar 

ink tinta f.; stand tinteirom* 

inquire inquirir, indagar 

inquisitive curioso 

inscribe increver 

insensible insensivel 

instantly instantdneamente 

instruct instruir 

insult insulto m. 

intend intender 

interrupt interromper 

introduce introduzir, apresentar 

invade invadir 

invent inventar 

iron ferro m. 

irreproachable irrepreensivel 

island ilha f. 

ivory marfim m. 


January Janeiro (in dates J ) 

jealous ciumento 

jealousy ciume m. 

jewel jdia f. 

join juntar 

joy alegria 

judgment julgamento m. 

jug cdntaro m., can$ca f. 

July julho (in dates J ) m. 

June junho (in dates J ) m. 

just justo, exacto 

just as no momenta em que 

justice justiga f. 


keep ficar com, segurar, observe 
kill matar 
kindness bondade f. 
king rei m.; kingdom reino m. 
kitchen cozinha f. 
knee joelho m. 
knife faca f., navalha f. 
know conhecer, saber 
knowledge sciencia f., eo- 
nhecimento(s) pi. m. 

labour trabalho m., lavor m. 
laborious trabalhoso 
lady senhora /., dona f. 

English-Portuguese Vocabulary. 


lamb anho w. 

land s. terra f. ; v. desembarcar, 


language lingua f., Ungudgem f. 
large grande, largo 
last v. durar, continuar; adj. 


late adj. defunto', adv. tarde 
laugh rir 
laughter riso m. 
law lei f. 
lawyer advogado 
lazy preguisoso 
lead s. chumbo m. 
lead conduzir', into induzir 
leaf folha f., folho m. 
league legua f., liga f. 
learn aprender, estudar 
learned sdbio, erudito 
least s. menos; at ao menos; 
in the de todo 
leave licenga f.', take of 

despedir-se de 

left a. esquerdo; s. esquerda f. 
leg perna f. 
lend emprestar 
less menos 
let deixar, arrendar; us go! 

vam-os! him know! faga-lhe 

saber ! 

letter carta /"., case carteira f. 
liar mentiroso m. 
liberty liber dade f. 
lie estar (deitado); mentir 
life vida f. 
lift up levantar 
like gostar de; a. semelhante; 

adv. como 
likely provdvel 
lily lirio m. 

limit limitar; s. fo'w#e m. 
line linha f. 
linen lirilio m. 
lion Zmo m. 
listen escutar, ouvir 
little adj. pequeno; adv. jpcmco, 

apenaSj mal 
live viver, morar 
loadstone, lodestone iwmw m. 
locksmith serralheiro m. 
long adj. longo, comprido; adv. 

look at olhar; for procurar 

looking-glass espelho m. 

lose perder 

loss perta f. 

love s. amor; U amar 

low baixOf vil 

luxury luxo m. 


mad foZo, alienado 

Madam mirifia serihora 

magnificent magnlfico 

maintain manter, suster 

make fazer ; haste apressar-se 

man homem m. 

manners maneiras f. pi. 

many muitos; so tantos-, as 

as tantos como: too 

map ma(p)pa m. 

March margo (in dates M ) 

mark out marcar, tragar 

marriage casamento m. 

marry casar 

master s. mestre, patrao, amo in. ; 

v. senhorear, conquistar 
matter assumpto w., negocio m., 

cousa f. 

May maio (in dates M ) m. 
meadow prado w., devesa f. 
meal refeigdo f., farinha f. 
means meio m. 
meat came f. 

meddle (with) entremeter-se (em) 
medicine remedio m., medicina f. 
meet encontrar 
melt fundir, derreter 
member membro m. 
memory memoria f. 
mend emendar ; (a pen) aparar 
merchant negociante , comerci- 

ante m. 

messenger mensageiro m. 
metal metal m. 
middle meio m. 
mild amenOf suave 
milk leite m. 
miller moleiro m. 
minute minuto m. y minuta f, 
misfortune desgraga f. 
mislead desencaminhar, induzir 

em erro 


English-Portuguese Vocabulary. 

Miss menina, senhora Dona 

mist nevoeiro m. 

mistake v. enganar-se: s. erro, 

engano m. 

mistrust desconfiar de 
mock trogar de 
modern moderno 
modest modesto 
modesty modestia f. 
Monday segunda-feira f. 
money dinheiro m. 
month mes m. 
moon lua f. 
more mats 
morning manha f. 
mother mae f. ; -in-law sogra 
motive motivo m. 
mourning luto m. 
mouse rato m., ratiriho m. 
mouth boca f. 

move mover (-sejjcomover, mexer 
much muito', too demasiado', 

how quanta?: as tanto; 

as as tanto que 
murder assassinar; assassinio m. 
murderer assassino m. 
music musica f. 
mutton carneiro m. 

nail unlia f., prego m. 

naked nu, nua 

name nome m. 

namely nomeadamente; a. saber 

napkin guarda-napo m. 

nature natureza f. 

naughty mint, mal-creado 

near proximo, perto 

nearly quasi, aproximadamente 

necessary necessdrio, preciso', to 

be precisar-se 
necessity nccessidade f. 
neglect v. descuidar; s. descuido 


neighbour visinho m. 
neighbourhood visinhanga f. 
neither . . nor nem . . netn 
never nunca, jamais 
new novOj fresco - yfey^ ,2.^ 
news noticia f.', paper jornal 


next proximo, seguinte 

nice bonito^ gentil 

niece sobrinha f. 

night noite f. 

no nenhum, ndo 

nobility nobresa f. 

noise barulho, ruido m. 

noon meio-dia m. 

nose nariz wi. 

nothing (nao . .) nada 

notwithstanding nem por isso 

nourish alimentar. nutrir 

November november (in dates 

N-} m. 
now agora 
number numero m. 
numerous numeroso. 


oak carvalho m. 

oats aveia f. 

obedient obediento 

obey obeir 

oblige obrigar, obsequiar 

obliging obsequioso 

observe observar, atender 

obtain obter, alcangar 

occupy o(c)cupar 

October outubro (in dates ) 


odious odioso 
offend o(f)fender 
offer s. o(f)ferta\ v. offerecer 
often wuitas vexes 
officer official 
oil oleo m., azeite m. 
old velho, idoso- : age velhice 

f.; how are you'? quantos 

annos tern? 
omen augouro m. 
omit ome(t)ter 
on sobre, em cima de 
once uma vez', on a time 

outr'ora-, at de repente 
only so, unico 

open r. abrir; adj. aberto, franco 
openness sinceridade f. 
opponent adversdrio m. 
opportunity o(p)portunidade 
oppose o(p)por(-se) 
opposite o(p)posto, em frente de 

English-Portuguese Vocabulary. 


orange laranja f. 

order s. ordem f.; v. mandar 

other, an outra 

otherwise alias, d'outra maneira 

over sobre, por cima de', it's 

all acabou-se 
overtake a(t)tingir 
owe dever 
owl coruja f. 
own proprio 
owner proprietdrio m. 
ox boi tn. 


pagan pagao in., paga f. 

pain pena, dor, trabalho; on 

of death sob pena de vida (or 

de morte) 

painful penoso, doloroso 
paint pintar 
painter pintor m. 
painting pintura f. 
palace paldcio m.; (king's ) 

pago m. 
pale pdlido 
paper papel m. 

pardon v. perdoar; s. perddo m. 
parents paes m. pi.-, parentesm. 

part parle f.; to take in 

partilhar em 

party partido m., partida f. 
pass v. passar- s. passdgem f., 

passo MI., passaporte m. 
passage passagem f., trajecto m. 
patient s. doente m.; adj. paciente 
pay v. pagar; s. paga f., paga- 

mento m. 
peace paz f. 
peach pessego m. 
pear pera f. 

peasant lavrador, aldeao m. 
pebble seixo m. 
peculiar particular 
pen penna f. ; -holder caneta f. 
pencil lapis m. 
penknife canivete m. 
people povo m., gente f. 
perceive perceber 
perfectly perfeitamente 
perform fazer, cumprir 
perish perecer 

permit permi(t)tir 

persecute perseguir 

person pessoa f. 

persuade persuadir 

philosophy filosofia f. 

picture quadro m. 

piece pega f., bocado m. 

pierce furar, atravessar 

pig porco m. 

pill pilula f. 

pin alfinete m. 

pity piedade f.; it is a ^ uma 

place logar, assento; v. colo- 


plain plant 'tie f.', adj. piano 
plan projecto m., piano m. 
plank prancha /'. 
plant planta f. 
plate prato m. 
play 6'. jogo m., comedia f. ; v. 

jogar, brincar 
plaything brinquedo m. 
please agradar a; if you please 

se fas favor 
pleasing agraddvel 

pleasure prazer m.; to take 

in comprazer- se 
plum ameixa f. 
pocket algibeira f., bolso m.- f 

handcherchief len$o m. ; 
book carteira f. 

poet poeta m. 

poison veneno m., envenenar 

polite cortes 

politeness cortesia f. 

poor pobre 

pope papa m. 

poplar alamo m., choupo m. 

populous povoado 

portion parte f., porgao f. 

position posifao f., situagao f. 

post-office correio m. 

pound arrdtel m.; libra f. 

powerful poderoso 

praise v. louvar, enaltecer: s* 

louvor in. 
pray resar, orar 
prayer resa f., oragao f. 
precious precioso 
precision precisao f. 
prefer preferir 


English-Portuguese Vocabulary. 

prescribe prescrever 

presence presenga f. 

present adj. presenter s. jyre- 
sente, regalo m. 

preserve preservar, confeitar 

pretence pretexto m. 

pretend pretender, ftngir 

pretty adj. bonito; adv. bem, 

prevent impedir 

prey preset f. 

pride orgulho m. 

principle principio m. 

print imprimir 

printing, act of imprensa f. 

prison cadeia /., prisao f. 

prodigious prodigioso 

produce produzir 

project projecto 

promise s. iwomessa ; v. pro- 

proof prova f. 

proper proprio, conveniente 

property propriedade f. 

proposal proposigao f. 

propose propor 

prove provar 

province provincial f. 

punctuality pontualidade f. 

punish castigar 

punishment castigo m. 

pupil alumno, a; discipulo, a 

purchase s. compra; v. com- 

purpose fim m., designio m.; 
on de proposito 

purse bolsa f. 

pursue perseguir 

put meter. 

quarrel contenda, altercacao f. 

queen rairiha f. 

question s. pregunta f., questao 

f. ; preguntar 
quiet quieto, tranquillo 
quite todo, inteiramente. 


railroad caminho m. de ferro 
Tain chuva f. 

rainy chuvoso 

raise levantar, elevar 

rally mote jar 

rather antes, bastante 

ray raio m. 

reach atingir, chegar a. 

read ler; to again tornar a 


ready pronto 
reason razao f. 
rebuild reconstruir 
recall (re)lembrar 
receive receber, acolher 
recognise reconhecer 
recollect lembrar-se 
recompense recompense* f. 
reconnoitre reconhecer 
recover restabelecer 
red vermelho 
reduce reduzir 
reed ca(n)na f. 
reflect reftectir 

refuge, to take refugiar-se 
refuse recusar 
regular regular 
reign reinar 
rejoice regosijar 
relate contar, referir 
relieve socorrer 
rely fiar-se,- contar em 
remain ficar 
remedy remedio m. 
remember lembrar-se; me to 

him diga-lhe muitas lembrangas 

rend rasgar 
render devolver 
renounce renunciar a 
repair concertar, reparar 
repeat repetir 
repent arrepender-se 
reply responder, replicar 
report avisar, informar, referir', 

s. relatdrio m. 
repose descansar, repousar 
reproach censurar, t 
repulse repulsar 
require reqwrir, exigir 
resemble assemelhar, parecer-se 


reside residir, morar 
resolve resolver, decidir 

English-Portuguese Vocabulary. 


rest descansar, ficar 

restless desassocegado 

restrain restringir 

return voltar, tornar, restituir 

reveal revelar 

revenge vinganga f. 

reward recompensa f. 

ribbon fita f. 

rice arros m. 

rich rico 

riches riqueza f., bens m. pi. 

ridiculous ridiculo 

right justo, direito ; hand 

direita f.', you are tern 

ring annel i., argola /".; v. 

(the bell) tocar 
ripen madurecer 
rise levantar-se 
risk risco, perigo m. 
river rio in. 
road estrada, f. 
rob roubar 
robber ladrao m. 
roof telhado m. 
room espago m., aposento, quarto 


rose ro&a f. 
rotten podre, putrido 
round redondo 
ruin ruina f. 
rule regra f. 
run correr; away fugir', to 

acorrer; over percorrer; 
- a ground frustrar-se. 

sad triste 
safe salvo 



sail v. ir a vela-, s. vela f. 

salad salada f., alface m. 

sale venda f. 

salt sel m. 

same mesmo 

satisfy satisfazer 

Saturday sd(b)bado m. 

savage selvagem 

save salvar 

say dizer 

scarce apenas 

Portuguese Conversation-Grammar. 

scholar alu(m)no m. 

school escola f., aula f. 

scold ralhar 

seal v. selar; s. selo m. 

season estagao f. 

seaman marinlieiro m. 

seat logar m., assento m. 

secret segredo m. 

seduce seduzir 

see ver 

seek procurar 

seem parecer 

seize apanhar 

seldom raramente 

sell vender 

send mandar, enviar; away 

mandar embora, despedir; 

for mandar, buscar 
sense sentido m. 
September setembro (in dates 

S -) m. 

servant criado, a 
serve servir 
set oif, out partir 
settle arranjar 
sew coser 

shade, shadow sombra f. 
shame vergonha f. 
share partilhar em 
shed (blood) derramar 
sheep ovelha f., carneiro m. 
sheet /bZfta /". (of a bed) ; len^o 


shine brilhar, luzir 
ship wavio i., naw f. y vapor m. 
shirt camisa f. 
shoe sapato m. 
shoemaker sapateiro m. 
shop Zoja f. 

shore margem f., praia f. 
short breve, curto 
show mostrar, manifestar 
shrub arbusto m. 
shun evitar, fugir de 
shut fechar; in encerrar 
sick doente 
side Zado m. 
sight visto /". 
silence silencio m. 
silk secZa /". 
silly ^tarvo 
silver prata f. 



English-Portuguese Vocabulary. 

simple simples 
since desde (que) 
sincere sincere 
sing cantar 

sister irma; in-law cunliada 

sit (down) sentar-se 
skate patinar 
skin pe(l)le f. 
slander dizer mdl de 
slaughter matatifa f. 
sleep v. dormir', s. somno m. 
slide, slip escorregar 
small pequeno 
smile sorrir; s. sorriso m. 
smoke fumo m.', v. fumar 
snow neve f. ; flakes frocos de 

neve', v. nevar 
so assim, tao; that tanto que; 

many tantos 

soap sabao m., sabonete m. 

sober sobrio 

soft mo(l)le, tneigo 

soil solo m., cliao m. ; v. sujar 

soldier soldado m. 

solve (dis)solver 

something alguma coisa, algo 


song canto m. 
soon breve, logo, cedo 
sorrow desgosto m., mdgoa f. 
sorry triste; I am sinto, teriha 


soul alma f. 
sound sao, rijo; s. som 
source fonte f. 
south sul m. 
speak falar 
spell soletrar 
spite, in of apesar de 
spoil estragar 
spoon colher f. 
sport esporte m. 
spot logar 
spread espalhar 
spring s. primavera f., mola f.', 

v. saltar 
spy espia f. 
stagger cambalar 

stain mancha, nodoa f.; v. 

staircase escada(ria) f. 

stake poste m., estaca f.: to be 

at estar arriscado 
star estretla f. 
state estado m., condifao 
stay ficar 
step passo m. 
stick pdu m., bengala f. 
still ainda 
sting morder 
stir mover, mexer(-se) 
stocking meia f. 
stone pedra f. 
stop parar 
storm tetnpestade f. 
strange estranho, estranjeiro 
strawberry morango m. 
street rua f., caminho m. 
strength forgo, f. 
strike bater, ferir; (clock) dar 


strong forte 

study estudar; s. gabinete 
stuff estofo m., materia f. 
subdue subjugar, amansar 
subject sujeito m., assumpto m~ 
submit submeter 
subtract subtrair 
succeed su(c)ceder, lograr 
success su(c)cesso m. 
successful bem su(c)cedido, feliz 
such tal 
suffer sofrer 
suffice bastar 
sufficient suficiente 
sufficiently bastante 
sugar assucar m. 


thunder trovdo m. 

Thursday quinta-feira f. 

thus assim 

tiger tig re m. 

till ate' (a) 

time tempo m., vez f. 

timid timido 

tired cansado 

to a, para; to-day lioje; to- 
morrow dntanha 

too, much demais, demasiado r 

tooth dente m. 

English-Portuguese Vocabulary. 


top cimo m. 

towards para (com) 

towel toalha f. 

tower torre f. 

town ctdade f. 

tradesman negociante 

tragedy tragedia f. 

transgress infringir 

translate traduzir, verier 

translation tradu(c)Qao f., versaof. 

travel viajar 

traveller viajante m. 

treasure tesouro m. 

treat tratar; ill maltratar 

treatment tratamento m, 

treaty tratado m. 

tree drvore f. 

tremble tremer 

trouble inquietar, desassocegar, 

true verdadeiro ', it is e ver- 


trust confiar em, descansar em 
truth verdade f. 
try experimentar, procurar 
Tuesday ter^a-feira f. 
Turkish turco 
turn volta f. 
tutor preceptor, tutor m. 
tyrant tyra(n)no tn. 


ugly feio 

umbrella parasol m., guarda- 
chuva m. 

unawares inesperadamente 

uncle tio m. 

understand compre(h}ender, en- 

undertake empre(h)ender 

undo desfazer 

unfortunate desgragado 

ungrateful ingrato 

unhappy infeliz 

unheard of inaudito 

unknown desconhecido 

unless a nao ser que 

unsettled incerto 

upon em, sobre f em cima de 

uprightness rectiddo f. 

use uso m., hdbito m.', v. 

useful util 

usually de or dinar io 

utter (cries) dar (grltos). 


vainly debalde 

valley val(le) m. 

valour valor m., valentia f. 

variety variedade f. 

various vdrio 

vast vasto 

velvet veludo m. 

very muito, bem. 

vessel vaso m., navio m. 

vice vicio m. 

victory victoria f. 

village aldeia f., vila f. 

vinegar vinagre m. 

violet violeta f. 

virtue virtude f. 

virtuous virtuoso 

visit s. visita f.\ v. visitar, 

voice voz f. 

volume volume, tomo m. 
vow voto m.; v. votar 
voyage vidgem f. 


wait esperar 

walk passear', s. passeio m. 

wall muro m. 

walnut noz f. 

want falta; v. precisar; to 

be ed foliar 
war guerra f. 
warm quente 
watch relogio m.; v. velar, 

water dgua f. 
way caminho m. 
weak fraco 

wear trazer, trajar, vestir 
weariness cansago, aborrecimento 

weather tempo m. 
Wednesday quarto-feira f. 
week semana f. 



English-Portuguese Vocabulary. 

weep cliorar 
weigh pesar 
well bem; to be estar bem 

or bom 

wheat trigo m. 
when quando 
where onde 
whip chicote m. 
white franco 
whole inteiro, todo 
why porqiie? 
wicked ruim 
wide largo 

widow viuva f.'> er viuvo m. 
wife esposa f., mulher f. 
wild selvdgem 

willing prompto ; to be querer 
willingly gostosamente 
win ganhar 
wind vento m. 

wind up (a watch) dar corda a 
window janela f. 
wine vinho m. 
wing asa f. 
winter inverno f. 
wipe esfregar 
wisdom sabedoria f. 
wise sdbio, erudito, prudente 
wish desejar 
without sem 
witness testemunha f. 
woman mulher f. 
wonderful admirdvel, maravi- 

wood bosque, madeira f., pan m. 

wool la f. 

word palavra f.', to keep one's 
cumprir com a sua pala- 

work obra f., trabalhom.; v> 

workman operdrio m. 

world mundo m. 

worm verme m. 

worse peor, pior 

worth digno', to be voter 

wound ferida f.; v. ferir 

wretched desgra$ado, miserdvel 

write escrever 

writing letra f. 

wrong injustiga; to be nao 
ter razao. 


year anno m. 

yellow amarel(l)o 

yesterday (h}ontem 

yet ainda 

yield ceder 

yoke jugo m. 

young now, mo$o 

youth juventude, mocidade f. 


zeal zelo m. 

zealous zeloso 

zero zero m. 

zounds! porDeus! com a breca! 



Portuguese-English Vocabulary. 

Abaixo fv'fiajfu] down; under 
obolar [ubu'lar] to shake 
abandonar [vbvndu'nar] to 


ab(b)ade [v'bafo] m. abbot 
dbelha [v'bvfo] f. bee 
abengoar [aftensu'ar] to bless 
aberto [v'bertu] open 
abolir [abu'lir] to abolish 
abwrrecer [uburrd 'serj to abhor, 


dbragar [vfirv ' sar] to embrace 
abreviar [vfirdVi 'arjto abbreviate 
obrigar [vbri'gar] to shelter 
abrigo [v'brigu] m. shelter 
abril [u'brit] m. April 
atoir [v'ftrir] to open 
dbuso [v'ftuzu] in. abuse 
acabar [ulw'bar] to finish 
acaso [v"kazu] m. chance 
ocautelado [vlcautd 'ladu] cau- 
acautelar-se fekautd'larsz] to 


acgdo [a'syuj f. action 
a(c)cento [v'sentuj m. accent 
a(c)ceso [u'sezu] lighted 
a(c)crescentar [vkrdfsen 'tar] aug- 

ment, increase 
a(c)cusar [vku'zar] accuse 
aceitar [vsvi'tar] to accept 
acender ft sender] to light, 


acertar [usdr'tar] to hit 
achar ft' far] to find 
acido ['asj'd'itj acid, sour 

acima [v'simv] over 
adarar [vTdv'rar] to clear 
ago f'asu] steel m. 

acolher vu'er receve 
acompanhar [vkompv'jiar] ac- 


aconselhar /#fco.s 'liar] to advise 
acontecer [vkontd'ser] to happen 
acordar [vkur'dar] to awake 
acostumar [vkuftu'mar] to ac- 


acre f'aJcrd] =, sour 
acreditar [vkreffi'tar] to believe 
activo [a'tivu] active 
acto ['atu] m. act, action 
actor [a' tor] m. = 
actriz [a'trif] f. actress 
actual [a'tual] = 
addigao [v&i'suu] f. addition 
adiante [u&i'vntz] before, for- 


adiar [vfri'ar] to adjourn 
adivinhar [vfovi'jiar] to guess 
adoecer [u&ui'ser] to fall ill 
adormecer [v&urmd'ser] to fall/ 

or lull asleep 

advertir [vjfowr'tfaj to advise 
afadigar [vfedi'gar] to fatigue, 


afamado [vfe'ma&u] famous 
afastar [ufuf'tar] to remove 
afazeres [ufu' zerif ] m. pi. busi- 


a(f)fecto [v'fetu] m. affect 
a(f)fei$ao [vfwt''svu] f. affection 
a(f)firmar [u fir 'mar] to affirm 
a(f)flicto [u'flitu] afflicted 
a(f)fligir fofli'ffir] to afflict 


Portuguese-English Vocabulary. 

af(f)luente [vftu'entej m. affluent 
agarrar [vgu'rrar] to seize 
agasalho [ugie 'zafiu] m. lodging, 


agradecer [vgrefo'serj to thank 
agradecido fvgrvdd' sidu] thank- 

agradecimento [vgrvddsi 'mentuj 

m. thanks 

agrado [v'graffu] m. liking 
dgua ['agwvj f. water 
aguardar [vgwvr'darj to await 
agudo [v'gu&uj sharp, pointed 
aguia ['acftv] f. eagle 
agulha [v'gufo] f. needle 
ahi [v'i] there 
ainda [u'indvj still 
ajoelhar [ugui'fiar] to kneel 
ajuda [e'guffv] f. help 
ajudar [vgu'&ar] to help 
alargar [vlvr'gar] to enlargen 
olcanfor [alk^'sar] to reach, 


amar [v'marj to love 
amarelo em^'rclu yellow 

aldedo [ahfy'vu] m. peasant 
aldeia [al'dew] village. 
dlegre [u'lcgrd] gay 
alegria [viz gritf] f. gaiety, joy 
alem [a'lvt] beyond 
alfaiate [cAfui 'ate] m. tailor 
alfandega[c&'f*nd9gB] f. custom- 


alfinete [alfi' netd] m. pin 
algibeira [algiftietra] f. pocket 
dlgoddo [algu'&vu] m* cotton 
alguem [at'gvij somebody 
algum [al'citt] some 
alimento f sit' mentuj m. nourish- 

Al(l)emanha [vld'majri'e] f. Ger- 


al(l)emdo [vlz'mvu] m. German 
al(l)i [v'li] there 
alma ['almu] f. soul 
dlmogar [almu'sar] to break- 


ctlmogo [ai'mosu] m. breakfast 
alto f'attuj high, tall 
altura [al'tumj f. height 
alugar [vlu'gar] to hire, let 
olumno [v'lunu] pupil, student 
alvo ['atvuj m. white, aim 
amanha amv'jiv] to-morrow 

amargo [v'margu] bitter 
amdvel [v'mavsi] amiable 
ambtQdo [vmbi'svu] f. ambi- 

ambicioso [vmbist'ozu] ambi- 


anibos ['vmbuf] both 
ameaga [umi'asv] f. threat, 


ameagar /vmiv'sar] to threaten 
amendoa [v'menduv] f. almond 
americano [vmeri'lwnu] Ameri- 


amigdvel [vmi'gavst] amicably 
amigo [v'miguj m. friend 
amiudo [vmi'u&u] often 
amizade [vmi'zafo] f. friend- 


amo ['emu] m. master 
amor [v'mor] love 
amostra [v'mostrv] f. pattern, 


ancido [usy'vu] m. old man 
dncora ['vkuraj f. anchor 
andar [vn'darj to go, walk 
andorinha [vndu'riyiv] f. swallow 
dngulo ['ugulu] m. angle, corner 
angustia [u'guftw] f. anguish, 


anho ['vyiu] m. lamb 
animal [vni'mai] m. = 
dnimo I'vnimu] m. valour, cou- 


anjo ['uju] m. angel 
a(n)nel ffnsij m. ring 
a(n)nexo [v'neksu] annexed 
a(n)niversdrio [vnivar'saiyu] m. 


a(n)nual [v'nual] annual, yearly 
a(n)nunciar [vnus* f ar] announce 
a(n)nuncio [u'nusiu] advertise- 

anoitecer [vnoUd'serJ to grow 

night, darken 

antever [vnte'verj to foresee 
antigo [vn'tigu] ancient 
antiguidade [untigi' ffafo] anti- 

apagar [vpv'gar] to extinguish, 


Portuguese-English Vocabulary. 


apanliar [epv'nar] to grasp, 

catch, pick 

apartar [vpur'tiir] to separate 
apear, apiar [vpt'ar] to alight 
apenas [u' penis f] scarcely 
aperfeigoar [vpwfvisu'ar] to ac- 
apertar [vpzr'tar] to bind, tie, 

press, squeeze 

aperto [e 'pertuj m. crowd, throng 
apoderar-se [vpufo'rarsej to 

seize, to take possession 
apontar [vpon'tarj to point, 

aim at 

-aposento [vpu'zentu] m. room 
aposta [v'poftv] f. wager, bet 
apostolo [u'poftulu] m. apostle 
a(p)parecer [vpvra'ser] appear 
a(p)parelho [vpv'rvfiu] m. ap- 

a(p)pelido [epd'li&u] m. surname 
a(p)plauso[v 'plauzujm. applause 
<t(p)plicagao [vpliku 'svujf. appli- 

a,(p)plicado [vpU'lca&uJ diligent 
a(p)proximar [vprosi'mar] to ap- 

apreqo /~&'presuj m. estimation 
uprender [vpren'der] to learn 
aprendiz [vpren'diif] m. ap- 

apresentar [vprdzen'tar] to pre- 
sent, introduce 
apressado [vpre'saffu] hasty 
aproveitar [epruvvi'tarj to profit 
dptidao [apti'&vuj f. aptness 
aqiiecer [vkz'ser] to warm, 


aquelle [v'kefo] that 
itqui [v'kij here 
<iquictar [vtyc'tar] to quiet 
aquillo [v'kihi] that 
ar [ar] m. air 

arbitrdrio [erbi 'trariuj arbitrary 
arbusto [ur'buftu] m. shrub 
arcebispo [vrsa'bifpu] m. arch- 

urco ['arkuj m. arch 
areia [v'ruiv] f. sand 
argola [vr'golu] f. ring 
arguir [vryii'ir] to argue 
aria ['arw] f. aria, air, song 

drido ['ari&u] dry 
arma ['armvj f. weapon 
armazem [urmu'zui] m. ware- 
house, magazine 
arranjar [vrru'jar] to arrange, 


arrdtel [a'rrat^J m. pound 
arredores [urra' forif] m. pi. en- 
arrefecer [urrdfs'cer] to cool, 

catch cold 

arroz [u'rrof] m. rice 
arte ['arid] f. art 
artigo [vr'tigu] m. article 
artilharia [vrtifa'ri'v] f. ar- 

artista [ur'tiftu] m. artist 
drvore ['arvurd] f. tree 
asa ['azvj f. wing, handle 
asno f'agnu] m. ass 
dspero ['afpdru] rough 
assado [v'sa&u] m. roast-meat 
assdltar [vsal'tar] to assault 
asseio [v'suiu] m. neatness 
assentar [vsen'tar] to seat, put 
assento [v'sentu] m. seat 
assignatura [vsinv 'tuns] f. signa- 
ture C-Jj^VS ^?V4 

assim [v si] so 

assistir [esif'tir] to assist 

assucar [v'sukar] m. sugar 

assunto [v'suntuj m. subject 

assustar fesuftarj to frighten 

astro ['aftruj m, star 

atirar [vti'rarj to throw, 


atraigoar [utraisu 'ar] to betray 
atrds [v'traf] behind, after 
atraso [v'trazu] m. delay 
atravessar [vtravd'sar] to cross 
atento [v'tentu] attentive 
au(g)mentp [au'mentu] m. aug- 

f mentation, increase 
Austria ['auftrivj f. = 
autor [au'tor] m. author 
dvido ['avi&u] covetous, greedy 
aviso [v'vizu] m. communication, 


avo [v'vo] m. grandfather 
avo [v'voj f. grandmother 
azedo [u'ze&u] sour 
azeitona [uzm'tonie] f. olive 


Portuguese-English Vocabulary. 


azul [u'zul] blue 
azulejo [vzu'lvgu] m. Dutch 
tile glazed. 


bacalliau [bvku'fiau] m. 


bacia [bu'si:v] f. basin 
baga ['bag.u] f. berry, drop (of 


bagdgem [bu r gag'e'i] f. luggage 
bago ['baguj m. grain of a 

bahia [bis 'in] f. bay; B 


bailar [bat'lar] to dance 
baile ['bafld] m. ball 
bainlia [bv'iyiv] f. sheath 
bairro ['ba'irruj m. quarter of 

a town /M UiXo, ^w-v^N 
baixa ['baffej decrease; leave, 

JB part of Lisbon 
baixor [bai'farj to sink, fall 
baixella [bai'fslu] f. furniture 

for the table, silver-plate 
baixio [bai'fiu] m. low water 
baixo [bai'fuj low 
bala f'balvj ball 
balan^a [bv'lvsa] f. balance, 


balango [bv'lusu] m. belance 
balcao [bal'kuuj m. balcony, 


baldado [bal'da&u] void 
balde f'baMdJ m. bucket 
baloi$ar [baloi'sar] to balance 
bancada [bu"ka&ie] f. pew, 


banco f'bvku] m. bank 
bandeira [bun'dwrv] f. flag, 


bandeja [Wri 'd'B ge] f. tray, tea- 

bando ['bvndu] m. band 
banho f'bvyiu] m. bath; s. pi. 


baptismo [ba'tigmu] m. bap- 

barato fbv'ratu] cheap 
barba ['barbv] f. beard ; chin 
barbear [bvrbi'arj to shave 

barca, barcaga ['barkv, bvr'kasvj 

f. bark, ferry-boat, lighter 
barco f'barlcuj m. bark, boat 
barra ['barrvj f. bar, mouth of 

a river; trimming 
barriga [bu'rriyv] f. belly; 

da perna calf of the leg 
barril [bu'rrilj m. cask 
barro f'barruj clay 
barulho [bv'rudu] m. noise 
bastante [bvf'tvnte] enough ; 


bastar [bef'tar] to be sufficient 
batalha [bu' tali's] f. battle 
batata [bv'tatv] f. potato 
bater [bu'ter] to beat 
beber [te'fter] to drink 
bebida [to'bi&u] f. drink, potion 
beieo ['bvi>su] m. lip 
beijar [biei gar] to kiss 
beijo [bvigu] m. kiss 
beira ['bv}rv] brink, shore; B 

Province of Portugal 
beiramar [bwkru'mar] f. sea- 

belqa ['btfgvj m. and f. Belgian 
Bttgica ['bd 3 ikis] f. Belgium 
beleza [bd'lezv] f. beauty 
bem [bv}J well 

bemfeitor [buifui'tor] m. bene- 

bemquisto [but'tyftu] well- 

bengao f'besuuj f. blessing 
benefico [bd'ncfi>ku] beneficial 
benevolo [bd'nsvuhi] benevolent 
bento ['bentuj consecrated 
benzer(-se) [be' zer(-sd)] to con- 
secrate, to make the sign of 
the cross 

berrar [bd'rrar] to scream 
besta ['beftv] m. beast, brute 
biblia f'biblw] f. Bible 
bicho ['bifuj m. worm 
bico f'bikuj m. beak, bill 
bife I'bifdJ m. beef 
bilha ['biiftv] f. earthen pot 
bilhete [bi'fietd] m. note, 


bispo ['bifpu] m. bishop 
boato ['buatii] m. rumour 
boca I'bokv] f. mouth 

Portuguese-English Vocabulary. 


bocado [bu'kafru] m. mouthful, 


boi [boj>] m. ox 
boia ['bow] f. buoy 
tola I'tolvJ f. ball 
bolo ['bolu] m. cake, biscuit 
bolor [bu'lor] m. mould 
bolsa ['bolsTs] f. purse 
bolso ['bolsuj m. pocket 
bom, boa [bo, bov] good 
bondade [bon'da&d] f. goodness 
bonito [bu'nitu] nice 
borboleta [burbu'letv] f. butterfly 
bordo f'borduj m. board 
borraclia [bu'rrafv] f. leather 


bota ['totej f. boot 
botao [bu'tuu] m. button 
botar jbu'tar] to cast, throw 
bote ['botd]^ m. boat 
botica [bu'tikv] f. apothecary's 


braco ['brasu] m. arm 
bradar [bru'&ar] to shout 
bramar [brv'marj to roar 
branco f'brvkuj white 
branquear [brvty' ar] to whiten, 


brasao [brv'zvu] arms 
brasileiro [bruzi'lviru] Brazilian 
bravo f'bravuj brave, wild 
breve ['brevd] brief 
brilliar [bri'ftar] to shine, excel 
brincar [brl'kar] to play 
brda I'brov] f. bread of millet 
bronze [brozd] m. brass 
burgues [bur'gef] m. citizen 
burro ['burru] m. ass 
buscar [buf'karj to fetch 
buxo ['bufuj m. box-tree 


cabega [kv'besv] f. head 
cabe(l)lo [ku'behi] m. hair 
caber [liu'ber] to find room (in) 
cabo ['JcafiuJ m. end, handle 
cobra, f'kabrvj f. goat 
cabrito [kv'brituj m. kid 
ca$a ['kasvj f. chase 
cacho ['kafuj m. grape 
caco ['JcalcuJ m. potsherd 

cad a ['kv&vj every, any 
cadeia [Icu'&vieJ f. chain 
cadeira [ka'dwirv] f. chair 
caderno [kv'ftsrnu] m. copy- 

caes fka}fj m. quay 
cafe [Ine'fs] m. coffee-house 
ca(h)lv [kv'ir] to fall 
caixa ['Iwifu] f. box 
caixao [Jcai'fvu] m. coffin 
calar llcv'lar] to keep secret 
calgada [kai'sa&v] f. pavement 
calgado [kal'ssL&a] f. shoes and 

collar [kal'sar] to put on 


calculo ['kalkulu] m. calculation 
caldeira [kal'duirv] f. kettle 
cdldo ['kalduj m. broth 
calice, calis f'kalifj m. chalice 
callo ['kaluj corn, hard skin 
calmo fkalmu] calm 
color [ke'lorj m. heat 
cama [ r kEmvJ f. bed 
camara f'kvmvrv] f. chamber 
camarote [kumv'rotd] m. cabin, 


cdmbio ['kiimbiu] m. exchange; 
letra de bill of exchange 
cambista [kvm'btftv] m. money- 

caminho [kv'mijiuj m. way 
camisa [ka'mizv] f. shirt 
campainha [kumpv'iyiv] f. bell 
campo ['k^mpuj m. field ; no 

in the country 

caneca [kv'mkv] f. mug, can 
canel(l)a [kv'nelv] f. cinnamon 
canliao [kv'yivu] m. cannon 
canna f'kunvj f. cane, reed; de 

asuccar sugar-cane 
cano ['k isnu] m. pipe, tube 
canon ['kunon] m. cannon 
cansago [kv'sasu] m. weariness 
cansar [M 'sarj to tire 
cantar [kvn'tarj to sing 
canto I'kvntuJ m. song 
cao [kvuj m. dog 
capa ['kapvj f. cloak, cover 
capaz [kv'paf] capable 
capel(l)a [kv'psle] f. chapel 
capital [Icvpt'tal] = 


Portuguese-English Vocabulary. 

capitcio [kvpi'tuu] m. captain 
vapitulo [ku'pitulu] m. chapter 
ca(p)tivo [kv'tivu] m. captive 
cara ['karvj f. face 
caracol [kvru'kol] m. snail; 


cardcter [kis' rater] m. character 
earda ['ktirdaj card ing-comb 
cardeal [kurdi'al] m. cardinal 
cardo ['karduj m. thistle 
cargo, f'kargvj f. load, burden 
cargo ['kargu] m. charge 
caridade [kvri'ffafo] f, charity 
carne ['karndj f. meat 
carneiro [kvr'nviru] m. mutton, 


caro ['karuj dear 
carril [kv 'rritj m. track ; pi. 

earns rail 

carro ['karruj m. car, carriage 
carrudgem [kvrru 'a $vi] f. car- 

carta f'kartv] f. letter 
carteira [kvr'tvirv] f. pocket- 

carteiro [kvr'teiru] m. postman 
carvalho [kvr'vafiu] m. oak 
mrvao [Twr'vuu] m. coal 
casa ['kazu] f. house 
casacao [kuzu'kuu] m. great- 

casamento [kvzu 'mentuj m. wedd- 

casar [ke'zar] marry 
casca ['kafkvj f. bark, rind 
cascata [kvf'katis] f. cascade 
caso f'kazuj m. case, accident 
caste(l)lo [kvftsluj castle 
castigar [kuf'tigar] to punish 
cosulo [Ita'zulu] m. hull, husk 
cauda ['kauffe] f. tail, train 
causa ['kausaj f. cause, plea 
cautela [kau'tslvj caution, 


cavalariQa [kuvulie'risv] f. stable 
cavallo [kv'valu] m. horse 
cear [st'ar] to sup 
cebola [sd'bolv] f. onion, bulb 
cedo f'sed'uj soon 
cego ['seguj blind 
ceifar [svi'far] to harvest, cut 

celebrar [sdld 'frrar] to celebrate 
celebre ['ssldfird] famous 
cem [sui] a hundred 
censura [se'surv] f. censure 
centra ['sentruj m. centre 
cera [' seru] f. wax 
cerco ['serkuj f. circle, circuit 
cerebro [' ssrdftru] m. brain, 


cereja [sd'nsgv] f. cherry 
cerejeira [sdW ' suiru] f. cherry- 
cerrar fsd'rrarj to shut, close 


certeza [sdr'tezv] f. certainty 
certidao [sdrti'&iiu] m. certifi- 

certo ['ssrtuj sure, certain 
cessar [sd'sar] to cease 
'ceu [ssu] m. heaven, sky 
chdcara ['fakvrv] f. Bras, farm, 

chaga [ fag.u] f. wound 
chamar ['f'emar] to call ? '] 
chamma ['feme] f. flame, blaze 
chao [feu] m. ground, soil, 


charuto [fu'rutu] cigar 
chato ['fatu] flat 
chave ['favdj f. key 
chegar [fi'garj to arrive 
cheio ['fvlu] full 
cheirar [fui'rar] to smell 
chicara ['fikvrv] f. cup 
chim, chines [fl, fi'nef] m. 


chita ['fitu] f. printed calico 
chorar ffu'rar] to cry, weep 
chourigo [fo'risu] m. sausage 
chover [fu'ver] to rain 
christao [krif'tuu] (m.) Christian 
chronista [kru'niftv] m. chro- 

chumbo f'fumbuj m. lead 
chuvoso [fu'vozu] rainy 
cicatriz[sikis 'trifjf. cicatrice, scar 
cidade [s/i r ff&fo] f. town 
cigarro [s}'garruj m. cigar 
cima ['sirwe] f. top; em on, 


cinco ['siku] five 
cincoenta [si'kwentv] fifty 

Portuguese-English Vocabulary. 


circo ['sirku] m. circus 
circular [sfrku'l&r] to circulate 
circulo f'sirkuluj m. circle 
civil [sj'vil] civil, polite 
clarear, clarificar [klun'ar, 

Klvrtfi'kar] to grow light, to 


claro ["klaru] clear 
classe ['klusdj f. class, species 
clima f'klimvj m. climate 
cobarde [ku'bardd] (m.} coward 
coberta [ku'bertv] f. cover 
cobertor [kubdr'tor] m. blanket, 

cobertura [kubdr'tuns] f. cover- 


cobre f'kobrz] m. copper 
cobrir [ku'brirj to cover 
coclie ['kofij m. coach 
coelho ['kins' fiu] m. rabbit 
colher [ku'fier] to gather, pluck 
collegia! [kuligi' at] collegiate 
collo f'koluj m. neck, lap 
collocar fkulukar] to put 
colonia [ku'lpnfr] f. colony 
colza ['kotzv] f. barley 
combater [kombv 'terj to combat 
combinagao [kdmbinv'sau] f. 


comboio [kom'boiu] m. train 
combusttvel [kdmbuf'tivst] (m.) 


comegar fkumd'sarj to begin 
comedia [ku'ws&w] f. comedy 
comer [ku'merj to eat 
co(m)memorar [kumdmu'rarj to 


commercial [kumdrsi'al] = 
co(m)merciante[kum9rsi 'vntz] m. 

co(m)mercio [ku'mer&iu] m. com- 


com(m)etter [kums 'terj to commit 
co(in)migo [ku'miyu] with me 
co(m)misao [kumi'svuj f. com- 

co(m)moda ["komu'du] f. cheat of 


comnosco [ko'nofku] with us 
como ['komuj how 
companlieiro [kompv 'jwiru] m. 

comparagdo [Wmpuris 'smi] f. 

comparecer [kdmpvrz'ser] to 

compartimento [kompvrti 'men- 

tu] m. division, compartment 
compasso [Wm'pasu] m. com- 

co(m)mover ['kumuverj to move 
co(m)municagdo [kumunikv 'sun] 
f. communication 

compatriota [kompv 'triotvj m. 
and f. country-man (-woman) 

compendia [kom'pendiu] m. com- 

completar [kompld'tar] to com* 

complicar [kdmpfa'kar] to com- 

composto [kom'poftu] compound 

eomprar [kom'prarj to buy 

compre(he)nder [komprien'der] 
to comprehend 

comprido [kom'prid'u] long 

eoncelho [ko'suftu] m. council; 

concertar [kdsar'tarj to mend, 

concha ['kofe] f. shell 

concorrer [koku'rrer] to concur 

concorrencia [koku'rresivj f. 

concurso fko'kursuj m. con- 
course, crowd 

conde(m)nar [kondd'nar] to con- 

condiQao [kondi'suu] f. condition 

condisclpulo [kondtf'sipulu] m. 

conducta [kon'dutv] f. conduct 

confessar [kofe'sarj to confess 

confianga [kdfi'usu] f. con- 

confer me [ko'formd] like, con- 

confuso [kd'fuzu] mixed, con- 

congratular [kogrvtu'lar] to con- 

conhecimento [koyidsi'mentu] m. 


Portuguese-English Vocabulary. 

conquista [ko'kiftv] f. conquest 
consciencia [kofst'esiv] f. con- 

conseguir [kosd'girj to reach 
conselho [ko'suftu] m. advice 
consentir [kosen'tirj to consent 
consider agao [kosiforv 'suu] f. 


consider ar [kdsifo'rar] to con- 

consistir fkds'is'tirj to consist 
consoante [kosu'untd] f. con- 

consocio [ko'sostuj m. com- 
panion, associate 
console [ko'solu] m. consolation 
constante [kof'tvntd] steady 
constar [kof'tar] to appear, to 

be said 
constipado [kofti' 'paffuj ', estar 

to have a cold 
constituicao [koftitui'svu] f. 


construcQao [koftru'suu] f. con- 

consulta [ko' suite] f. consulta- 

conta ["konte] f. account, bill 
contagioso [kontis^ r ozu] con- 

contar [kon'tar] to count, reckon 
contente [kon'tenty] content 
conter [kon'ter] to contain 
conteude [kont'i'ud'u] m. contents 
continuar [kontinu arj to con- 
conto ['kontuj m. tale, story; 

de reis = 1000 milreis 
contra ['kdntre] against 
convento [kd'ventu] m. convent 
conversa, conversagao [ko'versv, 

kovdrsv' svu] f. conversation 
convicqao [kovik'svu] f. con- 

convidar [kovi'&ar] to invite 
copia ['kopia] f. copy 
cor [kor] f. colour 
cor [kor], de by heart 
coraQao [kurv'svu] m. heart 
coroa [ku'rou, 'krou] f. crown 
cor oar [ku'ruar] to crown 
corpo f'korpuj m. body 

correio [ku'rryiu] m. post, 
courier ; - - geral chief post 
corrente [ku'rrentd] f. current, 


correr [ku'rrer] to run, flow 
correspondent [kurnfpon'de- 

ir [kurrd jir/^to correct, 
to mend 

cortar [kur'tar] to cut 
corte f'koridj m. edge, cat 
cdrte ['korti/ f. court 
cortejo [kur'tie^u] in. train, at- 

cortes [kur'tef] polite 
cortesia [kurtd' zi;u] f. courtesy, 


cortiga [kur'tisv] f. rind, bark 
cortic.o [kur'tisu] m. bee-hive 
cortir [kur'tir] to tan 
corvo f'korvu] m. raven 
coser [ku'zer] to sew, coast 


costa ['koftu] f. coast, shore 
costumar [kuftu'mar] to be ac- 

costura [kuf'turv] f. sewing 
costureira [kuftu' rvyrv] /* seam- 

couro f'koruj m. leather 
couve ['kov^J f. cabbage 
cova ['kove] f. hole, grave 
coxa ['kofv] f. thigh 
cozer [ku'zer] to cook, boil, 


cozido [ku'zi&u] in. boiled meat 
cozinha [ku'zinu] f. kitchen 
crdneo f'krvniuj m. skull 
cravo ['kravu] m. pink, clove 
creagao [kriu'suu] f. creation 
creador [kriu'ffor] m. creator 
crear [kri'ar] to create 
creatura [kriv 'turn] f. creature 
credit o ['krsfritu] m. credit, re- 

crenga ['kresv] f. faith / 

crer [krerj to believe 
crescer [krdf'ser] to grow 
criado, -a [kri'adu, kri'a&v] s. 

crianga [krt'vs'e] f. child 

Portuguese-English Vocabulary. 


criar [kri'ar] to breed, produce, 


crime ['krintdj m. = 
criminoso [krdmi'nozu] criminal 
cru [kru] raw 
cruel [kru el] = 
cruz [kru:f] f. cross 
cuidado [kui'd'adu] m. care 
cujo ['kuguj whose 
culpa ['kulpvj f. fault 
cultivar [kulti'var] cultivate 
cumplice ['kumplisdj m. accom- 

cumulo ['kumulu] m. heap 
eunhcido, (-a) [ku'jia&u] s. 

bro ther-(sister)-i n- law 
cunho f'kujiu] m. stamp, coin 
euro, ['kurvj s. cure, curate 
curativo Ikurv'tivuJ curing 
curioso [kun'osu] curious 
curral [ku'rrcd] m. sheep-fold, 


curso ['kursu] m. course, race 
curio ['kurtuj short 
cuspir [kuf'pir] to spit 
custa ['kuftv] f. cost, expense, 


custo ["kuftu] m. cost, diffi- 

cutelo [ku'tslu] m. knife 
cutilada [kutt'la&u] f. cut, wound 
czar [kd'zar] m. = 


dddiva ['dadivv] f. gift 
dado [ dsi&uj die 
dama ['dvmv] f. dame, lady 
damasco [du 'majku] m. damask ; 


da(m)no [denu] m. damage 
dansa ['dvsvj f. dance 
dar [darj to give J & 7 
data f'datv] f. date 
deboixo [dd'ftaifu] under 
debalde [da'ftaido] in vain 
debil ['debit] weak 
debito ['de&'tuj m. debt 
decencia [dd 'sesiu] f. decency 
decidir [ddsd r &ir] to decide 
decifrar [ddsi'frar] to decipher 

decima ['desimv] f. tenth 
declaragao [ddklvru'suu] f. de- 

declinar [ddkli'nar] to decline 
declive [dd'klivd] m. steep 
decoro [dd'koruj m. decorum 
decorrer [ddku'rrer] to elapse 
decreto [da'krstu] m. decree 
decuplo ['dfkupluj tenfold 
dedal [dd'&al] m. thimble 
dedicar [de&i'k&r] to dedicate 
dedo ['deffu] m. finger 
defeito [dd'faitu] m. defect 
defender [ddfen'derj to defend 
deferir [ddfd'rir] to defer 
defesa [dd fezaj f. defence 
defeso [dd fezuj m. forbidden 
definitive [ddfdnd'twu] definitive 
defronte [fo fronto] opposite 
defunto [dd'funtu] defunct 
degredo [da'] m. exile 
deitar [dvi'tar] to lay down, 


deixar [dui'far] to let, leave 
deleitar [ddfa} 'tarj to delight 
delgado [dd'gafru] thin 
deliberar [ddlibd'rar] to de- 

delicado [ddli'ka&u] delicate 
demaisj demasiado [dd'maifj dz- 

mvzi'ad'u] too (much) 
demente [dd'mentd] foolish, mad 
demi(t)tir [ddmd'tir] dismiss 
democrata [ddmu'kratv] m. demo- 

demora [dd'morv] f. delay 
demostrar [ddmuf'trar] to de- 

denso [ r dcsu] dense, thick 
dentado [den'tadu] toothed 
dente ['dente] m. tooth 
dentista [den'tiftv] m. dentist 
dentro [dentru] within 
dependents [ddpen 'dentz] depend- 

deplorar [ddplu'rar] to deplore 
depor [dd'por] to deposit 
deposito [dz'pozrtu] m. deposit 
depressa [dd'presa] quicl 
derradeiro [ddrru ftuiru] las 
derreter [ddrrd'ter] to melt 
derrota [dd'rrotv] f. defeat 


Portuguese-English Vocabulary. 

desafogar [ddzvfu' gar] to free, 

desagraddvel [ddzvgrv 'davsl] dis- 


desalento [faza'lentu] \ ^ 
desammo [de zvmmu] / 
desapparecer [ddzupvrd 'serj dis- 

desapprovar [ddzapru'var] dis- 

desarmamento [ddza rm v 'm entuj 

m. disarming 
desarrawjo [ddzis'rrvii] m. con- 

fusion, disorder 

desastre [dd 'zaftrd] m. disaster 
desatar [ddzu'tar] to untie, 

desa(t)ten$ao [ddzvte' suu] f. want 

of attention 




[ddzv 'tentu] 
desbaratar [digbvns 'tar] to waste 
desbastar [d^bvf'tar] to rough- 

desbotar [digtu'tar] to dis- 

descalgar [dtfkat'sar] to pull off 

(shoe or glove) 
descafyo [dtf'kcdsu] bare-foot- 


descansar [dti'kv'sar] to rest 
descanso [d'if'kvsuj m. rest, re- 

pose, ease 

descarga [dif'kargu] f. discharge 
descascar [d}fkvf'karj to peel, 

descender [difsen'derj to des- 

cend, proceed 
descer [dif'ser] to descend 
descida [dif'sifo] f. declivity 
descoberta [difku'bertu] f. dis- 

descobrir [dtfku'brir] to dis- 

desconfian$a [difkofy 'vsu] dis- 

desconhecido [difkojid'siffu] un- 

desconsolo [difko'solu] m. af- 


descontente [difkon'tentdj dis- 

descoser [difku'zer] to unsew 
descredito [d'lfkrcditu] m. dis> 


descuido fdtf'kutffu] m. descuido 
desculpa [dif'kulpv] f. excuse 
desde [ f de$fo] since 
desdem [di^'&^i] m. disdain 
desejo [dj'zugu] m. desire 
desembarago [ddzimbu 'rasuj m. 

ease, quickness 
desencaminhar [ddzikvmi 'jiarj 

to mislead 

desengano [ddze'gvnu] m. un- 

desenho [dd'zuyiu] m. drawing 
desenvolver [ddzwot'verj to de- 
velop, display 

desertar [ddzdr'tar] to desert 
desespero fddz}f'peruj m. des- 

desfazer [diffu'zer] to undo 
desfeita [dtf fuitv] f. insult 
desgraga [d]^' grass] f. disgrace- 
designar [ddzi'jiar] to design 
deslumbrar [dj>$lum'brar] to- 


desmaio [di^'ma^u] m. swoon 
despacho [dif'pafu] m. dispatch 
despedir [difpd oir] to dismiss 
despir [dtf'pir] to undress 
destino [dtftinu] m. destiny 
destruir [dtftruir] to destroy 
deter [dd'ter] to detain 
determinado [ddtdrmi 'na&u] de- 

detrds [dd'traf] behind 
devagar favv'gar] slowly 
dever fdd'verj m. duty 
deveras [dd'veref] really ; indeed 
devolver [ddvot 'verj to restore 
dez [def] ten 

dezembro [dd'zembru] December 
dia [ f dia] m. day 
didlogo [d}'alugu] m. dialogue 
dictado [di'taffu] dictation, pro- 

di(f)feren$a [difd'rensu] diffe- 

di(f)ficil [dd'fisti] difficult 
dignidade [dign* ffaffy] f. dignity 

Portuguese-English Vocabulary. 


dilif/ente [dali'ge-ntej diligent 
diminuir [ddmi 'nuir] to diminish 
direcgdo [dirs'suu] f. direction 
direito fdi'rvitu] straight, direct, 

m. right, law; pi. duties 
dirigir fart'gir] to direct 
disclpulo [dif'sipulu] m. pupil, 


dispensar [djfpen's&r] to dis- 
disponivel [dffpu'nivet] dis- 

dispor [dif'por] to dispose 
disputa fdjf'putv] f. dispute 
dissolver [disol'ver] to dissolve 
distdncia fdff'tvs^vj f. distance 
distincto [dlf'tintu] distinct, 

diverse [di'versu] diverse 
divida f divide J f. debt 
dividir [ddVd'&ir] to divide 
divino [dd'vinu] divine 
dizer [di'zer] to say 1C]} 
do [do] f. pain, compassion 
dobra [ dobraj f. plait 
dobrar [du'fyrar] to double 
dobro ['dobru] double 
doce f'dosdj m. sweet(meat) 
docil ['dostfj docile 
doenga [du'esu] f. illness 
doente [du'ente] sick 
dolor oso [dulu'rozu] painful 
dom [do] m. gift 
domestico [du'meftiku] domestic 
domicilio [dumd'siljuj m. dwell- 
dominar [dumi'nar] to lord, 


doming o [du'imgu] m. Sunday 
dominio [du'min'iu] m. dominion 
dona ['dome] f, (land)lady, 


dono ['donuj m. owner, land- 

dor [dor] f. pain 
dormir [dur'mir] to sleep 
dourar fdo'rarj to gild 
doutor [do' tor] m. doctor 
droga ['droyv] f. drug 
droguista fdru 'gifte] m. druggist, 

duplo ['dupluj double 

duque, duquesa ['dukd, du'kezv] 

duke, duchess 

durctfao [durv'svu] f. duration 
durante [du'rvntj] during 
durar [du'rarj to last 
dureza [du'rezu] hardness 
duro ['duruj hard 
duvida ['duvi&u] f. doubt 
duvidar [duvi'&ar] to doubt 
duvidoso [duvi'&osu] doubtful 
duzentos [du 'zentus] two hundred 
dtizia ['duzye] f. dozen. 


ebuligao [ibuli'suu] f. ebullition 
economico fiJcu'nom'ikuJ econo- 

edi$ao [ifti'sau] f. edition 
edificar [ifofi'karj to edify 
edificio [ifo'fisfuj m. edifice 
edited [idi'tat] m. edict 
editor [iffi'tor] m. = 
educar [iffu'Jcar] educate 
e(f)fectivo fife'tivuj effective 
e(f)feito [i'fvitu] effect 
e(f)ficaz [ifi"kaf] efficacious 
Egi(p)to [i'situ] m. Egypt 
ei-lo(s), eil-a(s) or ei-la fisilu(f).. 

'wluiif)] there is, there are 
eira [ f ie}rv] threshing-floor 
eis [v}fj there is 
electrico [i'Utriku] electric(al) 
elegante [ild' guntd] elegant 
eleger [ilj>$er] to elect 
eleigao [ilvt'svuj f. election 
eleito [i'luitu] m. elected 
eleitor [ilui'tor] m. elector 
elevar fild 'var] to raise, elevate- 
elogio [ilu'giu] m. elogy 
eloquente [ilu'ltwentd] eloquent 
embaixador [imbaifv ' &or] m> 


embarago [imbv'rasu] m. em- 

embarcar [imbur'kar] to embark 
embeber fimfo'ber] to imbibe 
embolsar [imbol'sar] to put into 

a purse, pocket 

embolso ftm'boisu] pocketing up 
embora [im'boru] m. neverthe- 
less; ir , se to go away 


Portuguese-English Vocabulary. 

etnbranquecer fimbrvla'serj to 

whiten, to grow white 
embriagar [imbrlv'gar] to in- 
toxicate; to transport 
embrulhar [mibru'flar] to wrap 


embrulho [im'brudu] m, parcel 
emendar [imen'dar] to mend 
tmigragao [imigrv'smi] f. emi- 
emmagrecer [imvyrd r sdr] to grow 


emmalar [miv 'lar] to embale 
emmudecer [imufo'ser] to silence 
emogao [imu'svuj f. emotion 
empallidecer [impvlifo 'ser] to 

grow pale 
empenhar ftmpd 'jiar] to engage, 

tmpenho [im'pejiu] in. pawn, 


emplastro [im'plaftru] m. plaster 
empregado [imprd'ga&u] m. of- 
ficial, functionary^^ ^^V 
empregar [Imprd'yarj to employ 
emprego [im'preyu] m. employ- 
4mpre(h)ender [imprtyri der] to 


empresa [im'prezv] f. enterprise 
emprestar [imprdf'tar] to lend 
eni2>rfatimo [im 'prsftymu] m. 


empurrao fimpu'rrvu] m. push 
empurrar [impu'rrar] \ , , 

tmpuxar [impu'far] } to push 
mcadernar [ikvfor'nar] to bind 

encaminhar [iJcvm} f jiar] to direct, 


encanar [five f nar] to canalise 
encanto [I'kientu] m. charm 
encargo [i'hargu] m. charge 
encarnado [ikur'na&u] incarnate 
encarregado [ikurra'ga&u] char- 
mcerrar fisd'rrarjto shut or lock 

vnchente [ifentd] m. inundation, 


tncher [ifer] to fill, to rise 
encobrir [ikubrir] to cover 

encolher [iku'fier] to shrink, 

encommendar [ikumen'dar] to 


encontrao [ikon'truu] m. shock 
encontrar [ikon'trar] to meet 
encontro [t'kontruj m. meeting 
encosta fi'tostvj f. declivity 
encostar [ikuf'tar] to lean 
endereQO [idd'resu] m. direction 
endireitar [idinsi'tar] to make 


energico [i'mrgiku] energetic 
enfadoriho [ife '&ojiu] tiresome 
enfastiado [tfvffi r a&u] weary, 


enfeitar [ifui'tar] adorning 
enfeite [I'futfd] m. garb, attire 
enfermar [ifdr'mar] to grow 

sick, fall ill 

cnfermo [1,'fermu] sick, ill 
enforcar [if ur' Tear] to hang 
enfraquecer [ifrvkz 'ser] to 

weaken, slacken 
ertganar [igu'nar] to deceive 
engano [i'gvnu] m. error, mis- 

engarrafar [igurrv 'far] to bottle 
engenho fi'jvjiu] m. engine, 

engommar [igu'mar] to starch, 

engragado [igrv 'sa&u] merry, 


engrandecer [igrundd' ser] to en- 

engulir [igu'lir] to swallow, 
j, devour 

enigma [i'nigrwe] m. = 
enjoar [igu'arj to be sea-sick 
enlagar [ttv'sarj to interlace, 

enleio [i'lieiu] m. perplexity; 

enlutctr [ilu'tar] to cover with 


ennobrecer [inufird' ser ] ennoble 
enredo fi'rre&u] m. intrigue 
enrolar fir ru' lar] to roll, to 

enrouquecer [trrofo 'ser] to make 


Portuguese-English Vocabulary. 


ensaio [I'sani] m. essay, rehear- 


entalhar fintt? Tiar] to carve 
entao [in'tiiu] then; well? 
ente ['entd] m. being 
entender [mten'der] to under- 

stand, mean 

entendido [mten'did'o] intelligent 
enterro [in'terro] m. burial 
entoar [intu'ar] to tune 
entrada [in'tra&e] f. entrance 
entranlias [in'trvyivf] f. pi. 

bowels, heart 
entrar [in'trar] to enter 
entre [ entrd] among, between 
enlregar [tntry'gar] to hand, 


entregue [in 'tregs] delivered up 
entreter [mtrs'ter] to divert, 

entrevista [intn'mftu] f. inter- 

entristecer [mtriftz'serj to sad- 


entrudo [m'truffu] m. carnival 
enumeracao [inumarv 'svu] f. 

envelhecer [ivefo'ser] to make 

or grow old 

envenenar [wdnd'nar] to poison 
enverdecer [ivdrdd'ser] to make 

or become green 
envolver [wol'ver] involve 
enxame [I'fvmd] m. swarm 
enxerto [I'fertu] m. graft, scion 
enxofre ft fofry] m. brimstone 
enxugar fifu'gar] to dry, 


enxuto [I'futu] dry 
epico ['spiku] epic 

epidemia [ipd&i 'mia] f. epidemy 
epiderma [ipi' ffermie] f. epi- 


epigraphe [i'pigrufd] f. epigraph 
epilogo [i'piluyu] m. epilogue 
epistola [i'pistulu] f. epistle, 


epoca ['spulcvj f. epoch 
equilibria [iki f li:fir}uj m. equi- 

equipdgem [iJci'pa^J f. equi- 

page, furniture 
Portuguese Conversation- Grammar. 

equivaler [ikivu 'ler] to be equi 


equivoco [i"kiviiku] m. ambiguous 
ermida [ir'mi'.d'Ts] f. hermitage 
ermitao [irmi'tvu] m. hermit 
errar [i'rrarj to err 
erro ['erru] m. error 
erudito [iru'&itu] well-read 
erupgao [irup'suu] f. eruption 
ervilha [ir'vifoj f. pea 
esbogar [ijfiu'sar] to sketch 
escada /'ifkad'u] f. stairs 
escola [ij 'kalis] f. ladder, scale 
escaldar [ifkcddar] to scald, burn 
escapar fy'kv'parj to escape 
escarlate ['ifkisr'latd] scarlet 
escarnecer fifkurnd 'serj to scoff, 


escdrneo [ifkarn^u] m. mockery 
escasso [if'kasu] scanty 
esclarecimento fyklurasi 'mentu] 

m. clearing 

escola [tf'kalvj f. school 
escolher [if ku' tier] to choose 
esconder [tfkon'der] to hide 
escosses [ifku'sef] m. Scotch 
Escossia ftf'kosi'e] f. Scotland 
escova ft'fkoivv] f. brush 
escravidao [ykrvvi 'duujf. slavery 
escravo [if'kravu] m. slave 
escrever fifkrd'ver] to write 
escripto [ifkritu] written 
escriptor fifkri'tor] m. writer, 

escrivaninha [ifkrivu 'nijria] f. 


escrivao [ifkri'vvu] m. clerk 
escrofulas ftf'krofuluf] f. pi. 


escrupulo fof'krupuluj m. scruple 
\ escudeiro frfku 'd^}ruj m. squire; 

upper servant 
escudo [if'ku&u] m. shield 
esculptor ftfkul'tor] m. sculptor 
escumoso fyku'mosuj frothy 
escurecer [ifkurd 'ser] to darken 
escuro [if'ku:ru] dark 
escusa fyfkuzis] f. excuse 
escusado [tfku'zad'u] superfluous 
escutar fifku'tar] to hearken 
esforgar [iffur'sar] to streng- 
then; se to endeavour 



Portuguese-English Vocabulary. 

esforgo [ifforsu] m. effort 
esgotado [iggu'ta&u] exhausted 
esgrima [ig'griimis] f. fencing 
esguio [i$'gi:u] lank 
esmagar [tgmv'gar] to bruise 
esmaltar [i$mal 'tar] to enamel 
esmdro [i$'meru] m. care, dili- 

esmola [13 'molu] f. alms 
espago [ifpasu] m. espace 
espafoso [ifpv'so:zu] espacious 
espada [if pate] f. sword 
espalhar [ifpv'fiar] to scatter 
Espanha fifpvjiv] f. Spain 
espanhol [tfpv'fid] Spanish 
espantar [ifpvn'tar] to startle 
espanto [ifpvntu] m. fright 
especial [ifpl&'al] = 
especialidade [ifpisiuli' ftafo] f. 

espfaie [ypsx&J f- species 
espectador [ifpstv &or] m. spec- 
especulagao [ifpdkidis '&vu] f. 

espelho [ifpufiu] m. mirror, 


esperanga [ifpz'rusu] f. hope 
esperar [yfp'rtf] to wait, hope 
espertar [ifpdr'tar] to awake 
esperto [ifpsrtu] sprightly, brisk 
espesso [ifj'pesu] thick, close 
esphera [iffeirie] f. sphere 
espiga [ifpi:gv] f- ear (of corn) 
espingarda [ifpl'gar&u] f. gun 
espinha [ifpijiu] f. spine 
espinho [ifpiyiu] m. thorn 
espirito [ifpiriitu] m. spirit 
espirrar [ifpi'rrar] to sneeze 
esplendido [if plendi&u] splendid 
esponja [tf'pdgv] f. sponge 
espontdneo [ifpon'tuniu] spon- 

espora [ifporu] f. spur 
espdsOj -a [ifpozu, ifpozv] s. 

husband; wife 

espreitar [ifprui'tar] to spy 
espremer [tfprd'mer] to press, 


esquadra fifkwafa'u] f. squadron 
esquecer [ifke'ser] to forget 
esquecido [ifke'siffu] forgetful 

esqucrda fif'kerdv] f. left hand 
esquerdo fafkerdu] left 
esquina [ifkinis] f. corner 
essencial [ise'&al] essential 
estdbelecimento [iftvfobsi 'mentuj 

m. establishment 
esta$ao [iftv'svu] f. station 
estada fjf'tato] f. abode 
estado [iftadu] m. state 
estaldgcm [iftie'la^'i] f. inn 
estampa [}ft i emp'e] impression,. 


estampilha [iftumpifa] f. stamp 
estdncia [iftvsiu] f. station; 


estariho fyf't'ejiu] m. tin 
estante [iftunla] f. book-shelf 
estar [if tar] to be 
estdtua [iftatuu] f. statue 
estdtuto [iftu'tutu] m. statute 
este, -a ['efa, 'sstie] this 
esteiider [iften'der] to extend 
esteril [ifteril] sterile, barren 
estilo [ifti:lu] m. style 
estima [if'tiim.?] f. esteem 
estimar [ifti'mar] to estimate 
estimulo [if'tiimulu] m. stimulus- 
estio [iftiiu] m. summer 
estivoH [ifti'vcd] = 
estofo [iftofu] m. stuff, cloth 
estojo [tf'to:$u,] m. case, box 
estomago ftf'tdmvgu] m. stomacb 
estorvo [iftorvu] m. obstacle 
estrada [iftrafru] f. road 
estrado [iftra&u] m. estrade 
estragar [iftrv 'gar] to spoil 
estrago [iftragu] m. damage 
estrangeiro fiftrv 'gviruj foreign- 


estranharfiftrv 'yiarjto wonder at 
estranho [iftrvpiu] strange 
estrebaria [iftrib'e'ri'.u] f. stable 
estreitar [iftrui'tar] to straiten 
estreito [iftrisitu] m. narrow, - 


estrella [if'trdu] f. star 
estremecer [iftwrnd'ser] to shake, 


estrondo [iftrondu] m. cracking 
estudante '[iftu'&untz] m. student 
estudar [iftu'dar] to study 
estudioso [iftu'friozu] studious 

Portuguese-English VocabuJary. 


estudo fif'tu:ffujm. learning 
estufa ftf'tufvj f. store, hot- 

estupidez [tjtupi'def] f. stupidity 
estupido [ff'twpiffu] stupid 
eternidade [itwni'&afo] f. eter- 

eterno [i'tsrnu] eternal 
ether ['etsr] m. == 
evacuar [ive'kwar] to evacuate 
evadir [ive'dir] to avoid, es- 

evangelho [ivv'gvfiuj m. gospel 
evasao [ivv'zuu] f. evasion 
evidente [ivi'&entd] evident 
evitar [ivi'tar] to avoid 
exacto [ (ts)i' zatu] exact 
exagerar [(u)izu$d f r ar] to ex- 

exce(l)lencia [(vjifsd'lensiv] f. ex- 

exce(l)lente [(is)ifsd'lentd] excel- 

exce(p)gdo [ (u)ifs' svu] /". excep- 

exce(p)lo [tf'sEtu] except 
excluir [ifkluir] to exclude 
executar [izdku'tar] to execute 
exemplo [i'zemplu] m. example 
exercito [i' zsrsrtu] m. army 
exigir [izi'$i:r] to claim 
exilio [i'ziityu] m. exile 
existir [izif'tiir] to exist 
exito ['uizitu] m. success 
expectativa [ijpete'tw'e] f. ex- 

expedir [ifpz'&iir] to dispatch 
experUncia fffpsrt'estv] f. ex- 
experimento [ifpori'mentu] m. 


expirar ftfpi'rar] to expire, ex- 

explicar ftfpU'karJ to explain 
exportar [tfpu'r'tar] to ex- 

expressive [ifprd'siwu] expres- 

expresso [if'presu] express 
expulsar [ifpul'sar] to expel 
extenso [if'tesu] extensive 
extracto [iftratu] m. extract 

extraordindrio [tftrvordi 'narfuj 

extremo ftf'trumu] \ , 
extremoso fiftrd'mozuj ) ^ 


fdbrica ['faftrikis] f. fabric 
fdbricar [fvbri'kar] to manu- 
fdbrieo [fu 'firi:kuj m. fabrication, 

fdbula f'fabulv] f. fable 
fobuloso [fuftu'loizu] fabulous 
facet ['faltta] f. knife 
facada [fTs'lcafo] f. stab 
fa$anha [fu'suym] f. exploit 
face ['fan] f. = 
fachada [fv'fadv] f. fa9ade, 


facho ['fafu] m. torch, fagot 
fdcil ['fasti] easy 
facilitar [fvsdli f tar] to facilitate 
facto ['factu] m. fact 
factura [fa 'tuns] f. facture ; bill 
fada ['tadu] f. fairy, fay 
fadiga [fv '&i:gie] hardship, 

fado ['fadu] m. fate, popular 


faia [faiis] f. beech 
faisca [fu'ifk'e] f. flake, flash 
falar [fu'lar] to speak 
falcdo [fal'kiiu] m. falcon 
fa(l)lecer [fvb'ser] to die 
fa(l)lecimento [fvldsi'mentu] m. 


fa(l)lencia [fm'lesiu] f. failure 
fa(l)lido [fv'liiSu] in failure 
fdlso ['falsu] false 
falta ['fates] f. want 
f altar [fat' tar] to want 
fatio ['faltuj (de) bare (of) 
fama ['fume] f. fame 
familia [fu'mityie] f. family 
faminto [fv'mmtu] hungry 
famoso fv'mo:zuj famous 
fanal [fu'nal] m. lighthouse 
far da ['fardv] f. uniform 
fardo ['fardu] m. pack 
farejar [far}' jar] to scent 
farelo [fv'rdu] bran 


Portuguese-English Vocabulary. 

farinha [fv'rinv] f. meal, flour 

faro ['f-dru] m. scent 

farpa ['farpe] f. harpoon, 


farpear [fvrpi'ar] to harpoon 
farrapo [fv'rrapu] m. rag 
fartar [fur' tar] to satiate 
farto [ fartu] satiated 
fastio [fuftiiu] m. loathsome- 

fatal [fv'tatj = 

fatia [fv'tiw] f. slice 

fatigar [fvti'yar] to fatigue 

fqto ['fatu] m. clothes 

fousto ['fauftu] fortunate 

favct ['faw] f. beau 

favo [ favu] m. honeycomb 

favor [fv'vor] m. favour 

favordvel [fvvu' ravsl] favourable 

faxa ['fafvj f. band 

fazenda [fv'zendu]; cloth, 

fazendeiro [fuzen'dviru] m. co- 


fazer [fu'zer] to make, do, } 
fe [ff] f. faith 
febra ['febrvj f. fibre 
febre [febn] f. fever 
fechar [ft 'far] to shut 
feclio [fufu] m, bolt, bar 
fecundo [fo'kundu] 

feigao /fw'svu] f. form, aure 

feijao [fw'gvuj m. French beans 

feio [fwu] ugly 

feira ['fmraj f. fair t 

feitio [fui'tiu] m. fasliion, make, 


feito ['fwtu] m. fact, deed 
feitoria [fwtu'riv] factory 
feixe ['fwfi] m. faggot 
fel [fel] m. gall 
felicidade [fdw'&afo] f. felicity 
felicitar [fdli&'tar] m. to felici- 


Ftlix if di!] Felix 
feliz Ifi'lif] happy 
femea ['femw] f. female 
feminino [fdmd'ninu] feminine 
fenda ['fendv] f. chink, crack 
fender [fender] to cleave 
feno ['fenuj m. hay 
fera ['for] f. wild beast 

feretro ['fsrdtru] m. bier 
feria ['ferw] f. daily wages; 

pi. holidays 

ferida [fd 'ri&e] f. wound 
ferir [fo'rir] to wound 
feroz [fd'rof] fierce 
ferradura [fdrra' &urvj /. horse- 

ferrdgem [fz'rragui] f. iron- 

f err amenta [fdrrv'mentv] f. iron 


ferrar [fz'rrar] to shoe 
ferreo ['fsrriu] iron 
ferro ['fsrru] m. iron 
ferrolho [fd'rrofiu] m. bolt 
fertil ['fertil] fertile 
ferver [fdr'ver] to boil 
festa [ feftu] f. feast 
festejo [ftftvsuj m. } fpgtival 
festivo [frftivuj 1 1 
feto ['fetu] m. fern, fetus 
feudo ['feu&u] m. fee, fief 
fevereiro [fevd 'rvirujm. February 
fezes [ fsz'if] f. pi. dregs 
fiagao [fiv'svuj f. spinning 
fiador [fits r &or] m. bail 
fianQa [fi'vsv] f. security, bail 
fiar [fi'ar] to spin 
ficar [fi'kar] to remain, become 
fidctlgo [fi'&algu] m. nobleman 
fiel [fid] faithful 
figado ['fiyv&u] m. liver 

figo rfcy m - fig 

fiffueira [fi'ffnr*] f- fig-tree 

ftta, fileira ['file, 

file, rank 
fttha ['fifaj f. daughter 
filho ['fifiuj m. son 
filial [filial] f. = 
filtro ['fittruj m. filter 
fim [fi] m. end 
finado [fi'naffuj dead 
final [fi'nal] = 
findar [fm'dar] to terminate 
fineza [fi'nezi}] f. fineness, civility 
fingir [fi'&ir] to feign 
fio [fiu] m. thread 
firma f'firmvj f. firm, signature 
firmar [fir 'mar] to settle, to 

fir me ['firmd] firm 

Portuguese-English Vocabulary. 


fiscal [fif'kal] = 
ftta rftiv] f. ribbon 
fixar [fik'sar] to fix 
fixo f'fixsu] fixed 
flexivel [ftek'sivst] flexible 
floco ['floku] m. flock, flake 
flor [ftor] f. flower 
florescer [flurtf'serj to flourish 
floresta [flu'rsftu] f. forest 
fluctuar [flutu'ar] to float 
fluido [ flu'id'uj m. fluid 
focinho [fu'sijiuj m. snout 
foco ['fclku] m. focus 
fofo I fofu] soft, spongy 
fogao [fu'gvu] m. hearth, stove 
fogoso [fu'gozu] fiery 
foguete [fu'getd] m. rocket 
folar [fu'lar] m. Easter-gift 
folgar [fol'gar] to rest, rejoice 
folha f'fofiv] f. leaf 
folhear [fofo'ar] to turn over 

the leaves 

folheto [fu'fietu] m. pamphlet 
fome f'fojmd f. hunger 
fonte ['fontd] f. fountain, spring 
fora ['forv]' abroad; de with- 

foral [fu'ral] m. charter 
forca ['forkvj f. gallows, gibbet 
forgo, ['forsv] strength, force 
forQado [fur'sadu] m. galley- 

forgar [fur'sar] to force, compel 
forcdso [fur'sozu] necessary 
forja ['forjvj f. forge 
forma ['form's] form 
forma ['form's] f. mould 
for mar [fur 'mar ] to form 
formiga [fur'migv] f. ant 
formdso [fur'mozu] beautiful 
fornalha [fur'nato] f. furnace 
forno f'fornuj m. oven 
forrar [fu 'rrar] to line 
fdrro ['form] m. lining 
fortaleza [furtv'lezv] f. fortress 
forte f'fortdj strong 
f ortificar [furtafi'liar] to fortify 
fortuna [fur 'turns] f. fortune 
fosso ['fosuj m. ditch 
foz [f.yfj f. mouth 
fraco ['fralzu] weak 
fractura [fra'turu] f. fracture 

frade ['frafo] m. monk, friar 

frdgil f'fr&gtl] fragile 

franco f'frvku] frank, loyal; 


frango, -a ['frvgu, -v] chicken 
franqueza [frv'kezv]. f. frank- 

franquia [fru'ki'.v] f. post-pay- 

fraqueza [frn'lzezie] f. weakness 
frasco ['frafku] m bottle 
fraternal^ fraterno [frvtdr 'nal, 

frv'tsrnu] fraternal 
frecha ['frefe] f. arrow 
frbclieira Lfrej**r*] f- loop- 

fregues [frs'gff] m. customer 
frei [frw] m. monk, brother 
freio [fr'mu] m. bit, bridle 
freira ['fruiru] f. nun 
freixo ['frv]>fu] m, ash-tree 
f rente ['frinte] f. front-side 
frequentar [frdkwen'tar] to fre- 

frequente [frQ'kwente] frequent 
fresco ['frefku] fresh 

fretar [frd'tar] to freight 
frete [ frste] m. freight 
frieza [frf'ezv] f. coldness 
frio [friuj cold 

fronteira [frdn tvirv] f. frontier 
frota ['frotv] f. feet 
frouxo rfrofii] slack, loose 
fructa [ frute] f. fruit 
fructifero [fru'tifdru] fructi- 

fructo ['frutu] m. fruit 
fuga ['fugs] f. flight 
fugir [fu'sir] to fly 
fulminar [fulmi'nar] to fulmi- 

fumar [fu 'mar] to smoke 
fumo ['fumuj m. smoke 
fundagdo [fundu'svu] f. foun- 

fundar [fun'dar] to found 
fundigao [fundisvu] f, melting, 

fusion, casting-house 
fundir [fun'dir] to found 
funeral [fund' rat] m. = 
funil [fu'nil] m. funnel 
funileiro [funi'lviru] m. tinker 


Portuguese-English Vocabulary. 

furia ['furw] f. fury 
furioso [furt'ozu] furious 
furtar [fur 'tar J to rob, steal 
furto [ furtuj m. theft 
fuso f'fuzuj m. spindle, spool 
futil ['futttj futile 
futuro [fu'turuj m. future 
fuzilar [fuzi'lar] to shoot 


gabar [gv'bar] to praise 
gabinete [gufti'netdj m. study, 


gado ['gaffu] m. cattle 
gaiola [gal'olvj f. cage 
gaivao [gai'vuu] m. martinet 
galgar [gal' gar] to climb up 
galgo ['galgu] m. greyhound 
ga(l)lego [gv'le&u] m. porter 
Gd(l)lia['galiv] f. Gaul, Gallia 
ga(l)Hcismo [gvli'sigmii] m. Galli- 

ga(l)linha [gv'Ujiv] f. hen 
ga( l)liriheiro [gvli 'jiwiruj m . 


ga(l)lo ['galu] m. cock 
galope [gv'lopd] m, gallop 
game(l)la [g.u 'mdv] f. porringer, 


gancho f'gvfuj m. hook, hair- 

gangrena [gii 'grenv] m. gangrene 
ganlnar [ga'yiar] gain, earn 
gariho ['gayiu] m. gain, profit 
ganir [gu'nir] to howl 
ganso f'gusu] m. goose 
garfo ['garfuj m. fork 
gargalhada [gvrg's' flad'e] f. 


garganta [gvr' gvnfe] f. throat 
garoto [gv'rotu] m. street-arab 
garra f'garrvj f. claw, paw 
garrafa [gu'rrafv] f. bottle 
garrido [gu'rri&u] nice, smart 
gastar [gvftar] to spend 
gasto f'gaftuj m. expense 
gato ['gatu] m. cat 
gatuno [gv'tuno] m. rogue 
gdvea ['gavtv] m. scuttle 
gaz [gaf] m. gas 

gazeta [gTe'zetu] f. gazette, news 


gazua [gv'zu'.u] pick-lock 
geito ['jvttuj m. turn, skill 
geitoso [$wi'tozu]_ fit, apt 
gelar [&'lar] to freeze 
gelea fo'lvw] f. jelly 
gelo ['selu] m. ice 
gemer [jd'mer] to lament 
gemido [jd'miffu] m. groan 
'ge(m)ma ['gemvj f. yolk 
genera f'jendru] f. gender 
generoso [^nd'rozu] generous 
glnio ['3in}uJ m. genius, cha- 

gengiva fee 'siive] f. gums 
genro f'gerru] m. son-in-law 
'genie [ ' $entd] f. people 
gentil [$8n'ti:l] genteel 
gentio [gen'ttiu] m. heathen, 


geral [^d'ral] general 
germdnico [gdr'muniku] German 
germinar [^drmi'nar] to germi- 

gesso f'gesu] m. gypsum 
'gesto ['seftu] m. gesture 
ginja ['513] f. common cherry 
girar [$i'rar] to turn, move 


girasol foirv'solj m. 
giro [' fiiru] m. circulation 
glacial [glv'sial] = 
gttria ['glorw] f. glory 
glorificar [glurdfi 'JcarJ to glorify 
glorioso [gluri'ozu] glorious 
goivo ['gotvuj m. gillyflower 
gola ['golv] f, collar 
golfo L'golfu] m. gulf 
goloso [gu'lozu] lickerish 
golpe ['goipdj ni. blow 
go(m)ma [ r gomv] f. gum 
gordo ['gordu] fat, greasy 
gordura [gur'durv] f. grease 
gorgeta [gur'getv] f. gratuity 
gdrro ['gorru] m. cap 
gosar [gu'zar] to enjoy 
gpso [gozu] m. enjoyment 
gosiar [guf'tar] to like 
gosto ['goftuj m. taste, pleasure 
gostosamente [guftozv 'mentd] with 

Portuguese-English Vocabulary. 


gostoso [guf'tozu] savoury 
go(t)ta ['gotv] f. drop 
go(t)tejar [guti'gar] to drop 
governar [guvdr'nar] to govern 
governo [gu'vernu] m. govern- 

graga ['grasv] f. grace, elegance 
gracejar [grusi'$ar] to joke, jest 
gracioso [grvsfr' ozu] graceful 
grade [grafo] f. grating 
grado [' gra&u] m. rank, will 
granadeirp [grvnv' fteirv] m. 


grand&za[grvn'dezv] f. grandeur 
grangear [grvg1>'ar] to obtain 
graniso [grv'niizu] m. hail 
grdo [gruu] m. grain, corn 
grasnar [grvg'nar] to croak 
gratidao [grvti'duu] f. gratitude 
grata ['gr&tuj grateful 
yratuito [grv'tuttvj gratuitous 
grave ['gravd] = 
gravura [grv'vu:rvj f. engraving 
graxa ['grafvj f. blacking 
grelha ['grvfivj f. roaster 
gremio f'gremtu] m. guild, cor- 

grillo ['grilu] m. cricket 
grisalho [gri'zaftu] greyish 
grito ['gritu] m. scream, cry 
grosa I'grjzv} f. gross 
groselha [gru'zvfo] f. currant 
grosseiro [gru'svfru] clumsy 
yrosso ['grosuj big, thick 
grunhir [gru'fiir] to grunt, 


grupo ['grupu] m. group 
guarda ['guardv] f. guard 
guarda- chuva [gwar&u f fu:w] m, 

guarda-livros [gwar&v 'li:vrufj m. 


guarda-portuo [givar&vpur 't 

m. porter 
guardar [gwvr'dar] to keep, 


guerra ['gerrv] f. war 
guerreiro [gs'rr^ruj m. warrior 
guia ['ffi'Vj m. and f. guide 
guiar [yi'ar] to guide 

guindaste [gm'dafte] m. crane 
gy(m)ndsio [^i'naziu] m. gym- 

gy(m)ndstico [gi'naftiku] gym- 



(h)dUl ['am] able 

(h)obilitar [eMi'tar] to enable, 


habitafdo [afiitv'svuj f. habitation 
hdbito ['afoitu] m. habit 
habitual [ubitu'al] = 
Jiabituar [vbitu f ar] to accustom 
hdlito ['alitu] m. breath 
harmonia fermu'niv] f. harmony 
hasta f'aftvj f. spear, lance 
haste ['aftd] stem 
hastear [vfti'ar] to hoist 
haver [v'ver] to have 
haveres [v'verif] m. pi. fortune 
hebreu, -a [i'breu] Hebrew 
hediondo [ify'dndu] hideous 
helice ['elisd] m. helix, screw- 

propeller &^k , 

helvetica [il'vstiku] Helvetic 
her a ['erv] f. ivy 
heranqa [i'riisv] f. inheritance 
herdade [ir'da&d] f. heritage 
herdar [ir'dar] to inherit 
herdeiro [ir'dairu] m. heir 
herde [i'roi] m. hero 
heroico [i'roiku] heroical 
herva ['srvuj f. herb, grass 
hesitar [izi'tar] to hesitate 
(h)iate [ f }a,td] m. yacht 
hilaridade [Uteri' d adz] f. hilarity 
hipp6dromo [i'po&rumoj m. race- 


hirto ['irtuj stifiF 7 rigid 
historiador [ifturiu' &or] m. 


historico [if'toriku] historical 
historia fif'tor^J f. history 
hoje ['o$ij to-day 
hollandes [ol'Un'def] m. Dutch 
(h)ombro ['dmbruj m. shoulder 

homem ['omui] man 

homicida [u 


m. hom- 
m. and f. 


Portuguese-English Vocabulary. 

homicidio [umd'si:&iu] m. murder 
honesto [u'nsstu] honest 

(hjontem ['ontu}] yesterday 
hora ['orv] f. hour 
horriv el [o 'rrivzlj \ , . , 1 
horrordsoforrurosuj \ horllble 
horta ['ortvj f. kitchen-garden 
hortaliga [ortv'lisvjf. vegetables 
hortela [ortd'lvj mint 
hortelao [ortd'luu] m. gardener 
horto ['ortuj m. garden 
hospeddgem [ofpd'&a$vi] f. hos- 

hospedaria [ofpd&v'riiv] m. lodg- 


hospede f'ofpdda] m. guest 
hospital [ofpi'tal] m. = 
hostil [of tit] hostile 
humano [u'mvno] human 
humido ['umi&u] damp 
humilde [u'mildd] humble 
hungaro ['tiguruj m. Hungarian 
Hungria [u f gri:v] f. Hungary 


Iberico [i'bsrikuj Iberian 
igar [i'sarj to hoist 
ida ['iifre] f. going 
idade [i'&afo] /". age 
idioma [iffii'om*] m. idiom 
idolatra [i'folvtrv] idolatrous 
idolo f'i'duluj m. idol 
idoso [i'&ozu] aged 
ignobil [ig'nobil] ignoble 
ignorante [ignu'rvntd] ignorant 
ignoto [ig'notuj unknown 
igualar [igwv'larj to equal 
igualha [i'gwafie] f. like 
ilha ['itfvj f. isle 
ilharga [i'liargv] f. flank, side 
i(l)legal [ild'galj = 
impeto ['imp9tu] m. impetuosity 
impetuoso [impdtu'ozu] im petuous 
impio [im'piio] impious 
implorar fimplu 'rarj to implore 
impor [im'por] to impose 
importagcio [impurtv' svu] f. im- 

importante ftmpur'tvnte] im- 

importar fimpur'tarj to import 
importe [im'portd] m. cost, sum 
importune [wipur'tuno] m. im- 

impossivel [impu'sivel] impos- 

impfoto [im'poftu] m. duty 
impostor [impuf'tor] m. = 
imprensa [im'presu] f. press 
impressao [imprd'suu] f. im- 

pressidn, print 
impresso [mi'prssu] printed 
imprimir [imprz'mir] to print 
improviso [impru 'vi:zuj un- 

imprudente [wipru' tfentz] im- 

impune [im'pune] unpunished 
inaudito [inau'&itu] unheard of 
incendio [I'send^u] m. confla- 

incenso [i'sesu] m. incense 
inchar fi'far] to swell 
incidente [isi'ffente] m. inci- 

inclinado [ikli'na&u] inclined 
incluir [iklu'ir] include 
incluso [I'lduzu] enclosed 
inco(m)modo [I'lcomu&u] inconve- 
nient, s. m. molestation 
incorrer [iku'rrer] to incur 
incredulo [i'kre&ulu] incredulous 
incrivel [I'Ttrivcl] incredible 
inculto [i'kultu] incult 
incumbir [ilcum'bir] to charge 
indagar [mdv'gar] to inquire 
indemnisar [mddmni f zar] indem- 
nify, compensate 
independente [inddpendentd] in- 

indice ['indisd] m. index 
indi(f)feren$a [mdifd 'resv] /. in- 

indigena [m'digdnv] m. indi- 

indigente [indi'jentd] indigent 
indigno [m'dignu] unworthy 
indio ['mdiu] Indian 
indistincto [indaf'tintu] indis- 

Portuguese-English Vocabulary. 


individuo [ulj'vifrwu] m. indi- 

indizlvel [mcU'zi.-vclJ unutterable 
indole ['induh] m. character 
indomito [in'domitu] untamed 
indulto [I'duUu] m. privilege 
industria [in' duiftriu] f. industry 
induzir [indu'zir] to induce 
inedito [I'ns&itu] imprinted 
infa(l)Uvel [ife'liivet] infallible 
infdncia [I'fusieJ f. infancy 
infante [I'fvnte] infant 
inferior [if or}' or] = 
inferno [I'fsrnu] m. hell 
Inftmo [ 'tfimuj verymean , 


influir [iftu'ir] to influence 
influencia fiflu' esw] f. influence 
informe ft' forme] formless 
ingenuo [I'gsnuo] ingenuous 
ingrato [i'gratu] ungrateful 
inhospito [in 'of pita] inhospitable 
inimigo [inz'imgu] m. enemy 
injusto [i$ufhi] unjust 
i(n)nocente [inu'sentz] innocent 
inquieto [iki'etu] uneasy 
inquirir [ikd'rir] to inquire 
insahibre [isv 'luftrd] insalubrious 
insecto [i'stuj m. insect 
inserir [lS3 r rir] to insert 
insignificante fiszgnifi 'kuntd] in- 

insipido [i'si:pi&u] insipid 
instar [if 'tar] to insist 
instrucgoo [iftru'svu] f. in- 


instruir [iftru 'ir] to instruct 
insua ['isuvj f. islet 
insulto [I'suttu] m. insult 
insurgente fisur'genfo] insurgent 
mtegro [mtdgruj entire, righ- 

inteiro [m'tmru] ire, whole 
inte(l)ligivel [intzli '^L'vsij intelli- 

intengao [inte'svu] /*. intention 
intender [inten'der] to intend 
intento [in'tentu] m. intention 
interesseiro [intdrz' suiru] selfish 
inter jeigao [mtdrjvt'svuj f. in- 
interlocutor [inhrluku, 'tor] m. = 

intermedia [inter 'meffiuj m. me- 

interno [m'ternoj m. internal 
interprete [in'terprztej m. in- 

interrogar [interru 'gar] to inter- 

interromper [interrom 'per] inter- 

interrupto [inte 'rrutuj inter- 

intestino [mtjf'tiinu] m. intestine 
intimo ['mtimuj intimate 
intrepido [in'trepidn] intrepid 
intruso [m'truzo] m. intruder 
inundar [inun'dar] to overflow 
inutil [i 'nu:tilj useless 
invctdir [ivu r dir] to invade 
invdlido [I'valiffu] invalid 
invasao [wv'zvu] f. invasion 
inveja [i'vs^v] f. envy 
invengcio [we'suu] f. invention 
invernal [iwr 'nal] winterly 
inverno [i'vermi] m. winter 
invest ir [imf'tir] to invest 
invocar [ivu'lcar] to invocate 
ir [i:r] to go *-o| 

iro, ['iris] f. wrath 
irma [ir'mv] f. sister 
irmanar [irmv'nar] to match 
irrational [irrvsfu 'naij irra- 

irregular [irr2g.u'lar] = 
irritar [irri'tar] to irritate 
irrupgao [irrup 89uJ f. irruption 
isento [i'zentu] exempt, free 


Jd [ga] already 
jacintho [gv'sintuj m. jacinth 
jacta ['jalctu] m. throw 
jamais [sa'maif] (n)ever 
Janeiro [$v 'nvwu] m. January 
jane(l)la [gv'nslie] f. window 
jantar [^n'tar] m. dinner 
Japdo [su'piio], a Japan 
japones [^pu'nef] Japanese 
jar dim [$vr'di] m. garden 
jarra ['game] f. jar 
j azer [gu 'zer] to lie f"' 

jaziga [gv'ziigu] m. grave 


Portuguese-English Vocabulary. 

jejuar [gdgu'ar] to fast 
jejum f&'gft] m. fasting 
Jerdnymo fed'ronimu] Jeroni- 


Joao [jw'vu] John 
joelho [ f $wu(iu] m. knee 
Jogo ['joguj m. play 
joia ['32113] f. jewel 
Jorge [ ' &rd] m. George 
jornada [gur'naffis] f. journey 
jornal [gur'nat] m. journal 
Jose [gu'zs] m. Joseph 
joven sovui] m. and f. young 

man or woman 
jitdeo, judia [au'&eu, z 

Jew, Jewess 
jugo ['zugu] m. joke 
juiz [ju'if] m. judge 
julgar feul'gar] to judge 
iulho ['zuftu] m. July 
junco ['$uku] reed 
junta [' ^iintTs] f. juncture, as- 


juror [311' rar] to swear 
juro ['sum] m. rent, interest 
justiga [^uj'tisv] f. justice 
justificar [$uftdfi"kar] to justify 
justo [suftu] just 
juventude [guven'tudj] f. juveni- 



Ldbio ['latyu] m. lip 

laQO ['] m. knot 

lacrar [Iv'krarJ to seal 

ladear [lu&i'ar] to flank 

ladeira [le'&uire] f. declivity 

lado I'lsidu] m. side 

ladrao, ladra [Iv'ffrvu, la, '&rvj s. 

ladrilho [Iv'drlfru] m. brick, 


lagar [Iv'gar] m. wine-press 
lagarta [lu'gartv] f. caterpillar 
lagarto [Iv 'gartuj m. lizard 
lage ['lag] f. flagstone 
lago ['lagu] m. lake 
Idgrima ['lagrimv] f. tear 
lama ['Ivmej f. dirt, mud 
lambareiro [Ivmbu'rviru] glut- 

lamber [Ivm'ber] to lick 

lamentar [lumen' tar] to lament 
Idmpada ['lunipvcTv] lamp 
lampejar [lump}' gar] to shine, 


langa ['lusv] f. lance 
lan$ar [Iv'sarJ to throw, vomit 
lance ['lusd] m. throw, occasion 
lancha ['IvfsJ f. launch 
lango ['Ivsu] m. throw, distance 
languir [Iv'gir] to languish 
lanifero [Iv 'niforuj wool-bearing 
lanterna [ten' terms] f. lantern 
lapa ['lapis] f. cave, den 
lapidar [lepi'&ar] lapidary 
laranja [lu'rvgv] f. orange 
lareira [lu'rvirv] f. fireplace 
largar [Ivr'gar] to let go 
largo ['largu] large, ample 
largueta [Ivr'geziB] f. largess, 


largura [Ivr'gurv] f. wideness 
lasca ['lafkvj f. fragment 
Idstima ['la/time] f. pity 
lastro ['laftru] m. ballast 
lata ['late I f. tin-plate 
latdo [lu'tuu] m. brass 
lateral [lete'rat] = 
latido [Iv'tii&u] m. yelping 
latim [ITS 'ti] m. Latin 
latino [lis'tiinu] m. Latin 
latoeiro [Ivtu'viru] brazier 
lavadeira [luve'dviru] f. laund- 

lavar [Iv'var] to wash 
lavatorio [Ivvv 'toriu] m. washing- 

lavoura [lis'^orTs] f. husbandry 
lavrador [luvrv ffor] m. peasant, 


lavrar [Iv'mar] to work, to till 
leal [li'al] faithful, loyal 
ledo [ty'iiu] lion 
lebre ['IsbraJ f. hare 
lectivo [le'ti:vuj scholastic 
legal [Id 'gal] 
legar fa 'gar] to leave, bequeath 
legenda [Id'^en&is] f. legend 
legwtl [ld'$i:vel] legible 
legua ['Isgwu] f. mile, league 
lei [IviJ f. law 
leildo [lui'lvu] m. auction 
leitdo [Ivi'tuu] m. sucking-pig 

Portuguese-English Vocabulary. 


leite ['luito] m. milk 

leiteira flvi'twrv] f. milkmaid 

leito ['Ivrtu] bed, couch 

leitor [Ivi'tor] reader 

leitura [Ivt'turu] f. lecture, 

lenibranga [lem'brvsv] f, re- 

lembrar [lem'brar] remember 

leme f'lemd] m. helm 

lengo ['lesu] m. handkerchief 

lengol [le'sol] sheet 

lenJia ['Ivjiv] f. wood 

lente ['lentd] s. f. =; s. m. pro- 
fessor, reader 

Unto [ lentu] slow 

leque ['lefo] m. fan 

ler [ler] \>Q read I ^ 

lesma ['legmv] f. slug 

leste ['lefts] m. East 

Utra ['letne] f. letter, type, 

letreiro [Id 'truiru] m. inscription 

levantar [Idmn 'tar] to raise, lift 

levar [Id'var] to carry 

leve ['lew] light 

liber dade [litor'dafo] f. liberty 

libra ['lifirie] f. pound 

licenga [li'sesv] f. permission, 

licito ['li'situj lawful 

lida ['liifa] f. toil, labour 

lide [ r li:fo] f. combat, fight 

liga ['li:gl f- garter; alliance 

ligadura [liys'&wrs] f. ligature 

ligar [li'gar] to tie 

ligeiro [li'getruj light, slight 

lilaz [li'Uf] f. lilac 

lima ['limvj f. file 

limao [li'mvu] m. lemon 

limit e [li'mitdj m. limit 
limoeiro [limu 'isiru] m. lemon- 

limpar [Urn' par] to clean 

limpo I'llmpu] clean, neat 

Undo I'llnduJ beautiful 

lingua ['llguvj f. tongue, lan- 

linha f'liyivj f. line 

linho ['liyiuj m. linen 

liquido ['li:~ki&u] liquid 

Us ['liriu, li:f] m. =, lily 

liso ['liizu] smooth 
lisongear [lizogi'ar] to flatter 
livido ['li:vi&u] livid 
livrar [li'vrarj to deliver, save 
livraria [livru ' ri:u] f. library 
livre f'li:vrdj free 
lixo ['liiju] m. filth, 
lobo ['lobuj m. wolf 
lodo f'loduj m. mud 
logo I'loftu] directly 
lograr [lu'grar] to obtain, suc- 

logro [logru] m. cheating, fraud 
lombo I'ldmbuJ m. loins 
lona ['lows] f. sail-cloth 
longe ['logt] far 
longinguo [lo'^Jcivu] remote 
longo ['iQgu] f. long 
louca ['lorn] f. table-plate, china 
louco ['loku] mad 
louro ['loruj fair; m, laurel 
lousa riozv] f. slate 
louvar [lo 'var] to praise 
lucro ['lukruj m. profit 
lugar [lu'gar] m. spot place 
lume ['lu:md] m. fire 
lusitano, luso ['luizu] Portuguese 
lustre I'luftre] m. lustre, gloss 
luta ['lute] f. fight 
luto ['lutuj m. mourning 
luva f'lu:vvj f. glove 
luxo ['lufu'j m. luxury 
luz [lu:f] f f. light 
luzir [lu'ziir] to shine 
lyceu [li'seuj m. lyceum. 


Magd [ms'svj apple 

macaco [mv'kaku] m. monkey 

magada [mu'safre] f. blow with 
a mace 

mdchina ['makinv] f. machine 

macio [mv'siiu] smooth, soft 

madrugada [muffru' ga&e] f. day- 

maduro [mv'&uro] ripe 

mae fmi*] m. mother 

magnifico [mag.'nifilcu] magnifi- 

mdgua f'maguv] f. bruise; 


Portuguese-English Vocabulary. 

mayro ['magruj m. meagre, lean 
maioria [mvjii'ri:v] mayoralty, 


mais [maif] more 
malentendido [malentSn'did'uJ m. 

malha ['mafia] f. mash 
mallogro [mv'logru] m. failure 
malvado [mal'vafru] m. wicked 
mamifero [mv'mifzru] m. mam- 


mancebo [mu'sebu] m. youth 
mancha ['mvfv] spot, stain 
manco ['muku] lame 
mandar [mun'dar] to command, 


maneira [me'nuir'e] f. manner 
manga ['mugu] f. sleeve 
manha ['mvjiv] f. handiness, 


manha [nw'yiv] f. morning 
mania [inns' nine] f. mania, 


manifestar [mundfif'tar] mani- 
mano, mana ['mvnu, 'mums] s. 

brother, sister 
manso ['mvsu] f. tame 
mania f'mvntv] f. blanket, horse- 

manteiga [mvn 't&tgis] f. butter 
manto ['miintu] m. mantle 
mao [mvuj f. hand 
mar [mar] m. sea 
maravilha [murv'vifa] marvel, 


mar ca, ['marku] f. mark /**+~*p 
margo ['marsuj m. Marcn 
mare [mis' re:] f. tide 
mdrgem ['margvtj f. border 
marido [mu'ri:&u] m. husband 
marinha [mu'riyiv] f. marine, 

marinheiro [mvri 'nieiru] m. 


marmelo [nwr'mslu] m. quince 
maroto [mu'rolu] m. knave 
marques [mvr'keif] m. marquis 
tnartello [mur'telu] m. hammer 
mas fmvfj but 
mascara / 'mafJcvrvJ f. mask 

massa f'masvj f. haste 
mastigar [mvfti'garj to chew 
mastro ['maftru] m. mast 
mata ['mate] f. wood, forest 
matdborrao [matebu'rrvu] m. 

blotting- paper 
matar [mu'tar] to kill 
maternal [mvtwnal] 1 maternal 
materno [mv Urnu] \ 
matinal [mieti'nal] early 
mato ['maiu] m. thicket, wood 
mdximo ['masimu] greatest, 


mediano [msjty'vnu] middling 
medico ['ms&iku] m. medical 
medida [md'cfii&e] f. measure 
medir [md'&ir] to measure 
medo I'med'u] m. fear, ff^^i'\^ 
medrar [md'ffrar] to tnrive 
meigo ['mvfguj gentle, meek. 
meio [mwiu] m. half, middle 
mel [mrtj m. honey 
meldo [md'lvu] m. melon 
melhor [m'i'fior] better 
membro ['membru] m. member 
memdria [mo'moriTs] f. memory 
mengao [me'sau] f. mention 
mendigo [m8n'di:gu] m. beggar 
menor [md'norj minor 
menos ['menuf] less 
mensal fme'satj monthly 
mente ['mentdj m. mind 
mentir [men'tir] to lie 
mentira [men'tirv] f. lie 
mercado [mdr'kaffu] m. market 
mercadoria [mdrke&u'riiv] f. 

ware, goods 

merce [mdr'sej f. mercy 
mercieiro [mars} 'v}ru] m. mercer, 


merecer [mdrd'ser] to deserve 
merenda [mz'rendv] f. afternoon 


mergulhar [mdrgu'fiar] to sub- 

mes [mef] m. month 
mesa ['mezv] f. table 
mesmo ['megmuj same 
mestre, mestra ['meftw, 'me/tors] 

s. master, teacher 
metade [md'ta&d] f. half 
metrico ['meiriku] metrical 

Portuguese-English Vocabulary. 


meter [md'terj = 
mexer [mi'fer] to move 
www [mf'arj to mew 
tnigallia [mi'gvriv] f. crumb 
milagre [mi'lagn] m. miracle 
['mirfvi f. mile 
I'mvfiuJ m. millet 
['miimu] caress, mimic 
mimoso [mi'mozu] tender 
mina ['mi:ws] f. mine 
mineiro [mi'nviru] m. mineral 
MinJio I'mijiuJ m. Minho, pro- 
vince and river of Portugal 
minima f'mi:nimuj least 
midlo [mt'olu] m. crumb; brains 
mirar [mi'rar] to look at 
miseria [mi'zcr^] misery 
missa ['mists] f. mass 
mister [mtftsr] necessary 
misturar [miftu'rar] to mix 
mo [mo] f. mill-stone 
mdbil ['moftil] movable 
moUlia [mubi'tyvj f. furniture 
mocJio ['mofuj m. owe 
mdQO I'-mosuJ young 
moda ['mQ&v] f. fashion 
moderar [mufo 'rarj to moderate 
modesto [mu'&eftu] modest 
mddico ['mofrikuj moderate 
modista [mu'diftv] milliner 
modo ['moduj m. mode, manner 
moeda [mu'e&v] f. coin 
to grind 

moldura [mol'duiris] frame 
molliar [mu'fiar] to moisten, 


molle ['mold] soft; lax 
memento [mu'mentuj m* moment 
monarc(h)a [mu'narkvj m. mo- 

monje ['motfj m. monk 
monstro fmoftru] m. monster 
montanfia [mon'tvpu] f. moun- 

monte ['mdntdj Mount 
morada [murad'a] f. dwelling, 


moralidade [murvli'dadd] f. mo- 

morango [murvgu] m. straw- 

morar [mu'rar] to dwell 
morder [mur'der] to bite 
morrer fmu'rrerj to die 
morte ['mortd] f. death 
morto ['moriu] dead 
mosca ['mofkvj f. fly 
mostarda [muf'tardv] f. mustard 
mosto ['moftu] m. must 
mostrador [muftrv '&or] m. coun- 

ter ; dial-plate 
mostrar [mus'trar] to show 
mouraria [morv 'riiv] f. quarter 

of the Moors in Lisbon 
mouro f'moru] m. Moor 
movel ['movsl] m. piece of fur- 

mover [mo'ver] to move 
movimento [movi'mentu] m. mo- 
muar [mu r a,r] m. and adj. 

mule, mulish 
muda ['mu&e] f. change 
mudar [mu'&ar] to change 
mudo ['mu&u] dumb, silent 
mugir [mu'gir] to low, to roar 
muito ['mulntu] much 
mula ['mulvj f. (she-)rnule 
mulher [mu'fisr] f. woman, wife 
multa ['muttv] f. fine 
mundano [mundunu] worldly 
mundo ['mundu] m. world 
muralha [mu'rafo] f. wall 
murchar [mur'far] to wither 
murmurio [mur'mu:no] m. mur- 

muro ['muru] m. wall 
musgo f'musgu] m. moss 
musica ['muzikvj f. music 
mutuo ['niutwuj mutual 
myope [ r mi:upd] short-sighted 
mysterio [mif'tertuj m, mystery 


Nabo ['nafiu] m. turnip 
nada ['na&u] nothing 
namorado [n&mu'rad'u] amorous 
ndo [wen] no 
nariz [nv'rifj m. nose 
narragao [nvrrv'svu] f. narra- 


Portuguese-English Vocabulary. 

nascen$a [wef'sesu] f. birth, 

nascente [nvf'sento] m. spring 

nascido [nvf'sid'u] m. born 

nascimento [nvfsi'mentu] m. birth 

native [nu'tiivu] native 

natureza [nutu'rezv] f. nature 

naufrdgio [nau'fragiu] m. ship- 

ndufrago ['naufrvguj m. ship- 

naval [nu'val] = 

navalha [we 'vaflis] f. razor, 

nave ['navs] f. = 

navegdvel [nvvd 'gavel] navigable 

navio [nu'vi:u] m. ship 

nebuloso [ndftu'loizu] foggy 

necessidade [nasdsi' ftaffd] f. neces- 

negar [na'garj to deny 

negociante [ndQusfr'vntd] m. mer- 

negro ['negru] (m. =*), black 

nenhum [nd ' jium] none 

neto ['nstu] m. grandson 

nevar [nd'varj to snow 

neve ['nsva] f. snow 

nevoeiro [ndvu'vvru] in- fog 

niriho I'nijiu] m. nest 

nitido ['ni;ti&u] neat 

nd ['no] m. knot 

ndbre ['ntibrd] noble 

no$ao [nu'suu] f. notion 

nddoa ['no&wvj f. spot, stain 

noite f'noHd] f. night 

noiva ['n&t-ve] f. bride 

nojo ['noguj m. tedium, disgust 

nome ['novnd] m. name 

nomear [numt'ar] to name 

nor a ['nyre] f. daughter-in-law 

nos [nof] we 

nos [nuf] us 

nota ['note] f. note 

notar [nu'tarj to note, mark 

notdvel [nu'tavsl] notable 

noticia [nu'tvsw] f. notice 

nova ['novu] f. news 

novMlo [nu'velu] m. clue 

novo ['novuj new 

nu [nu:] bare, naked 

nuca ['nuTc'e] f. neck 

nu(l)lo I'nulu] null 
numero ['numaruj m. number 
numeroso [nunid'rozu] numerous 
nunca ['nukv] never 
ntipcias f'nupsivf] f. pi. wed- 

nutrir [nu'triir] to nourish 
nuvem ['nu:wtj f. cloud 


Obedecer [ofofrd'ser] to obey 
obediente [ofid&'i'entd] obedient 
obito I'dbitu] m. death 
obrar [o'frrarj to work 
obrigagao [obrigv'svu] f. obli- 

obrigado [obri'ga&u] obliged 
obscuro [ofyf']m:ru] dark, obs- 

obsequiar [oftdZdkt' ar] to oblige 
observagao [obdSdrvo's^u] f. ob- 

obstdculo [ofyf'takuhij m. ob- 

obter [ofo'ter] to obtain 
o(c)casido [okvzi r vu] f. occasion 
o(c)cidente [o&' dentd] m. west r 


o(c)correr [oku'rrer] occur 
ocio [' osftu] m. leisure 
6culo f'oJculuJ m. eyeglass 
odio ['otyu] m. hatred 
oeste ['weftd] west 
o(f)fender [ofen'der] to offend 
o(f)fensa [o'fesvj f. offense 
o(f)ferecer [ofdrd'ser] to offer 
o(f)ficial[of9si'al] official, officer 
o(f)ficina [ofd'siin'e] f. office, 

(work) shop 

o(f)fieio [o'fiis'iu] m. charge 
olhar [o 'ftar] to look at 
olho ['oftu] m. eye 
oliveira [oli 'vvirvj f. olive-tree 
onde [dndd] where 
opiniao [opin^'un] f. opinion 
o(p)por [o'porj to oppose 
o(p)portuno [opur'tumu] oppor- 

6(p)timo ['otimu] best, very good 
ora ['orv] now 

Portuguese-English Vocabulary. 


oragao [orv'suu] f. prayer, 


orar [o'rar] to pray 
ordem ['ordvi] f, order 
ordenado [ordd'na&u] m. salary 
orelha [u'rvfiv] f. ear 
orgao ['orgvu] organ 
orgulho [or'gufiuj m, pride 
oriente [orl'entd] m. orient, east 
orificio [or^'fiisiu] m. orifice 
origem [o'ri:$ui] f. origin 
ornar [or'nar] to adorn 
orvalho [or'vaftu] m. dew 
osso ['osuj m. bone 
ourives [o'riiv^f] m. goldsmith 
euro [o'ru] m. gold 
ousado [o'za&a] bold, daring 
ousar [o'zar] to dare 
outono [o'to:nu] m. autumn 
outrem f'otrvi] somebody else 
outro f'otruj another 
ouvido [o 'miffu] m. hearing, ear 
ouvir [o'vir] to hear 
ovelha [u'vufo] f. sheep 
ovo f'ovuj m. egg 
oxdld [ofu'la] would to God! 


Pachorra [pv'forrv] f. forbea- 
rance, patience 
pacificp [pis 'si:fiku] peaceable ; 


pacote [pu'krtd] m. packet 
pa$o ['pasu] m. palace 
pddaria [pa&v'ri:vj f. bakery 
padecer [pvfo'ser] to suffer 
pddeiro [pa'&viru] baker 
padrdo [pu'&ruu] m. pattern 
padririho [jm'&riyiu] m. god- 

pai [pai] m. father 
paga ['pagu] f. pay(ment) 
pagamento [pu$u'mentu] w?.(pay-) 


pagao [pie 'gvuj m. pagan 
pdgem ['pajvtf m. page 
paisdgem [pai'za^] f. lands- 

pais [pisi:f] m. country 
paixao [pai'fuu] f. passion 
pdldcio [pu'la&u] m. palace 

palavra [pu'lavru] f. word 
polha ['pads] f. straw 
pdllido f'palid'uj pale 
pdlma ['pcdmu] palm(-tree) 
palmeira [pal'm^rie] f. palm- 

pdlpar [pal' par] to tonch 
pdlpebra [ 'palprtrvj f. eyelid 
pancada [pv'Tta&v] f. blow 
panella [pu 'nelv] f. kitchen-pot,. 


panno ['pvnu] m. cloth 
pdo [pvu] m. bread 
papel [pie' pel] m. paper 
para ['p&rvj for 
parabens [puru 'bvifj m. pi. fe- 

pardgem [pv'ragvi] f. halting- 
place; abode 

paraiso [purv'iizu] in. Paradise 
parar [pv 'rar] to halt, to dwell 
partial [pur'dal] m. sparrow 
pardo f'parduj grey 
pavecer [purd 'serj to seem 
pareddo fpurd'sifritj alike 
pareddo [purd'tfeu] m. big wall,. 


parede [pv'refoj f. wall 
parelha [pv'rvlhv] f. pair, team 
parente [pv'rentd] related (re- 
pardchia, paroquia [pv'rokw] f- 


imroc(h)o ['pariiku] m. son 
parque ['parkdj m. park 
parreira [pv'rrvirv] f. vine 
parte ['partd] f. part 
participar [pvrtesi'par] to par- 
ticipate, partake 
particular [pvrtiku'lar] = 
partida [pur'tidv] f. depart 
partido [pvr'ti&u] m. party 
partir [pur'tir] to depart; to 


pascer [puf'ser] to pasture 
Pdscoa f'pafkwv] f. Easter 
pasmar [peg 'mar] to puzzle, to- 
be stupefied 
passa [ r pasv] f. raisin 
passdgem [pv'sa$ui] f. passage 
passar [pu'sar] to pass 
pdssaro ['pasvru] m. bird 


Portuguese-English V ocabulary. 

passear [pvsf'ar] to (take a) 


passeio [pv'suiu] m. walk 
passo ['] m. step 
pasta f'paftvj f. portfolio; 


2)astar fyvf^tar] to pasture 
pastel [pref'tel] m. pie, pastry 
pastelciro [pvftd'luiru] m. pas- 

pasto ['paftu] m. pasture 
pastor [pie f tor] m. shepherd 

pato ['p&tu] m. duck 
patrao [pu'trvu] patron 
patria f'patriv] f. native country 
patricio [pv'triis'iu] m. patrician 
patroa [pv'trov] f. mistress 
pauta fpOMte] f. tariff; lines 
pautado [pan 'ta&oj ruled 
pacao [pv'viiu] m. peacock 
pavilliao [pwi 'fivu] m. pavilion 
paz [pafj f. peace 
pe [pe] m. foot 
peao [pi'uu] m. pedestrian 
pega ['psse]^ piece, play 
peccado [pd'ka&u] m. sin 
pedaQO [pd'dasu] m. piece, bit 
pedido [pd'&iiffu] m. request, 


pedinte [pd'ffmte] m. beggar 
pedir [pd'&ir] 'to ask, beg, desire, 
order Zo^ 

pedra [pe'&ru] f. stone 
pega ['pegvj f. magpie 
pegar [pz'gar] to glue, to lay 

hold of 

peito f'pvitu] m. breast 
peixe ['pvift] m. fish 
pel(7)e ['pelj f. skin 
pel(l)ica [p& 'liikv] f. kid-leather 
pel(l)o f'pelu] m. hair 
pena ['peme] f. pain, punish- 
ment; ter to be sorry 
pender [pen'derj \ to hang, 
pendurar fpSndu'rarJ } suspend 
penedo [pd'ne&u] m. rock 
penetrar [pmd'trar] to penetrate 
penhor fpi'jiorj m. gift, talent 
penhorar [pijiu'rarj to engage, 

penitencia [pwi'tesju] f. peni- 


penna ['penv] f. pen, feather 
pewoso [pd ' nozu] painful 
pensar [pe'sar] to think 
pente [penis] m. comb 
pent ear fpent} f arj to comb 
peqwno [pd'kenu] little 
pera ['peris] pear 
perante [pd'rvntd] before 
perceber [pwsa'fter] to perceive 
percorrer [pjrku'rrer] to run 


per da ['perdu] f. loss 
perdao [pdr'dau] m. pardon 
perder [pdr'der] to lose 
perdoar [pdr'dwar] to pardon 
perecer [pdra'serj to perish 
pereira [pd'ruirv] f. pear-tree 
perfeito [por'fvituj perfect 

periodo [pd'riu&u] m. period 
2)ermissao [pdrmi's&uj f. per- 


perna ['pern's] f. leg 
perola ['pcrulv] f. pearl 
persa ['persu] m.&f.& a. Persian 
perseguir [pdrsd'gir] to per- 


persiano [pdrsi>'vnu] a. Persian 
pertencer [pdrie'ser] to belong 
perto ['pertu] near ps**^ <* 
pesado [pd'za&u] heavy 
pesar [pd'zar] to weigh 
pesca ['psfkvj f. fishing 
pescogo [plf'kosu] m. neck 
peso f'pezu] m. weight 
pessego f'pesdgu] m. peach 
2)essimo ['pesimu] worst, very 


pessoa [pd'sou] f. person 
pez [pef] f. pitch 
pharmdcia, f armada [fur 'masw] 

f. pharmacy 
photo graplio } fottigrafo [fu 'to- 

grvfuj m. photograph 
physico, fisico['fi:ziku]m. physical 
pia [pi:v] f. trough, basin 
picar [pi'karj to sting 
pimenta [pi' mentis] f. pepper 
piriheiro [pf>' nviru] m. pine-tree 

Portuguese-English Vocabulary. 


pinlio ['pijiu] m. pine-wood 

pintainho [pmtv'ijiu] m. dab- 

pintura [pin'tura] f. picture, 

piano ['pie nu] m. project 

planta f'plvntv] f. plant, sole, 

plum a [' plum's J f. feather 

p6 [po] f. dust, powder 

poire ['pobrej poor 

pogo ['posuj m. well 

poder [pu o&r] m. might, power 

prato ['pratu] m. dish 
prazer [prv'zer] m. pleasure 
prazo ['prazu] m. term 
preceder fyrasd'der] to precede 
precioso [prds^'ozu] precious 
preciso [prd'sizu] necessary, 


preqo f'presuj m. price 
prefdcio fpr}'fas}uj m. preface 
pregar [pre'garj to preach 
pregar [pw'gar] to nail 
,prego ['prsyu] nail, hat-pin 
preffuigoso [prdgi'sozu] lazy 

poet a, poetisa [pu'ctv, pui 'tizv] ^fpergunta [por 'guntvj f. question 
" nf ^^~ ' 

pois fpoifj now, afterwards, 

then, well 

polvora ['ptivurv] f. powder 
poniba ['pombv] f. pigeon 
pombal fpom'bal] m. dove-cot 

/ P 
I [p 


ponla f'pontvj f. point, top 
ponte ['pontdj f. bridge 
ponto f'pQntu] f. stitch, point 
ponlual [pontio'al] punctual 
por [por] to put ) <7"7 

porco ['pprliu] dirty, m. hog 
porque ['purkd] because; why 
porta ['port's] f. door 
portador [purtv'&or] m. bearer 
portanto [pur'tvniuj conse- 
portdtil [pur'tatil] bearable, 

pocket .... 

porte ['portd] m. post-pay, depart- 

portugues [purtu 'gefj Portuguese 
posse ['poso] f. possession 
possivel [pu 'si:vij possible 
possuir [pusu'ir] to possess 
2wsta ['poftv] post 
poste ['poftd] m. stake, pillar 
posto ['poftu] m. place, post 
posto que [poftujfo] though 
pouco ['pcikuj little 
poupar [po'par] to spare 
'povoado [pu'vuadu] populous, 


praga f'prasv] f. place 
prado ['prafru] m. meadow 
praia ['prai^s] f. shore 
pranto ['priintu] m. weeping 
prata ['pratis] f. silver 

Portuguese Conversation-Grammar. 

fprdgw 'izu] m. pre- 
prtmio ['prsMiu] m. premium, 

prenda f'prendu] f. present, 


presa f'prezv] f. prey 
presente [prd 'zentz] (m.) present 
pressa f'prcsv] f. hurry 
prestar [prtf'tar] to lend, give 
prestimo f'preftimujm.iitness, use 
presunto [prd'zuntu] m. ham 
pretexto fprd'teftu] m. pretext 
preto f'pretuj m. negro, black 
prim aver a f prim's 'vervj Spring 
primeiro fpri'mvtruj first 
principe f'prts'ipdj m. prince 
prindpiar [prisdpi'ar] to begin 
prisdo [pri'zuu] f. prison 
probUma fpru 'blemvj m. problem 
procissao fprusi'svu] f. pro- 
procurar [pniku'rar] to procure, 

prodigio [pru' d~i:$}u] m. prodigy, 


prodigo ['pro&igu] prodigal 
profissao fprufi'svu] m. profes- 

prof undo [pru'fun&u] profound 
progresso [pru'grssuj m. pro- 

projectil [pru'^etil] m. projectile 
prdlogo [ f prolug/u] m. prologue 
prome(t)ter [prumd 'ter] promise 
pronto [prontu] ready 
pronuncia^ fpru'nuswj f. pro- 


Portuguese-English Vocabulary. 

propor [pru'porj propose 
pr6prio f'prjpnuj proper 
proseguir [prusd'gir] to pro- 

prova ['provv] f. proof 
provdvel [pru'vavsl] probable 
proveito [pru'vvrtuj m. profit 
prdximo f'prnsimu] next ; m. 

fellow- creature 
Prussia ['pruswj f. Prussia 
prussiano [prusi'vnu] m. Prus- 

fyjsalmo f'salmu] m. psalm 
piiblicar [pufjli'kar] to publish 
pulmao [pul'mvu] m. the lungs 
pulo ['puluj m. leap, jump 
pulsagao [pulsv 'svuj f. pulsation 
pulso ['puisuj m. pulse 
punho f'pujiuj m. fist; ruffle 
puro f'puruj pure 
puxar [pu'farj to push 

Quadrado [kwu'&ra&u] square 
quadragesimo [kii-u&rv 'gezimu] 


quadro ['kwa&ru] m. picture 
quadrupede [kum 'ffrupdfo] m. 

qual [kwal] which 
qualidade [kweli'&a&d] f. quality 
qualificar [kiwldfi'kar] qualify 
qualquer [kwcd'ker] any 
quando ['kwunduj when 
quantia [kwen'tins] f. sum 
quantidade [kwvnt} 'ffafoj f. 

quanto ["kwvntu] how much? 

as much as 

quarenta [kwe f rente] forty 
quarto ['Ivwartu] room 
quasi ['kwazi] almost, nearly 
quotorze [kis'torzd] fourteen 
quatro [ kivatru] four 
que fa, JciJ which; that; what? 
quebrar [kz'firar] to break 
queda ["ksdu] f. fall 
queijo ['kyigu] m. cheese 
[kvi'mar] to burn 

quei.xa ['kwfu] f. complaint 
queixo ['kvffuj m. chin 

quern [kvi>] who 
quente I'kentdJ hot 
quer . . quer [her] whether . . or 
querer [kd'rer] will, want /^ 
querido [kd'ri&u] beloved 
questdo [ktf'tvuj f. question 
quieto [kfi'etuj quiet 
quinhentos [ki'jientuf] five 

quinquagesimo [kwikwv 'gezimu] 


quintet, ['kmtv] f. fifth; farm 
quintal [km'tal] m. =, garden 
quinto f'kmtu] fifth 
quinze [ r klz9] fifteen 
quotidiano [kotd&i'vnu] daily 


Rabeca [rrv'fakv] f. violin 
rdbo ['rraftu] m. tail 
raga ['rrasis] f. race 
rachar [rrv far] to rend, cleave 
raciocinio [rrvslu'sintuj m. rea- 


radiante [rrvdi'vntd] radiant 
rairiha [me 'im] f. queen 
raio ['rraiuj m. ray, beam; 

flash of lightning 
raiva ['rraive] f. wrath 
raiz [rru'ifj f. root 
ralhar [rrv fiar] to scold 
ramalhete [rrumu' fieta] m, nose- 

ramo ['rramu] m. branch 
rapariga [rrvpa'rig.u] f. girl, 


rapaz [rris 'pafj m. boy, lad 
raposa [rru'pozu] f. fox 
raro ['rraru] rare 
rasgar [rrvg'gar] to tear 
rasgo f'rraggu] m. stroke, trait 
raso ['rrazu] shorn 
rato ['rratu] m. rat 
razao [rru'zvu] f. reason 
real [rri'al] = 
rebocar [rrdbu'kar] to tow 
recado [rrd'ka&u] m. message, 


reea(h)ir [rrekv'ir] to relapse 
recebedor [rrdsdbd' &or] m. col- 

Portuguese-English Vocabulary. 


receber [rrasiberj to receive 
receio [rrd'ss^u] m. fear 
receoso [rrdsi'ozu] apprehensive 
receita [rra'svitvj f. income 
recente [m'sentd] recent 
recepQao [rrdsi'svu] f. reception 
rccibo [rd'sibu] m. receipt 
recfproco [rr sipruku] reciprocal 
recita ['rrssitv] f. representation 
reclame [rra'lclvmuj m. bird-call 
recobrar [rrzku'brar] to recover 
recolher [rrdlcu'/ierj to gather, 

with draw 
recolhimento [rrakufii'mentu] m. 


recompensa [rraktim'pensvj f. re- 

reconciliar [rrdkosyty'ar] recon- 
cile [ful 
reconhecidofrrd 'Uujid 'si^/thank- 
recordagao [rrskurtfu ' svu] f. re- 

recreio [rra'krv}uj m. recreation 
rectidfo [rreti'&uu] f. rectitude 
recto ['rretu] righteons 
recuar [rrd'Ttwar] to draw back 
recusa rrd'kuzu] f. refusal 
rede ['rreddj f. net (-work) 
redempgao [rradvl'sviij /. re- 
demption, ransom 
reduzir [rw&u'zir] reduce 
reflectir [rrdfU'tirJ reflect 
reflexao [rrdfls'svu] f. reflection 
reflexo [rrd 'fleksuj m. reflex 
refugio [m'fu&u] m. refuge, 


rega ['rregvj f. irrigation, wa- 

rega$o [rrd 'gasuj m. lap, bosom 
regador [rrd 'gv '&or] m. watering- 
regalo [m'galu] m. pleasure; 


regar [rw'garj to water 
regateira [rrdgv'tatrv] f. huck- 


regedor [rr^d'&or] m. governor 
regeneragdo [rwgdndris 'svu] f. 


reger [rrl>'$er] to govern 
regicida [rr}gd 'si&is] m. and f. 

regist(r)o [rn' $ift(r)u] m. re- 

rego ['rreguj m. furrow 
regosijofrrdgu'zijujm. joy, mirth 
regra ['rregrvj f. rule(r) 
regressar [rragrd'sarj to return 
regua ['rregwv] f. ruler 
regular [mgu 'lar] = 
rei [rrvij m. king 
reinado [rnei'na&u] m. reigu 
reinar [rrui'nar] to reign 
reino ['nuinu] m. kingdom 
rtis [rr&f] m. pi. Portuguese 

(copper) coin 

reitor [rrvi'tor] m. rector 
rejeitar [rr}$ei'ta,r] reject 
relagcio [rrdlv'svuj f. relation 
reldmpago [rrd'lvmpvguj m. 

lightning flash 
relatdrio [rrtiv'toriu] m. report, 


relevo [rrd'levuj m. relief 
relogio rra'lojiu] m. watch 
relva ['rrdvu] f. turf 
remar [rrd' mar] to row 
remate [rn'matd] m. conclusion, 


remediado [rrdmd&l' a&u] well-off 
remediar [rrsmdd^ar] to remedy 
remedio [rrd'mediu] m. remedy 
remessa [rrd'mesu] f. remittance 
remeter [rramd'ter] to remit 
remo^ ['rremu] m. row 
remorso [rrd' worm] m. remorse 
remoto [rrd'motu] remote 
renda ['rrendv] f. lace 
rendeiro [rreri dwru] m. tenant, 

render [rren'der] to render; 

rendimento [rrendi'mentu] m. 


rendoso [rren'dozu] productive 
renegar [rrdnd'gar] to disown 
renovar [rranu'var] to renew 
renovo [rrd 'novuj shoot, offspring 
renunciar [rrdntist'ar] to re- 

reo [rreu] m. accused 
reparar [rrdpu'rar] to repair 
reparo [rrd'paru] m. satisfaction, 



Portuguese-English Vocabulary. 

reparti$ao [rrapurti'svu] f. re- 

repente [rrz 'penfa] (de} suddenly 
repentino [rrdpen'tinu] sudden 
rcpetir [rnp9 tir] to repeat 
repleto [rra'pletu] overcrowded; 

repolho [rrd'poftu] m. headed 


reposteiro [rrdpuf'tuwu] m. cur- 

repouso [rrs'pozuj m. repose, rest 


represa [rw'prezu] f. lock, sluice 
reproduzir [rrdpru&u' zir] repro- 

repuxo [rrz'pufu] m. spout 
requerer [rrdkz'rdr] to solicit J y 
res [rref] f. cattle 
res [rrsf] (do chao) m. groundfloor 
resentir (-se) [rrdsen'tir(-sd)] to 


resfriar [rrtffri' ar] to cool 
resina [rre'ziinv] f. resin 
resistir [rrdZ'if'tiir] to resist 
resma ['rregmv] f. ream 
resoluto [rrzzu'lutu] resolute 
resolver [rwzol'ver] to resolve 
respeito [rr'if'pv'itu] m. respect 
respirar [rnfpi'rar] to breathe 
responder [rrifpon f der] to answer 
restituiQao [rriftitui'siiu] f. res- 

resto ['rrsftu] m. rest 
resumir [rrdzu'mir] to resume 
resurgir [rrdsur'gir] to revive 
resuscitar [rrdsufsi'tar] resusci- 

retalho [rrd'tafiu] m. remnant 
reter [rrd'ter] to withhold, re- 

retirar [rrati'rar] to retire 
retrato [rrd'tratuj m. portrait 
reuniao [rriuni'vu] f. reunion 
reverente [fflto'r&ntoj reverent 
reverso [rrd'vsrsu] m. opposite, 

back -side 

revez [m'vef] m. reverse, mis- 

revezar [mm f zar] to do by turns 
revisao [rravi'zuu] f. revision 

revistar [rrdvif'tar] to revisit 
reza ['rrezv] f. prayer 
rezar [m'zar] to pray 
r(h)eumatismo [rreum v 'tigmuj m . 


ribeira [rri'bvfrv] f. brook, bank 
ribeiro [rri'twiru] m. rivulet 
ridicule [rrd'&ikulu] ridiculous 
rifa f'rrifv] f. lottery 
rijo f'rrigu] strong, hard 
rim [rri] m. kidney 
rima ['rrimv] f. rime 
rio ['rriu] m. river 
riquesa [rri'kezv] f. riches, 


rir frrirj to laugh 
risca [rrifka] f. stroke 
riso [ r rri:zu] m. laughter 
roca ['rroka] f. distaif 
roch a ['rrofv] f. rock 
rocio [rru'si'uj m. square 
roda ['rro&v] f. wheel 
rodear [rrufty 'arj to turn round, 


roer [rruer] to gnaw 
rogar [rru'gar] to entreat 
rogo ['rroguj m. request, en- 

rol [rrd] m. roll, list 
rola f'rrolv] f. turtle-dove 
rolo ['rrolu] m. roll, cylinder 
romance [rru'musd] m. = 
romano [rru'mvnu] 
rosa ['rrozv] f. rose 
i] ; 

) f'rroftu] m. face 
roto ['rrotuj torn 
rotulo ['rrotuluj m. label 
roubar [rro'tarj to rob 
roubo ['rrofiu] m. robbery 
rouco ['rroTtu] hoarse 
roupa ['rropa] f. clothes 
rouxinol [rrofi'nd] m. nightin- 

roxo f'rrofuj violet 
rua I'rruns] f. street 
rude ['rru&z] = 
rugir [rru'gir] to roar 
ruido [rru'i&u] m. noise 
ruivo ['rruivuj ruddy 
rumo f'rrumuj m. rhumb-line 
russo ['rrusu] Russian 
rustico ['rruftikuj m. rustic 

Portuguese-English Vocabulary. 



Sabao [se'tuuj m. soap 
sd(b)bado ['safovtifu] Saturday 
saber [su'ber] to know 
sdbio f'safyu] wise, learned 
sabonete [sebu'netd] m. soap 
sabor [sis 'borj m. taste, savour 
sabre / 'safirs] m. sable 
sacar [sis r kar] to draw, pull 
saca-rolhas [sake 'rofaf] m. cork- 

sa(c)co [ ' saku] m. sack, bag 
socriflcio [sTskrd'fi:giu]m. sacrifice 
socudir [s'e'ku'&ir] to shake 
sadio [sa'di:u] healthy, sound 
safar (-se) [sv'far(sd)] to run 


sctgrado [sv'gradu] sacred 
sa(h)ir [se'ir] to go (out) 
saia [saiiy] f. petticoat 
saibro ['saibruj m. gravel 
sal [sat] m. salt 
salada [su'laftu] f. salad 
saldrio [su'lariu] m. salary 
salgar [sctt'qar] to salt 
sctlitre [su'liitrd] m. saltpetre 
saliva [sis 'Uivv] f. = 
salmao [sal'mvu] m. salmon 
salsa ['salsu] f. parsley 
saltar [sat 'tar] to jump 
saltear [satfri'ar] to assault 
salto ['saituj m. jump 
salvar [sal'var] to save 
salvo ['salvu] safe 
sanar [sis'nar] to cure, heal 
sanear [svni 'arj to make whole- 

sangria [sv'gri:v] f. bleeding 
sangue [ sugd] m. blood 
santificar [suntefi'Jcar] to sanctify 
santo ['svntu] m. saint 
sapateiro [svptftvtru] m. shoe- 

sapato [sis'patu] m. shoe 
sapo f'sapuj m. toad 
saque f'sakd] m. pillage, (drawing 

of a) bill of exchange 
sarctiva [su'rvive] f. hail 
sardinha [svr'diyiis] f. sardine 
satisfa(c)ao [sistyffis 'svu] f. satis- 

satisfazer [svtiffv ' zer] to satisfy 
saiidade [svuo&fib] f. melancho- 
ly, longing 

saiidar [suu'&ar] to salute 
saude [sv'ufo] f. health 
saudoso [suu'&ozu] melancholic 
scenario [sd'nartu] m. scenery 
sce(2))tro ['setruj m. sceptre 
sciencia [si 'es}v] f. science 
scientifico [s^en'tiflkuj scientific 
scismar [si$ 'mar] to muse, medi- 

se [se] f. see, cathedral 
sebe I'ssfid] f. hedge 
sebo f'sebuj m. tallow 
se(c)ca f'ssku] f. dryness 
se(c)co ['seku] dry 
secreto [sd'kretu] secret 
seculo ['sskulu] m. century 
seda ['se&isj f. silk 
sede ['ss&d] f. seat 
sede ['sefoj f. thirst 
sege ['setf] f. chaise 
segredo [sd'gre&u] m. secret 
seguir [sd'gir] to follow 
segundo [sd'gunduj m. second 
segurq [sa'guru] secure 
m. bosom, lap 

seva svivis] f. sap, juice 
seixo ['svtfu] m. pebble 
se(l)la f'sdv] f. saddle 
se(l)lo ['selu] m. stamp 
selvdgem [sel'vagui] savage 
sem [sv}J without 
semana [sd'misnie] f. week 
semear [sdmt'ar] to sow 
semente [sa'mento] seed 
semi . . . f'sdmi . . .] 
sempre ['seprdj always 
senao [sd'nvu] except, safe 
sen h a [svjvs]f. sign, mark, watch- 

senhorio [stijiu'ri'uj m. landlord 
sensivel [se'sivel] sensible 
sentenga [sen'tesv] f. sentence 
sentir ['sen'tir] to feel 
separar [sdpu'rar] to separate 
sequito f'sskituj m. suit 
ser [ser] to be; m. being 
serao [sd 'rvuj m. evening (-party) 
sereno fo'renuj serene 





Portuguese-English Vocabulary. 

serio ['serlu] serious 
serpente [sdr 'pente] m. serpent 
serra ['ssrrii] f. saw; chain of 


serralheiro [s9rru 'fi&iru] m. lock- 

sessdo [sa'suu] f. session 
sessenta [sz'sentu] sixty 
severo [sd'vsru] severe 
sexo ['sslcsu] m. sex 
sexta-feira [suifte'f'eiris] Friday 
silencio [si'lesfuj m. silence 
si(l)ldba f'silvbe] f. syllable 
sim [si] yes 
sincere [si'seru] sincere 
singelo [si'gelu] simple 
singular [sigu'lar] m. = 
sino [ r si:nu] m. bell 
sitio ['si:t}uj m. spot, place 
sit(uad)o ['sit(uad~)u] situated 
s6 [so] alone, only 
soar [su'ar] to ring, sound 
sob f'sobz] under 
sobre [scibrd] upon, on 
sobremesa [sobrd 'mezu] f. dessert 
sobrenome [stibrz 'nomdj m. sur- 

sobrinho [su'brijiu] m. nephew 
sobrio ['sobriuj sober 
so(c)co ['sokuj m. sock; blow 
so(c)corro [so 'korruj m. succour 
socio ['sos^u] m. member, partner 
so(f)frer [su'frer] suffer 
so(f)frivel [su'fri'vrij tolerable 
sogra f'sogrv] f. mother-in-law 
sdyro f'sogruj m. father-in-law 
sol [srt] m. sun 
sola ['sdlis] f. sole 
solar [su'lar] m. mansion-house 
soldado [sot'daffu] m. soldier 
soldo ['soldu] m. (soldier's) pay 
sole(m)ne [su'lsnd] solemn 
solidao [suli'ffvu] f. solitude 
solido ['soli&u] m. solid 
solitdrio [suli'tariu] solitary 
solo ['soluj m. soil 
soltar [sol 'tar] to free, loosen 
solto ['sottu] free, loose 
sow, [sdj m. sound 
sombra [ f sdmbrv] f. shade 
sombrio [som'briiu] shady, dull 
so(m)ma ['some] f. sum 

so(m)no ['sonuj m. sleep 
sonho ['sonu] m. dream 
sopa ['sopn] f. soup 
soprar [su 'prar] to blow 
sopro f'sopruj m. blowing, breath 
sorrir [su'rrir] to smile 
sorte ['sortd] f. sort, fate 
sossego [su'segu] m. calmness 
suar [su'ar] to sweat 
sub . . . [sub] . . .] 
subida [subi:&v] f. ascent 
stibito f'subitu] sudden 
sublime [su'bliimd] = 
subme(t)ter [submd'terj to subject 
submisso [sub'misu] submissive 
subscri(p)sqo [sufyjkri'svu] f. 


substdncia [sufyf'tvs'iv] f. sub- 

su(c)ceder [suso'tfer] succeed 
su(c)cesso [su 'SESU] m. success 
sueco [ f sweku] m. Swedish 
sufficiente [sufdsi 'entdj sufficient 
suicida [sui'si:&u] m. f. suicide 
Suissa [sw'isv] f. Switzerland 
sujeito [su'gvitu] subject 
sujo [ f su$u] m. dirty 
sul [sul] m. South 
su(m)mo ['sumuj highest 
suor [su'or] m. sweat 
super fide [supzr'fi.'Std] f. super- 

superfluo [su 'psrfluu] superfluous 
superior [supd'rior] m. = 
superstiqao [suporfti 'suuj f. su- 
su(p)plemento [suplz'mgntu] m. 


su(p)por [su'por] suppose 
su(p)portar [supur'tar] support 
supremo [su'premu] supreme 
supra . . . ['supruj . . .] = 
surdo ['surdu] deaf 
surdo-mudo [surdu' -mu&u] deaf- 

surpresa [sur'prezv] f. surprise 
surto fsurtuj anchored 
suspeito [sufpvituj m. suspect 
suspiro [suf'piiru] m. sigh 
sustento [siiftentuj m. sustenance, 

susto ['suftu] m. fright 

Portuguese-English Vocabulary. 



Tdbacaria [tebv'kv'rii'e] f. to- 

tabaco [tu'baku] m. tobacco 
tabe(l)liao [tufo'limi] m. notary 
tabokiro [tvftu'luiru] m. fray, 

gaming- board 

tabuleta [tuftu'letv] sign (-board) 
tabua ['tabws] f. table(t) 
taga ['tasv] f. bowl 
tacdo [tu'hiiu] m. heal 
tacto ['tatu] m. touch 
talhar [tu'fiar] to cut 
tottie ['ta/idj m. form, shape 
tdllio ['tafiu] m. cut, chopping- 


tolvez [tal'vef] perhaps 
tamanho [tv'mvjiu] (so) great 
tanto f'tvntu] so much 
tao [tvu] so, such 
tapar [tv'par] to cover 
tapete [tu'petd] m. carpet 
tardar [tvr'dar] to tarry 
tarde ['tarda] f. afternoon, eve- 

tarefa [tv'refu] f. task 
taxa ['tufv] f. tax, rate 
tecelao [tdsd'luu] m. weaver 
tecer [to'ser] to weave 
tecido fa'si&u] m. tissue 
tecto ['tetu] m. roof 
tela ['tells] cloth, linen 
telegrapho fo'legrvfu] m. tele- 

telha ['tufa] f. tile 
temer [te'mer] to fear 
tempo f'tempuj m. time 

testa ['tEftu] f. forehead 
testemunha [tyftd r mujiv] f. testi- 
mony, witness 
texto ['teftu] m. text 
tia ['ti:uj f f. aunt 
tijolo [ti'golu] m. brick 

u l 


timido ['timiffu] timid 
tingir [tt'$ir] to dye 
tinteiro [tm'tuiru] m. inkstand 
tinto ['tintu] dyed, red 
tio ['ti'uj in. uncle 
tirar [ti'rar] to draw 
toolha [tu'aliv] f. towel 
tocar [tu'car] to touch 
todo ['toffuj (adj.) all 
tomar [tu 'mar] to take 
tomo ['tomuj m. tome 
tonel [tu'nsl] m. tun, cask 
tormento [tur'mentuj m. torment 
tornar [tur'nar] to (re)turn, 'V^ 
torre ['torrd] f. tower, steeple 
torrente [tu'rrentd] f. torrent 
torto ['tortuj crooked, tortuous 
tortura [tur'turv] f. torture 
tosse [ f tos9] f. cough 
toucinho [to'sijiuj m. bacon 
touro ['torn] m. bull 
trabalho [trv'baftu] m. work 
tra$o ['trasu] m. touch, sketch 
tradusir [tne&u'zir] to translate 
trdfego ['trafdgu] m. \ tr _ ffip 
trdfico ['trafikuj m. ) tratfl< 
traidor ['trai&or] m. traitor 
trojo [tra$u] m. garb 
tranqui(l)lo [trU 'kwilu] tranquil 
transcrever [trvfkrd'verj trans- 
transports [trvf'port9j m. trans- 

tempo [ lempuj m. time <kA. wcwwpi 

temporal [tempu'ral] m. =5f(T Vv ^ port 

tenaz [td 'nafj f. tenacious transtorno [trvf'tornu] m. distur 


tratar [tru'tar] to treat, deal 
trato [train] m. treatment 
trave ['trav&] f. beam 
travessa [tfe 'vests] f. 

tengao [te'svu] f. intention 
tencionar [tes^u'nar] to intent 
tenente [td'nentd] m. lieutenant 
tentar [ten' tar] to tempt 
tepido ['tepi&u] tepid 
terminar tdrmi'nar] terminate 
terra ['terra] earth, ground 
terreiro fa'rrvtru] m. terrace, 


terremoto [tdrrd'motuj m. earth- 
tesoura [td'zoru] f. scissors 


trazer [tru'zer] to carry, bring 
trecho ['tnefu] m. excerpt 
trem [trui] m. carriage 
tremer [trd'mer] to tremble 
trevo ['trevu] trefoil 
treze ['trezd[ thirteen 


Portuguese-English Vocabulary. 

trezentos [trd'zentuf] three hund- 

trigo ['trigu] m. wheat, coin 
Trindade [inn 'dafo] f. Trinity 
triplice ['triplisd] triple 
triste ['triftd] sad 
trocar [tru'karj to change 
troco I'trokuJ m. change 
tronco ['troku] m. trunk 
tropa ['tropvj f. troop 
tropel [tru'psl] troop, multitude 
trovao [tru'vuuj m. thunder 
trovejar [true}' gar] to thunder 
tudo I'tu&u] the whole, all, 


tumulo f'tumuluj m. tomb 
turco ['turlcu] m. Turk 
turvo f'turvu] muddy 


ultimo ['ultimu] last 

undnime [u'nunim9] 1 unanimous 

unlia ['uyiu] f. nail 

imido [uni'vu] f. union 

unico ['uniku] only, sole 

unidade [uni'&ad'd] f. unity 

unir [u'nir] to unite 

urbano [ur bvnuj civil 

urgente [ur'$entd] m. urgent 

urso ['ursu] m. bear 

urze I 'urzd] f. sweet broom 

uso ['uzu] m. use 

usual [uzu'al] = 

usura [u'zuru] f. usury 

util ['util] useful 

uva ['uvv] f. grape 


Vacca ['valcie] f. cow 
vacua f'vakwuj void, empty 
vaga ['vage] f. wane 
vagar [vv'gar] m. leisure 
vago [ r vag.u] vacant, vague 
vaidade vai'd'ad'd] f. vanity 

[vai'&ozu] vain 

ald] m. post-office order 
volente [ve 'lenta] valiant 
vctler [vv'lerj to be worth/ ^6 
vdlido ['vali&u] valid, efficacious 
volido [ve'liffu] m. favourite 

valor [ve 'lor] m. value 
valsa ['valsu] f. valse 
vantdgem [v^n'ta^J f. advan- 

vantajoso [viiniv r $ozu] advan- 


vao [vvu] void, vain ; ?.. void 
vdrio f'variuj various 
varrer [vu'rrer] to sweep 
vasa f'vazv] f. slime 
vasar [vu'zar] to empty 
voso ['vazu] m. vase, vessel 
vasto f vajtu] vast 
vazio [ve'ziiu] empty 
veado [vi'adu] m. deer 
vegetal [wgd'tal] m. vegetable 
vela ['vein] f. sail 
velho ['vsfiu & 'vufiuj old 
ve(l)ludo [vd'lu&u] m. velvet 
veloz [w'lof] swift 
veneer [ve'ser] to vanquish 
venda {'vends] f. sale 
vender [ven'der] to sell 
ceneno [vd'nenu] m. poison 
vento fventu] m. wind 
venire ['ventwj m. belly 
ventura [Centura] f. fortune .- / 
VerOade fwravfoj f. truth 
verdadeiro [vdrdv' dviru] true 
verde ['verdd] green 
vergonha [vdr'gojiv] f. shame 
verme ['vermin m. worm 
vermclho [vdr'mvfiu] red 
versdo [vdr'suu] f. version 
verier [vdr'ter] to spill; trans- 


vesper a ['vsffyrv] f. eve 
vestido [vif'tidu] gown, dress 
vestir [vif'tir] to dress 

ves [vef] f. time. t^VfZe ?. 
via ['viiis] f. way, passage 

vidgem [vi'agu'i] f. journey 
vicio f'vi&uj m. vice 
victima [vitima] f. victim 
Victoria [vi'toriie] f. victory 
vida ['vidv] life 
vide ['mifo] f. vine 
vidro ['vid'ru] glass 
vi(l)la ['vilu] f. village 
vinagre [vi'nagrd] m. vinegar 
vinda ['vmdvj f. arrival 
vindima [vln'dimw] f. vintage 

Portuguese-English Vocabulary. 


vingar [vi'gar] to revenge 
viriha ['vijwj f. vineyard 
viriho ['vijiuj m. wine 
vintem [vin'tui] m. Portuguese 

coin of 20 reis 
violento [viu'lentu] violent 
violeta [viu'lete] f. violet 
vir [virj to come 'T 4 <3J V/x0i 
virar [vi'rar] to turn 
virgtda ['virgulu] f. comma 
wril [vi'ril] manly 
virtude [vir'tufo] f. virtue 
vista ['viftvj f. view 
visto [\~iftu] seen 
viuvo [vt'uvu] m. widomer 
vivo f'vivu] alive 
viziriho [vd'ziyiu m. neighbour 
voar [vu'ar] to fly 
volta ['vottvj f. turn 

voltar [vol'tar] to (re)turn, 
volume [vu'lumd] m. volume 
volver [vol'ver] to go back, to 


vontade [von'tafo] f. will, wish 
voo [vou] m. flight 
voto ['votu] m. vote 
voz [vofj f. voice 


Zanga ['zugu] f. anger 
zangar [zv'gar] to irritate 
zelo ['zelu] m. zeal 
zero I'ZETU] m. zero 
zombar [zdm'bar] to mock 
zumbido [zum'bi&u] m. 1 huni- 
zunido [zu'nifru] in. ] ming. 


Educational Works and Class-Books 




With each newly-learnt language one wins a new soul. Charles V. 

At the end of the 19 th century the world is ruled by the interest for 
trade and traffic; it breaks through the barriers which separate 
the peoples and ties up new relations between the nations. 

William II. 

,,Julius Groos, Publisher, has for the last fifty years been devoting his 
special attention to educational works on modern languages, and has published 
a large number of class-booK.s for the study of those modern languages most 
generally spoken. In this particular department he is in our opinion unsur- 
passed ~by any other German publisher. The series consists of 298 volumes 
of different sizes which are all arranged on the same system, as is easily 
seen by a glance at the grammars which so closely resemble one another, 
that an acquaintance with one greatly facilitates the study of the others. 
This is no small advantage in these exacting times when the knowledge of 
one language alone is hardly deemed sufficient. 

The textbooks of the Gaspey - Otto - Sauer method have, within the 
last ten years, acquired an universal reputation, increasing in pro- 
portion as a knowledge of living languages has become a necessity of modern 
life. The chief advantages, by which they compare favorably with thousands 
of similar books, are lowness of price and good appearance, the happy union 
of theory and practice, the clear scientific basis of the grammar proper com- 
bined with practical conversational exercises, and the system, here 
conceived for the first time and consistently carried out, by which the pupil is 
really taught to speak and write the foreign language. 

To this 'method is entirely due the enormous success with ivhich the 
Gaspey- Otto -Sauer textbooks have met: most other grammars either 
content themselves with giving the theoretical exposition of the grammatical 
forms and trouble tlie pupil with a confused mass of the most far-fetched 
Irregtdarities and exceptions without ever applying them, or go 
to the other extreme, and simply teach him to repeat in a parrot- 
like manner a few colloquial phrases without letting him grasp the 
real genius of the foreign language. 

The system referred to is easily discoverable : 1. in the arrangement of 
the grammar; 2. in the endeavour to enable the pupil to understand a 
regular text as soon as possible, and above all to teach him to speak the 
foreign language; this latter point was considered by the authors so particu- 
larly characteristic of their worKs, that they have styled them to distinguish 
them from other worfis of a similar kind Conversational Grammars. 

The first series comprises manuals for the use of Englishmen and 
consists of 55 volumes. 

Our admiration for this rich collection of worfys, for the method dis- 
played and the fertile genius of certain of the authors, is increased ivhen we 
examine the other series ', which are intended for the use of foreigners. 

In these worlds the chief difficulty under which several of the authors 
liave laboured, has been the necessity of teaching a language in a foreign 
idiom ; not to mention the peculiar difficulties which the German idiom offers 
in writing school-books for the study of that language. 

Method Gaspey-Otto-Sauer 

for the study of modern languages. 

We must confess that for those persons who, from a practical point 
of view, wish to learn a foreign language sufficiently well to enable them to 
write and speak it with ease, the authors have set down the grammatical 
rules in such a way, that it is equally easy to understand and to learn them. 

Moreover, we cannot but commend the elegance and neatness of the type 
and binding of the boo%s. It is doubtless on this account too that these 
volumes have been received with so much favour and that several have reached 
such a large circulation. 

We willingly testify that the. whole collection gives proof of much care 
and industry, both with regard to the aims it has in view and the way. in 
which these liave been carried out, and, moreover, reflects great credit on the 
editor, this collection being in reality quite an exceptional thing of its lc.ind" 

(Extract from the Literary Review.) 

All books bound. 

English Editions. 

Elementary Modern Armenian Grammar by Chilian . . . . 
Arabic Grammar by Thatcher .....' ........ 

Key to the Arabic Grammar by Thatcher ............. 

Arabic Chrestomathy by Harder ............. 

Danish Conversation -Grammar by Thomas ......... 

Key to the Danish Conversation - Grammar by Thomas ......... 

Dutch Conversation-Grammar by Valette. 3. Ed ....... 

Key to the Dutch Co nvers.- Grammar by Valette ...... . 

Dutch Reader by Valette. 2. Ed .......... . . 

French Conversation-Grammar by Otto-Onions. 14. Ed. . . net 
Key to the French Convers.-Grammar by Otto-Onions. 8. Ed. . . . 

Elementary French Grammar by Wright. 4. Ed. 

French Reader by Onions 

Materials for French Prose Composition by Otto-Onions. 5. Ed. 

French Dialogues by Otto-Corkran 

Conversation-Grammar by Otto. 29. Ed ..... net 

Key to the German Convers.-Grammar by Otto. 21. Ed ........ 

Elementary German Grammar by Otto. 9. Ed ......... 

First German Book by Otto. 9. Ed ............. 

German Reader. I. 8. Ed.; II. 5. Ed.; III. 2. Ed. by Otto . . each 
Materials for translating English into German by Otto-Wright. 7. Ed. 
Key to the Mater, f. tr. Engl.i. Germ, by Otto. 3. Ed. ........ 

German Dialogues by Otto. 5. Ed ............. 

Accidence of the German language by Otto-Wright. 2. Ed. ... 

Handbook of English and German Idioms by Lange . . . 
German Verbs with their appropriate prepositions etc. by Tebbitt . 
The Hanssa language (DieHaussasprache; la langue haoussa) by Seidel 
Hindustani Conversation -Grammar by Clair-Tisdall . . . 
Key to the Hindustani Convers.-Grammar by Clair-Tisdall ...... . 

Italian Conversation-Grammar by Sauer-de Arteaga. 9. Ed. net 
Key to the Italian Convers.-Grammar by 8auer-de Arteaga. 8. Ed ..... 

Elementary Italian Grammar by Motti. 4. Ed. . ....... 

Italian Eeader by Cattaneo. 2. Ed ............. 

Italian Dialogues by Motti ......... . ..... 

Japanese Conversation-Grammar by Plaut ......... 

Key to the Japanese Oonv. -Grammar by Plant ............ 

Method Gaspey-Otto-Sauer 

for the study of modern languages. 

English. Editions. 

Modern Persian Conversation-grammar by fcJt. Clair-Tisdall . 

Key to the Mod. Persian Gonvers. -Grammar by St. Clair-Tisdall 

Portuguese Conversation-Grammar by Ey 

Key to the Portuguese Cpnvers.-Grammar by Ey . 

Russian Conversation-Grammar by Motti. 3. Ed 

Key to the Russian Convers. -Grammar by Motti. 3. Ed 

Elementary Russian Grammar by Motti. 3. Ed 

Key to the Elementary Russian Grammar by Motti. 3. Ed 

Russian Reader by Werkhaupt and Roller 

Spanish Conversation-Grammar by Sauer-de Arteaga. 7. Ed. net 
Key to the Spanish Convers.-Grammar by Sauer-de Arteaga. 5. Ed. 

Elementary Spanish Grammar by Pa via. 2. Ed 

Spanish Reader by Arteaga 

Spanish Dialogues by Sauer-Corkran 

Elementary Swedish Grammar by Fort. 2. Ed 

Turkish Conversation -Grammar by Hagopian 

Key to the Turkish Convers.-Grammar by Hagopian 

Arabic Edition. 

Kleine deutsche Sprachlehre fur Araber von Hartinann . .. . . 

Armenian Edition. 

Kleine englische Sprachlehre fur Armenier von Gulian .... 
Bulg-a.ria.n Editions. 

Kleine deutsche Sprachlehre fur Bulgaren von Gawriysky. 2. Aufl. 
Kleine englische Sprachlehre fur Bulgaren von Gawriysky . . 
Kleine franzosische Sprachlehre fur Bulgaren von Gawriysky . 
Kleine russische Sprachlehre fur Bulgaren von Gav/riysky . . 

r>ixtcli Editions. 

Kleine ngelsche Spraakkunst door Ooster 

Kleine Fransche Spraakkunst door Welbergen 

JCleine Hoogduitsche Grammatica door Schwippert. 2. Dr. . . 
Kleine Spaansche Spraakkunst door van Haaff 

Sleutel bij de kleine Spaansche Spraakkunst door van Haaff 

French Editions. 

Grammaire allemande par Otto-Nicolas. 18. Ed 

Corrig6 des themes de la Grammaire allemande par Otto-Nicolas. 7. d. . . 

Petite grammaire allemande par Otto-Verrier. 10. Ed 

Lectures allemandes par Otto. I. 8. &!., II. 5. d., III. 2. Ed. each 

Erstes deutsches Lesebuch von Yerrier 

Conversations allemandes par Otto-Verrief. 5. Iild 

Grammaire anglaise par Mauron-Verrier. 10. ^ld 

Corrige des themes de la Grammaire anglaise par Mauron-Verrier. 5. jd. . . 

Petite grammaire anglaise par Mauron. 7. Ed 

Lectures anglaises par Mauron. 3. Ed 

Conversations anglaises par Corkran. 2. lild 

Grammaire arabe par Armez 

Corrige des themes de la Grammaire arabe par Armez 

Chrestomathie arabe par Harder 

La langue congolaise par Seidel-Struyf 

Method Gaspey-Otto-Sauer 

for the study of modern languages. 

Fi-endi Editions, 

Grammaire espagnole par Bauer-Serrano. 6'. Ed. ...... 4 

Corrige des themes de la gramm. espagn. par Sauer-Serrano. 5. Jfed. 

Petite grammaire espagnole par Tanty. 3. Ed 
Lectures espagnoles par Arteaga 
Grammaire grecqne par Capos 

Corrige des themes de la Grainmaire grecque par Capos 

Petite grammaire hongroise par Kont 

Corrige des themes de la petite grammaire hongroise par Kont 

Chrestomathie hongroise par Kont 

Grammaire italieime par Sauer. 11. ^d 

CorrigS de8 themes do la Grammaire italienne par Sauer. 7. Ed 

Petite grammaire italienne par Motti. 5. Sd 

Chrestomathie italienne par Cattaneo. 3. ]d ......... 

Conversations italiennes par Motti. 2. ld 

Grammaire japoiiaise par Plaut 

Corrige des themes de la Grammaire japonaise par Plaui 

Grammaire neerlandaise par Valette. 3. iSd 
Corrige des themes de la Grammaire neerlandaise par Valette 
Lectures nderlandaises par Valette. 2. ld 
Grammaire portugaise par Armez 
Corrige de la Grammaire portugaise par Armez 
Grammaire ronmaiiic par Lovera 

Corrig6 des themes de la Grammaire roumaine par Lovera 

Grammaire russe par Fuchs-Nicolas. 4. ]d 

Corrige des themes de la Grammaire russe par Fuchs-Nicolas. 4. U 

Petite grammaire russe par Motti. 2. Ed 

CorrigS des themes de la petite grammaire russe par Motti. 2. jd 

Lectures russes par Werkhaupt et Boiler 

Petite grammaire snedoise par Fort 


AraMsche Konversations-Grammatik v. Harder, 2. Aufl. . . . 

SchlQssel dazu v. Harder. 2. Aufl .............. 

Arabische Chrestomathie v. Harder ............ 

Bnlgarisclie Konversations-Grammatik v. Gawriysky .... 

Schlttssel dazu v. Gawriysky ................ 

Ckinesiscbe Konversations-Grammatik v. Seidel ..... . 

Schliissel dazu v. Seidel ................. 

Kleine chinesische Sprachlehre v. Seidel .......... 

Schlttssel dazu v. Seidel ................. 

Danische Konversations-Grammatik v. Wied. 2. Aufl ..... 

Sehltissel dazu v. Wied. 2. Aufl ........... ; . . . . 

Duala Sprachlehre und Worterbuch v. Seidel ........ 

Englisclie Konversations-Grammatik v. Gaspey-Runge. 25. Aufl. 
Schliissel dazu v. Runge. 5. Aufl .............. 

Englisches Konversations-Lesebuch.v. Gaspey-Runge. 6. Aufl. . . 
Kleine englische Sprachlehre Y. Otto-Runge. 7. Aufl ....... 

SchHissel dazu v. Runge .... ......... ..... 

Englische Gesprache v. Runge. 3. Aufl ........ 

Materialien z. t^bersetzen ins Engtische v. Otto-Runge. 4. Aufl. . . 
Englische Chrestomathie v. Siipfle- Wright. 9. Aufl ...... 

Handbuch englischer und deutscher Idiome v. Lange ...... 

Ewe Sprachlehre und Worterbuch v. Seidel ......... 

Kleine finnische Sprachlehre v. Neuhaus ......... 

Franzdsische Konversations-Grammatik v. Otto-Runge. 28. Aufl. 
Schltissel dazu v. Ruuge. 5. Aufl ............... 

Method Gaspey-Otto Sauer 

for the study of modern languages. 


Franz. Konv.-Lesebuch I. 10. Aufl., II. 5. Aufl. v. Otto-Runge. a . . 
Franz. Konv.-Leseb. f. Madchsch. v. Otto-Runge I. 5. Aufl., II. 3. Aufl. a 
Kleine franzosische Sprachlehre v. Otto-Runge. 9. Aufl ...... 

Schlussel dazu v. Runge .................. 

Materialien z. Qbersetzen ins Franzosische v. Runge ....... 

Franzosische Gesprache v. Otto-Runge. 9. Aufl ......... 

Franzosisches Lesebuch v. Siipfle. 11. Aufl. . . . ..... 

Italienische Konversations-Grammatik v. Sauei. 12. Aufl. . . 
Schlflssel dazu v. Cattaneo. 4. Aufl .............. 

Italienisches Konversations-Lesebuch v. Sauer. 5. Aufl ...... 

Italienische Chrestomathie v. Cattaneo. 3. Aufl ........ 

Kleine italienische Sprachlehre v. Sauer. 10. Aufl ....... 

Schlussel dazu v. Cattaneo. 2. Aufl .............. 

Italienische Gesprache v. Sauer-Motti. 5. Aufl ......... 

ttbungsstiicke zum tfbers. a. d. Deutschen i. Ital. v. Lardelli. 5. Aufl. 
Japanische Konversations-Grammatik v. Plaut ...... 

Schlussel dazu v. Plaut ........... '. ...... 

Marokkanische Sprachlehre v. Seidel ......... 

Nengriechisehe Konversations-Grammatik v. Petraris . . . . 

Schlflssel dazu v. Petraris ........... ...... 

Lehrbuch der neugriechischen Yolkssprache v. Petraris ..... 

Niederiandische Konversations-Grammatik v. Valette. 2. Aufl. 
Schlussel dazu v. Valette ................. 

Niederlandisches Konv.-Lesebuch v. Valette. 2. Aufl. . ..... 

Kleine niederlandische Sprachlehre v. Valette. 3. Aufl ...... 

Polnische Konvorsations-Grammatik v. Wicherkiewicz. 3. Aufl. . 
Schlttssel dazu v. Wicherkiewicz. 3. Aufl ......... ..... 

Portugiesisclie Konversations-Grammatik v. Ey . . . . . . 

Schlussel dazu v. Ey .................. 

Kleine portugiesische Sprachlehre v. Kordgien-Ey. 5. Aufl. . . . 

Human isclie Konversations-Grammatik von Lovera ..... 

Schlussel dazu von Lovera ................. 

Russische Konversations-Grammatik v. Fuchs. 5. Aufl. . . . . 

Schliissel dazu v. Fuchs. 5. Aufl ............... 

Russisches Konversations-Lesebuch v. Werkhaupt ....... 

Kleine russische Sprachlehre v. Motti. 3. Aufl ......... 

Schlflssel dazu v. Motti. 3. Aufl ................ 

Scliwedisehe Konversations-Grammatik v. Walter. 2. Aufl. . . 
Schliiasel dazu v. Walter. 2. Aufl .............. 

Kleine schwedische Sprachlehre v. Fort. 2. Aufl ........ 

Spaxiisclie Konversations-Grammatik v. Sauer-Ruppert. 10. Aufl. 
Schlusssl dazu v. Ruppert. 4. Aufl ............... 

Spanisches Lesebuch v. Arteaga ............ -. . 

Kleine spanische Sprachlehre v. Sauer. 7. Aufl ........ 

oghlussel dazu v. Kunge. 2. Aufl ................ 

Spanische Gesprache v. Sauer. 4. Aufl ............ 

Spanische Rektionsliste v. Sauer-Kordgien .......... 

8naliili Konversations-Grammatik v. Seidel ........ 

Schliissel dazu v. Seidel . . ... ............ 

Suahili Worterbuch v. Seidel .............. 

T&cliechisclie Konversations-Grammatik v. Maschner ..... 

Schlussel dazu v. Maschner ................. 

Tnrkische Konversations-Grammatik v. Jehlitschka ..... 

Schlussel dazu v. Jehlitschka ............... . 

Kleine ttngarische Sprachlehre v. Nagy. 2. Aufl ..... . 

Schliissel dazu v. Nagy .................. 

Ungarische Chrestomathie v. Kont ............. 

Method Gaspey-Otto-Saner 

for the study of modern languages. 

Grreelz Editions. 

Kleine deutsclie Sprachlehre fur Griechen von Maltos 
Deutsche Gesprache fiir Griechen von Maltos ... 
Kleine englische Sprachlehre fur Griechen von Deffner 
Kleine russische Sprachlehre fur Griechen von Maltos 

Italian Editions. 

Grammatica araba di Farina ........ 

Chiave della grammatica araba di Farina ........ 

Grammatica francese di Motti. 3. Ed ....... 

Chiave della grammatica francese di Mutti. 2. Ed ...... 

Grammatica elementare francese di Sauer-Motti. 4. Ed. 
Letture francesi di Le Boucher .......... 

Conversazioni francesi di Motti .......... 

Grammatica del dreco volgare di Palumbo .... 

Grammatica inglese di Pavia. 6. Ed ....... 

Chiave della grammatica inglese di Pavia. 3. Ed ...... 

Grammatica elementare inglese di Pavia. 3. Ed. . . . 

Letture inglesi di Ls Boucher .......... 

Grammatica elementare portoghese di Palumbo . . 
Grammatica russa di Motti . ; ........ 

Chiave della grammatica russa di Motti ........ 

Grammatica spagnnola di Pavia. 3. Ed ...... 

Chiave della Grammatica spagnuola di Pavia. 2. Ed. . . 
Grammatica elementare spagnuola di Pavia. 3. Ed. . . 
Grammatica elementare svedese di Pereira .... 

Grammatica tedesca di Sauer-Ferrari. 8. Ed. ... 

Chiave della Grammatica tedesca di Sauer-Ferrari. 4. Ed. 
Grammatica elementare tedesca di Otto. 6. Ed ..... 

Letture tedesche di Otto. 5. Ed ........ . . 

Antologia tedesca di Verdaro ........... 

Conversazioni tedesche di Motti. 2. Ed ....... 

Avviamento al trad, dal ted. in ital. di Lardelli. 5. Ed. 

Folish Edition. 
Kleine dentsche SprachJehre fiir Polen von Paulus . 


Grammatica allema por Otto-Prevot. 4. Ed 
Chave da Grammatica allema por Otto-Prevot. 2. Ed 
Gramatica elementar alema por Pre>6t-Pereira. 4. Ed. 
Grammatica francesa por Tanty-Vasconcellos. 2. Ed. 
Chave da Grammatica francesa por Tanty-Vasconcellos. 2. Ed. 
Livro de leitura francesa por Le Boucher 
Livro de leitura inglesa por Le Boucher 
Grammatica elementar sneca por Pereira 

Tfconrnan Editions. 

Gramatica francesa de Leist . 

Cheea gramaticii francese de Leist 

Elemente de grarnaticS, francesa de Leist. 2. Ed. 

Conversa^iunl francese de Leist. 3. Ed 

Gramatica germana de Leist 

Cheea gramaticii germane de Leist 

Elemente de gramatica germana de Leist. 2. Ed. 
Conversa^iuni germane de Leist. 2. Ed. . . . 

Method Gaspey-Otto-Sauer 

for the study of modern languages. 

English Grammar for Russians by Haufl' ........ 

Key to the English Grammar for Russians by Hauff ........ 

French Grammar for Russians by Malkiel ........ 

Key to the French Grammar for Russians by Malkiel ....... 

German Grammar for Russians by Hauff ........ 

Key to the German Grammar for Russians by Hauff ........ 

Italian Grammar for Russians by Mo2ejko ........ 

Key to the Italian Grammar for Russians by Mozejko ....... 

Japanese Grammar for Russians by Plaut-Issacovitch . . . 
Key to the Japanese Grammar for Russians by Plaut-Iasacovitch .... 

Elementary Swedish Grammar for Russians by Fort-Issacovitch 


Kleine deiltsche Sprachlehre tur Serben von Petrovitch . . 
Kleine englische Sprachlehre fur Serben von Petrovitch . 
Kleine frauzosische Sprachlehre fur Serben von Petrovitch 


Gramatica alemana por Ruppert. 3. Ed 

Clave de la Gramatica alemana por Ruppert. 3. Ed 

Gramatica elemental alemana por Otto-Ruppert. 7. Ed 

Gramatica francesa por Tanty-Arteaga. 2. Ed 

Clave de la Gramatica francesa por Tanty-Arteaga 2. Ed 

Gramatica sucinta de la lengua francesa por Otto. 5. Ed. . . . 

Libro de lectura francesa por Le Boucher 

Gramatica inglesa por Pavia. 3. Ed , 

Clave de la Gramatica inglesa por Pavia. 3. Ed 

Gramatica sucinta de la lengua inglesa por Pavia. 5. Ed. . . , 

Libro de lectura inglesa por Le Boucher 

Gramatica sucinta de la lengua italiana por Pavia. 4. Ed. , 
Gramatica sucinta portllguesa por Carrillo ....... 

Gramatica sucinta de la lengua rnsa por d'Arcais 

Clave de la Gramatica sucinta rusa por d'Arcais 

Swedish Edition, 

Kleine dentsche Sprachlehre tur Schweden von Walter . . . 
Tchechi Editions. 

Kleine dentsche Sprachlehre tut ischechen von Maschner . . 
Franzosische Konv.-Grammatik fur Tschechen von Maschner 
Schlussel dazu von Maschner 


Kleine dentsche Sprachiehre tur i'iirken vou Wely Bey-Bolland 
Deutsches Lesebuch fur Tiirken von Wely Bey-Bolland ..... 

Conversation-Books by Connor 

English-German. 2. Ed. 
English-French. 2. Ed. . . 
English-Italian. 2. Ed. . . 





Deutsch-Franzosisch. 2. Aufl. 
Deutsch-Italienisch. 2. Aufl. 
Deutsch-Niederlandisch . . 
Deutsch-Portugiesisch . . . 

in two languages: 

Deutsch-Rumanisch . . . 
Deutsch-Russisch. . . . 
Deutsch-Schwedisch . . . 
Deutsch-Spanisch . 2. Aufl. 
Deutsch-Turkisch . . . . 
Fran9ais-Italien. 2. SSd, . 
Fran9ais-Espagnol . . . 
Fran9ais-Portugais . . . 
Fran9ais-Russe .... 
Italiano-Spagnuolo . . . 

Method Graspey-Otto-Sauer 

for the study of modern languages, 

Conversation -Books by Connor 

in three languages: 

English-German-French. 14. Ed 

in four languages: 

English- German-French-Italian. 2. Ed 

The Traveller's Companion by Motti. 

No. 1. for Germans: Englisch . 

2. r Franzosisch 

3. Italienisch . 

No. 21. for Englishmen : German 

22. French 

23. Italian . . 

No. 41. for Frenchmen : Allemand . 

42. Anglais 

43. T Italien . . 

No. 61. for Italians: Tedesco . 

, 62. Ingiese . 

, 63. Francese . 

German Language by Becker 

Spanish Commercial Correspondence by Arteaga y Pereira . 

Danisclier Sprachfiihrer von Forchhammer 

Richtige Aussprache d. Musterdentschen v. Dr. E. Dannheisser, br. 

Kiigliwche Handelskorrespondenz v. Arendt. 2. Aufl 

Kurze franzffsisclie Grammatik von H. Runge 

Franz. Sprachl. f. Handelssch. v. Dannheisser, Kiiffner u. Offenmuller 
1 4 alien i sell e kaufm. Korresp.-Gramm. v. Dannheisser u. Sauer. 2. Aufl. 

SchlUssel dazu v. Dannheisser 

II correttore italiauo von Mayo-Gelati 

Anleitung z. deutscheii, franz., eiigl. u. ital. Geschafts- 

briefen von Oberholzer u. Osmond, br 

8panische Handelskorrespondenz von Arteaga y Pereira . . . 
Kleines spanisches Lesebuch f. Handelsschulen v. Ferrades-Langeheldt 

Langue alleinaitde par Becker 

Le claiiois parle par Forchhammer 

Correspondance commerciale espagnole par Arteaga y Pereira 
Lengua alemana de Becker 

The Publisher is untiringly engaged in extending the range of educa- 
tional works issuing from his Press. A number of new books are now in 
course of preparation. 

The new editions are constantly improved ^nd kept up to date.